Science.gov

Sample records for 5th order bands

  1. Multi-mode heterodyned 5th-order infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, Joel D.; Varner, Clyde; Rubtsov, Igor V.

    2016-10-01

    Fifth-order multidimensional infrared spectroscopy with heterodyned detection was carried out in the three-beam dual-frequency configuration. Numerous 5th-order cross peaks were detected for the 4-azidobutyrate-N-hydroxysuccinimide ester compound in solution involving several vibrational modes ranging in frequency from 1045 to 2100 cm-1. Cross peaks involving overtones (2X/Z) and combination bands (XY/Z) among the tags, modes X and Y excited by the first two mid-IR laser pulses, and the reporter, modes Z excited by the third laser pulse, were acquired and the factors affecting the amplitude of 5th-order cross peaks are discussed. The 5th-order cross peaks were detected among modes that are spatially close (a few bonds apart) as well as for modes spatially separated by ca. 12 Å (eight bonds apart). In both cases, the waiting time dependences for the 3rd and 5th order cross peaks were found to be different. In particular, the waiting time at which the cross-peak maximum is reached, the decay time, and the value of a plateau at large waiting times were all differing strongly. The differences are explained by reduced sensitivity of the 5th-order signals to modes coupled weakly to the reporter mode and different relaxation dynamics involving overtone state of the tag. The ability of the 5th-order peaks to single out the modes coupled strongly to the reporter can help identifying specific energy relaxation and transport pathways, which will be useful for understanding energy transport dynamics in molecules. The absorptive 5th-order cross peaks were constructed which report on three-point correlation functions. It is shown that in addition to the triple-frequency correlation functions, a correlation of the frequencies with the mode coupling (anharmonicity) can be naturally measured by the 5th-order spectroscopy. The current limit for detecting 5th-order signals was estimated at the level of 1 × 10-3 in reduced anharmonicity, which is determined by the corresponding two

  2. Instantaneous frequency measurement by in-fiber 0.5th order fractional differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poveda-Wong, L.; Carrascosa, A.; Cuadrado-Laborde, C.; Cruz, J. L.; Díez, A.; Andrés, M. V.

    2016-07-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the possibility to retrieve the instantaneous frequency profile of a given temporal light pulse by in-fiber fractional order differentiation of 0.5th-order. The signal's temporal instantaneous frequency profile is obtained by simple dividing two temporal intensity profiles, namely the intensities of the input and output pulses of a spectrally-shifted fractional order differentiation. The results are supported by the experimental measurement of the instantaneous frequency profile of a mode-locked laser.

  3. Restoration of Surface Waves Elevation Using the 5-th Order Stokes Waves Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maximov, Vasily; Nudner, Igor; Semenov, Konstantin; Titova, Natalia

    2014-05-01

    It is very useful from the engineering point of view to get the way to recalculate the pressure values measured inside the liquid to the elevation of the free surface. Up to now this problem, despite its obvious importance, has not received any satisfactory solution. This is mostly due to the fact that the waves on the surface may have a different nature and complex degree of description. In our study, we examined both theoretically and experimentally the ability to restore the elevation of the free surface, using the data for the pressure within the fluid in the case of nonlinear periodic waves. We have seen how the wave surface elevation restores using the first, third, and fifth approximations for Stokes waves. The algorithm of wave height restoration is presented for each order from the list above. We examined how the measurements errors propagate through our algorithms of wave height restoration with Monte-Carlo techniques. The experiments were fulfilled in the hydro flume having 40 m length, 1.0 m width, and 1.2 m height. The depth of fluid was 0.6 m. The shield-type wavemaker produced the periodic waves having large amplitude. The wave height was varied in the range of 4 to 22 cm. The wave periods were from 1.0 to 2.6 sec. The wave steepness was from 0.006 to 0.064. Depth of the liquid was 66 cm. In the experiments, we have measured the pressure wave at about half the depth (more precisely, at a depth of 26.5 cm) and at the bottom. The free surface elevation was measured directly by wavemeter. The comparison of experimental and numerical data shows clearly that theoretical results describe satisfactory the physics of the problem. The rules for the selection of varying order of approximation depending on the measurement accuracy of the initial parameters are proposed.

  4. Low-loss, flat-topped and spectrally uniform silicon-nanowire-based 5th-order CROW fabricated by ArF-immersion lithography process on a 300-mm SOI wafer.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seok-Hwan; Shimura, Daisuke; Simoyama, Takasi; Seki, Miyoshi; Yokoyama, Nobuyuki; Ohtsuka, Minoru; Koshino, Keiji; Horikawa, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Yu; Morito, Ken

    2013-12-16

    We report superior spectral characteristics of silicon-nanowire-based 5th-order coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROW) fabricated by 193-nm ArF-immersion lithography process on a 300-mm silicon-on-insulator wafer. We theoretically analyze spectral characteristics, considering random phase errors caused by micro fabrication process. It will be experimentally demonstrated that the fabricated devices exhibit a low excess loss of 0.4 ± 0.2 dB, a high out-of-band rejection ratio of >40dB, and a wide flatband width of ~2 nm. Furthermore, we evaluate manufacturing tolerances for intra-dies and inter-dies, comparing with the cases for 248-nm KrF-dry lithography process. It will be shown that the 193-nm ArF-immersion lithography process can provide much less excess phase errors of Si-nanowire waveguides, thus enabling to give better filter spectral characteristics. Finally, spectral superiorities will be reconfirmed by measuring 25 Gbps modulated signals launched into the fabricated device. Clear eye diagrams are observed when the wavelengths of modulated signals are stayed within almost passband of the 5th-order CROW.

  5. Low-loss and flatband silicon-nanowire-based 5th-order coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROW) fabricated by ArF-immersion lithography process on a 300-mm SOI wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Seok-Hwan; Shimura, Daisuke; Simoyama, Takasi; Seki, Miyoshi; Yokoyama, Nobuyuki; Ohtsuka, Minoru; Koshino, Keiji; Horikawa, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Yu; Morito, Ken

    2014-03-01

    We present flatband, low-loss and low-crosstalk characteristics of Si-nanowire-based 5th-order coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROW) fabricated by ArF-immersion lithography process on a 300-mm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. We theoretically specified why phase controllability over Si-nanowire waveguides is prerequisite to attain desired spectral response, discussing spectral degradation by random phase errors during fabrication process. It was experimentally demonstrated that advanced patterning technology based on ArF-immersion lithography process showed extremely low phase errors even for Si-nanowire channel waveguides. As a result, the device exhibited extremely low loss of <0.2dB and low crosstalk of <-40dB without any external phase compensation. Furthermore, fairly good spectral uniformity for all fabricated devices was found both in intra-dies and inter-dies. The center wavelengths for box-like drop channel responses were distributed within 0.4 nm in the same die. This tendency was kept nearly constant for other dies on the 300-mm SOI wafer. In the case of the inter-die distribution where each die is spaced by ~3cm, the deviation of the center wavelengths was as low as +/-1.8 nm between the dies separated by up to ~15 cm. The spectral superiority was reconfirmed by measuring 25 Gbps modulation signals launched into the device. Clear eye openings were observed as long as the optical signal wavelengths are stayed within the flat-topped passband of the 5th-order CROW. We believe these high-precision fabrication technologies based on 300-mm SOI wafer scale ArF-immersion lithography would be promising for several kinds of WDM multiplexers/demultiplexers having much complicated configurations and requiring much finer phase controllability.

  6. Documentation of the Fourth Order Band Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalnay-Rivas, E.; Hoitsma, D.

    1979-01-01

    A general circulation model is presented which uses quadratically conservative, fourth order horizontal space differences on an unstaggered grid and second order vertical space differences with a forward-backward or a smooth leap frog time scheme to solve the primitive equations of motion. The dynamic equations for motion, finite difference equations, a discussion of the structure and flow chart of the program code, a program listing, and three relevent papers are given.

  7. 168. GENERAL VIEW FROM 5TH AVE. VIEW SOUTH, ACROSS 5TH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    168. GENERAL VIEW FROM 5TH AVE. VIEW SOUTH, ACROSS 5TH AVE., TOWARD BUILDING 506 (ON LEFT) AND BUILDING 435. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  8. Crystallographic and magnetic order analysis of a banded limonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, D. A.; Cashion, J. D.; Bocquet, S.

    1994-12-01

    Mössbauer and XRD studies of the light and dark brown parts of a banded limonite showed the presence of kaolinite in the light brown regions. Relaxation behaviour was very well described by a recently proposed model based on magnetic ordering of clusters. The difference in relaxation behaviour of the samples was attributed to different concentrations of non-magnetic impurities.

  9. Orbital Ordering and Frustration of p-Band Mott Insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Congjun

    2008-05-23

    We investigate the general structure of orbital exchange physics in Mott-insulating states of p-orbital systems in optical lattices. Orbital orders occur in both the triangular and kagome lattices. In contrast, orbital exchange in the honeycomb lattice is frustrated as described by a novel quantum 120 deg. model. Its classical ground states are mapped into configurations of the fully packed loop model with an extra U(1) rotation degree of freedom. Quantum orbital fluctuations select a six-site plaquette ground state ordering pattern in the semiclassical limit from the 'order from disorder' mechanism. This effect arises from the appearance of a zero energy flat band of orbital excitations.

  10. Kids & Family Reading Report™. 5th Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholastic Inc., 2015

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the 5th Edition of Scholastic's biannual study of children's and parents' attitudes and behaviors about reading. The latest research touches on reading aloud to children of all ages, the impact of reading independently for fun at school and at home, the importance of frequent reading, and the books children want most to read.…

  11. Communication: excitation band modulation with high-order photonic band gap in PMMA:Eu(TTA)3(TPPO)2 opals.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen; Bai, Xue; Zhu, Yongsheng; Liu, Tong; Xu, Sai; Dong, Biao; Song, Hongwei

    2013-05-14

    Changes in the excitation spectra of luminescent species inserted in photorefractive crystals as a function of changes in the high-order photonic band gap (PBG) have not been previously observed. In this communication, we present our results monitoring the excitation band of Eu(TTA)3(TPPO)2 inserted in the PMMA opal photonic crystals as a function of the changes in the high-order PBG of the crystals. We find shifts in the complex excitation band and changes in the integrated emission intensity that correlates with shifts in the high-order PBG through coupling to the excitation transition. PMID:23676019

  12. Communication: Excitation band modulation with high-order photonic band gap in PMMA:Eu(TTA)3(TPPO)2 opals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wen; Bai, Xue; Zhu, Yongsheng; Liu, Tong; Xu, Sai; Dong, Biao; Song, Hongwei

    2013-05-01

    Changes in the excitation spectra of luminescent species inserted in photorefractive crystals as a function of changes in the high-order photonic band gap (PBG) have not been previously observed. In this communication, we present our results monitoring the excitation band of Eu(TTA)3(TPPO)2 inserted in the PMMA opal photonic crystals as a function of the changes in the high-order PBG of the crystals. We find shifts in the complex excitation band and changes in the integrated emission intensity that correlates with shifts in the high-order PBG through coupling to the excitation transition.

  13. Communication: excitation band modulation with high-order photonic band gap in PMMA:Eu(TTA)3(TPPO)2 opals.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen; Bai, Xue; Zhu, Yongsheng; Liu, Tong; Xu, Sai; Dong, Biao; Song, Hongwei

    2013-05-14

    Changes in the excitation spectra of luminescent species inserted in photorefractive crystals as a function of changes in the high-order photonic band gap (PBG) have not been previously observed. In this communication, we present our results monitoring the excitation band of Eu(TTA)3(TPPO)2 inserted in the PMMA opal photonic crystals as a function of the changes in the high-order PBG of the crystals. We find shifts in the complex excitation band and changes in the integrated emission intensity that correlates with shifts in the high-order PBG through coupling to the excitation transition.

  14. Application of Novel High Order Time Domain Vector Finite Element Method to Photonic Band-Gap Waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Rieben, R; White, D; Rodrigue, G

    2004-01-13

    In this paper we motivate the use of a novel high order time domain vector finite element method that is of arbitrary order accuracy in space and up to 5th order accurate in time; and in particular, we apply it to the case of photonic band-gap (PBG) structures. Such structures have been extensively studied in the literature with several practical applications; in particular, for the low loss transmission of electromagnetic energy around sharp 90 degree bends [1]. Typically, such structures are simulated via a numerical solution of Maxwell's equations either in the frequency domain or directly in the time domain over a computational grid. The majority of numerical simulations performed for such structures make use of the widely popular finite difference time domain (FDTD) method [2], where the time dependent electric and magnetic fields are discretized over a ''dual'' grid to second order accuracy in space and time. However, such methods do not generalize to unstructured, non-orthogonal grids or to higher order spatial discretization schemes. To simulate more complicated structures with curved boundaries, such as the structure of [3], a cell based finite element method with curvilinear elements is preferred over standard stair-stepped Cartesian meshes; and to more efficiently reduce the effects of numerical dispersion, a higher order method is highly desirable. In this paper, the high order basis functions of [5] are used in conjunction with the high order energy conserving symplectic time integration algorithms of [6] resulting in a high order, fully mimetic, mixed vector finite element method.

  15. Time-dependent fifth-order bands in nominally third-order 2D IR vibrational echo spectra.

    PubMed

    Thielges, Megan C; Fayer, Michael D

    2011-09-01

    Progress in the field of 2D IR vibrational spectroscopy has been bolstered by the production of intense mid-IR laser pulses. As higher-energy pulses are employed, a concomitant increase occurs in the likelihood of fifth-order contributions to the 2D IR spectra. We report the appearance of fifth-order signals in 2D IR spectra of CO bound to the active site of the enzyme cytochrome P450(cam) with the substrate norcamphor. Two bands with novel time dependences, one on the diagonal and one off-diagonal, are not accounted for by normal third-order interactions. These bands are associated with a ν = 1-2 vibrational transition frequency. Both bands decay to 0 and then grow back in with opposite sign. The diagonal band is positive at short time, decays to 0, reappears with negative sign, before eventually decaying to 0. The off-diagonal band is negative at short time, decays to 0, reappears positive, and then decays to 0. The appearance and time dependence of these bands are characterized. Understanding these fifth-order bands is useful because they may be misidentified with time-dependent bands that arise from other processes, such as chemical exchange, vibrational coupling, or energy transfer. The presence and unusual time dependences of the fifth-order bands are reproduced with model calculations that account for the fact that vibrational relaxation from the ν = 2 to 1 level is approximately a factor of 2 faster than that from the ν = 1 to 0 level.

  16. Computationally efficient banding of large covariance matrices for ordered data and connections to banding the inverse Cholesky factor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Daniels, M J

    2014-09-01

    In this article, we propose a computationally efficient approach to estimate (large) p-dimensional covariance matrices of ordered (or longitudinal) data based on an independent sample of size n. To do this, we construct the estimator based on a k-band partial autocorrelation matrix with the number of bands chosen using an exact multiple hypothesis testing procedure. This approach is considerably faster than many existing methods and only requires inversion of (k + 1)-dimensional covariance matrices. The resulting estimator is positive definite as long as k < n (where p can be larger than n). We make connections between this approach and banding the Cholesky factor of the modified Cholesky decomposition of the inverse covariance matrix (Wu and Pourahmadi, 2003) and show that the maximum likelihood estimator of the k-band partial autocorrelation matrix is the same as the k-band inverse Cholesky factor. We evaluate our estimator via extensive simulations and illustrate the approach using high-dimensional sonar data.

  17. Sudden restoration of the band ordering associated with the ferromagnetic phase transition in a semiconductor.

    PubMed

    Muneta, Iriya; Ohya, Shinobu; Terada, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    The band ordering of semiconductors is an important factor in determining the mobility and coherence of the wave function of carriers, and is thus a key factor in device performance. However, in heavily doped semiconductors, the impurities substantially disturb the band ordering, leading to significant degradation in performance. Here, we present the unexpected finding that the band ordering is suddenly restored in Mn-doped GaAs ((Ga,Mn)As) when the Mn concentration slightly exceeds ∼0.7% despite the extremely high doping concentration; this phenomenon is very difficult to predict from the general behaviour of doped semiconductors. This phenomenon occurs with a ferromagnetic phase transition, which is considered to have a crucial role in generating a well-ordered band structure. Our findings offer possibilities for ultra-high-speed quantum-effect spin devices based on semiconductors. PMID:27349454

  18. Sudden restoration of the band ordering associated with the ferromagnetic phase transition in a semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muneta, Iriya; Ohya, Shinobu; Terada, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Masaaki

    2016-06-01

    The band ordering of semiconductors is an important factor in determining the mobility and coherence of the wave function of carriers, and is thus a key factor in device performance. However, in heavily doped semiconductors, the impurities substantially disturb the band ordering, leading to significant degradation in performance. Here, we present the unexpected finding that the band ordering is suddenly restored in Mn-doped GaAs ((Ga,Mn)As) when the Mn concentration slightly exceeds ~0.7% despite the extremely high doping concentration; this phenomenon is very difficult to predict from the general behaviour of doped semiconductors. This phenomenon occurs with a ferromagnetic phase transition, which is considered to have a crucial role in generating a well-ordered band structure. Our findings offer possibilities for ultra-high-speed quantum-effect spin devices based on semiconductors.

  19. Sudden restoration of the band ordering associated with the ferromagnetic phase transition in a semiconductor

    PubMed Central

    Muneta, Iriya; Ohya, Shinobu; Terada, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    The band ordering of semiconductors is an important factor in determining the mobility and coherence of the wave function of carriers, and is thus a key factor in device performance. However, in heavily doped semiconductors, the impurities substantially disturb the band ordering, leading to significant degradation in performance. Here, we present the unexpected finding that the band ordering is suddenly restored in Mn-doped GaAs ((Ga,Mn)As) when the Mn concentration slightly exceeds ∼0.7% despite the extremely high doping concentration; this phenomenon is very difficult to predict from the general behaviour of doped semiconductors. This phenomenon occurs with a ferromagnetic phase transition, which is considered to have a crucial role in generating a well-ordered band structure. Our findings offer possibilities for ultra-high-speed quantum-effect spin devices based on semiconductors. PMID:27349454

  20. Stacking orders induced direct band gap in bilayer MoSe2-WSe2 lateral heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaohui; Kou, Liangzhi; Sun, Litao

    2016-01-01

    The direct band gap of monolayer semiconducting transition-metal dichalcogenides (STMDs) enables a host of new optical and electrical properties. However, bilayer STMDs are indirect band gap semiconductors, which limits its applicability for high-efficiency optoelectronic devices. Here, we report that the direct band gap can be achieved in bilayer MoSe2-WSe2 lateral heterostructures by alternating stacking orders. Specifically, when Se atoms from opposite layers are stacked directly on top of each other, AA and A’B stacked heterostructures show weaker interlayer coupling, larger interlayer distance and direct band gap. Whereas, when Se atoms from opposite layers are staggered, AA’, AB and AB’ stacked heterostructures exhibit stronger interlayer coupling, shorter interlayer distance and indirect band gap. Thus, the direct/indirect band gap can be controllable in bilayer MoSe2-WSe2 lateral heterostructures. In addition, the calculated sliding barriers indicate that the stacking orders of bilayer MoSe2-WSe2 lateral heterostructures can be easily formed by sliding one layer with respect to the other. The novel direct band gap in bilayer MoSe2-WSe2 lateral heterostructures provides possible application for high-efficiency optoelectronic devices. The results also show that the stacking order is an effective strategy to induce and tune the band gap of layered STMDs. PMID:27528196

  1. Stacking orders induced direct band gap in bilayer MoSe2-WSe2 lateral heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaohui; Kou, Liangzhi; Sun, Litao

    2016-08-16

    The direct band gap of monolayer semiconducting transition-metal dichalcogenides (STMDs) enables a host of new optical and electrical properties. However, bilayer STMDs are indirect band gap semiconductors, which limits its applicability for high-efficiency optoelectronic devices. Here, we report that the direct band gap can be achieved in bilayer MoSe2-WSe2 lateral heterostructures by alternating stacking orders. Specifically, when Se atoms from opposite layers are stacked directly on top of each other, AA and A'B stacked heterostructures show weaker interlayer coupling, larger interlayer distance and direct band gap. Whereas, when Se atoms from opposite layers are staggered, AA', AB and AB' stacked heterostructures exhibit stronger interlayer coupling, shorter interlayer distance and indirect band gap. Thus, the direct/indirect band gap can be controllable in bilayer MoSe2-WSe2 lateral heterostructures. In addition, the calculated sliding barriers indicate that the stacking orders of bilayer MoSe2-WSe2 lateral heterostructures can be easily formed by sliding one layer with respect to the other. The novel direct band gap in bilayer MoSe2-WSe2 lateral heterostructures provides possible application for high-efficiency optoelectronic devices. The results also show that the stacking order is an effective strategy to induce and tune the band gap of layered STMDs.

  2. Stacking orders induced direct band gap in bilayer MoSe2-WSe2 lateral heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaohui; Kou, Liangzhi; Sun, Litao

    2016-08-01

    The direct band gap of monolayer semiconducting transition-metal dichalcogenides (STMDs) enables a host of new optical and electrical properties. However, bilayer STMDs are indirect band gap semiconductors, which limits its applicability for high-efficiency optoelectronic devices. Here, we report that the direct band gap can be achieved in bilayer MoSe2-WSe2 lateral heterostructures by alternating stacking orders. Specifically, when Se atoms from opposite layers are stacked directly on top of each other, AA and A’B stacked heterostructures show weaker interlayer coupling, larger interlayer distance and direct band gap. Whereas, when Se atoms from opposite layers are staggered, AA’, AB and AB’ stacked heterostructures exhibit stronger interlayer coupling, shorter interlayer distance and indirect band gap. Thus, the direct/indirect band gap can be controllable in bilayer MoSe2-WSe2 lateral heterostructures. In addition, the calculated sliding barriers indicate that the stacking orders of bilayer MoSe2-WSe2 lateral heterostructures can be easily formed by sliding one layer with respect to the other. The novel direct band gap in bilayer MoSe2-WSe2 lateral heterostructures provides possible application for high-efficiency optoelectronic devices. The results also show that the stacking order is an effective strategy to induce and tune the band gap of layered STMDs.

  3. Stacking orders induced direct band gap in bilayer MoSe2-WSe2 lateral heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaohui; Kou, Liangzhi; Sun, Litao

    2016-01-01

    The direct band gap of monolayer semiconducting transition-metal dichalcogenides (STMDs) enables a host of new optical and electrical properties. However, bilayer STMDs are indirect band gap semiconductors, which limits its applicability for high-efficiency optoelectronic devices. Here, we report that the direct band gap can be achieved in bilayer MoSe2-WSe2 lateral heterostructures by alternating stacking orders. Specifically, when Se atoms from opposite layers are stacked directly on top of each other, AA and A'B stacked heterostructures show weaker interlayer coupling, larger interlayer distance and direct band gap. Whereas, when Se atoms from opposite layers are staggered, AA', AB and AB' stacked heterostructures exhibit stronger interlayer coupling, shorter interlayer distance and indirect band gap. Thus, the direct/indirect band gap can be controllable in bilayer MoSe2-WSe2 lateral heterostructures. In addition, the calculated sliding barriers indicate that the stacking orders of bilayer MoSe2-WSe2 lateral heterostructures can be easily formed by sliding one layer with respect to the other. The novel direct band gap in bilayer MoSe2-WSe2 lateral heterostructures provides possible application for high-efficiency optoelectronic devices. The results also show that the stacking order is an effective strategy to induce and tune the band gap of layered STMDs. PMID:27528196

  4. Anatomic variation of the 5th extensor tendon compartment and extensor digiti minimi tendon.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toshikazu; Moran, Steven L; Zhao, Chunfeng; Zobitz, Mark E; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C

    2007-08-01

    Anatomic variation within the 5th extensor compartment may contribute to the development of tenosynovitis and limit the usefulness of the extensor digiti minimi (EDM) for tendon transfer. The purpose of this study was to assess the anatomic variation of the EDM tendon and its surrounding retinaculum, with particular attention to anatomical variation between specimens. Forty-one fresh cadaver hands were dissected. The length of the 5th compartment retinaculum was noted. The incidence of an intercompartmental septum was noted in each specimen as well as the type of tendinous attachments present between the EDM and extensor digitorum communis (EDC) tendons. The presence and length of any accessory retinacular bands distal to the edge of proper extensor retinaculum was also noted. Only one specimen contained a single EDM tendon, while 71% (n = 29) of specimens contained two slips and 23% (n = 9) had three slips; 24% (n = 10) of EDC tendons had no slip to the small finger, while 61% (n = 25) of specimens had a single slip to the small finger. The EDC's contribution to the small finger was found to be an independent tendon in 42% of cases (n = 17), while 34% (n = 14) of specimens were found to have a common EDC slip, which branched to both the ring and small finger. Three EDM tendons divided distal to the extensor retinaculum, while the remaining EDM tendons divided beneath or proximal to the extensor retinaculum. Seventy-three percent (n = 30) of the specimens had an accessory retinacular band surrounding the EDM tendon identified at the base of the 5th metacarpal. Eighty-eight percent (n = 36) of hands had a septum between the EDM slips. The surgeon should be aware of variability within the 5th dorsal compartment in cases of trauma and in cases of tendon transfer. In our series 30 of 41 specimens were noted to contain an accessory dorsal retinacular band surrounding the EDM and 36 specimens were noted to contain a septum within the 5th compartment. The presence of an

  5. Correlation-driven charge order at the interface between a Mott and a band insulator.

    PubMed

    Pentcheva, Rossitza; Pickett, Warren E

    2007-07-01

    To study digital Mott insulator LaTiO3 and band insulator SrTiO3 interfaces, we apply correlated band theory within the local density approximation including a Hubbard U to (n, m) multilayers, 1ordering, and Ti3+ dxy-orbital ordering, with antiferromagnetic exchange coupling between the spins in the interface layer. Lattice relaxations lead to conducting behavior by shifting (slightly but importantly) the lower Hubbard band, but the charge and orbital order is robust against relaxation. PMID:17678179

  6. 5th Austrian Hungarian workshop on celestial mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Süli, Áron

    2011-06-01

    The 5th Hungarian-Austrian Workshop on Celestial Mechanics took place from 9th until the 10th of April 2010 in Vienna, Austria. The workshop was held in the Institute for Astronomy of Vienna University. From the Eötvös University and from the host institute experts and PhD students gathered together to discuss the challenges and new results of the actual problems of celestial mechanics. The workshop was held in the meeting room at the Sternwarte of the Vienna University located in a magnificent park in the heart of Vienna. Following the themes of the four previous events the focus for this workshop ranged from the Trojan problem, dynamics in binary star systems and exoplanetray systems. We were pleased to acknowledge the support of the host university. The talks were characterized by a large spectrum, which is typical of the workshops on celestial mechanics. Several talks discussed different aspects of the trojan problem, such as the three Trojan Problem, dynamics of trojan-like planets in binary stars, the frequencies of their motion around the triangular lagrangian points, etc. Several speakers focused on the formation of planetary systems and on the field of exoplanetary systems, like exoplanetary systems in higher order mean motion resonances, formation of planets in binary systems, stability of exomoons etc. Some of the presentation used sophisticated mathematical tools in order to understand mean motion resonances, the Sitnikov problem applying the KAM and the Nekhoroshev theorem. The theme of a number of talks was the motion of Solar System bodies: dynamics of the newly discovered moons of Pluto and of near-Earth asteroids. General problems were also addressed, among others chaos in Hamiltonian systems, adaptive Lie-integration method and iterative solution approximation to the generalised Sitnikov problem.

  7. Band gap engineering via electrostatic chemical strain in cation ordered LaSrAlO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandran, Prasanna V.; Rondinelli, James M.

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we employ density functional theory to examine a novel design route that employs A-site cation ordering to engineer the band gaps of (A,A')BO4 Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) oxides. Using LaSrAlO4 as a model material, we show that the band gap is highly sensitive to the A-site cation ordering ranging from 3-4.5 eV. When the [AlO2]-1 layers are interleaved between two chemically equivalent [LaO]1+ or [SrO]0+ layers, we obtain the smallest band gap with a reduction of ~1 eV determined from the Heyd, Scuseria, and Ernzerhof (HSE) hybrid exchange-correlation functional. We relate the observed band gap reduction to the local bond distortions arising from electrostatic chemical strain induced changes to the O 2 p and La 5 d states in the valence and conduction bands, respectively. The project was supported by The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (grant no. N66001-12-4224). The views, opinions, and/or findings reported here are solely those of the authors and do not represent official views of DARPA or DOD.

  8. Valence-band ordering and magneto-optic exciton fine structure in ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrecht, Walter R.; Rodina, Anna V.; Limpijumnong, Sukit; Segall, B.; Meyer, Bruno K.

    2002-02-01

    Using first-principles linear muffin-tin orbital density functional band structure calculations, the ordering of the states in the wurtzite ZnO valence-band maximum, split by crystal-field and spin-orbit coupling effects, is found to be Γ7(5)>Γ9(5)>Γ7(1), in which the number in parentheses indicates the parent state without spin-orbit coupling. This results from the negative spin-orbit splitting, which in turn is due to the participation of the Zn 3d band. The result is found to be robust even when effects beyond the local density approximation on the Zn 3d band position are included. Using a Kohn-Luttinger model parametrized by our first-principles calculations, it is furthermore shown that the binding energies of the excitons primarily derived from each valence band differ by less than the valence-band splittings even when interband coupling effects are included. The binding energies of n=2 and n=1 excitons, however, are not in a simple 1/4 ratio. Our results are shown to be in good agreement with the recent magneto-optical experimental data by Reynolds et al. [Phys. Rev. B 60, 2340 (1999)], in spite of the fact that on the basis of these data these authors claimed that the valence-band maximum would have Γ9 symmetry. The differences between our and Reynolds' analysis of the data are discussed and arise from the sign of the Landé g factor for holes, which is here found to be negative for the upper Γ7 band.

  9. 5th Latin American pesticide residue workshop (LAPRW 2015)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This invited editorial proceedings article introduces the 6 research papers published in the special topical collection for the 5th Latin American Pesticide Residue Workshop held in Santiago, Chile, May 10-13, 2015. The meeting was a great success with more than 50 talks, 140 posters, 21 vendors, a...

  10. Are You a Reader? 5th Graders Respond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barone, Diane; Barone, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The author tells the story of a 5th-grade teacher who challenges her class to take on self-identities as readers. Students defined seven characteristics of what it means to be a good reader and considered whether those characteristics applied to them: Good readers read for fun, talk about books, usually finish the book they're reading, can relate…

  11. 5th Conference on Aerospace Materials, Processes, and Environmental Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M. B. (Editor); Stanley, D. Cross (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    Records are presented from the 5th Conference on Aerospace Materials, Processes, and Environmental Technology. Topics included pollution prevention, inspection methods, advanced materials, aerospace materials and technical standards,materials testing and evaluation, advanced manufacturing,development in metallic processes, synthesis of nanomaterials, composite cryotank processing, environmentally friendly cleaning, and poster sessions.

  12. Working Together for Student Achievement. 5th Biennial Joint Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Washington state Board of Education (SBE) and the Professional Educator Standards Board (PESB) submitted this 5th biennial joint report to the Governor, Legislative Education Committees, and Superintendent of Public Instruction. The report outlines the collaborative work of the Boards, highlights accomplishments, and provides goals and…

  13. Topological band order, structural, electronic and optical properties of XPdBi (X = Lu, Sc) compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narimani, M.; Nourbakhsh, Z.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, the structural, electronic and optical properties of LuPdBi and ScPdBi compounds are investigated using the density functional theory by WIEN2K package within the generalized gradient approximation, local density approximation, Engel-Vosco generalized gradient approximations and modified Becke-Johnson potential approaches. The topological phases and band orders of these compounds are studied. The effect of pressure on band inversion strength, electron density of states and the linear coefficient of the electronic specific heat of these compounds is investigated. Furthermore, the effect of pressure on real and imaginary parts of dielectric function, absorption and reflectivity coefficients of these compounds is studied.

  14. Composition dependent valence band order in c-oriented wurtzite AlGaN layers

    SciTech Connect

    Neuschl, B. Helbing, J.; Knab, M.; Lauer, H.; Madel, M.; Thonke, K.; Feneberg, M.

    2014-09-21

    The valence band order of polar wurtzite aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) layers is analyzed for a dense series of samples, grown heteroepitaxially on sapphire substrates, covering the complete composition range. The excitonic transition energies, found by temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, were corrected to the unstrained state using input from X-ray diffraction. k∙p theory yields a critical relative aluminum concentration x{sub c}=(0.09±0.05) for the crossing of the uppermost two valence bands for strain free material, shifting to higher values for compressively strained samples, as supported by polarization dependent PL. The analysis of the strain dependent valence band crossing reconciles the findings of other research groups, where sample strain was neglected. We found a bowing for the energy band gap to the valence band with Γ₉ symmetry of b{sub Γ₉}=0.85eV, and propose a possible bowing for the crystal field energy of b{sub cf}=-0.12eV. A comparison of the light extraction efficiency perpendicular and parallel to the c axis of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N/Al{sub y}Ga{sub 1-y}N quantum well structures is discussed for different compositions.

  15. The band gap of Cu2ZnSnSe4: Effect of order-disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, G.; Redinger, A.; Sendler, J.; Weiss, T. P.; Thevenin, M.; Guennou, M.; El Adib, B.; Siebentritt, S.

    2014-09-01

    The order-disorder transition in kesterite Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe), an interesting material for solar cell, has been investigated by spectrophotometry, photoluminescence (PL), and Raman spectroscopy. Like Cu2ZnSnS4, CZTSe is prone to disorder by Cu-Zn exchanges depending on temperature. Absorption measurements have been used to monitor the changes in band gap energy (Eg) of solar cell grade thin films as a function of the annealing temperature. We show that ordering can increase Eg by 110 meV as compared to fully disordered material. Kinetics simulations show that Eg can be used as an order parameter and the critical temperature for the CZTSe order-disorder transition is 200 ± 20 °C. On the one hand, ordering was found to increase the correlation length of the crystal. But on the other hand, except the change in Eg, ordering did not influence the PL signal of the CZTSe.

  16. Low-order-mode harmonic multiplying gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier in W band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Y. S.; Hung, C. L.; Chang, T. H.; Chen, C. H.; Yang, S. J.; Lai, C. H.; Lin, T. Y.; Lo, Y. C.; Hong, J. W.

