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Sample records for 5th lumbar vertebra

  1. Chondroblastoma of the lumbar vertebra.

    PubMed

    Leung, L Y; Shu, S J; Chan, M K; Chan, C H

    2001-12-01

    Chondroblastoma of the vertebra is a very rare condition. To our knowledge fewer than 20 cases have been reported in the world literature. We report a 54-year-old man with chondroblastoma of the fifth lumbar vertebra. The clinical and radiological aspects of the tumor are discussed, emphasizing the presence of an extraosseous mass suggestive of locally aggressive behavior. PMID:11810169

  2. Vertebrae numbers of the early hominid lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Haeusler, Martin; Martelli, Sandra A; Boeni, Thomas

    2002-11-01

    General doctrine holds that early hominids possessed a long lumbar spine with six segments. This is mainly based on Robinson's (1972) interpretation of a single partial Australopithecus africanus skeleton, Sts 14, from Sterkfontein, South Africa. As its sixth last presacral vertebra exhibits both thoracic and lumbar characteristics, current definitions of lumbar vertebrae and lumbar ribs are discussed in the present study. A re-analysis of its entire preserved vertebral column and comparison with Stw 431, another partial A. africanus skeleton from Sterkfontein, and the Homo erectus skeleton KNM-WT 15000 from Nariokotome, Kenya, did not provide strong evidence for the presence of six lumbar vertebrae in either of these early hominids. Thus, in Sts 14 the sixth last presacral vertebra has on one side a movable rib. In Stw 431, the corresponding vertebra shows indications for a rib facet. In KNM-WT, 15000 the same element is very fragmentary, but the neighbouring vertebrae do not support the view that it is L1. Although in all three fossils the transitional vertebra at which the articular facets change orientation seems to be at Th11, this is equal to a large percentage of modern humans. Indeed, a modal number of five lumbar vertebrae, as in modern humans, is more compatible with evolutionary principles. For example, six lumbar vertebrae would require repetitive shortening and lengthening not only of the lumbar, but also of the entire precaudal spine. Furthermore, six lumbar vertebrae are claimed to be biomechanically advantageous for early hominid bipedalism, yet an explanation is lacking as to why the lumbar region should have shortened in later humans. All this raises doubts about previous conclusions for the presence of six lumbar vertebrae in early hominids. The most parsimonious explanation is that they did not differ from modern humans in the segmentation of the vertebral column.

  3. Automatic CT Measurement In Lumbar Vertebrae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisseling, Johannes T.; van Erning, Leon J. T. O.; Schouten, Theo E.; Lemmen, J. Albert M.

    1989-04-01

    Reliable software for automatic determination of the border between the cancellous bone and the cortical bone of lumbar vertebrae has been developed. An automatic procedure is needed because calculations in a larger series of patient data take too much time due to the inevitable human interaction required by available software packages. Processing in batch mode is essential. An important advantage of automatic outlining is its reproducibility, because only a single technique with objective criteria is used. In a so-called Region Of Interest (ROI) texture analysis can be performed to quantify the condition of the vertebral body in order to diagnose osteoporosis. This technique may be an alternative to a classification based solely on the average X-ray absorption value.

  4. Deformation Measurement Of Lumbar Vertebra By Holographic Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Toshiro; Kojima, Arata; Ogawa, Ryoukei; Iwata, Koichi; Nagata, Ryo

    1988-01-01

    The mechanical properties of normal lumbar vertebra and one with the interarticular part cut off to simulate hemi-spondylolysis were measured by the double exposure holographic interferometry. In the normal lumbar vertebra, displacement due to the load applied to the inferior articular process was greater than that of superior articular process under the same load. The interarticular part was subjected to the high stress. From these points, one of the valuable data to consider the cause of spondylolysis was obtained.

  5. Level Set Segmentation of Lumbar Vertebrae Using Appearance Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritscher, Karl; Leber, Stefan; Schmölz, Werner; Schubert, Rainer

    For the planning of surgical interventions of the spine exact knowledge about 3D shape and the local bone quality of vertebrae are of great importance in order to estimate the anchorage strength of screws or implants. As a prerequisite for quantitative analysis a method for objective and therefore automated segmentation of vertebrae is needed. In this paper a framework for the automatic segmentation of vertebrae using 3D appearance models in a level set framework is presented. In this framework model information as well as gradient information and probabilities of pixel intensities at object edges in the unseen image are used. The method is tested on 29 lumbar vertebrae leading to accurate results, which can be useful for surgical planning and further analysis of the local bone quality.

  6. Automatic lumbar vertebra segmentation from clinical CT for wedge compression fracture diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Subarna; Alomari, Raja'S.; Chaudhary, Vipin; Dhillon, Gurmeet

    2011-03-01

    Lumbar vertebral fractures vary greatly in types and causes and usually result from severe trauma or pathological conditions such as osteoporosis. Lumbar wedge compression fractures are amongst the most common ones where the vertebra is severely compressed forming a wedge shape and causing pain and pressure on the nerve roots and the spine. Since vertebral segmentation is the first step in any automated diagnosis task, we present a fully automated method for robustly localizing and segmenting the vertebrae for preparation of vertebral fracture diagnosis. Our segmentation method consists of five main steps towards the CAD(Computer-Aided Diagnosis) system: 1) Localization of the intervertebral discs. 2) Localization of the vertebral skeleton. 3) Segmentation of the individual vertebra. 4) Detection of the vertebrae center line and 5) Detection of the vertebrae major boundary points. Our segmentation results are promising with an average error of 1.5mm (modified Hausdorff distance metric) on 50 clinical CT cases i.e. a total of 250 lumbar vertebrae. We also present promising preliminary results for automatic wedge compression fracture diagnosis on 15 cases, 7 of which have one or more vertebral compression fracture, and obtain an accuracy of 97.33%.

  7. Population-Stratified Analysis of Bone Mineral Density Distribution in Cervical and Lumbar Vertebrae of Chinese from Quantitative Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Zhou, Zhuang; Wu, Cheng'ai; Zhao, Danhui; Wang, Chao; Cai, Wei; Wang, Ling; Duanmu, Yangyang; Zhang, Chenxin; Tian, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the bone mineral density (BMD) of cervical vertebrae in a population-stratified manner and correlate with that of the lumbar vertebrae. Materials and Methods Five hundred and ninety-eight healthy volunteers (254 males, 344 females), ranging from 20 to 64 years of age, were recruited for volumetric BMD (vBMD) measurements by quantitative computed tomography. Basic information (age, height, weight, waistline, and hipline), and vBMD of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae (C2–7 and L2–4) were recorded. Comparisons among sex, age groups and different levels of vertebrae were analyzed using analysis of variance. Linear regression was performed for relevance of different vertebral levels. Results The vBMD of cervical and lumbar vertebrae was higher in females than males in each age group. The vBMD of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae in males and the vBMD of lumbar vertebrae in females decreased with aging. In each age group, the vBMD of the cervical vertebrae was higher than that of the lumbar vertebrae with gradual decreases from C2 to C7 except for C3; moreover, the vBMD of C6 and C7 was significantly different from that of C2–5. Correlations of vBMD among different cervical vertebrae (females: r = 0.62–0.94; males: r = 0.63–0.94) and lumbar vertebrae (males: r = 0.93–0.98; females: r = 0.82–0.97) were statistically significant at each age group. Conclusion The present study provided normative data of cervical vertebrae in an age- and sex-stratified manner. Sex differences in vBMD prominently vary with age, which can be helpful to design a more comprehensive pre-operative surgical plan. PMID:27587947

  8. Bone Lose of the Ancient Mediterranean lumbar vertebrae : Iasos, 6th century ad.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Serdar; Solmaz, Ilker; Ilıca, A. Turan; Karaçalıoğlu, Özgür; Damla Yılmaz, Nalan; Başoğlu, Okşan; Kılıc, Selim; Izci, Yusuf

    Evaluation of bone mineral density (BMD) of the ancient peoples has received great interest by anthropologists. The aims of this study are to investigate the lumbar vertebrae of the Iasos people during the Byzantine period, in order to determine the prevalence of bone loss and to interpret dietary conditions of ancient Mediterranean populations. Lumbar vertebrae belonging to twenty eight skeletons of the 6th c AD were analyzed by radiographs and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The BMD values for each biologic sex and age group were compared. The correlation between the BMD and radiological features was also analyzed. The mean BMD was 0.940 g/cm2. BMD was decreased by aging in both sexes, but it was not significant. Osteopenia was found in 11 (39%) and osteoporosis in 4 (14.3%) out 28 vertebrae. The BMD was normal in 13 (46%) out of 28 vertebrae. Osteopenia was present in 7 (38%) of 18 male vertebrae and 4 (40%) of 10 female vertebrae. The spine score was high in the male group and there was a strong positive correlation between the BMD and spine score for both sexes. This study revealed that the BMD decreased by aging and that osteopenia was a problem in both sexes of the Iasos people during the 6th c AD. There was no correlation between the BMD and radiological features for age groups and biological sexes.

  9. Quantitative histochemistry of rat lumbar vertebrae following spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eurell, J. A.; Kazarian, L. E.

    1983-01-01

    The histochemical effects of the return to gravity immediately and 6 and 29 days following spaceflight on the bone of rat vertebral bodies were investigated. No significant change in the calcium salt content of the vertebrae was found immediately postflight, although 6 days later it was significantly decreased. The calcium content was found to have returned to normal by 29 days postflight. While postflight collagen content was not significantly altered, keratosulfate was found to be significantly higher in trabecular bone of rats immediately postflight and 6 days postflight. In addition, chondroitin sulfate was found to be increased in vertebral bone on days 6 and 29 postflight. These findings indicate that bone turnover slows in vertebrae during spaceflight allowing bone aging, which support the contention that a form of osteolysis begins immediately upon return to gravity to remove components of old bone at which time mineral levels decrease and levels of chondroitin and keratkosulfates shift. It was found that the osteolysis phase was quickly followed by new bone replacement which was completed before 29 days postspaceflight.

  10. The variation of cancellous bones at lumbar vertebra, femoral neck, mandibular angle and rib in ovariectomized sheep.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongqiang; Li, Yongfeng; Gao, Qi; Shao, Bo; Xiao, Jianrui; Zhou, Hong; Niu, Qiang; Shen, Mingming; Liu, Baolin; Hu, Kaijin; Kong, Liang

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to compare the variation of cancellous bones at four skeletal sites: lumbar vertebra, femoral neck, mandibular angle and rib in ovariectomized sheep. Sixteen adult sheep were randomly divided into two groups: eight sheep were ovariectomized served as experimental group; the other eight untreated sheep were served as control group. Bone mineral density was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry on lumbar vertebrae at baseline and twelve months after ovariectomy. After 12 months, lumbar vertebrae L3 and L4, femoral necks, mandibular angles and the fourth ribs were harvested for micro-CT scanning, histological analysis and biomechanical test. The results showed that bone mineral density of lumbar vertebra decreased significantly in twelfth month (p<0.05). The results of micro-CT showed that the bone volume/total volume decreased by 45.6%, 36.1% 21.3% and 18.7% in lumbar vertebrae, femoral necks, mandibular angles and ribs in experimental group (p<0.05) respectively. The trabecular number showed the same downtrend (p<0.05). Histological analysis showed trabecular area/tissue area decreased by 32.1%, 23.2% and 20.7% in lumbar vertebrae, femoral necks and mandibular angles respectively (p<0.05), but no significant difference in ribs. Specimens elastic modulus from lumbar vertebra, femoral neck and mandibular angle were 952±76MPa (628±70MPa), 961±173MPa (610±72MPa) and 595±60MPa (444±31MPa) in control group (experimental group) respectively. These datum indicated that the sensibility of cancellous bones to oestrogen deficiency in ovariectomized sheep was site-specific on a pattern as follows: lumbar vertebra, femoral neck, mandibular angle and rib.

  11. Effect of treadmill exercise on lumbar vertebrae in ovariectomized rats: anthropometrical and mechanical analyses.

    PubMed

    Simões, P A; Zamarioli, A; Blóes, P; Mazzocato, F C; Pereira, L H A; Volpon, J B; Shimano, A C

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the preventive effect of exercise on lumbar vertebrae in ovariectomized rats. Three-month-old female Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: control group (A, n = 10); non-exercised ovariectomized group (B, n = 7) and exercised ovariectomized group (C, n = 7). The rats from group C were subjected to treadmill exercise (15 m/minute in the initial six weeks and 19 m/minute in the next six weeks, 1 hour/day, 4 days/week) for 12 weeks. At death, the fourth lumbar vertebrae were removed and an anthropometrical analysis by a paquimeter and a mechanical compression test by a universal test machine were performed. After 12 weeks, the ovariectomy decreased the superior-inferior vertebral height and the maximal braking load in group B compared to group A, while the exercise increased the vertebral mass in group C compared to both groups A and B (rho< 0.01) and the stiffness compared to group B. We concluded the physical activity has an important role to prevent the osteopenia in lumbar vertebrae. PMID:19031996

  12. Prediction of the location of the lumbar aorta using the first four lumbar vertebrae as a predictor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad-Hansen, Lars B.; Raundahl, Jakob; Tanko, Laszlo B.; Nielsen, Mads

    2004-05-01

    This paper is one of the first steps towards the development of a mass-screening tool, well-suited for quantizing the extend of calcific deposits in the lumbar aorta, which should deliver reliable and easily reproducible data. The major problem is that non-calcified parts of the aorta are not visible on conventional x-ray images. We investigate whether or not it is possible to predict the location of the lumbar aorta, using the first four lumbar vertebrae as prior. We build a conditional probabilistic model from 90 manually annotated datasets. Using this model we made inferences on the position of the aortic walls given the position and shape of the four vertebrae. Of particular interest is the performance of the probabilistic model in comparison to the mean aortic shape. Due to the fact that our data set for this particular study only contained 90 hand-annotated images, we evaluated the model using the "leave-one-out" method. The resulting distance from the predicted to the actual aorta was then compared to the distance from the mean aorta to the actual aorta. The obtained results are encouraging; our conditional model provides results that are up to 38% better than the prediction using only the mean shape, and yields an overlap index of 0.89, whereas the mean shape only produces 0.83.

  13. Induction of osteosarcomas in mouse lumbar vertebrae by repeated external beta-irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ootsuyama, A.; Tanooka, H.

    1989-03-15

    Besides skin tumors, osteosarcomas were induced at high frequency in the lumbar vertebrae of ICR mice by repeated local external irradiation of the back with /sup 90/Sr-/sup 90/Y beta-rays when irradiation was repeated three times a week until tumors appeared. The optimum dose range for osteosarcoma induction was 250-350 cGy per exposure at the surface of the back, or 125-175 cGy at the depth of the center of the bone. With the same irradiation schedule, the optimal dose of radiation for induction of osteosarcomas was much lower than that for induction of skin tumors.

  14. Burst fracture of the lumbar vertebra due to a landmine injury: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Bilgic, Serkan; Kurklu, Mustafa; Yurttas, Yuksel; Ozkan, Huseyin; Sehirlioglu, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The reason we report this case is that spine injuries may well occur due to landmines similar to other injuries like traumatic limb amputations and more over they may be overlooked. Case presentation The patient was 29-years-old Turkish male and was a member of the military. He detonated the landmine that caused his injuries while in a conflict zone. He had a right below knee and left above knee traumatic amputations. He had also mild intermittent pain in his lower back. There were no focal neurological findings such as weakness, altered sensibility, or alteration in the function of the bowel or bladder. Radiographs of the lumbar spine revealed an L2 burst fracture. Computed tomography scans and magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine demonstrated a burst fracture of the L2 vertebrae and moderate compression in the anterior portion of the thecal sac due to the fracture fragment. Because of the stabile nature of the L2 burst fracture and lack of neurological disturbance, operative decompression, instrumentation and fusion was not performed. After healing of the stumps, the patient was mobilized with immediate prostheses and a thoracolumbosacral brace. Conclusion Spine injuries should not be overlooked when evaluating patients after landmine explosions. After the patient has been stabilized, the secondary screening and radiographic evaluations should also comprise the thoracic, thoracolumbar and lumbar spine when treating patients after landmine injuries. PMID:19829776

  15. Seat belt syndrome with unstable Chance fracture dislocation of the second lumbar vertebra without neurological deficits.

    PubMed

    Onu, David O; Hunn, Andrew W; Bohmer, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    The seat belt syndrome is a recognised complication of seat belt use in vehicles. Unstable Chance fractures of the spine without neurological deficits have been reported infrequently. We describe a young woman with completely disrupted Chance fracture of the second lumbar vertebra in association with left hemidiaphragmatic rupture/hernia, multiple bowel perforations, splenic capsular tear, left humeral shaft and multiple rib fractures. These injuries which resulted from high-speed vehicle collision and led to death of one of the occupants were readily detected by trauma series imaging. The patient was successfully treated by a dedicated multidisciplinary team which adopted a staged surgical approach and prioritisation of care. There were no manifested neurological or other deficits after 1 year of follow-up. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of such a case in Australasia. We discuss the challenging surgical management, highlighting the role of radiological imaging in such cases and provide a literature review.

  16. Seat belt syndrome with unstable Chance fracture dislocation of the second lumbar vertebra without neurological deficits

    PubMed Central

    Onu, David O; Hunn, Andrew W; Bohmer, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    The seat belt syndrome is a recognised complication of seat belt use in vehicles. Unstable Chance fractures of the spine without neurological deficits have been reported infrequently. We describe a young woman with completely disrupted Chance fracture of the second lumbar vertebra in association with left hemidiaphragmatic rupture/hernia, multiple bowel perforations, splenic capsular tear, left humeral shaft and multiple rib fractures. These injuries which resulted from high-speed vehicle collision and led to death of one of the occupants were readily detected by trauma series imaging. The patient was successfully treated by a dedicated multidisciplinary team which adopted a staged surgical approach and prioritisation of care. There were no manifested neurological or other deficits after 1 year of follow-up. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of such a case in Australasia. We discuss the challenging surgical management, highlighting the role of radiological imaging in such cases and provide a literature review. PMID:24403388

  17. Correlative analyses of isolated upper lumbar disc herniation and adjacent wedge-shaped vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jia-Xin; Yang, Si-Dong; Wang, Bao-Lin; Yang, Da-Long; Ding, Wen-Yuan; Shen, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background: Upper lumbar disc herniation (ULDH) is easy to be misdiagnosed due to its special anatomical and atypical clinical features. Few studies have identified the relationship between ULDH and adjacent wedge-shaped vertebrae (WSV). Hypothesis: WSV may have some indicative relations withULDH. Patients and methods: Between January 2003 and October 2013, 47 patients (27 males and 20 females; mean age, 41.2 years) with single-level ULDH (as study group) and 47 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers (as control group) were studied by radiograph. The two groups were compared with respect to age, sexual proportion, body mass index (BMI), kyphotic angle, and the proportion of WSV. Also, correlative analyses were conducted in the study group to investigate the relation between the kyphotic angle of target vertebrae and other factors including age, BMI, Cobb angle, JOA score and bone mineral density (BMD). Results: The average kyphotic angle in the study group was 11° (4°-22°), while the average kyphotic angle in the control group was 2° (0°-7°). Obviously, the mean kyphotic angle in the study group was statistically larger than that in the control group (t=13.797, P<0.001). The proportion of WSV in the study group was significantly larger than that in the control group (x2=36.380, P<0.0001). The correlations between kyphotic angles and other items (i.e., age, BMI, BMD, Cobb angle and JOA score) in the study group and the control group were low or uncorrelated. Conclusions: WSV are indicatively associated with adjacent ULDH. Thus, ULDH should be alerted when WSV are first found in radiograph and accompanied by clinical symptoms. PMID:25785106

  18. Posterior spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic thoracolumbar/lumbar scoliosis: clinical outcomes and predictive radiological factors for extension of fusion distal to caudal end vertebra.

    PubMed

    Roberts, S B; Tsirikos, A I; Subramanian, A S

    2014-08-01

    Clinical, radiological, and Scoliosis Research Society-22 questionnaire data were reviewed pre-operatively and two years post-operatively for patients with thoracolumbar/lumbar adolescent idiopathic scoliosis treated by posterior spinal fusion using a unilateral convex segmental pedicle screw technique. A total of 72 patients were included (67 female, 5 male; mean age at surgery 16.7 years (13 to 23)) and divided into groups: group 1 included 53 patients who underwent fusion between the vertebrae at the limit of the curve (proximal and distal end vertebrae); group 2 included 19 patients who underwent extension of the fusion distally beyond the caudal end vertebra. A mean scoliosis correction of 80% (45% to 100%) was achieved. The mean post-operative lowest instrumented vertebra angle, apical vertebra translation and trunk shift were less than in previous studies. A total of five pre-operative radiological parameters differed significantly between the groups and correlated with the extension of the fusion distally: the size of the thoracolumbar/lumbar curve, the lowest instrumented vertebra angle, apical vertebra translation, the Cobb angle on lumbar convex bending and the size of the compensatory thoracic curve. Regression analysis allowed an equation incorporating these parameters to be developed which had a positive predictive value of 81% in determining whether the lowest instrumented vertebra should be at the caudal end vertebra or one or two levels more distal. There were no differences in the Scoliosis Research Society-22 outcome scores between the two groups (p = 0.17). In conclusion, thoracolumbar/lumbar curves in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis may be effectively treated by posterior spinal fusion using a unilateral segmental pedicle screw technique. Five radiological parameters correlate with the need for distal extension of the fusion, and an equation incorporating these parameters reliably informs selection of the lowest instrumented

  19. Age-related changes in osteometry, bone mineral density and osteophytosis of the lumbar vertebrae in Japanese macaques.

    PubMed

    Pomchote, Porrawee

    2015-01-01

    The age-related changes in lumbar vertebrae were studied in 77 young/full adult Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) (40 females, 37 males), in terms of their morphometry, density and osteophytosis, and the interrelationship between these three aspects. The most common age-related pattern of morphometric changes was an initial increase during young adulthood until reaching the peak and then a subsequent decrease with age. Most of the peaks were in the age group 15-20 and 10-15 years in females and males, respectively. In both sexes, the age-related decrease in the vertebral body depth (ventro-dorsal) was greater than in the height and width. The ventral height of the vertebral body relative to the dorsal height continuously decreased with age. The trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) continuously decreased after young adulthood. However, the magnitude of the decreased trabecular BMD with age was greater in females than in males, especially in the older age groups. Osteophytosis clearly increased with age in both sexes, but males showed an earlier appearance of osteophytes and females tended to have more severe osteophytes from 15 years old upwards. A correlation between the osteometry, density, and osteophytosis severity appeared in all vertebrae, but not all of these reached statistical significance after controlling for the influence of age. Although Japanese macaques showed the higher prevalence and rapid increase of osteophytosis, a similar age change profile was observed in the lumbar vertebrae of Japanese macaques and humans.

  20. Age- and sex-related regional compressive strength characteristics of human lumbar vertebrae in osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Kurutz, Márta; Donáth, Judit; Gálos, Miklós; Varga, Péter; Fornet, Béla

    2008-01-01

    Objective To obtain the compressive load bearing and energy absorption capacity of lumbar vertebrae of osteoporotic elderly for the everyday medical praxis in terms of the simple diagnostic data, like computed tomography (CT), densitometry, age, and sex. Methods Compressive test of 54 osteoporotic cadaver vertebrae L1 and L2, 16 males and 38 females (age range 43–93, mean age 71.6 ± 13.3 years, mean bone mineral density (BMD) 0.377 ± 0.089 g/cm2, mean T-score −5.57 ± 0.79, Z-score −4.05 ± 0.77) was investigated. Based on the load-displacement diagrams and the measured geometrical parameters of vertebral bodies, proportional, ultimate and yield stresses and strains, Young’s modulus, ductility and energy absorption capacity were determined. Three vertebral regions were distinguished: superior, central and inferior regions, but certain parameters were calculated for the upper/ lower intermediate layers, as well. Cross-sectional areas, and certain bone tissue parameters were determined by image analysis of CT pictures of vertebrae. Sex- and age-related decline functions and trends of strength characteristics were determined. Results Size-corrected failure load was 15%–25% smaller in women, proportional and ultimate stresses were about 30%–35% smaller for women in any region, and 20%–25% higher in central regions for both sexes. Young’s moduli were about 30% smaller in women in any region, and 20%–25% smaller in the central region for both sexes. Small strains were higher in males, large strains were higher in females, namely, proportional strains were about 25% larger in men, yield and ultimate strains were quasi equal for sexes, break strains were 10% higher in women. Ultimate energy absorption capacity was 10%–20% higher in men; the final ductile energy absorption capacity was quasi equal for sexes in all levels. Age-dependence was stronger for men, mainly in central regions (ultimate load, male: r = −0.66, p < 0.01, female: r = −0.52, p

  1. On the relationship between stature and anthropometric measurements of lumbar vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Klein, Anke; Nagel, Katrin; Gührs, Julian; Poodendaen, Chanasorn; Püschel, Klaus; Morlock, Michael M; Huber, Gerd

    2015-12-01

    Stature estimation is important for identifying human remains. Analysis of body parts has become an important forensic tool during global operations in the context of cases in which human remains have been dismembered, mutilated or decomposed. However, unless almost the full skeleton or at least a long bone of the lower limb is available, accuracy is still limited to approximate body height. Especially with respect to single vertebral measurements, only a rough prediction is possible. Due to their complex geometry, vertebral measurements are possible at various locations. Nine locations have been considered in this study. Regression equations for stature estimation using lumbar vertebral geometry from computed tomography scans have been evaluated to identify the measurement which gives the most reliable body height estimation. The study group comprised a representative sample of a German metropolitan male population (42 autopsied individuals). Comparing the influence of various vertebral geometry measurements with body height resulted in a coefficient of correlation (R) of 0.19-0.53 and a 95% confidence interval (CI) of ± 11.6 up to ± 13.1cm. The largest correlation with a single vertebral measurement was achieved with the central height of the vertebral body of L2 as predictor; the standard error (SE) of the estimate was 5.9 cm. Using models from CT scans appeared superior to current invasive procedures that use direct measurements of the vertebral body, in terms of reproducibility and time efficiency. For fragmented non-skeletonized human bodies, height prediction based on an all-virtual model of the vertebrae is possible. However, the regression coefficient may be similar to classic caliper measurements that prove easier if skeletonized bones are available.

  2. Recovery Effects of a 180 mT Static Magnetic Field on Bone Mineral Density of Osteoporotic Lumbar Vertebrae in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shenzhi; Okano, Hideyuki; Tomita, Naohide; Ikada, Yoshito

    2011-01-01

    The effects of a moderate-intensity static magnetic field (SMF) on osteoporosis of the lumbar vertebrae were studied in ovariectomized rats. A small disc magnet (maximum magnetic flux density 180 mT) was implanted to the right side of spinous process of the third lumbar vertebra. Female rats in the growth stage (10 weeks old) were randomly divided into 4 groups: (i) ovariectomized and implanted with a disc magnet (SMF); (ii) ovariectomized and implanted with a nonmagnetized disc (sham); (iii) ovariectomized alone (OVX) and (vi) intact, nonoperated cage control (CTL). The blood serum 17-β-estradiol (E2) concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay, and the bone mineral density (BMD) values of the femurs and the lumbar vertebrae were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The E2 concentrations were statistically significantly lower for all three operated groups than those of the CTL group at the 6th week. Although there was no statistical significant difference in the E2 concentrations between the SMF-exposed and sham-exposed groups, the BMD values of the lumbar vertebrae proximal to the SMF-exposed area statistically significantly increased in the SMF-exposed group than in the sham-exposed group. These results suggest that the SMF increased the BMD values of osteoporotic lumbar vertebrae in the ovariectomized rats. PMID:20953437

  3. Determination of 3D location and rotation of lumbar vertebrae in CT images by symmetry-based auto-registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrtovec, Tomaž; Likar, Boštjan; Pernuš, Franjo

    2007-03-01

    Quantitative measurement of vertebral rotation is important in surgical planning, analysis of surgical results, and monitoring of the progression of spinal deformities. However, many established and newly developed techniques for measuring axial vertebral rotation do not exploit three-dimensional (3D) information, which may result in virtual axial rotation because of the sagittal and coronal rotation of vertebrae. We propose a novel automatic approach to the measurement of the location and rotation of vertebrae in 3D without prior volume reformation, identification of appropriate cross-sections or aid by statistical models. The vertebra under investigation is encompassed by a mask in the form of an elliptical cylinder in 3D, defined by its center of rotation and the rotation angles. We exploit the natural symmetry of the vertebral body, vertebral column and vertebral canal by dividing the vertebral mask by its mid-axial, mid-sagittal and mid-coronal plane, so that the obtained volume pairs contain symmetrical parts of the observed anatomy. Mirror volume pairs are then simultaneously registered to each other by robust rigid auto-registration, using the weighted sum of absolute differences between the intensities of the corresponding volume pairs as the similarity measure. The method was evaluated on 50 lumbar vertebrae from normal and scoliotic computed tomography (CT) spinal scans, showing relatively large capture ranges and distinctive maxima at the correct locations and rotation angles. The proposed method may aid the measurement of the dimensions of vertebral pedicles, foraminae and canal, and may be a valuable tool for clinical evaluation of the spinal deformities in 3D.

  4. [Characteristic of the fractures of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae in the victims of a traffic accident found in the passenger compartment of a modern motor vehicle].

    PubMed

    Pigolkin, Yu I; Dubrovin, I A; Sedykh, E P; Mosoyan, A S

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study peculiar features of the injuries to three spinal regions in the victims of a head-on car collision found in the passenger compartments of modern motor vehicles equipped with seat belts and other safety means. It was shown that most frequent fatal injuries to the driver include the fractures of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae. These injuries are much less frequent in the passengers occupying the front and the right back seats. The multilayer and multiple character of the fractures in different parts of the spinal column in the car drivers is attributable to more pronounced spine flexion and extension associated with injuries of this kind. The fractures of the lower cervical vertebrae in the front seat passengers occur more frequently than injuries of a different type whereas the passengers of the back seats most frequently experience fractures of the upper cervical vertebrae. The passengers of the left back seat less frequently suffer from injuries to the thoracic spine than from the fractures of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae. The passengers of the central back seat most frequently experience fractures of the thoracic part of the vertebral column and the passengers occupying the right back seat fractures of the lumbar vertebrae. PMID:27030091

  5. [Characteristic of the fractures of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae in the victims of a traffic accident found in the passenger compartment of a modern motor vehicle].

    PubMed

    Pigolkin, Yu I; Dubrovin, I A; Sedykh, E P; Mosoyan, A S

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study peculiar features of the injuries to three spinal regions in the victims of a head-on car collision found in the passenger compartments of modern motor vehicles equipped with seat belts and other safety means. It was shown that most frequent fatal injuries to the driver include the fractures of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae. These injuries are much less frequent in the passengers occupying the front and the right back seats. The multilayer and multiple character of the fractures in different parts of the spinal column in the car drivers is attributable to more pronounced spine flexion and extension associated with injuries of this kind. The fractures of the lower cervical vertebrae in the front seat passengers occur more frequently than injuries of a different type whereas the passengers of the back seats most frequently experience fractures of the upper cervical vertebrae. The passengers of the left back seat less frequently suffer from injuries to the thoracic spine than from the fractures of the cervical and lumbar vertebrae. The passengers of the central back seat most frequently experience fractures of the thoracic part of the vertebral column and the passengers occupying the right back seat fractures of the lumbar vertebrae.

  6. Effect of joint mobilization using KEOMT and PNF on a patient with CLBP and a lumbar transitional vertebra: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Si-Eun; Wang, Joong-San

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this case study was to identify the effects of joint mobilization using Kaltenborn-Evjenth orthopedic manual therapy (KEOMT) and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) techniques on a patient with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and a lumbar transitional vertebra. [Methods] The intervention methods were joint mobilization using KEOMT and PNF techniques. The program consisted of 40-min sessions 3 days a week for 4 weeks. The spinal motion (thoracic and lumbar vertebrae), pain, and thickness of the multifidus were measured. [Results] The angle of spinal curvature increased, and the range of motions (ROMs) flexion and extension increased in the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. The pain score as measured on a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Oswestry disability index (ODI) score decreased. The thickness of the multifidus (L4) increased on the left and right sides. [Conclusion] These results suggest that joint mobilization using KEOMT and PNF techniques had a positive effect on the spinal motion, pain, and thickness of the multifidus of a patient with chronic low back pain and a lumbar transitional vertebra. PMID:26157278

  7. Microtomographic images of rat's lumbar vertebra microstructure using 30 keV synchrotron X-rays: an analysis in terms of 3D visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, D. V.; Takeda, T.; Kawakami, T.; Uesugi, K.; Tsuchiya, Y.; Wu, J.; Lwin, T. T.; Itai, Y.; Zeniya, T.; Yuasa, T.; Akatsuka, T.

    2004-05-01

    Microtomographic images of rat's lumbar vertebra of different age groups varying from 8, 56 and 78 weeks were obtained at 30 keV using synchrotron X-rays with a spatial resolution of 12 μm. The images are analyzed in terms of 3D visualization and micro-architecture. Density histogram of rat's lumbar vertebra is compared with test phantoms. Rat's lumbar volume and phantom volume are studied at different concentrations of hydroxyapatite with slice number. With the use of 2D slices, 3D images are reconstructed, in order to know the evolution and a state of decline of bone microstructure with aging. Cross-sectional μ-CT images shows that the bone of young rat has a fine trabecular microstructure while that of the old rat has large meshed structure.

  8. Simulation analysis for effects of bone loss on acceleration tolerance of human lumbar vertebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Honglei; Zhang, Feng; Zhu, Yu; Xiao, Yanhua; Wazir, Abrar

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyze and predict the changes in acceleration tolerance of human vertebra as a result of bone loss caused by long-term space flight. A human L3-L4 vertebra FEM model was constructed, in which the cancellous bone was separated, and surrounding ligaments were also taken into account. The simulation results demonstrated that bone loss has more of an effect on the acceleration tolerance in x-direction. The results serve to aid in the creation of new acceleration tolerance standards, ensuring astronauts return home safely after long-term space flight. This study shows that more attention should be focused on the bone degradation of crew members and to create new protective designs for space capsules in the future.

  9. Recurrent primary lumbar vertebra chondrosarcoma: Marginal resection and Iodine-125 seed therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Chunpeng; Zeng, Jiancheng; Song, Yueming; Wang, Xiandi

    2014-01-01

    Chondrosarcomas are uncommon in the spinal column. En bloc excisions with wide margins are of critical importance but not always feasible in spine. We report the outcome in a case of recurrent lumbar vertebral chondrosarcoma treated with marginal resection and iodine-125 seeds placed in the resected tumor bed. PMID:24741146

  10. Loading simulation of lumbar spine vertebrae during a compression test using the finite elements method and trabecular bone strength properties, determined by means of nanoindentations.

    PubMed

    Bouzakis, K D; Mitsi, S; Michailidis, N; Mirisidis, I; Mesomeris, G; Maliaris, G; Korlos, A; Kapetanos, G; Antonarakos, P; Anagnostidis, K

    2004-06-01

    The mechanical strength properties of lumbar spine vertebrae are of great importance in a wide range of applications. Herein, through nanoindentations and appropriate evaluation of the corresponding results, trabecular bone struts stress-strain characteristics can be determined. In the frame of the present paper, an L2 fresh cadaveric vertebra, from which posterior elements were removed, was subjected to compression. With the aid of developed finite elements method based algorithms, the cortical shell and the cancellous core bulk elasticity moduli and stresses were determined, whereas the tested vertebra geometrical model used in these algorithms was considered as having a compound structure, consisting of the cancellous bone surrounded by the cortical shell. Moreover nanoindentations were conducted and an appropriate evaluation method of the obtained results was applied to extract stress-strain curves of individual lumbar spine vertebra trabecular bone struts. These data were used in the mathematical description of the vertebrae compression test. The vertebral cancellous bone structure was simulated by a beam elements network, possessing an equivalent porosity and different stiffnesses in vertical and horizontal direction. Thus, the measured course of the compression load versus the occurring specimen deformation was verified.

  11. Evaluation of lumbar vertebra injury risk to the seated human body when exposed to vertical vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayari, H.; Thomas, M.; Doré, S.; Serrus, O.

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this research is to numerically determine the levels of vibration not to exceed accordingly to the corresponding dynamic stresses in the lumbar rachis when exposed to whole-body vibrations in order to identify the risk of adverse health effect to which professional heavy equipment drivers are particularly prone. A parametric finite element model of the lumbar rachis is generated in order to compute the modal parameters, the dynamic stresses and forces under harmonic excitations in a seated posture. The stress analysis reveals that the areas exposed to the highest fracture risk are the cancellous bone of the vertebral body as well as the vertebral endplate when vertical vibrations are transmitted from a seat to the lumbar spine of a driver. An injury risk factor has been developed in order to estimate the risk of adverse health effect arising from mechanical vibrations. It is shown that the injury risk factor increases with the age and consequently that the excitation amplitude must be limited to lower levels when age increases.

  12. PATHOLOGICAL FRACTURE OF LUMBAR VERTEBRA IN CHILDREN WITH ACUTE NEUROLOGICAL DEFICIT: CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Bortoletto, Adalberto; Rodrigues, Luiz Cláudio Lacerda; Matsumoto, Marcelo Hide

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on a case of lymphoma in a 13-year-old patient who came to a consultation with lumbar pain. The patient had suffered low-intensity trauma in the lumbar region that resulted in persistent pain of progressive nature. In an emergency evaluation, radiographic examination showed a spinal fracture. The patient was then sent to the specialist outpatient clinic of the same hospital. The initial examinations confirmed the diagnosis of a pathological fracture surrounded by a tissue mass, thus indicating the presence of a tumor. Subsequently, the patient evolved with lower-limb paresthesia and urine retention, without any pathological diagnosis for the lesion. The patient then underwent emergency surgery to achieve stabilization and neurological decompression, and material from the lesion was sent for anatomopathological examination. The result from the anatomopathological examination suggested that the lesion was a small-cell tumor, although leaving some doubt. Immunohistochemistry defined the diagnosis of lymphoma. The patient was then sent for oncological treatment. The aim of this study was to report on a rare case of lymphoma in a child with an initial diagnosis of a pathological fracture in the lumbar spine. It is important to investigate fractures associated with mild trauma in children. Precise diagnosis results in effective attendance with better results for these patients. This patient underwent chemotherapy and achieved a good response, with positive repercussions for his prognosis. PMID:27047825

  13. One-Step Posterior and Anterior Combined Approach for L5 Retroperitoneal Schwannoma Eroding a Lumbar Vertebra

    PubMed Central

    Picotti, Veronica; Raco, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a large lumbar schwannoma eroding the vertebra and originating from spinal canal with invasion of the retroperitoneal space. We also review all the cases in literature reporting lumbar schwannomas eroding the vertebral bodies and invading the retroperitoneal space focusing on the surgical strategies to manage them. Spinal CT-scan revealed a 44 mm × 55 mm inhomogeneous soft-tissue mass arising from the right L5-S1 neural foramen and its most anterior portion had a clear colliquative aspect. Magnetic resonance image showed a neoplastic lesion with homogeneous low signal in T1WI, heterogeneous signal in T2WI, and strong enhancement in postgadolinium examination. It developed as well in the retroperitoneal space, posteriorly to the iliac vein, up to the psoas muscle with wide erosion of the omolateral conjugate foramen. We performed a one-step combined approach together with the vascular surgeon because the lesion was too huge to allow a complete resection via a posterior approach and furthermore its tight relationship with the psoas muscle and the iliac vessels in the retroperitoneal space should be more safely managed via a retroperitoneal approach. We strongly suggest a 1-step surgery first approaching the dumbbell and the intraspinal schwannomas posteriorly achieving the decompression of the spinal canal and the cleavage of the tumor cutting the root of origin and the vascular supply and valuating the stability of the spine for potential artrodesis procedure. The patient must be then operated on via a retroperitoneal approach achieving the complete en bloc resection of the tumor. PMID:27766176

  14. Effects of Acupuncture Knife on Inflammatory Factors and Pain in Third Lumbar Vertebrae Transverse Process Syndrome Model Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jia Ni; Guo, Chang Qing; Hu, Bo; Liu, Nai Gang; Sun, Hong Mei; Xu, Hong; Wu, Hai Xia; Guo, Yan; Liang, Chu Xi; Chen, Zhan Xia; Li, Xiao Hong

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to explore the long-term effects and pain relief mechanism of acupuncture knife on third lumbar vertebrae (L3) transverse process syndrome. Forty SD rats were randomized into control, model, electroacupuncture (EA), and acupuncture knife (AK) group. Except control rats, other rats were subjected to an operation to emulate L3 transverse process syndrome. Fourteen days after the operation, EA and AK rats were given electroacupuncture and acupuncture knife treatments, respectively. Fifty-six days after the operation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure substance P (SP), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in peripheral blood. The tail flick test was used to observe pain threshold. We found that rats with the simulation operation had significantly higher levels of SP, 5-HT, IL-1, IL-10, TNF-α, and TGF-β, while the AK rats had lower levels. In addition, the pain threshold of AK rats was similar to that of control rats. AK pretreatment could alleviate pain through modulating inflammatory response. PMID:25544854

  15. Comparison of Expansive Pedicle Screw and Polymethylmethacrylate-Augmented Pedicle Screw in Osteoporotic Sheep Lumbar Vertebrae: Biomechanical and Interfacial Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bo; Xie, Qing-yun; Wang, Cai-ru; Liu, Jin-biao; Liao, Dong-fa; Jiang, Kai; Lei, Wei; Pan, Xian-ming

    2013-01-01

    Background It was reported that expansive pedicle screw (EPS) and polymethylmethacrylate-augmented pedicle screw (PMMA-PS) could be used to increase screw stability in osteoporosis. However, there are no studies comparing the two kinds of screws in vivo. Thus, we aimed to compare biomechanical and interfacial performances of EPS and PMMA-PS in osteoporotic sheep spine. Methodology/Principal Findings After successful induction of osteoporotic sheep, lumbar vertebrae in each sheep were randomly divided into three groups. The conventional pedicle screw (CPS) was inserted directly into vertebrae in CPS group; PMMA was injected prior to insertion of CPS in PMMA-PS group; and the EPS was inserted in EPS group. Sheep were killed and biomechanical tests, micro-CT analysis and histological observation were performed at both 6 and 12 weeks post-operation. At 6-week and 12-week, screw stabilities in EPS and PMMA-PS groups were significantly higher than that in CPS group, but there were no significant differences between EPS and PMMA-PS groups at two study periods. The screw stability in EPS group at 12-week was significantly higher than that at 6-week. The bone trabeculae around the expanding anterior part of EPS were more and denser than that in CPS group at 6-week and 12-week. PMMA was found without any degradation and absorption forming non-biological “screw-PMMA-bone” interface in PMMA-PS group, however, more and more bone trabeculae surrounded anterior part of EPS improving local bone quality and formed biological “screw-bone” interface. Conclusions/Significance EPS can markedly enhance screw stability with a similar effect to the traditional method of screw augmentation with PMMA in initial surgery in osteoporosis. EPS can form better biological interface between screw and bone than PMMA-PS. In addition, EPS have no risk of thermal injury, leakage and compression caused by PMMA. We propose EPS has a great application potential in augmentation of screw stability

  16. Lower hip bone mass and proximal femur fractures in elderly patients: more valuable than lumbar vertebrae bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hun-Kyu; Choi, Jae-Yeol; Lee, Jinmyung; Jeong, Hwa Jae; Kim, Eugene; Park, Se-Jin; Jeon, Byeongsam; Lim, Jong-Jun

    2010-12-01

    A decreased bone mineral density, such as osteoporosis, has been considered a factor closely associated with proximal femur fractures. We studied the relationship between osteoporosis and proximal femur fractures. Dual energy radiograph absorptiometry was used to measure the bone mineral density of 121 patients with a femur neck fracture and 134 patients with an intertrochanteric fracture. The bone density of the femoral neck, Ward's triangle, and the trochanteric region were measured. Two hundred seventeen normal patients who had undergone a bone mineral density test and were found to have no proximal femur fracture were used as the control group. Comparative analysis was performed after the patients were subdivided into different groups depending on sex and fracture type. The bone mineral density of the lumbar vertebra in patients with a proximal femur fracture was not significantly different from that of the control group, but the bone mineral density of the proximal femur in patients with a proximal femur fracture was significantly less than that of the control group. The bone mineral density of the group with an intertrochanteric fracture was lower than that of the femur neck fracture group. However, the difference was statistically insignificant. In bone mineral density comparisons, no significant differences were observed between the displaced and undisplaced femur neck fracture group and between the stable and the unstable intertrochanteric fracture group. The bone mineral density of elderly patients with a proximal femur fracture was significantly less than that of normal individuals. However, femur neck fractures in elderly men were less likely to be associated with a decreased bone mineral density. Little correlation between bone mineral densities of the proximal femur and fracture location (neck vs intertrochanter) and type (nondisplaced vs displaced neck, stable vs unstable intertrochanter) was found.

  17. Calibration of the mechanical properties in a finite element model of a lumbar vertebra under dynamic compression up to failure.

    PubMed

    Garo, Anaïs; Arnoux, Pierre Jean; Wagnac, Eric; Aubin, Carl Eric

    2011-12-01

    Finite element models (FEM) dedicated to vertebral fracture simulations rarely take into account the rate dependency of the bone material properties due to limited available data. This study aims to calibrate the mechanical properties of a vertebral body FEM using an inverse method based on experiments performed at slow and fast dynamic loading conditions. A detailed FEM of a human lumbar vertebral body (23,394 elements) was developed and tested under compression at 2,500 and 10 mm s⁻¹. A central composite design was used to adjust the mechanical properties (Young modulus, yield stress, and yield strain) while optimizing four criteria (ultimate strain and stress of cortical and trabecular bone) until the failure load and energy at failure reached experimental results from the literature. At 2,500 mm s⁻¹, results from the calibrated simulation were in good agreement with the average experimental data (1.5% difference for the failure load and 0.1% for the energy). At 10 mm s⁻¹, they were in good agreement with the average experimental failure load (0.6% difference), and within one standard deviation of the reported range of energy to failure. The proposed method provides a relevant mean to identify the mechanical properties of the vertebral body in dynamic loadings.

  18. An Animal Model of Modic Changes by Embedding Autogenous Nucleus Pulposus inside Subchondral Bone of Lumbar Vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chao; Wang, Tao; Jiang, Hong-qiang; Ma, Jian-xiong; Tian, Peng; Zang, Jia-cheng; Ma, Xin-long

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of Modic changes (MCs) in animal model was vital for research of MCs. Fifty-four rabbits were divided into a sham group, a muscle embedment group (ME group) and nucleus pulposus (NP) embedment group (NPE group). In the NPE group, the discs were exposed by the lumbar anterolateral surgical approach. A needle was used to puncture the L5 vertebral body close to the endplate. NP was extracted by a syringe from L1/2 intervertebral discs and then injected into the drilled hole of subchondral bone. The muscle embedment group and sham group had the same procedure and drill method as the NP embedment group. Some pieces of muscle were put into the hole in the ME group, but nothing was put into the hole in the sham group. After the operation, MRI scan and molecular biology tests were applied. The signal changes were found in the NPE group; while the sham group and the ME group showed no significant signal change. Histological observation confirmed that there was abnormal tissue proliferation in imbed site. High expression of IL-4, IL-17 and IFN-γ were detected in the NPE group. The embedment of NP into subchondral bone can create an animal model of MCs. PMID:27713567

  19. Spinous Process Osteochondroma as a Rare Cause of Lumbar Pain.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Bárbara; Campos, Pedro; Barros, André; Karmali, Samir; Ussene, Esperança; Durão, Carlos; Alves da Silva, João; Coutinho, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a 5th Lumbar Vertebra (L5) spinous process osteochondroma as a rare cause of lumbar pain in an old patient. A 70-year-old male presented with progressive and disabling lower lumbar pain. Tenderness over the central and left paraspinal area of the lower lumbar region and a palpable mass were evident. CT scan showed a mass arising from the spinous process of L5. Marginal resection of the tumor was performed through a posterior approach. The histological study revealed an osteochondroma. After surgery, pain was completely relieved. After one year there was no evidence of local recurrence or symptoms. Osteochondromas rarely involve the spine, but when they do symptoms like pain, radiculopathy/myelopathy, or cosmetic deformity may occur. The imagiologic exam of election for diagnosis is CT scan. When symptomatic the treatment of choice is surgical resection. The most concerning complication of osteochondromas is malignant transformation, a rare event. PMID:27579204

  20. Spinous Process Osteochondroma as a Rare Cause of Lumbar Pain

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Bárbara; Campos, Pedro; Barros, André; Karmali, Samir; Ussene, Esperança; Alves da Silva, João; Coutinho, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a 5th Lumbar Vertebra (L5) spinous process osteochondroma as a rare cause of lumbar pain in an old patient. A 70-year-old male presented with progressive and disabling lower lumbar pain. Tenderness over the central and left paraspinal area of the lower lumbar region and a palpable mass were evident. CT scan showed a mass arising from the spinous process of L5. Marginal resection of the tumor was performed through a posterior approach. The histological study revealed an osteochondroma. After surgery, pain was completely relieved. After one year there was no evidence of local recurrence or symptoms. Osteochondromas rarely involve the spine, but when they do symptoms like pain, radiculopathy/myelopathy, or cosmetic deformity may occur. The imagiologic exam of election for diagnosis is CT scan. When symptomatic the treatment of choice is surgical resection. The most concerning complication of osteochondromas is malignant transformation, a rare event. PMID:27579204

  1. Improving vertebra segmentation through joint vertebra-rib atlases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yinong; Yao, Jianhua; Roth, Holger R.; Burns, Joseph E.; Summers, Ronald M.

    2016-03-01

    Accurate spine segmentation allows for improved identification and quantitative characterization of abnormalities of the vertebra, such as vertebral fractures. However, in existing automated vertebra segmentation methods on computed tomography (CT) images, leakage into nearby bones such as ribs occurs due to the close proximity of these visibly intense structures in a 3D CT volume. To reduce this error, we propose the use of joint vertebra-rib atlases to improve the segmentation of vertebrae via multi-atlas joint label fusion. Segmentation was performed and evaluated on CTs containing 106 thoracic and lumbar vertebrae from 10 pathological and traumatic spine patients on an individual vertebra level basis. Vertebra atlases produced errors where the segmentation leaked into the ribs. The use of joint vertebra-rib atlases produced a statistically significant increase in the Dice coefficient from 92.5 +/- 3.1% to 93.8 +/- 2.1% for the left and right transverse processes and a decrease in the mean and max surface distance from 0.75 +/- 0.60mm and 8.63 +/- 4.44mm to 0.30 +/- 0.27mm and 3.65 +/- 2.87mm, respectively.

  2. Biomechanical evaluation of lumbar pedicle screws in spondylolytic vertebrae: comparison of fixation strength between the traditional trajectory and a cortical bone trajectory.

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, Keitaro; Yato, Yoshiyuki; Imabayashi, Hideaki; Hosogane, Naobumi; Asazuma, Takashi; Chiba, Kazuhiro

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE In the management of isthmic spondylolisthesis, the pedicle screw system is widely accepted surgical strategy; however, there are few reports on the biomechanical behavior of pedicle screws in spondylolytic vertebrae. The purpose of the present study was to compare fixation strength between pedicle screws inserted through the traditional trajectory (TT) and those inserted through a cortical bone trajectory (CBT) in spondylolytic vertebrae by computational simulation. METHODS Finite element models of spondylolytic and normal vertebrae were created from CT scans of 17 patients with adult isthmic spondylolisthesis (mean age 54.6 years, 10 men and 7 women). Each vertebral model was implanted with pedicle screws using TT and CBT techniques and compared between two groups. First, fixation strength of a single screw was evaluated by measuring axial pullout strength. Next, vertebral fixation strength of a paired-screw construct was examined by applying forces simulating flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation to vertebrae. RESULTS Fixation strengths of TT screws showed a nonsignificant difference between the spondylolytic and the normal vertebrae (p = 0.31-0.81). Fixation strength of CBT screws in the spondylolytic vertebrae demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in pullout strength (21.4%, p < 0.01), flexion (44.1%, p < 0.01), extension (40.9%, p < 0.01), lateral bending (38.3%, p < 0.01), and axial rotation (28.1%, p < 0.05) compared with those in the normal vertebrae. In the spondylolytic vertebrae, no statistically significant difference was observed for pullout strength between TT and CBT (p = 0.90); however, the CBT construct showed lower vertebral fixation strength in flexion (39.0%, p < 0.01), extension (35.6%, p < 0.01), lateral bending (50.7%, p < 0.01), and axial rotation (59.3%, p < 0.01) compared with the TT construct. CONCLUSIONS CBT screws are less optimal for stabilizing the spondylolytic vertebra due to their lower

  3. Percutaneous Vertebroplasty of the Entire Thoracic and Lumbar Vertebrae for Vertebral Compression Fractures Related to Chronic Glucocorticosteriod Use: Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Qing-Hua; Xiao, Quan-Ping; He, Cheng-Jian; Gu, Yi-Feng; Wang, Tao; Li, Ming-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticosteroid-induced osteoporosis is the most frequent of all secondary types of osteoporosis, and can increase the risk of vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). There are promising additions to current medical treatment for appropriately selected osteoporotic patients. Few studies have reported on the efficiency of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) or kyphoplasty for whole thoracic and lumbar glucocorticosteroid-induced osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. We report a case of a 67-year-old man with intractable pain caused by successional VCFs treated by PVP. PMID:25469092

  4. Chronic Osteomyelitis of the Lumbar Transverse Process

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bong-Jin; Yoon, Min Geun; Kim, Sung-Soo; Moon, Myung-Sang

    2011-01-01

    Pyogenic spondylitis involving only the posterior element of a vertebra is rare. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports of osteomyelitis of the transverse process. We report here on a 45-year-old male with a one month history of swelling associated with lower back pain. The magnetic resonance imaging showed a paraspinal soft tissue mass, and computed tomography revealed a fine osteolytic lesion in the right transverse process of the 5th lumbar spine, and this was all consistent with chronic osteomyelitis. A mixed staphylococcal infection was identified. Open drainage, resection of the transverse process and intravenous injection of anti-staphylococcal antibiotics resolved the back pain and reduced the erythrocyte sedimentation rate to normal. Pyogenic osteomyelitis of the transverse process is extremely rare, which can cause a misdiagnosis or a delayed diagnosis. Careful consideration of this disease is needed when evaluating patients who complain of back pain. PMID:21909475

  5. Shape regression for vertebra fracture quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Michael Tillge; de Bruijne, Marleen; Tanko, Laszlo B.; Nielsen, Mads

    2005-04-01

    Accurate and reliable identification and quantification of vertebral fractures constitute a challenge both in clinical trials and in diagnosis of osteoporosis. Various efforts have been made to develop reliable, objective, and reproducible methods for assessing vertebral fractures, but at present there is no consensus concerning a universally accepted diagnostic definition of vertebral fractures. In this project we want to investigate whether or not it is possible to accurately reconstruct the shape of a normal vertebra, using a neighbouring vertebra as prior information. The reconstructed shape can then be used to develop a novel vertebra fracture measure, by comparing the segmented vertebra shape with its reconstructed normal shape. The vertebrae in lateral x-rays of the lumbar spine were manually annotated by a medical expert. With this dataset we built a shape model, with equidistant point distribution between the four corner points. Based on the shape model, a multiple linear regression model of a normal vertebra shape was developed for each dataset using leave-one-out cross-validation. The reconstructed shape was calculated for each dataset using these regression models. The average prediction error for the annotated shape was on average 3%.

  6. 168. GENERAL VIEW FROM 5TH AVE. VIEW SOUTH, ACROSS 5TH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    168. GENERAL VIEW FROM 5TH AVE. VIEW SOUTH, ACROSS 5TH AVE., TOWARD BUILDING 506 (ON LEFT) AND BUILDING 435. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  7. A Modified Approach of Percutaneous Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy (PELD) for Far Lateral Disc Herniation at L5-S1 with Foot Drop

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Eun Hee

    2016-01-01

    Foraminal or extraforaminal Far Lateral Disc Herniations (FLDH) extending into or beyond the foraminal zone have been recognized as between 7-12% of all lumbosacral disc herniations. Conventional posterior laminectomy may not provide good access to a herniation that lies far lateral to the lateral margin of the pedicle. Use of the endoscopic technique through a percutaneous approach to treat such FLDH patients can decrease the surgical morbidity while achieving better outcomes. We made an effort to utilize the advantages of percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) and to determine the appropriate approach for FLDH at the level between the 5th Lumbar and first Sacral vertebrae(L5-S1). The authors present a case of an endoscopically resected lumbar extruded disc of the left extraforaminal zone with superior foraminal migration at the level of L5-S1, which had led to foot drop, while placing the endoscope in the anterior epidural space without facetectomy. PMID:26839673

  8. Lumbar lordosis.

    PubMed

    Been, Ella; Kalichman, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    Lumbar lordosis is a key postural component that has interested both clinicians and researchers for many years. Despite its wide use in assessing postural abnormalities, there remain many unanswered questions regarding lumbar lordosis measurements. Therefore, in this article we reviewed different factors associated with the lordosis angle based on existing literature and determined normal values of lordosis. We reviewed more than 120 articles that measure and describe the different factors associated with the lumbar lordosis angle. Because of a variety of factors influencing the evaluation of lumbar lordosis such as how to position the patient and the number of vertebrae included in the calculation, we recommend establishing a uniform method of evaluating the lordosis angle. Based on our review, it seems that the optimal position for radiologic measurement of lordosis is standing with arms supported while shoulders are flexed at a 30° angle. There is evidence that many factors, such as age, gender, body mass index, ethnicity, and sport, may affect the lordosis angle, making it difficult to determine uniform normal values. Normal lordosis should be determined based on the specific characteristics of each individual; we therefore presented normal lordosis values for different groups/populations. There is also evidence that the lumbar lordosis angle is positively and significantly associated with spondylolysis and isthmic spondylolisthesis. However, no association has been found with other spinal degenerative features. Inconclusive evidence exists for association between lordosis and low back pain. Additional studies are needed to evaluate these associations. The optimal lordotic range remains unknown and may be related to a variety of individual factors such as weight, activity, muscular strength, and flexibility of the spine and lower extremities. PMID:24095099

  9. Kids & Family Reading Report™. 5th Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholastic Inc., 2015

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the 5th Edition of Scholastic's biannual study of children's and parents' attitudes and behaviors about reading. The latest research touches on reading aloud to children of all ages, the impact of reading independently for fun at school and at home, the importance of frequent reading, and the books children want most to read.…

  10. Ivory vertebra: imaging findings in different diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Braun, Richard Andreas; Milito, Carlos Felipe do Rego Barros; Goldman, Suzan Menasce; Fernandes, Eloy de Ávila

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain is often managed at all levels of healthcare. In general, diagnostic investigation begins with radiography of the lumbar spine. In addition to the most common findings, radiologists can identify increased density of a vertebral body, referred to as ivory vertebra. The objective of this study was to describe the main diseases that can present with this radiologic sign, such as Hodgkin lymphoma, Paget's disease, metastatic prostate cancer, breast cancer, and osteomyelitis. It is extremely important that radiologists be aware of this finding in order to inform the requesting physician of the possible etiologies, given that it can be the initial radiologic presentation for these diseases. PMID:27141135

  11. Ivory vertebra: imaging findings in different diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Braun, Richard Andreas; Milito, Carlos Felipe do Rego Barros; Goldman, Suzan Menasce; Fernandes, Eloy de Ávila

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain is often managed at all levels of healthcare. In general, diagnostic investigation begins with radiography of the lumbar spine. In addition to the most common findings, radiologists can identify increased density of a vertebral body, referred to as ivory vertebra. The objective of this study was to describe the main diseases that can present with this radiologic sign, such as Hodgkin lymphoma, Paget's disease, metastatic prostate cancer, breast cancer, and osteomyelitis. It is extremely important that radiologists be aware of this finding in order to inform the requesting physician of the possible etiologies, given that it can be the initial radiologic presentation for these diseases.

  12. Ivory vertebra: imaging findings in different diagnoses*

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Richard Andreas; Milito, Carlos Felipe do Rego Barros; Goldman, Suzan Menasce; Fernandes, Eloy de Ávila

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain is often managed at all levels of healthcare. In general, diagnostic investigation begins with radiography of the lumbar spine. In addition to the most common findings, radiologists can identify increased density of a vertebral body, referred to as ivory vertebra. The objective of this study was to describe the main diseases that can present with this radiologic sign, such as Hodgkin lymphoma, Paget's disease, metastatic prostate cancer, breast cancer, and osteomyelitis. It is extremely important that radiologists be aware of this finding in order to inform the requesting physician of the possible etiologies, given that it can be the initial radiologic presentation for these diseases. PMID:27141135

  13. Ivory vertebra and systemic mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Laurent; Suarez, Felipe; Chandesris, Marie-Olivia; Hermine, Olivier

    2012-05-01

    The ivory vertebra sign seen on a standard radiograph of the spine should prompt investigations for a cause, which is most likely to be a bone metastasis, a lymphoma, or Paget's disease of bone. A diagnosis of idiopathic ivory vertebra can be given if no cause is identified. We report an unusual case of ivory vertebra sign that was due to systemic mastocytosis and improved with specific treatment. Although osteoporosis is the most common bone abnormality in systemic mastocytosis, an isolated sclerotic or lytic lesion may be found. The ivory vertebra sign should not be considered idiopathic until tests are done for mastocytosis, particularly given the availability of effective treatments.

  14. Automatic labeling and segmentation of vertebrae in CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasoulian, Abtin; Rohling, Robert N.; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2014-03-01

    Labeling and segmentation of the spinal column from CT images is a pre-processing step for a range of image- guided interventions. State-of-the art techniques have focused either on image feature extraction or template matching for labeling of the vertebrae followed by segmentation of each vertebra. Recently, statistical multi- object models have been introduced to extract common statistical characteristics among several anatomies. In particular, we have created models for segmentation of the lumbar spine which are robust, accurate, and computationally tractable. In this paper, we reconstruct a statistical multi-vertebrae pose+shape model and utilize it in a novel framework for labeling and segmentation of the vertebra in a CT image. We validate our technique in terms of accuracy of the labeling and segmentation of CT images acquired from 56 subjects. The method correctly labels all vertebrae in 70% of patients and is only one level off for the remaining 30%. The mean distance error achieved for the segmentation is 2.1 +/- 0.7 mm.

  15. An improved level set method for vertebra CT image segmentation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical diagnosis and therapy for the lumbar disc herniation requires accurate vertebra segmentation. The complex anatomical structure and the degenerative deformations of the vertebrae makes its segmentation challenging. Methods An improved level set method, namely edge- and region-based level set method (ERBLS), is proposed for vertebra CT images segmentation. By considering the gradient information and local region characteristics of images, the proposed model can efficiently segment images with intensity inhomogeneity and blurry or discontinuous boundaries. To reduce the dependency on manual initialization in many active contour models and for an automatic segmentation, a simple initialization method for the level set function is built, which utilizes the Otsu threshold. In addition, the need of the costly re-initialization procedure is completely eliminated. Results Experimental results on both synthetic and real images demonstrated that the proposed ERBLS model is very robust and efficient. Compared with the well-known local binary fitting (LBF) model, our method is much more computationally efficient and much less sensitive to the initial contour. The proposed method has also applied to 56 patient data sets and produced very promising results. Conclusions An improved level set method suitable for vertebra CT images segmentation is proposed. It has the flexibility of segmenting the vertebra CT images with blurry or discontinuous edges, internal inhomogeneity and no need of re-initialization. PMID:23714300

  16. A neglected point in surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: Variations in the number of vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zongshan; Zhang, Zhen; Zhao, Zhihui; Zhu, Zezhang; Liu, Zhen; Qiu, Yong

    2016-08-01

    Inaccurate identification of vertebral levels is the main cause of wrong-site spine surgery which is performed by nearly half of the spine surgeons. Unusual anatomy and failure to verify the surgical level on radiographs have been commonly reported. We aimed at investigating the variations in vertebral number in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients and thus to raise awareness of the possibility for wrong-level spinal surgery and to make a comparison with normal adolescents. A cohort of 657 AIS patients and 248 normal adolescents, presented to our center from June 2008 to February 2013, who met the inclusion criteria, were recruited. Radiographs were reviewed to identify the number of thoracic or lumbar vertebrae and the presence of a lumbosacral transitional vertebra. In the AIS group, 70 (10.6%) patients had variations in the number of thoracic and/or lumbar vertebrae. Remarkably, the prevalence of variations in male subjects was significantly higher than that in female subjects (P < 0.05). Thirty-seven patients (5.6%) had an atypical number of thoracic vertebrae, with 33 having 11 thoracic vertebrae and 4 patients having 13. Forty-eight patients (7.3%) had an atypical number of lumbar vertebrae, with 14 having 4 lumbar vertebrae and 34 patients having 6. Multilevel vertebral anomalies were present in 2.3% of the patients (15 of 657). A variation in the number of vertebrae had been identified in 1.7% (11) of the reports by the radiologist. In the normal group, 27 (10.9%) subjects showed variations in the vertebral number. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of atypical numbers of vertebral number between the AIS and normal groups (P > 0.05). Therefore, we concluded that variations in the number of thoracic-lumbar vertebrae were found in up to10.6% of AIS patients. Identification of variations in the number of vertebrae is crucial to serve to decrease the risk of wrong-level surgery. PMID:27559975

  17. Posteroanterior versus anteroposterior lumbar spine radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuno, M.M.; Shu, G.J. )

    1990-03-01

    The posteroanterior view of the lumbar spine has important features including radiation protection and image quality; these have been studied by various investigators. Investigators have shown that sensitive tissues receive less radiation dosage in the posteroanterior view of the spine for scoliosis screening and intracranial tomography without altering the image quality. This paper emphasizes the importance of the radiation safety aspect of the posteroanterior view and shows the improvement in shape distortion in the lumbar vertebrae.

  18. "Lucy" (A.L. 288-1) had five sacral vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Russo, Gabrielle A; Williams, Scott A

    2015-02-01

    A "long-backed" scenario of hominin vertebral evolution posits that early hominins possessed six lumbar vertebrae coupled with a high frequency of four sacral vertebrae (7:12-13:6:4), a configuration acquired from a hominin-panin last common ancestor (PLCA) having a vertebral formula of 7:13:6-7:4. One founding line of evidence for this hypothesis is the recent assertion that the "Lucy" sacrum (A.L. 288-1an, Australopithecus afarensis) consists of four sacral vertebrae and a partially-fused first coccygeal vertebra (Co1), rather than five sacral vertebrae as in modern humans. This study reassesses the number of sacral vertebrae in Lucy by reexamining the distal end of A.L.288-1an in the context of a comparative sample of modern human sacra and Co1 vertebrae, and the sacrum of A. sediba (MH2). Results demonstrate that, similar to S5 in modern humans and A. sediba, the last vertebra in A.L. 288-1an exhibits inferiorly-projecting (right side) cornua and a kidney-shaped inferior body articular surface. This morphology is inconsistent with that of fused or isolated Co1 vertebrae in humans, which either lack cornua or possess only superiorly-projecting cornua, and have more circularly-shaped inferior body articular surfaces. The level at which the hiatus' apex is located is also more compatible with typical five-element modern human sacra and A. sediba than if only four sacral vertebrae are present. Our observations suggest that A.L. 288-1 possessed five sacral vertebrae as in modern humans; thus, sacral number in "Lucy" does not indicate a directional change in vertebral count that can provide information on the PLCA ancestral condition.

