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Sample records for 5th lumbar vertebra

  1. Hemophilic pseudotumor of the first lumbar vertebra.

    PubMed

    Nachimuthu, Gurusamy; Arockiaraj, Justin; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Sundararaj, Gabriel David

    2014-11-01

    Hemophilic pseudotumor involving the spine is extremely uncommon and presents a challenging problem. Preoperative planning, angiography, intra and perioperative monitoring with factor VIII cover and postoperative care for hemophilic pseudotumor is vital. Recognition of the artery of Adamkiewicz in the thoracolumbar junction helps to avoid intraoperative neurological injury. We report the case of a 26-year-old male patient with hemophilia A, who presented with a massive pseudotumor involving the first lumbar vertebra and the left iliopsoas. Preoperative angiography revealed the artery of Adamkiewicz arising from the left first lumbar segmental artery. Excision of pseudotumor was successfully carried out with additional spinal stabilization. At 2 years followup, there was no recurrence and the patient was well stabilized with a satisfactory functional status. Surgical excision gives satisfactory outcome in such cases. PMID:25404776

  2. Hemophilic pseudotumor of the first lumbar vertebra

    PubMed Central

    Nachimuthu, Gurusamy; Arockiaraj, Justin; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Sundararaj, Gabriel David

    2014-01-01

    Hemophilic pseudotumor involving the spine is extremely uncommon and presents a challenging problem. Preoperative planning, angiography, intra and perioperative monitoring with factor VIII cover and postoperative care for hemophilic pseudotumor is vital. Recognition of the artery of Adamkiewicz in the thoracolumbar junction helps to avoid intraoperative neurological injury. We report the case of a 26-year-old male patient with hemophilia A, who presented with a massive pseudotumor involving the first lumbar vertebra and the left iliopsoas. Preoperative angiography revealed the artery of Adamkiewicz arising from the left first lumbar segmental artery. Excision of pseudotumor was successfully carried out with additional spinal stabilization. At 2 years followup, there was no recurrence and the patient was well stabilized with a satisfactory functional status. Surgical excision gives satisfactory outcome in such cases. PMID:25404776

  3. Establishment of a new animal model for ischemic lumbar vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Changlong; Tan, Guosheng; Zhuang, Wenquan; Yang, Jianyong

    2015-01-01

    Degeneration and ischemia of lumbar intervertebral disc has become a more and more important issue for elder people. However the mechanism for this is still known, largely due to a lack of a suitable animal model. In this study, we constructed a new animal model for the study of ischemic lumbar vertebrae. 42 New Zealand white rabbits were chosen for the study. For each rabbit, two vertebrae were used. L5 was set as the experimental group and L4 was set as the control group. Percutaneous lumbar puncture needles were applied in vertebrae adjacent to endplate for L5 and L4. For L4 1 ml saline was injected and for L5 1 ml pingyangmycin (2 mg/mL) was used. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 weeks; 2 and 3 months after surgery, 6 rabbits at each time point were randomly chosen and underwent MRI, pathological test. The results in L5 and L4 were compared. Another 6 rabbits were used for DSA (Digital Subtraction Angiography) and vascular cast to study the length and diameters of the branches of lumbar artery. It was identified that since the third week, slightly hyperintense signal on T2-weighted image (T2WI) and fat-suppression T2-weighted image (FS T2WI) were detected. Lumbar vertebrae damage could be identified since the fourth week. Results of MRI and the size of pathological area were positively related (r=0.965, P<0.05). DSA and vascular cast could both clearly show the third level branches of lumbar artery. Our study suggested that injection of pingyangmycin via percutaneous lumbar needle could successfully induce ischemia in lumbar endplate. This method had little trauma, required a simple operation process and is highly repetitive. Besides, by vascular cast, the most important source of blood supply is the media branch of the lumbar artery. This branch could be a new therapy pathway for the degeneration of lumbar vertebrae. PMID:26379856

  4. Level Set Segmentation of Lumbar Vertebrae Using Appearance Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritscher, Karl; Leber, Stefan; Schmölz, Werner; Schubert, Rainer

    For the planning of surgical interventions of the spine exact knowledge about 3D shape and the local bone quality of vertebrae are of great importance in order to estimate the anchorage strength of screws or implants. As a prerequisite for quantitative analysis a method for objective and therefore automated segmentation of vertebrae is needed. In this paper a framework for the automatic segmentation of vertebrae using 3D appearance models in a level set framework is presented. In this framework model information as well as gradient information and probabilities of pixel intensities at object edges in the unseen image are used. The method is tested on 29 lumbar vertebrae leading to accurate results, which can be useful for surgical planning and further analysis of the local bone quality.

  5. Scaling of lumbar vertebrae in anthropoids and implications for evolution of the hominoid axial skeleton.

    PubMed

    Nakatsukasa, Masato; Hirose, Youichi

    2003-04-01

    We investigated allometric relationships between vertebral centrum cranial surface areas and body weight and skeletal lumbar length in extant platyrrhine and cercopithecid species. Platyrrhines have smaller lumbar vertebral centra regarding the cranial surface area relative to their body weight than extant catarrhines. However, the stress to the spine of quadrupeds is not only influenced by the body weight but also its length, which contributes to the amount of bending moment. Our results indicated that platyrrhines and cercopithecids have similar lumbar vertebral centrum surface areas when they are scaled on the product of the body weight and skeletal lumbar length. Platyrrhines generally tend to have relatively short lumbar columns for a given body weight. As a result of this tendency, their vertebral centra appear relatively small if only body weight is taken into account. The centrum surface area is rather constant relative to the product of the body weight and skeletal lumbar length within platyrrhines or cercopithecids, despite the fact that skeletal lumbar length is in itself rather variable relative to body weight. This result indicates that the vertebral centrum articular area, the lumbar column length and the body weight are strongly correlated with each other and that such relationships are similar between platyrrhines and cercopithecids. These relationships were observed using both the zygapophyseal and rib definitions of the lumbar vertebrae. However, they were more clearly observed when the zygapophyseal definition was adopted. It appeared that lumbar vertebrae of Proconsul nyanzae (KNM-MW 13142) had distinctively smaller surface areas relative to its body weight and lumbar length than for platyrrhines and cercopithecids, differing from extant hominoids, which have comparatively larger lumbar vertebrae. In the case of Morotopithecus, the lumbar vertebral surface area seems to be as large as in extant platyrrhines and cercopithecids if it had a reduced

  6. Automatic lumbar vertebra segmentation from clinical CT for wedge compression fracture diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Subarna; Alomari, Raja'S.; Chaudhary, Vipin; Dhillon, Gurmeet

    2011-03-01

    Lumbar vertebral fractures vary greatly in types and causes and usually result from severe trauma or pathological conditions such as osteoporosis. Lumbar wedge compression fractures are amongst the most common ones where the vertebra is severely compressed forming a wedge shape and causing pain and pressure on the nerve roots and the spine. Since vertebral segmentation is the first step in any automated diagnosis task, we present a fully automated method for robustly localizing and segmenting the vertebrae for preparation of vertebral fracture diagnosis. Our segmentation method consists of five main steps towards the CAD(Computer-Aided Diagnosis) system: 1) Localization of the intervertebral discs. 2) Localization of the vertebral skeleton. 3) Segmentation of the individual vertebra. 4) Detection of the vertebrae center line and 5) Detection of the vertebrae major boundary points. Our segmentation results are promising with an average error of 1.5mm (modified Hausdorff distance metric) on 50 clinical CT cases i.e. a total of 250 lumbar vertebrae. We also present promising preliminary results for automatic wedge compression fracture diagnosis on 15 cases, 7 of which have one or more vertebral compression fracture, and obtain an accuracy of 97.33%.

  7. Pullout strength of misplaced pedicle screws in the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae - A cadaveric study

    PubMed Central

    Saraf, Shyam K; Singh, Ravindra P; Singh, Vakil; Varma, Ashish

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objective of this cadaveric study was to analyze the effects of iatrogenic pedicle perforations from screw misplacement on the mean pullout strength of lower thoracic and lumbar pedicle screws. We also investigated the effect of bone mineral density (BMD), diameter of pedicle screws, and the region of spine on the pullout strength of pedicle screws. Materials and Methods: Sixty fresh human cadaveric vertebrae (D10–L2) were harvested. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan of vertebrae was done for BMD. Titanium pedicle screws of different diameters (5.2 and 6.2 mm) were inserted in the thoracic and lumbar segments after dividing the specimens into three groups: a) standard pedicle screw (no cortical perforation); b) screw with medial cortical perforation; and c) screw with lateral cortical perforation. Finally, pullout load of pedicle screws was recorded using INSTRON Universal Testing Machine. Results: Compared with standard placement, medially misplaced screws had 9.4% greater mean pullout strength and laterally misplaced screws had 47.3% lesser mean pullout strength. The pullout strength of the 6.2 mm pedicle screws was 33% greater than that of the 5.2 mm pedicle screws. The pullout load of pedicle screws in lumbar vertebra was 13.9% greater than that in the thoracic vertebra (P = 0.105), but it was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference between pullout loads of vertebra with different BMD (P = 0.901). Conclusion: The mean pullout strength was less with lateral misplaced pedicle screws while medial misplaced pedicle screw had more pullout strength. The pullout load of 6.2 mm screws was greater than that of 5.2 mm pedicle screws. No significant correlation was found between bone mineral densities and the pullout strength of vertebra. Similarly, the pullout load of screw placed in thoracic and lumbar vertebrae was not significantly different. PMID:23798753

  8. Population-Stratified Analysis of Bone Mineral Density Distribution in Cervical and Lumbar Vertebrae of Chinese from Quantitative Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Zhou, Zhuang; Wu, Cheng'ai; Zhao, Danhui; Wang, Chao; Cai, Wei; Wang, Ling; Duanmu, Yangyang; Zhang, Chenxin; Tian, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the bone mineral density (BMD) of cervical vertebrae in a population-stratified manner and correlate with that of the lumbar vertebrae. Materials and Methods Five hundred and ninety-eight healthy volunteers (254 males, 344 females), ranging from 20 to 64 years of age, were recruited for volumetric BMD (vBMD) measurements by quantitative computed tomography. Basic information (age, height, weight, waistline, and hipline), and vBMD of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae (C2–7 and L2–4) were recorded. Comparisons among sex, age groups and different levels of vertebrae were analyzed using analysis of variance. Linear regression was performed for relevance of different vertebral levels. Results The vBMD of cervical and lumbar vertebrae was higher in females than males in each age group. The vBMD of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae in males and the vBMD of lumbar vertebrae in females decreased with aging. In each age group, the vBMD of the cervical vertebrae was higher than that of the lumbar vertebrae with gradual decreases from C2 to C7 except for C3; moreover, the vBMD of C6 and C7 was significantly different from that of C2–5. Correlations of vBMD among different cervical vertebrae (females: r = 0.62–0.94; males: r = 0.63–0.94) and lumbar vertebrae (males: r = 0.93–0.98; females: r = 0.82–0.97) were statistically significant at each age group. Conclusion The present study provided normative data of cervical vertebrae in an age- and sex-stratified manner. Sex differences in vBMD prominently vary with age, which can be helpful to design a more comprehensive pre-operative surgical plan. PMID:27587947

  9. Bone Lose of the Ancient Mediterranean lumbar vertebrae : Iasos, 6th century ad.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Serdar; Solmaz, Ilker; Ilıca, A. Turan; Karaçalıoğlu, Özgür; Damla Yılmaz, Nalan; Başoğlu, Okşan; Kılıc, Selim; Izci, Yusuf

    Evaluation of bone mineral density (BMD) of the ancient peoples has received great interest by anthropologists. The aims of this study are to investigate the lumbar vertebrae of the Iasos people during the Byzantine period, in order to determine the prevalence of bone loss and to interpret dietary conditions of ancient Mediterranean populations. Lumbar vertebrae belonging to twenty eight skeletons of the 6th c AD were analyzed by radiographs and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The BMD values for each biologic sex and age group were compared. The correlation between the BMD and radiological features was also analyzed. The mean BMD was 0.940 g/cm2. BMD was decreased by aging in both sexes, but it was not significant. Osteopenia was found in 11 (39%) and osteoporosis in 4 (14.3%) out 28 vertebrae. The BMD was normal in 13 (46%) out of 28 vertebrae. Osteopenia was present in 7 (38%) of 18 male vertebrae and 4 (40%) of 10 female vertebrae. The spine score was high in the male group and there was a strong positive correlation between the BMD and spine score for both sexes. This study revealed that the BMD decreased by aging and that osteopenia was a problem in both sexes of the Iasos people during the 6th c AD. There was no correlation between the BMD and radiological features for age groups and biological sexes.

  10. Quantitative histochemistry of rat lumbar vertebrae following spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eurell, J. A.; Kazarian, L. E.

    1983-01-01

    The histochemical effects of the return to gravity immediately and 6 and 29 days following spaceflight on the bone of rat vertebral bodies were investigated. No significant change in the calcium salt content of the vertebrae was found immediately postflight, although 6 days later it was significantly decreased. The calcium content was found to have returned to normal by 29 days postflight. While postflight collagen content was not significantly altered, keratosulfate was found to be significantly higher in trabecular bone of rats immediately postflight and 6 days postflight. In addition, chondroitin sulfate was found to be increased in vertebral bone on days 6 and 29 postflight. These findings indicate that bone turnover slows in vertebrae during spaceflight allowing bone aging, which support the contention that a form of osteolysis begins immediately upon return to gravity to remove components of old bone at which time mineral levels decrease and levels of chondroitin and keratkosulfates shift. It was found that the osteolysis phase was quickly followed by new bone replacement which was completed before 29 days postspaceflight.

  11. Induction of osteosarcomas in mouse lumbar vertebrae by repeated external beta-irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ootsuyama, A.; Tanooka, H.

    1989-03-15

    Besides skin tumors, osteosarcomas were induced at high frequency in the lumbar vertebrae of ICR mice by repeated local external irradiation of the back with /sup 90/Sr-/sup 90/Y beta-rays when irradiation was repeated three times a week until tumors appeared. The optimum dose range for osteosarcoma induction was 250-350 cGy per exposure at the surface of the back, or 125-175 cGy at the depth of the center of the bone. With the same irradiation schedule, the optimal dose of radiation for induction of osteosarcomas was much lower than that for induction of skin tumors.

  12. Nucleus pulposus cells derived IGF-1 and MCP-1 enhance osteoclastogenesis and vertebrae disruption in lumbar disc herniation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhongjiao; Huang, Peng; Chong, Yanxue; George, Suraj K; Wen, Bingtao; Han, Na; Liu, Zhiqiang; Kang, Lixin; Lin, Nie

    2014-01-01

    Study design: Chronic strained lumbar disc herniation (LDH) cases were classified into bulging LDH, herniated LDH and prolapse LDH types according to imaging examination, and vertebrae disruptions were evaluated. Cytokines derived from the nucleus pulposus cells were detected, and their effects on osteoclastogenesis, as well as the mechanisms involved, were studied via an in vitro osteoclast differentiation system. Objective: To clarify the mechanisms of lumbar vertebrae resorption induced by lumbar herniation. Summary and background data: Chronic strained lumbar disc herniation induced vertebrae erosion exacerbates quality of patients’ life and clinical outcome. Although nucleus pulposus cells derived cytokines were reported to play an important role in this pathogenesis, the fundamental mechanisms underlying this process are still unclear. Methods: Chronic strained lumbar disc herniation patients were diagnosed with CT scan and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. RNA was extracted from 192 surgical specimens of the herniated lumbar disc and 29 surgical excisions of the lumbar disc from spinal injury patients. The expressions of osteoclastogenesis related cytokines and chemokines were examined using real time PCR. Monocytes were induced into osteoclast with M-CSF and RANKL in vitro, while the IGF-1 and MCP-1 were added into the differentiation procedure in order to evaluate the effects and explore the molecular mechanisms. Results: Vertebrae erosion had a positive relationship with lumbar disc herniation severity types. In all of the osteoclastogenesis related cytokines, the IGF-1 and MCP-1 were the most highly expressed in the nucleus pulposus cells. IGF-1 enhances activation of NF-kB signaling directly, but MCP-1 upregulated the expression of RANK, so that enhanced cellular sensitivity to RANKL resulted in increasing osteoclastogenesis and activity. Conclusion: Lumbar herniation induced overexpression of IGF-1 and MCP-1 in nucleus pulposus cells aggravated

  13. Burst fracture of the lumbar vertebra due to a landmine injury: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Bilgic, Serkan; Kurklu, Mustafa; Yurttas, Yuksel; Ozkan, Huseyin; Sehirlioglu, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The reason we report this case is that spine injuries may well occur due to landmines similar to other injuries like traumatic limb amputations and more over they may be overlooked. Case presentation The patient was 29-years-old Turkish male and was a member of the military. He detonated the landmine that caused his injuries while in a conflict zone. He had a right below knee and left above knee traumatic amputations. He had also mild intermittent pain in his lower back. There were no focal neurological findings such as weakness, altered sensibility, or alteration in the function of the bowel or bladder. Radiographs of the lumbar spine revealed an L2 burst fracture. Computed tomography scans and magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine demonstrated a burst fracture of the L2 vertebrae and moderate compression in the anterior portion of the thecal sac due to the fracture fragment. Because of the stabile nature of the L2 burst fracture and lack of neurological disturbance, operative decompression, instrumentation and fusion was not performed. After healing of the stumps, the patient was mobilized with immediate prostheses and a thoracolumbosacral brace. Conclusion Spine injuries should not be overlooked when evaluating patients after landmine explosions. After the patient has been stabilized, the secondary screening and radiographic evaluations should also comprise the thoracic, thoracolumbar and lumbar spine when treating patients after landmine injuries. PMID:19829776

  14. Effects of Vibration in Forced Posture on Biochemical Bone Metabolism Indices, and Morphometric and Mechanical Properties of the Lumbar Vertebra

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Ju, Xiaowei; Zhu, Lvgang; Huang, Changlin; Huang, Tao; Zuo, Xincheng; Gao, Chunfang

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a relatively strong association between occupational lower back pain (LBP) and long-term exposure to vibration. However, there is limited knowledge of the impact of vibration and sedentariness on bone metabolism of the lumbar vertebra and the mechanism of bone-derived LBP. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of vibration in forced posture (a seated posture) on biochemical bone metabolism indices, and morphometric and mechanical properties of the lumbar vertebra, and provide a scientific theoretical basis for the mechanism of bone-derived LBP, serum levels of Ca2+, (HPO4)2−, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), and bone gla protein (BGP),the pathological changes and biomechanics of lumbar vertebra of New Zealand white rabbits were studied. The results demonstrate that both forced posture and vibration can cause pathological changes to the lumbar vertebra, which can result in bone-derived LBP, and vibration combined with a seated posture could cause further damage to bone metabolism. Serological changes can be used as early markers for clinical diagnosis of bone-derived LBP. PMID:24265702

  15. Body Mass Index May Positively Correlate with Bone Mineral Density of Lumbar Vertebra and Femoral Neck in Postmenopausal Females

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shi-Feng; Du, Xin-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background Our study aimed to explore the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and bone mineral density (BMD) of lumbar vertebra and femoral neck in postmenopausal females. Material/Methods From September 2012 to September 2014, 236 healthy postmenopausal females who underwent physical examinations at the Women & Children’s Health Care Hospital of Linyi were enrolled into our study. These subjects were divided into 3 groups: underweight group, normal weight group, and overweight group. In addition, there were 2 age stratifications: <60 years old and ≥60 years old. DPX-L type dual-energy X-ray bone densitometry (American Lunar Company) was used to measure the BMD of lumbar vertebra and femoral neck in the recruited subjects. Pearson test was used for correlation analysis. Results BMDs and T-scores of lumbar vertebra (L1–L4), femoral neck, proximal femur, and Ward’s triangle region among the groups were ranked as follows: underweight group < normal weight group < overweight group. There were significant differences in body weight and BMI among the underweight, normal weight, and overweight groups (P<0.05). The T-scores of all examined anatomic locations showed significant differences between the underweight group and normal weight group, as well as between the underweight group and overweight group (both P<0.05). Only the T-scores of lumbar vertebra L2–L4 had significant differences between the normal weight group and overweight group (P<0.05). The BMDs of all anatomic components under study showed statistical differences in both age stratifications between the overweight group and underweight group, as well as between the overweight group and normal weight group (both P<0.05). When stratified above 60 years old, the BMDs of lumbar vertebra (L1, L2 and L4) showed statistical differences between the normal weight group and underweight group (P<0.05). Various factors could be ranked according to the absolute values of correlation coefficients as below

  16. Seat belt syndrome with unstable Chance fracture dislocation of the second lumbar vertebra without neurological deficits

    PubMed Central

    Onu, David O; Hunn, Andrew W; Bohmer, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    The seat belt syndrome is a recognised complication of seat belt use in vehicles. Unstable Chance fractures of the spine without neurological deficits have been reported infrequently. We describe a young woman with completely disrupted Chance fracture of the second lumbar vertebra in association with left hemidiaphragmatic rupture/hernia, multiple bowel perforations, splenic capsular tear, left humeral shaft and multiple rib fractures. These injuries which resulted from high-speed vehicle collision and led to death of one of the occupants were readily detected by trauma series imaging. The patient was successfully treated by a dedicated multidisciplinary team which adopted a staged surgical approach and prioritisation of care. There were no manifested neurological or other deficits after 1 year of follow-up. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of such a case in Australasia. We discuss the challenging surgical management, highlighting the role of radiological imaging in such cases and provide a literature review. PMID:24403388

  17. Seat belt syndrome with unstable Chance fracture dislocation of the second lumbar vertebra without neurological deficits.

    PubMed

    Onu, David O; Hunn, Andrew W; Bohmer, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    The seat belt syndrome is a recognised complication of seat belt use in vehicles. Unstable Chance fractures of the spine without neurological deficits have been reported infrequently. We describe a young woman with completely disrupted Chance fracture of the second lumbar vertebra in association with left hemidiaphragmatic rupture/hernia, multiple bowel perforations, splenic capsular tear, left humeral shaft and multiple rib fractures. These injuries which resulted from high-speed vehicle collision and led to death of one of the occupants were readily detected by trauma series imaging. The patient was successfully treated by a dedicated multidisciplinary team which adopted a staged surgical approach and prioritisation of care. There were no manifested neurological or other deficits after 1 year of follow-up. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of such a case in Australasia. We discuss the challenging surgical management, highlighting the role of radiological imaging in such cases and provide a literature review. PMID:24403388

  18. Cryptococcosis of lumbar vertebra in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis and scleroderma: case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although cryptococcosis mainly occurs in the central nervous system and lungs in immunocompromised hosts, it can involve any body site or structure. Here we report the first case of primary cryptococcosis of a lumbar vertebra without involvement of the central nervous system or lungs in a relatively immunocompromised individual with rheumatoid arthritis and scleroderma. Case presentation A 40-year-old Chinese woman with rheumatoid arthritis diagnosed 1 year beforehand and with a subsequent diagnosis of scleroderma was found to have an isolated cryptococcal infection of the fourth lumbar vertebra. Her main complaints were severe low back and left leg pain. Cryptococcosis was diagnosed by CT-guided needle biopsy and microbiological confirmation; however, serum cryptococcal antigen titer was negative. After 3 months of antifungal therapy with fluconazole the patient developed symptoms and signs of scleroderma, which was confirmed on laboratory tests. After taking fluconazole for 6 months, the progressive destruction of the lumbar vertebral body had halted and the size of an adjacent paravertebral mass had decreased substantially. On discharge symptoms had resolved and at an annual follow-up there was no evidence of recurrence on the basis of symptoms, signs or imaging investigations. Conclusion Although cryptococcosis of the lumbar vertebra is extremely rare, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis for patients with lumbar vertebral masses to avoid missed diagnosis, misdiagnosis and diagnostic delay. Early treatment with antifungals proved to be a satisfactory alternative to surgery in this relatively immunocompromised patient. Any residual spinal instability can be treated later, once the infection has resolved. PMID:23496879

  19. On the relationship between stature and anthropometric measurements of lumbar vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Klein, Anke; Nagel, Katrin; Gührs, Julian; Poodendaen, Chanasorn; Püschel, Klaus; Morlock, Michael M; Huber, Gerd

    2015-12-01

    Stature estimation is important for identifying human remains. Analysis of body parts has become an important forensic tool during global operations in the context of cases in which human remains have been dismembered, mutilated or decomposed. However, unless almost the full skeleton or at least a long bone of the lower limb is available, accuracy is still limited to approximate body height. Especially with respect to single vertebral measurements, only a rough prediction is possible. Due to their complex geometry, vertebral measurements are possible at various locations. Nine locations have been considered in this study. Regression equations for stature estimation using lumbar vertebral geometry from computed tomography scans have been evaluated to identify the measurement which gives the most reliable body height estimation. The study group comprised a representative sample of a German metropolitan male population (42 autopsied individuals). Comparing the influence of various vertebral geometry measurements with body height resulted in a coefficient of correlation (R) of 0.19-0.53 and a 95% confidence interval (CI) of ± 11.6 up to ± 13.1cm. The largest correlation with a single vertebral measurement was achieved with the central height of the vertebral body of L2 as predictor; the standard error (SE) of the estimate was 5.9 cm. Using models from CT scans appeared superior to current invasive procedures that use direct measurements of the vertebral body, in terms of reproducibility and time efficiency. For fragmented non-skeletonized human bodies, height prediction based on an all-virtual model of the vertebrae is possible. However, the regression coefficient may be similar to classic caliper measurements that prove easier if skeletonized bones are available. PMID:26654071

  20. Recovery Effects of a 180 mT Static Magnetic Field on Bone Mineral Density of Osteoporotic Lumbar Vertebrae in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shenzhi; Okano, Hideyuki; Tomita, Naohide; Ikada, Yoshito

    2011-01-01

    The effects of a moderate-intensity static magnetic field (SMF) on osteoporosis of the lumbar vertebrae were studied in ovariectomized rats. A small disc magnet (maximum magnetic flux density 180 mT) was implanted to the right side of spinous process of the third lumbar vertebra. Female rats in the growth stage (10 weeks old) were randomly divided into 4 groups: (i) ovariectomized and implanted with a disc magnet (SMF); (ii) ovariectomized and implanted with a nonmagnetized disc (sham); (iii) ovariectomized alone (OVX) and (vi) intact, nonoperated cage control (CTL). The blood serum 17-β-estradiol (E2) concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay, and the bone mineral density (BMD) values of the femurs and the lumbar vertebrae were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The E2 concentrations were statistically significantly lower for all three operated groups than those of the CTL group at the 6th week. Although there was no statistical significant difference in the E2 concentrations between the SMF-exposed and sham-exposed groups, the BMD values of the lumbar vertebrae proximal to the SMF-exposed area statistically significantly increased in the SMF-exposed group than in the sham-exposed group. These results suggest that the SMF increased the BMD values of osteoporotic lumbar vertebrae in the ovariectomized rats. PMID:20953437

  1. Determination of 3D location and rotation of lumbar vertebrae in CT images by symmetry-based auto-registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrtovec, Tomaž; Likar, Boštjan; Pernuš, Franjo

    2007-03-01

    Quantitative measurement of vertebral rotation is important in surgical planning, analysis of surgical results, and monitoring of the progression of spinal deformities. However, many established and newly developed techniques for measuring axial vertebral rotation do not exploit three-dimensional (3D) information, which may result in virtual axial rotation because of the sagittal and coronal rotation of vertebrae. We propose a novel automatic approach to the measurement of the location and rotation of vertebrae in 3D without prior volume reformation, identification of appropriate cross-sections or aid by statistical models. The vertebra under investigation is encompassed by a mask in the form of an elliptical cylinder in 3D, defined by its center of rotation and the rotation angles. We exploit the natural symmetry of the vertebral body, vertebral column and vertebral canal by dividing the vertebral mask by its mid-axial, mid-sagittal and mid-coronal plane, so that the obtained volume pairs contain symmetrical parts of the observed anatomy. Mirror volume pairs are then simultaneously registered to each other by robust rigid auto-registration, using the weighted sum of absolute differences between the intensities of the corresponding volume pairs as the similarity measure. The method was evaluated on 50 lumbar vertebrae from normal and scoliotic computed tomography (CT) spinal scans, showing relatively large capture ranges and distinctive maxima at the correct locations and rotation angles. The proposed method may aid the measurement of the dimensions of vertebral pedicles, foraminae and canal, and may be a valuable tool for clinical evaluation of the spinal deformities in 3D.

  2. [Characteristic of the fractures of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae in the victims of a traffic accident found in the passenger compartment of a modern motor vehicle].

    PubMed

    Pigolkin, Yu I; Dubrovin, I A; Sedykh, E P; Mosoyan, A S

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study peculiar features of the injuries to three spinal regions in the victims of a head-on car collision found in the passenger compartments of modern motor vehicles equipped with seat belts and other safety means. It was shown that most frequent fatal injuries to the driver include the fractures of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae. These injuries are much less frequent in the passengers occupying the front and the right back seats. The multilayer and multiple character of the fractures in different parts of the spinal column in the car drivers is attributable to more pronounced spine flexion and extension associated with injuries of this kind. The fractures of the lower cervical vertebrae in the front seat passengers occur more frequently than injuries of a different type whereas the passengers of the back seats most frequently experience fractures of the upper cervical vertebrae. The passengers of the left back seat less frequently suffer from injuries to the thoracic spine than from the fractures of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae. The passengers of the central back seat most frequently experience fractures of the thoracic part of the vertebral column and the passengers occupying the right back seat fractures of the lumbar vertebrae. PMID:27030091

  3. Effect of joint mobilization using KEOMT and PNF on a patient with CLBP and a lumbar transitional vertebra: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Si-Eun; Wang, Joong-San

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this case study was to identify the effects of joint mobilization using Kaltenborn-Evjenth orthopedic manual therapy (KEOMT) and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) techniques on a patient with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and a lumbar transitional vertebra. [Methods] The intervention methods were joint mobilization using KEOMT and PNF techniques. The program consisted of 40-min sessions 3 days a week for 4 weeks. The spinal motion (thoracic and lumbar vertebrae), pain, and thickness of the multifidus were measured. [Results] The angle of spinal curvature increased, and the range of motions (ROMs) flexion and extension increased in the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. The pain score as measured on a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Oswestry disability index (ODI) score decreased. The thickness of the multifidus (L4) increased on the left and right sides. [Conclusion] These results suggest that joint mobilization using KEOMT and PNF techniques had a positive effect on the spinal motion, pain, and thickness of the multifidus of a patient with chronic low back pain and a lumbar transitional vertebra. PMID:26157278

  4. Panoramic-Based Mandibular Indices and Bone Mineral Density of Femoral Neck and Lumbar Vertebrae in Women

    PubMed Central

    Marandi, S.; Bagherpour, A.; Imanimoghaddam, M.; Hatef, MR.; Haghighi, AR.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this cross-sectional analytic study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of panoramic-based indices of the mandible (Mental Index-MI, Mandibular Cortical Index-MCI and Panoramic Mandibular Index-PMI) and to determine their correlation with bone mineral density (BMD) of the femoral neck and lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4) in order to assess the possibility of using these parameters as indicators of osteoporosis. Materials and Methods: The mandibular indices of 67 women over 35 years old were measured from panoramic radiographs, and bone densitometry was performed in the femoral neck and lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4), using DXA (Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry) technique. The patients were divided into three categories of normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic in each skeletal region. One-way ANOVA and ROC curve analyses were applied. The results were considered statistically significant when the P-value was less than 0.05. Results: Comparing the mean BMD in the femoral neck in women between C1 and C3 subgroups of MCI, a significant difference was detected (P=0.04). The mean PMI in the three skeletal subgroups was not different according to the skeletal region (P>0.05). We found a significant difference in mean MI between normal and osteopenic subgroups in the femoral neck (P=0.042). Conclusion: Using radiomorphometric indices of the mandible (MCI-MI) may be useful in determining the skeletal status of the patients, but is not sufficient for precise evaluation. PMID:21998782

  5. Simulation analysis for effects of bone loss on acceleration tolerance of human lumbar vertebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Honglei; Zhang, Feng; Zhu, Yu; Xiao, Yanhua; Wazir, Abrar

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyze and predict the changes in acceleration tolerance of human vertebra as a result of bone loss caused by long-term space flight. A human L3-L4 vertebra FEM model was constructed, in which the cancellous bone was separated, and surrounding ligaments were also taken into account. The simulation results demonstrated that bone loss has more of an effect on the acceleration tolerance in x-direction. The results serve to aid in the creation of new acceleration tolerance standards, ensuring astronauts return home safely after long-term space flight. This study shows that more attention should be focused on the bone degradation of crew members and to create new protective designs for space capsules in the future.

  6. Evaluation of lumbar vertebra injury risk to the seated human body when exposed to vertical vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayari, H.; Thomas, M.; Doré, S.; Serrus, O.

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this research is to numerically determine the levels of vibration not to exceed accordingly to the corresponding dynamic stresses in the lumbar rachis when exposed to whole-body vibrations in order to identify the risk of adverse health effect to which professional heavy equipment drivers are particularly prone. A parametric finite element model of the lumbar rachis is generated in order to compute the modal parameters, the dynamic stresses and forces under harmonic excitations in a seated posture. The stress analysis reveals that the areas exposed to the highest fracture risk are the cancellous bone of the vertebral body as well as the vertebral endplate when vertical vibrations are transmitted from a seat to the lumbar spine of a driver. An injury risk factor has been developed in order to estimate the risk of adverse health effect arising from mechanical vibrations. It is shown that the injury risk factor increases with the age and consequently that the excitation amplitude must be limited to lower levels when age increases.

  7. Opposing effects of Sca-1(+) cell-based systemic FGF2 gene transfer strategy on lumbar versus caudal vertebrae in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Lau, K-H W; Chen, S-T; Wang, X; Mohan, S; Wergedal, J E; Kesavan, C; Srivastava, A K; Gridley, D S; Hall, S L

    2016-06-01

    Our previous work showed that a Sca-1(+) cell-based FGF2 therapy was capable of promoting robust increases in trabecular bone formation and connectivity on the endosteum of long bones. Past work reported that administration of FGF2 protein promoted bone formation in red marrow but not in yellow marrow. The issue as to whether the Sca-1(+) cell-based FGF2 therapy is effective in yellow marrow is highly relevant to its clinical potential for osteoporosis, as most red marrows in a person of an advanced age are converted to yellow marrows. Accordingly, this study sought to compare the osteogenic effects of this stem cell-based FGF2 therapy on red marrow-filled lumbar vertebrae with those on yellow marrow-filled caudal vertebrae of young adult W(41)/W(41) mice. The Sca-1(+) cell-based FGF2 therapy drastically increased trabecular bone formation in lumbar vertebrae, but the therapy not only did not promote bone formation but instead caused substantial loss of trabecular bone in caudal vertebrae. The lack of an osteogenic response was not due to insufficient engraftment of FGF2-expressing Sca-1(+) cells or inadequate FGF2 expression in caudal vertebrae. Previous studies have demonstrated that recipient mice of this stem cell-based FGF2 therapy developed secondary hyperparathyroidism and increased bone resorption. Thus, the loss of bone mass in caudal vertebrae might in part be due to an increase in resorption without a corresponding increase in bone formation. In conclusion, the Sca-1(+) cell-based FGF2 therapy is osteogenic in red marrow but not in yellow marrow. PMID:26934099

  8. Distribution and length of osteophytes in the lumbar vertebrae and risk of rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms: a study of dry bones from Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chanapa, Patcharin; Yoshiyuki, Tohno; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk

    2014-09-01

    Vertebral osteophytes are a characteristic feature of intervertebral disc degeneration. In the lumbar spinal region, the two major structures in close proximity anterior to the spine are the inferior vena cava and the abdominal aorta, both of which have been reported to be affected by osteophytes. The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution, classification and lengths of osteophytes in the lumbar vertebrae. One hundred and eighty lumbar columns of 90 males and 90 females from Chiang Mai, Thailand, in the age range 15 to 96 years (mean age, 63 years) were collected. The measuring length of osteophytes was assessed on vertebral body and articular facet. Statistical analysis was performed by descriptive analysis, chi-square and Pearson Correlation. Lumbar osteophytes were presented in 175 specimens (97.2%), 88 males and 87 females. The highest frequency was at L4, most were on the superior, inferior surface of body and articular facet (39.7%, 38.4%, and 22%), respectively. The greatest mean length was 3.47±2.21 mm at L5, and the longest length of anterior superior surface of body was 28.56 mm. The osteophyte length was significantly correlated directly with age (P<0.01), and males were significantly greater than females (P<0.05). The highest prevalence of osteophytes was on the anterior side of superior surface of body (30.4%), and the classification was traction. It can be proposed that the abdominal aorta could be damaged, especially a risk of rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm. PMID:25276474

  9. Skeletal site-specific effects of endurance running on structure and strength of tibia, lumbar vertebrae, and mandible in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Bott, Kirsten N; Sacco, Sandra M; Turnbull, Patrick C; Longo, Amanda B; Ward, Wendy E; Peters, Sandra J

    2016-06-01

    Bone microarchitecture, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone strength are affected positively by impact activities such as running; however, there are discrepancies in the magnitude of these effects. These inconsistencies are mainly a result of varying training protocols, analysis techniques, and whether or not the skeletal sites measured are weight bearing. This study's purpose was to determine the effects of endurance running on sites that experience different weight bearing and load. Eight-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 20) were randomly assigned to either a group with a progressive treadmill running protocol (25 m/min for 1 h, incline of 10%) or a nontrained control group for 8 weeks. The trabecular structure of the tibia, lumbar vertebra (L3), and mandible and the cortical structure at the tibia midpoint were measured using microcomputed tomography to quantify bone volume fraction (i.e., bone volume divided by total volume (BV/TV)), trabecular number (Tb.N), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular separation (Tb.Sp), and cortical thickness. BMD at the proximal tibia, lumbar vertebrae (L1-L3), and mandible was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The tibia midpoint strength was measured by 3-point bending using a materials testing system. Endurance running resulted in superior bone structure at the proximal tibia (12% greater BV/TV (p = 0.03), 14% greater Tb.N (p = 0.01), and 19% lower Tb.Sp (p = 0.05)) but not at other sites. Contrary to our hypothesis, mandible bone structure was altered after endurance training (8% lower BV/TV (p < 0.01) and 15% lower Tb.Th (p < 0.01)), which may be explained by a lower food intake, resulting in less mechanical loading from chewing. These results highlight the site-specific effects of loading on the skeleton. PMID:27191195

  10. Spinous Process Osteochondroma as a Rare Cause of Lumbar Pain.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Bárbara; Campos, Pedro; Barros, André; Karmali, Samir; Ussene, Esperança; Durão, Carlos; Alves da Silva, João; Coutinho, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a 5th Lumbar Vertebra (L5) spinous process osteochondroma as a rare cause of lumbar pain in an old patient. A 70-year-old male presented with progressive and disabling lower lumbar pain. Tenderness over the central and left paraspinal area of the lower lumbar region and a palpable mass were evident. CT scan showed a mass arising from the spinous process of L5. Marginal resection of the tumor was performed through a posterior approach. The histological study revealed an osteochondroma. After surgery, pain was completely relieved. After one year there was no evidence of local recurrence or symptoms. Osteochondromas rarely involve the spine, but when they do symptoms like pain, radiculopathy/myelopathy, or cosmetic deformity may occur. The imagiologic exam of election for diagnosis is CT scan. When symptomatic the treatment of choice is surgical resection. The most concerning complication of osteochondromas is malignant transformation, a rare event. PMID:27579204

  11. Spinous Process Osteochondroma as a Rare Cause of Lumbar Pain

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Bárbara; Campos, Pedro; Barros, André; Karmali, Samir; Ussene, Esperança; Alves da Silva, João; Coutinho, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a 5th Lumbar Vertebra (L5) spinous process osteochondroma as a rare cause of lumbar pain in an old patient. A 70-year-old male presented with progressive and disabling lower lumbar pain. Tenderness over the central and left paraspinal area of the lower lumbar region and a palpable mass were evident. CT scan showed a mass arising from the spinous process of L5. Marginal resection of the tumor was performed through a posterior approach. The histological study revealed an osteochondroma. After surgery, pain was completely relieved. After one year there was no evidence of local recurrence or symptoms. Osteochondromas rarely involve the spine, but when they do symptoms like pain, radiculopathy/myelopathy, or cosmetic deformity may occur. The imagiologic exam of election for diagnosis is CT scan. When symptomatic the treatment of choice is surgical resection. The most concerning complication of osteochondromas is malignant transformation, a rare event.

  12. Lumbar spinal surgery - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of bones (vertebrae) separated by soft cushions (intervertebral discs). ... Lumbar (lower back) spine disease is usually caused by herniated ... bodies (osteophytes), which compress spinal nerves, trauma, and ...

  13. Sagittal evaluation of elemental geometrical dimensions of human vertebrae.

    PubMed Central

    Gilad, I; Nissan, M

    1985-01-01

    Geometrical configuration and dimensions of the human vertebra were investigated using radiographs of 157 normal healthy adult men. Measurements were based on five bony reference points, which can be defined in radiographs. The measurements permit the determination of nine dimensions that can be used for anthropometrical evaluation of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae. A simplified model of the vertebra in the sagittal plane is presented and serves as a basis for the geometrical measurements. In the cervical region, average width exceeded average height of vertebral bodies C3 to C7, while in C2 the average width was smaller than the average height; C7 was the longest and C3 the shortest cervical vertebra. In the lumbar region, average width exceeded average height of the vertebral bodies. Values for width and height did not differ significantly from L1 to L5; L3 was the longest and L5 the shortest lumbar vertebra. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3870717

  14. A New CT Method for Assessing 3D Movements in Lumbar Facet Joints and Vertebrae in Patients before and after TDR

    PubMed Central

    Svedmark, Per; Berg, Svante; Noz, Marilyn E.; Maguire, Gerald Q.; Zeleznik, Michael P.; Weidenhielm, Lars; Nemeth, Gunnar; Olivecrona, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a 3D-CT method for analyzing facet joint motion and vertebral rotation in the lumbar spine after TDR. Ten patients were examined before and then three years after surgery, each time with two CT scans: provoked flexion and provoked extension. After 3D registration, the facet joint 3D translation and segmental vertebral 3D rotation were analyzed at the operated level (L5-S1) and adjacent level (L4-L5). Pain was evaluated using VAS. The median (±SD) 3D movement in the operated level for the left facet joint was 3.2 mm (±1.9 mm) before and 3.5 mm (±1.7 mm) after surgery and for the right facet joint was 3.0 mm (±1.0 mm) before and 3.6 mm (±1.4 mm) after surgery. The median vertebral rotation in the sagittal plane at the operated level was 5.4° (±2.3°) before surgery and 6.8° (±1.7°) after surgery and in the adjacent level was 7.7° (±4.0°) before and 9.2° (±2.7°) after surgery. The median VAS was reduced from 6 (range 5–8) to 3 (range 2–8) in extension and from 4 (range 2–6) to 2 (range 1–3) in flexion. PMID:26587533

  15. Shape regression for vertebra fracture quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Michael Tillge; de Bruijne, Marleen; Tanko, Laszlo B.; Nielsen, Mads

    2005-04-01

    Accurate and reliable identification and quantification of vertebral fractures constitute a challenge both in clinical trials and in diagnosis of osteoporosis. Various efforts have been made to develop reliable, objective, and reproducible methods for assessing vertebral fractures, but at present there is no consensus concerning a universally accepted diagnostic definition of vertebral fractures. In this project we want to investigate whether or not it is possible to accurately reconstruct the shape of a normal vertebra, using a neighbouring vertebra as prior information. The reconstructed shape can then be used to develop a novel vertebra fracture measure, by comparing the segmented vertebra shape with its reconstructed normal shape. The vertebrae in lateral x-rays of the lumbar spine were manually annotated by a medical expert. With this dataset we built a shape model, with equidistant point distribution between the four corner points. Based on the shape model, a multiple linear regression model of a normal vertebra shape was developed for each dataset using leave-one-out cross-validation. The reconstructed shape was calculated for each dataset using these regression models. The average prediction error for the annotated shape was on average 3%.

  16. 49 CFR 572.85 - Lumbar spine flexure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... rotate from its initial position in accordance with Figure No. 18 of § 572.21 (49 CFR part 572) by 40... lumbar cable by tightening the adjustment nut for the lumbar vertebrae until the spring is compressed...

  17. 49 CFR 572.85 - Lumbar spine flexure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... rotate from its initial position in accordance with Figure No. 18 of § 572.21 (49 CFR part 572) by 40... lumbar cable by tightening the adjustment nut for the lumbar vertebrae until the spring is compressed...

  18. 49 CFR 572.85 - Lumbar spine flexure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... rotate from its initial position in accordance with Figure No. 18 of § 572.21 (49 CFR part 572) by 40... lumbar cable by tightening the adjustment nut for the lumbar vertebrae until the spring is compressed...

  19. 49 CFR 572.85 - Lumbar spine flexure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... rotate from its initial position in accordance with Figure No. 18 of § 572.21 (49 CFR part 572) by 40... lumbar cable by tightening the adjustment nut for the lumbar vertebrae until the spring is compressed...

  20. Automatic Lumbar Spondylolisthesis Measurement in CT Images.

    PubMed

    Liao, Shu; Zhan, Yiqiang; Dong, Zhongxing; Yan, Ruyi; Gong, Liyan; Zhou, Xiang Sean; Salganicoff, Marcos; Fei, Jun

    2016-07-01

    Lumbar spondylolisthesis is one of the most common spinal diseases. It is caused by the anterior shift of a lumbar vertebrae relative to subjacent vertebrae. In current clinical practices, staging of spondylolisthesis is often conducted in a qualitative way. Although meyerding grading opens the door to stage spondylolisthesis in a more quantitative way, it relies on the manual measurement, which is time consuming and irreproducible. Thus, an automatic measurement algorithm becomes desirable for spondylolisthesis diagnosis and staging. However, there are two challenges. 1) Accurate detection of the most anterior and posterior points on the superior and inferior surfaces of each lumbar vertebrae. Due to the small size of the vertebrae, slight errors of detection may lead to significant measurement errors, hence, wrong disease stages. 2) Automatic localize and label each lumbar vertebrae is required to provide the semantic meaning of the measurement. It is difficult since different lumbar vertebraes have high similarity of both shape and image appearance. To resolve these challenges, a new auto measurement framework is proposed with two major contributions: First, a learning based spine labeling method that integrates both the image appearance and spine geometry information is designed to detect lumbar vertebrae. Second, a hierarchical method using both the population information from atlases and domain-specific information in the target image is proposed for most anterior and posterior points positioning. Validated on 258 CT spondylolisthesis patients, our method shows very similar results to manual measurements by radiologists and significantly increases the measurement efficiency. PMID:26849859

  1. A Modified Approach of Percutaneous Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy (PELD) for Far Lateral Disc Herniation at L5-S1 with Foot Drop.

    PubMed

    Chun, Eun Hee; Park, Hahck Soo

    2016-01-01

    Foraminal or extraforaminal Far Lateral Disc Herniations (FLDH) extending into or beyond the foraminal zone have been recognized as between 7-12% of all lumbosacral disc herniations. Conventional posterior laminectomy may not provide good access to a herniation that lies far lateral to the lateral margin of the pedicle. Use of the endoscopic technique through a percutaneous approach to treat such FLDH patients can decrease the surgical morbidity while achieving better outcomes. We made an effort to utilize the advantages of percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) and to determine the appropriate approach for FLDH at the level between the 5th Lumbar and first Sacral vertebrae(L5-S1). The authors present a case of an endoscopically resected lumbar extruded disc of the left extraforaminal zone with superior foraminal migration at the level of L5-S1, which had led to foot drop, while placing the endoscope in the anterior epidural space without facetectomy. PMID:26839673

  2. 168. GENERAL VIEW FROM 5TH AVE. VIEW SOUTH, ACROSS 5TH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    168. GENERAL VIEW FROM 5TH AVE. VIEW SOUTH, ACROSS 5TH AVE., TOWARD BUILDING 506 (ON LEFT) AND BUILDING 435. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  3. Ivory vertebra: imaging findings in different diagnoses*

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Richard Andreas; Milito, Carlos Felipe do Rego Barros; Goldman, Suzan Menasce; Fernandes, Eloy de Ávila

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain is often managed at all levels of healthcare. In general, diagnostic investigation begins with radiography of the lumbar spine. In addition to the most common findings, radiologists can identify increased density of a vertebral body, referred to as ivory vertebra. The objective of this study was to describe the main diseases that can present with this radiologic sign, such as Hodgkin lymphoma, Paget's disease, metastatic prostate cancer, breast cancer, and osteomyelitis. It is extremely important that radiologists be aware of this finding in order to inform the requesting physician of the possible etiologies, given that it can be the initial radiologic presentation for these diseases. PMID:27141135

  4. Ivory vertebra: imaging findings in different diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Braun, Richard Andreas; Milito, Carlos Felipe do Rego Barros; Goldman, Suzan Menasce; Fernandes, Eloy de Ávila

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain is often managed at all levels of healthcare. In general, diagnostic investigation begins with radiography of the lumbar spine. In addition to the most common findings, radiologists can identify increased density of a vertebral body, referred to as ivory vertebra. The objective of this study was to describe the main diseases that can present with this radiologic sign, such as Hodgkin lymphoma, Paget's disease, metastatic prostate cancer, breast cancer, and osteomyelitis. It is extremely important that radiologists be aware of this finding in order to inform the requesting physician of the possible etiologies, given that it can be the initial radiologic presentation for these diseases. PMID:27141135

  5. Lumbar paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Dillard-Cannon, Erika; Atsina, Kofi-Buaku; Ghobrial, George; Gnass, Esteban; Curtis, Mark T; Heller, Joshua

    2016-08-01

    Spinal paragangliomas (SP) are benign and overall rare extra-adrenal neuroendocrine tumors often diagnosed during workup for lower back pain. Complete surgical resection achieves both symptomatic relief and cure. We present a 32-year-old man with a longstanding history of lumbago and bilateral lower extremity pain found to have a lumbar paraganglioma at the level of the L3 vertebrae. The clinical, histopathological, and radiological characteristics are described, including the rare finding of superficial siderosis on MRI of the brain. A laminectomy with microscopic dissection of the intradural mass achieved complete debulking without evidence of residual tumor. Excellent prognosis can be achieved with complete surgical resection of SP without the need for adjuvant therapy. Therefore, care should be taken to distinguish these spinal tumors from those that appear similar but are more aggressive. As such, the radiological finding of superficial siderosis should raise the suspicion for SP when a vascular intradural extramedullary spinal tumor is observed. PMID:27032749

  6. Spontaneous resolution of lumbar vertebral eosinophilic granuloma.

    PubMed

    Bavbek, M; Atalay, B; Altinörs, N; Caner, H

    2004-02-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma (EG) is a rare disease but is more common in adults than children. It's often self-limiting. Spinal involvement is rare. It is the localized and most benign form of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (previously known as histiocytosis X), characterised by lytic lesions in one or more bones. Spontaneous resolution of vertebral body lesions is very rare. In this case, the patient had one EG in a cervical vertebra and a similar lesion in a lumbar vertebra. This case is important because it featured a symptomatic lesion in the cervical spine accompanied by an asymptomatic lesion in a lumbar vertebra. We treated the cervical lesion by surgical fusion and followed the lumbar lesion up conservatively, with the patient in a corset. After 8 years of follow-up, control MRI showed that the lumbar lesion had spontaneously resolved. PMID:14963750

  7. Traumatic fracture through the neurocentral synchondroses of L3 vertebra in a 5-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Shapira, Gali; Militianu, Daniela

    2015-09-01

    Neurocentral synchondroses (NCS) are growth plates that contribute to the transverse growth of the vertebra. Fractures through these NCS are very rare and none have been reported in the lumbar spine. We present a rare case of a traumatic fracture through the neurocentral synchondroses of L3 vertebra in a 5-year-old child. PMID:25975183

  8. Kids & Family Reading Report™. 5th Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholastic Inc., 2015

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the 5th Edition of Scholastic's biannual study of children's and parents' attitudes and behaviors about reading. The latest research touches on reading aloud to children of all ages, the impact of reading independently for fun at school and at home, the importance of frequent reading, and the books children want most to read.…

  9. BOOK REVIEW: ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING, 5TH EDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Book Review of Environmental Engineering, 5th Edition (Joseph A. Salvato, Nelson L. Nemerow, Franklin J. Agardy (Editors), John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Hoboken, New Jersey. 2003.). Author wrote review per the request of the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Environmental Quality.

  10. Automatic labeling and segmentation of vertebrae in CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasoulian, Abtin; Rohling, Robert N.; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2014-03-01

    Labeling and segmentation of the spinal column from CT images is a pre-processing step for a range of image- guided interventions. State-of-the art techniques have focused either on image feature extraction or template matching for labeling of the vertebrae followed by segmentation of each vertebra. Recently, statistical multi- object models have been introduced to extract common statistical characteristics among several anatomies. In particular, we have created models for segmentation of the lumbar spine which are robust, accurate, and computationally tractable. In this paper, we reconstruct a statistical multi-vertebrae pose+shape model and utilize it in a novel framework for labeling and segmentation of the vertebra in a CT image. We validate our technique in terms of accuracy of the labeling and segmentation of CT images acquired from 56 subjects. The method correctly labels all vertebrae in 70% of patients and is only one level off for the remaining 30%. The mean distance error achieved for the segmentation is 2.1 +/- 0.7 mm.

  11. Multifrequency Catalogue of Blazars - 5th Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massaro, E.; Maselli, A.; Leto, C.; Marchegiani, P.; Perri, M.; Giommi, P.; Piranomonte, S.

    2014-12-01

    The 5th Edition of the Multifrequency Catalogue of Blazars is one of the most complete lists of Active Galactic Nuclei whose emission properties are recognised as typical of blazars. It includes the list of sources and an essential compilation of multifrequency data from radio to gamma rays. The source list for the entire sky is also available online at the ASDC web site (http://www.asdc.asi.it/bzcat/) where it is frequently updated to add new blazars and to improve the database.

  12. A neglected point in surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: Variations in the number of vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zongshan; Zhang, Zhen; Zhao, Zhihui; Zhu, Zezhang; Liu, Zhen; Qiu, Yong

    2016-08-01

    Inaccurate identification of vertebral levels is the main cause of wrong-site spine surgery which is performed by nearly half of the spine surgeons. Unusual anatomy and failure to verify the surgical level on radiographs have been commonly reported. We aimed at investigating the variations in vertebral number in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients and thus to raise awareness of the possibility for wrong-level spinal surgery and to make a comparison with normal adolescents. A cohort of 657 AIS patients and 248 normal adolescents, presented to our center from June 2008 to February 2013, who met the inclusion criteria, were recruited. Radiographs were reviewed to identify the number of thoracic or lumbar vertebrae and the presence of a lumbosacral transitional vertebra. In the AIS group, 70 (10.6%) patients had variations in the number of thoracic and/or lumbar vertebrae. Remarkably, the prevalence of variations in male subjects was significantly higher than that in female subjects (P < 0.05). Thirty-seven patients (5.6%) had an atypical number of thoracic vertebrae, with 33 having 11 thoracic vertebrae and 4 patients having 13. Forty-eight patients (7.3%) had an atypical number of lumbar vertebrae, with 14 having 4 lumbar vertebrae and 34 patients having 6. Multilevel vertebral anomalies were present in 2.3% of the patients (15 of 657). A variation in the number of vertebrae had been identified in 1.7% (11) of the reports by the radiologist. In the normal group, 27 (10.9%) subjects showed variations in the vertebral number. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of atypical numbers of vertebral number between the AIS and normal groups (P > 0.05). Therefore, we concluded that variations in the number of thoracic-lumbar vertebrae were found in up to10.6% of AIS patients. Identification of variations in the number of vertebrae is crucial to serve to decrease the risk of wrong-level surgery. PMID:27559975

  13. Posteroanterior versus anteroposterior lumbar spine radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuno, M.M.; Shu, G.J. )

    1990-03-01

    The posteroanterior view of the lumbar spine has important features including radiation protection and image quality; these have been studied by various investigators. Investigators have shown that sensitive tissues receive less radiation dosage in the posteroanterior view of the spine for scoliosis screening and intracranial tomography without altering the image quality. This paper emphasizes the importance of the radiation safety aspect of the posteroanterior view and shows the improvement in shape distortion in the lumbar vertebrae.

  14. Age estimation from stages of epiphyseal union in the presacral vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Hugo F V; Ríos, Luis

    2011-02-01

    The presacral vertebrae have various secondary centers of ossification, whose timing of fusion can be used for age estimation of human skeletal remains up to the middle to the latter third decade. However, detailed information about the age at which these secondary centers of ossification fuse has been lacking. In this study, the timing of epiphyseal union in presacral vertebrae was studied in a sample of modern Portuguese skeletons (57 females and 47 males) between the ages of 9 and 30, taken from the Lisbon documented skeletal collection. A detailed photographic record of these epiphyses and the age ranges for the different stages of epiphyseal union are provided. Partial union of epiphyses was observed from 11 to 27 years of age. In general, centers of ossification begin to fuse first in the cervical and lumbar vertebrae, followed by centers of ossification in the thoracic region. The first center of ossification to complete fusion is usually that of the mammillary process in lumbar vertebrae. This is usually followed by that of the transverse process, spinous transverse process, and annular ring, regardless of vertebra type. There were no statistically significant sex differences in timing of fusion, but there was a trend toward early maturation in females for some vertebra or epiphyses. Bilateral epiphyses did not show statistically significant differences in timing of fusion. This study offers information on timing of fusion of diverse epiphyseal locations useful for age estimation of complete or fragmented human skeletal remains. PMID:20872802

  15. The Robotic Lumbar Spine: Dynamics and Feedback Linearization Control

    PubMed Central

    Karadogan, Ernur; Williams, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    The robotic lumbar spine (RLS) is a 15 degree-of-freedom, fully cable-actuated robotic lumbar spine which can mimic in vivo human lumbar spine movements to provide better hands-on training for medical students. The design incorporates five active lumbar vertebrae and the sacrum, with dimensions of an average adult human spine. It is actuated by 20 cables connected to electric motors. Every vertebra is connected to the neighboring vertebrae by spherical joints. Medical schools can benefit from a tool, system, or method that will help instructors train students and assess their tactile proficiency throughout their education. The robotic lumbar spine has the potential to satisfy these needs in palpatory diagnosis. Medical students will be given the opportunity to examine their own patient that can be programmed with many dysfunctions related to the lumbar spine before they start their professional lives as doctors. The robotic lumbar spine can be used to teach and test medical students in their capacity to be able to recognize normal and abnormal movement patterns of the human lumbar spine under flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial torsion. This paper presents the dynamics and nonlinear control of the RLS. A new approach to solve for positive and nonzero cable tensions that are also continuous in time is introduced. PMID:24151527

  16. Spaceflight effects on biomechanical and biochemical properties of rat vertebrae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zernicke, R. F.; Vailas, A. C.; Grindeland, R. E.; Kaplansky, A.; Salem, G. J.; Martinez, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    The biomechanical and biochemical responses of lumbar vertebral bodies during a 12.5-day spaceflight (Cosmos 1887 biosatellite) were determined for rapidly growing rats (90-day-old, Czechoslovakian-Wistar). By use of age-matched vivarium controls (normal cage environment) and synchronous controls (simulated flight conditions), as well as a basal control group (killed before lift-off on the 1st day of flight), the combined influences of growth and space-flight could be examined. Centra of the sixth lumbar vertebrae (L6) were compressed to 50% strain at a fast strain rate while immersed in physiological buffer (37 degrees C). The body masses of vivarium and synchronous controls were significantly heavier than either the flight or basal controls. The flight group had an L6 vertebral body compressional stiffness that was 39% less than the vivarium controls, 47% less than the synchronous control, and 16% less than the basal controls. In addition, the average initial maximum load of the flight L6 was 22% less than vivarium controls and 18% less than the synchronous controls, whereas the linear compressional load of the flight group averaged 34% less than the vivarium and 25% less than the synchronous groups. The structural properties of the vertebrae from the 12.5-day-younger basal group closely resembled the flight vertebrae. Calcium, phosphorous, and hydroxyproline concentrations were not significantly different among the groups. Nevertheless, the lack of strength and stiffness development in spaceflight, coupled with a smaller proportion of mature hydroxypyridinoline cross-links, suggested that the 12.5 days of spaceflight slowed the maturation of trabecular bone in the vertebral bodies of rapidly growing rats.

  17. A Review of Symptomatic Lumbosacral Transitional Vertebrae: Bertolotti's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jancuska, Jeffrey M.; Spivak, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV) are increasingly recognized as a common anatomical variant associated with altered patterns of degenerative spine changes. This review will focus on the clinical significance of LSTV, disruptions in normal spine biomechanics, imaging techniques, diagnosis, and treatment. Methods A Pubmed search using the specific key words “LSTV,” “lumbosacral transitional vertebrae,” and “Bertolotti's Syndrome” was performed. The resulting group of manuscripts from our search was evaluated. Results LSTV are associated with alterations in biomechanics and anatomy of spinal and paraspinal structures, which have important implications on surgical approaches and techniques. LSTV are often inaccurately detected and classified on standard AP radiographs and MRI. The use of whole-spine images as well as geometric relationships between the sacrum and lumbar vertebra increase accuracy. Uncertainty regarding the cause, clinical significance, and treatment of LSTV persists. Some authors suggest an association between LSTV types II and IV and low back pain. Pseudoarticulation between the transverse process and the sacrum creates a “false joint” susceptible to arthritic changes and osteophyte formation potentially leading to nerve root entrapment. The diagnosis of symptomatic LSTV is considered with appropriate patient history, imaging studies, and diagnostic injections. A positive radionuclide study along with a positive effect from a local injection helps distinguish the transitional vertebra as a significant pain source. Surgical resection is reserved for a subgroup of LSTV patients who fail conservative treatment and whose pain is definitively attributed to the anomalous pseudoarticulation. Conclusions Due to the common finding of low back pain and the wide prevalence of LSTV in the general population, it is essential to differentiate between symptoms originating from an anomalous psuedoarticulation from other potential

  18. Morphological variation of the thoracolumbar vertebrae in Macropodidae and its functional relevance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinmin; Milne, Nick; O'Higgins, Paul

    2005-11-01

    The present study was designed to investigate how the form of the marsupial thoracolumbar vertebrae varies to cope with the particular demands of diverse loading and locomotor behaviors. The vertebral columns of 10 species of Macropodidae, with various body masses and modes of locomotion, together with two other arboreal marsupials, koala and cuscus, were selected. Seventy-four three-dimensional landmark coordinates were acquired on each of the 10 last presacral vertebrae of the 70 vertebral columns. The interspecific variations of the third lumbar vertebra (L3, which approximates the mean) and the transitional patterns of the thoracolumbar segments were examined using the combined approach of generalized Procrustes analysis (GPA) and principal components analysis (PCA). The results of analyses of an individual vertebra (L3) and of the transitional patterns indicate significant interspecific differences. In the L3 study the first PC shows allometric shape variation, while the second PC seems to relate to adaptation for terrestrial versus arboreal locomotion. When the L3 vertebrae of the common spotted cuscus and koala are included for comparison, the vertebra of the tree kangaroo occupies an intermediate position between the hopping kangaroo and these arboreal marsupials. The L3 vertebrae in the arboreal marsupials possess a distinct dorsoventrally expanded vertebral body, and perpendicularly orientated spinous and transverse processes. The results of the present study suggest that vertebral shape in the kangaroo and wallaroos provides a structural adaptation to hopping through a relatively enlarged loading area and powerful lever system. In contrast, the small-sized bettongs (or rat kangaroos) have a relatively flexible column and elongated levers for the action of back muscles that extend and laterally flex the spine. The complex pattern of vertebral shape transition in the last 10 presacral vertebrae was examined using PCAs that compare between species

  19. Footprint mismatch in lumbar total disc arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Gstoettner, Michaela; Michaela, Gstoettner; Heider, Denise; Denise, Heider; Liebensteiner, Michael; Bach, Christian Michael; Michael, Bach Christian

    2008-11-01

    Lumbar disc arthroplasty has become a popular modality for the treatment of degenerative disc disease. The dimensions of the implants are based on early published geometrical measurements of vertebrae; the majority of these were cadaver studies. The fit of the prosthesis in the intervertebral space is of utmost importance. An undersized implant may lead to subsidence, loosening and biomechanical failure due to an incorrect center of rotation. The aim of the present study was to measure the dimensions of lumbar vertebrae based on CT scans and assess the accuracy of match in currently available lumbar disc prostheses. A total of 240 endplates of 120 vertebrae were included in the study. The sagittal and mediolateral diameter of the upper and lower endplates were measured using a digital measuring system. For the levels L4/L5 and L5/S1, an inappropriate size match was noted in 98.8% (Prodisc L) and 97.6% (Charite) with regard to the anteroposterior diameter. Mismatch in the anterior mediolateral diameter was noted in 79.3% (Prodisc L) and 51.2% (Charite) while mismatch in the posterior mediolateral diameter was observed in 91.5% (Prodisc L) and 78% (Charite) of the endplates. Surgeons and manufacturers should be aware of the size mismatch of currently available lumbar disc prostheses, which may endanger the safety and efficacy of the procedure. Larger footprints of currently available total disc arthroplasties are required. PMID:18791748

  20. Footprint mismatch in lumbar total disc arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Michaela, Gstoettner; Denise, Heider; Liebensteiner, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Lumbar disc arthroplasty has become a popular modality for the treatment of degenerative disc disease. The dimensions of the implants are based on early published geometrical measurements of vertebrae; the majority of these were cadaver studies. The fit of the prosthesis in the intervertebral space is of utmost importance. An undersized implant may lead to subsidence, loosening and biomechanical failure due to an incorrect center of rotation. The aim of the present study was to measure the dimensions of lumbar vertebrae based on CT scans and assess the accuracy of match in currently available lumbar disc prostheses. A total of 240 endplates of 120 vertebrae were included in the study. The sagittal and mediolateral diameter of the upper and lower endplates were measured using a digital measuring system. For the levels L4/L5 and L5/S1, an inappropriate size match was noted in 98.8% (Prodisc L) and 97.6% (Charite) with regard to the anteroposterior diameter. Mismatch in the anterior mediolateral diameter was noted in 79.3% (Prodisc L) and 51.2% (Charite) while mismatch in the posterior mediolateral diameter was observed in 91.5% (Prodisc L) and 78% (Charite) of the endplates. Surgeons and manufacturers should be aware of the size mismatch of currently available lumbar disc prostheses, which may endanger the safety and efficacy of the procedure. Larger footprints of currently available total disc arthroplasties are required. PMID:18791748

  1. Automated quantification of lumbar vertebral kinematics from dynamic fluoroscopic sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camp, Jon; Zhao, Kristin; Morel, Etienne; White, Dan; Magnuson, Dixon; Gay, Ralph; An, Kai-Nan; Robb, Richard

    2009-02-01

    We hypothesize that the vertebra-to-vertebra patterns of spinal flexion and extension motion of persons with lower back pain will differ from those of persons who are pain-free. Thus, it is our goal to measure the motion of individual lumbar vertebrae noninvasively from dynamic fluoroscopic sequences. Two-dimensional normalized mutual information-based image registration was used to track frame-to-frame motion. Software was developed that required the operator to identify each vertebra on the first frame of the sequence using a four-point "caliper" placed at the posterior and anterior edges of the inferior and superior end plates of the target vertebrae. The program then resolved the individual motions of each vertebra independently throughout the entire sequence. To validate the technique, 6 cadaveric lumbar spine specimens were potted in polymethylmethacrylate and instrumented with optoelectric sensors. The specimens were then placed in a custom dynamic spine simulator and moved through flexion-extension cycles while kinematic data and fluoroscopic sequences were simultaneously acquired. We found strong correlation between the absolute flexionextension range of motion of each vertebra as recorded by the optoelectric system and as determined from the fluoroscopic sequence via registration. We conclude that this method is a viable way of noninvasively assessing twodimensional vertebral motion.

  2. [Lumbar hernia].

    PubMed

    Teiblum, Sandra Sofie; Hjørne, Flemming Pii; Bisgaard, Thue

    2010-03-22

    Lumbar hernia is a rare condition. Lumbar hernia should be considered a rare differential diagnosis to unexplained back pain. Symptoms are scarce and diffuse and can vary with the size and content of the hernia. As there is a 25% risk of incarceration, operation is indicated even in asymptomatic hernias. We report a case of lumbar hernia in a woman with a slow growing mass in the lumbar region. She presented with pain and a computed tomography confirmed the diagnosis. She underwent open surgery and fully recovered with recurrence within the first half year. PMID:20334799

  3. Hemorrhage from lumbar artery following percutaneous renal biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Devi, B. Vijayalakshmi; Lakshmi, B. Sangeetha; Supraja, C.; Vanajakshmma, V.; Ram, R.; Rajasekhar, D.; Lakshmi, A. Y.; Sivakumar, V.