    2012-09-01

    Harmonic multiplying gyrotron traveling-wave amplifiers (gyro-TWAs) allow for magnetic field reduction and frequency multiplication. To avoid absolute instabilities, this work proposes a W-band harmonic multiplying gyro-TWA operating at low-order modes. By amplifying a fundamental harmonic TE11 drive wave, the second harmonic component of the beam current initiates a TE21 wave to be amplified. Absolute instabilities in the gyro-TWA are suppressed by shortening the interaction circuit and increasing wall losses. Simulation results reveal that compared with Ka-band gyro-TWTs, the lower wall losses effectively suppress absolute instabilities in the W-band gyro-TWA. However, a global reflective oscillation occurs as the wall losses decrease. Increasing the length or resistivity of the lossy section can reduce the feedback of the oscillation to stabilize the amplifier. The W-band harmonic multiplying gyro-TWA is predicted to yield a peak output power of 111 kW at 98 GHz with an efficiency of 25%, a saturated gain of 26 dB, and a bandwidth of 1.6 GHz for a 60 kV, 7.5 A electron beam with an axial velocity spread of 8%.

  17. Quasi one-dimensional band dispersion and surface metallization in long-range ordered polymeric wires

    DOE PAGES

    Vasseur, Guillaume; Fagot-Revurat, Yannick; Sicot, Muriel; Kierren, Bertrand; Moreau, Luc; Malterre, Daniel; Cardenas, Luis; Galeotti, Gianluca; Lipton-Duffin, Josh; Rosei, Frederico; et al

    2016-01-04

    We study the electronic structure of an ordered array of poly(para-phenylene) chains produced by surface-catalyzed dehalogenative polymerization of 1,4-dibromobenzene on copper (110). The quantization of unoccupied molecular states is measured as a function of oligomer length by scanning tunnelling spectroscopy, with Fermi level crossings observed for chains longer than ten phenyl rings. Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy reveals a quasi-one-dimensional valence band as well as a direct gap of 1.15 eV, as the conduction band is partially filled through adsorption on the surface. Tight-binding modelling and ab initio density functional theory calculations lead to a full description of the organic band-structure, includingmore » the k-dispersion, the gap size and electron charge transfer mechanisms, highlighting a strong substrate-molecule interaction that drives the system into a metallic behaviour. In summary, we have fully characterized the band structure of a carbon-based conducting wire. This model system may be considered as a fingerprint of -conjugation of surface organic frameworks.« less

  18. Teacher and Parent Views on the Instruction of 5th Grade Students by Branch Teachers in the 4+4+4 Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildizhan, Yusuf Hayri

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the teacher and parent views on the instruction of 5th grade students by branch teachers. This study is designed according to the phenomenology design and uses qualitative data. In order to collect data, open-ended questions were asked to 18 teachers and 16 parents of 5th grade students on the subject, and…

  19. Quasi one-dimensional band dispersion and surface metallization in long-range ordered polymeric wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasseur, Guillaume; Fagot-Revurat, Yannick; Sicot, Muriel; Kierren, Bertrand; Moreau, Luc; Malterre, Daniel; Cardenas, Luis; Galeotti, Gianluca; Lipton-Duffin, Josh; Rosei, Federico; di Giovannantonio, Marco; Contini, Giorgio; Le Fèvre, Patrick; Bertran, François; Liang, Liangbo; Meunier, Vincent; Perepichka, Dmitrii F.

    2016-01-01

    On-surface covalent self-assembly of organic molecules is a very promising bottom-up approach for producing atomically controlled nanostructures. Due to their highly tuneable properties, these structures may be used as building blocks in electronic carbon-based molecular devices. Following this idea, here we report on the electronic structure of an ordered array of poly(para-phenylene) nanowires produced by surface-catalysed dehalogenative reaction. By scanning tunnelling spectroscopy we follow the quantization of unoccupied molecular states as a function of oligomer length, with Fermi level crossing observed for long chains. Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy reveals a quasi-1D valence band as well as a direct gap of 1.15 eV, as the conduction band is partially filled through adsorption on the surface. Tight-binding modelling and ab initio density functional theory calculations lead to a full description of the band structure, including the gap size and charge transfer mechanisms, highlighting a strong substrate-molecule interaction that drives the system into a metallic behaviour.

  20. Band-Renormalization Effects and Predominant Antiferromagnetic Order in Two-Dimensional Hubbard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Ryo; Yokoyama, Hisatoshi

    2016-07-01

    Band renormalization effects (BRE) are comprehensively studied for a mixed state of dx2 - y2-wave superconducting (d-SC) and antiferromagnetic (AF) orders, in addition to simple d-SC, AF, and normal (paramagnetic) states, by applying a variational Monte Carlo method to a two-dimensional Hubbard (t-t'-U) model. In a weakly correlated regime (U/t ≲ 6), BRE are negligible on all the states studied. As previously shown, the effective band of d-SC is greatly renormalized but the modifications of physical quantities, including energy improvement, are negligible. In contrast, BRE on the AF state considerably affects various features of the system. Because the energy is markedly improved for t'/t < 0, the AF state occupies almost the whole underdoped regime in phase diagrams. A doped metallic AF state undergoes a kind of Lifshitz transition at t' = t'{L} ˜ - 0.05t as t'/t varies, irrespective of the values of U/t and δ (doping rate). Pocket Fermi surfaces arise around (π ,0) [(π /2,π /2)] for t' > t'{L} [t' < t'{L}], which corresponds to the electron-hole asymmetry observed in angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) spectra. The coexistent state of the two orders is possible basically for t' > t'{L}, because the existence of Fermi surfaces near (π ,0) is a requisite for the electron scattering of {q} = (π ,π ). Actually, the coexistent state appears mainly for t'{L}/t < t'/t ≲ 0.2 in the mixed state. Nevertheless, the AF and coexisting states become unstable toward phase separation for - 0.05 ≲ t'/t ≲ 0.2 but become stable at other values of t'/t owing to the energy reduction by the diagonal hopping of doped holes. We show that this instability does not directly correlate with the strength of d-SC.

  1. Role of Short-Range Order and Hyperuniformity in the Formation of Band Gaps in Disordered Photonic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froufe-Pérez, Luis S.; Engel, Michael; Damasceno, Pablo F.; Muller, Nicolas; Haberko, Jakub; Glotzer, Sharon C.; Scheffold, Frank

    2016-07-01

    We study photonic band gap formation in two-dimensional high-refractive-index disordered materials where the dielectric structure is derived from packing disks in real and reciprocal space. Numerical calculations of the photonic density of states demonstrate the presence of a band gap for all polarizations in both cases. We find that the band gap width is controlled by the increase in positional correlation inducing short-range order and hyperuniformity concurrently. Our findings suggest that the optimization of short-range order, in particular the tailoring of Bragg scattering at the isotropic Brillouin zone, are of key importance for designing disordered PBG materials.

  2. 167. GENERAL VIEW DOWN 5TH AVE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST DOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    167. GENERAL VIEW DOWN 5TH AVE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST DOWN 5TH AVE. SHOWING FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, BUILDING 504, 436, 11, AND 155. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  3. PREFACE: 5th Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezinskis, G.; Bragina, L.; Colombo, P.; Frischat, G. H.; Grabis, J.; Greil, P.; Deja, J.; Kaminskas, R.; Kliava, J.; Medvids, A.; Nowak, I.; Siauciunas, R.; Valancius, Z.; Zalite, I.

    2011-12-01

    Logo This Volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering presents a selection of the contributions to the 5th Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials (BaltSilica2011) held at Riga Technical University, Riga, Latvia from 23-25 May 2011. The conference was organized by Riga Technical University (Latvia) and Kaunas University of Technology (Lithuania). The series of Baltic conferences on silicate materials was started since 2004: the first conference was held in Riga, Latvia, 2004; the second conference was held in Kaunas, Lithuania 2005; the third was held again in Riga, Latvia, 2007, and the fourth was held in Kaunas, Lithuania 2009. BaltSilica 2011 was attended by around 50 participants from Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Germany, Poland, Italy, France, Ukraine and Russia. In comparison with previous silicate materials conferences, the broadening of participating countries is an indication of the interest of scientists, engineers and students to exchange research ideas, latest results, and to find new research topics for cooperation in the fields of silicate, high temperature materials, and inorganic nanomaterials. The scientific programme included 8 invited plenary lectures 23 oral presentations and 25 posters [1]. Scientific themes covered in the conference and in this special issue: Natural and Artificial Stone Materials; Traditional and New Ceramic and Glass-Like Materials; Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials. This volume consists of 23 selected proceeding papers. The Editor of this special issue is grateful to all the contributors to BaltSilica 2011. I am also very grateful to the scientific committee, the local organizing committee, the session chairs, the referees who refereed the submitted articles to this issue, and to students from the Department of Silicate, High Temperature and Inorganic Nanomaterials Technology of the Riga Technical University who ensured the smooth running of the conference. Particular thanks goes to eight plenary

  4. Managing Haemophilia for Life: 5th Haemophilia Global Summit.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Cedric; Dolan, Gerry; Jennings, Ian; Windyga, Jerzy; Lobet, Sébastien; Rodríguez-Merchán, E Carlos; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; Jiménez-Yuste, Víctor; O'Mahony, Brian

    2015-10-01

    The 5th Haemophilia Global Summit was held in Barcelona, Spain, in September 2014. The programme was designed by an independent Scientific Steering Committee of haemophilia experts and explored issues relevant to the practical management of haemophilia, as well as key opportunities and challenges for care in the future. The topics outlined in this supplement were selected by the Scientific Steering Committee for their relevance to improving haemophilia care globally. In this supplement from the meeting, Gerry Dolan explores pharmacokinetics and dynamics in haemophilia, and Gerry Dolan and Ian Jennings jointly address the role of the laboratory in haemophilia care. The potential benefits of low-dose prophylaxis regimens for people with haemophilia in the developing world are reviewed by Jerzy Windyga, and the question of whether 'Future haemophilia research should be undertaken in the developing world' is debated by Jerzy Windyga and Cedric Hermans. Management strategies for ankle arthropathy are discussed by Sébastien Lobet and E. Carlos Rodríguez-Merchán, and the use of ultrasound for the early detection of haemophilic arthropathy is addressed by Matteo Nicola Dario Di Minno and Víctor Jiménez-Yuste. Finally, the role of patients in the future of haemophilia care is reviewed by Brian O'Mahony. PMID:26350039

  5. Managing Haemophilia for Life: 5th Haemophilia Global Summit.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Cedric; Dolan, Gerry; Jennings, Ian; Windyga, Jerzy; Lobet, Sébastien; Rodríguez-Merchán, E Carlos; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; Jiménez-Yuste, Víctor; O'Mahony, Brian

    2015-10-01

    The 5th Haemophilia Global Summit was held in Barcelona, Spain, in September 2014. The programme was designed by an independent Scientific Steering Committee of haemophilia experts and explored issues relevant to the practical management of haemophilia, as well as key opportunities and challenges for care in the future. The topics outlined in this supplement were selected by the Scientific Steering Committee for their relevance to improving haemophilia care globally. In this supplement from the meeting, Gerry Dolan explores pharmacokinetics and dynamics in haemophilia, and Gerry Dolan and Ian Jennings jointly address the role of the laboratory in haemophilia care. The potential benefits of low-dose prophylaxis regimens for people with haemophilia in the developing world are reviewed by Jerzy Windyga, and the question of whether 'Future haemophilia research should be undertaken in the developing world' is debated by Jerzy Windyga and Cedric Hermans. Management strategies for ankle arthropathy are discussed by Sébastien Lobet and E. Carlos Rodríguez-Merchán, and the use of ultrasound for the early detection of haemophilic arthropathy is addressed by Matteo Nicola Dario Di Minno and Víctor Jiménez-Yuste. Finally, the role of patients in the future of haemophilia care is reviewed by Brian O'Mahony.

  6. Stability of Z2 topological order in the presence of vacancy-induced impurity band.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shi-Ting; Huang, Shin-Ming; Mou, Chung-Yu

    2014-06-25

    Although topological insulators (TIs) are known to be robust against non-magnetic perturbations and exhibit edge or surface states as their distinct feature, experimentally it is known that vacancies often occur in these materials and impose strong perturbations. Here, we investigate effects of vacancies on the stability of Z2 topological order using the Kane-Mele (KM) model as a prototype of topological insulators. It is shown that even though a vacancy is not classified as a topological defect in the KM model, it generally induces a pair of degenerate mid-gap bound states only in the TI phase. Hence mid-gap bound states due to vacancies arise from the same Z2 classification of topological insulators. Furthermore, we show that in the presence of many vacancies, an impurity band is induced and coexists with edge states until a phase transition occurs when the spectral weights of Dirac cones near Dirac points are depleted. Our analyses indicate that the same scenario holds for point vacancies or lines of vacancies in 3D TIs as well.

  7. High energy diode pumped 5th harmonic generation of Nd: YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yang; Cheng, Chee Yuen; Chia, Yong Poo; Wong, Wee Hoong; Yong, Saw Soon; Qu, Weijuan; Peng, Xiaoyuan

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports a high power diode pump 5th harmonic generation of Nd: YAG laser system, which could generate up to 300 mW TEM00 mode output with 100 Hz repetition rate at 213 nm. A diode pump module was specially designed for a high efficiency and good beam quality at the fundamental wavelength 1064 nm. An amplifier was set up out of the cavity to boost up the energy level of fundamental wavelength. In order to get high efficiency of the 5th harmonic generation, the cavity of the fundamental wavelength is EOM Q-switched which could generate very high peak power of the fundamental wavelength laser for extra cavity harmonic generations. Finally, 14% conversion efficiency from IR to UV was achieved, which is the highest efficiency in the market to the best of our knowledge right now. 213 nm is a very good substitute wavelength of 193 nm for different UV applications, the system of which is more compact, higher energy, less maintenance and better beam quality than the system of 193 nm.

  8. PREFACE: 5th Workshop of Young Researchers in Astronomy & Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forgács-Dajka, Emese; Plachy, Emese; Molnár, László

    2010-04-01

    The 5th Workshop of Young Researchers in Astronomy and Astrophysics was held on 2-4 September 2009 at the Eötvös University in Budapest, Hungary. This meeting fits into a conference series which can already be considered a tradition where the younger generation has the opportunity to present their work. The event was also a great opportunity for senior astronomers and physicists to form new connections with the next generation of researchers. The selection of invited speakers concentrated on the researchers currently most active in the field, mostly on a post-doctoral/tenure/fresh faculty position level. A number of senior experts and PhD students were also invited. As the conference focused on people rather than a specific field, various topics from theoretical physics to planetology were covered in three days. The programme was divided into six sections: Physics of the Sun and the Solar System Gravity and high-energy physics Galactic and extragalactic astronomy, cosmology Celestial mechanics and exoplanets Infrared astronomy and young stars Variable stars We had the pleasure of welcoming 10 invited review talks from senior researchers and 42 contributed talks and a poster from the younger generation. Participants also enjoyed the hospitality of the pub Pál at the Pálvölgyi-cave after giving, hearing and disputing countless talks. Brave souls even descended to the unbuilt, adventurous Mátyásvölgyi-cave. Memories of the conference were shadowed though. Péter Csizmadia, one of our participants and three other climbers attempted a first ever ascent to the Ren Zhong Feng peak in Sichuan, China, but they never returned from the mountains. Péter departed to China shortly after the conference, with best wishes from participants and friends. We dedicate this volume to his memory. The organisers thankthe Physics Doctoral School of Eötvös University for its hospitality. The workshop was supported by the Mecenatúra and Polányi Mihály Programmes of the National

  9. Valence state, hybridization and electronic band structure in the charge ordered AlV2O4.

    PubMed

    Kalavathi, S; Amirthapandian, S; Chandra, Sharat; Sahu, P Ch; Sahu, H K

    2014-01-01

    The valence state, hybridization and electronic band structure of charge ordered AlV2O4 are investigated by measuring the electron energy loss spectra (EELS) and performing band structure calculations using the WIEN2k code. White line ratio and O K edges of V2O5, VO2, V2O3 and AlV2O4, obtained using electron energy loss spectroscopy, are analysed specifically to probe systematically the VO6 octahedra in all of them. The systematic decrease of the L2 intensity and the O K edge intensity from V(5+) in V2O5 to AlV2O4 indicates a progressive increase in the occupancy of the hybridized states, which is corroborated by the absence of a transition from O 1s to hybridized 2t(2g). Band structure calculations on the parent charge frustrated cubic phase and the charge ordered rhombohedral phase clearly document a band gap in the charge ordered state. From the structural information obtained after convergence and the spectroscopic information from EELS, it appears that partial orbital occupancy may lead to a deviation from an integral valence state on all the vanadium in this exotic charge ordered spinel system.

  10. Valence state, hybridization and electronic band structure in the charge ordered AlV2O4.

    PubMed

    Kalavathi, S; Amirthapandian, S; Chandra, Sharat; Sahu, P Ch; Sahu, H K

    2014-01-01

    The valence state, hybridization and electronic band structure of charge ordered AlV2O4 are investigated by measuring the electron energy loss spectra (EELS) and performing band structure calculations using the WIEN2k code. White line ratio and O K edges of V2O5, VO2, V2O3 and AlV2O4, obtained using electron energy loss spectroscopy, are analysed specifically to probe systematically the VO6 octahedra in all of them. The systematic decrease of the L2 intensity and the O K edge intensity from V(5+) in V2O5 to AlV2O4 indicates a progressive increase in the occupancy of the hybridized states, which is corroborated by the absence of a transition from O 1s to hybridized 2t(2g). Band structure calculations on the parent charge frustrated cubic phase and the charge ordered rhombohedral phase clearly document a band gap in the charge ordered state. From the structural information obtained after convergence and the spectroscopic information from EELS, it appears that partial orbital occupancy may lead to a deviation from an integral valence state on all the vanadium in this exotic charge ordered spinel system. PMID:24285259

  11. Band edge and phonon-assisted deep level emissions in the ordered filled tetrahedral semiconductor LiMgP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuriyama, K.; Kushida, K.

    2000-03-01

    Band edge and phonon-assisted deep level emissions in the ordered filled tetrahedral semiconductor LiMgP (space group: F4¯3m, direct band gap: 2.43 eV at room temperature), viewed as a zincblende-like (MgP)- lattice partially filled with He-like Li+ interstitials, have been studied using a photoluminescence (PL) method. Two band edge emissions A and B, consisting of two PL peaks, were observed at around 489 nm at 15 K. Emissions A and B were associated with a free carrier recombination (2.535 eV) and a donor-to-valence band transition (2.532 eV), respectively. From the temperature dependence of the band edge emission and optical absorption data, the temperature variation of the band gap was approximated by the empirical formula Eg(eV)=2.536-1.43×10-3T2/(T+912) (T in K). A broad emission involving at least three phonon lines was observed at around 625 nm with full width at half maximum of ˜150 meV, showing a large Franck-Condon shift. The main phonon lines in the broad PL emission were associated with two combinations of longitudinal-optical phonons relating to Li-P and Mg-P pairs.

  12. Low index-contrast aperiodically ordered photonic quasicrystals for the development of isotropic photonic band-gap devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priya Rose, T.; Di Gennaro, E.; Andreone, A.; Abbate, G.

    2010-05-01

    Photonic quasicrystals (PQCs) have neither true periodicity nor translational symmetry, however they can exhibit symmetries that are not achievable by conventional periodic structures. The arbitrarily high rotational symmetry of these materials can be practically exploited to manufacture isotropic band gap materials, which are perfectly suitable for hosting waveguides or cavities. In this work, formation and development of the photonic bandgap (PBG) in twodimensional 8-, 10- and 12-fold symmetry quasicrystalline lattices of low dielectric contrast (0.4-0.6) were measured in the microwave region and compared with the PBG properties of a conventional hexagonal crystal. Band-gap properties were also investigated by changing the direction of propagation of the incident beam inside the crystal. Various angles of incidence from 0° to 30° were used in order to investigate the isotropic nature of the band-gap.

  13. Determination of the Colour Preferences of 5th Grade Students in Relation to Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uysal, Hüseyin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine the colour preferences of 5th grade students in relation to the concept of gender. The study was conducted with the 19 5th grade students studying at Central District of Bartin Province in 2015 to 2016 academic year. Throughout the research, quantitative research method had been used while survey had…

  14. Emotions, arousal, and frontal alpha rhythm asymmetry during Beethoven's 5th symphony.

    PubMed

    Mikutta, Christian; Altorfer, Andreas; Strik, Werner; Koenig, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    Music is capable of inducing emotional arousal. While previous studies used brief musical excerpts to induce one specific emotion, the current study aimed to identify the physiological correlates of continuous changes in subjective emotional states while listening to a complete music piece. A total of 19 participants listened to the first movement of Ludwig van Beethoven's 5th symphony (duration: ~7.4 min), during which a continuous 76-channel EEG was recorded. In a second session, the subjects evaluated their emotional arousal during the listening. A fast fourier transform was performed and covariance maps of spectral power were computed in association with the subjective arousal ratings. Subjective arousal ratings had good inter-individual correlations. Covariance maps showed a right-frontal suppression of lower alpha-band activity during high arousal. The results indicate that music is a powerful arousal-modulating stimulus. The temporal dynamics of the piece are well suited for sequential analysis, and could be necessary in helping unfold the full emotional power of music.

  15. The 5th Engineering Foundation Conference: Advanced Heterostructure Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-12-01

    The session on Heterostructure FET's concentrated on power devices. L. Eastman of Cornell University reported 5 W at 4 GHz with 70% efficiency and 15 dB of gain from a GE device, and 1 W at 4 GHz with 80% efficiency from Raytheon. J. Wolter described avalanche breakdown via DX centers in AlGaAs, and theoretical optimization of deep submicron HFET's for power handling was reported by M. Das. Silicon-germanium HBT's have made several improvements. K. Ismail of Cairo University and IBM showed how the Si/SiGe band lineup can be changed by strain relief, producing barriers to electrons as well as holes. Very high mobilities were reported, and the claim was made that SiGe devices at 77 K may be operationally equivalent to III-V devices at room temperature. This would clearly be important given the fabrication advantages of silicon-based technologies. Silicon-germanium HBT technology seemed to be too complex to insert into digital processes, but SiGe FET's may not be. Resonant-tunneling diodes (RTD's) have been combined into potentially multigigahertz shift-register circuits by G. Sollner at MIT Lincoln Laboratory. R. Behringer of AT&T reported experiments in optically controlled patterned growth of Na gratings using a technique that may be applicable to imaging In or Ga atoms during MBE growth. The consequences of optical phonon propagation in AlGaAs structures were discussed experimentally by G. Maracas of Motorola and L. Eastman of Cornell, and theoretically by K. W. Kim of the University of North Carolina. Interesting effects occur because optical phonons in GaAs cannot propagate in AlAs and conversely. HBT papers from III-V materials dwelt on materials issues nad centered on carbon doping and its associated strain and activation.

  16. Why does shear banding behave like first-order phase transitions? Derivation of a potential from a mechanical constitutive model.

    PubMed

    Sato, K; Yuan, X-F; Kawakatsu, T

    2010-02-01

    Numerous numerical and experimental evidence suggest that shear banding behavior looks like first-order phase transitions. In this paper, we demonstrate that this correspondence is actually established in the so-called non-local diffusive Johnson-Segalman model (the DJS model), a typical mechanical constitutive model that has been widely used for describing shear banding phenomena. In the neighborhood of the critical point, we apply the reduction procedure based on the center manifold theory to the governing equations of the DJS model. As a result, we obtain a time evolution equation of the flow field that is equivalent to the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL) equations for modeling thermodynamic first-order phase transitions. This result, for the first time, provides a mathematical proof that there is an analogy between the mechanical instability and thermodynamic phase transition at least in the vicinity of the critical point of the shear banding of DJS model. Within this framework, we can clearly distinguish the metastable branch in the stress-strain rate curve around the shear banding region from the globally stable branch. A simple extension of this analysis to a class of more general constitutive models is also discussed. Numerical simulations for the original DJS model and the reduced TDGL equation is performed to confirm the range of validity of our reduction theory.

  17. Wave propagation in ordered, disordered, and nonlinear photonic band gap materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lidorikis, Elefterios

    1999-12-10

    Photonic band gap materials are artificial dielectric structures that give the promise of molding and controlling the flow of optical light the same way semiconductors mold and control the electric current flow. In this dissertation the author studied two areas of photonic band gap materials. The first area is focused on the properties of one-dimensional PBG materials doped with Kerr-type nonlinear material, while, the second area is focused on the mechanisms responsible for the gap formation as well as other properties of two-dimensional PBG materials. He first studied, in Chapter 2, the general adequacy of an approximate structure model in which the nonlinearity is assumed to be concentrated in equally-spaced very thin layers, or 6-functions, while the rest of the space is linear. This model had been used before, but its range of validity and the physical reasons for its limitations were not quite clear yet. He performed an extensive examination of many aspects of the model's nonlinear response and comparison against more realistic models with finite-width nonlinear layers, and found that the d-function model is quite adequate, capturing the essential features in the transmission characteristics. The author found one exception, coming from the deficiency of processing a rigid bottom band edge, i.e. the upper edge of the gaps is always independent of the refraction index contrast. This causes the model to miss-predict that there are no soliton solutions for a positive Kerr-coefficient, something known to be untrue.

  18. Some mice feature 5th pharyngeal arch arteries and double-lumen aortic arch malformations.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Stefan H; Weninger, Wolfgang J

    2012-01-01

    A 5th pair of pharyngeal arch arteries (PAAs) has never been identified with certainty in mice. Murines in general are considered to not develop a 5th pair. If true, the significance of the mouse as a model for researching the genesis of malformations of the great intrathoracic arteries is limited. We aimed to investigate whether mouse embryos develop a 5th pair of PAAs and to identify malformations known to be caused by defective remodelling of the 5th PAAs. We employed the high-resolution episcopic microscopy method for creating digital volume data and three-dimensional (3D) computer models of the great intrathoracic arteries of 30 mouse embryos from days 12-12.5 post conception and 180 mouse fetuses from days 14.5 and 15.5 post conception. The 3D models of the fetuses were screened for the presence of a double-lumen aortic arch malformation. We identified such a malformation in 1 fetus. The 3D models of the embryos were analysed for the presence of 5th PAAs. Six of the 30 embryos (20%) showed a 5th PAA bilaterally, and an additional 9 (30%) showed a 5th PAA unilaterally. Our results prove that some mice do develop a 5th pair of PAAs. They also show that malformations which occur rarely in humans and result from defective remodelling of the left 5th PAA can be identified in mice as well. Thus, the mouse does represent an excellent model for researching the mechanisms driving PAA remodelling and the genesis of malformations of the great intrathoracic arteries.

  19. Long-range orders and spin/orbital freezing in the two-band Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, Karim; Hoshino, Shintaro; Nomura, Yusuke; Werner, Philipp

    2016-08-01

    We solve the orbitally degenerate two-band Hubbard model within dynamical mean field theory and map out the instabilities to various symmetry-broken phases based on an analysis of the corresponding lattice susceptibilities. Phase diagrams as a function of the Hund coupling parameter J are obtained both for the model with rotationally invariant interaction and for the model with Ising-type anisotropy. For negative J , an intraorbital spin-singlet superconducting phase appears at low temperatures, while the normal state properties are characterized by an orbital-freezing phenomenon. This is the negative-J analog of the recently discovered fluctuating-moment induced s -wave spin-triplet superconductivity in the spin-freezing regime of multiorbital models with J >0 .

  20. 6. 5TH FLOOR, VIEW NORTH OF KETTLE SOAP STORAGE TANKS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. 5TH FLOOR, VIEW NORTH OF KETTLE SOAP STORAGE TANKS (RIGHT) AND WEIGH HOPPERS OVER SITES OF REMOVED AMALGAMATORS (LEFT) - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  1. 17. 4th floor roof, view south, 4th and 5th floor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. 4th floor roof, view south, 4th and 5th floor setback to left and atrium structure to right - Sheffield Farms Milk Plant, 1075 Webster Avenue (southwest corner of 166th Street), Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  2. 25. April 5th one month's work. View looking north. Storehouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. April 5th one month's work. View looking north. Storehouse #1 under construction, storehouse #2 site work in progress toward foreground. - U.S. Navy Fleet Supply Base, Storehouse No. 1, 830 Third Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  3. Twenty-Eight Orders of Parametric Resonance in a Microelectromechanical Device for Multi-band Vibration Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yu; Du, Sijun; Seshia, Ashwin A.

    2016-07-01

    This paper contends to be the first to report the experimental observation of up to 28 orders of parametric resonance, which has thus far only been envisioned in the theoretical realm. While theory has long predicted the onset of n orders of parametric resonance, previously reported experimental observations have been limited up to about the first 5 orders. This is due to the rapid narrowing nature of the frequency bandwidth of the higher instability intervals, making practical accessibility increasingly more difficult. Here, the authors have experimentally confirmed up to 28 orders of parametric resonance in a micromachined membrane resonator when electrically undamped. While the implication of this finding spans across the vibration dynamics and transducer application spectrum, the particular significance of this work is to broaden the accumulative operational frequency bandwidth of vibration energy harvesting for enabling self-powered microsystems. Up to 5 orders were recorded when driven at 1.0 g of acceleration across a matched load of 70 kΩ. With a natural frequency of 980 Hz, the fundamental mode direct resonance had a ‑3 dB bandwidth of 55 Hz, in contrast to the 314 Hz for the first order parametric resonance; furthermore, the half power bands of all 5 orders accumulated to 478 Hz.

  4. Twenty-Eight Orders of Parametric Resonance in a Microelectromechanical Device for Multi-band Vibration Energy Harvesting

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yu; Du, Sijun; Seshia, Ashwin A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper contends to be the first to report the experimental observation of up to 28 orders of parametric resonance, which has thus far only been envisioned in the theoretical realm. While theory has long predicted the onset of n orders of parametric resonance, previously reported experimental observations have been limited up to about the first 5 orders. This is due to the rapid narrowing nature of the frequency bandwidth of the higher instability intervals, making practical accessibility increasingly more difficult. Here, the authors have experimentally confirmed up to 28 orders of parametric resonance in a micromachined membrane resonator when electrically undamped. While the implication of this finding spans across the vibration dynamics and transducer application spectrum, the particular significance of this work is to broaden the accumulative operational frequency bandwidth of vibration energy harvesting for enabling self-powered microsystems. Up to 5 orders were recorded when driven at 1.0 g of acceleration across a matched load of 70 kΩ. With a natural frequency of 980 Hz, the fundamental mode direct resonance had a −3 dB bandwidth of 55 Hz, in contrast to the 314 Hz for the first order parametric resonance; furthermore, the half power bands of all 5 orders accumulated to 478 Hz. PMID:27445205

  5. Design of high-order HTS dual-band bandpass filters with receiver subsystem for future mobile communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiya, N.

    2016-08-01

    We have developed two high-order high-temperature superconducting (HTS) dual-band bandpass filters (BPFs) with a receiver subsystem for future mobile communication systems. They feature stub-loaded hair-pin resonators with two types of microstrip lines between them. One has a six-pole design, and the other has an eight-pole design. Both were designed to operate at 2.15 GHz with a 43-MHz (2%) bandwidth for the lower passband and at 3.50 GHz with a 70-MHz (2%) bandwidth for the upper one. They were fabricated using YBa2Cu3Oy thin film on a CeO2-bufferd r-Al2O3 substrate. The measured results for both filters agree well with the simulated ones. The HTS dual-band BPF receiver subsystem uses a pulse tube cryocooler and a wideband low noise amplifier (LNA). We measured the frequency response of the six-pole dual-band BPF with and without a wideband LNA with a gain of 10 dB. The measured return losses were close.

  6. Factors affecting the output pulse flatness of the linear transformer driver cavity systems with 5th harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeenko, V. M.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Kim, A. A.; Kondratiev, S. S.; Sinebryukhov, V. A.; Volkov, S. N.; Cuneo, M. E.; Kiefer, M. L.; Leckby, J. J.; Oliver, B. V.; Maloney, P. D.

    2016-09-01

    We describe the study we have undertaken to evaluate the effect of component tolerances in obtaining a voltage output flat top for a linear transformer driver (LTD) cavity containing 3rd and 5th harmonic bricks [A. A. Kim et al., in Proc. IEEE Pulsed Power and Plasma Science PPPS2013 (San Francisco, California, USA, 2013), pp. 1354-1356.] and for 30 cavity voltage adder. Our goal was to define the necessary component value precision in order to obtain a voltage output flat top with no more than ±0.5 % amplitude variation.

  7. The Effects of Biaxial Strain and Chemical Ordering on the Band Gap of InGaN

    SciTech Connect

    WRIGHT,ALAN F.; VANSCHILFGAARDE,MARK

    2000-07-17

    The authors have performed first-principles calculations to examine the effects of biaxial strain and chemical ordering on the band gap of wurtzite In{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}N in the range 0 {le} x {le} 0.5. The results for unstrained, random alloys are in good agreement with theoretical estimates and measurements on unstrained zinc-blende alloys, but are in poor agreement with recent measurements on strained wurtzite alloys which display significantly lower gaps. Biaxial strain is found to have a non-linear effect on calculated alloy gaps, increasing them for x < 0.25 and decreasing them for x > 0.25. However, the overall agreement with measured wurtzite values remains poor. Chemical ordering along the [0001] direction in strained alloys is found to decrease the band gaps considerably, yielding much improved agreement with measurements. They discuss their results with regard to current theories concerning the optical properties of wurtzite InGaN alloys.