  19. Influence of age and sex on lumbar vertebral morphometry determined using sagittal magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Sevinc, Ozdemir; Barut, Cagatay; Is, Merih; Eryoruk, Nesrin; Safak, Alp Alper

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated age-related changes in the morphometric features of lumbar vertebrae in both sexes using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Midsagittal MRI scans of 366 individuals (156 males, 210 females; 25-82 years old) were evaluated retrospectively. The anterior height (H(a)), central height (H(c)), posterior height (H(p)), and anteroposterior diameter (D) of the body of each lumbar vertebra were measured. These measurements were used to calculate three indices, namely, the anterior wedge index (H(a)/H(p)), the biconcavity index (H(c)/H(p)), and the compression index (H(p)/D). The values of each of the three indices for the upper lumbar vertebrae of females were higher than those of the same vertebrae in males. The values of the compression index for all lumbar vertebrae decreased with age in females, whereas in males the compression index of the L1-L4 vertebrae decreased with age. No significant changes were observed in the value of the anterior wedge index in either sex. The biconcavity indices of the L1 and L5 vertebrae decreased with age in males. These results may be useful for evaluating age-related morphological changes that occur in the lumbar vertebrae.

  20. Chondromyxoid fibroma of the lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Cabral, C E; Romano, S; Guedes, P; Nascimento, A; Nogueira, J; Smith, J

    1997-08-01

    A bulky tumor of the first lumbar vertebra is described. The case is the 21st to be reported. The tumor resembled an aneurysmal bone cyst radiologically. It was resected without incident. The previously reported cases are reviewed and the literature discussed. PMID:9297754

  1. Multi-mode heterodyned 5th-order infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, Joel D.; Varner, Clyde; Rubtsov, Igor V.

    2016-10-01

    Fifth-order multidimensional infrared spectroscopy with heterodyned detection was carried out in the three-beam dual-frequency configuration. Numerous 5th-order cross peaks were detected for the 4-azidobutyrate-N-hydroxysuccinimide ester compound in solution involving several vibrational modes ranging in frequency from 1045 to 2100 cm-1. Cross peaks involving overtones (2X/Z) and combination bands (XY/Z) among the tags, modes X and Y excited by the first two mid-IR laser pulses, and the reporter, modes Z excited by the third laser pulse, were acquired and the factors affecting the amplitude of 5th-order cross peaks are discussed. The 5th-order cross peaks were detected among modes that are spatially close (a few bonds apart) as well as for modes spatially separated by ca. 12 Å (eight bonds apart). In both cases, the waiting time dependences for the 3rd and 5th order cross peaks were found to be different. In particular, the waiting time at which the cross-peak maximum is reached, the decay time, and the value of a plateau at large waiting times were all differing strongly. The differences are explained by reduced sensitivity of the 5th-order signals to modes coupled weakly to the reporter mode and different relaxation dynamics involving overtone state of the tag. The ability of the 5th-order peaks to single out the modes coupled strongly to the reporter can help identifying specific energy relaxation and transport pathways, which will be useful for understanding energy transport dynamics in molecules. The absorptive 5th-order cross peaks were constructed which report on three-point correlation functions. It is shown that in addition to the triple-frequency correlation functions, a correlation of the frequencies with the mode coupling (anharmonicity) can be naturally measured by the 5th-order spectroscopy. The current limit for detecting 5th-order signals was estimated at the level of 1 × 10-3 in reduced anharmonicity, which is determined by the corresponding two

  2. Comparative anatomy: all vertebrates do have vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Janvier, Philippe

    2011-09-13

    In contrast to lampreys and jawed vertebrates, hagfishes were thought to lack vertebrae. Now, long overlooked vertebral rudiments have been analysed in hagfish, suggesting that vertebrae existed in the last common ancestor of all vertebrates.

  3. Footprint mismatch in lumbar total disc arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Michaela, Gstoettner; Denise, Heider; Liebensteiner, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Lumbar disc arthroplasty has become a popular modality for the treatment of degenerative disc disease. The dimensions of the implants are based on early published geometrical measurements of vertebrae; the majority of these were cadaver studies. The fit of the prosthesis in the intervertebral space is of utmost importance. An undersized implant may lead to subsidence, loosening and biomechanical failure due to an incorrect center of rotation. The aim of the present study was to measure the dimensions of lumbar vertebrae based on CT scans and assess the accuracy of match in currently available lumbar disc prostheses. A total of 240 endplates of 120 vertebrae were included in the study. The sagittal and mediolateral diameter of the upper and lower endplates were measured using a digital measuring system. For the levels L4/L5 and L5/S1, an inappropriate size match was noted in 98.8% (Prodisc L) and 97.6% (Charite) with regard to the anteroposterior diameter. Mismatch in the anterior mediolateral diameter was noted in 79.3% (Prodisc L) and 51.2% (Charite) while mismatch in the posterior mediolateral diameter was observed in 91.5% (Prodisc L) and 78% (Charite) of the endplates. Surgeons and manufacturers should be aware of the size mismatch of currently available lumbar disc prostheses, which may endanger the safety and efficacy of the procedure. Larger footprints of currently available total disc arthroplasties are required. PMID:18791748

  4. Spaceflight effects on biomechanical and biochemical properties of rat vertebrae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zernicke, R. F.; Vailas, A. C.; Grindeland, R. E.; Kaplansky, A.; Salem, G. J.; Martinez, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    The biomechanical and biochemical responses of lumbar vertebral bodies during a 12.5-day spaceflight (Cosmos 1887 biosatellite) were determined for rapidly growing rats (90-day-old, Czechoslovakian-Wistar). By use of age-matched vivarium controls (normal cage environment) and synchronous controls (simulated flight conditions), as well as a basal control group (killed before lift-off on the 1st day of flight), the combined influences of growth and space-flight could be examined. Centra of the sixth lumbar vertebrae (L6) were compressed to 50% strain at a fast strain rate while immersed in physiological buffer (37 degrees C). The body masses of vivarium and synchronous controls were significantly heavier than either the flight or basal controls. The flight group had an L6 vertebral body compressional stiffness that was 39% less than the vivarium controls, 47% less than the synchronous control, and 16% less than the basal controls. In addition, the average initial maximum load of the flight L6 was 22% less than vivarium controls and 18% less than the synchronous controls, whereas the linear compressional load of the flight group averaged 34% less than the vivarium and 25% less than the synchronous groups. The structural properties of the vertebrae from the 12.5-day-younger basal group closely resembled the flight vertebrae. Calcium, phosphorous, and hydroxyproline concentrations were not significantly different among the groups. Nevertheless, the lack of strength and stiffness development in spaceflight, coupled with a smaller proportion of mature hydroxypyridinoline cross-links, suggested that the 12.5 days of spaceflight slowed the maturation of trabecular bone in the vertebral bodies of rapidly growing rats.

  5. 5th Latin American pesticide residue workshop (LAPRW 2015)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This invited editorial proceedings article introduces the 6 research papers published in the special topical collection for the 5th Latin American Pesticide Residue Workshop held in Santiago, Chile, May 10-13, 2015. The meeting was a great success with more than 50 talks, 140 posters, 21 vendors, a...

  6. Are You a Reader? 5th Graders Respond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barone, Diane; Barone, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The author tells the story of a 5th-grade teacher who challenges her class to take on self-identities as readers. Students defined seven characteristics of what it means to be a good reader and considered whether those characteristics applied to them: Good readers read for fun, talk about books, usually finish the book they're reading, can relate…

  7. 5th Conference on Aerospace Materials, Processes, and Environmental Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M. B. (Editor); Stanley, D. Cross (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    Records are presented from the 5th Conference on Aerospace Materials, Processes, and Environmental Technology. Topics included pollution prevention, inspection methods, advanced materials, aerospace materials and technical standards,materials testing and evaluation, advanced manufacturing,development in metallic processes, synthesis of nanomaterials, composite cryotank processing, environmentally friendly cleaning, and poster sessions.

  8. Working Together for Student Achievement. 5th Biennial Joint Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Washington state Board of Education (SBE) and the Professional Educator Standards Board (PESB) submitted this 5th biennial joint report to the Governor, Legislative Education Committees, and Superintendent of Public Instruction. The report outlines the collaborative work of the Boards, highlights accomplishments, and provides goals and…

  9. A Review of Symptomatic Lumbosacral Transitional Vertebrae: Bertolotti's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jancuska, Jeffrey M.; Spivak, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV) are increasingly recognized as a common anatomical variant associated with altered patterns of degenerative spine changes. This review will focus on the clinical significance of LSTV, disruptions in normal spine biomechanics, imaging techniques, diagnosis, and treatment. Methods A Pubmed search using the specific key words “LSTV,” “lumbosacral transitional vertebrae,” and “Bertolotti's Syndrome” was performed. The resulting group of manuscripts from our search was evaluated. Results LSTV are associated with alterations in biomechanics and anatomy of spinal and paraspinal structures, which have important implications on surgical approaches and techniques. LSTV are often inaccurately detected and classified on standard AP radiographs and MRI. The use of whole-spine images as well as geometric relationships between the sacrum and lumbar vertebra increase accuracy. Uncertainty regarding the cause, clinical significance, and treatment of LSTV persists. Some authors suggest an association between LSTV types II and IV and low back pain. Pseudoarticulation between the transverse process and the sacrum creates a “false joint” susceptible to arthritic changes and osteophyte formation potentially leading to nerve root entrapment. The diagnosis of symptomatic LSTV is considered with appropriate patient history, imaging studies, and diagnostic injections. A positive radionuclide study along with a positive effect from a local injection helps distinguish the transitional vertebra as a significant pain source. Surgical resection is reserved for a subgroup of LSTV patients who fail conservative treatment and whose pain is definitively attributed to the anomalous pseudoarticulation. Conclusions Due to the common finding of low back pain and the wide prevalence of LSTV in the general population, it is essential to differentiate between symptoms originating from an anomalous psuedoarticulation from other potential

  10. Automated quantification of lumbar vertebral kinematics from dynamic fluoroscopic sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camp, Jon; Zhao, Kristin; Morel, Etienne; White, Dan; Magnuson, Dixon; Gay, Ralph; An, Kai-Nan; Robb, Richard

    2009-02-01

    We hypothesize that the vertebra-to-vertebra patterns of spinal flexion and extension motion of persons with lower back pain will differ from those of persons who are pain-free. Thus, it is our goal to measure the motion of individual lumbar vertebrae noninvasively from dynamic fluoroscopic sequences. Two-dimensional normalized mutual information-based image registration was used to track frame-to-frame motion. Software was developed that required the operator to identify each vertebra on the first frame of the sequence using a four-point "caliper" placed at the posterior and anterior edges of the inferior and superior end plates of the target vertebrae. The program then resolved the individual motions of each vertebra independently throughout the entire sequence. To validate the technique, 6 cadaveric lumbar spine specimens were potted in polymethylmethacrylate and instrumented with optoelectric sensors. The specimens were then placed in a custom dynamic spine simulator and moved through flexion-extension cycles while kinematic data and fluoroscopic sequences were simultaneously acquired. We found strong correlation between the absolute flexionextension range of motion of each vertebra as recorded by the optoelectric system and as determined from the fluoroscopic sequence via registration. We conclude that this method is a viable way of noninvasively assessing twodimensional vertebral motion.

  11. Morphological variation of the thoracolumbar vertebrae in Macropodidae and its functional relevance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinmin; Milne, Nick; O'Higgins, Paul

    2005-11-01

    The present study was designed to investigate how the form of the marsupial thoracolumbar vertebrae varies to cope with the particular demands of diverse loading and locomotor behaviors. The vertebral columns of 10 species of Macropodidae, with various body masses and modes of locomotion, together with two other arboreal marsupials, koala and cuscus, were selected. Seventy-four three-dimensional landmark coordinates were acquired on each of the 10 last presacral vertebrae of the 70 vertebral columns. The interspecific variations of the third lumbar vertebra (L3, which approximates the mean) and the transitional patterns of the thoracolumbar segments were examined using the combined approach of generalized Procrustes analysis (GPA) and principal components analysis (PCA). The results of analyses of an individual vertebra (L3) and of the transitional patterns indicate significant interspecific differences. In the L3 study the first PC shows allometric shape variation, while the second PC seems to relate to adaptation for terrestrial versus arboreal locomotion. When the L3 vertebrae of the common spotted cuscus and koala are included for comparison, the vertebra of the tree kangaroo occupies an intermediate position between the hopping kangaroo and these arboreal marsupials. The L3 vertebrae in the arboreal marsupials possess a distinct dorsoventrally expanded vertebral body, and perpendicularly orientated spinous and transverse processes. The results of the present study suggest that vertebral shape in the kangaroo and wallaroos provides a structural adaptation to hopping through a relatively enlarged loading area and powerful lever system. In contrast, the small-sized bettongs (or rat kangaroos) have a relatively flexible column and elongated levers for the action of back muscles that extend and laterally flex the spine. The complex pattern of vertebral shape transition in the last 10 presacral vertebrae was examined using PCAs that compare between species

  12. [Lumbar hernia].

    PubMed

    Teiblum, Sandra Sofie; Hjørne, Flemming Pii; Bisgaard, Thue

    2010-03-22

    Lumbar hernia is a rare condition. Lumbar hernia should be considered a rare differential diagnosis to unexplained back pain. Symptoms are scarce and diffuse and can vary with the size and content of the hernia. As there is a 25% risk of incarceration, operation is indicated even in asymptomatic hernias. We report a case of lumbar hernia in a woman with a slow growing mass in the lumbar region. She presented with pain and a computed tomography confirmed the diagnosis. She underwent open surgery and fully recovered with recurrence within the first half year.

  13. Chondroblastoma of the thoracic vertebra.

    PubMed

    Attar, A; Ugur, H C; Caglar, Y S; Erdogan, A; Ozdemir, N

    2001-01-01

    A 48-year-old patient with interscapular pain was admitted to our clinic. MRI revealed a mass infiltrating the second thoracic vertebra and adjacent structures. No other clinical manifestations were observed in general examination. The patient underwent surgery and subtotal removal was achieved while anterior and posterior stabilisations were performed. Diagnosis was pathologically confirmed. As thoracic chondroblastoma cases are not frequent, we decided to present this case. PMID:11148083

  14. Strontium mineralization of shark vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Raoult, Vincent; Peddemors, Victor M.; Zahra, David; Howell, Nicholas; Howard, Daryl L.; de Jonge, Martin D.; Williamson, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    Determining the age of sharks using vertebral banding is a vital component of management, but the causes of banding are not fully understood. Traditional shark ageing is based on fish otolith ageing methods where growth bands are assumed to result from varied seasonal calcification rates. Here we investigate these assumptions by mapping elemental distribution within the growth bands of vertebrae from six species of sharks representing four different taxonomic orders using scanning x-ray fluorescence microscopy. Traditional visual growth bands, determined with light microscopy, were more closely correlated to strontium than calcium in all species tested. Elemental distributions suggest that vertebral strontium bands may be related to environmental variations in salinity. These results highlight the requirement for a better understanding of shark movements, and their influence on vertebral development, if confidence in age estimates is to be improved. Analysis of shark vertebrae using similar strontium-focused elemental techniques, once validated for a given species, may allow more successful estimations of age on individuals with few or no visible vertebral bands. PMID:27424768

  15. Strontium mineralization of shark vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Raoult, Vincent; Peddemors, Victor M; Zahra, David; Howell, Nicholas; Howard, Daryl L; de Jonge, Martin D; Williamson, Jane E

    2016-01-01

    Determining the age of sharks using vertebral banding is a vital component of management, but the causes of banding are not fully understood. Traditional shark ageing is based on fish otolith ageing methods where growth bands are assumed to result from varied seasonal calcification rates. Here we investigate these assumptions by mapping elemental distribution within the growth bands of vertebrae from six species of sharks representing four different taxonomic orders using scanning x-ray fluorescence microscopy. Traditional visual growth bands, determined with light microscopy, were more closely correlated to strontium than calcium in all species tested. Elemental distributions suggest that vertebral strontium bands may be related to environmental variations in salinity. These results highlight the requirement for a better understanding of shark movements, and their influence on vertebral development, if confidence in age estimates is to be improved. Analysis of shark vertebrae using similar strontium-focused elemental techniques, once validated for a given species, may allow more successful estimations of age on individuals with few or no visible vertebral bands. PMID:27424768

  16. [Lumbar hernia].

    PubMed

    Bednarek, Marcin; Bolt, Leszek; Biesiada, Zbigniew; Zub-Pokrowiecka, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Lumbar region constitutes one of the least common localizations for hernia formation. There are only slightly more than 300 cases found in English literature till the end of the 20th century, while there are only 8 cases presented in Polish literature. Exceptionally rare incidence together with diagnostic dilemma related to it made us to present cases of 2 patients operated on in the 2nd Chair of Surgery of Jagiellonian University Medical College due to lumbar hernia.

  17. Evaluation of the influence of pedicle-lengthening osteotomy on lumbar stability

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Maofeng; Zou, Jun; Zhang, Zhigang; Luo, Zongping; Yang, Huilin

    2016-01-01

    Pedicle-lengthening osteotomy (PLO) is a minimally invasive and effective surgical procedure for lumbar spinal stenosis syndrome. Compared with traditional surgery, PLO can effectively enlarge the spinal canal while minimizing the disruption of posterior anatomical structures of the lumbar vertebra, leading to reduced postoperative perineural scarring adhesion and good clinical outcomes using minimally invasive procedures. However, PLO is still in its early stages, and only a few relevant experimental and clinical studies have been reported. The present study was performed to investigate the influence of PLO on the stability of lumbar vertebrae. The results indicated that PLO can effectively enlarge the spinal canal, and no lumbar spondylolisthesis or other complications occurred in this study. Moreover, this procedure does not significantly affect the stability of the lumbar spine, suggesting a possible clinical application. PMID:27347315

  18. Pull-out strength of cemented solid versus fenestrated pedicle screws in osteoporotic vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Leichtle, C. I.; Rothstock, S.; Happel, J.; Walter, F.; Shiozawa, T.; Leichtle, U. G.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Cement augmentation of pedicle screws could be used to improve screw stability, especially in osteoporotic vertebrae. However, little is known concerning the influence of different screw types and amount of cement applied. Therefore, the aim of this biomechanical in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of cement augmentation on the screw pull-out force in osteoporotic vertebrae, comparing different pedicle screws (solid and fenestrated) and cement volumes (0 mL, 1 mL or 3 mL). Materials and Methods A total of 54 osteoporotic human cadaver thoracic and lumbar vertebrae were instrumented with pedicle screws (uncemented, solid cemented or fenestrated cemented) and augmented with high-viscosity PMMA cement (0 mL, 1 mL or 3 mL). The insertion torque and bone mineral density were determined. Radiographs and CT scans were undertaken to evaluate cement distribution and cement leakage. Pull-out testing was performed with a material testing machine to measure failure load and stiffness. The paired t-test was used to compare the two screws within each vertebra. Results Mean failure load was significantly greater for fenestrated cemented screws (+622 N; p ⩽ 0.001) and solid cemented screws (+460 N; p ⩽ 0.001) than for uncemented screws. There was no significant difference between the solid and fenestrated cemented screws (p = 0.5). In the lower thoracic vertebrae, 1 mL cement was enough to significantly increase failure load, while 3 mL led to further significant improvement in the upper thoracic, lower thoracic and lumbar regions. Conclusion Conventional, solid pedicle screws augmented with high-viscosity cement provided comparable screw stability in pull-out testing to that of sophisticated and more expensive fenestrated screws. In terms of cement volume, we recommend the use of at least 1 mL in the thoracic and 3 mL in the lumbar spine. Cite this article: C. I. Leichtle, A. Lorenz, S. Rothstock, J. Happel, F. Walter, T. Shiozawa, U. G. Leichtle. Pull

  19. Radiographic Morphometry of the Lumbar Spine in Munich Miniature Pigs.

    PubMed

    Engelke, Elisabeth C; Post, Christina; Pfarrer, Christiane D; Sager, Martin; Waibl, Helmut R

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of human spinal column disease remains high, and animal models still play important roles in prophylactic, diagnostic, and therapeutic research. Because of their similar size to humans, pigs remain an important spine model. For pigs to serve as a model for the human spine, basic similarities and differences must be understood. In this study, morphometric data of the lumbar spine of Munich miniature pigs (Troll) were recorded radiologically, evaluated, and compared with recorded human data. Whereas humans have a constant number of 5 lumbar vertebrae, Munich minipigs had 5 or 6 lumbar vertebrae. Compared with their human counterparts, the lumbar vertebral bodies of the minipigs were remarkably larger in the craniocaudal (superior-inferior) direction and considerably smaller in the dorsoventral and laterolateral directions. The porcine vertebral canal was smaller than the human vertebral canal. The spinal cord extended into the caudal part of the porcine lumbar vertebral canal and thus did not terminate as cranial, as seen in humans. The lumbar intervertebral spaces of the pig were narrower in craniocaudal direction than human intervertebral spaces. These differences need to be considered when planning surgical actions, not only to avoid pain and irreversible damage to the minipigs but also to achieve accurate scientific results. PMID:27177570

  20. 167. GENERAL VIEW DOWN 5TH AVE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST DOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    167. GENERAL VIEW DOWN 5TH AVE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST DOWN 5TH AVE. SHOWING FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, BUILDING 504, 436, 11, AND 155. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  1. PREFACE: 5th Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezinskis, G.; Bragina, L.; Colombo, P.; Frischat, G. H.; Grabis, J.; Greil, P.; Deja, J.; Kaminskas, R.; Kliava, J.; Medvids, A.; Nowak, I.; Siauciunas, R.; Valancius, Z.; Zalite, I.

    2011-12-01

    Logo This Volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering presents a selection of the contributions to the 5th Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials (BaltSilica2011) held at Riga Technical University, Riga, Latvia from 23-25 May 2011. The conference was organized by Riga Technical University (Latvia) and Kaunas University of Technology (Lithuania). The series of Baltic conferences on silicate materials was started since 2004: the first conference was held in Riga, Latvia, 2004; the second conference was held in Kaunas, Lithuania 2005; the third was held again in Riga, Latvia, 2007, and the fourth was held in Kaunas, Lithuania 2009. BaltSilica 2011 was attended by around 50 participants from Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Germany, Poland, Italy, France, Ukraine and Russia. In comparison with previous silicate materials conferences, the broadening of participating countries is an indication of the interest of scientists, engineers and students to exchange research ideas, latest results, and to find new research topics for cooperation in the fields of silicate, high temperature materials, and inorganic nanomaterials. The scientific programme included 8 invited plenary lectures 23 oral presentations and 25 posters [1]. Scientific themes covered in the conference and in this special issue: Natural and Artificial Stone Materials; Traditional and New Ceramic and Glass-Like Materials; Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials. This volume consists of 23 selected proceeding papers. The Editor of this special issue is grateful to all the contributors to BaltSilica 2011. I am also very grateful to the scientific committee, the local organizing committee, the session chairs, the referees who refereed the submitted articles to this issue, and to students from the Department of Silicate, High Temperature and Inorganic Nanomaterials Technology of the Riga Technical University who ensured the smooth running of the conference. Particular thanks goes to eight plenary

  2. Managing Haemophilia for Life: 5th Haemophilia Global Summit.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Cedric; Dolan, Gerry; Jennings, Ian; Windyga, Jerzy; Lobet, Sébastien; Rodríguez-Merchán, E Carlos; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; Jiménez-Yuste, Víctor; O'Mahony, Brian

    2015-10-01

    The 5th Haemophilia Global Summit was held in Barcelona, Spain, in September 2014. The programme was designed by an independent Scientific Steering Committee of haemophilia experts and explored issues relevant to the practical management of haemophilia, as well as key opportunities and challenges for care in the future. The topics outlined in this supplement were selected by the Scientific Steering Committee for their relevance to improving haemophilia care globally. In this supplement from the meeting, Gerry Dolan explores pharmacokinetics and dynamics in haemophilia, and Gerry Dolan and Ian Jennings jointly address the role of the laboratory in haemophilia care. The potential benefits of low-dose prophylaxis regimens for people with haemophilia in the developing world are reviewed by Jerzy Windyga, and the question of whether 'Future haemophilia research should be undertaken in the developing world' is debated by Jerzy Windyga and Cedric Hermans. Management strategies for ankle arthropathy are discussed by Sébastien Lobet and E. Carlos Rodríguez-Merchán, and the use of ultrasound for the early detection of haemophilic arthropathy is addressed by Matteo Nicola Dario Di Minno and Víctor Jiménez-Yuste. Finally, the role of patients in the future of haemophilia care is reviewed by Brian O'Mahony. PMID:26350039

  3. Managing Haemophilia for Life: 5th Haemophilia Global Summit.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Cedric; Dolan, Gerry; Jennings, Ian; Windyga, Jerzy; Lobet, Sébastien; Rodríguez-Merchán, E Carlos; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; Jiménez-Yuste, Víctor; O'Mahony, Brian

    2015-10-01

    The 5th Haemophilia Global Summit was held in Barcelona, Spain, in September 2014. The programme was designed by an independent Scientific Steering Committee of haemophilia experts and explored issues relevant to the practical management of haemophilia, as well as key opportunities and challenges for care in the future. The topics outlined in this supplement were selected by the Scientific Steering Committee for their relevance to improving haemophilia care globally. In this supplement from the meeting, Gerry Dolan explores pharmacokinetics and dynamics in haemophilia, and Gerry Dolan and Ian Jennings jointly address the role of the laboratory in haemophilia care. The potential benefits of low-dose prophylaxis regimens for people with haemophilia in the developing world are reviewed by Jerzy Windyga, and the question of whether 'Future haemophilia research should be undertaken in the developing world' is debated by Jerzy Windyga and Cedric Hermans. Management strategies for ankle arthropathy are discussed by Sébastien Lobet and E. Carlos Rodríguez-Merchán, and the use of ultrasound for the early detection of haemophilic arthropathy is addressed by Matteo Nicola Dario Di Minno and Víctor Jiménez-Yuste. Finally, the role of patients in the future of haemophilia care is reviewed by Brian O'Mahony.

  4. Measurement and Visualization of Three-Dimensional Vertebra Shape by Freehand Ultrasound Scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohyama, Kazuhiro; Yasumuro, Yoshihiro; Imura, Masataka; Manabe, Yoshitsugu; Oshiro, Osamu; Moroi, Keishichiro; Chihara, Kunihiro

    2005-06-01

    Paracentesis is a common operation for pain clinics and spinal anesthetics administration and requires empirical training and flexible skills to cope with the various cases of individual patients. We propose a method of measuring and visualizing three-dimensional vertebra shapes for assisting anesthesiologists, by an ultrasound imaging technique that is prevalent in many hospitals and has no harmful risks to the human body. The proposed system enables anesthesiologists to investigate vertebra shapes by freehand probing. Three-dimensional reconstruction and graphical rendering can be performed by monitoring the motion of the ultrasound probe and registering the scanned echography into the identical three-dimensional space. Considering the echography imaging features, volume rendering of hard tissue surfaces is achieved and interactive measurement is possible. This paper describes the practicability of the proposed method based on experimental measurement of both phantom and real lumbar vertebre and sacra.

  5. Lower Extremity Radicular Pain Caused by Entrapped Sigmoid Colon Between L5 and S1 Vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Sanghyung; Park, Noh Kyoung; Cho, Kyoung Jin; Baek, Jung Hyun; Lim, Jeong-Wook; Choi, Dongjin

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal entrapment between two vertebral bodies is very rare. In all previous cases, it occurred by major trauma. However, the bowel entrapment between two vertebral bodies without trauma has never been reported, not to mention as the cause of lower extremity radicular pain. We describe the case of an 82-year-old female patient with right lower extremity radicular pain without recent trauma history. The patient was diagnosed sigmoid colon entrapment between the L5 and S1 vertebrae by lumbar spinal computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and showed improvement in radicular pain after manual reduction of interpositioned colon during surgery. Intestinal entrapment between two vertebrae without trauma is caused by degenerative and vacuum changes of the intervertebral disc combined with the anterior longitudinal ligament injury. PMID:26619145

  6. Group-wise registration of ultrasound to CT images of human vertebrae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Sean; Mousavi, Parvin; Fichtinger, Gabor; Pichora, David; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2009-02-01

    Automatic registration of ultrasound (US) to computed tomography (CT) datasets is a challenge of considerable interest, particularly in orthopaedic and percutaneous interventions. We propose an algorithm for group-wise volume-to-volume registration of US to CT images of the lumbar spine. Each vertebra in CT is treated as a sub-volume and transformed individually. The sub-volumes are then reconstructed into a single volume. The algorithm dynamically combines simulated US reflections from the vertebrae surfaces and surrounding soft tissue in the reconstructed CT, with scaled CT data to simulate US images of the spine anatomy. The simulated US data is used to register preoperative CT data to intra-operative US images. Covariance Matrix Adaption - Evolution Strategy (CMA-ES) is utilized as the optimization strategy. The registration is tested using a phantom of the lumbar spine (L3-L5). Initial misalignments of up to 8 mm were registered with a mean target registration error of 1.87+/-0.73 mm for L3, 2.79+/-0.93 mm for L4, 1.72+/-0.70 mm for L5, and 2.08+/-0.55 mm across the entire volume. To select an appropriate optimization strategy, we performed a volume-to- volume registration of US to CT of the lumbar spine, allowing no relative motion between vertebrae. We compare the results of this registration using three optimization strategies: simplex, gradient descent and CMA-ES. CMA-ES was found to converge slower than gradient descent and simplex, but was more robust for rigid volume-to-volume registration for initial misalignments up to 20 mm.

  7. 5th Austrian Hungarian workshop on celestial mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Süli, Áron

    2011-06-01

    The 5th Hungarian-Austrian Workshop on Celestial Mechanics took place from 9th until the 10th of April 2010 in Vienna, Austria. The workshop was held in the Institute for Astronomy of Vienna University. From the Eötvös University and from the host institute experts and PhD students gathered together to discuss the challenges and new results of the actual problems of celestial mechanics. The workshop was held in the meeting room at the Sternwarte of the Vienna University located in a magnificent park in the heart of Vienna. Following the themes of the four previous events the focus for this workshop ranged from the Trojan problem, dynamics in binary star systems and exoplanetray systems. We were pleased to acknowledge the support of the host university. The talks were characterized by a large spectrum, which is typical of the workshops on celestial mechanics. Several talks discussed different aspects of the trojan problem, such as the three Trojan Problem, dynamics of trojan-like planets in binary stars, the frequencies of their motion around the triangular lagrangian points, etc. Several speakers focused on the formation of planetary systems and on the field of exoplanetary systems, like exoplanetary systems in higher order mean motion resonances, formation of planets in binary systems, stability of exomoons etc. Some of the presentation used sophisticated mathematical tools in order to understand mean motion resonances, the Sitnikov problem applying the KAM and the Nekhoroshev theorem. The theme of a number of talks was the motion of Solar System bodies: dynamics of the newly discovered moons of Pluto and of near-Earth asteroids. General problems were also addressed, among others chaos in Hamiltonian systems, adaptive Lie-integration method and iterative solution approximation to the generalised Sitnikov problem.

  8. PREFACE: 5th Workshop of Young Researchers in Astronomy & Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forgács-Dajka, Emese; Plachy, Emese; Molnár, László

    2010-04-01

    The 5th Workshop of Young Researchers in Astronomy and Astrophysics was held on 2-4 September 2009 at the Eötvös University in Budapest, Hungary. This meeting fits into a conference series which can already be considered a tradition where the younger generation has the opportunity to present their work. The event was also a great opportunity for senior astronomers and physicists to form new connections with the next generation of researchers. The selection of invited speakers concentrated on the researchers currently most active in the field, mostly on a post-doctoral/tenure/fresh faculty position level. A number of senior experts and PhD students were also invited. As the conference focused on people rather than a specific field, various topics from theoretical physics to planetology were covered in three days. The programme was divided into six sections: Physics of the Sun and the Solar System Gravity and high-energy physics Galactic and extragalactic astronomy, cosmology Celestial mechanics and exoplanets Infrared astronomy and young stars Variable stars We had the pleasure of welcoming 10 invited review talks from senior researchers and 42 contributed talks and a poster from the younger generation. Participants also enjoyed the hospitality of the pub Pál at the Pálvölgyi-cave after giving, hearing and disputing countless talks. Brave souls even descended to the unbuilt, adventurous Mátyásvölgyi-cave. Memories of the conference were shadowed though. Péter Csizmadia, one of our participants and three other climbers attempted a first ever ascent to the Ren Zhong Feng peak in Sichuan, China, but they never returned from the mountains. Péter departed to China shortly after the conference, with best wishes from participants and friends. We dedicate this volume to his memory. The organisers thankthe Physics Doctoral School of Eötvös University for its hospitality. The workshop was supported by the Mecenatúra and Polányi Mihály Programmes of the National

  9. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  10. Retroperitoneal approach for lumbar lateral meningocele--case report.

    PubMed

    Miyata, M; Yamasaki, S; Yoshida, T; Matsubara, M; Okamura, M; Hirayama, A; Tamaki, N

    1995-12-01

    A 29-year-old female with neurofibromatosis presented with a right lumbar lateral meningocele. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) showed a huge right retroperitoneal cyst expanding anterolaterally and displacing the right kidney. CT following myelography disclosed the cyst expanding through a wide defect of the right pedicles of the T-12 and L-1 vertebrae. The cyst was resected through a retroperitoneal approach with right flank oblique incision. Postoperatively, cerebrospinal fluid leakage occurred, which improved after lumboperitoneal shunt. Careful screening for lateral meningocele, including the lumbar region, should be undertaken in a patient with neurofibromatosis who presents with vertebral anomalies.

  11. Automated vertebra identification in CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehm, Matthias; Klinder, Tobias; Kneser, Reinhard; Lorenz, Cristian

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we describe and compare methods for automatically identifying individual vertebrae in arbitrary CT images. The identification is an essential precondition for a subsequent model-based segmentation, which is used in a wide field of orthopedic, neurological, and oncological applications, e.g., spinal biopsies or the insertion of pedicle screws. Since adjacent vertebrae show similar characteristics, an automated labeling of the spine column is a very challenging task, especially if no surrounding reference structures can be taken into account. Furthermore, vertebra identification is complicated due to the fact that many images are bounded to a very limited field of view and may contain only few vertebrae. We propose and evaluate two methods for automatically labeling the spine column by evaluating similarities between given models and vertebral objects. In one method, object boundary information is taken into account by applying a Generalized Hough Transform (GHT) for each vertebral object. In the other method, appearance models containing mean gray value information are registered to each vertebral object using cross and local correlation as similarity measures for the optimization function. The GHT is advantageous in terms of computational performance but cuts back concerning the identification rate. A correct labeling of the vertebral column has been successfully performed on 93% of the test set consisting of 63 disparate input images using rigid image registration with local correlation as similarity measure.

  12. Age changes in the bone density and structure of the lumbar vertebral column.

    PubMed Central

    Twomey, L; Taylor, J; Furniss, B

    1983-01-01

    Old age is associated with a decline in bone density in lumbar vertebral bodies in both sexes, although the rate and amount of the decline is greatest in females. The bone translucency index method, described in this study, is a sensitive method of estimating bone density. The primary reason for this decline is the significant decrease in the number of transverse trabeculae of lumbar vertebrae in old age. It is postulated that the increase in vertebral end plate concavity and the increased horizontal dimensions of lumbar vertebral bodies in old age follows as a direct consequence of the selective loss of the transverse trabeculae. Images Fig. 2 PMID:6833115

  13. Determination of the Colour Preferences of 5th Grade Students in Relation to Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uysal, Hüseyin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine the colour preferences of 5th grade students in relation to the concept of gender. The study was conducted with the 19 5th grade students studying at Central District of Bartin Province in 2015 to 2016 academic year. Throughout the research, quantitative research method had been used while survey had…

  14. [Effects of ovariectomy and estradiol on microarchitecture and biomechanical properties in rat vertebrae].

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiaolin; Yun, Xiaofei; Chen, Tianhua; Chen, Mengshi; He, Xueling; Long, Weifu; Chen, Shiqian; Li, Liang

    2008-06-01

    This study was aimed at observing the effects of ovariectomy and estradiol on the microarchitecture of cancellous bone and exploring the influence of microarchitectural change on the biomechanical properties. Thirty 6-month-old unmated female SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (10 rat each): sham-operated control group (Sham), ovariectomized group (OVX)and Estradiol Benzoate treated group (EBT). All rats were housed in standard environmental conditions. Five months after operation, the rats were sacrificed. The biomechanical properties of the third lumbar vertebras (L3) were measured with compression testing in vitro. Micro-CT scanning was performed on the fourth lumbar vertebras (L4) in vitro. In comparison with the corresponding variables of Sham, the bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and the trabecular number (Tb. N) of OVX were reduced remarkably, and the trabecular separation (Tb. Sp) and the structural model index (SMI) of OVX were enhanced obviously. These facts implicated that the bone trabecular plate-like structure of OVX were decreased. BV/TV, Tb. N and the trabecular thickness (Tb. Th) of EBT were greater than those of OVX. Tb. Sp and SMI of EBT were much smaller than those of OVX. The results of mechanical test showed that the maximum forioe (Fmax), the maximum stress (sigmamax) and the elastic modeulus (E) of the lumbar vertebral cancellous bone of OVX were declined sharply, while the aforesaid biomechanical index of EBT was improved distinctly. The performance of three-dimensional micro-CT and the mechanical testing to assess microarchitecture of cancellous bone are useful for evaluating the state of osteoporosis and the antiosteoporotic effect of agents. PMID:18693445

  15. [Endovascular repair of iliocaval arteriovenous fistula complicating lumbar disc surgery].

    PubMed

    Ben Jemaa, H; Maalej, A; Lazzez, K; Jemal, H; Karray, S; Ben Mahfoudh, K

    2016-05-01

    Vascular complications of lumbar disc surgery are rare. Few cases have been reported. Arteriovenous fistulas are the most common. They are due to anatomical relationships between the last lumbar vertebrae, the corresponding discs, and the iliac vessels; degenerative lesions of the intervertebral discs facilitate instrumental vessel perforation, and operative difficulty. Computed tomography is particularly accurate for making the diagnosis. Treatment strategies consist in surgery or endovascular management. Percutaneous endovascular treatment using a stent-graft is a reasonable option for treating arteriovenous fistula. We describe the case of a 50-year-old patient who developed an iliocaval arteriovenous fistula following lumbar disc hernia surgery. The lesion was excluded by a stent-graft. The postoperative period was uneventful. PMID:26920402

  16. Some mice feature 5th pharyngeal arch arteries and double-lumen aortic arch malformations.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Stefan H; Weninger, Wolfgang J

    2012-01-01

    A 5th pair of pharyngeal arch arteries (PAAs) has never been identified with certainty in mice. Murines in general are considered to not develop a 5th pair. If true, the significance of the mouse as a model for researching the genesis of malformations of the great intrathoracic arteries is limited. We aimed to investigate whether mouse embryos develop a 5th pair of PAAs and to identify malformations known to be caused by defective remodelling of the 5th PAAs. We employed the high-resolution episcopic microscopy method for creating digital volume data and three-dimensional (3D) computer models of the great intrathoracic arteries of 30 mouse embryos from days 12-12.5 post conception and 180 mouse fetuses from days 14.5 and 15.5 post conception. The 3D models of the fetuses were screened for the presence of a double-lumen aortic arch malformation. We identified such a malformation in 1 fetus. The 3D models of the embryos were analysed for the presence of 5th PAAs. Six of the 30 embryos (20%) showed a 5th PAA bilaterally, and an additional 9 (30%) showed a 5th PAA unilaterally. Our results prove that some mice do develop a 5th pair of PAAs. They also show that malformations which occur rarely in humans and result from defective remodelling of the left 5th PAA can be identified in mice as well. Thus, the mouse does represent an excellent model for researching the mechanisms driving PAA remodelling and the genesis of malformations of the great intrathoracic arteries.

  17. Chondromyxoid fibroma of two thoracic vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Bruder, E; Zanetti, M; Boos, N; von Hochstetter, A R

    1999-05-01

    We report on a case of chondromyxoid fibroma involving two adjacent thoracic vertebrae with features of aggressive behaviour on radiographs, CT and MRI. Histology revealed typical chondromyxoid fibroma with unusually coarse calcifications. Chondromyxoid fibroma of the spine is rare, and only 30 of these tumours have been reported so far. Involvement of two contiguous vertebral bodies by chondromyxoid fibroma, as reported here, appears exceptional. PMID:10424337

  18. Images of the Rat bone, Vertebra and Test phantom Using Diffraction-Enhanced Imaging Technique with 20, 30 and 40 keV Synchrotron X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Donepudi V.; Zhong, Zhong; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Akatsuka, Takao; Takeda, Tohoru; Tromba, Giuliana

    2007-01-01

    Images of rat bone of different age groups (8, 56 and 78 weeks), lumbar vertebra and calcium hydroxyapatite phantom are obtained utilizing the diffraction-enhanced imaging technique. Images obtained with DEI are of superior quality and this novel technique may be an excellent choice for better visualization of the microstructure and the embedded spongiosa. Our motivation is to develop the optimizing tomography with the use of the data obtained at multiple energies.

  19. 6. 5TH FLOOR, VIEW NORTH OF KETTLE SOAP STORAGE TANKS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. 5TH FLOOR, VIEW NORTH OF KETTLE SOAP STORAGE TANKS (RIGHT) AND WEIGH HOPPERS OVER SITES OF REMOVED AMALGAMATORS (LEFT) - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  20. 17. 4th floor roof, view south, 4th and 5th floor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. 4th floor roof, view south, 4th and 5th floor setback to left and atrium structure to right - Sheffield Farms Milk Plant, 1075 Webster Avenue (southwest corner of 166th Street), Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  1. 25. April 5th one month's work. View looking north. Storehouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. April 5th one month's work. View looking north. Storehouse #1 under construction, storehouse #2 site work in progress toward foreground. - U.S. Navy Fleet Supply Base, Storehouse No. 1, 830 Third Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  2. Efficacy of traditional treatment regimen on Kati Shoola with special reference to lumbar spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ediriweera, E. R. H. S. S.; Gunathilka, H. D. P.; Weerasinghe, K. D. C. M.; Kalawana, O. T. M. R. K. S. B.

    2013-01-01

    According to Ayurveda, Kati Shoola is a disease with pain in lumbar region. Lumbar spondylolisthesis, anterior displacement of a vertebra or the vertebral column in relation to the vertebrae below, is one of the common causes. Current case study was carried out at Ayurveda Teaching hospital, Borella, to evaluate the efficacy of a treatment regimen used by Sri Lankan traditional physician family “Weerasinghe.” A 59-year-old female with a 9-month history of lumbar spondylolisthesis was treated with this regimen. The patient had progressive pain in left lower back, right and left buttocks, and difficulty in bending forward over 5°. X-ray of lumbo sacral region indicated that patient was suffering from Grade 3 lumbar spondylolisthesis. She was treated for 65 days with four treatment packages consisting of 13 prepared medicines. The response to the treatment was recorded and therapeutic effects were evaluated through symptomatic relief. Clinical symptoms were significantly reduced and degree of anterior flexion increased from 5° to 90°. However, X-rays indicated that the patient was still suffering from Grade 3 lumbar spondylolisthesis. This regimen is effective in successfully treating Kati Shoola (lumbar spondylolisthesis) by helping to reduce the symptoms and improving the degree of anterior flexion. PMID:24049411

  3. Clinical and Radiologic Analysis of Posterior Apophyseal Ring Separation Associated with Lumbar Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jung-Sik; Rhee, Woo-Tack; Kim, Woo-Jae; Ha, Seong-Il; Lim, Jae-Hyeon

    2013-01-01

    Objective We analyzed the clinical and radiologic features of posterior apophyseal ring separation (PARS) with lumbar disc herniation and suggest the proper management options according to the PARS characteristics. Methods We reviewed case series of patients with PARS who underwent surgery of lumbar disc herniation. Preoperative symptoms, neurologic status, Body Mass Index, preoperative and postoperative Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Korean-Oswestry Disability Index (K-ODI) scores, operation types were obtained. PARS size, locations, the degree of resection were assessed. Results PARS was diagnosed in 109 (7.5%) patients among 1448 patients given surgical treatment for single level lumbar disc herniation. There were 55 (50.5%) small PARS and 54 (49.5%) large PARS. Among the large PARS group, 15 (27.8%) had lower endplate PARS of upper vertebra at the level of disc herniation. Thirty-nine (72.2%) were upper endplate PARS of lower vertebra. Among the group with upper endplate PARS of lower vertebra, unresected PARS was diagnosed in 12 (30.8%) cases and resected PARS was diagnosed in 27 (69.2%) cases. VAS and K-ODI scores changes were 3.6±2.9 and 5.4±6.4 in the unresected PARS group, 5.8±2.1 and 11.3±7.1 in the resected PARS group. The group with upper endplate PARS of lower vertebra showed significant difference of VAS (p=0.01) and K-ODI (p=0.013) score changes between unresected and resected PARS groups. Conclusion The large PARS of upper endplate in lower vertebra should be removed during the surgery of lumbar disc herniation. High level or bilateral side of PARS should be widely decompressed and arthrodesis procedures are necessary if there is a possibility of secondary instability. PMID:23634263

  4. Transverse plane of apical vertebra of structural thoracic curve: vertebra displacement versus vertebral deformation.

    PubMed

    Kotwicki, Tomasz; Napiontek, Marek; Nowakowski, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    CT transversal scans of the trunk provided at the level of Th8 or Th9 (apical vertebra) of 23 patients with structural thoracic scoliosis were reviewed. The following parameters were studied: 1) alpha angle formed by the axis of vertebra and the axis of spinous process, 2) beta concave and beta convex angle between the spinous process and the left and right transverse process respectively, 3) gamma concave and gamma convex angle between the axis of vertebra and the left and right transverse process respectively, 4) rotation angle to the sagittal plane according to Aaro and Dahlborn, 5) Cobb angle. Values of measured parameters demonstrated a common pattern of intravertebral deformity: counter clockwise deviation of the spinous process (alpha angle 15,0 +/-8,5 degrees), beta concave (69,8 +/-8,5 degrees) significantly greater than beta convex (38,8 +/-8,5 degrees), gamma concave (54,3 +/-7,8 degrees) not different from gamma convex (56,0 +/-8,0 degrees). Strong linear positive correlation between alpha angle and Aaro-Dahlborn angle was observed (r=0,78, p<0,05). Changes in morphology of apical vertebra due to intravertebral bone remodelling followed the vertebral spatial displacement and there existed a linear correlation in between. The two processes develop in opposite directions. PMID:17108421

  5. Mechanical implications of pneumatic neck vertebrae in sauropod dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz-Wings, Daniela; Meyer, Christian A.; Frey, Eberhard; Manz-Steiner, Hans-Rudolf; Schumacher, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    The pre-sacral vertebrae of most sauropod dinosaurs were surrounded by interconnected, air-filled diverticula, penetrating into the bones and creating an intricate internal cavity system within the vertebrae. Computational finite-element models of two sauropod cervical vertebrae now demonstrate the mechanical reason for vertebral pneumaticity. The analyses show that the structure of the cervical vertebrae leads to an even distribution of all occurring stress fields along the vertebrae, concentrated mainly on their external surface and the vertebral laminae. The regions between vertebral laminae and the interior part of the vertebral body including thin bony struts and septa are mostly unloaded and pneumatic structures are positioned in these regions of minimal stress. The morphology of sauropod cervical vertebrae was influenced by strongly segmented axial neck muscles, which require only small attachment areas on each vertebra, and pneumatic epithelia that are able to resorb bone that is not mechanically loaded. The interaction of these soft tissues with the bony tissue of the vertebrae produced lightweight, air-filled vertebrae in which most stresses were borne by the external cortical bone. Cervical pneumaticity was therefore an important prerequisite for neck enlargement in sauropods. Thus, we expect that vertebral pneumaticity in other parts of the body to have a similar role in enabling gigantism. PMID:19801376

  6. Automatic determination of the imaging plane in lumbar MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaki, Tsurumaki; Lee, Yongbum; Tsai, Du-Yih; Sekiya, Masaru; Kazama, Kiyoko

    2006-03-01

    In this paper we describe a method for assisting radiological technologists in their routine work to automatically determine the imaging plane in lumbar MRI. The method is first to recognize the spinal cord and the intervertebral disk (ID) from the lumbar vertebra 3-plane localizer image, and then the imaging plane is automatically determined according to the recognition results. To determine the imaging plane, the spinal cord and the ID are automatically recognized from the lumbar vertebra 3-plane localizer image with a series of image processing techniques. The proposed method consists of three major steps. First, after removing the air and fat regions from the 3-plane localizer image by use of histogram analysis, the rachis region is specified with Sobel edge detection filter. Second, the spinal cord and the ID were respectively extracted from the specified rachis region making use of global thresholding and the line detection filter. Finally, the imaging plane is determined by finding the straight line between the spinal cord and the ID with the Hough transform. Image data of 10 healthy volunteers were used for investigation. To validate the usefulness of our proposed method, manual determination of the imaging plane was also conducted by five experienced radiological technologists. Our experimental results showed that the concordance rate between the manual setting and automatic determination reached to 90%. Moreover, a remarkable reduction in execution time for imaging-plane determination was also achieved.

  7. Dynamic cortex stripping for vertebra evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stieger, James; Burns, Joseph E.; Yao, Jianhua; Summers, Ronald M.

    2015-03-01

    Vertebral cortex removal through cancellous bone reconstruction (CBR) algorithms on CT has been shown to enhance the detection rate of bone metastases by radiologists and reduce average reading time per case. Removal of the cortical bone provides an unobstructed view of the inside of vertebrae without any anomalous distractions. However, these algorithms rely on the assumption that the cortical bone of vertebrae can be removed without the identification of the endosteal cortical margin. We present a method for the identification of the endosteal cortical margin based on vertebral models and CT intensity information. First, triangular mesh models are created using the marching cubes algorithm. A search region is established along the normal of the surface and the image gradient is calculated at every point along the search region. The location with the greatest image gradient is selected as the corresponding point on the endosteal cortical margin. In order to analyze the strength of this method, ground truth and control models were also created. Our method was shown to have a significantly reduce the average error from 0.80 mm +/- 0.14 mm to 0.65 mm +/- 0.17 mm (p <0.0001) when compared to erosion. This method can potentially improve CBR algorithms, which improve visualization of cancellous bone lesions such as metastases, by more accurately identifying the inner wall of the vertebral cortex.

  8. The Relation Between Rotation Deformity and Nerve Root Stress in Lumbar Scoliosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ho-Joong; Lee, Hwan-Mo; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Chun, Heoung-Jae; Kang, Kyoung-Tak

    Even though several finite element models of lumbar spine were introduced, there has been no model including the neural structure. Therefore, the authors made the novel lumbar spine finite element model including neural structure. Using this model, we investigated the relation between the deformity pattern and nerve root stress. Two lumbar models with different types of curve pattern (lateral bending and lateral bending with rotation curve) were made. In the model of lateral bending curves without rotation, the principal compressive nerve root stress on the concave side was greater than the principal tensile stress on the convex side at the apex vertebra. Contrarily, in the lateral bending curve with rotational deformity, the nerve stress on the convex side was higher than that on the concave side. Therefore, this study elicit that deformity pattern could have significantly influence on the nerve root stress in the lumbar spine.

  9. Differential diagnosis of multiple vertebral compression: butterfly vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Ozaras, Nihal; Gumussu, Kevser; Demir, Saliha Eroglu; Rezvani, Aylin

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] A butterfly vertebra is a rare congenital anomaly resulting from a symmetric fusion defect. Only a few cases of butterfly vertebra have been described. This anomaly may be isolated or associated with Pfeiffer, Jarcho-Levins, Crouzon, or Alagille syndrome. [Subject and Methods] We herein describe a 38-year-old man who presented with neck and low back pain and was found to have butterfly vertebrae at the T9 and L3 levels. He also had Behçet’s disease and psoriasis. [Results] The patient’s symptoms improved with analgesics and physiotherapy. [Conclusion] To our knowledge, butterfly vertebrae at two levels have never been reported. Butterfly vertebrae may be confused with vertebral fractures in lateral radiographs, and awareness of this anomaly is important for a correct diagnosis. PMID:26696746

  10. Differential diagnosis of multiple vertebral compression: butterfly vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Ozaras, Nihal; Gumussu, Kevser; Demir, Saliha Eroglu; Rezvani, Aylin

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] A butterfly vertebra is a rare congenital anomaly resulting from a symmetric fusion defect. Only a few cases of butterfly vertebra have been described. This anomaly may be isolated or associated with Pfeiffer, Jarcho-Levins, Crouzon, or Alagille syndrome. [Subject and Methods] We herein describe a 38-year-old man who presented with neck and low back pain and was found to have butterfly vertebrae at the T9 and L3 levels. He also had Behçet's disease and psoriasis. [Results] The patient's symptoms improved with analgesics and physiotherapy. [Conclusion] To our knowledge, butterfly vertebrae at two levels have never been reported. Butterfly vertebrae may be confused with vertebral fractures in lateral radiographs, and awareness of this anomaly is important for a correct diagnosis. PMID:26696746

  11. Morphological and postural sexual dimorphism of the lumbar spine facilitates greater lordosis in females.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Jeannie F; Sparrey, Carolyn J; Been, Ella; Kramer, Patricia A

    2016-07-01

    Previous work suggests females are evolutionarily adapted to have greater lumbar lordosis than males to aid in pregnancy load-bearing, but no consensus exists. To explore further sex-differences in the lumbar spine, and to understand contradictions in the literature, we conducted a cross-sectional retrospective study of sex-differences in lumbar spine morphology and sacral orientation. In addition, our sample includes data for separate standing and supine samples of males and females to examine potential sex-differences in postural loading on lumbosacral morphology. We measured sagittal lumbosacral morphology on 200 radiographs. Measurements include: lumbar angle (L1-S1), lumbar vertebral body and disc wedging angles, sacral slope and pelvic incidence. Lumbar angle, representative of lordotic curvature between L1 and S1, was 7.3° greater in females than males, when standing. There were no significant sex-differences in lumbar angle when supine. This difference in standing lumbar angle can be explained by greater lordotic wedging of the lumbar vertebrae (L1-L5) in females. Additionally, sacral slope was greater in females than males, when standing. There were no significant sex-differences in pelvic incidence. Our results support that females have greater lumbar lordosis than males when standing, but not when supine - suggesting a potentially greater range of motion in the female spine. Furthermore, sex-differences in the lumbar spine appear to be supported by postural differences in sacral-orientation and morphological differences in the vertebral body wedging. A better understanding of sex-differences in lumbosacral morphology may explain sex-differences in spinal conditions, as well as promote necessary sex-specific treatments. PMID:26916466

  12. Chordoma of the Lumbar Spine Presenting as Sciatica and Treated with Vertebroplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Somenath; Bodhey, Narendra Kuber Gupta, Arun Kumar; Periakaruppan, Alagappan

    2010-12-15

    The lumbar spine is a less common location for chordoma. Here we describe a 44-year-old woman presenting with pain due to a L4 vertebral expansile lesion that caused significant canal stenosis and neural foraminal compromise. Vertebroplasty was performed and resulted in immediate pain relief. For patients with painful lumbar chordoma who are unwilling to undergo surgery, vertebroplasty can play a palliative role as in patients with other vertebral lesions. Treating pain and stabilizing vertebra by way of vertebroplasty in a case of chordoma has not yet been reported.

  13. The 5th edition of the Roma-BZCAT. A short presentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massaro, E.; Maselli, A.; Leto, C.; Marchegiani, P.; Perri, M.; Giommi, P.; Piranomonte, S.

    2015-05-01

    The 5th edition of the Roma-BZCAT Multifrequency Catalogue of Blazars is available in a printed version and online at the ASDC website (http://www.asdc.asi.it/bzcat); it is also in the NED database. It presents several relevant changes with respect to the past editions which are briefly described in this paper.

  14. Oral Persuasion: A Saleable Work Skill. Occupation Simulation Packet. Grades 5th-6th.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Dennis W.

    This teacher's guide contains simulated work experiences for 5th and 6th grade students using the isolated skill concept - oral persuasion. Teacher instructions include objectives, evaluation, and sequence of activities. The guide contains pre-tests and post-tests with instructions and answer keys. Two pre-skill activities are suggested, such as…

  15. A Longitudinal Study of a 5th Grade Science Curriculum Based on the 5E Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Timothy P.; Schroeder, Carolyn; Tolson, Homer; Huang, Tse-Yang; Williams, Omah M.

    2014-01-01

    The Center for Mathematics and Science Education at Texas A&M University contracted with Region 4 Education Service Center (ESC) and a large, diverse school district to conduct a longitudinal study from 2005-2009. The state achievement test scores of 5th graders who were taught using a Grade 5 science textbook designed by Region 4 ESC were…

  16. Successfully Promoting 21st Century Online Research Skills: Interventions in 5th-Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsley, Tara L.; Cassady, Jerrell C.; Tancock, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    This quantitative study was developed to explore the ability to impact elementary student 21st Century online research skills with a planned classroom intervention curriculum. The repeated measures quasi-experimental study randomly assigned all 5th grade classes in a Midwestern, suburban school (n = 418) to a 12-week intervention or control…

  17. A Network Sets Things in Motion: TEDD Celebrates its 5(th) Anniversary.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    At the Annual Meeting at ZHAW Waedenswil on 22 October 2015, the TEDD-Network (Tissue Engineering for Drug Development and Substance Testing) celebrated its 5(th) anniversary. Since its foundation, TEDD has become an internationally renowned competence centre and includes currently 91 members from academia and industry. They cover the entire development and value chain. PMID:26671055

  18. The 5th World Environmental Education Congress, 2009: A Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jickling, Bob; Sauve, Lucie; Briere, Laurence; Niblett, Blair; Root, Emily

    2010-01-01

    This paper contextualizes the 5th World Environmental Education Congress, discusses the theoretical underpinnings of the Congress theme "Earth Our Common Home," and relates this theorizing to the research project that was woven through the Congress. We provide a rationale for engaging in this research project, as an invitation for Congress…

  19. 10. Interior view, working house, scale floor (5th level). View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Interior view, working house, scale floor (5th level). View facing across floor toward no. 2 scale and garner. Tile structure at left center is weighmaster's shack; view facing east. - Saint Anthony Elevator No. 3, 620 Malcom Avenue, Southeast, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  20. Socially, Developmentally, and Academically Appropriate Prevention Curriculum for 5th Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harthun, Mary L.; Dustman, Patricia A.; Reeves, Leslie J.; Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Hecht, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a process in which program designers, classroom teachers, and students worked together to adapt the 7th grade "keepin' it REAL" prevention curriculum to a developmentally, socially, and academically appropriate curriculum for 5th graders. A Community-Based Participatory Research methodology (CBPR), combined with a 9-step…

  1. The Effect of Progressive Sentence Development Activities on 5th Graders' Description Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamzadayi, Ergun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of progressive sentence development activities on 5th graders' description skills. The study was conducted based on the pretest-posttest quasi-experimental model with a control group. A total of 58 students participated in the study; 29 in the control group, and 29 in the experimental group. The…

  2. Vocabulary and Syntactic Knowledge Factors in 5th Grade Students' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokhtari, Kouider; Niederhauser, Dale S.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined 5th grade students' levels of vocabulary knowledge and syntactic awareness relative to their reading comprehension performance. The aim was to explore the contributions of vocabulary and syntactic awareness as potential sources of reading comprehension difficulty for these readers. Overall, we found that both vocabulary…

  3. 9. 5TH FLOOR, INTERIOR DETAIL TO EAST OF SOAP BIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. 5TH FLOOR, INTERIOR DETAIL TO EAST OF SOAP BIN No. 4: UPPER SCREWS MOVED SOAP CHIPS HORIZONTALLY FROM BIN TO BIN; LOWER LEFT-AND RIGHT-HAND SCREWS MOVED CHIPS TO CHUTE LEADING TO 3RD FLOOR SOAP MILLS - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  4. 78 FR 53454 - Filing Dates for the Louisiana Special Elections in the 5th Congressional District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION Filing Dates for the Louisiana Special Elections in the 5th Congressional District AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of filing dates for special election. SUMMARY: Louisiana has...

  5. Urban 5th Graders Conceptions during a Place-Based Inquiry Unit on Watersheds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endreny, Anna Henderson

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine how 33 urban 5th grade students' science conceptions changed during a place-based inquiry unit on watersheds. Research on watershed and place-based education was used as a framework to guide the teaching of the unit as well as the research study. A teacher-researcher designed the curriculum, taught the unit and…

  6. An Investigation of Science and Technology Teachers' Views on the 5th Grade Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dasdemir, Ikramettin

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the science and technology teachers' views on the implementation of 5th grade science course. Open-ended questions were used as a data collection tool. The study sample consisted of 28 science and technology teachers working in Erzurum in 2012-2013 education year. The data gathered were analysed via content…

  7. Effects of temperature and modified atmospheres on diapausing 5th instar codling moth metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diapausing 5th instars of codling moth, Cydia pomonella, are serious quarantine pests of in-shell walnuts. Previous research indicates that heat treatments in combination with high concentrations of carbon dioxide and low concentrations of oxygen may be effective for controlling this pest in walnuts...

  8. Morphometrical dimensions of the sheep thoracolumbar vertebrae as seen on digitised CT images.

    PubMed

    Mageed, Mahmoud; Berner, Dagmar; Jülke, Henriette; Hohaus, Christian; Brehm, Walter; Gerlach, Kerstin

    2013-09-01

    The sheep spine is widely used as a model for preclinical research in human medicine to test new spinal implants and surgical procedures. Therefore, precise morphometric data are needed. The present study aimed to provide computed tomographic (CT) morphometry of sheep thoracolumbar spine. Five adult normal Merino sheep were included in this study. Sheep were anaesthetised and positioned in sternal recumbency. Subsequently, transverse and sagittal images were obtained using a multi-detector-row helical CT scanner. Measurements of the vertebral bodies, pedicles, intervertebral disc and transverse processes were performed with dedicated software. Vertebral bodies and the spinal canal were wider than they were deep, most obviously in the lumbar vertebrae. The intervertebral discs were as much as 57.4% thicker in the lumbar than in the thoracic spine. The pedicles were higher and longer than they were wide over the entire thoracolumbar spine. In conclusion, the generated data can serve as a CT reference for the ovine thoracolumbar spine and may be helpful in using sheep spine as a model for human spinal research.

  9. Lumbar spinal angiolipoma: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Konya, Deniz; Ozgen, Serdar; Kurtkaya, Ozlem; Pamir, Necmettin M

    2006-06-01

    Spinal angiolipomas are extremely rare benign tumors composed of mature lipomatous and angiomatous elements. Most are symptomatic due to progressive spinal cord or root compression. This article describes the case of a 60-year-old woman who presented with a 6-month history of low back pain radiating to her right leg. The pain was multisegmental. The condition had worsened with time. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging revealed a dorsal epidural mass at L5 and erosion of the lamina of the L5 vertebra. Laminectomy was performed, and an extradural tumor was totally excised. Neuropathologic examination identified it as a lumbar spinal angiolipoma. There was no evidence of recurrence in follow-up 12 months later. This rare clinical entity must be considered in the differential diagnosis for any spinal epidural lesion.

  10. Laparoscopic lumbar hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Madan, Atul K; Ternovits, Craig A; Speck, Karen E; Pritchard, F Elizabeth; Tichansky, David S

    2006-04-01

    Lumbar hernias are rare clinical entities that often pose a challenge for repair. Because of the surrounding anatomy, adequate surgical herniorraphy is often difficult. Minimally invasive surgery has become an option for these hernias. Herein, we describe two patients with lumbar hernias (one with a recurrent traumatic hernia and one with an incisional hernia). Both of these hernias were successfully repaired laparoscopically.

  11. Anatomic variation of the 5th extensor tendon compartment and extensor digiti minimi tendon.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toshikazu; Moran, Steven L; Zhao, Chunfeng; Zobitz, Mark E; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C

    2007-08-01

    Anatomic variation within the 5th extensor compartment may contribute to the development of tenosynovitis and limit the usefulness of the extensor digiti minimi (EDM) for tendon transfer. The purpose of this study was to assess the anatomic variation of the EDM tendon and its surrounding retinaculum, with particular attention to anatomical variation between specimens. Forty-one fresh cadaver hands were dissected. The length of the 5th compartment retinaculum was noted. The incidence of an intercompartmental septum was noted in each specimen as well as the type of tendinous attachments present between the EDM and extensor digitorum communis (EDC) tendons. The presence and length of any accessory retinacular bands distal to the edge of proper extensor retinaculum was also noted. Only one specimen contained a single EDM tendon, while 71% (n = 29) of specimens contained two slips and 23% (n = 9) had three slips; 24% (n = 10) of EDC tendons had no slip to the small finger, while 61% (n = 25) of specimens had a single slip to the small finger. The EDC's contribution to the small finger was found to be an independent tendon in 42% of cases (n = 17), while 34% (n = 14) of specimens were found to have a common EDC slip, which branched to both the ring and small finger. Three EDM tendons divided distal to the extensor retinaculum, while the remaining EDM tendons divided beneath or proximal to the extensor retinaculum. Seventy-three percent (n = 30) of the specimens had an accessory retinacular band surrounding the EDM tendon identified at the base of the 5th metacarpal. Eighty-eight percent (n = 36) of hands had a septum between the EDM slips. The surgeon should be aware of variability within the 5th dorsal compartment in cases of trauma and in cases of tendon transfer. In our series 30 of 41 specimens were noted to contain an accessory dorsal retinacular band surrounding the EDM and 36 specimens were noted to contain a septum within the 5th compartment. The presence of an

  12. Instantaneous frequency measurement by in-fiber 0.5th order fractional differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poveda-Wong, L.; Carrascosa, A.; Cuadrado-Laborde, C.; Cruz, J. L.; Díez, A.; Andrés, M. V.

    2016-07-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the possibility to retrieve the instantaneous frequency profile of a given temporal light pulse by in-fiber fractional order differentiation of 0.5th-order. The signal's temporal instantaneous frequency profile is obtained by simple dividing two temporal intensity profiles, namely the intensities of the input and output pulses of a spectrally-shifted fractional order differentiation. The results are supported by the experimental measurement of the instantaneous frequency profile of a mode-locked laser.

  13. [Whiplash injury analysis of cervical vertebra by finite element method].