    2015-01-01

    We present a 58-year-old lady who underwent ultrasound-guided renal biopsy for suspected acute glomerulonephritis. Within minutes, the radiologist noticed an echogenic band around left kidney and in the muscular planes. Computerized tomography revealed focal active contrast extravasation from arcuate or interlobular artery in lower pole of left kidney and lumbar artery at third lumbar vertebra. The bleeding vessel was occluded with gelfoam. PMID:26199475

  4. Strontium mineralization of shark vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Raoult, Vincent; Peddemors, Victor M; Zahra, David; Howell, Nicholas; Howard, Daryl L; de Jonge, Martin D; Williamson, Jane E

    2016-01-01

    Determining the age of sharks using vertebral banding is a vital component of management, but the causes of banding are not fully understood. Traditional shark ageing is based on fish otolith ageing methods where growth bands are assumed to result from varied seasonal calcification rates. Here we investigate these assumptions by mapping elemental distribution within the growth bands of vertebrae from six species of sharks representing four different taxonomic orders using scanning x-ray fluorescence microscopy. Traditional visual growth bands, determined with light microscopy, were more closely correlated to strontium than calcium in all species tested. Elemental distributions suggest that vertebral strontium bands may be related to environmental variations in salinity. These results highlight the requirement for a better understanding of shark movements, and their influence on vertebral development, if confidence in age estimates is to be improved. Analysis of shark vertebrae using similar strontium-focused elemental techniques, once validated for a given species, may allow more successful estimations of age on individuals with few or no visible vertebral bands. PMID:27424768

  5. Strontium mineralization of shark vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Raoult, Vincent; Peddemors, Victor M.; Zahra, David; Howell, Nicholas; Howard, Daryl L.; de Jonge, Martin D.; Williamson, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    Determining the age of sharks using vertebral banding is a vital component of management, but the causes of banding are not fully understood. Traditional shark ageing is based on fish otolith ageing methods where growth bands are assumed to result from varied seasonal calcification rates. Here we investigate these assumptions by mapping elemental distribution within the growth bands of vertebrae from six species of sharks representing four different taxonomic orders using scanning x-ray fluorescence microscopy. Traditional visual growth bands, determined with light microscopy, were more closely correlated to strontium than calcium in all species tested. Elemental distributions suggest that vertebral strontium bands may be related to environmental variations in salinity. These results highlight the requirement for a better understanding of shark movements, and their influence on vertebral development, if confidence in age estimates is to be improved. Analysis of shark vertebrae using similar strontium-focused elemental techniques, once validated for a given species, may allow more successful estimations of age on individuals with few or no visible vertebral bands. PMID:27424768

  6. A musculoskeletal model for the lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Christophy, Miguel; Faruk Senan, Nur Adila; Lotz, Jeffrey C; O'Reilly, Oliver M

    2012-01-01

    A new musculoskeletal model for the lumbar spine is described in this paper. This model features a rigid pelvis and sacrum, the five lumbar vertebrae, and a rigid torso consisting of a lumped thoracic spine and ribcage. The motion of the individual lumbar vertebrae was defined as a fraction of the net lumbar movement about the three rotational degrees of freedom: flexion-extension lateral bending, and axial rotation. Additionally, the eight main muscle groups of the lumbar spine were incorporated using 238 muscle fascicles with prescriptions for the parameters in the Hill-type muscle models obtained with the help of an extensive literature survey. The features of the model include the abilities to predict joint reactions, muscle forces, and muscle activation patterns. To illustrate the capabilities of the model and validate its physiological similarity, the model's predictions for the moment arms of the muscles are shown for a range of flexion-extension motions of the lower back. The model uses the OpenSim platform and is freely available on https://www.simtk.org/home/lumbarspine to other spinal researchers interested in analyzing the kinematics of the spine. The model can also be integrated with existing OpenSim models to build more comprehensive models of the human body. PMID:21318374

  7. Working Together for Student Achievement. 5th Biennial Joint Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Washington state Board of Education (SBE) and the Professional Educator Standards Board (PESB) submitted this 5th biennial joint report to the Governor, Legislative Education Committees, and Superintendent of Public Instruction. The report outlines the collaborative work of the Boards, highlights accomplishments, and provides goals and…

  8. 5th Conference on Aerospace Materials, Processes, and Environmental Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M. B. (Editor); Stanley, D. Cross (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    Records are presented from the 5th Conference on Aerospace Materials, Processes, and Environmental Technology. Topics included pollution prevention, inspection methods, advanced materials, aerospace materials and technical standards,materials testing and evaluation, advanced manufacturing,development in metallic processes, synthesis of nanomaterials, composite cryotank processing, environmentally friendly cleaning, and poster sessions.

  9. 5th Latin American pesticide residue workshop (LAPRW 2015)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This invited editorial proceedings article introduces the 6 research papers published in the special topical collection for the 5th Latin American Pesticide Residue Workshop held in Santiago, Chile, May 10-13, 2015. The meeting was a great success with more than 50 talks, 140 posters, 21 vendors, a...

  10. Three-dimensional static modeling of the lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Karadogan, Ernur; Williams, Robert L

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents three-dimensional static modeling of the human lumbar spine to be used in the formation of anatomically-correct movement patterns for a fully cable-actuated robotic lumbar spine which can mimic in vivo human lumbar spine movements to provide better hands-on training for medical students. The mathematical model incorporates five lumbar vertebrae between the first lumbar vertebra and the sacrum, with dimensions of an average adult human spine. The vertebrae are connected to each other by elastic elements, torsional springs and a spherical joint located at the inferoposterior corner in the mid-sagittal plane of the vertebral body. Elastic elements represent the ligaments that surround the facet joints and the torsional springs represent the collective effect of intervertebral disc which plays a major role in balancing torsional load during upper body motion and the remaining ligaments that support the spinal column. The elastic elements and torsional springs are considered to be nonlinear. The nonlinear stiffness constants for six motion types were solved using a multiobjective optimization technique. The quantitative comparison between the angles of rotations predicted by the proposed model and in the experimental data confirmed that the model yields angles of rotation close to the experimental data. The main contribution is that the new model can be used for all motions while the experimental data was only obtained at discrete measurement points. PMID:22938364

  11. Evaluation of the influence of pedicle-lengthening osteotomy on lumbar stability

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Maofeng; Zou, Jun; Zhang, Zhigang; Luo, Zongping; Yang, Huilin

    2016-01-01

    Pedicle-lengthening osteotomy (PLO) is a minimally invasive and effective surgical procedure for lumbar spinal stenosis syndrome. Compared with traditional surgery, PLO can effectively enlarge the spinal canal while minimizing the disruption of posterior anatomical structures of the lumbar vertebra, leading to reduced postoperative perineural scarring adhesion and good clinical outcomes using minimally invasive procedures. However, PLO is still in its early stages, and only a few relevant experimental and clinical studies have been reported. The present study was performed to investigate the influence of PLO on the stability of lumbar vertebrae. The results indicated that PLO can effectively enlarge the spinal canal, and no lumbar spondylolisthesis or other complications occurred in this study. Moreover, this procedure does not significantly affect the stability of the lumbar spine, suggesting a possible clinical application. PMID:27347315

  12. Measurement and Visualization of Three-Dimensional Vertebra Shape by Freehand Ultrasound Scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohyama, Kazuhiro; Yasumuro, Yoshihiro; Imura, Masataka; Manabe, Yoshitsugu; Oshiro, Osamu; Moroi, Keishichiro; Chihara, Kunihiro

    2005-06-01

    Paracentesis is a common operation for pain clinics and spinal anesthetics administration and requires empirical training and flexible skills to cope with the various cases of individual patients. We propose a method of measuring and visualizing three-dimensional vertebra shapes for assisting anesthesiologists, by an ultrasound imaging technique that is prevalent in many hospitals and has no harmful risks to the human body. The proposed system enables anesthesiologists to investigate vertebra shapes by freehand probing. Three-dimensional reconstruction and graphical rendering can be performed by monitoring the motion of the ultrasound probe and registering the scanned echography into the identical three-dimensional space. Considering the echography imaging features, volume rendering of hard tissue surfaces is achieved and interactive measurement is possible. This paper describes the practicability of the proposed method based on experimental measurement of both phantom and real lumbar vertebre and sacra.

  13. Lower Extremity Radicular Pain Caused by Entrapped Sigmoid Colon Between L5 and S1 Vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Sanghyung; Park, Noh Kyoung; Cho, Kyoung Jin; Baek, Jung Hyun; Lim, Jeong-Wook; Choi, Dongjin

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal entrapment between two vertebral bodies is very rare. In all previous cases, it occurred by major trauma. However, the bowel entrapment between two vertebral bodies without trauma has never been reported, not to mention as the cause of lower extremity radicular pain. We describe the case of an 82-year-old female patient with right lower extremity radicular pain without recent trauma history. The patient was diagnosed sigmoid colon entrapment between the L5 and S1 vertebrae by lumbar spinal computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and showed improvement in radicular pain after manual reduction of interpositioned colon during surgery. Intestinal entrapment between two vertebrae without trauma is caused by degenerative and vacuum changes of the intervertebral disc combined with the anterior longitudinal ligament injury. PMID:26619145

  14. Group-wise registration of ultrasound to CT images of human vertebrae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Sean; Mousavi, Parvin; Fichtinger, Gabor; Pichora, David; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2009-02-01

    Automatic registration of ultrasound (US) to computed tomography (CT) datasets is a challenge of considerable interest, particularly in orthopaedic and percutaneous interventions. We propose an algorithm for group-wise volume-to-volume registration of US to CT images of the lumbar spine. Each vertebra in CT is treated as a sub-volume and transformed individually. The sub-volumes are then reconstructed into a single volume. The algorithm dynamically combines simulated US reflections from the vertebrae surfaces and surrounding soft tissue in the reconstructed CT, with scaled CT data to simulate US images of the spine anatomy. The simulated US data is used to register preoperative CT data to intra-operative US images. Covariance Matrix Adaption - Evolution Strategy (CMA-ES) is utilized as the optimization strategy. The registration is tested using a phantom of the lumbar spine (L3-L5). Initial misalignments of up to 8 mm were registered with a mean target registration error of 1.87+/-0.73 mm for L3, 2.79+/-0.93 mm for L4, 1.72+/-0.70 mm for L5, and 2.08+/-0.55 mm across the entire volume. To select an appropriate optimization strategy, we performed a volume-to- volume registration of US to CT of the lumbar spine, allowing no relative motion between vertebrae. We compare the results of this registration using three optimization strategies: simplex, gradient descent and CMA-ES. CMA-ES was found to converge slower than gradient descent and simplex, but was more robust for rigid volume-to-volume registration for initial misalignments up to 20 mm.

  15. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  16. Lumbar spine CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - lumbar spine; Computed axial tomography scan - lumbar spine; Computed tomography scan - lumbar spine; CT - lower back ... stopping.) A computer creates separate images of the spine area, called slices. These images can be stored, ...

  17. 5th Annual Global College of Neuroprotection and Neuroregeneration.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Hari Shanker

    2008-06-01

    The 5th Global College of Neuroprotection and Neuroregeneration (GCNN) was held in the historic charming capital city of Bucharest, Romania in JW Marriott Grand Hotel on 3-6 March, 2008. The meeting was a unique blend of basic researchers and clinicians across the Globe presenting their recent findings in neuroprotection and neuroregeneration in a beautiful exotic ambience. More than 300 students and researchers attended the congress and participated in deliberations. Over 60 representatives from various pharmaceutical industries from all over the world supported this event. This meeting was held for the first time as a joint venture with GCNN and the Society for study on Neuroproetction and Neuroplasticity (SSNN), and was a grand success both scientifically and socially. Thus, these joint meetings of the two societies (GCNN and SSNN) will continue in future in different European cities for the coming 5 years. PMID:18505353

  18. Identification and classification of spine vertebrae by automated methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, L. Rodney; Thoma, George R.

    2001-07-01

    We are currently working toward developing computer-assisted methods for the indexing of a collection of 17,000 digitized x-ray images by biomedical content. These images were collected as part of a nationwide health survey and form a research resource for osteoarthitis and bone morphometry. This task requires the development of algorithms to robustly analyze the x-ray contents for key landmarks, to segment the vertebral bodies, to accurately measure geometric features of the individual vertebrae and inter-vertebral areas, and to classify the spine anatomy into normal or abnormal classes for conditions of interest, including anterior osteophytes and disc space narrowing. Subtasks of this work have been created and divided among collaborators. In this paper, we provide a technical description of the overall task, report on progress made by collaborators, and provide the most recent results of our own research into obtaining first-order location of the spine region of interest by automated methods. We are currently concentrating on images of the cervical spine, but will expand the work to include the lumbar spine as well. Development of successful image processing techniques for computer-assisted indexing of medical image collections is expected to have a significant impact within the medical research and patient care systems.

  19. Percutaneous stabilization of lumbar spine: a literature review and new options in treating spine pain.

    PubMed

    Marcia, Stefano; Saba, Luca; Marras, Mariangela; Suri, Jasjit S; Calabria, Eros; Masala, Salvatore

    2016-09-01

    Vertebral fracture (VF) is a common condition with >160,000 patients affected every year in North America and most of them with affected lumbar vertebrae. The management of VF is well known and defined by many protocols related to associated clinical neurological symptoms, especially in case of the presence or absence of myelopathy or radicular deficit. In this article, we will explore the percutaneous stabilization of the lumbar spine by showing the newest approaches for this condition. PMID:27351691

  20. Automated vertebra identification in CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehm, Matthias; Klinder, Tobias; Kneser, Reinhard; Lorenz, Cristian

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we describe and compare methods for automatically identifying individual vertebrae in arbitrary CT images. The identification is an essential precondition for a subsequent model-based segmentation, which is used in a wide field of orthopedic, neurological, and oncological applications, e.g., spinal biopsies or the insertion of pedicle screws. Since adjacent vertebrae show similar characteristics, an automated labeling of the spine column is a very challenging task, especially if no surrounding reference structures can be taken into account. Furthermore, vertebra identification is complicated due to the fact that many images are bounded to a very limited field of view and may contain only few vertebrae. We propose and evaluate two methods for automatically labeling the spine column by evaluating similarities between given models and vertebral objects. In one method, object boundary information is taken into account by applying a Generalized Hough Transform (GHT) for each vertebral object. In the other method, appearance models containing mean gray value information are registered to each vertebral object using cross and local correlation as similarity measures for the optimization function. The GHT is advantageous in terms of computational performance but cuts back concerning the identification rate. A correct labeling of the vertebral column has been successfully performed on 93% of the test set consisting of 63 disparate input images using rigid image registration with local correlation as similarity measure.

  1. 167. GENERAL VIEW DOWN 5TH AVE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST DOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    167. GENERAL VIEW DOWN 5TH AVE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST DOWN 5TH AVE. SHOWING FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, BUILDING 504, 436, 11, AND 155. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  2. PREFACE: 5th Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezinskis, G.; Bragina, L.; Colombo, P.; Frischat, G. H.; Grabis, J.; Greil, P.; Deja, J.; Kaminskas, R.; Kliava, J.; Medvids, A.; Nowak, I.; Siauciunas, R.; Valancius, Z.; Zalite, I.

    2011-12-01

    Logo This Volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering presents a selection of the contributions to the 5th Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials (BaltSilica2011) held at Riga Technical University, Riga, Latvia from 23-25 May 2011. The conference was organized by Riga Technical University (Latvia) and Kaunas University of Technology (Lithuania). The series of Baltic conferences on silicate materials was started since 2004: the first conference was held in Riga, Latvia, 2004; the second conference was held in Kaunas, Lithuania 2005; the third was held again in Riga, Latvia, 2007, and the fourth was held in Kaunas, Lithuania 2009. BaltSilica 2011 was attended by around 50 participants from Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Germany, Poland, Italy, France, Ukraine and Russia. In comparison with previous silicate materials conferences, the broadening of participating countries is an indication of the interest of scientists, engineers and students to exchange research ideas, latest results, and to find new research topics for cooperation in the fields of silicate, high temperature materials, and inorganic nanomaterials. The scientific programme included 8 invited plenary lectures 23 oral presentations and 25 posters [1]. Scientific themes covered in the conference and in this special issue: Natural and Artificial Stone Materials; Traditional and New Ceramic and Glass-Like Materials; Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials. This volume consists of 23 selected proceeding papers. The Editor of this special issue is grateful to all the contributors to BaltSilica 2011. I am also very grateful to the scientific committee, the local organizing committee, the session chairs, the referees who refereed the submitted articles to this issue, and to students from the Department of Silicate, High Temperature and Inorganic Nanomaterials Technology of the Riga Technical University who ensured the smooth running of the conference. Particular thanks goes to eight plenary

  3. Primary lumbar extradural hemangiosarcoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Paek, Matthew; Glass, Eric; Kent, Marc; Clifford, Craig A; De Lahunta, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    A 9 yr old castrated male golden retriever weighing 36 kg was presented for evaluation of progressive left pelvic limb paresis and fecal and urinary incontinence. MRI demonstrated an extradural, ovoid mass compressing the lumbar spinal cord. Surgical excision of the mass was performed. Histologically, the mass was consistent with hemangiosarcoma with no involvement of the adjacent vertebrae. The dog underwent a doxorubicin-based chemotherapy protocol with the addition of oral cyclophosphamide. After completion of chemotherapy, the dog was evaluated q 4 mo for restaging. Clinicopathological evidence of primary tumor recurrence or metastatic disease was not detected for 15 mo after initial diagnosis and treatment. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a primary extradural hemangiosarcoma in the lumbar vertebral column in a dog. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome are also discussed. PMID:25955146

  4. Bone reactions to nacre injected percutaneously into the vertebrae of sheep.

    PubMed

    Lamghari, M; Berland, S; Laurent, A; Huet, H; Lopez, E

    2001-03-01

    We have studied the osteogenic effects of nacre (mother of pearl) placed in experimental cavities prepared in the lumbar vertebrae of sheep. Some of cavities were filled with nacre, some with PMMA, and some were left empty. The vertebrae were removed 1, 8, 12 weeks after surgery, and assessed histologically and morphometrically. The nacre particles in the bone cavity and the surrounding intertrabecular spaces gradually dissolved beginning at 8 weeks after surgery. There were layers of newly formed bone, both woven and lamellar, in various stages of maturation in contact with or adjacent to the dissolving nacre. Quantitative assessment of the activation of bone formation adjacent to the cavities filled with nacre indicated significant activation of bone formation, which continued until week 12. There was also increased mineralization of the host bone at this time. There was no new bone formation in the empty cavities, or in those filled with PMMA. PMMA also caused necrosis of surrounding bone cells with a change in bone architecture and significant reductions in bone formation and mineralization. This study demonstrates that nacre stimulates bone-forming cells in vertebrae and appears to result in new bone formation. PMID:11219719

  5. Influences of Endplate Removal and Bone Mineral Density on the Biomechanical Properties of Lumbar Spine

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Wen; Liu, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate (1) effects of endplate removal and bone mineral density (BMD) on biomechanical properties of lumbar vertebrae (2) whether the distributions of mechanical strength and stiffness of endplate are affected by BMD. Methods A total of thirty-one lumbar spines (L1-L5) collected from fresh cadavers were used in this study. Bone density was measured using lateral DEXA scans and parts of samples were performed with partial or entire endplate removal. All the specimens were divided into three BMD groups. According to endplate integrity of the lumbar vertebrae, each BMD group was then divided into three subgroups: subgroup A: intact endplate; subgroup B: central region of endplate removal; subgroup C: entire endplate removal. The axial compression test was conducted with material testing system at a speed of 2mm/min. The experimental results were statistically analyzed using SPSS 17.0. Results (1) Significant differences of biomechanical properties occurred among normal BMD, osteoporotic and serious osteoporotic group (P<0.05). (2) Spearman analysis showed that BMD was positively correlated with the failure load and stiffness of lumbar vertebrae. (3) For each BMD group, significant differences of biomechanical properties were found between subgroup A and C, and between subgroup B and C (P<0.05). (4) For each BMD group, there was no statistical difference of biomechanical properties between subgroup A and B (P>0.05). Conclusions Entire endplate removal can significantly decrease the structural properties of lumbar vertebrae with little change in biomechanical properties by preservation of peripheral region of the endplate. BMD is positively correlated to the structural properties of the lumbar vertebrae. PMID:24244269

  6. Managing Haemophilia for Life: 5th Haemophilia Global Summit.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Cedric; Dolan, Gerry; Jennings, Ian; Windyga, Jerzy; Lobet, Sébastien; Rodríguez-Merchán, E Carlos; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; Jiménez-Yuste, Víctor; O'Mahony, Brian

    2015-10-01

    The 5th Haemophilia Global Summit was held in Barcelona, Spain, in September 2014. The programme was designed by an independent Scientific Steering Committee of haemophilia experts and explored issues relevant to the practical management of haemophilia, as well as key opportunities and challenges for care in the future. The topics outlined in this supplement were selected by the Scientific Steering Committee for their relevance to improving haemophilia care globally. In this supplement from the meeting, Gerry Dolan explores pharmacokinetics and dynamics in haemophilia, and Gerry Dolan and Ian Jennings jointly address the role of the laboratory in haemophilia care. The potential benefits of low-dose prophylaxis regimens for people with haemophilia in the developing world are reviewed by Jerzy Windyga, and the question of whether 'Future haemophilia research should be undertaken in the developing world' is debated by Jerzy Windyga and Cedric Hermans. Management strategies for ankle arthropathy are discussed by Sébastien Lobet and E. Carlos Rodríguez-Merchán, and the use of ultrasound for the early detection of haemophilic arthropathy is addressed by Matteo Nicola Dario Di Minno and Víctor Jiménez-Yuste. Finally, the role of patients in the future of haemophilia care is reviewed by Brian O'Mahony. PMID:26350039

  7. Lumbar Osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Wood, Kirkham B

    2016-04-01

    When a patient presents with spine problems, the spine surgeon would do well to avoid use of, reliance on, and acceptance of radiographs as the sole or primary source of information. Measurement of pelvic incidence and lumbar lordosis, although crucial, does not take into account the effort the patient must make to move, the level of involvement of other parts of the body, and the history of previous procedures and outcomes. Radiographs may show pathology that is not consistent with the appearance of the patient. How should we assess this situation? PMID:27015064

  8. Structure and function of platyrrhine caudal vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Organ, Jason M

    2010-04-01

    The prehensile tail may have evolved twice (in parallel) in New World monkeys (platyrrhines), suggesting it is an effective adaptation to negotiating arboreal habitats. Yet, despite the obvious importance of the prehensile tail for balance, feeding behavior, and locomotion, the structural differences between prehensile and nonprehensile tails are poorly understood. Previous studies showed that some linear measurements of caudal vertebrae are capable of distinguishing prehensile from nonprehensile tails but only in the distal parts of the vertebral sequence. This study examines structural properties of the tail with external measurements that are selected to better approximate resistance to bending/torsion while also examining vertebral cross-sectional geometry with computed tomography-a direct measure of resistance to bending/torsion. Specifically, this study tests the hypotheses that the caudal vertebrae (and the tail as a whole) of prehensile-tailed platyrrhines are structured to resist higher torsional and bending stresses than their functional analogues in nonprehensile-tailed platyrrhines, and that the predicted differences become more drastic further distally within the sequence. Results of this study indicate that prehensile and nonprehensile tails are structured differently. Prehensile tails are characterized by longer proximal tail regions than nonprehensile tails. Furthermore, the hemal processes (the distal attachment for the primary tail flexors) of prehensile tail vertebrae are better developed and can distinguish prehensile from nonprehensile tails better than traditionally used external measurements. Finally, results confirm predictions that prehensile tail caudal vertebrae are capable of withstanding higher torsional and bending stresses than their nonprehensile tail counterparts, and that these disparities become more pronounced further distally within the sequence. PMID:20235328

  9. Teaching 5th grade science for aesthetic understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girod, Mark A.

    Many scientists speak with great zeal about the role of aesthetics and beauty in their science and inquiry. Few systematic efforts have been made to teach science in ways that appeal directly to aesthetics and this research is designed to do just that. Drawing from the aesthetic theory of Dewey, I describe an analytic lens called learning for aesthetic understanding that finds power in the degree to which our perceptions of the world are transformed, our interests and enthusiasm piqued, and our actions changed as we seek further experiences in the world. This learning theory is contrasted against two other current and popular theories of science learning, that of learning for conceptual understanding via conceptual change theory and learning for a language-oriented or discourse-based understanding. After a lengthy articulation of the pedagogical strategies used to teach for aesthetic understanding the research is described in which comparisons are drawn between students in two 5th grade classrooms---one taught for the goal of conceptual understanding and the other taught for the goal of aesthetic understanding. Results of this comparison show that more students in the treatment classroom had aesthetic experiences with science ideas and came to an aesthetic understanding when studying weather, erosion, and structure of matter than students in the control group. Also statistically significant effects are shown on measures of interest, affect, and efficacy for students in the treatment class. On measures of conceptual understanding it appears that treatment class students learned more and forgot less over time than control class students. The effect of the treatment does not generally depend on gender, ethnicity, or prior achievement except in students' identity beliefs about themselves as science learners. In this case, a significant interaction for treatment class females on science identity beliefs did occur. A discussion of these results as well as elaboration and

  10. Overlay improvement by ASML HOWA 5th alignment strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Raf; Chiang, CY; Hsu, Wilson; Yang, Richer; Shih, Todd; Chen, Jackie; Chiu, Jonathan; Lin, Wythe

    2009-12-01

    Overlay control is more challenging when DRAM volume production continues to shrink its critical dimention (CD) to 70nm and beyond. Effected by process, the overlay behavior at wafer edge is quite different from wafer center. The big contribution to worse overlay at wafer edge which causes yield loss is misalignment. The analysis in wafer edge suggests that high order uncorrectable overlay residuals are often observed by certain process impact. Therefore, the basic linear model used for alignment correction is not sufficient and it is necessary to introduce an advanced alignment correction model for wafer edge overlay improvement. In this study, we demonstrated the achievement of moderating the poor overlay at wafer edge area by using a high order wafer alignment strategy. The mechanism is to use non-linear correction methods of high order models ( up to 5th order), with support by the function High Order Wafer Alignment (known as HOWA) in scanner. Instead of linear model for the 6 overlay parameters which come from average result, HOWA alignment strategy can do high order fitting through the wafer to get more accurate overlay parameters which represent the local wafer grid distortion better. As a result, the overlay improvement for wafer edge is achieved. Since alignment is a wafer dependent correction, with HOWA the wafer to wafer overlay variation can be improved dynamically as well. In addition, the effects of different mark quantity and sampling distribution from HOWA are also introduced in this paper. The results of this study indicate that HOWA can reduce uncorrectable overlay residual by 30~40% and improve wafer-to-wafer overlay variation significantly. We conclude that HOWA is a noteworthy strategy for overlay improvement. Moreover, optimized alignment mark numbers and distribution layout are also key factors to make HOWA successful.

  11. Lowest instrumented vertebra selection in AIS.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Mark A; Baulesh, David M

    2011-01-01

    Appropriate selection of the lowest instrumented vertebra (LIV) is crucial to ensure positive outcomes after surgical management of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Failure to do so can lead to curve decompensation and "adding on" of additional vertebrae to the deformity. Correct identification of the stable, end, and neutral vertebra, whether the curve(s) is structural or nonstructural, and classifying the type of curve are essential aspects of preoperative planning. Evaluating curve flexibility using fulcrum, side bending, push-prone, and traction can be used to predict the amount of observed postoperative correction for both fused and unfused curves. In addition, these measures can be used to foresee potential residual LIV-tilt and disc wedging postoperatively. Intraoperative techniques such as fine tuning, derotation, wide release, and in situ contouring and instrumentation type used all influence the LIV selection and therefore, must be taken into account preoperatively. Surgical goals when treating adolescent idiopathic scoliosis include achieving a well-balanced spine in all planes while working to preserve segments and therefore, maintain mobility. PMID:21173622

  12. The aging mouse partially models the aging human spine: lumbar and coccygeal disc height, composition, mechanical properties, and Wnt signaling in young and old mice

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Rhiannon; Harland, Robin A.; Bomar, Bradley A.; Silva, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Murine lumbar and coccygeal (tail) regions of spines are commonly used to study cellular signaling of age-related disc diseases, but the tissue-level changes of aging intervertebral discs and vertebrae of each spinal region remain unclear. Furthermore, the impact of aging lumbar and coccygeal discs on Wnt/β-catenin signaling, which is putatively involved in the catabolism of intervertebral discs, is also unclear. We compared disc/vertebrae morphology and mechanics and biochemical composition of intervertebral discs from lumbar and coccygeal regions between young (4–5 mo) and old (20–22 mo) female C57BL/6 mice. Center intervertebral disc height from both regions was greater in old discs than young discs. Compared with young, old lumbar discs had a lower early viscous coefficient (a measure of stiffness) by 40%, while conversely old coccygeal discs were stiffer by 53%. Biochemically, old mice had double the collagen content in lumbar and coccygeal discs of young discs, greater glycosaminoglycan in lumbar discs by 37%, but less glycosaminoglycan in coccygeal discs by 32%. Next, we compared Wnt activity of lumbar and coccygeal discs of 4- to 5-mo and 12- to 14-mo TOPGAL mice. Despite the disc-specific changes, aging decreased Wnt signaling in the nucleus pulposus from both spinal regions by ≥64%. Compared with young, trabecular bone volume/tissue volume and ultimate force were less in old lumbar vertebrae, but greater in old coccygeal vertebrae. Thus intervertebral discs and vertebrae age in a spinal region-dependent manner, but these differential age-related changes may be uncoupled from Wnt signaling. Overall, lumbar and coccygeal regions are not interchangeable in modeling human aging. PMID:24790018

  13. PREFACE: 5th Workshop of Young Researchers in Astronomy & Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forgács-Dajka, Emese; Plachy, Emese; Molnár, László

    2010-04-01

    The 5th Workshop of Young Researchers in Astronomy and Astrophysics was held on 2-4 September 2009 at the Eötvös University in Budapest, Hungary. This meeting fits into a conference series which can already be considered a tradition where the younger generation has the opportunity to present their work. The event was also a great opportunity for senior astronomers and physicists to form new connections with the next generation of researchers. The selection of invited speakers concentrated on the researchers currently most active in the field, mostly on a post-doctoral/tenure/fresh faculty position level. A number of senior experts and PhD students were also invited. As the conference focused on people rather than a specific field, various topics from theoretical physics to planetology were covered in three days. The programme was divided into six sections: Physics of the Sun and the Solar System Gravity and high-energy physics Galactic and extragalactic astronomy, cosmology Celestial mechanics and exoplanets Infrared astronomy and young stars Variable stars We had the pleasure of welcoming 10 invited review talks from senior researchers and 42 contributed talks and a poster from the younger generation. Participants also enjoyed the hospitality of the pub Pál at the Pálvölgyi-cave after giving, hearing and disputing countless talks. Brave souls even descended to the unbuilt, adventurous Mátyásvölgyi-cave. Memories of the conference were shadowed though. Péter Csizmadia, one of our participants and three other climbers attempted a first ever ascent to the Ren Zhong Feng peak in Sichuan, China, but they never returned from the mountains. Péter departed to China shortly after the conference, with best wishes from participants and friends. We dedicate this volume to his memory. The organisers thankthe Physics Doctoral School of Eötvös University for its hospitality. The workshop was supported by the Mecenatúra and Polányi Mihály Programmes of the National

  14. [Endovascular repair of iliocaval arteriovenous fistula complicating lumbar disc surgery].

    PubMed

    Ben Jemaa, H; Maalej, A; Lazzez, K; Jemal, H; Karray, S; Ben Mahfoudh, K

    2016-05-01

    Vascular complications of lumbar disc surgery are rare. Few cases have been reported. Arteriovenous fistulas are the most common. They are due to anatomical relationships between the last lumbar vertebrae, the corresponding discs, and the iliac vessels; degenerative lesions of the intervertebral discs facilitate instrumental vessel perforation, and operative difficulty. Computed tomography is particularly accurate for making the diagnosis. Treatment strategies consist in surgery or endovascular management. Percutaneous endovascular treatment using a stent-graft is a reasonable option for treating arteriovenous fistula. We describe the case of a 50-year-old patient who developed an iliocaval arteriovenous fistula following lumbar disc hernia surgery. The lesion was excluded by a stent-graft. The postoperative period was uneventful. PMID:26920402

  15. The utility of a 5th nap in multiple sleep latency test

    PubMed Central

    Lykouras, Dimosthenis; Rees, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Background This is the first study that aimed to look specifically at the utility of the 5th nap in the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), a test used to assist in the diagnosis of narcolepsy. Methods Data was retrospectively collected from the Sleep Disorders Centre of a Tertiary Hospital on patients that had a 5th nap during their MSLT from the 08th November 2011 to 12th November 2014. Results Fifty-three patients had a 5th nap performed out of 378 MSLT studies. In 16% of cases a diagnosis of narcolepsy was given directly due to the inclusion of the 5th nap on the MSLT. Here a 5th nap allowed diagnostic criteria of mean sleep latency <8 minutes and >2 SOREMPS to be met. In 53% of cases the mean sleep latency increased due to 5th nap inclusion; the mean sleep latency of the first four naps was 5.6 vs. 6.7 after inclusion of the 5th nap. Conclusions The 5th nap is not often performed within the MSLT studies. Our study shows that only a few patients may benefit from a 5th nap opportunity which also led to increase of the mean sleep latency at the expense of extra time, cost, labour and increased patient anxiety. PMID:26904269

  16. Sensitivity of lumbar spine loading to anatomical parameters.

    PubMed

    Putzer, Michael; Ehrlich, Ingo; Rasmussen, John; Gebbeken, Norbert; Dendorfer, Sebastian

    2016-04-11

    Musculoskeletal simulations of lumbar spine loading rely on a geometrical representation of the anatomy. However, this data has an inherent inaccuracy. This study evaluates the influence of defined geometrical parameters on lumbar spine loading utilising five parametrised musculoskeletal lumbar spine models for four different postures. The influence of the dimensions of vertebral body, disc, posterior parts of the vertebrae as well as the curvature of the lumbar spine was studied. Additionally, simulations with combinations of selected parameters were conducted. Changes in L4/L5 resultant joint force were used as outcome variable. Variations of the vertebral body height, disc height, transverse process width and the curvature of the lumbar spine were the most influential. These parameters can be easily acquired from X-rays and should be used to morph a musculoskeletal lumbar spine model for subject-specific approaches with respect to bone geometry. Furthermore, the model was very sensitive to uncommon configurations and therefore, it is advised that stiffness properties of discs and ligaments should be individualised. PMID:26680014

  17. Transverse plane of apical vertebra of structural thoracic curve: vertebra displacement versus vertebral deformation.

    PubMed

    Kotwicki, Tomasz; Napiontek, Marek; Nowakowski, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    CT transversal scans of the trunk provided at the level of Th8 or Th9 (apical vertebra) of 23 patients with structural thoracic scoliosis were reviewed. The following parameters were studied: 1) alpha angle formed by the axis of vertebra and the axis of spinous process, 2) beta concave and beta convex angle between the spinous process and the left and right transverse process respectively, 3) gamma concave and gamma convex angle between the axis of vertebra and the left and right transverse process respectively, 4) rotation angle to the sagittal plane according to Aaro and Dahlborn, 5) Cobb angle. Values of measured parameters demonstrated a common pattern of intravertebral deformity: counter clockwise deviation of the spinous process (alpha angle 15,0 +/-8,5 degrees), beta concave (69,8 +/-8,5 degrees) significantly greater than beta convex (38,8 +/-8,5 degrees), gamma concave (54,3 +/-7,8 degrees) not different from gamma convex (56,0 +/-8,0 degrees). Strong linear positive correlation between alpha angle and Aaro-Dahlborn angle was observed (r=0,78, p<0,05). Changes in morphology of apical vertebra due to intravertebral bone remodelling followed the vertebral spatial displacement and there existed a linear correlation in between. The two processes develop in opposite directions. PMID:17108421

  18. Dynamic cortex stripping for vertebra evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stieger, James; Burns, Joseph E.; Yao, Jianhua; Summers, Ronald M.

    2015-03-01

    Vertebral cortex removal through cancellous bone reconstruction (CBR) algorithms on CT has been shown to enhance the detection rate of bone metastases by radiologists and reduce average reading time per case. Removal of the cortical bone provides an unobstructed view of the inside of vertebrae without any anomalous distractions. However, these algorithms rely on the assumption that the cortical bone of vertebrae can be removed without the identification of the endosteal cortical margin. We present a method for the identification of the endosteal cortical margin based on vertebral models and CT intensity information. First, triangular mesh models are created using the marching cubes algorithm. A search region is established along the normal of the surface and the image gradient is calculated at every point along the search region. The location with the greatest image gradient is selected as the corresponding point on the endosteal cortical margin. In order to analyze the strength of this method, ground truth and control models were also created. Our method was shown to have a significantly reduce the average error from 0.80 mm +/- 0.14 mm to 0.65 mm +/- 0.17 mm (p <0.0001) when compared to erosion. This method can potentially improve CBR algorithms, which improve visualization of cancellous bone lesions such as metastases, by more accurately identifying the inner wall of the vertebral cortex.

  19. Does the correlation between Schmorl's nodes and vertebral morphology extend into the lumbar spine?

    PubMed

    Plomp, Kimberly; Roberts, Charlotte; Strand Vidarsdottir, Una

    2015-07-01

    Schmorl's nodes are depressions on vertebrae due to herniation of the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disc into the vertebral body. This study provides an extension of our previous study which analyzed the shape of the lower thoracic spine and found that vertebral morphology was associated with the presence of Schmorl's nodes. Ninety adult individuals from the late Medieval site of Fishergate House, York, and the Post-Medieval site of Coach Lane, North Shields, Tyne and Wear, England, were analysed using 2D geometric morphometrics to identify possible relationships between vertebral morphology and Schmorl's nodes at the thoraco-lumbar junction and in the lumbar spine. A significant correlation was found between vertebral shape and the presence of Schmorl's nodes in the twelfth thoracic vertebrae and the first to third lumbar vertebrae. The findings corroborate previous studies and suggest that vertebral shape may be an important factor in spinal health. It is hypothesized that the pedicle shape of affected vertebrae may not provide adequate structural support for the vertebral bodies, resulting in vertical disc herniation. PMID:25752504

  20. Efficacy of traditional treatment regimen on Kati Shoola with special reference to lumbar spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ediriweera, E. R. H. S. S.; Gunathilka, H. D. P.; Weerasinghe, K. D. C. M.; Kalawana, O. T. M. R. K. S. B.

    2013-01-01

    According to Ayurveda, Kati Shoola is a disease with pain in lumbar region. Lumbar spondylolisthesis, anterior displacement of a vertebra or the vertebral column in relation to the vertebrae below, is one of the common causes. Current case study was carried out at Ayurveda Teaching hospital, Borella, to evaluate the efficacy of a treatment regimen used by Sri Lankan traditional physician family “Weerasinghe.” A 59-year-old female with a 9-month history of lumbar spondylolisthesis was treated with this regimen. The patient had progressive pain in left lower back, right and left buttocks, and difficulty in bending forward over 5°. X-ray of lumbo sacral region indicated that patient was suffering from Grade 3 lumbar spondylolisthesis. She was treated for 65 days with four treatment packages consisting of 13 prepared medicines. The response to the treatment was recorded and therapeutic effects were evaluated through symptomatic relief. Clinical symptoms were significantly reduced and degree of anterior flexion increased from 5° to 90°. However, X-rays indicated that the patient was still suffering from Grade 3 lumbar spondylolisthesis. This regimen is effective in successfully treating Kati Shoola (lumbar spondylolisthesis) by helping to reduce the symptoms and improving the degree of anterior flexion. PMID:24049411

  1. Optimization of spinal implant screw for lower vertebra through finite element studies.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Jayanta; Karmakar, Santanu; Majumder, Santanu; Banerjee, Partha Sarathi; Saha, Subrata; Roychowdhury, Amit

    2014-01-01

    The increasing older population is suffering from an increase in age-related spinal degeneration that causes tremendous pain. Spine injury is mostly indicated at the lumbar spine (L3-L5) and corresponding intervertebral disks. Finite element analysis (FEA) is now one of the most efficient and accepted tools used to simulate these pathological conditions in computer-assisted design (CAD) models. In this study, L3-L5 spines were modeled, and FEA was performed to formulate optimal remedial measures. Three different loads (420, 490.5, and 588.6 N) based on three body weights (70, 90, and 120 kg) were applied at the top surface of the L3 vertebra, while the lower surface of the L5 vertebra remained fixed. Models of implants using stainless steel and titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) pedicle screws and rods with three different diameters (4, 5, and 6 mm) were inserted into the spine models. The relative strengths of bone (very weak, weak, standard, strong, and very strong) were considered to determine the patient-specific effect. A total of 90 models were simulated, and von Mises stress and strain, shear stress, and strain intensity contour at the bone-implant interface were analyzed. Results of these analyses indicate that the 6-mm pedicle screw diameter is optimal for most cases. Experimental and clinical validation are needed to confirm these theoretical results. PMID:25272208

  2. Differential diagnosis of multiple vertebral compression: butterfly vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Ozaras, Nihal; Gumussu, Kevser; Demir, Saliha Eroglu; Rezvani, Aylin

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] A butterfly vertebra is a rare congenital anomaly resulting from a symmetric fusion defect. Only a few cases of butterfly vertebra have been described. This anomaly may be isolated or associated with Pfeiffer, Jarcho-Levins, Crouzon, or Alagille syndrome. [Subject and Methods] We herein describe a 38-year-old man who presented with neck and low back pain and was found to have butterfly vertebrae at the T9 and L3 levels. He also had Behçet’s disease and psoriasis. [Results] The patient’s symptoms improved with analgesics and physiotherapy. [Conclusion] To our knowledge, butterfly vertebrae at two levels have never been reported. Butterfly vertebrae may be confused with vertebral fractures in lateral radiographs, and awareness of this anomaly is important for a correct diagnosis. PMID:26696746

  3. Some mice feature 5th pharyngeal arch arteries and double-lumen aortic arch malformations.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Stefan H; Weninger, Wolfgang J

    2012-01-01

    A 5th pair of pharyngeal arch arteries (PAAs) has never been identified with certainty in mice. Murines in general are considered to not develop a 5th pair. If true, the significance of the mouse as a model for researching the genesis of malformations of the great intrathoracic arteries is limited. We aimed to investigate whether mouse embryos develop a 5th pair of PAAs and to identify malformations known to be caused by defective remodelling of the 5th PAAs. We employed the high-resolution episcopic microscopy method for creating digital volume data and three-dimensional (3D) computer models of the great intrathoracic arteries of 30 mouse embryos from days 12-12.5 post conception and 180 mouse fetuses from days 14.5 and 15.5 post conception. The 3D models of the fetuses were screened for the presence of a double-lumen aortic arch malformation. We identified such a malformation in 1 fetus. The 3D models of the embryos were analysed for the presence of 5th PAAs. Six of the 30 embryos (20%) showed a 5th PAA bilaterally, and an additional 9 (30%) showed a 5th PAA unilaterally. Our results prove that some mice do develop a 5th pair of PAAs. They also show that malformations which occur rarely in humans and result from defective remodelling of the left 5th PAA can be identified in mice as well. Thus, the mouse does represent an excellent model for researching the mechanisms driving PAA remodelling and the genesis of malformations of the great intrathoracic arteries. PMID:22287557

  4. Automatic determination of the imaging plane in lumbar MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaki, Tsurumaki; Lee, Yongbum; Tsai, Du-Yih; Sekiya, Masaru; Kazama, Kiyoko

    2006-03-01

    In this paper we describe a method for assisting radiological technologists in their routine work to automatically determine the imaging plane in lumbar MRI. The method is first to recognize the spinal cord and the intervertebral disk (ID) from the lumbar vertebra 3-plane localizer image, and then the imaging plane is automatically determined according to the recognition results. To determine the imaging plane, the spinal cord and the ID are automatically recognized from the lumbar vertebra 3-plane localizer image with a series of image processing techniques. The proposed method consists of three major steps. First, after removing the air and fat regions from the 3-plane localizer image by use of histogram analysis, the rachis region is specified with Sobel edge detection filter. Second, the spinal cord and the ID were respectively extracted from the specified rachis region making use of global thresholding and the line detection filter. Finally, the imaging plane is determined by finding the straight line between the spinal cord and the ID with the Hough transform. Image data of 10 healthy volunteers were used for investigation. To validate the usefulness of our proposed method, manual determination of the imaging plane was also conducted by five experienced radiological technologists. Our experimental results showed that the concordance rate between the manual setting and automatic determination reached to 90%. Moreover, a remarkable reduction in execution time for imaging-plane determination was also achieved.

  5. Rate-dependent fracture characteristics of lumbar vertebral bodies.

    PubMed

    Stemper, Brian D; Yoganandan, Narayan; Baisden, Jamie L; Umale, Sagar; Shah, Alok S; Shender, Barry S; Paskoff, Glenn R

    2015-01-01

    Experimental testing incorporating lumbar columns and isolated components is essential to advance the understanding of injury tolerance and for the development of safety enhancements. This study incorporated a whole column axial acceleration model and an isolated vertebral body model to quantify compression rates during realistic loading and compressive tolerance of vertebrae. Eight lumbar columns and 53 vertebral bodies from 23 PMHS were used. Three-factor ANOVA was used to determine significant differences (p<0.05) in physiologic and failure biomechanics based on compression rate, spinal level, and gender. Results demonstrated a significant increase in ultimate force (i.e., fracture) from lower to higher compression rates. Ultimate stress also increased with compression rate. Displacement and strain to failure were consistent at both compression rates. Differences in ultimate mechanics between vertebral bodies obtained from males and females demonstrated non-significant trends, with female vertebral bodies having lower ultimate force that would be associated with decreased injury tolerance. This was likely a result of smaller vertebrae in that population. Combined with existing literature, results presented in this manuscript contribute to the understanding of lumbar spine tolerance during axial loading events that occur in both military and civilian environments with regard to effects of compression rate and gender. PMID:25154535

  6. Work Values of 5th, 8th, and 11th Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hales, Loyde W.; Fenner, Bradford

    1972-01-01

    Self Realization, Job Security, Money, and Altruism were found to be the most important work values, with 5th and 8th grade students differing from 11th grade students on Altruism and Self Realization. (Author)

  7. 25. April 5th one month's work. View looking north. Storehouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. April 5th one month's work. View looking north. Storehouse #1 under construction, storehouse #2 site work in progress toward foreground. - U.S. Navy Fleet Supply Base, Storehouse No. 1, 830 Third Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  8. 17. 4th floor roof, view south, 4th and 5th floor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. 4th floor roof, view south, 4th and 5th floor setback to left and atrium structure to right - Sheffield Farms Milk Plant, 1075 Webster Avenue (southwest corner of 166th Street), Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  9. 6. 5TH FLOOR, VIEW NORTH OF KETTLE SOAP STORAGE TANKS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. 5TH FLOOR, VIEW NORTH OF KETTLE SOAP STORAGE TANKS (RIGHT) AND WEIGH HOPPERS OVER SITES OF REMOVED AMALGAMATORS (LEFT) - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  10. The Relation Between Rotation Deformity and Nerve Root Stress in Lumbar Scoliosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ho-Joong; Lee, Hwan-Mo; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Chun, Heoung-Jae; Kang, Kyoung-Tak

    Even though several finite element models of lumbar spine were introduced, there has been no model including the neural structure. Therefore, the authors made the novel lumbar spine finite element model including neural structure. Using this model, we investigated the relation between the deformity pattern and nerve root stress. Two lumbar models with different types of curve pattern (lateral bending and lateral bending with rotation curve) were made. In the model of lateral bending curves without rotation, the principal compressive nerve root stress on the concave side was greater than the principal tensile stress on the convex side at the apex vertebra. Contrarily, in the lateral bending curve with rotational deformity, the nerve stress on the convex side was higher than that on the concave side. Therefore, this study elicit that deformity pattern could have significantly influence on the nerve root stress in the lumbar spine.

  11. Morphological and postural sexual dimorphism of the lumbar spine facilitates greater lordosis in females.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Jeannie F; Sparrey, Carolyn J; Been, Ella; Kramer, Patricia A

    2016-07-01

    Previous work suggests females are evolutionarily adapted to have greater lumbar lordosis than males to aid in pregnancy load-bearing, but no consensus exists. To explore further sex-differences in the lumbar spine, and to understand contradictions in the literature, we conducted a cross-sectional retrospective study of sex-differences in lumbar spine morphology and sacral orientation. In addition, our sample includes data for separate standing and supine samples of males and females to examine potential sex-differences in postural loading on lumbosacral morphology. We measured sagittal lumbosacral morphology on 200 radiographs. Measurements include: lumbar angle (L1-S1), lumbar vertebral body and disc wedging angles, sacral slope and pelvic incidence. Lumbar angle, representative of lordotic curvature between L1 and S1, was 7.3° greater in females than males, when standing. There were no significant sex-differences in lumbar angle when supine. This difference in standing lumbar angle can be explained by greater lordotic wedging of the lumbar vertebrae (L1-L5) in females. Additionally, sacral slope was greater in females than males, when standing. There were no significant sex-differences in pelvic incidence. Our results support that females have greater lumbar lordosis than males when standing, but not when supine - suggesting a potentially greater range of motion in the female spine. Furthermore, sex-differences in the lumbar spine appear to be supported by postural differences in sacral-orientation and morphological differences in the vertebral body wedging. A better understanding of sex-differences in lumbosacral morphology may explain sex-differences in spinal conditions, as well as promote necessary sex-specific treatments. PMID:26916466

  12. Lumbar spinal loading during bowling in cricket: a kinetic analysis using a musculoskeletal modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanxin; Ma, Ye; Liu, Guangyu

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate two types of cricket bowling techniques by comparing the lumbar spinal loading using a musculoskeletal modelling approach. Three-dimensional kinematic data were recorded by a Vicon motion capture system under two cricket bowling conditions: (1) participants bowled at their absolute maximal speeds (max condition), and (2) participants bowled at their absolute maximal speeds while simultaneously forcing their navel down towards their thighs starting just prior to ball release (max-trunk condition). A three-dimensional musculoskeletal model comprised of the pelvis, sacrum, lumbar vertebrae and torso segments, which enabled the motion of the individual lumbar vertebrae in the sagittal, frontal and coronal planes to be actuated by 210 muscle-tendon units, was used to simulate spinal loading based on the recorded kinematic data. The maximal lumbar spine compressive force is 4.89 ± 0.88BW for the max condition and 4.58 ± 0.54BW for the max-trunk condition. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the two techniques in trunk moments and lumbar spine forces. This indicates that the max-trunk technique may not increase lower back injury risks. The method proposed in this study could be served as a tool to evaluate lower back injury risks for cricket bowling as well as other throwing activities. PMID:26343905

  13. Chordoma of the Lumbar Spine Presenting as Sciatica and Treated with Vertebroplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Somenath; Bodhey, Narendra Kuber Gupta, Arun Kumar; Periakaruppan, Alagappan

    2010-12-15

    The lumbar spine is a less common location for chordoma. Here we describe a 44-year-old woman presenting with pain due to a L4 vertebral expansile lesion that caused significant canal stenosis and neural foraminal compromise. Vertebroplasty was performed and resulted in immediate pain relief. For patients with painful lumbar chordoma who are unwilling to undergo surgery, vertebroplasty can play a palliative role as in patients with other vertebral lesions. Treating pain and stabilizing vertebra by way of vertebroplasty in a case of chordoma has not yet been reported.

  14. Microendoscopic Excision of Osteoid Osteoma in the Pedicle of the Third Lumbar Vertebra

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Eizo; Murakami, Hideki; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of a patient who underwent complete microendoscopic excision of an osteoid osteoma, which induced radiculopathy without nerve root compression. A 20-year-old man presented severe right groin pain that was temporarily relieved by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. A computed tomography (CT) scan showed typical features of a nidus located in the inferior cortex of the right L3 pedicle. We performed surgery using a posterior microendoscopic approach. We drilled vertically along the line of the cortex of the caudal pedicle using a high-speed drill. After identifying the tumor, en bloc resection of the nidus was achieved. Immediately after surgery, pain in the right groin disappeared. A CT scan showed that most of the right L3 pedicle remained. This minimally invasive technique preserves spinal structures, including the facet and pedicle, and is a viable option for the treatment of spinal osteoid osteomas located close to vital structures. PMID:26713130

  15. [Whiplash injury analysis of cervical vertebra by finite element method].

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Li, Zheng-Dong; Shao, Yu; Chen, Yi-Jiu

    2015-02-01

    Finite element method (FEM) is an effective mathematical method for stress analysis, and has been gradually applied in the study of biomechanics of human body structures. This paper reviews the construction, development, materials assignment and verification of FEM model of cervical vertebra, and it also states the research results of injury mechanism of whiplash injury and biomechanical response analysis of the cervical vertebra using FEM by researchers at home and abroad. PMID:26058135

  16. Multi-modal vertebrae recognition using Transformed Deep Convolution Network.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yunliang; Landis, Mark; Laidley, David T; Kornecki, Anat; Lum, Andrea; Li, Shuo

    2016-07-01

    Automatic vertebra recognition, including the identification of vertebra locations and naming in multiple image modalities, are highly demanded in spinal clinical diagnoses where large amount of imaging data from various of modalities are frequently and interchangeably used. However, the recognition is challenging due to the variations of MR/CT appearances or shape/pose of the vertebrae. In this paper, we propose a method for multi-modal vertebra recognition using a novel deep learning architecture called Transformed Deep Convolution Network (TDCN). This new architecture can unsupervisely fuse image features from different modalities and automatically rectify the pose of vertebra. The fusion of MR and CT image features improves the discriminativity of feature representation and enhances the invariance of the vertebra pattern, which allows us to automatically process images from different contrast, resolution, protocols, even with different sizes and orientations. The feature fusion and pose rectification are naturally incorporated in a multi-layer deep learning network. Experiment results show that our method outperforms existing detection methods and provides a fully automatic location+naming+pose recognition for routine clinical practice. PMID:27104497

  17. Costal process of the first sacral vertebra: sexual dimorphism and obstetrical adaptation.

    PubMed

    Tague, Robert G

    2007-03-01

    The human sacrum is sexually dimorphic, with males being larger than females in most dimensions. Previous studies, though, suggest that females may have a longer costal process of the first sacral vertebra (S1) than males. However, these studies neither quantified nor tested statistically the costal process of S1. This study compares S1 with the five lumbar vertebrae (L1 to L5) for a number of metric dimensions, including costal process length. Four issues are addressed, the: 1) hypothesis that females have a longer costal process of S1 than males; 2)hypothesis that homologous structures (i.e., costal processes of L1 to S1) differ in their direction of sexual dimorphism; 3) importance of the costal process of S1 to the obstetrical capacity of the pelvis; and 4) evolution of sexual dimorphism in costal process length of S1. One hundred ninety-seven individuals, including males and females of American blacks and whites, from the Hamann-Todd and Terry Collections were studied. Results show that males are significantly larger than females for most vertebral measurements, except that females have a significantly longer costal process of S1 than males. Costal process length of S1 is positively correlated with the transverse diameter and circumference of the pelvic inlet. The magnitude of sexual dimorphism in costal process length of S1 ranks this measure among the most highly dimorphic of the pelvis. Compared with the humans in this study, australopithecines have a relatively long costal process of S1, but their broad sacrum was not associated with obstetrical imperatives. PMID:17266155

  18. Spinaplasty following lumbar laminectomy for multilevel lumbar spinal stenosis to prevent iatrogenic instability

    PubMed Central

    Tuli, Surendra Mohan; Kapoor, Varun; Jain, Anil K; Jain, Saurabh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Iatrogenic instability following laminectomy occurs in patients with degenerative lumbar canal stenosis. Long segment fusions to obviate postoperative instability result in loss of motion of lumbar spine and predisposes to adjacent level degeneration. The best alternative would be an adequate decompressive laminectomy with a nonfusion technique of preserving the posterior ligament complex integrity. We report a retrospective analysis of multilevel lumbar canal stenosis that were operated for posterior decompression and underwent spinaplasty to preserve posterior ligament complex integrity for outcome of decompression and iatrogenic instability. Materials and Methods: 610 patients of degenerative lumbar canal stenosis (n=520) and development spinal canal stenosis (n=90), with a mean age 58 years (33–85 years), underwent multilevel laminectomies and spinaplasty procedure. At followup, changes in the posture while walking, increase in the walking distance, improvement in the dysesthesia in lower limb, the motor power, capability to negotiate stairs and sphincter function were assessed. Forward excursion of vertebrae more than 4 mm in flexion–extension lateral X-ray of the spine as compared to the preoperative movements was considered as the iatrogenic instability. Clinical assessment was done in standing posture regarding active flexion–extension movement, lateral bending and rotations Results: All patients were followed up from 3 to 10 years. None of the patients had neurological deterioration or pain or catch while movement. Walking distance improved by 5–10 times, with marked relief (70–90%) in neurogenic claudication and preoperative stooping posture, with improvement in sensation and motor power. There was no significant difference in the sagittal alignment as well as anterior translation. Two patients with concomitant scoliosis and one with cauda equine syndrome had incomplete recovery. Two patients who developed disc protrusion, underwent

  19. Automatic localization of vertebrae based on convolutional neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Wei; Yang, Feng; Mu, Wei; Yang, Caiyun; Yang, Xin; Tian, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Localization of the vertebrae is of importance in many medical applications. For example, the vertebrae can serve as the landmarks in image registration. They can also provide a reference coordinate system to facilitate the localization of other organs in the chest. In this paper, we propose a new vertebrae localization method using convolutional neural networks (CNN). The main advantage of the proposed method is the removal of hand-crafted features. We construct two training sets to train two CNNs that share the same architecture. One is used to distinguish the vertebrae from other tissues in the chest, and the other is aimed at detecting the centers of the vertebrae. The architecture contains two convolutional layers, both of which are followed by a max-pooling layer. Then the output feature vector from the maxpooling layer is fed into a multilayer perceptron (MLP) classifier which has one hidden layer. Experiments were performed on ten chest CT images. We used leave-one-out strategy to train and test the proposed method. Quantitative comparison between the predict centers and ground truth shows that our convolutional neural networks can achieve promising localization accuracy without hand-crafted features.

  20. Reflecting on the 5th World Environmental Education Congress, Montreal, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jickling, Bob

    2010-01-01

    This article traces the development of the World Environmental Congress movement and its establishment as an important international forum. Reflecting on the 5th Congress, it notes the particular contribution of the Congress theme, "Our Common Home". Finally, it considers environmental education's place alongside other parallel transformative…

  1. 75 FR 63478 - 5th Annual PHEMCE Stakeholders Workshop and BARDA Industry Day

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ...The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is pleased to announce the upcoming 5th Annual Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasures Enterprise (PHEMCE) Stakeholders Workshop and BARDA Industry Day to be held January 10-12, 2011 at the Walter E. Washington Convention Center in Washington, DC. This annual PHEMCE event will bring together private- and public-sector stakeholders......

  2. A Network Sets Things in Motion: TEDD Celebrates its 5(th) Anniversary.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    At the Annual Meeting at ZHAW Waedenswil on 22 October 2015, the TEDD-Network (Tissue Engineering for Drug Development and Substance Testing) celebrated its 5(th) anniversary. Since its foundation, TEDD has become an internationally renowned competence centre and includes currently 91 members from academia and industry. They cover the entire development and value chain. PMID:26671055

  3. Urban 5th Graders Conceptions during a Place-Based Inquiry Unit on Watersheds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endreny, Anna Henderson

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine how 33 urban 5th grade students' science conceptions changed during a place-based inquiry unit on watersheds. Research on watershed and place-based education was used as a framework to guide the teaching of the unit as well as the research study. A teacher-researcher designed the curriculum, taught the unit and…

  4. The 5th World Environmental Education Congress, 2009: A Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jickling, Bob; Sauve, Lucie; Briere, Laurence; Niblett, Blair; Root, Emily

    2010-01-01

    This paper contextualizes the 5th World Environmental Education Congress, discusses the theoretical underpinnings of the Congress theme "Earth Our Common Home," and relates this theorizing to the research project that was woven through the Congress. We provide a rationale for engaging in this research project, as an invitation for Congress…

  5. 10. Interior view, working house, scale floor (5th level). View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Interior view, working house, scale floor (5th level). View facing across floor toward no. 2 scale and garner. Tile structure at left center is weighmaster's shack; view facing east. - Saint Anthony Elevator No. 3, 620 Malcom Avenue, Southeast, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  6. An Investigation of Science and Technology Teachers' Views on the 5th Grade Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dasdemir, Ikramettin

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the science and technology teachers' views on the implementation of 5th grade science course. Open-ended questions were used as a data collection tool. The study sample consisted of 28 science and technology teachers working in Erzurum in 2012-2013 education year. The data gathered were analysed via content…

  7. Vocabulary and Syntactic Knowledge Factors in 5th Grade Students' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokhtari, Kouider; Niederhauser, Dale S.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined 5th grade students' levels of vocabulary knowledge and syntactic awareness relative to their reading comprehension performance. The aim was to explore the contributions of vocabulary and syntactic awareness as potential sources of reading comprehension difficulty for these readers. Overall, we found that both vocabulary…

  8. 78 FR 53454 - Filing Dates for the Louisiana Special Elections in the 5th Congressional District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION Filing Dates for the Louisiana Special Elections in the 5th Congressional District AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of filing dates for special election. SUMMARY: Louisiana has...

  9. The 5th edition of the Roma-BZCAT. A short presentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massaro, E.; Maselli, A.; Leto, C.; Marchegiani, P.; Perri, M.; Giommi, P.; Piranomonte, S.

    2015-05-01

    The 5th edition of the Roma-BZCAT Multifrequency Catalogue of Blazars is available in a printed version and online at the ASDC website (http://www.asdc.asi.it/bzcat); it is also in the NED database. It presents several relevant changes with respect to the past editions which are briefly described in this paper.

  10. A Longitudinal Study of a 5th Grade Science Curriculum Based on the 5E Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Timothy P.; Schroeder, Carolyn; Tolson, Homer; Huang, Tse-Yang; Williams, Omah M.

    2014-01-01

    The Center for Mathematics and Science Education at Texas A&M University contracted with Region 4 Education Service Center (ESC) and a large, diverse school district to conduct a longitudinal study from 2005-2009. The state achievement test scores of 5th graders who were taught using a Grade 5 science textbook designed by Region 4 ESC were…

  11. Socially, Developmentally, and Academically Appropriate Prevention Curriculum for 5th Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harthun, Mary L.; Dustman, Patricia A.; Reeves, Leslie J.; Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Hecht, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a process in which program designers, classroom teachers, and students worked together to adapt the 7th grade "keepin' it REAL" prevention curriculum to a developmentally, socially, and academically appropriate curriculum for 5th graders. A Community-Based Participatory Research methodology (CBPR), combined with a 9-step…

  12. Oral Persuasion: A Saleable Work Skill. Occupation Simulation Packet. Grades 5th-6th.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Dennis W.

    This teacher's guide contains simulated work experiences for 5th and 6th grade students using the isolated skill concept - oral persuasion. Teacher instructions include objectives, evaluation, and sequence of activities. The guide contains pre-tests and post-tests with instructions and answer keys. Two pre-skill activities are suggested, such as…

  13. 9. 5TH FLOOR, INTERIOR DETAIL TO EAST OF SOAP BIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. 5TH FLOOR, INTERIOR DETAIL TO EAST OF SOAP BIN No. 4: UPPER SCREWS MOVED SOAP CHIPS HORIZONTALLY FROM BIN TO BIN; LOWER LEFT-AND RIGHT-HAND SCREWS MOVED CHIPS TO CHUTE LEADING TO 3RD FLOOR SOAP MILLS - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  14. How Arizona Compares: Real Numbers and Hot Topics. Policy Choices. 5th Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison Institute for Public Policy, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Morrison Institute for Public Policy is pleased to present "How Arizona Compares: Real Numbers and Hot Topics," the 5th edition of Arizona "Policy Choices." The Arizona "Policy Choices" volumes seek to do more than report. They are designed to assist decision making, stimulate debate, and serve as references. Arizona "Policy Choices" volumes have…

  15. The Effect of Progressive Sentence Development Activities on 5th Graders' Description Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamzadayi, Ergun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of progressive sentence development activities on 5th graders' description skills. The study was conducted based on the pretest-posttest quasi-experimental model with a control group. A total of 58 students participated in the study; 29 in the control group, and 29 in the experimental group. The…

  16. Successfully Promoting 21st Century Online Research Skills: Interventions in 5th-Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsley, Tara L.; Cassady, Jerrell C.; Tancock, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    This quantitative study was developed to explore the ability to impact elementary student 21st Century online research skills with a planned classroom intervention curriculum. The repeated measures quasi-experimental study randomly assigned all 5th grade classes in a Midwestern, suburban school (n = 418) to a 12-week intervention or control…

  17. Effects of temperature and modified atmospheres on diapausing 5th instar codling moth metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diapausing 5th instars of codling moth, Cydia pomonella, are serious quarantine pests of in-shell walnuts. Previous research indicates that heat treatments in combination with high concentrations of carbon dioxide and low concentrations of oxygen may be effective for controlling this pest in walnuts...

  18. Lumbar (Open) Microscopic Discectomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most common surgical treatment for ruptured or herniated discs of the lumbar spine. When the outer wall ... a slipped or bulging disc. (See discussion of herniated disc for more information.) Once the inner disc material ...

  19. Herniated Lumbar Disc

    MedlinePlus

    ... 50. A herniated lumbar disc may also cause back pain, although back pain alone (without leg pain) can have many causes ... 90% success); surgery is less effective in relieving back pain. Nonsurgical treatment Your doctor may prescribe nonsurgical treatments ...

  20. Lumbar MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... may need a lumbar MRI if you have: Low back pain that does not get better after treatment Leg ... spine Injury or trauma to the lower spine Low back pain and a history or signs of cancer Multiple ...

  1. Automated localization of vertebra landmarks in MRI images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, Akshay; Narasimhamurthy, Anand; Rao, V. S. Veeravasarapu; Vaidya, Vivek

    2011-03-01

    The identification of key landmark points in an MR spine image is an important step for tasks such as vertebra counting. In this paper, we propose a template matching based approach for automatic detection of two key landmark points, namely the second cervical vertebra (C2) and the sacrum from sagittal MR images. The approach is comprised of an approximate localization of vertebral column followed by matching with appropriate templates in order to detect/localize the landmarks. A straightforward extension of the work described here is an automated classification of spine section(s). It also serves as a useful building block for further automatic processing such as extraction of regions of interest for subsequent image processing and also in aiding the counting of vertebra.

  2. [Congenital lumbar hernia].

    PubMed

    Peláez Mata, D J; Alvarez Muñoz, V; Fernández Jiménez, I; García Crespo, J M; Teixidor de Otto, J L

    1998-07-01

    Hernias in the lumbar region are abdominal wall defects that appear in two possible locations: the superior lumbar triangle of Grynfelt-Lesshaft and the inferior lumbar triangle of Petit. There are 40 cases reported in the pediatric literature, and only 16 are considered congenital, associated with the lumbocostovertebral syndrome and/or meningomyelocele. A new case is presented. A premature newborn with a mass in the left flank that increases when the patient cries and reduces easily. The complementary studies confirm the diagnosis of lumbar hernia and reveal the presence of lumbocostovertebral syndrome associated. At the time of operation a well defined fascial defect at the superior lumbar triangle of Grynfelt-Lesshaft is primarily closed. The diagnosis of lumbar hernia is not difficult to establish but it is necessary the screening of the lumbocostovertebral syndrome. We recommend the surgical treatment before 12 months of age; the objective is to close the defect primarily or to use prosthetic material if necessary. PMID:12602034

  3. 3D imaging of fetus vertebra by synchrotron radiation microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyrin, Francoise; Pateyron-Salome, Murielle; Denis, Frederic; Braillon, Pierre; Laval-Jeantet, Anne-Marie; Cloetens, Peter

    1997-10-01

    A synchrotron radiation computed microtomography system allowing high resolution 3D imaging of bone samples has been developed at ESRF. The system uses a high resolution 2D detector based on a CCd camera coupled to a fluorescent screen through light optics. The spatial resolution of the device is particularly well adapted to the imaging of bone structure. In view of studying growth, vertebra samples of fetus with differential gestational ages were imaged. The first results show that fetus vertebra is quite different from adult bone both in terms of density and organization.