  8. EDITORIAL: 'Best article' prize for the 5th anniversary of Environmental Research Letters 'Best article' prize for the 5th anniversary of Environmental Research Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammen, Dan; Wright, Guillaume

    2011-12-01

    To celebrate the 5th anniversary of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) the publishers of the journal, IOP Publishing, have awarded a prize for the five best articles published in ERL since the journal began in 2006. The procedure for deciding the winning articles was as thorough as possible to ensure that the most outstanding articles would win the prize. A shortlist of 25 nominated research articles, five for each year since ERL was launched, which were chosen based on a range of criteria including novelty, scientific impact, readership, broad appeal and wider media coverage, was selected. The ERL Editorial Board then assessed and rated these 25 articles in order to choose a winning article for each year. We would like to announce that the following articles have been awarded ERL's 5th anniversary best article prize: 2006/7 The Bodélé depression: a single spot in the Sahara that provides most of the mineral dust to the Amazon forest Ilan Koren, Yoram J Kaufman, Richard Washington, Martin C Todd, Yinon Rudich, J Vanderlei Martins and Daniel Rosenfeld 2006 Environ. Res. Lett. 1 014005 2008 Causes and impacts of the 2005 Amazon drought Ning Zeng, Jin-Ho Yoon, Jose A Marengo, Ajit Subramaniam, Carlos A Nobre, Annarita Mariotti and J David Neelin 2008 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 014002 2009 How difficult is it to recover from dangerous levels of global warming? J A Lowe, C Huntingford, S C B Raper, C D Jones, S K Liddicoat and L K Gohar 2009 Environ. Res. Lett. 4 014012 2010 Is physical water scarcity a new phenomenon? Global assessment of water shortage over the last two millennia Matti Kummu, Philip J Ward, Hans de Moel and Olli Varis 2010 Environ. Res. Lett. 5 034006 2011 Implications of urban structure on carbon consumption in metropolitan areas Jukka Heinonen and Seppo Junnila 2011 Environ. Res. Lett. 6 014018 Our congratulations go to these authors. In recognition of their outstanding work, we are delighted to offer all of the authors of the winning articles free

  9. Higher order mode damping in a five-cell superconducting rf cavity with a photonic band gap coupler cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenyev, Sergey A.; Temkin, Richard J.; Shchegolkov, Dmitry Yu.; Simakov, Evgenya I.; Boulware, Chase H.; Grimm, Terry L.; Rogacki, Adam R.

    2016-08-01

    We present a study of higher order mode (HOM) damping in the first multicell superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavity with a photonic band gap (PBG) coupler cell. Achieving higher average beam currents is particularly desirable for future light sources and particle colliders based on SRF energy-recovery linacs (ERLs). Beam current in ERLs is limited by the beam breakup instability, caused by parasitic HOMs interacting with the beam in accelerating cavities. A PBG cell incorporated in an accelerating cavity can reduce the negative effect of HOMs by providing a frequency selective damping mechanism, thus allowing significantly higher beam currents. The five-cell cavity with a PBG cell was designed and optimized for HOM damping. Monopole and dipole HOMs were simulated. The SRF cavity was fabricated and tuned. External quality factors for some HOMs were measured in a cold test. The measurements agreed well with the simulations.

  10. Magnetic ordering in the frustrated J1 - J2 Ising chain candidate BaNd2O4

    DOE PAGES

    Aczel, Adam A.; Li, Ling; Garlea, Vasile O.; Yan, Jiaqiang; Weickert, Franziska; Jaime, M.; Maiorov, B.; Movshovich, R.; Civale, L.; Keppens, V.; et al

    2014-10-06

    The AR2O4 family (R = rare earth) has recently been attracting interest as a new series of frustrated magnets, with the magnetic R atoms forming zigzag chains running along the c axis. In this paper, we have investigated polycrystalline BaNd2O4 with a combination of magnetization, heat-capacity, and neutron powder diffraction measurements. Magnetic Bragg peaks are observed below TN = 1.7 K, and they can be indexed with a propagation vector of k = (0,1/2,1/2). The signal from magnetic diffraction is well described by long-range ordering of only one of the two types of Nd zigzag chains, with collinear up-up-down-down intrachainmore » spin configurations (double Néel state). Furthermore, low-temperature magnetization and heat-capacity measurements reveal two magnetic-field-induced spin transitions at 2.75 and 4 T for T = 0.46 K. The high-field phase is paramagnetic, while the intermediate-field state may arise from a spin transition of the long-range ordered Nd chains. Finally, one possible candidate for the field-induced ordered state corresponds to an up-up-down intrachain spin configuration, as predicted for a classical J1-J2 Ising chain with a double Néel ground state in zero field.« less

  11. Development of a Three-Dimensional Finite Element Chest Model for the 5(th) Percentile Female.

    PubMed

    Kimpara, Hideyuki; Lee, Jong B; Yang, King H; King, Albert I; Iwamoto, Masami; Watanabe, Isao; Miki, Kazuo

    2005-11-01

    Several three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models of the human body have been developed to elucidate injury mechanisms due to automotive crashes. However, these models are mainly focused on 50(th) percentile male. As a first step towards a better understanding of injury biomechanics in the small female, a 3D FE model of a 5(th) percentile female human chest (FEM-5F) has been developed and validated against experimental data obtained from two sets of frontal impact, one set of lateral impact, two sets of oblique impact and a series of ballistic impacts. Two previous FE models, a small female Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS-AF05) occupant version 1.0Beta (Kimpara et al. 2002) and the Wayne State University Human Thoracic Model (WSUHTM, Wang 1995 and Shah et al. 2001) were integrated and modified for this model development. The model incorporated not only geometrical gender differences, such as location of the internal organs and structure of the bony skeleton, but also the biomechanical differences of the ribs due to gender. It includes a detailed description of the sternum, ribs, costal cartilage, thoracic spine, skin, superficial muscles, intercostal muscles, heart, lung, diaphragm, major blood vessels and simplified abdominal internal organs and has been validated against a series of six cadaveric experiments on the small female reported by Nahum et al. (1970), Kroell et al. (1974), Viano (1989), Talantikite et al. (1998) and Wilhelm (2003). Results predicted by the model were well-matched to these experimental data for a range of impact speeds and impactor masses. More research is needed in order to increase the accuracy of predicting rib fractures so that the mechanisms responsible for small female injury can be more clearly defined. PMID:17096277

  12. The 5th edition of the Roma-BZCAT. A short presentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massaro, E.; Maselli, A.; Leto, C.; Marchegiani, P.; Perri, M.; Giommi, P.; Piranomonte, S.

    2015-05-01

    The 5th edition of the Roma-BZCAT Multifrequency Catalogue of Blazars is available in a printed version and online at the ASDC website (http://www.asdc.asi.it/bzcat); it is also in the NED database. It presents several relevant changes with respect to the past editions which are briefly described in this paper.

  13. Oral Persuasion: A Saleable Work Skill. Occupation Simulation Packet. Grades 5th-6th.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Dennis W.

    This teacher's guide contains simulated work experiences for 5th and 6th grade students using the isolated skill concept - oral persuasion. Teacher instructions include objectives, evaluation, and sequence of activities. The guide contains pre-tests and post-tests with instructions and answer keys. Two pre-skill activities are suggested, such as…

  14. A Longitudinal Study of a 5th Grade Science Curriculum Based on the 5E Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Timothy P.; Schroeder, Carolyn; Tolson, Homer; Huang, Tse-Yang; Williams, Omah M.

    2014-01-01

    The Center for Mathematics and Science Education at Texas A&M University contracted with Region 4 Education Service Center (ESC) and a large, diverse school district to conduct a longitudinal study from 2005-2009. The state achievement test scores of 5th graders who were taught using a Grade 5 science textbook designed by Region 4 ESC were…

  15. Successfully Promoting 21st Century Online Research Skills: Interventions in 5th-Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsley, Tara L.; Cassady, Jerrell C.; Tancock, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    This quantitative study was developed to explore the ability to impact elementary student 21st Century online research skills with a planned classroom intervention curriculum. The repeated measures quasi-experimental study randomly assigned all 5th grade classes in a Midwestern, suburban school (n = 418) to a 12-week intervention or control…

  16. A Network Sets Things in Motion: TEDD Celebrates its 5(th) Anniversary.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    At the Annual Meeting at ZHAW Waedenswil on 22 October 2015, the TEDD-Network (Tissue Engineering for Drug Development and Substance Testing) celebrated its 5(th) anniversary. Since its foundation, TEDD has become an internationally renowned competence centre and includes currently 91 members from academia and industry. They cover the entire development and value chain. PMID:26671055

  17. The 5th World Environmental Education Congress, 2009: A Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jickling, Bob; Sauve, Lucie; Briere, Laurence; Niblett, Blair; Root, Emily

    2010-01-01

    This paper contextualizes the 5th World Environmental Education Congress, discusses the theoretical underpinnings of the Congress theme "Earth Our Common Home," and relates this theorizing to the research project that was woven through the Congress. We provide a rationale for engaging in this research project, as an invitation for Congress…

  18. 10. Interior view, working house, scale floor (5th level). View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Interior view, working house, scale floor (5th level). View facing across floor toward no. 2 scale and garner. Tile structure at left center is weighmaster's shack; view facing east. - Saint Anthony Elevator No. 3, 620 Malcom Avenue, Southeast, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  19. Socially, Developmentally, and Academically Appropriate Prevention Curriculum for 5th Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harthun, Mary L.; Dustman, Patricia A.; Reeves, Leslie J.; Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Hecht, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a process in which program designers, classroom teachers, and students worked together to adapt the 7th grade "keepin' it REAL" prevention curriculum to a developmentally, socially, and academically appropriate curriculum for 5th graders. A Community-Based Participatory Research methodology (CBPR), combined with a 9-step…

  20. The Effect of Progressive Sentence Development Activities on 5th Graders' Description Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamzadayi, Ergun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of progressive sentence development activities on 5th graders' description skills. The study was conducted based on the pretest-posttest quasi-experimental model with a control group. A total of 58 students participated in the study; 29 in the control group, and 29 in the experimental group. The…

  1. Vocabulary and Syntactic Knowledge Factors in 5th Grade Students' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokhtari, Kouider; Niederhauser, Dale S.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined 5th grade students' levels of vocabulary knowledge and syntactic awareness relative to their reading comprehension performance. The aim was to explore the contributions of vocabulary and syntactic awareness as potential sources of reading comprehension difficulty for these readers. Overall, we found that both vocabulary…

  2. 9. 5TH FLOOR, INTERIOR DETAIL TO EAST OF SOAP BIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. 5TH FLOOR, INTERIOR DETAIL TO EAST OF SOAP BIN No. 4: UPPER SCREWS MOVED SOAP CHIPS HORIZONTALLY FROM BIN TO BIN; LOWER LEFT-AND RIGHT-HAND SCREWS MOVED CHIPS TO CHUTE LEADING TO 3RD FLOOR SOAP MILLS - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  3. 78 FR 53454 - Filing Dates for the Louisiana Special Elections in the 5th Congressional District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION Filing Dates for the Louisiana Special Elections in the 5th Congressional District AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of filing dates for special election. SUMMARY: Louisiana has...

  4. Urban 5th Graders Conceptions during a Place-Based Inquiry Unit on Watersheds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endreny, Anna Henderson

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine how 33 urban 5th grade students' science conceptions changed during a place-based inquiry unit on watersheds. Research on watershed and place-based education was used as a framework to guide the teaching of the unit as well as the research study. A teacher-researcher designed the curriculum, taught the unit and…

  5. An Investigation of Science and Technology Teachers' Views on the 5th Grade Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dasdemir, Ikramettin

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the science and technology teachers' views on the implementation of 5th grade science course. Open-ended questions were used as a data collection tool. The study sample consisted of 28 science and technology teachers working in Erzurum in 2012-2013 education year. The data gathered were analysed via content…

  6. Effects of temperature and modified atmospheres on diapausing 5th instar codling moth metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diapausing 5th instars of codling moth, Cydia pomonella, are serious quarantine pests of in-shell walnuts. Previous research indicates that heat treatments in combination with high concentrations of carbon dioxide and low concentrations of oxygen may be effective for controlling this pest in walnuts...

  7. Effects of higher-order energy bands and temperature on the bosonic Mott insulator in a periodically modulated lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajna, A. S.

    2016-10-01

    We show that a certain class of higher-order excitations in ultracold atoms experiments can be described by straightforward extension of the standard strong coupling approach in the coherent state path integral formalism. It is achieved by theoretical analysis of energy absorption spectroscopy in the three-dimensional system of strongly correlated bosons described by the Bose-Hubbard model. In particular, for unit filling, an explicit form of the single-particle Mott insulator Green function at finite temperatures is derived which goes beyond the standard Hubbard bands description. Moreover, for relevant densities, we calculated the energy absorption rate and performed thermometry on rubidium atomic cloud gas by using previously obtained experimental data. Within the local density approximation, we explain that in such systems the nature of absorption spectrum depends significantly on local chemical potential: (a) the crossover region between lobes is characterized by different types of particle-hole excitations from neighboring Mott lobes and (b) origin of higher-order energy excitations changes from hole type to particle type for higher bosonic densities.

  8. Topological band-order transition and quantum spin Hall edge engineering in functionalized X-Bi(111) (X = Ga, In, and Tl) bilayer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngjae; Yun, Won Seok; Lee, J D

    2016-01-01

    Functionalized X-Bi bilayers (X = Ga, In, and Tl) with halogens bonded on their both sides have been recently claimed to be the giant topological insulators due to the strong band inversion strengths. Employing the first-principles electronic structure calculation, we find the topological band order transition from the order p - p - s of the X-Bi bilayers with halogens on their both sides to the new order p - s - p of the bilayers (especially for X = Ga and In) with halogen on one side and hydrogen on the other side, where the asymmetric hydrogen bonding simulates the substrate. We further find that the p - s bulk band gap of the bilayer bearing the new order p - s - p sensitively depends on the electric field, which enables a meaningful engineering of the quantum spin Hall edge state by controlling the external electric field. PMID:27623710

  9. Topological band-order transition and quantum spin Hall edge engineering in functionalized X-Bi(111) (X = Ga, In, and Tl) bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngjae; Yun, Won Seok; Lee, J. D.

    2016-09-01

    Functionalized X-Bi bilayers (X = Ga, In, and Tl) with halogens bonded on their both sides have been recently claimed to be the giant topological insulators due to the strong band inversion strengths. Employing the first-principles electronic structure calculation, we find the topological band order transition from the order p – p – s of the X-Bi bilayers with halogens on their both sides to the new order p – s – p of the bilayers (especially for X = Ga and In) with halogen on one side and hydrogen on the other side, where the asymmetric hydrogen bonding simulates the substrate. We further find that the p – s bulk band gap of the bilayer bearing the new order p – s – p sensitively depends on the electric field, which enables a meaningful engineering of the quantum spin Hall edge state by controlling the external electric field.

  10. Topological band-order transition and quantum spin Hall edge engineering in functionalized X-Bi(111) (X = Ga, In, and Tl) bilayer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngjae; Yun, Won Seok; Lee, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    Functionalized X-Bi bilayers (X = Ga, In, and Tl) with halogens bonded on their both sides have been recently claimed to be the giant topological insulators due to the strong band inversion strengths. Employing the first-principles electronic structure calculation, we find the topological band order transition from the order p – p – s of the X-Bi bilayers with halogens on their both sides to the new order p – s – p of the bilayers (especially for X = Ga and In) with halogen on one side and hydrogen on the other side, where the asymmetric hydrogen bonding simulates the substrate. We further find that the p – s bulk band gap of the bilayer bearing the new order p – s – p sensitively depends on the electric field, which enables a meaningful engineering of the quantum spin Hall edge state by controlling the external electric field. PMID:27623710

  11. 29 CFR 570.65 - Occupations involved in the operations of circular saws, band saws, and guillotine shears (Order...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... saws, band saws, guillotine shears, chain saws, reciprocating saws, wood chippers, and abrasive cutting... fixed or portable machines: (i) Chain saws. (ii) Reciprocating saws. (iii) Wood chippers. (iv) Abrasive..., band saws, guillotine shears, chain saws, reciprocating saws, wood chippers, and abrasive cutting...

  12. Effects of the 5th and 7th Grade Enhanced Versions of the "keepin' it REAL" Substance Use Prevention Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elek, Elvira; Wagstaff, David A.; Hecht, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the outcomes of adapting the culturally-grounded, middle school, substance-use prevention intervention, "keepin' it REAL" ("kiR"), to target elementary school students and to address acculturation. At the beginning of 5th grade, 29 schools were randomly assigned to conditions obtained by crossing grade of implementation (5th,…

  13. Measuring Listening Comprehension Skills of 5th Grade School Students with the Help of Web Based System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acat, M. Bahaddin; Demiral, Hilmi; Kaya, Mehmet Fatih

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to measure listening comprehension skills of 5th grade school students with the help of web based system. This study was conducted on 5th grade students studying at the primary schools of Eskisehir. The scale used in the process of the study is "Web Based Listening Scale". In the process of the study,…

  14. A Narrow Amide I Vibrational Band Observed by Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy Reveals Highly Ordered Structures of a Biofilm Protein at the Air/Water Interface†

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhuguang; Morales-Acosta, M. Daniela; Li, Shanghao; Liu, Wei; Kanai, Tapan; Liu, Yuting; Chen, Ya-Na; Walker, Frederick J.; Ahn, Charles H.; Leblanc, Roger M.

    2016-01-01

    We characterized BslA, a bacterial biofilm protein, at the air/water interface using vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy and observed one of the sharpest amide I band ever reported. Combining methods of surface pressure measurements, thin film X-ray reflectivity, and atomic force microscopy, we showed extremely ordered BslA at the interface. PMID:26779572

  15. A Social Medium: ASM's 5th Cell-Cell Communication in Bacteria Meeting in Review

    PubMed Central

    Federle, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The 5th American Society for Microbiology Conference on Cell-Cell Communication in Bacteria (CCCB-5), which convened from 18 to 21 October 2014 in San Antonio, TX, highlighted recent advances in our understanding of microbial intercellular signaling. While the CCCB meetings arose from interests in pheromone signaling and quorum sensing, it was evident at CCCB-5 that the cell-cell communication field is continuing to mature, expanding into new areas and integrating cutting-edge technologies. In this minireview, we recap some of the research discussed at CCCB-5 and the questions that have arisen from it. PMID:25917904

  16. Evaluation of the 5th edition of the TNM classification for gastric cancer: improved prognostic value

    PubMed Central

    Kranenbarg, E Klein; Hermans, J; van Krieken, J H J M; van de Velde, C J H

    2001-01-01

    The main change in the 5th edition (1997) of the TNM classification for gastric cancer compared to the 4th edition (1987) is the use of the number of involved nodes instead of the location of positive nodes. As a result stage grouping is also altered. A second change is the requirement for the examination of at least 15 nodes to justify the N0 status. Patients with fewer examined negative nodes are unclassifiable (Nx). Data were retrieved from a randomized trial database comparing D1 and D2 dissection and 633 curatively operated patients were included. According to the criteria of the 5th edition, 39% of the node-positive patients had another N stage compared to the 4th: 21% had a lower and 18% had a higher stage. 5-year survival rates according to the 4th edition N0, N1 and N2 groups were respectively 72%, 34% and 27%. According to the 5th edition these percentages were for the N0, N1, N2, N3 and Nx groups respectively 75%, 38%, 19%, 8% and 65%. The former 1987 N1 and N2 group were significantly split into three new N 1997 groups (P = 0.006, respectively P< 0.0005). The Cox's regression analysis showed the N 1997 classification to be the most important prognostic variable, with a higher prognostic value than N 1987. In addition, the new TNM stage was also a better prognosticator. The requirement for examining at least 15 nodes, however, could not be fulfilled in 38% of all node-negative patients and we found that a minimum of 5 consecutive negative lymph nodes is a reliable number for staging purposes. We conclude that the 5th edition of the TNM classification provides a better estimation of prognosis, however, examination of at least 15 negative regional lymph nodes is too high a threshold and 5 gives similar prognostic value. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11139315

  17. Indoor Air '90: the 5th in a series of international conferences on the indoor environment.

    PubMed

    Walkinshaw, D

    1992-01-01

    The 5th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate: INDOOR AIR '90 continued a series of international scientific conferences begun in 1978 on a complex, interdisciplinary subject increasingly recognized to be of importance to human comfort, health and productivity, and having important implications for building design and furnishing, office equipment, appliances, cleaning, heating, ventilating, humidifying and air-conditioning. INDOOR AIR '90 constituted a week long program of 542 paper and poster presentations and forum discussions, 100 exhibits, and a public forum. This paper summarizes some of the highlights of this conference and links these to some of the studies reported at earlier INDOOR AIR Conference.

  18. Preface to Special Topic: Selected Papers from the 5th International Conference on Optofluidics.

    PubMed

    Fan, Shih-Kang; Yang, Zhenchuan

    2016-01-01

    The 5th International Conference on Optofluidics (Optofluidics 2015) was held in Taipei, Taiwan, July 26-29, 2015. The aim of this conference was to provide a forum to promote scientific exchange and to foster closer networks and collaborative ties between leading international researchers in optics and micro/nanofluidics across various disciplines. The scope of Optofluidics 2015 was deliberately broad and interdisciplinary, encompassing the latest advances and the most innovative developments in micro/nanoscale science and technology. Topics ranged from fundamental research to its applications in chemistry, physics, biology, materials, and medicine.

  19. PREFACE: The 5th International Conference on Radiotherapy Gel Dosimetry (DOSGEL 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maris, Thomas G.; Pappas, Evangelos

    2009-07-01

    The International Conference on Radiotherapy Gel Dosimetry (DOSGEL) is held every two years. Its purpose is to bring together basic science and clinical researchers, medical physicists and clinicians from around the world to discuss the state-of-the-art of the gel dosimetry technique and to set the directions and trends for its future improvements. Gel dosimetry can be broadly defined as using a gel that can react to the absorption of ionizing radiation, and that can retain this information which can subsequently be retrieved by an external imaging modality. Examples of radiation-sensitive gels include, but are not limited to, polymer gel dosimeters, Fricke gel dosimeters and others. Imaging modalities that are of general use in this field are (in alphabetical order) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical light computed tomography and x-ray computed tomography. This volume comprises the proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Radiotherapy Gel Dosimetry (DOSGEL 2008). The conference, organised by the University of Crete, Medical Physics Department, took place in Hersonissos, Crete, Greece from 29 September to 3 October 2008. The meeting aimed to continue the series of biannual DOSGEL conferences and focused on the promotion of gel dosimetry techniques by setting the trends for their future improvements. The main scientific session topics of DOSGEL 2008 were the following: Chemistry and fundamental properties of polymer gel dosimeters Gel dosimetry with Optical Computed Tomography Gel dosimetry with Magnetic Resonance Imaging Gel dosimetry with other than Optical CT and MR scan Techniques Other 3D dosimeters Gel dosimetry applications Local Organizing Committee Thomas G Maris (University of Crete, Greece, Chairman DOSGEL 2008) John Damilakis (University of Crete, Greece) Evangelos Pappas (University of Crete, Greece) Antonios Papadakis (University of Crete, Greece) Fotini Zacharopoulou (University of Crete, Greece) John Stratakis (University of Crete

  20. 5th Bionanotox and Applications International Research Conference, Peabody, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabb, Taneicie; Chowdhury, Parimal

    2011-06-01

    "BioNanoTox and Toxicity: using Technology to Advance Discovery" was this year's theme at the 5th BioNanoTox and Applications International Research Conference held at the Peabody Hotel, Little Rock, Arkansas on November 4-5th, 2010. This year, the international participation in this conference increased to 25 countries spanning the globe. The conference began with opening remarks by Paul Howard, Associate Director of the National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, Arkansas, United States. Two keynote speakers, Dr. Ananth V. Annapragada and Dr. Merle G. Paule presented lectures on "Toxicity of Novel Nanoparticles for CT imaging" and "The Biology of Neurotoxicity: using Technology to Advance Discovery", respectively. Teachers, students, faculty, and scientists presented oral and poster presentations on fundamental and translational research related to BioNanoTox and related fields of science. Six presentation sessions were held over the two-day conference. There were 31 presentations and 39 posters from disciplines ranging from biology to chemistry, toxicology, nanotechnology, computational sciences, mathematics, engineering, plant science, and biotechnology. Poster presentation awards were presented to three high school students, three high school teachers, and three college students. In addition to poster awards a memorial, travel, and BioNanoTox award were presented. This year's meeting paved the way for a more outstanding meeting for the future.

  1. A first-order radiative transfer model for microwave radiometry of forest canopies at L-band

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, a first-order radiative transfer (RT) model is developed to more accurately account for vegetation canopy scattering by modifying the basic radiative transfer model (the zero-order RT solution). In order to optimally utilize microwave radiometric data in soil moisture (SM) retrievals ...

  2. Effects of temperature and modified atmospheres on diapausing 5th instar codling moth metabolism.

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G; Lehrman, Nathan J; Hansen, Lee D

    2014-05-01

    The oxygen and capacity limitation of thermal tolerance (OCLTT) has been established in aquatic insect larvae, but OCLTT has not been shown to generally apply to terrestrial insects. Previous research indicates that heat treatments in combination with high concentrations of carbon dioxide and low concentrations of oxygen may be effective for controlling diapausing codling moth, a quarantine pest in walnuts, but treatment requires long times and the killing mechanism is unknown. In this study, the effects of temperature and modified atmospheres on metabolism in diapausing 5th instar codling moth (Cydia pomonella) was investigated with multi-channel differential scanning calorimeters, one equipped with an oxygen sensor. O2 consumption and metabolic heat rates in air were measured simultaneously at isothermal temperatures from 5 to 50°C at 5°C intervals. Both rates increased with increasing temperatures from 5 to 40°C. The ratio of metabolic heat rate to O2 consumption rate at temperatures ≤40°C shows that a portion of the metabolic heat is from normal anabolic reactions of metabolism. At 45 and 50°C in air, O2 consumption and metabolic heat rates dropped to near zero. These results indicate that treatment of walnuts in air at >45°C for a short period of time (minutes) is effective in killing diapausing 5th instar codling moth larvae. Continuous heating scans at 0.4°C/min were used to measure metabolic heat rates from 10 to 50°C with air and modified atmospheres with lowered oxygen and high carbon dioxide. A rapid increase was observed in heat rates above 40°C in scans with O2≥11%. Taken together with the isothermal results showing no metabolic heat production or oxygen uptake at 45 and 50°C, these results demonstrate that thermal damage to cell membranes and loss of control of oxidation reactions is the lethal mechanism at high temperature when O2≥11%. The data from scans with O2≤2% and high CO2 show the effects of oxygen limitation as postulated by

  3. Factors influencing the temporal growth rate of the high order TM0n modes in the Ka-band overmoded Cherenkov oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Dapeng; Shu, Ting; Ju, Jinchuan

    2015-06-01

    When the wavelength of overmoded Cherenkov oscillator goes into Ka-band, power handling capacity becomes an essential issue. Using the TM02 mode or higher order TM0n modes as the operating mode is a potential solution. This paper is aimed to find some proper parameters to make the temporal growth rate of the TM02 mode higher in our previously studied Gigawatt (GW)-class Ka band oscillator. An accurate and fast calculation method of the "hot" dispersion equation is derived for rectangular corrugated SWSs, which are widely used in the high frequency Cherenkov devices. Then, factors that affect the temporal growth rate of the high order TM0n modes are analyzed, including the depth of corrugation, the radius of drift tube, and the diode voltage. Results show that, when parameters are chosen properly, the temporal growth rate of the TM02 mode can be as high as 0.3 ns-1.

  4. Proceedings of the 5th US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research Design and Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Francis D.; Leigh, Christi; Stein, Walter; Bollingerfehr, Wilhelm; Von Berlepsche, Thilo

    2015-01-01

    The 5th US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design, and Operation was held in Santa Fe New Mexico September 8-10, 2014. The forty seven registered participants were equally divided between the United States (US) and Germany, with one participant from The Netherlands. The agenda for the 2014 workshop was under development immediately upon finishing the 4th Workshop. Ongoing, fundamental topics such as thermomechanical behavior of salt, plugging and sealing, the safety case, and performance assessment continue to advance the basis for disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt formations. The utility of a salt underground research laboratory (URL) remains an intriguing concept engendering discussion of testing protocol. By far the most interest in this years’ workshop pertained to operational safety. Given events at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), this discussion took on a new sense of relevance and urgency.

  5. Exploratory Factor Analysis of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th Edition, Criteria for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    McSweeney, Lauren B; Koch, Ellen I; Saules, Karen K; Jefferson, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    One change to the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) nomenclature highlighted in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th Edition (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) is the conceptualization of PTSD as a diagnostic category with four distinct symptom clusters. This article presents exploratory factor analysis to test the structural validity of the DSM-5 conceptualization of PTSD via an online survey that included the PTSD Checklist-5. The study utilized a sample of 113 college students from a large Midwestern university and 177 Amazon Mechanical Turk users. Participants were primarily female, Caucasian, single, and heterosexual with an average age of 32 years. Approximately 30% to 35% of participants met diagnostic criteria for PTSD based on two different scoring criteria. Results of the exploratory factor analysis revealed five distinct symptom clusters. The implications for the classification of PTSD are discussed.

  6. Highlights from the 5th Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Virology.

    PubMed

    Salata, Cristiano; Calistri, Arianna; Palù, Giorgio

    2006-07-01

    The 5th National Congress of the Italian Society of Virology (SIV) was attended by junior- and senior-level virologists to promote interactions and scientific collaborations among the different areas of Virology and allied sciences. The invited and selected lecturers covered the following topics: General Virology and Viral Genetics; Virus-host Interaction and Pathogenesis; Viral Oncogenesis; Viral Immunology and Vaccines; Anti-viral Therapy; Innovative Diagnostics; Viral Biotechnologies and Cell and Gene Therapy. As in the previous editions (Salata and Palù, 2004; Salata et al., 2005), a specific topic was thoroughly covered in a roundtable. This year the elected subject was "HIV: determinants of pathogenicity and clinical implications." The final program and the abstract book can be found at the web site http://www.siv-virologia.it. This report summarizes the lessons learned from the plenary lectures and the selected oral presentations of the 2005 meeting.

  7. Dental health in antique population of Vinkovci - Cibalae in Croatia (3rd-5th century).

    PubMed

    Peko, Dunja; Vodanović, Marin

    2016-08-01

    Roman city Cibalae (Vinkovci) - the birthplace of Roman emperors Valentinian I and Valens was a very well developed urban ares in the late antique what was evidenced by numerous archaeological findings. The aim of this paper is to get insight in dental health of antique population of Cibalae. One hundred individuals with 2041 teeth dated to 3rd - 5th century AD have been analyzed for caries, antemortem tooth loss, periapical diseases and tooth wear. Prevalence of antemortem tooth loss was 4.3% in males, 5.2% in females. Prevalence of caries per tooth was 8.4% in males, 7.0% in females. Compared to other Croatian antique sites, ancient inhabitants of Roman Cibalae had rather good dental health with low caries prevalence and no gender differences. Statistically significant difference was found between males in females in the prevalence of periapical lesions and degree of tooth wear. Periapical lesions were found only in males. PMID:27598951

  8. Recurrent Idiopathic Catatonia: Implications beyond the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th Edition.

    PubMed

    Caroff, Stanley N; Hurford, Irene; Bleier, Henry R; Gorton, Gregg E; Campbell, E Cabrina

    2015-08-31

    We describe a case of recurrent, life-threatening, catatonic stupor, without evidence of any associated medical, toxic or mental disorder. This case provides support for the inclusion of a separate category of "unspecified catatonia" in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th edition (DSM-5) to be used to classify idiopathic cases, which appears to be consistent with Kahlbaum's concept of catatonia as a distinct disease state. But beyond the limited, cross-sectional, syndromal approach adopted in DSM-5, this case more importantly illustrates the prognostic and therapeutic significance of the longitudinal course of illness in differentiating cases of catatonia, which is better defined in the Wernicke-Kleist-Leonhard classification system. The importance of differentiating cases of catatonia is further supported by the efficacy of antipsychotics in treatment of this case, contrary to conventional guidelines.

  9. APTWG: The 5th Asia-Pacific Transport Working Group Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, X.; Ghim, Y.-C.; Sun, Y. W.; Gao, Z.; Inagaki, S.; Chen, W.; Zhang, T.; Wang, Z. X.

    2016-03-01

    This conference report gives a summary on the contributed papers and discussions presented at the 5th Asia-Pacific Transport Working Group Meeting held at Dalian, China from 9-12 June 2015. The main goal of the working group is to develop a predictive understanding of the basic mechanisms responsible for particle, momentum and energy transport in magnetically confined plasmas. The topics of the meeting in 2015 were organized under five main headings: (1) turbulence suppression and transport barrier formation, (2) effect of magnetic topology on MHD activity and transport, (3) non-diffusive contribution of momentum and particle transport, (4) non-local transport and turbulence spreading and coupling and (5) energetic particles and instability. The Young Researchers’ Forum which was held at this meeting is also described in this report.

  10. Theoretical studies of Ir5Th and Ir5Ce nanoscale precipitates in Ir

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, James R; Averill, Frank; Cooper, Valentino R

    2014-01-01

    Experimentally, it is known that very small amounts of thorium and/or cerium added to iridium metal form a precipitate, Ir5Th / Ir5Ce, which improves the high temperature mechanical properties of the resulting alloys. We demonstrate that there are low-energy configurations for nano-scale precipitates of these phases in Ir, and that these coherent arrangements may assist in producing improved mechanical properties. One precipitate/matrix orientation gives a particularly low interfacial energy, and a low lattice misfit. Nanolayer precipitates with this orientation are found to be likely to form, with little driving force to coarsen. The predicted morphology of the precipitates and their orientation with the matrix phase provide a potential experiment that could be used to test these predictions.

  11. The Relationship Between Local Order, Long Range Order, and Sub-Band-Gap Defects in Hafnium Oxide and Hafnium Silicate Films

    SciTech Connect

    Hill,D.; Bartynski, R.; Nguyen, N.; Davydov, A.; Chandler-Horowitz, D.; Frank, M.

    2008-01-01

    We have measured x-ray absorption spectra (XAS) at the oxygen K edge for hafnium oxide (HfO2) films grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and atomic layer deposition (ALD), as well as for hafnium silicate (HfSiO) films grown by CVD. The XAS results are compared to x-ray diffraction (XRD) and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) data from the same films. Features characteristic of crystalline HfO2 are observed in the XAS spectra from all CVD-grown HfO2 films, even for a thickness of 5 nm where XRD is not sensitive. XAS and XRD spectra from the ALD-grown HfO2 films exhibit the signature of crystallinity only for films that are 20 nm or thicker. These characteristic XAS features are absent in all HfSiO films measured, which is consistent with their being amorphous. The appearance of these peaks in XAS and XRD is correlated with sub-band-gap absorption in the SE spectra, which appears to be intrinsic to crystalline HfO2 in the monoclinic phase.