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Li, Zheng-Dong; Shao, Yu; Chen, Yi-Jiu

    2015-02-01

    Finite element method (FEM) is an effective mathematical method for stress analysis, and has been gradually applied in the study of biomechanics of human body structures. This paper reviews the construction, development, materials assignment and verification of FEM model of cervical vertebra, and it also states the research results of injury mechanism of whiplash injury and biomechanical response analysis of the cervical vertebra using FEM by researchers at home and abroad. PMID:26058135

  14. Software-assisted morphometry and volumetry of the lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Narloch, Jerzy; Glinkowski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to measure volumes of the lumbar vertebral bodies with use dedicated Computed Tomography (CT) workstation software to predict expected volume of PMMA for vertebroplasty and supplement calculations using computed tomography scanogram. Quantitative CT scans of 87 women's (mean age 69.4 years; SD 10.9) and 15 men's (mean age 64.3 years; SD 11.8) lumbar spines were analyzed; this made a total of 379 vertebrae. The population of patients was divided into three groups depending on measured BMD value, in accordance with American College of Radiology Practice Parameter for the Performance of Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT) Bone Densitometry. With the use of the general linear model and least squares means groups were compared regarding vertebral volume, anterior, middle, and posterior vertebral heights. Morphometric parameters tended to be greater in males than in females, in a population of diversified bone mineral density. BMD result should be considered as the modifying factor for preoperative planning of the bone cement volume to be deposited inside the vertebra. Vertebral body volumetry might prove to be a useful tool in pre-operative planning as well as an alternative for treatment monitoring after minimally invasive spinal procedures. PMID:27154439

  15. [Biomechanical study of lumbar spine under different vibration conditions].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Pin; Du, Chengfei; Mo, Zhongjun; Gong, He; Wang, Lizhen; Fan, Yubo

    2015-02-01

    We observed the effect of vibration parameters on lumbar spine under different vibration conditions using finite element analysis method in our laboratory. In this study, the CT-images of L1-L5 segments were obtained. All images were used to develop 3D geometrical model using the Mimics10. 01 (Materialise, Belgium). Then it was modified using Geomagic Studio12. 0 (Raindrop Geomagic Inc. USA). Finite element (FE) mesh model was generated by Hypermesh11. 0 (Altair Engineering, Inc. USA) and Abaqus. Abaqus was used to calculate the stress distribution of L1-L5 under different vibration conditions. It was found that in a vibration cycle, tensile stress was occurred on lumbar vertebra mainly. Stress distributed evenly and stress concentration occurred on the left rear side of the upper endplate. The stress had no obvious changes under different frequencies, but the stress was higher when amplitude was greater. In conclusion, frequency and amplitude parameters have little effect on the stress distribution in vertebra. The stress magnitude is positively correlated with the amplitude. PMID:25997265

  16. [Biomechanical study of lumbar spine under different vibration conditions].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Pin; Du, Chengfei; Mo, Zhongjun; Gong, He; Wang, Lizhen; Fan, Yubo

    2015-02-01

    We observed the effect of vibration parameters on lumbar spine under different vibration conditions using finite element analysis method in our laboratory. In this study, the CT-images of L1-L5 segments were obtained. All images were used to develop 3D geometrical model using the Mimics10. 01 (Materialise, Belgium). Then it was modified using Geomagic Studio12. 0 (Raindrop Geomagic Inc. USA). Finite element (FE) mesh model was generated by Hypermesh11. 0 (Altair Engineering, Inc. USA) and Abaqus. Abaqus was used to calculate the stress distribution of L1-L5 under different vibration conditions. It was found that in a vibration cycle, tensile stress was occurred on lumbar vertebra mainly. Stress distributed evenly and stress concentration occurred on the left rear side of the upper endplate. The stress had no obvious changes under different frequencies, but the stress was higher when amplitude was greater. In conclusion, frequency and amplitude parameters have little effect on the stress distribution in vertebra. The stress magnitude is positively correlated with the amplitude.

  17. Multi-modal vertebrae recognition using Transformed Deep Convolution Network.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yunliang; Landis, Mark; Laidley, David T; Kornecki, Anat; Lum, Andrea; Li, Shuo

    2016-07-01

    Automatic vertebra recognition, including the identification of vertebra locations and naming in multiple image modalities, are highly demanded in spinal clinical diagnoses where large amount of imaging data from various of modalities are frequently and interchangeably used. However, the recognition is challenging due to the variations of MR/CT appearances or shape/pose of the vertebrae. In this paper, we propose a method for multi-modal vertebra recognition using a novel deep learning architecture called Transformed Deep Convolution Network (TDCN). This new architecture can unsupervisely fuse image features from different modalities and automatically rectify the pose of vertebra. The fusion of MR and CT image features improves the discriminativity of feature representation and enhances the invariance of the vertebra pattern, which allows us to automatically process images from different contrast, resolution, protocols, even with different sizes and orientations. The feature fusion and pose rectification are naturally incorporated in a multi-layer deep learning network. Experiment results show that our method outperforms existing detection methods and provides a fully automatic location+naming+pose recognition for routine clinical practice. PMID:27104497

  18. Computerized scheme for vertebra detection in CT scout image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei; Chen, Qiang; Zhou, Hanxun; Zhang, Guodong; Cong, Lin; Li, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    Our purposes are to develop a vertebra detection scheme for automated scan planning, which would assist radiological technologists in their routine work for the imaging of vertebrae. Because the orientations of vertebrae were various, and the Haar-like features were only employed to represent the subject on the vertical, horizontal, or diagonal directions, we rotated the CT scout image seven times to make the vertebrae roughly horizontal in least one of the rotated images. Then, we employed Adaboost learning algorithm to construct a strong classifier for the vertebra detection by use of Haar-like features, and combined the detection results with the overlapping region according to the number of times they were detected. Finally, most of the false positives were removed by use of the contextual relationship between them. The detection scheme was evaluated on a database with 76 CT scout image. Our detection scheme reported 1.65 false positives per image at a sensitivity of 94.3% for initial detection of vertebral candidates, and then the performance of detection was improved to 0.95 false positives per image at a sensitivity of 98.6% for the further steps of false positive reduction. The proposed scheme achieved a high performance for the detection of vertebrae with different orientations.

  19. Herniated Lumbar Disc

    MedlinePlus

    ... 50. A herniated lumbar disc may also cause back pain, although back pain alone (without leg pain) can have many causes ... 90% success); surgery is less effective in relieving back pain. Nonsurgical treatment Your doctor may prescribe nonsurgical treatments ...

  20. Lumbar MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... may need a lumbar MRI if you have: Low back pain that does not get better after treatment Leg ... spine Injury or trauma to the lower spine Low back pain and a history or signs of cancer Multiple ...

  1. Morphological features of adult rats of IS/Kyo and IS-Tlk/Kyo strains with lumbar and caudal vertebral anomalies.

    PubMed

    Takano, Masao; Ogawa, Emi; Saitou, Tsubasa; Yamaguchi, Yuko; Asano, Yuzo; Serikawa, Tadao; Kuramoto, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    IS-Tlk/Kyo, a mutant derived from IS/Kyo strain, exhibits a kinked and/or short tail, in addition to the congenital lumbar vertebral anomaly. Homozygotes of Tlk dominant gene are known to die during embryonic development. We previously reported the morphological features of the skeleton in IS/Kyo and IS-Tlk/Kyo fetuses and of the heart in IS/Kyo fetuses [19]. This study was conducted to clarify the morphological features of the skeleton in both adult rats and of the heart in adult IS/Kyo rats. Ventricular septal defect (VSD) was observed in 3 out of 10 IS/Kyo rats. Neither splitting of lumbar vertebra and supernumerary rib (in both strains) nor fused or absent caudal cartilage (in IS-Tlk/Kyo strain) was detected in adult rats. Fusion of lumbar vertebrae was observed in almost all specimens together with lumbarization of sacral vertebrae in a few specimens in both adult rats as well as fusion of sacral and caudal vertebrae only in adult IS-Tlk/Kyo rats. In addition, a severe reduction in the ossified sacral and caudal vertebrae was noted in adult IS-Tlk/Kyo rats (mean number: 20.6) and IS/Kyo rats (31.8), and the difference was similar to that in the length of sacral and caudal vertebrae. These results suggest that the Tlk gene may be involved in both the congenital and acquired abnormal formation of the lower vertebral centra as well as the persistent occurrence of VSD by the background gene in IS/Kyo strain.

  2. Effects of the 5th and 7th Grade Enhanced Versions of the "keepin' it REAL" Substance Use Prevention Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elek, Elvira; Wagstaff, David A.; Hecht, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the outcomes of adapting the culturally-grounded, middle school, substance-use prevention intervention, "keepin' it REAL" ("kiR"), to target elementary school students and to address acculturation. At the beginning of 5th grade, 29 schools were randomly assigned to conditions obtained by crossing grade of implementation (5th,…

  3. Measuring Listening Comprehension Skills of 5th Grade School Students with the Help of Web Based System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acat, M. Bahaddin; Demiral, Hilmi; Kaya, Mehmet Fatih

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to measure listening comprehension skills of 5th grade school students with the help of web based system. This study was conducted on 5th grade students studying at the primary schools of Eskisehir. The scale used in the process of the study is "Web Based Listening Scale". In the process of the study,…

  4. Thoracolumbar fascia does not influence proprioceptive signaling from lumbar paraspinal muscle spindles in the cat

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Dong-Yuan; Pickar, Joel G

    2009-01-01

    The thoracolumbar fascia attaches to the lumbar spinous processes and encloses the paraspinal muscles to form a muscle compartment. Because muscle spindles can respond to transverse forces applied at a muscle’s surface, we were interested in the mechanical effects this fascia may have on proprioceptive signaling from lumbar paraspinal muscles during vertebral movement. The discharge of paraspinal muscle spindles at rest and in response to muscle history were investigated in the presence and absence of the thoracolumbar fascia in anesthetized cats. Muscle-history was induced by positioning the L6 vertebra in conditioning directions that lengthened and shortened the paraspinal muscles. The vertebra was then returned to an intermediate position for testing the spindles. Neither resting discharge (P= 0.49) nor the effects of muscle history (P>0.30) was significantly different with the fascia intact vs. removed. Our data showed that the thoracolumbar fascia did not influence proprioceptive signaling from lumbar paraspinal muscles spindles during small passive vertebral movements in cats. In addition, comparison of the transverse threshold pressures needed to stimulate our sample of muscle spindles in the cat with the thoracolumbar fascia compartmental pressures measured in humans during previous studies suggests that the thoracolumbar fascia likely does not affect proprioceptive signaling from lumbar paraspinal muscle spindles in humans. PMID:19627391

  5. Precision measurement of disc height, vertebral height and sagittal plane displacement from lateral radiographic views of the lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Frobin, W.; Brinckmann, P.; Biggemann, M.; Tillotson, M.; Burton, K.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE.: To compile a database of disc height, vertebral height and sagittal plane displacement from lateral radiographic views of the lumbar spine, valid for male and female subjects in the age range 16-57 years. The protocols used to measure these parameters compensate for distortion in central projection, off-centre position, axial rotation and lateral tilt of the spine as well as for variation in radiographic magnification and stature. STUDY DESIGN.: The study comprised designing and testing of measurement protocols, together with subsequent data collection from archive radiographs. BACKGROUND.: Attempts to quantify primary mechanical damage to lumbar vertebrae and discs have been limited due to imprecision when measuring disc height, vertebral height and sagittal plane displacement. Age-related, normative values for these parameters were not previously available. Consequently, important issues like the effectiveness of past and present guidelines for safe manual handling with respect to prevention of overload injuries could not be resolved and judgement on pathological alterations in the morphology of the individual lumbar spine could only be performed in a qualitative, subjective manner. METHODS.: Based on the analysis of vertebral contours in the lateral radiographic image of the lumbar spine, new protocols for measuring disc height, vertebral height and sagittal plane displacement were developed. The measured data are virtually independent of distortion, axial rotation and lateral tilt. Furthermore, description of height and displacement using dimensionless parameters guarantees independence of radiographic magnification and stature. Subjective influence in the measurement procedure was minimized by automatic computation of contour-landmarks and derived parameters. Measurement errors were assessed from sets of radiographs of spine specimens and serial flexion-extension radiographs; interobserver and intraobserver errors were assessed from repeated

  6. [Congenital lumbar hernia].

    PubMed

    Peláez Mata, D J; Alvarez Muñoz, V; Fernández Jiménez, I; García Crespo, J M; Teixidor de Otto, J L

    1998-07-01

    Hernias in the lumbar region are abdominal wall defects that appear in two possible locations: the superior lumbar triangle of Grynfelt-Lesshaft and the inferior lumbar triangle of Petit. There are 40 cases reported in the pediatric literature, and only 16 are considered congenital, associated with the lumbocostovertebral syndrome and/or meningomyelocele. A new case is presented. A premature newborn with a mass in the left flank that increases when the patient cries and reduces easily. The complementary studies confirm the diagnosis of lumbar hernia and reveal the presence of lumbocostovertebral syndrome associated. At the time of operation a well defined fascial defect at the superior lumbar triangle of Grynfelt-Lesshaft is primarily closed. The diagnosis of lumbar hernia is not difficult to establish but it is necessary the screening of the lumbocostovertebral syndrome. We recommend the surgical treatment before 12 months of age; the objective is to close the defect primarily or to use prosthetic material if necessary. PMID:12602034

  7. Lumbar spine visualisation based on kinematic analysis from videofluoroscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Y; Nixon, M S; Allen, R

    2003-04-01

    Low back pain is a significant problem and its cost is enormous to society. However, diagnosis of the underlying causes remains problematic despite extensive study. Reasons for this arise from the deep-rooted situation of the spine and also from its structural complexity. Clinicians have to mentally convert 2-D image information into a 3-D form to gain a better understanding of structural integrity. Therefore, visualisation and animation may be helpful for understanding, diagnosis and for guiding therapy. Some low back pain originates from mechanical disorders, and study of the spine kinematics may provide an insight into the source of the problem. Digital videofluoroscopy was used in this study to provide 2-D image sequences of the spine in motion, but the images often suffer due to noise, exacerbated by the very low radiation dosage. Thus determining vertebrae position within the image sequence presents a considerable challenge. This paper describes a combination of spine kinematic measurements with a solid model of the human lumbar spine for visualisation of spine motion. Since determination of the spine kinematics provides the foundation and vertebral extraction is at the core, this is discussed in detail. Edge detection is a key feature of segmentation and it is shown that phase congruency performs better than most established methods with the rather low-grade image sequences from fluoroscopy. The Hough transform is then applied to determine the positions of vertebrae in each frame of a motion sequence. In the Hough transform, Fourier descriptors are used to represent the vertebral shapes. The results show that the Hough transform is a very promising technique for vertebral extraction from videofluoroscopic images. A dynamic visualisation package has been developed in order to view the moving lumbar spine from any angle and viewpoint. Wire frame models of the vertebrae were built by using CT images from the Visible Human Project and these models are scaled to

  8. Costal process of the first sacral vertebra: sexual dimorphism and obstetrical adaptation.

    PubMed

    Tague, Robert G

    2007-03-01

    The human sacrum is sexually dimorphic, with males being larger than females in most dimensions. Previous studies, though, suggest that females may have a longer costal process of the first sacral vertebra (S1) than males. However, these studies neither quantified nor tested statistically the costal process of S1. This study compares S1 with the five lumbar vertebrae (L1 to L5) for a number of metric dimensions, including costal process length. Four issues are addressed, the: 1) hypothesis that females have a longer costal process of S1 than males; 2)hypothesis that homologous structures (i.e., costal processes of L1 to S1) differ in their direction of sexual dimorphism; 3) importance of the costal process of S1 to the obstetrical capacity of the pelvis; and 4) evolution of sexual dimorphism in costal process length of S1. One hundred ninety-seven individuals, including males and females of American blacks and whites, from the Hamann-Todd and Terry Collections were studied. Results show that males are significantly larger than females for most vertebral measurements, except that females have a significantly longer costal process of S1 than males. Costal process length of S1 is positively correlated with the transverse diameter and circumference of the pelvic inlet. The magnitude of sexual dimorphism in costal process length of S1 ranks this measure among the most highly dimorphic of the pelvis. Compared with the humans in this study, australopithecines have a relatively long costal process of S1, but their broad sacrum was not associated with obstetrical imperatives. PMID:17266155

  9. Costal process of the first sacral vertebra: sexual dimorphism and obstetrical adaptation.

    PubMed

    Tague, Robert G

    2007-03-01

    The human sacrum is sexually dimorphic, with males being larger than females in most dimensions. Previous studies, though, suggest that females may have a longer costal process of the first sacral vertebra (S1) than males. However, these studies neither quantified nor tested statistically the costal process of S1. This study compares S1 with the five lumbar vertebrae (L1 to L5) for a number of metric dimensions, including costal process length. Four issues are addressed, the: 1) hypothesis that females have a longer costal process of S1 than males; 2)hypothesis that homologous structures (i.e., costal processes of L1 to S1) differ in their direction of sexual dimorphism; 3) importance of the costal process of S1 to the obstetrical capacity of the pelvis; and 4) evolution of sexual dimorphism in costal process length of S1. One hundred ninety-seven individuals, including males and females of American blacks and whites, from the Hamann-Todd and Terry Collections were studied. Results show that males are significantly larger than females for most vertebral measurements, except that females have a significantly longer costal process of S1 than males. Costal process length of S1 is positively correlated with the transverse diameter and circumference of the pelvic inlet. The magnitude of sexual dimorphism in costal process length of S1 ranks this measure among the most highly dimorphic of the pelvis. Compared with the humans in this study, australopithecines have a relatively long costal process of S1, but their broad sacrum was not associated with obstetrical imperatives.

  10. Capturing three-dimensional in vivo lumbar intervertebral joint kinematics using dynamic stereo-X-ray imaging.

    PubMed

    Aiyangar, Ameet K; Zheng, Liying; Tashman, Scott; Anderst, William J; Zhang, Xudong

    2014-01-01

    Availability of accurate three-dimensional (3D) kinematics of lumbar vertebrae is necessary to understand normal and pathological biomechanics of the lumbar spine. Due to the technical challenges of imaging the lumbar spine motion in vivo, it has been difficult to obtain comprehensive, 3D lumbar kinematics during dynamic functional tasks. The present study demonstrates a recently developed technique to acquire true 3D lumbar vertebral kinematics, in vivo, during a functional load-lifting task. The technique uses a high-speed dynamic stereo-radiography (DSX) system coupled with a volumetric model-based bone tracking procedure. Eight asymptomatic male participants performed weight-lifting tasks, while dynamic X-ray images of their lumbar spines were acquired at 30 fps. A custom-designed radiation attenuator reduced the radiation white-out effect and enhanced the image quality. High resolution CT scans of participants' lumbar spines were obtained to create 3D bone models, which were used to track the X-ray images via a volumetric bone tracking procedure. Continuous 3D intervertebral kinematics from the second lumbar vertebra (L2) to the sacrum (S1) were derived. Results revealed motions occurring simultaneously in all the segments. Differences in contributions to overall lumbar motion from individual segments, particularly L2-L3, L3-L4, and L4-L5, were not statistically significant. However, a reduced contribution from the L5-S1 segment was observed. Segmental extension was nominally linear in the middle range (20%-80%) of motion during the lifting task, but exhibited nonlinear behavior at the beginning and end of the motion. L5-S1 extension exhibited the greatest nonlinearity and variability across participants. Substantial AP translations occurred in all segments (5.0 ± 0.3 mm) and exhibited more scatter and deviation from a nominally linear path compared to segmental extension. Maximum out-of-plane rotations (<1.91 deg) and translations (<0.94 mm) were

  11. A Social Medium: ASM's 5th Cell-Cell Communication in Bacteria Meeting in Review

    PubMed Central

    Federle, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The 5th American Society for Microbiology Conference on Cell-Cell Communication in Bacteria (CCCB-5), which convened from 18 to 21 October 2014 in San Antonio, TX, highlighted recent advances in our understanding of microbial intercellular signaling. While the CCCB meetings arose from interests in pheromone signaling and quorum sensing, it was evident at CCCB-5 that the cell-cell communication field is continuing to mature, expanding into new areas and integrating cutting-edge technologies. In this minireview, we recap some of the research discussed at CCCB-5 and the questions that have arisen from it. PMID:25917904

  12. Evaluation of the 5th edition of the TNM classification for gastric cancer: improved prognostic value

    PubMed Central

    Kranenbarg, E Klein; Hermans, J; van Krieken, J H J M; van de Velde, C J H

    2001-01-01

    The main change in the 5th edition (1997) of the TNM classification for gastric cancer compared to the 4th edition (1987) is the use of the number of involved nodes instead of the location of positive nodes. As a result stage grouping is also altered. A second change is the requirement for the examination of at least 15 nodes to justify the N0 status. Patients with fewer examined negative nodes are unclassifiable (Nx). Data were retrieved from a randomized trial database comparing D1 and D2 dissection and 633 curatively operated patients were included. According to the criteria of the 5th edition, 39% of the node-positive patients had another N stage compared to the 4th: 21% had a lower and 18% had a higher stage. 5-year survival rates according to the 4th edition N0, N1 and N2 groups were respectively 72%, 34% and 27%. According to the 5th edition these percentages were for the N0, N1, N2, N3 and Nx groups respectively 75%, 38%, 19%, 8% and 65%. The former 1987 N1 and N2 group were significantly split into three new N 1997 groups (P = 0.006, respectively P< 0.0005). The Cox's regression analysis showed the N 1997 classification to be the most important prognostic variable, with a higher prognostic value than N 1987. In addition, the new TNM stage was also a better prognosticator. The requirement for examining at least 15 nodes, however, could not be fulfilled in 38% of all node-negative patients and we found that a minimum of 5 consecutive negative lymph nodes is a reliable number for staging purposes. We conclude that the 5th edition of the TNM classification provides a better estimation of prognosis, however, examination of at least 15 negative regional lymph nodes is too high a threshold and 5 gives similar prognostic value. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11139315

  13. Indoor Air '90: the 5th in a series of international conferences on the indoor environment.

    PubMed

    Walkinshaw, D

    1992-01-01

    The 5th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate: INDOOR AIR '90 continued a series of international scientific conferences begun in 1978 on a complex, interdisciplinary subject increasingly recognized to be of importance to human comfort, health and productivity, and having important implications for building design and furnishing, office equipment, appliances, cleaning, heating, ventilating, humidifying and air-conditioning. INDOOR AIR '90 constituted a week long program of 542 paper and poster presentations and forum discussions, 100 exhibits, and a public forum. This paper summarizes some of the highlights of this conference and links these to some of the studies reported at earlier INDOOR AIR Conference.

  14. Preface to Special Topic: Selected Papers from the 5th International Conference on Optofluidics.

    PubMed

    Fan, Shih-Kang; Yang, Zhenchuan

    2016-01-01

    The 5th International Conference on Optofluidics (Optofluidics 2015) was held in Taipei, Taiwan, July 26-29, 2015. The aim of this conference was to provide a forum to promote scientific exchange and to foster closer networks and collaborative ties between leading international researchers in optics and micro/nanofluidics across various disciplines. The scope of Optofluidics 2015 was deliberately broad and interdisciplinary, encompassing the latest advances and the most innovative developments in micro/nanoscale science and technology. Topics ranged from fundamental research to its applications in chemistry, physics, biology, materials, and medicine.

  15. MRI study of the position of the conus medullaris in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Ba, Zhaoyu; Zhao, Weidong; Wu, Desheng; Huang, Yufeng; Kan, Heng

    2012-06-01

    Substantial data exist from cadaveric and magnetic resonance imaging studies regarding the position of the conus medullaris in normally developed adults. However, no large studies have documented the position of the conus medullaris in patients with diagnosed lumbar spinal stenosis. To goal of the current study was to determine the position of the conus medullaris within a living adult population with existing pathology of lumbar spinal stenosis. In a retrospective study, 234 patients (110 women and 124 men; mean age, 48.8 years) with diagnosed lumbar spinal stenosis had their T2-weighted, midline, sagittal, spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging studies compared to assess and confirm the position of the conus medullaris. A straight line perpendicular to the long axis of the spinal cord in the median sagittal sequence was subtended to the adjacent vertebra or disk space, and the position was defined in relation to the vertebra or disk space. The conus medullaris position was labeled in relation to the upper, middle, and lower segments of the adjacent vertebral body or the adjacent disk space and assigned numerical values from 1 to 12. The position of the conus medullaris in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis followed a normal distribution. The mean conus medullaris position was mainly within the lower third of the L1 vertebral body (ranged from the middle third of T12 to the upper third of L3). No significant differences existed between men and women with lumbar spinal stenosis. The conus medullaris position was found to be unaffected by the pathology of lumbar spinal stenosis.

  16. Computed tomographic epidurography: an aid to understanding deformation of the lumbar dural sac by epidural injections.

    PubMed

    Fukushige, T; Kano, T; Sano, T; Irie, M

    1999-09-01

    Local anaesthetics injected into the epidural space may deform the dural sac to a variable degree, thereby contributing to variability in the extent of the block. We investigated deformation of the lumbar dural sac after injection into the lumbar epidural space. The subjects were 26 patients with low-back pain who underwent lumbar epidurography and computed tomographic (CT) epidurography, of whom seven also underwent myelography and computed tomographic myelography. The epidural space was entered via the sacral hiatus in 24 patients and through the L5/S1 interspace in two patients. Ten millilitres of local anaesthetic was then injected into the epidural space followed by 20 mL of contrast medium. Computed tomographic epidurography was undertaken approximately 30-min after the epidural injection at the mid-vertebral and mid-discal levels from the first lumbar through to the first sacral vertebrae. The dural sac usually showed an oval or hexagonal shape on the transverse views at the first and second lumbar vertebral levels, and the shape of an inverted triangle below the level of the third lumbar vertebra. A median line of translucency was also observed on the posteroanterior epidurographic view in 25 of the 26 patients. This line was though to be a manifestation of the dural deformation to the inverted triangle. Dural sac deformation usually shows a specific pattern, although there are individual variations. Dural deformability is an important consideration in any analysis of the spread of epidural block or of the changes of epidural pressure after epidural injection of local anaesthetics. PMID:10549463

  17. Validation and application of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure bone mineral density in rabbit vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Norris, S A; Pettifor, J M; Gray, D A; Biscardi, A; Buffenstein, R

    2000-01-01

    The rabbit could be a superior animal model to use in bone physiology studies, for the rabbit does attain true skeletal maturity. However, there are neither normative bone mineral density (BMD) data on the rabbit nor are there any validation studies on the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to measure spinal BMD in the rabbit. Therefore, our aim was twofold: first, to investigate whether DXA could be used precisely and accurately to determine the bone mineral content (BMC). bone area (BA). and BMD of the rabbit lumbar spine: Second. to evaluate the new generation fan-beam DXA (Hologic QDR-4500) with small animal software by comparing two DXA methodologies QDR-1000 and QDR-4500 with each other, as well as against volumetric bone density (VBMD) derived from Archimedes principle. As expected. there was a magnification error in the QDR-4500 (BMC, BA. and BMD increased by 52%. 38%. and 10%, respectively, when the vertebrae were positioned flat against the scanning table). With the magnification error kept constant (vertebrae positioned 10 cm above the scanning table to match the height in vivo). there were no differences among the mean BMC. BA. and BMD of the rabbit vertebrae (Ll-L7) in vivo and in vitro using the QDR-4500 (p > 0.05). BMC, BA, and BMD differed between QDR-1000 and QDR-4500 in vitro because of a magnification error when the vertebrae were flat on the table (p <0.0001). and, consequently. the machines did not correlate with one another (p > 0.05). However, the BMC, BA, and BMD of the two DXAs did significantly correlate with each other in vivo and in vitro when the magnification error was compensated for (r = 0.44 and 0.52. i2 = 0.45 and 0.63. and 12 = 0.41 and 0.60. respectively. p < 0.05-0.008). The BMC and BMD (in vivo and in vitro) of the rabbit vertebrae measured by QDR-4500 was significantly correlated with VMBD, ash weight, and mineral content (,2 = 0.67-0.90,j <0.01-0.0001). Therefore, the QDR-4500 can be used to yield precise and

  18. 5th Bionanotox and Applications International Research Conference, Peabody, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabb, Taneicie; Chowdhury, Parimal

    2011-06-01

    "BioNanoTox and Toxicity: using Technology to Advance Discovery" was this year's theme at the 5th BioNanoTox and Applications International Research Conference held at the Peabody Hotel, Little Rock, Arkansas on November 4-5th, 2010. This year, the international participation in this conference increased to 25 countries spanning the globe. The conference began with opening remarks by Paul Howard, Associate Director of the National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, Arkansas, United States. Two keynote speakers, Dr. Ananth V. Annapragada and Dr. Merle G. Paule presented lectures on "Toxicity of Novel Nanoparticles for CT imaging" and "The Biology of Neurotoxicity: using Technology to Advance Discovery", respectively. Teachers, students, faculty, and scientists presented oral and poster presentations on fundamental and translational research related to BioNanoTox and related fields of science. Six presentation sessions were held over the two-day conference. There were 31 presentations and 39 posters from disciplines ranging from biology to chemistry, toxicology, nanotechnology, computational sciences, mathematics, engineering, plant science, and biotechnology. Poster presentation awards were presented to three high school students, three high school teachers, and three college students. In addition to poster awards a memorial, travel, and BioNanoTox award were presented. This year's meeting paved the way for a more outstanding meeting for the future.

  19. High energy diode pumped 5th harmonic generation of Nd: YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yang; Cheng, Chee Yuen; Chia, Yong Poo; Wong, Wee Hoong; Yong, Saw Soon; Qu, Weijuan; Peng, Xiaoyuan

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports a high power diode pump 5th harmonic generation of Nd: YAG laser system, which could generate up to 300 mW TEM00 mode output with 100 Hz repetition rate at 213 nm. A diode pump module was specially designed for a high efficiency and good beam quality at the fundamental wavelength 1064 nm. An amplifier was set up out of the cavity to boost up the energy level of fundamental wavelength. In order to get high efficiency of the 5th harmonic generation, the cavity of the fundamental wavelength is EOM Q-switched which could generate very high peak power of the fundamental wavelength laser for extra cavity harmonic generations. Finally, 14% conversion efficiency from IR to UV was achieved, which is the highest efficiency in the market to the best of our knowledge right now. 213 nm is a very good substitute wavelength of 193 nm for different UV applications, the system of which is more compact, higher energy, less maintenance and better beam quality than the system of 193 nm.

  20. Automatic localization of vertebrae based on convolutional neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Wei; Yang, Feng; Mu, Wei; Yang, Caiyun; Yang, Xin; Tian, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Localization of the vertebrae is of importance in many medical applications. For example, the vertebrae can serve as the landmarks in image registration. They can also provide a reference coordinate system to facilitate the localization of other organs in the chest. In this paper, we propose a new vertebrae localization method using convolutional neural networks (CNN). The main advantage of the proposed method is the removal of hand-crafted features. We construct two training sets to train two CNNs that share the same architecture. One is used to distinguish the vertebrae from other tissues in the chest, and the other is aimed at detecting the centers of the vertebrae. The architecture contains two convolutional layers, both of which are followed by a max-pooling layer. Then the output feature vector from the maxpooling layer is fed into a multilayer perceptron (MLP) classifier which has one hidden layer. Experiments were performed on ten chest CT images. We used leave-one-out strategy to train and test the proposed method. Quantitative comparison between the predict centers and ground truth shows that our convolutional neural networks can achieve promising localization accuracy without hand-crafted features.

  1. Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Abhijit; Hughes, Alexander; Girardi, Federico; Sama, Andrew; Lebl, Darren; Cammisa, Frank

    2015-12-01

    The lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is a relatively new technique that allows the surgeon to access the intervertebral space from a direct lateral approach either anterior to or through the psoas muscle. This approach provides an alternative to anterior lumbar interbody fusion with instrumentation, posterior lumbar interbody fusion, and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for anterior column support. LLIF is minimally invasive, safe, better structural support from the apophyseal ring, potential for coronal plane deformity correction, and indirect decompression, which have has made this technique popular. LLIF is currently being utilized for a variety of pathologies including but not limited to adult de novo lumbar scoliosis, central and foraminal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and adjacent segment degeneration. Although early clinical outcomes have been good, the potential for significant neurological and vascular vertebral endplate complications exists. Nevertheless, LLIF is a promising technique with the potential to more effectively treat complex adult de novo scoliosis and achieve predictable fusion while avoiding the complications of traditional anterior surgery and posterior interbody techniques. PMID:26713134

  2. Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Alexander; Girardi, Federico; Sama, Andrew; Lebl, Darren; Cammisa, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is a relatively new technique that allows the surgeon to access the intervertebral space from a direct lateral approach either anterior to or through the psoas muscle. This approach provides an alternative to anterior lumbar interbody fusion with instrumentation, posterior lumbar interbody fusion, and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for anterior column support. LLIF is minimally invasive, safe, better structural support from the apophyseal ring, potential for coronal plane deformity correction, and indirect decompression, which have has made this technique popular. LLIF is currently being utilized for a variety of pathologies including but not limited to adult de novo lumbar scoliosis, central and foraminal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and adjacent segment degeneration. Although early clinical outcomes have been good, the potential for significant neurological and vascular vertebral endplate complications exists. Nevertheless, LLIF is a promising technique with the potential to more effectively treat complex adult de novo scoliosis and achieve predictable fusion while avoiding the complications of traditional anterior surgery and posterior interbody techniques. PMID:26713134

  3. Incarcerated inferior lumbar (Petit's) hernia.

    PubMed

    Astarcioğlu, H; Sökmen, S; Atila, K; Karademir, S

    2003-09-01

    Petit's hernia is an uncommon abdominal wall defect in the inferior lumbar triangle. Colonic incarceration through the inferior lumbar triangle, which causes mechanical obstructive symptoms, necessitates particular diagnostic and management strategy. We present a rare case of inferior lumbar hernia, leading to mechanical bowel obstruction, successfully treated with prosthetic mesh reinforcement repair.

  4. Automated localization of vertebra landmarks in MRI images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, Akshay; Narasimhamurthy, Anand; Rao, V. S. Veeravasarapu; Vaidya, Vivek

    2011-03-01

    The identification of key landmark points in an MR spine image is an important step for tasks such as vertebra counting. In this paper, we propose a template matching based approach for automatic detection of two key landmark points, namely the second cervical vertebra (C2) and the sacrum from sagittal MR images. The approach is comprised of an approximate localization of vertebral column followed by matching with appropriate templates in order to detect/localize the landmarks. A straightforward extension of the work described here is an automated classification of spine section(s). It also serves as a useful building block for further automatic processing such as extraction of regions of interest for subsequent image processing and also in aiding the counting of vertebra.

  5. EDITORIAL: 'Best article' prize for the 5th anniversary of Environmental Research Letters 'Best article' prize for the 5th anniversary of Environmental Research Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammen, Dan; Wright, Guillaume

    2011-12-01

    To celebrate the 5th anniversary of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) the publishers of the journal, IOP Publishing, have awarded a prize for the five best articles published in ERL since the journal began in 2006. The procedure for deciding the winning articles was as thorough as possible to ensure that the most outstanding articles would win the prize. A shortlist of 25 nominated research articles, five for each year since ERL was launched, which were chosen based on a range of criteria including novelty, scientific impact, readership, broad appeal and wider media coverage, was selected. The ERL Editorial Board then assessed and rated these 25 articles in order to choose a winning article for each year. We would like to announce that the following articles have been awarded ERL's 5th anniversary best article prize: 2006/7 The Bodélé depression: a single spot in the Sahara that provides most of the mineral dust to the Amazon forest Ilan Koren, Yoram J Kaufman, Richard Washington, Martin C Todd, Yinon Rudich, J Vanderlei Martins and Daniel Rosenfeld 2006 Environ. Res. Lett. 1 014005 2008 Causes and impacts of the 2005 Amazon drought Ning Zeng, Jin-Ho Yoon, Jose A Marengo, Ajit Subramaniam, Carlos A Nobre, Annarita Mariotti and J David Neelin 2008 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 014002 2009 How difficult is it to recover from dangerous levels of global warming? J A Lowe, C Huntingford, S C B Raper, C D Jones, S K Liddicoat and L K Gohar 2009 Environ. Res. Lett. 4 014012 2010 Is physical water scarcity a new phenomenon? Global assessment of water shortage over the last two millennia Matti Kummu, Philip J Ward, Hans de Moel and Olli Varis 2010 Environ. Res. Lett. 5 034006 2011 Implications of urban structure on carbon consumption in metropolitan areas Jukka Heinonen and Seppo Junnila 2011 Environ. Res. Lett. 6 014018 Our congratulations go to these authors. In recognition of their outstanding work, we are delighted to offer all of the authors of the winning articles free

  6. Effects of temperature and modified atmospheres on diapausing 5th instar codling moth metabolism.

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G; Lehrman, Nathan J; Hansen, Lee D

    2014-05-01

    The oxygen and capacity limitation of thermal tolerance (OCLTT) has been established in aquatic insect larvae, but OCLTT has not been shown to generally apply to terrestrial insects. Previous research indicates that heat treatments in combination with high concentrations of carbon dioxide and low concentrations of oxygen may be effective for controlling diapausing codling moth, a quarantine pest in walnuts, but treatment requires long times and the killing mechanism is unknown. In this study, the effects of temperature and modified atmospheres on metabolism in diapausing 5th instar codling moth (Cydia pomonella) was investigated with multi-channel differential scanning calorimeters, one equipped with an oxygen sensor. O2 consumption and metabolic heat rates in air were measured simultaneously at isothermal temperatures from 5 to 50°C at 5°C intervals. Both rates increased with increasing temperatures from 5 to 40°C. The ratio of metabolic heat rate to O2 consumption rate at temperatures ≤40°C shows that a portion of the metabolic heat is from normal anabolic reactions of metabolism. At 45 and 50°C in air, O2 consumption and metabolic heat rates dropped to near zero. These results indicate that treatment of walnuts in air at >45°C for a short period of time (minutes) is effective in killing diapausing 5th instar codling moth larvae. Continuous heating scans at 0.4°C/min were used to measure metabolic heat rates from 10 to 50°C with air and modified atmospheres with lowered oxygen and high carbon dioxide. A rapid increase was observed in heat rates above 40°C in scans with O2≥11%. Taken together with the isothermal results showing no metabolic heat production or oxygen uptake at 45 and 50°C, these results demonstrate that thermal damage to cell membranes and loss of control of oxidation reactions is the lethal mechanism at high temperature when O2≥11%. The data from scans with O2≤2% and high CO2 show the effects of oxygen limitation as postulated by

  7. Minimally invasive anterior approach for kyphoplasty of the first thoracic vertebra in a patient with multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Gigante, N; Pierangeli, E

    2008-02-01

    A vertebral body collapse of the first thoracic vertebra (T1) was diagnosed after radiological investigation in an adult male suffering for severe dorsal pain due to suspected multiple myeloma (MM). According to the principles of minimally invasive neurosurgery and the aesthetic needs of the patient, an open T1 kyphoplasty was performed by means of a right anterior approach through the inferior brow of the neck, generally utilized for the anterior approaches to the cervical spine. The histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of MM and the postoperative radiological investigation showed a good vertebral body (VB) restoration. No gross neurological deficit was noted and the patient was discharged within a few days after a good recovery. Kyphoplasty is a percutaneous technique utilized by means of a posterior approach for VB restoration from T4 to the fifth lumbar vertebra (L5) in patients with vertebral body compression fractures (VCFs) of osteoporotic, traumatic and neoplastic origin. Anatomic obstacles make the performance of posterior kyphoplasty from T1 to T4 very difficult. To the best of our knowledge no anterior approach for T1 kyphoplasty has been reported in the literature. Our experience gives us the opportunity to emphasize this approach and this technique for the minimally invasive treatment of the VCFs of this segment of the spine.

  8. 3D imaging of fetus vertebra by synchrotron radiation microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyrin, Francoise; Pateyron-Salome, Murielle; Denis, Frederic; Braillon, Pierre; Laval-Jeantet, Anne-Marie; Cloetens, Peter

    1997-10-01

    A synchrotron radiation computed microtomography system allowing high resolution 3D imaging of bone samples has been developed at ESRF. The system uses a high resolution 2D detector based on a CCd camera coupled to a fluorescent screen through light optics. The spatial resolution of the device is particularly well adapted to the imaging of bone structure. In view of studying growth, vertebra samples of fetus with differential gestational ages were imaged. The first results show that fetus vertebra is quite different from adult bone both in terms of density and organization.

  9. Lumbar spinal epidural angiolipoma.

    PubMed

    Nanassis, Kimon; Tsitsopoulos, Parmenion; Marinopoulos, Dimitrios; Mintelis, Apostolos; Tsitsopoulos, Philippos

    2008-04-01

    Spinal angiolipomas are rare benign tumours most commonly found in the thoracic spine. A case of an extradural lumbar angiolipoma in a 47-year-old female is described. She had a recent history of lower back pain accompanied by sciatica. Lumbar MRI revealed a dorsal epidural mass at the L2-L3 level. The patient underwent a bilateral laminectomy, in which the tumour was totally excised. The pathological examination indicated haemangiolipoma. Post-operatively, the patient's neurological signs and symptoms improved remarkably quickly. MRI at 6 and 18 months after surgery revealed no evidence of tumour recurrence.

  10. Proceedings of the 5th US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research Design and Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Francis D.; Leigh, Christi; Stein, Walter; Bollingerfehr, Wilhelm; Von Berlepsche, Thilo

    2015-01-01

    The 5th US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design, and Operation was held in Santa Fe New Mexico September 8-10, 2014. The forty seven registered participants were equally divided between the United States (US) and Germany, with one participant from The Netherlands. The agenda for the 2014 workshop was under development immediately upon finishing the 4th Workshop. Ongoing, fundamental topics such as thermomechanical behavior of salt, plugging and sealing, the safety case, and performance assessment continue to advance the basis for disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt formations. The utility of a salt underground research laboratory (URL) remains an intriguing concept engendering discussion of testing protocol. By far the most interest in this years’ workshop pertained to operational safety. Given events at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), this discussion took on a new sense of relevance and urgency.

  11. Exploratory Factor Analysis of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th Edition, Criteria for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    McSweeney, Lauren B; Koch, Ellen I; Saules, Karen K; Jefferson, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    One change to the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) nomenclature highlighted in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th Edition (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) is the conceptualization of PTSD as a diagnostic category with four distinct symptom clusters. This article presents exploratory factor analysis to test the structural validity of the DSM-5 conceptualization of PTSD via an online survey that included the PTSD Checklist-5. The study utilized a sample of 113 college students from a large Midwestern university and 177 Amazon Mechanical Turk users. Participants were primarily female, Caucasian, single, and heterosexual with an average age of 32 years. Approximately 30% to 35% of participants met diagnostic criteria for PTSD based on two different scoring criteria. Results of the exploratory factor analysis revealed five distinct symptom clusters. The implications for the classification of PTSD are discussed.

  12. Highlights from the 5th Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Virology.

    PubMed

    Salata, Cristiano; Calistri, Arianna; Palù, Giorgio

    2006-07-01

    The 5th National Congress of the Italian Society of Virology (SIV) was attended by junior- and senior-level virologists to promote interactions and scientific collaborations among the different areas of Virology and allied sciences. The invited and selected lecturers covered the following topics: General Virology and Viral Genetics; Virus-host Interaction and Pathogenesis; Viral Oncogenesis; Viral Immunology and Vaccines; Anti-viral Therapy; Innovative Diagnostics; Viral Biotechnologies and Cell and Gene Therapy. As in the previous editions (Salata and Palù, 2004; Salata et al., 2005), a specific topic was thoroughly covered in a roundtable. This year the elected subject was "HIV: determinants of pathogenicity and clinical implications." The final program and the abstract book can be found at the web site http://www.siv-virologia.it. This report summarizes the lessons learned from the plenary lectures and the selected oral presentations of the 2005 meeting.

  13. Dental health in antique population of Vinkovci - Cibalae in Croatia (3rd-5th century).

    PubMed

    Peko, Dunja; Vodanović, Marin

    2016-08-01

    Roman city Cibalae (Vinkovci) - the birthplace of Roman emperors Valentinian I and Valens was a very well developed urban ares in the late antique what was evidenced by numerous archaeological findings. The aim of this paper is to get insight in dental health of antique population of Cibalae. One hundred individuals with 2041 teeth dated to 3rd - 5th century AD have been analyzed for caries, antemortem tooth loss, periapical diseases and tooth wear. Prevalence of antemortem tooth loss was 4.3% in males, 5.2% in females. Prevalence of caries per tooth was 8.4% in males, 7.0% in females. Compared to other Croatian antique sites, ancient inhabitants of Roman Cibalae had rather good dental health with low caries prevalence and no gender differences. Statistically significant difference was found between males in females in the prevalence of periapical lesions and degree of tooth wear. Periapical lesions were found only in males. PMID:27598951

  14. Recurrent Idiopathic Catatonia: Implications beyond the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th Edition.

    PubMed

    Caroff, Stanley N; Hurford, Irene; Bleier, Henry R; Gorton, Gregg E; Campbell, E Cabrina

    2015-08-31

    We describe a case of recurrent, life-threatening, catatonic stupor, without evidence of any associated medical, toxic or mental disorder. This case provides support for the inclusion of a separate category of "unspecified catatonia" in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th edition (DSM-5) to be used to classify idiopathic cases, which appears to be consistent with Kahlbaum's concept of catatonia as a distinct disease state. But beyond the limited, cross-sectional, syndromal approach adopted in DSM-5, this case more importantly illustrates the prognostic and therapeutic significance of the longitudinal course of illness in differentiating cases of catatonia, which is better defined in the Wernicke-Kleist-Leonhard classification system. The importance of differentiating cases of catatonia is further supported by the efficacy of antipsychotics in treatment of this case, contrary to conventional guidelines.

  15. APTWG: The 5th Asia-Pacific Transport Working Group Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, X.; Ghim, Y.-C.; Sun, Y. W.; Gao, Z.; Inagaki, S.; Chen, W.; Zhang, T.; Wang, Z. X.

    2016-03-01

    This conference report gives a summary on the contributed papers and discussions presented at the 5th Asia-Pacific Transport Working Group Meeting held at Dalian, China from 9-12 June 2015. The main goal of the working group is to develop a predictive understanding of the basic mechanisms responsible for particle, momentum and energy transport in magnetically confined plasmas. The topics of the meeting in 2015 were organized under five main headings: (1) turbulence suppression and transport barrier formation, (2) effect of magnetic topology on MHD activity and transport, (3) non-diffusive contribution of momentum and particle transport, (4) non-local transport and turbulence spreading and coupling and (5) energetic particles and instability. The Young Researchers’ Forum which was held at this meeting is also described in this report.

  16. Theoretical studies of Ir5Th and Ir5Ce nanoscale precipitates in Ir

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, James R; Averill, Frank; Cooper, Valentino R

    2014-01-01

    Experimentally, it is known that very small amounts of thorium and/or cerium added to iridium metal form a precipitate, Ir5Th / Ir5Ce, which improves the high temperature mechanical properties of the resulting alloys. We demonstrate that there are low-energy configurations for nano-scale precipitates of these phases in Ir, and that these coherent arrangements may assist in producing improved mechanical properties. One precipitate/matrix orientation gives a particularly low interfacial energy, and a low lattice misfit. Nanolayer precipitates with this orientation are found to be likely to form, with little driving force to coarsen. The predicted morphology of the precipitates and their orientation with the matrix phase provide a potential experiment that could be used to test these predictions.

  17. Lumbar hernia: a diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Syed Tausif; Ranjan, Rajeeva; Saha, Subhendu Bikas; Singh, Balbodh

    2014-04-15

    Lumbar hernia is one of the rare cases that most surgeons are not exposed to. Hence the diagnosis can be easily missed. This leads to delay in the treatment causing increased morbidity. We report a case of lumbar hernia in a middle-aged woman. It was misdiagnosed as lipoma by another surgeon. It was a case of primary acquired lumbar hernia in the superior lumbar triangle. Clinical and MRI findings were correlated to reach the diagnosis. We also highlight the types, the process of diagnosis and the surgical repair of lumbar hernias. We wish to alert our fellow surgeons to keep the differential diagnosis of the lumbar hernia in mind before diagnosing any lumbar swelling as lipoma.

  18. Iatrogenic neurologic deficit after lumbar spine surgery: A review.

    PubMed

    Ghobrial, George M; Williams, Kim A; Arnold, Paul; Fehlings, Michael; Harrop, James S

    2015-12-01

    Iatrogenic neurologic deficits after lumbar spine surgery are rare complications, but important to recognize and manage. Complications such as radiculopathy, spinal cord compression, motor deficits (i.e. foot drop with L5 radiculopathy), and new onset radiculitis, while uncommon do occur. Attempts at mitigating these complications with the use of neuromonitoring have been successful. Guidance in the literature as to the true rate of iatrogenic neurologic deficit is limited to several case studies and retrospective designed studies describing the management, prevention and treatment of these deficits. The authors review the lumbar spinal surgery literature to examine the incidence of iatrogenic neurologic deficit in the lumbar spinal surgery literature. An advanced MEDLINE search conducted on May 14th, 2015 from January 1, 2004 through May 14, 2015, using the following MeSH search terms "postoperative complications," then subterms "lumbar vertebrae," treatment outcome," "spinal fusion," and "radiculopathy" were included together with "postoperative complications" in a single search. Postoperative complications including radiculopathy, weakness, and spinal cord compression were included. The definition of iatrogenic neurologic complication was limited to post-operative radiculopathy, motor weakness or new onset pain/radiculitis. An advanced MEDLINE search conducted on May 14th, 2015 using all of the above terms together yielded 21 results. After careful evaluation, 11 manuscripts were excluded and 10 were carefully reviewed. The most common indications for surgery were degenerative spondylolisthesis, spondylosis, scoliosis, and lumbar stenosis. In 2783 patients in 12 total studies, there were 56 patients who had reported a postoperative neurologic deficit for a rate of 5.7. The rates of deficits ranged from 0.46% to 17% in the studies used. The average rate of reported neurologic complications within these papers was 9% (range 0.46-24%). Thirty patients of a total of

  19. Lumbar corsets can decrease lumbar motion in golf swing.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Koji; Miyamoto, Kei; Yanagawa, Takashi; Hattori, Ryo; Aoki, Takaaki; Matsuoka, Toshio; Ohno, Takatoshi; Shimizu, Katsuji

    2013-01-01

    Swinging a golf club includes the rotation and extension of the lumbar spine. Golf-related low back pain has been associated with degeneration of the lumbar facet and intervertebral discs, and with spondylolysis. Reflective markers were placed directly onto the skin of 11young male amateur golfers without a previous history of back pain. Using a VICON system (Oxford Metrics, U.K.), full golf swings were monitored without a corset (WOC), with a soft corset (SC), and with a hard corset (HC), with each subject taking 3 swings. Changes in the angle between the pelvis and the thorax (maximum range of motion and angular velocity) in 3 dimensions (lumbar rotation, flexion-extension, and lateral tilt) were analyzed, as was rotation of the hip joint. Peak changes in lumbar extension and rotation occurred just after impact with the ball. The extension angle of the lumbar spine at finish was significantly lower under SC (38°) or HC (28°) than under WOC (44°) conditions (p < 0.05). The maximum angular velocity after impact was significantly smaller under HC (94°/sec) than under SC (177°/sec) and WOC (191° /sec) conditions, as were the lumbar rotation angles at top and finish. In contrast, right hip rotation angles at top showed a compensatory increase under HC conditions. Wearing a lumbar corset while swinging a golf club can effectively decrease lumbar extension and rotation angles from impact until the end of the swing. These effects were significantly enhanced while wearing an HC. Key pointsRotational and extension forces on the lumbar spine may cause golf-related low back painWearing lumbar corsets during a golf swing can effectively decrease lumbar extension and rotation angles and angular velocity.Wearing lumbar corsets increased the rotational motion of the hip joint while reducing the rotation of the lumbar spine. PMID:24149729

  20. Lumbar Corsets Can Decrease Lumbar Motion in Golf Swing

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Koji; Miyamoto, Kei; Yanagawa, Takashi; Hattori, Ryo; Aoki, Takaaki; Matsuoka, Toshio; Ohno, Takatoshi; Shimizu, Katsuji

    2013-01-01

    Swinging a golf club includes the rotation and extension of the lumbar spine. Golf-related low back pain has been associated with degeneration of the lumbar facet and intervertebral discs, and with spondylolysis. Reflective markers were placed directly onto the skin of 11young male amateur golfers without a previous history of back pain. Using a VICON system (Oxford Metrics, U.K.), full golf swings were monitored without a corset (WOC), with a soft corset (SC), and with a hard corset (HC), with each subject taking 3 swings. Changes in the angle between the pelvis and the thorax (maximum range of motion and angular velocity) in 3 dimensions (lumbar rotation, flexion-extension, and lateral tilt) were analyzed, as was rotation of the hip joint. Peak changes in lumbar extension and rotation occurred just after impact with the ball. The extension angle of the lumbar spine at finish was significantly lower under SC (38°) or HC (28°) than under WOC (44°) conditions (p < 0.05). The maximum angular velocity after impact was significantly smaller under HC (94°/sec) than under SC (177°/sec) and WOC (191° /sec) conditions, as were the lumbar rotation angles at top and finish. In contrast, right hip rotation angles at top showed a compensatory increase under HC conditions. Wearing a lumbar corset while swinging a golf club can effectively decrease lumbar extension and rotation angles from impact until the end of the swing. These effects were significantly enhanced while wearing an HC. Key points Rotational and extension forces on the lumbar spine may cause golf-related low back pain Wearing lumbar corsets during a golf swing can effectively decrease lumbar extension and rotation angles and angular velocity. Wearing lumbar corsets increased the rotational motion of the hip joint while reducing the rotation of the lumbar spine. PMID:24149729

  1. Torsional deformity of apical vertebra in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Kotwicki, Tomasz; Napiontek, Marek

    2002-01-01

    CT scans of structural thoracic idiopathic scoliosis were reviewed in nine patients admitted to our department for scoliosis surgery. The apical vertebra scans were chosen and the following parameters were evaluated: 1) alpha angle formed by the axis of vertebra and the axis of spinous process 2) beta concave and beta convex angle between the spinous process and the left and right transverse process, respectively, 3) gamma concave and gamma convex angle between the axis of vertebra and the left and right transverse process, respectively, 4) the rotation angle to the sagittal plane. The constant deviation of the spinous process towards the convex side of the curve was observed. The vertebral body itself was distorted towards the concavity of the curve. The angle between the spinous process and the transverse process was smaller on the convex side of the curve. The torsional, intravertebral deformity of the apical vertebra was a factor acting in the direction opposite to the rotation, in the sense to reduce the deformity of the spine in idiopathic scoliosis. PMID:15456062

  2. Automated identification of spinal cord and vertebras on sagittal MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Dong, Qian; He, Bo; Wei, Jun; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Couriel, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    We are developing an automated method for the identification of the spinal cord and the vertebras on spinal MR images, which is an essential step for computerized analysis of bone marrow diseases. The spinal cord segment was first enhanced by a newly developed hierarchical multiscale tubular (HMT) filter that utilizes the complementary hyper- and hypo- intensities in the T1-weighted (T1W) and STIR MRI sequences. An Expectation-Maximization (EM) analysis method was then applied to the enhanced tubular structures to extract candidates of the spinal cord. The spinal cord was finally identified by a maximum-likelihood registration method by analysis of the features extracted from the candidate objects in the two MRI sequences. Using the identified spinal cord as a reference, the vertebras were localized based on the intervertebral disc locations extracted by another HMT filter applied to the T1W images. In this study, 5 and 30 MRI scans from 35 patients who were diagnosed with multiple myeloma disease were collected retrospectively with IRB approval as training and test set, respectively. The vertebras manually outlined by a radiologist were used as reference standard. A total of 422 vertebras were marked in the 30 test cases. For the 30 test cases, 100% (30/30) of the spinal cords were correctly segmented with 4 false positives (FPs) mistakenly identified on the back muscles in 4 scans. A sensitivity of 95.0% (401/422) was achieved for the identification of vertebras, and 5 FPs were marked in 4 scans with an average FP rate of 0.17 FPs/scan.

  3. Activity of thoracic and lumbar epaxial extensors during postural responses in the cat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macpherson, J. M.; Fung, J.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the role of trunk extensor muscles in the thoracic and lumbar regions during postural adjustments in the freely standing cat. The epaxial extensor muscles participate in the rapid postural responses evoked by horizontal translation of the support surface. The muscles segregate into two regional groups separated by a short transition zone, according to the spatial pattern of the electromyographic (EMG) responses. The upper thoracic muscles (T5-9) respond best to posteriorly directed translations, whereas the lumbar muscles (T13 to L7) respond best to anterior translations. The transition group muscles (T10-12) respond to almost all translations. Muscles group according to vertebral level rather than muscle species. The upper thoracic muscles change little in their response with changes in stance distance (fore-hindpaw separation) and may act to stabilize the intervertebral angles of the thoracic curvature. Activity in the lumbar muscles increases along with upward rotation of the pelvis (iliac crest) as stance distance decreases. Lumbar muscles appear to stabilize the pelvis with respect to the lumbar vertebrae (L7-sacral joint). The transition zone muscles display a change in spatial tuning with stance distance, responding to many directions of translation at short distances and focusing to respond best to contralateral translations at the long stance distance.

  4. Development and Kinematic Verification of a Finite Element Model for the Lumbar Spine: Application to Disc Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ibarz, Elena; Herrera, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge of the lumbar spine biomechanics is essential for clinical applications. Due to the difficulties to experiment on living people and the irregular results published, simulation based on finite elements (FE) has been developed, making it possible to adequately reproduce the biomechanics of the lumbar spine. A 3D FE model of the complete lumbar spine (vertebrae, discs, and ligaments) has been developed. To verify the model, radiological images (X-rays) were taken over a group of 25 healthy, male individuals with average age of 27.4 and average weight of 78.6 kg with the corresponding informed consent. A maximum angle of 34.40° is achieved in flexion and of 35.58° in extension with a flexion-extension angle of 69.98°. The radiological measurements were 33.94 ± 4.91°, 38.73 ± 4.29°, and 72.67°, respectively. In lateral bending, the maximum angles were 19.33° and 23.40 ± 2.39, respectively. In rotation a maximum angle of 9.96° was obtained. The model incorporates a precise geometrical characterization of several elements (vertebrae, discs, and ligaments), respecting anatomical features and being capable of reproducing a wide range of physiological movements. Application to disc degeneration (L5-S1) allows predicting the affection in the mobility of the different lumbar segments, by means of parametric studies for different ranges of degeneration. PMID:23509766

  5. Lumbar vertebral hemangioma mimicking lateral spinal canal stenosis: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Syrimpeis, Vasileios; Vitsas, Vasileios; Korovessis, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    Context Hemangiomas are the commonest benign tumors of the spine. Most occur in the thoracolumbar spine and the majority are asymptomatic. Rarely, hemangiomas cause symptoms through epidural expansion of the involved vertebra, resulting in spinal canal stenosis, spontaneous epidural hemorrhage, and pathological burst fracture. Findings We report a rare case of a 73-year-old woman, who had been treated for two months for degenerative neurogenic claudication. On admission, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomographic scans revealed a hemangioma of the third lumbar vertebra protruding to the epidural space producing lateral spinal stenosis and ipsilateral nerve root compression. The patient underwent successful right hemilaminectomy for decompression of the nerve root, balloon kyphoplasty with poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) and pedicle screw segmental stabilization. Postoperative course was uneventful. Conclusion In the elderly, this rare presentation of spinal stenosis due to hemangiomas may be encountered. Decompression and vertebral augmentation by means balloon kyphoplasty with PMMA plus segmental pedicle screw fixation is recommended. PMID:24090267

  6. Need for Specific Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Lessons for 4th and 5th Graders

    PubMed Central

    Bea, Jennifer W.; Jacobs, Laurel; Waits, Juanita; Hartz, Vern; Martinez, Stephanie H.; Standfast, Rebecca D.; Farrell, Vanessa A.; Bawden, Margine; Whitmer, Evelyn; Misner, Scottie

    2015-01-01

    Objective Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) is linked to obesity. We hypothesized that school-based nutrition education would decrease SSB consumption. Design Self-selected interventional cohort with random selection for pre and post measurements Setting Arizona SNAP-Ed eligible schools Participants Randomly selected (9%) 4th and 5th grade classroom students Intervention The University of Arizona Nutrition Network (UANN) provided general nutrition education training and materials to teachers, to be delivered to their students. The UANN administered behavioral questionnaires to students in both Fall and Spring. Main Outcome Measure(s) Change in SSB consumption Analyses Descriptive statistics were computed for student demographics and beverage consumption on the day prior to testing. Paired t-tests evaluated change in classroom averages. Linear regression assessed potential correlates of SSB consumption. Results Fall mean SSB consumption was 1.1 (±0.2) times; mean milk and water intake were 1.6 (±0.2) and 5.2 (±0.7) times, respectively. Beverage consumption increased (3.2%) in springtime, with increased SSBs (14.4%) accounting for the majority (p=0.006). Change in SSB consumption was negatively associated with baseline SSB and water consumption, but positively associated with baseline milk fat (p≤0.05). Conclusions and Implications The results suggest the need for beverage specific education to encourage children to consume more healthful beverages in warmer weather. PMID:25239840

  7. Emotions, arousal, and frontal alpha rhythm asymmetry during Beethoven's 5th symphony.

    PubMed

    Mikutta, Christian; Altorfer, Andreas; Strik, Werner; Koenig, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    Music is capable of inducing emotional arousal. While previous studies used brief musical excerpts to induce one specific emotion, the current study aimed to identify the physiological correlates of continuous changes in subjective emotional states while listening to a complete music piece. A total of 19 participants listened to the first movement of Ludwig van Beethoven's 5th symphony (duration: ~7.4 min), during which a continuous 76-channel EEG was recorded. In a second session, the subjects evaluated their emotional arousal during the listening. A fast fourier transform was performed and covariance maps of spectral power were computed in association with the subjective arousal ratings. Subjective arousal ratings had good inter-individual correlations. Covariance maps showed a right-frontal suppression of lower alpha-band activity during high arousal. The results indicate that music is a powerful arousal-modulating stimulus. The temporal dynamics of the piece are well suited for sequential analysis, and could be necessary in helping unfold the full emotional power of music.

  8. The 5th Symposium on Post-Transcriptional Regulation of Plant Gene Expression (PTRoPGE)

    SciTech Connect

    Karen S. Browning; Marie Petrocek; Bonnie Bartel

    2006-06-01

    The 5th Symposium on Post-Transcriptional Regulation of Plant Gene Expression (PTRoPGE) will be held June 8-12, 2005 at the University of Texas at Austin. Exciting new and ongoing discoveries show significant regulation of gene expression occurs after transcription. These post-transcriptional control events in plants range from subtle regulation of transcribed genes and phosphorylation, to the processes of gene regulation through small RNAs. This meeting will focus on the regulatory role of RNA, from transcription, through translation and finally degradation. The cross-disciplinary design of this meeting is necessary to encourage interactions between researchers that have a common interest in post-transcriptional gene expression in plants. By bringing together a diverse group of plant molecular biologist and biochemists at all careers stages from across the world, this meeting will bring about more rapid progress in understanding how plant genomes work and how genes are finely regulated by post-transcriptional processes to ultimately regulate cells.

  9. Science teaching efficacy beliefs of 5th and 8th grade science teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Susan Melony

    The purpose of this study was to determine which, if any, variables had a significant relationship to personal science teaching efficacy beliefs and outcome expectancies. The independent variables tested were number of undergraduate science methods courses taken, level of teacher education, number of years as a classroom teacher, number of years as a science teacher, teacher beliefs regarding instructional strategies in science, and teacher beliefs regarding student engagement in the science classroom. Through surveys completed by 5th and 8th grade science teachers, the researcher analyzed data via multiple regressions to determine significance. Results of the data analysis showed the greatest significance was between personal science teaching efficacy beliefs and number of years as a classroom teacher, and teacher beliefs regarding instructional strategies in science and outcome expectancy and student engagement in the science classroom. Implications for current practice include a need for improved teacher education programs for pre-service science teachers, collaboration between universities and public school districts, improved methods for teacher retention in the science classroom, and the use of hands-on and minds-on instruction in the science classroom.

  10. [Lumbar spinal angiolipoma].

    PubMed

    Isla, Alberto; Ortega Martinez, Rodrigo; Pérez López, Carlos; Gómez de la Riva, Alvaro; Mansilla, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Spinal angiolipomas are fairly infrequent benign tumours that are usually located in the epidural space of the thoracic column and represent 0.14% to 1.3% of all spinal tumours. Lumbar angiolipomas are extremely rare, representing only 9.6% of all spinal extradural angiolipomas. We report the case of a woman who complained of a lumbar pain of several months duration with no neurological focality and that had intensified in the last three days without her having had any injury or made a physical effort. The MR revealed an extradural mass L1-L2, on the posterior face of the medulla, decreasing the anteroposterior diameter of the canal. The patient symptoms improved after surgery. Total extirpation of the lesion is possible in most cases, and the prognosis is excellent even if the lesion is infiltrative. For this reason, excessively aggressive surgery is not necessary to obtain complete resection. PMID:27263067

  11. [Lumbar spinal angiolipoma].

    PubMed

    Isla, Alberto; Ortega Martinez, Rodrigo; Pérez López, Carlos; Gómez de la Riva, Alvaro; Mansilla, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Spinal angiolipomas are fairly infrequent benign tumours that are usually located in the epidural space of the thoracic column and represent 0.14% to 1.3% of all spinal tumours. Lumbar angiolipomas are extremely rare, representing only 9.6% of all spinal extradural angiolipomas. We report the case of a woman who complained of a lumbar pain of several months duration with no neurological focality and that had intensified in the last three days without her having had any injury or made a physical effort. The MR revealed an extradural mass L1-L2, on the posterior face of the medulla, decreasing the anteroposterior diameter of the canal. The patient symptoms improved after surgery. Total extirpation of the lesion is possible in most cases, and the prognosis is excellent even if the lesion is infiltrative. For this reason, excessively aggressive surgery is not necessary to obtain complete resection.

  12. Lumbar facet syndromes.

    PubMed

    Beresford, Zach M; Kendall, Richard W; Willick, Stuart E

    2010-01-01

    Low back pain is a common presenting complaint to sports medicine providers. The lumbar spine is a complex anatomic structure with multiple potential pain generators. Epidemiologic studies have shown that the intervertebral disc is the most common pain generator in all patients with low back pain. The facet joints may account for 15%-40% of low back pain. It can be challenging at times to establish a firm diagnosis of facet pain. Facet pain can have different presentations, and pain emanating from other lumbopelvic structures can present similarly as facet joint pain. This article reviews the anatomy and biomechanics of the lumbar facet joints, presenting symptoms and physical examination findings seen with facet pain. We also will discuss diagnostic and treatment paradigms that are helpful to the clinician treating low back pain in athletes.

  13. Iopamidol in lumbar myelography.

    PubMed

    Kleefield, J; Chirico-Post, J; Levine, H L; Srinivasan, M K; Harris, J M; Rommel, A J; Robbins, A H

    1983-08-01

    Iopamidol is a new, nonionic, water-soluble contrast material currently undergoing clinical trials for intravascular and intrathecal use in Europe and the United States. In this study, 12 patients underwent lumbar myelography with this agent. For each subject, up to 12 mL of iopamidol (at 200 mg I/mL) was employed. The myelograms obtained were highly satisfactory. No serious adverse reactions were observed. The most common side effect--headache--occurred in seven patients. However, six of the seven headaches were mild and transient, and did not require treatment. Nausea occurred in two patients, back pain in two patients, hypotension and hypertension each in one patient. All of these reactions were mild and self-limited. Iopamidol appears to be a safe and conveniently used agent for lumbar myelography.

  14. LUMBAR DISC HERNIATION

    PubMed Central

    Vialle, Luis Roberto; Vialle, Emiliano Neves; Suárez Henao, Juan Esteban; Giraldo, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Lumbar disc herniation is the most common diagnosis among the degenerative abnormalities of the lumbar spine (affecting 2 to 3% of the population), and is the principal cause of spinal surgery among the adult population. The typical clinical picture includes initial lumbalgia, followed by progressive sciatica. The natural history of disc herniation is one of rapid resolution of the symptoms (four to six weeks). The initial treatment should be conservative, managed through medication and physiotherapy, sometimes associated with percutaneous nerve root block. Surgical treatment is indicated if pain control is unsuccessful, if there is a motor deficit greater than grade 3, if there is radicular pain associated with foraminal stenosis, or if cauda equina syndrome is present. The latter represents a medical emergency. A refined surgical technique, with removal of the extruded fragment and preservation of the ligamentum flavum, resolves the sciatic symptoms and reduces the risk of recurrence over the long term. PMID:27019834

  15. Lumbar spine chordoma

    PubMed Central

    Hatem, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Chordoma is a rare tumor arising from notochord remnants in the spine. It is slow-growing, which makes it difficult to diagnose and difficult to follow up after treatment. Typically, it occurs in the base of the skull and sacrococcygeal spine; it rarely occurs in other parts of the spine. CT-guided biopsy of a suspicious mass enabled diagnosis of lumbar spine chordoma. PMID:27186250

  16. Electrodiagnosis of lumbar radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Barr, Karen

    2013-02-01

    The evaluation of patients with suspected lumbar radiculopathy is one of the most common reasons patients are referred for electrodiagnostic testing. The utility of this study depends on the expertise of the physician who plans, performs, and completes the study. This article reviews the strengths and weaknesses of electrodiagnosis to make this diagnosis, as well as the clinical reasoning of appropriate study planning. The current use of electrodiagnostic testing to determine prognosis and treatment outcomes is also discussed.