  4. Solitary lumbar osteochondroma presenting with foot-drop: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kahveci, Ramazan; Ergungor, Mehmet Fikret; Gunaydin, Ahmet; Sanli, Ahmet Metin; Temiz, Atiye

    2012-01-01

    Although osteochondroma is the most common benign bone tumor, the lumbar spine is anuncommon localization for solitary osteochondroma. Solitary lumbar osteochondromas rarely affect the neurological structures, because most of the lesions grow out of the spinal canal. We report a 48-year-old patient suffering from right foot-drop due to acute compression of right L4 nerve root by a lesion expanding into the spinal canal, originating from the right inferior articular facet of the third lumbar vertebrae. The symptoms improved after surgical removal of the lesion and histopathological examination of the lesion confirmed the diagnosis of osteochondroma. To the best of our knowledge, this is a unique case report in the literature. PMID:22665015

  5. Capturing three-dimensional in vivo lumbar intervertebral joint kinematics using dynamic stereo-X-ray imaging.

    PubMed

    Aiyangar, Ameet K; Zheng, Liying; Tashman, Scott; Anderst, William J; Zhang, Xudong

    2014-01-01

    Availability of accurate three-dimensional (3D) kinematics of lumbar vertebrae is necessary to understand normal and pathological biomechanics of the lumbar spine. Due to the technical challenges of imaging the lumbar spine motion in vivo, it has been difficult to obtain comprehensive, 3D lumbar kinematics during dynamic functional tasks. The present study demonstrates a recently developed technique to acquire true 3D lumbar vertebral kinematics, in vivo, during a functional load-lifting task. The technique uses a high-speed dynamic stereo-radiography (DSX) system coupled with a volumetric model-based bone tracking procedure. Eight asymptomatic male participants performed weight-lifting tasks, while dynamic X-ray images of their lumbar spines were acquired at 30 fps. A custom-designed radiation attenuator reduced the radiation white-out effect and enhanced the image quality. High resolution CT scans of participants' lumbar spines were obtained to create 3D bone models, which were used to track the X-ray images via a volumetric bone tracking procedure. Continuous 3D intervertebral kinematics from the second lumbar vertebra (L2) to the sacrum (S1) were derived. Results revealed motions occurring simultaneously in all the segments. Differences in contributions to overall lumbar motion from individual segments, particularly L2-L3, L3-L4, and L4-L5, were not statistically significant. However, a reduced contribution from the L5-S1 segment was observed. Segmental extension was nominally linear in the middle range (20%-80%) of motion during the lifting task, but exhibited nonlinear behavior at the beginning and end of the motion. L5-S1 extension exhibited the greatest nonlinearity and variability across participants. Substantial AP translations occurred in all segments (5.0 ± 0.3 mm) and exhibited more scatter and deviation from a nominally linear path compared to segmental extension. Maximum out-of-plane rotations (<1.91 deg) and translations (<0.94 mm) were

  6. [Two cases of lateral approach for thoraco-lumbar junctional lesions: experiment of Kaneda's device].

    PubMed

    Nishida, K; Ueda, S; Matsumoto, K; Okada, M

    1992-01-01

    Case 1: a 32-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with major complaints of gait disturbance and urinary incontinence. The tendon reflex was markedly increased in the bilateral lower extremities, and both Babinski's reflex and clonus were strongly positive. Myelography revealed complete block in the 10th thoracic vertebral level. On April 15, 1989, a tumor in the vertebral region was exposed and excised via a right posterolateral approach. Kaneda's device was used for internal fixation. The tumor was diagnosed as myeloma histologically. The postoperative course was uneventful. Postoperatively, the patient became capable of walking by herself. Case 2: an 18-year-old woman was admitted because of burst fractures of the 1st and 2nd lumbar vertebrae due to a traffic accident in January of 1989. The fractured bones had been manually repositioned and fixed with plaster. However, the patient still had gait disturbance (intermittent claudication). Myelography revealed a complete block in the 2nd lumbar vertebral region. On May 7, the vertebral foramen was opened via a left anterolateral approach, and internal fixation was performed using Kaneda's device. Postoperatively, the patient recovered full ability to walk, and returned to normal social activity. From our experience, it is thought to be useful to employ a right posterolateral approach to the thoracic vertebrae, and a left anterolateral approach to the lumbar vertebrae. We used Kaneda's device for internal fixation, successfully. However, this device has the following disadvantages; (1) there are few plates designed for females, whose vertebrae are small, (2) it is difficult to preserve the arteries of Adamkiewicz and (3) postoperative MRI becomes impossible. PMID:1738429

  7. Computed tomographic epidurography: an aid to understanding deformation of the lumbar dural sac by epidural injections.

    PubMed

    Fukushige, T; Kano, T; Sano, T; Irie, M

    1999-09-01

    Local anaesthetics injected into the epidural space may deform the dural sac to a variable degree, thereby contributing to variability in the extent of the block. We investigated deformation of the lumbar dural sac after injection into the lumbar epidural space. The subjects were 26 patients with low-back pain who underwent lumbar epidurography and computed tomographic (CT) epidurography, of whom seven also underwent myelography and computed tomographic myelography. The epidural space was entered via the sacral hiatus in 24 patients and through the L5/S1 interspace in two patients. Ten millilitres of local anaesthetic was then injected into the epidural space followed by 20 mL of contrast medium. Computed tomographic epidurography was undertaken approximately 30-min after the epidural injection at the mid-vertebral and mid-discal levels from the first lumbar through to the first sacral vertebrae. The dural sac usually showed an oval or hexagonal shape on the transverse views at the first and second lumbar vertebral levels, and the shape of an inverted triangle below the level of the third lumbar vertebra. A median line of translucency was also observed on the posteroanterior epidurographic view in 25 of the 26 patients. This line was though to be a manifestation of the dural deformation to the inverted triangle. Dural sac deformation usually shows a specific pattern, although there are individual variations. Dural deformability is an important consideration in any analysis of the spread of epidural block or of the changes of epidural pressure after epidural injection of local anaesthetics. PMID:10549463

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The Roma BZCAT - 5th edition (Massaro+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massaro, E.; Giommi, P.; Leto, C.; Marchegiani, P.; Maselli, A.; Perri, M.; Piranomonte, S.; Sclavi, S.

    2016-02-01

    In the 5th Edition we use similar denomination of blazars adopted in the previous editions. Each blazar is identified by a code, with 5BZ for all blazars, a fourth letter that specifies the type (B, G, Q or U), followed by the truncated equatorial coordinates (J2000). We introduced the edition number before the letters BZ to avoid possible confusion due to the fact that several sources changed their old names because of the new adopted classification. The codes are defined in the "Note (G1)" below. The 5th edition contains 1151 BZB sources, 92 of which are reported as candidates because we could not find their optical spectra in the literature, 1909 BZQ sources, 274 BZG sources and 227 BZU objects (1 data file).

  9. Transpedicular Curettage and Drainage of Infective Lumbar Spondylodiscitis: Technique and Clinical Results

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byung Ho; Lee, Hwan-Mo; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kim, Hak-Sun; Moon, Eun-Soo; Park, Jin-Oh; Chong, Hyun-Soo

    2012-01-01

    Background Infective spondylodiscitis usually occurs in patients of older age, immunocompromisation, co-morbidity, and individuals suffering from an overall poor general condition unable to undergo reconstructive anterior and posterior surgeries. Therefore, an alternative, less aggressive surgical method is needed for these select cases of infective spondylodiscitis. This retrospective clinical case series reports our novel surgical technique for the treatment of infective spondylodiscitis. Methods Between January 2005 and July 2011, among 48 patients who were diagnosed with pyogenic lumbar spondylodiscitis or tuberculosis lumbar spondylodiscitis, 10 patients (7 males and 3 females; 68 years and 48 to 78 years, respectively) underwent transpedicular curettage and drainage. The mean postoperative follow-up period was 29 months (range, 7 to 61 months). The pedicle screws were inserted to the adjacent healthy vertebrae in the usual manner. After insertion of pedicle screws, the drainage pedicle holes were made through pedicles of infected vertebra(e) in order to prevent possible seeding of infective emboli to the healthy vertebra, as the same instruments and utensils are used for both pedicle screws and the drainage holes. A minimum of 15,000 mL of sterilized normal saline was used for continuous irrigation through the pedicular pathways until the drained fluid looked clear. Results All patients' symptoms and inflammatory markers significantly improved clinically between postoperative 2 weeks and postoperative 3 months, and they were satisfied with their clinical results. Radiologically, all patients reached the spontaneous fusion between infected vertebrae and 3 patients had the screw pulled-out but they were clinically tolerable. Conclusions We suggest that our method of transpedicular curettage and drainage is a useful technique in regards to the treatment of infectious spondylodiscitic patients, who could not tolerate conventional combined anterior and posterior

  10. Torsional deformity of apical vertebra in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Kotwicki, Tomasz; Napiontek, Marek

    2002-01-01

    CT scans of structural thoracic idiopathic scoliosis were reviewed in nine patients admitted to our department for scoliosis surgery. The apical vertebra scans were chosen and the following parameters were evaluated: 1) alpha angle formed by the axis of vertebra and the axis of spinous process 2) beta concave and beta convex angle between the spinous process and the left and right transverse process, respectively, 3) gamma concave and gamma convex angle between the axis of vertebra and the left and right transverse process, respectively, 4) the rotation angle to the sagittal plane. The constant deviation of the spinous process towards the convex side of the curve was observed. The vertebral body itself was distorted towards the concavity of the curve. The angle between the spinous process and the transverse process was smaller on the convex side of the curve. The torsional, intravertebral deformity of the apical vertebra was a factor acting in the direction opposite to the rotation, in the sense to reduce the deformity of the spine in idiopathic scoliosis. PMID:15456062

  11. Posterolateral tunnels and ponticuli in human atlas vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    HASAN, MAHDI; SHUKLA, SANJEEV; SHAKIL SIDDIQUI, M.; SINGH, DHANRAJ

    2001-01-01

    The posterolateral tunnel on the superior surface of the first cervical (atlas) vertebra is of normal occurrence in monkeys and other lower animals, but its presence in the form of a tunnel-like canal, for the passage of the third part of the vertebral artery over the posterior arch of the human atlas vertebra is not reported. The aim of the present study was to detect the presence of such a canal, in addition to other types of ponticuli (little bridges) reported by earlier investigators, in macerated atlas vertebrae and routine cadaveric dissections. The posterolateral tunnel was detected in 1.14%, and the posterior and lateral ponticuli in 6.57 and 2% of vertebrae. Probably the bony roof of the posterolateral tunnel serves the purpose of additional lateral extension for the attachment of the posterior atlanto-occipital membrane in quadrupeds, where the load of the head is supported by the extensor muscles of the neck, ligaments and posterior atlanto-occipital membrane. In man, where the weight of the head is borne by the vertical loading of the superior articular process of the atlas, the roof of the tunnel has disappeared. PMID:11554511

  12. Posterolateral tunnels and ponticuli in human atlas vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Hasan, M; Shukla, S; Siddiqui, M S; Singh, D

    2001-09-01

    The posterolateral tunnel on the superior surface of the first cervical (atlas) vertebra is of normal occurrence in monkeys and other lower animals, but its presence in the form of a tunnel-like canal, for the passage of the third part of the vertebral artery over the posterior arch of the human atlas vertebra is not reported. The aim of the present study was to detect the presence of such a canal, in addition to other types of ponticuli (little bridges) reported by earlier investigators, in macerated atlas vertebrae and routine cadaveric dissections. The posterolateral tunnel was detected in 1.14%, and the posterior and lateral ponticuli in 6.57 and 2% of vertebrae. Probably the bony roof of the posterolateral tunnel serves the purpose of additional lateral extension for the attachment of the posterior atlanto-occipital membrane in quadrupeds, where the load of the head is supported by the extensor muscles of the neck, ligaments and posterior atlanto-occipital membrane. In man, where the weight of the head is borne by the vertical loading of the superior articular process of the atlas, the roof of the tunnel has disappeared. PMID:11554511

  13. An 8 x 10 to the 5th bit bubble memory cell for spacecraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, F. J.; Murray, G. W.; Bohning, O. D.; Stermer, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    A multiple chip magnetic bubble memory cell design developed for NASA embodies the low power, low weight, environmental tolerance and reliability necessary for successful operation in spacecraft launch and mission environments. Packaging of multiple chips in a common magnetic bias, drive coil assembly reduces weight and volume overhead per chip and also reduces the number of coil drive components required. This 8 x 10 to the 5th bit cell is conduction cooled and provides a metal and ceramic sealed hermetic chip environment.

  14. Instantaneous frequency measurement by in-fiber 0.5th order fractional differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poveda-Wong, L.; Carrascosa, A.; Cuadrado-Laborde, C.; Cruz, J. L.; Díez, A.; Andrés, M. V.

    2016-07-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the possibility to retrieve the instantaneous frequency profile of a given temporal light pulse by in-fiber fractional order differentiation of 0.5th-order. The signal's temporal instantaneous frequency profile is obtained by simple dividing two temporal intensity profiles, namely the intensities of the input and output pulses of a spectrally-shifted fractional order differentiation. The results are supported by the experimental measurement of the instantaneous frequency profile of a mode-locked laser.

  15. Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Blue Laser and Light Emitting Diodes (ISBLLED-2004)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Eun-Kyung; Yoon, Euijoon; Lee, Hyung Jae

    2004-09-01

    The 5th International Symposium on Blue Laser and Light Emitting Diodes (ISBLLED-2004) was held in Gyeongju, Korea, 15-19 March 2004. The purpose of the symposium was to provide a forum for scientists and engineers to discuss recent progress and future trends in the rapidly advancing wide band gap semiconductor science and technologies and their applications in blue laser and light emitting diodes.

  16. Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Alexander; Girardi, Federico; Sama, Andrew; Lebl, Darren; Cammisa, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is a relatively new technique that allows the surgeon to access the intervertebral space from a direct lateral approach either anterior to or through the psoas muscle. This approach provides an alternative to anterior lumbar interbody fusion with instrumentation, posterior lumbar interbody fusion, and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for anterior column support. LLIF is minimally invasive, safe, better structural support from the apophyseal ring, potential for coronal plane deformity correction, and indirect decompression, which have has made this technique popular. LLIF is currently being utilized for a variety of pathologies including but not limited to adult de novo lumbar scoliosis, central and foraminal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and adjacent segment degeneration. Although early clinical outcomes have been good, the potential for significant neurological and vascular vertebral endplate complications exists. Nevertheless, LLIF is a promising technique with the potential to more effectively treat complex adult de novo scoliosis and achieve predictable fusion while avoiding the complications of traditional anterior surgery and posterior interbody techniques. PMID:26713134

  17. Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Abhijit; Hughes, Alexander; Girardi, Federico; Sama, Andrew; Lebl, Darren; Cammisa, Frank

    2015-12-01

    The lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is a relatively new technique that allows the surgeon to access the intervertebral space from a direct lateral approach either anterior to or through the psoas muscle. This approach provides an alternative to anterior lumbar interbody fusion with instrumentation, posterior lumbar interbody fusion, and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for anterior column support. LLIF is minimally invasive, safe, better structural support from the apophyseal ring, potential for coronal plane deformity correction, and indirect decompression, which have has made this technique popular. LLIF is currently being utilized for a variety of pathologies including but not limited to adult de novo lumbar scoliosis, central and foraminal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and adjacent segment degeneration. Although early clinical outcomes have been good, the potential for significant neurological and vascular vertebral endplate complications exists. Nevertheless, LLIF is a promising technique with the potential to more effectively treat complex adult de novo scoliosis and achieve predictable fusion while avoiding the complications of traditional anterior surgery and posterior interbody techniques. PMID:26713134

  18. Automated identification of spinal cord and vertebras on sagittal MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Dong, Qian; He, Bo; Wei, Jun; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Couriel, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    We are developing an automated method for the identification of the spinal cord and the vertebras on spinal MR images, which is an essential step for computerized analysis of bone marrow diseases. The spinal cord segment was first enhanced by a newly developed hierarchical multiscale tubular (HMT) filter that utilizes the complementary hyper- and hypo- intensities in the T1-weighted (T1W) and STIR MRI sequences. An Expectation-Maximization (EM) analysis method was then applied to the enhanced tubular structures to extract candidates of the spinal cord. The spinal cord was finally identified by a maximum-likelihood registration method by analysis of the features extracted from the candidate objects in the two MRI sequences. Using the identified spinal cord as a reference, the vertebras were localized based on the intervertebral disc locations extracted by another HMT filter applied to the T1W images. In this study, 5 and 30 MRI scans from 35 patients who were diagnosed with multiple myeloma disease were collected retrospectively with IRB approval as training and test set, respectively. The vertebras manually outlined by a radiologist were used as reference standard. A total of 422 vertebras were marked in the 30 test cases. For the 30 test cases, 100% (30/30) of the spinal cords were correctly segmented with 4 false positives (FPs) mistakenly identified on the back muscles in 4 scans. A sensitivity of 95.0% (401/422) was achieved for the identification of vertebras, and 5 FPs were marked in 4 scans with an average FP rate of 0.17 FPs/scan.

  19. Effects of the 5th and 7th Grade Enhanced Versions of the "keepin' it REAL" Substance Use Prevention Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elek, Elvira; Wagstaff, David A.; Hecht, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the outcomes of adapting the culturally-grounded, middle school, substance-use prevention intervention, "keepin' it REAL" ("kiR"), to target elementary school students and to address acculturation. At the beginning of 5th grade, 29 schools were randomly assigned to conditions obtained by crossing grade of implementation (5th,…

  20. Measuring Listening Comprehension Skills of 5th Grade School Students with the Help of Web Based System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acat, M. Bahaddin; Demiral, Hilmi; Kaya, Mehmet Fatih

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to measure listening comprehension skills of 5th grade school students with the help of web based system. This study was conducted on 5th grade students studying at the primary schools of Eskisehir. The scale used in the process of the study is "Web Based Listening Scale". In the process of the study,…

  1. The Effects of Reading from the Screen on the Reading Motivation Levels of Elementary 5th Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydemir, Zeynep; Ozturk, Ergun

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to explore the effects of reading from the screen on elementary 5th grade students' reading motivation levels. It used the randomized control-group pretest-posttest model, which is a true experimental design. The study group consisted of 60 students, 30 experimental and 30 control, who were attending the 5th grade of a public…

  2. Lumbar Spinal Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Questions from patients about pain conditions and analgesic pharmacotherapy and responses from authors are presented to help educate patients and make them more effective self-advocates. In reply to a question, lumbar spinal stenosis, commonly a multifactorial disease that can have profound functional consequences, is considered, along with a discussion of physical and pharmacologic treatments and quality of life. PMID:27145444

  3. Preface to Special Topic: Selected Papers from the 5th International Conference on Optofluidics.

    PubMed

    Fan, Shih-Kang; Yang, Zhenchuan

    2016-01-01

    The 5th International Conference on Optofluidics (Optofluidics 2015) was held in Taipei, Taiwan, July 26-29, 2015. The aim of this conference was to provide a forum to promote scientific exchange and to foster closer networks and collaborative ties between leading international researchers in optics and micro/nanofluidics across various disciplines. The scope of Optofluidics 2015 was deliberately broad and interdisciplinary, encompassing the latest advances and the most innovative developments in micro/nanoscale science and technology. Topics ranged from fundamental research to its applications in chemistry, physics, biology, materials, and medicine. PMID:27076863

  4. Preface to Special Topic: Selected Papers from the 5th International Conference on Optofluidics

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Shih-Kang; Yang, Zhenchuan

    2016-01-01

    The 5th International Conference on Optofluidics (Optofluidics 2015) was held in Taipei, Taiwan, July 26–29, 2015. The aim of this conference was to provide a forum to promote scientific exchange and to foster closer networks and collaborative ties between leading international researchers in optics and micro/nanofluidics across various disciplines. The scope of Optofluidics 2015 was deliberately broad and interdisciplinary, encompassing the latest advances and the most innovative developments in micro/nanoscale science and technology. Topics ranged from fundamental research to its applications in chemistry, physics, biology, materials, and medicine. PMID:27076863

  5. A Social Medium: ASM's 5th Cell-Cell Communication in Bacteria Meeting in Review

    PubMed Central

    Federle, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The 5th American Society for Microbiology Conference on Cell-Cell Communication in Bacteria (CCCB-5), which convened from 18 to 21 October 2014 in San Antonio, TX, highlighted recent advances in our understanding of microbial intercellular signaling. While the CCCB meetings arose from interests in pheromone signaling and quorum sensing, it was evident at CCCB-5 that the cell-cell communication field is continuing to mature, expanding into new areas and integrating cutting-edge technologies. In this minireview, we recap some of the research discussed at CCCB-5 and the questions that have arisen from it. PMID:25917904

  6. Lumbar corsets can decrease lumbar motion in golf swing.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Koji; Miyamoto, Kei; Yanagawa, Takashi; Hattori, Ryo; Aoki, Takaaki; Matsuoka, Toshio; Ohno, Takatoshi; Shimizu, Katsuji

    2013-01-01

    Swinging a golf club includes the rotation and extension of the lumbar spine. Golf-related low back pain has been associated with degeneration of the lumbar facet and intervertebral discs, and with spondylolysis. Reflective markers were placed directly onto the skin of 11young male amateur golfers without a previous history of back pain. Using a VICON system (Oxford Metrics, U.K.), full golf swings were monitored without a corset (WOC), with a soft corset (SC), and with a hard corset (HC), with each subject taking 3 swings. Changes in the angle between the pelvis and the thorax (maximum range of motion and angular velocity) in 3 dimensions (lumbar rotation, flexion-extension, and lateral tilt) were analyzed, as was rotation of the hip joint. Peak changes in lumbar extension and rotation occurred just after impact with the ball. The extension angle of the lumbar spine at finish was significantly lower under SC (38°) or HC (28°) than under WOC (44°) conditions (p < 0.05). The maximum angular velocity after impact was significantly smaller under HC (94°/sec) than under SC (177°/sec) and WOC (191° /sec) conditions, as were the lumbar rotation angles at top and finish. In contrast, right hip rotation angles at top showed a compensatory increase under HC conditions. Wearing a lumbar corset while swinging a golf club can effectively decrease lumbar extension and rotation angles from impact until the end of the swing. These effects were significantly enhanced while wearing an HC. Key pointsRotational and extension forces on the lumbar spine may cause golf-related low back painWearing lumbar corsets during a golf swing can effectively decrease lumbar extension and rotation angles and angular velocity.Wearing lumbar corsets increased the rotational motion of the hip joint while reducing the rotation of the lumbar spine. PMID:24149729

  7. Lumbar Corsets Can Decrease Lumbar Motion in Golf Swing

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Koji; Miyamoto, Kei; Yanagawa, Takashi; Hattori, Ryo; Aoki, Takaaki; Matsuoka, Toshio; Ohno, Takatoshi; Shimizu, Katsuji

    2013-01-01

    Swinging a golf club includes the rotation and extension of the lumbar spine. Golf-related low back pain has been associated with degeneration of the lumbar facet and intervertebral discs, and with spondylolysis. Reflective markers were placed directly onto the skin of 11young male amateur golfers without a previous history of back pain. Using a VICON system (Oxford Metrics, U.K.), full golf swings were monitored without a corset (WOC), with a soft corset (SC), and with a hard corset (HC), with each subject taking 3 swings. Changes in the angle between the pelvis and the thorax (maximum range of motion and angular velocity) in 3 dimensions (lumbar rotation, flexion-extension, and lateral tilt) were analyzed, as was rotation of the hip joint. Peak changes in lumbar extension and rotation occurred just after impact with the ball. The extension angle of the lumbar spine at finish was significantly lower under SC (38°) or HC (28°) than under WOC (44°) conditions (p < 0.05). The maximum angular velocity after impact was significantly smaller under HC (94°/sec) than under SC (177°/sec) and WOC (191° /sec) conditions, as were the lumbar rotation angles at top and finish. In contrast, right hip rotation angles at top showed a compensatory increase under HC conditions. Wearing a lumbar corset while swinging a golf club can effectively decrease lumbar extension and rotation angles from impact until the end of the swing. These effects were significantly enhanced while wearing an HC. Key points Rotational and extension forces on the lumbar spine may cause golf-related low back pain Wearing lumbar corsets during a golf swing can effectively decrease lumbar extension and rotation angles and angular velocity. Wearing lumbar corsets increased the rotational motion of the hip joint while reducing the rotation of the lumbar spine. PMID:24149729

  8. Fractures of the thoraco-lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Lifeso, R M; Arabie, K M; Kadhi, S K

    1985-08-01

    A personal prospective study of 98 consecutive patients presenting with neurological impairment and fractures or dislocations between the 9th thoracic and 2nd lumbar vertebrae bodies. Fifty-three patients underwent Harrington instrumentation, and 45 patients were treated recumbently. Neurological improvement was much better following Harrington rods in the complete paraplegia group but there was no difference in neurological recovery between the two groups in those with incomplete paraplegia. Forty-two patients who had been stabilised with Harrington rods underwent post-operative myelography or tomography to assess the adequacy of spinal decompression. The best results were in patients with adequate neural canal decompression. In 21 cases decompression had not been adequate, usually due to a stereotyped pattern in which the postero-superior aspect of the fractured body remained in the neural canal. All 21 underwent anterior decompression at an average of five months post injury. All the incomplete anterior decompression at an average of five months post injury. All the incomplete paraplegics (nine patients) regained the ability to walk, three of the 12 complete paraplegics improved and regained the ability to walk with bilateral ankle-foot orthoses. Neurological improvement was dependent upon the adequacy of spinal cord decompression and not upon Harrington rods. per se. Harrington rods alone were not adequate to decompress the spinal canal in 50 per cent of cases. The best results after anterior decompression occurred where neural compression was caused by a minimally displaced wedge fracture distal to T12. PMID:4047711

  9. Vertebroplasty reduces progressive ׳creep' deformity of fractured vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Luo, J; Pollintine, P; Annesley-Williams, D J; Dolan, P; Adams, M A

    2016-04-11

    Elderly vertebrae frequently develop an "anterior wedge" deformity as a result of fracture and creep mechanisms. Injecting cement into a damaged vertebral body (vertebroplasty) is known to help restore its shape and stiffness. We now hypothesise that vertebroplasty is also effective in reducing subsequent creep deformations. Twenty-eight spine specimens, comprising three complete vertebrae and the intervening discs, were obtained from cadavers aged 67-92 years. Each specimen was subjected to increasingly-severe compressive loading until one of its vertebrae was fractured, and the damaged vertebral body was then treated by vertebroplasty. Before and after fracture, and again after vertebroplasty, each specimen was subjected to a static compressive force of 1kN for 1h while elastic and creep deformations were measured in the anterior, middle and posterior regions of each adjacent vertebral body cortex, using a 2D MacReflex optical tracking system. After fracture, creep in the anterior and central regions of the vertebral body cortex increased from an average 4513 and 885 microstrains, respectively, to 54,107 and 34,378 microstrains (both increases: P<0.001). Elastic strains increased by a comparable amount. Vertebroplasty reduced creep in the anterior and central cortex by 61% (P=0.006) and 66% (P=0.017) respectively. Elastic strains were reduced by less than half this amount. Results suggest that the beneficial effects of vertebroplasty on the vertebral body continue long after the post-operative radiographs. Injected cement not only helps to restore vertebral shape and elastic properties, but also reduces subsequent creep deformation of the damaged vertebra. PMID:26459490

  10. Lumbar spine endplate fractures: Biomechanical evaluation and clinical considerations through experimental induction of injury.

    PubMed

    Curry, William H; Pintar, Frank A; Doan, Ninh B; Nguyen, Ha Son; Eckardt, Gerald; Baisden, Jamie L; Maiman, Dennis J; Paskoff, Glenn R; Shender, Barry S; Stemper, Brian D

    2016-06-01

    Lumbar endplate fractures were investigated in different experimental scenarios, however the biomechanical effect of segmental alignment was not outlined. The objectives of this study were to quantify effects of spinal orientation on lumbar spine injuries during single-cycle compressive loads and understand lumbar spine endplate injury tolerance. Twenty lumbar motion segments were compressed to failure. Two methods were used in the preparation of the lumbar motion segments. Group 1 (n = 7) preparation maintained pre-test sagittal lordosis, whereas Group 2 (n = 13) specimens had a free-rotational end condition for the cranial vertebra, allowing sagittal rotation of the cranial vertebra to create parallel endplates. Five Group 1 specimens experienced posterior vertebral body fracture prior to endplate fracture, whereas two sustained endplate fracture only. Group 2 specimens sustained isolated endplate fractures. Group 2 fractures occurred at approximately 41% of the axial force required for Group 1 fracture (p < 0.05). Imaging and specimen dissection indicate endplate injury consistently took place within the confines of the endplate boundaries, away from the vertebral periphery. These findings indicate that spinal alignment during compressive loading influences the resulting injury pattern. This investigation identified the specific mechanical conditions under which an endplate breach will take place. Development of endplate injuries has significant clinical implication as previous research identified internal disc disruption (IDD) and degenerative disc disease (DDD) as long-term consequences of the axial load-shift that occurs following a breach of the endplate. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1084-1091, 2016. PMID:26610067

  11. Adaptive geodesic transform for segmentation of vertebrae on CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Shu, Liao; Hermosillo, Gerardo; Zhan, Yiqiang

    2014-03-01

    Vertebral segmentation is a critical first step in any quantitative evaluation of vertebral pathology using CT images. This is especially challenging because bone marrow tissue has the same intensity profile as the muscle surrounding the bone. Thus simple methods such as thresholding or adaptive k-means fail to accurately segment vertebrae. While several other algorithms such as level sets may be used for segmentation any algorithm that is clinically deployable has to work in under a few seconds. To address these dual challenges we present here, a new algorithm based on the geodesic distance transform that is capable of segmenting the spinal vertebrae in under one second. To achieve this we extend the theory of the geodesic distance transforms proposed in1 to incorporate high level anatomical knowledge through adaptive weighting of image gradients. Such knowledge may be provided by the user directly or may be automatically generated by another algorithm. We incorporate information 'learnt' using a previously published machine learning algorithm2 to segment the L1 to L5 vertebrae. While we present a particular application here, the adaptive geodesic transform is a generic concept which can be applied to segmentation of other organs as well.

  12. New approach to evaluate rotation of cervical vertebrae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Matthias

    2001-07-01

    Functional deficits after whiplash injury can be analyzed with a quite novel radiologic method by examination of joint-blocks in C0/1 and C1/2. Thereto the movability of C0, C1 and C2 is determined with three spiral CT-scans of the patient's cervical spine. One series in neutral and one in maximal active lateral right and left rotation each. Previous methods were slice based and time consuming when manually evaluated. We propose a new approach to a computation of these angles in 3D. After a threshold segmentation of bone tissue, a rough 2D classification takes place for C0, C1 and C2 in each rotation series. The center of an axial rotation for each vertebra is gained from the approximation of its center of gravity. The rotation itself is estimated by a cross-correlation of the radial distance functions. From the previous rotation the results are taken to initialize a 3D matching algorithm based on the sum of squared differences in intensity. The optimal match of the vertebrae is computed by means of the multidimensional Powell minimization algorithm. The three translational and three rotational components build a six-dimensional search-space. The vertebrae detection and rotation computation is done fully automatic.

  13. Activity of thoracic and lumbar epaxial extensors during postural responses in the cat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macpherson, J. M.; Fung, J.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the role of trunk extensor muscles in the thoracic and lumbar regions during postural adjustments in the freely standing cat. The epaxial extensor muscles participate in the rapid postural responses evoked by horizontal translation of the support surface. The muscles segregate into two regional groups separated by a short transition zone, according to the spatial pattern of the electromyographic (EMG) responses. The upper thoracic muscles (T5-9) respond best to posteriorly directed translations, whereas the lumbar muscles (T13 to L7) respond best to anterior translations. The transition group muscles (T10-12) respond to almost all translations. Muscles group according to vertebral level rather than muscle species. The upper thoracic muscles change little in their response with changes in stance distance (fore-hindpaw separation) and may act to stabilize the intervertebral angles of the thoracic curvature. Activity in the lumbar muscles increases along with upward rotation of the pelvis (iliac crest) as stance distance decreases. Lumbar muscles appear to stabilize the pelvis with respect to the lumbar vertebrae (L7-sacral joint). The transition zone muscles display a change in spatial tuning with stance distance, responding to many directions of translation at short distances and focusing to respond best to contralateral translations at the long stance distance.

  14. 5th Bionanotox and Applications International Research Conference, Peabody, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabb, Taneicie; Chowdhury, Parimal

    2011-06-01

    "BioNanoTox and Toxicity: using Technology to Advance Discovery" was this year's theme at the 5th BioNanoTox and Applications International Research Conference held at the Peabody Hotel, Little Rock, Arkansas on November 4-5th, 2010. This year, the international participation in this conference increased to 25 countries spanning the globe. The conference began with opening remarks by Paul Howard, Associate Director of the National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, Arkansas, United States. Two keynote speakers, Dr. Ananth V. Annapragada and Dr. Merle G. Paule presented lectures on "Toxicity of Novel Nanoparticles for CT imaging" and "The Biology of Neurotoxicity: using Technology to Advance Discovery", respectively. Teachers, students, faculty, and scientists presented oral and poster presentations on fundamental and translational research related to BioNanoTox and related fields of science. Six presentation sessions were held over the two-day conference. There were 31 presentations and 39 posters from disciplines ranging from biology to chemistry, toxicology, nanotechnology, computational sciences, mathematics, engineering, plant science, and biotechnology. Poster presentation awards were presented to three high school students, three high school teachers, and three college students. In addition to poster awards a memorial, travel, and BioNanoTox award were presented. This year's meeting paved the way for a more outstanding meeting for the future.

  15. Lumbar vertebral hemangioma mimicking lateral spinal canal stenosis: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Syrimpeis, Vasileios; Vitsas, Vasileios; Korovessis, Panagiotis

    2014-03-01

    Context Hemangiomas are the commonest benign tumors of the spine. Most occur in the thoracolumbar spine and the majority are asymptomatic. Rarely, hemangiomas cause symptoms through epidural expansion of the involved vertebra, resulting in spinal canal stenosis, spontaneous epidural hemorrhage, and pathological burst fracture. Findings We report a rare case of a 73-year-old woman, who had been treated for two months for degenerative neurogenic claudication. On admission, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomographic scans revealed a hemangioma of the third lumbar vertebra protruding to the epidural space producing lateral spinal stenosis and ipsilateral nerve root compression. The patient underwent successful right hemilaminectomy for decompression of the nerve root, balloon kyphoplasty with poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) and pedicle screw segmental stabilization. Postoperative course was uneventful. Conclusion In the elderly, this rare presentation of spinal stenosis due to hemangiomas may be encountered. Decompression and vertebral augmentation by means balloon kyphoplasty with PMMA plus segmental pedicle screw fixation is recommended. PMID:24090267

  16. Emerging Techniques for Posterior Fixation of the Lumbar Spine.

    PubMed

    Verma, Kushagra; Boniello, Anthony; Rihn, Jeffrey

    2016-06-01

    Pedicle screw fixation is the preferred method of posterior fusion in lumbar spinal surgery. The technique provides three-column support of the vertebrae, contributing to the biomechanical strength of the construct. However, open pedicle screw fixation often necessitates wide posterior exposure and dissection with soft-tissue disruption of the facet joint. Alternative posterior fixation techniques have been developed to reduce surgical time, soft-tissue dissection, disruption of the adjacent facet joint capsule, neurologic risk, and implant cost. Results of these techniques are comparable to those of standard pedicle screw fixation systems. Certain patients, especially those at a lower risk of nonunion or those who require posterior fixation only as an adjunct to anterior column support, may benefit from the shorter surgical time and limited posterior exposure of the alternative techniques. However, the decreased rigidity of these alternative constructs can result in excessive motion, which can lead to nonunion and early hardware failure. PMID:27077477

  17. Lumbar spinal stenosis.

    PubMed Central

    Ciricillo, S F; Weinstein, P R

    1993-01-01

    Lumbar spinal stenosis, the results of congenital and degenerative constriction of the neural canal and foramina leading to lumbosacral nerve root or cauda equina compression, is a common cause of disability in middle-aged and elderly patients. Advanced neuroradiologic imaging techniques have improved our ability to localize the site of nerve root entrapment in patients presenting with neurogenic claudication or painful radiculopathy. Although conservative medical management may be successful initially, surgical decompression by wide laminectomy or an intralaminar approach should be done in patients with serious or progressive pain or neurologic dysfunction. Because the early diagnosis and treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis may prevent intractable pain and the permanent neurologic sequelae of chronic nerve root entrapment, all physicians should be aware of the different neurologic presentations and the treatment options for patients with spinal stenosis. Images PMID:8434469

  18. [Lumbar spinal angiolipoma].

    PubMed

    Isla, Alberto; Ortega Martinez, Rodrigo; Pérez López, Carlos; Gómez de la Riva, Alvaro; Mansilla, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Spinal angiolipomas are fairly infrequent benign tumours that are usually located in the epidural space of the thoracic column and represent 0.14% to 1.3% of all spinal tumours. Lumbar angiolipomas are extremely rare, representing only 9.6% of all spinal extradural angiolipomas. We report the case of a woman who complained of a lumbar pain of several months duration with no neurological focality and that had intensified in the last three days without her having had any injury or made a physical effort. The MR revealed an extradural mass L1-L2, on the posterior face of the medulla, decreasing the anteroposterior diameter of the canal. The patient symptoms improved after surgery. Total extirpation of the lesion is possible in most cases, and the prognosis is excellent even if the lesion is infiltrative. For this reason, excessively aggressive surgery is not necessary to obtain complete resection. PMID:27263067

  19. LUMBAR DISC HERNIATION

    PubMed Central

    Vialle, Luis Roberto; Vialle, Emiliano Neves; Suárez Henao, Juan Esteban; Giraldo, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Lumbar disc herniation is the most common diagnosis among the degenerative abnormalities of the lumbar spine (affecting 2 to 3% of the population), and is the principal cause of spinal surgery among the adult population. The typical clinical picture includes initial lumbalgia, followed by progressive sciatica. The natural history of disc herniation is one of rapid resolution of the symptoms (four to six weeks). The initial treatment should be conservative, managed through medication and physiotherapy, sometimes associated with percutaneous nerve root block. Surgical treatment is indicated if pain control is unsuccessful, if there is a motor deficit greater than grade 3, if there is radicular pain associated with foraminal stenosis, or if cauda equina syndrome is present. The latter represents a medical emergency. A refined surgical technique, with removal of the extruded fragment and preservation of the ligamentum flavum, resolves the sciatic symptoms and reduces the risk of recurrence over the long term. PMID:27019834

  20. EDITORIAL: 'Best article' prize for the 5th anniversary of Environmental Research Letters 'Best article' prize for the 5th anniversary of Environmental Research Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammen, Dan; Wright, Guillaume

    2011-12-01

    To celebrate the 5th anniversary of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) the publishers of the journal, IOP Publishing, have awarded a prize for the five best articles published in ERL since the journal began in 2006. The procedure for deciding the winning articles was as thorough as possible to ensure that the most outstanding articles would win the prize. A shortlist of 25 nominated research articles, five for each year since ERL was launched, which were chosen based on a range of criteria including novelty, scientific impact, readership, broad appeal and wider media coverage, was selected. The ERL Editorial Board then assessed and rated these 25 articles in order to choose a winning article for each year. We would like to announce that the following articles have been awarded ERL's 5th anniversary best article prize: 2006/7 The Bodélé depression: a single spot in the Sahara that provides most of the mineral dust to the Amazon forest Ilan Koren, Yoram J Kaufman, Richard Washington, Martin C Todd, Yinon Rudich, J Vanderlei Martins and Daniel Rosenfeld 2006 Environ. Res. Lett. 1 014005 2008 Causes and impacts of the 2005 Amazon drought Ning Zeng, Jin-Ho Yoon, Jose A Marengo, Ajit Subramaniam, Carlos A Nobre, Annarita Mariotti and J David Neelin 2008 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 014002 2009 How difficult is it to recover from dangerous levels of global warming? J A Lowe, C Huntingford, S C B Raper, C D Jones, S K Liddicoat and L K Gohar 2009 Environ. Res. Lett. 4 014012 2010 Is physical water scarcity a new phenomenon? Global assessment of water shortage over the last two millennia Matti Kummu, Philip J Ward, Hans de Moel and Olli Varis 2010 Environ. Res. Lett. 5 034006 2011 Implications of urban structure on carbon consumption in metropolitan areas Jukka Heinonen and Seppo Junnila 2011 Environ. Res. Lett. 6 014018 Our congratulations go to these authors. In recognition of their outstanding work, we are delighted to offer all of the authors of the winning articles free

  1. EDITORIAL: 'Best article' prize for the 5th anniversary of Environmental Research Letters 'Best article' prize for the 5th anniversary of Environmental Research Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammen, Dan; Wright, Guillaume

    2011-12-01

    To celebrate the 5th anniversary of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) the publishers of the journal, IOP Publishing, have awarded a prize for the five best articles published in ERL since the journal began in 2006. The procedure for deciding the winning articles was as thorough as possible to ensure that the most outstanding articles would win the prize. A shortlist of 25 nominated research articles, five for each year since ERL was launched, which were chosen based on a range of criteria including novelty, scientific impact, readership, broad appeal and wider media coverage, was selected. The ERL Editorial Board then assessed and rated these 25 articles in order to choose a winning article for each year. We would like to announce that the following articles have been awarded ERL's 5th anniversary best article prize: 2006/7 The Bodélé depression: a single spot in the Sahara that provides most of the mineral dust to the Amazon forest Ilan Koren, Yoram J Kaufman, Richard Washington, Martin C Todd, Yinon Rudich, J Vanderlei Martins and Daniel Rosenfeld 2006 Environ. Res. Lett. 1 014005 2008 Causes and impacts of the 2005 Amazon drought Ning Zeng, Jin-Ho Yoon, Jose A Marengo, Ajit Subramaniam, Carlos A Nobre, Annarita Mariotti and J David Neelin 2008 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 014002 2009 How difficult is it to recover from dangerous levels of global warming? J A Lowe, C Huntingford, S C B Raper, C D Jones, S K Liddicoat and L K Gohar 2009 Environ. Res. Lett. 4 014012 2010 Is physical water scarcity a new phenomenon? Global assessment of water shortage over the last two millennia Matti Kummu, Philip J Ward, Hans de Moel and Olli Varis 2010 Environ. Res. Lett. 5 034006 2011 Implications of urban structure on carbon consumption in metropolitan areas Jukka Heinonen and Seppo Junnila 2011 Environ. Res. Lett. 6 014018 Our congratulations go to these authors. In recognition of their outstanding work, we are delighted to offer all of the authors of the winning articles free

  2. A quantitative comparison of two kinematic protocols for lumbar segment motion during gait.

    PubMed

    Kiernan, D; Malone, A; O'Brien, T; Simms, C K

    2015-02-01

    During gait analysis, motion of the lumbar region is tracked either by means of a 2-dimensional assessment with markers placed along the spine or a 3-dimensional assessment treating the lumbar region as a rigid segment. The rigid segment assumption is necessary for inverse dynamic calculations further up the kinematic chain. In the absence of a reference standard, the choice of model is mostly based on clinical experience. However, the potential exists for large differences in kinematic output if different protocols are used. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of using two 3-dimensional lumbar segment protocols on the resultant kinematic output during gait. The first protocol was a skin surface rigid protocol with markers placed across the lumbar region while the second consisted of a rigid cluster utilizing active markers applied over the 3rd lumbar vertebra. Data from both protocols were compared through simultaneous recording during gait. Overall variability was lower in 4 out of 6 measures for the skin surface protocol. Ensemble average graphs demonstrated similar mean profiles between protocols. However, Functional Limits of Agreement demonstrated only a poor to moderate agreement. This trend was confirmed with a poor to moderate waveform similarity (CMC range 0.29-0.71). This study demonstrates that the protocol used to track lumbar segment kinematics is an important consideration for clinical and research purposes. Greater variability recorded by the rigid cluster during lumbar rotation suggests the skin surface protocol may be more suited to studies where axial rotation is a consideration. PMID:25701013

  3. Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery Plus Lumbar Mini-Open Surgery for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Hyon Su; Kim, Hak Sun; Ankur, Nanda; Kho, Phillip Anthony; Kim, Sung Jun; Kim, Do Yeon; Park, Jin Oh; Moon, Seong Hwan; Lee, Hwan Mo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The objectives of this study are to describe the outcome of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients treated with Video Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS) plus supplementary minimal incision in the lumbar region for thoracic and lumbar deformity correction and fusion. Materials and Methods This is a case series of 13 patients treated with VATS plus lumbar mini-open surgery for AIS. A total of 13 patients requiring fusions of both the thoracic and lumbar regions were included in this study: 5 of these patients were classified as Lenke type 1A and 8 as Lenke type 5C. Fusion was performed using VATS up to T12 or L1 vertebral level. Lower levels were accessed via a small mini-incision in the lumbar area to gain access to the lumbar spine via the retroperitoneal space. All patients had a minimum follow-up of 1 year. Results The average number of fused vertebrae was 7.1 levels. A significant correction in the Cobb angle was obtained at the final follow-up (p = 0.001). The instrumented segmental angle in the sagittal plane was relatively well-maintained following surgery, albeit with a slight increase. Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) scores were noted have significantly improved at the final follow-up (p < 0.05). Conclusion Indications for the use of VATS may be extended from patients with localized thoracic scoliosis to those with thoracolumbar scoliosis. By utilizing a supplementary minimal incision in the lumbar region, a satisfactory deformity correction may be accomplished with minimal post-operative scarring. PMID:21155045

  4. Lumbar spine chordoma

    PubMed Central

    Hatem, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Chordoma is a rare tumor arising from notochord remnants in the spine. It is slow-growing, which makes it difficult to diagnose and difficult to follow up after treatment. Typically, it occurs in the base of the skull and sacrococcygeal spine; it rarely occurs in other parts of the spine. CT-guided biopsy of a suspicious mass enabled diagnosis of lumbar spine chordoma.

  5. Exploratory Factor Analysis of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th Edition, Criteria for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    McSweeney, Lauren B; Koch, Ellen I; Saules, Karen K; Jefferson, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    One change to the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) nomenclature highlighted in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th Edition (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) is the conceptualization of PTSD as a diagnostic category with four distinct symptom clusters. This article presents exploratory factor analysis to test the structural validity of the DSM-5 conceptualization of PTSD via an online survey that included the PTSD Checklist-5. The study utilized a sample of 113 college students from a large Midwestern university and 177 Amazon Mechanical Turk users. Participants were primarily female, Caucasian, single, and heterosexual with an average age of 32 years. Approximately 30% to 35% of participants met diagnostic criteria for PTSD based on two different scoring criteria. Results of the exploratory factor analysis revealed five distinct symptom clusters. The implications for the classification of PTSD are discussed. PMID:26669983

  6. Genomics into Healthcare: The 5th Pan Arab Human Genetics Conference and 2013 Golden Helix Symposium

    PubMed Central

    Fortina, Paolo; AlKhaja, Najib; Al Ali, Mahmoud Taleb; Hamzeh, Abdul Rezzak; Nair, Pratibha; Innocenti, Federico; Patrinos, George P.; Kricka, Larry J.

    2014-01-01

    The joint 5th Pan Arab Human Genetics conference and 2013 Golden Helix Symposium, “Genomics into Healthcare” was coorganized by the Center for Arab Genomic Studies (http://www.cags.org.ae) in collaboration with the Golden Helix Foundation (http://www.goldenhelix.org) in Dubai, United Arab Emirates from 17 to 19 November, 2013. The meeting was attended by over 900 participants, doctors and biomedical students from over 50 countries and was organized into a series of nine themed sessions that covered cancer genomics and epigenetics, genomic and epigenetic studies, genomics of blood and metabolic disorders, cytogenetic diagnosis and molecular profiling, next-generation sequencing, consanguinity and hereditary diseases, clinical genomics, clinical applications of pharmacogenomics, and genomics in public health. PMID:24526565

  7. Dental health in antique population of Vinkovci - Cibalae in Croatia (3rd-5th century).

    PubMed

    Peko, Dunja; Vodanović, Marin

    2016-08-01

    Roman city Cibalae (Vinkovci) - the birthplace of Roman emperors Valentinian I and Valens was a very well developed urban ares in the late antique what was evidenced by numerous archaeological findings. The aim of this paper is to get insight in dental health of antique population of Cibalae. One hundred individuals with 2041 teeth dated to 3rd - 5th century AD have been analyzed for caries, antemortem tooth loss, periapical diseases and tooth wear. Prevalence of antemortem tooth loss was 4.3% in males, 5.2% in females. Prevalence of caries per tooth was 8.4% in males, 7.0% in females. Compared to other Croatian antique sites, ancient inhabitants of Roman Cibalae had rather good dental health with low caries prevalence and no gender differences. Statistically significant difference was found between males in females in the prevalence of periapical lesions and degree of tooth wear. Periapical lesions were found only in males. PMID:27598951

  8. Theoretical studies of Ir5Th and Ir5Ce nanoscale precipitates in Ir

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, James R; Averill, Frank; Cooper, Valentino R

    2014-01-01

    Experimentally, it is known that very small amounts of thorium and/or cerium added to iridium metal form a precipitate, Ir5Th / Ir5Ce, which improves the high temperature mechanical properties of the resulting alloys. We demonstrate that there are low-energy configurations for nano-scale precipitates of these phases in Ir, and that these coherent arrangements may assist in producing improved mechanical properties. One precipitate/matrix orientation gives a particularly low interfacial energy, and a low lattice misfit. Nanolayer precipitates with this orientation are found to be likely to form, with little driving force to coarsen. The predicted morphology of the precipitates and their orientation with the matrix phase provide a potential experiment that could be used to test these predictions.

  9. APTWG: The 5th Asia-Pacific Transport Working Group Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, X.; Ghim, Y.-C.; Sun, Y. W.; Gao, Z.; Inagaki, S.; Chen, W.; Zhang, T.; Wang, Z. X.

    2016-03-01

    This conference report gives a summary on the contributed papers and discussions presented at the 5th Asia-Pacific Transport Working Group Meeting held at Dalian, China from 9-12 June 2015. The main goal of the working group is to develop a predictive understanding of the basic mechanisms responsible for particle, momentum and energy transport in magnetically confined plasmas. The topics of the meeting in 2015 were organized under five main headings: (1) turbulence suppression and transport barrier formation, (2) effect of magnetic topology on MHD activity and transport, (3) non-diffusive contribution of momentum and particle transport, (4) non-local transport and turbulence spreading and coupling and (5) energetic particles and instability. The Young Researchers’ Forum which was held at this meeting is also described in this report.

  10. Recurrent Idiopathic Catatonia: Implications beyond the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th Edition

    PubMed Central

    Caroff, Stanley N.; Hurford, Irene; Bleier, Henry R.; Gorton, Gregg E.; Campbell, E. Cabrina

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of recurrent, life-threatening, catatonic stupor, without evidence of any associated medical, toxic or mental disorder. This case provides support for the inclusion of a separate category of “unspecified catatonia” in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th edition (DSM-5) to be used to classify idiopathic cases, which appears to be consistent with Kahlbaum’s concept of catatonia as a distinct disease state. But beyond the limited, cross-sectional, syndromal approach adopted in DSM-5, this case more importantly illustrates the prognostic and therapeutic significance of the longitudinal course of illness in differentiating cases of catatonia, which is better defined in the Wernicke-Kleist-Leonhard classification system. The importance of differentiating cases of catatonia is further supported by the efficacy of antipsychotics in treatment of this case, contrary to conventional guidelines. PMID:26243853

  11. Biomechanical comparison between concentrated, follower, and muscular loads of the lumbar column.

    PubMed

    Shih, Kao-Shang; Weng, Pei-Wei; Lin, Shang-Chih; Chen, Yi-Tzu; Cheng, Cheng-Kung; Lee, Chian-Her

    2016-10-01

    Experimental and numerical methods have been extensively used to simulate the lumbar kinematics and mechanics. One of the basic parameters is the lumbar loads. In the literature, both concentrated and distributed loads have been assumed to simulate the in vivo lumbar loads. However, the inconsistent loads between those studies exist and make the comparison of their results controversial. Using finite-element method, this study aimed to numerically compare the effects of the concentrated, follower, and muscular loads on the lumbar biomechanics during flexion. Two conditions of equivalent and simple constraints were simulated. The equivalent condition assumes the identical flexion at the L1 level and loads at the L5 level for the three types of loads. Another condition is to remove such kinematic and mechanical constraints on the lumbar. The comparison indices were flexed profile, distributed stress, and transferred loads of the discs and vertebrae at the different levels. The results showed that the three modes in the equivalent condition show the nearly same flexed profiles. In the simple condition, however, the L1 vertebra of the concentrated mode anteriorly translates about 3 and 5 times that of the follower and muscular mode, respectively. By contrast, the flexion profiles of the follower and muscular are comparable. In the equivalent condition, all modes consistently show the gradually increasing stress and loads toward the caudal levels. The results of both concentrated and muscular modes exhibit the quite comparable trends and even magnitudes. In the simple condition, however, the removal of flexion and load constraints makes the results of the concentrated mode significantly different from its counterparts. In both conditions, the predictedindices of the follower mode are more uniform along the lumbar. In conclusion, the kinematic and mechanical constraints significantly affect the profile, stress, and loads of the three modes. In the equivalent condition

  12. Ossified Ligamentum Longitudinale Anterius in Adult Human Dry Vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Venumadhav, Nelluri; KS, Siddaraju

    2014-01-01

    Background: The ligamentum longitudinale anterius is a broad and strong band of fibrous tissue that runs along the anterior surfaces of the bodies of the vertebrae. Aim: The study was undertaken to evaluate the incidence of ossified ligamentum longitudinale anterius in adult dry human vertebra. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on 95 sets of dry human vertebral columns irrespective of age and sex at Mayo Institute of Medical Sciences- Barabanki,-UP, Melaka Manipal Medical College-Manipal University and Department of Anatomy, KMCT Medical College, Manassery- Calicut, India. All the sets of vertebral columns were macroscopically inspected for the ossified ligamentum longitudinale anterius. Results: It was observed that out of 95 sets of vertebral columns, 27 (28.42%) vertebral columns showed ossification. Out of 27 vertebral columns, 17 (17.89%) vertebral columns showed segmental type of ossification, 2 (2.11%) vertebral columns showed continuous type of ossification and 8 (8.42%) vertebral columns showed mixed type of ossification at different vertebral level. Conclusion: Such type of ossification will affect the biomechanics of the spine and may result in stiff neck, low back pain, dysphagia, odynophagia, compression of the brachial plexus, aphonia, immobility or mucosal thickening of larynx. Hence, knowledge of such abnormalities should be kept in mind to minimise serious complications in any surgical intervention or investigative procedures in the region. PMID:25302180

  13. Spheno-Occipital Synchondrosis Fusion Correlates with Cervical Vertebrae Maturation.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pérez, María José; Alarcón, José Antonio; McNamara, James A; Velasco-Torres, Miguel; Benavides, Erika; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Catena, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the closure stage of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis and the maturational stage of the cervical vertebrae (CVM) in growing and young adult subjects using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). CBCT images with an extended field of view obtained from 315 participants (148 females and 167 males; mean age 15.6 ±7.3 years; range 6 to 23 years) were analyzed. The fusion status of the synchondrosis was determined using a five-stage scoring system; the vertebral maturational status was evaluated using a six-stage stratification (CVM method). Ordinal regression was used to study the ability of the synchondrosis stage to predict the vertebral maturation stage. Vertebrae and synchondrosis had a strong significant correlation (r = 0.89) that essential was similar for females (r = 0.88) and males (r = 0.89). CVM stage could be accurately predicted from synchondrosis stage by ordinal regression models. Prediction equations of the vertebral stage using synchondrosis stage, sex and biological age as predictors were developed. Thus this investigation demonstrated that the stage of spheno-occipital synchondrosis, as determined in CBCT images, is a reasonable indicator of growth maturation. PMID:27513752

  14. Spheno-Occipital Synchondrosis Fusion Correlates with Cervical Vertebrae Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Pérez, María José; McNamara, James A.; Velasco-Torres, Miguel; Benavides, Erika; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Catena, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the closure stage of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis and the maturational stage of the cervical vertebrae (CVM) in growing and young adult subjects using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). CBCT images with an extended field of view obtained from 315 participants (148 females and 167 males; mean age 15.6 ±7.3 years; range 6 to 23 years) were analyzed. The fusion status of the synchondrosis was determined using a five-stage scoring system; the vertebral maturational status was evaluated using a six-stage stratification (CVM method). Ordinal regression was used to study the ability of the synchondrosis stage to predict the vertebral maturation stage. Vertebrae and synchondrosis had a strong significant correlation (r = 0.89) that essential was similar for females (r = 0.88) and males (r = 0.89). CVM stage could be accurately predicted from synchondrosis stage by ordinal regression models. Prediction equations of the vertebral stage using synchondrosis stage, sex and biological age as predictors were developed. Thus this investigation demonstrated that the stage of spheno-occipital synchondrosis, as determined in CBCT images, is a reasonable indicator of growth maturation. PMID:27513752

  15. A Ganglion Cyst in the Second Lumbar Intervertebral Foramen

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Joon Hyuk; Kim, Min Su; Chang, Chul Hoon

    2011-01-01

    Ganglion cysts usually arise from the tendon sheaths and tissues around the joints. It is usually associated with degenerative arthritic changes in older people. Ganglion cyst in the spine is rare and there is no previous report on case that located in the intervertebral foramen and compressed dorsal root ganglion associated severe radiculopathy. A 29-year-old woman presented with severe left thigh pain and dysesthesia for a month. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a dumbbell like mass in the intervertebral foramen between second and third lumbar vertebrae on the left side. The lesion was removed after exposure of the L2-L3 intervertebral foramen. The histological examination showed fragmented cystic wall-like structure composed of fibromyxoid tissue but there was no lining epithelium. A ganglion cyst may compromise lumbar dorsal root ganglion when it located in the intervertebral foramen. Although it is very rare location, ganglion cyst should be included in the differential diagnosis for intervertebral foraminal mass lesions. PMID:21607185

  16. Mimickers of lumbar radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Bennett Douglas; Blessinger, Brian Joseph; Darden, Bruce Vaiden; Brigham, Craig D; Kneisl, Jeffrey S; Laxer, Eric B

    2015-01-01

    Orthopaedic surgeons frequently treat patients who report pain that radiates from the back into the lower extremity. Although the most common etiology is either a herniated disk or spinal stenosis, a myriad of pathologies can mimic the symptoms of radiculopathy, resulting in differences in the clinical presentation and the workup. Therefore, the clinician must be able to distinguish the signs and symptoms of lumbar radiculopathy from pathologies that may have a similar presentation. Being cognizant of these other possible conditions enables the physician to consider a breadth of alternative diagnoses when a patient presents with radiating lower extremity pain. PMID:25538126

  17. Upper lumbar disk herniations.

    PubMed

    Cedoz, M E; Larbre, J P; Lequin, C; Fischer, G; Llorca, G

    1996-06-01

    Specific features of upper lumbar disk herniations are reviewed based on data from the literature and from a retrospective study of 24 cases treated surgically between 1982 and 1994 (seven at L1-L2 and 17 at L2-L3). Clinical manifestations are polymorphic, misleading (abdominogenital pain suggestive of a visceral or psychogenic condition, meralgia paresthetica, isolated sciatica; femoral neuralgia is uncommon) and sometimes severe (five cases of cauda equina syndrome in our study group). The diagnostic usefulness of imaging studies (radiography, myelography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) and results of surgery are discussed. The risk of misdiagnosis and the encouraging results of surgery are emphasized. PMID:8817752

  18. The 5th Symposium on Post-Transcriptional Regulation of Plant Gene Expression (PTRoPGE)

    SciTech Connect

    Karen S. Browning; Marie Petrocek; Bonnie Bartel

    2006-06-01

    The 5th Symposium on Post-Transcriptional Regulation of Plant Gene Expression (PTRoPGE) will be held June 8-12, 2005 at the University of Texas at Austin. Exciting new and ongoing discoveries show significant regulation of gene expression occurs after transcription. These post-transcriptional control events in plants range from subtle regulation of transcribed genes and phosphorylation, to the processes of gene regulation through small RNAs. This meeting will focus on the regulatory role of RNA, from transcription, through translation and finally degradation. The cross-disciplinary design of this meeting is necessary to encourage interactions between researchers that have a common interest in post-transcriptional gene expression in plants. By bringing together a diverse group of plant molecular biologist and biochemists at all careers stages from across the world, this meeting will bring about more rapid progress in understanding how plant genomes work and how genes are finely regulated by post-transcriptional processes to ultimately regulate cells.

  19. Numerical Fluid Dynamics Symposium, 5th, Tokyo, Japan, Dec. 19-21, 1991, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-07-01

    Various papers on numerical fluid dynamics are presented. Individual topics discussed include: numerical analysis (NA) of shock structure problems, CFD development and a future high-speed computer, simulating vortex motion by 3D method, application of CFD to turbomachine design, numerical simulation (NS) of converging shock waves, NS of unsteady 3D shock wave phenomenon, 5th-order accurate compact upwind scheme, development of a multidimensional upwind scheme, fortified solution algorithm, large-eddy simulation of a bound jet, construction of collision model of diatomic molecules, VSL analysis of nonequilibrium flows around a hypersonic body, NA of chemically nonequilibrium flow, topological transition of flow past some axisymmetric bodies, modeling of scalar transport in free turbulence, a contribution to general application of the vortex method. Also addressed are: vortex simulation of artificial control of mixing layers, 3D motion of vortex filaments, Navier-Stokes simulation of 2D mixing layer, active control of vortex shedding frequency by a jet, direct NS of homogeneous turbulent sheer flow, NA of fuel spray jet by Eulerian method, NS of ignition using a premixed pulsed jet, NS of a scram jet combustor flow, numerical simulation of supersonic flow CO chemical laser, adaptive grid generation using optimal control theory, NS of characteristics of the Stalker tube, imcompressible flow solver using velocity vector and a new variable, unsteady analysis of helicopter rotor.

  20. Need for Specific Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Lessons for 4th and 5th Graders

    PubMed Central

    Bea, Jennifer W.; Jacobs, Laurel; Waits, Juanita; Hartz, Vern; Martinez, Stephanie H.; Standfast, Rebecca D.; Farrell, Vanessa A.; Bawden, Margine; Whitmer, Evelyn; Misner, Scottie

    2015-01-01

    Objective Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) is linked to obesity. We hypothesized that school-based nutrition education would decrease SSB consumption. Design Self-selected interventional cohort with random selection for pre and post measurements Setting Arizona SNAP-Ed eligible schools Participants Randomly selected (9%) 4th and 5th grade classroom students Intervention The University of Arizona Nutrition Network (UANN) provided general nutrition education training and materials to teachers, to be delivered to their students. The UANN administered behavioral questionnaires to students in both Fall and Spring. Main Outcome Measure(s) Change in SSB consumption Analyses Descriptive statistics were computed for student demographics and beverage consumption on the day prior to testing. Paired t-tests evaluated change in classroom averages. Linear regression assessed potential correlates of SSB consumption. Results Fall mean SSB consumption was 1.1 (±0.2) times; mean milk and water intake were 1.6 (±0.2) and 5.2 (±0.7) times, respectively. Beverage consumption increased (3.2%) in springtime, with increased SSBs (14.4%) accounting for the majority (p=0.006). Change in SSB consumption was negatively associated with baseline SSB and water consumption, but positively associated with baseline milk fat (p≤0.05). Conclusions and Implications The results suggest the need for beverage specific education to encourage children to consume more healthful beverages in warmer weather. PMID:25239840

  1. Herniated lumbar disc

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Herniated lumbar disc is a displacement of disc material (nucleus pulposus or annulus fibrosis) beyond the intervertebral disc space. The highest prevalence is among people aged 30 to 50 years, with a male to female ratio of 2:1. There is little evidence to suggest that drug treatments are effective in treating herniated disc. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of drug treatments, non-drug treatments, and surgery for herniated lumbar disc? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 37 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acupuncture, advice to stay active, analgesics, antidepressants, bed rest, corticosteroids (epidural injections), cytokine inhibitors (infliximab), discectomy (automated percutaneous, laser, microdiscectomy, standard), exercise therapy, heat, ice, massage, muscle relaxants, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), percutaneous disc decompression, spinal manipulation, and traction. PMID:21711958

  2. Evaluations of Computed Tomography Images and Lumbar Specimens in Mimic Operations of Transverse Rotation Laminoplasty for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Xian-Wu; Liang, Yong-Hui; Zhang, Hui; Gong, Zi-Shun; Song, Hong-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Background: Laminectomy is a major method to treat lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS), but it has lots of flaws such as scar tissue can form around the dura again or spinal instability. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of transverse rotation laminoplasty (TRL) in the treatment of LSS. Methods: The mimic operations of TRL were performed both in the computerized image processing and on the lumbar specimen. Computed tomography (CT) images were either collected from 80 clinical patients with complaints of lumbago or obtained from 40 sets of lumbar specimens after rebuild of spinal canals. In the CT image processing the heights of the spinous process and laminae at L3–L5 were measured. The total length of the spinous process plus one side laminae after the operation was evaluated and compared with the length of inner margin of pedical before the operation. The areas of the vertebral canal were examined before and after the operation. Results: In the CT images, the height of spinous process of L3, L4 and L5 was 24.74 ± 3.45, 22.68 ± 5.96 and 21.54 ± 4.12 mm respectively, and that of laminae was 23.66 ± 2.32, 22.68 ± 5.36 and 20.99 ± 3.67 mm respectively (P > 0.05). Distance of inner border of pedical of L3, L4 and L5 was 23.01 ± 6.59, 24.65 ± 5.54 and 26.03 ± 7.34 mm respectively, and length of spinous process with laminae of those was 29.76 ± 4.91, 29.31 ± 6.43 and 32.53 ± 5.76 mm respectively (P < 0.05). Preoperative area of spinal canals of L3, L4 and L5 was 299.81 ± 10.09, 297.66 ± 9.54 and 308.22 ± 10.04 mm2 respectively, and postoperative area was 480.01 ± 9.33, 487.32 ± 8.65 and 501.03 ± 9.12 mm2 respectively (P < 0.05). In the human lumbar vertebrae specimen, the data similar to the former. Conclusions: The excised canal posterior was covered, and the lumbar canals enlarged by TRL. The TRL provided a new alternative in the treatment of LSS. PMID:25591561

  3. Radiotherapy in Ewing tumors of the vertebrae: Treatment results and local relapse analysis of the Chess 81/86 and EICESS 92 trials

    SciTech Connect

    Schuck, Andreas . E-mail: schuck@uni-muenster.de; Ahrens, Susanne; Schorlemer, Ines von; Kuhlen, Michaela; Paulussen, Michael; Hunold, Andrea; Gosheger, Georg; Winkelmann, Winfried; Dunst, Juergen; Willich, Normann; Juergens, Heribert

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: Treatment results in patients with Ewing tumors of the vertebrae enrolled in the Cooperative Ewing's Sarcoma Study (CESS) 81, 86, and the European Intergroup Cooperative Ewing's Sarcoma Study (EICESS) 92 trials were analyzed with special emphasis on radiation-associated factors. Patients and Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 116 patients with primary tumors of the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar vertebrae treated between 1981 and 1999. Furthermore, a relapse analysis was done on those patients who underwent radiotherapy and subsequently had a local recurrence. Results: A total of 64.6% of the patients received definitive radiotherapy; 27.5% of patients had surgery and radiotherapy. Only 4 patients (3.4%) underwent definitive surgery. Twenty-seven patients presented with metastases at diagnosis. 22.4% of the total group developed a local relapse. Among the subgroup with definitive radiotherapy, local recurrence was seen in 17 of 75 patients (22.6%). Event-free survival and survival at 5 years were 47% and 58%, respectively. Of the 14 evaluable patients with a local relapse after radiotherapy, 13 were in-field. No correlation between radiation dose and local control could be found. Conclusion: Surgery with wide resection margins is rarely possible. The results after definitive radiotherapy in vertebral tumors are comparable to those of other tumor sites when definitive radiotherapy is given. Nearly all local relapses after radiotherapy are in-field.

  4. 5th International conference on Physics and Astrophysics of Quark Gluon Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Bikash; Alam, Jan-E.; Nayak, Tapan K.

    2006-11-01

    The 5th International Conference on Physics and Astrophysics of Quark Gluon Plasma (ICPAQGP 2005) was held on 8 - 12 February 2005 at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre and Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics campus, Kolkata, India. The conference was enriched by the august presence of about 300 participants representing 18 countries across the globe. It had plenary talks and oral presentations, which form a part of these proceedings. Besides invited and contributed talks there were also a large number of poster presentations. The conference was energized by discussions of fresh experimental data from RHIC on strong elliptic flow, jet quenching, single photon spectra etc. Moreover, new theoretical results were brought to the discussion forum during this conference. Colour glass condensates, hydrodynamical flow, jet quenching and sQGP were intensely debated by the participants. The highlight of ICPAQGP 2005 was the presentation of fresh experimental results from the RHIC-IV run. The ICPAQGP series, since its inception in 1988, has placed emphasis on the role of quark matter in the fields of astrophysics and cosmology. The subsequent conferences held in 1993, 1997, 2001 and 2005 had also retained this focus. The conference was preceded by a Fest Colloquium in honour of Professor Bikash Sinha. Professor Sinha, regarded as the pioneer in establishing quark gluon plasma research in India, has successfully encouraged a group of young Indian researchers to devote themselves wholeheartedly to QGP research - both theoretical and experimental. Members of the International Advisory Committee played a pivotal role mainly in the selection of speakers. The contributions of the Organizing Committee in all aspects, from selecting the contributory talks posters down to arranging local hospitality, were much appreciated. We thank the members of both committees for making ICPAQGP 2005 an interesting platform for scientific deliberation. The ICPAQGP 2005 was supported financially by

  5. Freezing Rain Diagnostic Study Over Eastern Canada Using the 5th Generation Canadian Regional Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresson, É.; Paquin, D.; Laprise, R.; Theriault, J. M.; de Elía, R.