  12. Mechanism of the Band Gap Opening across the Order-Disorder Transition of Si(111)4x1-In

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, Carlos M; Guo, Jianchang; Ortega, J.; Flores, Fernando; Weitering, Harm H

    2009-03-01

    The ground state properties of indium atom chains on the Si(111)8 x 2-In surface and the nature of their insulator-metal (IM) transition near 120 K are under intense dispute. We compare experimental scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images of the low temperature (LT) 8 x 2 phase with STM image calculations from Density Functional Theory (DFT). Our LT studies clearly indicate the existence of a frozen shear distortion between neighboring atom chains, resulting in the formation of indium hexagons. Tunneling spectra furthermore indicate that the IM transition coincides with the collapse of a -0.3 eV surface-state band gap at the r point of the 4 x 2 Brillouin zone. This implies that the IM transition is driven by a shear phonon, not by Fermi surface nesting.

  13. Influence of the Cu Content in Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cell absorbers on order-disorder related band gap changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Mario; Renz, Tobias; Mathes, Niklas; Neuwirth, Markus; Schnabel, Thomas; Kalt, Heinz; Hetterich, Michael

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the electronic structure and the radiative recombination in wet-chemically fabricated Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cell absorbers utilizing photoluminescence (PL) and photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectroscopy, focusing especially on the effects of varying Cu content. This includes the impact of the latter on the band gap energy and the change in band gap energy related to the order-disorder transition. Characteristic PL and PLE parameters like the energetic position of the PL maximum and the PL yield as a function of the excitation power as well as the PLE tailing parameter do not depend on composition indicating that the nature of the radiative transition is not altered by the Cu content. However, the band gap energy Eg significantly increases as a function of decreasing Cu content. This increase is more pronounced in the disordered than in the ordered atomic arrangement of Cu and Zn atoms in the Cu-Zn planes of the kesterite crystal structure.

  14. A First-Order Radiative Transfer Model for Microwave Radiometry of Forest Canopies at L-Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurum, Mehmet; Lang, Roger H.; O'Neill, Peggy E.; Joseph, Alicia T.; Jackson, Thomas J.; Cosh, Michael H.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a first-order radiative transfer (RT) model is developed to more accurately account for vegetation canopy scattering by modifying the basic Tau-Omega model (the zero-order RT solution). In order to optimally utilize microwave radiometric data in soil moisture (SM) retrievals over vegetated landscapes, a quantitative understanding of the relationship between scattering mechanisms within vegetation canopies and the microwave brightness temperature is desirable. The first-order RT model is used to investigate this relationship and to perform a physical analysis of the scattered and emitted radiation from vegetated terrain. This model is based on an iterative solution (successive orders of scattering) of the RT equations up to the first order. This formulation adds a new scattering term to the . model. The additional term represents emission by particles (vegetation components) in the vegetation layer and emission by the ground that is scattered once by particles in the layer. The model is tested against 1.4-GHz brightness temperature measurements acquired over deciduous trees by a truck-mounted microwave instrument system called ComRAD in 2007. The model predictions are in good agreement with the data, and they give quantitative understanding for the influence of first-order scattering within the canopy on the brightness temperature. The model results show that the scattering term is significant for trees and modifications are necessary to the . model when applied to dense vegetation. Numerical simulations also indicate that the scattering term has a negligible dependence on SM and is mainly a function of the incidence angle and polarization of the microwave observation. Index Terms Emission,microwave radiometry, scattering, soil, vegetation.

  15. A First-Order Radiative Transfer Model for Microwave Radiometry of Forest Canopies at L-Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurum, Mehmet; Lang, Roger H.; O'Neill, Peggy E.; Joseph, Alicia T.; Jackson, Thomas J.; Cosh, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a new first-order radiative transfer (RT) model is developed to more accurately account for vegetation canopy scattering by modifying the basic r-co model (the zero-order RT solution). In order to optimally utilize microwave radiometric data in soil moisture (SM) retrievals over moderately to densely vegetated landscapes, a quantitative understanding of the relationship between scattering mechanisms within vegetation canopies and the microwave brightness temperature is desirable. A first-order RT model is used to investigate this relationship and to perform a physical analysis of the scattered and emitted radiation from vegetated terrain. The new model is based on an iterative solution (successive orders of scattering) of the RT equations up to the first order. This formulation adds a new scattering term to the i-w model. The additional term represents emission by particles (vegetation components) in the vegetation layer and emission by the ground that is scattered once by particles in the layer. The new model is tested against 1.4 GHz brightness temperature measurements acquired over deciduous trees by a truck-mounted microwave instrument system called ComRAD in 2007. The model predictions are in good agreement with the data and they give quantitative understanding for the influence of first-order scattering within the canopy on the brightness temperature. The model results show that the scattering term is significant for trees and modifications are necessary to the T-w model when applied to dense vegetation. Numerical simulations also indicate that the scattering term has a negligible dependence on SM and is mainly a function of the angle and polarization of the microwave observation.

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of the red-banded lobster Metanephrops thomsoni (Crustacea, Astacidea, Nephropidae): a novel gene order.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Dong-Ha; Min, Gi-Sik; Park, Joong-Ki; Kim, Sanghee

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the red-banded lobster, Metanephrops thomsoni (Decapoda, Astacidea, Nephropidae), is 19,835 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNAs, 24 transfer RNAs (including additional copies of trnW and trnL1), and 2 control regions (CR). The mitogenome of M. thomsoni has 10 long intergenic sequences (71-237 bp) with a high AT content (70.0%). The two CRs show 59.6% similarity and have an identical sequence region with a length of 295 bp. The mitogenome of M. thomsoni shows a novel gene arrangement compared with the pancrustacean ground pattern and is identical to that of M. sibogae, except for the two additional tRNAs (trnW and trnL1). Phylogenetic tree from maximum likelihood analysis using the concatenated sequences of 13 PCGs depicted M. thomsoni as one of the members of the superfamily Nephropoidea within Astacidea.

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of the red-banded lobster Metanephrops thomsoni (Crustacea, Astacidea, Nephropidae): a novel gene order.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Dong-Ha; Min, Gi-Sik; Park, Joong-Ki; Kim, Sanghee

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the red-banded lobster, Metanephrops thomsoni (Decapoda, Astacidea, Nephropidae), is 19,835 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNAs, 24 transfer RNAs (including additional copies of trnW and trnL1), and 2 control regions (CR). The mitogenome of M. thomsoni has 10 long intergenic sequences (71-237 bp) with a high AT content (70.0%). The two CRs show 59.6% similarity and have an identical sequence region with a length of 295 bp. The mitogenome of M. thomsoni shows a novel gene arrangement compared with the pancrustacean ground pattern and is identical to that of M. sibogae, except for the two additional tRNAs (trnW and trnL1). Phylogenetic tree from maximum likelihood analysis using the concatenated sequences of 13 PCGs depicted M. thomsoni as one of the members of the superfamily Nephropoidea within Astacidea. PMID:26258503

  18. Need for Specific Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Lessons for 4th and 5th Graders

    PubMed Central

    Bea, Jennifer W.; Jacobs, Laurel; Waits, Juanita; Hartz, Vern; Martinez, Stephanie H.; Standfast, Rebecca D.; Farrell, Vanessa A.; Bawden, Margine; Whitmer, Evelyn; Misner, Scottie

    2015-01-01

    Objective Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) is linked to obesity. We hypothesized that school-based nutrition education would decrease SSB consumption. Design Self-selected interventional cohort with random selection for pre and post measurements Setting Arizona SNAP-Ed eligible schools Participants Randomly selected (9%) 4th and 5th grade classroom students Intervention The University of Arizona Nutrition Network (UANN) provided general nutrition education training and materials to teachers, to be delivered to their students. The UANN administered behavioral questionnaires to students in both Fall and Spring. Main Outcome Measure(s) Change in SSB consumption Analyses Descriptive statistics were computed for student demographics and beverage consumption on the day prior to testing. Paired t-tests evaluated change in classroom averages. Linear regression assessed potential correlates of SSB consumption. Results Fall mean SSB consumption was 1.1 (±0.2) times; mean milk and water intake were 1.6 (±0.2) and 5.2 (±0.7) times, respectively. Beverage consumption increased (3.2%) in springtime, with increased SSBs (14.4%) accounting for the majority (p=0.006). Change in SSB consumption was negatively associated with baseline SSB and water consumption, but positively associated with baseline milk fat (p≤0.05). Conclusions and Implications The results suggest the need for beverage specific education to encourage children to consume more healthful beverages in warmer weather. PMID:25239840

  19. The 5th Symposium on Post-Transcriptional Regulation of Plant Gene Expression (PTRoPGE)

    SciTech Connect

    Karen S. Browning; Marie Petrocek; Bonnie Bartel

    2006-06-01

    The 5th Symposium on Post-Transcriptional Regulation of Plant Gene Expression (PTRoPGE) will be held June 8-12, 2005 at the University of Texas at Austin. Exciting new and ongoing discoveries show significant regulation of gene expression occurs after transcription. These post-transcriptional control events in plants range from subtle regulation of transcribed genes and phosphorylation, to the processes of gene regulation through small RNAs. This meeting will focus on the regulatory role of RNA, from transcription, through translation and finally degradation. The cross-disciplinary design of this meeting is necessary to encourage interactions between researchers that have a common interest in post-transcriptional gene expression in plants. By bringing together a diverse group of plant molecular biologist and biochemists at all careers stages from across the world, this meeting will bring about more rapid progress in understanding how plant genomes work and how genes are finely regulated by post-transcriptional processes to ultimately regulate cells.

  20. Science teaching efficacy beliefs of 5th and 8th grade science teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Susan Melony

    The purpose of this study was to determine which, if any, variables had a significant relationship to personal science teaching efficacy beliefs and outcome expectancies. The independent variables tested were number of undergraduate science methods courses taken, level of teacher education, number of years as a classroom teacher, number of years as a science teacher, teacher beliefs regarding instructional strategies in science, and teacher beliefs regarding student engagement in the science classroom. Through surveys completed by 5th and 8th grade science teachers, the researcher analyzed data via multiple regressions to determine significance. Results of the data analysis showed the greatest significance was between personal science teaching efficacy beliefs and number of years as a classroom teacher, and teacher beliefs regarding instructional strategies in science and outcome expectancy and student engagement in the science classroom. Implications for current practice include a need for improved teacher education programs for pre-service science teachers, collaboration between universities and public school districts, improved methods for teacher retention in the science classroom, and the use of hands-on and minds-on instruction in the science classroom.

  1. Nernst-Ettingshausen effect at the trivial-nontrivial band ordering in topological crystalline insulator Pb1-x Sn x Se

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybko, K.; Pfeffer, P.; Szot, M.; Szczerbakow, A.; Reszka, A.; Story, T.; Zawadzki, W.

    2016-01-01

    The transverse Nernst-Ettingshausen (N-E) effect and electron mobility in Pb1-xSn x Se alloys are studied experimentally and theoretically as functions of temperature and chemical composition in the vicinity of vanishing energy gap E g . The study is motivated by the recent discovery that, by lowering the temperature, one can change the band ordering from a trivial to nontrivial one in which the topological crystalline insulator states appear at the surface. Our work presents several new aspects. It is shown experimentally and theoretically that the bulk N-E effect has a maximum when the energy gap E g of the mixed crystal goes through zero value. This result contradicts the claim made in the literature that the N-E effect changes sign when the gap vanishes. We successfully describe dc transport effects in the situation of extreme band’s nonparabolicity which, to the best of our knowledge, has never been tried before. A situation is reached in which both two-dimensional bands (topological surface states) and three-dimensional bands are linear in electron k vector. Various scattering modes and their contribution to transport phenomena in Pb1-x Sn x Se are analyzed. As the energy gap goes through zero, some transport integrals have a singular (nonphysical) behaviour and we demonstrate how to deal with this problem by introducing damping.

  2. 5th International conference on Physics and Astrophysics of Quark Gluon Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Bikash; Alam, Jan-E.; Nayak, Tapan K.

    2006-11-01

    The 5th International Conference on Physics and Astrophysics of Quark Gluon Plasma (ICPAQGP 2005) was held on 8 - 12 February 2005 at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre and Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics campus, Kolkata, India. The conference was enriched by the august presence of about 300 participants representing 18 countries across the globe. It had plenary talks and oral presentations, which form a part of these proceedings. Besides invited and contributed talks there were also a large number of poster presentations. The conference was energized by discussions of fresh experimental data from RHIC on strong elliptic flow, jet quenching, single photon spectra etc. Moreover, new theoretical results were brought to the discussion forum during this conference. Colour glass condensates, hydrodynamical flow, jet quenching and sQGP were intensely debated by the participants. The highlight of ICPAQGP 2005 was the presentation of fresh experimental results from the RHIC-IV run. The ICPAQGP series, since its inception in 1988, has placed emphasis on the role of quark matter in the fields of astrophysics and cosmology. The subsequent conferences held in 1993, 1997, 2001 and 2005 had also retained this focus. The conference was preceded by a Fest Colloquium in honour of Professor Bikash Sinha. Professor Sinha, regarded as the pioneer in establishing quark gluon plasma research in India, has successfully encouraged a group of young Indian researchers to devote themselves wholeheartedly to QGP research - both theoretical and experimental. Members of the International Advisory Committee played a pivotal role mainly in the selection of speakers. The contributions of the Organizing Committee in all aspects, from selecting the contributory talks posters down to arranging local hospitality, were much appreciated. We thank the members of both committees for making ICPAQGP 2005 an interesting platform for scientific deliberation. The ICPAQGP 2005 was supported financially by

  3. Freezing Rain Diagnostic Study Over Eastern Canada Using the 5th Generation Canadian Regional Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresson, É.; Paquin, D.; Laprise, R.; Theriault, J. M.; de Elía, R.

    2015-12-01

    Northeastern North America is often affected by freezing rain events during the cold season. They can have significant consequences (from road accidents, to severe power outages) despite their intensity and duration. The 1998 Ice Storm over Eastern Canada and Northeastern United States is an example of an extreme event with catastrophic consequences. A total of up to 150 mm of ice accumulated during 10 days were observed in some areas. This natural disaster has highlighted the need to better understand how such phenomena will evolve with future climate scenario. The goal is to investigate the feasibility of using regional climate modeling to diagnose the occurrence of freezing rain events over Quebec (Canada). To address this issue, we used the 5th generation of the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5), from 1979 to 2014. An empirical method (Bourgouin, 2000) developed to determine the type of winter precipitations was chosen to diagnose freezing rain events. The study focused in the Montreal area and the St. Lawrence River Valley (Quebec, Canada). The sensitivity of the model to horizontal resolution was explored by using three resolutions: 0.44°, 0.22° and 0.11°. In general, freezing rain was diagnosed consistently at all resolutions but the higher one (0.11°) produced more realistic results due to a better representation of the orography. Using the higher resolution, the results showed that the climatology of the freezing rain occurrence in the Montreal area is comparable to available observations. It also suggested that the role of the specific orography of the region with the St. Lawrence River Valley can impact the characteristics of freezing rain events in this area. Overall, this study will contribute to a better preparedness for such events in the future. High resolution regional climate simulations are essential to improve the reproduction of local scale orographically-forced phenomena.

  4. Black sea surface temperature anomaly on 5th August 1998 and the ozone layer thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manev, A.; Palazov, K.; Raykov, St.; Ivanov, V.

    2003-04-01

    BLACK SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE ANOMALY ON 5th AUGUST 1998 AND THE OZONE LAYER THICKNESS A. Manev , K. Palazov , St. Raykov, V. Ivanov Solar Terrestrial Influences Laboratory, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences amanev@abv.bg This paper focuses on the peculiarities of the Black Sea surface temperature anomaly on 05.08.1998. Researching the daily temperature changes in a number of control fields in the course of 8-10 years, we have found hidden correlations and anomalous deviations in the sea surface temperatures on a global scale. Research proves the statistical reliability of the temperature anomaly on the entire Black Sea surface registered on 04.-05.08.1998. In the course of six days around these dates the temperatures are up to 2°C higher than the maximum temperatures in this period in the other seven years. A more detailed analysis of the dynamics of the anomaly required the investigation of five Black Sea surface characteristic zones of 75x75 km. The analysis covers the period 20 days - 10 days before and 10 days after the anomaly. Investigations aimed at interpreting the reasons for the anomalous heating of the surface waters. We have tried to analyze the correlation between sea surface temperature and the global ozone above the Black Sea by using simultaneously data from the two satellite systems NOAA and TOMS. Methods of processing and comparing the data from the two satellite systems are described. The correlation coefficients values for the five characteristic zones are very high and close, which proves that the character of the correlation ozone - sea surface temperature is the same for the entire Black Sea surface. Despite the high correlation coefficient, we have proved that causality between the two phenomena at the time of the anomaly does not exit.

  5. Patterns of Irregular Burials in Western Europe (1st-5th Century A.D.)

    PubMed Central

    Milella, Marco; Mariotti, Valentina; Belcastro, Maria Giovanna; Knüsel, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Irregular burials (IB—burials showing features that contrast with the majority of others in their geographic and chronological context) have been the focus of archaeological study because of their relative rarity and enigmatic appearance. Interpretations of IB often refer to supposed fear of the dead or to social processes taking place in time-specific contexts. However, a comprehensive and quantitative analysis of IB for various geographical contexts is still lacking, a fact that hampers any discussion of these burials on a larger scale. Methods Here, we collected a bibliographic dataset of 375 IB from both Britain and Continental Europe, altogether spanning a time period from the 1st to the 5th century AD. Each burial has been coded according to ten dichotomous variables, further analyzed by means of chi-squared tests on absolute frequencies, non-metric multidimensional scaling, and cluster analysis. Results Even acknowledging the limits of this study, and in particular the bias represented by the available literature, our results point to interesting patterns. Geographically, IB show a contrast between Britain and Continental Europe, possibly related to historical processes specific to these regions. Different types of IB (especially prone depositions and depositions with the cephalic extremity displaced) present a series of characteristics and associations between features that permit a more detailed conceptualization of these occurrences from a socio-cultural perspective that aids to elucidate their funerary meaning. Conclusions and Significance Altogether, the present work stresses the variability of IB, and the need to contextualize them in a proper archaeological and historical context. It contributes to the discussion of IB by providing a specific geographic and chronological frame of reference that supports a series of hypotheses about the cultural processes possibly underlying their occurrence. PMID:26115408

  6. Search for ferromagnetic ordering in Pd doped wide band gap semiconductors GaN and ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, P.; Müller, K.; Geruschke, T.; Timmers, H.; Byrne, A. P.; Vianden, R.

    2010-04-01

    GaN and ZnO are possible candidates for dilute magnetic semiconductors with Curie temperatures above room temperature. Doping with transition metals like Co, Mn or Fe could be a simple way to create such systems. The perturbed angular correlation (PAC) probe 100Pd/100Rh is isoelectronic to cobalt and therefore a perfect tool to investigate the incorporation of transition metals into these compounds as well as the influence of other impurities on internal magnetic fields. The (0001) and (10bar{1}10) surfaces of ZnO single crystals, freestanding GaN films, and GaN thin films (6 μm) on sapphire substrates were recoil-implanted with the 100Pd/100Rh probe. The probe was produced using the fusion evaporation reaction 92Zr(12C, 4n)100Pd at a beam energy of 69 MeV. Subsequently, the incorporation of the probe was studied by PAC spectroscopy during an isochronal annealing program. First results without and with an applied external magnetic field are indicative of a strongly disturbed lattice vicinity of Pd impurities in both hosts. No signs of spontaneous ferromagnetic ordering were observed.

  7. Communicating Science to Impact Learning? A Phenomenological Inquiry into 4th and 5th Graders' Perceptions of Science Information Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelmez Burakgazi, Sevinc; Yildirim, Ali; Weeth Feinstein, Noah

    2016-01-01

    Rooted in science education and science communication studies, this study examines 4th and 5th grade students' perceptions of science information sources (SIS) and their use in communicating science to students. It combines situated learning theory with uses and gratifications theory in a qualitative phenomenological analysis. Data were gathered…

  8. WWW.com: A Brief Intervention to Bolster a 5th Grader's Regrouping Skills in Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waugh, Matthew; Harrison, Gina L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a brief math intervention using cognitive behaviour instruction (CBI) supplemented by a mnemonic cue system for a 5th grade student with math computation and fluency difficulties. Regrouping operations in addition and subtraction were the targeted skills. Curriculum-based measurements were conducted at the end…

  9. Comparing Science Learning among 4th-, 5th-, and 6th-Grade Students: STS versus Textbook-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yager, Robert E.; Choi, AeRan; Yager, Stuart O.; Akcay, Hakan

    2009-01-01

    Fifteen 4th-, 5th-, and 6th-grade teachers from five school districts each taught two sections of science--one with a Science-Technology-Society (STS) approach and the other with a more traditional textbook approach in which basic science concepts were the major organizers. Local, current, and personally relevant issues provided the context and…

  10. Process Evaluation of "Learn Young, Learn Fair": A Stress Management Programme for 5th and 6th Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraag, Gerda; Van Breukelen, Gerard; Lamberts, Petra; Vugts, Odette; Kok, Gerjo; Fekkes, Minne; Abu-Saad, Huda Huijer

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the process evaluation of a stress management program called "Learn Young, Learn Fair" for 5th and 6th graders. Studies, reviews and meta-analyses of prevention programs report that a common limitation in studies is the restricted documentation of process factors that contribute to the success of interventions. Program…

  11. Using Functional Behavior Assessment to Match Task Difficulty for a 5th Grade Student: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haydon, Todd

    2012-01-01

    We used an AB design with a control condition to examine the effects of an academic strategy on a student with a learning disability during a 5th grade math class. During baseline the student had high rates of disruptive behavior, low percentages of intervals of on-task behavior, and low percentages of correct responses. An antecedent-based…

  12. Proceedings of the International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM) (5th, Chania, Greece, June 19-21, 2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Educational Data Mining Society, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The 5th International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM 2012) is held in picturesque Chania on the beautiful Crete island in Greece, under the auspices of the International Educational Data Mining Society (IEDMS). The EDM 2012 conference is a leading international forum for high quality research that mines large data sets of educational…

  13. Brief Report: Data on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales (5th Ed.) in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coolican, Jamesie; Bryson, Susan E.; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2008-01-01

    The Fifth Edition of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales (SB5; Roid, G. H. (2003). "Stanford Binet intelligence scales" (5th ed.). Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing) is relatively new, with minimal published research on general populations and none with special populations. The present study provides information on the cognitive profiles of…

  14. Storm Peak Laboratory 5th-6th Grade Climate and Weather Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCubbin, I. B.; Hallar, A. G.

    2008-12-01

    science. At the end of the day each student has a data sheet with measurements recorded from 5 locations of different elevations to take back to the classroom. Following the field trip, SPL scientists and educators visit the school for a follow-up to help children grasp concepts, represent their data set collected in graphical formats, answer questions, and evaluate students" learning. Currently, approximately 250 students annually participate in the SPL 5th and 6th grade climate education program.

  15. FOREWORD: 5th International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vourc'h, Eric; Rodet, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to the scientific research presented during the 5th International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems, NCMIP 2015 (http://complement.farman.ens-cachan.fr/NCMIP_2015.html). This workshop took place at Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan, on May 29, 2015. The prior editions of NCMIP also took place in Cachan, France, firstly within the scope of ValueTools Conference, in May 2011, and secondly at the initiative of Institut Farman, in May 2012, May 2013 and May 2014. The New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (NCMIP) workshop focused on recent advances in the resolution of inverse problems. Indeed, inverse problems appear in numerous scientific areas such as geophysics, biological and medical imaging, material and structure characterization, electrical, mechanical and civil engineering, and finances. The resolution of inverse problems consists of estimating the parameters of the observed system or structure from data collected by an instrumental sensing or imaging device. Its success firstly requires the collection of relevant observation data. It also requires accurate models describing the physical interactions between the instrumental device and the observed system, as well as the intrinsic properties of the solution itself. Finally, it requires the design of robust, accurate and efficient inversion algorithms. Advanced sensor arrays and imaging devices provide high rate and high volume data; in this context, the efficient resolution of the inverse problem requires the joint development of new models and inversion methods, taking computational and implementation aspects into account. During this one-day workshop, researchers had the opportunity to bring to light and share new techniques and results in the field of inverse problems. The topics of the workshop were: algorithms and computational aspects of inversion, Bayesian estimation, Kernel methods, learning methods

  16. PREFACE: 5th International EEIGM/AMASE/FORGEMAT Conference on Advanced Materials Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayadi, Zoubir; Czerwiec, Thierry; Horwat, David; Jamart, Brigitte

    2009-07-01

    This issue of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, contains manuscripts of talks that will be presented at the 5th International EEIGM/AMASE/FORGEMAT Conference on Advanced Materials Research that will be held at the Ecole Européenne d'Ingénieurs en Génie des Matériaux - European School of Materials Science and Engineering (EEIGM) in Nancy on November 4-5 2009. The conference will be organized by the EEIGM. The aim of the conference is to bring together scientists from the six European universities involved in the EEIGM and in the ''Erasmus Mundus'' AMASE Master (Advanced Materials Science and Engineering) programmes and in the Tempus FORGEMAT European project: Nancy-Université - EEIGM/INPL (Nancy, France), Universität des Saarlandes (Saarbrücken, Germany), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya - ETSEIB (Barcelona, Spain), Luleå Tekniska Universitet (Luleå, Sweden), Universidad Politecnica de Valencia - ETSII (Valencia, Spain) and AGH University of Science and Technology, (Kralow, Poland). This conference is also open to other universities who have strong links with the EEIGM and it will provide a forum for exchange of ideas, cooperation and future directions by means of regular presentations, posters and a round-table discussion. After careful refereeing of all manuscripts, equally shared between the four editors, 26 papers have been selected for publication in this issue. The papers are grouped together into different subject categories: polymers, metallurgy, ceramics, composites and nanocomposites, simulation and characterization. The editors would like to take this opportunity to thank all the participants who submitted their manuscripts during the conference and responded in time to the editors' request at every stage from reviewing to final acceptance. The editors are indebted to all the reviewers for painstakingly reviewing the papers at very short notice. Special thanks are called for the sponsors of the conference including

  17. Health in the 5th 5-years Development Plan of Iran: Main Challenges, General Policies and Strategies.

    PubMed

    Vosoogh Moghaddam, A; Damari, B; Alikhani, S; Salarianzedeh, Mh; Rostamigooran, N; Delavari, A; Larijani, B

    2013-01-01

    Access to the right to the highest attainable level of health is a constitutional right that obliges governments and other players to take step to increase all individuals' chances of obtaining good health. At the least, health and education are two crucial requirements for this as well. Iran's vision 2025 is going to lead the country to a developed state with the highest rank of economic, scientific and technological status in the region. Enjoying health, welfare, food security, social security, equal opportunities, etc, are also considered as part of characteristics of Iranian society in 2025. Although health system of Iran has many achievements in providing health services specially for the poor following the Islamic Revolution of 1979, but the evidences gathered to develop the 5(th) 5-years economical, social and cultural plan (5(th)5YDP:2011-2015), listed a variety of main challenges in stewardship, financing, resources generation and service provision functions of the existing health system. Thus, to overcome the main challenges, about 11% of general policies of 5(th)5YDP are directly address health related issues with emphasizing on healthy human and comprehensive health approach with considering: Integration of policy making, planning, evaluation, supervision and public financing; Developing both quantity and quality of health insurance system and reducing out-of-pocket expenditures for health services to 30% by the end of the 5th plan. The strategies of 5(th)5YDP adopted by the parliament as an Act will change the health system fundamentally through tuning the main drivers; so, its implementation needs brave leaders, capable managers, motivated technical staff and social mobilization. PMID:23865015

  18. Health in the 5th 5-years Development Plan of Iran: Main Challenges, General Policies and Strategies.

    PubMed

    Vosoogh Moghaddam, A; Damari, B; Alikhani, S; Salarianzedeh, Mh; Rostamigooran, N; Delavari, A; Larijani, B

    2013-01-01

    Access to the right to the highest attainable level of health is a constitutional right that obliges governments and other players to take step to increase all individuals' chances of obtaining good health. At the least, health and education are two crucial requirements for this as well. Iran's vision 2025 is going to lead the country to a developed state with the highest rank of economic, scientific and technological status in the region. Enjoying health, welfare, food security, social security, equal opportunities, etc, are also considered as part of characteristics of Iranian society in 2025. Although health system of Iran has many achievements in providing health services specially for the poor following the Islamic Revolution of 1979, but the evidences gathered to develop the 5(th) 5-years economical, social and cultural plan (5(th)5YDP:2011-2015), listed a variety of main challenges in stewardship, financing, resources generation and service provision functions of the existing health system. Thus, to overcome the main challenges, about 11% of general policies of 5(th)5YDP are directly address health related issues with emphasizing on healthy human and comprehensive health approach with considering: Integration of policy making, planning, evaluation, supervision and public financing; Developing both quantity and quality of health insurance system and reducing out-of-pocket expenditures for health services to 30% by the end of the 5th plan. The strategies of 5(th)5YDP adopted by the parliament as an Act will change the health system fundamentally through tuning the main drivers; so, its implementation needs brave leaders, capable managers, motivated technical staff and social mobilization.

  19. EDITORIAL: 5th International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry, PIV'03

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Hyung Jin; Kim, Kyung Chun; Lee, Sang Joon

    2004-06-01

    The advent of particle image velocimetry (PIV) in the late 20th century brought about a paradigm change in the technique of flow field measurement, from point measurement to field measurement. This revolution is a result of the recent advances in computers, video cameras, optics and lasers and a deeper understanding of the theory of image processing, and such advances continue by keeping pace with leading-edge technologies such as biotechnology, nanotechnology and so forth. Recently, the PIV technique has been extended in new directions such as stereoscopic PIV, holographic PIV, dynamic PIV, micro PIV and simultaneous PLIF/PIV techniques. This special issue contains research dealing with many of the most recent developments in PIV. The papers were selected from more than 120 papers presented at the 5th International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV'03) held in Busan, Korea, during 22-24 September 2003. Special thanks are due to the invited speakers who have contributed their original work to this special issue, which will enhance the academic reputation of Measurement Science and Technology (MST). Fourteen papers were selected by the Scientific Committee of PIV'03. After the standard refereeing process of MST, nine papers were finally accepted for publication. The selected papers can be categorized into three groups: new PIV algorithms and evaluation methods, three-dimensional velocity field measurement techniques and micro/bio PIV applications. As a new PIV technique, Lecuona et al introduced PIV evaluation algorithms for industrial applications having high shear flow structures. Billy et al used a single-pixel-based cross-correlation method for measuring flow inside a microchannel. Foucaut et al carried out PIV optimization using spectral analysis for the study of turbulent flows. Doh et al applied a 3D PTV method to the wake behind a sphere using three CCD cameras. Hori and Sakakibara developed a high-speed scanning stereoscopic PIV system and

  20. PREFACE: 5th International Workshop on Top Quark Physics (TOP2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamanna, G.; Boisvert, V.; Cerrito, L.; Khan, A.; Moretti, S.; Owen, M.; Schwanenberger, C.

    2013-07-01

    The 5th International Workshop on Top Quark Physics (TOP 2012) took place in Winchester, UK, from the 16-21 September. It gathered students as well as people active in the top quark sector and provided a framework to highlight the newest results and matters related to top quark physics. Discovered in 1995, the top quark is the sixth and heaviest of all quarks, and it is the only one with a lifetime short enough to be observed 'naked'. This makes it an important testing ground in the search for new physics. In fact, the fact of its mass being so much larger than the other quarks, hints at its special role in the Higgs mechanism. For the same reason, in many models of New Physics, new heavy resonances are expected to couple mostly with top quarks. Even if no new particles are observed, the direct correlation between its angular momentum and that of its detectable decay products allows us to probe indirectly New Physics in action when top quarks are created. In this edition of the TOP conference series, for the first time, the agenda was equally balanced between 'traditional' measurements and the now vast number of searches for physics BSM in the top quark sector, thanks mostly to the amount of data collected at the LHC in its Run I. New results were presented by both the Tevatron and the LHC collaborations: improved ttbar and single top cross-section measurements, refined techniques to measure the top quark mass and a large number of results on properties such as spin correlation and W boson polarization in top quark decays were shown. More technical discussions on the experimental issues, both from the detector and the simulation side also took place, drawing together experimentalists and theorists. Reviews of the latest results on ttbar asymmetry both from CDF and D0 and from ATLAS and CMS were shown, and theorists active in the field made some interesting points on this hot topic. Additionally, results on the search for fourth generation fermions and new

  1. PREFACE: 5th DAE-BRNS Workshop on Hadron Physics (Hadron 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jyoti Roy, Bidyut; Chatterjee, A.; Kailas, S.

    2012-07-01

    The 5th DAE-BRNS Workshop on Hadron Physics was held at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai from 31 October to 4 November 2011. This workshop series, supported by the Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences, Department of Atomic Energy (BRNS, DAE), Govt. of India, began ten years ago with the first one being held at BARC, Mumbai in October 2002. The second one was held at Puri in 2005, organized jointly by Institute of Physics, Bhubneswar and Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata. The 3rd and 4th ones took place, respectively, at Shantineketan in 2006, organized by Visva Bharati University, and at Aligarh in 2008, organized by Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh. The aim of the present workshop was to bring together the experts and young researchers in the field of hadron physics (both experiment and theory) and to have in-depth discussions on the current research activities in this field. The format of the workshop was: a series of review lectures by various experts from India and abroad, the presentation of advanced research results by researchers in the field, and a review of major experimental programs being planned and pursued in major laboratories in the field of hadron physics, with the aim of providing a platform for the young participants for interaction with their peers. The upcoming international FAIR facility at GSI is a unique future facility for studies of hadron physics in the charm sector and hyper nuclear physics. The Indian hadron physics community is involved in this mega science project and is working with the PANDA collaboration on the development of detectors, simulation and software tools for the hadron physics programme with antiprotons at FAIR. A one-day discussion session was held at this workshop to discuss India-PANDA activities, the current collaboration status and the work plan. This volume presents the workshop proceedings consisting of lectures and seminars which were delivered during the workshop. We are thankful to

  2. Summative assessment of 5th year medical students’ clinical reasoning by script concordance test: requirements and challenges

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Script Concordance Test (SCT) has not been reported in summative assessment of students across the multiple domains of a medical curriculum. We report the steps used to build a test for summative assessment in a medical curriculum. Methods A 51 case, 158-question, multidisciplinary paper was constructed to assess clinical reasoning in 5th-year. 10–16 experts in each of 7 discipline-based reference panels answered questions on-line. A multidisciplinary group considered reference panel data and data from a volunteer group of 6th Years, who sat the same test, to determine the passing score for the 5th Years. Results The mean (SD) scores were 63.6 (7.6) and 68.6 (4.8) for the 6th Year (n = 23, alpha = 0.78) and and 5th Year (n = 132, alpha =0.62) groups (p < 0.05), respectively. The passing score was set at 4 SD from the expert mean. Four students failed. Conclusions The SCT may be a useful method to assess clinical reasoning in medical students in multidisciplinary summative assessments. Substantial investment in training of faculty and students and in the development of questions is required. PMID:22571351

  3. PREFACE: The 5th International Symposium in Quantum Theory and Symmetries (QTS5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arratia, O.; Calzada, J. A.; Gómez-Cubillo, F.; Negro, J.; del Olmo, M. A.