  17. 5th International conference on Physics and Astrophysics of Quark Gluon Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Bikash; Alam, Jan-E.; Nayak, Tapan K.

    2006-11-01

    The 5th International Conference on Physics and Astrophysics of Quark Gluon Plasma (ICPAQGP 2005) was held on 8 - 12 February 2005 at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre and Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics campus, Kolkata, India. The conference was enriched by the august presence of about 300 participants representing 18 countries across the globe. It had plenary talks and oral presentations, which form a part of these proceedings. Besides invited and contributed talks there were also a large number of poster presentations. The conference was energized by discussions of fresh experimental data from RHIC on strong elliptic flow, jet quenching, single photon spectra etc. Moreover, new theoretical results were brought to the discussion forum during this conference. Colour glass condensates, hydrodynamical flow, jet quenching and sQGP were intensely debated by the participants. The highlight of ICPAQGP 2005 was the presentation of fresh experimental results from the RHIC-IV run. The ICPAQGP series, since its inception in 1988, has placed emphasis on the role of quark matter in the fields of astrophysics and cosmology. The subsequent conferences held in 1993, 1997, 2001 and 2005 had also retained this focus. The conference was preceded by a Fest Colloquium in honour of Professor Bikash Sinha. Professor Sinha, regarded as the pioneer in establishing quark gluon plasma research in India, has successfully encouraged a group of young Indian researchers to devote themselves wholeheartedly to QGP research - both theoretical and experimental. Members of the International Advisory Committee played a pivotal role mainly in the selection of speakers. The contributions of the Organizing Committee in all aspects, from selecting the contributory talks posters down to arranging local hospitality, were much appreciated. We thank the members of both committees for making ICPAQGP 2005 an interesting platform for scientific deliberation. The ICPAQGP 2005 was supported financially by

  18. Freezing Rain Diagnostic Study Over Eastern Canada Using the 5th Generation Canadian Regional Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresson, É.; Paquin, D.; Laprise, R.; Theriault, J. M.; de Elía, R.

    2015-12-01

    Northeastern North America is often affected by freezing rain events during the cold season. They can have significant consequences (from road accidents, to severe power outages) despite their intensity and duration. The 1998 Ice Storm over Eastern Canada and Northeastern United States is an example of an extreme event with catastrophic consequences. A total of up to 150 mm of ice accumulated during 10 days were observed in some areas. This natural disaster has highlighted the need to better understand how such phenomena will evolve with future climate scenario. The goal is to investigate the feasibility of using regional climate modeling to diagnose the occurrence of freezing rain events over Quebec (Canada). To address this issue, we used the 5th generation of the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5), from 1979 to 2014. An empirical method (Bourgouin, 2000) developed to determine the type of winter precipitations was chosen to diagnose freezing rain events. The study focused in the Montreal area and the St. Lawrence River Valley (Quebec, Canada). The sensitivity of the model to horizontal resolution was explored by using three resolutions: 0.44°, 0.22° and 0.11°. In general, freezing rain was diagnosed consistently at all resolutions but the higher one (0.11°) produced more realistic results due to a better representation of the orography. Using the higher resolution, the results showed that the climatology of the freezing rain occurrence in the Montreal area is comparable to available observations. It also suggested that the role of the specific orography of the region with the St. Lawrence River Valley can impact the characteristics of freezing rain events in this area. Overall, this study will contribute to a better preparedness for such events in the future. High resolution regional climate simulations are essential to improve the reproduction of local scale orographically-forced phenomena.

  19. Black sea surface temperature anomaly on 5th August 1998 and the ozone layer thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manev, A.; Palazov, K.; Raykov, St.; Ivanov, V.

    2003-04-01

    BLACK SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE ANOMALY ON 5th AUGUST 1998 AND THE OZONE LAYER THICKNESS A. Manev , K. Palazov , St. Raykov, V. Ivanov Solar Terrestrial Influences Laboratory, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences amanev@abv.bg This paper focuses on the peculiarities of the Black Sea surface temperature anomaly on 05.08.1998. Researching the daily temperature changes in a number of control fields in the course of 8-10 years, we have found hidden correlations and anomalous deviations in the sea surface temperatures on a global scale. Research proves the statistical reliability of the temperature anomaly on the entire Black Sea surface registered on 04.-05.08.1998. In the course of six days around these dates the temperatures are up to 2°C higher than the maximum temperatures in this period in the other seven years. A more detailed analysis of the dynamics of the anomaly required the investigation of five Black Sea surface characteristic zones of 75x75 km. The analysis covers the period 20 days - 10 days before and 10 days after the anomaly. Investigations aimed at interpreting the reasons for the anomalous heating of the surface waters. We have tried to analyze the correlation between sea surface temperature and the global ozone above the Black Sea by using simultaneously data from the two satellite systems NOAA and TOMS. Methods of processing and comparing the data from the two satellite systems are described. The correlation coefficients values for the five characteristic zones are very high and close, which proves that the character of the correlation ozone - sea surface temperature is the same for the entire Black Sea surface. Despite the high correlation coefficient, we have proved that causality between the two phenomena at the time of the anomaly does not exit.

  20. Development of a Three-Dimensional Finite Element Chest Model for the 5(th) Percentile Female.

    PubMed

    Kimpara, Hideyuki; Lee, Jong B; Yang, King H; King, Albert I; Iwamoto, Masami; Watanabe, Isao; Miki, Kazuo

    2005-11-01

    Several three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models of the human body have been developed to elucidate injury mechanisms due to automotive crashes. However, these models are mainly focused on 50(th) percentile male. As a first step towards a better understanding of injury biomechanics in the small female, a 3D FE model of a 5(th) percentile female human chest (FEM-5F) has been developed and validated against experimental data obtained from two sets of frontal impact, one set of lateral impact, two sets of oblique impact and a series of ballistic impacts. Two previous FE models, a small female Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS-AF05) occupant version 1.0Beta (Kimpara et al. 2002) and the Wayne State University Human Thoracic Model (WSUHTM, Wang 1995 and Shah et al. 2001) were integrated and modified for this model development. The model incorporated not only geometrical gender differences, such as location of the internal organs and structure of the bony skeleton, but also the biomechanical differences of the ribs due to gender. It includes a detailed description of the sternum, ribs, costal cartilage, thoracic spine, skin, superficial muscles, intercostal muscles, heart, lung, diaphragm, major blood vessels and simplified abdominal internal organs and has been validated against a series of six cadaveric experiments on the small female reported by Nahum et al. (1970), Kroell et al. (1974), Viano (1989), Talantikite et al. (1998) and Wilhelm (2003). Results predicted by the model were well-matched to these experimental data for a range of impact speeds and impactor masses. More research is needed in order to increase the accuracy of predicting rib fractures so that the mechanisms responsible for small female injury can be more clearly defined. PMID:17096277

  1. Patterns of Irregular Burials in Western Europe (1st-5th Century A.D.)

    PubMed Central

    Milella, Marco; Mariotti, Valentina; Belcastro, Maria Giovanna; Knüsel, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Irregular burials (IB—burials showing features that contrast with the majority of others in their geographic and chronological context) have been the focus of archaeological study because of their relative rarity and enigmatic appearance. Interpretations of IB often refer to supposed fear of the dead or to social processes taking place in time-specific contexts. However, a comprehensive and quantitative analysis of IB for various geographical contexts is still lacking, a fact that hampers any discussion of these burials on a larger scale. Methods Here, we collected a bibliographic dataset of 375 IB from both Britain and Continental Europe, altogether spanning a time period from the 1st to the 5th century AD. Each burial has been coded according to ten dichotomous variables, further analyzed by means of chi-squared tests on absolute frequencies, non-metric multidimensional scaling, and cluster analysis. Results Even acknowledging the limits of this study, and in particular the bias represented by the available literature, our results point to interesting patterns. Geographically, IB show a contrast between Britain and Continental Europe, possibly related to historical processes specific to these regions. Different types of IB (especially prone depositions and depositions with the cephalic extremity displaced) present a series of characteristics and associations between features that permit a more detailed conceptualization of these occurrences from a socio-cultural perspective that aids to elucidate their funerary meaning. Conclusions and Significance Altogether, the present work stresses the variability of IB, and the need to contextualize them in a proper archaeological and historical context. It contributes to the discussion of IB by providing a specific geographic and chronological frame of reference that supports a series of hypotheses about the cultural processes possibly underlying their occurrence. PMID:26115408

  2. Optimal patient positioning for ligamentotaxis during balloon kyphoplasty of the thoracolumbar and lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Cawley, D T; Sexton, P; Murphy, T; McCabe, J P

    2011-06-01

    Percutaneous balloon kyphoplasty aims to restore vertebral height, correct angular deformity and stabilize the spine in the setting of vertebral compression fractures. The patient is positioned prone with supports under the iliac crests and upper thorax to allow gravity to extend the spine. In the treatment of lumbar fractures, we evaluated patient positioning with the contribution of hip extension to increase anterior ligamentotaxis, thus facilitating restoration of vertebral height. Our positioning technique created a mean anterior height increase from 72% to 78% of the average height of the cranial and caudal vertebrae (p=0.037). Balloon inflation did not significantly further increase anterior or posterior vertebral height, or Cobb angle.

  3. Adaptive geodesic transform for segmentation of vertebrae on CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Shu, Liao; Hermosillo, Gerardo; Zhan, Yiqiang

    2014-03-01

    Vertebral segmentation is a critical first step in any quantitative evaluation of vertebral pathology using CT images. This is especially challenging because bone marrow tissue has the same intensity profile as the muscle surrounding the bone. Thus simple methods such as thresholding or adaptive k-means fail to accurately segment vertebrae. While several other algorithms such as level sets may be used for segmentation any algorithm that is clinically deployable has to work in under a few seconds. To address these dual challenges we present here, a new algorithm based on the geodesic distance transform that is capable of segmenting the spinal vertebrae in under one second. To achieve this we extend the theory of the geodesic distance transforms proposed in1 to incorporate high level anatomical knowledge through adaptive weighting of image gradients. Such knowledge may be provided by the user directly or may be automatically generated by another algorithm. We incorporate information 'learnt' using a previously published machine learning algorithm2 to segment the L1 to L5 vertebrae. While we present a particular application here, the adaptive geodesic transform is a generic concept which can be applied to segmentation of other organs as well.

  4. New approach to evaluate rotation of cervical vertebrae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Matthias

    2001-07-01

    Functional deficits after whiplash injury can be analyzed with a quite novel radiologic method by examination of joint-blocks in C0/1 and C1/2. Thereto the movability of C0, C1 and C2 is determined with three spiral CT-scans of the patient's cervical spine. One series in neutral and one in maximal active lateral right and left rotation each. Previous methods were slice based and time consuming when manually evaluated. We propose a new approach to a computation of these angles in 3D. After a threshold segmentation of bone tissue, a rough 2D classification takes place for C0, C1 and C2 in each rotation series. The center of an axial rotation for each vertebra is gained from the approximation of its center of gravity. The rotation itself is estimated by a cross-correlation of the radial distance functions. From the previous rotation the results are taken to initialize a 3D matching algorithm based on the sum of squared differences in intensity. The optimal match of the vertebrae is computed by means of the multidimensional Powell minimization algorithm. The three translational and three rotational components build a six-dimensional search-space. The vertebrae detection and rotation computation is done fully automatic.

  5. Cauda equina syndrome with multiple lumbar diverticula complicating long-standing ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Schröder, R; Urbach, H; Zierz, S

    1994-12-01

    A patient with cauda equina syndrome complicating long-standing inactive ankylosing spondylitis is described. The first neurological symptoms started 15 years after the onset of ankylosing spondylitis. Over a follow-up period of 12 years the cauda equina syndrome showed a slowly progressive but disabling course leading to sensory disturbances in the lumbar and sacral dermatomes, weakness and wasting of the muscles innervated by these nerve roots, sphincter disturbances, and impotence. Magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and lumbar myelography showed enlargement of the dural sac with multiple lubar diverticula eroding the lumbosacral vertebrae. The pathophysiology of the cauda equina syndrome in ankylosing spondylitis is unclear. Surgical treatment seems justified only in patients with a short history of neurological symptoms.

  6. Communicating Science to Impact Learning? A Phenomenological Inquiry into 4th and 5th Graders' Perceptions of Science Information Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelmez Burakgazi, Sevinc; Yildirim, Ali; Weeth Feinstein, Noah

    2016-01-01

    Rooted in science education and science communication studies, this study examines 4th and 5th grade students' perceptions of science information sources (SIS) and their use in communicating science to students. It combines situated learning theory with uses and gratifications theory in a qualitative phenomenological analysis. Data were gathered…

  7. WWW.com: A Brief Intervention to Bolster a 5th Grader's Regrouping Skills in Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waugh, Matthew; Harrison, Gina L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a brief math intervention using cognitive behaviour instruction (CBI) supplemented by a mnemonic cue system for a 5th grade student with math computation and fluency difficulties. Regrouping operations in addition and subtraction were the targeted skills. Curriculum-based measurements were conducted at the end…

  8. Comparing Science Learning among 4th-, 5th-, and 6th-Grade Students: STS versus Textbook-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yager, Robert E.; Choi, AeRan; Yager, Stuart O.; Akcay, Hakan

    2009-01-01

    Fifteen 4th-, 5th-, and 6th-grade teachers from five school districts each taught two sections of science--one with a Science-Technology-Society (STS) approach and the other with a more traditional textbook approach in which basic science concepts were the major organizers. Local, current, and personally relevant issues provided the context and…

  9. Process Evaluation of "Learn Young, Learn Fair": A Stress Management Programme for 5th and 6th Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraag, Gerda; Van Breukelen, Gerard; Lamberts, Petra; Vugts, Odette; Kok, Gerjo; Fekkes, Minne; Abu-Saad, Huda Huijer

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the process evaluation of a stress management program called "Learn Young, Learn Fair" for 5th and 6th graders. Studies, reviews and meta-analyses of prevention programs report that a common limitation in studies is the restricted documentation of process factors that contribute to the success of interventions. Program…

  10. Using Functional Behavior Assessment to Match Task Difficulty for a 5th Grade Student: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haydon, Todd

    2012-01-01

    We used an AB design with a control condition to examine the effects of an academic strategy on a student with a learning disability during a 5th grade math class. During baseline the student had high rates of disruptive behavior, low percentages of intervals of on-task behavior, and low percentages of correct responses. An antecedent-based…

  11. Proceedings of the International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM) (5th, Chania, Greece, June 19-21, 2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Educational Data Mining Society, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The 5th International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM 2012) is held in picturesque Chania on the beautiful Crete island in Greece, under the auspices of the International Educational Data Mining Society (IEDMS). The EDM 2012 conference is a leading international forum for high quality research that mines large data sets of educational…

  12. Brief Report: Data on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales (5th Ed.) in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coolican, Jamesie; Bryson, Susan E.; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2008-01-01

    The Fifth Edition of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales (SB5; Roid, G. H. (2003). "Stanford Binet intelligence scales" (5th ed.). Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing) is relatively new, with minimal published research on general populations and none with special populations. The present study provides information on the cognitive profiles of…

  13. Biomechanical comparison between concentrated, follower, and muscular loads of the lumbar column.

    PubMed

    Shih, Kao-Shang; Weng, Pei-Wei; Lin, Shang-Chih; Chen, Yi-Tzu; Cheng, Cheng-Kung; Lee, Chian-Her

    2016-10-01

    Experimental and numerical methods have been extensively used to simulate the lumbar kinematics and mechanics. One of the basic parameters is the lumbar loads. In the literature, both concentrated and distributed loads have been assumed to simulate the in vivo lumbar loads. However, the inconsistent loads between those studies exist and make the comparison of their results controversial. Using finite-element method, this study aimed to numerically compare the effects of the concentrated, follower, and muscular loads on the lumbar biomechanics during flexion. Two conditions of equivalent and simple constraints were simulated. The equivalent condition assumes the identical flexion at the L1 level and loads at the L5 level for the three types of loads. Another condition is to remove such kinematic and mechanical constraints on the lumbar. The comparison indices were flexed profile, distributed stress, and transferred loads of the discs and vertebrae at the different levels. The results showed that the three modes in the equivalent condition show the nearly same flexed profiles. In the simple condition, however, the L1 vertebra of the concentrated mode anteriorly translates about 3 and 5 times that of the follower and muscular mode, respectively. By contrast, the flexion profiles of the follower and muscular are comparable. In the equivalent condition, all modes consistently show the gradually increasing stress and loads toward the caudal levels. The results of both concentrated and muscular modes exhibit the quite comparable trends and even magnitudes. In the simple condition, however, the removal of flexion and load constraints makes the results of the concentrated mode significantly different from its counterparts. In both conditions, the predictedindices of the follower mode are more uniform along the lumbar. In conclusion, the kinematic and mechanical constraints significantly affect the profile, stress, and loads of the three modes. In the equivalent condition

  14. Storm Peak Laboratory 5th-6th Grade Climate and Weather Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCubbin, I. B.; Hallar, A. G.

    2008-12-01

    science. At the end of the day each student has a data sheet with measurements recorded from 5 locations of different elevations to take back to the classroom. Following the field trip, SPL scientists and educators visit the school for a follow-up to help children grasp concepts, represent their data set collected in graphical formats, answer questions, and evaluate students" learning. Currently, approximately 250 students annually participate in the SPL 5th and 6th grade climate education program.

  15. FOREWORD: 5th International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vourc'h, Eric; Rodet, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to the scientific research presented during the 5th International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems, NCMIP 2015 (http://complement.farman.ens-cachan.fr/NCMIP_2015.html). This workshop took place at Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan, on May 29, 2015. The prior editions of NCMIP also took place in Cachan, France, firstly within the scope of ValueTools Conference, in May 2011, and secondly at the initiative of Institut Farman, in May 2012, May 2013 and May 2014. The New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (NCMIP) workshop focused on recent advances in the resolution of inverse problems. Indeed, inverse problems appear in numerous scientific areas such as geophysics, biological and medical imaging, material and structure characterization, electrical, mechanical and civil engineering, and finances. The resolution of inverse problems consists of estimating the parameters of the observed system or structure from data collected by an instrumental sensing or imaging device. Its success firstly requires the collection of relevant observation data. It also requires accurate models describing the physical interactions between the instrumental device and the observed system, as well as the intrinsic properties of the solution itself. Finally, it requires the design of robust, accurate and efficient inversion algorithms. Advanced sensor arrays and imaging devices provide high rate and high volume data; in this context, the efficient resolution of the inverse problem requires the joint development of new models and inversion methods, taking computational and implementation aspects into account. During this one-day workshop, researchers had the opportunity to bring to light and share new techniques and results in the field of inverse problems. The topics of the workshop were: algorithms and computational aspects of inversion, Bayesian estimation, Kernel methods, learning methods

  16. PREFACE: 5th International EEIGM/AMASE/FORGEMAT Conference on Advanced Materials Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayadi, Zoubir; Czerwiec, Thierry; Horwat, David; Jamart, Brigitte

    2009-07-01

    This issue of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, contains manuscripts of talks that will be presented at the 5th International EEIGM/AMASE/FORGEMAT Conference on Advanced Materials Research that will be held at the Ecole Européenne d'Ingénieurs en Génie des Matériaux - European School of Materials Science and Engineering (EEIGM) in Nancy on November 4-5 2009. The conference will be organized by the EEIGM. The aim of the conference is to bring together scientists from the six European universities involved in the EEIGM and in the ''Erasmus Mundus'' AMASE Master (Advanced Materials Science and Engineering) programmes and in the Tempus FORGEMAT European project: Nancy-Université - EEIGM/INPL (Nancy, France), Universität des Saarlandes (Saarbrücken, Germany), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya - ETSEIB (Barcelona, Spain), Luleå Tekniska Universitet (Luleå, Sweden), Universidad Politecnica de Valencia - ETSII (Valencia, Spain) and AGH University of Science and Technology, (Kralow, Poland). This conference is also open to other universities who have strong links with the EEIGM and it will provide a forum for exchange of ideas, cooperation and future directions by means of regular presentations, posters and a round-table discussion. After careful refereeing of all manuscripts, equally shared between the four editors, 26 papers have been selected for publication in this issue. The papers are grouped together into different subject categories: polymers, metallurgy, ceramics, composites and nanocomposites, simulation and characterization. The editors would like to take this opportunity to thank all the participants who submitted their manuscripts during the conference and responded in time to the editors' request at every stage from reviewing to final acceptance. The editors are indebted to all the reviewers for painstakingly reviewing the papers at very short notice. Special thanks are called for the sponsors of the conference including

  17. Health in the 5th 5-years Development Plan of Iran: Main Challenges, General Policies and Strategies.

    PubMed

    Vosoogh Moghaddam, A; Damari, B; Alikhani, S; Salarianzedeh, Mh; Rostamigooran, N; Delavari, A; Larijani, B

    2013-01-01

    Access to the right to the highest attainable level of health is a constitutional right that obliges governments and other players to take step to increase all individuals' chances of obtaining good health. At the least, health and education are two crucial requirements for this as well. Iran's vision 2025 is going to lead the country to a developed state with the highest rank of economic, scientific and technological status in the region. Enjoying health, welfare, food security, social security, equal opportunities, etc, are also considered as part of characteristics of Iranian society in 2025. Although health system of Iran has many achievements in providing health services specially for the poor following the Islamic Revolution of 1979, but the evidences gathered to develop the 5(th) 5-years economical, social and cultural plan (5(th)5YDP:2011-2015), listed a variety of main challenges in stewardship, financing, resources generation and service provision functions of the existing health system. Thus, to overcome the main challenges, about 11% of general policies of 5(th)5YDP are directly address health related issues with emphasizing on healthy human and comprehensive health approach with considering: Integration of policy making, planning, evaluation, supervision and public financing; Developing both quantity and quality of health insurance system and reducing out-of-pocket expenditures for health services to 30% by the end of the 5th plan. The strategies of 5(th)5YDP adopted by the parliament as an Act will change the health system fundamentally through tuning the main drivers; so, its implementation needs brave leaders, capable managers, motivated technical staff and social mobilization. PMID:23865015

  18. Health in the 5th 5-years Development Plan of Iran: Main Challenges, General Policies and Strategies.

    PubMed

    Vosoogh Moghaddam, A; Damari, B; Alikhani, S; Salarianzedeh, Mh; Rostamigooran, N; Delavari, A; Larijani, B

    2013-01-01

    Access to the right to the highest attainable level of health is a constitutional right that obliges governments and other players to take step to increase all individuals' chances of obtaining good health. At the least, health and education are two crucial requirements for this as well. Iran's vision 2025 is going to lead the country to a developed state with the highest rank of economic, scientific and technological status in the region. Enjoying health, welfare, food security, social security, equal opportunities, etc, are also considered as part of characteristics of Iranian society in 2025. Although health system of Iran has many achievements in providing health services specially for the poor following the Islamic Revolution of 1979, but the evidences gathered to develop the 5(th) 5-years economical, social and cultural plan (5(th)5YDP:2011-2015), listed a variety of main challenges in stewardship, financing, resources generation and service provision functions of the existing health system. Thus, to overcome the main challenges, about 11% of general policies of 5(th)5YDP are directly address health related issues with emphasizing on healthy human and comprehensive health approach with considering: Integration of policy making, planning, evaluation, supervision and public financing; Developing both quantity and quality of health insurance system and reducing out-of-pocket expenditures for health services to 30% by the end of the 5th plan. The strategies of 5(th)5YDP adopted by the parliament as an Act will change the health system fundamentally through tuning the main drivers; so, its implementation needs brave leaders, capable managers, motivated technical staff and social mobilization.

  19. Postlaminectomy Bilateral Lumbar Intraspinal Synovial Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung Ik; Lee, Jung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar intraspinal synovial cysts are included in the difference diagnosis of lumbar radiculopathy. Developing imaging modalities has result in increased reporting about these lesions. However, the case of bilateral new lumbar intraspinal synovial cysts after laminectomy has been rarely reported. We report of a rare case with bilateral lumbar intraspinal synovial cysts after laminectomy, requiring surgical excision. PMID:27799997

  20. Mimickers of lumbar radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Bennett Douglas; Blessinger, Brian Joseph; Darden, Bruce Vaiden; Brigham, Craig D; Kneisl, Jeffrey S; Laxer, Eric B

    2015-01-01

    Orthopaedic surgeons frequently treat patients who report pain that radiates from the back into the lower extremity. Although the most common etiology is either a herniated disk or spinal stenosis, a myriad of pathologies can mimic the symptoms of radiculopathy, resulting in differences in the clinical presentation and the workup. Therefore, the clinician must be able to distinguish the signs and symptoms of lumbar radiculopathy from pathologies that may have a similar presentation. Being cognizant of these other possible conditions enables the physician to consider a breadth of alternative diagnoses when a patient presents with radiating lower extremity pain. PMID:25538126

  1. Mimickers of lumbar radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Bennett Douglas; Blessinger, Brian Joseph; Darden, Bruce Vaiden; Brigham, Craig D; Kneisl, Jeffrey S; Laxer, Eric B

    2015-01-01

    Orthopaedic surgeons frequently treat patients who report pain that radiates from the back into the lower extremity. Although the most common etiology is either a herniated disk or spinal stenosis, a myriad of pathologies can mimic the symptoms of radiculopathy, resulting in differences in the clinical presentation and the workup. Therefore, the clinician must be able to distinguish the signs and symptoms of lumbar radiculopathy from pathologies that may have a similar presentation. Being cognizant of these other possible conditions enables the physician to consider a breadth of alternative diagnoses when a patient presents with radiating lower extremity pain.

  2. Upper lumbar disk herniations.

    PubMed

    Cedoz, M E; Larbre, J P; Lequin, C; Fischer, G; Llorca, G

    1996-06-01

    Specific features of upper lumbar disk herniations are reviewed based on data from the literature and from a retrospective study of 24 cases treated surgically between 1982 and 1994 (seven at L1-L2 and 17 at L2-L3). Clinical manifestations are polymorphic, misleading (abdominogenital pain suggestive of a visceral or psychogenic condition, meralgia paresthetica, isolated sciatica; femoral neuralgia is uncommon) and sometimes severe (five cases of cauda equina syndrome in our study group). The diagnostic usefulness of imaging studies (radiography, myelography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) and results of surgery are discussed. The risk of misdiagnosis and the encouraging results of surgery are emphasized. PMID:8817752

  3. Effect of changing lumbar stiffness by single facet joint dysfunction on the responsiveness of lumbar muscle spindles to vertebral movement

    PubMed Central

    Reed, William R.; Pickar, Joel G.; Long, Cynthia R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Individuals experiencing low back pain often present clinically with intervertebral joint dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to determine whether relative changes in stiffness at a single spinal joint alters neural responsiveness of lumbar muscle spindles to either vertebral movement or position. Methods: Muscle spindle discharge was recorded in response to 1mm L6 ramp and hold movements (0.5mm/s) in the same animal for lumbar laminectomy-only (n=23), laminectomy & L5/6 facet screw (n=19), laminectomy & L5/6 facetectomy (n=5) conditions. Mean instantaneous frequency (MIF) was calculated for the ramp-up, hold, ramp-down and post-ramp phases during each joint condition. Results: Mean MIFs were not significantly different between the laminectomy-only and the other two types of joint dysfunction for the ramp-up, hold, ramp-down, or post-ramp phases. Conclusion: Stiffness changes caused by single facet joint dysfunction failed to alter spindle responses during slow 1mm ramp and hold movements of the L6 vertebra. PMID:24932020

  4. EDITORIAL: 5th International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry, PIV'03

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Hyung Jin; Kim, Kyung Chun; Lee, Sang Joon

    2004-06-01

    The advent of particle image velocimetry (PIV) in the late 20th century brought about a paradigm change in the technique of flow field measurement, from point measurement to field measurement. This revolution is a result of the recent advances in computers, video cameras, optics and lasers and a deeper understanding of the theory of image processing, and such advances continue by keeping pace with leading-edge technologies such as biotechnology, nanotechnology and so forth. Recently, the PIV technique has been extended in new directions such as stereoscopic PIV, holographic PIV, dynamic PIV, micro PIV and simultaneous PLIF/PIV techniques. This special issue contains research dealing with many of the most recent developments in PIV. The papers were selected from more than 120 papers presented at the 5th International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV'03) held in Busan, Korea, during 22-24 September 2003. Special thanks are due to the invited speakers who have contributed their original work to this special issue, which will enhance the academic reputation of Measurement Science and Technology (MST). Fourteen papers were selected by the Scientific Committee of PIV'03. After the standard refereeing process of MST, nine papers were finally accepted for publication. The selected papers can be categorized into three groups: new PIV algorithms and evaluation methods, three-dimensional velocity field measurement techniques and micro/bio PIV applications. As a new PIV technique, Lecuona et al introduced PIV evaluation algorithms for industrial applications having high shear flow structures. Billy et al used a single-pixel-based cross-correlation method for measuring flow inside a microchannel. Foucaut et al carried out PIV optimization using spectral analysis for the study of turbulent flows. Doh et al applied a 3D PTV method to the wake behind a sphere using three CCD cameras. Hori and Sakakibara developed a high-speed scanning stereoscopic PIV system and

  5. PREFACE: 5th International Workshop on Top Quark Physics (TOP2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamanna, G.; Boisvert, V.; Cerrito, L.; Khan, A.; Moretti, S.; Owen, M.; Schwanenberger, C.

    2013-07-01

    The 5th International Workshop on Top Quark Physics (TOP 2012) took place in Winchester, UK, from the 16-21 September. It gathered students as well as people active in the top quark sector and provided a framework to highlight the newest results and matters related to top quark physics. Discovered in 1995, the top quark is the sixth and heaviest of all quarks, and it is the only one with a lifetime short enough to be observed 'naked'. This makes it an important testing ground in the search for new physics. In fact, the fact of its mass being so much larger than the other quarks, hints at its special role in the Higgs mechanism. For the same reason, in many models of New Physics, new heavy resonances are expected to couple mostly with top quarks. Even if no new particles are observed, the direct correlation between its angular momentum and that of its detectable decay products allows us to probe indirectly New Physics in action when top quarks are created. In this edition of the TOP conference series, for the first time, the agenda was equally balanced between 'traditional' measurements and the now vast number of searches for physics BSM in the top quark sector, thanks mostly to the amount of data collected at the LHC in its Run I. New results were presented by both the Tevatron and the LHC collaborations: improved ttbar and single top cross-section measurements, refined techniques to measure the top quark mass and a large number of results on properties such as spin correlation and W boson polarization in top quark decays were shown. More technical discussions on the experimental issues, both from the detector and the simulation side also took place, drawing together experimentalists and theorists. Reviews of the latest results on ttbar asymmetry both from CDF and D0 and from ATLAS and CMS were shown, and theorists active in the field made some interesting points on this hot topic. Additionally, results on the search for fourth generation fermions and new

  6. PREFACE: 5th DAE-BRNS Workshop on Hadron Physics (Hadron 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jyoti Roy, Bidyut; Chatterjee, A.; Kailas, S.

    2012-07-01

    The 5th DAE-BRNS Workshop on Hadron Physics was held at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai from 31 October to 4 November 2011. This workshop series, supported by the Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences, Department of Atomic Energy (BRNS, DAE), Govt. of India, began ten years ago with the first one being held at BARC, Mumbai in October 2002. The second one was held at Puri in 2005, organized jointly by Institute of Physics, Bhubneswar and Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata. The 3rd and 4th ones took place, respectively, at Shantineketan in 2006, organized by Visva Bharati University, and at Aligarh in 2008, organized by Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh. The aim of the present workshop was to bring together the experts and young researchers in the field of hadron physics (both experiment and theory) and to have in-depth discussions on the current research activities in this field. The format of the workshop was: a series of review lectures by various experts from India and abroad, the presentation of advanced research results by researchers in the field, and a review of major experimental programs being planned and pursued in major laboratories in the field of hadron physics, with the aim of providing a platform for the young participants for interaction with their peers. The upcoming international FAIR facility at GSI is a unique future facility for studies of hadron physics in the charm sector and hyper nuclear physics. The Indian hadron physics community is involved in this mega science project and is working with the PANDA collaboration on the development of detectors, simulation and software tools for the hadron physics programme with antiprotons at FAIR. A one-day discussion session was held at this workshop to discuss India-PANDA activities, the current collaboration status and the work plan. This volume presents the workshop proceedings consisting of lectures and seminars which were delivered during the workshop. We are thankful to

  7. PREFACE: The 5th International Conference on Radiotherapy Gel Dosimetry (DOSGEL 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maris, Thomas G.; Pappas, Evangelos

    2009-07-01

    The International Conference on Radiotherapy Gel Dosimetry (DOSGEL) is held every two years. Its purpose is to bring together basic science and clinical researchers, medical physicists and clinicians from around the world to discuss the state-of-the-art of the gel dosimetry technique and to set the directions and trends for its future improvements. Gel dosimetry can be broadly defined as using a gel that can react to the absorption of ionizing radiation, and that can retain this information which can subsequently be retrieved by an external imaging modality. Examples of radiation-sensitive gels include, but are not limited to, polymer gel dosimeters, Fricke gel dosimeters and others. Imaging modalities that are of general use in this field are (in alphabetical order) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical light computed tomography and x-ray computed tomography. This volume comprises the proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Radiotherapy Gel Dosimetry (DOSGEL 2008). The conference, organised by the University of Crete, Medical Physics Department, took place in Hersonissos, Crete, Greece from 29 September to 3 October 2008. The meeting aimed to continue the series of biannual DOSGEL conferences and focused on the promotion of gel dosimetry techniques by setting the trends for their future improvements. The main scientific session topics of DOSGEL 2008 were the following: Chemistry and fundamental properties of polymer gel dosimeters Gel dosimetry with Optical Computed Tomography Gel dosimetry with Magnetic Resonance Imaging Gel dosimetry with other than Optical CT and MR scan Techniques Other 3D dosimeters Gel dosimetry applications Local Organizing Committee Thomas G Maris (University of Crete, Greece, Chairman DOSGEL 2008) John Damilakis (University of Crete, Greece) Evangelos Pappas (University of Crete, Greece) Antonios Papadakis (University of Crete, Greece) Fotini Zacharopoulou (University of Crete, Greece) John Stratakis (University of Crete

  8. Tearing of the left iliac vessels in lumbar surgery revealed by multiphase post-mortem CT-angiography (MPMCTA).

    PubMed

    Vilariño Villaverde, Raquel; Bruguier, Christine; Zerlauth, Jean-Baptiste; De Froidmont, Sébastien; Grabherr, Silke

    2016-05-01

    Lumbar surgery is regularly applied in cases of discal hernia and acquired lumbar stenosis. In this report, we present a case of a laceration in the left common iliac artery and iliac vein during a lumbar surgery and discuss the literature concerning this kind of event. In the present case, the surgical procedure was followed by a sudden decrease in blood pressure, and the surgeon discovered an intra-abdominal haemorrhage that led to the patient's death. Postmortem investigation confirmed the intra-abdominal haemorrhage and revealed a laceration of the proximal portion of the left common iliac artery and left iliac vein. The source of bleeding could be detected especially thanks to multi-phase postmortem CT angiography (MPMCTA), which was performed prior to autopsy. We also found a haemorrhagic path through the intervertebral disc between the L4-L5 vertebrae, caused by the surgeon's instrument (pituitary rongeur). To date, a few cases have been described of iatrogenic death resulting from a tear in the iliac vessels during lumbar surgery, but not from the postmortem perspective. Such investigations have recently been modernized thanks to the introduction of forensic imaging. In particular, MPMCTA offers new possibilities in postmortem investigations and can be considered the new gold standard for investigating deaths related to medical intervention. Here we describe the first case of a death during lumbar surgery using this new method. PMID:27161923

  9. Failure of the human lumbar motion-segments resulting from anterior shear fatigue loading

    PubMed Central

    SKRZYPIEC, Daniel M.; NAGEL, Katrin; SELLENSCHLOH, Kay; KLEIN, Anke; PÜSCHEL, Klaus; MORLOCK, Michael M.; HUBER, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    An in-vitro experiment was designed to investigate the mode of failure following shear fatigue loading of lumbar motion-segments. Human male lumbar motion-segments (age 32–42 years, n=6) were immersed in Ringer solution at 37°C and repeatedly loaded, using a modified materials testing machine. Fatigue loading consisted of a sinusoidal shear load from 0 N to 1,500 N (750 N±750 N) applied to the upper vertebra of the motion-segment, at a frequency of 5 Hz. During fatigue experiments, several failure events were observed in the dynamic creep curves. Post-test x-ray, CT and dissection revealed that all specimens had delamination of the intervertebral disc. Anterior shear fatigue predominantly resulted in fracture of the apophyseal processes of the upper vertebrae (n=4). Exposure to the anterior shear fatigue loading caused motion-segment instability and resulted in vertebral slip corresponding to grade I and ‘mild’ grade II spondylolisthesis, as observed clinically. PMID:26829975

  10. Summative assessment of 5th year medical students’ clinical reasoning by script concordance test: requirements and challenges

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Script Concordance Test (SCT) has not been reported in summative assessment of students across the multiple domains of a medical curriculum. We report the steps used to build a test for summative assessment in a medical curriculum. Methods A 51 case, 158-question, multidisciplinary paper was constructed to assess clinical reasoning in 5th-year. 10–16 experts in each of 7 discipline-based reference panels answered questions on-line. A multidisciplinary group considered reference panel data and data from a volunteer group of 6th Years, who sat the same test, to determine the passing score for the 5th Years. Results The mean (SD) scores were 63.6 (7.6) and 68.6 (4.8) for the 6th Year (n = 23, alpha = 0.78) and and 5th Year (n = 132, alpha =0.62) groups (p < 0.05), respectively. The passing score was set at 4 SD from the expert mean. Four students failed. Conclusions The SCT may be a useful method to assess clinical reasoning in medical students in multidisciplinary summative assessments. Substantial investment in training of faculty and students and in the development of questions is required. PMID:22571351

  11. PREFACE: The 5th International Symposium in Quantum Theory and Symmetries (QTS5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arratia, O.; Calzada, J. A.; Gómez-Cubillo, F.; Negro, J.; del Olmo, M. A.

    2008-02-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains the Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium in Quantum Theory and Symmetries (QTS5), held in Valladolid, Spain, 22-28 July 2007. This is the fifth of a series of conferences previously held in Goslar (Germany) 1999, QTS1; Cracow (Poland) 2001, QTS2; Cincinnati (USA) 2003, QTS3, and Varna (Bulgaria) 2005, QTS4. The QTS5 symposium gathered 181 participants from 39 countries working in different fields on Theoretical Physics. The spirit of the QTS conference series is to join researchers in a wide variety of topics in Theoretical Physics, as a way to make accessible recent results and the new lines of different fields. The QTS5 conference offered the following list of topics: Symmetries in String Theory, Quantum Gravity and related Symmetries in Quantum Field Theories, Conformal and Related Field Theories, Lattice and Noncommutative Theories, Gauge Theories Quantum Computing, Information and Control Foundations of Quantum Theory Quantum Optics, Coherent States, Wigner Functions Dynamical and Integrable Systems Symmetries in Condensed Matter and Statistical Physics Symmetries in Particle Physics, Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Nonlinear Quantum Mechanics Time Asymmetric Quantum Mechanics SUSY Quantum Mechanics, PT symmetries and pseudo-Hamiltonians Mathematical Methods for Symmetries and Quantum Theories Symmetries in Chemistry Biology and other Sciences Papers accepted for publication in the present issue are based on the contributions from the participants in the QTS5 conference after a peer review process. In addition, a special issue of Journal Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical contains contributions from plenary speakers, some participants as well as contributions from other authors whose works fit into the topics of the conference. The organization of the conference had the following pattern. In the morning there were five plenary or general sessions for all the participants, which aimed to

  12. PREFACE: The 5th International Symposium in Quantum Theory and Symmetries (QTS5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arratia, O.; Calzada, J. A.; Gómez-Cubillo, F.; Negro, J.; del Olmo, M. A.

    2008-02-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains the Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium in Quantum Theory and Symmetries (QTS5), held in Valladolid, Spain, 22-28 July 2007. This is the fifth of a series of conferences previously held in Goslar (Germany) 1999, QTS1; Cracow (Poland) 2001, QTS2; Cincinnati (USA) 2003, QTS3, and Varna (Bulgaria) 2005, QTS4. The QTS5 symposium gathered 181 participants from 39 countries working in different fields on Theoretical Physics. The spirit of the QTS conference series is to join researchers in a wide variety of topics in Theoretical Physics, as a way to make accessible recent results and the new lines of different fields. The QTS5 conference offered the following list of topics: Symmetries in String Theory, Quantum Gravity and related Symmetries in Quantum Field Theories, Conformal and Related Field Theories, Lattice and Noncommutative Theories, Gauge Theories Quantum Computing, Information and Control Foundations of Quantum Theory Quantum Optics, Coherent States, Wigner Functions Dynamical and Integrable Systems Symmetries in Condensed Matter and Statistical Physics Symmetries in Particle Physics, Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Nonlinear Quantum Mechanics Time Asymmetric Quantum Mechanics SUSY Quantum Mechanics, PT symmetries and pseudo-Hamiltonians Mathematical Methods for Symmetries and Quantum Theories Symmetries in Chemistry Biology and other Sciences Papers accepted for publication in the present issue are based on the contributions from the participants in the QTS5 conference after a peer review process. In addition, a special issue of Journal Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical contains contributions from plenary speakers, some participants as well as contributions from other authors whose works fit into the topics of the conference. The organization of the conference had the following pattern. In the morning there were five plenary or general sessions for all the participants, which aimed to

  13. PREFACE: The 5th International Symposium on Quantum Theory and Symmetries (QTS5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadella, M.; Izquierdo, J. M.; Kuru, S.; Negro, J.; del Olmo, M. A.

    2008-08-01

    This special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical appears on the occasion of the 5th International Symposium on Quantum Theory and Symmetries (QTS5), held in Valladolid, Spain, from 22-28 July 2007. This is the fith in a series of conferences previously held in Goslar (Germany) 1999, QTS1; Cracow (Poland) 2001, QTS2; Cincinnati (USA) 2003, QTS3; and Varna (Bulgaria) 2005, QTS4. The QTS5 symposium gathered 181 participants from 39 countries working in different fields of theoretical physics. The spirit of the QTS conference series is to join researchers in a wide variety of topics in theoretical physics, as a way of making accessible recent results and the new lines of different fields. This is based on the feeling that it is good for a physicist to have a general overview as well as expertise in his/her own field. There are many other conferences devoted to specific topics, which are of interest to gain deeper insight in many technical aspects and that are quite suitable for discussions due to their small size. However, we believe that general conferences like this are interesting and worth keeping. We like the talks, in both plenary and parallel sessions, which are devoted to specific topics, to be prepared so as to be accessible to any researcher in any branch of theoretical physics. We think that this objective is compatible with rigour and high standards. As is well known, similar methods and techniques can be useful for many problems in different fields. We hope that this has been appreciated during the sessions of the QTS5 conference. The QTS5 conference offered the following list of topics: 1. Symmetries in string theory, quantum gravity and related topics 2. Symmetries in quantum field theories, conformal and related field theories, lattice and noncommutative theories, gauge theories 3.Quantum computing, information and control 4. Foundations of quantum theory 5. Quantum optics, coherent states, Wigner functions 6. Dynamical and

  14. Spheno-Occipital Synchondrosis Fusion Correlates with Cervical Vertebrae Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Pérez, María José; McNamara, James A.; Velasco-Torres, Miguel; Benavides, Erika; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Catena, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the closure stage of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis and the maturational stage of the cervical vertebrae (CVM) in growing and young adult subjects using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). CBCT images with an extended field of view obtained from 315 participants (148 females and 167 males; mean age 15.6 ±7.3 years; range 6 to 23 years) were analyzed. The fusion status of the synchondrosis was determined using a five-stage scoring system; the vertebral maturational status was evaluated using a six-stage stratification (CVM method). Ordinal regression was used to study the ability of the synchondrosis stage to predict the vertebral maturation stage. Vertebrae and synchondrosis had a strong significant correlation (r = 0.89) that essential was similar for females (r = 0.88) and males (r = 0.89). CVM stage could be accurately predicted from synchondrosis stage by ordinal regression models. Prediction equations of the vertebral stage using synchondrosis stage, sex and biological age as predictors were developed. Thus this investigation demonstrated that the stage of spheno-occipital synchondrosis, as determined in CBCT images, is a reasonable indicator of growth maturation. PMID:27513752

  15. Spheno-Occipital Synchondrosis Fusion Correlates with Cervical Vertebrae Maturation.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pérez, María José; Alarcón, José Antonio; McNamara, James A; Velasco-Torres, Miguel; Benavides, Erika; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Catena, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the closure stage of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis and the maturational stage of the cervical vertebrae (CVM) in growing and young adult subjects using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). CBCT images with an extended field of view obtained from 315 participants (148 females and 167 males; mean age 15.6 ±7.3 years; range 6 to 23 years) were analyzed. The fusion status of the synchondrosis was determined using a five-stage scoring system; the vertebral maturational status was evaluated using a six-stage stratification (CVM method). Ordinal regression was used to study the ability of the synchondrosis stage to predict the vertebral maturation stage. Vertebrae and synchondrosis had a strong significant correlation (r = 0.89) that essential was similar for females (r = 0.88) and males (r = 0.89). CVM stage could be accurately predicted from synchondrosis stage by ordinal regression models. Prediction equations of the vertebral stage using synchondrosis stage, sex and biological age as predictors were developed. Thus this investigation demonstrated that the stage of spheno-occipital synchondrosis, as determined in CBCT images, is a reasonable indicator of growth maturation. PMID:27513752

  16. Sensitivity analysis of the position of the intervertebral centres of reaction in upright standing--a musculoskeletal model investigation of the lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Zander, Thomas; Dreischarf, Marcel; Schmidt, Hendrik

    2016-03-01

    The loads between adjacent vertebrae can be generalised as a single spatial force acting at the intervertebral centre of reaction. The exact position in vivo is unknown. However, in rigid body musculoskeletal models that simulate upright standing, the position is generally assumed to be located at the discs' centres of rotation. The influence of the antero-posterior position of the centre of reaction on muscle activity and joint loads remains unknown. Thus, by using an inverse dynamic model, we varied the position of the centre of reaction at L4/L5 (i), simultaneously at all lumbar levels (ii), and by optimisation at all lumbar levels (iii). Variation of the centres of reaction can considerably influence the activities of lumbar muscles and the joint forces between vertebrae. The optimisation of the position of the centre of reaction reduced the maximum lumbar muscle activity and axial joint forces at L4/L5 from 17.5% to 1.5% of the muscle strength and from 490 N to 390 N, respectively. Thus, when studying individual postures, such as for therapeutic or preventive evaluations, potential differences between the centre of reaction and the centre of rotation might influence the study results. These differences could be taken into account by sensitivity analyses.

  17. Morphological and electrophysiological properties of cat lumbar paravertebral neurones.

    PubMed

    Percy, W H; Walsh, J; Krier, J

    1988-10-01

    The morphological and electrophysiological properties of neurones in the 3rd, 4th and 5th cat lumbar paravertebral ganglia were studied in vitro utilising intracellular injection of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and intracellular electrophysiological recording techniques. Projections of neurones (T13-L5) were determined by in vivo HRP techniques. Two distinct soma morphologies were noted in all ganglia. Those whose long and short axes were approximately equal in length were designated as being 'spherical' and had a mean cross sectional area of 730 micron2. The remainder, whose long axis was at least 1.5 times the length of their short axis were called 'fusiform' and had a mean soma area of 540 micron2. The two cell types occurred in an approximate 2:1 ratio, respectively. The mean numbers of primary, secondary and tertiary dendrites for the population studied were 6.5, 6.3 and 3.4, respectively. Spherical cells had significantly more of each than fusiform cells as well as having a greater number of branch points and overall length of dendritic arbor. Neither cell type could be distinguished from the other based on the estimated number of fast excitatory postsynaptic potentials, the duration of the afterspike hyperpolarization or the duration of action potential discharge in response to 8-10-s depolarizing current pulses. The estimated number of synaptic potentials associated with both types of neurones (mean 10.6 +/- 1.6) correlated inversely only with the soma diameters (see Materials and Methods). It is concluded that while cat lumbar paravertebral neuronal soma may be classified into two morphologically distinct types, this is not reflected in their electrophysiological profiles. In addition, these data suggest that cat lumbar paravertebral neurones have a dendritic appearance and a degree of convergence of synaptic input previously shown to occur in this system. PMID:3209804

  18. Radiotherapy in Ewing tumors of the vertebrae: Treatment results and local relapse analysis of the Chess 81/86 and EICESS 92 trials

    SciTech Connect

    Schuck, Andreas . E-mail: schuck@uni-muenster.de; Ahrens, Susanne; Schorlemer, Ines von; Kuhlen, Michaela; Paulussen, Michael; Hunold, Andrea; Gosheger, Georg; Winkelmann, Winfried; Dunst, Juergen; Willich, Normann; Juergens, Heribert

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: Treatment results in patients with Ewing tumors of the vertebrae enrolled in the Cooperative Ewing's Sarcoma Study (CESS) 81, 86, and the European Intergroup Cooperative Ewing's Sarcoma Study (EICESS) 92 trials were analyzed with special emphasis on radiation-associated factors. Patients and Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 116 patients with primary tumors of the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar vertebrae treated between 1981 and 1999. Furthermore, a relapse analysis was done on those patients who underwent radiotherapy and subsequently had a local recurrence. Results: A total of 64.6% of the patients received definitive radiotherapy; 27.5% of patients had surgery and radiotherapy. Only 4 patients (3.4%) underwent definitive surgery. Twenty-seven patients presented with metastases at diagnosis. 22.4% of the total group developed a local relapse. Among the subgroup with definitive radiotherapy, local recurrence was seen in 17 of 75 patients (22.6%). Event-free survival and survival at 5 years were 47% and 58%, respectively. Of the 14 evaluable patients with a local relapse after radiotherapy, 13 were in-field. No correlation between radiation dose and local control could be found. Conclusion: Surgery with wide resection margins is rarely possible. The results after definitive radiotherapy in vertebral tumors are comparable to those of other tumor sites when definitive radiotherapy is given. Nearly all local relapses after radiotherapy are in-field.

  19. On prediction of the strength levels and failure patterns of human vertebrae using quantitative computed tomography (QCT)-based finite element method.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Majid; Zeinali, Ahad; Razmjoo, Arash; Nazemi, Majid

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents an effective patient-specific approach for prediction of failure initiation and growth in human vertebra using the general framework of the quantitative computed tomography (QCT)-based finite element method (FEM). The studies were carried out on 13 vertebrae (lumbar and thoracic), excised from 3 cadavers with the average age of 42 years old. Initially, 4 samples were QCT scanned and the images were directly converted into voxel-based 3D finite element models for linear and nonlinear analyses. The equivalent plastic strains obtained from the nonlinear analyses were used to predict the occurrence of local failures and development of the failure patterns. In the linear analyses, the strain energy density measure was used to identify the critical elements and predict the failure patterns. Subsequently, the samples were destructively tested in uniaxial compression and the experimental load-displacement diagrams were obtained. The plain radiographic images of the tested samples were also examined for observation of the failure patterns. In continuation, the presence of osteolytic defects in vertebrae was simulated by creation of artificial cavities within 9 remaining samples using a computer numerical control (CNC) milling machine. The same protocol was followed for scanning, modeling, and destructive testing of these samples. A strong correlation was found between the predicted and measured strengths. Finally, a typical vertebroplasty treatment was simulated by injection of low-viscosity bone cement within 3 compressed samples. The failure patterns and the associated load levels for these samples were also predicted using the QCT voxel-based FEM. PMID:19457486

  20. Teacher and Parent Views on the Instruction of 5th Grade Students by Branch Teachers in the 4+4+4 Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildizhan, Yusuf Hayri

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the teacher and parent views on the instruction of 5th grade students by branch teachers. This study is designed according to the phenomenology design and uses qualitative data. In order to collect data, open-ended questions were asked to 18 teachers and 16 parents of 5th grade students on the subject, and…

  1. Ivory vertebra on 18F-sodium fluoride scan: an old sign in a new modality.

    PubMed

    Oldan, Jorge Daniel; Kuzminski, Samuel; James, Olga

    2014-11-01

    We report a case of ivory vertebra on 18F-sodium fluoride. A prostate cancer patient had a 18F-sodium fluoride PET scan to evaluate overall spread of disease. In addition to other findings of metastatic disease, the patient had an ivory vertebra.

  2. GPU accelerated registration of a statistical shape model of the lumbar spine to 3D ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khallaghi, Siavash; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Gong, Ren Hui; Chen, Elvis; Gill, Sean; Boisvert, Jonathan; Pichora, David; Borschneck, Dan; Fichtinger, Gabor; Mousavi, Parvin

    2011-03-01

    We present a parallel implementation of a statistical shape model registration to 3D ultrasound images of the lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4). Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy optimization technique, along with Linear Correlation of Linear Combination similarity metric have been used, to improve the robustness and capture range of the registration approach. Instantiation and ultrasound simulation have been implemented on a graphics processing unit for a faster registration. Phantom studies show a mean target registration error of 3.2 mm, while 80% of all the cases yield target registration error of below 3.5 mm.

  3. Periosteal structure and development in a rat caudal vertebra.

    PubMed Central

    Ellender, G; Feik, S A; Carach, B J

    1988-01-01

    Female Sprague-Dawley rats from birth to 300 days were used to study the bone/soft tissue interrelationships of the 14th caudal vertebra with particular emphasis on the periosteum throughout growth, development and maturation. The growth of the rats follows a sigmoid curve with three phases, a developmental, a rapid growth and a maturation phase. The width/length ratio of the bone and the thickness of the periosteum are closely concurrent, with a rapid decrease during the developmental phase and a levelling off during the rapid growth phase. SEM studies established that the caudal vertebra has symmetrical lateral sides and a pronounced concavity on the ventral surface where the main vascular plexus is located. Morphological changes in the periosteum cna be described as occurring in three layers and reflect the stages seen in general somatic growth. The inner cambial layer initially contains elongated but functional osteoblasts; these become cuboidal during the rapid growth phase and ultimately are flattened and quiescent. The mid-zone with its vessels, undifferentiated and mononuclear phagocytic cells also attains its maximum development in the rapid growth period and then gradually involutes. The fibrous periosteum consists of a syncytial arrangement of fibroblasts in a collagenous matrix which becomes increasingly dense although reduced in width. Sharpey fibre bundles connect the bone with the fibrous periosteum and these become thicker with age. The mid-zone of the periosteum has not been described previously. Besides having a nutritive role and providing progenitor cells it is thought to act as a buffer modulating the interaction between bone and the covering soft tissues. With age and the deletion of the mid-zone a less sensitive periosteal response to stress can be expected. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:3225221

  4. Validation of the 5th and 95th Percentile Hybrid III Anthropomorphic Test Device Finite Element Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, C.; Somers, J. T.; Baldwin, M. A.; Wells, J. A.; Newby, N.; Currie, N. J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA spacecraft design requirements for occupant protection are a combination of the Brinkley criteria and injury metrics extracted from anthropomorphic test devices (ATD's). For the ATD injury metrics, the requirements specify the use of the 5th percentile female Hybrid III and the 95th percentile male Hybrid III. Furthermore, each of these ATD's is required to be fitted with an articulating pelvis and a straight spine. The articulating pelvis is necessary for the ATD to fit into spacecraft seats, while the straight spine is required as injury metrics for vertical accelerations are better defined for this configuration. The requirements require that physical testing be performed with both ATD's to demonstrate compliance. Before compliance testing can be conducted, extensive modeling and simulation are required to determine appropriate test conditions, simulate conditions not feasible for testing, and assess design features to better ensure compliance testing is successful. While finite element (FE) models are currently available for many of the physical ATD's, currently there are no complete models for either the 5th percentile female or the 95th percentile male Hybrid III with a straight spine and articulating pelvis. The purpose of this work is to assess the accuracy of the existing Livermore Software Technology Corporation's FE models of the 5th and 95th percentile ATD's. To perform this assessment, a series of tests will be performed at Wright Patterson Air Force Research Lab using their horizontal impact accelerator sled test facility. The ATD's will be placed in the Orion seat with a modified-advanced-crew-escape-system (MACES) pressure suit and helmet, and driven with loadings similar to what is expected for the actual Orion vehicle during landing, launch abort, and chute deployment. Test data will be compared to analytical predictions and modelling uncertainty factors will be determined for each injury metric. Additionally, the test data will be used to

  5. Percutaneous endoscopic decompression for lumbar spinal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yong

    2014-11-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy has become a representative minimally invasive spine surgery for lumbar disc herniation. Due to the remarkable evolution in the techniques available, the paradigm of spinal endoscopy is shifting from treatments of soft disc herniation to those of lumbar spinal stenosis. Lumbar spinal stenosis can be classified into three categories according to pathological zone as follows: central stenosis, lateral recess stenosis and foraminal stenosis. Moreover, percutaneous endoscopic decompression (PED) techniques may vary according to the type of lumbar stenosis, including interlaminar PED, transforaminal PED and endoscopic lumbar foraminotomy. However, these techniques are continuously evolving. In the near future, PED for lumbar stenosis may be an efficient alternative to conventional open lumbar decompression surgery.

  6. Factors affecting the output pulse flatness of the linear transformer driver cavity systems with 5th harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeenko, V. M.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Kim, A. A.; Kondratiev, S. S.; Sinebryukhov, V. A.; Volkov, S. N.; Cuneo, M. E.; Kiefer, M. L.; Leckby, J. J.; Oliver, B. V.; Maloney, P. D.

    2016-09-01

    We describe the study we have undertaken to evaluate the effect of component tolerances in obtaining a voltage output flat top for a linear transformer driver (LTD) cavity containing 3rd and 5th harmonic bricks [A. A. Kim et al., in Proc. IEEE Pulsed Power and Plasma Science PPPS2013 (San Francisco, California, USA, 2013), pp. 1354-1356.] and for 30 cavity voltage adder. Our goal was to define the necessary component value precision in order to obtain a voltage output flat top with no more than ±0.5 % amplitude variation.

  7. IBA investigations of loose garnets from Pietroasa, Apahida and Cluj-Someşeni treasures (5th century AD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugoi, R.; Oanţă-Marghitu, R.; Calligaro, T.

    2016-03-01

    This paper reports the archaeometric investigations of 418 loose garnets from Pietroasa and Cluj-Someşeni treasures and Apahida II and III princely grave inventories (5th century AD). The chemical composition of the gems was determined by external beam micro-PIXE technique at the AGLAE accelerator of C2RMF, Paris, France. Complementary observations made by Optical Microscopy revealed details on the gemstones cutting and polishing and permitted to identify certain mineral inclusions. The compositional results evidenced several types of garnets from the pyralspite series, suggesting distinct provenances for these Early Medieval gems.

  8. A report on 5th congress of Asia Pacific Pediatric Cardiac Society, New Delhi, India, 6-9 March 2014

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Saurabh K; Saxena, Anita

    2015-01-01

    The 5th Congress of Asia Pacific Pediatric Cardiac Society was held in New Delhi from 6-9 March 2014. This article describes the journey of preparing and hosting one of the largest international events in the specialty of Pediatric Cardiac Care ever held in India. A total of 938 delegates, including 400 from outside India, participated. The scientific program was inclusive keeping in mind the diverse background of delegates from the member nations. Large numbers of research papers were presented, mostly by fellows in training. PMID:25684899

  9. Derivation of an equation to estimate marrow content of bovine cervical vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Gebault, R A; Field, R A; Means, W J; Russell, W C

    1998-08-01

    Marrow content of bovine cervical vertebrae from Choice- and Select-grade carcasses weighing 294 to 343 kg was determined so that a method to monitor the amount of marrow in meat from advanced meat/bone separation machinery and recovery (AMR) systems could be developed. The marrow determination requires cleaning and then ashing bones. Because a large difference in ash content of bone and bone marrow exists and because cartilage content of cervical vertebrae in Choice and Select beef is relatively constant, it was possible to derive the following equation: Weight of marrow = [weight of cartilage (% ash in cartilage - % ash in bone) + % ash in bone (total weight) - (total ash)]/[(% ash in bone - % ash in marrow)]. Constants for ash in fresh bone, marrow, and cartilage were 58.51, .57, and 2.14% with SD of 2.23, .15, and .30%, respectively. A cartilage content of 9.5% along with cervical vertebrae weight and total ash weight were also used to calculate 33.9% marrow in cervical vertebrae. Means for marrow pressed or centrifuged from bovine cervical vertebrae were lower than those obtained from the equation. Therefore, pressing and centrifuging left some marrow in spongy bone. Our ashing method for determining the amount of marrow in whole cervical vertebrae should be useful for determining marrow remaining in cervical vertebrae of bone cakes from AMR systems. Percentage ash in pressed bones is higher and the calculated marrow content is lower when pressed bones are compared to cervical vertebrae that are not pressed. The amount of marrow in whole cervical vertebrae minus the amount left in cervical vertebrae from bone cakes equals the amount in meat from AMR systems.

  10. [Lumbar stabilization exercises].

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Ríos, Jorge Rodrigo; Nava-Bringas, Tania Inés

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: el ejercicio es la intervención con mayor grado de evidencia de eficacia para el tratamiento del dolor crónico de la espalda baja, con beneficio superior en términos de dolor y funcionalidad, en comparación con cualquiera otra intervención. Existe una amplia variedad de ejercicios diseñados; sin embargo, actualmente los llamados ejercicios de estabilización lumbar adquiririeron una popularidad creciente entre los clínicos que están en contacto con enfermedades de la columna. Sin embargo, existe controversia en cuanto a la prescripción adecuada de los mismos y los múltiples protocolos publicados. Objetivo: analizar la bibliografía científica acerca del uso y prescripción de estos ejercicios para favorecer la mejor toma de decisiones enlos clínicos y diseñar, con base a la evidencia, el programa más adecuado para cada paciente. Conclusión: se encontró que este programa es una herramienta esencial en el tratamiento del dolor de espalda baja, en la etapa terapéutica y en la preventiva.

  11. [Congenital lumbar hernia and bilateral renal agenesis].

    PubMed

    Barrero Candau, R; Garrido Morales, M

    2007-04-01

    We report a new case of congenital lumbar hernia. This is first case reported of congenital lumbar hernia and bilateral renal agenesis. We review literature and describe associated malformations reported that would be role out in every case of congenital lumbar hernia. PMID:17650728

  12. [Congenital lumbar hernia and bilateral renal agenesis].

    PubMed

    Barrero Candau, R; Garrido Morales, M

    2007-04-01

    We report a new case of congenital lumbar hernia. This is first case reported of congenital lumbar hernia and bilateral renal agenesis. We review literature and describe associated malformations reported that would be role out in every case of congenital lumbar hernia.

  13. Automated determination of the centers of vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs in CT and MR lumbar spine images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štern, Darko; Vrtovec, Tomaž; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2010-03-01

    The knowledge of the location of the centers of vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs is valuable for the analysis of the spine. Existing methods for the detection and segmentation of vertebrae in images acquired by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are usually applicable only to a specific image modality and require prior knowledge of the location of vertebrae, usually obtained by manual identification or statistical modeling. We propose a completely automated framework for the detection of the centers of vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs in CT and MR images. The image intensity and gradient magnitude profiles are first extracted in each image along the already obtained spinal centerline and therefore contain a repeating pattern representing the vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs. Based on the period of the repeating pattern and by using a function that approximates the shape of the vertebral body, a model of the vertebral body is generated. The centers of vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs are detected by measuring the similarity between the generated model and the extracted profiles. The method was evaluated on 29 CT and 13 MR images of lumbar spine with varying number of vertebrae. The overall mean distance between the obtained and the ground truth centers was 2.8 +/- 1.9 mm, and no considerable differences were detected between the results for CT, T1-weighted MR or T2-weighted MR images, or among different vertebrae. The proposed method may therefore be valuable for initializing the techniques for the detection and segmentation of vertebrae.

  14. Lumbar reservoir for intrathecal chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Dyck, P

    1985-06-15

    The Ommaya ventricular reservoir has been the standby of intrathecal chemotherapy for more than a decade, in spite of some specific drawbacks. A general anaesthetic is often required. The scalp must be shaven. Ventricular puncture may not always be easy and keeping the ventricular catheter patent is sometimes difficult. Hence the author has adapted a commercially available lumbar peritoneal shunt system to function as a lumbar intrathecal reservoir. The procedure is simple and can be performed expeditiously under local anaesthesia. To date, eight cases have received intrathecal chemotherapy by this means. PMID:3838918

  15. A lumbar disc surgery predictive score card.

    PubMed

    Finneson, B E

    1978-06-01

    A lumbar disc surgery predictive score card or questionnaire has been developed to assess potential candidates for excision of a herniated lumbar disc who have not previously undergone lumbar spine surgery. It is not designed to encompass patients who are being considered for other types of lumbar spine surgery, such as decompressive laminectomy or fusion. In an effort to make the "score card" usable by almost all physicians who are involved in lumbar disc surgery, only studies which have broad acceptance and are generally employed are included. Studies which have less widespread use such as electromyogram, discogram, venogram, special psychologic studies (MMPI, pain drawings) have been purposely excluded.

  16. Morphology of the lumbar transversospinal muscles examined in a mouse bearing a muscle fiber-specific nuclear marker.

    PubMed

    Cornwall, Jon; Deries, Marianne; Duxson, Marilyn

    2010-12-01

    Although the morphology of human lumbar transversospinal (TSP) muscles has been studied, little is known about the structure of these muscles in the mouse (Mus musculus). Such information is relevant given mice are often used as a "normal" phenotype for studies modeling human development. This study describes the gross morphology, muscle fiber arrangement, and innervation pattern of the mouse lumbar TSP muscles. A unique feature of the study is the use of a transgenic mouse line bearing a muscle-specific nuclear marker that allows clear delineation of muscle fiber and connective tissue boundaries. The lumbar TSP muscles of five mice were examined bilaterally; at each spinal level muscles attached to the caudal edge of the spinous process and passed caudally as a single complex unit. Fibers progressively terminated over the four vertebral segments caudad, with multiple points of muscle fiber attachment on each vertebra. Motor endplates, defined with acetylcholinesterase histochemistry, were consistently located half way along each muscle fiber, regardless of length, with all muscle fibers arranged in-parallel rather than in-series. These results provide information relevant to interpretation of developmental and functional studies involving this muscle group in the mouse and show mouse lumbar TSP muscles are different in form to descriptions of equivalent muscles in humans and horses.

  17. PREFACE: 5th International Conference on Materials and Applications for Sensors and Transducers (IC-MAST2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristoforou, E.; Vlachos, D. S.; Giouroudi, I.; Kar-Narayan, S.; Potirakis, S.