    2015-12-01

    Northeastern North America is often affected by freezing rain events during the cold season. They can have significant consequences (from road accidents, to severe power outages) despite their intensity and duration. The 1998 Ice Storm over Eastern Canada and Northeastern United States is an example of an extreme event with catastrophic consequences. A total of up to 150 mm of ice accumulated during 10 days were observed in some areas. This natural disaster has highlighted the need to better understand how such phenomena will evolve with future climate scenario. The goal is to investigate the feasibility of using regional climate modeling to diagnose the occurrence of freezing rain events over Quebec (Canada). To address this issue, we used the 5th generation of the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5), from 1979 to 2014. An empirical method (Bourgouin, 2000) developed to determine the type of winter precipitations was chosen to diagnose freezing rain events. The study focused in the Montreal area and the St. Lawrence River Valley (Quebec, Canada). The sensitivity of the model to horizontal resolution was explored by using three resolutions: 0.44°, 0.22° and 0.11°. In general, freezing rain was diagnosed consistently at all resolutions but the higher one (0.11°) produced more realistic results due to a better representation of the orography. Using the higher resolution, the results showed that the climatology of the freezing rain occurrence in the Montreal area is comparable to available observations. It also suggested that the role of the specific orography of the region with the St. Lawrence River Valley can impact the characteristics of freezing rain events in this area. Overall, this study will contribute to a better preparedness for such events in the future. High resolution regional climate simulations are essential to improve the reproduction of local scale orographically-forced phenomena.

  6. Black sea surface temperature anomaly on 5th August 1998 and the ozone layer thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manev, A.; Palazov, K.; Raykov, St.; Ivanov, V.

    2003-04-01

    BLACK SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE ANOMALY ON 5th AUGUST 1998 AND THE OZONE LAYER THICKNESS A. Manev , K. Palazov , St. Raykov, V. Ivanov Solar Terrestrial Influences Laboratory, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences amanev@abv.bg This paper focuses on the peculiarities of the Black Sea surface temperature anomaly on 05.08.1998. Researching the daily temperature changes in a number of control fields in the course of 8-10 years, we have found hidden correlations and anomalous deviations in the sea surface temperatures on a global scale. Research proves the statistical reliability of the temperature anomaly on the entire Black Sea surface registered on 04.-05.08.1998. In the course of six days around these dates the temperatures are up to 2°C higher than the maximum temperatures in this period in the other seven years. A more detailed analysis of the dynamics of the anomaly required the investigation of five Black Sea surface characteristic zones of 75x75 km. The analysis covers the period 20 days - 10 days before and 10 days after the anomaly. Investigations aimed at interpreting the reasons for the anomalous heating of the surface waters. We have tried to analyze the correlation between sea surface temperature and the global ozone above the Black Sea by using simultaneously data from the two satellite systems NOAA and TOMS. Methods of processing and comparing the data from the two satellite systems are described. The correlation coefficients values for the five characteristic zones are very high and close, which proves that the character of the correlation ozone - sea surface temperature is the same for the entire Black Sea surface. Despite the high correlation coefficient, we have proved that causality between the two phenomena at the time of the anomaly does not exit.

  7. Development of a Three-Dimensional Finite Element Chest Model for the 5(th) Percentile Female.

    PubMed

    Kimpara, Hideyuki; Lee, Jong B; Yang, King H; King, Albert I; Iwamoto, Masami; Watanabe, Isao; Miki, Kazuo

    2005-11-01

    Several three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models of the human body have been developed to elucidate injury mechanisms due to automotive crashes. However, these models are mainly focused on 50(th) percentile male. As a first step towards a better understanding of injury biomechanics in the small female, a 3D FE model of a 5(th) percentile female human chest (FEM-5F) has been developed and validated against experimental data obtained from two sets of frontal impact, one set of lateral impact, two sets of oblique impact and a series of ballistic impacts. Two previous FE models, a small female Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS-AF05) occupant version 1.0Beta (Kimpara et al. 2002) and the Wayne State University Human Thoracic Model (WSUHTM, Wang 1995 and Shah et al. 2001) were integrated and modified for this model development. The model incorporated not only geometrical gender differences, such as location of the internal organs and structure of the bony skeleton, but also the biomechanical differences of the ribs due to gender. It includes a detailed description of the sternum, ribs, costal cartilage, thoracic spine, skin, superficial muscles, intercostal muscles, heart, lung, diaphragm, major blood vessels and simplified abdominal internal organs and has been validated against a series of six cadaveric experiments on the small female reported by Nahum et al. (1970), Kroell et al. (1974), Viano (1989), Talantikite et al. (1998) and Wilhelm (2003). Results predicted by the model were well-matched to these experimental data for a range of impact speeds and impactor masses. More research is needed in order to increase the accuracy of predicting rib fractures so that the mechanisms responsible for small female injury can be more clearly defined. PMID:17096277

  8. Patterns of Irregular Burials in Western Europe (1st-5th Century A.D.)

    PubMed Central

    Milella, Marco; Mariotti, Valentina; Belcastro, Maria Giovanna; Knüsel, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Irregular burials (IB—burials showing features that contrast with the majority of others in their geographic and chronological context) have been the focus of archaeological study because of their relative rarity and enigmatic appearance. Interpretations of IB often refer to supposed fear of the dead or to social processes taking place in time-specific contexts. However, a comprehensive and quantitative analysis of IB for various geographical contexts is still lacking, a fact that hampers any discussion of these burials on a larger scale. Methods Here, we collected a bibliographic dataset of 375 IB from both Britain and Continental Europe, altogether spanning a time period from the 1st to the 5th century AD. Each burial has been coded according to ten dichotomous variables, further analyzed by means of chi-squared tests on absolute frequencies, non-metric multidimensional scaling, and cluster analysis. Results Even acknowledging the limits of this study, and in particular the bias represented by the available literature, our results point to interesting patterns. Geographically, IB show a contrast between Britain and Continental Europe, possibly related to historical processes specific to these regions. Different types of IB (especially prone depositions and depositions with the cephalic extremity displaced) present a series of characteristics and associations between features that permit a more detailed conceptualization of these occurrences from a socio-cultural perspective that aids to elucidate their funerary meaning. Conclusions and Significance Altogether, the present work stresses the variability of IB, and the need to contextualize them in a proper archaeological and historical context. It contributes to the discussion of IB by providing a specific geographic and chronological frame of reference that supports a series of hypotheses about the cultural processes possibly underlying their occurrence. PMID:26115408

  9. 3D CT spine data segmentation and analysis of vertebrae bone lesions.

    PubMed

    Peter, R; Malinsky, M; Ourednicek, P; Jan, J

    2013-01-01

    A method is presented aiming at detecting and classifying bone lesions in 3D CT data of human spine, via Bayesian approach utilizing Markov random fields. A developed algorithm for necessary segmentation of individual possibly heavily distorted vertebrae based on 3D intensity modeling of vertebra types is presented as well. PMID:24110203

  10. Ivory vertebra on 18F-sodium fluoride scan: an old sign in a new modality.

    PubMed

    Oldan, Jorge Daniel; Kuzminski, Samuel; James, Olga

    2014-11-01

    We report a case of ivory vertebra on 18F-sodium fluoride. A prostate cancer patient had a 18F-sodium fluoride PET scan to evaluate overall spread of disease. In addition to other findings of metastatic disease, the patient had an ivory vertebra. PMID:24566404

  11. Experimental study using diode laser in discs: the healing process in discs and adjacent vertebrae after laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naga, Kumi; Nakai, Sadaaki; Maehara, Kazuyuki; Nishimoto, Seiji

    2004-09-01

    The direct and secondary changes following diode laser irradiation of intervertebral discs were studied in rabbits. A quartz fiber was inserted into the discs, and laser irradiation was applied. Subsequently, the lumbar vertebrae were extracted en bloc, and subjected to sagittal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and histologic examination immediately after irradiation, and 3, 12, and 24 weeks after irradiation. MR images showed low signal intensity of the intervertebral discs on T2-weighted images 3 weeks after irradiation, which remained unchanged to 24 weeks. Although the signal intensity of the adjacent vertebral bodies remained unchanged on T1-weighted images, the intensity was high on T2-weighted images 3 weeks after irradiation, but had reverted to normal or was low 12 to 24 weeks after irradiation. On histologic examination, the inner layer of the annulus fibrosus was seen to protrude into the void created by vaporization of the nucleus pulposus 3 weeks after irradiation. Multinuclear chondrocytes were observed, as if the disc was being reconstructed. Fibrous tissue in the epiphysis and metaphysis was observed soon after irradiation but decreased over time and was replaced by normal bone marrow.

  12. Failure of the human lumbar motion-segments resulting from anterior shear fatigue loading.

    PubMed

    Skrzypiec, Daniel M; Nagel, Katrin; Sellenschloh, Kay; Klein, Anke; Püschel, Klaus; Morlock, Michael M; Huber, Gerd

    2016-08-01

    An in-vitro experiment was designed to investigate the mode of failure following shear fatigue loading of lumbar motion-segments. Human male lumbar motion-segments (age 32-42 years, n=6) were immersed in Ringer solution at 37°C and repeatedly loaded, using a modified materials testing machine. Fatigue loading consisted of a sinusoidal shear load from 0 N to 1,500 N (750 N±750 N) applied to the upper vertebra of the motion-segment, at a frequency of 5 Hz. During fatigue experiments, several failure events were observed in the dynamic creep curves. Post-test x-ray, CT and dissection revealed that all specimens had delamination of the intervertebral disc. Anterior shear fatigue predominantly resulted in fracture of the apophyseal processes of the upper vertebrae (n=4). Exposure to the anterior shear fatigue loading caused motion-segment instability and resulted in vertebral slip corresponding to grade I and 'mild' grade II spondylolisthesis, as observed clinically. PMID:26829975

  13. Failure of the human lumbar motion-segments resulting from anterior shear fatigue loading

    PubMed Central

    SKRZYPIEC, Daniel M.; NAGEL, Katrin; SELLENSCHLOH, Kay; KLEIN, Anke; PÜSCHEL, Klaus; MORLOCK, Michael M.; HUBER, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    An in-vitro experiment was designed to investigate the mode of failure following shear fatigue loading of lumbar motion-segments. Human male lumbar motion-segments (age 32–42 years, n=6) were immersed in Ringer solution at 37°C and repeatedly loaded, using a modified materials testing machine. Fatigue loading consisted of a sinusoidal shear load from 0 N to 1,500 N (750 N±750 N) applied to the upper vertebra of the motion-segment, at a frequency of 5 Hz. During fatigue experiments, several failure events were observed in the dynamic creep curves. Post-test x-ray, CT and dissection revealed that all specimens had delamination of the intervertebral disc. Anterior shear fatigue predominantly resulted in fracture of the apophyseal processes of the upper vertebrae (n=4). Exposure to the anterior shear fatigue loading caused motion-segment instability and resulted in vertebral slip corresponding to grade I and ‘mild’ grade II spondylolisthesis, as observed clinically. PMID:26829975

  14. Tearing of the left iliac vessels in lumbar surgery revealed by multiphase post-mortem CT-angiography (MPMCTA).

    PubMed

    Vilariño Villaverde, Raquel; Bruguier, Christine; Zerlauth, Jean-Baptiste; De Froidmont, Sébastien; Grabherr, Silke

    2016-05-01

    Lumbar surgery is regularly applied in cases of discal hernia and acquired lumbar stenosis. In this report, we present a case of a laceration in the left common iliac artery and iliac vein during a lumbar surgery and discuss the literature concerning this kind of event. In the present case, the surgical procedure was followed by a sudden decrease in blood pressure, and the surgeon discovered an intra-abdominal haemorrhage that led to the patient's death. Postmortem investigation confirmed the intra-abdominal haemorrhage and revealed a laceration of the proximal portion of the left common iliac artery and left iliac vein. The source of bleeding could be detected especially thanks to multi-phase postmortem CT angiography (MPMCTA), which was performed prior to autopsy. We also found a haemorrhagic path through the intervertebral disc between the L4-L5 vertebrae, caused by the surgeon's instrument (pituitary rongeur). To date, a few cases have been described of iatrogenic death resulting from a tear in the iliac vessels during lumbar surgery, but not from the postmortem perspective. Such investigations have recently been modernized thanks to the introduction of forensic imaging. In particular, MPMCTA offers new possibilities in postmortem investigations and can be considered the new gold standard for investigating deaths related to medical intervention. Here we describe the first case of a death during lumbar surgery using this new method. PMID:27161923

  15. Outcome of Salvage Lumbar Fusion after Lumbar Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Deutsch, Harel

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective review. Purpose This study aims to define the role of lumbar fusion for persistent back pains after the lumbar disc replacement. Overview of Literature Little is written about lumbar fusion after optimally placed lumbar arthroplasty in patients with persistent lower back pains. Methods Retrospective review of cases of lumbar artificial disc requiring subsequent fusion because of persistent back pains despite optimally placed artificial discs. Outcomes were evaluated using Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and visual analogue scale (VAS). Clinical improvements indicated 25% improvement in ODI and VAS values. Results Five patients met the study criteria. The mean baseline ODI for the five patients was 52. The mean baseline VAS scores for back and leg pains were 76 and 26, respectively. All the five patients had optimally placed prosthesis. The indication for surgery was the constant low back pains found in all the patients. Revision surgery involved disc explantation and fusion in two of the patients and posterolateral fusion without removing the prosthesis in three. None of the patients achieved adequate pain control after the revision surgery despite the solid bony fusion documented by postoperative computed tomography. The mean ODI value after the fusion was 55. The mean values for back and leg pains VAS were 72 and 30, respectively. Conclusions Lack of good pain relief after successful lumbar artifical disc replacements may indicate different etiology for the back pains. The spine-treating surgeons should have a high threshold level to perform salvage fusion at that level. PMID:24596600

  16. WWW.com: A Brief Intervention to Bolster a 5th Grader's Regrouping Skills in Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waugh, Matthew; Harrison, Gina L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a brief math intervention using cognitive behaviour instruction (CBI) supplemented by a mnemonic cue system for a 5th grade student with math computation and fluency difficulties. Regrouping operations in addition and subtraction were the targeted skills. Curriculum-based measurements were conducted at the end…

  17. Proceedings of the International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM) (5th, Chania, Greece, June 19-21, 2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Educational Data Mining Society, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The 5th International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM 2012) is held in picturesque Chania on the beautiful Crete island in Greece, under the auspices of the International Educational Data Mining Society (IEDMS). The EDM 2012 conference is a leading international forum for high quality research that mines large data sets of educational…

  18. Comparing Science Learning among 4th-, 5th-, and 6th-Grade Students: STS versus Textbook-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yager, Robert E.; Choi, AeRan; Yager, Stuart O.; Akcay, Hakan

    2009-01-01

    Fifteen 4th-, 5th-, and 6th-grade teachers from five school districts each taught two sections of science--one with a Science-Technology-Society (STS) approach and the other with a more traditional textbook approach in which basic science concepts were the major organizers. Local, current, and personally relevant issues provided the context and…

  19. Process Evaluation of "Learn Young, Learn Fair": A Stress Management Programme for 5th and 6th Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraag, Gerda; Van Breukelen, Gerard; Lamberts, Petra; Vugts, Odette; Kok, Gerjo; Fekkes, Minne; Abu-Saad, Huda Huijer

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the process evaluation of a stress management program called "Learn Young, Learn Fair" for 5th and 6th graders. Studies, reviews and meta-analyses of prevention programs report that a common limitation in studies is the restricted documentation of process factors that contribute to the success of interventions. Program…

  20. Communicating Science to Impact Learning? A Phenomenological Inquiry into 4th and 5th Graders' Perceptions of Science Information Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelmez Burakgazi, Sevinc; Yildirim, Ali; Weeth Feinstein, Noah

    2016-01-01

    Rooted in science education and science communication studies, this study examines 4th and 5th grade students' perceptions of science information sources (SIS) and their use in communicating science to students. It combines situated learning theory with uses and gratifications theory in a qualitative phenomenological analysis. Data were gathered…

  1. From Cooks to Carpenters: Measuring - A Saleable Work Skill. Occupation Simulation Packet. Grades 5th-6th.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Helena

    This teacher's guide contains simulated work experiences for 5th and 6th grade students using the isolated skill concept - measuring. Teacher instructions include objectives, evaluation, and sequence of activities. The guide contains pre-tests and post-tests with instructions and answer keys. Three pre-skill activities are suggested, such as…

  2. Brief Report: Data on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales (5th Ed.) in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coolican, Jamesie; Bryson, Susan E.; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2008-01-01

    The Fifth Edition of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales (SB5; Roid, G. H. (2003). "Stanford Binet intelligence scales" (5th ed.). Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing) is relatively new, with minimal published research on general populations and none with special populations. The present study provides information on the cognitive profiles of…

  3. Sensitivity analysis of the position of the intervertebral centres of reaction in upright standing--a musculoskeletal model investigation of the lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Zander, Thomas; Dreischarf, Marcel; Schmidt, Hendrik

    2016-03-01

    The loads between adjacent vertebrae can be generalised as a single spatial force acting at the intervertebral centre of reaction. The exact position in vivo is unknown. However, in rigid body musculoskeletal models that simulate upright standing, the position is generally assumed to be located at the discs' centres of rotation. The influence of the antero-posterior position of the centre of reaction on muscle activity and joint loads remains unknown. Thus, by using an inverse dynamic model, we varied the position of the centre of reaction at L4/L5 (i), simultaneously at all lumbar levels (ii), and by optimisation at all lumbar levels (iii). Variation of the centres of reaction can considerably influence the activities of lumbar muscles and the joint forces between vertebrae. The optimisation of the position of the centre of reaction reduced the maximum lumbar muscle activity and axial joint forces at L4/L5 from 17.5% to 1.5% of the muscle strength and from 490 N to 390 N, respectively. Thus, when studying individual postures, such as for therapeutic or preventive evaluations, potential differences between the centre of reaction and the centre of rotation might influence the study results. These differences could be taken into account by sensitivity analyses. PMID:26774670

  4. Health in the 5th 5-years Development Plan of Iran: Main Challenges, General Policies and Strategies.

    PubMed

    Vosoogh Moghaddam, A; Damari, B; Alikhani, S; Salarianzedeh, Mh; Rostamigooran, N; Delavari, A; Larijani, B

    2013-01-01

    Access to the right to the highest attainable level of health is a constitutional right that obliges governments and other players to take step to increase all individuals' chances of obtaining good health. At the least, health and education are two crucial requirements for this as well. Iran's vision 2025 is going to lead the country to a developed state with the highest rank of economic, scientific and technological status in the region. Enjoying health, welfare, food security, social security, equal opportunities, etc, are also considered as part of characteristics of Iranian society in 2025. Although health system of Iran has many achievements in providing health services specially for the poor following the Islamic Revolution of 1979, but the evidences gathered to develop the 5(th) 5-years economical, social and cultural plan (5(th)5YDP:2011-2015), listed a variety of main challenges in stewardship, financing, resources generation and service provision functions of the existing health system. Thus, to overcome the main challenges, about 11% of general policies of 5(th)5YDP are directly address health related issues with emphasizing on healthy human and comprehensive health approach with considering: Integration of policy making, planning, evaluation, supervision and public financing; Developing both quantity and quality of health insurance system and reducing out-of-pocket expenditures for health services to 30% by the end of the 5th plan. The strategies of 5(th)5YDP adopted by the parliament as an Act will change the health system fundamentally through tuning the main drivers; so, its implementation needs brave leaders, capable managers, motivated technical staff and social mobilization. PMID:23865015

  5. FOREWORD: 5th International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vourc'h, Eric; Rodet, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to the scientific research presented during the 5th International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems, NCMIP 2015 (http://complement.farman.ens-cachan.fr/NCMIP_2015.html). This workshop took place at Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan, on May 29, 2015. The prior editions of NCMIP also took place in Cachan, France, firstly within the scope of ValueTools Conference, in May 2011, and secondly at the initiative of Institut Farman, in May 2012, May 2013 and May 2014. The New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (NCMIP) workshop focused on recent advances in the resolution of inverse problems. Indeed, inverse problems appear in numerous scientific areas such as geophysics, biological and medical imaging, material and structure characterization, electrical, mechanical and civil engineering, and finances. The resolution of inverse problems consists of estimating the parameters of the observed system or structure from data collected by an instrumental sensing or imaging device. Its success firstly requires the collection of relevant observation data. It also requires accurate models describing the physical interactions between the instrumental device and the observed system, as well as the intrinsic properties of the solution itself. Finally, it requires the design of robust, accurate and efficient inversion algorithms. Advanced sensor arrays and imaging devices provide high rate and high volume data; in this context, the efficient resolution of the inverse problem requires the joint development of new models and inversion methods, taking computational and implementation aspects into account. During this one-day workshop, researchers had the opportunity to bring to light and share new techniques and results in the field of inverse problems. The topics of the workshop were: algorithms and computational aspects of inversion, Bayesian estimation, Kernel methods, learning methods

  6. PREFACE: 5th International EEIGM/AMASE/FORGEMAT Conference on Advanced Materials Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayadi, Zoubir; Czerwiec, Thierry; Horwat, David; Jamart, Brigitte

    2009-07-01

    This issue of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, contains manuscripts of talks that will be presented at the 5th International EEIGM/AMASE/FORGEMAT Conference on Advanced Materials Research that will be held at the Ecole Européenne d'Ingénieurs en Génie des Matériaux - European School of Materials Science and Engineering (EEIGM) in Nancy on November 4-5 2009. The conference will be organized by the EEIGM. The aim of the conference is to bring together scientists from the six European universities involved in the EEIGM and in the ''Erasmus Mundus'' AMASE Master (Advanced Materials Science and Engineering) programmes and in the Tempus FORGEMAT European project: Nancy-Université - EEIGM/INPL (Nancy, France), Universität des Saarlandes (Saarbrücken, Germany), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya - ETSEIB (Barcelona, Spain), Luleå Tekniska Universitet (Luleå, Sweden), Universidad Politecnica de Valencia - ETSII (Valencia, Spain) and AGH University of Science and Technology, (Kralow, Poland). This conference is also open to other universities who have strong links with the EEIGM and it will provide a forum for exchange of ideas, cooperation and future directions by means of regular presentations, posters and a round-table discussion. After careful refereeing of all manuscripts, equally shared between the four editors, 26 papers have been selected for publication in this issue. The papers are grouped together into different subject categories: polymers, metallurgy, ceramics, composites and nanocomposites, simulation and characterization. The editors would like to take this opportunity to thank all the participants who submitted their manuscripts during the conference and responded in time to the editors' request at every stage from reviewing to final acceptance. The editors are indebted to all the reviewers for painstakingly reviewing the papers at very short notice. Special thanks are called for the sponsors of the conference including

  7. News from the "5th International Meeting on Inflammatory Bowel Diseases" CAPRI 2010.

    PubMed

    Latella, Giovanni; Fiocchi, Claudio; Caprili, Renzo

    2010-12-01

    At the "5th International Meeting on Inflammatory Bowel Diseases selected topics of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including the environment, genetics, the gut flora, the cell response and immunomodulation were discussed in order to better understand specific clinical and therapeutic aspects. The incidence of IBD continues to rise, both in low and in high-incidence areas. It is believed that factors associated with 'Westernization' may be conditioning the expression of these disorders. The increased incidence of IBD among migrants from low-incidence to high-incidence areas within the same generation suggests a strong environmental influence. The development of genome-wide association scanning (GWAS) technologies has lead to the discovery of more than 100 IBD loci. Some, as the Th 17 pathway genes, are shared between Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), while other are IBD subtype-specific (autophagy genes, epithelial barrier genes). Disease-specific therapies targeting these pathways should be developed. Epigenetic regulation of the inflammatory response also appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of IBD. The importance of gut flora in intestinal homeostasis and inflammation was reinforced, the concepts of eubiosis and dysbiosis were introduced, and some strategies for reverting dysbiosis to a homeostatic state of eubiosis were proposed. The current status of studies on the human gut microbiota metagenome, metaprotome, and metabolome was also presented. The cell response in inflammation, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress responses, autophagy and inflammasome-dependent events were related to IBD pathogenesis. It was suggested that inflammation-associated ER stress responses may be a common trait in the pathogenesis of various chronic immune and metabolic diseases. How innate and adaptive immunity signaling events can perpetuate chronic inflammation was discussed extensively. Signal transduction pathways provide intracellular

  8. Storm Peak Laboratory 5th-6th Grade Climate and Weather Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCubbin, I. B.; Hallar, A. G.

    2008-12-01

    science. At the end of the day each student has a data sheet with measurements recorded from 5 locations of different elevations to take back to the classroom. Following the field trip, SPL scientists and educators visit the school for a follow-up to help children grasp concepts, represent their data set collected in graphical formats, answer questions, and evaluate students" learning. Currently, approximately 250 students annually participate in the SPL 5th and 6th grade climate education program.

  9. GPU accelerated registration of a statistical shape model of the lumbar spine to 3D ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khallaghi, Siavash; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Gong, Ren Hui; Chen, Elvis; Gill, Sean; Boisvert, Jonathan; Pichora, David; Borschneck, Dan; Fichtinger, Gabor; Mousavi, Parvin

    2011-03-01

    We present a parallel implementation of a statistical shape model registration to 3D ultrasound images of the lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4). Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy optimization technique, along with Linear Correlation of Linear Combination similarity metric have been used, to improve the robustness and capture range of the registration approach. Instantiation and ultrasound simulation have been implemented on a graphics processing unit for a faster registration. Phantom studies show a mean target registration error of 3.2 mm, while 80% of all the cases yield target registration error of below 3.5 mm.

  10. PREFACE: 5th DAE-BRNS Workshop on Hadron Physics (Hadron 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jyoti Roy, Bidyut; Chatterjee, A.; Kailas, S.

    2012-07-01

    The 5th DAE-BRNS Workshop on Hadron Physics was held at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai from 31 October to 4 November 2011. This workshop series, supported by the Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences, Department of Atomic Energy (BRNS, DAE), Govt. of India, began ten years ago with the first one being held at BARC, Mumbai in October 2002. The second one was held at Puri in 2005, organized jointly by Institute of Physics, Bhubneswar and Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata. The 3rd and 4th ones took place, respectively, at Shantineketan in 2006, organized by Visva Bharati University, and at Aligarh in 2008, organized by Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh. The aim of the present workshop was to bring together the experts and young researchers in the field of hadron physics (both experiment and theory) and to have in-depth discussions on the current research activities in this field. The format of the workshop was: a series of review lectures by various experts from India and abroad, the presentation of advanced research results by researchers in the field, and a review of major experimental programs being planned and pursued in major laboratories in the field of hadron physics, with the aim of providing a platform for the young participants for interaction with their peers. The upcoming international FAIR facility at GSI is a unique future facility for studies of hadron physics in the charm sector and hyper nuclear physics. The Indian hadron physics community is involved in this mega science project and is working with the PANDA collaboration on the development of detectors, simulation and software tools for the hadron physics programme with antiprotons at FAIR. A one-day discussion session was held at this workshop to discuss India-PANDA activities, the current collaboration status and the work plan. This volume presents the workshop proceedings consisting of lectures and seminars which were delivered during the workshop. We are thankful to

  11. EDITORIAL: 5th International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry, PIV'03

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Hyung Jin; Kim, Kyung Chun; Lee, Sang Joon

    2004-06-01

    The advent of particle image velocimetry (PIV) in the late 20th century brought about a paradigm change in the technique of flow field measurement, from point measurement to field measurement. This revolution is a result of the recent advances in computers, video cameras, optics and lasers and a deeper understanding of the theory of image processing, and such advances continue by keeping pace with leading-edge technologies such as biotechnology, nanotechnology and so forth. Recently, the PIV technique has been extended in new directions such as stereoscopic PIV, holographic PIV, dynamic PIV, micro PIV and simultaneous PLIF/PIV techniques. This special issue contains research dealing with many of the most recent developments in PIV. The papers were selected from more than 120 papers presented at the 5th International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV'03) held in Busan, Korea, during 22-24 September 2003. Special thanks are due to the invited speakers who have contributed their original work to this special issue, which will enhance the academic reputation of Measurement Science and Technology (MST). Fourteen papers were selected by the Scientific Committee of PIV'03. After the standard refereeing process of MST, nine papers were finally accepted for publication. The selected papers can be categorized into three groups: new PIV algorithms and evaluation methods, three-dimensional velocity field measurement techniques and micro/bio PIV applications. As a new PIV technique, Lecuona et al introduced PIV evaluation algorithms for industrial applications having high shear flow structures. Billy et al used a single-pixel-based cross-correlation method for measuring flow inside a microchannel. Foucaut et al carried out PIV optimization using spectral analysis for the study of turbulent flows. Doh et al applied a 3D PTV method to the wake behind a sphere using three CCD cameras. Hori and Sakakibara developed a high-speed scanning stereoscopic PIV system and

  12. The 5th Conference on Asian Trends in Prostate Cancer Hormone Therapy.

    PubMed

    Akaza, Hideyuki; Moore, Malcolm A; Chang, Shu-Jen; Cheng, Christopher; Choi, Han Yong; Esuvaranathan, Kesavan; Hinotsu, Shiro; Hong, Sung-Joon; Kim, Choung-Soo; Kim, Wun-Jae; Murai, Masaru; Naito, Seiji; Soebadi, Doddy; Song, Jae-Mann; Umbas, Rainy; Usami, Michiyuki; Xia, Shujie; Yang, Chi-Rei

    2007-01-01

    The Conference on Asian Trends in Prostate Cancer Hormone Therapy is an annual forum for Asian urologists now in its 5th year. The 2006 conference, held in Bali, Indonesia, was attended by 27 leading urologic oncologists from China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan and featured a packed program of presentations and discussions on a wide range of topics such as relationships among clinicians and the newly opened Asia Regional Office for Cancer Control of the International Union Against Cancer (UICC), detection rates of prostate cancer by biopsy in each of the 6 Asian countries, and favored treatment modalities for hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) in each country. The first session of the conference kicked off with a keynote lecture entitled "Activities of the UICC ARO". UICC's new office will be the nerve center for its activities in the Asia region. Along with the Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention (APOCP), UICC aims to shift the focus of attention to cancer control. As such APOCP's long-running publication the APJCP is to be re-launched as the Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Control. Although UICC is primarily concerned with cancer, several risk factors for cancer are common also to other non-communicable diseases such as diabetes and heart disease, and an important strategy is to implement measures to control these various pathologic conditions as a whole. Apart from contributing to an Asian prostate cancer registry the UICC-ARO will provide training courses, working groups, and assistance in collecting and processing data. The keynote lecture was followed by a roundtable discussion on possible ways in which clinicians from each Asian country can work with UICC. A number of suggestions were put forth including better registration, epidemiology research, possible implementation of UICC prostate cancer guidelines, early detection and screening, and roles of diet and phytotherapy. The underlying reasons for the large but

  13. PREFACE: 5th International Workshop on Top Quark Physics (TOP2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamanna, G.; Boisvert, V.; Cerrito, L.; Khan, A.; Moretti, S.; Owen, M.; Schwanenberger, C.

    2013-07-01

    The 5th International Workshop on Top Quark Physics (TOP 2012) took place in Winchester, UK, from the 16-21 September. It gathered students as well as people active in the top quark sector and provided a framework to highlight the newest results and matters related to top quark physics. Discovered in 1995, the top quark is the sixth and heaviest of all quarks, and it is the only one with a lifetime short enough to be observed 'naked'. This makes it an important testing ground in the search for new physics. In fact, the fact of its mass being so much larger than the other quarks, hints at its special role in the Higgs mechanism. For the same reason, in many models of New Physics, new heavy resonances are expected to couple mostly with top quarks. Even if no new particles are observed, the direct correlation between its angular momentum and that of its detectable decay products allows us to probe indirectly New Physics in action when top quarks are created. In this edition of the TOP conference series, for the first time, the agenda was equally balanced between 'traditional' measurements and the now vast number of searches for physics BSM in the top quark sector, thanks mostly to the amount of data collected at the LHC in its Run I. New results were presented by both the Tevatron and the LHC collaborations: improved ttbar and single top cross-section measurements, refined techniques to measure the top quark mass and a large number of results on properties such as spin correlation and W boson polarization in top quark decays were shown. More technical discussions on the experimental issues, both from the detector and the simulation side also took place, drawing together experimentalists and theorists. Reviews of the latest results on ttbar asymmetry both from CDF and D0 and from ATLAS and CMS were shown, and theorists active in the field made some interesting points on this hot topic. Additionally, results on the search for fourth generation fermions and new

  14. PREFACE: The 5th International Conference on Radiotherapy Gel Dosimetry (DOSGEL 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maris, Thomas G.; Pappas, Evangelos

    2009-07-01

    The International Conference on Radiotherapy Gel Dosimetry (DOSGEL) is held every two years. Its purpose is to bring together basic science and clinical researchers, medical physicists and clinicians from around the world to discuss the state-of-the-art of the gel dosimetry technique and to set the directions and trends for its future improvements. Gel dosimetry can be broadly defined as using a gel that can react to the absorption of ionizing radiation, and that can retain this information which can subsequently be retrieved by an external imaging modality. Examples of radiation-sensitive gels include, but are not limited to, polymer gel dosimeters, Fricke gel dosimeters and others. Imaging modalities that are of general use in this field are (in alphabetical order) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical light computed tomography and x-ray computed tomography. This volume comprises the proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Radiotherapy Gel Dosimetry (DOSGEL 2008). The conference, organised by the University of Crete, Medical Physics Department, took place in Hersonissos, Crete, Greece from 29 September to 3 October 2008. The meeting aimed to continue the series of biannual DOSGEL conferences and focused on the promotion of gel dosimetry techniques by setting the trends for their future improvements. The main scientific session topics of DOSGEL 2008 were the following: Chemistry and fundamental properties of polymer gel dosimeters Gel dosimetry with Optical Computed Tomography Gel dosimetry with Magnetic Resonance Imaging Gel dosimetry with other than Optical CT and MR scan Techniques Other 3D dosimeters Gel dosimetry applications Local Organizing Committee Thomas G Maris (University of Crete, Greece, Chairman DOSGEL 2008) John Damilakis (University of Crete, Greece) Evangelos Pappas (University of Crete, Greece) Antonios Papadakis (University of Crete, Greece) Fotini Zacharopoulou (University of Crete, Greece) John Stratakis (University of Crete

  15. Lumbar Facet Joint Motion in Patients with Degenerative Spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Qi; Wang, Shaobai; Shin, Jae-Hyuk; Li, Guoan; Wood, Kirkham B.

    2012-01-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Objective To investigate the in vivo biomechanical effect of degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis (DLS) on the motion of the facet joint during various functional weight-bearing activities. Summary of Background Data Although the morphological changes of the facet joints in patients with DLS have been reported in a few studies, no data has been reported on the kinematics of these facet joints. Methods Ten patients with DLS at L4–L5 were studied. Each patient underwent a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan to obtain three-dimensional (3D) models of the lumbar vertebrae from L2–L5 as well as a dual fluoroscopic imaging scan in different postures: flexion-extension, left-right bending and left-right torsion. The positions of the vertebrae were reproduced by matching the MRI-based vertebral models to the fluoroscopic images. The kinematics of the facet joint and the ranges of motion (ROMs) were compared with those of healthy subjects and those of patients with degenerative disc diseases (DDD) previously published. Results In DLS patients, the range of rotation of the facet joints was significantly less at the DLS level (L4–L5) than that at the adjacent levels (L2–L3 and L3–L4), while the range of translation was similar at all levels. The range of rotation at the facet joints of the DLS level decreased compared to those of both the DDD patients and healthy subjects at the corresponding vertebral level (L4–L5), while no significant difference was found in the range of translation. The ROM of facet joints in DLS and in DDD patients was similar at the adjacent levels (L2–L3 and L3–L4). Conclusion The range of rotation decreased at the facet joints at the DLS level (L4–L5) in patients compared to those in healthy subjects and DDD patients. This decrease in range of rotation implies that the DLS disease may cause restabilization of the joint. The data may help the selection of conservative treatment or different

  16. Percutaneous vertebroplasty for Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the lumbar spine in an adult: Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    FENG, FEI; TANG, HAI; CHEN, HAO; JIA, PU; BAO, LI; LI, JIN-JUN

    2013-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is extremely rare in the lumbar spine of adults. The radiological features typically manifest as vertebral tumors. The exact etiology of LCH remains unknown. Langerhans cells may cause local or systemic effects. The most frequent sites of these bony lesions are the skull, femur, mandible, pelvis and spine. To date, only 3 spinal LCH cases treated by percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) have been reported. The present study reports a case of LCH of the fourth lumbar vertebra (L4) in a 51-year-old male with a 10-day history of low back pain, limited waist motion and right lower limb numbness. The patient was treated using PVP. The use of PVP for treating LCH of the spine was successful. The present study provides an up-to-date literature overview of LCH. PMID:23251253

  17. Socioeconomic assessment of the proposed inactivation of the 5th Fighter Interceptor Squadron Minot Air Force Base, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Kerley, C.R.; Sage, P.L.; Fichera, J.P.; Lufkin, P.; Stadelman, D.

    1988-12-01

    This assessment examines the potential socioeconomic impacts of inactivating the 5th Fighter Interceptor Squadron (FIS) at Minot Air Force Base (AFB), North Dakota. The study focuses on employment, population, and income impacts and estimates their effects on housing, community services, utilities, transportation, recreation and tourism, and public finance. This assessment is intended primarily for the use of Air Force and community planners concerned with the local consequences of the inactivation. 10 refs., 46 tabs.

  18. [Congenital lumbar hernia and bilateral renal agenesis].

    PubMed

    Barrero Candau, R; Garrido Morales, M

    2007-04-01

    We report a new case of congenital lumbar hernia. This is first case reported of congenital lumbar hernia and bilateral renal agenesis. We review literature and describe associated malformations reported that would be role out in every case of congenital lumbar hernia. PMID:17650728

  19. Summative assessment of 5th year medical students’ clinical reasoning by script concordance test: requirements and challenges

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Script Concordance Test (SCT) has not been reported in summative assessment of students across the multiple domains of a medical curriculum. We report the steps used to build a test for summative assessment in a medical curriculum. Methods A 51 case, 158-question, multidisciplinary paper was constructed to assess clinical reasoning in 5th-year. 10–16 experts in each of 7 discipline-based reference panels answered questions on-line. A multidisciplinary group considered reference panel data and data from a volunteer group of 6th Years, who sat the same test, to determine the passing score for the 5th Years. Results The mean (SD) scores were 63.6 (7.6) and 68.6 (4.8) for the 6th Year (n = 23, alpha = 0.78) and and 5th Year (n = 132, alpha =0.62) groups (p < 0.05), respectively. The passing score was set at 4 SD from the expert mean. Four students failed. Conclusions The SCT may be a useful method to assess clinical reasoning in medical students in multidisciplinary summative assessments. Substantial investment in training of faculty and students and in the development of questions is required. PMID:22571351

  20. Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in 1.5th Generation, 2nd Generation Immigrant Children, and Foreign Adoptees.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tony Xing

    2016-10-01

    Existing theories (e.g., acculturative stress theory) cannot adequately explain why mental disorders in immigrants are less prevalent than in non-immigrants. In this paper, the culture-gene co-evolutionary theory of mental disorders was utilized to generate a novel hypothesis that connection to heritage culture reduces the risk for mental disorders in immigrant children. Four groups of children aged 2-17 years were identified from the 2007 United States National Survey of Children's Health: 1.5th generation immigrant children (n = 1378), 2nd generation immigrant children (n = 4194), foreign adoptees (n = 270), and non-immigrant children (n = 54,877). The 1.5th generation immigrant children's connection to their heritage culture is stronger than or similar to the 2nd generation immigrants, while the foreign adoptees have little connection to their birth culture. Controlling for age, sex, family type and SES, the odds for having ADD/ADHD, Conduct Disorder, Anxiety Disorder, and Depression diagnosis were the lowest for the 1.5th generation immigrant children, followed by the 2nd generation immigrant children and the foreign adoptees. The foreign adoptees and non-adopted children were similar in the odds of having these disorders. Connection to heritage culture might be the underlying mechanism that explained recent immigrants' lower rates of mental disorders. PMID:26972324

  1. A study on difference and importance of sacral slope and pelvic sacral angle that affect lumbar curvature.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seyoung; Lee, Minsun; Kwon, Byongan

    2014-01-01

    Individual pelvic sacral angle was measured, compared and analyzed for the 6 male and female adults who were diagnosed with lumbar spinal stenosis, foraminal stenosis and mild spondylolisthesis in accordance with spinal parameters, pelvic parameters and occlusion state of sacroiliac joint presented by the author of this thesis based on the fact that the degree of lumbar excessive lordosis that was one of the causes for lumbar pain was determined by sacral slope. The measured values were compared with the standard values of the average normal range from 20 s to 40 s of normal Koreans stated in the study on the change in lumbar lordosis angle, lumbosacral angle and sacral slope in accordance with the age by Oh et al. [5] and sacral slope and pelvic sacral slope of each individual of the subjects for measurement were compared. Comparing the difference between the two tilt angles possessed by an individual is a comparison to determine how much the sacroiliac joint connecting pelvis and sacral vertebrae compensated and corrected the sacral vertebrae slope by pelvic tilt under the condition of synarthrodial joint.Under the condition that the location conforming to the line in which the sagittal line of gravity connects with pelvic ASIS and pubic pubic tuberele is the neutral location of pelvic tilt, sacral slope being greater than pelvic sacral slope means pelvic anterior tilting, whereas sacral slope being smaller than pelvic sacral slope means pelvic posterior tilting. On that account, male B, female A and female C had a pelvic posterior tilting of 16 degrees, 1 degree and 5 degrees respectively, whereas male A, male C and female B had a pelvic anterior tilting of 3 degrees, 9 degrees and 4 degrees respectively. In addition, the 6 patients the values of lumbar lordosis angle, lumbosacral angle and sacral slope that were almost twice as much as the normal standard values of Koreans. It is believed that this is because the pelvic sacral slope maintaining an angle that is

  2. Automated determination of the centers of vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs in CT and MR lumbar spine images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štern, Darko; Vrtovec, Tomaž; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2010-03-01

    The knowledge of the location of the centers of vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs is valuable for the analysis of the spine. Existing methods for the detection and segmentation of vertebrae in images acquired by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are usually applicable only to a specific image modality and require prior knowledge of the location of vertebrae, usually obtained by manual identification or statistical modeling. We propose a completely automated framework for the detection of the centers of vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs in CT and MR images. The image intensity and gradient magnitude profiles are first extracted in each image along the already obtained spinal centerline and therefore contain a repeating pattern representing the vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs. Based on the period of the repeating pattern and by using a function that approximates the shape of the vertebral body, a model of the vertebral body is generated. The centers of vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs are detected by measuring the similarity between the generated model and the extracted profiles. The method was evaluated on 29 CT and 13 MR images of lumbar spine with varying number of vertebrae. The overall mean distance between the obtained and the ground truth centers was 2.8 +/- 1.9 mm, and no considerable differences were detected between the results for CT, T1-weighted MR or T2-weighted MR images, or among different vertebrae. The proposed method may therefore be valuable for initializing the techniques for the detection and segmentation of vertebrae.

  3. PREFACE: The 5th International Symposium in Quantum Theory and Symmetries (QTS5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arratia, O.; Calzada, J. A.; Gómez-Cubillo, F.; Negro, J.; del Olmo, M. A.

    2008-02-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains the Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium in Quantum Theory and Symmetries (QTS5), held in Valladolid, Spain, 22-28 July 2007. This is the fifth of a series of conferences previously held in Goslar (Germany) 1999, QTS1; Cracow (Poland) 2001, QTS2; Cincinnati (USA) 2003, QTS3, and Varna (Bulgaria) 2005, QTS4. The QTS5 symposium gathered 181 participants from 39 countries working in different fields on Theoretical Physics. The spirit of the QTS conference series is to join researchers in a wide variety of topics in Theoretical Physics, as a way to make accessible recent results and the new lines of different fields. The QTS5 conference offered the following list of topics: Symmetries in String Theory, Quantum Gravity and related Symmetries in Quantum Field Theories, Conformal and Related Field Theories, Lattice and Noncommutative Theories, Gauge Theories Quantum Computing, Information and Control Foundations of Quantum Theory Quantum Optics, Coherent States, Wigner Functions Dynamical and Integrable Systems Symmetries in Condensed Matter and Statistical Physics Symmetries in Particle Physics, Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Nonlinear Quantum Mechanics Time Asymmetric Quantum Mechanics SUSY Quantum Mechanics, PT symmetries and pseudo-Hamiltonians Mathematical Methods for Symmetries and Quantum Theories Symmetries in Chemistry Biology and other Sciences Papers accepted for publication in the present issue are based on the contributions from the participants in the QTS5 conference after a peer review process. In addition, a special issue of Journal Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical contains contributions from plenary speakers, some participants as well as contributions from other authors whose works fit into the topics of the conference. The organization of the conference had the following pattern. In the morning there were five plenary or general sessions for all the participants, which aimed to

  4. PREFACE: The 5th International Symposium on Quantum Theory and Symmetries (QTS5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadella, M.; Izquierdo, J. M.; Kuru, S.; Negro, J.; del Olmo, M. A.

    2008-08-01

    This special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical appears on the occasion of the 5th International Symposium on Quantum Theory and Symmetries (QTS5), held in Valladolid, Spain, from 22-28 July 2007. This is the fith in a series of conferences previously held in Goslar (Germany) 1999, QTS1; Cracow (Poland) 2001, QTS2; Cincinnati (USA) 2003, QTS3; and Varna (Bulgaria) 2005, QTS4. The QTS5 symposium gathered 181 participants from 39 countries working in different fields of theoretical physics. The spirit of the QTS conference series is to join researchers in a wide variety of topics in theoretical physics, as a way of making accessible recent results and the new lines of different fields. This is based on the feeling that it is good for a physicist to have a general overview as well as expertise in his/her own field. There are many other conferences devoted to specific topics, which are of interest to gain deeper insight in many technical aspects and that are quite suitable for discussions due to their small size. However, we believe that general conferences like this are interesting and worth keeping. We like the talks, in both plenary and parallel sessions, which are devoted to specific topics, to be prepared so as to be accessible to any researcher in any branch of theoretical physics. We think that this objective is compatible with rigour and high standards. As is well known, similar methods and techniques can be useful for many problems in different fields. We hope that this has been appreciated during the sessions of the QTS5 conference. The QTS5 conference offered the following list of topics: 1. Symmetries in string theory, quantum gravity and related topics 2. Symmetries in quantum field theories, conformal and related field theories, lattice and noncommutative theories, gauge theories 3.Quantum computing, information and control 4. Foundations of quantum theory 5. Quantum optics, coherent states, Wigner functions 6. Dynamical and

  5. PREFACE: The 5th International Symposium in Quantum Theory and Symmetries (QTS5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arratia, O.; Calzada, J. A.; Gómez-Cubillo, F.; Negro, J.; del Olmo, M. A.

    2008-02-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains the Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium in Quantum Theory and Symmetries (QTS5), held in Valladolid, Spain, 22-28 July 2007. This is the fifth of a series of conferences previously held in Goslar (Germany) 1999, QTS1; Cracow (Poland) 2001, QTS2; Cincinnati (USA) 2003, QTS3, and Varna (Bulgaria) 2005, QTS4. The QTS5 symposium gathered 181 participants from 39 countries working in different fields on Theoretical Physics. The spirit of the QTS conference series is to join researchers in a wide variety of topics in Theoretical Physics, as a way to make accessible recent results and the new lines of different fields. The QTS5 conference offered the following list of topics: Symmetries in String Theory, Quantum Gravity and related Symmetries in Quantum Field Theories, Conformal and Related Field Theories, Lattice and Noncommutative Theories, Gauge Theories Quantum Computing, Information and Control Foundations of Quantum Theory Quantum Optics, Coherent States, Wigner Functions Dynamical and Integrable Systems Symmetries in Condensed Matter and Statistical Physics Symmetries in Particle Physics, Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Nonlinear Quantum Mechanics Time Asymmetric Quantum Mechanics SUSY Quantum Mechanics, PT symmetries and pseudo-Hamiltonians Mathematical Methods for Symmetries and Quantum Theories Symmetries in Chemistry Biology and other Sciences Papers accepted for publication in the present issue are based on the contributions from the participants in the QTS5 conference after a peer review process. In addition, a special issue of Journal Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical contains contributions from plenary speakers, some participants as well as contributions from other authors whose works fit into the topics of the conference. The organization of the conference had the following pattern. In the morning there were five plenary or general sessions for all the participants, which aimed to

  6. A statistical multi-vertebrae shape+pose model for segmentation of CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasoulian, Abtin; Rohling, Robert N.; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2013-03-01

    Segmentation of the spinal column from CT images is a pre-processing step for a range of image guided interventions. Current techniques focus on identification and separate segmentation of each vertebra. Recently, statistical multi-object shape models have been introduced to extract common statistical characteristics between several anatomies. These models are also used for segmentation purposes and are shown to be robust, accurate, and computationally tractable. In this paper, we reconstruct a statistical multi-vertebrae shape+pose model and propose a novel technique to register such a model to CT images. We validate our technique in terms of accuracy of the multi-vertebrae segmentation of CT images acquired from 16 subjects. The mean distance error achieved for all vertebrae is 1.17 mm with standard deviation of 0.38 mm.

  7. Multi-focal histiocytosis X of bone in two adjacent vertebrae causing paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Turgut, M; Gurçay, O

    1992-03-01

    This report describes a case of multi-focal histiocytosis X of bone in two adjacent vertebrae that caused a spinal cord compression. This case was treated radically with combined surgery and postoperative radiotherapy (RT). PMID:1550511

  8. The early origin of vertebral anomalies, as illustrated by a 'butterfly vertebra'.

    PubMed Central

    Müller, F; O'Rahilly, R; Benson, D R

    1986-01-01

    An anomalous (butterfly) eleventh thoracic vertebra in a fetus of 63 mm greatest length is described and graphic reconstructions (together with normal controls) are provided. The cartilaginous hemicentra are separated by disc-like material. Cartilaginous bars to adjacent vertebrae are present. The neural arch is complete. The notochord is not duplicated. Only one comparable case in the embryonic period has been described previously. After a discussion of cleft vertebrae in the human and in experimental animals, a developmental timetable of the appearance of several vertebral anomalies is provided. The sensitive period for butterfly vertebrae, depending on the mode of origin, seems to be 3-6 postovulatory weeks. More severe anomalies, such as the split notochord syndrome, appear earlier. It is concluded that most of the vertebral anomalies discussed arise during the embryonic period proper, although the timing of a few, such as spina bifida occulta, extends into the early fetal period. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 PMID:3693103

  9. A semi-automated method for hexahedral mesh construction of human vertebrae from CT scans.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yifei; Niebur, Glen L

    2009-10-01

    Generation of finite element (FE) meshes of vertebrae from computed tomography (CT) scans is labour intensive due to their geometric complexity. As such, techniques that simplify creation of meshes of vertebrae are needed to make FE analysis feasible for large studies and clinical applications. Techniques to obtain a geometric representation of bone contours from CT scans of vertebrae and construct a hexahedral mesh from the contours were developed. An automated edge detection technique was developed to identify surface contours of the vertebrae, followed by atlas based B-spline curve fitting to construct curves from the edge points. The method was automatic and robust to missing data, with a controllable degree of smoothing and interpolation. Parametric mapping was then used to generate nodes for each CT slice, which were connected between slices to obtain a hexahedral mesh. This method could be adapted for modelling a variety of orthopaedic structures. PMID:19308870

  10. Lumbar reservoir for intrathecal chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Dyck, P

    1985-06-15

    The Ommaya ventricular reservoir has been the standby of intrathecal chemotherapy for more than a decade, in spite of some specific drawbacks. A general anaesthetic is often required. The scalp must be shaven. Ventricular puncture may not always be easy and keeping the ventricular catheter patent is sometimes difficult. Hence the author has adapted a commercially available lumbar peritoneal shunt system to function as a lumbar intrathecal reservoir. The procedure is simple and can be performed expeditiously under local anaesthesia. To date, eight cases have received intrathecal chemotherapy by this means. PMID:3838918

  11. Fully automatic vertebra detection in x-ray images based on multi-class SVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecron, Fabian; Benjelloun, Mohammed; Mahmoudi, Saïd

    2012-02-01

    Automatically detecting vertebral bodies in X-Ray images is a very complex task, especially because of the noise and the low contrast resulting in that kind of medical imagery modality. Therefore, the contributions in the literature are mainly interested in only 2 medical imagery modalities: Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance (MR). Few works are dedicated to the conventional X-Ray radiography and propose mostly semi-automatic methods. However, vertebra detection is a key step in many medical applications such as vertebra segmentation, vertebral morphometry, etc. In this work, we develop a fully automatic approach for the vertebra detection, based on a learning method. The idea is to detect a vertebra by its anterior corners without human intervention. To this end, the points of interest in the radiograph are firstly detected by an edge polygonal approximation. Then, a SIFT descriptor is used to train an SVM-model. Therefore, each point of interest can be classified in order to detect if it belongs to a vertebra or not. Our approach has been assessed by the detection of 250 cervical vertebræ on radiographs. The results show a very high precision with a corner detection rate of 90.4% and a vertebra detection rate from 81.6% to 86.5%.

  12. Lumbar discogram resulting from lumbar interlaminar epidural injection.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jeffrey; Kwa, Andre

    2004-06-01

    Lumbar discography is a diagnostic modality to determine whether the intervertebral disc is the cause of pain. The injection of radiopaque contrast into the nucleus pulposus of the disc can reveal the internal details of the disc. We describe a case of inadvertent lumbar discogram resulting from an attempted lumbar interlaminar epidural injection at L5-S1 under fluoroscopy. The patient did not have a postdural puncture headache or nerve root irritation. The potential triangle in the lateral aspect of spinal cord may be the explanation for this situation, because this triangle is composed of the exiting nerve root laterally, the lateral margin of the dura medially, and the pedicle as its base. The L5-S1 disc is located in the center of the triangle. In our case, the Tuohy needle was placed possibly in the center of the triangle, too laterally to puncture the dura. Hence, the patient did not suffer from postdural puncture headache. The needle was probably inferior to the nerve root, and no obvious nerve root trauma or irritation occurred. This potential triangle may provide alternative access for lumbar discography at the L5-S1 level. PMID:15261324

  13. Teacher and Parent Views on the Instruction of 5th Grade Students by Branch Teachers in the 4+4+4 Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildizhan, Yusuf Hayri

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the teacher and parent views on the instruction of 5th grade students by branch teachers. This study is designed according to the phenomenology design and uses qualitative data. In order to collect data, open-ended questions were asked to 18 teachers and 16 parents of 5th grade students on the subject, and…

  14. Lumbar discography: an update.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Mark W

    2004-01-01

    and then come back to reinject more contrast into the disk in question. As radiologists, we tend to focus on the technical aspects of a procedure and the anatomic/morphologic information it provides. However, it cannot be emphasized enough that when performing lumbar discography, the assessment of the patient's pain response during the injection is the most important component of the procedure, and requires not only technical skills, but an understanding of how best to avoid some of the pitfalls that can lead to inaccurate results. PMID:14976837

  15. Elastic Anisotropy of Trabecular Bone in the Elderly Human Vertebra.

    PubMed

    Unnikrishnan, Ginu U; Gallagher, John A; Hussein, Amira I; Barest, Glenn D; Morgan, Elise F

    2015-11-01

    Knowledge of the nature of the elastic symmetry of trabecular bone is fundamental to the study of bone adaptation and failure. Previous studies have classified human vertebral trabecular bone as orthotropic or transversely isotropic but have typically obtained samples from only selected regions of the centrum. In this study, the elastic symmetry of human vertebral trabecular bone was characterized using microfinite element (μFE) analyses performed on 1019 cubic regions of side length equal to 5 mm, obtained via thorough sampling of the centrums of 18 human L1 vertebrae (age = 81.17 ± 7.7 yr; eight males and ten females). An optimization procedure was used to find the closest orthotropic representation of the resulting stiffness tensor for each cube. The orthotropic elastic constants and orientation of the principal elastic axes were then recorded for each cube and were compared to the constants predicted from Cowin's fabric-based constitutive model (Cowin, 1985, "The Relationship Between the Elasticity Tensor and the Fabric Tensor," Mech. Mater., 4(2), pp. 137-147.) and the orientation of the principal axes of the fabric tensor, respectively. Deviations from orthotropy were quantified by the "orthotropic error" (van Rietbergen et al., 1996, "Direct Mechanics Assessment of Elastic Symmetries and Properties of Trabecular Bone Architecture," J. Biomech., 29(12), pp. 1653-1657), and deviations from transverse isotropy were determined by statistical comparison of the secondary and tertiary elastic moduli. The orthotropic error was greater than 50% for nearly half of the cubes, and the secondary and tertiary moduli differed from one another (p < 0.0001). Both the orthotropic error and the difference between secondary and tertiary moduli decreased with increasing bone volume fraction (BV/TV; p ≤ 0.007). Considering only the cubes with an orthotropic error less than 50%, only moderate correlations were observed between the fabric-based and the

  16. 5-Step Methodology for Evaluation and Adaptation of Print Patient Health Information to Meet the <5th Grade Readability Criterion

    PubMed Central

    Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Schumann, Kristina P.; Dike, Ogechi

    2012-01-01

    Background In the setting of declining U.S. literacy, new policies include use of clear communication and low literacy accessibility practices with all patients. Reliable methods for adapting health information to meet such criteria remain a pressing need. Objectives To report method validation (Study 1) and method replication (Study 2) procedures and outcomes for a 5-step method for evaluating and adapting print health information to meet the current low literacy criterion of <5th grade readability. Materials Sets of 18 and 11 publicly-disseminated patient education documents developed by a university-affiliated medical center. Measures Three low-literacy criteria were strategically targeted for efficient, systematic evaluation and text modification to meet a <5th grade reading level: sentence length <15 words, writing in active voice, and use of common words with multisyllabic words (>2–3 syllables) minimized or avoided. Inter-rater reliability for the document evaluations was determined. Results Training in the methodology resulted in inter-rater reliability of 0.99–1.00 in Study 1 and 0.98–1.00 in Study 2. Original documents met none of the targeted low literacy criteria. In Study 1, following low-literacy adaptation, mean reading grade level decreased from 10.4±1.8 to 3.8±0.6 (p<0.0001), with consistent achievement of criteria for words per sentence, passive voice, and syllables per word. Study 2 demonstrated similar achievement of all target criteria, with a resulting decrease in mean reading grade level from 11.0±1.8 to 4.6±0.3 (p < 0.0001). Conclusions The 5-step methodology proved teachable and efficient. Targeting a limited set of modifiable criteria was effective and reliable in achieving <5th grade readability. PMID:22354210

  17. Validation of the 5th and 95th Percentile Hybrid III Anthropomorphic Test Device Finite Element Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, C.; Somers, J. T.; Baldwin, M. A.; Wells, J. A.; Newby, N.; Currie, N. J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA spacecraft design requirements for occupant protection are a combination of the Brinkley criteria and injury metrics extracted from anthropomorphic test devices (ATD's). For the ATD injury metrics, the requirements specify the use of the 5th percentile female Hybrid III and the 95th percentile male Hybrid III. Furthermore, each of these ATD's is required to be fitted with an articulating pelvis and a straight spine. The articulating pelvis is necessary for the ATD to fit into spacecraft seats, while the straight spine is required as injury metrics for vertical accelerations are better defined for this configuration. The requirements require that physical testing be performed with both ATD's to demonstrate compliance. Before compliance testing can be conducted, extensive modeling and simulation are required to determine appropriate test conditions, simulate conditions not feasible for testing, and assess design features to better ensure compliance testing is successful. While finite element (FE) models are currently available for many of the physical ATD's, currently there are no complete models for either the 5th percentile female or the 95th percentile male Hybrid III with a straight spine and articulating pelvis. The purpose of this work is to assess the accuracy of the existing Livermore Software Technology Corporation's FE models of the 5th and 95th percentile ATD's. To perform this assessment, a series of tests will be performed at Wright Patterson Air Force Research Lab using their horizontal impact accelerator sled test facility. The ATD's will be placed in the Orion seat with a modified-advanced-crew-escape-system (MACES) pressure suit and helmet, and driven with loadings similar to what is expected for the actual Orion vehicle during landing, launch abort, and chute deployment. Test data will be compared to analytical predictions and modelling uncertainty factors will be determined for each injury metric. Additionally, the test data will be used to

  18. Management of lumbar spinal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Lurie, Jon; Tomkins-Lane, Christy

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) affects more than 200,000 adults in the United States, resulting in substantial pain and disability. It is the most common reason for spinal surgery in patients over 65 years. Lumbar spinal stenosis is a clinical syndrome of pain in the buttocks or lower extremities, with or without back pain. It is associated with reduced space available for the neural and vascular elements of the lumbar spine. The condition is often exacerbated by standing, walking, or lumbar extension and relieved by forward flexion, sitting, or recumbency. Clinical care and research into lumbar spinal stenosis is complicated by the heterogeneity of the condition, the lack of standard criteria for diagnosis and inclusion in studies, and high rates of anatomic stenosis on imaging studies in older people who are completely asymptomatic. The options for non-surgical management include drugs, physiotherapy, spinal injections, lifestyle modification, and multidisciplinary rehabilitation. However, few high quality randomized trials have looked at conservative management. A systematic review concluded that there is insufficient evidence to recommend any specific type of non-surgical treatment. Several different surgical procedures are used to treat patients who do not improve with non-operative therapies. Given that rapid deterioration is rare and that symptoms often wax and wane or gradually improve, surgery is almost always elective and considered only if sufficiently bothersome symptoms persist despite trials of less invasive interventions. Outcomes (leg pain and disability) seem to be better for surgery than for non-operative treatment, but the evidence is heterogeneous and often of limited quality. PMID:26727925

  19. Surgical discectomy for lumbar disc herniation: surgical techniques.

    PubMed

    Blamoutier, A

    2013-02-01

    Discectomy for lumbar discal herniation is the most commonly performed spinal surgery. The basic principle of the various techniques is to relieve the nerve root compression induced by the herniation. Initially, the approach was a unilateral posterior 5-cm incision: the multifidus was detached from the vertebra, giving access through an interlaminar space in case of posterolateral herniation; an alternative paraspinal approach was used for extraforaminal herniation. Over the past 30 years, many technical improvements have decreased operative trauma by reducing incision size, thereby reducing postoperative pain and hospital stay and time off work, while improving clinical outcome. Magnification and illumination systems by microscope and endoscope have been introduced to enable minimally invasive techniques. Several comparative studies have analyzed the clinical results of these various techniques. Although the methodology of most of these studies is debatable, all approaches seem to provide clinical outcomes of similar quality. At all events, minimally invasive techniques reduce hospital stay. While technical proficiency is essential, the final result depends on strict compliance with a prerequisite for surgical indication: close correlation between clinical symptoms and radiological findings. It is essential to discuss the risk/benefit ratio and explain the pros and cons of the recommended technique to the patient. PMID:23352565

  20. A report on 5th congress of Asia Pacific Pediatric Cardiac Society, New Delhi, India, 6-9 March 2014

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Saurabh K; Saxena, Anita

    2015-01-01

    The 5th Congress of Asia Pacific Pediatric Cardiac Society was held in New Delhi from 6-9 March 2014. This article describes the journey of preparing and hosting one of the largest international events in the specialty of Pediatric Cardiac Care ever held in India. A total of 938 delegates, including 400 from outside India, participated. The scientific program was inclusive keeping in mind the diverse background of delegates from the member nations. Large numbers of research papers were presented, mostly by fellows in training. PMID:25684899

  1. IBA investigations of loose garnets from Pietroasa, Apahida and Cluj-Someşeni treasures (5th century AD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugoi, R.; Oanţă-Marghitu, R.; Calligaro, T.

    2016-03-01

    This paper reports the archaeometric investigations of 418 loose garnets from Pietroasa and Cluj-Someşeni treasures and Apahida II and III princely grave inventories (5th century AD). The chemical composition of the gems was determined by external beam micro-PIXE technique at the AGLAE accelerator of C2RMF, Paris, France. Complementary observations made by Optical Microscopy revealed details on the gemstones cutting and polishing and permitted to identify certain mineral inclusions. The compositional results evidenced several types of garnets from the pyralspite series, suggesting distinct provenances for these Early Medieval gems.

  2. Transpedicular vertebral body augmentation reinforced with pedicle screw fixation in fresh traumatic A2 and A3 lumbar fractures: comparison between two devices and two bone cements.

    PubMed

    Korovessis, Panagiotis; Vardakastanis, Konstantinos; Repantis, Thomas; Vitsas, Vasilios

    2014-07-01

    This retrospective study compares efficacy and safety of balloon kyphoplasty (BK) with calcium phosphate (Group A) versus KIVA implant with PMMA (Group B) reinforced with three vertebrae pedicle screw constructs for A2 and A3 single fresh non-osteoporotic lumbar (L1-L4) fractures in 38 consecutive age- and diagnosis-matched patient populations. Extracanal leakage of both low-viscosity PMMA and calcium phosphate (CP) as well as the following roentgenographic parameters: segmental kyphosis (SKA), anterior (AVBHr) and posterior (PVBHr) vertebral body height ratio, spinal canal encroachment (SCE) clearance, and functional outcome measures: VAS and SF-36, were recorded and compared between the two groups. All patients in both groups were followed for a minimum 26 (Group A) and 25 (Group B) months. Extracanal CP and PMMA leakage was observed in four (18 %) and three (15 %) vertebrae/patients of group A and B, respectively. Hybrid fixation improved AVBHr, SKA, SCE, but PVBHr only in group B. VAS and SF-36 improved postoperatively in the patients of both groups. Short-segment construct with the novel KIVA implant restored better than BK-fractured lumbar vertebral body, but this had no impact in functional outcome. Since there was no leakage difference between PMMA and calcium phosphate and no short-term adverse related to PMMA use were observed, we advice the use of PMMA in fresh traumatic lumbar fractures. PMID:23982115

  3. Effect of Lumbar Stabilization and Dynamic Lumbar Strengthening Exercises in Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Hye Jin; Kim, Dae Ha; Kim, Ha Jeong; Cho, Young Ki; Lee, Kwang Hee; Kim, Jung Hoo; Choi, Yoo Jung

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of lumbar stabilization exercises and lumbar dynamic strengthening exercises on the maximal isometric strength of the lumbar extensors, pain severity and functional disability in patients with chronic low back pain (LBP). Methods Patients suffering nonspecific LBP for more than 3 months were included prospectively and randomized into lumbar stabilization exercise group (n=11) or lumbar dynamic strengthening exercise group (n=10). Exercises were performed for 1 hour, twice weekly, for 8 weeks. The strength of the lumbar extensors was measured at various angles ranging from 0° to 72° at intervals of 12°, using a MedX. The visual analog scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire (ODQ) were used to measure the severity of LBP and functional disability before and after the exercise. Results Compared with the baseline, lumbar extension strength at all angles improved significantly in both groups after 8 weeks. The improvements were significantly greater in the lumbar stabilization exercise group at 0° and 12° of lumbar flexion. VAS decreased significantly after treatment; however, the changes were not significantly different between the groups. ODQ scores improved significantly in the stabilization exercise group only. Conclusion Both lumbar stabilization and dynamic strengthening exercise strengthened the lumbar extensors and reduced LBP. However, the lumbar stabilization exercise was more effective in lumbar extensor strengthening and functional improvement in patients with nonspecific chronic LBP. PMID:23525973

  4. A reliable measurement for identifying a lumbosacral transitional vertebra with a solid bony bridge on a single-slice midsagittal MRI or plain lateral radiograph.