    2008-02-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains the Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium in Quantum Theory and Symmetries (QTS5), held in Valladolid, Spain, 22-28 July 2007. This is the fifth of a series of conferences previously held in Goslar (Germany) 1999, QTS1; Cracow (Poland) 2001, QTS2; Cincinnati (USA) 2003, QTS3, and Varna (Bulgaria) 2005, QTS4. The QTS5 symposium gathered 181 participants from 39 countries working in different fields on Theoretical Physics. The spirit of the QTS conference series is to join researchers in a wide variety of topics in Theoretical Physics, as a way to make accessible recent results and the new lines of different fields. The QTS5 conference offered the following list of topics: Symmetries in String Theory, Quantum Gravity and related Symmetries in Quantum Field Theories, Conformal and Related Field Theories, Lattice and Noncommutative Theories, Gauge Theories Quantum Computing, Information and Control Foundations of Quantum Theory Quantum Optics, Coherent States, Wigner Functions Dynamical and Integrable Systems Symmetries in Condensed Matter and Statistical Physics Symmetries in Particle Physics, Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Nonlinear Quantum Mechanics Time Asymmetric Quantum Mechanics SUSY Quantum Mechanics, PT symmetries and pseudo-Hamiltonians Mathematical Methods for Symmetries and Quantum Theories Symmetries in Chemistry Biology and other Sciences Papers accepted for publication in the present issue are based on the contributions from the participants in the QTS5 conference after a peer review process. In addition, a special issue of Journal Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical contains contributions from plenary speakers, some participants as well as contributions from other authors whose works fit into the topics of the conference. The organization of the conference had the following pattern. In the morning there were five plenary or general sessions for all the participants, which aimed to

  4. PREFACE: The 5th International Symposium in Quantum Theory and Symmetries (QTS5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arratia, O.; Calzada, J. A.; Gómez-Cubillo, F.; Negro, J.; del Olmo, M. A.

    2008-02-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains the Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium in Quantum Theory and Symmetries (QTS5), held in Valladolid, Spain, 22-28 July 2007. This is the fifth of a series of conferences previously held in Goslar (Germany) 1999, QTS1; Cracow (Poland) 2001, QTS2; Cincinnati (USA) 2003, QTS3, and Varna (Bulgaria) 2005, QTS4. The QTS5 symposium gathered 181 participants from 39 countries working in different fields on Theoretical Physics. The spirit of the QTS conference series is to join researchers in a wide variety of topics in Theoretical Physics, as a way to make accessible recent results and the new lines of different fields. The QTS5 conference offered the following list of topics: Symmetries in String Theory, Quantum Gravity and related Symmetries in Quantum Field Theories, Conformal and Related Field Theories, Lattice and Noncommutative Theories, Gauge Theories Quantum Computing, Information and Control Foundations of Quantum Theory Quantum Optics, Coherent States, Wigner Functions Dynamical and Integrable Systems Symmetries in Condensed Matter and Statistical Physics Symmetries in Particle Physics, Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Nonlinear Quantum Mechanics Time Asymmetric Quantum Mechanics SUSY Quantum Mechanics, PT symmetries and pseudo-Hamiltonians Mathematical Methods for Symmetries and Quantum Theories Symmetries in Chemistry Biology and other Sciences Papers accepted for publication in the present issue are based on the contributions from the participants in the QTS5 conference after a peer review process. In addition, a special issue of Journal Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical contains contributions from plenary speakers, some participants as well as contributions from other authors whose works fit into the topics of the conference. The organization of the conference had the following pattern. In the morning there were five plenary or general sessions for all the participants, which aimed to

  5. PREFACE: The 5th International Symposium on Quantum Theory and Symmetries (QTS5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadella, M.; Izquierdo, J. M.; Kuru, S.; Negro, J.; del Olmo, M. A.

    2008-08-01

    This special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical appears on the occasion of the 5th International Symposium on Quantum Theory and Symmetries (QTS5), held in Valladolid, Spain, from 22-28 July 2007. This is the fith in a series of conferences previously held in Goslar (Germany) 1999, QTS1; Cracow (Poland) 2001, QTS2; Cincinnati (USA) 2003, QTS3; and Varna (Bulgaria) 2005, QTS4. The QTS5 symposium gathered 181 participants from 39 countries working in different fields of theoretical physics. The spirit of the QTS conference series is to join researchers in a wide variety of topics in theoretical physics, as a way of making accessible recent results and the new lines of different fields. This is based on the feeling that it is good for a physicist to have a general overview as well as expertise in his/her own field. There are many other conferences devoted to specific topics, which are of interest to gain deeper insight in many technical aspects and that are quite suitable for discussions due to their small size. However, we believe that general conferences like this are interesting and worth keeping. We like the talks, in both plenary and parallel sessions, which are devoted to specific topics, to be prepared so as to be accessible to any researcher in any branch of theoretical physics. We think that this objective is compatible with rigour and high standards. As is well known, similar methods and techniques can be useful for many problems in different fields. We hope that this has been appreciated during the sessions of the QTS5 conference. The QTS5 conference offered the following list of topics: 1. Symmetries in string theory, quantum gravity and related topics 2. Symmetries in quantum field theories, conformal and related field theories, lattice and noncommutative theories, gauge theories 3.Quantum computing, information and control 4. Foundations of quantum theory 5. Quantum optics, coherent states, Wigner functions 6. Dynamical and

  6. Parameter optimization for a high-order band-pass continuous-time sigma-delta modulator MEMS gyroscope using a genetic algorithm approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fang; Chang, Honglong; Yuan, Weizheng; Wilcock, Reuben; Kraft, Michael

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes a novel multiobjective parameter optimization method based on a genetic algorithm (GA) for the design of a sixth-order continuous-time, force feedback band-pass sigma-delta modulator (BP-ΣΔM) interface for the sense mode of a MEMS gyroscope. The design procedure starts by deriving a parameterized Simulink model of the BP-ΣΔM gyroscope interface. The system parameters are then optimized by the GA. Consequently, the optimized design is tested for robustness by a Monte Carlo analysis to find a solution that is both optimal and robust. System level simulations result in a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) larger than 90 dB in a bandwidth of 64 Hz with a 200° s-1 angular rate input signal; the noise floor is about -100 dBV Hz-1/2. The simulations are compared to measured data from a hardware implementation. For zero input rotation with the gyroscope operating at atmospheric pressure, the spectrum of the output bitstream shows an obvious band-pass noise shaping and a deep notch at the gyroscope resonant frequency. The noise floor of measured power spectral density (PSD) of the output bitstream agrees well with simulation of the optimized system level model. The bias stability, rate sensitivity and nonlinearity of the gyroscope controlled by an optimized BP-ΣΔM closed-loop interface are 34.15° h-1, 22.3 mV °-1 s-1, 98 ppm, respectively. This compares to a simple open-loop interface for which the corresponding values are 89° h-1, 14.3 mV °-1 s-1, 7600 ppm, and a nonoptimized BP-ΣΔM closed-loop interface with corresponding values of 60° h-1, 17 mV °-1 s-1, 200 ppm.

  7. A Study of Oral and Local History on Sportswomen with 5th Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilek, Gulcin

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Contrary to traditional historiography, which mainly focuses on men's experiences and ignores the women, historiography today includes all people, genders and social groups. Accordingly, school history also needs to regard female actors of the past in order to present a more gender-balanced past that makes visible not only the…

  8. Long-range ferromagnetic order induced by a donor impurity band exchange in SnO{sub 2}:Er{sup 3+} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Aragón, F. H.; Coaquira, J. A. H.; Chitta, V. A.; Hidalgo, P.; Brito, H. F.

    2013-11-28

    In this work, the structural and magnetic properties of Er-doped SnO{sub 2} (SnO{sub 2}:Er) nanoparticles are reported. The SnO{sub 2}:Er nanoparticles have been synthesized by a polymer precursor method with Er content from 1.0% to 10.0%. X-ray diffraction results indicate the formation of only the rutile-type structure in all samples. The estimated mean crystallite size shows a decrease from ∼10 to ∼4 nm when the Er content is increased from 1.0% to 10.0%. The particle size values have been corroborated by transmission electron microscopy technique. The thermal dependence of the magnetization is consistent with the 3+ oxidation state of erbium ions for all samples. A strong paramagnetic-like behavior coexisting with a ferromagnetic phase has been determined for samples with Er content below 5.0%. Above this concentration, only a paramagnetic behavior has been determined. Isothermal magnetization curves are consistent with the occurrence of long-range ferromagnetic order mediated by donor electrons forming bound magnetic polarons which overlap to produce a spin-split impurity band.

  9. Validation of the 5th and 95th Percentile Hybrid III Anthropomorphic Test Device Finite Element Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, C.; Somers, J. T.; Baldwin, M. A.; Wells, J. A.; Newby, N.; Currie, N. J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA spacecraft design requirements for occupant protection are a combination of the Brinkley criteria and injury metrics extracted from anthropomorphic test devices (ATD's). For the ATD injury metrics, the requirements specify the use of the 5th percentile female Hybrid III and the 95th percentile male Hybrid III. Furthermore, each of these ATD's is required to be fitted with an articulating pelvis and a straight spine. The articulating pelvis is necessary for the ATD to fit into spacecraft seats, while the straight spine is required as injury metrics for vertical accelerations are better defined for this configuration. The requirements require that physical testing be performed with both ATD's to demonstrate compliance. Before compliance testing can be conducted, extensive modeling and simulation are required to determine appropriate test conditions, simulate conditions not feasible for testing, and assess design features to better ensure compliance testing is successful. While finite element (FE) models are currently available for many of the physical ATD's, currently there are no complete models for either the 5th percentile female or the 95th percentile male Hybrid III with a straight spine and articulating pelvis. The purpose of this work is to assess the accuracy of the existing Livermore Software Technology Corporation's FE models of the 5th and 95th percentile ATD's. To perform this assessment, a series of tests will be performed at Wright Patterson Air Force Research Lab using their horizontal impact accelerator sled test facility. The ATD's will be placed in the Orion seat with a modified-advanced-crew-escape-system (MACES) pressure suit and helmet, and driven with loadings similar to what is expected for the actual Orion vehicle during landing, launch abort, and chute deployment. Test data will be compared to analytical predictions and modelling uncertainty factors will be determined for each injury metric. Additionally, the test data will be used to

  10. IBA investigations of loose garnets from Pietroasa, Apahida and Cluj-Someşeni treasures (5th century AD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugoi, R.; Oanţă-Marghitu, R.; Calligaro, T.

    2016-03-01

    This paper reports the archaeometric investigations of 418 loose garnets from Pietroasa and Cluj-Someşeni treasures and Apahida II and III princely grave inventories (5th century AD). The chemical composition of the gems was determined by external beam micro-PIXE technique at the AGLAE accelerator of C2RMF, Paris, France. Complementary observations made by Optical Microscopy revealed details on the gemstones cutting and polishing and permitted to identify certain mineral inclusions. The compositional results evidenced several types of garnets from the pyralspite series, suggesting distinct provenances for these Early Medieval gems.

  11. A report on 5th congress of Asia Pacific Pediatric Cardiac Society, New Delhi, India, 6-9 March 2014

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Saurabh K; Saxena, Anita

    2015-01-01

    The 5th Congress of Asia Pacific Pediatric Cardiac Society was held in New Delhi from 6-9 March 2014. This article describes the journey of preparing and hosting one of the largest international events in the specialty of Pediatric Cardiac Care ever held in India. A total of 938 delegates, including 400 from outside India, participated. The scientific program was inclusive keeping in mind the diverse background of delegates from the member nations. Large numbers of research papers were presented, mostly by fellows in training. PMID:25684899

  12. Reviewers Comments on the 5th Symposium and the Status of Fusion Research 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R F

    2005-02-03

    Better to understand the status of fusion research in the year 2003 we will first put the research in its historical context. Fusion power research, now beginning its sixth decade of continuous effort, is unique in the field of scientific research. Unique in its mixture of pure and applied research, unique in its long-term goal and its promise for the future, and unique in the degree that it has been guided and constrained by national and international governmental policy. Though fusion research's goal has from the start been precisely defined, namely, to obtain a net release of energy from controlled nuclear fusion reactions between light isotopes (in particular those of hydrogen and helium) the difficulty of the problem has spawned in the past a very wide variety of approaches to the problem. Some of these approaches have had massive international support for decades, some have been pursued only at a ''shoestring'' level by dedicated groups in small research laboratories or universities. In discussing the historical and present status of fusion research the implications of there being two distinctly different approaches to achieving net fusion power should be pointed out. The first, and oldest, approach is the use of strong magnetic fields to confine the heated fuel, in the form of a plasma and at a density typically four or five orders of magnitude smaller than the density of the atmosphere. In steady state this fusion fuel density is still sufficient to release fusion energy at the rate of many megawatts per cubic meter. The plasma confinement times required for net energy release in this regime are long--typically a second or more, representing an extremely difficult scientific challenge --witness the five decades of research in magnetic fusion, still without having reaching that goal. The second, more recently initiated approach, is of course the ''inertial'' approach. As its name implies, the ''confinement'' problem is solved ''inertially,'' that is by

  13. Uncertainty Guidance for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 5th Assessment Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebi, K. L.; Mastrandrea, M.; Mach, K.; Field, C. B.

    2011-12-01

    Guidance was developed to assist Lead Authors of all three Working Groups of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) in the consistent treatment of uncertainties (Mastrandrea et al. 2010). The guidance defines a common approach and calibrated language that can be used broadly for developing expert judgments and for evaluating and communicating the degree of certainty in findings of the assessment process. The AR5 will rely on two metrics for communicating the degree of certainty in key findings: (1) confidence in the validity of a finding, based on the type, amount, quality, and consistency of evidence (e.g., mechanistic understanding, data, models, expert judgment) and the degree of agreement. Confidence is expressed qualitatively. (2) Quantified measures of uncertainty in a finding expressed probabilistically (based on statistical analysis of observations or model results, or expert judgment). In order to develop their key findings, author teams evaluate the associated evidence and agreement. Depending on the nature of the evidence evaluated, teams have the option to quantify the uncertainty in the finding probabilistically. In most cases, author teams will present either a quantified measure of uncertainty or an assigned level of confidence. It is important for author teams to develop findings that are general enough to reflect the underlying evidence but not so general that they lose substantive meaning. For findings (effects) that are conditional on other findings (causes), authors are advised to consider independently evaluating the degrees of certainty in both causes and effects, with the understanding that the degree of certainty in the causes may be low. Authors are reminded to be aware that findings can be constructed from the perspective of minimizing false positive (Type I) or false negative (Type II) errors, with resultant tradeoffs in the information emphasized.

  14. Infrared band absorptance correlations and applications to nongray radiation. [mathematical models of absorption spectra for nongray atmospheres in order to study air pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Manian, S. V. S.

    1976-01-01

    Various mathematical models for infrared radiation absorption spectra for atmospheric gases are reviewed, and continuous correlations for the total absorptance of a wide band are presented. Different band absorptance correlations were employed in two physically realistic problems (radiative transfer in gases with internal heat source, and heat transfer in laminar flow of absorbing-emitting gases between parallel plates) to study their influence on final radiative transfer results. This information will be applied to the study of atmospheric pollutants by infrared radiation measurement.

  15. Double Layers: Potential Formation and Related Nonlinear Phenomena in Plasmas: Proceedings of the 5th Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, S.

    1998-02-01

    Parallel Velocity Shear Instability (Invited) * Low-Frequency Instabilities under a Cross-Field Electric Field in a K+-C60- Plasma * 3.3 Vortex Formation * Vortex Dynamics in Low Frequency Electrostatic Turbulence * Development of Spiral-Vortex Structures of the Plasma During Rotation in a Neutral Gas * Vortex Formation of Particles in Magnetized Dusty Plasmas (Invited) * CHAPTER 4: SOLITONS, SHOCKS, WAVES AND INSTABILITIES, AND RELATED NONLINEAR PHENOMENA * 4.1 Solitons and Shocks * Refraction and Reflection of Ion Acoustic Solitons by Space Charge Sheath * 2D and 3D Solitons in Plasma: Structure, Stability, Dynamics * Solitary Waves in an Ion-Beam Multi-Component Plasma System * Shock Formation in a Q-Machine Plasma with Negative Ions * 4.2 Waves and Instabilities * Single-Ended Q-Machine as a Source of Oscillations (Invited) * Numerical and Experimental Investigations of Period Doubling of the Potential Relaxation Instability in an Electron-Rich Q-Machine Plasma * Large Amplitude Electrostatic Ion Waves in an e- - e+ - p Plasma * Measurements of Alfvén Waves around the CRIT Releases-Implications for Current Limitation in Alfvén Wings * 4.3 Nonlinear Phenomena * Self-Organization Phenomena in a Q-Machine Plasma * Nonlinearity Related to Self-Organization in a Thermionic Vacuum Arc Discharge * Spontaneous Formation of Ordered Spatio-Temporal Structures in Laboratory and Nature * Nonlinear Evolution and Stabilization of Linearly Unstable Waves in an Electron-Beam Plasma * Disruption of an Electron Hole Due to its Interaction with Ion Acoustic Waves in a Plasma * Expanding Plasma Clouds with Dust Particles (Invited) * LIST OF PARTICIPANTS * AUTHOR INDEX

  16. PREFACE: 5th International Conference on Materials and Applications for Sensors and Transducers (IC-MAST2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristoforou, E.; Vlachos, D. S.; Giouroudi, I.; Kar-Narayan, S.; Potirakis, S.

    2016-03-01

    The 5th International Conference on Materials and Applications for Sensors and Transducers, Mykonos island, Greece, hosted about 110 oral and poster papers and more than 90 participants. IC-MAS, as an international annual conference which tries to meet the needs for various types of sensors, particularly those which may be manufactured by low cost methods (i.e. hybrid sensors, smart specialization devices, particular applications not necessarily requiring integrated micro-nano technologies), covering all types of materials and physical effects, appears to be a necessity. IC-MAST has been established as a high quality international conference by: I. Gathering together multinational researchers from all over the world, working in different materials for sensors and transducers and technical applications of sensors, but also in some cases in the management of the data coming from sensors and transducers. The careful selection of the conference place (like Aegean Sea, Budapest, Prague, Bilbao, Mykonos etc) allows for enjoying the local hospitality and sightseeing. II. Emphasizing in hybrid sensors and smart specialization devices produced by inexpensive methods, without excluding of course micro-nano technology, from all kinds of solid state, liquid and gaseous materials, as well as in particular transducer applications (design and development, as well as use of sensing data) III. Innovatively implementing the Virtual Paper Concept, allowing for large impact of research works presented in the conference by authors who either have no time or no funding support for visiting a conference; this year more than 12 virtual papers are presented in the 5th IC MAST, following a standardized procedure via the our robust and reliable Conference Site (www.icmast.net!) > IV. Allowing for lengthy technical and managerial discussions in terms of sensor, material and instrumentation development; furthermore, the different research groups gathered together are offered the particular

  17. Primary School 5th and 8th Graders' Understanding and Mental Models about the Shape of the World and Gravity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Öztürk, Ayse; Doganay, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated primary school 5th and 8th graders' understanding and mental models related to the shape of the world and gravity, and how these models reflected the fact and what kind of a change there is from 5th to 8th graders. This research is based on a cross-sectional design. The study was conducted in a low socioeconomic level…

  18. Proceedings of the 5th International DAWN Summit 2014: Acting together to make person-centred diabetes care a reality.

    PubMed

    Bootle, Stuart; Skovlund, Soren E

    2015-07-01

    Almost 250 stakeholders from across the world, representing all aspects of diabetes, attended the 5th International DAWN Summit. The summit focussed on the issues raised by the recently published DAWN2 study, placing particular emphasis on promoting the concept of person-centred diabetes care. Discussions between the delegates took place throughout a variety of sessions, with presentations, interactive exchanges and workshops providing a platform for clarification of common global priorities and opportunities for joint action. Following the summit, these ideas were developed further, leading to the creation of a Global Action Framework. The framework aims to support the ongoing local implementation of change in response to the DAWN2 results, while helping enable person-centred diabetes care to become a reality at all levels.

  19. Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus Eggs in Canine Coprolite from the Sasanian Era in Iran (4th/5th Century CE)

    PubMed Central

    MOWLAVI, Gholamreza; MAKKI, Mahsasadat; HEIDARI, Zahra; REZAEIAN, Mostafa; MOHEBALI, Mehdi; ARAUJO, Adauto; BOENKE, Nicole; AALI, Abolfazl; STOLLNER, Thomas; MOBEDI, Iraj

    2015-01-01

    Present paper is the second publication introducing the paleoparasitological findings from animal coprolites obtained from archeological site of Chehrabad salt mine in northwestern Iran. The current archeological site is located in northwest of Iran, dated to the Sassanian Era (4th/5th century CE). In the summer 2012 the carnivore coprolite was obtained within the layers in the mine and were thoroughly analyzed for parasites using TSP rehydration technique. Eggs of 0 were successfully retrieved from the examined coprolite and were confidently identified based on reliable references. Identifying of M. hirudinaceus eggs in paleofeces with clear appearance as demonstrated herein, is much due to appropriate preservation condition has been existed in the salt mine .The present finding could be regarded as the oldest acanthocephalan infection in Iran. PMID:26246822

  20. Brief report: data on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales (5th ed.) in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Coolican, Jamesie; Bryson, Susan E; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2008-01-01

    The Fifth Edition of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales (SB5; Roid, G. H. (2003). Stanford Binet intelligence scales (5th ed.). Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing) is relatively new, with minimal published research on general populations and none with special populations. The present study provides information on the cognitive profiles of children with ASD (N=63) and on the whether the abbreviated battery is representative of the full scale. A high percentage of the children had significantly stronger nonverbal (vs. verbal) skills. This pattern was not related to Full Scale IQ, age or diagnostic subgroup. IQs derived from the abbreviated battery accounted for a large proportion of the variance in FSIQ relative to comparable abbreviated batteries. However, caution is warranted when using the abbreviated battery, as it misrepresents actual ability in a small percentage of cases.

  1. 47 CFR 90.677 - Reconfiguration of the 806-824/851-869 MHz band in order to separate cellular systems from non...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... relevant to a “good-faith” determination are: (1) Whether the party responsible for paying the cost of band... parties have taken to determine the actual cost of relocation to comparable facilities; and (3) Whether either party has unreasonably withheld information, essential to the accurate estimation of...

  2. The Hetu'u Global Network: Using the rare June 5th/6th Transit of Venus to Bring Astronomy to the Remote Easter Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faherty, Jacqueline; Rodriguez, D.

    2013-01-01

    There are rare times in astronomy when a celestial event, visible in broad daylight, can be used to measure a fundamental parameter and inspire a globe full of school age students. The June 5th/6th transit of Venus was one such event. In celebration, nine astronomy postdocs from the Chilean mainland traveled to Easter Island to lead a series of astronomy outreach activities over three days, culminating in a transit-viewing event. Our team dubbed "Equipo Hetu'u" or "Team Star" in the Rapa Nui (Easter Island native) language spent two days giving astronomy talks and doing hands-on demonstrations at the Museo Antropologico P. Sebastian Englert. In the final day-and-a-half leading up to the transit, we visited the science classes in the majority of the schools on the island, in order to spread the message about the once-in-a-lifetime transit event, highlighting how we planned on using it to measure the distance to the Sun. We estimate over 25% 1500 people) of this remote island participated in one or more of our organized activities. Our experience with this project is an excellent lesson on how to organize, lead, and fully execute a major outreach endeavor that inspires hundreds with minimal resources (save the spectacular event provided by the cosmos).

  3. [Progress and prospects on evaluation of ecological restoration: a review of the 5th World Conference on Ecological Restoration].

    PubMed

    Ding, Jing-Yi; Zhao, Wen-Wu

    2014-09-01

    The 5th World Conference on Ecological Restoration was held in Madison, Wisconsin, USA on October 6-11, 2013. About 1200 delegates from more than 50 countries attended the conference, and discussed the latest developments in different thematic areas of ecological restoration. Discussions on evaluation of ecological restoration were mainly from three aspects: The construction for evaluation indicator system of ecological restoration; the evaluation methods of ecological restoration; monitoring and dynamic evaluation of ecological restoration. The meeting stressed the importance of evaluation in the process of ecological restoration and concerned the challenges in evaluation of ecological restoration. The conference had the following enlightenments for China' s research on evaluation of ecological restoration: 1) Strengthening the construction of comprehensive evaluation indicators system and focusing on the multi-participation in the evaluation process. 2) Paying more attentions on scale effect and scale transformation in the evaluation process of ecological restoration. 3) Expanding the application of 3S technology in assessing the success of ecological restoration and promoting the dynamic monitoring of ecological restoration. 4) Carrying out international exchanges and cooperation actively, and promoting China's international influence in ecological restoration research.

  4. Generating and weighing evidence in drug development and regulatory decision making: 5th US FDA-DIA workshop on pharmacogenomics.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Peter M; Zineh, Issam

    2010-12-01

    The 5th US FDA-Drug Industry Association (DIA) workshop in a series on pharmacogenomics entitled: 'Generating and Weighing Evidence in Drug Development and Regulatory Decision Making', contained four major topics (tracks): 'Learning from Labels and Label Changes: How to Build Pharmacogenomics into Drug Development Programs'; 'Enabling Pharmacogenomic Clinical Trials Through Sampling'; 'Designing Pharmacogenomics Studies to be Fit for Purpose'; and 'Co-Development of Drugs and Diagnostics'. The meeting was attended by approximately 200 professionals, primarily involved in drug development and healthcare delivery. Several critical elements drove the success of the meeting: it was recognized that the enriched conversation at this workshop between regulators and drug developers was driven with less inhibition than before and with a greater scientific focus on the issues. Multiple examples in the field and broader collective experience helped more in-depth thinking of the pros and cons of implementing pharmacogenetic/genetic approaches during drug development, in the current environment. It was also noted that this field is still developing and nascent as illustrated by the paucity of actual diagnostic-drug co-development examples. Furthermore, the complexities of conducting pharmacogenetic research in global drug-development programs was acknowledged as was the need for rigorous research designs and methodologies despite these challenges. PMID:21142905

  5. Communicating Science to Impact Learning? A Phenomenological Inquiry into 4th and 5th Graders' Perceptions of Science Information Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelmez Burakgazi, Sevinc; Yildirim, Ali; Weeth Feinstein, Noah

    2016-04-01

    Rooted in science education and science communication studies, this study examines 4th and 5th grade students' perceptions of science information sources (SIS) and their use in communicating science to students. It combines situated learning theory with uses and gratifications theory in a qualitative phenomenological analysis. Data were gathered through classroom observations and interviews in four Turkish elementary schools. Focus group interviews with 47 students and individual interviews with 17 teachers and 10 parents were conducted. Participants identified a wide range of SIS, including TV, magazines, newspapers, internet, peers, teachers, families, science centers/museums, science exhibitions, textbooks, science books, and science camps. Students reported using various SIS in school-based and non-school contexts to satisfy their cognitive, affective, personal, and social integrative needs. SIS were used for science courses, homework/project assignments, examination/test preparations, and individual science-related research. Students assessed SIS in terms of the perceived accessibility of the sources, the quality of the content, and the content presentation. In particular, some sources such as teachers, families, TV, science magazines, textbooks, and science centers/museums ("directive sources") predictably led students to other sources such as teachers, families, internet, and science books ("directed sources"). A small number of sources crossed context boundaries, being useful in both school and out. Results shed light on the connection between science education and science communication in terms of promoting science learning.

  6. Fast Food Consumption and Food Prices: Evidence from Panel Data on 5th and 8th Grade Children

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Tamkeen; Powell, Lisa M.; Wada, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Fast food consumption is a dietary factor associated with higher prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States. The association between food prices and consumption of fast food among 5th and 8th graders was examined using individual-level random effects models utilizing consumption data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K), price data from American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association (ACCRA), and contextual outlet density data from Dun and Bradstreet (D&B). The results found that contextual factors including the price of fast food, median household income, and fast food restaurant outlet densities were significantly associated with fast food consumption patterns among this age group. Overall, a 10% increase in the price of fast food was associated with 5.7% lower frequency of weekly fast food consumption. These results suggest that public health policy pricing instruments such as taxes may be effective in reducing consumption of energy-dense foods and possibly reducing the prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children and young adolescents. PMID:22292115

  7. Final Report for DOE Support of 5th the International Workshop on Oxide Surfaces (IWOX-V)

    SciTech Connect

    Charles T. Campbell

    2007-02-02

    The 5th International Workshop on Oxide Surfaces (IWOX-V) was held at Granlibakken Conference center in Lake Tahoe, CA, January 7-12. The total attendance was ~90. The breakdown of attendees by country is as follows: USA 41 Germany 18 Japan 7 UK 5 Italy 5 France 4 Austria 3 Denmark 3 Cech. Repub. 1 Ireland 1 New Zealand 1 India 1 The technical program included oral sessions on the electronic and magnetic properties of oxide surfaces, surface and interface structure, advances in theory, surface defects, thin film oxides on metals and on oxides, thin film metals on oxides, surface photochemistry, surface reactivity, and interactions with water. Two evening poster sessions had similar themes. As in previous years, the program stimulated significant interest and discussion among the attendees. The local expenses (food and lodging, $918 per person) for eight foreign invited speakers were covered by BES funds. In addition, partial reimbursement for travel ($328 per person) was supported by BES funds for two more foreign invited speakers.

  8. Fast food consumption and food prices: evidence from panel data on 5th and 8th grade children.

    PubMed

    Khan, Tamkeen; Powell, Lisa M; Wada, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Fast food consumption is a dietary factor associated with higher prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States. The association between food prices and consumption of fast food among 5th and 8th graders was examined using individual-level random effects models utilizing consumption data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K), price data from American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association (ACCRA), and contextual outlet density data from Dun and Bradstreet (D&B). The results found that contextual factors including the price of fast food, median household income, and fast food restaurant outlet densities were significantly associated with fast food consumption patterns among this age group. Overall, a 10% increase in the price of fast food was associated with 5.7% lower frequency of weekly fast food consumption. These results suggest that public health policy pricing instruments such as taxes may be effective in reducing consumption of energy-dense foods and possibly reducing the prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children and young adolescents. PMID:22292115

  9. Attitudes towards General Practice: a comparative cross-sectional survey of 1st and 5th year medical students

    PubMed Central

    Kruschinski, Carsten; Wiese, Birgitt; Hummers-Pradier, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Positive attitudes towards General Practice can be understood as a prerequisite for becoming a General Practitioner (GP) and for collaboration with GPs later on. This study aimed to assess attitudes of medical students at the beginning and the end of medical school. Methods: A total of 160 1st year students at Hannover Medical School were surveyed. Their attitudes were compared to those of 287 5th year students. Descriptive, bi- and multivariate analyses were performed to investigate influences of year of study and gender. Results: Year of study and gender both were associated with the attitudes towards General Practice. The interest in General Practice and patient-orientation (communication, care of older patients with chronic diseases) was higher in 1st year students compared to more advanced students. Female students valued such requirements more than male students, the differences in attitudes between the years of study being more pronounced in male students. Conclusion: Despite some limitations caused by the cross-sectional design, the attitudes towards General Practice competencies changed to their disadvantage during medical school. This suggests a formative influence of the strategies used in medical education. Educational strategies, however, could be used to bring about a change of attitudes in the other direction. PMID:23255966

  10. Generating and weighing evidence in drug development and regulatory decision making: 5th US FDA-DIA workshop on pharmacogenomics.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Peter M; Zineh, Issam

    2010-12-01

    The 5th US FDA-Drug Industry Association (DIA) workshop in a series on pharmacogenomics entitled: 'Generating and Weighing Evidence in Drug Development and Regulatory Decision Making', contained four major topics (tracks): 'Learning from Labels and Label Changes: How to Build Pharmacogenomics into Drug Development Programs'; 'Enabling Pharmacogenomic Clinical Trials Through Sampling'; 'Designing Pharmacogenomics Studies to be Fit for Purpose'; and 'Co-Development of Drugs and Diagnostics'. The meeting was attended by approximately 200 professionals, primarily involved in drug development and healthcare delivery. Several critical elements drove the success of the meeting: it was recognized that the enriched conversation at this workshop between regulators and drug developers was driven with less inhibition than before and with a greater scientific focus on the issues. Multiple examples in the field and broader collective experience helped more in-depth thinking of the pros and cons of implementing pharmacogenetic/genetic approaches during drug development, in the current environment. It was also noted that this field is still developing and nascent as illustrated by the paucity of actual diagnostic-drug co-development examples. Furthermore, the complexities of conducting pharmacogenetic research in global drug-development programs was acknowledged as was the need for rigorous research designs and methodologies despite these challenges.

  11. Intensity dependence of Z-scan in semiconductor-doped glasses for separation of third and fifth order contributions in the below band gap region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindra, K. S.; Oak, S. M.; Rustagi, K. C.

    1999-09-01

    The limitations of the Z-scan method in separating the third order and fifth order nonlinearities in dilute nonlinear systems like semiconductor-doped glasses are discussed. By simulating various experimental situations, we show that rather sensitive detection is required in such cases to separate the two contributions. The earlier Z-scan data on semiconductor doped glasses is shown to be consistent with a dominantly fifth order nonlinearity.

  12. Implementing SPRINTT [Student Polar Research with IPY National(and International)Teacher Training] in 5th Grade Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, D. S.