    2016-03-01

    The 5th International Conference on Materials and Applications for Sensors and Transducers, Mykonos island, Greece, hosted about 110 oral and poster papers and more than 90 participants. IC-MAS, as an international annual conference which tries to meet the needs for various types of sensors, particularly those which may be manufactured by low cost methods (i.e. hybrid sensors, smart specialization devices, particular applications not necessarily requiring integrated micro-nano technologies), covering all types of materials and physical effects, appears to be a necessity. IC-MAST has been established as a high quality international conference by: I. Gathering together multinational researchers from all over the world, working in different materials for sensors and transducers and technical applications of sensors, but also in some cases in the management of the data coming from sensors and transducers. The careful selection of the conference place (like Aegean Sea, Budapest, Prague, Bilbao, Mykonos etc) allows for enjoying the local hospitality and sightseeing. II. Emphasizing in hybrid sensors and smart specialization devices produced by inexpensive methods, without excluding of course micro-nano technology, from all kinds of solid state, liquid and gaseous materials, as well as in particular transducer applications (design and development, as well as use of sensing data) III. Innovatively implementing the Virtual Paper Concept, allowing for large impact of research works presented in the conference by authors who either have no time or no funding support for visiting a conference; this year more than 12 virtual papers are presented in the 5th IC MAST, following a standardized procedure via the our robust and reliable Conference Site (www.icmast.net!) > IV. Allowing for lengthy technical and managerial discussions in terms of sensor, material and instrumentation development; furthermore, the different research groups gathered together are offered the particular

  18. Primary School 5th and 8th Graders' Understanding and Mental Models about the Shape of the World and Gravity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Öztürk, Ayse; Doganay, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated primary school 5th and 8th graders' understanding and mental models related to the shape of the world and gravity, and how these models reflected the fact and what kind of a change there is from 5th to 8th graders. This research is based on a cross-sectional design. The study was conducted in a low socioeconomic level…

  19. Proceedings of the 5th International DAWN Summit 2014: Acting together to make person-centred diabetes care a reality.

    PubMed

    Bootle, Stuart; Skovlund, Soren E

    2015-07-01

    Almost 250 stakeholders from across the world, representing all aspects of diabetes, attended the 5th International DAWN Summit. The summit focussed on the issues raised by the recently published DAWN2 study, placing particular emphasis on promoting the concept of person-centred diabetes care. Discussions between the delegates took place throughout a variety of sessions, with presentations, interactive exchanges and workshops providing a platform for clarification of common global priorities and opportunities for joint action. Following the summit, these ideas were developed further, leading to the creation of a Global Action Framework. The framework aims to support the ongoing local implementation of change in response to the DAWN2 results, while helping enable person-centred diabetes care to become a reality at all levels.

  20. Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus Eggs in Canine Coprolite from the Sasanian Era in Iran (4th/5th Century CE)

    PubMed Central

    MOWLAVI, Gholamreza; MAKKI, Mahsasadat; HEIDARI, Zahra; REZAEIAN, Mostafa; MOHEBALI, Mehdi; ARAUJO, Adauto; BOENKE, Nicole; AALI, Abolfazl; STOLLNER, Thomas; MOBEDI, Iraj

    2015-01-01

    Present paper is the second publication introducing the paleoparasitological findings from animal coprolites obtained from archeological site of Chehrabad salt mine in northwestern Iran. The current archeological site is located in northwest of Iran, dated to the Sassanian Era (4th/5th century CE). In the summer 2012 the carnivore coprolite was obtained within the layers in the mine and were thoroughly analyzed for parasites using TSP rehydration technique. Eggs of 0 were successfully retrieved from the examined coprolite and were confidently identified based on reliable references. Identifying of M. hirudinaceus eggs in paleofeces with clear appearance as demonstrated herein, is much due to appropriate preservation condition has been existed in the salt mine .The present finding could be regarded as the oldest acanthocephalan infection in Iran. PMID:26246822

  1. Brief report: data on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales (5th ed.) in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Coolican, Jamesie; Bryson, Susan E; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2008-01-01

    The Fifth Edition of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales (SB5; Roid, G. H. (2003). Stanford Binet intelligence scales (5th ed.). Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing) is relatively new, with minimal published research on general populations and none with special populations. The present study provides information on the cognitive profiles of children with ASD (N=63) and on the whether the abbreviated battery is representative of the full scale. A high percentage of the children had significantly stronger nonverbal (vs. verbal) skills. This pattern was not related to Full Scale IQ, age or diagnostic subgroup. IQs derived from the abbreviated battery accounted for a large proportion of the variance in FSIQ relative to comparable abbreviated batteries. However, caution is warranted when using the abbreviated battery, as it misrepresents actual ability in a small percentage of cases.

  2. Lumbar discography: an update.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Mark W

    2004-01-01

    and then come back to reinject more contrast into the disk in question. As radiologists, we tend to focus on the technical aspects of a procedure and the anatomic/morphologic information it provides. However, it cannot be emphasized enough that when performing lumbar discography, the assessment of the patient's pain response during the injection is the most important component of the procedure, and requires not only technical skills, but an understanding of how best to avoid some of the pitfalls that can lead to inaccurate results. PMID:14976837

  3. Endoscopic lumbar foraminotomy.

    PubMed

    Evins, Alexander I; Banu, Matei A; Njoku, Innocent; Elowitz, Eric H; Härtl, Roger; Bernado, Antonio; Hofstetter, Christoph P

    2015-04-01

    Foraminal stenosis frequently causes radiculopathy in lumbar degenerative spondylosis. Endoscopic transforaminal techniques allow for foraminal access with minimal tissue disruption. However, the effectiveness of foraminal decompression by endoscopic techniques has yet to be studied. We evaluate radiographic outcome of endoscopic transforaminal foraminotomies performed at L3-L4, L4-L5, and L5-S1 on cadaveric specimens. Before and after the procedures, three dimensional CT scans were obtained to measure foraminal height and area. Following the foraminotomies, complete laminectomies and facetectomies were performed to assess for dural tears or nerve root damage. L3-L4 preoperative foraminal height increased by 8.9%, from 2.12±0.13cm to 2.27±0.14cm (p<0.01), and foraminal area increased by 24.8% from 2.21±0.18cm(2) to 2.72±0.19cm(2) (p<0.01). At L4-L5, preoperative foraminal height was 1.87±0.17cm and area was 1.78±0.18cm(2). Endoscopic foraminotomies resulted in a 15.3% increase of foraminal height (2.11±0.15cm, p<0.05) and 44.8% increase in area of (2.51±0.21cm(2), p<0.01). At L5-S1, spondylitic changes caused diminished foraminal height (1.26±0.14cm) and foraminal area (1.17±0.18cm(2)). Postoperatively, foraminal height increased by 41.6% (1.74±0.09cm, p<0.05) and area increased by 98.7% (2.08±0.17cm(2), p<0.01). Subsequent inspection via a standard midline approach revealed one dural tear of an S1 nerve root. Endoscopic foraminotomies allow for effective foraminal decompression, though clinical studies are necessary to further evaluate complications and efficacy.

  4. Management of lumbar spinal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Lurie, Jon; Tomkins-Lane, Christy

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) affects more than 200,000 adults in the United States, resulting in substantial pain and disability. It is the most common reason for spinal surgery in patients over 65 years. Lumbar spinal stenosis is a clinical syndrome of pain in the buttocks or lower extremities, with or without back pain. It is associated with reduced space available for the neural and vascular elements of the lumbar spine. The condition is often exacerbated by standing, walking, or lumbar extension and relieved by forward flexion, sitting, or recumbency. Clinical care and research into lumbar spinal stenosis is complicated by the heterogeneity of the condition, the lack of standard criteria for diagnosis and inclusion in studies, and high rates of anatomic stenosis on imaging studies in older people who are completely asymptomatic. The options for non-surgical management include drugs, physiotherapy, spinal injections, lifestyle modification, and multidisciplinary rehabilitation. However, few high quality randomized trials have looked at conservative management. A systematic review concluded that there is insufficient evidence to recommend any specific type of non-surgical treatment. Several different surgical procedures are used to treat patients who do not improve with non-operative therapies. Given that rapid deterioration is rare and that symptoms often wax and wane or gradually improve, surgery is almost always elective and considered only if sufficiently bothersome symptoms persist despite trials of less invasive interventions. Outcomes (leg pain and disability) seem to be better for surgery than for non-operative treatment, but the evidence is heterogeneous and often of limited quality. PMID:26727925

  5. Surgical discectomy for lumbar disc herniation: surgical techniques.

    PubMed

    Blamoutier, A

    2013-02-01

    Discectomy for lumbar discal herniation is the most commonly performed spinal surgery. The basic principle of the various techniques is to relieve the nerve root compression induced by the herniation. Initially, the approach was a unilateral posterior 5-cm incision: the multifidus was detached from the vertebra, giving access through an interlaminar space in case of posterolateral herniation; an alternative paraspinal approach was used for extraforaminal herniation. Over the past 30 years, many technical improvements have decreased operative trauma by reducing incision size, thereby reducing postoperative pain and hospital stay and time off work, while improving clinical outcome. Magnification and illumination systems by microscope and endoscope have been introduced to enable minimally invasive techniques. Several comparative studies have analyzed the clinical results of these various techniques. Although the methodology of most of these studies is debatable, all approaches seem to provide clinical outcomes of similar quality. At all events, minimally invasive techniques reduce hospital stay. While technical proficiency is essential, the final result depends on strict compliance with a prerequisite for surgical indication: close correlation between clinical symptoms and radiological findings. It is essential to discuss the risk/benefit ratio and explain the pros and cons of the recommended technique to the patient. PMID:23352565

  6. A statistical multi-vertebrae shape+pose model for segmentation of CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasoulian, Abtin; Rohling, Robert N.; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2013-03-01

    Segmentation of the spinal column from CT images is a pre-processing step for a range of image guided interventions. Current techniques focus on identification and separate segmentation of each vertebra. Recently, statistical multi-object shape models have been introduced to extract common statistical characteristics between several anatomies. These models are also used for segmentation purposes and are shown to be robust, accurate, and computationally tractable. In this paper, we reconstruct a statistical multi-vertebrae shape+pose model and propose a novel technique to register such a model to CT images. We validate our technique in terms of accuracy of the multi-vertebrae segmentation of CT images acquired from 16 subjects. The mean distance error achieved for all vertebrae is 1.17 mm with standard deviation of 0.38 mm.

  7. A new method for the automatic identification of the dimensional features of vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Di Angelo, L; Di Stefano, P

    2015-08-01

    In this paper a new automatic approach to determine the accurate measure of human vertebrae is proposed. The aim is to speed up the measurement process and to reduce the uncertainties that typically affect the measurement carried out by traditional approaches. The proposed method uses a 3D model of the vertebra obtained from CT-scans or 3D scanning, from which some characteristic dimensions are detected. For this purpose, specific rules to identify morphological features, from which to detect dimensional features unambiguously and accurately, are put forward and implemented in original software. The automatic method which is here proposed is verified by analysing real vertebrae and is then compared with the state-of-the-art methods for vertebra measurement.

  8. The early origin of vertebral anomalies, as illustrated by a 'butterfly vertebra'.

    PubMed Central

    Müller, F; O'Rahilly, R; Benson, D R

    1986-01-01

    An anomalous (butterfly) eleventh thoracic vertebra in a fetus of 63 mm greatest length is described and graphic reconstructions (together with normal controls) are provided. The cartilaginous hemicentra are separated by disc-like material. Cartilaginous bars to adjacent vertebrae are present. The neural arch is complete. The notochord is not duplicated. Only one comparable case in the embryonic period has been described previously. After a discussion of cleft vertebrae in the human and in experimental animals, a developmental timetable of the appearance of several vertebral anomalies is provided. The sensitive period for butterfly vertebrae, depending on the mode of origin, seems to be 3-6 postovulatory weeks. More severe anomalies, such as the split notochord syndrome, appear earlier. It is concluded that most of the vertebral anomalies discussed arise during the embryonic period proper, although the timing of a few, such as spina bifida occulta, extends into the early fetal period. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 PMID:3693103

  9. A new method for the automatic identification of the dimensional features of vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Di Angelo, L; Di Stefano, P

    2015-08-01

    In this paper a new automatic approach to determine the accurate measure of human vertebrae is proposed. The aim is to speed up the measurement process and to reduce the uncertainties that typically affect the measurement carried out by traditional approaches. The proposed method uses a 3D model of the vertebra obtained from CT-scans or 3D scanning, from which some characteristic dimensions are detected. For this purpose, specific rules to identify morphological features, from which to detect dimensional features unambiguously and accurately, are put forward and implemented in original software. The automatic method which is here proposed is verified by analysing real vertebrae and is then compared with the state-of-the-art methods for vertebra measurement. PMID:25985887

  10. Transpedicular vertebral body augmentation reinforced with pedicle screw fixation in fresh traumatic A2 and A3 lumbar fractures: comparison between two devices and two bone cements.

    PubMed

    Korovessis, Panagiotis; Vardakastanis, Konstantinos; Repantis, Thomas; Vitsas, Vasilios

    2014-07-01

    This retrospective study compares efficacy and safety of balloon kyphoplasty (BK) with calcium phosphate (Group A) versus KIVA implant with PMMA (Group B) reinforced with three vertebrae pedicle screw constructs for A2 and A3 single fresh non-osteoporotic lumbar (L1-L4) fractures in 38 consecutive age- and diagnosis-matched patient populations. Extracanal leakage of both low-viscosity PMMA and calcium phosphate (CP) as well as the following roentgenographic parameters: segmental kyphosis (SKA), anterior (AVBHr) and posterior (PVBHr) vertebral body height ratio, spinal canal encroachment (SCE) clearance, and functional outcome measures: VAS and SF-36, were recorded and compared between the two groups. All patients in both groups were followed for a minimum 26 (Group A) and 25 (Group B) months. Extracanal CP and PMMA leakage was observed in four (18 %) and three (15 %) vertebrae/patients of group A and B, respectively. Hybrid fixation improved AVBHr, SKA, SCE, but PVBHr only in group B. VAS and SF-36 improved postoperatively in the patients of both groups. Short-segment construct with the novel KIVA implant restored better than BK-fractured lumbar vertebral body, but this had no impact in functional outcome. Since there was no leakage difference between PMMA and calcium phosphate and no short-term adverse related to PMMA use were observed, we advice the use of PMMA in fresh traumatic lumbar fractures.

  11. Variation of the number of proximal caudal vertebrae with tail reduction in Old World monkeys.

    PubMed

    Tojima, Sayaka

    2014-10-01

    Tail length in primates can vary greatly between species or even between local conspecific populations, and the tail is markedly reduced in several lineages. In Old World monkeys, tail length is considered as an important feature reflecting their phylogeny and adaptations. The number of caudal vertebrae is one of the important factors which determine tail length, and it is known that this number varies with tail length. Caudal vertebrae can be divided into two types (proximal and distal), and tail mobility and function are considered to be different in these two regions. Though the number of vertebrae in each region is important for understanding tail length evolution in Old World monkeys, there have been few attempts to investigate this matter. This study focused only on the proximal caudal vertebrae, which are more easily preserved than the distal ones, and tested if there is variation in their number with tail length or phylogenic differences. As a result, two important findings were obtained: (1) the variation of the number of proximal caudal vertebrae was different among the phylogenic groups, and (2) especially in Papionini, there was a great variation in the number of proximal caudal vertebrae, and it correlated strongly with relative tail length [RTL = (tail length/head and body length (sitting height)) × 100%]. I speculate that these variations in the number of proximal caudal vertebrae were possibly caused by a change of the embryonic developmental mechanism of tail morphogenesis, a common mechanism of morphological evolution. To clarify the mechanisms and evolutionary trends of the variation in the proximal caudal vertebrae, not only morphological approaches but also developmental biological approaches will be necessary in the future.

  12. Augmentation Improves Human Cadaveric Vertebral Body Compression Mechanics For Lumbar Total Disc Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Jonathon H.; Auerbach, Joshua D.; Maurer, Philip M.; Erbe, Erik M.; Entrekin, Dean; Balderston, Richard A.; Bertagnoli, Rudolf; Elliott, Dawn M.

    2012-01-01

    Study Design Cadaveric biomechanical study. Objectives Quantify the effects of vertebral body augmentation on biomechanics under axial compression by a total disc replacement (TDR) implant. Summary of Background Data TDR is a surgical alternative to lumbar spinal fusion to treat degenerative disc disease. Osteoporosis in the adjacent vertebrae to the interposed TDR may lead to implant subsidence or vertebral body fracture. Vertebral augmentation is used to treat osteoporotic compression fracture. The study sought to evaluate whether vertebral augmentation improves biomechanics under TDR axial loading. Methods Forty-five L1-L5 lumbar vertebral body segments with intact posterior elements were used. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans were performed to determine bone density, block randomizing specimens by bone density into augmentation and control groups. A semi-constrained keeled lumbar disc replacement device was implanted providing 50% endplate coverage. Vertebral augmentation of 17.6 ± 0.9% vertebral volume fill with Cortoss was performed on augmentation group. All segments underwent axial compression at a rate of 0.2 mm/s to 6mm. Results The load-displacement response for all specimens was non-linear. Subfailure mechanical properties with augmentation were significantly different from control; in all cases the augmented group was 2× higher than control. At failure, the maximum load and stiffness with augmentation was not significantly different from control. The maximum apparent stress and modulus with augmentation were 2× and 1.3× greater than control, respectively. The subfailure stress and apparent modulus with augmentation was moderately correlated with bone density while the control subfailure properties were not. The augmented maximum stress was not correlated with bone density, while the control was weakly correlated. The maximum apparent modulus was moderately correlated with bone density for both the augmented and control groups

  13. Fully automatic vertebra detection in x-ray images based on multi-class SVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecron, Fabian; Benjelloun, Mohammed; Mahmoudi, Saïd

    2012-02-01

    Automatically detecting vertebral bodies in X-Ray images is a very complex task, especially because of the noise and the low contrast resulting in that kind of medical imagery modality. Therefore, the contributions in the literature are mainly interested in only 2 medical imagery modalities: Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance (MR). Few works are dedicated to the conventional X-Ray radiography and propose mostly semi-automatic methods. However, vertebra detection is a key step in many medical applications such as vertebra segmentation, vertebral morphometry, etc. In this work, we develop a fully automatic approach for the vertebra detection, based on a learning method. The idea is to detect a vertebra by its anterior corners without human intervention. To this end, the points of interest in the radiograph are firstly detected by an edge polygonal approximation. Then, a SIFT descriptor is used to train an SVM-model. Therefore, each point of interest can be classified in order to detect if it belongs to a vertebra or not. Our approach has been assessed by the detection of 250 cervical vertebræ on radiographs. The results show a very high precision with a corner detection rate of 90.4% and a vertebra detection rate from 81.6% to 86.5%.

  14. Recovering missing data: estimating position and size of caudal vertebrae in Staurikosaurus pricei Colbert, 1970.

    PubMed

    Grillo, Orlando N; Azevedo, Sergio A K

    2011-03-01

    Missing data is a common problem in paleontology. It makes it difficult to reconstruct extinct taxa accurately and restrains the inclusion of some taxa on comparative and biomechanical studies. Particularly, estimating the position of vertebrae on incomplete series is often non-empirical and does not allow precise estimation of missing parts. In this work we present a method for calculating the position of preserved middle sequences of caudal vertebrae in the saurischian dinosaur Staurikosaurus pricei, based on the length and height of preserved anterior and posterior caudal vertebral centra. Regression equations were used to estimate these dimensions for middle vertebrae and, consequently, to assess the position of the preserved middle sequences. It also allowed estimating these dimensions for non-preserved vertebrae. Results indicate that the preserved caudal vertebrae of Staurikosaurus may correspond to positions 1-3, 5, 7, 14-19/15-20, 24-25/25-26, and 29-47, and that at least 25 vertebrae had transverse processes. Total length of the tail was estimated in 134 cm and total body length was 220-225 cm.

  15. Skeletal maturation of the cervical vertebrae: association with various types of malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Armond, Mônica Costa; Generoso, Rodrigo; Falci, Saulo Gabriel Moreira; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; Marques, Leandro Silva

    2012-02-24

    The identification of the skeletal maturation stage of the cervical vertebrae has proven an important reference for orthodontic diagnosis. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between the skeletal maturation stage of the cervical vertebrae and types of malocclusion according to the age and gender of participants. A total of 361 individuals (168 males and 193 females) between 8 and 14 years of age were selected from a convenience sample. Malocclusions were diagnosed through study models using the Angle classification. Maturation stages of the cervical vertebrae were determined using the method proposed by Hassel and Farman. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test (p < 0.05) and multiple logistic regression (forward stepwise procedure). Significant differences were observed between the stage of skeletal maturation of the cervical vertebrae and gender at ages 11, 12 and 14 years. Males with Class II malocclusion were twice as likely to be in Stage 1 or 2 of cervical vertebra maturation than individuals with Class I malocclusion (OR = 2.1 [CI 95%, 1.33-3.18]). There were no differences between individuals with Class I and Class III malocclusions. The association between skeletal maturation of the cervical vertebrae and type of malocclusion was significant, suggesting a skeletal component in the determination of Class II malocclusions.

  16. Skeletal maturation of the cervical vertebrae: association with various types of malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Armond, Mônica Costa; Generoso, Rodrigo; Falci, Saulo Gabriel Moreira; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; Marques, Leandro Silva

    2012-01-01

    The identification of the skeletal maturation stage of the cervical vertebrae has proven an important reference for orthodontic diagnosis. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between the skeletal maturation stage of the cervical vertebrae and types of malocclusion according to the age and gender of participants. A total of 361 individuals (168 males and 193 females) between 8 and 14 years of age were selected from a convenience sample. Malocclusions were diagnosed through study models using the Angle classification. Maturation stages of the cervical vertebrae were determined using the method proposed by Hassel and Farman. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test (p £ 0.05) and multiple logistic regression (forward stepwise procedure). Significant differences were observed between the stage of skeletal maturation of the cervical vertebrae and gender at ages 11, 12 and 14 years. Males with Class II malocclusion were twice as likely to be in Stage 1 or 2 of cervical vertebra maturation than individuals with Class I malocclusion (OR = 2.1 [CI 95%, 1.33-3.18]). There were no differences between individuals with Class I and Class III malocclusions. The association between skeletal maturation of the cervical vertebrae and type of malocclusion was significant, suggesting a skeletal component in the determination of Class II malocclusions.

  17. Lumbar epidural varices: An unusual cause of lumbar claudication

    PubMed Central

    Subbiah, Meenakshisundaram; Yegumuthu, Krishnan

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar epidural varices can also present with radiculopathy similar to acute intervertebral disc prolapse (IVDP). However as the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in these patients are usually normal without significant compressive lesions of the nerve roots, the diagnosis is commonly missed or delayed leading to persistent symptoms. We present a rare case of acute severe unilateral claudication with a normal MRI unresponsive to conservative management who was treated surgically. The nerve root on the symptomatic side was found to be compressed by large anterior epidural varices secondary to an abnormal cranial attachment of ligamentum flavum. Decompression of the root and coagulation of the varices resulted in complete pain relief. To conclude, lumbar epidural varices should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute onset radiculopathy and claudication in the absence of significant MRI findings. PMID:27512228

  18. Sexual Dimorphism in Newborn Vertebrae and its Potential Implications

    PubMed Central

    Ponrartana, Skorn; Aggabao, Patricia C.; Dharmavaram, Naga L.; Fisher, Carissa L.; Friedlich, Philippe; Epi, MS; Devaskar, Sherin U.; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine whether the sex-related differences in vertebral cross-sectional area (CSA) found in children and at the timing of peak bone mass – a major determinant of osteoporosis and future fracture risk – are also present at birth. Study design Vertebral CSA, vertebral height, and intervertebral disc height were measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 70 healthy full-term newborns (35 male and 35 female). Additionally, measures of the length and CSA of the humerus, musculature, and adiposity were obtained. Results Weight, body length, and head and waist circumferences did not significantly differ between sexes (all P’s ≥ 0.06). Compared with newborn boys, girls had significantly smaller vertebral cross-sectional dimensions; 1.47 ± 0.11 vs. 1.31 ± 0.12; P < 0.0001. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that sex was a predictor of vertebral CSA independent of gestational age, birth weight, and body length. In contrast, sexes were monomorphic with regard to vertebral height, intervertebral disc height, and spinal length (all P’s ≥ 0.11). There were also no sex differences in the length or cross-sectional dimensions of the humerus or in measures of musculature and adiposity (all P’s ≥ 0.10). Conclusions Factors related to sex influence fetal development of the axial skeleton. The smaller vertebral CSA in females is associated with greater flexibility of the spine that could represent the human adaptation to fetal load. Unfortunately, it also imparts a mechanical disadvantage that increases stress within the vertebrae for all physical activities and the susceptibility for fragility fractures later in life. PMID:26028289

  19. The distribution of cervical vertebrae anomalies among dental malocclusions

    PubMed Central

    Kamak, Hasan; Yildırım, Eren

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aims of our study were to investigate the distribution of cervical vertebrae anomalies (CVAs) among dental Angle Class I, II, and III malocclusions in Turkish population and whether a correlation between CVA and dental malocclusion. Materials and Methods: The study was performed on lateral cephalometric radiographs which were taken at the Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Kirikkale University. The final sample of 318 orthodontic patients was included in the study. Dental malocclusions were performed according to Angle classification. CVAs were categorized: (1) fusion and (2) posterior arch deficiency (PAD). The Chi-square test was used to the analysis of the potential differences among dental malocclusions. Results: The final sample of 318 patients was examined. CVA was observed in 42 individuals (of 26 [8.17%] had fusion and 16 [5.03%] had PAD), with a frequency of 13.2%. Of the 26 fusion defect, 8 (30.7%) had Angle Class I, 8 (30.7%) had Angle Class II, and 10 (38.4%) had Angle Class III malocclusion. Of the 16 PAD, 8 (50%) had Angle Class I, 8 (50%) had Angle Class II but no patients with Angle Class III malocclusion was observed. The distribution of dental malocclusions regarding CVA was not statistically significant (P = 0.076). Of these 42 individuals with CVA, 52.3% (15 fusions and 7 PAD) were females and 47.7% (11 fusions and 9 PAD) were males. Conclusion: In our study, the prevalence of fusion and PAD were found 8.1% and 5.0% in Turkish population, respectively. Besides, no statistically significant correlation between CVA and Angle Class I, II, and III malocclusions were found. Our findings support the studies showing no gender dimorphism. PMID:26692691

  20. Assessment of Lumbar Lordosis and Lumbar Core Strength in Information Technology Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Roma Satish; Dabadghav, Rachana; Rairikar, Savita; Shayam, Ashok; Sancheti, Parag

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Observational study. Purpose To correlate lumbar lordosis and lumbar core strength in information technology (IT) professionals. Overview of Literature IT professionals have to work for long hours in a sitting position, which can affect lumbar lordosis and lumbar core strength. Methods Flexicurve was used to assess the lumbar lordosis, and pressure biofeedback was used to assess the lumbar core strength in the IT professionals. All subjects, both male and female, with and without complaint of low back pain and working for two or more years were included, and subjects with a history of spinal surgery or spinal deformity were excluded from the study. Analysis was done using Pearson's correlation. Results For the IT workers, no correlation was seen between lumbar lordosis and lumbar core strength (r=–0.04); however, a weak negative correlation was seen in IT people who complained of pain (r=–0.12), while there was no correlation of lumbar lordosis and lumbar core in IT people who had no complains of pain (r=0.007). Conclusions The study shows that there is no correlation of lumbar lordosis and lumbar core strength in IT professionals, but a weak negative correlation was seen in IT people who complained of pain. PMID:27340529

  1. [Spontaneous resolution of a lumbar disc herniation].

    PubMed

    Gelabert-González, M; Serramito-García, R; Aran-Echabe, E; García-Allut, A

    2007-04-01

    Lumbar disc herniation is a common cause of lower leg radiculopathy and the most effective methods of treatment remain in question. Both surgical and nonsurgical treatments may provide a successful outcome in appropriately selected patients. The spontaneous resolution of herniated lumbar discs is a well-established phenomenon. The authors present a case of spontaneous regression of a herniated lumbar nucleus pulpous in a patient with radiculopathy. PMID:17497061

  2. Lumbar instability: an evolving and challenging concept

    PubMed Central

    Beazell, James R; Mullins, Melise; Grindstaff, Terry L

    2010-01-01

    Identification and management of chronic lumbar spine instability is a clinical challenge for manual physical therapists. Chronic lumbar instability is presented as a term that can encompass two types of lumbar instability: mechanical (radiographic) and functional (clinical) instability (FLI). The components of mechanical and FLI are presented relative to the development of a physical therapy diagnosis and management. The purpose of this paper is to review the historical framework of chronic lumbar spine instability from a physical therapy perspective and to summarize current research relative to clinical diagnosis in physical therapy. PMID:21655418

  3. Lumbar lordosis of extinct hominins.

    PubMed

    Been, Ella; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Kramer, Patricia A

    2012-01-01

    The lordotic curvature of the lumbar spine (lumbar lordosis) in humans is a critical component in the ability to achieve upright posture and bipedal gait. Only general estimates of the lordotic angle (LA) of extinct hominins are currently available, most of which are based on the wedging of the vertebral bodies. Recently, a new method for calculating the LA in skeletal material has become available. This method is based on the relationship between the lordotic curvature and the orientation of the inferior articular processes relative to vertebral bodies in the lumbar spines of living primates. Using this relationship, we developed new regression models in order to calculate the LAs in hominins. The new models are based on primate group-means and were used to calculate the LAs in the spines of eight extinct hominins. The results were also compared with the LAs of modern humans and modern nonhuman apes. The lordotic angles of australopithecines (41° ± 4), H. erectus (45°) and fossil H. sapiens (54° ± 14) are similar to those of modern humans (51° ± 11). This analysis confirms the assumption that human-like lordotic curvature was a morphological change that took place during the acquisition of erect posture and bipedalism as the habitual form of locomotion. Neandertals have smaller lordotic angles (LA = 29° ± 4) than modern humans, but higher angles than nonhuman apes (22° ± 3). This suggests possible subtle differences in Neandertal posture and locomotion from that of modern humans. PMID:22052243

  4. Radicular interdural lumbar disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Akhaddar, Ali; Boulahroud, Omar; Elasri, Abad; Elmostarchid, Brahim; Boucetta, Mohammed

    2010-07-01

    Intraradicular lumbar disc herniation is a rare complication of disc disease that is generally diagnosed only during surgery. The mechanism for herniated disc penetration into the intradural space is not known with certainty, but adhesion between the radicular dura and the posterior longitudinal ligament was suggested as the most important condition. The authors report the first case of an intraradicular lumbar disc herniation without subdural penetration; the disc hernia was lodged between the two radicular dura layers. The patient, a 34-year-old soldier, was admitted with a 12-month history of low back pain and episodic left sciatica. Neurologic examination showed a positive straight leg raising test on the left side without sensory, motor or sphincter disturbances. Spinal CT scan and MRI exploration revealed a left posterolateral osteophyte formation at the L5-S1 level with an irregular large disc herniation, which migrated superiorly. An intradural extension was suspected. A left L5 hemilaminectomy and S1 foraminotomy were performed. The exploration revealed a large fragment of disc material located between the inner and outer layers of the left S1 radicular dura. The mass was extirpated without cerebrospinal fluid outflow. The postoperative course was uneventful. Radicular interdural lumbar disc herniation should be suspected when a swollen, hard and immobile nerve root is present intraoperatively.

  5. Retroperitoneal laparoscopic bilateral lumbar sympathectomy.

    PubMed

    Segers, B; Himpens, J; Barroy, J P

    2007-06-01

    The first retroperitoneal lumbar sympathectomy was performed in 1924 by Julio Diez. The classic procedure for sympathectomy is open surgery. We report a unilateral laparoscopic retroperitoneal approach to perform bilateral lumbar sympathectomy. This approach was performed for a 43-year-old man with distal arterial occlusive disease and no indication for direct revascularization. His predominant symptoms were intermittent claudication at 100 metres and cold legs. The patient was placed in a left lateral decubitus position. The optical system was placed first in an intra-abdominal position to check that the trocars were well positioned in the retroperitoneal space. The dissection of retroperitoneum was performed by CO2 insufflation. The inferior vena cava was reclined and the right sympathetic chain was individualized. Two ganglia (L3-L4) were removed by bipolar electro-coagulation. The aorta was isolated on a vessel loop and careful anterior traction allowed a retro-aortic pre-vertebral approach between the lumbar vessels. The left sympathetic chain was dissected. Two ganglia (L3-L4) were removed by bipolar electro-coagulation. PMID:17685269

  6. Lumbar lordosis of extinct hominins.

    PubMed

    Been, Ella; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Kramer, Patricia A

    2012-01-01

    The lordotic curvature of the lumbar spine (lumbar lordosis) in humans is a critical component in the ability to achieve upright posture and bipedal gait. Only general estimates of the lordotic angle (LA) of extinct hominins are currently available, most of which are based on the wedging of the vertebral bodies. Recently, a new method for calculating the LA in skeletal material has become available. This method is based on the relationship between the lordotic curvature and the orientation of the inferior articular processes relative to vertebral bodies in the lumbar spines of living primates. Using this relationship, we developed new regression models in order to calculate the LAs in hominins. The new models are based on primate group-means and were used to calculate the LAs in the spines of eight extinct hominins. The results were also compared with the LAs of modern humans and modern nonhuman apes. The lordotic angles of australopithecines (41° ± 4), H. erectus (45°) and fossil H. sapiens (54° ± 14) are similar to those of modern humans (51° ± 11). This analysis confirms the assumption that human-like lordotic curvature was a morphological change that took place during the acquisition of erect posture and bipedalism as the habitual form of locomotion. Neandertals have smaller lordotic angles (LA = 29° ± 4) than modern humans, but higher angles than nonhuman apes (22° ± 3). This suggests possible subtle differences in Neandertal posture and locomotion from that of modern humans.

  7. Retroperitoneal laparoscopic bilateral lumbar sympathectomy.

    PubMed

    Segers, B; Himpens, J; Barroy, J P

    2007-06-01

    The first retroperitoneal lumbar sympathectomy was performed in 1924 by Julio Diez. The classic procedure for sympathectomy is open surgery. We report a unilateral laparoscopic retroperitoneal approach to perform bilateral lumbar sympathectomy. This approach was performed for a 43-year-old man with distal arterial occlusive disease and no indication for direct revascularization. His predominant symptoms were intermittent claudication at 100 metres and cold legs. The patient was placed in a left lateral decubitus position. The optical system was placed first in an intra-abdominal position to check that the trocars were well positioned in the retroperitoneal space. The dissection of retroperitoneum was performed by CO2 insufflation. The inferior vena cava was reclined and the right sympathetic chain was individualized. Two ganglia (L3-L4) were removed by bipolar electro-coagulation. The aorta was isolated on a vessel loop and careful anterior traction allowed a retro-aortic pre-vertebral approach between the lumbar vessels. The left sympathetic chain was dissected. Two ganglia (L3-L4) were removed by bipolar electro-coagulation.

  8. [Progress and prospects on evaluation of ecological restoration: a review of the 5th World Conference on Ecological Restoration].

    PubMed

    Ding, Jing-Yi; Zhao, Wen-Wu

    2014-09-01

    The 5th World Conference on Ecological Restoration was held in Madison, Wisconsin, USA on October 6-11, 2013. About 1200 delegates from more than 50 countries attended the conference, and discussed the latest developments in different thematic areas of ecological restoration. Discussions on evaluation of ecological restoration were mainly from three aspects: The construction for evaluation indicator system of ecological restoration; the evaluation methods of ecological restoration; monitoring and dynamic evaluation of ecological restoration. The meeting stressed the importance of evaluation in the process of ecological restoration and concerned the challenges in evaluation of ecological restoration. The conference had the following enlightenments for China' s research on evaluation of ecological restoration: 1) Strengthening the construction of comprehensive evaluation indicators system and focusing on the multi-participation in the evaluation process. 2) Paying more attentions on scale effect and scale transformation in the evaluation process of ecological restoration. 3) Expanding the application of 3S technology in assessing the success of ecological restoration and promoting the dynamic monitoring of ecological restoration. 4) Carrying out international exchanges and cooperation actively, and promoting China's international influence in ecological restoration research.

  9. Generating and weighing evidence in drug development and regulatory decision making: 5th US FDA-DIA workshop on pharmacogenomics.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Peter M; Zineh, Issam

    2010-12-01

    The 5th US FDA-Drug Industry Association (DIA) workshop in a series on pharmacogenomics entitled: 'Generating and Weighing Evidence in Drug Development and Regulatory Decision Making', contained four major topics (tracks): 'Learning from Labels and Label Changes: How to Build Pharmacogenomics into Drug Development Programs'; 'Enabling Pharmacogenomic Clinical Trials Through Sampling'; 'Designing Pharmacogenomics Studies to be Fit for Purpose'; and 'Co-Development of Drugs and Diagnostics'. The meeting was attended by approximately 200 professionals, primarily involved in drug development and healthcare delivery. Several critical elements drove the success of the meeting: it was recognized that the enriched conversation at this workshop between regulators and drug developers was driven with less inhibition than before and with a greater scientific focus on the issues. Multiple examples in the field and broader collective experience helped more in-depth thinking of the pros and cons of implementing pharmacogenetic/genetic approaches during drug development, in the current environment. It was also noted that this field is still developing and nascent as illustrated by the paucity of actual diagnostic-drug co-development examples. Furthermore, the complexities of conducting pharmacogenetic research in global drug-development programs was acknowledged as was the need for rigorous research designs and methodologies despite these challenges. PMID:21142905

  10. Communicating Science to Impact Learning? A Phenomenological Inquiry into 4th and 5th Graders' Perceptions of Science Information Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelmez Burakgazi, Sevinc; Yildirim, Ali; Weeth Feinstein, Noah

    2016-04-01

    Rooted in science education and science communication studies, this study examines 4th and 5th grade students' perceptions of science information sources (SIS) and their use in communicating science to students. It combines situated learning theory with uses and gratifications theory in a qualitative phenomenological analysis. Data were gathered through classroom observations and interviews in four Turkish elementary schools. Focus group interviews with 47 students and individual interviews with 17 teachers and 10 parents were conducted. Participants identified a wide range of SIS, including TV, magazines, newspapers, internet, peers, teachers, families, science centers/museums, science exhibitions, textbooks, science books, and science camps. Students reported using various SIS in school-based and non-school contexts to satisfy their cognitive, affective, personal, and social integrative needs. SIS were used for science courses, homework/project assignments, examination/test preparations, and individual science-related research. Students assessed SIS in terms of the perceived accessibility of the sources, the quality of the content, and the content presentation. In particular, some sources such as teachers, families, TV, science magazines, textbooks, and science centers/museums ("directive sources") predictably led students to other sources such as teachers, families, internet, and science books ("directed sources"). A small number of sources crossed context boundaries, being useful in both school and out. Results shed light on the connection between science education and science communication in terms of promoting science learning.

  11. Fast Food Consumption and Food Prices: Evidence from Panel Data on 5th and 8th Grade Children

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Tamkeen; Powell, Lisa M.; Wada, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Fast food consumption is a dietary factor associated with higher prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States. The association between food prices and consumption of fast food among 5th and 8th graders was examined using individual-level random effects models utilizing consumption data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K), price data from American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association (ACCRA), and contextual outlet density data from Dun and Bradstreet (D&B). The results found that contextual factors including the price of fast food, median household income, and fast food restaurant outlet densities were significantly associated with fast food consumption patterns among this age group. Overall, a 10% increase in the price of fast food was associated with 5.7% lower frequency of weekly fast food consumption. These results suggest that public health policy pricing instruments such as taxes may be effective in reducing consumption of energy-dense foods and possibly reducing the prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children and young adolescents. PMID:22292115

  12. Final Report for DOE Support of 5th the International Workshop on Oxide Surfaces (IWOX-V)

    SciTech Connect

    Charles T. Campbell

    2007-02-02

    The 5th International Workshop on Oxide Surfaces (IWOX-V) was held at Granlibakken Conference center in Lake Tahoe, CA, January 7-12. The total attendance was ~90. The breakdown of attendees by country is as follows: USA 41 Germany 18 Japan 7 UK 5 Italy 5 France 4 Austria 3 Denmark 3 Cech. Repub. 1 Ireland 1 New Zealand 1 India 1 The technical program included oral sessions on the electronic and magnetic properties of oxide surfaces, surface and interface structure, advances in theory, surface defects, thin film oxides on metals and on oxides, thin film metals on oxides, surface photochemistry, surface reactivity, and interactions with water. Two evening poster sessions had similar themes. As in previous years, the program stimulated significant interest and discussion among the attendees. The local expenses (food and lodging, $918 per person) for eight foreign invited speakers were covered by BES funds. In addition, partial reimbursement for travel ($328 per person) was supported by BES funds for two more foreign invited speakers.

  13. Fast food consumption and food prices: evidence from panel data on 5th and 8th grade children.

    PubMed

    Khan, Tamkeen; Powell, Lisa M; Wada, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Fast food consumption is a dietary factor associated with higher prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States. The association between food prices and consumption of fast food among 5th and 8th graders was examined using individual-level random effects models utilizing consumption data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K), price data from American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association (ACCRA), and contextual outlet density data from Dun and Bradstreet (D&B). The results found that contextual factors including the price of fast food, median household income, and fast food restaurant outlet densities were significantly associated with fast food consumption patterns among this age group. Overall, a 10% increase in the price of fast food was associated with 5.7% lower frequency of weekly fast food consumption. These results suggest that public health policy pricing instruments such as taxes may be effective in reducing consumption of energy-dense foods and possibly reducing the prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children and young adolescents. PMID:22292115

  14. Attitudes towards General Practice: a comparative cross-sectional survey of 1st and 5th year medical students

    PubMed Central

    Kruschinski, Carsten; Wiese, Birgitt; Hummers-Pradier, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Positive attitudes towards General Practice can be understood as a prerequisite for becoming a General Practitioner (GP) and for collaboration with GPs later on. This study aimed to assess attitudes of medical students at the beginning and the end of medical school. Methods: A total of 160 1st year students at Hannover Medical School were surveyed. Their attitudes were compared to those of 287 5th year students. Descriptive, bi- and multivariate analyses were performed to investigate influences of year of study and gender. Results: Year of study and gender both were associated with the attitudes towards General Practice. The interest in General Practice and patient-orientation (communication, care of older patients with chronic diseases) was higher in 1st year students compared to more advanced students. Female students valued such requirements more than male students, the differences in attitudes between the years of study being more pronounced in male students. Conclusion: Despite some limitations caused by the cross-sectional design, the attitudes towards General Practice competencies changed to their disadvantage during medical school. This suggests a formative influence of the strategies used in medical education. Educational strategies, however, could be used to bring about a change of attitudes in the other direction. PMID:23255966

  15. Generating and weighing evidence in drug development and regulatory decision making: 5th US FDA-DIA workshop on pharmacogenomics.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Peter M; Zineh, Issam

    2010-12-01

    The 5th US FDA-Drug Industry Association (DIA) workshop in a series on pharmacogenomics entitled: 'Generating and Weighing Evidence in Drug Development and Regulatory Decision Making', contained four major topics (tracks): 'Learning from Labels and Label Changes: How to Build Pharmacogenomics into Drug Development Programs'; 'Enabling Pharmacogenomic Clinical Trials Through Sampling'; 'Designing Pharmacogenomics Studies to be Fit for Purpose'; and 'Co-Development of Drugs and Diagnostics'. The meeting was attended by approximately 200 professionals, primarily involved in drug development and healthcare delivery. Several critical elements drove the success of the meeting: it was recognized that the enriched conversation at this workshop between regulators and drug developers was driven with less inhibition than before and with a greater scientific focus on the issues. Multiple examples in the field and broader collective experience helped more in-depth thinking of the pros and cons of implementing pharmacogenetic/genetic approaches during drug development, in the current environment. It was also noted that this field is still developing and nascent as illustrated by the paucity of actual diagnostic-drug co-development examples. Furthermore, the complexities of conducting pharmacogenetic research in global drug-development programs was acknowledged as was the need for rigorous research designs and methodologies despite these challenges.

  16. [Is there a correlation between back pain and stability of the lumbar spine in pregnancy? A model-based hypothesis].

    PubMed

    Liebetrau, A; Puta, C; Schinowski, D; Wulf, T; Wagner, H

    2012-02-01

    During pregnancy approximately 50% of women suffer from low back pain (LBP), which significantly affects their everyday life. The pain could result in chronic insomnia, limit the pregnant women in their ability to work and produce a reduction of their physical activity. The etiology of the pain is still critically discussed and not entirely understood. In the literature different explanations for LBP are given and one of the most common reasons is the anatomical changes of the female body during pregnancy; for instance, there is an increase in the sagittal moments because of the enlarged uterus and fetus and the occurrence of hyperlordosis.The aim of this study was to describe how the anatomical changes in pregnant women affect the stability and the moments acting on the lumbar spine with the help of a simplified musculoskeletal model.A two-dimensional musculoskeletal model of the lumbar spine in the sagittal plane consisting of five lumbar vertebrae was developed. The model included five centres of rotation and three antagonistic pairs of paraspinal muscles. The concept of altered acting torques during pregnancy was explored by varying the geometrical arrangements. The situations non-pregnant, pregnant and pregnant with hyperlordosis were considered for the model-based approach. These simulations were done dependent on the stability of the erect posture and local countertorques of every lumbar segment.In spite of the simplicity of the model and the musculoskeletal arrangement it was possible to maintain equilibrium of the erect posture at every lumbar spinal segment with one minimum physiological cross-sectional area of all paraspinal muscles. The stability of the musculoskeletal system depends on the muscular activity of the paraspinal muscles and diminishing the muscular activity causes unstable lumbar segments.The relationship between the non-pregnant and the pregnant simulations demonstrated a considerable increase of acting segmental countertorques

  17. Giant pandas (Carnivora: Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and living hominoids converge on lumbar vertebral adaptations to orthograde trunk posture.

    PubMed

    Russo, Gabrielle A; Williams, Scott A

    2015-11-01

    Living hominoids share a common body plan characterized by a gradient of derived postcranial features that distinguish them from their closest living relatives, cercopithecoid monkeys. However, the evolutionary scenario(s) that led to the derived postcranial features of hominoids are uncertain. Explanations are complicated by the fact that living hominoids vary considerably in positional behaviors, and some Miocene hominoids are morphologically, and therefore probably behaviorally, distinct from modern hominoids. Comparative studies that aim to identify morphologies associated with specific components of positional behavioral repertoires are an important avenue of research that can improve our understanding of the evolution and adaptive significance of the hominoid postcranium. Here, we employ a comparative approach to offer additional insight into the evolution of the hominoid lumbar vertebral column. Specifically, we tested whether giant pandas (Carnivora: Ailuropoda melanoleuca) converge with living hominoids on lumbar vertebral adaptations to the single component of their respective positional behavioral repertoires that they share--orthograde (i.e., upright) trunk posture. We compare lumbar vertebral morphologies of Ailuropoda to those of other living ursids and caniform outgroups (northern raccoons and gray wolves). Mirroring known differences between living hominoids and cercopithecoids, Ailuropoda generally exhibits fewer, craniocaudally shorter lumbar vertebrae with more dorsally positioned transverse processes that are more dorsally oriented and laterally directed, and taller, more caudally directed spinous processes than other caniforms in the sample. Our comparative evidence lends support to a potential evolutionary scenario in which the acquisition of hominoid-like lumbar vertebral morphologies may have evolved for generalized orthograde behaviors and could have been exapted for suspensory behavior in crown hominoids and for other locomotor

  18. Giant pandas (Carnivora: Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and living hominoids converge on lumbar vertebral adaptations to orthograde trunk posture.

    PubMed

    Russo, Gabrielle A; Williams, Scott A

    2015-11-01

    Living hominoids share a common body plan characterized by a gradient of derived postcranial features that distinguish them from their closest living relatives, cercopithecoid monkeys. However, the evolutionary scenario(s) that led to the derived postcranial features of hominoids are uncertain. Explanations are complicated by the fact that living hominoids vary considerably in positional behaviors, and some Miocene hominoids are morphologically, and therefore probably behaviorally, distinct from modern hominoids. Comparative studies that aim to identify morphologies associated with specific components of positional behavioral repertoires are an important avenue of research that can improve our understanding of the evolution and adaptive significance of the hominoid postcranium. Here, we employ a comparative approach to offer additional insight into the evolution of the hominoid lumbar vertebral column. Specifically, we tested whether giant pandas (Carnivora: Ailuropoda melanoleuca) converge with living hominoids on lumbar vertebral adaptations to the single component of their respective positional behavioral repertoires that they share--orthograde (i.e., upright) trunk posture. We compare lumbar vertebral morphologies of Ailuropoda to those of other living ursids and caniform outgroups (northern raccoons and gray wolves). Mirroring known differences between living hominoids and cercopithecoids, Ailuropoda generally exhibits fewer, craniocaudally shorter lumbar vertebrae with more dorsally positioned transverse processes that are more dorsally oriented and laterally directed, and taller, more caudally directed spinous processes than other caniforms in the sample. Our comparative evidence lends support to a potential evolutionary scenario in which the acquisition of hominoid-like lumbar vertebral morphologies may have evolved for generalized orthograde behaviors and could have been exapted for suspensory behavior in crown hominoids and for other locomotor

  19. Gradual Height Decrease of Augmented Vertebrae after Vertebroplasty at the Thoracolumbar Junction

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Han San; Kim, Hyun Gon; Park, Kwan Ho

    2016-01-01

    Objective Vertebroplasty is an effective treatment for vertebral compression fracture, but may progress gradual vertebral height decrease in spite of vertebroplasty. Gradual vertebral height decrease also may induce aggravation of kyphotic change without severe pain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate risk factors for gradual vertebral height decrease in the absence of recurrent severe back pain. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on 44 patients who were diagnosed with a first osteoporotic compression fracture at a single level at the thoracolumbar junction. All patients were taken vertebroplasty. Possible risk factors for gradual vertebral height decrease, such as sex, age, bone mineral density, body mass index, level of compression fracture, volume of injected cement, cement leakage into disc space, and air clefts within fractured vertebrae, were analyzed. Results Gradual vertebral height decrease of augmented vertebrae occurred commonly when more than 4 cc of injected cement was used, and when air clefts within fractured vertebrae were seen on admission. In addition, the sagittal Cobb angle more commonly increased during the follow-up period in such cases. Conclusion Injection of more than 4 cc of cement during vertebroplasty and air cleft within fractured vertebrae on admission induced gradual vertebral height decrease in augmented vertebrae. Thus, longer follow-up will be needed in such cases, even when patients do not complain of recurrent severe back pain. PMID:27182497

  20. Fully automatic detection of the vertebrae in 2D CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Franz; Kriegel, Hans-Peter; Schubert, Matthias; Strukelj, Michael; Cavallaro, Alexander

    2011-03-01

    Knowledge about the vertebrae is a valuable source of information for several annotation tasks. In recent years, the research community spent a considerable effort for detecting, segmenting and analyzing the vertebrae and the spine in various image modalities like CT or MR. Most of these methods rely on prior knowledge like the location of the vertebrae or other initial information like the manual detection of the spine. Furthermore, the majority of these methods require a complete volume scan. With the existence of use cases where only a single slice is available, there arises a demand for methods allowing the detection of the vertebrae in 2D images. In this paper, we propose a fully automatic and parameterless algorithm for detecting the vertebrae in 2D CT images. Our algorithm starts with detecting candidate locations by taking the density of bone-like structures into account. Afterwards, the candidate locations are extended into candidate regions for which certain image features are extracted. The resulting feature vectors are compared to a sample set of previously annotated and processed images in order to determine the best candidate region. In a final step, the result region is readjusted until convergence to a locally optimal position. Our new method is validated on a real world data set of more than 9 329 images of 34 patients being annotated by a clinician in order to provide a realistic ground truth.

  1. Implementing SPRINTT [Student Polar Research with IPY National(and International)Teacher Training] in 5th Grade Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, D. S.

    2009-12-01

    I implemented the new NSF-funded SPRINTT (Student Polar Research with IPY National (and International) Teacher Training) curriculum with a 5th grade science class. SPRINTT, developed at U.S. Satellite Laboratory, Inc., is a 5-8 week science program teaching 5th through 10th graders to investigate climate change using polar data. The program includes perspectives of both Western scientists and the indigenous Northern population. The course contains three phases: Phase 1 includes content, data interpretation, and hands-on experiments to study Frozen Water, Frozen Land, and Food; Phase 2 (optional) includes further content on specific polar topics; and Phase 3 is a scaffolded research investigation. Before the course, teachers were trained via live webinars. This curriculum capitalizes on children’s innate fascination with our planet’s final frontier and combines it with the politically and scientifically relevant topic of climate change. In 2009, I used SPRINTT with 23 heterogeneous fifth grade students at National Presbyterian School in Washington DC for an environmental science unit. Overall, it was a success. The students met most of the learning objectives and showed enthusiasm for the material. I share my experiences to help other educators and curriculum developers. The Phase 1 course includes earth science (glaciers, sea ice, weather and climate, greenhouse gases, seasons, and human impacts on environments), life science (needs of living things, food and energy transfer, adaptations, and ecosystems and biomes) and physical science (phases of matter). Tailoring the program, I focused on Phase 1, the most accessible material and content, while deemphasizing the more cumbersome Phase 3 online research project. Pre-assessments documented the students’ misconceptions and informed instruction. The investigations were appropriately educational and interesting. For example, students enjoyed looking at environmental factors and their impact on the people in the

  2. Breastfeeding, introduction of other foods and effects on health: a systematic literature review for the 5th Nordic Nutrition Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Hörnell, Agneta; Lagström, Hanna; Lande, Britt; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2013-01-01

    The present systematic literature review is part of the 5th revision of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. The overall aim was to review recent scientific data valid in a Nordic setting on the short- and long-term health effects of breastfeeding (duration of both any and exclusive breastfeeding) and introduction of foods other than breast milk. The initial literature search resulted in 2,011 abstracts; 416 identified as potentially relevant. Full paper review resulted in 60 quality assessed papers (6A, 48B, and 6C). A complementary search found some additional papers. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, limited-suggestive, and limited-no conclusion. The evidence was convincing of a protective dose/duration effect of breastfeeding against overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence, overall infections, acute otitis media, and gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections. The evidence was probable that exclusive breastfeeding for longer than 4 months is associated with slower weight gain during the second half of the first year which could be part of the reason behind the reduced risk of later overweight or obesity. There was also probable evidence that breastfeeding is a protective factor against inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and diabetes (type 1 and 2), provides beneficial effects on IQ and developmental scores of children as well as a small reductive effect on blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels in adulthood. Other associations explored were limited-suggestive or inconclusive. In conclusion, convincing and probable evidence was found for benefits of breastfeeding on several outcomes. The recommendation in NNR2004 about exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months and continued partial breastfeeding thereafter can stand unchanged. The relatively low proportion of infants in the Nordic countries following this recommendation indicates that strategies that protect, support and promote breastfeeding should be

  3. Validating the proposed diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th edition, severity indicator for personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Morey, Leslie C; Bender, Donna S; Skodol, Andrew E

    2013-09-01

    The authors sought to determine whether a 5-point global rating of personality dysfunction on the Level of Personality Functioning Scale proposed as a severity index for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5), would be related to DSM-IV personality disorder diagnosis as well as to other key clinical judgments. Data were collected from a national sample of 337 mental health clinicians who provided complete diagnostic information relevant to DSM-IV and proposed DSM-5 personality disorder diagnoses, as well as demographic information and other clinical judgments, on one of their patients. Of the 337 patients described, 248 met criteria for 1 of the 10 specific DSM-IV personality disorders. A "moderate" or greater rating of impairment in personality functioning on the Level Scale demonstrated 84.6% sensitivity and 72.7% specificity for identifying patients meeting criteria for a specific DSM-IV personality disorder. The Level of Personality Functioning Scale had significant and substantial validity correlations with other measures of personality pathology and with clinical judgments regarding functioning, risk, prognosis, and optimal treatment intensity. Furthermore, the single-item Level of Personality Functioning rating was viewed as being as clinically useful as the 10 DSM-IV categories for treatment planning and patient description and was a better predictor of clinician ratings of broad psychosocial functioning than were the 10 DSM-IV categories combined. These results confirm hypotheses that the single-item Level of Personality Functioning Scale rating provides an indication of severity of personality pathology that predicts both assignment of personality disorder diagnosis and clinician appraisals of functioning, risk, prognosis, and needed treatment intensity.

  4. Intraocular tissue ablation using an optical fibre to deliver the 5th harmonic of a Nd:YAG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Joseph; Yu, Xiaobo; Yu, Paula K.; Cringle, Stephen J.; Yu, Dao-Yi

    2009-02-01

    We report the evaluation of a system which delivers the 5th harmonic of an Nd:YAG (213nm) via optical fibre to ocular tissue sites. The 213nm beam is concentrated, using a hollow glass taper, prior to launch into 200 μm or 600 μm core diameter silica/silica optical fibre. The fibre tip was tapered to enhance the fluence delivered. An operating window of fluence values that could be delivered via 330 - 1100mm lengths of optical fibre was determined. The lower value of 0.2J/cm2 determined by the ablation threshold of the tissue and the upper value of 1.3J/cm2 by the launch, transmission and tip characteristics of the optical fibre. The fluence output decreased as a function of both transmitted pulse energy and number of pulses transmitted. Fresh retinal tissue was cleanly ablated with minimal damage to the surrounding tissue. Lesions were generated using 1, 3 and 10 pulses with fluences from 0.2 to 1.0J/cm2. The lesion depth demonstrated clear dose dependence. Lesions generated in ex vivo preparations of human trabecular meshwork in a fluid environment also demonstrated dose dependence, 50 pulses being sufficient to create a hole within the trabecular meshwork extending to Schlemm's canal. The dose dependence of the ablation depth combined with the ability of this technique to create a conduit through to Schlemm's canal demonstrates the potential of this technique for ophthalmological applications requiring precise and controlled intraocular tissue removal and has potential applications in the treatment and management of glaucoma.

  5. [Neonatal occlusion due to a lumbar hernia].

    PubMed

    Hunald, F A; Ravololoniaina, T; Rajaonarivony, M F V; Rakotovao, M; Andriamanarivo, M L; Rakoto-Ratsimba, H

    2011-10-01

    A Petit lumbar hernia is an uncommon hernia. Congenital forms are seen in children. Incarceration may occur as an unreducible lumbar mass, associated with bilious vomiting and abdominal distention. Abdominal X-ray shows sided-wall bowel gas. In this case, reduction and primary closure must be performed as emergency repair.

  6. Lumbar Epidural Varix Mimicking Disc Herniation.

    PubMed

    Bursalı, Adem; Akyoldas, Goktug; Guvenal, Ahmet Burak; Yaman, Onur

    2016-07-01

    Lumbar radiculopathy is generally caused by such well-recognized entity as lumbar disc herniation in neurosurgical practice; however rare pathologies such as thrombosed epidural varix may mimic them by causing radicular symptoms. In this case report, we present a 26-year-old man with the complaint of back and right leg pain who was operated for right L4-5 disc herniation. The lesion interpreted as an extruded disc herniation preoperatively was found to be a thrombosed epidural varix compressing the nerve root preoperatively. The nerve root was decompressed by shrinking the lesion with bipolar thermocoagulation and excision. The patient's complaints disappeared in the postoperative period. Thrombosed lumbar epidural varices may mimic lumbar disc herniations both radiologically and clinically. Therefore, must be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of lumbar disc herniations. Microsurgical techniques are mandatory for the treatment of these pathologies and decompression with thermocoagulation and excision is an efficient method. PMID:27446525

  7. Lumbar Epidural Varix Mimicking Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Bursalı, Adem; Guvenal, Ahmet Burak; Yaman, Onur

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar radiculopathy is generally caused by such well-recognized entity as lumbar disc herniation in neurosurgical practice; however rare pathologies such as thrombosed epidural varix may mimic them by causing radicular symptoms. In this case report, we present a 26-year-old man with the complaint of back and right leg pain who was operated for right L4–5 disc herniation. The lesion interpreted as an extruded disc herniation preoperatively was found to be a thrombosed epidural varix compressing the nerve root preoperatively. The nerve root was decompressed by shrinking the lesion with bipolar thermocoagulation and excision. The patient's complaints disappeared in the postoperative period. Thrombosed lumbar epidural varices may mimic lumbar disc herniations both radiologically and clinically. Therefore, must be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of lumbar disc herniations. Microsurgical techniques are mandatory for the treatment of these pathologies and decompression with thermocoagulation and excision is an efficient method. PMID:27446525

  8. Heterogeneous computing for vertebra detection and segmentation in x-ray images.

    PubMed

    Lecron, Fabian; Mahmoudi, Sidi Ahmed; Benjelloun, Mohammed; Mahmoudi, Saïd; Manneback, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The context of this work is related to the vertebra segmentation. The method we propose is based on the active shape model (ASM). An original approach taking advantage of the edge polygonal approximation was developed to locate the vertebra positions in a X-ray image. Despite the fact that segmentation results show good efficiency, the time is a key variable that has always to be optimized in a medical context. Therefore, we present how vertebra extraction can efficiently be performed in exploiting the full computing power of parallel (GPU) and heterogeneous (multi-CPU/multi-GPU) architectures. We propose a parallel hybrid implementation of the most intensive steps enabling to boost performance. Experimentations have been conducted using a set of high-resolution X-ray medical images, showing a global speedup ranging from 3 to 22, by comparison with the CPU implementation. Data transfer times between CPU and GPU memories were included in the execution times of our proposed implementation.

  9. Cervical vertebrae anomalies in orthodontic patients: a growth-based superimpositional approach.

    PubMed

    Koletsis, Despina D; Halazonetis, Demetrios J

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose a growth-based structural superimposition method for assessment of cervical vertebral fusion and evaluate variations and abnormalities of the upper cervical vertebrae. Standardized lateral cephalograms of 156 patients (69 males and 87 females, age range 6-20 years), representing a skeletally heterogeneous orthodontic population, were used. Primary criterion for sample selection was the existence of at least two lateral cephalograms, one taken before orthodontic treatment, which depicted the first four cervical vertebrae. The abnormalities of the vertebrae were estimated by visual assessment and structural superimposition. Lateral cephalometric analysis was conducted in order to correlate vertebral anomalies to skeletal pattern. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all variables and interobserver agreement was evaluated using the kappa statistic. Four patients (2.6 per cent) were found to have secondary ossicles in close relationship to the first cervical vertebra, while in 7.4 per cent, the vertebral arteries of the atlas were surrounded by a complete ring-shaped osseous structure. Three cephalograms showed atlas posterior arch dehiscence. After visual examination, 14 patients were provisionally identified as presenting fusion between the second and third cervical vertebrae. However, growth-based superimposition of the radiographs disclosed that no patient showed actual fusion, even though the lateral cephalometric analysis revealed sufficient extreme skeletal patterns, which have been previously related to vertebral fusion. The findings of this study demonstrated a low percentage of atlas anomalies. It was not possible to correlate skeletal pattern to fusion of cervical vertebrae because no fusions were found. Subjective visual examination of a single cephalogram may result in false-positive findings of fusion and growth-based superimposition is recommended.

  10. Engaging Minds. Proceedings of the National Academy for Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning Annual Conference (5th, Galway, Ireland, June 9-10, 2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy for Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    This publication contains the papers presented at the 5th Annual Conference of National Academy for Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning (NAIRTL) and the 9th Galway Symposium. Presenters from across Ireland and overseas share their perspectives. The theme of engagement touches on the very heart of what a "higher" education should be…

  11. The Social Interactions of Students with Disabilities in a 5th Grade Level Inclusive Classroom and the Effect on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall-Reed, Estella

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a qualitative, ethnographic case study of 3 students with disabilities. The purpose of this research study was to observe and collect descriptive accounts of the social interactions that exist between the cultures in a 5th grade level inclusive classroom, such as the interactions between the special education students, general…

  12. Evaluation of the Effects of Argumentation Based Science Teaching on 5th Grade Students' Conceptual Understanding of the Subjects Related to "Matter and Change"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çinar, Derya; Bayraktar, Sule

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of Argumentation Based Science Teaching on 5th grade students' conceptual understanding of the subjects related to "Matter and Change". This research is a qualitative research and its design is a multiple (compare) case study. In this study, semi-structured interviews related to the…

  13. Evaluation of the Effects of Argumentation Based Science Teaching on 5th Grade Students' Conceptual Understanding of the Subjects Related to "Matter and Change"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çinar, Derya; Bayraktar, Sule

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of Argumentation Based Science Teaching on 5th grade students' conceptual understanding of the subjects related to "Matter and Change". This research is a qualitative research and its design is a multiple (compare) case study. In this study, semi-structured interviews related to the…

  14. EUNIS '99: Information Technology Shaping European Universities. Proceedings of the International European University Information Systems (5th, Espoo, Finland, June 7-9, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document presents the proceedings from the 5th International European University Information Systems (EUNIS) Conference on Information Technology that took place in Helsinki, Finland on June 7-9, 1999. Topics of the conference proceedings were divided into five tracks (A through E): Use of Information Technology in Learning and Teaching;…

  15. International Roundtable on The Lifelong Learning and New Technologies Gap: Reaching the Disadvantaged (5th, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, December 8-10, 1999). Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Adult Literacy, Philadelphia, PA.

    Three elements defined the focus of the 5th Roundtable: lifelong learning, the new technologies gap, and reaching the disadvantaged. Participants referred frequently to the digital divide, a term that captures differential access to and use of information and communication technology (ICT). The questions that guided discussion related to ICT and…

  16. U.S. Dietary and Physical Activity Guideline Knowledge and Corresponding Behaviors among 4th and 5th Grade Students: A Multi-Site Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bea, Jennifer W.; Martinez, Stephanie; Armstrong-Florian, Traci; Farrell, Vanessa; Martinez, Cathy; Whitmer, Evelyn; Hartz, Vern; Blake, Samuel; Nicolini, Ariana; Misner, Scottie

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of U.S. dietary and physical activity recommendations and corresponding behaviors were surveyed among 4th and 5th graders in five Arizona counties to determine the need for related education in SNAP-Ed eligible schools. A <70% target response rate was the criterion. Participants correctly identified recommendations for: fruit, 20%;…

  17. Immediate and Short-Term Effects of the 5th Grade Version of the "keepin' it REAL" Substance Use Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Michael L.; Elek, Elvira; Wagstaff, David A.; Kam, Jennifer A.; Marsiglia, Flavio; Dustman, Patricia; Reeves, Leslie; Harthun, Mary

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the immediate and short-term outcomes of adapting a culturally-grounded middle school program, "keepin' it REAL", for elementary school students. After curriculum adaptation, 10 schools were randomly assigned to the intervention in 5th grade with follow-up boosters in 6th grade; 13 schools were randomly assigned to the control…

  18. An Analysis of the Learning Activities Covered in the 5th Grade Science Textbooks Based on 2005 and 2013 Turkish Science Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydogdu, Cemil; Idin, Sahin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the learning activities covered in 5th grade elementary science textbooks which depend on 2005 and 2013 elementary science curricula. Two elementary science textbooks [which] depend on 2005 science curriculum and two elementary science textbooks [which] depend on 2013 science curriculum were researched. The…

  19. An Analysis of the Learning Activities Covered in the 5th Grade Science Textbooks Based on 2005 and 2013 Turkish Science Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydogdu, Cemil; Idin, Sahin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the learning activities covered in 5th grade elementary science textbooks which depend on 2005 and 2013 elementary science curricula. Two elementary science textbooks depends on 2005 science curriculum and two elementary science textbooks depend on 2013 science curriculum were researched. The study is a…

  20. Determination of Motivation of 5th Grade Students Living in Rural and Urban Environments towards Science Learning and Their Attitudes towards Science-Technology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenar, Ismail; Köse, Mücahit; Demir, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    In this research, determination of motivation of 5th grade students living in rural and urban environments towards science learning and their attitudes towards science-technology course is aimed. This research is conducted based on descriptive survey model. Samples are selected through teleological model in accordance with the aim of this…

  1. Final technical report: Partial support for US participants in the 5th International Marine Biotechnology Conference, Townsville, Australia, Sept 29 - Oct 5, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Zohar, Yonathan; Hill, R.; Robb, F.