    PubMed

    Farshad, M; Aichmair, A; Hughes, A P; Herzog, R J; Farshad-Amacker, N A

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to devise a simple but reliable radiological method of identifying a lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV) with a solid bony bridge on sagittal MRI, which could then be applied to a lateral radiograph. The vertical mid-vertebral angle (VMVA) and the vertical anterior vertebral angle (VAVA) of the three most caudal segments of the lumbar spine were measured on MRI and/or on a lateral radiograph in 92 patients with a LSTV and 94 controls, and the differences per segment (Diff-VMVA and Diff-VAVA) were calculated. The Diff-VMVA of the two most caudal vertebrae was significantly higher in the control group (25° (sd 8) than in patients with a LSTV (type 2a+b: 16° (SD 9), type 3a+b: -9° (SD 10), type 4: -5° (SD 7); p < 0.001). A Diff-VMVA of ≤ +10° identified a LSTV with a solid bony bridge (type 3+4) with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 89% on MRI and a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 74% on a lateral radiograph. A sensitivity of 100% could be achieved with a cut-off value of 28° for the Diff-VAVA, but with a lower specificity (76%) on MRI than with Diff-VMVA. Using this simple method (Diff-VMVA ≤ +10°), solid bony bridging of the posterior elements of a LSTV, and therefore the first adjacent mobile segment, can be easily identified without the need for additional imaging. PMID:24151275

  5. Mamillo-accessory notch and foramen: distribution patterns and correlation with superior lumbar facet structure.

    PubMed

    Mahato, N K

    2014-12-01

    The mamillary (MP) and the accessory (AP) processes are two important anatomical landmarks in the lumbar vertebral morphology. These two processes form the mamillo-accessory notch (MAN) between them. In the living, the MP and the AP are connected together by the mamillo-accessory ligament (MAL). The medial branches of lumbar dorsal rami pass underneath the MAL. The MAL often undergoes varied degrees of ossification with diverse notching at the junction of these two processes, often with formation of a discrete foramen (MAF). Reports on the distribution of these notches (MAN) and foramina (MAF) are very few and most of them do not discuss such ossification in context of morphology of adjoining structures in the vertebrae. Lumbar vertebral and sacral specimens were screened for three different categories of narrowing at the mamillo-accessory junction: firstly >1/2 notch, secondly ¾ notch, and thirdly MAF and their distribution patterns were mapped along the lumbar spine. Transverse dimensions of superior facet articulating surfaces [length (a)] and widths of MPs [length (b)] were recorded. Relative widths of the MPs were calculated as index M (a/b). Results suggest associations between the degrees of assimilation of the MPs into the facet joints, the index M values, and the different types of mamillo-accessory junctional anatomy. This study may help to understand if MAN and MAF related dorsal rami entrapment neuropathies arise merely due to osteoarthritic ossification of the MAL or could also be accounted for by facet dimensions or degree of MP-facet fusions that abut close to the mamillo-accessory junctions. PMID:24889272

  6. Hip flexion contracture caused by an intraspinal osteochondroma of the lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Pourtaheri, Sina; Emami, Arash; Stewart, Tyler; Hwang, Ki; Issa, Kimona; Harwin, Steven F; Mont, Michael A

    2014-04-01

    Osteochondroma (or osteocartilaginous exostosis) is the most common bone tumor of childhood, with an incidence ranging from 1 to 1.4 per 1,000,000. In the lumbar spine, osteochondromata usually arise from the posterior column at the secondary ossification center and grow away from the spinal canal without causing neurologic deficits. This article reports a rare intraspinal lumbar osteochondroma that compressed the thecal sac, resulting in a hip flexion contracture in an 11-year-old boy. This lumbar, intraspinal, extradural exostosis was confluent with the L3 inferior articular process and compressed the L3 nerve root and thecal sac severely. The patient underwent an en bloc resection of the tumor with a right-sided hemilaminectomy of L3 and L4, a right-sided partial facetectomy at L3 to L4, and an extended resection from the pars intra-articularis of the L2 to the L5 vertebrae. The tumor specimen measured 4.8×3.7×2.5 cm with clear margins. Instrumented posterolateral fusion was completed from L2 to L5 due to iatrogenic instability from the resection. The patient had an uneventful recovery and returned to his normal activities of daily living, including sports. He remains asymptomatic at 54-month follow-up. A solitary lumbar osteochondroma that compresses the spinal cord, resulting in a motor neurological deficit, has not been reported in a pediatric patient. Orthopedic surgeons should be aware of potential intraspinal presentation of osteochondromas. Magnetic resonance imaging is the modality of choice in diagnosing and screening for spinal osteochondromas. These cases can be treated with resection surgery. PMID:24762848

  7. Lumbar epidural varices: An unusual cause of lumbar claudication.

    PubMed

    Subbiah, Meenakshisundaram; Yegumuthu, Krishnan

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar epidural varices can also present with radiculopathy similar to acute intervertebral disc prolapse (IVDP). However as the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in these patients are usually normal without significant compressive lesions of the nerve roots, the diagnosis is commonly missed or delayed leading to persistent symptoms. We present a rare case of acute severe unilateral claudication with a normal MRI unresponsive to conservative management who was treated surgically. The nerve root on the symptomatic side was found to be compressed by large anterior epidural varices secondary to an abnormal cranial attachment of ligamentum flavum. Decompression of the root and coagulation of the varices resulted in complete pain relief. To conclude, lumbar epidural varices should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute onset radiculopathy and claudication in the absence of significant MRI findings. PMID:27512228

  8. Lumbar epidural varices: An unusual cause of lumbar claudication

    PubMed Central

    Subbiah, Meenakshisundaram; Yegumuthu, Krishnan

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar epidural varices can also present with radiculopathy similar to acute intervertebral disc prolapse (IVDP). However as the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in these patients are usually normal without significant compressive lesions of the nerve roots, the diagnosis is commonly missed or delayed leading to persistent symptoms. We present a rare case of acute severe unilateral claudication with a normal MRI unresponsive to conservative management who was treated surgically. The nerve root on the symptomatic side was found to be compressed by large anterior epidural varices secondary to an abnormal cranial attachment of ligamentum flavum. Decompression of the root and coagulation of the varices resulted in complete pain relief. To conclude, lumbar epidural varices should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute onset radiculopathy and claudication in the absence of significant MRI findings. PMID:27512228

  9. Fully automatic detection of the vertebrae in 2D CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Franz; Kriegel, Hans-Peter; Schubert, Matthias; Strukelj, Michael; Cavallaro, Alexander

    2011-03-01

    Knowledge about the vertebrae is a valuable source of information for several annotation tasks. In recent years, the research community spent a considerable effort for detecting, segmenting and analyzing the vertebrae and the spine in various image modalities like CT or MR. Most of these methods rely on prior knowledge like the location of the vertebrae or other initial information like the manual detection of the spine. Furthermore, the majority of these methods require a complete volume scan. With the existence of use cases where only a single slice is available, there arises a demand for methods allowing the detection of the vertebrae in 2D images. In this paper, we propose a fully automatic and parameterless algorithm for detecting the vertebrae in 2D CT images. Our algorithm starts with detecting candidate locations by taking the density of bone-like structures into account. Afterwards, the candidate locations are extended into candidate regions for which certain image features are extracted. The resulting feature vectors are compared to a sample set of previously annotated and processed images in order to determine the best candidate region. In a final step, the result region is readjusted until convergence to a locally optimal position. Our new method is validated on a real world data set of more than 9 329 images of 34 patients being annotated by a clinician in order to provide a realistic ground truth.

  10. Gradual Height Decrease of Augmented Vertebrae after Vertebroplasty at the Thoracolumbar Junction

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Han San; Kim, Hyun Gon; Park, Kwan Ho

    2016-01-01

    Objective Vertebroplasty is an effective treatment for vertebral compression fracture, but may progress gradual vertebral height decrease in spite of vertebroplasty. Gradual vertebral height decrease also may induce aggravation of kyphotic change without severe pain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate risk factors for gradual vertebral height decrease in the absence of recurrent severe back pain. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on 44 patients who were diagnosed with a first osteoporotic compression fracture at a single level at the thoracolumbar junction. All patients were taken vertebroplasty. Possible risk factors for gradual vertebral height decrease, such as sex, age, bone mineral density, body mass index, level of compression fracture, volume of injected cement, cement leakage into disc space, and air clefts within fractured vertebrae, were analyzed. Results Gradual vertebral height decrease of augmented vertebrae occurred commonly when more than 4 cc of injected cement was used, and when air clefts within fractured vertebrae were seen on admission. In addition, the sagittal Cobb angle more commonly increased during the follow-up period in such cases. Conclusion Injection of more than 4 cc of cement during vertebroplasty and air cleft within fractured vertebrae on admission induced gradual vertebral height decrease in augmented vertebrae. Thus, longer follow-up will be needed in such cases, even when patients do not complain of recurrent severe back pain. PMID:27182497

  11. Automatic location of vertebrae on DXA images using random forest regression.

    PubMed

    Roberts, M G; Cootes, Timothy F; Adams, J E

    2012-01-01

    We provide a fully automatic method of segmenting vertebrae in DXA images. This is of clinical relevance to the diagnosis of osteoporosis by vertebral fracture, and to grading fractures in clinical trials. In order to locate the vertebrae we train detectors for the upper and lower vertebral endplates. Each detector uses random forest regressor voting applied to Haar-like input features. The regressors are applied at a grid of points across the image, and each tree votes for an endplate centre position. Modes in the smoothed vote image are endplate candidates, some of which are the neighbouring vertebrae of the one sought. The ambiguity is resolved by applying geometric constraints to the connections between vertebrae, although there can be some ambiguity about where the sequence starts (e.g., is the lowest vertebra L4 or L5, fig 2a). The endplate centres are used to initialise a final phase of active appearance model search for a detailed solution. The method is applied to a dataset of 320 DXA images. Accuracy is comparable to manually initialised AAM segmentation in 91% of images, but multiple grade 3 fractures can cause some edge confusion in severely osteoporotic cases. PMID:23286151

  12. Body height estimation based on dimensions of sacral and coccygeal vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Pelin, Can; Duyar, Izzet; Kayahan, Esra M; Zağyapan, Ragiba; Ağildere, A Muhteşem; Erar, Aydin

    2005-03-01

    This study is to evaluate whether it is possible to predict living stature from sacral and coccygeal vertebral dimensions. Individual vertebral body heights, sacral height (SH), and sacrococcygeal height (SCH) were recorded from the magnetic resonance images of 42 adult males. Sum of the heights of five sacral vertebrae (sigmaS), the first four coccygeal vertebrae (sigmaC), and the total height of the sacral and the first four coccygeal vertebrae together (sigmaSC) were also recorded. Linear regression equations for stature estimation were produced using the above mentioned variables. The regression equations were constructed and tested by using jack-knife procedure. Statistical analyses indicated that the combined variables (SH, SCH, sigmaS, sigmaC, sigmaSC) were more accurate predictors of stature than the heights of individual vertebrae. The results of the study pointed out that the equations derived from sacrococcygeal dimensions perform somewhat better than ones based on foot and head variables, but worse than those based on long-bone length. As a conclusion, the dimensions of sacral and coccygeal vertebrae could be used for stature estimation when long bones are not available. PMID:15813539

  13. A framework of vertebra segmentation using the active shape model-based approach.

    PubMed

    Benjelloun, Mohammed; Mahmoudi, Saïd; Lecron, Fabian

    2011-01-01

    We propose a medical image segmentation approach based on the Active Shape Model theory. We apply this method for cervical vertebra detection. The main advantage of this approach is the application of a statistical model created after a training stage. Thus, the knowledge and interaction of the domain expert intervene in this approach. Our application allows the use of two different models, that is, a global one (with several vertebrae) and a local one (with a single vertebra). Two modes of segmentation are also proposed: manual and semiautomatic. For the manual mode, only two points are selected by the user on a given image. The first point needs to be close to the lower anterior corner of the last vertebra and the second near the upper anterior corner of the first vertebra. These two points are required to initialize the segmentation process. We propose to use the Harris corner detector combined with three successive filters to carry out the semiautomatic process. The results obtained on a large set of X-ray images are very promising. PMID:21826134

  14. Recurrent Echinococcal Infection of the Lumbar Spine: An 11 Year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Gouse, Mohamad; Amritanand, Rohit; Venkatesh, Krishnan; Sundararaj, Gabriel David

    2013-03-01

    Spinal hydatid cyst is a rare occurrence in non endemic countries. We present a case of recurrent lumbar hydatid disease in a 21-year-old male who following initial treatment had a good functional outcome and healing for 8 years, following which he came back with complaints of low back ache and neurological deficit. Patient underwent a second surgery with global debridement of L3-L5 vertebrae followed by medical management for two years. He had a good surgical outcome with recovery from the neurological deficit. Patient has returned to his routine activities and is being reviewed every year; there is no evidence of recurrence in the past 3 years. To the best of our knowledge recurrence after 8 years of initial treatment, followed by good clinical and radiological outcome for 3 years after surgery and treatment of the recurrence has not been reported in literature. PMID:23508512

  15. Assessment of Lumbar Lordosis and Lumbar Core Strength in Information Technology Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Roma Satish; Dabadghav, Rachana; Rairikar, Savita; Shayam, Ashok; Sancheti, Parag

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Observational study. Purpose To correlate lumbar lordosis and lumbar core strength in information technology (IT) professionals. Overview of Literature IT professionals have to work for long hours in a sitting position, which can affect lumbar lordosis and lumbar core strength. Methods Flexicurve was used to assess the lumbar lordosis, and pressure biofeedback was used to assess the lumbar core strength in the IT professionals. All subjects, both male and female, with and without complaint of low back pain and working for two or more years were included, and subjects with a history of spinal surgery or spinal deformity were excluded from the study. Analysis was done using Pearson's correlation. Results For the IT workers, no correlation was seen between lumbar lordosis and lumbar core strength (r=–0.04); however, a weak negative correlation was seen in IT people who complained of pain (r=–0.12), while there was no correlation of lumbar lordosis and lumbar core in IT people who had no complains of pain (r=0.007). Conclusions The study shows that there is no correlation of lumbar lordosis and lumbar core strength in IT professionals, but a weak negative correlation was seen in IT people who complained of pain. PMID:27340529

  16. [Spontaneous resolution of a lumbar disc herniation].

    PubMed

    Gelabert-González, M; Serramito-García, R; Aran-Echabe, E; García-Allut, A

    2007-04-01

    Lumbar disc herniation is a common cause of lower leg radiculopathy and the most effective methods of treatment remain in question. Both surgical and nonsurgical treatments may provide a successful outcome in appropriately selected patients. The spontaneous resolution of herniated lumbar discs is a well-established phenomenon. The authors present a case of spontaneous regression of a herniated lumbar nucleus pulpous in a patient with radiculopathy. PMID:17497061

  17. The human lumbar dorsal rami.

    PubMed Central

    Bogduk, N; Wilson, A S; Tynan, W

    1982-01-01

    The L 1-4 dorsal rami tend to form three branches, medial, lateral, and intermediate, which are distributed, respectively, to multifidus, iliocostalis, and longissimus. The intertransversarii mediales are innervated by a branch of the dorsal ramus near the origin of the medial branch. The L 4 dorsal ramus regularly forms three branches while the L 1-3 levels the lateral and intermediate branches may, alternatively, arise from a short common stem. The L 5 dorsal ramus is much longer than the others and forms only a medial and an intermediate branch. Each lumbar medial branch innervates two adjacent zygapophysial joints and ramifies in multifidus, supplying only those fascicles which arise from the spinous process with the same segmental number as the nerve. The comparative anatomy of the lumbar dorsal rami is discussed and the applied anatomy with respect to 'rhizolysis', 'facet denervation' and diagnostic paraspinal electromyography is described. PMID:7076562

  18. Laparoscopic total extraperitoneal repair of lumbar hernia

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Man Sup; Lee, Hae Wan; Yu, Chang Hee

    2011-01-01

    Lumbar hernia is a rare surgical entity without a standard method of repair. With advancements in laparoscopic techniques, successful lumbar herniorrhaphy can be achieved by the creation of a completely extraperitoneal working space and secure fixation of a wide posterior mesh. We present a total extraperitoneal laparoendoscopic repair of lumbar hernia, which allowed for minimal invasiveness while providing excellent anatomical identification, easy mobilization of contents and wide secure mesh fixation. A total extraperitoneal method of lumbar hernia repair by laparoscopic approach is feasible and may be an ideal option. PMID:22111086

  19. Retroperitoneal laparoscopic bilateral lumbar sympathectomy.

    PubMed

    Segers, B; Himpens, J; Barroy, J P

    2007-06-01

    The first retroperitoneal lumbar sympathectomy was performed in 1924 by Julio Diez. The classic procedure for sympathectomy is open surgery. We report a unilateral laparoscopic retroperitoneal approach to perform bilateral lumbar sympathectomy. This approach was performed for a 43-year-old man with distal arterial occlusive disease and no indication for direct revascularization. His predominant symptoms were intermittent claudication at 100 metres and cold legs. The patient was placed in a left lateral decubitus position. The optical system was placed first in an intra-abdominal position to check that the trocars were well positioned in the retroperitoneal space. The dissection of retroperitoneum was performed by CO2 insufflation. The inferior vena cava was reclined and the right sympathetic chain was individualized. Two ganglia (L3-L4) were removed by bipolar electro-coagulation. The aorta was isolated on a vessel loop and careful anterior traction allowed a retro-aortic pre-vertebral approach between the lumbar vessels. The left sympathetic chain was dissected. Two ganglia (L3-L4) were removed by bipolar electro-coagulation. PMID:17685269

  20. Lumbar lordosis of extinct hominins.

    PubMed

    Been, Ella; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Kramer, Patricia A

    2012-01-01

    The lordotic curvature of the lumbar spine (lumbar lordosis) in humans is a critical component in the ability to achieve upright posture and bipedal gait. Only general estimates of the lordotic angle (LA) of extinct hominins are currently available, most of which are based on the wedging of the vertebral bodies. Recently, a new method for calculating the LA in skeletal material has become available. This method is based on the relationship between the lordotic curvature and the orientation of the inferior articular processes relative to vertebral bodies in the lumbar spines of living primates. Using this relationship, we developed new regression models in order to calculate the LAs in hominins. The new models are based on primate group-means and were used to calculate the LAs in the spines of eight extinct hominins. The results were also compared with the LAs of modern humans and modern nonhuman apes. The lordotic angles of australopithecines (41° ± 4), H. erectus (45°) and fossil H. sapiens (54° ± 14) are similar to those of modern humans (51° ± 11). This analysis confirms the assumption that human-like lordotic curvature was a morphological change that took place during the acquisition of erect posture and bipedalism as the habitual form of locomotion. Neandertals have smaller lordotic angles (LA = 29° ± 4) than modern humans, but higher angles than nonhuman apes (22° ± 3). This suggests possible subtle differences in Neandertal posture and locomotion from that of modern humans. PMID:22052243

  1. PREFACE: 5th International Conference on Materials and Applications for Sensors and Transducers (IC-MAST2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristoforou, E.; Vlachos, D. S.; Giouroudi, I.; Kar-Narayan, S.; Potirakis, S.

    2016-03-01

    The 5th International Conference on Materials and Applications for Sensors and Transducers, Mykonos island, Greece, hosted about 110 oral and poster papers and more than 90 participants. IC-MAS, as an international annual conference which tries to meet the needs for various types of sensors, particularly those which may be manufactured by low cost methods (i.e. hybrid sensors, smart specialization devices, particular applications not necessarily requiring integrated micro-nano technologies), covering all types of materials and physical effects, appears to be a necessity. IC-MAST has been established as a high quality international conference by: I. Gathering together multinational researchers from all over the world, working in different materials for sensors and transducers and technical applications of sensors, but also in some cases in the management of the data coming from sensors and transducers. The careful selection of the conference place (like Aegean Sea, Budapest, Prague, Bilbao, Mykonos etc) allows for enjoying the local hospitality and sightseeing. II. Emphasizing in hybrid sensors and smart specialization devices produced by inexpensive methods, without excluding of course micro-nano technology, from all kinds of solid state, liquid and gaseous materials, as well as in particular transducer applications (design and development, as well as use of sensing data) III. Innovatively implementing the Virtual Paper Concept, allowing for large impact of research works presented in the conference by authors who either have no time or no funding support for visiting a conference; this year more than 12 virtual papers are presented in the 5th IC MAST, following a standardized procedure via the our robust and reliable Conference Site (www.icmast.net!) > IV. Allowing for lengthy technical and managerial discussions in terms of sensor, material and instrumentation development; furthermore, the different research groups gathered together are offered the particular

  2. The Effect of the Lumbar Vertebral Malpositioning on Bone Mineral Density Measurements of the Lumbar Spine by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Izadyar, Sina; Golbarg, Shima; Takavar, Abbas; Zakariaee, Seyed Salman

    2016-01-01

    A significant discrepancy between the results of previous human and phantoms studies is identified regarding the effects of vertebral positioning on bone mineral density (BMD) measurements. We aimed to evaluate the effects of lumbar vertebral positioning on BMD measurements by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in a human cadaveric spine phantom. A spine phantom was designed using L1-L4 vertebrae harvested from a 48-year-old male cadaver without coronal or sagittal deformity. The spine phantom was scanned by DEXXUM T bone densitometer in a constant scanning speed of 30 mm/s and resolution of 1.0 × 1.0 mm. BMD values were measured in a positive and negative lumbar lordosis and kyphosis tilt angles in the sagittal plane, from 0° to 35°, with 7° increments. Also BMD values were measured in axial and lateral rotations with 5° increments. Projectional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements are significantly affected by positioning of the lumbar spine, more severely affected by kyphotic curvature, but also by axial and lateral rotational scoliosis as well as lordotic curvature. Increasing the severity of lordosis and kyphosis curvatures leads to false reduction of BMD value up to 17.5% and 11.5%, respectively. Increasing the degree of lateral and axial rotational scolioses results in a false decrease in BMD measurements by up to 10.8% and 9.6%, respectively. To achieve the most accurate scanning results, error sources and abnormal positioning should be identified and minimized as much as possible. If not correctable, they should be taken into consideration while interpreting the results. PMID:26778450

  3. Limbus Vertebra Presenting with Inflammatory Low Back Pain: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Tuna, Serpil; Özdemir, Tayfun; Öz, Hande Ece

    2016-03-01

    Limbus vertebra is a condition characterized by marginal interosseous herniation of the nucleus pulposus, and causes non specific symptoms like low back pain, back pain, muscle spasms and radiculopathy. It is frequently confused with vertebral fracture, infection, schmorl nodule or tumour because it has not a spesific symptom. It usually causes mechanical low back pain rather than inflammatory low back pain. We reported a patient presented with inflammatory low back pain and diagnosed with anterior limbus vertebra because it is rare and the patient has atypical clinical presentation. PMID:27134989

  4. Limbus Vertebra Presenting with Inflammatory Low Back Pain: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Özdemir, Tayfun; Öz, Hande Ece

    2016-01-01

    Limbus vertebra is a condition characterized by marginal interosseous herniation of the nucleus pulposus, and causes non specific symptoms like low back pain, back pain, muscle spasms and radiculopathy. It is frequently confused with vertebral fracture, infection, schmorl nodule or tumour because it has not a spesific symptom. It usually causes mechanical low back pain rather than inflammatory low back pain. We reported a patient presented with inflammatory low back pain and diagnosed with anterior limbus vertebra because it is rare and the patient has atypical clinical presentation. PMID:27134989

  5. Primary School 5th and 8th Graders' Understanding and Mental Models about the Shape of the World and Gravity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Öztürk, Ayse; Doganay, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated primary school 5th and 8th graders' understanding and mental models related to the shape of the world and gravity, and how these models reflected the fact and what kind of a change there is from 5th to 8th graders. This research is based on a cross-sectional design. The study was conducted in a low socioeconomic level…

  6. Giant pandas (Carnivora: Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and living hominoids converge on lumbar vertebral adaptations to orthograde trunk posture.

    PubMed

    Russo, Gabrielle A; Williams, Scott A

    2015-11-01

    Living hominoids share a common body plan characterized by a gradient of derived postcranial features that distinguish them from their closest living relatives, cercopithecoid monkeys. However, the evolutionary scenario(s) that led to the derived postcranial features of hominoids are uncertain. Explanations are complicated by the fact that living hominoids vary considerably in positional behaviors, and some Miocene hominoids are morphologically, and therefore probably behaviorally, distinct from modern hominoids. Comparative studies that aim to identify morphologies associated with specific components of positional behavioral repertoires are an important avenue of research that can improve our understanding of the evolution and adaptive significance of the hominoid postcranium. Here, we employ a comparative approach to offer additional insight into the evolution of the hominoid lumbar vertebral column. Specifically, we tested whether giant pandas (Carnivora: Ailuropoda melanoleuca) converge with living hominoids on lumbar vertebral adaptations to the single component of their respective positional behavioral repertoires that they share--orthograde (i.e., upright) trunk posture. We compare lumbar vertebral morphologies of Ailuropoda to those of other living ursids and caniform outgroups (northern raccoons and gray wolves). Mirroring known differences between living hominoids and cercopithecoids, Ailuropoda generally exhibits fewer, craniocaudally shorter lumbar vertebrae with more dorsally positioned transverse processes that are more dorsally oriented and laterally directed, and taller, more caudally directed spinous processes than other caniforms in the sample. Our comparative evidence lends support to a potential evolutionary scenario in which the acquisition of hominoid-like lumbar vertebral morphologies may have evolved for generalized orthograde behaviors and could have been exapted for suspensory behavior in crown hominoids and for other locomotor

  7. Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus Eggs in Canine Coprolite from the Sasanian Era in Iran (4(th)/5(th) Century CE).

    PubMed

    Mowlavi, Gholamreza; Makki, Mahsasadat; Heidari, Zahra; Rezaeian, Mostafa; Mohebali, Mehdi; Araujo, Adauto; Boenke, Nicole; Aali, Abolfazl; Stollner, Thomas; Mobedi, Iraj

    2015-01-01

    Present paper is the second publication introducing the paleoparasitological findings from animal coprolites obtained from archeological site of Chehrabad salt mine in northwestern Iran. The current archeological site is located in northwest of Iran, dated to the Sassanian Era (4(th)/5(th) century CE). In the summer 2012 the carnivore coprolite was obtained within the layers in the mine and were thoroughly analyzed for parasites using TSP rehydration technique. Eggs of 0 were successfully retrieved from the examined coprolite and were confidently identified based on reliable references. Identifying of M. hirudinaceus eggs in paleofeces with clear appearance as demonstrated herein, is much due to appropriate preservation condition has been existed in the salt mine .The present finding could be regarded as the oldest acanthocephalan infection in Iran. PMID:26246822

  8. Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus Eggs in Canine Coprolite from the Sasanian Era in Iran (4th/5th Century CE)

    PubMed Central

    MOWLAVI, Gholamreza; MAKKI, Mahsasadat; HEIDARI, Zahra; REZAEIAN, Mostafa; MOHEBALI, Mehdi; ARAUJO, Adauto; BOENKE, Nicole; AALI, Abolfazl; STOLLNER, Thomas; MOBEDI, Iraj

    2015-01-01

    Present paper is the second publication introducing the paleoparasitological findings from animal coprolites obtained from archeological site of Chehrabad salt mine in northwestern Iran. The current archeological site is located in northwest of Iran, dated to the Sassanian Era (4th/5th century CE). In the summer 2012 the carnivore coprolite was obtained within the layers in the mine and were thoroughly analyzed for parasites using TSP rehydration technique. Eggs of 0 were successfully retrieved from the examined coprolite and were confidently identified based on reliable references. Identifying of M. hirudinaceus eggs in paleofeces with clear appearance as demonstrated herein, is much due to appropriate preservation condition has been existed in the salt mine .The present finding could be regarded as the oldest acanthocephalan infection in Iran. PMID:26246822

  9. The lumbar shield: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Feild, J R; McHenry, H

    1978-01-01

    Postoperative perineural adhesions between the lumbar nerve root and the partially removed intervertebral disc are thought to be a cause of failure of the standard operative procedure for the removal of a ruptured lumbar intervertebral disc. Attempts have been made to reduce postoperative perineural adhesions by the use of epidural muscle, fat, gelatin sponge, silicone, and steroids. The present communication introduces a new implantable silicone device, a lumbar shield, designed to: (a) provide a radiopaque marker on the dorsal perimeter of the excavated lumbar disc so that the presence or absence of a recurrent disc herniation can easily be determined on plain postoperative x-ray films, (b) provide ready access to the operative site in the event of a recurrent disc herniation, (c) prevent postoperative perineural adhesions between the lumbar dura and the nerve root and the partially removed intervertebral disc, and (d) prevent postoperative adhesions between the lumbar dura and the nerve root and the paraspinal muscles. Satisfactory results of lumbar disc surgery over the past 44 years have occurred in about 90% of routine patients. The value of the lumbar shield in 82 patients (59 routine and 23 workmen's compensation/medicolegal patients) followed for 6 months is described. A satisfactory result, i.e., relief of pain or the presence of occasional postoperative pain, occurred in 85% of routine patients at 1 month, 97% at 3 months, and 95% at 6 months. PMID:683493

  10. [Neonatal occlusion due to a lumbar hernia].

    PubMed

    Hunald, F A; Ravololoniaina, T; Rajaonarivony, M F V; Rakotovao, M; Andriamanarivo, M L; Rakoto-Ratsimba, H

    2011-10-01

    A Petit lumbar hernia is an uncommon hernia. Congenital forms are seen in children. Incarceration may occur as an unreducible lumbar mass, associated with bilious vomiting and abdominal distention. Abdominal X-ray shows sided-wall bowel gas. In this case, reduction and primary closure must be performed as emergency repair. PMID:21868206

  11. Functional morphology of the first cervical vertebra in humans and nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Manfreda, Evelyn; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Bookstein, Fred L; Schaefer, Katrin

    2006-09-01

    The cervical vertebral column bears or balances the weight of the head supported by the nuchal muscles that partly originate from the cervical vertebrae. The position of the head relative to the vertebral column, and consequently locomotion and posture behavior, could thus be associated with the form of the cervical vertebrae. In spite of this assumption and some empirical indications along these lines, primate vertebral morphologies have been reported to be very similar and not clearly related to locomotion. We therefore study the relationship between the morphology of the first cervical vertebra, the atlas, and the locomotion pattern within primates using a geometric morphometric approach. Our analysis is based on a total of 116 vertebrae of adult Homo sapiens, Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus, Hylobates lar, Macaca mulatta, Papio hamadryas, Ateles geoffroyi, and Alouatta palliata. On each atlas, 56 landmarks were digitized and superimposed by Procrustes registration. The resulting shape variables were analyzed by principal component analysis, multivariate regression, and partial least-squares analysis. We found that the nine primate species differ clearly in their atlas morphology and that allometric shape change is distinct between the nonhuman primates and Homo sapiens. We could further identify morphological features that relate to the species' locomotion pattern. Human atlas shape, however, cannot be predicted by an extrapolation of the nonhuman primate model. This implies that either the primate atlas is generalized enough to allow bipedal locomotion or else the human atlas morphology is a unique adaptation different from that in the more orthograde nonhuman primates. PMID:16955497

  12. High-resolution time-lapse tomography of rat vertebrae during compressive loading: deformation response analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fíla, T.; Kytýř, D.; Zlámal, P.; Kumpová, I.; Doktor, T.; Koudelka, P.; Jiroušek, O.

    2014-05-01

    This paper is focused on investigation of mechanical properties of rat vertebrae during compressive loading in the longitudinal direction of rat's spine. High-resolution time-lapse micro-tomography was used as a tool to create models of the inner structure and deformed shape in pre-defined deformation steps. First, peripheral areas of vertebra specimen were embedded in polymethyl methacrylate to obtain proper boundary conditions of contact between specimen and loading plattens. Experimental loading device designed for application in X-ray setups was utilized to compress the vertebrae in several deformation steps. High-resolution micro-tomography scanning was carried out at each deformation step. Specimen was irradiated in tomography device equipped with microfocus X-ray tube with 5μm focal spot size and large area flat panel detector. Spatial resolution of reconstructed three-dimensional images was approximately 10μm. Digital volume correlation algorithm was utilized in order to assess displacements in the microstructure in every loading increment. Finite element model of vertebra was created from volumetric data reconstructed from tomography of the undeformed specimen. Simulated compressive test of the developed finite element model was performed in order to compare stiffness and displacements obtained by digital volume correlation and finite element simulation.

  13. A study of vertebra number in pigs confirms the association of vertnin and reveals additional QTL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Formation of the vertebral column is a critical developmental stage in mammals. The strict control of this process has resulted in little variation in number of vertebrae across mammalian species and no variation within most mammalian species. The pig is quite unique as considerable vari...

  14. 2D-3D Registration of CT Vertebra Volume to Fluoroscopy Projection: A Calibration Model Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bifulco, P.; Cesarelli, M.; Allen, R.; Romano, M.; Fratini, A.; Pasquariello, G.

    2009-12-01

    This study extends a previous research concerning intervertebral motion registration by means of 2D dynamic fluoroscopy to obtain a more comprehensive 3D description of vertebral kinematics. The problem of estimating the 3D rigid pose of a CT volume of a vertebra from its 2D X-ray fluoroscopy projection is addressed. 2D-3D registration is obtained maximising a measure of similarity between Digitally Reconstructed Radiographs (obtained from the CT volume) and real fluoroscopic projection. X-ray energy correction was performed. To assess the method a calibration model was realised a sheep dry vertebra was rigidly fixed to a frame of reference including metallic markers. Accurate measurement of 3D orientation was obtained via single-camera calibration of the markers and held as true 3D vertebra position; then, vertebra 3D pose was estimated and results compared. Error analysis revealed accuracy of the order of 0.1 degree for the rotation angles of about 1 mm for displacements parallel to the fluoroscopic plane, and of order of 10 mm for the orthogonal displacement.

  15. Andreas Vesalius on the anatomy and function of the lower thoracic vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Biesbrouck, Maurits; Vanden Berghe, Alex

    2016-04-01

    Some remarkable statements made by Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) in his principal work De Humani Corporis Fabrica (1543) about the anatomy and function of the lower thoracic vertebrae are discussed in the light of information from the literature. Their accuracy is evaluated on the basis of several pieces of anatomical evidence and clinical cases. PMID:27385301

  16. Osteolytic mass bridging two cervical vertebrae: Unusual presentation of a vertebral body hemangioma

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Dane; Sag, Alan Alper; Krishnan, Anant; Silbergleit, Richard; Roy, Anindya; Dulai, Mohanpal

    2015-01-01

    Vertebral hemangioma is the most common spinal axis tumor. This rare presentation of a vertebral hemangioma extended contiguously from one cervical vertebra to another, encasing the vertebral artery, and thereby mimicking other tumors of the spine. We discuss the differential diagnosis of bridging vertebral masses. PMID:27190555

  17. Reliability and reproducibility of interapical distance assessment of the lateral deviation of vertebrae in scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Jongmin; Koh, Seong-Eun; Lee, In-Sik

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the interobserver reliability and intraobserver reproducibility of interapical distance (IAD) and to analyze its correlation with the Cobb angle (CA). [Subjects and Methods] IAD, a handy tool for assessment of the lateral deviation of vertebrae with a metric scale, was defined as the horizontal distance between one apical vertebra and its counterpart, the opposite apical vertebra in the case of a double curve and the farthest vertebra in the case of a single curve. Fifty full-length, standing anteroposterior radiographs of "idiopathic scoliosis" were reviewed. Three investigators independently measure the CA and IAD at the same time and remeasured the IAD on the same radiograph a week later. [Results] There was no interobserver difference (reliability) in the measurement of IAD or statistical differences in intraobserver reproducibility for each observer. IAD was well correlated with the CA for each observer (r=0.765, r=0.737, and r=0.764). [Conclusion] IAD is useful when assessing lateral deviation in scoliosis and may be a reliable and reproducible index that is well correlated with the CA, and it can be used as a supplementary measure to describe the overall derangement of scoliosis in the coronal plane. PMID:25995588

  18. Lumbar Epidural Varix Mimicking Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Bursalı, Adem; Guvenal, Ahmet Burak; Yaman, Onur

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar radiculopathy is generally caused by such well-recognized entity as lumbar disc herniation in neurosurgical practice; however rare pathologies such as thrombosed epidural varix may mimic them by causing radicular symptoms. In this case report, we present a 26-year-old man with the complaint of back and right leg pain who was operated for right L4–5 disc herniation. The lesion interpreted as an extruded disc herniation preoperatively was found to be a thrombosed epidural varix compressing the nerve root preoperatively. The nerve root was decompressed by shrinking the lesion with bipolar thermocoagulation and excision. The patient's complaints disappeared in the postoperative period. Thrombosed lumbar epidural varices may mimic lumbar disc herniations both radiologically and clinically. Therefore, must be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of lumbar disc herniations. Microsurgical techniques are mandatory for the treatment of these pathologies and decompression with thermocoagulation and excision is an efficient method. PMID:27446525

  19. Lumbar Epidural Varix Mimicking Disc Herniation.

    PubMed

    Bursalı, Adem; Akyoldas, Goktug; Guvenal, Ahmet Burak; Yaman, Onur

    2016-07-01

    Lumbar radiculopathy is generally caused by such well-recognized entity as lumbar disc herniation in neurosurgical practice; however rare pathologies such as thrombosed epidural varix may mimic them by causing radicular symptoms. In this case report, we present a 26-year-old man with the complaint of back and right leg pain who was operated for right L4-5 disc herniation. The lesion interpreted as an extruded disc herniation preoperatively was found to be a thrombosed epidural varix compressing the nerve root preoperatively. The nerve root was decompressed by shrinking the lesion with bipolar thermocoagulation and excision. The patient's complaints disappeared in the postoperative period. Thrombosed lumbar epidural varices may mimic lumbar disc herniations both radiologically and clinically. Therefore, must be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of lumbar disc herniations. Microsurgical techniques are mandatory for the treatment of these pathologies and decompression with thermocoagulation and excision is an efficient method. PMID:27446525

  20. A forward dynamics simulation of human lumbar spine flexion predicting the load sharing of intervertebral discs, ligaments, and muscles.

    PubMed

    Rupp, T K; Ehlers, W; Karajan, N; Günther, M; Schmitt, S

    2015-10-01

    Determining the internal dynamics of the human spine's biological structure is one essential step that allows enhanced understanding of spinal degeneration processes. The unavailability of internal load figures in other methods highlights the importance of the forward dynamics approach as the most powerful approach to examine the internal degeneration of spinal structures. Consequently, a forward dynamics full-body model of the human body with a detailed lumbar spine is introduced. The aim was to determine the internal dynamics and the contribution of different spinal structures to loading. The multi-body model consists of the lower extremities, two feet, shanks and thighs, the pelvis, five lumbar vertebrae, and a lumped upper body including the head and both arms. All segments are modelled as rigid bodies. 202 muscles (legs, back, abdomen) are included as Hill-type elements. 58 nonlinear force elements are included to represent all spinal ligaments. The lumbar intervertebral discs were modelled nonlinearly. As results, internal kinematics, muscle forces, and internal loads for each biological structure are presented. A comparison between the nonlinear (new, enhanced modelling approach) and linear (standard modelling approach, bushing) modelling approaches of the intervertebral disc is presented. The model is available to all researchers as ready-to-use C/C++ code within our in-house multi-body simulation code demoa with all relevant binaries included. PMID:25653134

  1. Plexiform Schwannoma of Lumbar Region

    PubMed Central

    Parihar, Asmita; Verma, Sarika; Suri, Tarun; Agarwal, Anil; Bansal, Kalpana

    2015-01-01

    Plexiform schwannoma is an unusual peripheral nerve sheath tumor. It can mimic plexiform neurofibroma. A five-year-old girl presented with painful swelling in left lumbar region. Radiologic investigations showed a multinodular tumor in the subcutaneous plane of lumbosacral region. A complete excision and histopathologic examination revealed a plexiform tumor composed of hypocellular and hypercellular areas with verocay bodies. The tumor cells showed strong positivity for S-100 protein, rendering a final diagnosis of plexiform schwannoma. The child has been free of recurrence in 12-month follow-up. PMID:26064806

  2. Biomechanical comparison between lumbar disc arthroplasty and fusion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Hao; Zhong, Zheng-Cheng; Chen, Chen-Sheng; Chen, Wen-Jer; Hung, Chinghua

    2009-03-01

    The artificial disc is a mobile implant for degenerative disc replacement that attempts to lessen the degeneration of the adjacent elements. However, inconsistent biomechanical results for the neighboring elements have been reported in a number of studies. The present study used finite element (FE) analysis to explore the biomechanical differences at the surgical and both adjacent levels following artificial disc replacement and interbody fusion procedures. First, a three-dimensional FE model of a five-level lumbar spine was established by the commercially available medical imaging software Amira 3.1.1, and FE software ANSYS 9.0. After validating the five-level intact (INT) model with previous in vitro studies, the L3/L4 level of the INT model was modified to either insert an artificial disc (ProDisc II; ADR) or incorporate bilateral posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) cages with a pedicle screw fixation system. All models were constrained at the bottom of the L5 vertebra and subjected to 150N preload and 10Nm moments under four physiological motions. The ADR model demonstrated higher range of motion (ROM), annulus stress, and facet contact pressure at the surgical level compared to the non-modified INT model. At both adjacent levels, ROM and annulus stress were similar to that of the INT model and varied less than 7%. In addition, the greatest displacement of posterior annulus occurred at the superior-lateral region. Conversely, the PLIF model showed less ROM, less annulus stress, and no facet contact pressure at the surgical level compared to the INT model. The adjacent levels had obviously high ROM, annulus stress, and facet contact pressure, especially at the adjacent L2/3 level. In conclusion, the artificial disc replacement revealed no adjacent-level instability. However, instability was found at the surgical level, which might accelerate degeneration at the highly stressed annulus and facet joint. In contrast to disc replacement results, the posterior

  3. Lumbar spondylolysis: a life long dynamic condition? A cross sectional survey of 4.151 adults

    PubMed Central

    Sonne-Holm, Stig; Rovsing, H. C.; Monrad, Henrik; Gebuhr, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Lumbar spondylolysis (LS) has been the subject of several studies focusing on adolescent athletes. Few, if any, studies have examined LS in the general population. Lysis of the pars interarticularis of the vertebra may be associated with slipping (olisthesis), or it may be stable. In the present survey of lumbar radiographs and general epidemiological data recorded from the Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study cohort of 4.151 subjects (age range, 22–93 years), we identified the distribution and individual risk factors for LS-development. Men were significantly more at risk of L5 spondylolysis (P = 0.002). There were no sex-specific significant differences regarding LS-incidence at the L4 level. We found no significant differences of risk of LS between nulliparous or multiparous women (L4 P = 0.54/L5 P = 0.35). Furthermore, we found no significant relationship between age at menopause and LS-development. Increased lumbar lordosis was associated to L4/L5 spondylolysis in men (L4 P < 0.001/L5 P = 0.008). In women increased lumbar lordosis had a significant association with L5 spondylolysis (P < 0.001). Increased pelvic inclination was associated with L5 spondylolysis in both men and women (P < 0.001). There were no sex-specific differences regarding the occurrence of simultaneous slips/non-slips. In men, no individual risk factors for L4 slips with concomitant LS were found. In women slipped LS of L4 were significantly associated to aging (P < 0.001) and with decreased pelvic inclination (P = 0.001). In men slipped LS of L5 was significantly associated to increased BMI (P = 0.002), but not to aging (P = 0.10). In women, slips of L5 LS were significantly correlated to aging (P = 0.005), to BMI recorded at the time of radiographic examination (P = 0.006), and BMI measured 17 years before radiographic index examination (P = 0.004). The present study contrasts with commonly held views regarding lumbar spondylolysis. The prevalence of LS

  4. Communicating Science to Impact Learning? A Phenomenological Inquiry into 4th and 5th Graders' Perceptions of Science Information Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelmez Burakgazi, Sevinc; Yildirim, Ali; Weeth Feinstein, Noah

    2016-04-01

    Rooted in science education and science communication studies, this study examines 4th and 5th grade students' perceptions of science information sources (SIS) and their use in communicating science to students. It combines situated learning theory with uses and gratifications theory in a qualitative phenomenological analysis. Data were gathered through classroom observations and interviews in four Turkish elementary schools. Focus group interviews with 47 students and individual interviews with 17 teachers and 10 parents were conducted. Participants identified a wide range of SIS, including TV, magazines, newspapers, internet, peers, teachers, families, science centers/museums, science exhibitions, textbooks, science books, and science camps. Students reported using various SIS in school-based and non-school contexts to satisfy their cognitive, affective, personal, and social integrative needs. SIS were used for science courses, homework/project assignments, examination/test preparations, and individual science-related research. Students assessed SIS in terms of the perceived accessibility of the sources, the quality of the content, and the content presentation. In particular, some sources such as teachers, families, TV, science magazines, textbooks, and science centers/museums ("directive sources") predictably led students to other sources such as teachers, families, internet, and science books ("directed sources"). A small number of sources crossed context boundaries, being useful in both school and out. Results shed light on the connection between science education and science communication in terms of promoting science learning.

  5. Clinical development of new prophylactic antimalarial drugs after the 5th Amendment to the Declaration of Helsinki

    PubMed Central

    Dow, Geoffrey S; Magill, Alan J; Ohrt, Colin

    2008-01-01

    Malaria is of continuing concern in nonimmune traveling populations. Traditionally, antimalarial drugs have been developed as agents for dual indications (treatment and prophylaxis). However, since 2000, when the 5th Amendment to the Declaration of Helsinki (DH2000) was adopted, development of new malaria prophylaxis drugs in this manner has ceased. As a consequence, there may not be any new drugs licensed for this indication in the foreseeable future. Major pharmaceutical companies have interpreted DH2000 to mean that the traditional development paradigm may be considered unethical because of doubt over the likelihood of benefit to endemic populations participating in clinical studies, the use of placebo, and the sustainability of post-trial access to study medications. In this article, we explore the basis of these concerns and suggest that the traditional development paradigm remains ethical under certain circumstances. We also consider alternative approaches that may be more attractive to sponsors as they either do not use placebo, or utilize populations in endemic countries who may unambiguously benefit. These approaches represent the way forward in the future, but are at present unproven in clinical practice, and face numerous regulatory, logistical and technical challenges. Consequently, in the short term, we argue that the traditional clinical development paradigm remains the most feasible approach and is ethical and consistent with the spirit of DH2000 under the appropriate circumstances. PMID:19209263

  6. Attitudes towards General Practice: a comparative cross-sectional survey of 1st and 5th year medical students

    PubMed Central

    Kruschinski, Carsten; Wiese, Birgitt; Hummers-Pradier, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Positive attitudes towards General Practice can be understood as a prerequisite for becoming a General Practitioner (GP) and for collaboration with GPs later on. This study aimed to assess attitudes of medical students at the beginning and the end of medical school. Methods: A total of 160 1st year students at Hannover Medical School were surveyed. Their attitudes were compared to those of 287 5th year students. Descriptive, bi- and multivariate analyses were performed to investigate influences of year of study and gender. Results: Year of study and gender both were associated with the attitudes towards General Practice. The interest in General Practice and patient-orientation (communication, care of older patients with chronic diseases) was higher in 1st year students compared to more advanced students. Female students valued such requirements more than male students, the differences in attitudes between the years of study being more pronounced in male students. Conclusion: Despite some limitations caused by the cross-sectional design, the attitudes towards General Practice competencies changed to their disadvantage during medical school. This suggests a formative influence of the strategies used in medical education. Educational strategies, however, could be used to bring about a change of attitudes in the other direction. PMID:23255966

  7. Fast food consumption and food prices: evidence from panel data on 5th and 8th grade children.

    PubMed

    Khan, Tamkeen; Powell, Lisa M; Wada, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Fast food consumption is a dietary factor associated with higher prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States. The association between food prices and consumption of fast food among 5th and 8th graders was examined using individual-level random effects models utilizing consumption data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K), price data from American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association (ACCRA), and contextual outlet density data from Dun and Bradstreet (D&B). The results found that contextual factors including the price of fast food, median household income, and fast food restaurant outlet densities were significantly associated with fast food consumption patterns among this age group. Overall, a 10% increase in the price of fast food was associated with 5.7% lower frequency of weekly fast food consumption. These results suggest that public health policy pricing instruments such as taxes may be effective in reducing consumption of energy-dense foods and possibly reducing the prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children and young adolescents. PMID:22292115

  8. Historical and future land carbon cycle, results from the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedlingstein, Pierre; Anav, Alessandro; Murray-Tortarolo, Guillermo; Wenzel, Sabrina; Cox, Peter; Eyring, Veronika

    2014-05-01

    The 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) provided a unique source of Earth System Models simulations, generating an unprecedented range of analysis of many components of the climate system. In this presentation we will focus on the land carbon cycle, its response to the historical perturbation and its projected response in the future under the forcing of the different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) scenarios. There is a broad agreement across models on the evolution of the carbon exchange between the atmosphere and the land since the beginning of the industrial revolution. Carbon sink driven by atmospheric CO2 increase more than compensates now the carbon sources due to land use changes, consistent with independent estimates. The future of the land carbon cycle is significantly more uncertain, even for a given RCP scenario. There is no overall agreement across models on the sign of the land carbon sink by the end of the 21st century, land carbon cycle sensitivity to atmospheric CO2 increase and climate change being strongly model dependent. Model evaluation and use of emerging constraint should help reduce uncertainties in future carbon cycle projections.

  9. Fast Food Consumption and Food Prices: Evidence from Panel Data on 5th and 8th Grade Children

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Tamkeen; Powell, Lisa M.; Wada, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Fast food consumption is a dietary factor associated with higher prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States. The association between food prices and consumption of fast food among 5th and 8th graders was examined using individual-level random effects models utilizing consumption data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K), price data from American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association (ACCRA), and contextual outlet density data from Dun and Bradstreet (D&B). The results found that contextual factors including the price of fast food, median household income, and fast food restaurant outlet densities were significantly associated with fast food consumption patterns among this age group. Overall, a 10% increase in the price of fast food was associated with 5.7% lower frequency of weekly fast food consumption. These results suggest that public health policy pricing instruments such as taxes may be effective in reducing consumption of energy-dense foods and possibly reducing the prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children and young adolescents. PMID:22292115

  10. Bond Strength of 5th, 6th and 7th Generation Bonding Agents to Intracanal Dentin of Primary Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Afshar, Hossein; Baradaran Nakhjavani, Yahya; Rahro Taban, Sedighe; Baniameri, Zahra; Nahvi, Azam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This in-vitro study sought to assess the push-out bond strength of a total etch and 2 self-etch bonding systems to intracanal dentin of primary anterior teeth (PAT). Materials and Methods: Thirty-six primary anterior teeth were randomly divided into 3 groups of 5th generation (Single Bond 2), 6th generation (Clearfil SE) and 7th generation (Single Bond Universal) bonding agents. The canal orifice was restored with composite resin and the push-out test was carried out to assess the bond strength. After applying the push-out load, specimens were evaluated under a light microscope at 40X magnification. One-way ANOVA and log-rank test on Kaplan-Meier curves were applied for the comparison of bond strength among the 3 groups. Results: The mean± standard deviation (SD) bond strength was 13.6±5.33 MPa for Single Bond 2, 13.85±5.86 MPa for Clearfil SE and 12.28±5.24 MPa for Single Bond Universal. The differences in bond strength among the 3 groups were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusion: All three bonding agents are recommended for use with composite posts in PAT. However, due to high technical sensitivity of the Total Etch system, single or two-step self etch systems may be preferred for uncooperative children. PMID:26056518

  11. Final Report for DOE Support of 5th the International Workshop on Oxide Surfaces (IWOX-V)

    SciTech Connect

    Charles T. Campbell

    2007-02-02

    The 5th International Workshop on Oxide Surfaces (IWOX-V) was held at Granlibakken Conference center in Lake Tahoe, CA, January 7-12. The total attendance was ~90. The breakdown of attendees by country is as follows: USA 41 Germany 18 Japan 7 UK 5 Italy 5 France 4 Austria 3 Denmark 3 Cech. Repub. 1 Ireland 1 New Zealand 1 India 1 The technical program included oral sessions on the electronic and magnetic properties of oxide surfaces, surface and interface structure, advances in theory, surface defects, thin film oxides on metals and on oxides, thin film metals on oxides, surface photochemistry, surface reactivity, and interactions with water. Two evening poster sessions had similar themes. As in previous years, the program stimulated significant interest and discussion among the attendees. The local expenses (food and lodging, $918 per person) for eight foreign invited speakers were covered by BES funds. In addition, partial reimbursement for travel ($328 per person) was supported by BES funds for two more foreign invited speakers.

  12. Vertebrae in compression: Mechanical behavior of arches and centra in the gray smooth-hound shark (Mustelus californicus).

    PubMed

    Porter, Marianne E; Long, John H

    2010-03-01

    In swimming sharks, vertebrae are subjected, in part, to compressive loads as axial muscles contract. We currently have no information about which vertebral elements, centra, arch cartilages, or both, actually bear compressive loads in cartilaginous vertebrae. To address this issue, the goal of this experiment was to determine the load-bearing ability of arch and centrum cartilages in compression, to determine the material properties of shark vertebrae, and to document fracture patterns in the centra with and without the arches. Intact vertebrae and vertebrae with the arch cartilages experimentally removed (centra alone) were subjected to compressive loading to failure at a single strain rate. The maximum compressive forces sustained by the vertebrae and the centra are statistically indistinguishable. Thus we conclude that under these testing conditions the arch does not bear appreciable loads. Independent evidence for this conclusion comes from the fact that vertebrae fail in compression at the centra, and not at the arches. Overall, the results of these mechanical tests suggest that the neural arches are not the primary load-bearing structure during axial compression. PMID:19862836

  13. ISASS Policy Statement – Lumbar Artificial Disc

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The primary goal of this Policy Statement is to educate patients, physicians, medical providers, reviewers, adjustors, case managers, insurers, and all others involved or affected by insurance coverage decisions regarding lumbar disc replacement surgery. Procedures This Policy Statement was developed by a panel of physicians selected by the Board of Directors of ISASS for their expertise and experience with lumbar TDR. The panel's recommendation was entirely based on the best evidence-based scientific research available regarding the safety and effectiveness of lumbar TDR. PMID:25785243

  14. Lumbar stenosis: clinical case☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Sá, Pedro; Marques, Pedro; Alpoim, Bruno; Rodrigues, Elisa; Félix, António; Silva, Luís; Leal, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Lumbar stenosis is an increasingly common pathological condition that is becoming more frequent with increasing mean life expectancy, with high costs for society. It has many causes, among which degenerative, neoplastic and traumatic causes stand out. Most of the patients respond well to conservative therapy. Surgical treatment is reserved for patients who present symptoms after implementation of conservative measures. Here, a case of severe stenosis of the lumbar spine at several levels, in a female patient with pathological and surgical antecedents in the lumbar spine, is presented. The patient underwent two different decompression techniques within the same operation. PMID:26229836

  15. Regional changes in vertebra morphology during ontogeny reflect the life history of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.)

    PubMed Central

    Fjelldal, Per G; Totland, Geir K; Hansen, Tom; Kryvi, Harald; Wang, Xiyuan; Søndergaard, Jens L; Grotmol, Sindre

    2013-01-01

    This study examined vertebra formation, morphology, regional characters, and bending properties of the vertebral column of Atlantic cod throughout its life cycle (0–6 years). The first structure to form was the foremost neural arch, 21 days post hatching (dph), and the first vertebra centrum to form – as a chordacentrum – was the 3rd centrum at 28 dph. Thereafter, the notochord centra developed in a regular sequence towards the head and caudal fin. All vertebrae were formed within 50 dph. The vertebral column consisted of 52 (± 2) vertebrae (V) and could be divided into four distinct regions: (i) the cervical region (neck) (V1 and V2), characterized by short vertebra centra, prominent neural spines and absence of articulations with ribs; (ii) the abdominal region (trunk) (V3–V19), characterized by vertebrae with wing-shaped transverse processes (parapophyses) that all articulate with a rib; (iii) the caudal region (tail) (V20–V40), where the vertebra centra have haemal arches with prominent haemal spines; (iv) the ural region (V41 to the last vertebra), characterized by broad neural and haemal spines, providing sites of origin for muscles inserting on the fin rays – lepidotrichs – of the tail fin. The number of vertebrae in the cervical, abdominal and caudal regions was found to be constant, whereas in the ural region, numbers varied from 12 to 15. Geometric modelling based on combination of vertebra lengths, diameters and intervertebral distances showed an even flexibility throughout the column, except in the ural region, where flexibility increased. Throughout ontogeny, the vertebra centra of the different regions followed distinct patterns of growth; the relative length of the vertebrae increased in the cervical and abdominal regions, and decreased in the caudal and ural regions with increasing age. This may reflect changes in swimming mode with age, and/or that the production of large volumes of gametes during sexual maturation requires a

  16. Optical, Spectroscopic, and Doppler Evaluation of “Normal” and “Abnormal” Reflexology Areas in Lumbar Vertebral Pathology: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Krishna; Elanchezhiyan, D.; Maran, V. B.; Das, Raunak Kumar; Kumar, Piyush; Singh, S. P.; Murali Krishna, C.; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2012-01-01

    Scientific validation of reflexology requires an in-depth and noninvasive evaluation of “reflexology/reflex areas” in health and disease. The present paper reports the differential properties of “normal” and “abnormal” reflexology areas related to the lumbar vertebrae in a subject suffering from low back pain. The pathology is supported by radiological evidence. The reflexology target regions were clinically assessed with respect to colour and tenderness in response to finger pressure. Grey scale luminosity and pain intensity, as assessed by visual analogue scale scores, differentiated “normal” from “abnormal” skin. Skin swept source-optical coherence tomography recorded their structural differences. Infrared thermography revealed temperature variations. A laser Doppler study using a combined microcirculation and transcutaneous oxygen monitoring system indicated alterations in blood flow and oxygen perfusion. Raman spectroscopy showed differences in chemical signatures between these areas. The present findings may indicate a potential correlation between the reflexology areas and subsurface pathological changes, showing an association with the healthy or unhealthy status of the lumbar vertebrae. PMID:23365581

  17. Implementing SPRINTT [Student Polar Research with IPY National(and International)Teacher Training] in 5th Grade Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, D. S.

    2009-12-01

    I implemented the new NSF-funded SPRINTT (Student Polar Research with IPY National (and International) Teacher Training) curriculum with a 5th grade science class. SPRINTT, developed at U.S. Satellite Laboratory, Inc., is a 5-8 week science program teaching 5th through 10th graders to investigate climate change using polar data. The program includes perspectives of both Western scientists and the indigenous Northern population. The course contains three phases: Phase 1 includes content, data interpretation, and hands-on experiments to study Frozen Water, Frozen Land, and Food; Phase 2 (optional) includes further content on specific polar topics; and Phase 3 is a scaffolded research investigation. Before the course, teachers were trained via live webinars. This curriculum capitalizes on children’s innate fascination with our planet’s final frontier and combines it with the politically and scientifically relevant topic of climate change. In 2009, I used SPRINTT with 23 heterogeneous fifth grade students at National Presbyterian School in Washington DC for an environmental science unit. Overall, it was a success. The students met most of the learning objectives and showed enthusiasm for the material. I share my experiences to help other educators and curriculum developers. The Phase 1 course includes earth science (glaciers, sea ice, weather and climate, greenhouse gases, seasons, and human impacts on environments), life science (needs of living things, food and energy transfer, adaptations, and ecosystems and biomes) and physical science (phases of matter). Tailoring the program, I focused on Phase 1, the most accessible material and content, while deemphasizing the more cumbersome Phase 3 online research project. Pre-assessments documented the students’ misconceptions and informed instruction. The investigations were appropriately educational and interesting. For example, students enjoyed looking at environmental factors and their impact on the people in the

  18. When should orthostatic blood pressure changes be evaluated in elderly: 1st, 3rd or 5th minute?

    PubMed

    Soysal, Pinar; Aydin, Ali Ekrem; Koc Okudur, Saadet; Isik, Ahmet Turan

    2016-01-01

    Detection of orthostatic hypotension (OH) is very important in geriatric practice, since OH is associated with mortality, ischemic stroke, falls, cognitive failure and depression. It was aimed to determine the most appropriate time for measuring blood pressure in transition from supine to upright position in order to diagnose OH in elderly. Comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) including Head up Tilt Table (HUT) test was performed in 407 geriatric patients. Orthostatic changes were assessed separately for the 1st, 3rd and 5th minutes (HUT1, HUT3 and HUT5, respectively) taking the data in supine position as the basis. The mean age, recurrent falls, presence of dementia and Parkinson's disease, number of drugs, alpha-blocker and anti-dementia drug use, and fasting blood glucose levels were significantly higher in the patients with versus without OH; whereas, albumin and 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were significantly lower (p<0.05). However, different from HUT3 and HUT5, Charlson Comorbidity Index and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus were higher, the use of antidiabetics, antipsychotics, benzodiazepine, opioid and levodopa were more common (p<0.05). Statistical significance of the number of drugs and fasting blood glucose level was prominent in HUT1 as compared to HUT3 (p<0.01, p<0.05). Comparison of the patients that had OH only in HUT1, HUT3or HUT5 revealed no difference in terms of CGA parameters. These results suggests that orthostatic blood pressure changes determined at the 1st minute might be more important for geriatric practice. Moreover, 1st minute measurement might be more convenient in the elderly as it requires shorter time in practice. PMID:27077324

  19. Intraocular tissue ablation using an optical fibre to deliver the 5th harmonic of a Nd:YAG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Joseph; Yu, Xiaobo; Yu, Paula K.; Cringle, Stephen J.; Yu, Dao-Yi

    2009-02-01

    We report the evaluation of a system which delivers the 5th harmonic of an Nd:YAG (213nm) via optical fibre to ocular tissue sites. The 213nm beam is concentrated, using a hollow glass taper, prior to launch into 200 μm or 600 μm core diameter silica/silica optical fibre. The fibre tip was tapered to enhance the fluence delivered. An operating window of fluence values that could be delivered via 330 - 1100mm lengths of optical fibre was determined. The lower value of 0.2J/cm2 determined by the ablation threshold of the tissue and the upper value of 1.3J/cm2 by the launch, transmission and tip characteristics of the optical fibre. The fluence output decreased as a function of both transmitted pulse energy and number of pulses transmitted. Fresh retinal tissue was cleanly ablated with minimal damage to the surrounding tissue. Lesions were generated using 1, 3 and 10 pulses with fluences from 0.2 to 1.0J/cm2. The lesion depth demonstrated clear dose dependence. Lesions generated in ex vivo preparations of human trabecular meshwork in a fluid environment also demonstrated dose dependence, 50 pulses being sufficient to create a hole within the trabecular meshwork extending to Schlemm's canal. The dose dependence of the ablation depth combined with the ability of this technique to create a conduit through to Schlemm's canal demonstrates the potential of this technique for ophthalmological applications requiring precise and controlled intraocular tissue removal and has potential applications in the treatment and management of glaucoma.

  20. Treatment of Combined Spinal Deformity in Patient with Ollier Disease and Abnormal Vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Ryabykh, S. О.; Gubin, A. V.; Prudnikova, О. G.; Kobyzev, А. Е.

    2012-01-01

    We report staged treatment of severe combined spinal deformity in an 11-year-old patient with Ollier disease and abnormal cervical vertebra. Combined scoliosis with systemic pathology and abnormal vertebrae is a rare condition and features atypical deformity location and rapid progression rate and frequently involves the rib cage and pelvis, disturbing the function of chest organs and skeleton. Progressive deformity resulted in cachexia and acute respiratory failure. A halo-pelvic distraction device assembled of Ilizarov components was employed for a staged surgical treatment performed for lifesaving indications. After vital functions stabilized, the scoliosis curve of the cervical spine was corrected and fixed with a hybrid system of transpedicular supporting points, connecting rods, and connectors that provided staged distraction during growth. The treatment showed good functional and cosmetic result. PMID:24436859

  1. Treatment of combined spinal deformity in patient with ollier disease and abnormal vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Ryabykh, S О; Gubin, A V; Prudnikova, Capital O Cyrillic G; Kobyzev, Capital A Cyrillic Е

    2013-06-01

    We report staged treatment of severe combined spinal deformity in an 11-year-old patient with Ollier disease and abnormal cervical vertebra. Combined scoliosis with systemic pathology and abnormal vertebrae is a rare condition and features atypical deformity location and rapid progression rate and frequently involves the rib cage and pelvis, disturbing the function of chest organs and skeleton. Progressive deformity resulted in cachexia and acute respiratory failure. A halo-pelvic distraction device assembled of Ilizarov components was employed for a staged surgical treatment performed for lifesaving indications. After vital functions stabilized, the scoliosis curve of the cervical spine was corrected and fixed with a hybrid system of transpedicular supporting points, connecting rods, and connectors that provided staged distraction during growth. The treatment showed good functional and cosmetic result. PMID:24436859

  2. Bizarre tubercles on the vertebrae of Eocene fossil birds indicate an avian disease without modern counterpart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayr, Gerald

    2007-08-01

    Remains of fossil birds with numerous bony tubercles on the cervical vertebrae are reported from the Middle Eocene of Messel in Germany and the Late Eocene of the Quercy fissure fillings in France. These structures, which are unknown from extant birds and other vertebrates, were previously described for an avian skeleton from Messel but considered a singular feature of this specimen. The new fossils are from a different species of uncertain phylogenetic affinities and show that tuberculated vertebrae have a wider taxonomic, temporal, and geographic distribution. In contrast to previous assumptions, they are no ontogenetic feature and arise from the vertebral surface. It is concluded that they are most likely of pathologic origin and the first record of a Paleogene avian disease. Their regular and symmetrical arrangement over most of the external vertebral surface indicates a systemic disorder caused by factors that do not affect extant birds, such as especially high-dosed phytohormones or extinct pathogens.

  3. [Occupation and lumbar disk prolapse].

    PubMed

    Jensen, M V; Tüchsen, F

    1995-03-13

    All Danish occupational groups were screened for an increased risk of hospitalization due to a prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disc (PLID) (ICD-8: 725.11). A cohort of all gainfully employed Danes aged 20 to 59 years in 1981 was followed-up for 10 years for first hospitalization with PLID. A Standardized Hospitalization Ratio was calculated using all economically active persons as the reference group. Male groups with an elevated risk were found in building and construction, the iron and metal industry, in the food and nutrition sector and in occupational driving. Almost all groups of professional drivers had an elevated risk. Female groups with an elevated risk were mainly found in the same industries, but home helps, service workers in the private sector and sewing machine operators also had an elevated risk. We conclude that there are significant and systematic differences between occupational groups as concerns the risk of hospital admission due to PLID. PMID:7725550

  4. Lumbar Epidural Varix Mimicking Perineural Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Pusat, Serhat; Kural, Cahit; Aslanoglu, Atilla; Kurt, Bulent

    2013-01-01

    Lumbar epidural varices are rare and usually mimick lumbar disc herniations. Back pain and radiculopathy are the main symptoms of lumbar epidural varices. Perineural cysts are radiologically different lesions and should not be confused with epidural varix. A 36-year-old male patient presented to us with right leg pain. The magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic lesion at S1 level that was compressing the right root, and was interpreted as a perineural cyst. The patient underwent surgery via right L5 and S1 hemilaminectomy, and the lesion was coagulated and removed. The histopathological diagnosis was epidural varix. The patient was clinically improved and the follow-up magnetic resonance imaging showed the absence of the lesion. Lumbar epidural varix should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of the cystic lesions which compress the spinal roots. PMID:23741553

  5. Fat4-Dchs1 signalling controls cell proliferation in developing vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Kuta, Anna; Mao, Yaopan; Martin, Tina; Ferreira de Sousa, Catia; Whiting, Danielle; Zakaria, Sana; Crespo-Enriquez, Ivan; Evans, Philippa; Balczerski, Bartosz; Mankoo, Baljinder; Irvine, Kenneth D; Francis-West, Philippa H

    2016-07-01

    The protocadherins Fat4 and Dchs1 act as a receptor-ligand pair to regulate many developmental processes in mice and humans, including development of the vertebrae. Based on conservation of function between Drosophila and mammals, Fat4-Dchs1 signalling has been proposed to regulate planar cell polarity (PCP) and activity of the Hippo effectors Yap and Taz, which regulate cell proliferation, survival and differentiation. There is strong evidence for Fat regulation of PCP in mammals but the link with the Hippo pathway is unclear. In Fat4(-/-) and Dchs1(-/-) mice, many vertebrae are split along the midline and fused across the anterior-posterior axis, suggesting that these defects might arise due to altered cell polarity and/or changes in cell proliferation/differentiation. We show that the somite and sclerotome are specified appropriately, the transcriptional network that drives early chondrogenesis is intact, and that cell polarity within the sclerotome is unperturbed. We find that the key defect in Fat4 and Dchs1 mutant mice is decreased proliferation in the early sclerotome. This results in fewer chondrogenic cells within the developing vertebral body, which fail to condense appropriately along the midline. Analysis of Fat4;Yap and Fat4;Taz double mutants, and expression of their transcriptional target Ctgf, indicates that Fat4-Dchs1 regulates vertebral development independently of Yap and Taz. Thus, we have identified a new pathway crucial for the development of the vertebrae and our data indicate that novel mechanisms of Fat4-Dchs1 signalling have evolved to control cell proliferation within the developing vertebrae. PMID:27381226

  6. Asystole during lumbar discectomy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Vikas; Tiwari, Ankita; Rath, Girija Prasad; Banik, Sujoy

    2016-06-01

    Hemodynamic derangements have been reported after surgery involving upper cervical spine. Similar observations, however, are rare during a lumbar spine surgery. We share our experience in a patient who had 2 episodes of bradycardia leading to transient asystole while undergoing lumbar discectomy for prolapsed intervertebral disc. The risk of life-threatening hemodynamic disturbances during seemingly uncomplicated surgery in prone position has been emphasized. PMID:27185724

  7. Sensory Neuron Development in Mouse Coccygeal Vertebrae and Its Relationship to Tail Biopsies for Genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Jerald; Hendricks, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    A common method of genotyping mice is via tissue obtained from tail biopsies. However, there is no available information on the temporal development of sensory neurons in the tail and how their presence or absence might affect the age for performing tail biopsies. The goals of this study were to determine if afferent sensory neurons, and in particular nociceptive neurons, are present in the coccygeal vertebrae at or near the time of birth and if not, when they first can be visualized on or in those vertebrae. Using toluidine blue neuronal staining, transmission electron microscopy, and calcitonin-related gene peptide immunostaining, we found proximal to distal maturation of coccygeal nerve growth in the C57BL/6J mouse. Single nerve bundles were first seen on postpartum day (PPD) 0. On PPD 3 presumptive nociceptive sensory nerve fibers were seen entering the vertebral perichondrium. Neural development continued through the last time point (PPD 7) but at no time were neural fibers seen entering the body of the vertebrae. The effect of age on the development of pain perception in the neonatal mouse is discussed. PMID:24505409

  8. A thorny question: the taxonomic identity of the Pirro Nord cervical vertebrae revisited.

    PubMed

    Alba, David M; Colombero, Simone; Delfino, Massimo; Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido; Pavia, Marco; Rook, Lorenzo

    2014-11-01

    The past geographic distribution of the genus Theropithecus (Primates: Cercopithecidae) is mainly restricted to Africa. Outside that continent, the earliest reported records of this genus consist of a calcaneus of cf. Theropithecus sp. from 'Ubeidiya (Israel, 1.6-1.2 Ma [millions of years ago]), as well as three associated cervical vertebrae from Pirro Nord (Italy, 1.7-1.3 Ma) attributed to Theropithecus sp. The attribution of the Pirro Nord vertebrae to this genus has been disputed on morphometric grounds, although their assignment to a large-bodied cercopithecid has remained undisputed. Here we report unpublished cervical vertebral specimens with a similar morphology and, given their significance for the paleobiogeography of Theropithecus (purportedly representing its earliest European record), we re-evaluate their taxonomic attribution. In particular, we reconsider the possibility that they belong to another non-primate mammal recorded at this site. Based on both qualitative and metric morphological comparisons, we strongly favor an alternative attribution of the cervical vertebrae from Pirro Nord to the large porcupine Hystrix refossa, which is widely documented at the site by both dentognathic and other postcranial remains. We therefore conclude that the dispersal of Theropithecus out of Africa before ca. 1 Ma (when it is recorded by dental remains from Cueva Victoria, Spain) is currently based only on the calcaneus from 'Ubeidiya tentatively attributed to this genus. PMID:25042286

  9. Enhanced detection of the vertebrae in 2D CT-images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Franz; Greil, Robert; Kriegel, Hans-Peter; Schubert, Matthias; Cavallaro, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    In recent years, a considerable amount of methods have been proposed for detecting and reconstructing the spine and the vertebrae from CT and MR scans. The results are either used for examining the vertebrae or serve as a preprocessing step for further detection and annotation tasks. In this paper, we propose a method for reliably detecting the position of the vertebrae on a single slice of a transversal body CT scan. Thus, our method is not restricted by the available portion of the 3D scan, but even suffices with a single 2D image. A further advantage of our method is that detection does not require adjusting parameters or direct user interaction. Technically, our method is based on an imaging pipeline comprising five steps: The input image is preprocessed. The relevant region of the image is extracted. Then, a set of candidate locations is selected based on bone density. In the next step, image features are extracted from the surrounding of the candidate locations and an instance-based learning approach is used for selecting the best candidate. Finally, a refinement step optimizes the best candidate region. Our proposed method is validated on a large diverse data set of more than 8 000 images and improves the accuracy in terms of area overlap and distance from the true position significantly compared to the only other method being proposed for this task so far.