    2009-12-01

    I implemented the new NSF-funded SPRINTT (Student Polar Research with IPY National (and International) Teacher Training) curriculum with a 5th grade science class. SPRINTT, developed at U.S. Satellite Laboratory, Inc., is a 5-8 week science program teaching 5th through 10th graders to investigate climate change using polar data. The program includes perspectives of both Western scientists and the indigenous Northern population. The course contains three phases: Phase 1 includes content, data interpretation, and hands-on experiments to study Frozen Water, Frozen Land, and Food; Phase 2 (optional) includes further content on specific polar topics; and Phase 3 is a scaffolded research investigation. Before the course, teachers were trained via live webinars. This curriculum capitalizes on children’s innate fascination with our planet’s final frontier and combines it with the politically and scientifically relevant topic of climate change. In 2009, I used SPRINTT with 23 heterogeneous fifth grade students at National Presbyterian School in Washington DC for an environmental science unit. Overall, it was a success. The students met most of the learning objectives and showed enthusiasm for the material. I share my experiences to help other educators and curriculum developers. The Phase 1 course includes earth science (glaciers, sea ice, weather and climate, greenhouse gases, seasons, and human impacts on environments), life science (needs of living things, food and energy transfer, adaptations, and ecosystems and biomes) and physical science (phases of matter). Tailoring the program, I focused on Phase 1, the most accessible material and content, while deemphasizing the more cumbersome Phase 3 online research project. Pre-assessments documented the students’ misconceptions and informed instruction. The investigations were appropriately educational and interesting. For example, students enjoyed looking at environmental factors and their impact on the people in the

  13. Breastfeeding, introduction of other foods and effects on health: a systematic literature review for the 5th Nordic Nutrition Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Hörnell, Agneta; Lagström, Hanna; Lande, Britt; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2013-01-01

    The present systematic literature review is part of the 5th revision of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. The overall aim was to review recent scientific data valid in a Nordic setting on the short- and long-term health effects of breastfeeding (duration of both any and exclusive breastfeeding) and introduction of foods other than breast milk. The initial literature search resulted in 2,011 abstracts; 416 identified as potentially relevant. Full paper review resulted in 60 quality assessed papers (6A, 48B, and 6C). A complementary search found some additional papers. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, limited-suggestive, and limited-no conclusion. The evidence was convincing of a protective dose/duration effect of breastfeeding against overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence, overall infections, acute otitis media, and gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections. The evidence was probable that exclusive breastfeeding for longer than 4 months is associated with slower weight gain during the second half of the first year which could be part of the reason behind the reduced risk of later overweight or obesity. There was also probable evidence that breastfeeding is a protective factor against inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and diabetes (type 1 and 2), provides beneficial effects on IQ and developmental scores of children as well as a small reductive effect on blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels in adulthood. Other associations explored were limited-suggestive or inconclusive. In conclusion, convincing and probable evidence was found for benefits of breastfeeding on several outcomes. The recommendation in NNR2004 about exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months and continued partial breastfeeding thereafter can stand unchanged. The relatively low proportion of infants in the Nordic countries following this recommendation indicates that strategies that protect, support and promote breastfeeding should be

  14. Validating the proposed diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th edition, severity indicator for personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Morey, Leslie C; Bender, Donna S; Skodol, Andrew E

    2013-09-01

    The authors sought to determine whether a 5-point global rating of personality dysfunction on the Level of Personality Functioning Scale proposed as a severity index for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5), would be related to DSM-IV personality disorder diagnosis as well as to other key clinical judgments. Data were collected from a national sample of 337 mental health clinicians who provided complete diagnostic information relevant to DSM-IV and proposed DSM-5 personality disorder diagnoses, as well as demographic information and other clinical judgments, on one of their patients. Of the 337 patients described, 248 met criteria for 1 of the 10 specific DSM-IV personality disorders. A "moderate" or greater rating of impairment in personality functioning on the Level Scale demonstrated 84.6% sensitivity and 72.7% specificity for identifying patients meeting criteria for a specific DSM-IV personality disorder. The Level of Personality Functioning Scale had significant and substantial validity correlations with other measures of personality pathology and with clinical judgments regarding functioning, risk, prognosis, and optimal treatment intensity. Furthermore, the single-item Level of Personality Functioning rating was viewed as being as clinically useful as the 10 DSM-IV categories for treatment planning and patient description and was a better predictor of clinician ratings of broad psychosocial functioning than were the 10 DSM-IV categories combined. These results confirm hypotheses that the single-item Level of Personality Functioning Scale rating provides an indication of severity of personality pathology that predicts both assignment of personality disorder diagnosis and clinician appraisals of functioning, risk, prognosis, and needed treatment intensity.

  15. Intraocular tissue ablation using an optical fibre to deliver the 5th harmonic of a Nd:YAG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Joseph; Yu, Xiaobo; Yu, Paula K.; Cringle, Stephen J.; Yu, Dao-Yi

    2009-02-01

    We report the evaluation of a system which delivers the 5th harmonic of an Nd:YAG (213nm) via optical fibre to ocular tissue sites. The 213nm beam is concentrated, using a hollow glass taper, prior to launch into 200 μm or 600 μm core diameter silica/silica optical fibre. The fibre tip was tapered to enhance the fluence delivered. An operating window of fluence values that could be delivered via 330 - 1100mm lengths of optical fibre was determined. The lower value of 0.2J/cm2 determined by the ablation threshold of the tissue and the upper value of 1.3J/cm2 by the launch, transmission and tip characteristics of the optical fibre. The fluence output decreased as a function of both transmitted pulse energy and number of pulses transmitted. Fresh retinal tissue was cleanly ablated with minimal damage to the surrounding tissue. Lesions were generated using 1, 3 and 10 pulses with fluences from 0.2 to 1.0J/cm2. The lesion depth demonstrated clear dose dependence. Lesions generated in ex vivo preparations of human trabecular meshwork in a fluid environment also demonstrated dose dependence, 50 pulses being sufficient to create a hole within the trabecular meshwork extending to Schlemm's canal. The dose dependence of the ablation depth combined with the ability of this technique to create a conduit through to Schlemm's canal demonstrates the potential of this technique for ophthalmological applications requiring precise and controlled intraocular tissue removal and has potential applications in the treatment and management of glaucoma.

  16. Engaging Minds. Proceedings of the National Academy for Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning Annual Conference (5th, Galway, Ireland, June 9-10, 2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy for Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    This publication contains the papers presented at the 5th Annual Conference of National Academy for Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning (NAIRTL) and the 9th Galway Symposium. Presenters from across Ireland and overseas share their perspectives. The theme of engagement touches on the very heart of what a "higher" education should be…

  17. The Social Interactions of Students with Disabilities in a 5th Grade Level Inclusive Classroom and the Effect on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall-Reed, Estella

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a qualitative, ethnographic case study of 3 students with disabilities. The purpose of this research study was to observe and collect descriptive accounts of the social interactions that exist between the cultures in a 5th grade level inclusive classroom, such as the interactions between the special education students, general…

  18. Evaluation of the Effects of Argumentation Based Science Teaching on 5th Grade Students' Conceptual Understanding of the Subjects Related to "Matter and Change"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çinar, Derya; Bayraktar, Sule

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of Argumentation Based Science Teaching on 5th grade students' conceptual understanding of the subjects related to "Matter and Change". This research is a qualitative research and its design is a multiple (compare) case study. In this study, semi-structured interviews related to the…

  19. Evaluation of the Effects of Argumentation Based Science Teaching on 5th Grade Students' Conceptual Understanding of the Subjects Related to "Matter and Change"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çinar, Derya; Bayraktar, Sule

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of Argumentation Based Science Teaching on 5th grade students' conceptual understanding of the subjects related to "Matter and Change". This research is a qualitative research and its design is a multiple (compare) case study. In this study, semi-structured interviews related to the…

  20. EUNIS '99: Information Technology Shaping European Universities. Proceedings of the International European University Information Systems (5th, Espoo, Finland, June 7-9, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document presents the proceedings from the 5th International European University Information Systems (EUNIS) Conference on Information Technology that took place in Helsinki, Finland on June 7-9, 1999. Topics of the conference proceedings were divided into five tracks (A through E): Use of Information Technology in Learning and Teaching;…

  1. International Roundtable on The Lifelong Learning and New Technologies Gap: Reaching the Disadvantaged (5th, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, December 8-10, 1999). Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Adult Literacy, Philadelphia, PA.

    Three elements defined the focus of the 5th Roundtable: lifelong learning, the new technologies gap, and reaching the disadvantaged. Participants referred frequently to the digital divide, a term that captures differential access to and use of information and communication technology (ICT). The questions that guided discussion related to ICT and…

  2. U.S. Dietary and Physical Activity Guideline Knowledge and Corresponding Behaviors among 4th and 5th Grade Students: A Multi-Site Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bea, Jennifer W.; Martinez, Stephanie; Armstrong-Florian, Traci; Farrell, Vanessa; Martinez, Cathy; Whitmer, Evelyn; Hartz, Vern; Blake, Samuel; Nicolini, Ariana; Misner, Scottie

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of U.S. dietary and physical activity recommendations and corresponding behaviors were surveyed among 4th and 5th graders in five Arizona counties to determine the need for related education in SNAP-Ed eligible schools. A <70% target response rate was the criterion. Participants correctly identified recommendations for: fruit, 20%;…

  3. Immediate and Short-Term Effects of the 5th Grade Version of the "keepin' it REAL" Substance Use Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Michael L.; Elek, Elvira; Wagstaff, David A.; Kam, Jennifer A.; Marsiglia, Flavio; Dustman, Patricia; Reeves, Leslie; Harthun, Mary

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the immediate and short-term outcomes of adapting a culturally-grounded middle school program, "keepin' it REAL", for elementary school students. After curriculum adaptation, 10 schools were randomly assigned to the intervention in 5th grade with follow-up boosters in 6th grade; 13 schools were randomly assigned to the control…

  4. An Analysis of the Learning Activities Covered in the 5th Grade Science Textbooks Based on 2005 and 2013 Turkish Science Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydogdu, Cemil; Idin, Sahin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the learning activities covered in 5th grade elementary science textbooks which depend on 2005 and 2013 elementary science curricula. Two elementary science textbooks [which] depend on 2005 science curriculum and two elementary science textbooks [which] depend on 2013 science curriculum were researched. The…

  5. An Analysis of the Learning Activities Covered in the 5th Grade Science Textbooks Based on 2005 and 2013 Turkish Science Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydogdu, Cemil; Idin, Sahin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the learning activities covered in 5th grade elementary science textbooks which depend on 2005 and 2013 elementary science curricula. Two elementary science textbooks depends on 2005 science curriculum and two elementary science textbooks depend on 2013 science curriculum were researched. The study is a…

  6. Determination of Motivation of 5th Grade Students Living in Rural and Urban Environments towards Science Learning and Their Attitudes towards Science-Technology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenar, Ismail; Köse, Mücahit; Demir, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    In this research, determination of motivation of 5th grade students living in rural and urban environments towards science learning and their attitudes towards science-technology course is aimed. This research is conducted based on descriptive survey model. Samples are selected through teleological model in accordance with the aim of this…

  7. Final technical report: Partial support for US participants in the 5th International Marine Biotechnology Conference, Townsville, Australia, Sept 29 - Oct 5, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Zohar, Yonathan; Hill, R.; Robb, F.

    2001-04-09

    Funding was provided for US participants in the 5th International Marine Biotechnology Conference held in Townsville, Australia from September 29 to October 5, 2000. DOE funds were used for travel awards for six US participants in this conference. DOE funds were successfully used to advance participation of US scientists in the important emerging field of marine biotechnology.

  8. Measures of self-efficacy and norms for low-fat milk consumption are reliable and related to beverage consumption among 5th graders at school lunch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to determine the reliability and validity of scales measuring low-fat milk consumption self-efficacy and norms during school lunch among a cohort of 5th graders. Two hundred seventy-five students completed lunch food records and a psychosocial questionnaire measuring self-efficacy ...

  9. Comparison of the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition, in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grondhuis, Sabrina Nicole; Mulick, James A.

    2013-01-01

    A review of hospital records was conducted for children evaluated for autism spectrum disorders who completed both the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R) and Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition (SB5). Participants were between 3 and 12 years of age. Diagnoses were autistic disorder (n = 26, 55%) and pervasive…

  10. Indian Health Career Handbook and Report on Ned Hatathli Seminar for Southern Arizona Indian Students (5th, Tucson, Arizona, February 6-7, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Arnold, Ed.; And Others

    Utilizing comments from teachers, professionals, college and high school students, this report is derived from the 5th Ned Hatathli Seminar, sponsored by the Navajo Health Authority, and presents factual information relative to American Indian participation in Indian Health careers. The following major speeches are presented: (1) "The Practice of…

  11. Integration of physical activity and technology motion devices within a combined 5th and 6th grade science curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, Kevin Eugene

    Background: National recommendations to increase school-based physical activity and promote academic success advise incorporating movement into traditional classroom lessons. Classroom-based physical activities have favorable associations with indicators of cognitive functioning, academic behaviors, and academic achievement. Purpose: This study analyzed the Active Science framework, which incorporated school-based physical activity within interactive science classroom lessons. Specifically, the study measured the effects of the Active Science framework on student physical activity levels in the classroom, student learning of science inquiry skills and content knowledge, and student perceptions of physical activity and science. A secondary purpose was to evaluate the teachers' perceptions on the implementation of the framework. Subjects: Participants were 37 Hispanic girls (age=11.1 +/-0.8 yr) in mixed 5th/6th grade science classes in a private, urban middle school. Methods: Physical activity levels of the students during the Active Science framework were measured using pedometers and heart rate monitors. Pre- and post-tests were used to assess the levels of learning achieved by the students in science inquiry skills and content during the Active Science framework. Student perceptions and attitudes toward science and physical activity were measured during student focus groups and pre-post perception surveys. Lesson plan evaluations completed by the teachers and structured interviews provided data on implementation of the framework. Results: Physical activity results showed heart rate (146 +/-9 bpm); maximal heart rate (196 +/-10.6 bpm); time (35 +/-2.5 mins); steps (3050 +/-402.7); calories (99 +/-8.4 kcal); and distance (1.1 +/-0.2 miles) while performing the activity portion of the science lessons were consistent with national recommendations for accumulating school-based physical activity. Significant increases in science content and skills test scores with a 22

  12. Technological Characterization of Wall Paintings from the A Mithraic Tomb Dated to 4th-5th Century AD, Gargaresc, Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd El Salam, S.; Maniatis, Y.

    2009-04-01

    The excavations of Gargaresc started in 1965 and were one of the most important archaeological sites in Tripoli because it includes a period of about 500 years starting from the 1stc. AD was and continuing until the 5th century AD. The Mithraic tomb is one of the most important outlying monuments of Oea, 200 yards south of the western end of Gargaresc oasis, on the left of the Tripoli-Zuara road between kilometers 5 & 6. The tomb is cut in an outcrop of soft sandstone. The wall paintings found were symbolic to the religion of that period; which contained a mixture of older religions and Christian, and presented the interaction between the artistic and religious elements of that time. Several optical, chemical and mineralogical methods were applied to identify the materials, composition and technology of the plasters and mortars, as well as, the pigments used in the tomb. These are: -OP: Optical microscopy was used as the initial examination of polished cross-sections to identify the structure and microstratigraphy of the plasters and mortars as well as the painted layers. -MCT: Micro-chemical tests were used to identify the type of the plasters and mortars- calcium aluminium silicate and water-soluble salt to identify sulphates, chlorides, carbonates, nitrites and nitrates. -SM: Standard methods for chemical analysis to identify the quantitative and qualitative nature of the plasters and mortars and their mixture. -SEM & EDS: Analytical Scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive x-ray analysis system to examine the micrmorphology and determine the chemical composition of the plasters, pigments and the inclusions. -XRD: X-ray powder diffraction to identify the mineralogical composition of the plasters, mortars and pigments. On the bases of all the data obtained, it was possible to establish the nature of the plasters, mortars and their binder. The examination and analysis gave a full picture about the materials and the approximate ratio of amount of

  13. Effect on Physical Activity of a Randomized Afterschool Intervention for Inner City Children in 3rd to 5th Grade

    PubMed Central

    Crouter, Scott E.; de Ferranti, Sarah D.; Whiteley, Jessica; Steltz, Sarah K.; Osganian, Stavroula K.; Feldman, Henry A.; Hayman, Laura L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Less than 45% of U.S. children meet the 60 min.d-1 physical activity (PA) guideline. Structured after-school PA programing is one approach to help increase activity levels. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and short-term impact of a supervised after-school PA and nutrition education program on activity levels. Methods Forty-two 3rd-5th graders from an inner-city school in Boston, MA were randomly assigned to a 10-wk after-school program of either: 1) weekly nutrition education, or 2) weekly nutrition education plus supervised PA 3 d.wk-1 at a community-based center. At baseline and follow-up, PA was measured using accelerometry and fitness (VO2max) was estimated using the PACER 15-m shuttle run. Additional measures obtained were non-fasting finger stick total cholesterol (TC) and glucose levels, waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (%BF), and blood pressure (BP). Values are presented as mean±SE, unless noted otherwise. Results Thirty-six participants completed the study (mean±SD; age 9.7±0.9 years). Participants attended >80% of the sessions. After adjusting for accelerometer wear time and other design factors, light and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) increased in the nutrition+PA group (+21.5±14.5 and +8.6±8.0 min.d-1, respectively) and decreased in the nutrition only group (-35.2±16.3 and -16.0±9.0 min.d-1, respectively); mean difference between groups of 56.8±21.7 min.d-1 (light PA, p = 0.01) and 24.5±12.0 min.d-1 (MVPA, p = 0.04). Time spent in sedentary behaviors declined in the nutrition+PA group (-14.8±20.7 min.d-1) and increased in the nutrition only group (+55.4±23.2 min.d-1); mean difference between groups of -70.2±30.9 min.d-1 (p = 0.02). Neither group showed changes in TC, BP, WC, %BF, BMI percentile, or fitness (p>0.05). Conclusions The supervised afterschool community-based nutrition and PA program was well accepted and had high attendance. The changes in light PA and MVPA has potential

  14. Harmonization of Global Land-Use Scenarios for the Period 1500-2100 for IPCC 5th Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chini, L. P.; Hurtt, G.; Frolking, S.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Stehfest, E.; Shevliakova, E.; van Vuuren, D. P.; Betts, R.; Feddema, J.; Jones, C.; Kinoshita, T.; Riahi, K.; Smith, S.; Thornton, P.; Wang, Y.

    2008-12-01

    The 5th IPCC assessment will employ new integrated climate and carbon cycle models (CMs) that, for the first time, will use gridded scenarios of future land-use activities. In preparation for this assessment, the international modeling community is developing four Representative Concentration Path (RCP) scenarios developed by four Integrated Assessment Modeling teams (IAMs). The RCP scenarios include land-use changes and will be used as input to CMs. However, the diversity of approaches and requirements among IAMs and CMs for tracking land-use change, along with the dependence of model projections on land-use history, presents a challenge for effectively passing data between these communities and for smoothly transitioning from the historical estimates to future projections. Our goal is to bridge the two communities by developing a harmonized set of land-use scenarios that smoothly connects historical reconstructions of land- use with future projections, in the format required by CMs. We compute consistent global gridded maps of land-use activities and recovering lands as well as the underlying land-use transitions including the effects of wood harvest and shifting cultivation. We build upon the method of Hurtt et al. 2006 and use gridded historical maps of crop and pasture data from HYDE 3.0 1500-2000 (Klein Goldewijk, in prep), historical national wood harvest and shifting cultivation estimates from Hurtt et al. 2006, future agricultural and wood harvest data from IAMs (AIM, IMAGE, MESSAGE, and MiniCAM) 2000-2100, and future climate and CO2 data from IAMs. The resulting half degree gridded maps of subgrid-scale land-use and underlying transitions smoothly progress from past to future in a format that can be used as input into CMs. This harmonized set of products will provide the first consistent set of land-use change and emission scenarios in a consistent format for a large community of CMs to enable studies of the effects of gridded land-use changes on the

  15. 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia: summary of main findings and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Pandit, J J; Andrade, J; Bogod, D G; Hitchman, J M; Jonker, W R; Lucas, N; Mackay, J H; Nimmo, A F; O'Connor, K; O'Sullivan, E P; Paul, R G; Palmer, J H M G; Plaat, F; Radcliffe, J J; Sury, M R J; Torevell, H E; Wang, M; Hainsworth, J; Cook, T M

    2014-10-01

    We present the main findings of the 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia (AAGA). Incidences were estimated using reports of accidental awareness as the numerator, and a parallel national anaesthetic activity survey to provide denominator data. The incidence of certain/probable and possible accidental awareness cases was ~1:19,600 anaesthetics (95% confidence interval 1:16,700-23,450). However, there was considerable variation across subtypes of techniques or subspecialities. The incidence with neuromuscular block (NMB) was ~1:8200 (1:7030-9700), and without, it was ~1:135,900 (1:78,600-299,000). The cases of AAGA reported to NAP5 were overwhelmingly cases of unintended awareness during NMB. The incidence of accidental awareness during Caesarean section was ~1:670 (1:380-1300). Two-thirds (82, 66%) of cases of accidental awareness experiences arose in the dynamic phases of anaesthesia, namely induction of and emergence from anaesthesia. During induction of anaesthesia, contributory factors included: use of thiopental, rapid sequence induction, obesity, difficult airway management, NMB, and interruptions of anaesthetic delivery during movement from anaesthetic room to theatre. During emergence from anaesthesia, residual paralysis was perceived by patients as accidental awareness, and commonly related to a failure to ensure full return of motor capacity. One-third (43, 33%) of accidental awareness events arose during the maintenance phase of anaesthesia, mostly due to problems at induction or towards the end of anaesthesia. Factors increasing the risk of accidental awareness included: female sex, age (younger adults, but not children), obesity, anaesthetist seniority (junior trainees), previous awareness, out-of-hours operating, emergencies, type of surgery (obstetric, cardiac, thoracic), and use of NMB. The following factors were not risk factors for accidental awareness: ASA physical status, race, and use or omission

  16. Two Successful Outreach Programs at Storm Peak Laboratory: GRASP for Undergraduates and Partnership for 5th Grade Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallar, A. G.; McCubbin, I. B.; Wright, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Desert Research Institute operates a high elevation facility, Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL), located on the Steamboat Springs Ski Resort at an elevation 10,500 ft. SPL provides an ideal location for long-term atmospheric research. The SPL mission statement is to ensure that the laboratory will continue to integrate climate research and education by advancing discovery and understanding within the field of pollution, aerosol and cloud interactions. During the last year, SPL has created two successful outreach programs reaching very different audiences. First, to engage students from local elementary schools, SPL established a 5th grade climate education program. This program is based on a partnership between SPL and Yampatika's&penvironmental educators. Yampatika is a non-profit outdoor environmental education organization. The program spans three days for each school and includes five elementary schools. During the first day, educators from Yampatika visit each classroom to introduce the concepts of climate and weather as well as teach students how to use scientific equipment. During the field program on the second day, students measure and record information about temperature, pressure, relative humidity, wind speed, and particle concentration while they travel to SPL via the gondola (in winter) or Suburban (in fall). Once at the laboratory, students tour the facility, discuss SPL research activities, and explore application of these activities to their curriculum. Following the field trip, Yampatika educators and SPL scientists will visit the school for a follow-up to help children explore concepts, answer questions, and evaluate students" learning. The second program, Geoscience Research at Storm Peak (GRASP), was designed to engage students from underrepresented groups and created a partnership between three Minority Serving Institutions and the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR). Undergraduate students from Tennessee State University, Howard University

  17. Engineering chiral density waves and topological band structures by multiple-Q superpositions of collinear up-up-down-down orders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayami, Satoru; Ozawa, Ryo; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic orders characterized by multiple ordering vectors harbor noncollinear and noncoplanar spin textures and can be a source of unusual electronic properties through the spin Berry phase mechanism. We theoretically show that such multiple-Q states are stabilized in itinerant magnets in the form of superpositions of collinear up-up-down-down (UUDD) spin states, which accompany the density waves of vector and scalar chirality. The result is drawn by examining the ground state of the Kondo lattice model with classical localized moments, especially when the Fermi surface is tuned to be partially nested by the symmetry-related commensurate vectors. We unveil the instability toward a double-Q UUDD state with vector chirality density waves on the square lattice and a triple-Q UUDD state with scalar chirality density waves on the triangular lattice, using the perturbative theory and variational calculations. The former double-Q state is also confirmed by large-scale Langevin dynamics simulations. We also show that, for a sufficiently large exchange coupling, the chirality density waves can induce rich nontrivial topology of electronic structures, such as the massless Dirac semimetal, Chern insulator with quantized topological Hall response, and peculiar edge states which depend on the phase of chirality density waves at the edges.

  18. Proceedings for the 5th Asia-Pacific Conference on Disaster Medicine: creating an agenda for action.

    PubMed

    De Grace, M; Ericson, D; Folz, H; Greene, W; Ho, K; Pearce, L

    2001-01-01

    Disaster medicine has come to the forefront and has become the focus of interest not only in the medical community, but also in the eyes of the public. The 5th APCDM was convened in Vancouver, Canada, 27-30 September 2000. It brought together over 300 delegates from 32 countries to share their experiences and thoughts regarding disaster events and how to effectively manage them. The conference was devoted to the task of establishing priorities and creating an Agenda for Action. From the discussions, key actions required were defined: COMMUNICATIONS: (1) Identify existing regional telehealth groups and gather lessons to be learned from them; (2) Form a telehealth advisory group to work with regional groups to compile telehealth initiatives, identify international protocols in telehealth already in existence, and solicit feedback before setting international standards; and (3) Increase corporate partnerships in the fields of telehealth and telecommunications, and invite corporations to send delegates to future APCDM meetings. This should be an initiative of the APCDM, the World Association of Disaster and Emergency Medicine (WADEM), or the European Society of Emergency Medicine. EDUCATION AND RESEARCH: (1) Formalize education in disaster medicine and management. The World Health Organization and WADEM should take a leadership role; (2) WADEM is requested to hold a conference with a focus on qualitative research; (3) WHO is requested to continue the provision of international research teams, but to advocate for the development of national disaster research infrastructure; (4) Make research findings and reports available on web sites of such organizations as WHO and PAHO; (5) Develop the translation of research for community utilization. The WHO and PAHO are organizations that are requested to consider this action; and (6) WADEM/APCDM are requested to focus future conferences on applied research. INFORMATION AND DATA: (1) Create an "Information and Data Clearinghouse

  19. Proceedings for the 5th Asia-Pacific Conference on Disaster Medicine: creating an agenda for action.

    PubMed

    De Grace, M; Ericson, D; Folz, H; Greene, W; Ho, K; Pearce, L

    2001-01-01

    Disaster medicine has come to the forefront and has become the focus of interest not only in the medical community, but also in the eyes of the public. The 5th APCDM was convened in Vancouver, Canada, 27-30 September 2000. It brought together over 300 delegates from 32 countries to share their experiences and thoughts regarding disaster events and how to effectively manage them. The conference was devoted to the task of establishing priorities and creating an Agenda for Action. From the discussions, key actions required were defined: COMMUNICATIONS: (1) Identify existing regional telehealth groups and gather lessons to be learned from them; (2) Form a telehealth advisory group to work with regional groups to compile telehealth initiatives, identify international protocols in telehealth already in existence, and solicit feedback before setting international standards; and (3) Increase corporate partnerships in the fields of telehealth and telecommunications, and invite corporations to send delegates to future APCDM meetings. This should be an initiative of the APCDM, the World Association of Disaster and Emergency Medicine (WADEM), or the European Society of Emergency Medicine. EDUCATION AND RESEARCH: (1) Formalize education in disaster medicine and management. The World Health Organization and WADEM should take a leadership role; (2) WADEM is requested to hold a conference with a focus on qualitative research; (3) WHO is requested to continue the provision of international research teams, but to advocate for the development of national disaster research infrastructure; (4) Make research findings and reports available on web sites of such organizations as WHO and PAHO; (5) Develop the translation of research for community utilization. The WHO and PAHO are organizations that are requested to consider this action; and (6) WADEM/APCDM are requested to focus future conferences on applied research. INFORMATION AND DATA: (1) Create an "Information and Data Clearinghouse

  20. It takes a community to define a discipline: the 5th anniversary of Environmental Research Letters It takes a community to define a discipline: the 5th anniversary of Environmental Research Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammen, Dan

    2012-03-01

    commentary environment, a unique service in itself, and also a specific forum for research published in ERL. Individual topics often come up that warrant not only single articles, but collections of assessments, and ERL has published focus issues in key areas of environmental science including: tropical deforestation, wind energy, the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and climate engineering. ERL is currently publishing seven high-quality focus issues in cutting-edge areas such as arctic vegetation dynamics and cryospheric changes. Research letters appearing in ERL have received regular and significant coverage in the wider media, with several major news outlets and agencies choosing to cover ERL research, such as Nature, BBC News, New Scientist, The Guardian, Scientific American, Le Monde and many others. 4.The future community of ERL The process of community support will take many forms at ERL. The journal is growing—we have published the highest number of articles ever in a single volume in 2011 and are looking to continue this growth through into 2012. ERL had an over 50% increase in submissions from 2010 to 2011. One initiative to mark the journal's 5th anniversary was the 'Best articles' collection [1] a nominated compilation of articles showcasing the quality of published work in ERL as well as the subject area breadth. Co-authors of the five winning articles have been awarded free publication in ERL until the end of 2012. We can also see the open access model working, in that our articles are highly downloaded outside of the traditionally strong geographical areas of academia (North America and Western Europe), showing that the journal's readership is geographically diverse with high interest from Asia, South America and Africa. The journal is committed to progress and innovation; coming soon will be a set of new communication tools and online innovations, including: Video abstracts from the start of 2012 (for example, the video commentary published alongside this

  1. Gastric Banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... gastric banding before deciding to have the procedure. Advertisements for a device or procedure may not include ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  2. Enhancement of band magnetism and features of the magnetically ordered state in the CeB{sub 6} compound with strong electron correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Sluchanko, N. E. Bogach, A. V.; Glushkov, V. V.; Demishev, S. V.; Ivanov, V. Yu.; Ignatov, M. I.; Kuznetsov, A. V.; Samarin, N. A.; Semeno, A. V.; Shitsevalova, N. Yu.

    2007-02-15

    Precision measurements of transport and magnetic parameters of high-quality CeB{sub 6} single crystals are performed in the temperature range 1.8-300 K. It is shown that their resistivity in the temperature interval 5 K < T < T* {approx} 80 K obeys not a logarithmic law, which is typical of the Kondo mechanism of charge carrier scattering, but the law {rho} {proportional_to} T{sup -1/{eta}} corresponding to the weak localization regime with a critical index 1/{eta} = 0.39 {+-} 0.02. Instead of the Curie-Weiss dependences, the asymptotic form {chi}(T) {proportional_to} T{sup -0.8} is obtained for magnetic susceptibility of CeB{sub 6} in a temperature range of 15-300 K. Analysis of the field dependences of magnetization, magnetoresistance, and the Hall coefficient in the paramagnetic and magnetically ordered phases of CeB{sub 6} and comparison with the results of measurements of Seebeck coefficient, the inelastic neutron scattering coefficient, and EPR spectroscopy lead to the conclusion that the Kondo lattice model and skew scattering model cannot be used for describing the transport and thermodynamic parameters of this compound with strong electron correlations. On the basis of detailed analysis of experimental data, an alternative approach to interpreting the properties of CeB{sub 6} is proposed using (1) the assumption concerning itinerant paramagnetism and substantial renormalization of the density of electron states upon cooling in the vicinity of the Fermi energy, which is associated with the formation of heavy fermions (spin-polaron states) in the metallic CeB{sub 6} matrix in the vicinity of Ce sites; (2) the formation of ferromagnetic nanosize regions from spin polarons at 3.3 K < T < 7 K and a transition to a state with a spin density wave (SDW) at T{sub Q} {approx} 3.3 K; and (3) realization of a complex magnetic phase H-T diagram of CeB{sub 6}, which is associated with an increase in the SDW amplitude and competition between the SDW and

  3. Effect of Anatomical Modeling on Space Radiation Dose Estimates: A Comparison of Doses for NASA Phantoms and 5th, 50th, and 95th Percentile UF Hybrid Phantoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahadori, A.; VanBaalen, M.; Shavers, M.; Semones, E.; Dodge, C.; Bolch, W.

    2010-01-01

    The estimate of absorbed dose to individual organs of a space crewmember is affected by the geometry of the anatomical model of the astronaut used in the radiation transport calculation. For astronaut dosimetry, NASA currently uses the computerized anatomical male (CAM) and computerized anatomical female (CAF) stylized phantoms to represent astronauts in its operational radiation dose analyses. These phantoms are available in one size and in two body positions. In contrast, the UF Hybrid Adult Male and Female (UFHADM and UFHADF) phantoms have organ shapes based on actual CT data. The surfaces of these phantoms are defined by non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces, and are thus flexible in terms of body morphometry and extremity positioning. In this study, UFHADM and UFHADF are scaled to dimensions corresponding to 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile (PCTL) male and female astronauts. A ray-tracing program is written in Visual Basic 2008, which is then used to create areal density maps for dose points corresponding to various organs within the phantoms. The areal density maps, along with appropriate space radiation spectra, are input into the NASA program couplet HZETRN/BRYNTRN, and organ doses are calculated. The areal density maps selected tissues and organs of the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female phantoms are presented and compared. In addition, the organ doses for the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female phantoms are presented and compared to organ doses for CAM and CAF.