    2001-04-09

    Funding was provided for US participants in the 5th International Marine Biotechnology Conference held in Townsville, Australia from September 29 to October 5, 2000. DOE funds were used for travel awards for six US participants in this conference. DOE funds were successfully used to advance participation of US scientists in the important emerging field of marine biotechnology.

  2. Measures of self-efficacy and norms for low-fat milk consumption are reliable and related to beverage consumption among 5th graders at school lunch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to determine the reliability and validity of scales measuring low-fat milk consumption self-efficacy and norms during school lunch among a cohort of 5th graders. Two hundred seventy-five students completed lunch food records and a psychosocial questionnaire measuring self-efficacy ...

  3. Comparison of the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition, in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grondhuis, Sabrina Nicole; Mulick, James A.

    2013-01-01

    A review of hospital records was conducted for children evaluated for autism spectrum disorders who completed both the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R) and Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition (SB5). Participants were between 3 and 12 years of age. Diagnoses were autistic disorder (n = 26, 55%) and pervasive…

  4. Indian Health Career Handbook and Report on Ned Hatathli Seminar for Southern Arizona Indian Students (5th, Tucson, Arizona, February 6-7, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Arnold, Ed.; And Others

    Utilizing comments from teachers, professionals, college and high school students, this report is derived from the 5th Ned Hatathli Seminar, sponsored by the Navajo Health Authority, and presents factual information relative to American Indian participation in Indian Health careers. The following major speeches are presented: (1) "The Practice of…

  5. Limbus Vertebra Presenting with Inflammatory Low Back Pain: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Özdemir, Tayfun; Öz, Hande Ece

    2016-01-01

    Limbus vertebra is a condition characterized by marginal interosseous herniation of the nucleus pulposus, and causes non specific symptoms like low back pain, back pain, muscle spasms and radiculopathy. It is frequently confused with vertebral fracture, infection, schmorl nodule or tumour because it has not a spesific symptom. It usually causes mechanical low back pain rather than inflammatory low back pain. We reported a patient presented with inflammatory low back pain and diagnosed with anterior limbus vertebra because it is rare and the patient has atypical clinical presentation. PMID:27134989

  6. Limbus Vertebra Presenting with Inflammatory Low Back Pain: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Tuna, Serpil; Özdemir, Tayfun; Öz, Hande Ece

    2016-03-01

    Limbus vertebra is a condition characterized by marginal interosseous herniation of the nucleus pulposus, and causes non specific symptoms like low back pain, back pain, muscle spasms and radiculopathy. It is frequently confused with vertebral fracture, infection, schmorl nodule or tumour because it has not a spesific symptom. It usually causes mechanical low back pain rather than inflammatory low back pain. We reported a patient presented with inflammatory low back pain and diagnosed with anterior limbus vertebra because it is rare and the patient has atypical clinical presentation. PMID:27134989

  7. Integration of physical activity and technology motion devices within a combined 5th and 6th grade science curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, Kevin Eugene

    Background: National recommendations to increase school-based physical activity and promote academic success advise incorporating movement into traditional classroom lessons. Classroom-based physical activities have favorable associations with indicators of cognitive functioning, academic behaviors, and academic achievement. Purpose: This study analyzed the Active Science framework, which incorporated school-based physical activity within interactive science classroom lessons. Specifically, the study measured the effects of the Active Science framework on student physical activity levels in the classroom, student learning of science inquiry skills and content knowledge, and student perceptions of physical activity and science. A secondary purpose was to evaluate the teachers' perceptions on the implementation of the framework. Subjects: Participants were 37 Hispanic girls (age=11.1 +/-0.8 yr) in mixed 5th/6th grade science classes in a private, urban middle school. Methods: Physical activity levels of the students during the Active Science framework were measured using pedometers and heart rate monitors. Pre- and post-tests were used to assess the levels of learning achieved by the students in science inquiry skills and content during the Active Science framework. Student perceptions and attitudes toward science and physical activity were measured during student focus groups and pre-post perception surveys. Lesson plan evaluations completed by the teachers and structured interviews provided data on implementation of the framework. Results: Physical activity results showed heart rate (146 +/-9 bpm); maximal heart rate (196 +/-10.6 bpm); time (35 +/-2.5 mins); steps (3050 +/-402.7); calories (99 +/-8.4 kcal); and distance (1.1 +/-0.2 miles) while performing the activity portion of the science lessons were consistent with national recommendations for accumulating school-based physical activity. Significant increases in science content and skills test scores with a 22

  8. Technological Characterization of Wall Paintings from the A Mithraic Tomb Dated to 4th-5th Century AD, Gargaresc, Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd El Salam, S.; Maniatis, Y.

    2009-04-01

    The excavations of Gargaresc started in 1965 and were one of the most important archaeological sites in Tripoli because it includes a period of about 500 years starting from the 1stc. AD was and continuing until the 5th century AD. The Mithraic tomb is one of the most important outlying monuments of Oea, 200 yards south of the western end of Gargaresc oasis, on the left of the Tripoli-Zuara road between kilometers 5 & 6. The tomb is cut in an outcrop of soft sandstone. The wall paintings found were symbolic to the religion of that period; which contained a mixture of older religions and Christian, and presented the interaction between the artistic and religious elements of that time. Several optical, chemical and mineralogical methods were applied to identify the materials, composition and technology of the plasters and mortars, as well as, the pigments used in the tomb. These are: -OP: Optical microscopy was used as the initial examination of polished cross-sections to identify the structure and microstratigraphy of the plasters and mortars as well as the painted layers. -MCT: Micro-chemical tests were used to identify the type of the plasters and mortars- calcium aluminium silicate and water-soluble salt to identify sulphates, chlorides, carbonates, nitrites and nitrates. -SM: Standard methods for chemical analysis to identify the quantitative and qualitative nature of the plasters and mortars and their mixture. -SEM & EDS: Analytical Scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive x-ray analysis system to examine the micrmorphology and determine the chemical composition of the plasters, pigments and the inclusions. -XRD: X-ray powder diffraction to identify the mineralogical composition of the plasters, mortars and pigments. On the bases of all the data obtained, it was possible to establish the nature of the plasters, mortars and their binder. The examination and analysis gave a full picture about the materials and the approximate ratio of amount of

  9. Effect on Physical Activity of a Randomized Afterschool Intervention for Inner City Children in 3rd to 5th Grade

    PubMed Central

    Crouter, Scott E.; de Ferranti, Sarah D.; Whiteley, Jessica; Steltz, Sarah K.; Osganian, Stavroula K.; Feldman, Henry A.; Hayman, Laura L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Less than 45% of U.S. children meet the 60 min.d-1 physical activity (PA) guideline. Structured after-school PA programing is one approach to help increase activity levels. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and short-term impact of a supervised after-school PA and nutrition education program on activity levels. Methods Forty-two 3rd-5th graders from an inner-city school in Boston, MA were randomly assigned to a 10-wk after-school program of either: 1) weekly nutrition education, or 2) weekly nutrition education plus supervised PA 3 d.wk-1 at a community-based center. At baseline and follow-up, PA was measured using accelerometry and fitness (VO2max) was estimated using the PACER 15-m shuttle run. Additional measures obtained were non-fasting finger stick total cholesterol (TC) and glucose levels, waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (%BF), and blood pressure (BP). Values are presented as mean±SE, unless noted otherwise. Results Thirty-six participants completed the study (mean±SD; age 9.7±0.9 years). Participants attended >80% of the sessions. After adjusting for accelerometer wear time and other design factors, light and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) increased in the nutrition+PA group (+21.5±14.5 and +8.6±8.0 min.d-1, respectively) and decreased in the nutrition only group (-35.2±16.3 and -16.0±9.0 min.d-1, respectively); mean difference between groups of 56.8±21.7 min.d-1 (light PA, p = 0.01) and 24.5±12.0 min.d-1 (MVPA, p = 0.04). Time spent in sedentary behaviors declined in the nutrition+PA group (-14.8±20.7 min.d-1) and increased in the nutrition only group (+55.4±23.2 min.d-1); mean difference between groups of -70.2±30.9 min.d-1 (p = 0.02). Neither group showed changes in TC, BP, WC, %BF, BMI percentile, or fitness (p>0.05). Conclusions The supervised afterschool community-based nutrition and PA program was well accepted and had high attendance. The changes in light PA and MVPA has potential

  10. Harmonization of Global Land-Use Scenarios for the Period 1500-2100 for IPCC 5th Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chini, L. P.; Hurtt, G.; Frolking, S.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Stehfest, E.; Shevliakova, E.; van Vuuren, D. P.; Betts, R.; Feddema, J.; Jones, C.; Kinoshita, T.; Riahi, K.; Smith, S.; Thornton, P.; Wang, Y.

    2008-12-01

    The 5th IPCC assessment will employ new integrated climate and carbon cycle models (CMs) that, for the first time, will use gridded scenarios of future land-use activities. In preparation for this assessment, the international modeling community is developing four Representative Concentration Path (RCP) scenarios developed by four Integrated Assessment Modeling teams (IAMs). The RCP scenarios include land-use changes and will be used as input to CMs. However, the diversity of approaches and requirements among IAMs and CMs for tracking land-use change, along with the dependence of model projections on land-use history, presents a challenge for effectively passing data between these communities and for smoothly transitioning from the historical estimates to future projections. Our goal is to bridge the two communities by developing a harmonized set of land-use scenarios that smoothly connects historical reconstructions of land- use with future projections, in the format required by CMs. We compute consistent global gridded maps of land-use activities and recovering lands as well as the underlying land-use transitions including the effects of wood harvest and shifting cultivation. We build upon the method of Hurtt et al. 2006 and use gridded historical maps of crop and pasture data from HYDE 3.0 1500-2000 (Klein Goldewijk, in prep), historical national wood harvest and shifting cultivation estimates from Hurtt et al. 2006, future agricultural and wood harvest data from IAMs (AIM, IMAGE, MESSAGE, and MiniCAM) 2000-2100, and future climate and CO2 data from IAMs. The resulting half degree gridded maps of subgrid-scale land-use and underlying transitions smoothly progress from past to future in a format that can be used as input into CMs. This harmonized set of products will provide the first consistent set of land-use change and emission scenarios in a consistent format for a large community of CMs to enable studies of the effects of gridded land-use changes on the

  11. 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia: summary of main findings and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Pandit, J J; Andrade, J; Bogod, D G; Hitchman, J M; Jonker, W R; Lucas, N; Mackay, J H; Nimmo, A F; O'Connor, K; O'Sullivan, E P; Paul, R G; Palmer, J H M G; Plaat, F; Radcliffe, J J; Sury, M R J; Torevell, H E; Wang, M; Hainsworth, J; Cook, T M

    2014-10-01

    We present the main findings of the 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia (AAGA). Incidences were estimated using reports of accidental awareness as the numerator, and a parallel national anaesthetic activity survey to provide denominator data. The incidence of certain/probable and possible accidental awareness cases was ~1:19,600 anaesthetics (95% confidence interval 1:16,700-23,450). However, there was considerable variation across subtypes of techniques or subspecialities. The incidence with neuromuscular block (NMB) was ~1:8200 (1:7030-9700), and without, it was ~1:135,900 (1:78,600-299,000). The cases of AAGA reported to NAP5 were overwhelmingly cases of unintended awareness during NMB. The incidence of accidental awareness during Caesarean section was ~1:670 (1:380-1300). Two-thirds (82, 66%) of cases of accidental awareness experiences arose in the dynamic phases of anaesthesia, namely induction of and emergence from anaesthesia. During induction of anaesthesia, contributory factors included: use of thiopental, rapid sequence induction, obesity, difficult airway management, NMB, and interruptions of anaesthetic delivery during movement from anaesthetic room to theatre. During emergence from anaesthesia, residual paralysis was perceived by patients as accidental awareness, and commonly related to a failure to ensure full return of motor capacity. One-third (43, 33%) of accidental awareness events arose during the maintenance phase of anaesthesia, mostly due to problems at induction or towards the end of anaesthesia. Factors increasing the risk of accidental awareness included: female sex, age (younger adults, but not children), obesity, anaesthetist seniority (junior trainees), previous awareness, out-of-hours operating, emergencies, type of surgery (obstetric, cardiac, thoracic), and use of NMB. The following factors were not risk factors for accidental awareness: ASA physical status, race, and use or omission

  12. Two Successful Outreach Programs at Storm Peak Laboratory: GRASP for Undergraduates and Partnership for 5th Grade Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallar, A. G.; McCubbin, I. B.; Wright, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Desert Research Institute operates a high elevation facility, Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL), located on the Steamboat Springs Ski Resort at an elevation 10,500 ft. SPL provides an ideal location for long-term atmospheric research. The SPL mission statement is to ensure that the laboratory will continue to integrate climate research and education by advancing discovery and understanding within the field of pollution, aerosol and cloud interactions. During the last year, SPL has created two successful outreach programs reaching very different audiences. First, to engage students from local elementary schools, SPL established a 5th grade climate education program. This program is based on a partnership between SPL and Yampatika's&penvironmental educators. Yampatika is a non-profit outdoor environmental education organization. The program spans three days for each school and includes five elementary schools. During the first day, educators from Yampatika visit each classroom to introduce the concepts of climate and weather as well as teach students how to use scientific equipment. During the field program on the second day, students measure and record information about temperature, pressure, relative humidity, wind speed, and particle concentration while they travel to SPL via the gondola (in winter) or Suburban (in fall). Once at the laboratory, students tour the facility, discuss SPL research activities, and explore application of these activities to their curriculum. Following the field trip, Yampatika educators and SPL scientists will visit the school for a follow-up to help children explore concepts, answer questions, and evaluate students" learning. The second program, Geoscience Research at Storm Peak (GRASP), was designed to engage students from underrepresented groups and created a partnership between three Minority Serving Institutions and the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR). Undergraduate students from Tennessee State University, Howard University

  13. Vertical Vibration Transmission Through the Lumbar Spine of the Seated SUBJECT—FIRST Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Khatib, A.; Guillon, F.; Dômont, A.

    1998-08-01

    Seven fresh, not embalmed, cadavers (58·1±6·6 years, 73±10·3 kg, 170·7±6·5 cm) were submitted, in the week following their death (7·1±3·1 days), to a whole-body vertical broad-band white random vibration in the bandwidth 0·8 to 25 Hz of about 1·5 m/s2r.m.s. Two postures were tested using the same rigid seat, each one with and without a lumbar support: seated erect and seated as in a car. Vibration was monitored on the floor, the seating in the vertical direction (buttocks-to-head), the five lumbar vertebrae and the sternum: vertical (buttocks to head) and longitudinal (back to chest). Biaxial accelerometers were mounted rigidly on the anterior face of the vertebral body, after the removal of the abdominal viscera. Analogue recordings of each channel were passed through an antialising filter (Fc=40 Hz) then sampled at 80 Hz (4096 samples/channel). The inclination of each accelerometer (α) was measured on the lateral X-ray taken for every trial, then the data were set in order to be in the same reference (Z=z/cos α,X=xcos α). Spectral analysis was performed with a frequency resolution of 0·3 Hz, on the basis of Welch's method. Thirty one overlapping sections (256 samples per section using a Hanning window with an overlap rate of 128 samples) of the estimated periodograms were averaged. Transfer and coherence functions were than estimated between the vertical seating acceleration and the measured accelerations at the upper levels. The first results showed that the vertical vibration transmission was constant throughout the lumbar spine. Inter-subject variability was the major source of disparity. Resonance phenomena were observed between 4 and 9 Hz and depended on posture.

  14. Evaluation of Degenerative Lumbar Scoliosis After Short Segment Decompression and Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Naiguo; Wang, Dachuan; Wang, Feng; Tan, Bingyi; Yuan, Zenong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate short segment decompression of degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DLS) and the efficiency of fusion treatment. After DLS surgery, the patients were retrospectively reviewed using the VAS (visual analog scale) and ODI (Oswestry Disability Index) to assess clinical outcomes. All patients underwent posterior lumbar decompressive laminectomy, pedicle screw internal fixation, and posterolateral bone graft fusion surgery. Radiographic measurements included the scoliotic Cobb angle, the fused Cobb angle, the anterior intervertebral angle (AIA), the sagittal intervertebral angle (SIA), and lumbar lordosis angle. The relationships between these parameters were examined by bivariate Pearson analysis and linear regression analysis. Preoperatively, the Cobb angle at the scoliotic segment was 15.4°, which decreased to 10.2° immediately following surgery (P < 0.05). The AIA significantly increased by the last follow-up (4.4 ± 3.4) compared with pre- and postoperative values (2.5 ± 2.8 and 2.2 ± 2.4, respectively; P < 0.05). However, the scoliotic Cobb angle and the AIA did not correlate with the VAS or ODI scores. At the final follow-up, no patients had pseudoarthrosis or internal instrumentation-related complications. Short fusion surgical treatment results in limited DLS correction, with correction loss over time. The AIA between the upper adjacent segment and proximal fused vertebra continues to increase postoperatively, which does not exacerbate clinical symptoms, as reflected by the low reoperation rates for repairing degeneration at adjacent levels. PMID:26632679

  15. ISASS Policy Statement – Lumbar Artificial Disc

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The primary goal of this Policy Statement is to educate patients, physicians, medical providers, reviewers, adjustors, case managers, insurers, and all others involved or affected by insurance coverage decisions regarding lumbar disc replacement surgery. Procedures This Policy Statement was developed by a panel of physicians selected by the Board of Directors of ISASS for their expertise and experience with lumbar TDR. The panel's recommendation was entirely based on the best evidence-based scientific research available regarding the safety and effectiveness of lumbar TDR. PMID:25785243

  16. [Pseudomeningocele following lumbar intervertebral disk surgery].

    PubMed

    Anagnostopoulus-Schleep, J; Krähling, K H; König, H J

    1987-01-01

    Pseudomeningoceles have been observed several times after closed traumatic injuries of the cervical plexus resulting in avulsion of the nerve roots. Following lumbar puncture or lumbar disc operation meningoceles are seldom occurring events. The first report of perineural cysts causing sciatic pain was made by Bancroft (1) in 1941. Since that time about 50 cases have been reviewed by the literature (10, 11). In this paper we report another case of an iatrogenic pseudomeningocele developed following surgical treatment for herniated lumbar disc attempting to outline their clinical and radiological findings.

  17. Lumbar hernia: a short historical survey.

    PubMed

    Cavallaro, Antonino; De Toma, Giorgio; Cavallaro, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Lumbar hernia is a rare form of abdominal hernia, which has been recognized later along the early development of the modern surgery. it has been, on many occasions, the object of heavy debate regarding its anatomical background and as well its etiology. The authors reports the historical aspects of this rare pathology, focusing on the earliest descriptions of hernia arising in lumbar regions, on the first reports of surgical repair, and on the anatomical description of the lumbar weakness areas, that are currently named Petit's triangle and Grynfeltt and Lesshaft's triangle.

  18. Lumbar stenosis: clinical case☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Sá, Pedro; Marques, Pedro; Alpoim, Bruno; Rodrigues, Elisa; Félix, António; Silva, Luís; Leal, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Lumbar stenosis is an increasingly common pathological condition that is becoming more frequent with increasing mean life expectancy, with high costs for society. It has many causes, among which degenerative, neoplastic and traumatic causes stand out. Most of the patients respond well to conservative therapy. Surgical treatment is reserved for patients who present symptoms after implementation of conservative measures. Here, a case of severe stenosis of the lumbar spine at several levels, in a female patient with pathological and surgical antecedents in the lumbar spine, is presented. The patient underwent two different decompression techniques within the same operation. PMID:26229836

  19. High-resolution time-lapse tomography of rat vertebrae during compressive loading: deformation response analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fíla, T.; Kytýř, D.; Zlámal, P.; Kumpová, I.; Doktor, T.; Koudelka, P.; Jiroušek, O.

    2014-05-01

    This paper is focused on investigation of mechanical properties of rat vertebrae during compressive loading in the longitudinal direction of rat's spine. High-resolution time-lapse micro-tomography was used as a tool to create models of the inner structure and deformed shape in pre-defined deformation steps. First, peripheral areas of vertebra specimen were embedded in polymethyl methacrylate to obtain proper boundary conditions of contact between specimen and loading plattens. Experimental loading device designed for application in X-ray setups was utilized to compress the vertebrae in several deformation steps. High-resolution micro-tomography scanning was carried out at each deformation step. Specimen was irradiated in tomography device equipped with microfocus X-ray tube with 5μm focal spot size and large area flat panel detector. Spatial resolution of reconstructed three-dimensional images was approximately 10μm. Digital volume correlation algorithm was utilized in order to assess displacements in the microstructure in every loading increment. Finite element model of vertebra was created from volumetric data reconstructed from tomography of the undeformed specimen. Simulated compressive test of the developed finite element model was performed in order to compare stiffness and displacements obtained by digital volume correlation and finite element simulation.

  20. 2D-3D Registration of CT Vertebra Volume to Fluoroscopy Projection: A Calibration Model Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bifulco, P.; Cesarelli, M.; Allen, R.; Romano, M.; Fratini, A.; Pasquariello, G.

    2009-12-01

    This study extends a previous research concerning intervertebral motion registration by means of 2D dynamic fluoroscopy to obtain a more comprehensive 3D description of vertebral kinematics. The problem of estimating the 3D rigid pose of a CT volume of a vertebra from its 2D X-ray fluoroscopy projection is addressed. 2D-3D registration is obtained maximising a measure of similarity between Digitally Reconstructed Radiographs (obtained from the CT volume) and real fluoroscopic projection. X-ray energy correction was performed. To assess the method a calibration model was realised a sheep dry vertebra was rigidly fixed to a frame of reference including metallic markers. Accurate measurement of 3D orientation was obtained via single-camera calibration of the markers and held as true 3D vertebra position; then, vertebra 3D pose was estimated and results compared. Error analysis revealed accuracy of the order of 0.1 degree for the rotation angles of about 1 mm for displacements parallel to the fluoroscopic plane, and of order of 10 mm for the orthogonal displacement.

  1. The metamorphic fate of supernumerary caudal vertebrae in South Asian litter frogs (Anura: Megophryidae).

    PubMed

    Handrigan, Gregory R; Wassersug, Richard J

    2007-09-01

    Tadpoles of the Megophryidae, a South Asian family of litter frogs, are unique among anurans by virtue of their expanded caudal skeletons, which include supernumerary vertebral centra. The number of these vertebrae varies widely within the family, with tadpoles of Leptobrachella having as many as 30 and Leptolalax only five. Vertebral morphology is also quite variable, ranging from complete, perichordal centra to fragmentary ossifications. This variation in the caudal osteology of larval megophryids, however, is not manifested in the adult morphology. Post-metamorphic litter frogs have a typical anuran axial skeleton, invariably comprising eight presacral vertebrae, a single sacral vertebra and, postsacrally, the urostyle. To resolve this incongruity between life phases and to determine the precise metamorphic fate of supernumerary caudal vertebrae in megophryids, we examined metamorphic specimens from the genera Leptobrachella, Leptolalax, Ophryophryne and Megophrys. In all four, the caudal larval skeleton undergoes massive reduction, leaving only the coccyx and hypochord untouched. Caudal centra are apparently degraded by osteoclasts, which have not previously been implicated in vertebral remodelling during anuran metamorphosis. In Megophrys and Ophryophryne metamorphs, presacral centra also undergo resorption, consistent with an epichordal mode of centrum formation. The conservation of megophryid adult axial osteology in the face of extensive larval skeletal diversity reveals the role of metamorphosis in constraining anuran morphology.

  2. Reliability and reproducibility of interapical distance assessment of the lateral deviation of vertebrae in scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Jongmin; Koh, Seong-Eun; Lee, In-Sik

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the interobserver reliability and intraobserver reproducibility of interapical distance (IAD) and to analyze its correlation with the Cobb angle (CA). [Subjects and Methods] IAD, a handy tool for assessment of the lateral deviation of vertebrae with a metric scale, was defined as the horizontal distance between one apical vertebra and its counterpart, the opposite apical vertebra in the case of a double curve and the farthest vertebra in the case of a single curve. Fifty full-length, standing anteroposterior radiographs of "idiopathic scoliosis" were reviewed. Three investigators independently measure the CA and IAD at the same time and remeasured the IAD on the same radiograph a week later. [Results] There was no interobserver difference (reliability) in the measurement of IAD or statistical differences in intraobserver reproducibility for each observer. IAD was well correlated with the CA for each observer (r=0.765, r=0.737, and r=0.764). [Conclusion] IAD is useful when assessing lateral deviation in scoliosis and may be a reliable and reproducible index that is well correlated with the CA, and it can be used as a supplementary measure to describe the overall derangement of scoliosis in the coronal plane. PMID:25995588

  3. Andreas Vesalius on the anatomy and function of the lower thoracic vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Biesbrouck, Maurits; Vanden Berghe, Alex

    2016-04-01

    Some remarkable statements made by Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) in his principal work De Humani Corporis Fabrica (1543) about the anatomy and function of the lower thoracic vertebrae are discussed in the light of information from the literature. Their accuracy is evaluated on the basis of several pieces of anatomical evidence and clinical cases. PMID:27385301

  4. Andreas Vesalius on the anatomy and function of the lower thoracic vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Biesbrouck, Maurits; Vanden Berghe, Alex

    2016-04-01

    Some remarkable statements made by Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) in his principal work De Humani Corporis Fabrica (1543) about the anatomy and function of the lower thoracic vertebrae are discussed in the light of information from the literature. Their accuracy is evaluated on the basis of several pieces of anatomical evidence and clinical cases.

  5. A study of vertebra number in pigs confirms the association of vertnin and reveals additional QTL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Formation of the vertebral column is a critical developmental stage in mammals. The strict control of this process has resulted in little variation in number of vertebrae across mammalian species and no variation within most mammalian species. The pig is quite unique as considerable vari...

  6. Proceedings for the 5th Asia-Pacific Conference on Disaster Medicine: creating an agenda for action.

    PubMed

    De Grace, M; Ericson, D; Folz, H; Greene, W; Ho, K; Pearce, L

    2001-01-01

    Disaster medicine has come to the forefront and has become the focus of interest not only in the medical community, but also in the eyes of the public. The 5th APCDM was convened in Vancouver, Canada, 27-30 September 2000. It brought together over 300 delegates from 32 countries to share their experiences and thoughts regarding disaster events and how to effectively manage them. The conference was devoted to the task of establishing priorities and creating an Agenda for Action. From the discussions, key actions required were defined: COMMUNICATIONS: (1) Identify existing regional telehealth groups and gather lessons to be learned from them; (2) Form a telehealth advisory group to work with regional groups to compile telehealth initiatives, identify international protocols in telehealth already in existence, and solicit feedback before setting international standards; and (3) Increase corporate partnerships in the fields of telehealth and telecommunications, and invite corporations to send delegates to future APCDM meetings. This should be an initiative of the APCDM, the World Association of Disaster and Emergency Medicine (WADEM), or the European Society of Emergency Medicine. EDUCATION AND RESEARCH: (1) Formalize education in disaster medicine and management. The World Health Organization and WADEM should take a leadership role; (2) WADEM is requested to hold a conference with a focus on qualitative research; (3) WHO is requested to continue the provision of international research teams, but to advocate for the development of national disaster research infrastructure; (4) Make research findings and reports available on web sites of such organizations as WHO and PAHO; (5) Develop the translation of research for community utilization. The WHO and PAHO are organizations that are requested to consider this action; and (6) WADEM/APCDM are requested to focus future conferences on applied research. INFORMATION AND DATA: (1) Create an "Information and Data Clearinghouse

  7. Proceedings for the 5th Asia-Pacific Conference on Disaster Medicine: creating an agenda for action.

    PubMed

    De Grace, M; Ericson, D; Folz, H; Greene, W; Ho, K; Pearce, L

    2001-01-01

    Disaster medicine has come to the forefront and has become the focus of interest not only in the medical community, but also in the eyes of the public. The 5th APCDM was convened in Vancouver, Canada, 27-30 September 2000. It brought together over 300 delegates from 32 countries to share their experiences and thoughts regarding disaster events and how to effectively manage them. The conference was devoted to the task of establishing priorities and creating an Agenda for Action. From the discussions, key actions required were defined: COMMUNICATIONS: (1) Identify existing regional telehealth groups and gather lessons to be learned from them; (2) Form a telehealth advisory group to work with regional groups to compile telehealth initiatives, identify international protocols in telehealth already in existence, and solicit feedback before setting international standards; and (3) Increase corporate partnerships in the fields of telehealth and telecommunications, and invite corporations to send delegates to future APCDM meetings. This should be an initiative of the APCDM, the World Association of Disaster and Emergency Medicine (WADEM), or the European Society of Emergency Medicine. EDUCATION AND RESEARCH: (1) Formalize education in disaster medicine and management. The World Health Organization and WADEM should take a leadership role; (2) WADEM is requested to hold a conference with a focus on qualitative research; (3) WHO is requested to continue the provision of international research teams, but to advocate for the development of national disaster research infrastructure; (4) Make research findings and reports available on web sites of such organizations as WHO and PAHO; (5) Develop the translation of research for community utilization. The WHO and PAHO are organizations that are requested to consider this action; and (6) WADEM/APCDM are requested to focus future conferences on applied research. INFORMATION AND DATA: (1) Create an "Information and Data Clearinghouse

  8. It takes a community to define a discipline: the 5th anniversary of Environmental Research Letters It takes a community to define a discipline: the 5th anniversary of Environmental Research Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammen, Dan

    2012-03-01

    commentary environment, a unique service in itself, and also a specific forum for research published in ERL. Individual topics often come up that warrant not only single articles, but collections of assessments, and ERL has published focus issues in key areas of environmental science including: tropical deforestation, wind energy, the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and climate engineering. ERL is currently publishing seven high-quality focus issues in cutting-edge areas such as arctic vegetation dynamics and cryospheric changes. Research letters appearing in ERL have received regular and significant coverage in the wider media, with several major news outlets and agencies choosing to cover ERL research, such as Nature, BBC News, New Scientist, The Guardian, Scientific American, Le Monde and many others. 4.The future community of ERL The process of community support will take many forms at ERL. The journal is growing—we have published the highest number of articles ever in a single volume in 2011 and are looking to continue this growth through into 2012. ERL had an over 50% increase in submissions from 2010 to 2011. One initiative to mark the journal's 5th anniversary was the 'Best articles' collection [1] a nominated compilation of articles showcasing the quality of published work in ERL as well as the subject area breadth. Co-authors of the five winning articles have been awarded free publication in ERL until the end of 2012. We can also see the open access model working, in that our articles are highly downloaded outside of the traditionally strong geographical areas of academia (North America and Western Europe), showing that the journal's readership is geographically diverse with high interest from Asia, South America and Africa. The journal is committed to progress and innovation; coming soon will be a set of new communication tools and online innovations, including: Video abstracts from the start of 2012 (for example, the video commentary published alongside this

  9. Exploratory Evaluation of the Effect of Axial Rotation, Focal Film Distance and Measurement Methods on the Magnitude of Projected Lumbar Retrolisthesis on Plain Film Radiographs

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Roger R.; Cremata, Edward J.; Lopes, Mark A.; Suttles, Rick A.; Fairbanks, Vaughn R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this exploratory study was to evaluate the amount of error in retrolisthesis measurement due to measurement methods or projection factors inherent in spinal radiography. In addition, this study compared how accurately these methods determine positions of the lumbar vertebrae being studied and the expected projected size of the retrolisthesis. Methods Vertebral models were situated in a retrolisthesis position. Radiographs of the models were obtained in positive and negative y-axis rotations at 40- and 84-in focal film distances. The projected retrolisthesis was measured using the Gohl, Iguchi, and Lopes methods. Results At the 40-in focal film distance, the Iguchi method and Lopes methods were significantly more accurate than the Gohl method. At the 84-in focal film distance, the Lopes method was significantly more accurate than the Gohl method. Almost all measurements overestimated both the actual amount of retrolisthesis as well as the amount of trigonometrically calculated retrolisthesis that should have been present on the radiographs. Findings suggest that measurements were less accurate with vertebrae rotated more than 10°. Conclusions This study demonstrated that lumbar vertebral rotation, focal film distance, and measurement methods are potential sources of error in retrolisthesis measurement. PMID:25435838

  10. [Occupation and lumbar disk prolapse].

    PubMed

    Jensen, M V; Tüchsen, F

    1995-03-13

    All Danish occupational groups were screened for an increased risk of hospitalization due to a prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disc (PLID) (ICD-8: 725.11). A cohort of all gainfully employed Danes aged 20 to 59 years in 1981 was followed-up for 10 years for first hospitalization with PLID. A Standardized Hospitalization Ratio was calculated using all economically active persons as the reference group. Male groups with an elevated risk were found in building and construction, the iron and metal industry, in the food and nutrition sector and in occupational driving. Almost all groups of professional drivers had an elevated risk. Female groups with an elevated risk were mainly found in the same industries, but home helps, service workers in the private sector and sewing machine operators also had an elevated risk. We conclude that there are significant and systematic differences between occupational groups as concerns the risk of hospital admission due to PLID. PMID:7725550

  11. MR imaging of lumbar arachnoiditis.

    PubMed

    Ross, J S; Masaryk, T J; Modic, M T; Delamater, R; Bohlman, H; Wilbur, G; Kaufman, B

    1987-11-01

    To assess the usefulness of MR in defining the changes of lumbar arachnoiditis, we reviewed retrospectively the MR, plain-film myelographic, and CT myelographic findings in 100 patients referred for evaluation of failed-back-surgery syndrome. In 11 of 12 cases of arachnoiditis demonstrated by plain-film and CT myelography, an abnormal configuration of nerve roots was seen by MR. The correlated MR and CT and plain-film myelographic changes were divided into three anatomic groups: group 1 showed conglomerations of adherent roots residing centrally within the thecal sac, group 2 demonstrated roots adherent peripherally to the meninges giving rise to an "empty-sac" appearance, and group 3 demonstrated a soft-tissue mass replacing the subarachnoid space. There was one false-negative MR study. For the diagnosis of moderate to severe arachnoiditis, we found MR to correlate excellently with CT myelographic and plain-film myelographic findings.

  12. A new case of a LUMBAR syndrome.

    PubMed

    Golabi, Mahin; An, Andrew C; Lopez, Christina; Lee, Lauren; Kwong, Michael; Hall, Bryan D

    2014-01-01

    LUMBAR syndrome (lower body congenital infantile hemangiomas and other skin defects; urogenital anomalies and ulceration; myelopathy; bony deformities; anorectal malformations and arterial anomalies; and rectal anomalies) is a rare association between infantile hemangiomas of the lower half of the body and regional congenital anomalies. Since 1986, 53 cases have been reported and no etiology has been identified. We report on the 54th case in a male infant and review the literature concerning the manifestations of the LUMBAR syndrome.

  13. Effect of Anatomical Modeling on Space Radiation Dose Estimates: A Comparison of Doses for NASA Phantoms and 5th, 50th, and 95th Percentile UF Hybrid Phantoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahadori, A.; VanBaalen, M.; Shavers, M.; Semones, E.; Dodge, C.; Bolch, W.

    2010-01-01

    The estimate of absorbed dose to individual organs of a space crewmember is affected by the geometry of the anatomical model of the astronaut used in the radiation transport calculation. For astronaut dosimetry, NASA currently uses the computerized anatomical male (CAM) and computerized anatomical female (CAF) stylized phantoms to represent astronauts in its operational radiation dose analyses. These phantoms are available in one size and in two body positions. In contrast, the UF Hybrid Adult Male and Female (UFHADM and UFHADF) phantoms have organ shapes based on actual CT data. The surfaces of these phantoms are defined by non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces, and are thus flexible in terms of body morphometry and extremity positioning. In this study, UFHADM and UFHADF are scaled to dimensions corresponding to 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile (PCTL) male and female astronauts. A ray-tracing program is written in Visual Basic 2008, which is then used to create areal density maps for dose points corresponding to various organs within the phantoms. The areal density maps, along with appropriate space radiation spectra, are input into the NASA program couplet HZETRN/BRYNTRN, and organ doses are calculated. The areal density maps selected tissues and organs of the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female phantoms are presented and compared. In addition, the organ doses for the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female phantoms are presented and compared to organ doses for CAM and CAF.

  14. FOREWORD: The 5th International Colloquium on Atomic Spectra and Oscillator Strengths for Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchang-Brillet, Wad Lydia; Wyart, Jean-François; Zeippen, Claude

    1996-01-01

    The 5th International Colloquium on Atomic Spectra and Oscillator Strengths for Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas was held in Meudon, France, from August 28 to 31 1995. It was the fifth in a series started by the Atomic Spectroscopic Group at the University of Lund, Sweden, in 1983. Then followed the meetings in Toledo, USA, Amsterdam, The Nether- lands and Gaithersburg, USA, with a three year period. The original title of the series ended with "... for Astrophysics and Fusion Research" and became more general with the 4th colloquium in Gaithersburg. The purpose of the present meeting was, in line with tradition, to bring together "producers" and "users" of atomic data so as to ensure optimal coordination. Atomic physicists who study the structure of atoms and their radiative and collisional properties were invited to explain the development of their work, emphasizing the possibilities of producing precise transition wavelengths and relative line intensities. Astrophysicists and laboratory plasma physicists were invited to review their present research interests and the context in which atomic data are needed. The number of participants was about 70 for the first three meetings, then exploded to 170 at Gaithersburg. About 140 participants, coming from 13 countries, attended the colloquium in Meudon. This large gathering was partly due to a number of participants from Eastern Europe larger than in the past, and it certainly showed a steady interest for interdisciplinary exchanges between different communities of scientists. This volume includes all the invited papers given at the conference and, in the appendix, practical information on access to some databases. All invited speakers presented their talks aiming at good communication between scientists from different backgrounds. A separate bound volume containing extended abstracts of the poster papers has been published by the Publications de l'Observatoire de Paris, (Meudon 1996), under the responsibility of

  15. An update on the management of chronic lumbar discogenic pain.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2015-09-01

    Lumbar degenerative disc disease without disc herniation, also known as discogenic pain, is an elusive diagnosis of chronic low back pain. Lumbar provocation discography and fusion surgery have been frequently utilized for several decades as the gold standards for the diagnosis and treatment of symptomatic lumbar discogenic pain, though controversial, based on conjecture, rather than evidence. In addition to lumbar fusion, various other operative and nonoperative modalities of treatments are available in managing chronic lumbar discogenic pain. This review provides an updated assessment of the management of chronic lumbar discogenic pain with a critical look at the many modalities of treatments that are currently available. PMID:26255722

  16. Clinical application of dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) at the lumbar spine (LS) in the diagnosis of osteoporosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wahner, H.W.; Dunn, W.L.; Riggs, B.L.

    1984-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of DPA to separate patients with osteoporosis (greater than 2 spinal fractures, normal Ca, P, absence of drugs, and metabolic bone disease) from a normal population. Performance criteria for the instrument have been described previously. Data was obtained from a prospective study of 105 normal women, 75 patients with osteoporosis and a retrospective study of 300 patients with osteoporosis seen in 1982/83. The results were as follows: (1) Area density (gm/cm/sup 2/) was found superior to mass (gm) due to the occasional problem to clearly identify the boundaries of L1-4. (2) Separation of the two populations was best when L1-L4,L2-L4, L3 alone or 10 paths over the mid lumbar area were used. One pass was not acceptable. (3) Compression fractures (CF) in the LS showed an increase in area density initially but area density may be undistinguishable from intact vertebrae later. To correct for this loss of bone area a factor predicting the area of lumbar vertebrae and based on patients actual height and weight was introduced and tested. (4) In the retrospective study a negative correlation was found between number of thoracic spine CF and bone mineral values in the LS. (5) A fracture threshold value of BM defined as the level below which 95% of all patients with CF were found was determined to be 0.98 g/cm2. Sixty-five percent of patients with two or more spinal CF could be separated from the normal population (outside 2SD). By using a correction factor for height loss this could be further increased to about 70%. CF in the LS may falsely elevate bone mineral values.

  17. Vulnerability of healthy vertebrae in patients with and without previous vertebral fracture.

    PubMed

    Morosano, Mario E; Menoyo, Inés; Caferra, Digna A; Sánchez, Ariel; Tomat, María F; Bocanera, Roberto; Pezzotto, Stella M; Masoni, Ana M

    2011-04-01

    Vertebral deformities are associated with a marked increase in morbidity, mortality, and burden in terms of sanitary expenditures. Patients with vertebral fractures have a negative impact in their health, less quality of life, and loss of functional capacity and independence. The purpose of this study was to explore the vulnerability of healthy vertebrae in patients who have sustained already a compression fracture and in patients who do not have prevalent fractures in the thoracic spine; and to explore the association of the deformity in healthy vertebrae with different variables, such as bone mineral density (BMD), body mass index, age, loss of height, presence of clinical kyphosis, history of other osteoporotic fractures, and falls occurring during the last year. Clinical data and complementary studies from 175 postmenopausal outpatients were analyzed. These women (age: 69.7±11.1 years) had not received any treatment for osteoporosis. Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of the thoracic spine and bone densitometry of the hip were obtained; morphometry was performed in 1575 thoracic vertebrae from T4 to T12. The angle of wedging of each vertebral body was calculated using a trigonometric formula. Then, the sum of wedge angles of vertebral bodies (SWA) was determined, and Cobb angle was measured. In patients with vertebral fractures, after excluding the angles of fractured vertebral bodies, the mean wedge angle of the remaining vertebrae (MWAhealthy) was calculated. The same procedure was followed in patients without vertebral fractures. MWAhealthy was considered as an indicator of the structural vulnerability of non-fractured vertebrae. Patients with prevalent fractures had lower BMD, wider Cobb angle, and higher sum of wedge angles than patients without vertebral fractures. The proportion of patients with accentuation of clinical kyphosis was higher in the group with prevalent vertebral fractures. A highly significant difference was found in the MWAhealthy

  18. Impact of post-manipulation corrective core exercises on the spinal deformation and lumbar strength in golfers: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Chul-ho; Kim, Minjeong; Park, Gi Duck

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined spinal shape in professional golfers with chronic back pain, and analyzed the effects of a 4-week regimen of semi-weekly manipulation and corrective core exercises on spinal shape. [Subjects] Two golfers with chronic back pain. [Methods] The pelvis and spinal vertebrae were corrected using the Thompson “drop” technique. Angle and force were adjusted to place the pelvis, lumbar spine, and thoracic vertebrae in neutral position. The technique was applied twice weekly after muscle massage in the back and pelvic areas. The golfers performed corrective, warmup stretching exercises, followed by squats on an unstable surface using the Togu ball. They then used a gym ball for repetitions of hip rotation, upper trunk extension, sit-ups, and pelvic anterior-posterior, pelvic left-right, and trunk flexion-extension exercises. The session ended with cycling as a cool-down exercise. Each session lasted 60 minutes. [Results] The difference in height was measured on the left and right sides of the pelvic bone. The pelvic tilt changed significantly in both participants after the 4-week program. [Conclusion] In golfers, core muscles are critical and are closely related to spinal deformation. Core strengthening and spinal correction play a pivotal role in the correction of spinal deformation. PMID:26504350

  19. [Clinical and X-ray diagnosis of initial degenerative changes in the lumbar section of the spine in flight personnel].

    PubMed

    Vasil'ev, A Iu; Vit'ko, N K

    1996-01-01

    The paper demonstrates the diagnostic validity of X-ray computerized and magnetic/resonance tomographies in detecting early degenerative/dystrophic processes in the lumbar compartment of vertebrae in flying personnel. Examination of 215 aviators with varying degrees of impairment of the vertebrae-pelvis-lower extremity biokinematic system allowed to relate protrusions of the intervertebral disks. Correlation between the neurologic pattern of disease and different forms of protrusions was studied. Pathogenesis of the radiculopathy syndrome was made more clear. Potentials of the X-ray computerized and magnetic/resonance tomographies were given a comparative analysis. As was established, the two methods are not mutually exclusive. MRI is more advantageous in the diagnosis of degenerative/dystrophic changes in soft a tissue structures. On the other hand, the X-ray computerized tomography is preferable for visualization of changes in highly dense tissues. Semiotics of processes articularis arthrosis was studied. Discovered were X-ray detectable morphological signs of arthrosis which had never been discussed in literature. Main strategies of medical treatment of patients with various forms of protrusions are proposed.

  20. [Progress on the cause and mechanism of a separation of clinical symptoms and signs and imaging features in lumbar disk herniation].

    PubMed

    Hu, Xing-xin; Liu, Li-min

    2015-10-01

    A few of patients with lumbar disk herniation having a separation of clinical symptoms and signs and imaging features, can be found in clinic, but the traditional theory of direct mechanical compression of nerve roots by herniated nucleus pulposus can't be used to explain this abnormal protrusion of lumbar intervertebral disc. The clinical symptoms and signs of the atypical lumbar disk herniation are affected by multiple factors. The indirect mechanical compression and distraction effect of spinal nerve roots may play an important role in the occurrence of the separation, and the appearance of abnormal clinical symptoms and signs is closely related to the migration of herniated nucleus pulposus tissue, transmission of injury information in the nervous system, and the complex interactions among the nucleus pulposus, dural sac and nerve roots. Moreover,the changes of microcirculation and inflammation secondary to the herniated nucleus pulposus tissue, the hyperosteogeny in the corresponding segment of the lumbar vertebrae and the posture changes all results in a diversity of symptoms and signs in patients with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation. Besides, there exist congenital variation of lumbosacral nerve roots and vertebral bodies in some patients, and the misdiagnosis or missed diagnosis of imaging finding may occur in some cases. However, the appearance of a separation of clinical symptoms and signs and imaging examination in patients may be caused by a variety of reasons in clinic. The exact mechanism involved in the interaction among nucleus pulposus tissue, dural sac and nerve root, secondary changes of pathophysiology and biomechanics around the nucleus pulposus, the determination of lesioned responsible segments, and how to overcome the limitations of imaging all need the further researches. PMID:26727796

  1. Lumbar vertebral morphology of flying, gliding, and suspensory mammals: implications for the locomotor behavior of the subfossil lemurs Palaeopropithecus and Babakotia.

    PubMed

    Granatosky, Michael C; Miller, Charlotte E; Boyer, Doug M; Schmitt, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    Lumbar vertebral morphology has been used as an indicator of locomotor behavior in living and fossil mammals. Rigidity within the lumbar region is thought to be important for increasing overall axial rigidity during various forms of locomotion, including bridging between supports, inverted quadrupedalism, gliding, and flying. However, distinguishing between those behaviors using bony features has been challenging. This study used osteological characters of the lumbar vertebrae to attempt to develop fine-grade functional distinctions among different mammalian species in order to make more complete inferences about how the axial skeleton affects locomotor behavior in extant mammals. These same lumbar characters were measured in two extinct species for which locomotor behaviors are well known, the sloth lemurs (Palaeopropithecus and Babakotia radofilai), in order to further evaluate their locomotor behaviors. Results from a principal components analysis of seven measurements, determined to be functionally significant from previous studies, demonstrate that inverted quadrupeds in the sample are characterized by dorsoventrally short and cranio-caudally expanded spinous processes, dorsally oriented transverse processes, and mediolaterally short and dorsoventrally high vertebral bodies compared with mammals that are relatively pronograde, vertical clingers, or gliders. Antipronograde mammals, dermopterans, and chiropterans also exhibit these traits, but not to the same extent as the inverted quadrupeds. In accordance with previous studies, our data show that the sloth lemur B. radofilai groups closely with antipronograde mammals like lorises, while Palaeopropithecus groups with extant sloths. These findings suggest that Palaeopropithecus was engaged in inverted quadrupedalism at a high frequency, while B. radofilai may have engaged in a more diverse array of locomotor and positional behaviors. The osteological features used here reflect differences in lumbar mobility

  2. Chondromyxoid Fibroma of Two Cervical Vertebrae with Involvement of Surrounding Soft Tissue: Radiologic Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Taghipour Zahir, Shokouh; Sefidrokh Sharahjin, Naser; Sadlu Parizi, Farzad; Rahmani, Koorosh

    2015-01-01

    Chondromyxoid fibroma is a rare benign cartilaginous neoplasm that mostly affects the metaphyseal region of the long bones. The tibia, small tubular bones of the foot, the distal femur and pelvis are common locations, but involvement of the vertebral bones, especially the cervical vertebra, is very rare. Radiographic features show typical characteristics and this tumor often presents as a lobulated, eccentric radiolucent lesion with no periosteal reaction. In addition, geographic bone destruction is seen in all cases. We present an adult female with a one-year history of neck pain, and ultrasound findings that suggest a right paravertebral muscular lesion due to inflammatory or neoplastic origins. The histopathological studies confirmed that the biopsied specimen was a chondromyxoid fibroma of the cervical vertebrae laminae and spinous processes (C3 and C4) with abutting soft tissue. Despite the unusual location and soft tissue presentation, a chondromyxoid fibroma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a cervical bone lesion. PMID:26587204

  3. Hierarchical model-based tracking of cervical vertebrae from dynamic biplane radiographs.

    PubMed

    Haque, Md Abedul; Anderst, William; Tashman, Scott; Marai, G Elisabeta

    2013-07-01

    We present a novel approach for automatically, accurately and reliably determining the 3D motion of the cervical spine from a series of stereo or biplane radiographic images. These images could be acquired through a variety of different imaging hardware configurations. We follow a hierarchical, anatomically-aware, multi-bone approach that takes into account the complex structure of cervical vertebrae and inter-vertebrae overlapping, as well as the temporal coherence in the imaging series. These significant innovations improve the speed, accuracy, reliability and flexibility of the tracking process. Evaluation on cervical data shows that the approach is as accurate (average precision 0.3 mm and 1°) as the expert human-operator driven method that was previously state of the art. However, unlike the previously used method, the hierarchical approach is automatic and robust; even in the presence of implanted hardware. Therefore, the method has solid potential for clinical use to evaluate the effectiveness of surgical interventions.

  4. The importance of evaluating all seven cervical vertebrae in the trauma patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Iş, Merih; Karataş, Ayşe; Akyüz, Fevzullah; Gezen, Ferruh

    2007-04-01

    The cervical spine is injured in approximately 3% of major trauma patients and 10% of patients with serious head injury. We present a patient in whom an unstable cervical spine, without neurological deficit, resulting from a traffic accident was misdiagnosed as normal in the emergency room. Although cervical spine pain or tenderness and neurological deficit have a sensitivity of 93% for cervical spine injury, asymptomatic patients or patients with mild symptoms can have spine injury. All trauma patients with a complaint of mild neck pain require a standard three-view radiological evaluation of the cervical spine demonstrating all seven vertebrae and the top of first thoracic vertebra even if their neurologic examination is normal.

  5. Differentiating between Traumatic Pathology and Congenital Variant: A Case Report of Butterfly Vertebra

    PubMed Central

    Karargyris, Orestis; Morassi, Lampros-Guiseppe; Stathopoulos, Ioannis P.; Chatziioannou, Sofia N.; Pneumaticos, Spyros G.

    2015-01-01

    Butterfly vertebra is a rare congenital malformation of the spine, which is usually reported in the literature as an isolated finding. We describe a 40-year-old woman that presented to our emergency department with back pain and sciatica. Initial radiological evaluation revealed an incidental finding of a L4 butterfly vertebra in the anteroposterior and lateral view radiographs. The patient presented with no neurological deficit. This rare congenital anomaly is usually asymptomatic, and awareness of its non-traumatic nature is critical in order to establish a correct diagnosis. Further evaluation of the patient is necessary to exclude pathologic fracture, infection, or associated vertebral anomalies and syndromes, such as Alagille, Jarcho-Levin, Crouzon, and Pfeiffer syndromes. Furthermore, in the emergency setting, awareness of this entity is needed so that a correct diagnosis can be established. PMID:26330967

  6. Level set based vertebra segmentation for the evaluation of Ankylosing Spondylitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Sovira; Yao, Jianhua; Ward, Michael M.; Yao, Lawrence; Summers, Ronald M.

    2006-03-01

    Ankylosing Spondylitis is a disease of the vertebra where abnormal bone structures (syndesmophytes) grow at intervertebral disk spaces. Because this growth is so slow as to be undetectable on plain radiographs taken over years, it is necessary to resort to computerized techniques to complement qualitative human judgment with precise quantitative measures on 3-D CT images. Very fine segmentation of the vertebral body is required to capture the small structures caused by the pathology. We propose a segmentation algorithm based on a cascade of three level set stages and requiring no training or prior knowledge. First, the noise inside the vertebral body that often blocks the proper evolution of level set surfaces is attenuated by a sigmoid function whose parameters are determined automatically. The 1st level set (geodesic active contour) is designed to roughly segment the interior of the vertebra despite often highly inhomogeneous and even discontinuous boundaries. The result is used as an initial contour for the 2nd level set (Laplacian level set) that closely captures the inner boundary of the cortical bone. The last level set (reversed Laplacian level set) segments the outer boundary of the cortical bone and also corrects small flaws of the previous stage. We carried out extensive tests on 30 vertebrae (5 from each of 6 patients). Two medical experts scored the results at intervertebral disk spaces focusing on end plates and syndesmophytes. Only two minor segmentation errors at vertebral end plates were reported and two syndesmophytes were considered slightly under-segmented.

  7. A thorny question: the taxonomic identity of the Pirro Nord cervical vertebrae revisited.

    PubMed

    Alba, David M; Colombero, Simone; Delfino, Massimo; Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido; Pavia, Marco; Rook, Lorenzo

    2014-11-01

    The past geographic distribution of the genus Theropithecus (Primates: Cercopithecidae) is mainly restricted to Africa. Outside that continent, the earliest reported records of this genus consist of a calcaneus of cf. Theropithecus sp. from 'Ubeidiya (Israel, 1.6-1.2 Ma [millions of years ago]), as well as three associated cervical vertebrae from Pirro Nord (Italy, 1.7-1.3 Ma) attributed to Theropithecus sp. The attribution of the Pirro Nord vertebrae to this genus has been disputed on morphometric grounds, although their assignment to a large-bodied cercopithecid has remained undisputed. Here we report unpublished cervical vertebral specimens with a similar morphology and, given their significance for the paleobiogeography of Theropithecus (purportedly representing its earliest European record), we re-evaluate their taxonomic attribution. In particular, we reconsider the possibility that they belong to another non-primate mammal recorded at this site. Based on both qualitative and metric morphological comparisons, we strongly favor an alternative attribution of the cervical vertebrae from Pirro Nord to the large porcupine Hystrix refossa, which is widely documented at the site by both dentognathic and other postcranial remains. We therefore conclude that the dispersal of Theropithecus out of Africa before ca. 1 Ma (when it is recorded by dental remains from Cueva Victoria, Spain) is currently based only on the calcaneus from 'Ubeidiya tentatively attributed to this genus.

  8. Enhanced detection of the vertebrae in 2D CT-images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Franz; Greil, Robert; Kriegel, Hans-Peter; Schubert, Matthias; Cavallaro, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    In recent years, a considerable amount of methods have been proposed for detecting and reconstructing the spine and the vertebrae from CT and MR scans. The results are either used for examining the vertebrae or serve as a preprocessing step for further detection and annotation tasks. In this paper, we propose a method for reliably detecting the position of the vertebrae on a single slice of a transversal body CT scan. Thus, our method is not restricted by the available portion of the 3D scan, but even suffices with a single 2D image. A further advantage of our method is that detection does not require adjusting parameters or direct user interaction. Technically, our method is based on an imaging pipeline comprising five steps: The input image is preprocessed. The relevant region of the image is extracted. Then, a set of candidate locations is selected based on bone density. In the next step, image features are extracted from the surrounding of the candidate locations and an instance-based learning approach is used for selecting the best candidate. Finally, a refinement step optimizes the best candidate region. Our proposed method is validated on a large diverse data set of more than 8 000 images and improves the accuracy in terms of area overlap and distance from the true position significantly compared to the only other method being proposed for this task so far.

  9. A thorny question: the taxonomic identity of the Pirro Nord cervical vertebrae revisited.

    PubMed

    Alba, David M; Colombero, Simone; Delfino, Massimo; Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido; Pavia, Marco; Rook, Lorenzo

    2014-11-01

    The past geographic distribution of the genus Theropithecus (Primates: Cercopithecidae) is mainly restricted to Africa. Outside that continent, the earliest reported records of this genus consist of a calcaneus of cf. Theropithecus sp. from 'Ubeidiya (Israel, 1.6-1.2 Ma [millions of years ago]), as well as three associated cervical vertebrae from Pirro Nord (Italy, 1.7-1.3 Ma) attributed to Theropithecus sp. The attribution of the Pirro Nord vertebrae to this genus has been disputed on morphometric grounds, although their assignment to a large-bodied cercopithecid has remained undisputed. Here we report unpublished cervical vertebral specimens with a similar morphology and, given their significance for the paleobiogeography of Theropithecus (purportedly representing its earliest European record), we re-evaluate their taxonomic attribution. In particular, we reconsider the possibility that they belong to another non-primate mammal recorded at this site. Based on both qualitative and metric morphological comparisons, we strongly favor an alternative attribution of the cervical vertebrae from Pirro Nord to the large porcupine Hystrix refossa, which is widely documented at the site by both dentognathic and other postcranial remains. We therefore conclude that the dispersal of Theropithecus out of Africa before ca. 1 Ma (when it is recorded by dental remains from Cueva Victoria, Spain) is currently based only on the calcaneus from 'Ubeidiya tentatively attributed to this genus. PMID:25042286

  10. SUV measurement of normal vertebrae using SPECT/CT with Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate

    PubMed Central

    Kaneta, Tomohiro; Ogawa, Matsuyoshi; Daisaki, Hiromitsu; Nawata, Shintaro; Yoshida, Keisuke; Inoue, Tomio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to perform quantitative measurement based on the standardized uptake value (SUV) of the uptake of Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) in the normal vertebrae using a single photon emission tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) scanner. A retrospective study of patients with cancer or joint disorders was performed. We acquired data for a group of 29 patients (8 women and 21 men; mean age, 68.2 ± 6.7 years; age range, 44-87 years) undergoing bone SPECT/CT scans with Tc-99m MDP between September and October 2015. Various SUVs were calculated based on body-weight, lean-body-weight (lbw), Japanese lean-body-weight (jlbw) and Japanese bone-mineral-content (jbmc). SUVs of normal vertebrae showed a wide range of values. Among these, the maximum body-weight based SUV showed the lowest coefficient of variation. The SUVs also showed relatively small intra-subject variability. In addition, all SUVs showed moderate and significant correlation with height. Moreover, lbw-, jlbw-, and jbmc-based SUVs of men were significantly higher than those of women. In conclusions, SUVs of normal vertebrae showed a relatively large inter-individual variability and small intra-individual variability. As a quantitative imaging biomarker, SUVs might require standardization with adequate reference data for the same subject to minimize variability. PMID:27766184

  11. Economic impact of minimally invasive lumbar surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hofstetter, Christoph P; Hofer, Anna S; Wang, Michael Y

    2015-01-01

    Cost effectiveness has been demonstrated for traditional lumbar discectomy, lumbar laminectomy as well as for instrumented and noninstrumented arthrodesis. While emerging evidence suggests that minimally invasive spine surgery reduces morbidity, duration of hospitalization, and accelerates return to activites of daily living, data regarding cost effectiveness of these novel techniques is limited. The current study analyzes all available data on minimally invasive techniques for lumbar discectomy, decompression, short-segment fusion and deformity surgery. In general, minimally invasive spine procedures appear to hold promise in quicker patient recovery times and earlier return to work. Thus, minimally invasive lumbar spine surgery appears to have the potential to be a cost-effective intervention. Moreover, novel less invasive procedures are less destabilizing and may therefore be utilized in certain indications that traditionally required arthrodesis procedures. However, there is a lack of studies analyzing the economic impact of minimally invasive spine surgery. Future studies are necessary to confirm the durability and further define indications for minimally invasive lumbar spine procedures. PMID:25793159

  12. Percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy - early clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Yoshitaka; Mizuno, Junichi; Takeda, Masaaki; Itoh, Yasunobu; Matsuoka, Hidenori; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    We report our early clinical experience with percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) for herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP) in the lumbar spine. We introduced PELD to our clinical practice in June 2009. A total of 311 patients with degenerative lumbar spine disease were treated in our hospital up to August 2011. Thirty-seven patients with lumbar HNP were treated by PELD. PELD was carried out under local anesthesia, and the endoscope was continuously irrigated with saline. Twenty-eight patients were treated through the transforaminal approach, 5 were treated through the interlaminar approach, and 4 were treated through the extraforaminal approach. Surgery was discontinued due to uncontrollable intraoperative pain or anatomical inaccessibility in one case of the interlaminar approach and 2 cases of the extraforaminal approach. In the other 34 patients, the elapsed time of surgery was 34 to 103 minutes (mean 62.4 minutes). Extracorporeal blood loss was insignificant. Immediate symptom relief was achieved in all patients, and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging revealed sufficient removal of the HNP. The length of the postoperative hospital stay was 1 or 2 days in all patients. The surgical method of PELD is completely different from percutaneous nucleotomy, and the aim is to directly remove the HNP with minimum damage to the musculoskeletal structure. Although this study is based on our early clinical outcomes, PELD seemed to be a promising minimally invasive surgery for HNP in the lumbar spine. PMID:23006872

  13. Minimally invasive procedures on the lumbar spine

    PubMed Central

    Skovrlj, Branko; Gilligan, Jeffrey; Cutler, Holt S; Qureshi, Sheeraz A

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative disease of the lumbar spine is a common and increasingly prevalent condition that is often implicated as the primary reason for chronic low back pain and the leading cause of disability in the western world. Surgical management of lumbar degenerative disease has historically been approached by way of open surgical procedures aimed at decompressing and/or stabilizing the lumbar spine. Advances in technology and surgical instrumentation have led to minimally invasive surgical techniques being developed and increasingly used in the treatment of lumbar degenerative disease. Compared to the traditional open spine surgery, minimally invasive techniques require smaller incisions and decrease approach-related morbidity by avoiding muscle crush injury by self-retaining retractors, preventing the disruption of tendon attachment sites of important muscles at the spinous processes, using known anatomic neurovascular and muscle planes, and minimizing collateral soft-tissue injury by limiting the width of the surgical corridor. The theoretical benefits of minimally invasive surgery over traditional open surgery include reduced blood loss, decreased postoperative pain and narcotics use, shorter hospital length of stay, faster recover and quicker return to work and normal activity. This paper describes the different minimally invasive techniques that are currently available for the treatment of degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. PMID:25610845

  14. Morphometrics of the skeleton of Dermophis mexicanus (Amphibia: Gymnophiona). Part I. The vertebrae, with comparisons to other species.

    PubMed

    Wake, M H

    1980-08-01

    Morphometric analysis of vertebral structure in caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona) is presented. Ontogenetic variation in Dermophis mexicanus is analyzed through the 100+ vertebrae composing the column. Vertebral structure in adult D. mexicanus is compared with that in Ichthyophis glutinosus and Typhlonectes compressicauda. Centra of the atlas, second, tenth, 20th, and 50th vertebrae grow at allometrically different rates in D. mexicanus, though the 20th and 50th are not significantly different. Growth appears significantly slower in several dimensions of anterior and posterior vertebrae relative to midtrunk vertebrae in all three species. Mensural patterns throughout the entire column are similar in the terrestrail burrowers D. mexicanus and I. glutinosus; patterns in the aquatic T. compressicauda differ substantially from those of the burrowing species and are strongly influenced by allometry. Of the 112 D. mexicanus examined, 13.4% had vertebral anomalies, usually fusions. PMID:7452726

  15. Activations of Deep Lumbar Stabilizing Muscles by Transcutaneous Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation of Lumbar Paraspinal Regions

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Seung Ok; Ahn, Sang Ho; Jones, Rodney; Cho, Hee Kyung; Jung, Gil Su; Cho, Yun Woo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate changes in lumbar multifidus (LM) and deep lumbar stabilizing abdominal muscles (transverse abdominis [TrA] and obliquus internus [OI]) during transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) of lumbar paraspinal L4-L5 regions using real-time ultrasound imaging (RUSI). Methods Lumbar paraspinal regions of 20 healthy physically active male volunteers were stimulated at 20, 50, and 80 Hz. Ultrasound images of the LM, TrA, OI, and obliquus externus (OE) were captured during stimulation at each frequency. Results The thicknesses of superficial LM and deep LM as measured by RUSI were greater during NMES than at rest for all three frequencies (p<0.05). The thicknesses in TrA, OI, and OE were also significantly greater during NMES of lumbar paraspinal regions than at rest (p<0.05). Conclusion The studied transcutaneous NMES of the lumbar paraspinal region significantly activated deep spinal stabilizing muscle (LM) and the abdominal lumbar stabilizing muscles TrA and OI as evidenced by RUSI. The findings of this study suggested that transcutaneous NMES might be useful for improving spinal stability and strength in patients having difficulty initiating contraction of these muscles. PMID:25229029

  16. 49 CFR 572.115 - Lumbar spine and pelvis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lumbar spine and pelvis. 572.115 Section 572.115... 50th Percentile Male § 572.115 Lumbar spine and pelvis. The specifications and test procedure for the lumbar spine and pelvis are identical to those for the SID dummy as set forth in § 572.42 except that...

  17. 49 CFR 572.115 - Lumbar spine and pelvis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lumbar spine and pelvis. 572.115 Section 572.115... 50th Percentile Male § 572.115 Lumbar spine and pelvis. The specifications and test procedure for the lumbar spine and pelvis are identical to those for the SID dummy as set forth in § 572.42 except that...

  18. 49 CFR 572.115 - Lumbar spine and pelvis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lumbar spine and pelvis. 572.115 Section 572.115... 50th Percentile Male § 572.115 Lumbar spine and pelvis. The specifications and test procedure for the lumbar spine and pelvis are identical to those for the SID dummy as set forth in § 572.42 except that...

  19. 49 CFR 572.115 - Lumbar spine and pelvis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lumbar spine and pelvis. 572.115 Section 572.115... 50th Percentile Male § 572.115 Lumbar spine and pelvis. The specifications and test procedure for the lumbar spine and pelvis are identical to those for the SID dummy as set forth in § 572.42 except that...

  20. 49 CFR 572.115 - Lumbar spine and pelvis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lumbar spine and pelvis. 572.115 Section 572.115... 50th Percentile Male § 572.115 Lumbar spine and pelvis. The specifications and test procedure for the lumbar spine and pelvis are identical to those for the SID dummy as set forth in § 572.42 except that...

  1. Laparoscopic lumbar hernia repair in a child with lumbocostovertebral syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sarah L; Thomas, Iona; Hamill, James

    2010-02-01

    Lumbocostovertebral syndrome is the association of a congenital lumbar hernia with rib and vertebral anomalies. We report the first case of a laparoscopic repair of a lumbar hernia in a child with lumbocostovertebral syndrome. Laparoscopic lumbar hernia repair appears to be safe and feasible in children.