  10. Level set based vertebra segmentation for the evaluation of Ankylosing Spondylitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Sovira; Yao, Jianhua; Ward, Michael M.; Yao, Lawrence; Summers, Ronald M.

    2006-03-01

    Ankylosing Spondylitis is a disease of the vertebra where abnormal bone structures (syndesmophytes) grow at intervertebral disk spaces. Because this growth is so slow as to be undetectable on plain radiographs taken over years, it is necessary to resort to computerized techniques to complement qualitative human judgment with precise quantitative measures on 3-D CT images. Very fine segmentation of the vertebral body is required to capture the small structures caused by the pathology. We propose a segmentation algorithm based on a cascade of three level set stages and requiring no training or prior knowledge. First, the noise inside the vertebral body that often blocks the proper evolution of level set surfaces is attenuated by a sigmoid function whose parameters are determined automatically. The 1st level set (geodesic active contour) is designed to roughly segment the interior of the vertebra despite often highly inhomogeneous and even discontinuous boundaries. The result is used as an initial contour for the 2nd level set (Laplacian level set) that closely captures the inner boundary of the cortical bone. The last level set (reversed Laplacian level set) segments the outer boundary of the cortical bone and also corrects small flaws of the previous stage. We carried out extensive tests on 30 vertebrae (5 from each of 6 patients). Two medical experts scored the results at intervertebral disk spaces focusing on end plates and syndesmophytes. Only two minor segmentation errors at vertebral end plates were reported and two syndesmophytes were considered slightly under-segmented.

  11. Indian Health Career Handbook and Report on Ned Hatathli Seminar for Southern Arizona Indian Students (5th, Tucson, Arizona, February 6-7, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Arnold, Ed.; And Others

    Utilizing comments from teachers, professionals, college and high school students, this report is derived from the 5th Ned Hatathli Seminar, sponsored by the Navajo Health Authority, and presents factual information relative to American Indian participation in Indian Health careers. The following major speeches are presented: (1) "The Practice of…

  12. Engaging Minds. Proceedings of the National Academy for Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning Annual Conference (5th, Galway, Ireland, June 9-10, 2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy for Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    This publication contains the papers presented at the 5th Annual Conference of National Academy for Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning (NAIRTL) and the 9th Galway Symposium. Presenters from across Ireland and overseas share their perspectives. The theme of engagement touches on the very heart of what a "higher" education should be…

  13. Immediate and Short-Term Effects of the 5th Grade Version of the "keepin' it REAL" Substance Use Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Michael L.; Elek, Elvira; Wagstaff, David A.; Kam, Jennifer A.; Marsiglia, Flavio; Dustman, Patricia; Reeves, Leslie; Harthun, Mary

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the immediate and short-term outcomes of adapting a culturally-grounded middle school program, "keepin' it REAL", for elementary school students. After curriculum adaptation, 10 schools were randomly assigned to the intervention in 5th grade with follow-up boosters in 6th grade; 13 schools were randomly assigned to the control…

  14. International Roundtable on The Lifelong Learning and New Technologies Gap: Reaching the Disadvantaged (5th, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, December 8-10, 1999). Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Adult Literacy, Philadelphia, PA.

    Three elements defined the focus of the 5th Roundtable: lifelong learning, the new technologies gap, and reaching the disadvantaged. Participants referred frequently to the digital divide, a term that captures differential access to and use of information and communication technology (ICT). The questions that guided discussion related to ICT and…

  15. Evaluation of the Effects of Argumentation Based Science Teaching on 5th Grade Students' Conceptual Understanding of the Subjects Related to "Matter and Change"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çinar, Derya; Bayraktar, Sule

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of Argumentation Based Science Teaching on 5th grade students' conceptual understanding of the subjects related to "Matter and Change". This research is a qualitative research and its design is a multiple (compare) case study. In this study, semi-structured interviews related to the…

  16. Evaluation of the Effects of Argumentation Based Science Teaching on 5th Grade Students' Conceptual Understanding of the Subjects Related to "Matter and Change"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çinar, Derya; Bayraktar, Sule

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of Argumentation Based Science Teaching on 5th grade students' conceptual understanding of the subjects related to "Matter and Change". This research is a qualitative research and its design is a multiple (compare) case study. In this study, semi-structured interviews related to the…

  17. Measures of self-efficacy and norms for low-fat milk consumption are reliable and related to beverage consumption among 5th graders at school lunch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to determine the reliability and validity of scales measuring low-fat milk consumption self-efficacy and norms during school lunch among a cohort of 5th graders. Two hundred seventy-five students completed lunch food records and a psychosocial questionnaire measuring self-efficacy ...

  18. Determination of Motivation of 5th Grade Students Living in Rural and Urban Environments towards Science Learning and Their Attitudes towards Science-Technology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenar, Ismail; Köse, Mücahit; Demir, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    In this research, determination of motivation of 5th grade students living in rural and urban environments towards science learning and their attitudes towards science-technology course is aimed. This research is conducted based on descriptive survey model. Samples are selected through teleological model in accordance with the aim of this…

  19. The Effect of Direct Instruction Strategy on Math Achievement of Primary 4th and 5th Grade Students with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Makahleh, Ahmad Abdulhameed Aufan

    2011-01-01

    This study seeks to verify the effect of direct instruction strategy on Math achievment of students with learning difficulties in the fourth and fifth grade levels and measure the improvement in their attitudes to Mathematics. Sample consisted of sixty (60) students with Math learning difficulties attending 4th and 5th grade level resource rooms…

  20. Color Duplex Assessment of 4th and 5th Internal Mammary Artery Perforators: The Pedicles of the Medially Based Lower Pole Breast Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Monem, Kareem; Elshahat, Ahmed; Abou-Gamrah, Sherif; Eldin Abol-Atta, Hossam; Abd Eltawab, Reda; Massoud, Karim

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Reconstruction of a breast after mastectomy using the contralateral lower pole breast flap is an appealing procedure because it uses the tissues that were going to be excised during reduction of the sound breast to achieve symmetry. Literature mentioned that these flaps are supplied by the lower internal mammary artery perforators (IMAPs) with no further details. The aim of this study was to determine the site, size, and number of the 4th and 5th IMAPs by using preoperative color Duplex ultrasound and intraoperative exploration. Method: Twenty breasts in 10 patients who presented for reduction mammoplasty were included in this study. Preoperative color duplex was used to determine IMAPs in the 4th and 5th intercostal spaces. These perforators were localized intraoperatively. Intravenous fluorescein injection was used to determine the perfusion of the lower pole breast flap on the basis of these perforators. Results: Statistically, the 4th IMAPs diameters were significantly larger than the 5th IMAPs diameters (P < .05). The lower pole breast flap was perfused through these perforators. Conclusion: Color Duplex ultrasound is an accurate tool to preoperatively determine the 4th and 5th IMAPs. PMID:22292100

  1. Final technical report: Partial support for US participants in the 5th International Marine Biotechnology Conference, Townsville, Australia, Sept 29 - Oct 5, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Zohar, Yonathan; Hill, R.; Robb, F.

    2001-04-09

    Funding was provided for US participants in the 5th International Marine Biotechnology Conference held in Townsville, Australia from September 29 to October 5, 2000. DOE funds were used for travel awards for six US participants in this conference. DOE funds were successfully used to advance participation of US scientists in the important emerging field of marine biotechnology.

  2. An Analysis of the Learning Activities Covered in the 5th Grade Science Textbooks Based on 2005 and 2013 Turkish Science Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydogdu, Cemil; Idin, Sahin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the learning activities covered in 5th grade elementary science textbooks which depend on 2005 and 2013 elementary science curricula. Two elementary science textbooks [which] depend on 2005 science curriculum and two elementary science textbooks [which] depend on 2013 science curriculum were researched. The…

  3. An Analysis of the Learning Activities Covered in the 5th Grade Science Textbooks Based on 2005 and 2013 Turkish Science Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydogdu, Cemil; Idin, Sahin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the learning activities covered in 5th grade elementary science textbooks which depend on 2005 and 2013 elementary science curricula. Two elementary science textbooks depends on 2005 science curriculum and two elementary science textbooks depend on 2013 science curriculum were researched. The study is a…

  4. The Social Interactions of Students with Disabilities in a 5th Grade Level Inclusive Classroom and the Effect on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall-Reed, Estella

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a qualitative, ethnographic case study of 3 students with disabilities. The purpose of this research study was to observe and collect descriptive accounts of the social interactions that exist between the cultures in a 5th grade level inclusive classroom, such as the interactions between the special education students, general…

  5. Comparison of the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition, in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grondhuis, Sabrina Nicole; Mulick, James A.

    2013-01-01

    A review of hospital records was conducted for children evaluated for autism spectrum disorders who completed both the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R) and Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition (SB5). Participants were between 3 and 12 years of age. Diagnoses were autistic disorder (n = 26, 55%) and pervasive…

  6. U.S. Dietary and Physical Activity Guideline Knowledge and Corresponding Behaviors among 4th and 5th Grade Students: A Multi-Site Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bea, Jennifer W.; Martinez, Stephanie; Armstrong-Florian, Traci; Farrell, Vanessa; Martinez, Cathy; Whitmer, Evelyn; Hartz, Vern; Blake, Samuel; Nicolini, Ariana; Misner, Scottie

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of U.S. dietary and physical activity recommendations and corresponding behaviors were surveyed among 4th and 5th graders in five Arizona counties to determine the need for related education in SNAP-Ed eligible schools. A <70% target response rate was the criterion. Participants correctly identified recommendations for: fruit, 20%;…

  7. EUNIS '99: Information Technology Shaping European Universities. Proceedings of the International European University Information Systems (5th, Espoo, Finland, June 7-9, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document presents the proceedings from the 5th International European University Information Systems (EUNIS) Conference on Information Technology that took place in Helsinki, Finland on June 7-9, 1999. Topics of the conference proceedings were divided into five tracks (A through E): Use of Information Technology in Learning and Teaching;…

  8. Morphometrics of the skeleton of Dermophis mexicanus (Amphibia: Gymnophiona). Part I. The vertebrae, with comparisons to other species.

    PubMed

    Wake, M H

    1980-08-01

    Morphometric analysis of vertebral structure in caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona) is presented. Ontogenetic variation in Dermophis mexicanus is analyzed through the 100+ vertebrae composing the column. Vertebral structure in adult D. mexicanus is compared with that in Ichthyophis glutinosus and Typhlonectes compressicauda. Centra of the atlas, second, tenth, 20th, and 50th vertebrae grow at allometrically different rates in D. mexicanus, though the 20th and 50th are not significantly different. Growth appears significantly slower in several dimensions of anterior and posterior vertebrae relative to midtrunk vertebrae in all three species. Mensural patterns throughout the entire column are similar in the terrestrail burrowers D. mexicanus and I. glutinosus; patterns in the aquatic T. compressicauda differ substantially from those of the burrowing species and are strongly influenced by allometry. Of the 112 D. mexicanus examined, 13.4% had vertebral anomalies, usually fusions. PMID:7452726

  9. An update on the management of chronic lumbar discogenic pain.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2015-09-01

    Lumbar degenerative disc disease without disc herniation, also known as discogenic pain, is an elusive diagnosis of chronic low back pain. Lumbar provocation discography and fusion surgery have been frequently utilized for several decades as the gold standards for the diagnosis and treatment of symptomatic lumbar discogenic pain, though controversial, based on conjecture, rather than evidence. In addition to lumbar fusion, various other operative and nonoperative modalities of treatments are available in managing chronic lumbar discogenic pain. This review provides an updated assessment of the management of chronic lumbar discogenic pain with a critical look at the many modalities of treatments that are currently available. PMID:26255722

  10. Morphometric Analysis of Sub-axial Cervical Vertebrae and Its Surgical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Sachin; Vasudeva, Neelam

    2015-01-01

    Background The predilection of the cervical spine to a wide array of traumatic, degenerative and neoplastic diseases necessitates frequent surgical interventions. For successful surgical management of these conditions, a detailed anatomical knowledge of the cervical spine is required but variability in vertebral dimensions exists amongst different races and prevents the standardization of measurements. Aim The aim of this study was to present a morphometric reference database for cervical vertebrae of the Indian population and enable comparisons with other populations. Materials and Methods The study was conducted on 203 typical (C3-C6) cervical vertebrae. Linear measurements of the vertebrae were taken with the help of digital Vernier caliper and angular measurements were determined with software Image J. Statistical Analysis Mean and standard deviation of the morphometric parameters taken into account were analysed. The comparison of morphometric dimensions of the right and left sides was performed using Student’s t-test and p-value was calculated. Results The morphometric analysis of the cervical vertebrae demonstrated that when compared with other races, the mean height (11.39 ± 1.08 mm) and transverse diameters (22.18 ± 2.52 mm) of the vertebral body were larger but antero-posterior diameter was less, making the vertebral bodies in Indians transversely longer. The dimensions of the pedicle, laminae, articular processes and spinous process were smaller when compared to other populations. There existed a highly significant difference (p=0.002) between the widths of the right and left superior & inferior articular processes. A great disparity of the pedicle transverse angle was noted in different populations but in Indians the angle was 44.47 ± 2.81. Conclusion The present morphometric study in Indian population would be valuable for the successful instrumentation of the cervical spine as smaller dimensions of the cervical vertebrae pose a challenge to the

  11. Noninvasive Failure Load Prediction of Vertebrae with Simulated Lytic Defects and Biomaterial Augmentation.

    PubMed

    Giambini, Hugo; Fang, Zhong; Zeng, Heng; Camp, Jon J; Yaszemski, Michael J; Lu, Lichun

    2016-08-01

    The spine is the most common site for secondary bone metastases, and clinical management for fractures is based on size and geometry of the defect. About 75% of the bone needs to be damaged before lesions are detectable, so clinical tools should measure changes in both geometry and material properties. We have developed an automated, user-friendly, Spine Cancer Assessment (SCA) image-based analysis method that builds on a platform designed for clinical practice providing failure characteristics of vertebrae. The objectives of this study were to (1) validate SCA predictions with experimental failure load outcomes; (2) evaluate the planning capabilities for prophylactic vertebroplasty procedures; and (3) investigate the effect of computed tomography (CT) protocols on predicted failure loads. Twenty-one vertebrae were randomly divided into two groups: (1) simulated defect without treatment (negative control) [n = 9] and (2) with treatment [n = 12]. Defects were created and a polymeric biomaterial was injected into the vertebrae in the treated-defect group. Spines were scanned, reconstructed with two algorithms, and analyzed for fracture loads. To virtually plan for prophylactic intervention, vertebrae with empty lesions were simulated to be augmented with either poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) or a novel bone replacement copolymer, poly(propylene fumarate-co-caprolactone) [P(PF-co-CL)]. Axial rigidities were calculated from the CT images. Failure loads, determined from the cross section with the lowest axial rigidity, were compared with experimental values. Predicted loads correlated well with experimental outcomes (R(2) = 0.73, p < 0.0001). Predictions from negative control specimens highly correlated with measured values (R(2) = 0.90, p < 0.0001). Although a similar correlation was obtained using both algorithms, the smooth reconstruction (B30) tended to underestimate predicted failure loads by ∼50% compared with the ∼10% underestimate

  12. A Comparative Study of Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion and Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion in Degenerative Lumbar Spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Alexander P.; Sama, Andrew A.; Girardi, Federico P.; Lebl, Darren R.; Cammisa, Frank P.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Level 4 retrospective review. Purpose To compare the radiographic and clinical outcomes between posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) and lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) with posterior segmental spinal instrumentation (SSI) for degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis. Overview of Literature Both PLIF and LLIF have been performed for degenerative spondylolisthesis with good results, but no study has directly compared these two techniques so far. Methods The electronic medical and radiographic records of 78 matched patients were analyzed. In one group, 39 patients underwent PLIF with SSI at 41 levels (L3-4/L4-5), while in the other group, 39 patients underwent the LLIF procedure at 48 levels (L3-4/L4-5). Radiological outcomes such as restoration of disc height and neuroforaminal height, segmental lumbar lordosis, total lumbar lordosis, incidence of endplate fracture, and subsidence were measured. Perioperative parameters were also recorded in each group. Clinical outcome in both groups was assessed by the short form-12, Oswestry disability index and visual analogue scale scores. The average follow-up period was 16.1 months in the LLIF group and 21 months in the PLIF group. Results The restoration of disc height, foraminal height, and segmental lumbar lordosis was significantly better in the LLIF group (p<0.001). The duration of the operation was similar in both groups, but the average blood loss was significantly lower in the LLIF group (p<0.001). However, clinical outcome scores were similar in both groups. Conclusions Safe, effective interbody fusion can be achieved at multiple levels with neuromonitoring by the lateral approach. LLIF is a viable treatment option in patients with new onset symptoms due to degenerative spondylolisthesis who have had previous lumbar spine surgery, and it results in improved sagittal alignment and indirect foraminal decompression. PMID:26435782

  13. Integration of physical activity and technology motion devices within a combined 5th and 6th grade science curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, Kevin Eugene

    Background: National recommendations to increase school-based physical activity and promote academic success advise incorporating movement into traditional classroom lessons. Classroom-based physical activities have favorable associations with indicators of cognitive functioning, academic behaviors, and academic achievement. Purpose: This study analyzed the Active Science framework, which incorporated school-based physical activity within interactive science classroom lessons. Specifically, the study measured the effects of the Active Science framework on student physical activity levels in the classroom, student learning of science inquiry skills and content knowledge, and student perceptions of physical activity and science. A secondary purpose was to evaluate the teachers' perceptions on the implementation of the framework. Subjects: Participants were 37 Hispanic girls (age=11.1 +/-0.8 yr) in mixed 5th/6th grade science classes in a private, urban middle school. Methods: Physical activity levels of the students during the Active Science framework were measured using pedometers and heart rate monitors. Pre- and post-tests were used to assess the levels of learning achieved by the students in science inquiry skills and content during the Active Science framework. Student perceptions and attitudes toward science and physical activity were measured during student focus groups and pre-post perception surveys. Lesson plan evaluations completed by the teachers and structured interviews provided data on implementation of the framework. Results: Physical activity results showed heart rate (146 +/-9 bpm); maximal heart rate (196 +/-10.6 bpm); time (35 +/-2.5 mins); steps (3050 +/-402.7); calories (99 +/-8.4 kcal); and distance (1.1 +/-0.2 miles) while performing the activity portion of the science lessons were consistent with national recommendations for accumulating school-based physical activity. Significant increases in science content and skills test scores with a 22

  14. 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia: summary of main findings and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Pandit, J J; Andrade, J; Bogod, D G; Hitchman, J M; Jonker, W R; Lucas, N; Mackay, J H; Nimmo, A F; O'Connor, K; O'Sullivan, E P; Paul, R G; Palmer, J H M G; Plaat, F; Radcliffe, J J; Sury, M R J; Torevell, H E; Wang, M; Hainsworth, J; Cook, T M

    2014-10-01

    We present the main findings of the 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia (AAGA). Incidences were estimated using reports of accidental awareness as the numerator, and a parallel national anaesthetic activity survey to provide denominator data. The incidence of certain/probable and possible accidental awareness cases was ~1:19,600 anaesthetics (95% confidence interval 1:16,700-23,450). However, there was considerable variation across subtypes of techniques or subspecialities. The incidence with neuromuscular block (NMB) was ~1:8200 (1:7030-9700), and without, it was ~1:135,900 (1:78,600-299,000). The cases of AAGA reported to NAP5 were overwhelmingly cases of unintended awareness during NMB. The incidence of accidental awareness during Caesarean section was ~1:670 (1:380-1300). Two-thirds (82, 66%) of cases of accidental awareness experiences arose in the dynamic phases of anaesthesia, namely induction of and emergence from anaesthesia. During induction of anaesthesia, contributory factors included: use of thiopental, rapid sequence induction, obesity, difficult airway management, NMB, and interruptions of anaesthetic delivery during movement from anaesthetic room to theatre. During emergence from anaesthesia, residual paralysis was perceived by patients as accidental awareness, and commonly related to a failure to ensure full return of motor capacity. One-third (43, 33%) of accidental awareness events arose during the maintenance phase of anaesthesia, mostly due to problems at induction or towards the end of anaesthesia. Factors increasing the risk of accidental awareness included: female sex, age (younger adults, but not children), obesity, anaesthetist seniority (junior trainees), previous awareness, out-of-hours operating, emergencies, type of surgery (obstetric, cardiac, thoracic), and use of NMB. The following factors were not risk factors for accidental awareness: ASA physical status, race, and use or omission

  15. Effect on Physical Activity of a Randomized Afterschool Intervention for Inner City Children in 3rd to 5th Grade

    PubMed Central

    Crouter, Scott E.; de Ferranti, Sarah D.; Whiteley, Jessica; Steltz, Sarah K.; Osganian, Stavroula K.; Feldman, Henry A.; Hayman, Laura L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Less than 45% of U.S. children meet the 60 min.d-1 physical activity (PA) guideline. Structured after-school PA programing is one approach to help increase activity levels. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and short-term impact of a supervised after-school PA and nutrition education program on activity levels. Methods Forty-two 3rd-5th graders from an inner-city school in Boston, MA were randomly assigned to a 10-wk after-school program of either: 1) weekly nutrition education, or 2) weekly nutrition education plus supervised PA 3 d.wk-1 at a community-based center. At baseline and follow-up, PA was measured using accelerometry and fitness (VO2max) was estimated using the PACER 15-m shuttle run. Additional measures obtained were non-fasting finger stick total cholesterol (TC) and glucose levels, waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (%BF), and blood pressure (BP). Values are presented as mean±SE, unless noted otherwise. Results Thirty-six participants completed the study (mean±SD; age 9.7±0.9 years). Participants attended >80% of the sessions. After adjusting for accelerometer wear time and other design factors, light and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) increased in the nutrition+PA group (+21.5±14.5 and +8.6±8.0 min.d-1, respectively) and decreased in the nutrition only group (-35.2±16.3 and -16.0±9.0 min.d-1, respectively); mean difference between groups of 56.8±21.7 min.d-1 (light PA, p = 0.01) and 24.5±12.0 min.d-1 (MVPA, p = 0.04). Time spent in sedentary behaviors declined in the nutrition+PA group (-14.8±20.7 min.d-1) and increased in the nutrition only group (+55.4±23.2 min.d-1); mean difference between groups of -70.2±30.9 min.d-1 (p = 0.02). Neither group showed changes in TC, BP, WC, %BF, BMI percentile, or fitness (p>0.05). Conclusions The supervised afterschool community-based nutrition and PA program was well accepted and had high attendance. The changes in light PA and MVPA has potential

  16. PREFACE: PASREG 2005: The 5th International Workshop on Processing and Applications of Superconducting (RE)BCO Large Grain Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Masato; Cardwell, David; Salama, Kamel; Izumi, Mitsuru

    2006-07-01

    Large grain, (RE)BCO bulk superconductors fabricated by top-seeded melt growth (TSMG) have outstanding potential for a variety of engineering applications such as magnetic separators, flywheel energy storage, magnetic bearings and permanent magnet-like devices due to their ability to generate large magnetic fields. Recent developments in materials and systems research has led to the manufacture of proto-type devices for use in magnetron sputtering, magnetic stirrers and a mobile magnetic separator based on bulk materials technology. This issue contains selected papers presented at the 5th International Workshop on the Processing and Applications of Superconducting (RE)BCO Large Grain Materials held on 21-23 October 2005 at Tokyo Marine University to report progress made in this field over the previous two years. The workshop followed those held previously in Cambridge, UK (1997), Morioka, Japan (1999), Seattle, USA (2001), and Jena, Germany (2003). A total of 76 papers were presented at this workshop, of which 27 were presented in oral form and 49 were presented as posters. This issue contains a total of 36 selected papers in the following categories of bulk (RE)BCO large grain material: processing, characterization, and applications. The editors are grateful for the support of many colleagues both within and outside the immediate bulk community who reviewed the manuscripts to guarantee their high technical quality. Finally, the attendees wish to acknowledge the efforts of Professor Mitsuru Izumi and his research staff from Tokyo Marine University for being generous hosts during the workshop, and the efforts of Professor Masato Murakami for the overall organization of the meeting. The International PASREG Board selected the following distinguished researchers as recipients of the 2005 PASREG Award of Excellence to acknowledge their contribution to the development of bulk high temperature superconductors: • Dr Michael Strasik (Boeing, Seattle, USA) • Dr Hiroshi

  17. Two Successful Outreach Programs at Storm Peak Laboratory: GRASP for Undergraduates and Partnership for 5th Grade Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallar, A. G.; McCubbin, I. B.; Wright, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Desert Research Institute operates a high elevation facility, Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL), located on the Steamboat Springs Ski Resort at an elevation 10,500 ft. SPL provides an ideal location for long-term atmospheric research. The SPL mission statement is to ensure that the laboratory will continue to integrate climate research and education by advancing discovery and understanding within the field of pollution, aerosol and cloud interactions. During the last year, SPL has created two successful outreach programs reaching very different audiences. First, to engage students from local elementary schools, SPL established a 5th grade climate education program. This program is based on a partnership between SPL and Yampatika's&penvironmental educators. Yampatika is a non-profit outdoor environmental education organization. The program spans three days for each school and includes five elementary schools. During the first day, educators from Yampatika visit each classroom to introduce the concepts of climate and weather as well as teach students how to use scientific equipment. During the field program on the second day, students measure and record information about temperature, pressure, relative humidity, wind speed, and particle concentration while they travel to SPL via the gondola (in winter) or Suburban (in fall). Once at the laboratory, students tour the facility, discuss SPL research activities, and explore application of these activities to their curriculum. Following the field trip, Yampatika educators and SPL scientists will visit the school for a follow-up to help children explore concepts, answer questions, and evaluate students" learning. The second program, Geoscience Research at Storm Peak (GRASP), was designed to engage students from underrepresented groups and created a partnership between three Minority Serving Institutions and the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR). Undergraduate students from Tennessee State University, Howard University

  18. Clinical application of dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) at the lumbar spine (LS) in the diagnosis of osteoporosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wahner, H.W.; Dunn, W.L.; Riggs, B.L.

    1984-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of DPA to separate patients with osteoporosis (greater than 2 spinal fractures, normal Ca, P, absence of drugs, and metabolic bone disease) from a normal population. Performance criteria for the instrument have been described previously. Data was obtained from a prospective study of 105 normal women, 75 patients with osteoporosis and a retrospective study of 300 patients with osteoporosis seen in 1982/83. The results were as follows: (1) Area density (gm/cm/sup 2/) was found superior to mass (gm) due to the occasional problem to clearly identify the boundaries of L1-4. (2) Separation of the two populations was best when L1-L4,L2-L4, L3 alone or 10 paths over the mid lumbar area were used. One pass was not acceptable. (3) Compression fractures (CF) in the LS showed an increase in area density initially but area density may be undistinguishable from intact vertebrae later. To correct for this loss of bone area a factor predicting the area of lumbar vertebrae and based on patients actual height and weight was introduced and tested. (4) In the retrospective study a negative correlation was found between number of thoracic spine CF and bone mineral values in the LS. (5) A fracture threshold value of BM defined as the level below which 95% of all patients with CF were found was determined to be 0.98 g/cm2. Sixty-five percent of patients with two or more spinal CF could be separated from the normal population (outside 2SD). By using a correction factor for height loss this could be further increased to about 70%. CF in the LS may falsely elevate bone mineral values.

  19. Comparative Evaluation of Prevalence of Upper Cervical Vertebrae Anomalies in Cleft Lip/Palate Patients: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Datana, Sanjeev; Kumar, Prasanna; Kumar Roy, Supriya; Londhe, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT% Purpose: The patients with cleft lip and palate have a higher risk of cervical vertebrae anomalies than do patients in general population. The aim of present study was to determine the prevalence of various upper cervical spine anomalies in different type of clefts. Procedures: Lateral cephalograms of 128 patients (66 males, 62 females) with cleft lip and palate, and 125 (60 males, 65 females) non syndromic patients without cleft lip and palate were selected at random from archive. Cephalograms of the patients were traced and the diagnosis of any cervical vertebrae anomaly was noted. Anomalies were categorized as either: posterior arch deficiency or fusions. Main findings: Prevalence of cervical vertebrae anomalies in the c lef t group was 20. 3% while it was 6.4% in the control group. Further cervical vertebrae anomalies were 16.6% in the CPO group, 19.1% in the BCLP group, and 22.2% in the UCLP group. Conclusion: A higher prevalence of cervical vertebrae anomalies was observed in cleft lip and palate patients. The prevalenc e obser ved is 3 times more in clef t group than c ontrol group. How to cite this article: Datana S, Bhalla A, Kumar P, Roy SK, Londhe S. Comparative Evaluation of Prevalence of Upper Cervical Vertebrae Anomalies in Cleft Lip/Palate Patients: A Retrospective Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):168-171. PMID:25709295

  20. Impact of post-manipulation corrective core exercises on the spinal deformation and lumbar strength in golfers: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Chul-ho; Kim, Minjeong; Park, Gi Duck

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined spinal shape in professional golfers with chronic back pain, and analyzed the effects of a 4-week regimen of semi-weekly manipulation and corrective core exercises on spinal shape. [Subjects] Two golfers with chronic back pain. [Methods] The pelvis and spinal vertebrae were corrected using the Thompson “drop” technique. Angle and force were adjusted to place the pelvis, lumbar spine, and thoracic vertebrae in neutral position. The technique was applied twice weekly after muscle massage in the back and pelvic areas. The golfers performed corrective, warmup stretching exercises, followed by squats on an unstable surface using the Togu ball. They then used a gym ball for repetitions of hip rotation, upper trunk extension, sit-ups, and pelvic anterior-posterior, pelvic left-right, and trunk flexion-extension exercises. The session ended with cycling as a cool-down exercise. Each session lasted 60 minutes. [Results] The difference in height was measured on the left and right sides of the pelvic bone. The pelvic tilt changed significantly in both participants after the 4-week program. [Conclusion] In golfers, core muscles are critical and are closely related to spinal deformation. Core strengthening and spinal correction play a pivotal role in the correction of spinal deformation. PMID:26504350

  1. Lumbar vertebral morphology of flying, gliding, and suspensory mammals: implications for the locomotor behavior of the subfossil lemurs Palaeopropithecus and Babakotia.

    PubMed

    Granatosky, Michael C; Miller, Charlotte E; Boyer, Doug M; Schmitt, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    Lumbar vertebral morphology has been used as an indicator of locomotor behavior in living and fossil mammals. Rigidity within the lumbar region is thought to be important for increasing overall axial rigidity during various forms of locomotion, including bridging between supports, inverted quadrupedalism, gliding, and flying. However, distinguishing between those behaviors using bony features has been challenging. This study used osteological characters of the lumbar vertebrae to attempt to develop fine-grade functional distinctions among different mammalian species in order to make more complete inferences about how the axial skeleton affects locomotor behavior in extant mammals. These same lumbar characters were measured in two extinct species for which locomotor behaviors are well known, the sloth lemurs (Palaeopropithecus and Babakotia radofilai), in order to further evaluate their locomotor behaviors. Results from a principal components analysis of seven measurements, determined to be functionally significant from previous studies, demonstrate that inverted quadrupeds in the sample are characterized by dorsoventrally short and cranio-caudally expanded spinous processes, dorsally oriented transverse processes, and mediolaterally short and dorsoventrally high vertebral bodies compared with mammals that are relatively pronograde, vertical clingers, or gliders. Antipronograde mammals, dermopterans, and chiropterans also exhibit these traits, but not to the same extent as the inverted quadrupeds. In accordance with previous studies, our data show that the sloth lemur B. radofilai groups closely with antipronograde mammals like lorises, while Palaeopropithecus groups with extant sloths. These findings suggest that Palaeopropithecus was engaged in inverted quadrupedalism at a high frequency, while B. radofilai may have engaged in a more diverse array of locomotor and positional behaviors. The osteological features used here reflect differences in lumbar mobility

  2. [Progress on the cause and mechanism of a separation of clinical symptoms and signs and imaging features in lumbar disk herniation].

    PubMed

    Hu, Xing-xin; Liu, Li-min

    2015-10-01

    A few of patients with lumbar disk herniation having a separation of clinical symptoms and signs and imaging features, can be found in clinic, but the traditional theory of direct mechanical compression of nerve roots by herniated nucleus pulposus can't be used to explain this abnormal protrusion of lumbar intervertebral disc. The clinical symptoms and signs of the atypical lumbar disk herniation are affected by multiple factors. The indirect mechanical compression and distraction effect of spinal nerve roots may play an important role in the occurrence of the separation, and the appearance of abnormal clinical symptoms and signs is closely related to the migration of herniated nucleus pulposus tissue, transmission of injury information in the nervous system, and the complex interactions among the nucleus pulposus, dural sac and nerve roots. Moreover,the changes of microcirculation and inflammation secondary to the herniated nucleus pulposus tissue, the hyperosteogeny in the corresponding segment of the lumbar vertebrae and the posture changes all results in a diversity of symptoms and signs in patients with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation. Besides, there exist congenital variation of lumbosacral nerve roots and vertebral bodies in some patients, and the misdiagnosis or missed diagnosis of imaging finding may occur in some cases. However, the appearance of a separation of clinical symptoms and signs and imaging examination in patients may be caused by a variety of reasons in clinic. The exact mechanism involved in the interaction among nucleus pulposus tissue, dural sac and nerve root, secondary changes of pathophysiology and biomechanics around the nucleus pulposus, the determination of lesioned responsible segments, and how to overcome the limitations of imaging all need the further researches. PMID:26727796

  3. Study of Bone-screw Surface Fixation in Lumbar Dynamic Stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yun-Gang; Yu, Tao; Liu, Guo-Min; Yang, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Background: We aimed to use the animal model of dynamic fixation to examine the interaction of the pedicle screw surface with surrounding bone, and determine whether pedicle screws achieve good mechanical stability in the vertebrae. Methods: Twenty-four goats aged 2–3 years had Cosmic® pedicle screws implanted into both sides of the L2-L5 pedicles. Twelve goats in the bilateral dynamic fixation group had fixation rods implanted in L2-L3 and L4-L5. Twelve goats in the unilateral dynamic fixation group had fixation rods randomly fixed on one side of the lumbar spine. The side that was not implanted with fixation rods was used as a static control group. Results: In the static control group, new bone was formed around the pedicle screw and on the screw surface. In the unilateral and bilateral dynamic fixation groups, large amounts of connective tissue formed between and around the screw threads, with no new bone formation on the screw surface; the pedicle screws were loose after the fixed rods were removed. The bone mineral density and morphological parameters of the region of interest (ROI) in the unilateral and bilateral dynamic fixation group were not significantly different (P > 0.05), but were lower in the fixed groups than the static control group (P < 0.05). This showed the description bone of the ROI in the static control group was greater than in the fixation groups. Under loading conditions, the pedicle screw maximum pull force was not significantly different between the bilateral and unilateral dynamic fixation groups (P > 0.05); however the maximum pull force of the fixation groups was significantly less than the static control group (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Fibrous connective tissue formed at the bone-screw interface under unilateral and bilateral pedicle dynamic fixation, and the pedicle screws lost mechanical stability in the vertebrae. PMID:25635433

  4. Proceedings for the 5th Asia-Pacific Conference on Disaster Medicine: creating an agenda for action.

    PubMed

    De Grace, M; Ericson, D; Folz, H; Greene, W; Ho, K; Pearce, L

    2001-01-01

    Disaster medicine has come to the forefront and has become the focus of interest not only in the medical community, but also in the eyes of the public. The 5th APCDM was convened in Vancouver, Canada, 27-30 September 2000. It brought together over 300 delegates from 32 countries to share their experiences and thoughts regarding disaster events and how to effectively manage them. The conference was devoted to the task of establishing priorities and creating an Agenda for Action. From the discussions, key actions required were defined: COMMUNICATIONS: (1) Identify existing regional telehealth groups and gather lessons to be learned from them; (2) Form a telehealth advisory group to work with regional groups to compile telehealth initiatives, identify international protocols in telehealth already in existence, and solicit feedback before setting international standards; and (3) Increase corporate partnerships in the fields of telehealth and telecommunications, and invite corporations to send delegates to future APCDM meetings. This should be an initiative of the APCDM, the World Association of Disaster and Emergency Medicine (WADEM), or the European Society of Emergency Medicine. EDUCATION AND RESEARCH: (1) Formalize education in disaster medicine and management. The World Health Organization and WADEM should take a leadership role; (2) WADEM is requested to hold a conference with a focus on qualitative research; (3) WHO is requested to continue the provision of international research teams, but to advocate for the development of national disaster research infrastructure; (4) Make research findings and reports available on web sites of such organizations as WHO and PAHO; (5) Develop the translation of research for community utilization. The WHO and PAHO are organizations that are requested to consider this action; and (6) WADEM/APCDM are requested to focus future conferences on applied research. INFORMATION AND DATA: (1) Create an "Information and Data Clearinghouse

  5. It takes a community to define a discipline: the 5th anniversary of Environmental Research Letters It takes a community to define a discipline: the 5th anniversary of Environmental Research Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammen, Dan

    2012-03-01

    commentary environment, a unique service in itself, and also a specific forum for research published in ERL. Individual topics often come up that warrant not only single articles, but collections of assessments, and ERL has published focus issues in key areas of environmental science including: tropical deforestation, wind energy, the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and climate engineering. ERL is currently publishing seven high-quality focus issues in cutting-edge areas such as arctic vegetation dynamics and cryospheric changes. Research letters appearing in ERL have received regular and significant coverage in the wider media, with several major news outlets and agencies choosing to cover ERL research, such as Nature, BBC News, New Scientist, The Guardian, Scientific American, Le Monde and many others. 4.The future community of ERL The process of community support will take many forms at ERL. The journal is growing—we have published the highest number of articles ever in a single volume in 2011 and are looking to continue this growth through into 2012. ERL had an over 50% increase in submissions from 2010 to 2011. One initiative to mark the journal's 5th anniversary was the 'Best articles' collection [1] a nominated compilation of articles showcasing the quality of published work in ERL as well as the subject area breadth. Co-authors of the five winning articles have been awarded free publication in ERL until the end of 2012. We can also see the open access model working, in that our articles are highly downloaded outside of the traditionally strong geographical areas of academia (North America and Western Europe), showing that the journal's readership is geographically diverse with high interest from Asia, South America and Africa. The journal is committed to progress and innovation; coming soon will be a set of new communication tools and online innovations, including: Video abstracts from the start of 2012 (for example, the video commentary published alongside this

  6. Percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy - early clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Yoshitaka; Mizuno, Junichi; Takeda, Masaaki; Itoh, Yasunobu; Matsuoka, Hidenori; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    We report our early clinical experience with percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) for herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP) in the lumbar spine. We introduced PELD to our clinical practice in June 2009. A total of 311 patients with degenerative lumbar spine disease were treated in our hospital up to August 2011. Thirty-seven patients with lumbar HNP were treated by PELD. PELD was carried out under local anesthesia, and the endoscope was continuously irrigated with saline. Twenty-eight patients were treated through the transforaminal approach, 5 were treated through the interlaminar approach, and 4 were treated through the extraforaminal approach. Surgery was discontinued due to uncontrollable intraoperative pain or anatomical inaccessibility in one case of the interlaminar approach and 2 cases of the extraforaminal approach. In the other 34 patients, the elapsed time of surgery was 34 to 103 minutes (mean 62.4 minutes). Extracorporeal blood loss was insignificant. Immediate symptom relief was achieved in all patients, and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging revealed sufficient removal of the HNP. The length of the postoperative hospital stay was 1 or 2 days in all patients. The surgical method of PELD is completely different from percutaneous nucleotomy, and the aim is to directly remove the HNP with minimum damage to the musculoskeletal structure. Although this study is based on our early clinical outcomes, PELD seemed to be a promising minimally invasive surgery for HNP in the lumbar spine. PMID:23006872

  7. Economic impact of minimally invasive lumbar surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hofstetter, Christoph P; Hofer, Anna S; Wang, Michael Y

    2015-01-01

    Cost effectiveness has been demonstrated for traditional lumbar discectomy, lumbar laminectomy as well as for instrumented and noninstrumented arthrodesis. While emerging evidence suggests that minimally invasive spine surgery reduces morbidity, duration of hospitalization, and accelerates return to activites of daily living, data regarding cost effectiveness of these novel techniques is limited. The current study analyzes all available data on minimally invasive techniques for lumbar discectomy, decompression, short-segment fusion and deformity surgery. In general, minimally invasive spine procedures appear to hold promise in quicker patient recovery times and earlier return to work. Thus, minimally invasive lumbar spine surgery appears to have the potential to be a cost-effective intervention. Moreover, novel less invasive procedures are less destabilizing and may therefore be utilized in certain indications that traditionally required arthrodesis procedures. However, there is a lack of studies analyzing the economic impact of minimally invasive spine surgery. Future studies are necessary to confirm the durability and further define indications for minimally invasive lumbar spine procedures. PMID:25793159

  8. Minimally invasive procedures on the lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Skovrlj, Branko; Gilligan, Jeffrey; Cutler, Holt S; Qureshi, Sheeraz A

    2015-01-16

    Degenerative disease of the lumbar spine is a common and increasingly prevalent condition that is often implicated as the primary reason for chronic low back pain and the leading cause of disability in the western world. Surgical management of lumbar degenerative disease has historically been approached by way of open surgical procedures aimed at decompressing and/or stabilizing the lumbar spine. Advances in technology and surgical instrumentation have led to minimally invasive surgical techniques being developed and increasingly used in the treatment of lumbar degenerative disease. Compared to the traditional open spine surgery, minimally invasive techniques require smaller incisions and decrease approach-related morbidity by avoiding muscle crush injury by self-retaining retractors, preventing the disruption of tendon attachment sites of important muscles at the spinous processes, using known anatomic neurovascular and muscle planes, and minimizing collateral soft-tissue injury by limiting the width of the surgical corridor. The theoretical benefits of minimally invasive surgery over traditional open surgery include reduced blood loss, decreased postoperative pain and narcotics use, shorter hospital length of stay, faster recover and quicker return to work and normal activity. This paper describes the different minimally invasive techniques that are currently available for the treatment of degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. PMID:25610845

  9. 49 CFR 572.19 - Lumbar spine, abdomen and pelvis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lumbar spine, abdomen and pelvis. 572.19 Section 572.19 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY...-Year-Old Child § 572.19 Lumbar spine, abdomen and pelvis. (a) The lumbar spine, abdomen, and...

  10. 49 CFR 572.19 - Lumbar spine, abdomen and pelvis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lumbar spine, abdomen and pelvis. 572.19 Section 572.19 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY...-Year-Old Child § 572.19 Lumbar spine, abdomen and pelvis. (a) The lumbar spine, abdomen, and...

  11. 49 CFR 572.19 - Lumbar spine, abdomen and pelvis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lumbar spine, abdomen and pelvis. 572.19 Section 572.19 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY...-Year-Old Child § 572.19 Lumbar spine, abdomen and pelvis. (a) The lumbar spine, abdomen, and...

  12. The Mammalian Cervical Vertebrae Blueprint Depends on the T (brachyury) Gene

    PubMed Central

    Kromik, Andreas; Ulrich, Reiner; Kusenda, Marian; Tipold, Andrea; Stein, Veronika M.; Hellige, Maren; Dziallas, Peter; Hadlich, Frieder; Widmann, Philipp; Goldammer, Tom; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Rehage, Jürgen; Segelke, Dierck; Weikard, Rosemarie; Kühn, Christa

    2015-01-01

    A key common feature of all but three known mammalian genera is the strict seven cervical vertebrae blueprint, suggesting the involvement of strong conserving selection forces during mammalian radiation. This is further supported by reports indicating that children with cervical ribs die before they reach reproductive age. Hypotheses were put up, associating cervical ribs (homeotic transformations) to embryonal cancer (e.g., neuroblastoma) or ascribing the constraint in cervical vertebral count to the development of the mammalian diaphragm. Here, we describe a spontaneous mutation c.196A > G in the Bos taurus T gene (also known as brachyury) associated with a cervical vertebral homeotic transformation that violates the fundamental mammalian cervical blueprint, but does not preclude reproduction of the affected individual. Genome-wide mapping, haplotype tracking within a large pedigree, resequencing of target genome regions, and bioinformatic analyses unambiguously confirmed the mutant c.196G allele as causal for this previously unknown defect termed vertebral and spinal dysplasia (VSD) by providing evidence for the mutation event. The nonsynonymous VSD mutation is located within the highly conserved T box of the T gene, which plays a fundamental role in eumetazoan body organization and vertebral development. To our knowledge, VSD is the first unequivocally approved spontaneous mutation decreasing cervical vertebrae number in a large mammal. The spontaneous VSD mutation in the bovine T gene is the first in vivo evidence for the hypothesis that the T protein is directly involved in the maintenance of the mammalian seven-cervical vertebra blueprint. It therefore furthers our knowledge of the T-protein function and early mammalian notochord development. PMID:25614605

  13. A child presenting with tuberculous spondylitis in a single third cervical vertebra: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Despite a global reduction in tuberculosis, extrapulmonary tuberculosis is increasing. Spinal tuberculosis remains the commonest form of skeletal tuberculosis. Cervical spine involvement is rare but is the most dangerous form because of diagnostic difficulties and serious residual disability. We report a child who had single vertebral involvement of her third cervical vertebra which is extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge isolated third cervical vertebra involvement in a child by tuberculosis has not been reported previously. Difficulties in obtaining material for histology and bacterial culture from this critical location and how the diagnosis was reached despite these challenges are highlighted. Case presentation A 10-year-old Sinhalese girl developed painful torticollis and ‘cries during sleep’. She had received Bacillus Calmette–Guérin vaccine at birth, was well nourished, and had no loss of weight, anorexia or contact with tuberculosis. A plain radiograph of her neck showed a collapsed third cervical vertebra with no disc involvement. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed isolated destruction of third cervical vertebra associated with prevertebral soft tissue swelling indenting the thecal sac without cord compression. Her chest radiograph was normal. There was peripheral lymphocytosis, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, negative tuberculin (Mantoux) test, and negative QuantiFERON®-TB GoldIn-Tube assay. Invasive procedures to obtain tissue for histology, smear or culture were perceived by parents as dangerous due to surrounding critical structures and consent was denied. The differential diagnosis included spinal tuberculosis and unifocal Langerhan cell histiocytosis. Nocturnal symptoms and the prevertebral collection of soft tissue (‘cold abscess’) were characteristic of tuberculosis, and nonspecific findings of elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate and lymphocytosis supported this diagnosis. An incidental finding of a

  14. Retroaortic Variant of Reverse Horseshoe Kidney With Butterfly Vertebrae Presenting as Neurogenic Bladder.

    PubMed

    Esen, Baris; Telli, Onur; Ucan, Berna; Fitoz, Suat; Unlu, Agahan; Burgu, Berk; Soygur, Tarkan

    2016-09-01

    Horseshoe kidney is a relatively common congenital anomaly. In 95% of the cases, lower poles are connected to each other. In a small subset, an isthmus connects both upper poles (reverse horseshoe kidney). Almost always, the fusion of kidney poles occurs anterior to the aorta and vena cava. The fusion of renal poles posterior to both aorta and vena cava is extremely rare. Herein, we present a case with multiple rare congenital anomalies-retroaortic variant of reverse horseshoe kidney, retroaortic left renal vein, and butterfly vertebrae. PMID:27282812

  15. [Research advances of three-dimension printing technology in vertebrae and intervertebral disc tissue engineering].

    PubMed

    Yang, Zechuan; Li, Chunde; Sun, Haolin

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology is characterized by "inside-out" stack manufacturing. Compared with conventional technologies, 3D printing has the advantage of personalization and precision. Therefore, the shape and internal structure of the scaffolds made by 3D printing technology are highly biomimetic. Besides, 3D bioprinting can precisely deposit the biomaterials, seeding cells and cytokines at the same time, which is a breakthrough in printing technique and material science. With the development of 3D printing, it will make great contributions to the reconstruction of vertebrae and intervertebral disc in the future. PMID:27273987

  16. Cervical Meningomyelitis After Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yujin; Kim, Joon-Sung; Kim, Ji Yeon

    2015-06-01

    Epidural steroid injections (ESI) are a common treatment for back pain management. ESI-related complications have increased with the growing number of procedures. We report a case of cervical meningomyelitis followed by multiple lumbar ESI. A 60-year-old male with diabetes mellitus presented to our hospital with severe neck pain. He had a history of multiple lumbar injections from a local pain clinic. After admission, high fever and elevated inflammatory values were detected. L-spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed hematoma in the S1 epidural space. Antibiotic treatment began under the diagnosis of a lumbar epidural abscess. Despite the treatment, he started to complain of weakness in both lower extremities. Three days later, the weakness progressed to both upper extremities. C-spine MRI revealed cervical leptomeningeal enhancement in the medulla oblongata and cervical spinal cord. Removal of the epidural abscess was performed, but there was no neurological improvement. PMID:26161360

  17. Effect of Anatomical Modeling on Space Radiation Dose Estimates: A Comparison of Doses for NASA Phantoms and 5th, 50th, and 95th Percentile UF Hybrid Phantoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahadori, A.; VanBaalen, M.; Shavers, M.; Semones, E.; Dodge, C.; Bolch, W.

    2010-01-01

    The estimate of absorbed dose to individual organs of a space crewmember is affected by the geometry of the anatomical model of the astronaut used in the radiation transport calculation. For astronaut dosimetry, NASA currently uses the computerized anatomical male (CAM) and computerized anatomical female (CAF) stylized phantoms to represent astronauts in its operational radiation dose analyses. These phantoms are available in one size and in two body positions. In contrast, the UF Hybrid Adult Male and Female (UFHADM and UFHADF) phantoms have organ shapes based on actual CT data. The surfaces of these phantoms are defined by non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces, and are thus flexible in terms of body morphometry and extremity positioning. In this study, UFHADM and UFHADF are scaled to dimensions corresponding to 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile (PCTL) male and female astronauts. A ray-tracing program is written in Visual Basic 2008, which is then used to create areal density maps for dose points corresponding to various organs within the phantoms. The areal density maps, along with appropriate space radiation spectra, are input into the NASA program couplet HZETRN/BRYNTRN, and organ doses are calculated. The areal density maps selected tissues and organs of the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female phantoms are presented and compared. In addition, the organ doses for the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female phantoms are presented and compared to organ doses for CAM and CAF.

  18. Return to Play After Lumbar Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Cook, Ralph W; Hsu, Wellington K

    2016-10-01

    Surgical management of lumbar spine conditions can produce excellent outcomes in athletes. Microdiscectomy for lumbar disc herniation has favorable outcomes; most athletes return to play at preoperative performance levels. Direct pars repair is successful in younger athletes, with high rates of return to play for a variety of fixation techniques. Fusion in athletes with scoliosis is a negative predictor. There are few evidence-based return to play criteria. Athletes should demonstrate full resolution of symptoms and flexibility, endurance, and strength before returning to play. Deciding when to return an athlete to sport depends on particular injury sustained, sport, and individual factors. PMID:27543402

  19. Mini-open anterior lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Gandhoke, Gurpreet S; Ricks, Christian; Tempel, Zachary; Zuckerbraun, Brian; Hamilton, D Kojo; Okonkwo, David O; Kanter, Adam S

    2016-07-01

    In deformity surgery, anterior lumbar interbody fusion provides excellent biomechanical support, creates a broad surface area for arthrodesis, and induces lordosis in the lower lumbar spine. Preoperative MRI, plain radiographs, and, when available, CT scan should be carefully assessed for sacral slope as it relates to pubic symphysis, position of the great vessels (especially at L4/5), disc space height, or contraindication to an anterior approach. This video demonstrates the steps in an anterior surgical procedure with minimal open exposure. The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/r3bC4_vu1hQ . PMID:27364424

  20. Microdiscectomy for a Paracentral Lumbar Herniated Disk.

    PubMed

    Millhouse, Paul W; Schroeder, Gregory D; Kurd, Mark F; Kepler, Christopher K; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Savage, Jason W

    2016-02-01

    Lumbar disk herniations occur frequently and are often associated with leg pain, weakness, and paresthesias. Fortunately, the natural outcomes of radiculopathy due to a disk herniation are generally favorable, and the vast majority of patients improve with nonoperative care. Surgical intervention is reserved for patients who have significant pain that is refractory to at least 6 weeks of conservative care, patients who have a severe or progressive motor deficit, or patients who have any symptoms of bowel or bladder dysfunction. This paper reviews the preoperative and postoperative considerations, as well as the surgical technique, for a microdiscectomy for a lumbar intervertebral disk herniation. PMID:26710186

  1. [Lumbar disc herniation and andrological diseases].

    PubMed

    Jin, Bao-fang

    2015-10-01

    Lumbar disc herniation is a common male disease. In the past, More academic attention was directed to its relationship with lumbago and leg pain than to its association with andrological diseases. Studies show that central lumber intervertebral disc herniation may cause cauda equina injury and result in premature ejaculation, erectile dysfunction, chronic pelvic pain syndrome, priapism, and emission. This article presents an overview on the correlation between central lumbar intervertebral disc herniation and andrological diseases, focusing on the aspects of etiology, pathology, and clinical progress, hoping to invite more attention from andrological and osteological clinicians. PMID:26665671

  2. Progression of a lumbar disc extrusion.

    PubMed

    Crowell, Michael S; Alitz, Curtis

    2014-11-01

    The patient was a 34-year-old woman who was referred to a physical therapist for a chief complaint of progressively worsening right buttock pain with paresthesias of the right posterior thigh and calf. Prior magnetic resonance imaging of the patient's lumbar spine revealed a large left paracentral disc extrusion at L5-S1. Following physical therapist intervention, the patient reported a new onset of left posterior thigh pain, with paresthesias of the dorsolateral aspect of the left foot. Repeat magnetic resonance imaging of the patient's lumbar spine revealed an increase in the size of the disc extrusion at L5-S1. PMID:25361862

  3. DEGENERATIVE STENOSIS OF THE LUMBAR SPINE

    PubMed Central

    Zylbersztejn, Sérgio; Spinelli, Leandro de Freitas; Rodrigues, Nilson Rodinei; Werlang, Pablo Mariotti; Kisaki, Yorito; Rios, Aldemar Roberto Mieres; Bello, Cesar Dall

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an update on degenerative stenosis of the lumbar spine, which is a common pathological condition among patients over the age of 65 years. The anamnesis and physical examination need to be precise, since radiography often only provides indirect signs. Magnetic resonance imaging is necessary if the symptoms persist. The treatment for lumbar stenosis is a matter of controversy. However, there seems to be some benefit from surgical treatment rather than conservative treatment, such that surgery brings improvements in symptoms and functions for a period of up to two years. PMID:27042635

  4. Ligamentum flavum hematoma in the lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Hida, Kazutoshi; Akino, Minoru; Seki, Toshitaka; Yano, Shunsuke; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu

    2005-05-01

    A 62-year-old male presented with a rare case of ligamentum flavum hematoma manifesting as low back pain and gait difficulty beginning 1 month before consulting our institute. He had no history of lumbar spine surgery or lumbar puncture. However, he might have suffered forgotten back injury while practicing martial arts. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a heterogeneous intensity mass lesion with a cystic component at the L3-4 levels. The lesion was totally removed through a hemilaminectomy. Intraoperative and histological findings confirmed the diagnosis of old hematoma with granulomatous change in the ligamentum flavum. Postoperatively, his low back pain and gait difficulty resolved within a few days. PMID:15914970

  5. Determination of the intervertebral disc space from CT images of the lumbar spine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korez, Robert; Å tern, Darko; Likar, Boštjan; Pernuš, Franjo; Vrtovec, Tomaž

    2014-03-01

    Degenerative changes of the intervertebral disc are among the most common causes of low back pain, where for individuals with significant symptoms surgery may be needed. One of the interventions is the total disc replacement surgery, where the degenerated disc is replaced by an artificial implant. For designing implants with good bone contact and continuous force distribution, the morphology of the intervertebral disc space and vertebral body endplates is of considerable importance. In this study we propose a method for the determination of the intervertebral disc space from three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) images of the lumbar spine. The first step of the proposed method is the construction of a model of vertebral bodies in the lumbar spine. For this purpose, a chain of five elliptical cylinders is initialized in the 3D image and then deformed to resemble vertebral bodies by introducing 25 shape parameters. The parameters are obtained by aligning the chain to the vertebral bodies in the CT image according to image intensity and appearance information. The determination of the intervertebral disc space is finally achieved by finding the planes that fit the endplates of the obtained parametric 3D models, and placing points in the space between the planes of adjacent vertebrae that enable surface reconstruction of the intervertebral disc space. The morphometric analysis of images from 20 subjects yielded 11:3 +/- 2:6, 12:1 +/- 2:4, 12:8 +/- 2:0 and 12:9 +/- 2:7 cm3 in terms of L1-L2, L2-L3, L3-L4 and L4-L5 intervertebral disc space volume, respectively.

  6. Accuracy of lumbar spine bone mineral content by dual photon absorptiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Gotfredsen, A.; Podenphant, J.; Norgaard, H.; Nilas, L.; Nielsen, V.A.; Christiansen, C.

    1988-02-01

    The accuracy of measurement of the bone mineral content (BMC, g) and bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm/sup 2/) of the lumbar spine by dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) was estimated by means of two different spine scanners (a Nuclear Data 2100 and a Lunar Radiation DP3). The lumbar spines of 13 cadavers were used. BMC and BMD were measured in situ and on the excised vertebrae in a solution of water/ethanol; and covered with ox muscle/porcine muscle/lard. The actual mineral weight and areal density were determined after chemical maceration, fat extraction, drying to a constant weight, ashing for 24 hr at 600 degrees C, and correction for the transverse processes. The true are was measured by parallax free X rays and planimetry. All measurements of BMC or BMD were highly interrelated (r = 0.94-0.99). The standard error of estimate (s.e.e.) of BMC in situ versus BMC in water/ethanol was 5.2%. The agreement between the BMD values of the two scanners was very good (s.e.e. = 2.9%). BMC in situ predicted the actual vertebral mineral mass with an s.e.e. of 8.1%. BMD in situ and BMD in water/ethanol predicted the actual area density with s.e.e.s of 10.3% and 5.0%, respectively. This study discloses the correlation and accuracy error of spinal DPA measurements in situ in whole cadavers versus the actual BMC and BMD. The error, which is underestimated in in vitro studies, amounts to 10%.

  7. Clinical Identification of the Vertebral Level at Which the Lumbar Sympathetic Ganglia Aggregate

    PubMed Central

    An, Ji Won; Koh, Jae Chul; Sun, Jong Min; Park, Ju Yeon; Choi, Jong Bum; Shin, Myung Ju

    2016-01-01

    Background The location and the number of lumbar sympathetic ganglia (LSG) vary between individuals. The aim of this study was to determine the appropriate level for a lumbar sympathetic ganglion block (LSGB), corresponding to the level at which the LSG principally aggregate. Methods Seventy-four consecutive subjects, including 31 women and 31 men, underwent LSGB either on the left (n = 31) or the right side (n = 43). The primary site of needle entry was randomly selected at the L3 or L4 vertebra. A total of less than 1 ml of radio opaque dye with 4% lidocaine was injected, taking caution not to traverse beyond the level of one vertebral body. The procedure was considered responsive when the skin temperature increased by more than 1℃ within 5 minutes. Results The median responsive level was significantly different between the left (lower third of the L4 body) and right (lower margin of the L3 body) sides (P = 0.021). However, there was no significant difference in the values between men and women. The overall median responsive level was the upper third of the L4 body. The mean responsive level did not correlate with height or BMI. There were no complications on short-term follow-up. Conclusions Selection of the primary target in the left lower third of the L4 vertebral body and the right lower margin of the L3 vertebral body may reduce the number of needle insertions and the volume of agents used in conventional or neurolytic LSGB and radiofrequency thermocoagulation. PMID:27103965

  8. FOREWORD: The 5th International Colloquium on Atomic Spectra and Oscillator Strengths for Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchang-Brillet, Wad Lydia; Wyart, Jean-François; Zeippen, Claude

    1996-01-01

    The 5th International Colloquium on Atomic Spectra and Oscillator Strengths for Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas was held in Meudon, France, from August 28 to 31 1995. It was the fifth in a series started by the Atomic Spectroscopic Group at the University of Lund, Sweden, in 1983. Then followed the meetings in Toledo, USA, Amsterdam, The Nether- lands and Gaithersburg, USA, with a three year period. The original title of the series ended with "... for Astrophysics and Fusion Research" and became more general with the 4th colloquium in Gaithersburg. The purpose of the present meeting was, in line with tradition, to bring together "producers" and "users" of atomic data so as to ensure optimal coordination. Atomic physicists who study the structure of atoms and their radiative and collisional properties were invited to explain the development of their work, emphasizing the possibilities of producing precise transition wavelengths and relative line intensities. Astrophysicists and laboratory plasma physicists were invited to review their present research interests and the context in which atomic data are needed. The number of participants was about 70 for the first three meetings, then exploded to 170 at Gaithersburg. About 140 participants, coming from 13 countries, attended the colloquium in Meudon. This large gathering was partly due to a number of participants from Eastern Europe larger than in the past, and it certainly showed a steady interest for interdisciplinary exchanges between different communities of scientists. This volume includes all the invited papers given at the conference and, in the appendix, practical information on access to some databases. All invited speakers presented their talks aiming at good communication between scientists from different backgrounds. A separate bound volume containing extended abstracts of the poster papers has been published by the Publications de l'Observatoire de Paris, (Meudon 1996), under the responsibility of

  9. Automatic construction of patient-specific finite-element mesh of the spine from IVDs and vertebra segmentations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Mateos, Isaac; Pozo, Jose M.; Lazary, Aron; Frangi, Alejandro F.

    2016-03-01

    Computational medicine aims at developing patient-specific models to help physicians in the diagnosis and treatment selection for patients. The spine, and other skeletal structures, is an articulated object, composed of rigid bones (vertebrae) and non-rigid parts (intervertebral discs (IVD), ligaments and muscles). These components are usually extracted from different image modalities, involving patient repositioning. In the case of the spine, these models require the segmentation of IVDs from MR and vertebrae from CT. In the literature, there exists a vast selection of segmentations methods, but there is a lack of approaches to align the vertebrae and IVDs. This paper presents a method to create patient-specific finite element meshes for biomechanical simulations, integrating rigid and non-rigid parts of articulated objects. First, the different parts are aligned in a complete surface model. Vertebrae extracted from CT are rigidly repositioned in between the IVDs, initially using the IVDs location and then refining the alignment using the MR image with a rigid active shape model algorithm. Finally, a mesh morphing algorithm, based on B-splines, is employed to map a template finite-element (volumetric) mesh to the patient-specific surface mesh. This morphing reduces possible misalignments and guarantees the convexity of the model elements. Results show that the accuracy of the method to align vertebrae into MR, together with IVDs, is similar to that of the human observers. Thus, this method is a step forward towards the automation of patient-specific finite element models for biomechanical simulations.

  10. [Relationship between lumbosacral multifidus muscle and lumbar disc herniation].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-ye; Wang, Kuan; Yuan, Wei-an; Zhan, Hong-sheng

    2016-06-01

    As a common disease in clinical, the treatment of lumbar disc herniation (LDH) focused on local intervertebral disc, such as surgery and other interventional therapy treatment, but postoperative complications and recurrence rate has been a difficult problem in the field of profession. With the development of spine biomechanics and anatomy, researches on lumbar herniation also increased. Researchers discovered that the incidence and prognosis of LDH were inseparable with local muscle and soft tissue. As the deep paraspinal muscles, multifidus muscle plays an important role to make lumbar stability. Its abnormal function could reduce the stable of lumbar spine, and the chronic lumbar disease could also lead to multifidus muscle atrophy. PMID:27534095

  11. Material Properties of the Human Lumbar Facet Joint Capsule

    PubMed Central

    Little, Jesse S.; Khalsa, Partap S.

    2005-01-01

    The human facet joint capsule is one of the structures in the lumbar spine that constrains motions of vertebrae during global spine loading (e.g., physiological flexion). Computational models of the spine have not been able to include accurate nonlinear and viscoelastic material properties, as they have not previously been measured. Capsules were tested using a uniaxial ramp-hold protocol or a haversine displacement protocol using a commercially available materials testing device. Plane strain was measured optically. Capsules were tested both parallel and perpendicular to the dominant orientation of the collagen fibers in the capsules. Viscoelastic material properties were determined. Parallel to the dominant orientation of the collagen fibers, the complex modulus of elasticity was E* = 1.63MPa, with a storage modulus of E′ = 1.25MPa and a loss modulus of: E″ = 0.39MPa. The mean stress relaxation rates for static and dynamic loading were best fit with first-order polynomials: B (ɛ) = 0.1110 ɛ − 0.0733 and B (ɛ) = −0.1249ɛ 11794-8181 +0.0190, respectively. Perpendicular to the collagen fiber orientation, the viscous and elastic secant moduli were 1.81 and 1.00 MPa, respectively. The mean stress relaxation rate for static loading was best fit with a first-order polynomial: B (ɛ) = − 0.04ɛ − 0.06. Capsule strength parallel and perpendicular to collagen fiber orientation was 1.90 and 0.95 MPa, respectively, and extensibility was 0.65 and 0.60, respectively. Poisson’s ratio parallel and perpendicular to fiber orientation was 0.299 and 0.488, respectively. The elasticity moduli were nonlinear and anisotropic, and capsule strength was larger aligned parallel to the collagen fibers. The phase lag between stress and strain increased with haversine frequency, but the storage modulus remained large relative to the complex modulus. The stress relaxation rate was strain dependent parallel to the collagen fibers, but was strain independent perpendicularly

  12. A Comparison of In-Channel Dead Zone and Hyporheic Zone Transient Storage Parameter Estimates Between a 1st and 5th Order Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, M.; Gooseff, M.; Morkeski, K.; Wollheim, W.; Hopkinson, C.; Peterson, B.; Vorosmarty, C.