  4. FOREWORD: The 5th International Colloquium on Atomic Spectra and Oscillator Strengths for Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchang-Brillet, Wad Lydia; Wyart, Jean-François; Zeippen, Claude

    1996-01-01

    The 5th International Colloquium on Atomic Spectra and Oscillator Strengths for Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas was held in Meudon, France, from August 28 to 31 1995. It was the fifth in a series started by the Atomic Spectroscopic Group at the University of Lund, Sweden, in 1983. Then followed the meetings in Toledo, USA, Amsterdam, The Nether- lands and Gaithersburg, USA, with a three year period. The original title of the series ended with "... for Astrophysics and Fusion Research" and became more general with the 4th colloquium in Gaithersburg. The purpose of the present meeting was, in line with tradition, to bring together "producers" and "users" of atomic data so as to ensure optimal coordination. Atomic physicists who study the structure of atoms and their radiative and collisional properties were invited to explain the development of their work, emphasizing the possibilities of producing precise transition wavelengths and relative line intensities. Astrophysicists and laboratory plasma physicists were invited to review their present research interests and the context in which atomic data are needed. The number of participants was about 70 for the first three meetings, then exploded to 170 at Gaithersburg. About 140 participants, coming from 13 countries, attended the colloquium in Meudon. This large gathering was partly due to a number of participants from Eastern Europe larger than in the past, and it certainly showed a steady interest for interdisciplinary exchanges between different communities of scientists. This volume includes all the invited papers given at the conference and, in the appendix, practical information on access to some databases. All invited speakers presented their talks aiming at good communication between scientists from different backgrounds. A separate bound volume containing extended abstracts of the poster papers has been published by the Publications de l'Observatoire de Paris, (Meudon 1996), under the responsibility of

  5. Noise exposure in marching bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keefe, Joseph

    2005-09-01

    Previous studies involving orchestras have shown that music ensembles can produce hazardous noise levels. There are no similar data for marching bands and pep bands. In order to evaluate the noise levels produced by marching and pep bands, 1/3-octave-band sound-pressure levels were measured while these groups rehearsed and performed. Data were collected while marching with the bands to ensure a realistic environment. Comparing these data to OSHA and NIOSH criteria, marching and pep band exposures often exceed safe values. For typical exposures, OSHA doses range from 11% to 295%, while NIOSH doses range from 35% to 3055%. Exposures that would be considered hazardous in the workplace are common in marching and pep bands; students and band directors should take steps to recognize the risk posed by various instruments and various locations, and should implement hearing conservation efforts.

  6. Fifth-order raman spectrum of an atomic liquid: simulation and instantaneous-normal-mode calculation

    PubMed

    Ma; Stratt

    2000-07-31

    Experimental artifacts and technical difficulties in carrying out theoretical calculations have consistently frustrated attempts to obtain the two-dimensional (5th-order) Raman spectrum of a liquid. We report here a new theoretical development: the first microscopic numerical simulation of the 5th-order Raman signal in a liquid. Comparison with an instantaneous-normal-mode treatment, a fully microscopic model which interprets liquid dynamics as arising from coherent harmonic modes, shows that the 5th-order spectrum reveals profound effects stemming from dynamical anharmonicity.

  7. Routing cancer immunology and immunotherapy from the lab to the clinic 4–5 th March 2014, Center for Applied Medical Research and University Clinic, Pamplona, Spain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    New approaches to generate effective anticancer responses by either inducing immune responses or inhibiting immunosuppression are under development to improve efficacy in patients. On March 4-5th, 2014, a symposium was held in Pamplona, Spain, to report the new strategies showing preclinical and clinical results regarding translational research efforts on the topic. Participants interacted through oral presentations of 15 speakers and further discussions on topics that included novel therapeutic agents for cancer immunotherapy, viral vectors and interferon-based approaches, experimental tumor imaging and immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies. Promising agents to target cancer cells and therapeutic approaches that are under translation from bench to patients were presented. PMID:25060862

  8. Routing cancer immunology and immunotherapy from the lab to the clinic 4-5 th March 2014, Center for Applied Medical Research and University Clinic, Pamplona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Aznar, M Ángela; Melero, Ignacio; Quetglas, José I

    2014-01-01

    New approaches to generate effective anticancer responses by either inducing immune responses or inhibiting immunosuppression are under development to improve efficacy in patients. On March 4-5th, 2014, a symposium was held in Pamplona, Spain, to report the new strategies showing preclinical and clinical results regarding translational research efforts on the topic. Participants interacted through oral presentations of 15 speakers and further discussions on topics that included novel therapeutic agents for cancer immunotherapy, viral vectors and interferon-based approaches, experimental tumor imaging and immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies. Promising agents to target cancer cells and therapeutic approaches that are under translation from bench to patients were presented.

  9. Autism according to diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders 5(th) edition: The need for further improvements.

    PubMed

    Posar, Annio; Resca, Federica; Visconti, Paola

    2015-01-01

    The fifth edition of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5) introduced significant changes in the classification of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), including the abolition of the diagnostic subcategories proposed by DSM-IV-Text Revision. DSM-5 describes three levels of increasing severity of ASD. The authors report two explanatory cases with ASD (verbal boys, aged about 7 and a half years, without intellectual disability). According to DSM-5, both cases fall into the lowest severity level of ASD. However, their neuropsychological and neurobehavioral profile varies significantly. While the first boy showed a prevalent impairment of visuoconstructional and visuoperceptual abilities, the second one presented a predominant involvement of verbal functions, with qualitative impairments in communication. A further step forward in the definition and classification of ASD, taking into account both intensity and quality of symptoms, is recommended in order to formulate a reliable prognosis, plan an individualized treatment and monitor the clinical course over time.

  10. Evidence of a pseudogap driven by competing orders of multi-band origin in the ferromagnetic superconductor Sr0.5Ce0.5FBiS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslam, Mohammad; Paul, Arpita; Thakur, Gohil S.; Gayen, Sirshendu; Kumar, Ritesh; Singh, Avtar; Das, Shekhar; Ganguli, Ashok K.; Waghmare, Umesh V.; Sheet, Goutam

    2016-05-01

    From temperature and magnetic field dependent point-contact spectroscopy on the ferromagnetic superconductor Sr0.5Ce0.5FBiS2 (bulk superconducting {{T}\\text{c}}=2.5 K) we observe (a) a pseudogap in the normal state that sustains to a remarkably high temperature of 40 K and (b) two-fold enhancement of T c upto 5 K in the point-contact geometry. In addition, Andreev reflection spectroscopy reveals a superconducting gap of 6 meV for certain point-contacts suggesting that the mean field T c of this system could be approximately 40 K, the onset temperature of pseudo-gap. Our results suggest that quantum fluctuations originating from other competing orders in Sr0.5Ce0.5FBiS2 forbid a global phase coherence at high temperatures thereby suppressing T c. Apart from the known ordering to a ferromagnetic state, our first-principles calculations reveal nesting of a multi-band Fermi surface and a significant electron-phonon coupling that could result in charge density wave-like instabilities.

  11. Evidence of a pseudogap driven by competing orders of multi-band origin in the ferromagnetic superconductor Sr0.5Ce0.5FBiS2.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Mohammad; Paul, Arpita; Thakur, Gohil S; Gayen, Sirshendu; Kumar, Ritesh; Singh, Avtar; Das, Shekhar; Ganguli, Ashok K; Waghmare, Umesh V; Sheet, Goutam

    2016-05-18

    From temperature and magnetic field dependent point-contact spectroscopy on the ferromagnetic superconductor Sr0.5Ce0.5FBiS2 (bulk superconducting [Formula: see text] K) we observe (a) a pseudogap in the normal state that sustains to a remarkably high temperature of 40 K and (b) two-fold enhancement of T c upto 5 K in the point-contact geometry. In addition, Andreev reflection spectroscopy reveals a superconducting gap of 6 meV for certain point-contacts suggesting that the mean field T c of this system could be approximately 40 K, the onset temperature of pseudo-gap. Our results suggest that quantum fluctuations originating from other competing orders in Sr0.5Ce0.5FBiS2 forbid a global phase coherence at high temperatures thereby suppressing T c. Apart from the known ordering to a ferromagnetic state, our first-principles calculations reveal nesting of a multi-band Fermi surface and a significant electron-phonon coupling that could result in charge density wave-like instabilities.

  12. 5th International ACC Symposium: Classification of Adrenocortical Cancers from Pathology to Integrated Genomics: Real Advances or Lost in Translation?

    PubMed

    de Krijger, Ronald E; Bertherat, Jérôme

    2016-02-01

    For the clinician, despite its rarity, adrenocortical cancer is a heterogeneous tumor both in term of steroid excess and tumor evolution. For patient management, it is crucial to have an accurate vision of this heterogeneity, in order to use a correct tumor classification. Pathology is the best way to classify operated adrenocortical tumors: to recognize their adrenocortical nature and to differentiate benign from malignant tumors. Among malignant tumors pathology also aims at prognosis assessment. Although progress has being made for prognosis assessment, there is still a need for improvement. Recent studies have established the value of Ki67 for adrenocortical cancer (ACC) prognostication, aiming also at standardization to reduce variability. The use of genomics to study adrenocortical tumors gives a very new insight in their pathogenesis and molecular classification. Genomics studies of ACC give now a clear description of the mRNA (transcriptome) and miRNA expression profile, as well as chromosomal and methylation alterations. Exome sequencing also established firmly the list of the main ACC driver genes. Interestingly, genomics study of ACC also revealed subtypes of malignant tumors with different pattern of molecular alterations, associated with different outcome. This leads to a new vision of adrenocortical tumors classification based on molecular analysis. Interestingly, these molecular classifications meet also the results of pathological analysis. This opens new perspectives on the development and use of various molecular tools to classify, along with pathological analysis, ACC, and guides patient management at the area of precision medicine. PMID:26676358

  13. Teachers' Inclusive Strategies to Accommodate 5th Grade Pupils' Crossing of Cultural Borders in Two Greek Multicultural Science Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piliouras, Panagiotis; Evangelou, Odysseas

    2012-04-01

    The demographic changes in Greek schools underline the need for reconsidering the way in which migrant pupils move from their everyday culture into the culture of school science (a process known as "cultural border crossing"). Migrant pupils might face difficulties when they attempt to transcend cultural borders and this may influence their progress in science as well as the construction of suitable academic identities as a means of promoting scientific literacy. In the research we present in this paper, adopting the socioculturally driven thesis that learning can be viewed and studied as a meaning-making, collaborative inquiry process, we implemented an action research program (school year 2008-2009) in cooperation with two teachers, in a primary school of Athens with 85% migrant pupils. We examined whether the two teachers, who became gradually acquainted with cross-cultural pedagogy during the project, act towards accommodating the crossing of cultural borders by implementing a variety of inclusive strategies in science teaching. Our findings reveal that both teachers utilized suitable cross-border strategies (strategies concerning the establishment of a collaborative inquiry learning environment, and strategies that were in accordance with a cross-border pedagogy) to help students cross smoothly from their "world" to the "world of science". A crucial key to the teachers' expertise was their previous participation in collaborative action research (school years 2004-2006), in which they analyzed their own discourse practices during science lessons in order to establish more collaborative inquiry environments.

  14. Using a Spreadsheet to Compute the Maximum Wind Sector 99.5th Percentile X/Q Value in Accordance with DOE-STD-3009-2014.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Linda

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Standard 3009-2014 requires one of two methods to determine the simple Gaussian relative concentration (X/Q) of pollutant at plume centerline downwind to a receptor for a 2-h exposure duration from a ground-level release (i.e., less than 10 m height) which are (1) the 99.5th percentile X/Q for the directionally-dependent method and (2) the 95th percentile X/Q for the directionally-independent method. This paper describes how to determine the simple Gaussian 99.5th percentile X/Q for the directionally-dependent method using an electronic spreadsheet. Refer to a previous paper to determine the simple Gaussian 95th percentile X/Q for the directionally-independent method using an electronic spreadsheet (Vickers 2015). The method described herein is simple, quick, accurate, and transparent because all of the data, calculations, and results are visible for validation and verification. PMID:27023153

  15. Rabies vaccine standards: comparison of the 5th and 6th WHO international reference standards to the USDA veterinary reference standard.

    PubMed

    Hermann, J; Fry, A; Reising, M; Patterson, P; Siev, D; Gatewood, D

    2012-11-01

    Ensuring rabies vaccines are potent and effective is paramount in preventing transmission of this deadly disease and safeguarding public health. Efficacy of human and veterinary vaccines is ensured by evaluating relative potency estimates of the vaccine compared to a rabies reference standard using the National Institutes of Health (NIH) test. Reference vaccines are based on the International Standard for Rabies Vaccine provided by the World Health Organization (WHO). A comparison study was conducted to determine the relative potency of the 5th WHO, 6th WHO, and United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) 08-14 reference standards using the NIH test. Results from the study demonstrate that the 6th WHO reference standard is approximately twice as potent as the 5th WHO reference when reconstituted to contain 1 IU per ml. Based on these results, the Center for Veterinary Biologics (CVB) doubled the reconstitution volume of USDA veterinary reference 08-14 from 13 ml to 26 ml, for an initial use dilution of 0.7 IU per ml for use by veterinary biologics manufacturers in the NIH test. This study emphasizes the importance of reference standard calibration for use in the National Institutes of Health test.

  16. The 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics: Making progress in the number of women in physics around the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Beth

    2015-04-01

    A short report on the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics (ICWIP) will be presented. In particular, a summary of the structure of the 5th ICWIP that occurred in Waterloo, Canada in August 2014 will be provided and placed into context of the previous four conferences. In addition, a synopsis of the recent efforts that are happening around the world to encourage girls and women to participate in physics will be given. Several US projects have been very successful in introducing girls to science and physics (e.g., ``Expanding Your Horizons'' intervention) and encouraging undergraduate women physics majors to continue into physics careers (e.g., Conferences for Undergraduate Women in Physics). Projects from other countries, such as the Juno Project in the UK that rates physics departments on their climate for women, might be implemented by US physics professional societies as well as colleges and universities. Several projects originating from the conference will be described: the new ``HERstories: Encouraging words from women in physics'' video based on interviews with delegates of the Conference, the My STEM Story project (http://mystemstory.wlu.ca), and the proceedings of the conference. Partial support provided by NSF #PHY-1419453.

  17. PREFACE: 5th International Workshop DICE2010: Space-Time-Matter - Current Issues in Quantum Mechanics and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diósi, Lajos; Elze, Hans-Thomas; Fronzoni, Leone; Halliwell, Jonathan; Prati, Enrico; Vitiello, Giuseppe; Yearsley, James

    2011-07-01

    These proceedings present the Invited Lectures and Contributed Papers of the Fifth International Workshop on Decoherence, Information, Complexity and Entropy - DICE 2010, held at Castello Pasquini, Castiglioncello (Tuscany), 13-17 September 2010. These proceedings are intended to document the stimulating exchange of ideas at this conference for both the interested public and the wider scientific community, as well as for the participants. The number of participants attending this series of meetings has been growing steadily, which reflects its increasing attraction. Our intention to bring together leading researchers, advanced students, and renowned scholars from various areas in order to stimulate new ideas and their exchange across the borders of specialization seems to bear fruit. In this way, the series of meetings has continued successfully from the beginning with DICE 2002 [1], followed by DICE 2004 [2], DICE 2006 [3], and DICE 2008 [4], uniting more than 100 participants representing almost 30 countries worldwide. It has been a great honour and inspiration to have Professor Luc Montagnier (Nobel Prize for Medicine 2008) from the World Foundation for AIDS Research and Prevention with us, who presented the lecture DNA waves and water (included in this volume). The discussions took place under the wider theme Space-Time-Matter - current issues in quantum mechanics and beyond in the very pleasant and inspiring atmosphere of Castello Pasquini, which - with its beautiful surroundings, overlooking the Tuscany coast - hosted the conference very successfully for the second time. The five-day program was grouped according to the following topics: Gravity and Quantum Mechanics Quantum Coherent Processes in Biology / Many-Body Systems From Quantum Foundations to Particle Physics The Deep Structure of Spacetime Quantum - Relativity - Cosmology A Public Roundtable Discussion formed an integral part of the program under the theme Sull' Onda Della Coerenza" - le nuove

  18. PREFACE: 5th International Workshop DICE2010: Space-Time-Matter - Current Issues in Quantum Mechanics and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diósi, Lajos; Elze, Hans-Thomas; Fronzoni, Leone; Halliwell, Jonathan; Prati, Enrico; Vitiello, Giuseppe; Yearsley, James

    2011-07-01

    These proceedings present the Invited Lectures and Contributed Papers of the Fifth International Workshop on Decoherence, Information, Complexity and Entropy - DICE 2010, held at Castello Pasquini, Castiglioncello (Tuscany), 13-17 September 2010. These proceedings are intended to document the stimulating exchange of ideas at this conference for both the interested public and the wider scientific community, as well as for the participants. The number of participants attending this series of meetings has been growing steadily, which reflects its increasing attraction. Our intention to bring together leading researchers, advanced students, and renowned scholars from various areas in order to stimulate new ideas and their exchange across the borders of specialization seems to bear fruit. In this way, the series of meetings has continued successfully from the beginning with DICE 2002 [1], followed by DICE 2004 [2], DICE 2006 [3], and DICE 2008 [4], uniting more than 100 participants representing almost 30 countries worldwide. It has been a great honour and inspiration to have Professor Luc Montagnier (Nobel Prize for Medicine 2008) from the World Foundation for AIDS Research and Prevention with us, who presented the lecture DNA waves and water (included in this volume). The discussions took place under the wider theme Space-Time-Matter - current issues in quantum mechanics and beyond in the very pleasant and inspiring atmosphere of Castello Pasquini, which - with its beautiful surroundings, overlooking the Tuscany coast - hosted the conference very successfully for the second time. The five-day program was grouped according to the following topics: Gravity and Quantum Mechanics Quantum Coherent Processes in Biology / Many-Body Systems From Quantum Foundations to Particle Physics The Deep Structure of Spacetime Quantum - Relativity - Cosmology A Public Roundtable Discussion formed an integral part of the program under the theme Sull' Onda Della Coerenza" - le nuove

  19. Laparoscopic gastric banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... adjustable gastric banding; Bariatric surgery - laparoscopic gastric banding; Obesity - gastric banding; Weight loss - gastric banding ... gastric banding is not a "quick fix" for obesity. It will greatly change your lifestyle. You must ...

  20. Harmonization of Global Land-Use Scenarios for the Period 1500-2100 for the 5th IPCC Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chini, L. P.; Hurtt, G. C.; Frolking, S. E.; Betts, R.; Feddema, J. J.; Fisher, G.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Hibbard, K. A.; Janetos, A. C.; Jones, C.; Kindermann, G.; Kinoshita, T.; Riahi, K.; Shevliakova, E.; Smith, S.; Stehfest, E.; Thomson, A. M.; Thornton, P. E.; van Vuuren, D.; Wang, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Over the next century and beyond, human interactions with the Earth system will continue to exert increasing pressures on ecosystems and the climate. In order to increase our understanding and of these future changes, new modeling approaches that incorporate the highly complex and coupled nature of the physical and social phenomena driving the Earth system will be required. Along these lines, in preparation for the fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the international community is developing new advanced Earth System Models (ESM) to address the combined effects of human activities (e.g. land use and fossil fuel emissions) on the carbon-climate system. In addition, four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) scenarios of the future (2005-2100) are being provided by four Integrated Assessment Model (IAM) teams to be used as input to the ESMs for future carbon-climate projections. However, the diversity of approaches and requirements among IAMs and ESMs for tracking land-use change, along with the dependence of model projections on land-use history, presents a challenge for effectively passing data between these communities and for smoothly transitioning from the historical estimates to future projections. Here, we build upon our previous global gridded estimates of land-use transitions (e.g. agricultural land conversions, wood harvesting, shifting cultivation) and present a new harmonized set of land-use scenarios that smoothly connects historical reconstructions of land-use with future projections, in the format required by ESMs. Our land-use harmonization strategy estimates fractional land-use patterns and underlying land-use transitions (including resulting secondary lands) annually for the time period 1500-2100 at 0.5° x 0.5° resolution, based upon future crop, pasture, and wood harvest data from the IAMs implementations of the RCPs for the period 2005-2100. Our computational method integrates multiple

  1. The 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia: summary of main findings and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Pandit, J J; Andrade, J; Bogod, D G; Hitchman, J M; Jonker, W R; Lucas, N; Mackay, J H; Nimmo, A F; O'Connor, K; O'Sullivan, E P; Paul, R G; Palmer, J H MacG; Plaat, F; Radcliffe, J J; Sury, M R J; Torevell, H E; Wang, M; Hainsworth, J; Cook, T M

    2014-10-01

    We present the main findings of the 5th National Audit Project on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia. Incidences were estimated using reports of accidental awareness as the numerator, and a parallel national anaesthetic activity survey to provide denominator data. The incidence of certain/probable and possible accidental awareness cases was ~1:19 600 anaesthetics (95% CI 1:16 700-23 450). However, there was considerable variation across subtypes of techniques or subspecialties. The incidence with neuromuscular blockade was ~1:8200 (1:7030-9700), and without it was ~1:135 900 (1:78 600-299 000). The cases of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia reported to 5th National Audit Project were overwhelmingly cases of unintended awareness during neuromuscular blockade. The incidence of accidental awareness during caesarean section was ~1:670 (1:380-1300). Two thirds (82, 66%) of cases of accidental awareness experiences arose in the dynamic phases of anaesthesia, namely induction of and emergence from anaesthesia. During induction of anaesthesia, contributory factors included: use of thiopental; rapid sequence induction; obesity; difficult airway management; neuromuscular blockade; and interruptions of anaesthetic delivery during movement from anaesthetic room to theatre. During emergence from anaesthesia, residual paralysis was perceived by patients as accidental awareness, and commonly related to a failure to ensure full return of motor capacity. One third (43, 33%) of accidental awareness events arose during the maintenance phase of anaesthesia, most due to problems at induction or towards the end of anaesthesia. Factors increasing the risk of accidental awareness included: female sex; age (younger adults, but not children); obesity; anaesthetist seniority (junior trainees); previous awareness; out-of-hours operating; emergencies; type of surgery (obstetric, cardiac, thoracic); and use of neuromuscular blockade. The following factors were

  2. Comparison of Values in 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th Grade Primary Education Music Class Students'? Workbooks According to Rokeach?s and Akbas's Value Classifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çakirer, H. Serdar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to compare the values in the songs of 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grade primary education music classes students? workbooks according to the value categorizations proposed by Rockeach and Akbas and which values among the categories mentioned are taught to the students in the 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grade primary education…

  3. Using Community-based Participatory Research to Adapt keepin’ it REAL: Creating a Socially, Developmentally, and Academically Appropriate Prevention Curriculum for 5th Graders

    PubMed Central

    Harthun, Mary L.; Dustman, Patricia A.; Reeves, Leslie J.; Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Hecht, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a process in which program designers, classroom teachers, and students worked together to adapt the 7th grade “keepin’ it REAL” prevention curriculum to a developmentally, socially, and academically appropriate curriculum for 5th graders. A Community-Based Participatory Research methodology (CBPR), combined with a 9-step adaptation model, emphasized a collaborative approach, both transformative and empowering. Essential adaptation elements were the Risk-to-Resiliency Continuum; the teaching of a wide range of skills including risk assessment, decision making, and resistance strategies; and, maintaining the theoretical grounding of Narrative Theory, Communication Competence, and Focus Theory of Norms. This paper describes how CBPR methodology can be conducted successfully while focusing on sustained theoretical grounding and effective research practices in a school-based setting. PMID:21057596

  4. 5th BSPR-EBI meeting, proteomics: from Technology to New Biology 8-10 July 2008, Wellcome Trust Conference Centre, Hinxton, Cambridge, UK.

    PubMed

    English, Jane A; Polden, Julie; Robinson, Aisling A

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the 5(th) joint British Society for Proteome Research (BSPR) and European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) meeting which took place at the Wellcome Trust Conference Centre, Cambridge, UK, from the 8(th) to 10(th) July, 2008. As in previous years, the meeting attracted leading experts in the field who presented the latest cutting edge in proteomics. The meeting was entitled "Proteomics: From Technology to New Biology" taking into account the major transition proteomics has undergone in the past few years. In particular, the use of multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-based targeted experiments for absolute quantification and validation of proteins was the hot topic of the meeting. Attended by some 250 delegates, the conference was extremely well organised and provided a great opportunity for discussion and initiation of new collaborations.

  5. [The Revision and 5th Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5): Consequences for the Diagnostic Work with Children and Adolescents].

    PubMed

    Zulauf Logoz, Marina

    2014-01-01

    The Revision and 5th Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5): Consequences for the Diagnostic Work with Children and Adolescents.The present paper describes and discusses the major revisions in DSM-5 for children and adolescents. A major modification is that the separate chapter for disorders first diagnosed in childhood and adolescence was abandoned in favour of the integration of these clinical pictures into the relevant disorder-specific chapters. Several new diagnoses and diagnostic groups were introduced: "Disruptive mood regulation disorder" is a new diagnosis; the different diagnoses for autism were brought together into one, and a new diagnostic group for obsessive-compulsive disorders has been established. The developmental approach of DSM-5 and the integration of dimensional assessment tools are to be welcomed. Practice will show if the critiques afraid of possible increases in prevalences or those who approve the changes will end up being right.

  6. Comparison of the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition, in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Grondhuis, Sabrina Nicole; Mulick, James A

    2013-01-01

    A review of hospital records was conducted for children evaluated for autism spectrum disorders who completed both the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R) and Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition (SB5). Participants were between 3 and 12 years of age. Diagnoses were autistic disorder (n  =  26, 55%) and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (n  =  21, 45%). Analysis showed that the full sample received significantly higher scores on the Leiter-R than SB5 (mean discrepancy of 20.91 points), specific diagnosis was not a significant factor, and younger children had a larger discrepancy between tests. These analyses strongly suggest that the Leiter-R and the SB5 may not be equivalent measures of intellectual functioning in children with autism spectrum disorders, and that use of one or the other exclusively could lead to misclassification of intellectual capacity.

  7. Nuclear Electricity. 5th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hore-Lacy, Ian

    Educators must address the need for young people to be informed about both the scientific concepts and the reasons for controversy when dealing with controversial issues. Young people must be given the opportunity to form their own opinions when presented with evidence for conflicting arguments. Previous editions of "Nuclear Electricity" have…

  8. Bernauer's bands.

    PubMed

    Shtukenberg, Alexander; Gunn, Erica; Gazzano, Massimo; Freudenthal, John; Camp, Eric; Sours, Ryan; Rosseeva, Elena; Kahr, Bart

    2011-06-01

    Ferdinand Bernauer proposed in his monograph, "Gedrillte" Kristalle (1929), that a great number of simple, crystalline substances grow from solution or from the melt as polycrystalline spherulites with helically twisting radii that give rise to distinct bull's-eye patterns of concentric optical bands between crossed polarizers. The idea that many common molecular crystals can be induced to grow as mesoscale helices is a remarkable proposition poorly grounded in theories of polycrystalline pattern formation. Recent reinvestigation of one of the systems Bernauer described revealed that rhythmic precipitation in the absence of helical twisting accounted for modulated optical properties [Gunn, E. et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 14234-14235]. Herein, the Bernauer hypothesis is re-examined in detail for three substances described in "Gedrillte" Kristalle, potassium dichromate, hippuric acid, and tetraphenyl lead, using contemporary methods of analysis not available to Bernauer, including micro-focus X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and Mueller matrix imaging polarimetry. Potassium dichromate is shown to fall in the class of rhythmic precipitates of undistorted crystallites, while hippuric acid spherulites are well described as helical fibrils. Tetraphenyl lead spherulites grow by twisting and rhythmic precipitation. The behavior of tetraphenyl lead is likely typical of many substances in "Gedrillte" Kristalle. Rhythmic precipitation and helical twisting often coexist, complicating optical analyses and presenting Bernauer with difficulties in the characterization and classification of the objects of his interest.

  9. PREFACE: The Joint 16th Europhysics Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases--5th International Conference on Reactive Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, N.

    2003-11-01

    The first joint meeting of the Europhysics Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases (ESCAMPIG), the International Conference on Reactive Plasmas (ICRP) and the Symposium on Plasma Processing (SPP) was held in Grenoble, France between 14 and 18 July 2002. ESCAMPIG is an important biennial European event at which academics and industrialists working in low temperature plasma science meet. ICRP and SPP are Japanese triennial and annual meetings covering the entire field of reactive plasmas: generation, diagnostics and modelling of plasmas and their interaction with surfaces, and their applications. This ESCAMPIG 16th--ICRP 5th joint conference was organized under the sponsorship of the European Physical Society (EPS), the Japan Society of Applied Physics (JSAP), University Joseph Fourier (UJF) and Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS). The scientific scope of this joint conference was focused on both experimental and theoretical aspects of physics of ionized gases and on its industrial applications. It covered the following topics: bullet atomic and molecular processes in plasmas bullet particle energy distribution functions bullet discharge physics: sheathes, transport processes and modelling bullet plasma diagnostics bullet laser and particle beam assisted plasma processes bullet physical basis of plasma chemistry and plasma--surface interactions bullet production and control of reactive plasmas bullet etching, deposition and cleaning bullet environmental and other applications. The ESCAMPIG 16th--ICRP 5th joint conference was attended by 379 scientists from 26 countries. 22 invited papers were presented. Most of these papers are published in this special issue. In addition, 16 contributed papers were selected by the joint International Scientific Committee (ISC) for oral presentation as a `hot topic'. Beside this, two workshops were held on `Recent developments in plasma monitoring for microelectronics', organized by Professor H

  10. Offshore observations of aftershocks following the January 5th 2013 Mw 7.5 Queen Charlotte-Fairweather fault earthquake, southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roland, E. C.; Gulick, S. P.; Levoir, M. A.; Haeussler, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    We present initial results from a rapid-response ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) deployment that recorded aftershock activity on the Queen Charlotte-Fairweather (QC-F) fault following the Mw 7.5 earthquake on January 5th 2013 near Craig, Alaska. This earthquake was the second of two Mw > 7 events on this fault system in a 3 month time period; the Craig earthquake followed a Mw 7.8 thrust event that occurred in October 2012, west of Haida Gwaii, British Columbia. Although the QC-F is a major plate boundary fault, little is known about the regional fault structure, interseismic coupling, and rheological controls on the depth distribution of seismic slip along the continent-ocean transform. The majority of the QC-F fault system extends offshore western British Columbia and southeast Alaska, making it difficult to characterize earthquakes and fault deformation with land-based seismic and geodetic instruments. This experiment is the first ever offshore seismometer deployment to record earthquake activity along this northern segment of the QC-F system, and was set in motion with help from the US Coast Guard, who provided a vessel and crew to deploy and recover the OBS array on short notice. The seismic array utilized 6 GeoPro short period OBS from the University of Texas Institute for Geophysics, which recorded approximately 3 weeks of aftershock activity in April-May of 2013. Combining high-quality local OBS recordings with land-based seismic observations from Alaska Earthquake Information Center (AEIC) stations to the east, we present more precise aftershock locations and depths that help to better characterize fault zone architecture along the northern section of the QC-F. Although moment tensor solutions indicate that the January 5th mainshock sustained slip consistent with Pacific-North America plate motions, aftershock focal mechanisms indicate some interaction with neighboring faults, such as the Chatham Straight fault. This new OBS dataset will also help to

  11. The 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia: patient experiences, human factors, sedation, consent and medicolegal issues.

    PubMed

    Cook, T M; Andrade, J; Bogod, D G; Hitchman, J M; Jonker, W R; Lucas, N; Mackay, J H; Nimmo, A F; O'Connor, K; O'Sullivan, E P; Paul, R G; Palmer, J H MacG; Plaat, F; Radcliffe, J J; Sury, M R J; Torevell, H E; Wang, M; Hainsworth, J; Pandit, J J

    2014-10-01

    The 5th National Audit Project of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland into accidental awareness during general anaesthesia yielded data related to psychological aspects from the patient, and the anaesthetist, perspectives; patients' experiences ranged from isolated auditory or tactile sensations to complete awareness. A striking finding was that 75% of experiences were for < 5 min, yet 51% of patients (95% CI 43-60%) experienced distress and 41% (95% CI 33-50%) suffered longer-term adverse effect. Distress and longer-term harm occurred across the full range of experiences but were particularly likely when the patient experienced paralysis (with or without pain). The patient's interpretation of what is happening at the time of the awareness seemed central to later impact; explanation and reassurance during suspected accidental awareness during general anaesthesia or at the time of report seemed beneficial. Quality of care before the event was judged good in 26%, poor in 39% and mixed in 31%. Three quarters of cases of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia (75%) were judged preventable. In 12% of cases of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia, care was judged good and the episode not preventable. The contributory and human factors in the genesis of the majority of cases of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia included medication, patient and education/training. The findings have implications for national guidance, institutional organisation and individual practice. The incidence of 'accidental awareness' during sedation (~1:15 000) was similar to that during general anaesthesia (~1:19 000). The project raises significant issues about information giving and consent for both sedation and anaesthesia. We propose a novel approach to describing sedation from the patient's perspective which could be used in communication and consent. Eight (6%) of the patients had resorted

  12. Dual-band infrared camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, H.; Schlemmer, H.

    2005-10-01

    Every year, numerous accidents happen on European roads due to bad visibility (fog, night, heavy rain). Similarly, the dramatic aviation accidents of year 2001 in Milan and Zurich have reminded us that aviation safety is equally affected by reduced visibility. A dual-band thermal imager was developed in order to raise human situation awareness under conditions of reduced visibility especially in the automotive and aeronautical context but also for all transportation or surveillance tasks. The chosen wavelength bands are the Short Wave Infrared SWIR and the Long Wave Infrared LWIR band which are less obscured by reduced visibility conditions than the visible band. Furthermore, our field tests clearly show that the two different spectral bands very often contain complementary information. Pyramidal fusion is used to integrate complementary and redundant features of the multi-spectral images into a fused image which can be displayed on a monitor to provide more and better information for the driver or pilot.

  13. Proceedings from the 5th International Symposium on Light and Human Health: November 3-5, 2002, Orlando, Florida--EPRI Lighting Research Office

    SciTech Connect

    2004-05-01

    The 5th EPRI/LRO Lighting Research Symposium (November, 2002) was organized to present and examine current research information on the subject of Light and Human Health in response to a growing sense that light--both electric lighting and daylighting--impacts human beings well beyond what has been traditionally studied as vision and visual performance. This Final Report of the Symposium is a collection of 23 presented and seven poster papers grouped under the following headings: (1) Medical Applications of Light; (2) Circadian Effects of Light; (3) Hazards of Optical Radiation; and (4) Environmental Applications and Human Factors. Research from the medical, measurement, elderly, lighting, psychological, and vision fields is included, as well as an extensive commentary and summary. The direction of the research, taken as a whole, indicates that the definition of ''good lighting'' should be expanded to include ''healthy lighting,'' and that ongoing research will require better measurement and specification tools such as a new system of circadian photometry. Enhanced interaction between the medical research and lighting design communities will be required to bring the benefits of what is being discovered into common lighting practice.