  2. Routing cancer immunology and immunotherapy from the lab to the clinic 4–5 th March 2014, Center for Applied Medical Research and University Clinic, Pamplona, Spain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    New approaches to generate effective anticancer responses by either inducing immune responses or inhibiting immunosuppression are under development to improve efficacy in patients. On March 4-5th, 2014, a symposium was held in Pamplona, Spain, to report the new strategies showing preclinical and clinical results regarding translational research efforts on the topic. Participants interacted through oral presentations of 15 speakers and further discussions on topics that included novel therapeutic agents for cancer immunotherapy, viral vectors and interferon-based approaches, experimental tumor imaging and immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies. Promising agents to target cancer cells and therapeutic approaches that are under translation from bench to patients were presented. PMID:25060862

  3. Routing cancer immunology and immunotherapy from the lab to the clinic 4-5 th March 2014, Center for Applied Medical Research and University Clinic, Pamplona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Aznar, M Ángela; Melero, Ignacio; Quetglas, José I

    2014-01-01

    New approaches to generate effective anticancer responses by either inducing immune responses or inhibiting immunosuppression are under development to improve efficacy in patients. On March 4-5th, 2014, a symposium was held in Pamplona, Spain, to report the new strategies showing preclinical and clinical results regarding translational research efforts on the topic. Participants interacted through oral presentations of 15 speakers and further discussions on topics that included novel therapeutic agents for cancer immunotherapy, viral vectors and interferon-based approaches, experimental tumor imaging and immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies. Promising agents to target cancer cells and therapeutic approaches that are under translation from bench to patients were presented.

  4. Noninvasive Failure Load Prediction of Vertebrae with Simulated Lytic Defects and Biomaterial Augmentation.

    PubMed

    Giambini, Hugo; Fang, Zhong; Zeng, Heng; Camp, Jon J; Yaszemski, Michael J; Lu, Lichun

    2016-08-01

    The spine is the most common site for secondary bone metastases, and clinical management for fractures is based on size and geometry of the defect. About 75% of the bone needs to be damaged before lesions are detectable, so clinical tools should measure changes in both geometry and material properties. We have developed an automated, user-friendly, Spine Cancer Assessment (SCA) image-based analysis method that builds on a platform designed for clinical practice providing failure characteristics of vertebrae. The objectives of this study were to (1) validate SCA predictions with experimental failure load outcomes; (2) evaluate the planning capabilities for prophylactic vertebroplasty procedures; and (3) investigate the effect of computed tomography (CT) protocols on predicted failure loads. Twenty-one vertebrae were randomly divided into two groups: (1) simulated defect without treatment (negative control) [n = 9] and (2) with treatment [n = 12]. Defects were created and a polymeric biomaterial was injected into the vertebrae in the treated-defect group. Spines were scanned, reconstructed with two algorithms, and analyzed for fracture loads. To virtually plan for prophylactic intervention, vertebrae with empty lesions were simulated to be augmented with either poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) or a novel bone replacement copolymer, poly(propylene fumarate-co-caprolactone) [P(PF-co-CL)]. Axial rigidities were calculated from the CT images. Failure loads, determined from the cross section with the lowest axial rigidity, were compared with experimental values. Predicted loads correlated well with experimental outcomes (R(2) = 0.73, p < 0.0001). Predictions from negative control specimens highly correlated with measured values (R(2) = 0.90, p < 0.0001). Although a similar correlation was obtained using both algorithms, the smooth reconstruction (B30) tended to underestimate predicted failure loads by ∼50% compared with the ∼10% underestimate

  5. Noninvasive Failure Load Prediction of Vertebrae with Simulated Lytic Defects and Biomaterial Augmentation.

    PubMed

    Giambini, Hugo; Fang, Zhong; Zeng, Heng; Camp, Jon J; Yaszemski, Michael J; Lu, Lichun

    2016-08-01

    The spine is the most common site for secondary bone metastases, and clinical management for fractures is based on size and geometry of the defect. About 75% of the bone needs to be damaged before lesions are detectable, so clinical tools should measure changes in both geometry and material properties. We have developed an automated, user-friendly, Spine Cancer Assessment (SCA) image-based analysis method that builds on a platform designed for clinical practice providing failure characteristics of vertebrae. The objectives of this study were to (1) validate SCA predictions with experimental failure load outcomes; (2) evaluate the planning capabilities for prophylactic vertebroplasty procedures; and (3) investigate the effect of computed tomography (CT) protocols on predicted failure loads. Twenty-one vertebrae were randomly divided into two groups: (1) simulated defect without treatment (negative control) [n = 9] and (2) with treatment [n = 12]. Defects were created and a polymeric biomaterial was injected into the vertebrae in the treated-defect group. Spines were scanned, reconstructed with two algorithms, and analyzed for fracture loads. To virtually plan for prophylactic intervention, vertebrae with empty lesions were simulated to be augmented with either poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) or a novel bone replacement copolymer, poly(propylene fumarate-co-caprolactone) [P(PF-co-CL)]. Axial rigidities were calculated from the CT images. Failure loads, determined from the cross section with the lowest axial rigidity, were compared with experimental values. Predicted loads correlated well with experimental outcomes (R(2) = 0.73, p < 0.0001). Predictions from negative control specimens highly correlated with measured values (R(2) = 0.90, p < 0.0001). Although a similar correlation was obtained using both algorithms, the smooth reconstruction (B30) tended to underestimate predicted failure loads by ∼50% compared with the ∼10% underestimate

  6. Comparative Evaluation of Prevalence of Upper Cervical Vertebrae Anomalies in Cleft Lip/Palate Patients: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Datana, Sanjeev; Kumar, Prasanna; Kumar Roy, Supriya; Londhe, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT% Purpose: The patients with cleft lip and palate have a higher risk of cervical vertebrae anomalies than do patients in general population. The aim of present study was to determine the prevalence of various upper cervical spine anomalies in different type of clefts. Procedures: Lateral cephalograms of 128 patients (66 males, 62 females) with cleft lip and palate, and 125 (60 males, 65 females) non syndromic patients without cleft lip and palate were selected at random from archive. Cephalograms of the patients were traced and the diagnosis of any cervical vertebrae anomaly was noted. Anomalies were categorized as either: posterior arch deficiency or fusions. Main findings: Prevalence of cervical vertebrae anomalies in the c lef t group was 20. 3% while it was 6.4% in the control group. Further cervical vertebrae anomalies were 16.6% in the CPO group, 19.1% in the BCLP group, and 22.2% in the UCLP group. Conclusion: A higher prevalence of cervical vertebrae anomalies was observed in cleft lip and palate patients. The prevalenc e obser ved is 3 times more in clef t group than c ontrol group. How to cite this article: Datana S, Bhalla A, Kumar P, Roy SK, Londhe S. Comparative Evaluation of Prevalence of Upper Cervical Vertebrae Anomalies in Cleft Lip/Palate Patients: A Retrospective Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):168-171. PMID:25709295

  7. Traumatic lumbar hernia: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Torer, Nurkan; Yildirim, Sedat; Tarim, Akin; Colakoglu, Tamer; Moray, Gokhan

    2008-12-01

    Traumatic lumbar hernias are very rare. Here, we present a case of secondary lumbar hernia. A 44-year-old man sustained a crushing injury. On admission, ecchymotic, fluctuating swelling was present on his left flank with normal vital signs. Subcutaneous intestinal segments were revealed at his left flank on abdominal CT. Emergency laparotomy revealed a 10-cm defect on the left postero-lateral abdominal wall. The splenic flexure was herniated through the defect. Herniated segments was reduced, the defect was repaired with a polypropylene mesh graft. There was also a serosal tear and an ischemic area 3mm wide on the splenic flexure and was repaired primarily. The patient had an uneventful recovery. Most traumatic lumbar hernias are caused by blunt trauma. Trauma that causes abdominal wall disruption also may cause intraabdominal organ injury. Abdominal CT is useful in the diagnosis and allows for diagnosis of coexisting organ injury. Emergency laparotomy should be performed to repair possible coexisting injuries.

  8. Lumbar hernia repaired using a new technique.

    PubMed

    Di Carlo, Isidoro; Toro, Adriana; Sparatore, Francesca; Corsale, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    Lumbar hernia is uncommon and occurs in Grynfeltt's triangle on the left side, more frequently in men than in women. Acquired lumbar hernias are the result of iliac crest bone harvest or blunt trauma and seat belt injuries in road accidents. Many surgical options have been reported for repairing this hernia through primary closure of the defect or through use of aponeurotic or prosthetic materials. The Dowd technique is the technique most often used. The authors describe a patient with posttraumatic inferior triangle lumbar hernia who underwent laparoscopy and, 10 days later, laparotomy. Both procedures failed. Finally, a novel lumbotomic surgical approach was used, involving the Dowd technique and prosthetic mesh. The patient was free of recurrence 3 months after the procedure.

  9. Cervical Meningomyelitis After Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joon-Sung; Kim, Ji Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Epidural steroid injections (ESI) are a common treatment for back pain management. ESI-related complications have increased with the growing number of procedures. We report a case of cervical meningomyelitis followed by multiple lumbar ESI. A 60-year-old male with diabetes mellitus presented to our hospital with severe neck pain. He had a history of multiple lumbar injections from a local pain clinic. After admission, high fever and elevated inflammatory values were detected. L-spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed hematoma in the S1 epidural space. Antibiotic treatment began under the diagnosis of a lumbar epidural abscess. Despite the treatment, he started to complain of weakness in both lower extremities. Three days later, the weakness progressed to both upper extremities. C-spine MRI revealed cervical leptomeningeal enhancement in the medulla oblongata and cervical spinal cord. Removal of the epidural abscess was performed, but there was no neurological improvement. PMID:26161360

  10. Diagnostic value of the lumbar extension-loading test in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The gait-loading test is a well known, important test with which to assess the involved spinal level in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. The lumbar extension-loading test also functions as a diagnostic loading test in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis; however, its efficacy remains uncertain. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic value of the lumbar extension-loading test with that of the gait-loading test in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. Methods A total of 116 consecutive patients (62 men and 54 women) diagnosed with lumbar spinal stenosis were included in this cross-sectional study of the lumbar extension-loading test. Subjective symptoms and objective neurological findings (motor, sensory, and reflex) were examined before and after the lumbar extension-loading and gait-loading tests. The efficacy of the lumbar extension-loading test for establishment of a correct diagnosis of the involved spinal level was assessed and compared with that of the gait-loading test. Results There were no significant differences between the lumbar extension-loading test and the gait-loading test in terms of subjective symptoms, objective neurological findings, or changes in the involved spinal level before and after each loading test. Conclusions The lumbar extension-loading test is useful for assessment of lumbar spinal stenosis pathology and is capable of accurately determining the involved spinal level. PMID:25080292

  11. Return to Play After Lumbar Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Cook, Ralph W; Hsu, Wellington K

    2016-10-01

    Surgical management of lumbar spine conditions can produce excellent outcomes in athletes. Microdiscectomy for lumbar disc herniation has favorable outcomes; most athletes return to play at preoperative performance levels. Direct pars repair is successful in younger athletes, with high rates of return to play for a variety of fixation techniques. Fusion in athletes with scoliosis is a negative predictor. There are few evidence-based return to play criteria. Athletes should demonstrate full resolution of symptoms and flexibility, endurance, and strength before returning to play. Deciding when to return an athlete to sport depends on particular injury sustained, sport, and individual factors. PMID:27543402

  12. Neuromodulation of the lumbar spinal locomotor circuit.

    PubMed

    AuYong, Nicholas; Lu, Daniel C

    2014-01-01

    The lumbar spinal cord contains the necessary circuitry to independently drive locomotor behaviors. This function is retained following spinal cord injury (SCI) and is amenable to rehabilitation. Although the effectiveness of task-specific training and pharmacologic modulation has been repeatedly demonstrated in animal studies, results from human studies are less striking. Recently, lumbar epidural stimulation (EDS) along with locomotor training was shown to restore weight-bearing function and lower-extremity voluntary control in a chronic, motor-complete human SCI subject. Related animal studies incorporating EDS as part of the therapeutic regiment are also encouraging. EDS is emerging as a promising neuromodulatory tool for SCI. PMID:24262896

  13. Microdiscectomy for a Paracentral Lumbar Herniated Disk.

    PubMed

    Millhouse, Paul W; Schroeder, Gregory D; Kurd, Mark F; Kepler, Christopher K; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Savage, Jason W

    2016-02-01

    Lumbar disk herniations occur frequently and are often associated with leg pain, weakness, and paresthesias. Fortunately, the natural outcomes of radiculopathy due to a disk herniation are generally favorable, and the vast majority of patients improve with nonoperative care. Surgical intervention is reserved for patients who have significant pain that is refractory to at least 6 weeks of conservative care, patients who have a severe or progressive motor deficit, or patients who have any symptoms of bowel or bladder dysfunction. This paper reviews the preoperative and postoperative considerations, as well as the surgical technique, for a microdiscectomy for a lumbar intervertebral disk herniation. PMID:26710186

  14. Lumbar spinal extradural angiolipomas. Two case reports.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Seref; Arslan, Erhan; Sahin, Soner; Aksoy, Kaya; Aker, Sibel

    2006-03-01

    Spinal extradural angiolipomas are benign tumors mostly localized in the thoracic region. A 50-year-old woman and a 36-year-old man presented with rare lumbar spinal angiolipoma manifesting as low back pain but without neurological signs. Magnetic resonance imaging showed lumbar extradural tumors at the L4-5 and L1-2 levels, respectively. Each patient underwent complete surgical resection of the epidural tumors. Histological examination revealed characteristics of angiolipomas in both tumors. The symptoms of both patients improved postoperatively and no recurrence of the tumors was found 1 year after surgery.

  15. [Lumbar disc herniation and andrological diseases].

    PubMed

    Jin, Bao-fang

    2015-10-01

    Lumbar disc herniation is a common male disease. In the past, More academic attention was directed to its relationship with lumbago and leg pain than to its association with andrological diseases. Studies show that central lumber intervertebral disc herniation may cause cauda equina injury and result in premature ejaculation, erectile dysfunction, chronic pelvic pain syndrome, priapism, and emission. This article presents an overview on the correlation between central lumbar intervertebral disc herniation and andrological diseases, focusing on the aspects of etiology, pathology, and clinical progress, hoping to invite more attention from andrological and osteological clinicians. PMID:26665671

  16. Progression of a lumbar disc extrusion.

    PubMed

    Crowell, Michael S; Alitz, Curtis

    2014-11-01

    The patient was a 34-year-old woman who was referred to a physical therapist for a chief complaint of progressively worsening right buttock pain with paresthesias of the right posterior thigh and calf. Prior magnetic resonance imaging of the patient's lumbar spine revealed a large left paracentral disc extrusion at L5-S1. Following physical therapist intervention, the patient reported a new onset of left posterior thigh pain, with paresthesias of the dorsolateral aspect of the left foot. Repeat magnetic resonance imaging of the patient's lumbar spine revealed an increase in the size of the disc extrusion at L5-S1. PMID:25361862

  17. DEGENERATIVE STENOSIS OF THE LUMBAR SPINE

    PubMed Central

    Zylbersztejn, Sérgio; Spinelli, Leandro de Freitas; Rodrigues, Nilson Rodinei; Werlang, Pablo Mariotti; Kisaki, Yorito; Rios, Aldemar Roberto Mieres; Bello, Cesar Dall

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an update on degenerative stenosis of the lumbar spine, which is a common pathological condition among patients over the age of 65 years. The anamnesis and physical examination need to be precise, since radiography often only provides indirect signs. Magnetic resonance imaging is necessary if the symptoms persist. The treatment for lumbar stenosis is a matter of controversy. However, there seems to be some benefit from surgical treatment rather than conservative treatment, such that surgery brings improvements in symptoms and functions for a period of up to two years. PMID:27042635

  18. Determination of the intervertebral disc space from CT images of the lumbar spine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korez, Robert; Å tern, Darko; Likar, Boštjan; Pernuš, Franjo; Vrtovec, Tomaž

    2014-03-01

    Degenerative changes of the intervertebral disc are among the most common causes of low back pain, where for individuals with significant symptoms surgery may be needed. One of the interventions is the total disc replacement surgery, where the degenerated disc is replaced by an artificial implant. For designing implants with good bone contact and continuous force distribution, the morphology of the intervertebral disc space and vertebral body endplates is of considerable importance. In this study we propose a method for the determination of the intervertebral disc space from three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) images of the lumbar spine. The first step of the proposed method is the construction of a model of vertebral bodies in the lumbar spine. For this purpose, a chain of five elliptical cylinders is initialized in the 3D image and then deformed to resemble vertebral bodies by introducing 25 shape parameters. The parameters are obtained by aligning the chain to the vertebral bodies in the CT image according to image intensity and appearance information. The determination of the intervertebral disc space is finally achieved by finding the planes that fit the endplates of the obtained parametric 3D models, and placing points in the space between the planes of adjacent vertebrae that enable surface reconstruction of the intervertebral disc space. The morphometric analysis of images from 20 subjects yielded 11:3 +/- 2:6, 12:1 +/- 2:4, 12:8 +/- 2:0 and 12:9 +/- 2:7 cm3 in terms of L1-L2, L2-L3, L3-L4 and L4-L5 intervertebral disc space volume, respectively.

  19. Accuracy of lumbar spine bone mineral content by dual photon absorptiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Gotfredsen, A.; Podenphant, J.; Norgaard, H.; Nilas, L.; Nielsen, V.A.; Christiansen, C.

    1988-02-01

    The accuracy of measurement of the bone mineral content (BMC, g) and bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm/sup 2/) of the lumbar spine by dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) was estimated by means of two different spine scanners (a Nuclear Data 2100 and a Lunar Radiation DP3). The lumbar spines of 13 cadavers were used. BMC and BMD were measured in situ and on the excised vertebrae in a solution of water/ethanol; and covered with ox muscle/porcine muscle/lard. The actual mineral weight and areal density were determined after chemical maceration, fat extraction, drying to a constant weight, ashing for 24 hr at 600 degrees C, and correction for the transverse processes. The true are was measured by parallax free X rays and planimetry. All measurements of BMC or BMD were highly interrelated (r = 0.94-0.99). The standard error of estimate (s.e.e.) of BMC in situ versus BMC in water/ethanol was 5.2%. The agreement between the BMD values of the two scanners was very good (s.e.e. = 2.9%). BMC in situ predicted the actual vertebral mineral mass with an s.e.e. of 8.1%. BMD in situ and BMD in water/ethanol predicted the actual area density with s.e.e.s of 10.3% and 5.0%, respectively. This study discloses the correlation and accuracy error of spinal DPA measurements in situ in whole cadavers versus the actual BMC and BMD. The error, which is underestimated in in vitro studies, amounts to 10%.

  20. Clinical Identification of the Vertebral Level at Which the Lumbar Sympathetic Ganglia Aggregate

    PubMed Central

    An, Ji Won; Koh, Jae Chul; Sun, Jong Min; Park, Ju Yeon; Choi, Jong Bum; Shin, Myung Ju

    2016-01-01

    Background The location and the number of lumbar sympathetic ganglia (LSG) vary between individuals. The aim of this study was to determine the appropriate level for a lumbar sympathetic ganglion block (LSGB), corresponding to the level at which the LSG principally aggregate. Methods Seventy-four consecutive subjects, including 31 women and 31 men, underwent LSGB either on the left (n = 31) or the right side (n = 43). The primary site of needle entry was randomly selected at the L3 or L4 vertebra. A total of less than 1 ml of radio opaque dye with 4% lidocaine was injected, taking caution not to traverse beyond the level of one vertebral body. The procedure was considered responsive when the skin temperature increased by more than 1℃ within 5 minutes. Results The median responsive level was significantly different between the left (lower third of the L4 body) and right (lower margin of the L3 body) sides (P = 0.021). However, there was no significant difference in the values between men and women. The overall median responsive level was the upper third of the L4 body. The mean responsive level did not correlate with height or BMI. There were no complications on short-term follow-up. Conclusions Selection of the primary target in the left lower third of the L4 vertebral body and the right lower margin of the L3 vertebral body may reduce the number of needle insertions and the volume of agents used in conventional or neurolytic LSGB and radiofrequency thermocoagulation. PMID:27103965

  1. [Relationship between lumbosacral multifidus muscle and lumbar disc herniation].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-ye; Wang, Kuan; Yuan, Wei-an; Zhan, Hong-sheng

    2016-06-01

    As a common disease in clinical, the treatment of lumbar disc herniation (LDH) focused on local intervertebral disc, such as surgery and other interventional therapy treatment, but postoperative complications and recurrence rate has been a difficult problem in the field of profession. With the development of spine biomechanics and anatomy, researches on lumbar herniation also increased. Researchers discovered that the incidence and prognosis of LDH were inseparable with local muscle and soft tissue. As the deep paraspinal muscles, multifidus muscle plays an important role to make lumbar stability. Its abnormal function could reduce the stable of lumbar spine, and the chronic lumbar disease could also lead to multifidus muscle atrophy. PMID:27534095

  2. [Relationship between lumbosacral multifidus muscle and lumbar disc herniation].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-ye; Wang, Kuan; Yuan, Wei-an; Zhan, Hong-sheng

    2016-06-01

    As a common disease in clinical, the treatment of lumbar disc herniation (LDH) focused on local intervertebral disc, such as surgery and other interventional therapy treatment, but postoperative complications and recurrence rate has been a difficult problem in the field of profession. With the development of spine biomechanics and anatomy, researches on lumbar herniation also increased. Researchers discovered that the incidence and prognosis of LDH were inseparable with local muscle and soft tissue. As the deep paraspinal muscles, multifidus muscle plays an important role to make lumbar stability. Its abnormal function could reduce the stable of lumbar spine, and the chronic lumbar disease could also lead to multifidus muscle atrophy.

  3. Using a Spreadsheet to Compute the Maximum Wind Sector 99.5th Percentile X/Q Value in Accordance with DOE-STD-3009-2014.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Linda

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Standard 3009-2014 requires one of two methods to determine the simple Gaussian relative concentration (X/Q) of pollutant at plume centerline downwind to a receptor for a 2-h exposure duration from a ground-level release (i.e., less than 10 m height) which are (1) the 99.5th percentile X/Q for the directionally-dependent method and (2) the 95th percentile X/Q for the directionally-independent method. This paper describes how to determine the simple Gaussian 99.5th percentile X/Q for the directionally-dependent method using an electronic spreadsheet. Refer to a previous paper to determine the simple Gaussian 95th percentile X/Q for the directionally-independent method using an electronic spreadsheet (Vickers 2015). The method described herein is simple, quick, accurate, and transparent because all of the data, calculations, and results are visible for validation and verification. PMID:27023153

  4. Rabies vaccine standards: comparison of the 5th and 6th WHO international reference standards to the USDA veterinary reference standard.

    PubMed

    Hermann, J; Fry, A; Reising, M; Patterson, P; Siev, D; Gatewood, D

    2012-11-01

    Ensuring rabies vaccines are potent and effective is paramount in preventing transmission of this deadly disease and safeguarding public health. Efficacy of human and veterinary vaccines is ensured by evaluating relative potency estimates of the vaccine compared to a rabies reference standard using the National Institutes of Health (NIH) test. Reference vaccines are based on the International Standard for Rabies Vaccine provided by the World Health Organization (WHO). A comparison study was conducted to determine the relative potency of the 5th WHO, 6th WHO, and United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) 08-14 reference standards using the NIH test. Results from the study demonstrate that the 6th WHO reference standard is approximately twice as potent as the 5th WHO reference when reconstituted to contain 1 IU per ml. Based on these results, the Center for Veterinary Biologics (CVB) doubled the reconstitution volume of USDA veterinary reference 08-14 from 13 ml to 26 ml, for an initial use dilution of 0.7 IU per ml for use by veterinary biologics manufacturers in the NIH test. This study emphasizes the importance of reference standard calibration for use in the National Institutes of Health test.

  5. The 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics: Making progress in the number of women in physics around the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Beth

    2015-04-01

    A short report on the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics (ICWIP) will be presented. In particular, a summary of the structure of the 5th ICWIP that occurred in Waterloo, Canada in August 2014 will be provided and placed into context of the previous four conferences. In addition, a synopsis of the recent efforts that are happening around the world to encourage girls and women to participate in physics will be given. Several US projects have been very successful in introducing girls to science and physics (e.g., ``Expanding Your Horizons'' intervention) and encouraging undergraduate women physics majors to continue into physics careers (e.g., Conferences for Undergraduate Women in Physics). Projects from other countries, such as the Juno Project in the UK that rates physics departments on their climate for women, might be implemented by US physics professional societies as well as colleges and universities. Several projects originating from the conference will be described: the new ``HERstories: Encouraging words from women in physics'' video based on interviews with delegates of the Conference, the My STEM Story project (http://mystemstory.wlu.ca), and the proceedings of the conference. Partial support provided by NSF #PHY-1419453.

  6. Material Properties of the Human Lumbar Facet Joint Capsule

    PubMed Central

    Little, Jesse S.; Khalsa, Partap S.

    2005-01-01

    The human facet joint capsule is one of the structures in the lumbar spine that constrains motions of vertebrae during global spine loading (e.g., physiological flexion). Computational models of the spine have not been able to include accurate nonlinear and viscoelastic material properties, as they have not previously been measured. Capsules were tested using a uniaxial ramp-hold protocol or a haversine displacement protocol using a commercially available materials testing device. Plane strain was measured optically. Capsules were tested both parallel and perpendicular to the dominant orientation of the collagen fibers in the capsules. Viscoelastic material properties were determined. Parallel to the dominant orientation of the collagen fibers, the complex modulus of elasticity was E* = 1.63MPa, with a storage modulus of E′ = 1.25MPa and a loss modulus of: E″ = 0.39MPa. The mean stress relaxation rates for static and dynamic loading were best fit with first-order polynomials: B (ɛ) = 0.1110 ɛ − 0.0733 and B (ɛ) = −0.1249ɛ 11794-8181 +0.0190, respectively. Perpendicular to the collagen fiber orientation, the viscous and elastic secant moduli were 1.81 and 1.00 MPa, respectively. The mean stress relaxation rate for static loading was best fit with a first-order polynomial: B (ɛ) = − 0.04ɛ − 0.06. Capsule strength parallel and perpendicular to collagen fiber orientation was 1.90 and 0.95 MPa, respectively, and extensibility was 0.65 and 0.60, respectively. Poisson’s ratio parallel and perpendicular to fiber orientation was 0.299 and 0.488, respectively. The elasticity moduli were nonlinear and anisotropic, and capsule strength was larger aligned parallel to the collagen fibers. The phase lag between stress and strain increased with haversine frequency, but the storage modulus remained large relative to the complex modulus. The stress relaxation rate was strain dependent parallel to the collagen fibers, but was strain independent perpendicularly

  7. Thoracic and Lumbar Vertebral Bone Mineral Density Changes in a Natural Occurring Dog Model of Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis

    PubMed Central

    De Decker, Steven; Lam, Richard; Packer, Rowena M. A.; Gielen, Ingrid M. V. L.; Volk, Holger A.

    2015-01-01

    Ankylosing spinal disorders can be associated with alterations in vertebral bone mineral density (BMD). There is however controversy about vertebral BMD in patients wuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). DISH in Boxer dogs has been considered a natural occurring disease model for DISH in people. The purpose of this study was to compare vertebral BMD between Boxers with and without DISH. Fifty-nine Boxers with (n=30) or without (n=29) DISH that underwent computed tomography were included. Vertebral BMD was calculated for each thoracic and lumbar vertebra by using an earlier reported and validated protocol. For each vertebral body, a region of interest was drawn on the axial computed tomographic images at three separate locations: immediately inferior to the superior end plate, in the middle of the vertebral body, and superior to the inferior end plate. Values from the three axial slices were averaged to give a mean Hounsfield Unit value for each vertebral body. Univariate statistical analysis was performed to identify factors to be included in a multivariate model. The multivariate model including all dogs demonstrated that vertebral DISH status (Coefficient 24.63; 95% CI 16.07 to 33.19; p <0.001), lumbar vertebrae (Coefficient -17.25; 95% CI -23.42 to -11.09; p < 0.01), and to a lesser extent higher age (Coefficient -0.56; 95% CI -1.07 to -0.05; p = 0.03) were significant predictors for vertebral BMD. When the multivariate model was repeated using only dogs with DISH, vertebral DISH status (Coefficient 20.67; 95% CI, 10.98 to 30.37; p < 0.001) and lumbar anatomical region (Coefficient -38.24; 95% CI, -47.75 to -28.73; p < 0.001) were again predictors for vertebral BMD but age was not. The results of this study indicate that DISH can be associated with decreased vertebral BMD. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the clinical importance and pathophysiology of this finding. PMID:25898128

  8. Finite Element Analysis of a New Pedicle Screw-Plate System for Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yue; Li, Changqing; Liu, Huan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF) is increasingly popular for the surgical treatment of degenerative lumbar disc diseases. The constructs intended for segmental stability are varied in MI-TLIF. We adopted finite element (FE) analysis to compare the stability after different construct fixations using interbody cage with posterior pedicle screw-rod or pedicle screw-plate instrumentation system. Methods A L3–S1 FE model was modified to simulate decompression and fusion at L4–L5 segment. Fixation modes included unilateral plate (UP), unilateral rod (UR), bilateral plate (BP), bilateral rod (BR) and UP+UR fixation. The inferior surface of the S1 vertebra remained immobilized throughout the load simulation, and a bending moment of 7.5 Nm with 400N pre-load was applied on the L3 vertebra to recreate flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. Range of motion (ROM) and Von Mises stress were evaluated for intact and instrumentation models in all loading planes. Results All reconstructive conditions displayed decreased motion at L4–L5. The pedicle screw-plate system offered equal ROM to pedicle screw-rod system in unilateral or bilateral fixation modes respectively. Pedicle screw stresses for plate system were 2.2 times greater than those for rod system in left lateral bending under unilateral fixation. Stresses for plate were 3.1 times greater than those for rod in right axial rotation under bilateral fixation. Stresses on intervertebral graft for plate system were similar to rod system in unilateral and bilateral fixation modes respectively. Increased ROM and posterior instrumentation stresses were observed in all loading modes with unilateral fixation compared with bilateral fixation in both systems. Conclusions Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion augmentation with pedicle screw-plate system fixation increases fusion construct stability equally to the pedicle screw-rod system. Increased posterior

  9. Thoracic and lumbar vertebral bone mineral density changes in a natural occurring dog model of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis.

    PubMed

    De Decker, Steven; Lam, Richard; Packer, Rowena M A; Gielen, Ingrid M V L; Volk, Holger A

    2015-01-01

    Ankylosing spinal disorders can be associated with alterations in vertebral bone mineral density (BMD). There is however controversy about vertebral BMD in patients wuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). DISH in Boxer dogs has been considered a natural occurring disease model for DISH in people. The purpose of this study was to compare vertebral BMD between Boxers with and without DISH. Fifty-nine Boxers with (n=30) or without (n=29) DISH that underwent computed tomography were included. Vertebral BMD was calculated for each thoracic and lumbar vertebra by using an earlier reported and validated protocol. For each vertebral body, a region of interest was drawn on the axial computed tomographic images at three separate locations: immediately inferior to the superior end plate, in the middle of the vertebral body, and superior to the inferior end plate. Values from the three axial slices were averaged to give a mean Hounsfield Unit value for each vertebral body. Univariate statistical analysis was performed to identify factors to be included in a multivariate model. The multivariate model including all dogs demonstrated that vertebral DISH status (Coefficient 24.63; 95% CI 16.07 to 33.19; p <0.001), lumbar vertebrae (Coefficient -17.25; 95% CI -23.42 to -11.09; p < 0.01), and to a lesser extent higher age (Coefficient -0.56; 95% CI -1.07 to -0.05; p = 0.03) were significant predictors for vertebral BMD. When the multivariate model was repeated using only dogs with DISH, vertebral DISH status (Coefficient 20.67; 95% CI, 10.98 to 30.37; p < 0.001) and lumbar anatomical region (Coefficient -38.24; 95% CI, -47.75 to -28.73; p < 0.001) were again predictors for vertebral BMD but age was not. The results of this study indicate that DISH can be associated with decreased vertebral BMD. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the clinical importance and pathophysiology of this finding. PMID:25898128

  10. Current Status of Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Degenerative Spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    TAKAHASHI, Toshiyuki; HANAKITA, Junya; OHTAKE, Yasufumi; FUNAKOSHI, Yusuke; OICHI, Yuki; KAWAOKA, Taigo; WATANABE, Mizuki

    2016-01-01

    Instrumented lumbar fusion can provide immediate stability and assist in satisfactory arthrodesis in patients who have pain or instability of the lumbar spine. Lumbar adjunctive fusion with decompression is often a good procedure for surgical management of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). Among various lumbar fusion techniques, lumbar interbody fusion (LIF) has an advantage in that it maintains favorable lumbar alignment and provides successful fusion with the added effect of indirect decompression. This technique has been widely used and represents an advancement in spinal instrumentation, although the rationale and optimal type of LIF for DS remains controversial. We evaluated the current status and role of LIF in DS treatment, mainly as a means to augment instrumentation. We addressed the basic concept of LIF, its indications, and various types including minimally invasive techniques. It also has acceptable biomechanical features, and offers reconstruction with ideal lumbar alignment. Postsurgical adverse events related to each LIF technique are also addressed. PMID:27169496

  11. BIOMECHANICS OF THERAPEUTIC RIDING DURING THE DISEASES OF I-II DEGREE DYSPLASTIC LUMBAR AND STATIC (SHORT LEG) SCOLIOSIS.

    PubMed

    Sheshaberidze, E; Merabishvili, I; Loria, M

    2015-11-01

    The goal of the paper is to substantiate the essence of ridetherapy biomechanics as the pathogenetic therapeutic and prophylactic method at lumbar dysplastic (the I and II degrees) and static (short-legged induced) scoliosis. Uneven lower extremities caused by any reason and asymmetric support induce the change in the arrangement of trochantin to the vertebra and correspondingly the uneven loading of lumbar muscles. The asymmetric strength of lumbar muscles evoked by the change in rotator condition becomes the cause of the formation of scoliosis primary arc which, in its turn, causes a compensatory spinal curvature. In case of dysplastic scoliosis a leading role belongs to the beginning of dystrophic changes in intervertebral discs and its further decentration. At riding position the lower extremities are completely disengaged from the antigravity redistribution, the child is in direct contact with vibrations and jolts coming from the horseback; the antigravity loading is distributed on the muscles of the torso and thus, it creates an opportunity to purposefully affect the correction of the spine. During scoliosis the pathogenic essence of ridetherapy is due to the comprehensiveness of its procedures, expressed in the fact that during one procedure several factors are influenced simultaneously: nucleus pulpous, the torso and iliopsoas muscles, the antigravity system, etc. According to the clinical-functional and radiographic studies carried out in the dynamics on 11-16 years old adolescents it has been established that in those groups where the rehabilitation was conducted in a complex with ridetherapy the authentically higher results were obtained as compared to the groups where the rehabilitation was held using therapeutic exercises and massage. PMID:26656557

  12. BIOMECHANICS OF THERAPEUTIC RIDING DURING THE DISEASES OF I-II DEGREE DYSPLASTIC LUMBAR AND STATIC (SHORT LEG) SCOLIOSIS.

    PubMed

    Sheshaberidze, E; Merabishvili, I; Loria, M

    2015-11-01

    The goal of the paper is to substantiate the essence of ridetherapy biomechanics as the pathogenetic therapeutic and prophylactic method at lumbar dysplastic (the I and II degrees) and static (short-legged induced) scoliosis. Uneven lower extremities caused by any reason and asymmetric support induce the change in the arrangement of trochantin to the vertebra and correspondingly the uneven loading of lumbar muscles. The asymmetric strength of lumbar muscles evoked by the change in rotator condition becomes the cause of the formation of scoliosis primary arc which, in its turn, causes a compensatory spinal curvature. In case of dysplastic scoliosis a leading role belongs to the beginning of dystrophic changes in intervertebral discs and its further decentration. At riding position the lower extremities are completely disengaged from the antigravity redistribution, the child is in direct contact with vibrations and jolts coming from the horseback; the antigravity loading is distributed on the muscles of the torso and thus, it creates an opportunity to purposefully affect the correction of the spine. During scoliosis the pathogenic essence of ridetherapy is due to the comprehensiveness of its procedures, expressed in the fact that during one procedure several factors are influenced simultaneously: nucleus pulpous, the torso and iliopsoas muscles, the antigravity system, etc. According to the clinical-functional and radiographic studies carried out in the dynamics on 11-16 years old adolescents it has been established that in those groups where the rehabilitation was conducted in a complex with ridetherapy the authentically higher results were obtained as compared to the groups where the rehabilitation was held using therapeutic exercises and massage.

  13. An investigation of jogging biomechanics using the full-body lumbar spine model: Model development and validation.

    PubMed

    Raabe, Margaret E; Chaudhari, Ajit M W

    2016-05-01

    The ability of a biomechanical simulation to produce results that can translate to real-life situations is largely dependent on the physiological accuracy of the musculoskeletal model. There are a limited number of freely-available, full-body models that exist in OpenSim, and those that do exist are very limited in terms of trunk musculature and degrees of freedom in the spine. Properly modeling the motion and musculature of the trunk is necessary to most accurately estimate lower extremity and spinal loading. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a more physiologically accurate OpenSim full-body model. By building upon three previously developed OpenSim models, the full-body lumbar spine (FBLS) model, comprised of 21 segments, 30 degrees-of-freedom, and 324 musculotendon actuators, was developed. The five lumbar vertebrae were modeled as individual bodies, and coupled constraints were implemented to describe the net motion of the spine. The eight major muscle groups of the lumbar spine were modeled (rectus abdominis, external and internal obliques, erector spinae, multifidus, quadratus lumborum, psoas major, and latissimus dorsi), and many of these muscle groups were modeled as multiple fascicles allowing the large muscles to act in multiple directions. The resulting FBLS model׳s trunk muscle geometry, maximal isometric joint moments, and simulated muscle activations compare well to experimental data. The FBLS model will be made freely available (https://simtk.org/home/fullbodylumbar) for others to perform additional analyses and develop simulations investigating full-body dynamics and contributions of the trunk muscles to dynamic tasks.

  14. 49 CFR 572.187 - Lumbar spine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lumbar spine. 572.187 Section 572.187 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 2re Side Impact Crash...

  15. 49 CFR 572.187 - Lumbar spine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lumbar spine. 572.187 Section 572.187 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES ES-2re Side Impact...

  16. 49 CFR 572.187 - Lumbar spine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... freely to achieve an impact velocity of 6.05 ±0.1 m/s measured at the center of the pendulum accelerometer (Figure 22) at the time the pendulum makes contact with its decelerating mechanism. The velocity... to paragraph (b)—ES-2re Lumbar Spine Certification Pendulum Velocity Corridor Upper boundary...

  17. 49 CFR 572.187 - Lumbar spine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... freely to achieve an impact velocity of 6.05 ±0.1 m/s measured at the center of the pendulum accelerometer (Figure 22) at the time the pendulum makes contact with its decelerating mechanism. The velocity... to paragraph (b)—ES-2re Lumbar Spine Certification Pendulum Velocity Corridor Upper boundary...

  18. 49 CFR 572.187 - Lumbar spine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... freely to achieve an impact velocity of 6.05 ±0.1 m/s measured at the center of the pendulum accelerometer (Figure 22) at the time the pendulum makes contact with its decelerating mechanism. The velocity... to paragraph (b)—ES-2re Lumbar Spine Certification Pendulum Velocity Corridor Upper boundary...

  19. [Lumbar arachnoid cysts: 2 unusual cases].

    PubMed

    Mailleux, P; Dooms, G; Coulier, B; Malbecq, S

    1992-04-01

    Two cases of arachnoid cyst in the lumbar region are described. One is intradural, acquired, and associated to severe arachnoiditis while the other is extradural in location and probably congenital. The interest of myelography, CT myelography, and MRI for the diagnosis is discussed.

  20. Acute Sciatic Neuritis following Lumbar Laminectomy

    PubMed Central

    Hitchon, Patrick; Reddy, Chandan G.

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that the common cause of acute/chronic pain in the distribution of the lumbosacral nerve roots is the herniation of a lumbar intervertebral disc, unless proven otherwise. The surgical treatment of lumbar disc herniation is successful in radicular pain and prevents or limits neurological damage in the majority of patients. Recurrence of sciatica after a successful disc surgery can be due to many possible etiologies. In the clinical setting we believe that the term sciatica might be associated with inflammation. We report a case of acute sciatic neuritis presented with significant persistent pain shortly after a successful disc surgery. The patient is a 59-year-old female with complaint of newly onset sciatica after complete pain resolution following a successful lumbar laminectomy for acute disc extrusion. In order to manage the patient's newly onset pain, the patient had multiple pain management visits which provided minimum relief. Persistent sciatica and consistent physical examination findings urged us to perform a pelvic MRI to visualize suspected pathology, which revealed right side sciatic neuritis. She responded to the electrical neuromodulation. Review of the literature on sciatic neuritis shows this is the first case report of sciatic neuritis subsequent to lumbar laminectomy. PMID:25024708

  1. Partial facetectomy for lumbar foraminal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kevin; Rodriguez-Olaverri, Juan Carlos; Schwab, Frank; Hashem, Jenifer; Razi, Afshin; Farcy, Jean Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Background. Several different techniques exist to address the pain and disability caused by isolated nerve root impingement. Failure to adequately decompress the lumbar foramen may lead to failed back surgery syndrome. However, aggressive treatment often causes spinal instability or may require fusion for satisfactory results. We describe a novel technique for decompression of the lumbar nerve root and demonstrate its effectiveness in relief of radicular symptoms. Methods. Partial facetectomy was performed by removal of the medial portion of the superior facet in patients with lumbar foraminal stenosis. 47 patients underwent the procedure from 2001 to 2010. Those who demonstrated neurogenic claudication without spinal instability or central canal stenosis and failed conservative management were eligible for the procedure. Functional level was recorded for each patient. These patients were followed for an average of 3.9 years to evaluate outcomes. Results. 27 of 47 patients (57%) reported no back pain and no functional limitations. Eight of 47 patients (17%) reported moderate pain, but had no limitations. Six of 47 patients (13%) continued to experience degenerative symptoms. Five of 47 patients (11%) required additional surgery. Conclusions. Partial facetectomy is an effective means to decompress the lumbar nerve root foramen without causing spinal instability.

  2. [Highlateral approach to the lesions around the upper cervical vertebrae and foramen magnum].

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, K; Asano, T; Shigeno, T; Matsui, T; Itoh, S; Kaneko, K

    1995-04-01

    In the present paper, we describe the surgical techniques of high lateral cervical approach and its feasibility for the excision of tumors located in the ventral or lateral aspect of the upper cervical vertebrae and of the craniovertebral junction. The patient is positioned laterally on the operating table, but the operator's position and the skin incision are slightly altered depending on the location of the tumor. When the lesion is situated below C1, the ipsilateral shoulder is pulled down toward the back. The operator stands rostral to the head. The attachment of the sternocleidomastoid muscle to the mastoid is detached and reflected anteriorly through a retroauricular curved skin incision. The posterior cervical muscles such as the splenius capitis, longissimus capitis, semi-spinalis capitis are detached from the occipit and retracted posteriorly. At this point, the transverse process of C1 and the articular facet of the vertebrae of C2-C4 are identified by palpation. According to the tumor location, the muscles attached to the relevant transverse processes and facets are divided and reflected posteriorly. Through careful dissection, the cervical nerve roots and the vertebral artery are exposed. The root sleeves as well as thecal sac may be exposed by resecting the posterior two-thirds of the superior and inferior articular facets and the adjacent laminae of the vertebrae. In case the whole facet was removed, an iliac bone graft is placed between the remaining transverse processes and the laminae above and below for fixation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7739768

  3. The Mammalian Cervical Vertebrae Blueprint Depends on the T (brachyury) Gene

    PubMed Central

    Kromik, Andreas; Ulrich, Reiner; Kusenda, Marian; Tipold, Andrea; Stein, Veronika M.; Hellige, Maren; Dziallas, Peter; Hadlich, Frieder; Widmann, Philipp; Goldammer, Tom; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Rehage, Jürgen; Segelke, Dierck; Weikard, Rosemarie; Kühn, Christa

    2015-01-01

    A key common feature of all but three known mammalian genera is the strict seven cervical vertebrae blueprint, suggesting the involvement of strong conserving selection forces during mammalian radiation. This is further supported by reports indicating that children with cervical ribs die before they reach reproductive age. Hypotheses were put up, associating cervical ribs (homeotic transformations) to embryonal cancer (e.g., neuroblastoma) or ascribing the constraint in cervical vertebral count to the development of the mammalian diaphragm. Here, we describe a spontaneous mutation c.196A > G in the Bos taurus T gene (also known as brachyury) associated with a cervical vertebral homeotic transformation that violates the fundamental mammalian cervical blueprint, but does not preclude reproduction of the affected individual. Genome-wide mapping, haplotype tracking within a large pedigree, resequencing of target genome regions, and bioinformatic analyses unambiguously confirmed the mutant c.196G allele as causal for this previously unknown defect termed vertebral and spinal dysplasia (VSD) by providing evidence for the mutation event. The nonsynonymous VSD mutation is located within the highly conserved T box of the T gene, which plays a fundamental role in eumetazoan body organization and vertebral development. To our knowledge, VSD is the first unequivocally approved spontaneous mutation decreasing cervical vertebrae number in a large mammal. The spontaneous VSD mutation in the bovine T gene is the first in vivo evidence for the hypothesis that the T protein is directly involved in the maintenance of the mammalian seven-cervical vertebra blueprint. It therefore furthers our knowledge of the T-protein function and early mammalian notochord development. PMID:25614605

  4. The 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia: summary of main findings and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Pandit, J J; Andrade, J; Bogod, D G; Hitchman, J M; Jonker, W R; Lucas, N; Mackay, J H; Nimmo, A F; O'Connor, K; O'Sullivan, E P; Paul, R G; Palmer, J H MacG; Plaat, F; Radcliffe, J J; Sury, M R J; Torevell, H E; Wang, M; Hainsworth, J; Cook, T M

    2014-10-01

    We present the main findings of the 5th National Audit Project on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia. Incidences were estimated using reports of accidental awareness as the numerator, and a parallel national anaesthetic activity survey to provide denominator data. The incidence of certain/probable and possible accidental awareness cases was ~1:19 600 anaesthetics (95% CI 1:16 700-23 450). However, there was considerable variation across subtypes of techniques or subspecialties. The incidence with neuromuscular blockade was ~1:8200 (1:7030-9700), and without it was ~1:135 900 (1:78 600-299 000). The cases of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia reported to 5th National Audit Project were overwhelmingly cases of unintended awareness during neuromuscular blockade. The incidence of accidental awareness during caesarean section was ~1:670 (1:380-1300). Two thirds (82, 66%) of cases of accidental awareness experiences arose in the dynamic phases of anaesthesia, namely induction of and emergence from anaesthesia. During induction of anaesthesia, contributory factors included: use of thiopental; rapid sequence induction; obesity; difficult airway management; neuromuscular blockade; and interruptions of anaesthetic delivery during movement from anaesthetic room to theatre. During emergence from anaesthesia, residual paralysis was perceived by patients as accidental awareness, and commonly related to a failure to ensure full return of motor capacity. One third (43, 33%) of accidental awareness events arose during the maintenance phase of anaesthesia, most due to problems at induction or towards the end of anaesthesia. Factors increasing the risk of accidental awareness included: female sex; age (younger adults, but not children); obesity; anaesthetist seniority (junior trainees); previous awareness; out-of-hours operating; emergencies; type of surgery (obstetric, cardiac, thoracic); and use of neuromuscular blockade. The following factors were

  5. [Research advances of three-dimension printing technology in vertebrae and intervertebral disc tissue engineering].

    PubMed

    Yang, Zechuan; Li, Chunde; Sun, Haolin

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology is characterized by "inside-out" stack manufacturing. Compared with conventional technologies, 3D printing has the advantage of personalization and precision. Therefore, the shape and internal structure of the scaffolds made by 3D printing technology are highly biomimetic. Besides, 3D bioprinting can precisely deposit the biomaterials, seeding cells and cytokines at the same time, which is a breakthrough in printing technique and material science. With the development of 3D printing, it will make great contributions to the reconstruction of vertebrae and intervertebral disc in the future. PMID:27273987

  6. Failure of articular process (zygaphophyseal) joint development as a cause of vertebral fusion (blocked vertebrae).

    PubMed Central

    Chandraraj, S

    1987-01-01

    Examination of congenitally fused (blocked) vertebrae in this study suggests that non-development of the joint between articular facets results in fusion of the vertebral arches which in turn leads to secondary fusion of the bodies and hypoplasia of the intervertebral discs. The presence of independent pedicles and transverse processes do not favour the concept that such an abnormality is the result of non-segmentation of the sclerotome. The condition is probably linked to a defect of an inductor substance which influences normal morphogenesis of the vertebral arch in the embryonic period. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:3429327

  7. [Auriculotemporal syndrome in patient with prostatic secondaries to the cervical vertebrae and neck lymph nodes].

    PubMed

    Bouros, C

    1989-01-01

    Auriculotemporal syndrome is characterized by flushing sweating and hypersensitivity in the temporal, parotid and preauricular area during mastication. The syndrome is a rare complication after 1) injuries in this area, 2) parotidectomy, 3) surgery of fractures of the temporomandibular articulation 4) neoplasms of the parotid gland. It usually appears a few days to 1-2 years after the appearance of the above mentioned causes. A case of auriculotemporal syndrome in a 70 year old man with metastatic Ca from the prostate to the cervical vertebrae and neck lymphnodes is reported. On this occasion, the literature is reviewed and emphasis is given in pathogenesis and treatment of the syndrome. PMID:2640536

  8. [Research advances of three-dimension printing technology in vertebrae and intervertebral disc tissue engineering].

    PubMed

    Yang, Zechuan; Li, Chunde; Sun, Haolin

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology is characterized by "inside-out" stack manufacturing. Compared with conventional technologies, 3D printing has the advantage of personalization and precision. Therefore, the shape and internal structure of the scaffolds made by 3D printing technology are highly biomimetic. Besides, 3D bioprinting can precisely deposit the biomaterials, seeding cells and cytokines at the same time, which is a breakthrough in printing technique and material science. With the development of 3D printing, it will make great contributions to the reconstruction of vertebrae and intervertebral disc in the future.

  9. 3D interactive model of lumbar spinal structures of anesthetic interest.

    PubMed

    Prats-Galino, Alberto; Reina, Miguel A; Mavar Haramija, Marija; Puigdellivol-Sánchez, Anna; Juanes Méndez, Juan A; De Andrés, José A

    2015-03-01

    A 3D model of lumbar structures of anesthetic interest was reconstructed from human magnetic resonance (MR) images and embedded in a Portable Document Format (PDF) file, which can be opened by freely available software and used offline. The MR images were analyzed using a specific 3D software platform for biomedical data. Models generated from manually delimited volumes of interest and selected MR images were exported to Virtual Reality Modeling Language format and were presented in a PDF document containing JavaScript-based functions. The 3D file and the corresponding instructions and license files can be downloaded freely at http://diposit.ub.edu/dspace/handle/2445/44844?locale=en. The 3D PDF interactive file includes reconstructions of the L3-L5 vertebrae, intervertebral disks, ligaments, epidural and foraminal fat, dural sac and nerve root cuffs, sensory and motor nerve roots of the cauda equina, and anesthetic approaches (epidural medial, spinal paramedial, and selective nerve root paths); it also includes a predefined sequential educational presentation. Zoom, 360° rotation, selective visualization, and transparency graduation of each structure and clipping functions are available. Familiarization requires no specialized informatics knowledge. The ease with which the document can be used could make it valuable for anatomical and anesthetic teaching and demonstration of patient information. PMID:25352014

  10. Is sheep lumbar spine a suitable alternative model for human spinal researches? Morphometrical comparison study

    PubMed Central

    Berner, Dagmar; Jülke, Henriette; Hohaus, Christian; Brehm, Walter; Gerlach, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    Sheep are commonly used as a model for human spinal orthopaedic research due to their similarity in morphological and biomechanical features. This study aimed to document the volumes of vertebral bodies and compare the generated results as well as morphometry of the sheep lumbar spine to human published data. For this purpose, computed tomography scans were carried out on five adult Merino sheep under general anaesthesia. Transverse 5 mm thick images were acquired from L1 to L6 using a multi-detector-row helical CT scanner. Volume measurements were performed with dedicated software. Four spinal indices and Pavlov's ratio were calculated. Thereafter, the generated data were compared to published literature on humans. The mean vertebral body volume showed an increase towards the caudal vertebrae, but there were no significant differences between the vertebral levels (P>0.05). Compared to humans, sheep vertebral body volumes were 48.6% smaller. The comparison of absolute values between both species revealed that sheep had smaller, longer and narrower vertebral bodies, thinner intervertebral discs, narrower spinal canal, longer transverse processes, shorter dorsal spinous processes and narrower, higher pedicles with more lateral angulations. The comparison of the spinal indices showed a good similarity to human in terms of the vertebral endplates and spinal canal. The results of this study may be helpful for using the sheep as a model for human orthopaedic spinal research if anatomical differences are taken into account. PMID:24396382

  11. Comparison of Values in 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th Grade Primary Education Music Class Students'? Workbooks According to Rokeach?s and Akbas's Value Classifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çakirer, H. Serdar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to compare the values in the songs of 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grade primary education music classes students? workbooks according to the value categorizations proposed by Rockeach and Akbas and which values among the categories mentioned are taught to the students in the 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grade primary education…

  12. Using Community-based Participatory Research to Adapt keepin’ it REAL: Creating a Socially, Developmentally, and Academically Appropriate Prevention Curriculum for 5th Graders

    PubMed Central

    Harthun, Mary L.; Dustman, Patricia A.; Reeves, Leslie J.; Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Hecht, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a process in which program designers, classroom teachers, and students worked together to adapt the 7th grade “keepin’ it REAL” prevention curriculum to a developmentally, socially, and academically appropriate curriculum for 5th graders. A Community-Based Participatory Research methodology (CBPR), combined with a 9-step adaptation model, emphasized a collaborative approach, both transformative and empowering. Essential adaptation elements were the Risk-to-Resiliency Continuum; the teaching of a wide range of skills including risk assessment, decision making, and resistance strategies; and, maintaining the theoretical grounding of Narrative Theory, Communication Competence, and Focus Theory of Norms. This paper describes how CBPR methodology can be conducted successfully while focusing on sustained theoretical grounding and effective research practices in a school-based setting. PMID:21057596

  13. 5th BSPR-EBI meeting, proteomics: from Technology to New Biology 8-10 July 2008, Wellcome Trust Conference Centre, Hinxton, Cambridge, UK.

    PubMed

    English, Jane A; Polden, Julie; Robinson, Aisling A

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the 5(th) joint British Society for Proteome Research (BSPR) and European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) meeting which took place at the Wellcome Trust Conference Centre, Cambridge, UK, from the 8(th) to 10(th) July, 2008. As in previous years, the meeting attracted leading experts in the field who presented the latest cutting edge in proteomics. The meeting was entitled "Proteomics: From Technology to New Biology" taking into account the major transition proteomics has undergone in the past few years. In particular, the use of multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-based targeted experiments for absolute quantification and validation of proteins was the hot topic of the meeting. Attended by some 250 delegates, the conference was extremely well organised and provided a great opportunity for discussion and initiation of new collaborations.

  14. [The Revision and 5th Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5): Consequences for the Diagnostic Work with Children and Adolescents].

    PubMed

    Zulauf Logoz, Marina

    2014-01-01

    The Revision and 5th Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5): Consequences for the Diagnostic Work with Children and Adolescents.The present paper describes and discusses the major revisions in DSM-5 for children and adolescents. A major modification is that the separate chapter for disorders first diagnosed in childhood and adolescence was abandoned in favour of the integration of these clinical pictures into the relevant disorder-specific chapters. Several new diagnoses and diagnostic groups were introduced: "Disruptive mood regulation disorder" is a new diagnosis; the different diagnoses for autism were brought together into one, and a new diagnostic group for obsessive-compulsive disorders has been established. The developmental approach of DSM-5 and the integration of dimensional assessment tools are to be welcomed. Practice will show if the critiques afraid of possible increases in prevalences or those who approve the changes will end up being right.

  15. Comparison of the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition, in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Grondhuis, Sabrina Nicole; Mulick, James A

    2013-01-01

    A review of hospital records was conducted for children evaluated for autism spectrum disorders who completed both the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R) and Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition (SB5). Participants were between 3 and 12 years of age. Diagnoses were autistic disorder (n  =  26, 55%) and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (n  =  21, 45%). Analysis showed that the full sample received significantly higher scores on the Leiter-R than SB5 (mean discrepancy of 20.91 points), specific diagnosis was not a significant factor, and younger children had a larger discrepancy between tests. These analyses strongly suggest that the Leiter-R and the SB5 may not be equivalent measures of intellectual functioning in children with autism spectrum disorders, and that use of one or the other exclusively could lead to misclassification of intellectual capacity.

  16. Automatic construction of patient-specific finite-element mesh of the spine from IVDs and vertebra segmentations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Mateos, Isaac; Pozo, Jose M.; Lazary, Aron; Frangi, Alejandro F.

    2016-03-01

    Computational medicine aims at developing patient-specific models to help physicians in the diagnosis and treatment selection for patients. The spine, and other skeletal structures, is an articulated object, composed of rigid bones (vertebrae) and non-rigid parts (intervertebral discs (IVD), ligaments and muscles). These components are usually extracted from different image modalities, involving patient repositioning. In the case of the spine, these models require the segmentation of IVDs from MR and vertebrae from CT. In the literature, there exists a vast selection of segmentations methods, but there is a lack of approaches to align the vertebrae and IVDs. This paper presents a method to create patient-specific finite element meshes for biomechanical simulations, integrating rigid and non-rigid parts of articulated objects. First, the different parts are aligned in a complete surface model. Vertebrae extracted from CT are rigidly repositioned in between the IVDs, initially using the IVDs location and then refining the alignment using the MR image with a rigid active shape model algorithm. Finally, a mesh morphing algorithm, based on B-splines, is employed to map a template finite-element (volumetric) mesh to the patient-specific surface mesh. This morphing reduces possible misalignments and guarantees the convexity of the model elements. Results show that the accuracy of the method to align vertebrae into MR, together with IVDs, is similar to that of the human observers. Thus, this method is a step forward towards the automation of patient-specific finite element models for biomechanical simulations.

  17. Nuclear Electricity. 5th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hore-Lacy, Ian

    Educators must address the need for young people to be informed about both the scientific concepts and the reasons for controversy when dealing with controversial issues. Young people must be given the opportunity to form their own opinions when presented with evidence for conflicting arguments. Previous editions of "Nuclear Electricity" have…

  18. Jack-of-all-trades master of all? Snake vertebrae have a generalist inner organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houssaye, Alexandra; Boistel, Renaud; Böhme, Wolfgang; Herrel, Anthony

    2013-11-01

    Snakes are a very speciose group of squamates that adapted to various habitats and ecological niches. Their ecological diversity is of particular interest and functional demands associated with their various styles of locomotion are expected to result in anatomical specializations. In order to explore the potential adaptation of snakes to their environment we here analyze variation in vertebral structure at the microanatomical level in species with different locomotor adaptations. Vertebrae, being a major element of the snake body, are expected to display adaptations to the physical constraints associated with the different locomotor modes and environments. Our results revealed a rather homogenous vertebral microanatomy in contrast to what has been observed for other squamates and amniotes more generally. We here suggest that the near-absence of microanatomical specializations in snake vertebrae might be correlated to their rather homogeneous overall morphology and reduced range of morphological diversity, as compared to lizards. Thus, snakes appear to retain a generalist inner morphology that allows them to move efficiently in different environments. Only a few ecologically highly specialized taxa appear to display some microanatomical specializations that remain to be studied in greater detail.

  19. Relevance of discrete traits in forensic anthropology: From the first cervical vertebra to the pelvic girdle.

    PubMed

    Verna, Emeline; Piercecchi-Marti, Marie-Dominique; Chaumoitre, Kathia; Adalian, Pascal

    2015-08-01

    In forensic anthropology, identification begins by determining the sex, age, ancestry and stature of the individuals. Asymptomatic variations present on the skeleton, known as discrete traits, can be useful to identify individuals, or at least contribute to complete their biological profile. We decided to focus our work on the upper part of the skeleton, from the first vertebra to the pelvic girdle, and we chose to present 8 discrete traits (spina bifida occulta, butterfly vertebra, supraclavicular nerve foramen, coracoclavicular joint, os acromiale, suprascapular foramen, manubrium foramen and pubic spine), because they show a frequency lower than 10%. We examined 502 anonymous CT scans from polytraumatized individuals, aged 15 to 65 years, in order to detect the selected discrete traits. Age and sex were known for each subject. Thin sections in the axial, coronal and sagittal planes and 3D volume rendering images were created and examined for the visualization of the selected discrete traits. Supraclavicular foramina were found only in males and only on the left clavicle. Coracoclavicular joints were observed only in males. The majority of individuals with a suprascapular foramen were older than 50 years of age. Pubic spines were observed mostly in females. Other traits did not present significant association with sex, age and laterality. No association between traits was highlighted. Better knowledge of human skeletal variations will help anthropologists come closer to a positive identification, especially if these variations are rare, therefore making them more discriminant.

  20. Comparisons of Anterior Plate Screw Pullout Strength Between Polyurethane Foams and Thoracolumbar Cadaveric Vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, Srinidhi; Palepu, Vivek

    2016-10-01

    Synthetic polyurethane foams are frequently used in biomechanical testing of spinal medical devices. However, it is unclear what types of foam are most representative of human vertebral trabecular bone behavior, particularly for testing the bone-implant interface. Therefore, a study was conducted to compare polyurethane foam microstructure and screw pullout properties to human vertebrae. Cadaveric thoracolumbar vertebrae underwent microcomputed tomography to assess trabecular bone microstructure. Spine plate screws were implanted into the vertebral body and pullout testing was performed. The same procedure was followed for eight different densities (grades 5-30) of commercially available closed cell (CCF) and open cell foams (OCF). The results indicated that foam microstructural parameters such as volume fraction, strut thickness, strut spacing, and material density rarely matched that of trabecular bone. However, certain foams provided mechanical properties that were comparable to the cadavers tested. Pullout force and work to pullout for screws implanted into CCF grade 5 were similar to osteoporotic female cadavers. In addition, screw pullout forces and work to pullout in CCF grade 8, grade 10, and OCF grade 30 were similar to osteopenic male cadavers. All other OCF and CCF foams possessed pullout properties that were either significantly lower or higher than the cadavers tested. This study elucidated the types and densities of polyurethane foams that can represent screw pullout strength in human vertebral bone. Synthetic bone surrogates used for biomechanical testing should be selected based on bone quantity and quality of patients who may undergo device implantation. PMID:27536905

  1. Vertebral artery injury in a patient with fractured C4 vertebra.

    PubMed

    Banić, Tihomir; Banić, Morana; Cvjetko, Ivan; Somun, Nenad; Bilić, Vide; Vidjak, Vinko; Pavić, Vladimir; Coc, Ivan; Kokić, Tomislav; Kejlal, Zvonko

    2014-09-01

    Vertebral artery injuries due to cervical spine trauma, although rarely described in the literature, are relatively common. While most of them will remain asymptomatic, a small percentage of patients may suffer life threatening complications. We report a case of the right vertebral artery injury in a patient with fracture of C4 vertebra, successfully treated with endovascular approach. A 78-year-old male patient was hospitalized for cervical spine injury caused by falling off the tractor. Radiological assessment revealed fracture of C4 vertebra with proximal two-thirds of C4 body dislocated five millimeters dorsally. Significant swelling of soft prevertebral tissues distally of C2 segment was also present. During emergency surgery using standard anterior approach for cervical spine, excessive bleeding started from the injured right vertebral artery. Bleeding was stopped by tamponade with oxidized regenerated cellulose sheet and C4-C5 anterior fixation; then partial reduction of displacement was done. Fifteen days later, after angiography, endovascular repair of the right vertebral artery was performed using percutaneous stent graft. Follow up computed tomography scan angiography showed valid stent patency without contrast extravasation. In cases of cervical spine trauma, surgeon should always be prepared to manage injury of vertebral artery. Bleeding can primarily be stopped by hemostatic packing, and definitive repair can be successfully achieved by endovascular approach using percutaneous stent graft. PMID:25509251

  2. Cervical vertebrae, cranial base, and mandibular retrognathia in human triploid fetuses.

    PubMed

    Sonnesen, Liselotte; Nolting, Dorrit; Engel, Ulla; Kjaer, Inger

    2009-02-01

    On profile radiographs of adults, an association between fusions of cervical vertebrae, deviations in the cranial base and mandibular retrognathia has been documented radiographically. An elaboration of this association on a histological level is needed. In human triploid fetuses severe mandibular retrognathia and deviations in the cranial base have previously been described radiographically (without cephalometry) and cervical column fusions radiographically as well as histologically. Therefore, triploid fetuses were chosen to elucidate the cranial base cephalomterically and histologically. In the present study, eight triploid fetuses were analyzed radiographically and histologically focusing especially on the cranial base, which borders to the spine and to which the jaws are attached. A histological analysis of the cranial base has not previously been performed in triploid cases. An enlarged cranial base angle and a retrognathic position of the mandible were documented cephalometrically on radiographs of all cases. Histologically, malformations were observed in the cranial base as well as in the spine. These are new findings indicating the association between the occipital bone and the uppermost vertebra in the body axis. As the notochord connects the cervical column and the cranial base in early prenatal life, molecular signaling from the notochord may in future studies support the notochord as the developmental link between abnormal development in the spine and the cranial base.

  3. Remodelling of bone and bones: growth of normal and transplanted caudal vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Feik, S A; Storey, E

    1983-01-01

    Changes in the rate of growth, shape and structure of the 8th, 16th and 22nd caudal vertebrae of 4 and 24-27 days old Sprague-Dawley rats were studied in situ and in three different non-functional transplantation sites for 12 weeks. With increasing size, maturity and age the three vertebrae showed progressively decreasing growth, changes in shape and structural abnormalities. The smallest anlages grew faster and matured sooner than normal, so that their length equalled that of controls. Central endochondral necrosis in older bones was associated with decreased longitudinal growth but in some younger ones, despite a perforation of the cartilage and herniation of the nucleus pulposus into the marrow cavity of the shaft, growth proceeded at near normal rates. The free ends of older, larger transplants grew faster than the abutting ends joined by joint connective tissue, indicating that central necrosis of cartilage resulted from impaired nutrient diffusion. The results suggest that the cartilage model may possess an inherent capacity to produce a certain limited amount of bone tissue which may be distributed either in the form of long and thin or short and inwaisted bones, depending on the balance of forces between interstitial cartilage expansion and the restraining ensheathing periosteal-perichondrial tissues. This basic form may be modified further by functional forces.

  4. Effects of lumbar stabilization exercise on functional disability and lumbar lordosis angle in patients with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Cho, Igsoo; Jeon, Chunbae; Lee, Sangyong; Lee, Daehee; Hwangbo, Gak

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of lumbar stabilization exercises on the functional disability and lumbar lordosis angles in patients with chronic low back pain. [Subjects] The subjects were 30 patients with chronic low back pain divided into a lumbar stabilization exercise group (n = 15) and a conservative treatment group (n = 15). [Methods] The lumbar stabilization exercise and conservative treatment groups performed an exercise program and conservative physical treatment, respectively. Both programs were performed 3 times a week for 6 weeks. The degree of functional disability was assessed by the Oswestry disability index, and lumbar lordosis angles were measured by plain radiography. [Results] The Oswestry disability index decreased significantly in the both groups; however, it was significantly lower in the lumbar stabilization exercise group. The lumbar lordosis angle increased significantly in the lumbar stabilization exercise group after treatment and was also significantly greater than that in the conservative treatment group. [Conclusion] Lumbar stabilization exercise is more effective than conservative treatment for improving functional disability and lumbar lordosis angles.