    2007-12-01

    A major enhancement to our understanding of how watersheds function would be the ability to discriminate between in-channel dead zone ( DZ) and hyporheic zone ( HZ) transient storage, and an evaluation of how these properties scale across stream orders. The nature of DZ storage is to display faster exchange rates with the main channel and less overall sediment contact time than HZ storage. These differences have great significance to many in-stream processes such as nutrient cycling. The combination of high slope, coarse bed material and fluvial structure endemic to many 1st order streams can provide greater forcing of hyporheic flow paths than occurs within the lower gradient 5th order streams. Conversely many 5th order reaches exhibit large side pool and back eddy DZ areas not common along 1st order streams. This study builds on existing methods to delineate the DZ and HZ from the integrated signal of a conservative solute's breakthrough curve ( BTC). Data for this comparison were collected over the summer of 2007 within the Ipswich River watershed, a basin which drains into Plum Island Sound on the north shore of Massachusetts, USA. The conservative solute NaCl was injected into both a 1st order medium gradient stream and a 5th order low gradient stream. The BTCs collected in thalwegs from the NaCl injections were simulated using a version of the solute transport model OTIS containing two zones of transient storage. Hydrometric measurements of stream velocity were used to estimate average main channel cross sectional area ( A) and DZ cross sectional area ( ASDZ) for each reach to constrain parameter estimates and avoid model equifinality between the storage zones. Initial values for the exchange rate between main channel flow and DZ storage ( αDZ) were estimated from DZ BTCs. Our results indicate that although the overall storage zone is much larger in proportion to the main channel for the 1st order reach than for the 5th order reach, the percentage of median

  13. Jack-of-all-trades master of all? Snake vertebrae have a generalist inner organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houssaye, Alexandra; Boistel, Renaud; Böhme, Wolfgang; Herrel, Anthony

    2013-11-01

    Snakes are a very speciose group of squamates that adapted to various habitats and ecological niches. Their ecological diversity is of particular interest and functional demands associated with their various styles of locomotion are expected to result in anatomical specializations. In order to explore the potential adaptation of snakes to their environment we here analyze variation in vertebral structure at the microanatomical level in species with different locomotor adaptations. Vertebrae, being a major element of the snake body, are expected to display adaptations to the physical constraints associated with the different locomotor modes and environments. Our results revealed a rather homogenous vertebral microanatomy in contrast to what has been observed for other squamates and amniotes more generally. We here suggest that the near-absence of microanatomical specializations in snake vertebrae might be correlated to their rather homogeneous overall morphology and reduced range of morphological diversity, as compared to lizards. Thus, snakes appear to retain a generalist inner morphology that allows them to move efficiently in different environments. Only a few ecologically highly specialized taxa appear to display some microanatomical specializations that remain to be studied in greater detail.

  14. Vertebral artery injury in a patient with fractured C4 vertebra.

    PubMed

    Banić, Tihomir; Banić, Morana; Cvjetko, Ivan; Somun, Nenad; Bilić, Vide; Vidjak, Vinko; Pavić, Vladimir; Coc, Ivan; Kokić, Tomislav; Kejlal, Zvonko

    2014-09-01

    Vertebral artery injuries due to cervical spine trauma, although rarely described in the literature, are relatively common. While most of them will remain asymptomatic, a small percentage of patients may suffer life threatening complications. We report a case of the right vertebral artery injury in a patient with fracture of C4 vertebra, successfully treated with endovascular approach. A 78-year-old male patient was hospitalized for cervical spine injury caused by falling off the tractor. Radiological assessment revealed fracture of C4 vertebra with proximal two-thirds of C4 body dislocated five millimeters dorsally. Significant swelling of soft prevertebral tissues distally of C2 segment was also present. During emergency surgery using standard anterior approach for cervical spine, excessive bleeding started from the injured right vertebral artery. Bleeding was stopped by tamponade with oxidized regenerated cellulose sheet and C4-C5 anterior fixation; then partial reduction of displacement was done. Fifteen days later, after angiography, endovascular repair of the right vertebral artery was performed using percutaneous stent graft. Follow up computed tomography scan angiography showed valid stent patency without contrast extravasation. In cases of cervical spine trauma, surgeon should always be prepared to manage injury of vertebral artery. Bleeding can primarily be stopped by hemostatic packing, and definitive repair can be successfully achieved by endovascular approach using percutaneous stent graft. PMID:25509251

  15. Surgical outcome of posterior fixation, including fractured vertebra, for thoracolumbar fractures

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Quan M.; Gu, Xiao F.; Yang, Hui L.; Liu, Zhong T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the role of posterior fixation including the fractured vertebra (PFFV) for the treatment of thoracolumbar vertebral fractures. Methods: Sixty-seven patients that sustained a single-level thoracolumbar fracture were included in this retrospective study carried out in the Wuxi People’s Hospital, Wuxi, China between August 2010 and June 2013. Thirty-two cases were treated with PFFV, and 35 cases were treated with traditional short-segment fixation (TSSF). All patients were periodically followed-up with clinical and radiologic evaluation. Cobb’s angle and vertebral body height were analyzed and compared, and the operational time, intra-operational blood loss, and the Denis pain scale scores were also compared. Results: Compared with preoperative angles, the Cobb’s angles were reduced and the vertebral body height of the fractured vertebra was increased after operation at a statistically significant level. Twelve months post-operative, the loss of Cobb’s angle and vertebral body height in the PFFV group was significantly less than that in the TSSF group. There was no statistical significance in the Denis pain scale score 12 months post-operatively between the 2 groups. Conclusion: Selective adoption of PFFV is helpful not only for stabilization of fractures and restoration of anatomy, but also maintaining the effectiveness of the restoration with good functional outcome. PMID:26492116

  16. Comparisons of Anterior Plate Screw Pullout Strength Between Polyurethane Foams and Thoracolumbar Cadaveric Vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, Srinidhi; Palepu, Vivek

    2016-10-01

    Synthetic polyurethane foams are frequently used in biomechanical testing of spinal medical devices. However, it is unclear what types of foam are most representative of human vertebral trabecular bone behavior, particularly for testing the bone-implant interface. Therefore, a study was conducted to compare polyurethane foam microstructure and screw pullout properties to human vertebrae. Cadaveric thoracolumbar vertebrae underwent microcomputed tomography to assess trabecular bone microstructure. Spine plate screws were implanted into the vertebral body and pullout testing was performed. The same procedure was followed for eight different densities (grades 5-30) of commercially available closed cell (CCF) and open cell foams (OCF). The results indicated that foam microstructural parameters such as volume fraction, strut thickness, strut spacing, and material density rarely matched that of trabecular bone. However, certain foams provided mechanical properties that were comparable to the cadavers tested. Pullout force and work to pullout for screws implanted into CCF grade 5 were similar to osteoporotic female cadavers. In addition, screw pullout forces and work to pullout in CCF grade 8, grade 10, and OCF grade 30 were similar to osteopenic male cadavers. All other OCF and CCF foams possessed pullout properties that were either significantly lower or higher than the cadavers tested. This study elucidated the types and densities of polyurethane foams that can represent screw pullout strength in human vertebral bone. Synthetic bone surrogates used for biomechanical testing should be selected based on bone quantity and quality of patients who may undergo device implantation. PMID:27536905

  17. Finite Element Analysis of a New Pedicle Screw-Plate System for Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yue; Li, Changqing; Liu, Huan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF) is increasingly popular for the surgical treatment of degenerative lumbar disc diseases. The constructs intended for segmental stability are varied in MI-TLIF. We adopted finite element (FE) analysis to compare the stability after different construct fixations using interbody cage with posterior pedicle screw-rod or pedicle screw-plate instrumentation system. Methods A L3–S1 FE model was modified to simulate decompression and fusion at L4–L5 segment. Fixation modes included unilateral plate (UP), unilateral rod (UR), bilateral plate (BP), bilateral rod (BR) and UP+UR fixation. The inferior surface of the S1 vertebra remained immobilized throughout the load simulation, and a bending moment of 7.5 Nm with 400N pre-load was applied on the L3 vertebra to recreate flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. Range of motion (ROM) and Von Mises stress were evaluated for intact and instrumentation models in all loading planes. Results All reconstructive conditions displayed decreased motion at L4–L5. The pedicle screw-plate system offered equal ROM to pedicle screw-rod system in unilateral or bilateral fixation modes respectively. Pedicle screw stresses for plate system were 2.2 times greater than those for rod system in left lateral bending under unilateral fixation. Stresses for plate were 3.1 times greater than those for rod in right axial rotation under bilateral fixation. Stresses on intervertebral graft for plate system were similar to rod system in unilateral and bilateral fixation modes respectively. Increased ROM and posterior instrumentation stresses were observed in all loading modes with unilateral fixation compared with bilateral fixation in both systems. Conclusions Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion augmentation with pedicle screw-plate system fixation increases fusion construct stability equally to the pedicle screw-rod system. Increased posterior

  18. Thoracic and lumbar vertebral bone mineral density changes in a natural occurring dog model of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis.

    PubMed

    De Decker, Steven; Lam, Richard; Packer, Rowena M A; Gielen, Ingrid M V L; Volk, Holger A

    2015-01-01

    Ankylosing spinal disorders can be associated with alterations in vertebral bone mineral density (BMD). There is however controversy about vertebral BMD in patients wuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). DISH in Boxer dogs has been considered a natural occurring disease model for DISH in people. The purpose of this study was to compare vertebral BMD between Boxers with and without DISH. Fifty-nine Boxers with (n=30) or without (n=29) DISH that underwent computed tomography were included. Vertebral BMD was calculated for each thoracic and lumbar vertebra by using an earlier reported and validated protocol. For each vertebral body, a region of interest was drawn on the axial computed tomographic images at three separate locations: immediately inferior to the superior end plate, in the middle of the vertebral body, and superior to the inferior end plate. Values from the three axial slices were averaged to give a mean Hounsfield Unit value for each vertebral body. Univariate statistical analysis was performed to identify factors to be included in a multivariate model. The multivariate model including all dogs demonstrated that vertebral DISH status (Coefficient 24.63; 95% CI 16.07 to 33.19; p <0.001), lumbar vertebrae (Coefficient -17.25; 95% CI -23.42 to -11.09; p < 0.01), and to a lesser extent higher age (Coefficient -0.56; 95% CI -1.07 to -0.05; p = 0.03) were significant predictors for vertebral BMD. When the multivariate model was repeated using only dogs with DISH, vertebral DISH status (Coefficient 20.67; 95% CI, 10.98 to 30.37; p < 0.001) and lumbar anatomical region (Coefficient -38.24; 95% CI, -47.75 to -28.73; p < 0.001) were again predictors for vertebral BMD but age was not. The results of this study indicate that DISH can be associated with decreased vertebral BMD. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the clinical importance and pathophysiology of this finding. PMID:25898128

  19. Thoracic and Lumbar Vertebral Bone Mineral Density Changes in a Natural Occurring Dog Model of Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis

    PubMed Central

    De Decker, Steven; Lam, Richard; Packer, Rowena M. A.; Gielen, Ingrid M. V. L.; Volk, Holger A.

    2015-01-01

    Ankylosing spinal disorders can be associated with alterations in vertebral bone mineral density (BMD). There is however controversy about vertebral BMD in patients wuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). DISH in Boxer dogs has been considered a natural occurring disease model for DISH in people. The purpose of this study was to compare vertebral BMD between Boxers with and without DISH. Fifty-nine Boxers with (n=30) or without (n=29) DISH that underwent computed tomography were included. Vertebral BMD was calculated for each thoracic and lumbar vertebra by using an earlier reported and validated protocol. For each vertebral body, a region of interest was drawn on the axial computed tomographic images at three separate locations: immediately inferior to the superior end plate, in the middle of the vertebral body, and superior to the inferior end plate. Values from the three axial slices were averaged to give a mean Hounsfield Unit value for each vertebral body. Univariate statistical analysis was performed to identify factors to be included in a multivariate model. The multivariate model including all dogs demonstrated that vertebral DISH status (Coefficient 24.63; 95% CI 16.07 to 33.19; p <0.001), lumbar vertebrae (Coefficient -17.25; 95% CI -23.42 to -11.09; p < 0.01), and to a lesser extent higher age (Coefficient -0.56; 95% CI -1.07 to -0.05; p = 0.03) were significant predictors for vertebral BMD. When the multivariate model was repeated using only dogs with DISH, vertebral DISH status (Coefficient 20.67; 95% CI, 10.98 to 30.37; p < 0.001) and lumbar anatomical region (Coefficient -38.24; 95% CI, -47.75 to -28.73; p < 0.001) were again predictors for vertebral BMD but age was not. The results of this study indicate that DISH can be associated with decreased vertebral BMD. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the clinical importance and pathophysiology of this finding. PMID:25898128

  20. Cervical canal stenosis caused by progressive fusion and enlargement of cervical vertebrae with features of Proteus syndrome and Klippel-Feil syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Shurei; Chikuda, Hirotaka; Ohya, Junichi; Taniguchi, Yuki; Takeshita, Katsushi; Haga, Nobuhiko; Ushiku, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Sakae

    2013-12-01

    We report the case of a female who presented with progressive fusion and an enlargement of the cervical vertebrae. Her cervical deformity gradually progressed with age, and the abnormal bony protrusion into the spinal canal caused myelopathy. We resected the affected vertebrae to decompress the spinal cord and performed combined anterior-posterior spinal fusion. The progression of the spinal deformity and enlargement of vertebrae stopped after surgery. The enlargement of vertebrae in the present case resembled that observed in Proteus syndrome; however, autonomous vertebral fusion has not been reported previously in patients with this condition. Our report may help expand the knowledge on developmental spine disorders. PMID:23760594

  1. Current Status of Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Degenerative Spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    TAKAHASHI, Toshiyuki; HANAKITA, Junya; OHTAKE, Yasufumi; FUNAKOSHI, Yusuke; OICHI, Yuki; KAWAOKA, Taigo; WATANABE, Mizuki

    2016-01-01

    Instrumented lumbar fusion can provide immediate stability and assist in satisfactory arthrodesis in patients who have pain or instability of the lumbar spine. Lumbar adjunctive fusion with decompression is often a good procedure for surgical management of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). Among various lumbar fusion techniques, lumbar interbody fusion (LIF) has an advantage in that it maintains favorable lumbar alignment and provides successful fusion with the added effect of indirect decompression. This technique has been widely used and represents an advancement in spinal instrumentation, although the rationale and optimal type of LIF for DS remains controversial. We evaluated the current status and role of LIF in DS treatment, mainly as a means to augment instrumentation. We addressed the basic concept of LIF, its indications, and various types including minimally invasive techniques. It also has acceptable biomechanical features, and offers reconstruction with ideal lumbar alignment. Postsurgical adverse events related to each LIF technique are also addressed. PMID:27169496

  2. Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Indications, Outcomes, and Complications.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Brian; Kim, David Hanwuk

    2016-02-01

    Lateral lumbar interbody fusion is a minimally invasive spinal fusion technique that uses the retroperitoneal approach to the anterior spinal column. Mechanical and technical results of the technique compare favorably with those of anterior lumbar interbody fusion in regard to large graft placement, graft volumes, and early initial stability. Lateral lumbar interbody fusion uses the transpsoas approach and traverses near the lumbar plexus. It is not, however, without its unique complications. Groin pain or numbness is well tolerated and often temporary; however, quadriceps palsy can be long-lasting and debilitating. Rarer but serious complications include vascular and visceral injury. Lateral lumbar interbody fusion has been used successfully to treat common degenerative spinal conditions such as spinal instability, stenosis, scoliosis, and degenerative disk disease. While understanding of the lumbar plexus and the technical challenges of the procedure improves, lateral lumbar interbody fusion will continue to provide safe and successful clinical outcomes with less morbidity than traditional procedures. PMID:26803545

  3. BIOMECHANICS OF THERAPEUTIC RIDING DURING THE DISEASES OF I-II DEGREE DYSPLASTIC LUMBAR AND STATIC (SHORT LEG) SCOLIOSIS.

    PubMed

    Sheshaberidze, E; Merabishvili, I; Loria, M

    2015-11-01

    The goal of the paper is to substantiate the essence of ridetherapy biomechanics as the pathogenetic therapeutic and prophylactic method at lumbar dysplastic (the I and II degrees) and static (short-legged induced) scoliosis. Uneven lower extremities caused by any reason and asymmetric support induce the change in the arrangement of trochantin to the vertebra and correspondingly the uneven loading of lumbar muscles. The asymmetric strength of lumbar muscles evoked by the change in rotator condition becomes the cause of the formation of scoliosis primary arc which, in its turn, causes a compensatory spinal curvature. In case of dysplastic scoliosis a leading role belongs to the beginning of dystrophic changes in intervertebral discs and its further decentration. At riding position the lower extremities are completely disengaged from the antigravity redistribution, the child is in direct contact with vibrations and jolts coming from the horseback; the antigravity loading is distributed on the muscles of the torso and thus, it creates an opportunity to purposefully affect the correction of the spine. During scoliosis the pathogenic essence of ridetherapy is due to the comprehensiveness of its procedures, expressed in the fact that during one procedure several factors are influenced simultaneously: nucleus pulpous, the torso and iliopsoas muscles, the antigravity system, etc. According to the clinical-functional and radiographic studies carried out in the dynamics on 11-16 years old adolescents it has been established that in those groups where the rehabilitation was conducted in a complex with ridetherapy the authentically higher results were obtained as compared to the groups where the rehabilitation was held using therapeutic exercises and massage. PMID:26656557

  4. An investigation of jogging biomechanics using the full-body lumbar spine model: Model development and validation.

    PubMed

    Raabe, Margaret E; Chaudhari, Ajit M W

    2016-05-01

    The ability of a biomechanical simulation to produce results that can translate to real-life situations is largely dependent on the physiological accuracy of the musculoskeletal model. There are a limited number of freely-available, full-body models that exist in OpenSim, and those that do exist are very limited in terms of trunk musculature and degrees of freedom in the spine. Properly modeling the motion and musculature of the trunk is necessary to most accurately estimate lower extremity and spinal loading. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a more physiologically accurate OpenSim full-body model. By building upon three previously developed OpenSim models, the full-body lumbar spine (FBLS) model, comprised of 21 segments, 30 degrees-of-freedom, and 324 musculotendon actuators, was developed. The five lumbar vertebrae were modeled as individual bodies, and coupled constraints were implemented to describe the net motion of the spine. The eight major muscle groups of the lumbar spine were modeled (rectus abdominis, external and internal obliques, erector spinae, multifidus, quadratus lumborum, psoas major, and latissimus dorsi), and many of these muscle groups were modeled as multiple fascicles allowing the large muscles to act in multiple directions. The resulting FBLS model׳s trunk muscle geometry, maximal isometric joint moments, and simulated muscle activations compare well to experimental data. The FBLS model will be made freely available (https://simtk.org/home/fullbodylumbar) for others to perform additional analyses and develop simulations investigating full-body dynamics and contributions of the trunk muscles to dynamic tasks. PMID:26947033

  5. Partial Facetectomy for Lumbar Foraminal Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Kevin; Rodriguez-Olaverri, Juan Carlos; Razi, Afshin; Farcy, Jean Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Background. Several different techniques exist to address the pain and disability caused by isolated nerve root impingement. Failure to adequately decompress the lumbar foramen may lead to failed back surgery syndrome. However, aggressive treatment often causes spinal instability or may require fusion for satisfactory results. We describe a novel technique for decompression of the lumbar nerve root and demonstrate its effectiveness in relief of radicular symptoms. Methods. Partial facetectomy was performed by removal of the medial portion of the superior facet in patients with lumbar foraminal stenosis. 47 patients underwent the procedure from 2001 to 2010. Those who demonstrated neurogenic claudication without spinal instability or central canal stenosis and failed conservative management were eligible for the procedure. Functional level was recorded for each patient. These patients were followed for an average of 3.9 years to evaluate outcomes. Results. 27 of 47 patients (57%) reported no back pain and no functional limitations. Eight of 47 patients (17%) reported moderate pain, but had no limitations. Six of 47 patients (13%) continued to experience degenerative symptoms. Five of 47 patients (11%) required additional surgery. Conclusions. Partial facetectomy is an effective means to decompress the lumbar nerve root foramen without causing spinal instability. PMID:25110591

  6. A hundred years of lumbar puncture.

    PubMed

    Dugacki, V

    1992-01-01

    In the years 1991 and 1992 the 100th anniversary of the announcement of the lumbar puncture method (1891) and 150th anniversary of the birth of its inventor Heinrich Irenaeus Quincke (1842) are celebrated. In the article a short review is given of the development of this method. PMID:1463808

  7. Automatic localization of target vertebrae in spine surgery using fast CT-to-fluoroscopy (3D-2D) image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otake, Y.; Schafer, S.; Stayman, J. W.; Zbijewski, W.; Kleinszig, G.; Graumann, R.; Khanna, A. J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2012-02-01

    Localization of target vertebrae is an essential step in minimally invasive spine surgery, with conventional methods relying on "level counting" - i.e., manual counting of vertebrae under fluoroscopy starting from readily identifiable anatomy (e.g., the sacrum). The approach requires an undesirable level of radiation, time, and is prone to counting errors due to the similar appearance of vertebrae in projection images; wrong-level surgery occurs in 1 of every ~3000 cases. This paper proposes a method to automatically localize target vertebrae in x-ray projections using 3D-2D registration between preoperative CT (in which vertebrae are preoperatively labeled) and intraoperative fluoroscopy. The registration uses an intensity-based approach with a gradient-based similarity metric and the CMA-ES algorithm for optimization. Digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) and a robust similarity metric are computed on GPU to accelerate the process. Evaluation in clinical CT data included 5,000 PA and LAT projections randomly perturbed to simulate human variability in setup of mobile intraoperative C-arm. The method demonstrated 100% success for PA view (projection error: 0.42mm) and 99.8% success for LAT view (projection error: 0.37mm). Initial implementation on GPU provided automatic target localization within about 3 sec, with further improvement underway via multi-GPU. The ability to automatically label vertebrae in fluoroscopy promises to streamline surgical workflow, improve patient safety, and reduce wrong-site surgeries, especially in large patients for whom manual methods are time consuming and error prone.

  8. Endoscopic inter laminar management of lumbar disease

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Yad Ram; Parihar, Vijay; Kher, Yatin; Bhatele, Pushp Raj

    2016-01-01

    Discectomy for lumbar disc provides faster relief in acute attack than does conservative management. Long-term results of open, microscopy-, and endoscopy-assisted discectomy are same. Early results of endoscopy-assisted surgery are better as compared to that of open surgery in terms of better visualization, smaller incision, reduced hospital stay, better education, lower cost, less pain, early return to work, and rehabilitation. Although microscopic discectomy also has comparable advantages, endoscopic-assisted technique better addresses opposite side pathology. Inter laminar technique (ILT) and trans foraminal technique (TFT) are two main endoscopic approaches for lumbar pathologies. Endoscopy-assisted ILT can be performed in recurrent, migrated, and calcified discs. All lumbar levels including L5-S1 level, intracanalicular, foraminal disc, lumbar canal and lateral recess stenosis, multiple levels, and bilateral lesions can be managed by ILT. Migrated, calcified discs, L5-S1 pathology, lumbar canal, and lateral recess stenosis can be better approached by ILT than by TFT. Most spinal surgeons are familiar with anatomy of ILT. It can be safely performed in foramen stenosis and in uncooperative and anxious patients. There is less risk of exiting nerve root damage, especially in short pedicles and in presence of facet osteophytes as compared to TFT. On the other hand, ILT is more invasive than TFT with more chances of perforations of the dura matter, pseudomeningocele formation, and cerebrospinal fluid fistula in early learning curve. Obtaining microsurgical experience, attending workshops, and suitable patient selection can help shorten the learning curve. Once adequate skill is acquired, this procedure is safe and effective. The surgeon must be prepared to convert to an open procedure, especially in early learning curve. Spinal endoscopy is likely to achieve more roles in future. Endoscopy-assisted ILT is a safer alternative to the microscopic technique. PMID

  9. Effect of stimulating the lumbar skin caudal to a complete spinal cord injury on hindlimb locomotion.

    PubMed

    Hurteau, Marie-France; Thibaudier, Yann; Dambreville, Charline; Desaulniers, Corinne; Frigon, Alain

    2015-01-15

    Sensory feedback is a potent modulator of the locomotor pattern generated by spinal networks. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of cutaneous inputs from the back on the spinal-generated locomotor pattern. The spinal cord of six adult cats was transected at low thoracic levels. Cats were then trained to recover hindlimb locomotion. During experiments, the skin overlying lumbar vertebrae L2 to L7 was mechanically stimulated by a small calibrated clip or by manual pinching. Trials without and with cutaneous stimulation were performed at a treadmill speed of 0.4 m/s. Although manually pinching the skin completely stopped hindlimb locomotion and abolished weight support, cutaneous stimulation with the calibrated clip produced smaller effects. Specifically, more focalized cutaneous stimulation with the clip reduced flexor and extensor muscle activity and led to a more caudal positioning of the paw at contact and liftoff. Moreover, cutaneous stimulation with the clip led to a greater number of steps with improper nonplantigrade paw placements at contact and paw drag at the stance-to-swing transition. The most consistent effects on the hindlimb locomotor pattern were observed with cutaneous stimulation at midlumbar levels, from L3 to L5. The results indicate that cutaneous stimulation of the skin modulates the excitability of spinal circuits involved in generating locomotion and weight support, particularly at spinal segments thought to be critical for rhythm generation. PMID:25339715

  10. 3D interactive model of lumbar spinal structures of anesthetic interest.

    PubMed

    Prats-Galino, Alberto; Reina, Miguel A; Mavar Haramija, Marija; Puigdellivol-Sánchez, Anna; Juanes Méndez, Juan A; De Andrés, José A

    2015-03-01

    A 3D model of lumbar structures of anesthetic interest was reconstructed from human magnetic resonance (MR) images and embedded in a Portable Document Format (PDF) file, which can be opened by freely available software and used offline. The MR images were analyzed using a specific 3D software platform for biomedical data. Models generated from manually delimited volumes of interest and selected MR images were exported to Virtual Reality Modeling Language format and were presented in a PDF document containing JavaScript-based functions. The 3D file and the corresponding instructions and license files can be downloaded freely at http://diposit.ub.edu/dspace/handle/2445/44844?locale=en. The 3D PDF interactive file includes reconstructions of the L3-L5 vertebrae, intervertebral disks, ligaments, epidural and foraminal fat, dural sac and nerve root cuffs, sensory and motor nerve roots of the cauda equina, and anesthetic approaches (epidural medial, spinal paramedial, and selective nerve root paths); it also includes a predefined sequential educational presentation. Zoom, 360° rotation, selective visualization, and transparency graduation of each structure and clipping functions are available. Familiarization requires no specialized informatics knowledge. The ease with which the document can be used could make it valuable for anatomical and anesthetic teaching and demonstration of patient information. PMID:25352014

  11. (S)Partners for Heart Health: a school-based program for enhancing physical activity and nutrition to promote cardiovascular health in 5th grade students

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Joseph J; Eisenmann, Joey C; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Jager, Kathleen B; Sehnert, Scott T; Yee, Kimbo E; Klavinski, Rita A; Feltz, Deborah L

    2008-01-01

    Background The American Heart Association Position Statement on Cardiovascular Health Promotion in Public Schools encourages school-based interventions for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) through risk factor prevention or reduction in children with an emphasis on creating an environment that promotes healthy food choices and physical activity (PA). In an effort to address issues related to CVD risk factors including obesity in Michigan children, a multi-disciplinary team of Michigan State University (MSU) faculty, clinicians, and health profession students was formed to "(S)partner" with elementary school physical education (PE) teachers and MSU Extension staff to develop and implement a cost-effective, sustainable program aimed at CVD risk factor prevention and management for 5th grade students. This (S)partnership is intended to augment and improve the existing 5th grade PE, health and nutrition curriculum by achieving the following aims: 1) improve the students' knowledge, attitudes and confidence about nutrition, PA and heart health; 2) increase the number of students achieving national recommendations for PA and nutrition; and 3) increase the number of students with a desirable CVD risk factor status based on national pediatric guidelines. Secondary aims include promoting school staff and parental support for heart health to help children achieve their goals and to provide experiential learning and service for MSU health profession students for academic credit. Methods/Design This pilot effectiveness study was approved by the MSU IRB. At the beginning and the end of the school year students undergo a CVD risk factor assessment conducted by MSU medical students and graduate students. Key intervention components include eight lesson plans (conducted bi-monthly) designed to promote heart healthy nutrition and PA behaviors conducted by PE teachers with assistance from MSU undergraduate dietetic and kinesiology students (Spartners). The final

  12. Routing cancer immunology and immunotherapy from the lab to the clinic 4–5 th March 2014, Center for Applied Medical Research and University Clinic, Pamplona, Spain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    New approaches to generate effective anticancer responses by either inducing immune responses or inhibiting immunosuppression are under development to improve efficacy in patients. On March 4-5th, 2014, a symposium was held in Pamplona, Spain, to report the new strategies showing preclinical and clinical results regarding translational research efforts on the topic. Participants interacted through oral presentations of 15 speakers and further discussions on topics that included novel therapeutic agents for cancer immunotherapy, viral vectors and interferon-based approaches, experimental tumor imaging and immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies. Promising agents to target cancer cells and therapeutic approaches that are under translation from bench to patients were presented. PMID:25060862

  13. Nordic walking--is it suitable for patients with fractured vertebra?

    PubMed

    Wendlova, J

    2008-01-01

    This article brings the biomechanical analysis of sport--Nordic walking--for patients with osteoporotic fractured vertebrae and shows that it is suitable for them. Based on the biomechanical model of skeletal load we have developed a method of walking movement for patients, different from the method of walking movement for healthy people. And so came into being the "first sport" for patients with osteoporotic fractures. They can go for regular walks in easy terrains outdoors with friends and family, and so be liberated from social isolation. It requires only one-off financial costs of buying the poles and special footwear (Tab. 7, Fig. 3, Ref. 14). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk. PMID:18814434

  14. Morphological models of trabecular bone suitable for high-porosity regions and vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Rammohan, Abhishek Vishwanath; Tan, Vincent Beng Chye

    2016-10-01

    The complex microarchitecture of trabecular bone makes it difficult to perform computational analyses on the real structure. Researchers have often resorted to using morphological idealizations employing simplified geometries. One such idealized structure, based on the gyroid, was found to mimic trabecular bone well. However, structures generated using the basic gyroid equation manifested discontinuities at high porosities. Another disadvantage of the gyroid is that it cannot model vertebral trabecular bone, which generally resembles cubic cells. To address these two shortcomings, we describe: (i) a modified structure based on the skeletal gyroid, which remains connected even at extremely high porosities, (ii) a cubic grid-like structure, based on the primitive minimal surface, for studying vertebrae. PMID:26892403

  15. Morphometric and radiological assessments of dimensions of Axis in dry vertebrae: A study in Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Raman Mohan; Pruthi, Nupur; Pandey, Paritosh; Dawn, Rose; Ravindranath, Yogitha; Ravindranath, Roopa

    2015-01-01

    Background: The technique of intralaminar screw placement for achieving axis (C2) fixation has been recently described. The purpose of the study was to provide the morphometric and radiological measurements in Indian population and to determine the feasibility of safe translaminar screw placement in this population. To the best of our knowledge there is no study (cadaveric or radiological) done in Indian population to detect suitability of axis bone for laminar screw fixation. Material and Methods: 38 dry axis vertebrae from adult South Indian population were subjected to morphometric measurement and CT scan analysis. Height of posterior arch, midlaminar width(bilateral) in upper 1/3rd, middle 1/3rd and lower 1/3rd were measured using high precision Vernier Calipers. Each vertebra was subjected to a spiral CT scan (Philips brilliance 16 slice) thin 0.5 mm slices were taken and reconstruction was done in coronal and sagittal plane. Analysis was done on a CT work station. Using axial slices, sagittal cuts were reconstructed in plane perpendicular to the lamina at the mid laminar point and upper-middle and lower 1/3rd width of the lamina measured. Height of the posterior arch was measured in the sagittal plane. Intralaminar angle was measured bilaterally. Results: Middle 1/3rd lamina was the thickest portion (mean 5.17 mm +/- 1.42 mm). A total of 32 (84.2%) specimen were having midlaminar width in both lamina greater than 4 mm, however only 27 (71%) out of them had spinous process more than 9 mm. CT scan measurement in middle and lower 1/3rd lamina was found to be strongly correlated with the direct measurement. Conclusion: There is high variability in the thickness of the C2 lamina. As compared to western population, the axis bones used in the present study had smaller profiles. Hence the safety margin for translaminar screw insertion is low. PMID:26806963

  16. EX VIVO COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF MORPHOLOGY VARIATIONS IN EQUINE CERVICAL VERTEBRAE.

    PubMed

    Veraa, Stefanie; Bergmann, Wilhelmina; van den Belt, Antoon-Jan; Wijnberg, Inge; Back, Willem

    2016-09-01

    Diagnostic imaging is one of the pillars in the clinical workup of horses with clinical signs of cervical spinal disease. An improved awareness of morphologic variations in equine cervical vertebrae would be helpful for interpreting findings. The aim of this anatomic study was to describe CT variations in left-right symmetry and morphology of the cervical and cervicothoracic vertebrae in a sample of horses. Postmortem CT examinations of the cervical spine for horses without congenital growth disorders were prospectively and retrospectively recruited. A total of 78 horses (27 foals, 51 mature horses) were evaluated. Twenty-six horses (33.3%) had homologous changes in which a transposition of the caudal part of the transverse process (caudal ventral tubercle) of C6 toward the ventral aspect of the transverse process of C7 was present (n = 10 bilateral, n = 12 unilateral left-sided, n = 4 unilateral right-sided). There was one horse with occipito-atlantal malformation, two horses with rudimentary first ribs bilaterally, and one horse with bilateral transverse processes at Th1, representing homeotic (transitional) vertebral changes. Chi-square tests identified no significant differences in the number of conformational variations between the group of mature horses with or without clinical signs (P = 0.81) or between the group of mature horses and the group of foals (P = 0.72). Findings indicated that, in this sample of horses, the most frequently identified variations were homologous variations (transposition of the caudal part of the transverse process of C6-C7) in the caudal equine cervical vertebral column. Homeotic (transitional) variations at the cervicothoracic vertebral column were less common. PMID:27438135

  17. A methodology for quantifying seated lumbar curvatures.

    PubMed

    Leitkam, Samuel T; Bush, Tamara Reid; Li, Mingfei

    2011-11-01

    To understand the role seating plays in the support of posture and spinal articulation, it is necessary to study the interface between a human and the seat. However, a method to quantify lumbar curvature in commercially available unmodified seats does not currently exist. This work sought to determine if the lumbar curvature for normal ranges of seated posture could be documented by using body landmarks located on the anterior portion of the body. The development of such a methodology will allow researchers to evaluate spinal articulation of a seated subject while in standard, commercially available seats and chairs. Anterior measurements of boney landmarks were used to quantify the relative positions of the ribcage and pelvis while simultaneous posterior measurements were made of lumbar curvature. The relationship between the anterior and the posterior measures was compared. The predictive capacity of this approach was evaluated by determining linear and second-order regressions for each of the four postures across all subjects and conducting a leave-one-out cross validation. The relationships between the anterior and posterior measures were approximated by linear and second-order polynomial regressions (r(2 ) =  0.829, 0.935 respectively) across all postures. The quantitative analysis showed that openness had a significant relationship with lumbar curvature, and a first-order regression was superior to a second-order regression. Average standard errors in the prediction were 5.9° for the maximum kyphotic posture, 9.9° for the comfortable posture, 12.8° for the straight and tall, and 22.2° for the maximum lordotic posture. These results show predictions of lumbar curvature are possible in seated postures by using a motion capture system and anterior measures. This method of lumbar curvature prediction shows potential for use in the assessment of seated spinal curvatures and the corresponding design of seating to accommodate those curvatures; however

  18. Age and Growth of Endangered Smalltooth Sawfish (Pristis pectinata) Verified with LA-ICP-MS Analysis of Vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Scharer, Rachel M.; Patterson III, William F.; Carlson, John K.; Poulakis, Gregg R.

    2012-01-01

    Endangered smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata) were opportunistically sampled in south Florida and aged by counting opaque bands in sectioned vertebrae (n = 15). Small sample size precluded traditional age verification, but fish collected in spring and summer had translucent vertebrae margins, while fish collected in winter had opaque margins. Trends in Sr:Ca measured across vertebrae with laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry corresponded well to annual salinity trends observed in sawfish estuarine nursery habitats in south Florida, thus serve as a chemical marker verifying annual formation of opaque bands. Based on that finding and assumptions about mean birth date and timing of opaque band formation, estimated age ranged from 0.4 y for a 0.60 m total length (TL) male to 14.0 y for a 4.35 m TL female. Von Bertalanffy growth parameters computed from size at age data were 4.48 m for L∞, 0.219 y−1for k, and −0.81 y for t0. Results of this study have important implications for sawfish conservation as well as for inferring habitat residency of euryhaline elasmobranchs via chemical analysis of vertebrae. PMID:23082225

  19. The cause of 2S Diapason screw breakage after internal lumbar fixation: studies of the mechanical and material properties of the implant.

    PubMed

    Kolasa, P; Grabarczyk, J; Depczyk, T

    2002-08-30

    In the years 1994-99, unstable fractures of the lumbar spine were surgically treated with interbody fixation in the Department of Neurosurgery at the Nicholas Copernicus Voivodeship Specialized Hospital in Łódź, using stabilizers manufactured by various companies. Complications in the form of stabilizer breakage were observed in 1 case out of 22. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the reason why the Stryker 2S Diapason screws broke. Tests performed to measure the material and mechanical properties of the implant did not show any signs of material fatigue, nor were any material defects discovered. However, a scanning microscope investigation confirmed the hypothesis that the material had crumbled due to overload. This discovery led to the decision that screws would be mounted in the bodies of the vertebrae in a manner decreasing implant load. PMID:17679886

  20. Lumbar spinal epidural arteriovenous fistula with perimedullary venous drainage after endoscopic lumbar surgery

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Toshiharu; Wada, Takeshi; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Nakase, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Spinal epidural arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) with perimedullary venous drainage are rare. This report describes a case of lumbar epidural AVF in a patient with a history of endoscopic lumbar discectomy at the same level 8 years prior to presenting with progressive myelopathy secondary to retrograde venous reflux into the perimedullary vein. A 69-year-old man presented with progressive lower extremity weakness and sensory disturbance and loss of sphincter control 8 years after endoscopic lumbar discectomy for a disc herniation at L4–5 level. Magnetic resonance imaging showed spinal cord edema and dilated intradural perimedullary vessels. Spinal angiography revealed an epidural AVF at the site of the previous endoscopic lumbar surgery with intradural perimedullary venous drainage. The fistula was successfully occluded via endovascular transarterial embolization, and the patient had stabilization of his neurological deficits. Lumbar spinal epidural AVFs, especially those associated with iatrogenic trauma, are rare. Endoscopic surgical procedure can occlude the epidural venous plexus and disturb venous drainage, thereby inducing local venous hypertension and leading to epidural AVF with perimedullary venous drainage. This type of pathology should be considered within the differential diagnosis of delayed neurological deterioration after spinal surgery. PMID:25948114

  1. Using a Spreadsheet to Compute the Maximum Wind Sector 99.5th Percentile X/Q Value in Accordance with DOE-STD-3009-2014.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Linda

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Standard 3009-2014 requires one of two methods to determine the simple Gaussian relative concentration (X/Q) of pollutant at plume centerline downwind to a receptor for a 2-h exposure duration from a ground-level release (i.e., less than 10 m height) which are (1) the 99.5th percentile X/Q for the directionally-dependent method and (2) the 95th percentile X/Q for the directionally-independent method. This paper describes how to determine the simple Gaussian 99.5th percentile X/Q for the directionally-dependent method using an electronic spreadsheet. Refer to a previous paper to determine the simple Gaussian 95th percentile X/Q for the directionally-independent method using an electronic spreadsheet (Vickers 2015). The method described herein is simple, quick, accurate, and transparent because all of the data, calculations, and results are visible for validation and verification. PMID:27023153

  2. The 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics: Making progress in the number of women in physics around the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Beth

    2015-04-01

    A short report on the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics (ICWIP) will be presented. In particular, a summary of the structure of the 5th ICWIP that occurred in Waterloo, Canada in August 2014 will be provided and placed into context of the previous four conferences. In addition, a synopsis of the recent efforts that are happening around the world to encourage girls and women to participate in physics will be given. Several US projects have been very successful in introducing girls to science and physics (e.g., ``Expanding Your Horizons'' intervention) and encouraging undergraduate women physics majors to continue into physics careers (e.g., Conferences for Undergraduate Women in Physics). Projects from other countries, such as the Juno Project in the UK that rates physics departments on their climate for women, might be implemented by US physics professional societies as well as colleges and universities. Several projects originating from the conference will be described: the new ``HERstories: Encouraging words from women in physics'' video based on interviews with delegates of the Conference, the My STEM Story project (http://mystemstory.wlu.ca), and the proceedings of the conference. Partial support provided by NSF #PHY-1419453.

  3. Symptomatic Pneumocephalus after Lumbar Disc Surgery: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kizilay, Zahir; Yilmaz, Ali; Ismailoglu, Ozgur

    2015-01-01

    Symptomatic pneumocephalus is frequently seen after traumatic fracture of the skull base bone. However, it has rarely been reported after spinal surgery and its mechanism has not been fully explained. In this paper, we present a 30 year old male patient who had lumbar discectomy due to a symptomatic midline lumbar disc herniation. He had developed symptomatic pneumocephalus after the lumbar disc surgery associated with application of a vacuum suction device. We present and discuss our patient in the light of the literatures.

  4. [Idiopathic Lumbar Hernia: A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Tsujino, Takuya; Inamoto, Teruo; Matsunaga, Tomohisa; Uchimoto, Taizo; Saito, Kenkichi; Takai, Tomoaki; Minami, Koichiro; Takahara, Kiyoshi; Nomi, Hayahito; Azuma, Haruhito

    2015-11-01

    A 68-year-old woman, complained of an indolent lump about 60 × 70 mm in size in the left lower back. We conducted a computed tomography scan, which exhibited a hernia of Gerota'sfascia-commonly called superior lumbar hernia. In the right lateral position, the hernia contents were observed to attenuate, hence only closure of the hernial orifice was conducted by using Kugel patch, without removal of the hernia sack. Six months after the surgery, she has had no relapse of the hernia. Superior lumbar hernia, which occurs in an anatomically brittle region in the lower back, is a rare and potentially serious disease. The urologic surgeon should bear in mind this rarely seen entity. PMID:26699890

  5. Intradural herniation of lumbar intervertebral discs.

    PubMed

    Hodge, C J; Binet, E F; Kieffer, S A

    1978-12-01

    A case of intradural rupture of a lumbar intervertebral disc is reported, and the literature is reviewed. The majority of intradural disc herniations occur at the L4--5 level. These patients usually have neurologic deficits more severe than those found in the much more common extradural disc herniations. The myelographic picture varies from an irregularly marginated intradural lesion overlying the disc space to a complete block. The common factor allowing intradural disc herniation is probably dense adhesions between the dura and the posterior longitudinal ligament, preventing the more common lateral extradural disc herniation. Intradural disc herniation should be included in the differential diagnosis of lumbar intradural lesions causing nerve root or cauda equina compression. PMID:741242

  6. [Vascular complications associated with lumbar spinal surgery].

    PubMed

    Riedemann-Wistuba, M; Alonso-Pérez, M; Llaneza-Coto, J M

    2016-01-01

    Although there are currently less invasive techniques available for the treatment of spinal injuries, open surgery is still required in many cases. Vascular injuries occurring during lumbar spine surgery, although uncommon, are of great importance due to their potential gravity. Clinical manifestations vary from an acute hemorrhagic shock that needs urgent treatment to save the patient's life, to insidious injuries or an asymptomatic evolution, and should be studied to choose the best therapeutic alternative. Four cases are reported that represent this range of possibilities and emphasize the importance of a careful surgical technique during lumbar spine interventions, and the need for high clinical suspicion, essential for the early diagnosis of these vascular complications. The current therapeutic options are also discussed. PMID:25662569

  7. Morphological comparison of cervical vertebrae in adult females with different sagittal craniofacial patterns: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Alkan, Özer; Aydoğan, Cihan; Akkaya, Sevil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) methods have gained popularity to assess growth and development status for orthodontic patients. Although craniofacial and craniocervical structures are known to be associated, there is no evidence in the literature if this relation might negatively affect the accuracy of CVM assessments. Therefore, this study aimed to comparatively investigate the sizes of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae in adult females (radius union stage of skeletal maturity) who have different sagittal skeletal patterns. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted, and 151 lateral cephalometric radiographs of adult female patients were assessed in the study. Patients were assigned to three groups according to ANB angle. Parameters including concavity depth at the lower border of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae and base length, upper border length, body length, posterior height, anterior height, and body height of the 3rd and 4th cervical vertebrae bodies were measured. One-way analysis of variance was used for between-group comparisons. Results: No statistically significant differences were found between groups in terms of concavity depth at the lower borders of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae (P > 0.05). Base length, upper border length, body length, posterior height, anterior height, and body height of the 3rd and 4th cervical vertebrae were also similar between groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The results of this study supports that sagittal craniofacial pattern has no effect on the accuracy of using the methods assessing CVM and calculating cervical vertebral age.

  8. On the Health Risk of the Lumbar Spine due to Whole-Body VIBRATION—THEORETICAL Approach, Experimental Data and Evaluation of Whole-Body Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, H.; Blüthner, R.; Hinz, B.; Schust, M.

    1998-08-01

    The guidance on the effects of vibration on health in standards for whole-body vibration (WBV) does not provide quantitative relationships between WBV and health risk. The paper aims at the elucidation of exposure-response relationships. An analysis of published data on the static and dynamic strength of vertebrae and bone, loaded with various frequencies under different conditions, provided the basis for a theoretical approach to evaluate repetitive loads on the lumbar spine (“internal loads”). The approach enabled the calculation of “equivalent”—with respect to cumulative fatigue failure—combinations of amplitudes and numbers of internal cyclic stress. In order to discover the relation between external peak accelerations at the seat and internal peak loads, biodynamic data of experiments (36 subjects, three somatotypes, two different postures—relaxed and bent forward; random WBV,aw, r.m.s. 1·4 ms-2, containing high transients) were used as input to a biomechanical model. Internal pressure changes were calculated using individual areas of vertebral endplates. The assessment of WBV was based on the quantitative relations between peak accelerations at the seat and pressures predicted for the disk L5/S1. For identical exposures clearly higher rates of pressure rise in the bent forward compared to the relaxed posture were predicted. The risk assessment for internal forces considered the combined internal static and dynamic loads, in relation to the predicted individual strength, and Miner's hypothesis. For exposure durations between 1 min and 8 h, energy equivalent vibration magnitudes (formula B.1, ISO 2631-1, 1997) and equivalent vibration magnitudes according to formula B.2 (time dependence over-energetic) were compared with equivalent combinations of upward peak accelerations and exposure durations according to predicted cumulative fatigue failures of lumbar vertebrae. Formula B.1 seems to underestimate the health risk caused by high magnitudes

  9. Lumbar nerve root: the enigmatic eponyms.

    PubMed

    Dyck, P

    1984-01-01

    Man's quest for recognition has not escaped the physician, whose contributions to medicine perpetuate his name in print. It is a final grasp for professional immortality, which for men like Imhotep and Hippocrates, has prevailed for millennia. This fervor was particularly evident in the latter 19th century, which created a flurry of eponyms, often two or more physicians publishing the same clinical observation. This article reviews the eponym epidemic as it relates to lumbar radiculopathy. PMID:6372123

  10. Weightlifter Lumbar Physiology Health Influence Factor Analysis of Sports Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    Chinese women's weightlifting project has been in the advanced world level, suggests that the Chinese coaches and athletes have many successful experience in the weight lifting training. Little weight lifting belongs to high-risk sports, however, to the lumbar spine injury, some young good athletes often due to lumbar trauma had to retire, and the national investment and athletes toil is regret things. This article from the perspective of sports medicine, weightlifting athletes training situation analysis and put forward Suggestions, aimed at avoiding lumbar injury, guarantee the health of athletes. In this paper, first of all to 50 professional women's weightlifting athletes doing investigation, found that 82% of the athletes suffer from lumbar disease symptoms, the reason is mainly composed of lumbar strain, intensity is too large, motion error caused by three factors. From the Angle of sports medicine and combined with the characteristics of the structure of human body skeleton athletes lumbar structural mechanics analysis, find out the lumbar force's two biggest technical movement, study, and regulate the action standard, so as to minimize lumbar force, for athletes to contribute to the health of the lumbar spine. PMID:26981162

  11. Design concepts in lumbar total disc arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Bellini, Chiara M.; Zweig, Thomas; Ferguson, Stephen; Raimondi, Manuela T.; Lamartina, Claudio; Brayda-Bruno, Marco; Fornari, Maurizio

    2008-01-01

    The implantation of lumbar disc prostheses based on different design concepts is widely accepted. This paper reviews currently available literature studies on the biomechanics of TDA in the lumbar spine, and is targeted at the evaluation of possible relationships between the aims of TDA and the geometrical, mechanical and material properties of the various available disc prostheses. Both theoretical and experimental studies were analyzed, by a PUBMED search (performed in February 2007, revised in January 2008), focusing on single level TDA. Both semi-constrained and unconstrained lumbar discs seem to be able to restore nearly physiological IAR locations and ROM values. However, both increased and decreased ROM was stated in some papers, unrelated to the clinical outcome. Segmental lordosis alterations after TDA were reported in most cases, for both constrained and unconstrained disc prostheses. An increase in the load through the facet joints was documented, for both semi-constrained and unconstrained artificial discs, but with some contrasting results. Semi-constrained devices may be able to share a greater part of the load, thus protecting the surrounding biological structure from overloading and possible early degeneration, but may be more susceptible to wear. The next level of development will be the biomechanical integration of compression across the motion segment. All these findings need to be supported by long-term clinical outcome studies. PMID:18946684

  12. Linear Lumbar Localized Lysis of Elastic Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Tschen, Jaime A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The absence or loss of elastic fibers in the skin is referred to as dermal elastolysis. Purpose: This paper describes a woman with a distinctive clinical presentation of mid-dermal elastolysis characterized morphologically by multiple horizontal raised bands on the lower back. Methods: A 20-year-old Filipino woman presented with multiple asymptomatic, flesh-colored, raised, firm, linear, cord-like bands on the lumbar area of her back. There were neither similar lesions elsewhere nor a family member with this condition. Results: Microscopic examination of the raised band showed nearly complete absence of elastic fibers in the mid dermis. In contrast, a biopsy of symmetrically located normal-appearing skin showed a uniform distribution of elastic fibers throughout the dermis. Linear lumbar localized elastolysis is a descriptive designation that accurately reflects a correlation of the clinical and pathological changes of this condition. Conclusion: The clinical differential of raised horizontal cord-like bands on the lower back (without a family history of an inherited elastic fiber disorder, a prior history of trauma, or a significant change in weight or exercise habit) includes linear focal elastosis and linear lumbar localized elastolysis. Microscopic evaluation of a Verhoeff-van Gieson stained lesion specimen (which may be accompanied by a biopsy of normal-appearing skin for comparison) will readily differentiate these conditions. The former is usually characterized by increased elastic fibers, whereas the latter, as in this patient, shows a paucity or absence of elastic fibers in the mid dermis. PMID:23882313

  13. Lumbar discal cyst with spontaneous regression and subsequent occurrence of lumbar disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Hanakita, Junya; Watanabe, Mizuki; Kitahama, Yoshihiro; Kuraishi, Keita; Uesaka, Toshio; Minami, Manabu; Nakase, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    A 39-year-old man presented with an extremely rare discal cyst at the L3-4 level manifesting as a left L4 radiculopathy. Two months after onset, he suffered right L4 radiculopathy with new lumbar disc protrusion. Five months after medical treatment, the patient's symptoms improved, and the discal cyst showed complete regression on magnetic resonance imaging. Most cases of discal cyst are surgically treated, with only two previous cases of spontaneous regression. The present case suggests clinical and radiological recovery of symptomatic lumbar discal cyst can be obtained by only conservative therapy. PMID:22123489

  14. The 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia: summary of main findings and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Pandit, J J; Andrade, J; Bogod, D G; Hitchman, J M; Jonker, W R; Lucas, N; Mackay, J H; Nimmo, A F; O'Connor, K; O'Sullivan, E P; Paul, R G; Palmer, J H MacG; Plaat, F; Radcliffe, J J; Sury, M R J; Torevell, H E; Wang, M; Hainsworth, J; Cook, T M

    2014-10-01

    We present the main findings of the 5th National Audit Project on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia. Incidences were estimated using reports of accidental awareness as the numerator, and a parallel national anaesthetic activity survey to provide denominator data. The incidence of certain/probable and possible accidental awareness cases was ~1:19 600 anaesthetics (95% CI 1:16 700-23 450). However, there was considerable variation across subtypes of techniques or subspecialties. The incidence with neuromuscular blockade was ~1:8200 (1:7030-9700), and without it was ~1:135 900 (1:78 600-299 000). The cases of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia reported to 5th National Audit Project were overwhelmingly cases of unintended awareness during neuromuscular blockade. The incidence of accidental awareness during caesarean section was ~1:670 (1:380-1300). Two thirds (82, 66%) of cases of accidental awareness experiences arose in the dynamic phases of anaesthesia, namely induction of and emergence from anaesthesia. During induction of anaesthesia, contributory factors included: use of thiopental; rapid sequence induction; obesity; difficult airway management; neuromuscular blockade; and interruptions of anaesthetic delivery during movement from anaesthetic room to theatre. During emergence from anaesthesia, residual paralysis was perceived by patients as accidental awareness, and commonly related to a failure to ensure full return of motor capacity. One third (43, 33%) of accidental awareness events arose during the maintenance phase of anaesthesia, most due to problems at induction or towards the end of anaesthesia. Factors increasing the risk of accidental awareness included: female sex; age (younger adults, but not children); obesity; anaesthetist seniority (junior trainees); previous awareness; out-of-hours operating; emergencies; type of surgery (obstetric, cardiac, thoracic); and use of neuromuscular blockade. The following factors were

  15. MRI Evaluation of Lumbar Disc Degenerative Disease

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rupal; Mehta, Chetan; Patel, Narrotam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Lower back pain secondary to degenerative disc disease is a condition that affects young to middle-aged persons with peak incidence at approximately 40 y. MRI is the standard imaging modality for detecting disc pathology due to its advantage of lack of radiation, multiplanar imaging capability, excellent spinal soft-tissue contrast and precise localization of intervertebral discs changes. Aims and Objective: To evaluate the characterization, extent, and changes associated with the degenerative lumbar disc disease by Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Study Design: Cross-sectional and observational study. Materials and Methods: A total 109 patients of the lumbar disc degeneration with age group between 17 to 80 y were diagnosed & studied on 1.5 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging machine. MRI findings like lumbar lordosis, Schmorl’s nodes, decreased disc height, disc annular tear, disc herniation, disc bulge, disc protrusion and disc extrusion were observed. Narrowing of the spinal canal, lateral recess and neural foramen with compression of nerve roots observed. Ligamentum flavum thickening and facetal arthropathy was observed. Result: Males were more commonly affected in Degenerative Spinal Disease & most of the patients show loss of lumbar lordosis. Decreased disc height was common at L5-S1 level. More than one disc involvement was seen per person. L4 – L5 disc was the most commonly involved. Annular disc tear, disc herniation, disc extrusion, narrowing of spinal canal, narrowing of lateral recess, compression of neural foramen, ligamentum flavum thickening and facetal arthropathy was common at the L4 –L5 disc level. Disc buldge was common at L3 – L4 & L4 – L5 disc level. Posterior osteophytes are common at L3 - L4 & L5 –S1 disc level. L1- L2 disc involvement and spondylolisthesis are less common. Conclusion: Lumbar disc degeneration is the most common cause of low back pain. Plain radiograph can be helpful in visualizing gross anatomic changes in

  16. Lumbar disk herniation surgery: outcome and predictors.

    PubMed

    Sedighi, Mahsa; Haghnegahdar, Ali

    2014-12-01

    Study Design A retrospective cohort study. Objectives To determine the outcome and any differences in the clinical results of three different surgical methods for lumbar disk herniation and to assess the effect of factors that could predict the outcome of surgery. Methods We evaluated 148 patients who had operations for lumbar disk herniation from March 2006 to March 2011 using three different surgical techniques (laminectomy, microscopically assisted percutaneous nucleotomy, and spinous process osteotomy) by using Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire, Resumption of Activities of Daily Living scale and changes of visual analog scale (VAS) for low back pain and radicular pain. Our study questionnaire addressed patient subjective satisfaction with the operation, residual complaints, and job resumption. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 16.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, Illinois, United States). Statistical significance was set at 0.05. For statistical analysis, chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and repeated measure analysis were performed. For determining the confounding factors, univariate analysis by chi-square test was used and followed by logistic regression analysis. Results Ninety-four percent of our patients were satisfied with the results of their surgeries. VAS documented an overall 93.3% success rate for reduction of radicular pain. Laminectomy resulted in better outcome in terms of JOA Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire. The outcome of surgery did not significantly differ by age, sex, level of education, preoperative VAS for back, preoperative VAS for radicular pain, return to previous job, or level of herniation. Conclusion Surgery for lumbar disk herniation is effective in reducing radicular pain (93.4%). All three surgical approaches resulted in significant decrease in preoperative radicular pain and low back pain, but intergroup variation in the outcome was not achieved. As indicated

  17. A predictive mechanical model for evaluating vertebral fracture probability in lumbar spine under different osteoporotic drug therapies.

    PubMed

    López, E; Ibarz, E; Herrera, A; Puértolas, S; Gabarre, S; Más, Y; Mateo, J; Gil-Albarova, J; Gracia, L

    2016-07-01

    Osteoporotic vertebral fractures represent a major cause of disability, loss of quality of life and even mortality among the elderly population. Decisions on drug therapy are based on the assessment of risk factors for fracture from bone mineral density (BMD) measurements. A previously developed model, based on the Damage and Fracture Mechanics, was applied for the evaluation of the mechanical magnitudes involved in the fracture process from clinical BMD measurements. BMD evolution in untreated patients and in patients with seven different treatments was analyzed from clinical studies in order to compare the variation in the risk of fracture. The predictive model was applied in a finite element simulation of the whole lumbar spine, obtaining detailed maps of damage and fracture probability, identifying high-risk local zones at vertebral body. For every vertebra, strontium ranelate exhibits the highest decrease, whereas minimum decrease is achieved with oral ibandronate. All the treatments manifest similar trends for every vertebra. Conversely, for the natural BMD evolution, as bone stiffness decreases, the mechanical damage and fracture probability show a significant increase (as it occurs in the natural history of BMD). Vertebral walls and external areas of vertebral end plates are the zones at greatest risk, in coincidence with the typical locations of osteoporotic fractures, characterized by a vertebral crushing due to the collapse of vertebral walls. This methodology could be applied for an individual patient, in order to obtain the trends corresponding to different treatments, in identifying at-risk individuals in early stages of osteoporosis and might be helpful for treatment decisions. PMID:27265047

  18. Comparison of Values in 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th Grade Primary Education Music Class Students'? Workbooks According to Rokeach?s and Akbas's Value Classifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çakirer, H. Serdar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to compare the values in the songs of 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grade primary education music classes students? workbooks according to the value categorizations proposed by Rockeach and Akbas and which values among the categories mentioned are taught to the students in the 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grade primary education…

  19. Using Community-based Participatory Research to Adapt keepin’ it REAL: Creating a Socially, Developmentally, and Academically Appropriate Prevention Curriculum for 5th Graders

    PubMed Central

    Harthun, Mary L.; Dustman, Patricia A.; Reeves, Leslie J.; Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Hecht, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a process in which program designers, classroom teachers, and students worked together to adapt the 7th grade “keepin’ it REAL” prevention curriculum to a developmentally, socially, and academically appropriate curriculum for 5th graders. A Community-Based Participatory Research methodology (CBPR), combined with a 9-step adaptation model, emphasized a collaborative approach, both transformative and empowering. Essential adaptation elements were the Risk-to-Resiliency Continuum; the teaching of a wide range of skills including risk assessment, decision making, and resistance strategies; and, maintaining the theoretical grounding of Narrative Theory, Communication Competence, and Focus Theory of Norms. This paper describes how CBPR methodology can be conducted successfully while focusing on sustained theoretical grounding and effective research practices in a school-based setting. PMID:21057596

  20. Investigation of the aerodynamic performance and noise characteristics of a 1/5th scale model of the Dowty Rotol R212 propeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trebble, W. J. G.

    1983-11-01

    The four-bladed Dowty Rotol R212 propeller (NACA 16 sections) was studied at 1/5th scale (0.7 m diameter) in 1.5 m acoustic tunnel. Propeller power absorption and thrust were measured over a range of rotational speeds up to 8000 rev/min at mainstream speeds from 15 to 60 m/sec for a range of blade settings. Slipstream wake surveys show outward movement of the position of the peak pressure as propeller loading is increased. Noise analysis demonstrates the predominance of multiple tones whose number and intensity increase with helical-tip Mach number. An empirical formula shows that the fundamental tone sound pressure level varies with tip speed and power loading in an identical manner to that observed on an ARA-D section propeller.

  1. [Synthesis of juvenile hormones in vitro by the corpora allata of 5th stage larva of Locusta migratoria migratorioides (R and F) (Insecta, Orthopteroida)].

    PubMed

    Caruelle, J P; Baehr, J C; Cassier, P

    1979-04-01

    Corpora allata of Locusta migratoria 5th stage larvae synthesize J.H.1, J.H.2 and J.H.3 in vitro. The C.A. of insects of different ages exbit different rates of J.H. synthesis. J.H.1 and J.H.2 synthesis is less than 1 ng/48 h/gland. During the same time the J.H.3 production may be as much as 25.6 ng/gland. J.H. synthetic activity is the same between right and left C.A. The release of J.H. from the C.A. occurs immediately following synthesis. These results are compared with in vivo haemolymphatic J.H. levels. PMID:113127

  2. Systematically frameshifting by deletion of every 4th or 4th and 5th nucleotides during mitochondrial transcription: RNA self-hybridization regulates delRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Seligmann, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    In mitochondria, secondary structures punctuate post-transcriptional RNA processing. Recently described transcripts match the human mitogenome after systematic deletions of every 4th, respectively every 4th and 5th nucleotides, called delRNAs. Here I explore predicted stem-loop hairpin formation by delRNAs, and their associations with delRNA transcription and detected peptides matching their translation. Despite missing 25, respectively 40% of the nucleotides in the original sequence, del-transformed sequences form significantly more secondary structures than corresponding randomly shuffled sequences, indicating biological function, independently of, and in combination with, previously detected delRNA and thereof translated peptides. Self-hybridization decreases delRNA abundances, indicating downregulation. Systematic deletions of the human mitogenome reveal new, unsuspected coding and structural informations. PMID:27018206

  3. Parasite-Antigen Driven Expansion of IL-5− and IL-5+ Th2 Human Subpopulations in Lymphatic Filariasis and Their Differential Dependence on IL-10 and TGFβ

    PubMed Central

    Anuradha, Rajamanickam; George, Parakkal Jovvian; Hanna, Luke E.; Chandrasekaran, Vedachalam; Kumaran, P. Paul; Nutman, Thomas B.; Babu, Subash

    2014-01-01

    Background Two different Th2 subsets have been defined recently on the basis of IL-5 expression – an IL-5+Th2 subset and an IL-5−Th2 subset in the setting of allergy. However, the role of these newly described CD4+ T cells subpopulations has not been explored in other contexts. Methods To study the role of the Th2 subpopulation in a chronic, tissue invasive parasitic infection (lymphatic filariasis), we examined the frequency of IL-5+IL-4+IL-13+ CD4+ T cells and IL-5−IL-4 IL-13+ CD4+ T cells in asymptomatic, infected individuals (INF) and compared them to frequencies (Fo) in filarial-uninfected (UN) individuals and to those with filarial lymphedema (CP). Results INF individuals exhibited a significant increase in the spontaneously expressed and antigen-induced Fo of both Th2 subpopulations compared to the UN and CP. Interestingly, there was a positive correlation between the Fo of IL-5+Th2 cells and the absolute eosinophil and neutrophil counts; in addition there was a positive correlation between the frequency of the CD4+IL-5−Th2 subpopulation and the levels of parasite antigen – specific IgE and IgG4 in INF individuals. Moreover, blockade of IL-10 and/or TGFβ demonstrated that each of these 2 regulatory cytokines exert opposite effects on the different Th2 subsets. Finally, in those INF individuals cured of infection by anti-filarial therapy, there was a significantly decreased Fo of both Th2 subsets. Conclusions Our findings suggest that both IL-5+ and IL-5−Th2 cells play an important role in the regulation of immune responses in filarial infection and that these two Th2 subpopulations may be regulated by different cytokine-receptor mediated processes. PMID:24498448

  4. Nuclear Electricity. 5th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hore-Lacy, Ian

    Educators must address the need for young people to be informed about both the scientific concepts and the reasons for controversy when dealing with controversial issues. Young people must be given the opportunity to form their own opinions when presented with evidence for conflicting arguments. Previous editions of "Nuclear Electricity" have…

  5. Environmental chemistry. 5th edition

    SciTech Connect

    Manahan, S.E. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1991-01-01

    This book is organized around several major sections: aquatic Chemistry, atmospheric chemistry, the geosphere and hazardous wastes, toxicological chemistry, and resources and energy. Specific topics discussed in the book include a general introduction to environment chemistry, basic principles of aquatic chemistry, water pollution and water treatment, the essential role of microorganisms in aquatic chemical phenomena, atmospheric chemistry, a discussion of major threats to the global atmosphere (particularly greenhouse gases and ozone-depleting chemicals), the geosphere and hazardous substances, soil chemistry, and the nature and sources of hazardous wastes. The environmental chemistry of hazardous wastes, their treatment, minimization, and recycling, and the effects of these hazardous substances in also presented.

  6. [Dorso-lumbar pain caused by a schmorl hernia].

    PubMed

    Esteban Navarro, Pedro Luis; García Casas, Oscar; Girvent Montllor, Francesc

    2008-09-01

    Thoracic and lumbar spine conditions cause primarily mechanical back pain, although the clinician has to ensure that the symptoms are not from another etiology. We present the case of a patient with thoracic and lumbar non mechanical pain, resistant to treatment, diagnosed with a herniation of the intervertebral disc through the vertebral end-plate. We also performed a literature review. PMID:21794532

  7. 49 CFR 572.19 - Lumbar spine, abdomen and pelvis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lumbar spine, abdomen and pelvis. 572.19 Section 572.19 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 3-Year-Old Child § 572.19 Lumbar spine, abdomen...

  8. 49 CFR 572.19 - Lumbar spine, abdomen and pelvis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lumbar spine, abdomen and pelvis. 572.19 Section 572.19 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 3-Year-Old Child § 572.19 Lumbar spine, abdomen...

  9. Trabecular trajectory in the articular processes of the human fourth cervical vertebra

    PubMed Central

    HERRERA, M.; PANCHÓN, A.; PEREZ-BACETE, M.

    2001-01-01

    The articular processes (AP) of the neural arch have been implicated in weight transmission through the cervical spine. To analyse the mechanism of weight transmission in the AP, we studied the direction of forces within it, in particular, the pattern of trabecular trajectories. Twenty-two AP from C4 vertebrae were studied in anatomical sections, and corresponding photoelastic models from selected sections were constructed and analysed. Anatomical and photoelastic findings show the subarticular spongiosa of the superior articular process (SAP) to be orthogonally arranged with vertical and oblique trabeculae in the direction of compressive forces and additional trabeculae always oriented perpendicular to the former. Vertical and oblique trabeculae are divided into rostral, middle and posterior groups. Rostral and middle trabeculae end in the anterior wall of the SAP and the transitional zone with the pedicle. Posterior trabeculae end in the subarticular spongiosa of the inferior articular process (IAP). The findings relating to trabecular trajectories in the SAP differ from previous descriptions and instead suggest that a part of the weight forces distributed within the AP transmit to the subchondral zone of the IAP. Knowledge of the trajectorial architecture of the AP may contribute to refining finite element analytical models for investigating its weight-bearing function. PMID:11554512

  10. A comparison between cervical vertebrae and modified MP3 stages for the assessment of skeletal maturity

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Mandava; Ganji, Venkata Suresh Kumar; George, Suja Ani; Talapaneni, Ashok Kumar; Shetty, Sharath Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of skeletal maturity in human individuals is an important aspect in orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics because, growth guidance and fundamental structural changes are essential for treatment of skeletal discrepancies in all the three planes. Among various growth assessment methods, cervical vertebra maturation stages and hand wrist have been correlated with the individual growth changes during puberty. The purpose of this study is to determine correlation of the CVM index with the modified median phalanx index (MP3) as described by Rajagopal and Kansal. Materials and Methods: 200 subjects (100 males and 100 females) of Nellore, Indian origin boys aged between 10 to 19 years and girls of 8 to 16 years were selected for the study. The subjects are selected randomly from patients visiting the Departments of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Pediatric dentistry and Oral medicine and Radiology at Narayana Dental College and Hospital. Nellore. Radiographs of left hand MP3 and lateral cephalogram were taken. Results: Cohen's kappa statistic was used to assess the agreement between the two measurements based on categorical variables. Conclusions: There was a good concordance between 6 stages of CVMI (Hassel and Farman) and the 6 stages of MP3 (Rajagopal and Kansal). Physiological maturity was earlier in females than in males when compared to the individuals of opposite sex of same chronological age. Chronological age was not a valid predictor of assessing the skeletal maturity because of significant variations in the distribution of CVMI and MP3 stages with respect to individual chronological age distribution. PMID:23633839

  11. QUANTITATIVE PLUTONIUM MICRODISTRIBUTION IN BONE TISSUE OF VERTEBRA FROM A MAYAK WORKER

    PubMed Central

    Lyovkina, Yekaterina V.; Miller, Scott C.; Romanov, Sergey A.; Krahenbuhl, Melinda P.; Belosokhov, Maxim V.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose was to obtain quantitative data on plutonium microdistribution in different structural elements of human bone tissue for local dose assessment and dosimetric models validation. A sample of the thoracic vertebra was obtained from a former Mayak worker with a rather high plutonium burden. Additional information was obtained on occupational and exposure history, medical history, and measured plutonium content in organs. Plutonium was detected in bone sections from its fission tracks in polycarbonate film using neutron-induced autoradiography. Quantitative analysis of randomly selected microscopic fields on one of the autoradiographs was performed. Data included fission fragment tracks in different bone tissue and surface areas. Quantitative information on plutonium microdistribution in human bone tissue was obtained for the first time. From these data, quantitative relationship of plutonium decays in bone volume to decays on bone surface in cortical and trabecular fractions were defined as 2.0 and 0.4, correspondingly. The measured quantitative relationship of decays in bone volume to decays on bone surface does not coincide with recommended models for the cortical bone fraction by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Biokinetic model parameters of extrapulmonary compartments might need to be adjusted after expansion of the data set on quantitative plutonium microdistribution in other bone types in human as well as other cases with different exposure patterns and types of plutonium. PMID:20838087

  12. Mechanics of bone/PMMA composite structures: an in vitro study of human vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Race, Amos; Mann, Kenneth A; Edidin, Avram A

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to provide material property data for the cement/bone composite resulting from the introduction of PMMA bone cement into human vertebral bodies. A series of quasistatic tensile and compressive mechanical tests were conducted using cement/bone composite structures machined from cement-infiltrated vertebral bodies. Experiments were performed both at room temperature and at body temperature. We found that the modulus of the composite structures was lower than bulk cement (p<0.0001). For compression at 37( composite function)C: composite =2.3+/-0.5GPa, cement =3.1+/-0.2GPa; at 23( composite function)C: composite =3.0+/-0.3GPa, cement =3.4+/-0.2GPa. Specimens tested at room temperature were stiffer than those tested at body temperature (p=0.0004). Yield and ultimate strength factors for the composite were all diminished (55-87%) when compared to cement properties. In general, computational models have assumed that cement/bone composite had the same modulus as cement. The results of this study suggest that computational models of cement infiltrated vertebrae and cemented arthroplasties could be improved by specifying different material properties for cement and cement/bone composite. PMID:16797554

  13. [Quantitative plutonium microdistribution in bone tissue of vertebra from occupationally exposed worker].

    PubMed

    Levkina, E V; Romanov, S A; Miller, S C; Krahenbuhl, M P; Belosokhov, M V

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work is the receiving of quantitative data on Pu microdistribution in different structural elements of human bone tissue for local dose assessment and dosimetric models validation. Thoracic vertebra sample was taken for the study from former Mayak worker with rather high Pu burden, including information on occupational and exposure history, medical information and data on Pu content in organs. Lexan film autodiagrams were obtained using method of neutron-induced autoradiography from bone tissue sections. Quantitative analysis of randomly selected vision fields on one of autoradiograms was performed: fission fragment tracks Pu in different bone tissue areas were calculated, surface of bone tissue areas were defined. Quantitative information on Pu microdistribution in human bone tissue was obtained for the first time. On the basis of obtained data quantitative relation of Pu decays in bone volume to decays on bone surface in cortical and trabecular fractions were defined as 2.0 and 0.4, correspondingly. Actual quantitative relation of decays in bone volume to decays on bone surface is significantly different from recommended by ICRP for cortical fraction. Biokinetic model parameters of extrapulmonary ICRP compartment might need to be adjusted after expansion of data set on quantitative Pu microdistribution in other bone types in human that will involve new cases with different exposure pattern of radionuclide. PMID:18689262

  14. Quantitative plutonium microdistribution in bone tissue of vertebra from a Mayak worker.

    PubMed

    Lyovkina, Yekaterina V; Miller, Scott C; Romanov, Sergey A; Krahenbuhl, Melinda P; Belosokhov, Maxim V

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain quantitative data on plutonium microdistribution in different structural elements of human bone tissue for local dose assessment and dosimetric models validation. A sample of the thoracic vertebra was obtained from a former Mayak worker with a rather high plutonium burden. Additional information was obtained on occupational and exposure history, medical history, and measured plutonium content in organs. Plutonium was detected in bone sections from its fission tracks in polycarbonate film using neutron-induced autoradiography. Quantitative analysis of randomly selected microscopic fields on one of the autoradiographs was performed. Data included fission fragment tracks in different bone tissue and surface areas. Quantitative information on plutonium microdistribution in human bone tissue was obtained for the first time. From these data, the quantitative relationships of plutonium decays in bone volume to decays on bone surface in cortical and trabecular fractions were defined as 2.0 and 0.4, correspondingly. The measured quantitative relationship of decays in bone volume to decays on bone surface does not coincide with recommended models for the cortical bone fraction by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Biokinetic model parameters of extrapulmonary compartments might need to be adjusted after expansion of the data set on quantitative plutonium microdistribution in other bone types in humans as well as other cases with different exposure patterns and types of plutonium. PMID:20838087

  15. Direct visualization of regions with lowered bone mineral density in dual-energy CT images of vertebrae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesarg, Stefan; Erdt, Marius; Kafchitsas, Konstantinos; Khan, M. Fawad

    2011-03-01

    Dual-energy CT allows for a better material differentiation than conventional CT. For the purpose of osteoporosis diagnosis, a detection of regions with lowered bone mineral density (BMD) is of high clinical interest. Based on an existing biophysical model of the trabecular bone in vertebrae a new method for directly highlighting those low density regions in the image data has been developed. For this, we combine image data acquired at 80 kV and 140 kV with information about the BMD range in different vertebrae and derive a method for computing a color enhanced image which clearly indicates low density regions. An evaluation of our method which compares it with a quantitative method for BMD assessment shows a very good correspondence between both methods. The strength of our method lies in its simplicity and speed.

  16. Gait in thoracolumbar/lumbar adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: effect of surgery on gait mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Mahaudens, Philippe; Detrembleur, C; Mousny, M; Banse, X

    2010-07-01

    For patients whose scoliosis progresses, surgery remains the ultimate way to correct and stabilise the deformity while maintaining as many mobile spinal segments as possible. In thoracolumbar/lumbar adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), the spinal fusion has to be extended to the lumbar spine. The use of anterior spinal fusion (ASF) instead of the classic posterior fusion (PSF) may preserve more distal spinal levels in attempt to limit the consequences of surgery on trunk mobility. The effects of surgery on body shape, pain and the decompensation phenomenon have all been well evaluated. Very few studies have addressed the effect of ASF or PSF on basic activities, such as walking. Before any treatment, AIS patients already have reduced pelvis, hip and shoulder motion when walking at a normal speed compared with adolescents without scoliosis (control group). Additionally, they have longer contraction time of the lumbar and pelvic muscles leading to an excessive energy cost and reduced muscle efficiency. In addition, if these changes are associated with spinal stiffness, spinal fusion could further negatively affect this pre-surgical inefficient walk. The goals of this study were (a) to compare pre- and 1-year post-surgery conditions in order to assess the effects of spinal arthrodesis on gait parameters and (b) to compare the anterior versus the posterior surgical approaches. Nineteen young females with thoracolumbar/lumbar AIS were assessed by radiological and clinical examination and by conventional gait analysis before surgery and at almost 12 months after surgery. Seven subjects underwent surgery using ASF and 12 using PSF. Three-dimensional gait analysis was performed on a motor-driven treadmill at spontaneous self-selected speed to record kinematic, electromyographic (EMG), mechanical and energetic measurements synchronously. Although it was expected that the instrumentation would modify the characteristics of normal walking, this study showed that surgery

  17. Gait in thoracolumbar/lumbar adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: effect of surgery on gait mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Detrembleur, C.; Mousny, M.; Banse, X.

    2010-01-01

    For patients whose scoliosis progresses, surgery remains the ultimate way to correct and stabilise the deformity while maintaining as many mobile spinal segments as possible. In thoracolumbar/lumbar adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), the spinal fusion has to be extended to the lumbar spine. The use of anterior spinal fusion (ASF) instead of the classic posterior fusion (PSF) may preserve more distal spinal levels in attempt to limit the consequences of surgery on trunk mobility. The effects of surgery on body shape, pain and the decompensation phenomenon have all been well evaluated. Very few studies have addressed the effect of ASF or PSF on basic activities, such as walking. Before any treatment, AIS patients already have reduced pelvis, hip and shoulder motion when walking at a normal speed compared with adolescents without scoliosis (control group). Additionally, they have longer contraction time of the lumbar and pelvic muscles leading to an excessive energy cost and reduced muscle efficiency. In addition, if these changes are associated with spinal stiffness, spinal fusion could further negatively affect this pre-surgical inefficient walk. The goals of this study were (a) to compare pre- and 1-year post-surgery conditions in order to assess the effects of spinal arthrodesis on gait parameters and (b) to compare the anterior versus the posterior surgical approaches. Nineteen young females with thoracolumbar/lumbar AIS were assessed by radiological and clinical examination and by conventional gait analysis before surgery and at almost 12 months after surgery. Seven subjects underwent surgery using ASF and 12 using PSF. Three-dimensional gait analysis was performed on a motor-driven treadmill at spontaneous self-selected speed to record kinematic, electromyographic (EMG), mechanical and energetic measurements synchronously. Although it was expected that the instrumentation would modify the characteristics of normal walking, this study showed that surgery

  18. Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Management of Recurrent Lumbar Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose To study the surgical outcome of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) combined with trans-pedicular screws fixation for management of selected cases of recurrent lumbar disc herniation. Overview of Literature Recurrent lumbar disc herniation is a major cause of surgical failure, occurring in 5%–11% of cases. The optimal technique for treatment is controversial. Some authors believe that repeated simple discectomy is the treatment of choice, but approach-related complications can be considerable. Other surgeons prefer more removal of posterior elements (as lamina and facet joints) with posterior fusion. Methods The study included 15 patients who presented with symptomatic recurrent lumbar disc herniation who underwent reoperation through posterior trans-pedicular screws and TLIF in our department from April 2008 to May 2010, with a 24-month follow-up. Japanese Orthopedic Association Scale (JOA) was used for low back pain. The results of surgery were also evaluated with the MacNab classification. Results The mean JOA score showed significant improvement, increasing from 9.5 before surgery to 24.0 at the end of follow-up (p<0.001). Clinical outcome was excellent in 7 patients (46% of cases), good in 6 patients (40%) and fair in only 2 patients (14%). There was a significant difference (p<0.05) between patients presenting with recurrent disc at the ipsilateral side and those at the contralateral side. Conclusions In spite of the small number of patients and the short follow-up period, the good clinical and radiological outcome achieved in this study encourage the belief that TLIF is an effective option for the treatment of selected cases of recurrent lumbar disc herniation. PMID:26949458

  19. Provocation Lumbar Diskography at Previously Fused Levels

    PubMed Central

    Dulai, H.S.; Bartynski, W.S.; Rothfus, W.S.; Gerszten, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Recurrent or persistent low back pain (LBP) after lumbar fusion can be related to many factors. We reviewed the provocation lumbar diskogram (PLD) features and redo-fusion outcome in our patients evaluated for recurrent/persistent LBP after technically successful fusion. LD was performed in 27 patients with recurrent/persistent LBP after prior successful lumbar surgical fusion (31 fused levels: single-level fusion-23; two-level fusion-4). PLD response and imaging characteristics at fused and non-fused levels were assessed including: intra-diskal lidocaine response, diskogram-image/post-diskogram CT appearance, presence/absence of diskographic contrast leakage, and evidence of fusion integrity or hardware failure. Outcomes in patients having redo-fusion were assessed. Concordant pain was encountered at 15 out of 23 (65%) single-level fusions, non-concordant pain in one fusion with non-painful response in seven. Adjacent-level concordant pain was identified in seven out of 23 (30%) patients (three of 15 with painful fused levels; four of seven with non-painful fusions). In two-level fusions, concordant pain was encountered at one fused level in each patient. In painful fused levels, leaking and contained disks were encountered with partial or complete pain elimination after intra-diskal lidocaine injection. In anterior fusions, space or contrast surrounding the cage was noted at five of 11 levels. Pseudoarthrosis was noted only with trans-sacral screw fusions. Redo-fusion in 13 patients resulted in significant improvement in nine and moderate improvement in one. Patients with recurrent/persistent LBP after technically successful fusion may have a diskogenic pain source at the surgically fused or adjacent level confirmed by lidocaine-assisted PLD. PMID:20977869

  20. Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Supplied by a Lumbar Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Han Myun; Kim, Hyo-Cheol Woo, Sungmin; Son, Kyu Ri; Cho, Seong Whi; Chung, Jin Wook

    2015-02-15

    PurposeTo describe the radiologic findings and imaging response of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) supplied by the lumbar artery.MethodsBetween April 2004 and December 2012, we encountered HCC supplied by a lumbar artery in 21 patients. Two investigators retrospectively reviewed clinical and radiological findings of HCC supplied by the lumbar artery using computed tomography (CT) scans and digital subtraction angiograms.ResultsPatients had received 1–27 sessions of previous chemoembolization procedures (mean 7.7 sessions, median 4 sessions). Mean tumor size was 5.3 cm. The locations of HCC supplied by lumbar artery were the bare area (n = 14, 67 %) and segment VI (n = 7, 33 %). Tumor-feeding arteries arose from the main lumbar artery (n = 7), proximal anterior division (n = 4), and distal anterior division (n = 14). In 20 patients, selective chemoembolization through the tumor-feeding arteries of the lumbar artery was achieved. In 1 patient, nonselective embolization at the main lumbar artery was performed. There was no complication such as skin necrosis or paralysis. On the first follow-up enhanced CT scan, target tumors fed by the lumbar artery showed complete response (n = 6), partial response (n = 4), stable disease (n = 3), and progressive disease (n = 8), but overall tumor response was partial response (n = 1) and progressive disease (n = 20).ConclusionWhen HCC is located in the inferior tip or bare area of the liver, a lumbar artery may supply the tumor. Although selective chemoembolization via the tumor-feeding vessel of the lumbar artery can be achieved in most cases, overall tumor response is commonly unfavorable.

  1. Validity of the assessment method of skeletal maturation by cervical vertebrae: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, M A V; Paranhos, L R

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To perform a systematic review with meta-analysis to answer the question: is the cervical vertebrae maturation index (CVMI) effective to replace hand–wrist radiograph (gold standard) in determining the pubertal growth spurt in patients undergoing bone growth? Methods: A search in three databases was performed, in which studies were selected that compared one of the two main assessment methods for cervical vertebrae (Hassel B, Farman AG. Skeletal maturation evaluation using cervical vertebrae. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1995; 107: 58–66, or Baccetti T, Franchi L, McNamara JA Jr. An improved version of the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method for the assessment of mandibular growth. Angle Orthod 2002; 72: 316–23) to a carpal assessment method. The main methodological data from each of the texts were collected and tabulated after. Later, the meta-analysis of the correlation coefficients obtained was performed. Results: 19 articles were selected from an initial 206 articles collected. Regardless of the method used, the results of the meta-analysis showed that every article selected presented a positive correlation between skeletal maturation assessment performed by cervical vertebrae and carpal methods, with discrepancy of values between genders indicating higher correlation for the female gender (0.925; 0.878) than for the male (0.879; 0.842). When the assessment was performed without gender separation, correlation was significant (0.592; 0.688) but lower in the cases when genders were separated. Conclusions: With the results of this meta-analysis, it is safe to affirm that both CVMIs used in the present study are reliable to replace the hand–wrist radiograph in predicting the pubertal growth spurt, considering that the highest values were found in female samples, especially in the method by Hassel and Farman. PMID:25521202

  2. [Ischemic optic neuropathy after lumbar spine surgery].

    PubMed

    Bermejo-Alvarez, M A; Carpintero, M; García-Carro, G; Acebal, G; Fervienza, P; Cosío, F

    2007-12-01

    Ischemic optic neuropathy is the most common cause of visual complications after non-ophthalmic surgery. The incidence has varied in different case series, but prone-position spine surgery appears to be involved in most of the reports. We present the case of a 47-year-old woman who developed near total blindness in the left eye following lumbar spine fusion surgery involving the loss of 900 mL of blood. An ophthalmic examination including inspection of the ocular fundus, fluorescein angiography, and visual evoked potentials returned a diagnosis of retrolaminar optic neuropathy. Outcome was poor. PMID:18200998

  3. Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Junyoung; Tabaraee, Ehsan; Singh, Kern

    2015-07-01

    Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS TLIF) is performed via tubular dilators thereby preserving the integrity of the paraspinal musculature. The decreased soft tissue disruption in the MIS technique has been associated with significantly decreased blood loss, shorter length of hospitalization, and an expedited return to work while maintaining comparable arthrodesis rates when compared with the open technique particularly in the setting of spondylolisthesis (isthmic and degenerative), recurrent symptomatic disk herniation, spinal stenosis, pseudoarthrosis, iatrogenic instability, and spinal trauma. The purpose of this article and the accompanying video wass to demonstrate the techniques for a primary, single-level MIS TLIF. PMID:26079840

  4. Skeletal maturation in individuals with Down's syndrome: Comparison between PGS curve, cervical vertebrae and bones of the hand and wrist

    PubMed Central

    Carinhena, Glauber; Siqueira, Danilo Furquim; Sannomiya, Eduardo Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This study was conducted with the aim of adapting the methods developed by Martins and Sakima to assess skeletal maturation by cervical vertebrae in the pubertal growth spurt (PGS) curve. It also aimed to test the reliability and agreement between those methods and the method of hand and wrist radiograph when compared two by two and all together. Methods The sample comprised 72 radiographs, with 36 lateral radiographs of the head and 36 hand-wrist radiographs of 36 subjects with Down's syndrome (DS), 13 female and 23 male, aged between 8 years and 6 months and 18 years and 7 months, with an average age of 13 years and 10 months. Results and Conclusions Results revealed that adapting the methods developed by Martins and Sakima to assess skeletal maturation by cervical vertebrae in the curve of PGS is practical and useful in determining the stage of growth and development of individuals. The stages of maturation evaluated by cervical vertebrae and ossification centers observed in radiographs of the hand and wrist were considered reliable, with excellent level of agreement between the methods by Hassel and Farman as well as Baccetti, Franchi and McNamara Jr and Martins and Sakima. Additionally, results revealed an agreement that ranged between reasonable to good for the three methods used to assess the skeletal maturation, showing statistical significance. PMID:25279522

  5. Validation of 3D surface reconstruction of vertebrae and spinal column using 3D ultrasound data--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duc V; Vo, Quang N; Le, Lawrence H; Lou, Edmond H M

    2015-02-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a three-dimensional deformity of spine associated with vertebra rotation. The Cobb angle and axial vertebral rotation are important parameters to assess the severity of scoliosis. However, the vertebral rotation is seldom measured from radiographs due to time consuming. Different techniques have been developed to extract 3D spinal information. Among many techniques, ultrasound imaging is a promising method. This pilot study reported an image processing method to reconstruct the posterior surface of vertebrae from 3D ultrasound data. Three cadaver vertebrae, a Sawbones spine phantom, and a spine from a child with AIS were used to validate the development. The in-vitro result showed the surface of the reconstructed image was visually similar to the original objects. The dimension measurement error was <5 mm and the Pearson correlation was >0.99. The results also showed a high accuracy in vertebral rotation with errors of 0.8 ± 0.3°, 2.8 ± 0.3° and 3.6 ± 0.5° for the rotation values of 0°, 15° and 30°, respectively. Meanwhile, the difference in the Cobb angle between the phantom and the image was 4° and the vertebral rotation at the apex was 2°. The Cobb angle measured from the in-vivo ultrasound image was 4° different from the radiograph. PMID:25550193

  6. Dysfunctional Microcirculation of the Lumbar Vertebral Marrow Prior to the Bone Loss and Intervertebral Discal Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Guang-ming

    2015-01-01

    Study Design. Descriptive study, stratified sampling. Objective. Using dynamic computed tomographic perfusion (CTP) to explore the age-related distribution patterns of the microcirculation perfusion in the vertebral marrow, the vertebral bone mineral density (BMD), and the intervertebral discal degeneration (IDD) further to discuss the possible causation between them. Summary of Background Data. A latest viewpoint deemed that reduced blood supply of the vertebral marrow was correlated with an increased incidence of IDD and loss of BMD. However, the causative relationship between them needs more investigation. Methods. One hundred eighty-six general people were randomly enrolled by stratified sampling and grouped by age: 15 years or less, 16 to 25 years, 26 to 35 years, 36 to 45 years, 46 to 55 years, 56 to 65 years, 66 to 75 years, and 76 years or more. Both CTP and BMD of the third and fourth lumbar vertebral marrow were measured, and the IDD incidence of the third-fourth vertebrae was assessed. The temporal-spatial distribution patterns of the age-related changes of CTP, BMD, and IDD were described, and the correlations between them were calculated. Results. Microcirculatory perfusion of the vertebral marrow developed to maturate by 25 years, maintained stable at 35 years, and then declined by age after 35 years. BMD grew to a peak phase in 26 to 45 years and then dropped by years. However, IDD presented a sudden increase after 45 years of age. CTP (blood flow [r = 0.806], blood volume [r = 0.685], and permeability [r = 0.619]) showed strong positive correlations and CTP (time to peak [r = −0.211], mean transit time [r = −0.598]) showed negative correlations with BMD. Meanwhile, CTP (blood flow [r = −0.815], blood volume [r = −0.753], and permeability [r = −0.690]) had strong negative correlations and CTP (time to peak [r = 0.323] and mean transit time [r = 0.628]) had positive correlations with the incidence of IDD. Conclusion. Aging-related decrease

  7. Offshore observations of aftershocks following the January 5th 2013 Mw 7.5 Queen Charlotte-Fairweather fault earthquake, southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roland, E. C.; Gulick, S. P.; Levoir, M. A.; Haeussler, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    We present initial results from a rapid-response ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) deployment that recorded aftershock activity on the Queen Charlotte-Fairweather (QC-F) fault following the Mw 7.5 earthquake on January 5th 2013 near Craig, Alaska. This earthquake was the second of two Mw > 7 events on this fault system in a 3 month time period; the Craig earthquake followed a Mw 7.8 thrust event that occurred in October 2012, west of Haida Gwaii, British Columbia. Although the QC-F is a major plate boundary fault, little is known about the regional fault structure, interseismic coupling, and rheological controls on the depth distribution of seismic slip along the continent-ocean transform. The majority of the QC-F fault system extends offshore western British Columbia and southeast Alaska, making it difficult to characterize earthquakes and fault deformation with land-based seismic and geodetic instruments. This experiment is the first ever offshore seismometer deployment to record earthquake activity along this northern segment of the QC-F system, and was set in motion with help from the US Coast Guard, who provided a vessel and crew to deploy and recover the OBS array on short notice. The seismic array utilized 6 GeoPro short period OBS from the University of Texas Institute for Geophysics, which recorded approximately 3 weeks of aftershock activity in April-May of 2013. Combining high-quality local OBS recordings with land-based seismic observations from Alaska Earthquake Information Center (AEIC) stations to the east, we present more precise aftershock locations and depths that help to better characterize fault zone architecture along the northern section of the QC-F. Although moment tensor solutions indicate that the January 5th mainshock sustained slip consistent with Pacific-North America plate motions, aftershock focal mechanisms indicate some interaction with neighboring faults, such as the Chatham Straight fault. This new OBS dataset will also help to

  8. The 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia: patient experiences, human factors, sedation, consent and medicolegal issues.

    PubMed

    Cook, T M; Andrade, J; Bogod, D G; Hitchman, J M; Jonker, W R; Lucas, N; Mackay, J H; Nimmo, A F; O'Connor, K; O'Sullivan, E P; Paul, R G; Palmer, J H MacG; Plaat, F; Radcliffe, J J; Sury, M R J; Torevell, H E; Wang, M; Hainsworth, J; Pandit, J J

    2014-10-01

    The 5th National Audit Project of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland into accidental awareness during general anaesthesia yielded data related to psychological aspects from the patient, and the anaesthetist, perspectives; patients' experiences ranged from isolated auditory or tactile sensations to complete awareness. A striking finding was that 75% of experiences were for < 5 min, yet 51% of patients (95% CI 43-60%) experienced distress and 41% (95% CI 33-50%) suffered longer-term adverse effect. Distress and longer-term harm occurred across the full range of experiences but were particularly likely when the patient experienced paralysis (with or without pain). The patient's interpretation of what is happening at the time of the awareness seemed central to later impact; explanation and reassurance during suspected accidental awareness during general anaesthesia or at the time of report seemed beneficial. Quality of care before the event was judged good in 26%, poor in 39% and mixed in 31%. Three quarters of cases of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia (75%) were judged preventable. In 12% of cases of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia, care was judged good and the episode not preventable. The contributory and human factors in the genesis of the majority of cases of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia included medication, patient and education/training. The findings have implications for national guidance, institutional organisation and individual practice. The incidence of 'accidental awareness' during sedation (~1:15 000) was similar to that during general anaesthesia (~1:19 000). The project raises significant issues about information giving and consent for both sedation and anaesthesia. We propose a novel approach to describing sedation from the patient's perspective which could be used in communication and consent. Eight (6%) of the patients had resorted

  9. Automatic Localization of Target Vertebrae in Spine Surgery: Clinical Evaluation of the LevelCheck Registration Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Sheng-fu L.; Otake, Yoshito; Puvanesarajah, Varun; Wang, Adam S.; Uneri, Ali; De Silva, Tharindu; Vogt, Sebastian; Kleinszig, Gerhard; Elder, Benjamin D; Goodwin, C. Rory; Kosztowski, Thomas A.; Liauw, Jason A.; Groves, Mari; Bydon, Ali; Sciubba, Daniel M.; Witham, Timothy F.; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Aygun, Nafi; Gokaslan, Ziya L.; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design A 3D-2D image registration algorithm, “LevelCheck,” was used to automatically label vertebrae in intraoperative mobile radiographs obtained during spine surgery. Accuracy, computation time, and potential failure modes were evaluated in a retrospective study of 20 patients. Objective To measurethe performance of the LevelCheck algorithm using clinical images acquired during spine surgery. Summary of Background Data In spine surgery, the potential for wrong level surgery is significant due to the difficulty of localizing target vertebrae based solely on visual impression, palpation, and fluoroscopy. To remedy this difficulty and reduce the risk of wrong-level surgery, our team introduced a program (dubbed LevelCheck) to automatically localize target vertebrae in mobile radiographs using robust 3D-2D image registration to preoperative CT. Methods Twenty consecutive patients undergoing thoracolumbar spine surgery, for whom both a preoperative CT scan and an intraoperative mobile radiograph were available, were retrospectively analyzed. A board-certified neuroradiologist determined the “true” vertebra levels in each radiograph. Registration of the preoperative CT to the intraoperative radiographwere calculated via LevelCheck, and projection distance errors were analyzed. Five hundred random initializations were performed for eachpatient, andalgorithm settings (viz., the number of robust multi-starts, ranging 50 to 200) were varied to evaluate the tradeoff between registration error and computation time. Failure mode analysis was performed by individually analyzing unsuccessful registrations (>5 mm distance error) observed with 50 multi-starts. Results At 200 robust multi-starts (computation time of ∼26 seconds), the registration accuracy was 100% across all 10,000 trials. As the number of multi-starts (and computation time) decreased, the registration remained fairly robust, down to 99.3% registration accuracy at 50 multi-starts (computation time

  10. Negative Effects of Total Gastrectomy on Bone Tissue Metabolism and Volumetric Bone Mineral Density (vBMD) of Lumbar Spine in 1-Year Study in Men

    PubMed Central

    Krupski, Witold; Tatara, Marcin R.; Bury, Pawel; Szabelska, Anna; Charuta, Anna; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Wallner, Grzegorz; Dabrowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gastrectomy induces severe osteoporosis in humans but its quantitative scale within trabecular and cortical compartments was not estimated. The aim of the study was to determine changes of volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) in lumbar vertebrae (L1–L4) and biochemical bone metabolism markers in serum of patients 1 year after total gastrectomy. The control group consisted of patients (N = 8) subjected to abdominal surgery due to cardiospasmus. Total gastrectomy was performed in the experimental group (N = 6). Volumetric bone mineral density of trabecular and cortical bone of lumbar spine was measured before (baseline) and 1 year after the gastric surgery using the quantitative computed tomography method. Serum concentrations of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, tyroxine, interleukin-6, C-terminal telopeptides of type II collagen and bone formation, and resorption markers were determined at baseline and 1 year later, using ELISA, EIA, and IEMA methods. Total gastrectomy induced significant decrease of vBMD values, up to 16.8% and 10.0%, within the trabecular and cortical bone compartments of lumbar spine (P < 0.05). These negative changes of vBMD were associated with significantly increased serum concentration of bone resorption markers such as deoxypyridinoline, pyridinoline, and C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen, by 13.5%, 32.2%, and 121.5%, respectively (P < 0.05). Neither vBMD nor biochemical bone turnover markers and hormone concentrations were influenced in the control patients. Dramatic bone loss during the first year in gastrectomized patients has proven dynamic osteoporosis progress indicating an importance of treatment interventions in these patients with emphasis on inhibition of intensive bone resorption processes. PMID:26886633

  11. Effect of Atlas Vertebrae Realignment in Subjects with Migraine: An Observational Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Woodfield, H Charles; Hasick, D Gordon; Becker, Werner J; Rose, Marianne S; Scott, James N

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. In a migraine case study, headache symptoms significantly decreased with an accompanying increase in intracranial compliance index following atlas vertebrae realignment. This observational pilot study followed eleven neurologist diagnosed migraine subjects to determine if the case findings were repeatable at baseline, week four, and week eight, following a National Upper Cervical Chiropractic Association intervention. Secondary outcomes consisted of migraine-specific quality of life measures. Methods. After examination by a neurologist, volunteers signed consent forms and completed baseline migraine-specific outcomes. Presence of atlas misalignment allowed study inclusion, permitting baseline MRI data collection. Chiropractic care continued for eight weeks. Postintervention reimaging occurred at week four and week eight concomitant with migraine-specific outcomes measurement. Results. Five of eleven subjects exhibited an increase in the primary outcome, intracranial compliance; however, mean overall change showed no statistical significance. End of study mean changes in migraine-specific outcome assessments, the secondary outcome, revealed clinically significant improvement in symptoms with a decrease in headache days. Discussion. The lack of robust increase in compliance may be understood by the logarithmic and dynamic nature of intracranial hemodynamic and hydrodynamic flow, allowing individual components comprising compliance to change while overall it did not. Study results suggest that the atlas realignment intervention may be associated with a reduction in migraine frequency and marked improvement in quality of life yielding significant reduction in headache-related disability as observed in this cohort. Future study with controls is necessary, however, to confirm these findings. Clinicaltrials.gov registration number is NCT01980927. PMID:26783523

  12. Effect of Atlas Vertebrae Realignment in Subjects with Migraine: An Observational Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Woodfield, H. Charles; Hasick, D. Gordon; Becker, Werner J.; Rose, Marianne S.; Scott, James N.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. In a migraine case study, headache symptoms significantly decreased with an accompanying increase in intracranial compliance index following atlas vertebrae realignment. This observational pilot study followed eleven neurologist diagnosed migraine subjects to determine if the case findings were repeatable at baseline, week four, and week eight, following a National Upper Cervical Chiropractic Association intervention. Secondary outcomes consisted of migraine-specific quality of life measures. Methods. After examination by a neurologist, volunteers signed consent forms and completed baseline migraine-specific outcomes. Presence of atlas misalignment allowed study inclusion, permitting baseline MRI data collection. Chiropractic care continued for eight weeks. Postintervention reimaging occurred at week four and week eight concomitant with migraine-specific outcomes measurement. Results. Five of eleven subjects exhibited an increase in the primary outcome, intracranial compliance; however, mean overall change showed no statistical significance. End of study mean changes in migraine-specific outcome assessments, the secondary outcome, revealed clinically significant improvement in symptoms with a decrease in headache days. Discussion. The lack of robust increase in compliance may be understood by the logarithmic and dynamic nature of intracranial hemodynamic and hydrodynamic flow, allowing individual components comprising compliance to change while overall it did not. Study results suggest that the atlas realignment intervention may be associated with a reduction in migraine frequency and marked improvement in quality of life yielding significant reduction in headache-related disability as observed in this cohort. Future study with controls is necessary, however, to confirm these findings. Clinicaltrials.gov registration number is NCT01980927. PMID:26783523

  13. Early Trabecular Development in Human Vertebrae: Overproduction, Constructive Regression, and Refinement

    PubMed Central

    Acquaah, Frank; Robson Brown, Katharine A.; Ahmed, Farah; Jeffery, Nathan; Abel, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Early bone development may have a significant impact upon bone health in adulthood. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mass are important determinants of adult bone strength. However, several studies have shown that BMD and bone mass decrease after birth. If early development is important for strength, why does this reduction occur? To investigate this, more data characterizing gestational, infant, and childhood bone development are needed in order to compare with adults. The aim of this study is to document early vertebral trabecular bone development, a key fragility fracture site, and infer whether this period is important for adult bone mass and structure. A series of 120 vertebrae aged between 6 months gestation and 2.5 years were visualized using microcomputed tomography. Spherical volumes of interest were defined, thresholded, and measured using 3D bone analysis software (BoneJ, Quant3D). The findings showed that gestation was characterized by increasing bone volume fraction whilst infancy was defined by significant bone loss (≈2/3rds) and the appearance of a highly anisotropic trabecular structure with a predominantly inferior–superior direction. Childhood development progressed via selective thickening of some trabeculae and the loss of others; maintaining bone volume whilst creating a more anisotropic structure. Overall, the pattern of vertebral development is one of gestational overproduction followed by infant “sculpting” of bone tissue during the first year of life (perhaps in order to regulate mineral homeostasis or to adapt to loading environment) and then subsequent refinement during early childhood. Comparison of early bone developmental data in this study with adult bone volume values taken from the literature shows that the loss in bone mass that occurs during the first year of life is never fully recovered. Early development could therefore be important for developing bone strength, but through structural changes in trabecular

  14. Spinal Deformity in Aged Zebrafish Is Accompanied by Degenerative Changes to Their Vertebrae that Resemble Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Anthony J.; Reynolds, Scott; Nowell, Mari A.; Meakin, Lee B.; Habicher, Judith; Ledin, Johan; Bashford, Andrew; Caterson, Bruce; Hammond, Chrissy L.

    2013-01-01

    Age-related degenerative changes within the vertebral column are a significant cause of morbidity with considerable socio-economic impact worldwide. An improved understanding of these changes through the development of experimental models may lead to improvements in existing clinical treatment options. The zebrafish is a well-established model for the study of skeletogenesis with significant potential in gerontological research. With advancing age, zebrafish frequently develop gross deformities of their vertebral column, previously ascribed to reduced trunk muscle tone. In this study, we assess degenerative changes specifically within the bone and cartilage of the vertebral column of zebrafish at 1, 2 and 3-years of age. We show increased frequency and severity of spinal deformities/curvatures with age. Underlying the most severe phenotypes are partial or complete vertebral dislocations and focal thickening of the vertebral bone at the joint margins. MicroCT examination demonstrates small defects, fractures and morphological evidence suggestive of bone erosion and remodeling (i.e. osteophytes) within the vertebrae during aging, but no significant change in bone density. Light and electron microscopic examination reveal striking age-related changes in cell morphology, suggestive of chondroptosis, and tissue remodelling of the vertebral cartilage, particularly within the pericellular micro-environment. Glycosaminoglycan analysis of the vertebral column by HPLC demonstrates a consistent, age-related increase in the yield of total chondroitin sulfate disaccharide, but no change in sulfation pattern, supported by immunohistochemical analysis. Immunohistochemistry strongly identifies all three chondroitin/dermatan sulphate isoforms (C-0-S, C-4-S/DS and C-6-S) within the vertebral cartilage, particularly within the pericellular micro-environment. In contrast, keratan sulfate immunolocalises specifically with the notochordal tissue of the intervertebral disc, and its

  15. Role of trabecular microfractures in failure of human vertebrae estimated by the finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorenko, Irina N.; Bauer, Jan; Monetti, Roberto; Müller, Dirk; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Eckstein, Felix; Matsuura, Maiko; Lochmüller, Eva-Maria; Zysset, Philippe K.; Räth, Christoph W.

    2009-02-01

    Spine fractures are the most frequent complication of osteoporosis, a disease characterized by low bone mass and structural deterioration of bone tissue. In case of the spine, the trabecular network plays the main role in load carrying and distribution. A correct description of mechanical properties of this bone structure helps to differentiate between strong and weak bones and can be useful for fracture prediction and treatment monitoring. By means of the finite element method (FEM), applied to μCT images, we modelled biomechanical processes in probes during loading and correlated the estimated failure load with the maximum compressive strength (MCS), obtained in real biomechanical tests. We studied a sample of 151 specimens taken from the trabecular part of human vertebrae in vitro, visualised using μCT imaging at an isotropic resolution of 26μm and tested by uniaxial compression. Besides the standard way of estimating failure load, which takes into account only strong micro-fractures, we also included small micro-fractures, what improved the correlation with MCS (Pearson's correlation coefficient r=0.78 vs. r=0.58). This correlation coefficient was larger than that for both the standard morphometric parameters (r=0.73 for bone volume fraction) and for texture measures defined by the local (an-) isotropic scaling indices method (r=0.55) and Minkowski Functionals (r=0.61). However, the performance of the FEM was different for subsamples selected according to the MCS value. The correlation increased for strong specimens (r=0.88), slightly decreased for weak specimens (r=0.68) and markedly dropped for specimens with medium MCS, e.g. between 60

  16. Early Trabecular Development in Human Vertebrae: Overproduction, Constructive Regression, and Refinement.

    PubMed

    Acquaah, Frank; Robson Brown, Katharine A; Ahmed, Farah; Jeffery, Nathan; Abel, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    Early bone development may have a significant impact upon bone health in adulthood. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mass are important determinants of adult bone strength. However, several studies have shown that BMD and bone mass decrease after birth. If early development is important for strength, why does this reduction occur? To investigate this, more data characterizing gestational, infant, and childhood bone development are needed in order to compare with adults. The aim of this study is to document early vertebral trabecular bone development, a key fragility fracture site, and infer whether this period is important for adult bone mass and structure. A series of 120 vertebrae aged between 6 months gestation and 2.5 years were visualized using microcomputed tomography. Spherical volumes of interest were defined, thresholded, and measured using 3D bone analysis software (BoneJ, Quant3D). The findings showed that gestation was characterized by increasing bone volume fraction whilst infancy was defined by significant bone loss (≈2/3rds) and the appearance of a highly anisotropic trabecular structure with a predominantly inferior-superior direction. Childhood development progressed via selective thickening of some trabeculae and the loss of others; maintaining bone volume whilst creating a more anisotropic structure. Overall, the pattern of vertebral development is one of gestational overproduction followed by infant "sculpting" of bone tissue during the first year of life (perhaps in order to regulate mineral homeostasis or to adapt to loading environment) and then subsequent refinement during early childhood. Comparison of early bone developmental data in this study with adult bone volume values taken from the literature shows that the loss in bone mass that occurs during the first year of life is never fully recovered. Early development could therefore be important for developing bone strength, but through structural changes in trabecular

  17. Collateral Adverse Outcomes After Lumbar Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Alan H; Gundle, Kenneth; Hart, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Collateral adverse outcomes are the expected or unavoidable results of a procedure that is performed in a standard manner and typically experienced by the patient. Collateral adverse outcomes do not result from errors, nor are they rare. Collateral adverse outcomes occur as the direct result of a surgical procedure and must be accepted as a trade-off to attain the intended benefits of the surgical procedure. As such, collateral adverse outcomes do not fit into the traditional definition of a complication or adverse event. Examples of collateral adverse outcomes after lumbar spine arthrodesis include lumbar stiffness, postoperative psychological stress, postoperative pain, peri-incisional numbness, paraspinal muscle denervation, and adjacent-level degeneration. Ideally, a comparison of interventions for the treatment of a clinical condition should include information on both the negative consequences (expected and unexpected) and potential benefits of the treatment options. The objective evaluation and reporting of collateral adverse outcomes will provide surgeons with a more complete picture of invasive interventions and, thus, the improved ability to assess alternative treatment options. PMID:27049197

  18. General versus epidural anesthesia for lumbar microdiscectomy.

    PubMed

    Ulutas, Murat; Secer, Mehmet; Taskapilioglu, Ozgur; Karadas, Soner; Akyilmaz, Ahmet Aykut; Baydilek, Yunus; Kocamer, Betul; Ozboz, Ayse; Boyaci, Suat

    2015-08-01

    This study was a retrospective analysis of 850 lumbar microdiscectomy (LMD) under epidural anesthesia (EA; n=573) or general anesthesia (GA; n=277) performed by the same surgeon and paid by invoice to the Social Security Institution of the Turkish Republic between April 2003 and May 2013. Although GA is the most frequently used method of anesthesia during LMD, the choice of regional anesthetia (epidural, spinal or a combination of these) differs between surgeons and anesthetists. Studies have reported that EA in surgery for lumbar disc herniation may be more reliable than GA, as it enables the surgeon to communicate with the patient during surgery, but few studies have compared the costs of these two anesthetic methods in LMD. We found that EA patient costs were significantly lower than GA patient costs (p<0.01) and there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of the time spent in the operating room (p<0.01). There was no difference in the duration of surgery (p>0.05). The anesthetic method used during LMD affected the complication rate, cost and efficiency of operating room use. We suggest that EA is an anesthetic method that can contribute to health care cost savings and enable LMD to be completed with less nerve root manipulation and more comfort, efficacy, reliability and cost efficiency without affecting the success rate of the surgical procedure. PMID:26067543

  19. Sacral Insufficiency Fractures Mimicking Lumbar Spine Pathology

    PubMed Central

    K. L., Kalra; Acharya, Shankar; Chahal, Rupinder

    2016-01-01

    Sacral insufficiency fractures (SIFs) are a common cause of back pain in the elderly. SIFs mimic the symptoms of lumbar spine pathology and so are commonly missed or underdiagnosed. Here we present four cases of missed SIFs that were subsequently identified and treated. One patient was treated as mechanical lower back ache, another patient underwent root block and two patients underwent surgery for lumbar canal stenosis. None experienced relief of their symptoms after these procedures. Retrospective analysis of X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging data revealed SIFs that were confirmed by computed tomography scans. All four patients were treated for underlying osteoporosis. Two patients who underwent surgery were treated conservatively and other two were treated by sacroplasty involving injection of cement into the fracture. Sacroplasty produced immediate pain relief and early mobilization compared to the conservative group. SIFs should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of an elderly patient presenting with low back symptoms. Sacroplasty can be considered for immediate pain relief and rapid mobilization. PMID:27340538

  20. Operative Management of Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu Chao; Zotti, Mario Giuseppe Tedesco; Osti, Orso Lorenzo

    2016-08-01

    Lumbar degenerative disc disease is extremely common. Current evidence supports surgery in carefully selected patients who have failed non-operative treatment and do not exhibit any substantial psychosocial overlay. Fusion surgery employing the correct grafting and stabilization techniques has long-term results demonstrating successful clinical outcomes. However, the best approach for fusion remains debatable. There is some evidence supporting the more complex, technically demanding and higher risk interbody fusion techniques for the younger, active patients or patients with a higher risk of non-union. Lumbar disc arthroplasty and hybrid techniques are still relatively novel procedures despite promising short-term and mid-term outcomes. Long-term studies demonstrating superiority over fusion are required before these techniques may be recommended to replace fusion as the gold standard. Novel stem cell approaches combined with tissue engineering therapies continue to be developed in expectation of improving clinical outcomes. Results with appropriate follow-up are not yet available to indicate if such techniques are safe, cost-effective and reliable in the long-term. PMID:27559465

  1. Sacral Insufficiency Fractures Mimicking Lumbar Spine Pathology.

    PubMed

    Sudhir, G; K L, Kalra; Acharya, Shankar; Chahal, Rupinder

    2016-06-01

    Sacral insufficiency fractures (SIFs) are a common cause of back pain in the elderly. SIFs mimic the symptoms of lumbar spine pathology and so are commonly missed or underdiagnosed. Here we present four cases of missed SIFs that were subsequently identified and treated. One patient was treated as mechanical lower back ache, another patient underwent root block and two patients underwent surgery for lumbar canal stenosis. None experienced relief of their symptoms after these procedures. Retrospective analysis of X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging data revealed SIFs that were confirmed by computed tomography scans. All four patients were treated for underlying osteoporosis. Two patients who underwent surgery were treated conservatively and other two were treated by sacroplasty involving injection of cement into the fracture. Sacroplasty produced immediate pain relief and early mobilization compared to the conservative group. SIFs should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of an elderly patient presenting with low back symptoms. Sacroplasty can be considered for immediate pain relief and rapid mobilization. PMID:27340538

  2. Operative Management of Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu Chao; Osti, Orso Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar degenerative disc disease is extremely common. Current evidence supports surgery in carefully selected patients who have failed non-operative treatment and do not exhibit any substantial psychosocial overlay. Fusion surgery employing the correct grafting and stabilization techniques has long-term results demonstrating successful clinical outcomes. However, the best approach for fusion remains debatable. There is some evidence supporting the more complex, technically demanding and higher risk interbody fusion techniques for the younger, active patients or patients with a higher risk of non-union. Lumbar disc arthroplasty and hybrid techniques are still relatively novel procedures despite promising short-term and mid-term outcomes. Long-term studies demonstrating superiority over fusion are required before these techniques may be recommended to replace fusion as the gold standard. Novel stem cell approaches combined with tissue engineering therapies continue to be developed in expectation of improving clinical outcomes. Results with appropriate follow-up are not yet available to indicate if such techniques are safe, cost-effective and reliable in the long-term. PMID:27559465

  3. Ulmus davidiana extract improves lumbar vertebral parameters in ovariectomized osteopenic rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Xinming; Fu, Changfeng; Liu, Wanguo; Wang, Yuanyi; Xu, Feng; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Yadong; Liu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the skeletal effect of total ethanolic extract from the stem-bark of Ulmus davidiana (UDE) in a rat model of postmenopausal bone loss. Effective dose of UDE was determined in adult female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats by measuring bone regeneration at fracture site. UDE (250 mg/kg p.o.) was administered to ovariectomized (OVX) osteopenic SD rats for 12 weeks. OVX rats treated with vehicle or 17β-estradiol, and sham-operated rats treated with vehicle served as various controls. Bone mineral density (BMD), microarchitecture, biomechanical strength, turnover markers, and uterotrophic effect were studied. Bioactive markers in UDE were analyzed by HPLC. Human osteoblasts was used to study the effect of compounds on differentiation by alkaline phosphase assay. One-way ANOVA was used to test significance of effects. OVX+UDE group showed BMD, microarchitectural parameters and compressive strength at lumbar vertebra (L5) comparable to sham. At proximal femur, OVX+UDE group exhibited significantly higher BMD, better microarchitecture and compressive strength compared with OVX+vehicle. OVX-induced decrease in Ca/P ratio was completely restored at both skeletal sites by UDE treatment. Serum procollagen N-terminal propeptide and carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks were respectively higher and lower in OVX+UDE group compared with OVX+vehicle group. Osteogenic genes were upregulated in L5 and anti-resorptive genes were suppressed in proximal femur of OVX+UDE group compared with OVX+vehicle. UDE had no uterine estrogenicity. Analysis of markers yielded two osteogenic isoforms of catechin. In conclusion, UDE completely restored vertebral trabecular bones and strength in osteopenic rats by an osteogenic mechanism and prevented bone loss at proximal femur. PMID:27158327

  4. Thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis with unilateral subluxation of the spine and postoperative lumbar spondylolisthesis in Hunter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Simon B; Tsirikos, Athanasios I

    2016-03-01

    Surgical correction for kyphoscoliosis is increasingly being performed for patients with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS). Reported case series have predominantly included patients with Type I (Hurler) and Type IV (Morquio) MPS. To their knowledge, the authors describe the first case report of surgical management of thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis in Hunter syndrome (MPS Type II) and the rare occurrence of lumbar spondylolisthesis following surgical stabilization. A 12-year-old boy with Hunter syndrome presented with severe thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis and no associated symptoms. Spinal radiographs demonstrated kyphosis of 48° (T11-L3) and scoliosis of 22° (T11-L3) with an anteriorly hypoplastic L-1 vertebra. The deformity progressed to kyphosis of 60° and scoliosis of 42° prior to surgical intervention. Spinal CT scans identified left T12-L1 facet subluxation, causing anterior rotatory displacement of the spine proximal to L-1 and bilateral L-5 isthmic spondylolysis with no spondylolisthesis. A combined single-stage anterior and posterior instrumented spinal arthrodesis from T-9 to L-4 was performed. Kyphosis and scoliosis were corrected to 4° and 0°, respectively. Prolonged ventilator support and nasogastric feedings were required for 3 months postoperatively. At 2.5 years following surgery, the patient was asymptomatic, mobilizing independently, and had achieved a solid spinal fusion. However, he had also developed a Grade II spondylolisthesis at L4-5; this was managed nonoperatively in the absence of symptoms or further deterioration of the spondylolisthesis to the 3.5-year postoperative follow-up visit. Satisfactory correction of thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis in Hunter syndrome can be achieved by combined anterior/posterior instrumented arthrodesis. The risk of developing deformity or instability in motion segments adjacent to an instrumented fusion may be greater in patients with MPS related to the underlying connective tissue disorder. PMID:26588497

  5. The arterial anatomy of the developing human dorsal and lumbar vertebral body. A microarteriographic study.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, J F

    1981-12-01

    The arterial anatomy of 60 lumbar and lower dorsal vertebral bodies from eight subjects aged between 29 weeks gestation and 15 years was studied. The arteries had been injected with a suspension of barium sulphate and the vertebrae decalcified, sectioned and radiographed. In the specimen of 29 weeks gestation, the equatorial arteries were present. Precursors of the metaphyseal arteries lay obliquely over and completely outside the ossification centre. These precursors originated from an irregular network of perichondral arteries near the equator. By six months of age, the perichondral arteries had migrated discally and had become well organized metaphyseal anastomoses while the metaphyseal arteries had become horizontal. Also by six months, the extra-osseous longitudinal anastomoses had developed into the adult pattern. In the 36 weeks fetus, the ends of the unbranching metaphyseal arteries were incorporated into the ossification centre. This central relationship was maintained into adult life, but, as the ossification centre expanded, the branches of the intra-osseous arteries followed the zone of ossification in a centrifugal manner. In infancy, the metaphyseal arteries were approximately equal in length and the equatorial arteries divided in the middle of the vertebral body; by the age of 15 years, the metaphyseal arteries arising from the anterolateral surfaces were longer than those which arose from the posterior surface, and the equatorial arteries divided behind the mid-point. From these arterial observations, a number of deductions concerning the mode of growth of the vertebral body have been drawn. Preterminal coils and typical peripheral arteries, frequent features in the adult vertebral body, were not seen in any of these specimens. There was no evidence of any epiphyseal growth plate, nor of epiphyseal arteries in these specimens. PMID:7333964

  6. Instrumented Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion in Adult Spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ching-Hsiao; Wang, Chen-Ti

    2008-01-01

    It is unclear whether using artificial cages increases fusion rates compared with use of bone chips alone in posterior lumbar interbody fusion for patients with lumbar spondylolisthesis. We hypothesized artificial cages for posterior lumbar interbody fusion would provide better clinical and radiographic outcomes than bone chips alone. We assumed solid fusion would provide good clinical outcomes. We clinically and radiographically followed 34 patients with spondylolisthesis having posterior lumbar interbody fusion with mixed autogenous and allogeneic bone chips alone and 42 patients having posterior lumbar interbody fusion with implantation of artificial cages packed with morselized bone graft. Patients with the artificial cage had better functional improvement in the Oswestry disability index than those with bone chips alone, whereas pain score, patient satisfaction, and fusion rate were similar in the two groups. Postoperative disc height ratio, slip ratio, and segmental lordosis all decreased at final followup in the patients with bone chips alone but remained unchanged in the artificial cage group. The functional outcome correlated with radiographic fusion status. We conclude artificial cages provide better functional outcomes and radiographic improvement than bone chips alone in posterior lumbar interbody fusion for lumbar spondylolisthesis, although both techniques achieved comparable fusion rates. Level of Evidence: Level III, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18846411

  7. Morphological structure and variations of lumbar plexus in human fetuses.

    PubMed

    Yasar, Soner; Kaya, Serdar; Temiz, Cağlar; Tehli, Ozkan; Kural, Cahit; Izci, Yusuf

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study is to study the anatomy of lumbar plexus on human fetuses and to establish its morphometric characteristics and differences compared with adults. Twenty lumbar plexus of 10 human fetal cadavers in different gestational ages and genders were dissected. Lumbar spinal nerves, ganglions, and peripheral nerves were exposed. Normal anatomical structure and variations of lumbar plexus were investigated and morphometric analyses were performed. The diameters of lumbar spinal nerves increased from L1 to L4. The thickest nerve forming the plexus was femoral nerve, the thinnest was ilioinguinal nerve, the longest nerve through posterior abdominal wall was iliohypogastric nerve, and the shortest nerve was femoral nerve. Each plexus had a single furcal nerve and this arose from L4 nerve in all fetuses. No prefix or postfix plexus variation was observed. In two plexuses, L1 nerve was in the form of a single branch. Also, in two plexuses, genitofemoral nerve arose only from L2 nerve. Accessory obturator nerve was observed in four plexuses. According to these findings, the morphological pattern of the lumbar plexus in the fetus was found to be very similar to the lumbar plexus in adults. PMID:22696243

  8. Adverse Event Recording and Reporting in Clinical Trials Comparing Lumbar Disk Replacement with Lumbar Fusion: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hiratzka, Jayme; Rastegar, Farbod; Contag, Alec G.; Norvell, Daniel C.; Anderson, Paul A.; Hart, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Objectives (1) To compare the quality of adverse event (AE) methodology and reporting among randomized trials comparing lumbar fusion with lumbar total disk replacement (TDR) using established AE reporting systems; (2) to compare the AEs and reoperations of lumbar spinal fusion with those from lumbar TDR; (3) to make recommendations on how to report AEs in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) so that surgeons and patients have more-detailed and comprehensive information when making treatment decisions. Methods A systematic search of PubMed, the Cochrane collaboration database, and the National Guideline Clearinghouse through May 2015 was conducted. Randomized controlled trials with at least 2 years of follow-up comparing lumbar artificial disk replacement with lumbar fusion were included. Patients were required to have axial or mechanical low back pain of ≥3 months' duration due to degenerative joint disease defined as degenerative disk disease, facet joint disease, or spondylosis. Outcomes included the quality of AE acquisition methodology and results reporting, and AEs were defined as those secondary to the procedure and reoperations. Individual and pooled relative risks and their 95% confidence intervals comparing lumbar TDR with fusion were calculated. Results RCTs demonstrated a generally poor description of methods for assessing AEs. There was a consistent lack of clear definition or grading for these events. Furthermore, there was a high degree of variation in reporting of surgery-related AEs. Most studies lacked adequate reporting of the timing of AEs, and there were no clear distinctions between acute or chronic AEs. Meta-analysis of the pooled data demonstrated a twofold increased risk of AEs in patients having lumbar fusion compared with patients having lumbar TDR at 2-year follow-up, and this relative risk was maintained at 5 years. Furthermore, the pooled data demonstrated a 1.7 times greater relative risk of

  9. Adverse Event Recording and Reporting in Clinical Trials Comparing Lumbar Disk Replacement with Lumbar Fusion: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Hiratzka, Jayme; Rastegar, Farbod; Contag, Alec G; Norvell, Daniel C; Anderson, Paul A; Hart, Robert A

    2015-12-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Objectives (1) To compare the quality of adverse event (AE) methodology and reporting among randomized trials comparing lumbar fusion with lumbar total disk replacement (TDR) using established AE reporting systems; (2) to compare the AEs and reoperations of lumbar spinal fusion with those from lumbar TDR; (3) to make recommendations on how to report AEs in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) so that surgeons and patients have more-detailed and comprehensive information when making treatment decisions. Methods A systematic search of PubMed, the Cochrane collaboration database, and the National Guideline Clearinghouse through May 2015 was conducted. Randomized controlled trials with at least 2 years of follow-up comparing lumbar artificial disk replacement with lumbar fusion were included. Patients were required to have axial or mechanical low back pain of ≥3 months' duration due to degenerative joint disease defined as degenerative disk disease, facet joint disease, or spondylosis. Outcomes included the quality of AE acquisition methodology and results reporting, and AEs were defined as those secondary to the procedure and reoperations. Individual and pooled relative risks and their 95% confidence intervals comparing lumbar TDR with fusion were calculated. Results RCTs demonstrated a generally poor description of methods for assessing AEs. There was a consistent lack of clear definition or grading for these events. Furthermore, there was a high degree of variation in reporting of surgery-related AEs. Most studies lacked adequate reporting of the timing of AEs, and there were no clear distinctions between acute or chronic AEs. Meta-analysis of the pooled data demonstrated a twofold increased risk of AEs in patients having lumbar fusion compared with patients having lumbar TDR at 2-year follow-up, and this relative risk was maintained at 5 years. Furthermore, the pooled data demonstrated a 1.7 times greater relative risk of

  10. Cornelia de Lange syndrome: further delineation of phenotype, cohesin biology and educational focus, 5th Biennial Scientific and Educational Symposium abstracts.

    PubMed

    Kline, Antonie D; Calof, Anne L; Schaaf, Cheri A; Krantz, Ian D; Jyonouchi, Soma; Yokomori, Kyoko; Gauze, Maria; Carrico, Cheri S; Woodman, Julie; Gerton, Jennifer L; Vega, Hugo; Levin, Alex V; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Champion, Michele; Goodban, Marjorie T; O'Connor, Julia T; Pipan, Mary; Horsfield, Julia; Deardorff, Matthew A; Ishman, Stacey L; Dorsett, Dale

    2014-06-01

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is the prototype for the cohesinopathy disorders that have mutations in genes associated with the cohesin subunit in all cells. Roberts syndrome is the next most common cohesinopathy. In addition to the developmental implications of cohesin biology, there is much translational and basic research, with progress towards potential treatment for these conditions. Clinically, there are many issues in CdLS faced by the individual, parents and caretakers, professionals, and schools. The following abstracts are presentations from the 5th Cornelia de Lange Syndrome Scientific and Educational Symposium on June 20-21, 2012, in conjunction with the Cornelia de Lange Syndrome Foundation National Meeting, Lincolnshire, IL. The research committee of the CdLS Foundation organizes the meeting, reviews and accepts abstracts and subsequently disseminates the information to the families. In addition to the basic science and clinical discussions, there were educationally-focused talks related to practical aspects of management at home and in school. AMA CME credits were provided by Greater Baltimore Medical Center, Baltimore, MD. PMID:24504889

  11. Consensus for Radiotherapy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma from The 5th Asia-Pacific Primary Liver Cancer Expert Meeting (APPLE 2014): Current Practice and Future Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hee Chul; Yu, Jeong Il; Cheng, Jason Chia-Hsien; Zeng, Zhao Chong; Hong, Ji Hong; Wang, Michael Lian Chek; Kim, Mi Sook; Chi, Kwan Hwa; Liang, Po-Ching; Lee, Rheun-Chuan; Lau, Wan-Yee; Han, Kwang Hyub; Chow, Pierce Kah-Hoe; Seong, Jinsil

    2016-01-01

    A consensus meeting to develop practice guidelines and to recommend future clinical trials for radiation therapy (RT), including external beam RT (EBRT), and selective internal RT (SIRT) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was held at the 5th annual meeting of the Asia-Pacific Primary Liver Cancer Expert consortium. Although there is no randomized phase III trial evidence, the efficacy and safety of RT in HCC has been shown by prospective and retrospective studies using modern RT techniques. Based on these results, the committee came to a consensus on the utility and efficacy of RT in the management of HCC according to each disease stage as follows: in early and intermediate stage HCC, if standard treatment is not compatible, RT, including EBRT and SIRT can be considered. In locally advanced stage HCC, combined EBRT with transarterial chemoembolization or hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy, and SIRT can be considered. In terminal stage HCC, EBRT can be considered for palliation of symptoms and reduction of morbidity caused by the primary tumor or its metastases. Despite the currently reported benefits of RT in HCC, the committee agreed that there is a compelling need for large prospective studies, including randomized phase III trial evidence evaluating the role of RT. Specifically studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of sequential combination of EBRT and SIRT are strongly recommended. PMID:27493892

  12. The Hetu'u Global Network: Using the rare June 5th/6th Transit of Venus to Bring Astronomy to the Remote Easter Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faherty, Jacqueline; Rodriguez, D.

    2013-01-01

    There are rare times in astronomy when a celestial event, visible in broad daylight, can be used to measure a fundamental parameter and inspire a globe full of school age students. The June 5th/6th transit of Venus was one such event. In celebration, nine astronomy postdocs from the Chilean mainland traveled to Easter Island to lead a series of astronomy outreach activities over three days, culminating in a transit-viewing event. Our team dubbed "Equipo Hetu'u" or "Team Star" in the Rapa Nui (Easter Island native) language spent two days giving astronomy talks and doing hands-on demonstrations at the Museo Antropologico P. Sebastian Englert. In the final day-and-a-half leading up to the transit, we visited the science classes in the majority of the schools on the island, in order to spread the message about the once-in-a-lifetime transit event, highlighting how we planned on using it to measure the distance to the Sun. We estimate over 25% 1500 people) of this remote island participated in one or more of our organized activities. Our experience with this project is an excellent lesson on how to organize, lead, and fully execute a major outreach endeavor that inspires hundreds with minimal resources (save the spectacular event provided by the cosmos).

  13. Vitamin D status and associated occupational factors in Korean wage workers: data from the 5th Korea national health and nutrition examination survey (KNHANES 2010–2012)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Vitamin D deficiency is increasing worldwide. However, few studies have attempted to examine the vitamin D status of wage workers and the correlation between vitamin D deficiency and working conditions. Hence, we aimed to evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and the association between occupational conditions and vitamin D deficiency among Korean wage workers. Methods Wage workers aged 20–65 years from the 5th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES 2010–2012; n = 5409) were included in our analysis. We measured the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and identified the correlations with the working conditions of these subjects. Results The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in male and female subjects was 69.5% and 83.1%, respectively. Among the male subjects, a significant correlation between vitamin D deficiency and working conditions was observed among shift workers, office workers, and permanent workers. No significant correlation with any type of working conditions was observed among female subjects. Conclusion The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Korean wage workers was very high and was found to correlate significantly with working conditions, likely because of insufficient exposure to sunlight associated with certain types of work. Wage workers require more frequent outdoor activity and nutrition management to maintain sufficient vitamin D level. PMID:25852939

  14. [The current situation and issues of medical English education and suggestions toward improvement--reports from the 5th meeting of the Japan Society for Medical English Education].

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Hiroshi

    2002-12-01

    This is a report from the 5th academic meeting of the Japan Society for Medical English Education held at Kawasaki University of Medical Welfare on August 3rd and 4th of 2002. It also includes a course description of our English courses, their problems and some suggestions for improvement. First, I report several papers presented at the meeting that are useful and suggestive for the English education at our university in order to bring them to everyone's attention and to improve our English program. The topics of the papers include; what "Medical English" is; reports of English courses taught by medical doctors; reports of English courses for developing specific proficiencies such as listening, writing summaries and delivering oral presentations. Next, I give a course description of our present English program and point out some problems that should be dealt with. In this connection, I make several suggestions for future improvement. Lastly, I refer to the "strategies to educate the Japanese who can use English", which were proposed recently by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology and suggest our improvement be in line with these strategies. PMID:12506860

  15. Consensus for Radiotherapy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma from The 5th Asia-Pacific Primary Liver Cancer Expert Meeting (APPLE 2014): Current Practice and Future Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee Chul; Yu, Jeong Il; Cheng, Jason Chia-Hsien; Zeng, Zhao Chong; Hong, Ji Hong; Wang, Michael Lian Chek; Kim, Mi Sook; Chi, Kwan Hwa; Liang, Po-Ching; Lee, Rheun-Chuan; Lau, Wan-Yee; Han, Kwang Hyub; Chow, Pierce Kah-Hoe; Seong, Jinsil

    2016-07-01

    A consensus meeting to develop practice guidelines and to recommend future clinical trials for radiation therapy (RT), including external beam RT (EBRT), and selective internal RT (SIRT) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was held at the 5th annual meeting of the Asia-Pacific Primary Liver Cancer Expert consortium. Although there is no randomized phase III trial evidence, the efficacy and safety of RT in HCC has been shown by prospective and retrospective studies using modern RT techniques. Based on these results, the committee came to a consensus on the utility and efficacy of RT in the management of HCC according to each disease stage as follows: in early and intermediate stage HCC, if standard treatment is not compatible, RT, including EBRT and SIRT can be considered. In locally advanced stage HCC, combined EBRT with transarterial chemoembolization or hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy, and SIRT can be considered. In terminal stage HCC, EBRT can be considered for palliation of symptoms and reduction of morbidity caused by the primary tumor or its metastases. Despite the currently reported benefits of RT in HCC, the committee agreed that there is a compelling need for large prospective studies, including randomized phase III trial evidence evaluating the role of RT. Specifically studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of sequential combination of EBRT and SIRT are strongly recommended. PMID:27493892

  16. Clinicoradiological Images of a Rare Type of Lumbar Hernia.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Arjun; Mukherjee, Sujoy; Garg, Cheena

    2015-12-01

    A surgeon will rarely see a case of lumbar hernia in his lifetime. They are usually divided into superior and inferior types, but in cases of huge hernias where anatomical delineation is not possible, they are called as diffuse. Further classification into primary and secondary types (on the basis of etiology) and congenital and acquired types is done. Evisceration in a lumbar hernia can be present due to secondary causes but never spontaneously. This is therefore probably the first reported case of a primary eviscerated diffuse lumbar hernia. PMID:26884669

  17. The lumbar interspinous bursae and Baastrup's syndrome. An autopsy study.

    PubMed

    Bywaters, E G; Evans, S

    1982-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence, distribution, pathology and pathogenesis of lumbar interspinous bursitis (described as a clinical syndrome by Baastrup in 1933). It is based on an anatomic study of 152 lumbar spines derived from routine and random postmortem material, together with selected specimens from autopsies on patients with various rheumatic diseases. From a statistical study of 50 randomly chosen spines, bursae are found when the interspinous distance is small compared with the total height of the lumbar spine ('bursal index'): nearly all bursal spaces show some sign of inflammation and a few show severe bony erosion. Crystal deposits therein are also described. PMID:7178764

  18. Influence Of Lumbar Spine Kinematics On Feet Pressure Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Săftescu-Jescu, C.; Bereteu, L.

    2012-12-01

    Determining the center of pressure trajectories, as an indicator of postural stability or lumbar pathology, has been a challenging issue for researchers during the last decades. The paper advances an investigational method in order to determine a correlation between lumbar spine movements and feet center of pressure distribution. Five young healthy volunteers were simultaneously tested using an ultrasound based motion analyzing system and a force platform, while performing imposed tasks. Results showed specific patterns described by the center of pressure trajectories and a good coordination of angular amplitudes during lumbar spine movement.

  19. A global CT to US registration of the lumbar spine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagpal, Simrin; Hacihaliloglu, Ilker; Ungi, Tamas; Rasoulian, Abtin; Osborn, Jill; Lessoway, Victoria A.; Rohling, Robert N.; Borschneck, Daniel P.; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Mousavi, Parvin

    2014-03-01

    During percutaneous lumbar spine needle interventions, alignment of the preoperative computed tomography (CT) with intraoperative ultrasound (US) can augment anatomical visualization for the clinician. We propose an approach to rigidly align CT and US data of the lumbar spine. The approach involves an intensity-based volume registration step, followed by a surface segmentation and a point-based registration of the entire lumbar spine volume. A clinical feasibility study resulted in mean registration error of approximately 3 mm between CT and US data.

  20. The effects of gluteus muscle strengthening exercise and lumbar stabilization exercise on lumbar muscle strength and balance in chronic low back pain patients

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Ui-Cheol; Sim, Jae-Heon; Kim, Cheol-Yong; Hwang-Bo, Gak; Nam, Chan-Woo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of exercise to strengthen the muscles of the hip together with lumbar segmental stabilization exercise on the lumbar disability index, lumbar muscle strength, and balance. [Subjects and Methods] This study randomly and equally assigned 40 participants who provided written consent to participate in this study to a lumbar segmental stabilization exercise plus exercise to strengthen the muscles of the gluteus group (SMG + LES group) and a lumbar segmental stabilization exercise group. [Results] Each evaluation item showed a statistically significant effect. [Conclusion] Clinical application of exercise in this study showed that lumbar segmental stabilization exercise plus exercise to strengthen the muscles of the gluteus resulted in a greater decrease in low back pain disability index and increase in lumbar muscle strength and balance ability than lumbar segmental stabilization exercise in chronic low back pain patients receiving the exercise treatments during the same period. PMID:26834359