  5. Automatic localization of target vertebrae in spine surgery using fast CT-to-fluoroscopy (3D-2D) image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otake, Y.; Schafer, S.; Stayman, J. W.; Zbijewski, W.; Kleinszig, G.; Graumann, R.; Khanna, A. J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2012-02-01

    Localization of target vertebrae is an essential step in minimally invasive spine surgery, with conventional methods relying on "level counting" - i.e., manual counting of vertebrae under fluoroscopy starting from readily identifiable anatomy (e.g., the sacrum). The approach requires an undesirable level of radiation, time, and is prone to counting errors due to the similar appearance of vertebrae in projection images; wrong-level surgery occurs in 1 of every ~3000 cases. This paper proposes a method to automatically localize target vertebrae in x-ray projections using 3D-2D registration between preoperative CT (in which vertebrae are preoperatively labeled) and intraoperative fluoroscopy. The registration uses an intensity-based approach with a gradient-based similarity metric and the CMA-ES algorithm for optimization. Digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) and a robust similarity metric are computed on GPU to accelerate the process. Evaluation in clinical CT data included 5,000 PA and LAT projections randomly perturbed to simulate human variability in setup of mobile intraoperative C-arm. The method demonstrated 100% success for PA view (projection error: 0.42mm) and 99.8% success for LAT view (projection error: 0.37mm). Initial implementation on GPU provided automatic target localization within about 3 sec, with further improvement underway via multi-GPU. The ability to automatically label vertebrae in fluoroscopy promises to streamline surgical workflow, improve patient safety, and reduce wrong-site surgeries, especially in large patients for whom manual methods are time consuming and error prone.

  6. Investigation of the osteitis deformans phases in snake vertebrae by double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Galiová, M; Kaiser, J; Novotný, K; Ivanov, M; Nývltová Fisáková, M; Mancini, L; Tromba, G; Vaculovic, T; Liska, M; Kanický, V

    2010-09-01

    Double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (DP-LIBS) was optimized for microspatial analyses of fossil and recent snake vertebrae. As complimentary techniques, solution analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and synchrotron radiation X-ray microtomography was utilized in order to determine the overall concentration of the selected elements in the samples and to visualize nondestructively the fossil sample microstructure, respectively. Elemental mapping of pathological bony tissue by DP-LIBS has been proven as a powerful tool for considering the osteitis deformans phases in fossil vertebrae.

  7. [Vascular complications associated with lumbar spinal surgery].

    PubMed

    Riedemann-Wistuba, M; Alonso-Pérez, M; Llaneza-Coto, J M

    2016-01-01

    Although there are currently less invasive techniques available for the treatment of spinal injuries, open surgery is still required in many cases. Vascular injuries occurring during lumbar spine surgery, although uncommon, are of great importance due to their potential gravity. Clinical manifestations vary from an acute hemorrhagic shock that needs urgent treatment to save the patient's life, to insidious injuries or an asymptomatic evolution, and should be studied to choose the best therapeutic alternative. Four cases are reported that represent this range of possibilities and emphasize the importance of a careful surgical technique during lumbar spine interventions, and the need for high clinical suspicion, essential for the early diagnosis of these vascular complications. The current therapeutic options are also discussed. PMID:25662569

  8. Single incision endoscopic surgery for lumbar hernia.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Masahiko; Ishikawa, Norihiko; Shimizu, Satsuki; Shin, Hisato; Matsunoki, Aika; Watanabe, Go

    2011-01-01

    Single Incision Endoscopic Surgery (SIES) has emerged as a less invasive surgery among laparoscopic surgeries, and this approach for incisional hernia was reported recently. This is the first report of SIES for an incisional lumbar hernia. A 66-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our institution because of a left flank hernia that developed after left iliac crest bone harvesting. A 20-mm incision was created on the left side of the umbilicus and all three trocars (12, 5, and 5 mm) were inserted into the incision. The hernial defect was 14 × 9 cm and was repaired with intraperitoneal onlay mesh and a prosthetic graft. The postoperative course was uneventful. SIES for lumbar hernia offers a safe and effective outcome equivalent compared to laparoscopic surgery. In addition, SIES is less invasive and has a cosmetic benefit.

  9. [Idiopathic Lumbar Hernia: A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Tsujino, Takuya; Inamoto, Teruo; Matsunaga, Tomohisa; Uchimoto, Taizo; Saito, Kenkichi; Takai, Tomoaki; Minami, Koichiro; Takahara, Kiyoshi; Nomi, Hayahito; Azuma, Haruhito

    2015-11-01

    A 68-year-old woman, complained of an indolent lump about 60 × 70 mm in size in the left lower back. We conducted a computed tomography scan, which exhibited a hernia of Gerota'sfascia-commonly called superior lumbar hernia. In the right lateral position, the hernia contents were observed to attenuate, hence only closure of the hernial orifice was conducted by using Kugel patch, without removal of the hernia sack. Six months after the surgery, she has had no relapse of the hernia. Superior lumbar hernia, which occurs in an anatomically brittle region in the lower back, is a rare and potentially serious disease. The urologic surgeon should bear in mind this rarely seen entity.

  10. [Vascular complications associated with lumbar spinal surgery].

    PubMed

    Riedemann-Wistuba, M; Alonso-Pérez, M; Llaneza-Coto, J M

    2016-01-01

    Although there are currently less invasive techniques available for the treatment of spinal injuries, open surgery is still required in many cases. Vascular injuries occurring during lumbar spine surgery, although uncommon, are of great importance due to their potential gravity. Clinical manifestations vary from an acute hemorrhagic shock that needs urgent treatment to save the patient's life, to insidious injuries or an asymptomatic evolution, and should be studied to choose the best therapeutic alternative. Four cases are reported that represent this range of possibilities and emphasize the importance of a careful surgical technique during lumbar spine interventions, and the need for high clinical suspicion, essential for the early diagnosis of these vascular complications. The current therapeutic options are also discussed.

  11. The Effects of Stretching with Lumbar Traction on VAS and Oswestry Scales of Patients with Lumbar 4–5 Herniated Intervertebral Disc

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hae-sun; Yoo, Won-gyu

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of stretching with lumbar traction on VAS and Oswestry scale scores of lumbar 4–5 herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) patients. [Subjects] We recruited 20 lumbar 4–5 HIVD patients. [Methods] We performed stretching with lumbar traction for lumbar 4–5 HIVD patients during 4 weeks. The VAS and Oswestry scales were measured before and 4 weeks after the intervention. [Results] The results showed a significant decrease in VAS scale scores for stretching with lumbar traction in lumbar 4–5 HIVD patients, from 18±1.29 to 2.1±1.35. The Oswestry scale scores also decreased significantly, from 20.35±2.01 to 3.5±2.84, after stretching with lumbar traction. [Conclusion] Thus, we suggest stretching with lumbar traction for lumbar 4–5 HIVD patients. PMID:25140094

  12. On the Health Risk of the Lumbar Spine due to Whole-Body VIBRATION—THEORETICAL Approach, Experimental Data and Evaluation of Whole-Body Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, H.; Blüthner, R.; Hinz, B.; Schust, M.

    1998-08-01

    The guidance on the effects of vibration on health in standards for whole-body vibration (WBV) does not provide quantitative relationships between WBV and health risk. The paper aims at the elucidation of exposure-response relationships. An analysis of published data on the static and dynamic strength of vertebrae and bone, loaded with various frequencies under different conditions, provided the basis for a theoretical approach to evaluate repetitive loads on the lumbar spine (“internal loads”). The approach enabled the calculation of “equivalent”—with respect to cumulative fatigue failure—combinations of amplitudes and numbers of internal cyclic stress. In order to discover the relation between external peak accelerations at the seat and internal peak loads, biodynamic data of experiments (36 subjects, three somatotypes, two different postures—relaxed and bent forward; random WBV,aw, r.m.s. 1·4 ms-2, containing high transients) were used as input to a biomechanical model. Internal pressure changes were calculated using individual areas of vertebral endplates. The assessment of WBV was based on the quantitative relations between peak accelerations at the seat and pressures predicted for the disk L5/S1. For identical exposures clearly higher rates of pressure rise in the bent forward compared to the relaxed posture were predicted. The risk assessment for internal forces considered the combined internal static and dynamic loads, in relation to the predicted individual strength, and Miner's hypothesis. For exposure durations between 1 min and 8 h, energy equivalent vibration magnitudes (formula B.1, ISO 2631-1, 1997) and equivalent vibration magnitudes according to formula B.2 (time dependence over-energetic) were compared with equivalent combinations of upward peak accelerations and exposure durations according to predicted cumulative fatigue failures of lumbar vertebrae. Formula B.1 seems to underestimate the health risk caused by high magnitudes

  13. Lumbar hernia: surgical anatomy, embryology, and technique of repair.

    PubMed

    Stamatiou, Dimitrios; Skandalakis, John E; Skandalakis, Lee J; Mirilas, Petros

    2009-03-01

    Lumbar hernia is the protrusion of intraperitoneal or extraperitoneal contents through a defect of the posterolateral abdominal wall. Barbette was the first, in 1672, to suggest the existence of lumbar hernias. The first case was reported by Garangeot in 1731. Petit and Grynfeltt delineated the boundaries of the inferior and superior lumbar triangles in 1783 and 1866, respectively. These two anatomical sites account for about 95 per cent of lumbar hernias. Approximately 20 per cent of lumbar hernias are congenital. The rest are either primarily or secondarily acquired. The most common cause of primarily acquired lumbar hernias is increased intra-abdominal pressure. Secondarily acquired lumbar hernias are associated with prior surgical incisions, trauma, and abscess formation. During embryologic development, weakening of the area of the aponeuroses of the layered abdominal muscles that derive from somitic mesoderm, which invades the somatopleure, may potentially lead to lumbar hernias. Repair of lumbar hernias should be performed as early as possible to avoid incarceration and strangulation. The classic repair technique uses the open approach, where closure of the defect is performed either directly or using prosthetic mesh. The laparoscopic approach, either transabdominal or extraperitoneal, is an alternative.

  14. Lumbar nerve root: the enigmatic eponyms.

    PubMed

    Dyck, P

    1984-01-01

    Man's quest for recognition has not escaped the physician, whose contributions to medicine perpetuate his name in print. It is a final grasp for professional immortality, which for men like Imhotep and Hippocrates, has prevailed for millennia. This fervor was particularly evident in the latter 19th century, which created a flurry of eponyms, often two or more physicians publishing the same clinical observation. This article reviews the eponym epidemic as it relates to lumbar radiculopathy.

  15. Congenitally absent lumbar pedicle: a reappraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Wortzman, G.; Steinhardt, M.I.

    1984-09-01

    Three patients who had a diagnosis of congenitally absent lumbar pedicle underwent CT examination. Findings showed that each patient had an aberrant hypoplastic pedicle plus a retroisthmic defect in their ipsilateral lamina rather than an absent pedicle. Axial CT was the diagnostic modality of choice; reformated images were of little value. The differential diagnosis to be considered from the findings of plain film radiography includes pediculate thinning, neoplastic disease, neurofibroma, mesodermal dysplasia associated with neurofibromatosis, and vascular anomalies.

  16. Linear Lumbar Localized Lysis of Elastic Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Tschen, Jaime A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The absence or loss of elastic fibers in the skin is referred to as dermal elastolysis. Purpose: This paper describes a woman with a distinctive clinical presentation of mid-dermal elastolysis characterized morphologically by multiple horizontal raised bands on the lower back. Methods: A 20-year-old Filipino woman presented with multiple asymptomatic, flesh-colored, raised, firm, linear, cord-like bands on the lumbar area of her back. There were neither similar lesions elsewhere nor a family member with this condition. Results: Microscopic examination of the raised band showed nearly complete absence of elastic fibers in the mid dermis. In contrast, a biopsy of symmetrically located normal-appearing skin showed a uniform distribution of elastic fibers throughout the dermis. Linear lumbar localized elastolysis is a descriptive designation that accurately reflects a correlation of the clinical and pathological changes of this condition. Conclusion: The clinical differential of raised horizontal cord-like bands on the lower back (without a family history of an inherited elastic fiber disorder, a prior history of trauma, or a significant change in weight or exercise habit) includes linear focal elastosis and linear lumbar localized elastolysis. Microscopic evaluation of a Verhoeff-van Gieson stained lesion specimen (which may be accompanied by a biopsy of normal-appearing skin for comparison) will readily differentiate these conditions. The former is usually characterized by increased elastic fibers, whereas the latter, as in this patient, shows a paucity or absence of elastic fibers in the mid dermis. PMID:23882313

  17. Design concepts in lumbar total disc arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Bellini, Chiara M.; Zweig, Thomas; Ferguson, Stephen; Raimondi, Manuela T.; Lamartina, Claudio; Brayda-Bruno, Marco; Fornari, Maurizio

    2008-01-01

    The implantation of lumbar disc prostheses based on different design concepts is widely accepted. This paper reviews currently available literature studies on the biomechanics of TDA in the lumbar spine, and is targeted at the evaluation of possible relationships between the aims of TDA and the geometrical, mechanical and material properties of the various available disc prostheses. Both theoretical and experimental studies were analyzed, by a PUBMED search (performed in February 2007, revised in January 2008), focusing on single level TDA. Both semi-constrained and unconstrained lumbar discs seem to be able to restore nearly physiological IAR locations and ROM values. However, both increased and decreased ROM was stated in some papers, unrelated to the clinical outcome. Segmental lordosis alterations after TDA were reported in most cases, for both constrained and unconstrained disc prostheses. An increase in the load through the facet joints was documented, for both semi-constrained and unconstrained artificial discs, but with some contrasting results. Semi-constrained devices may be able to share a greater part of the load, thus protecting the surrounding biological structure from overloading and possible early degeneration, but may be more susceptible to wear. The next level of development will be the biomechanical integration of compression across the motion segment. All these findings need to be supported by long-term clinical outcome studies. PMID:18946684

  18. Subarachnoid hemorrhage due to retained lumbar drain.

    PubMed

    Guppy, Kern H; Silverthorn, James W; Akins, Paul T

    2011-12-01

    Intrathecal spinal catheters (lumbar drains) are indicated for several medical and surgical conditions. In neurosurgical procedures, they are used to reduce intracranial and intrathecal pressures by diverting CSF. They have also been placed for therapeutic access to administer drugs, and more recently, vascular surgeons have used them to improve spinal cord perfusion during the treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms. Insertion of these lumbar drains is not without attendant complications. One complication is the shearing of the distal end of the catheter with a resultant retained fragment. The authors report the case of a 65-year-old man who presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to the migration of a retained lumbar drain that sheared off during its removal. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of rostral migration of a retained intrathecal catheter causing subarachnoid hemorrhage. The authors review the literature on retained intrathecal spinal catheters, and their findings support either early removal of easily accessible catheters or close monitoring with serial imaging.

  19. PREFACE: The Joint 16th Europhysics Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases--5th International Conference on Reactive Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, N.

    2003-11-01

    The first joint meeting of the Europhysics Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases (ESCAMPIG), the International Conference on Reactive Plasmas (ICRP) and the Symposium on Plasma Processing (SPP) was held in Grenoble, France between 14 and 18 July 2002. ESCAMPIG is an important biennial European event at which academics and industrialists working in low temperature plasma science meet. ICRP and SPP are Japanese triennial and annual meetings covering the entire field of reactive plasmas: generation, diagnostics and modelling of plasmas and their interaction with surfaces, and their applications. This ESCAMPIG 16th--ICRP 5th joint conference was organized under the sponsorship of the European Physical Society (EPS), the Japan Society of Applied Physics (JSAP), University Joseph Fourier (UJF) and Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS). The scientific scope of this joint conference was focused on both experimental and theoretical aspects of physics of ionized gases and on its industrial applications. It covered the following topics: bullet atomic and molecular processes in plasmas bullet particle energy distribution functions bullet discharge physics: sheathes, transport processes and modelling bullet plasma diagnostics bullet laser and particle beam assisted plasma processes bullet physical basis of plasma chemistry and plasma--surface interactions bullet production and control of reactive plasmas bullet etching, deposition and cleaning bullet environmental and other applications. The ESCAMPIG 16th--ICRP 5th joint conference was attended by 379 scientists from 26 countries. 22 invited papers were presented. Most of these papers are published in this special issue. In addition, 16 contributed papers were selected by the joint International Scientific Committee (ISC) for oral presentation as a `hot topic'. Beside this, two workshops were held on `Recent developments in plasma monitoring for microelectronics', organized by Professor H

  20. Intrabody application of eptotermin alpha enhances bone formation in osteoporotic fractures of the lumbar spine; however, fails to increase biomechanical stability - results of an experimental sheep model.

    PubMed

    Eschler, Anica; Roepenack, Paula; Herlyn, Philipp Karl Ewald; Roesner, Jan; Martin, Heiner; Vollmar, Brigitte; Mittlmeier, Thomas; Gradl, Georg

    2015-01-01

    This study analyses the effect of eptotermin α application into fractured vertebrae. It is hypothesized that eptotermin α is capable to enhance bony healing of the osteoporotic spine. In 10 Merino sheep osteoporosis induction was performed by ovariectomy, corticosteroid therapy and calcium/phosphorus/vitamin D-deficient diet; followed by standardized creation of lumbar vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) type A3.1 and consecutive fracture reduction/fixation using expandable mesh cages. Randomly, intravertebral eptotermin α (G1) or no augmentation was added (G2). Macroscopic, micro-CT, and biomechanical evaluation assessed bony consolidation two months postoperatively: Micro-CT data revealed bony consolidation for all cases with significant increased callus development for G2 (60%) and BV/TV (bone volume/total volume 73.45%, osteoporotic vertebrae 35.76%). Neither group showed improved biomechanical stability. Eptotermin α enhanced mineralisation in VCFs in an experimental setup with use of cementless augmentation via an expandable cage. However, higher bone mineral density did not lead to superior biomechanical properties.

  1. Offshore observations of aftershocks following the January 5th 2013 Mw 7.5 Queen Charlotte-Fairweather fault earthquake, southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roland, E. C.; Gulick, S. P.; Levoir, M. A.; Haeussler, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    We present initial results from a rapid-response ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) deployment that recorded aftershock activity on the Queen Charlotte-Fairweather (QC-F) fault following the Mw 7.5 earthquake on January 5th 2013 near Craig, Alaska. This earthquake was the second of two Mw > 7 events on this fault system in a 3 month time period; the Craig earthquake followed a Mw 7.8 thrust event that occurred in October 2012, west of Haida Gwaii, British Columbia. Although the QC-F is a major plate boundary fault, little is known about the regional fault structure, interseismic coupling, and rheological controls on the depth distribution of seismic slip along the continent-ocean transform. The majority of the QC-F fault system extends offshore western British Columbia and southeast Alaska, making it difficult to characterize earthquakes and fault deformation with land-based seismic and geodetic instruments. This experiment is the first ever offshore seismometer deployment to record earthquake activity along this northern segment of the QC-F system, and was set in motion with help from the US Coast Guard, who provided a vessel and crew to deploy and recover the OBS array on short notice. The seismic array utilized 6 GeoPro short period OBS from the University of Texas Institute for Geophysics, which recorded approximately 3 weeks of aftershock activity in April-May of 2013. Combining high-quality local OBS recordings with land-based seismic observations from Alaska Earthquake Information Center (AEIC) stations to the east, we present more precise aftershock locations and depths that help to better characterize fault zone architecture along the northern section of the QC-F. Although moment tensor solutions indicate that the January 5th mainshock sustained slip consistent with Pacific-North America plate motions, aftershock focal mechanisms indicate some interaction with neighboring faults, such as the Chatham Straight fault. This new OBS dataset will also help to

  2. The 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia: patient experiences, human factors, sedation, consent and medicolegal issues.

    PubMed

    Cook, T M; Andrade, J; Bogod, D G; Hitchman, J M; Jonker, W R; Lucas, N; Mackay, J H; Nimmo, A F; O'Connor, K; O'Sullivan, E P; Paul, R G; Palmer, J H MacG; Plaat, F; Radcliffe, J J; Sury, M R J; Torevell, H E; Wang, M; Hainsworth, J; Pandit, J J

    2014-10-01

    The 5th National Audit Project of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland into accidental awareness during general anaesthesia yielded data related to psychological aspects from the patient, and the anaesthetist, perspectives; patients' experiences ranged from isolated auditory or tactile sensations to complete awareness. A striking finding was that 75% of experiences were for < 5 min, yet 51% of patients (95% CI 43-60%) experienced distress and 41% (95% CI 33-50%) suffered longer-term adverse effect. Distress and longer-term harm occurred across the full range of experiences but were particularly likely when the patient experienced paralysis (with or without pain). The patient's interpretation of what is happening at the time of the awareness seemed central to later impact; explanation and reassurance during suspected accidental awareness during general anaesthesia or at the time of report seemed beneficial. Quality of care before the event was judged good in 26%, poor in 39% and mixed in 31%. Three quarters of cases of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia (75%) were judged preventable. In 12% of cases of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia, care was judged good and the episode not preventable. The contributory and human factors in the genesis of the majority of cases of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia included medication, patient and education/training. The findings have implications for national guidance, institutional organisation and individual practice. The incidence of 'accidental awareness' during sedation (~1:15 000) was similar to that during general anaesthesia (~1:19 000). The project raises significant issues about information giving and consent for both sedation and anaesthesia. We propose a novel approach to describing sedation from the patient's perspective which could be used in communication and consent. Eight (6%) of the patients had resorted

  3. Lumbar discal cyst with spontaneous regression and subsequent occurrence of lumbar disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Hanakita, Junya; Watanabe, Mizuki; Kitahama, Yoshihiro; Kuraishi, Keita; Uesaka, Toshio; Minami, Manabu; Nakase, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    A 39-year-old man presented with an extremely rare discal cyst at the L3-4 level manifesting as a left L4 radiculopathy. Two months after onset, he suffered right L4 radiculopathy with new lumbar disc protrusion. Five months after medical treatment, the patient's symptoms improved, and the discal cyst showed complete regression on magnetic resonance imaging. Most cases of discal cyst are surgically treated, with only two previous cases of spontaneous regression. The present case suggests clinical and radiological recovery of symptomatic lumbar discal cyst can be obtained by only conservative therapy. PMID:22123489

  4. Comparison of percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy and open lumbar surgery for adjacent segment degeneration and recurrent disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huan-Chieh; Lee, Chih-Hsun; Wei, Li; Lui, Tai-Ngar; Lin, Tien-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The goal of the present study was to examine the clinical results of percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) and open lumbar surgery for patients with adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) and recurrence of disc herniation. Methods. From December 2011 to November 2013, we collected forty-three patients who underwent repeated lumbar surgery. These patients, either received PELD (18 patients) or repeated open lumbar surgery (25 patients), due to ASD or recurrence of disc herniation at L3-4, L4-5, or L5-S1 level, were assigned to different groups according to the surgical approaches. Clinical data were assessed and compared. Results. Mean blood loss was significantly less in the PELD group as compared to the open lumbar surgery group (P < 0.0001). Hospital stay and mean operating time were shorter significantly in the PELD group as compared to the open lumbar surgery group (P < 0.0001). Immediate postoperative pain improvement in VAS was 3.5 in the PELD group and -0.56 in the open lumbar surgery group (P < 0.0001). Conclusion. For ASD and recurrent lumbar disc herniation, PELD had more advantages over open lumbar surgery in terms of reduced blood loss, shorter hospital stay, operating time, fewer complications, and less postoperative discomfort.

  5. Lumbar disk herniation surgery: outcome and predictors.

    PubMed

    Sedighi, Mahsa; Haghnegahdar, Ali

    2014-12-01

    Study Design A retrospective cohort study. Objectives To determine the outcome and any differences in the clinical results of three different surgical methods for lumbar disk herniation and to assess the effect of factors that could predict the outcome of surgery. Methods We evaluated 148 patients who had operations for lumbar disk herniation from March 2006 to March 2011 using three different surgical techniques (laminectomy, microscopically assisted percutaneous nucleotomy, and spinous process osteotomy) by using Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire, Resumption of Activities of Daily Living scale and changes of visual analog scale (VAS) for low back pain and radicular pain. Our study questionnaire addressed patient subjective satisfaction with the operation, residual complaints, and job resumption. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 16.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, Illinois, United States). Statistical significance was set at 0.05. For statistical analysis, chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and repeated measure analysis were performed. For determining the confounding factors, univariate analysis by chi-square test was used and followed by logistic regression analysis. Results Ninety-four percent of our patients were satisfied with the results of their surgeries. VAS documented an overall 93.3% success rate for reduction of radicular pain. Laminectomy resulted in better outcome in terms of JOA Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire. The outcome of surgery did not significantly differ by age, sex, level of education, preoperative VAS for back, preoperative VAS for radicular pain, return to previous job, or level of herniation. Conclusion Surgery for lumbar disk herniation is effective in reducing radicular pain (93.4%). All three surgical approaches resulted in significant decrease in preoperative radicular pain and low back pain, but intergroup variation in the outcome was not achieved. As indicated

  6. MRI Evaluation of Lumbar Disc Degenerative Disease

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rupal; Mehta, Chetan; Patel, Narrotam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Lower back pain secondary to degenerative disc disease is a condition that affects young to middle-aged persons with peak incidence at approximately 40 y. MRI is the standard imaging modality for detecting disc pathology due to its advantage of lack of radiation, multiplanar imaging capability, excellent spinal soft-tissue contrast and precise localization of intervertebral discs changes. Aims and Objective: To evaluate the characterization, extent, and changes associated with the degenerative lumbar disc disease by Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Study Design: Cross-sectional and observational study. Materials and Methods: A total 109 patients of the lumbar disc degeneration with age group between 17 to 80 y were diagnosed & studied on 1.5 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging machine. MRI findings like lumbar lordosis, Schmorl’s nodes, decreased disc height, disc annular tear, disc herniation, disc bulge, disc protrusion and disc extrusion were observed. Narrowing of the spinal canal, lateral recess and neural foramen with compression of nerve roots observed. Ligamentum flavum thickening and facetal arthropathy was observed. Result: Males were more commonly affected in Degenerative Spinal Disease & most of the patients show loss of lumbar lordosis. Decreased disc height was common at L5-S1 level. More than one disc involvement was seen per person. L4 – L5 disc was the most commonly involved. Annular disc tear, disc herniation, disc extrusion, narrowing of spinal canal, narrowing of lateral recess, compression of neural foramen, ligamentum flavum thickening and facetal arthropathy was common at the L4 –L5 disc level. Disc buldge was common at L3 – L4 & L4 – L5 disc level. Posterior osteophytes are common at L3 - L4 & L5 –S1 disc level. L1- L2 disc involvement and spondylolisthesis are less common. Conclusion: Lumbar disc degeneration is the most common cause of low back pain. Plain radiograph can be helpful in visualizing gross anatomic changes in

  7. Tadpole system as new lumbar spinal instrumentation

    PubMed Central

    Kasai, Yuichi; Inaba, Tadashi; Akeda, Koji; Uchida, Atsumasa

    2008-01-01

    Background There have been reports of serious complications associated with pedicle screw fixation, including nerve root injuries caused by accidental screw insertion. We have developed a new system of lumbar spinal instrumentation that we call Tadpole system®. The purposes of this report were to show the results of a biomechanical study and the short-term outcome of a clinical study, as well as to determine the usefulness of this system. Methods The Tadpole system® lumbar spinal fusion is a hook-and-rod system according to which the spine is stabilized using 2 sets of 2 spinous processes each that are held in place by 4 hooks tandemly connected to a rod. The biomechanical study was done using 5 human lumbar cadaveric spines, and the range of motion (ROM) was examined in a non-treatment model, an injured model, a pedicle screw fixation model and a Tadpole system® model. For the short-term clinical study the Tadpole system® was used in 31 patients, and the factors analyzed were operation time, time required for spinal instrumentation, amount of intraoperative bleeding, postoperative improvement rate of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score for lumbar spinal disorders, instrumentation failure, spinous process fracture, spinal fluid leakage, nerve root injury, postoperative infection, and bone fusion 2 years after the operation. Results The ROM in the Tadpole system® model was slightly bigger than that in the pedicle screw fixation model, but smaller than that in the normal control model. These biomechanical data indicated that the Tadpole system® provided fairly good stability. The mean operation time was 79 min, the mean time required for spinal instrumentation was 8 min, and the mean amount of intraoperative bleeding was 340 mL. The mean postoperative improvement rate of JOA score was 70.9 ± 24.8%. Instrumentation failure (dislocation of a hook) occurred in one patient, and none of the patients developed spinous process fracture, spinal fluid

  8. Lumbar disk herniation surgery: outcome and predictors.

    PubMed

    Sedighi, Mahsa; Haghnegahdar, Ali

    2014-12-01

    Study Design A retrospective cohort study. Objectives To determine the outcome and any differences in the clinical results of three different surgical methods for lumbar disk herniation and to assess the effect of factors that could predict the outcome of surgery. Methods We evaluated 148 patients who had operations for lumbar disk herniation from March 2006 to March 2011 using three different surgical techniques (laminectomy, microscopically assisted percutaneous nucleotomy, and spinous process osteotomy) by using Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire, Resumption of Activities of Daily Living scale and changes of visual analog scale (VAS) for low back pain and radicular pain. Our study questionnaire addressed patient subjective satisfaction with the operation, residual complaints, and job resumption. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 16.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, Illinois, United States). Statistical significance was set at 0.05. For statistical analysis, chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and repeated measure analysis were performed. For determining the confounding factors, univariate analysis by chi-square test was used and followed by logistic regression analysis. Results Ninety-four percent of our patients were satisfied with the results of their surgeries. VAS documented an overall 93.3% success rate for reduction of radicular pain. Laminectomy resulted in better outcome in terms of JOA Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire. The outcome of surgery did not significantly differ by age, sex, level of education, preoperative VAS for back, preoperative VAS for radicular pain, return to previous job, or level of herniation. Conclusion Surgery for lumbar disk herniation is effective in reducing radicular pain (93.4%). All three surgical approaches resulted in significant decrease in preoperative radicular pain and low back pain, but intergroup variation in the outcome was not achieved. As indicated

  9. Lumbar Disk Herniation Surgery: Outcome and Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Sedighi, Mahsa; Haghnegahdar, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Study Design A retrospective cohort study. Objectives To determine the outcome and any differences in the clinical results of three different surgical methods for lumbar disk herniation and to assess the effect of factors that could predict the outcome of surgery. Methods We evaluated 148 patients who had operations for lumbar disk herniation from March 2006 to March 2011 using three different surgical techniques (laminectomy, microscopically assisted percutaneous nucleotomy, and spinous process osteotomy) by using Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire, Resumption of Activities of Daily Living scale and changes of visual analog scale (VAS) for low back pain and radicular pain. Our study questionnaire addressed patient subjective satisfaction with the operation, residual complaints, and job resumption. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 16.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, Illinois, United States). Statistical significance was set at 0.05. For statistical analysis, chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and repeated measure analysis were performed. For determining the confounding factors, univariate analysis by chi-square test was used and followed by logistic regression analysis. Results Ninety-four percent of our patients were satisfied with the results of their surgeries. VAS documented an overall 93.3% success rate for reduction of radicular pain. Laminectomy resulted in better outcome in terms of JOA Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire. The outcome of surgery did not significantly differ by age, sex, level of education, preoperative VAS for back, preoperative VAS for radicular pain, return to previous job, or level of herniation. Conclusion Surgery for lumbar disk herniation is effective in reducing radicular pain (93.4%). All three surgical approaches resulted in significant decrease in preoperative radicular pain and low back pain, but intergroup variation in the outcome was not achieved. As indicated

  10. Chordoma of the thoracic vertebrae in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris)

    PubMed Central

    KURAMOCHI, Mizuki; IZAWA, Takeshi; HORI, Mayuka; KUSUDA, Kayo; SHIMIZU, Junichiro; ISERI, Toshie; AKIYOSHI, Hideo; OHASHI, Fumihito; KUWAMURA, Mitsuru; YAMATE, Jyoji

    2015-01-01

    A 19-year-old female Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) was presented with hind limb weakness, ataxia and respiratory distress. Computed tomography revealed a mass between the left side of the T7 vertebra and the base of the left 7th rib. The tiger then died, and necropsy was performed. Grossly, the vertebral mass was 6 × 5.7 × 3 cm, and invaded the adjacent vertebral bone and compressed the T7 spinal cord. Histologically, the mass was composed of large, clear, vacuolated and polygonal cells with osteochondral matrix. Cellular and nuclear atypia were moderate. The vacuolated cells stained positively for cytokeratin and vimentin and negatively for S-100. Based on these findings, the present case was diagnosed as a vertebral chordoma; the first report in a tiger. PMID:25766770

  11. Chordoma of the thoracic vertebrae in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).

    PubMed

    Kuramochi, Mizuki; Izawa, Takeshi; Hori, Mayuka; Kusuda, Kayo; Shimizu, Junichiro; Iseri, Toshie; Akiyoshi, Hideo; Ohashi, Fumihito; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Yamate, Jyoji

    2015-07-01

    A 19-year-old female Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) was presented with hind limb weakness, ataxia and respiratory distress. Computed tomography revealed a mass between the left side of the T7 vertebra and the base of the left 7th rib. The tiger then died, and necropsy was performed. Grossly, the vertebral mass was 6 × 5.7 × 3 cm, and invaded the adjacent vertebral bone and compressed the T7 spinal cord. Histologically, the mass was composed of large, clear, vacuolated and polygonal cells with osteochondral matrix. Cellular and nuclear atypia were moderate. The vacuolated cells stained positively for cytokeratin and vimentin and negatively for S-100. Based on these findings, the present case was diagnosed as a vertebral chordoma; the first report in a tiger.

  12. Chordoma of the thoracic vertebrae in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).

    PubMed

    Kuramochi, Mizuki; Izawa, Takeshi; Hori, Mayuka; Kusuda, Kayo; Shimizu, Junichiro; Iseri, Toshie; Akiyoshi, Hideo; Ohashi, Fumihito; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Yamate, Jyoji

    2015-07-01

    A 19-year-old female Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) was presented with hind limb weakness, ataxia and respiratory distress. Computed tomography revealed a mass between the left side of the T7 vertebra and the base of the left 7th rib. The tiger then died, and necropsy was performed. Grossly, the vertebral mass was 6 × 5.7 × 3 cm, and invaded the adjacent vertebral bone and compressed the T7 spinal cord. Histologically, the mass was composed of large, clear, vacuolated and polygonal cells with osteochondral matrix. Cellular and nuclear atypia were moderate. The vacuolated cells stained positively for cytokeratin and vimentin and negatively for S-100. Based on these findings, the present case was diagnosed as a vertebral chordoma; the first report in a tiger. PMID:25766770

  13. Nordic walking--is it suitable for patients with fractured vertebra?

    PubMed

    Wendlova, J

    2008-01-01

    This article brings the biomechanical analysis of sport--Nordic walking--for patients with osteoporotic fractured vertebrae and shows that it is suitable for them. Based on the biomechanical model of skeletal load we have developed a method of walking movement for patients, different from the method of walking movement for healthy people. And so came into being the "first sport" for patients with osteoporotic fractures. They can go for regular walks in easy terrains outdoors with friends and family, and so be liberated from social isolation. It requires only one-off financial costs of buying the poles and special footwear (Tab. 7, Fig. 3, Ref. 14). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk. PMID:18814434

  14. A predictive mechanical model for evaluating vertebral fracture probability in lumbar spine under different osteoporotic drug therapies.

    PubMed

    López, E; Ibarz, E; Herrera, A; Puértolas, S; Gabarre, S; Más, Y; Mateo, J; Gil-Albarova, J; Gracia, L

    2016-07-01

    Osteoporotic vertebral fractures represent a major cause of disability, loss of quality of life and even mortality among the elderly population. Decisions on drug therapy are based on the assessment of risk factors for fracture from bone mineral density (BMD) measurements. A previously developed model, based on the Damage and Fracture Mechanics, was applied for the evaluation of the mechanical magnitudes involved in the fracture process from clinical BMD measurements. BMD evolution in untreated patients and in patients with seven different treatments was analyzed from clinical studies in order to compare the variation in the risk of fracture. The predictive model was applied in a finite element simulation of the whole lumbar spine, obtaining detailed maps of damage and fracture probability, identifying high-risk local zones at vertebral body. For every vertebra, strontium ranelate exhibits the highest decrease, whereas minimum decrease is achieved with oral ibandronate. All the treatments manifest similar trends for every vertebra. Conversely, for the natural BMD evolution, as bone stiffness decreases, the mechanical damage and fracture probability show a significant increase (as it occurs in the natural history of BMD). Vertebral walls and external areas of vertebral end plates are the zones at greatest risk, in coincidence with the typical locations of osteoporotic fractures, characterized by a vertebral crushing due to the collapse of vertebral walls. This methodology could be applied for an individual patient, in order to obtain the trends corresponding to different treatments, in identifying at-risk individuals in early stages of osteoporosis and might be helpful for treatment decisions. PMID:27265047

  15. EX VIVO COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF MORPHOLOGY VARIATIONS IN EQUINE CERVICAL VERTEBRAE.

    PubMed

    Veraa, Stefanie; Bergmann, Wilhelmina; van den Belt, Antoon-Jan; Wijnberg, Inge; Back, Willem

    2016-09-01

    Diagnostic imaging is one of the pillars in the clinical workup of horses with clinical signs of cervical spinal disease. An improved awareness of morphologic variations in equine cervical vertebrae would be helpful for interpreting findings. The aim of this anatomic study was to describe CT variations in left-right symmetry and morphology of the cervical and cervicothoracic vertebrae in a sample of horses. Postmortem CT examinations of the cervical spine for horses without congenital growth disorders were prospectively and retrospectively recruited. A total of 78 horses (27 foals, 51 mature horses) were evaluated. Twenty-six horses (33.3%) had homologous changes in which a transposition of the caudal part of the transverse process (caudal ventral tubercle) of C6 toward the ventral aspect of the transverse process of C7 was present (n = 10 bilateral, n = 12 unilateral left-sided, n = 4 unilateral right-sided). There was one horse with occipito-atlantal malformation, two horses with rudimentary first ribs bilaterally, and one horse with bilateral transverse processes at Th1, representing homeotic (transitional) vertebral changes. Chi-square tests identified no significant differences in the number of conformational variations between the group of mature horses with or without clinical signs (P = 0.81) or between the group of mature horses and the group of foals (P = 0.72). Findings indicated that, in this sample of horses, the most frequently identified variations were homologous variations (transposition of the caudal part of the transverse process of C6-C7) in the caudal equine cervical vertebral column. Homeotic (transitional) variations at the cervicothoracic vertebral column were less common. PMID:27438135

  16. The Hetu'u Global Network: Using the rare June 5th/6th Transit of Venus to Bring Astronomy to the Remote Easter Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faherty, Jacqueline; Rodriguez, D.

    2013-01-01

    There are rare times in astronomy when a celestial event, visible in broad daylight, can be used to measure a fundamental parameter and inspire a globe full of school age students. The June 5th/6th transit of Venus was one such event. In celebration, nine astronomy postdocs from the Chilean mainland traveled to Easter Island to lead a series of astronomy outreach activities over three days, culminating in a transit-viewing event. Our team dubbed "Equipo Hetu'u" or "Team Star" in the Rapa Nui (Easter Island native) language spent two days giving astronomy talks and doing hands-on demonstrations at the Museo Antropologico P. Sebastian Englert. In the final day-and-a-half leading up to the transit, we visited the science classes in the majority of the schools on the island, in order to spread the message about the once-in-a-lifetime transit event, highlighting how we planned on using it to measure the distance to the Sun. We estimate over 25% 1500 people) of this remote island participated in one or more of our organized activities. Our experience with this project is an excellent lesson on how to organize, lead, and fully execute a major outreach endeavor that inspires hundreds with minimal resources (save the spectacular event provided by the cosmos).

  17. Proceedings from the 5th International Symposium on Light and Human Health: November 3-5, 2002, Orlando, Florida--EPRI Lighting Research Office

    SciTech Connect

    2004-05-01

    The 5th EPRI/LRO Lighting Research Symposium (November, 2002) was organized to present and examine current research information on the subject of Light and Human Health in response to a growing sense that light--both electric lighting and daylighting--impacts human beings well beyond what has been traditionally studied as vision and visual performance. This Final Report of the Symposium is a collection of 23 presented and seven poster papers grouped under the following headings: (1) Medical Applications of Light; (2) Circadian Effects of Light; (3) Hazards of Optical Radiation; and (4) Environmental Applications and Human Factors. Research from the medical, measurement, elderly, lighting, psychological, and vision fields is included, as well as an extensive commentary and summary. The direction of the research, taken as a whole, indicates that the definition of ''good lighting'' should be expanded to include ''healthy lighting,'' and that ongoing research will require better measurement and specification tools such as a new system of circadian photometry. Enhanced interaction between the medical research and lighting design communities will be required to bring the benefits of what is being discovered into common lighting practice.

  18. Consensus for Radiotherapy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma from The 5th Asia-Pacific Primary Liver Cancer Expert Meeting (APPLE 2014): Current Practice and Future Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee Chul; Yu, Jeong Il; Cheng, Jason Chia-Hsien; Zeng, Zhao Chong; Hong, Ji Hong; Wang, Michael Lian Chek; Kim, Mi Sook; Chi, Kwan Hwa; Liang, Po-Ching; Lee, Rheun-Chuan; Lau, Wan-Yee; Han, Kwang Hyub; Chow, Pierce Kah-Hoe; Seong, Jinsil

    2016-07-01

    A consensus meeting to develop practice guidelines and to recommend future clinical trials for radiation therapy (RT), including external beam RT (EBRT), and selective internal RT (SIRT) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was held at the 5th annual meeting of the Asia-Pacific Primary Liver Cancer Expert consortium. Although there is no randomized phase III trial evidence, the efficacy and safety of RT in HCC has been shown by prospective and retrospective studies using modern RT techniques. Based on these results, the committee came to a consensus on the utility and efficacy of RT in the management of HCC according to each disease stage as follows: in early and intermediate stage HCC, if standard treatment is not compatible, RT, including EBRT and SIRT can be considered. In locally advanced stage HCC, combined EBRT with transarterial chemoembolization or hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy, and SIRT can be considered. In terminal stage HCC, EBRT can be considered for palliation of symptoms and reduction of morbidity caused by the primary tumor or its metastases. Despite the currently reported benefits of RT in HCC, the committee agreed that there is a compelling need for large prospective studies, including randomized phase III trial evidence evaluating the role of RT. Specifically studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of sequential combination of EBRT and SIRT are strongly recommended. PMID:27493892

  19. Consensus for Radiotherapy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma from The 5th Asia-Pacific Primary Liver Cancer Expert Meeting (APPLE 2014): Current Practice and Future Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hee Chul; Yu, Jeong Il; Cheng, Jason Chia-Hsien; Zeng, Zhao Chong; Hong, Ji Hong; Wang, Michael Lian Chek; Kim, Mi Sook; Chi, Kwan Hwa; Liang, Po-Ching; Lee, Rheun-Chuan; Lau, Wan-Yee; Han, Kwang Hyub; Chow, Pierce Kah-Hoe; Seong, Jinsil

    2016-01-01

    A consensus meeting to develop practice guidelines and to recommend future clinical trials for radiation therapy (RT), including external beam RT (EBRT), and selective internal RT (SIRT) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was held at the 5th annual meeting of the Asia-Pacific Primary Liver Cancer Expert consortium. Although there is no randomized phase III trial evidence, the efficacy and safety of RT in HCC has been shown by prospective and retrospective studies using modern RT techniques. Based on these results, the committee came to a consensus on the utility and efficacy of RT in the management of HCC according to each disease stage as follows: in early and intermediate stage HCC, if standard treatment is not compatible, RT, including EBRT and SIRT can be considered. In locally advanced stage HCC, combined EBRT with transarterial chemoembolization or hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy, and SIRT can be considered. In terminal stage HCC, EBRT can be considered for palliation of symptoms and reduction of morbidity caused by the primary tumor or its metastases. Despite the currently reported benefits of RT in HCC, the committee agreed that there is a compelling need for large prospective studies, including randomized phase III trial evidence evaluating the role of RT. Specifically studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of sequential combination of EBRT and SIRT are strongly recommended. PMID:27493892

  20. Age and growth of endangered smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata) verified with LA-ICP-MS analysis of vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Scharer, Rachel M; Patterson, William F; Carlson, John K; Poulakis, Gregg R

    2012-01-01

    Endangered smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata) were opportunistically sampled in south Florida and aged by counting opaque bands in sectioned vertebrae (n=15). Small sample size precluded traditional age verification, but fish collected in spring and summer had translucent vertebrae margins, while fish collected in winter had opaque margins. Trends in Sr:Ca measured across vertebrae with laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry corresponded well to annual salinity trends observed in sawfish estuarine nursery habitats in south Florida, thus serve as a chemical marker verifying annual formation of opaque bands. Based on that finding and assumptions about mean birth date and timing of opaque band formation, estimated age ranged from 0.4 y for a 0.60 m total length (TL) male to 14.0 y for a 4.35 m TL female. Von Bertalanffy growth parameters computed from size at age data were 4.48 m for L(∞), 0.219 y(-1)for k, and -0.81 y for t(0). Results of this study have important implications for sawfish conservation as well as for inferring habitat residency of euryhaline elasmobranchs via chemical analysis of vertebrae.

  1. Age and Growth of Endangered Smalltooth Sawfish (Pristis pectinata) Verified with LA-ICP-MS Analysis of Vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Scharer, Rachel M.; Patterson III, William F.; Carlson, John K.; Poulakis, Gregg R.

    2012-01-01

    Endangered smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata) were opportunistically sampled in south Florida and aged by counting opaque bands in sectioned vertebrae (n = 15). Small sample size precluded traditional age verification, but fish collected in spring and summer had translucent vertebrae margins, while fish collected in winter had opaque margins. Trends in Sr:Ca measured across vertebrae with laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry corresponded well to annual salinity trends observed in sawfish estuarine nursery habitats in south Florida, thus serve as a chemical marker verifying annual formation of opaque bands. Based on that finding and assumptions about mean birth date and timing of opaque band formation, estimated age ranged from 0.4 y for a 0.60 m total length (TL) male to 14.0 y for a 4.35 m TL female. Von Bertalanffy growth parameters computed from size at age data were 4.48 m for L∞, 0.219 y−1for k, and −0.81 y for t0. Results of this study have important implications for sawfish conservation as well as for inferring habitat residency of euryhaline elasmobranchs via chemical analysis of vertebrae. PMID:23082225

  2. [Dorso-lumbar pain caused by a schmorl hernia].

    PubMed

    Esteban Navarro, Pedro Luis; García Casas, Oscar; Girvent Montllor, Francesc

    2008-09-01

    Thoracic and lumbar spine conditions cause primarily mechanical back pain, although the clinician has to ensure that the symptoms are not from another etiology. We present the case of a patient with thoracic and lumbar non mechanical pain, resistant to treatment, diagnosed with a herniation of the intervertebral disc through the vertebral end-plate. We also performed a literature review. PMID:21794532

  3. 49 CFR 572.43 - Lumbar spine and pelvis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lumbar spine and pelvis. 572.43 Section 572.43... Percentile Male § 572.43 Lumbar spine and pelvis. (a) When the pelvis of a fully assembled dummy (SA-SID... section, the peak acceleration at the location of the accelerometer mounted in the pelvis cavity...

  4. 49 CFR 572.43 - Lumbar spine and pelvis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lumbar spine and pelvis. 572.43 Section 572.43... Percentile Male § 572.43 Lumbar spine and pelvis. (a) When the pelvis of a fully assembled dummy (SA-SID... section, the peak acceleration at the location of the accelerometer mounted in the pelvis cavity...

  5. 49 CFR 572.43 - Lumbar spine and pelvis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lumbar spine and pelvis. 572.43 Section 572.43... Percentile Male § 572.43 Lumbar spine and pelvis. (a) When the pelvis of a fully assembled dummy (SA-SID... section, the peak acceleration at the location of the accelerometer mounted in the pelvis cavity...

  6. 49 CFR 572.43 - Lumbar spine and pelvis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lumbar spine and pelvis. 572.43 Section 572.43... Percentile Male § 572.43 Lumbar spine and pelvis. (a) When the pelvis of a fully assembled dummy (SA-SID... section, the peak acceleration at the location of the accelerometer mounted in the pelvis cavity...

  7. 49 CFR 572.43 - Lumbar spine and pelvis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lumbar spine and pelvis. 572.43 Section 572.43... Percentile Male § 572.43 Lumbar spine and pelvis. (a) When the pelvis of a fully assembled dummy (SA-SID... section, the peak acceleration at the location of the accelerometer mounted in the pelvis cavity...

  8. Morphological comparison of cervical vertebrae in adult females with different sagittal craniofacial patterns: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Alkan, Özer; Aydoğan, Cihan; Akkaya, Sevil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) methods have gained popularity to assess growth and development status for orthodontic patients. Although craniofacial and craniocervical structures are known to be associated, there is no evidence in the literature if this relation might negatively affect the accuracy of CVM assessments. Therefore, this study aimed to comparatively investigate the sizes of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae in adult females (radius union stage of skeletal maturity) who have different sagittal skeletal patterns. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted, and 151 lateral cephalometric radiographs of adult female patients were assessed in the study. Patients were assigned to three groups according to ANB angle. Parameters including concavity depth at the lower border of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae and base length, upper border length, body length, posterior height, anterior height, and body height of the 3rd and 4th cervical vertebrae bodies were measured. One-way analysis of variance was used for between-group comparisons. Results: No statistically significant differences were found between groups in terms of concavity depth at the lower borders of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae (P > 0.05). Base length, upper border length, body length, posterior height, anterior height, and body height of the 3rd and 4th cervical vertebrae were also similar between groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The results of this study supports that sagittal craniofacial pattern has no effect on the accuracy of using the methods assessing CVM and calculating cervical vertebral age. PMID:27630474

  9. Morphological comparison of cervical vertebrae in adult females with different sagittal craniofacial patterns: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Alkan, Özer; Aydoğan, Cihan; Akkaya, Sevil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) methods have gained popularity to assess growth and development status for orthodontic patients. Although craniofacial and craniocervical structures are known to be associated, there is no evidence in the literature if this relation might negatively affect the accuracy of CVM assessments. Therefore, this study aimed to comparatively investigate the sizes of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae in adult females (radius union stage of skeletal maturity) who have different sagittal skeletal patterns. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted, and 151 lateral cephalometric radiographs of adult female patients were assessed in the study. Patients were assigned to three groups according to ANB angle. Parameters including concavity depth at the lower border of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae and base length, upper border length, body length, posterior height, anterior height, and body height of the 3rd and 4th cervical vertebrae bodies were measured. One-way analysis of variance was used for between-group comparisons. Results: No statistically significant differences were found between groups in terms of concavity depth at the lower borders of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th cervical vertebrae (P > 0.05). Base length, upper border length, body length, posterior height, anterior height, and body height of the 3rd and 4th cervical vertebrae were also similar between groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The results of this study supports that sagittal craniofacial pattern has no effect on the accuracy of using the methods assessing CVM and calculating cervical vertebral age.

  10. Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Management of Recurrent Lumbar Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose To study the surgical outcome of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) combined with trans-pedicular screws fixation for management of selected cases of recurrent lumbar disc herniation. Overview of Literature Recurrent lumbar disc herniation is a major cause of surgical failure, occurring in 5%–11% of cases. The optimal technique for treatment is controversial. Some authors believe that repeated simple discectomy is the treatment of choice, but approach-related complications can be considerable. Other surgeons prefer more removal of posterior elements (as lamina and facet joints) with posterior fusion. Methods The study included 15 patients who presented with symptomatic recurrent lumbar disc herniation who underwent reoperation through posterior trans-pedicular screws and TLIF in our department from April 2008 to May 2010, with a 24-month follow-up. Japanese Orthopedic Association Scale (JOA) was used for low back pain. The results of surgery were also evaluated with the MacNab classification. Results The mean JOA score showed significant improvement, increasing from 9.5 before surgery to 24.0 at the end of follow-up (p<0.001). Clinical outcome was excellent in 7 patients (46% of cases), good in 6 patients (40%) and fair in only 2 patients (14%). There was a significant difference (p<0.05) between patients presenting with recurrent disc at the ipsilateral side and those at the contralateral side. Conclusions In spite of the small number of patients and the short follow-up period, the good clinical and radiological outcome achieved in this study encourage the belief that TLIF is an effective option for the treatment of selected cases of recurrent lumbar disc herniation. PMID:26949458

  11. Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Supplied by a Lumbar Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Han Myun; Kim, Hyo-Cheol Woo, Sungmin; Son, Kyu Ri; Cho, Seong Whi; Chung, Jin Wook

    2015-02-15

    PurposeTo describe the radiologic findings and imaging response of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) supplied by the lumbar artery.MethodsBetween April 2004 and December 2012, we encountered HCC supplied by a lumbar artery in 21 patients. Two investigators retrospectively reviewed clinical and radiological findings of HCC supplied by the lumbar artery using computed tomography (CT) scans and digital subtraction angiograms.ResultsPatients had received 1–27 sessions of previous chemoembolization procedures (mean 7.7 sessions, median 4 sessions). Mean tumor size was 5.3 cm. The locations of HCC supplied by lumbar artery were the bare area (n = 14, 67 %) and segment VI (n = 7, 33 %). Tumor-feeding arteries arose from the main lumbar artery (n = 7), proximal anterior division (n = 4), and distal anterior division (n = 14). In 20 patients, selective chemoembolization through the tumor-feeding arteries of the lumbar artery was achieved. In 1 patient, nonselective embolization at the main lumbar artery was performed. There was no complication such as skin necrosis or paralysis. On the first follow-up enhanced CT scan, target tumors fed by the lumbar artery showed complete response (n = 6), partial response (n = 4), stable disease (n = 3), and progressive disease (n = 8), but overall tumor response was partial response (n = 1) and progressive disease (n = 20).ConclusionWhen HCC is located in the inferior tip or bare area of the liver, a lumbar artery may supply the tumor. Although selective chemoembolization via the tumor-feeding vessel of the lumbar artery can be achieved in most cases, overall tumor response is commonly unfavorable.

  12. Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Junyoung; Tabaraee, Ehsan; Singh, Kern

    2015-07-01

    Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS TLIF) is performed via tubular dilators thereby preserving the integrity of the paraspinal musculature. The decreased soft tissue disruption in the MIS technique has been associated with significantly decreased blood loss, shorter length of hospitalization, and an expedited return to work while maintaining comparable arthrodesis rates when compared with the open technique particularly in the setting of spondylolisthesis (isthmic and degenerative), recurrent symptomatic disk herniation, spinal stenosis, pseudoarthrosis, iatrogenic instability, and spinal trauma. The purpose of this article and the accompanying video wass to demonstrate the techniques for a primary, single-level MIS TLIF. PMID:26079840

  13. Effect of Clinician Feedback Versus Video Self-Assessment in 5th-Year Chiropractic Students on an End-of-Year Communication Skills Examination

    PubMed Central

    Hecimovich, Mark D.; Maire, Jo-Anne; Losco, Barrett

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the effect of two learning opportunities, clinician feedback and video self-assessment, on 5th-year chiropractic students' patient communication skills, specifically those required for history taking. Methods: A cohort of 51 final-year students was divided into two groups. The first group received immediate feedback from a clinical supervisor following a history-taking encounter with a patient. The second group performed self-assessments of their videotaped history-taking encounter. An end-of-year Viva Voce examination was used to measure the effectiveness of the students' history-taking skills, using two subscores, one for behavior and another for content, as well as an overall total score. An unpaired t-test was performed to determine whether any significant difference occurred between the two groups of students. Each group was then subdivided into two subgroups based on gender, and a two-way analysis of variance was performed to determine whether the type of feedback or the students' gender had any significant effect on the outcome of the Viva Voce. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups of students in terms of their final scores in the Viva Voce. After dividing each group into their gender subgroups and further analysis of the results, neither the mode of feedback nor the students' gender had any significant effect on the outcome of the Viva Voce. Conclusion: This study suggests that, for a mixed cohort, video self-assessment and clinician feedback are equivalent in their ability to enhance students' communication skills relating to history taking. PMID:21048879

  14. Surgery for Intermediate and Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Consensus Report from the 5th Asia-Pacific Primary Liver Cancer Expert Meeting (APPLE 2014)

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Ming-Chih; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Nagano, Hiroaki; Lee, Young-Joo; Chau, Gar-Yang; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Chih-Chi; Choi, Young Rok; Poon, Ronnie Tung-Ping; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging and treatment strategy does not recommended surgery for treating BCLC stage B and C hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, numerous Asia-Pacific institutes still perform surgery for this patient group. This consensus report from the 5th Asia-Pacific Primary Liver Cancer Expert Meeting aimed to share opinions and experiences pertaining to liver resection for intermediate and advanced HCCs and to provide evidence to issue recommendations for surgery in this patient group. Summary Thirteen experts from five Asia-Pacific regions were invited to the meeting; 10 of them (Japan: 2, Taiwan: 3, South Korea: 2, Hong Kong: 1, and China: 2) voted for the final consensus. The discussion focused on evaluating the preoperative liver functional reserve and surgery for large tumors, multiple tumors, HCCs with vascular invasion, and HCCs with distant metastasis. The feasibility of future prospective randomized trials comparing surgery with transarterial chemoembolization for intermediate HCC and with sorafenib for advanced HCC was also discussed. The Child-Pugh score (9/10 experts) and indocyanine green retention rate at 15 min (8/10) were the most widely accepted methods for evaluating the preoperative liver functional reserve. All (10/10) experts agreed that portal hypertension, tumor size >5 cm, portal venous invasion, hepatic venous invasion, and extrahepatic metastasis are not absolute contraindications for the surgical resection of HCC. Furthermore, 9 of the 10 experts agreed that tumor resection may be performed for patients with >3 tumors. The limitations of surgery are associated with a poor liver functional reserve, incomplete tumor resection, and a high probability of recurrence. Key Messages Surgery provides significant survival benefits for Asian-Pacific patients with intermediate and advanced HCCs, particularly when the liver functional reserve is favorable. However, prospective randomized controlled trials

  15. Dysfunctional Microcirculation of the Lumbar Vertebral Marrow Prior to the Bone Loss and Intervertebral Discal Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Guang-ming

    2015-01-01

    Study Design. Descriptive study, stratified sampling. Objective. Using dynamic computed tomographic perfusion (CTP) to explore the age-related distribution patterns of the microcirculation perfusion in the vertebral marrow, the vertebral bone mineral density (BMD), and the intervertebral discal degeneration (IDD) further to discuss the possible causation between them. Summary of Background Data. A latest viewpoint deemed that reduced blood supply of the vertebral marrow was correlated with an increased incidence of IDD and loss of BMD. However, the causative relationship between them needs more investigation. Methods. One hundred eighty-six general people were randomly enrolled by stratified sampling and grouped by age: 15 years or less, 16 to 25 years, 26 to 35 years, 36 to 45 years, 46 to 55 years, 56 to 65 years, 66 to 75 years, and 76 years or more. Both CTP and BMD of the third and fourth lumbar vertebral marrow were measured, and the IDD incidence of the third-fourth vertebrae was assessed. The temporal-spatial distribution patterns of the age-related changes of CTP, BMD, and IDD were described, and the correlations between them were calculated. Results. Microcirculatory perfusion of the vertebral marrow developed to maturate by 25 years, maintained stable at 35 years, and then declined by age after 35 years. BMD grew to a peak phase in 26 to 45 years and then dropped by years. However, IDD presented a sudden increase after 45 years of age. CTP (blood flow [r = 0.806], blood volume [r = 0.685], and permeability [r = 0.619]) showed strong positive correlations and CTP (time to peak [r = −0.211], mean transit time [r = −0.598]) showed negative correlations with BMD. Meanwhile, CTP (blood flow [r = −0.815], blood volume [r = −0.753], and permeability [r = −0.690]) had strong negative correlations and CTP (time to peak [r = 0.323] and mean transit time [r = 0.628]) had positive correlations with the incidence of IDD. Conclusion. Aging-related decrease

  16. A comprehensive three-dimensional dynamic model of the human head and trunk for estimating lumbar and cervical joint torques and forces from upper body kinematics.

    PubMed

    Vette, Albert H; Yoshida, Takashi; Thrasher, T Adam; Masani, K; Popovic, Milos R

    2012-06-01

    Linked-segment representations of human body dynamics have been used extensively in biomechanics, ergonomics, and rehabilitation research to systemize thinking, make predictions, and suggest novel experiments. In the scope of upper body biomechanics, these models play an even more essential role as the human spine dynamics are difficult to study in vivo. No study exists to date, however, that specifically disseminates the technical details of a comprehensive three-dimensional model of the upper body for the purpose of estimating spinal joint torques and forces for a wide range of scenarios. Consequently, researchers are still bound to develop and implement their own models. Therefore, the objective of this study was to design a dynamic model of the upper body that can comprehensively estimate spinal joint torques and forces from upper body kinematics. The proposed three-dimensional model focuses on the actions of the lumbar and cervical vertebrae and consists of five lumbar segments (L1 to L5), the thorax, six cervical segments (C2 to C7), and the head. Additionally, the model: (1) is flexible regarding the kinematic nature of the spinal joints (free, constrained, or fixed); (2) incorporates all geometric and mass-inertia parameters from a single, high-resolution source; and (3) can be feasibly implemented via different inverse dynamics formulations. To demonstrate its practicality, the model was finally employed to estimate the lumbar and cervical joint torques during perturbed sitting using experimental motion data. Considering the growing importance of mathematical predictions, the developed model should become an important resource for researchers in different fields.

  17. Negative Effects of Total Gastrectomy on Bone Tissue Metabolism and Volumetric Bone Mineral Density (vBMD) of Lumbar Spine in 1-Year Study in Men

    PubMed Central

    Krupski, Witold; Tatara, Marcin R.; Bury, Pawel; Szabelska, Anna; Charuta, Anna; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Wallner, Grzegorz; Dabrowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gastrectomy induces severe osteoporosis in humans but its quantitative scale within trabecular and cortical compartments was not estimated. The aim of the study was to determine changes of volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) in lumbar vertebrae (L1–L4) and biochemical bone metabolism markers in serum of patients 1 year after total gastrectomy. The control group consisted of patients (N = 8) subjected to abdominal surgery due to cardiospasmus. Total gastrectomy was performed in the experimental group (N = 6). Volumetric bone mineral density of trabecular and cortical bone of lumbar spine was measured before (baseline) and 1 year after the gastric surgery using the quantitative computed tomography method. Serum concentrations of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, tyroxine, interleukin-6, C-terminal telopeptides of type II collagen and bone formation, and resorption markers were determined at baseline and 1 year later, using ELISA, EIA, and IEMA methods. Total gastrectomy induced significant decrease of vBMD values, up to 16.8% and 10.0%, within the trabecular and cortical bone compartments of lumbar spine (P < 0.05). These negative changes of vBMD were associated with significantly increased serum concentration of bone resorption markers such as deoxypyridinoline, pyridinoline, and C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen, by 13.5%, 32.2%, and 121.5%, respectively (P < 0.05). Neither vBMD nor biochemical bone turnover markers and hormone concentrations were influenced in the control patients. Dramatic bone loss during the first year in gastrectomized patients has proven dynamic osteoporosis progress indicating an importance of treatment interventions in these patients with emphasis on inhibition of intensive bone resorption processes. PMID:26886633

  18. Analysis of the incidence and risk factors for the progression of proximal junctional kyphosis following surgical treatment for lumbar degenerative kyphosis: minimum 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Jin-Uk; Jang, Jee-Soo; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2014-04-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT. Proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) following surgical treatment of lumbar degenerative kyphosis (LDK) is one of the critical complications leading to the failure of instrumentation and additional extensive surgery. However, most previous studies have focused on idiopathic scoliosis resulting from variable surgical techniques. LDK usually differ from other scoliotic deformities in terms of patient characteristics and disease mechanisms. PURPOSE. Identification of the prevalence of PJK after the surgical treatment of LDK and searching for the predictable value for the progression of PJK. Study design. Retrospective comparative study. Patient sample (must be included in clinical studies). Forty-seven consecutive patients who underwent surgical correction of a sagittal imbalance due to LDK, from January 2005 to December 2008 in a single spine clinic, were evaluated with a minimum 2 years follow-up (mean 3.8 years). METHODS. Patients were divided into 2 groups: with or without the occurrence of PJK, and three categorized factors according to patient characteristics, surgical variables, and the radiographic spinopelvic parameters were evaluated. RESULTS. PJK had occurred in 29 of 47 patients (61.7%). Among variable factors, old age, upper-instrumented vertebra below L2, lumbar lordosis to PI ratio, and the sum of lumbar lordosis, and the sacral slope related to PI were found to be statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS. The overall incidence of PJK following surgical treatment of LDK patients was higher than expected. Spinal biomechanics may be changed after long instrumented fusion surgery. Thorough consideration of these factors is needed in the treatment strategy of LDK patients. A long-term follow-up study should be conducted.

  19. General versus epidural anesthesia for lumbar microdiscectomy.

    PubMed

    Ulutas, Murat; Secer, Mehmet; Taskapilioglu, Ozgur; Karadas, Soner; Akyilmaz, Ahmet Aykut; Baydilek, Yunus; Kocamer, Betul; Ozboz, Ayse; Boyaci, Suat

    2015-08-01

    This study was a retrospective analysis of 850 lumbar microdiscectomy (LMD) under epidural anesthesia (EA; n=573) or general anesthesia (GA; n=277) performed by the same surgeon and paid by invoice to the Social Security Institution of the Turkish Republic between April 2003 and May 2013. Although GA is the most frequently used method of anesthesia during LMD, the choice of regional anesthetia (epidural, spinal or a combination of these) differs between surgeons and anesthetists. Studies have reported that EA in surgery for lumbar disc herniation may be more reliable than GA, as it enables the surgeon to communicate with the patient during surgery, but few studies have compared the costs of these two anesthetic methods in LMD. We found that EA patient costs were significantly lower than GA patient costs (p<0.01) and there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of the time spent in the operating room (p<0.01). There was no difference in the duration of surgery (p>0.05). The anesthetic method used during LMD affected the complication rate, cost and efficiency of operating room use. We suggest that EA is an anesthetic method that can contribute to health care cost savings and enable LMD to be completed with less nerve root manipulation and more comfort, efficacy, reliability and cost efficiency without affecting the success rate of the surgical procedure.

  20. Sacral Insufficiency Fractures Mimicking Lumbar Spine Pathology

    PubMed Central

    K. L., Kalra; Acharya, Shankar; Chahal, Rupinder

    2016-01-01

    Sacral insufficiency fractures (SIFs) are a common cause of back pain in the elderly. SIFs mimic the symptoms of lumbar spine pathology and so are commonly missed or underdiagnosed. Here we present four cases of missed SIFs that were subsequently identified and treated. One patient was treated as mechanical lower back ache, another patient underwent root block and two patients underwent surgery for lumbar canal stenosis. None experienced relief of their symptoms after these procedures. Retrospective analysis of X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging data revealed SIFs that were confirmed by computed tomography scans. All four patients were treated for underlying osteoporosis. Two patients who underwent surgery were treated conservatively and other two were treated by sacroplasty involving injection of cement into the fracture. Sacroplasty produced immediate pain relief and early mobilization compared to the conservative group. SIFs should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of an elderly patient presenting with low back symptoms. Sacroplasty can be considered for immediate pain relief and rapid mobilization. PMID:27340538