  14. Consensus for Radiotherapy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma from The 5th Asia-Pacific Primary Liver Cancer Expert Meeting (APPLE 2014): Current Practice and Future Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee Chul; Yu, Jeong Il; Cheng, Jason Chia-Hsien; Zeng, Zhao Chong; Hong, Ji Hong; Wang, Michael Lian Chek; Kim, Mi Sook; Chi, Kwan Hwa; Liang, Po-Ching; Lee, Rheun-Chuan; Lau, Wan-Yee; Han, Kwang Hyub; Chow, Pierce Kah-Hoe; Seong, Jinsil

    2016-07-01

    A consensus meeting to develop practice guidelines and to recommend future clinical trials for radiation therapy (RT), including external beam RT (EBRT), and selective internal RT (SIRT) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was held at the 5th annual meeting of the Asia-Pacific Primary Liver Cancer Expert consortium. Although there is no randomized phase III trial evidence, the efficacy and safety of RT in HCC has been shown by prospective and retrospective studies using modern RT techniques. Based on these results, the committee came to a consensus on the utility and efficacy of RT in the management of HCC according to each disease stage as follows: in early and intermediate stage HCC, if standard treatment is not compatible, RT, including EBRT and SIRT can be considered. In locally advanced stage HCC, combined EBRT with transarterial chemoembolization or hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy, and SIRT can be considered. In terminal stage HCC, EBRT can be considered for palliation of symptoms and reduction of morbidity caused by the primary tumor or its metastases. Despite the currently reported benefits of RT in HCC, the committee agreed that there is a compelling need for large prospective studies, including randomized phase III trial evidence evaluating the role of RT. Specifically studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of sequential combination of EBRT and SIRT are strongly recommended. PMID:27493892

  15. Consensus for Radiotherapy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma from The 5th Asia-Pacific Primary Liver Cancer Expert Meeting (APPLE 2014): Current Practice and Future Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hee Chul; Yu, Jeong Il; Cheng, Jason Chia-Hsien; Zeng, Zhao Chong; Hong, Ji Hong; Wang, Michael Lian Chek; Kim, Mi Sook; Chi, Kwan Hwa; Liang, Po-Ching; Lee, Rheun-Chuan; Lau, Wan-Yee; Han, Kwang Hyub; Chow, Pierce Kah-Hoe; Seong, Jinsil

    2016-01-01

    A consensus meeting to develop practice guidelines and to recommend future clinical trials for radiation therapy (RT), including external beam RT (EBRT), and selective internal RT (SIRT) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was held at the 5th annual meeting of the Asia-Pacific Primary Liver Cancer Expert consortium. Although there is no randomized phase III trial evidence, the efficacy and safety of RT in HCC has been shown by prospective and retrospective studies using modern RT techniques. Based on these results, the committee came to a consensus on the utility and efficacy of RT in the management of HCC according to each disease stage as follows: in early and intermediate stage HCC, if standard treatment is not compatible, RT, including EBRT and SIRT can be considered. In locally advanced stage HCC, combined EBRT with transarterial chemoembolization or hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy, and SIRT can be considered. In terminal stage HCC, EBRT can be considered for palliation of symptoms and reduction of morbidity caused by the primary tumor or its metastases. Despite the currently reported benefits of RT in HCC, the committee agreed that there is a compelling need for large prospective studies, including randomized phase III trial evidence evaluating the role of RT. Specifically studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of sequential combination of EBRT and SIRT are strongly recommended. PMID:27493892

  16. Effect of Clinician Feedback Versus Video Self-Assessment in 5th-Year Chiropractic Students on an End-of-Year Communication Skills Examination

    PubMed Central

    Hecimovich, Mark D.; Maire, Jo-Anne; Losco, Barrett

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the effect of two learning opportunities, clinician feedback and video self-assessment, on 5th-year chiropractic students' patient communication skills, specifically those required for history taking. Methods: A cohort of 51 final-year students was divided into two groups. The first group received immediate feedback from a clinical supervisor following a history-taking encounter with a patient. The second group performed self-assessments of their videotaped history-taking encounter. An end-of-year Viva Voce examination was used to measure the effectiveness of the students' history-taking skills, using two subscores, one for behavior and another for content, as well as an overall total score. An unpaired t-test was performed to determine whether any significant difference occurred between the two groups of students. Each group was then subdivided into two subgroups based on gender, and a two-way analysis of variance was performed to determine whether the type of feedback or the students' gender had any significant effect on the outcome of the Viva Voce. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups of students in terms of their final scores in the Viva Voce. After dividing each group into their gender subgroups and further analysis of the results, neither the mode of feedback nor the students' gender had any significant effect on the outcome of the Viva Voce. Conclusion: This study suggests that, for a mixed cohort, video self-assessment and clinician feedback are equivalent in their ability to enhance students' communication skills relating to history taking. PMID:21048879

  17. Surgery for Intermediate and Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Consensus Report from the 5th Asia-Pacific Primary Liver Cancer Expert Meeting (APPLE 2014)

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Ming-Chih; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Nagano, Hiroaki; Lee, Young-Joo; Chau, Gar-Yang; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Chih-Chi; Choi, Young Rok; Poon, Ronnie Tung-Ping; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging and treatment strategy does not recommended surgery for treating BCLC stage B and C hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, numerous Asia-Pacific institutes still perform surgery for this patient group. This consensus report from the 5th Asia-Pacific Primary Liver Cancer Expert Meeting aimed to share opinions and experiences pertaining to liver resection for intermediate and advanced HCCs and to provide evidence to issue recommendations for surgery in this patient group. Summary Thirteen experts from five Asia-Pacific regions were invited to the meeting; 10 of them (Japan: 2, Taiwan: 3, South Korea: 2, Hong Kong: 1, and China: 2) voted for the final consensus. The discussion focused on evaluating the preoperative liver functional reserve and surgery for large tumors, multiple tumors, HCCs with vascular invasion, and HCCs with distant metastasis. The feasibility of future prospective randomized trials comparing surgery with transarterial chemoembolization for intermediate HCC and with sorafenib for advanced HCC was also discussed. The Child-Pugh score (9/10 experts) and indocyanine green retention rate at 15 min (8/10) were the most widely accepted methods for evaluating the preoperative liver functional reserve. All (10/10) experts agreed that portal hypertension, tumor size >5 cm, portal venous invasion, hepatic venous invasion, and extrahepatic metastasis are not absolute contraindications for the surgical resection of HCC. Furthermore, 9 of the 10 experts agreed that tumor resection may be performed for patients with >3 tumors. The limitations of surgery are associated with a poor liver functional reserve, incomplete tumor resection, and a high probability of recurrence. Key Messages Surgery provides significant survival benefits for Asian-Pacific patients with intermediate and advanced HCCs, particularly when the liver functional reserve is favorable. However, prospective randomized controlled trials

  18. Laparoscopic gastric banding - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... laparoscopic gastric banding - discharge; Obesity gastric banding discharge; Weight loss - gastric banding discharge ... as your body gets used to your weight loss and your weight becomes stable. Weight loss may be slower after ...

  19. How Do 4th, 5th, and 6th Grade Students' Categories of Cognitive Reflections in Interviews on Derivational Morphology Compare to Their Upper Level Spelling Inventory Orthographic Knowledge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Darcie D.

    2012-01-01

    Eighty-seven 4th, 5th and 6th grade students were administered the "Derivational Relatedness Interview" (DRI) (Templeton, Smith, Moloney, Van Pelt, & Ives, 2009). The purpose of this instrument is to explore students' understanding of derivational morphology. During the same week, the subjects were also administered an Upper…

  20. Mountain Dew[R] or Mountain Don't?: A Pilot Investigation of Caffeine Use Parameters and Relations to Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in 5th- and 10th-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luebbe, Aaron M.; Bell, Debora J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Caffeine, the only licit psychoactive drug available to minors, may have a harmful impact on students' health and adjustment, yet little is known about its use or effects on students, especially from a developmental perspective. Caffeine use in 5th- and 10th-grade students was examined in a cross-sectional design, and relations and…

  1. A Study on Reading Comprehension Skills of Primary School 5th Grade Students--Learning Basic Reading and Writing Skills through Phonics-Based Sentence Method or Decoding Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusdemir Kayiran, Bilge; Karabay, Aysegul

    2012-01-01

    This research aims at investigating the influence of two methods implemented in primary reading and writing teaching programs--phonics-based sentence method and decoding (analysis) method--on primary school 5th grade students' reading comprehension achievement. Also, the study considers the relationship between socio-economic status and reading…

  2. A Response to Lawrence Ferrara's Chapter Four in R. Phelps, R. Sadoff, E. Warburton, and L. Ferrara, "A Guide to Research in Music Education," 5th Edition (Lanham, Maryland, Scarecrow Press, Inc., 2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Jack

    2006-01-01

    A reply to Lawrence Ferrara's Chapter 4 in R. Phelps, R. Sadoff, E. Warburton, and L. Ferrara, "A Guide to Research in Music Education," 5th Edition is presented. It it curious that Ferrara disagrees with Jack Heller and Edward J. P. O'Connor's view that "philosophy" is not "research," yet in the chapter headings in the book A Guide to Research in…

  3. EDITORIAL: PLASMA 2006: The 5th International Conference on the Intrinsic Josephson Effect and Plasma Oscillations in High-TC Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warburton, Paul; Yurgens, August

    2007-02-01

    The 5th International Conference on the Intrinsic Josephson Effect and Plasma Oscillations in High-TC Superconductors (known as `PLASMA' for short) took place in London from July 17th to 19th 2006. The meeting was organised jointly by the Superconductivity Group of the Institute of Physics and the European Science Foundation network `Arrays of Quantum Dots and Josephson Junctions' (AQDJJ). It was sponsored by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, AQDJJ, the Japan Society for the Promotion of Physics and the National Institute of Materials Science (NIMS). The meeting was chaired by Paul Warburton of University College London who wishes to put on record his thanks to the conference sponsors for their generosity, without which the conference could not have taken place. Since the previous PLASMA conference in Tsukuba in 2004 the most significant advance in intrinsic Josephson junction (IJJ) research has arguably been the observation of macroscopic quantum tunnelling in IJJs. At the time of the conference this had been observed by both the RIEC/NIMS/AIST collaboration in Japan and by Paul M\\"uller's group in Erlangen. We therefore felt that the conference presented an ideal and timely opportunity for the IJJ community to learn from the more established community of researchers on macroscopic quantum phenomena in low-TC superconductors---and indeed vice versa. As a result a number of leading researchers from the field of low-TC Josephson qubit devices gave several illuminating presentations. Other sessions included those on Josephson vortex dynamics in layered systems and terahertz oscillations in IJJs, in addition to a lively poster session on the first evening. The conference was rounded off by an excellent summary of the highlights of the meeting given by Professor Hu-Jong Lee. The conference organisers would like to thank all those who made the meeting possible and contributed to its smooth running. In addition to the international organising

  4. Come Join the Band

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of students in Blue Springs, Missouri, are joining the band, drawn by a band director who emphasizes caring and inclusiveness. In the four years since Melissia Goff arrived at Blue Springs High School, the school's extensive band program has swelled. The marching band alone has gone from 100 to 185 participants. Also under Goff's…

  5. First Eigenmode Transmission by High Efficient CSI Estimation for Multiuser Massive MIMO Using Millimeter Wave Bands.

    PubMed

    Maruta, Kazuki; Iwakuni, Tatsuhiko; Ohta, Atsushi; Arai, Takuto; Shirato, Yushi; Kurosaki, Satoshi; Iizuka, Masataka

    2016-01-01

    Drastic improvements in transmission rate and system capacity are required towards 5th generation mobile communications (5G). One promising approach, utilizing the millimeter wave band for its rich spectrum resources, suffers area coverage shortfalls due to its large propagation loss. Fortunately, massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) can offset this shortfall as well as offer high order spatial multiplexing gain. Multiuser MIMO is also effective in further enhancing system capacity by multiplexing spatially de-correlated users. However, the transmission performance of multiuser MIMO is strongly degraded by channel time variation, which causes inter-user interference since null steering must be performed at the transmitter. This paper first addresses the effectiveness of multiuser massive MIMO transmission that exploits the first eigenmode for each user. In Line-of-Sight (LoS) dominant channel environments, the first eigenmode is chiefly formed by the LoS component, which is highly correlated with user movement. Therefore, the first eigenmode provided by a large antenna array can improve the robustness against the channel time variation. In addition, we propose a simplified beamforming scheme based on high efficient channel state information (CSI) estimation that extracts the LoS component. We also show that this approximate beamforming can achieve throughput performance comparable to that of the rigorous first eigenmode transmission. Our proposed multiuser massive MIMO scheme can open the door for practical millimeter wave communication with enhanced system capacity. PMID:27399715

  6. First Eigenmode Transmission by High Efficient CSI Estimation for Multiuser Massive MIMO Using Millimeter Wave Bands

    PubMed Central

    Maruta, Kazuki; Iwakuni, Tatsuhiko; Ohta, Atsushi; Arai, Takuto; Shirato, Yushi; Kurosaki, Satoshi; Iizuka, Masataka

    2016-01-01

    Drastic improvements in transmission rate and system capacity are required towards 5th generation mobile communications (5G). One promising approach, utilizing the millimeter wave band for its rich spectrum resources, suffers area coverage shortfalls due to its large propagation loss. Fortunately, massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) can offset this shortfall as well as offer high order spatial multiplexing gain. Multiuser MIMO is also effective in further enhancing system capacity by multiplexing spatially de-correlated users. However, the transmission performance of multiuser MIMO is strongly degraded by channel time variation, which causes inter-user interference since null steering must be performed at the transmitter. This paper first addresses the effectiveness of multiuser massive MIMO transmission that exploits the first eigenmode for each user. In Line-of-Sight (LoS) dominant channel environments, the first eigenmode is chiefly formed by the LoS component, which is highly correlated with user movement. Therefore, the first eigenmode provided by a large antenna array can improve the robustness against the channel time variation. In addition, we propose a simplified beamforming scheme based on high efficient channel state information (CSI) estimation that extracts the LoS component. We also show that this approximate beamforming can achieve throughput performance comparable to that of the rigorous first eigenmode transmission. Our proposed multiuser massive MIMO scheme can open the door for practical millimeter wave communication with enhanced system capacity. PMID:27399715

  7. First Eigenmode Transmission by High Efficient CSI Estimation for Multiuser Massive MIMO Using Millimeter Wave Bands.

    PubMed

    Maruta, Kazuki; Iwakuni, Tatsuhiko; Ohta, Atsushi; Arai, Takuto; Shirato, Yushi; Kurosaki, Satoshi; Iizuka, Masataka

    2016-01-01

    Drastic improvements in transmission rate and system capacity are required towards 5th generation mobile communications (5G). One promising approach, utilizing the millimeter wave band for its rich spectrum resources, suffers area coverage shortfalls due to its large propagation loss. Fortunately, massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) can offset this shortfall as well as offer high order spatial multiplexing gain. Multiuser MIMO is also effective in further enhancing system capacity by multiplexing spatially de-correlated users. However, the transmission performance of multiuser MIMO is strongly degraded by channel time variation, which causes inter-user interference since null steering must be performed at the transmitter. This paper first addresses the effectiveness of multiuser massive MIMO transmission that exploits the first eigenmode for each user. In Line-of-Sight (LoS) dominant channel environments, the first eigenmode is chiefly formed by the LoS component, which is highly correlated with user movement. Therefore, the first eigenmode provided by a large antenna array can improve the robustness against the channel time variation. In addition, we propose a simplified beamforming scheme based on high efficient channel state information (CSI) estimation that extracts the LoS component. We also show that this approximate beamforming can achieve throughput performance comparable to that of the rigorous first eigenmode transmission. Our proposed multiuser massive MIMO scheme can open the door for practical millimeter wave communication with enhanced system capacity.

  8. 76 FR 11681 - Improving Public Safety Communications in the 800 MHz Band; New 800 MHz Band Plan for Puerto Rico...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... systems operating in the band, 69 FR 67823, November 22, 2004. In a Third Report and Order and Third..., USVI incumbents in the 806-809/851-854 MHz band segment will be relocated to comparable spectrum in the... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 90 Improving Public Safety Communications in the 800 MHz Band; New 800 MHz Band...

  9. International Symposium on Numerical Methods in Engineering, 5th, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Switzerland, Sept. 11-15, 1989, Proceedings. Volumes 1 & 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Ralph; Periaux, Jaques; Shaw, Richard Paul

    Recent advances in computational mechanics are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include spectral superpositions on finite elements for shear banding problems, strain-based finite plasticity, numerical simulation of hypersonic viscous continuum flow, constitutive laws in solid mechanics, dynamics problems, fracture mechanics and damage tolerance, composite plates and shells, contact and friction, metal forming and solidification, coupling problems, and adaptive FEMs. Consideration is given to chemical flows, convection problems, free boundaries and artificial boundary conditions, domain-decomposition and multigrid methods, combustion and thermal analysis, wave propagation, mixed and hybrid FEMs, integral-equation methods, optimization, software engineering, and vector and parallel computing.

  10. Photonic band gap materials

    SciTech Connect

    Soukoulis, C.M. |

    1993-12-31

    An overview of the theoretical and experimental efforts in obtaining a photonic band gap, a frequency band in three-dimensional dielectric structures in which electromagnetic waves are forbidden, is presented.

  11. Overview of the 80(th) Annual Scientific Meeting of the Japanese Circulation Society - The Past, Present and Future of Cardiovascular Medicine in Japan - - The 5(th) Anniversary of the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Jun; Satoh, Kimio; Fukuda, Koji; Sugimura, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Yasuharu; Nakano, Makoto; Tsuburaya, Ryuji; Aoki, Tatsuo; Hao, Kiyotaka; Nishimiya, Kensuke; Ito, Kenta; Sakata, Yasuhiko; Shimokawa, Hiroaki

    2016-07-25

    The 80(th)Annual Scientific Meeting of the Japanese Circulation Society was held in Sendai, Japan, on March 18-20, 2016, which coincided with the 5(th)anniversary of the Great East Japan Earthquake that hit the Tohoku area on March 11, 2011. Thus, the main themes for this meeting were "The Past, Present and Future of Cardiovascular Medicine in Japan" and "The 5(th)Anniversary of the Great East Japan Earthquake". Despite the provincial location, approximately 15,000 people attended during the 3-day meeting, and there were in-depth discussions in each of the various sessions on these themes. Especially, to our great pleasure, the Japanese Royals, Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko, kindly visited the panel exhibition of the Great East Japan Earthquake and spoke words of appreciation to us. The meeting successfully completed and we sincerely appreciate the great cooperation and support from all affiliates. (Circ J 2016; 80: 1689-1694).

  12. Overview of the 80(th) Annual Scientific Meeting of the Japanese Circulation Society - The Past, Present and Future of Cardiovascular Medicine in Japan - - The 5(th) Anniversary of the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Jun; Satoh, Kimio; Fukuda, Koji; Sugimura, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Yasuharu; Nakano, Makoto; Tsuburaya, Ryuji; Aoki, Tatsuo; Hao, Kiyotaka; Nishimiya, Kensuke; Ito, Kenta; Sakata, Yasuhiko; Shimokawa, Hiroaki

    2016-07-25

    The 80(th)Annual Scientific Meeting of the Japanese Circulation Society was held in Sendai, Japan, on March 18-20, 2016, which coincided with the 5(th)anniversary of the Great East Japan Earthquake that hit the Tohoku area on March 11, 2011. Thus, the main themes for this meeting were "The Past, Present and Future of Cardiovascular Medicine in Japan" and "The 5(th)Anniversary of the Great East Japan Earthquake". Despite the provincial location, approximately 15,000 people attended during the 3-day meeting, and there were in-depth discussions in each of the various sessions on these themes. Especially, to our great pleasure, the Japanese Royals, Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko, kindly visited the panel exhibition of the Great East Japan Earthquake and spoke words of appreciation to us. The meeting successfully completed and we sincerely appreciate the great cooperation and support from all affiliates. (Circ J 2016; 80: 1689-1694). PMID:27385500

  13. Lucky guess or knowledge: a cross-sectional study using the Bland and Altman analysis to compare confidence-based testing of pharmacological knowledge in 3rd and 5th year medical students.

    PubMed

    Kampmeyer, Daniela; Matthes, Jan; Herzig, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    Multiple-choice-questions are common in medical examinations, but guessing biases assessment results. Confidence-based-testing (CBT) integrates indicated confidence levels. It has been suggested that correctness of and confidence in an answer together indicate knowledge levels thus determining the quality of a resulting decision. We used a CBT approach to investigate whether decision quality improves during undergraduate medical education. 3rd- and 5th-year students attended formative multiple-choice exams on pharmacological issues. Students were asked to indicate their confidence in a given answer. Correctness of answers was scored binary (1-correct; 0-wrong) and confidence levels were transformed to an ordinal scale (guess: 0; rather unsure: 0.33; rather sure: 0.66; very sure: 1). 5th-year students gave more correct answers (73 ± 16 vs. 49 ± 13 %, p < 0.05) and were on average more confident regarding the correctness of their answers (0.61 ± 0.18 vs. 0.46 ± 0.13, p < 0.05). Correlation of these parameters was stronger for 5th-year students (r = 0.81 vs. r = 0.52), but agreement of confidence and correctness ('centration') was lower. By combining the Bland-and-Altman approach with categories of decision-quality we found that 5th-year students were more likely to be 'well-informed' (41 vs. 5 %), while more 3rd-students were 'uninformed' (24 vs. 76 %). Despite a good correlation of exam results and confidence in given answers increased knowledge might be accompanied by a more critical view at the own abilities. Combining the statistical Bland-and-Altman analysis with a theoretical approach to decision-quality, more advanced students are expected to apply correct beliefs, while their younger fellows are rather at risk to hesitate or to act amiss.

  14. Simultaneous dual-band radar development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liskow, C. L.

    1974-01-01

    Efforts to design and construct an airborne imaging radar operating simultaneously at L band and X band with an all-inertial navigation system in order to form a dual-band radar system are described. The areas of development include duplex transmitters, receivers, and recorders, a control module, motion compensation for both bands, and adaptation of a commercial inertial navigation system. Installation of the system in the aircraft and flight tests are described. Circuit diagrams, performance figures, and some radar images are presented.

  15. PREFACE: MEM07: The 5th Annual Workshop on Mechanical and Electromagnetic Properties of Composite Superconductors (Princeton, NJ, USA, 21 24 August 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larbalestier, D. C.; Osamura, K.; Hampshire, D. P.

    2008-05-01

    MEM07 was the 5th international workshop concentrating on the mechanical and electrical properties of composite superconductors, which are the technological conductor forms from which practical superconducting devices are made. Such superconducting conductors respond to important challenges we currently face, especially those concerned with the proper management of the world's energy resources. Superconductivity provides a means to address the challenges in the generation, transmission and distribution, and use of energy. For energy generation, the ITER Fusion Tokomak (now underway in France) provides exciting new challenges for the whole superconductivity community, due to the enormous size and strong fields of the plasma confinement superconducting magnets that will form the largest and most powerful superconducting machine yet built. Significant attention was paid at MEM07 to the modeling, characterization, testing and validation of the high-amperage Nb3Sn cable-in-conduit conductors needed for ITER. As for electric energy industry uses, there was much discussion of both first generation (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox conductors and the rapidly emerging second generation coated conductors made from YBa2Cu37-x. High-performing, affordable conductors of these materials are vital for large capacity transmission cables, energy storage systems, fault current limiters, generators and motors—many prototypes of which are being pursued in technologically advanced countries. There is a broad consensus that the prototype stage for high-current-high-field superconducting applications is nearing its end and that large scale applications are technologically feasible. However full industrialization of large-scale superconducting technologies in electric utility applications will benefit from continuous improvement in critical current, lower ac loss, higher strength and other vital conductor properties. The establishment of optimal procedures for the system design accompanying scale

  16. EDITORIAL: Micromechanics. Selected papers from the 5th International Conference on Multiscale Materials Modeling (Freiburg, Germany, 4-8 October 2010) Micromechanics. Selected papers from the 5th International Conference on Multiscale Materials Modeling (Freiburg, Germany, 4-8 October 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der Giessen, E.; Geers, M.; Li, J.

    2011-10-01

    This special issue contains a selection of papers presented at the Micromechanics minisymposium within the 5th Multiscale Materials Modeling (MMM2010) Conference held in Freiburg, Germany, 4-8 October 2010. Being selected from this minisymposium, all papers deal primarily with mechanical properties but sometimes coupled to other physical phenomena. In line with the scope of the MMM conference series, these selected papers reflect the state-of-the-art in a wide range of multiscale simulation techniques including molecular dynamics and dislocation dynamics up to enhanced finite element methods and phase field modeling for continuous solids. A wide variety of materials is addressed, including polymers, nano-structured as well as multiphase metals up to ferroelectric ceramics. Another way of clustering the papers in this issue is by the kind of phenomena being studied: plasticity or fracture. The first six papers deal with plasticity in crystalline metals and address two central issues: (i) how do the carriers of plastic deformation, i.e. dislocations, interact with other elements of the microstructure, and (ii) what are the origins of plasticity size effects? The papers by Brandl et al and by Shi et al not only show the importance of grain boundaries and other interfaces, but the latter is also one of the first studies where dislocation motion is coupled to phase transitions in parts of the microstructure. These papers, but even more so the single crystal studies by Senger et al, also highlight the importance of the initial dislocation structure. Hudzinskyy and Lyulin show that a similar dependence of the initial structure in amorphous polymers is responsible for its peculiar inelastic response. The innovative method to simulate damage-induced localization presented by Coenen et al forms a bridge to the fracture studies that close this issue. Both these papers continue on the theme of microstructural effects, while the last one by Ambollahi et al closes the loop to

  17. Density of States for Warped Energy Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecholsky, Nicholas A.; Resca, Lorenzo; Pegg, Ian L.; Fornari, Marco

    2016-02-01

    Warping of energy bands can affect the density of states (DOS) in ways that can be large or subtle. Despite their potential for significant practical impacts on materials properties, these effects have not been rigorously demonstrated previously. Here we rectify this using an angular effective mass formalism that we have developed. To clarify the often confusing terminology in this field, “band warping” is precisely defined as pertaining to any multivariate energy function E(k) that does not admit a second-order differential at an isolated critical point in k-space, which we clearly distinguish from band non-parabolicity. We further describe band “corrugation” as a qualitative form of band warping that increasingly deviates from being twice differentiable at an isolated critical point. These features affect the density-of-states and other parameters ascribed to band warping in various ways. We demonstrate these effects, providing explicit calculations of DOS and their effective masses for warped energy dispersions originally derived by Kittel and others. Other physical and mathematical examples are provided to demonstrate fundamental distinctions that must be drawn between DOS contributions that originate from band warping and contributions that derive from band non-parabolicity. For some non-degenerate bands in thermoelectric materials, this may have profound consequences of practical interest.

  18. Density of States for Warped Energy Bands

    PubMed Central

    Mecholsky, Nicholas A.; Resca, Lorenzo; Pegg, Ian L.; Fornari, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Warping of energy bands can affect the density of states (DOS) in ways that can be large or subtle. Despite their potential for significant practical impacts on materials properties, these effects have not been rigorously demonstrated previously. Here we rectify this using an angular effective mass formalism that we have developed. To clarify the often confusing terminology in this field, “band warping” is precisely defined as pertaining to any multivariate energy function E(k) that does not admit a second-order differential at an isolated critical point in k-space, which we clearly distinguish from band non-parabolicity. We further describe band “corrugation” as a qualitative form of band warping that increasingly deviates from being twice differentiable at an isolated critical point. These features affect the density-of-states and other parameters ascribed to band warping in various ways. We demonstrate these effects, providing explicit calculations of DOS and their effective masses for warped energy dispersions originally derived by Kittel and others. Other physical and mathematical examples are provided to demonstrate fundamental distinctions that must be drawn between DOS contributions that originate from band warping and contributions that derive from band non-parabolicity. For some non-degenerate bands in thermoelectric materials, this may have profound consequences of practical interest. PMID:26905029

  19. On the inability of magnetically constricted transition regions to account for the 10 to the 5th to 10 to the 6th K plasma in the quiet solar atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowdy, James F., Jr.; Moore, Ronald L.; Emslie, A. Gordon

    1987-01-01

    Static models of the plasma in the quiet solar atmosphere incorporating not only conduction and radiation but also the effects of large magnetic constrictions are examined. It is found that the bulk of the solar plasma at temperatures below 7 x 10 to the 5th K cannot be produced by a conductive transition region when it is modeled by flux tubes with constriction compatible with observations. The present findings suggest that the major portion of the UEV plasma may be maintained in an ensemble of small, individual magnetic loops located within the supergranular network and having peak temperatures ranging from chromospheric to coronal values.

  20. Stretch Band Exercise Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skirka, Nicholas; Hume, Donald

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how to use stretch bands for improving total body fitness and quality of life. A stretch band exercise program offers a versatile and inexpensive option to motivate participants to exercise. The authors suggest practical exercises that can be used in physical education to improve or maintain muscular strength and endurance,…

  1. Rubber Band Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowens, John

    2005-01-01

    Not only are rubber bands great for binding objects together, but they can be used in a simple science experiment that involves predicting, problem solving, measuring, graphing, and experimenting. In this article, the author describes how rubber bands can be used to teach the force of mass.

  2. Singing with the Band

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, Timothy Meyer; Wright, Gary K.

    2012-01-01

    Usually band, orchestra, and choir directors work independently. However, the authors--one a choral director, the other a band director--have learned that making music together makes friends. Not only can ensemble directors get along, but joint concerts may be just the way to help students see how music can reach the heart. Combined instrumental…

  3. Progressive Band Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Kevin; Chang, Chein-I

    2009-01-01

    Progressive band selection (PBS) reduces spectral redundancy without significant loss of information, thereby reducing hyperspectral image data volume and processing time. Used onboard a spacecraft, it can also reduce image downlink time. PBS prioritizes an image's spectral bands according to priority scores that measure their significance to a specific application. Then it uses one of three methods to select an appropriate number of the most useful bands. Key challenges for PBS include selecting an appropriate criterion to generate band priority scores, and determining how many bands should be retained in the reduced image. The image's Virtual Dimensionality (VD), once computed, is a reasonable estimate of the latter. We describe the major design details of PBS and test PBS in a land classification experiment.

  4. Selecting band combinations with thematic mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheffield, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    A problem arises in making color composite images because there are 210 different possible color presentations of TM three-band images. A method is given for reducing that 210 to a single choice, decided by the statistics of a scene or subscene, and taking into full account any correlations that exist between different bands. Instead of using total variance as the measure for information content of the band triplets, the ellipsoid of maximum volume is selected which discourages selection of bands with high correlation. The band triplet is obtained by computing and ranking in order the determinants of each 3 x 3 principal submatrix of the original matrix M. After selection of the best triplet, the assignment of colors is made by using the actual variances (the diagonal elements of M): green (maximum variance), red (second largest variance), blue (smallest variance).

  5. PIXE analyses over a long period: The case of Neolithic variscite jewels from Western Europe (5th-3th millennium BC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querré, G.; Calligaro, T.; Domínguez-Bella, S.; Cassen, S.

    2014-01-01

    PIXE analysis of archeological variscite beads and pendants from the Neolithic period that were excavated in Spain, Portugal and France and of variscite geological references samples from European occurrences were carried out from 1999 to 2013 in order to trace back the circulation of this precious gemstone over three millennia. Transformations of the AGLAE external beam system and progress in spectrum processing have induced some apparent compositional variation, affecting in particular the phosphorus/aluminum ratio. This long term evolution has been taken into account with the help of geostandards to build a large and coherent geochemical database of minor and trace elements in variscite. This database allowed us to determine the provenance of the raw material and thus of the circulation of the jewels.

  6. Laparoscopic removal of gastric band after laparoscopic gastric bypass and following placement of adjustable gastric band

    PubMed Central

    Lanaia, Andrea; Zizzo, Maurizio; Cartelli, Concetto M.; Fumagalli, Matteo; Bonilauri, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Banded gastric bypass is a bariatric surgical intervention that has been regularly performed in many centers. According to some series, banded gastric bypass is safe and feasible. We describe the case of a 42-year-old woman undergoing laparoscopic gastric bypass in 2008. Subsequently, she underwent surgery in order to place adjustable gastric banding on previous bypass because of gastric pouch dilatation. Five months later, patient showed anorexia and signs of malnutrition. For this reason, she underwent laparoscopic removal of gastric banding. In our opinion, placing a device to restrict an already dilated gastric pouch must be avoided. PMID:26232597

  7. EDITORIAL: Artificial Muscles: Selected papers from the 5th World Congress on Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles and Nano-Bio (Osaka, Japan, 25-27 November 2009) Artificial Muscles: Selected papers from the 5th World Congress on Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles and Nano-Bio (Osaka, Japan, 25-27 November 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen

    2011-12-01

    The 5th World Congress on Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles and Nano-Bio and the 4th International Conference on Artificial Muscles were held in Osaka, Japan, 23-27 November 2009. This special section of Smart Materials and Structures is devoted to a selected number of research papers presented at this international conference and congress. Of the 76 or so papers presented at the conference, only 10 papers were finally selected, reviewed and accepted for this special section, following the regular reviewing procedures of the journal. This special section is focused on polymeric artificial muscles, electroactive polymers, multifunctional nanocomposites and their applications. In particular, an electromechanical model for self-sensing ionic polymer-metal composite actuating devices with patterned surface electrodes is presented which discusses the concept of creating self-sensing ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) actuating devices with patterned surface electrodes where actuator and sensor elements are separated by a grounded shielding electrode. Eventually, an electromechanical model of the device is also proposed and validated. Following that, there is broad coverage of polytetrahydrofurane-polyethylene oxide-PEDOT conducting interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) for high speed actuators. The conducting polymer (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)) is incorporated within the IPNs, which are synthesized from polyethylene oxide (PEO)/polytetrahydrofurane (PTHF) networks. PEO/PTHF IPNs are prepared using poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate and dimethacrylate and hydroxythelechelic PTHF as starting materials. The conducting IPN actuators are prepared by oxidative polymerization of 3,4-ethylenedioxithiophene (EDOT) using FeCl3 as an oxidizing agent within the PEO/PTHF IPN host matrix. Subsequently, giant and reversible magnetorheology of carrageenan/iron oxide magnetic gels are discussed and the effect of magnetic fields on the viscoelastic properties

  8. Iliotibial band friction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lavine, Ronald

    2010-07-20

    Published articles on iliotibial band friction syndrome have been reviewed. These articles cover the epidemiology, etiology, anatomy, pathology, prevention, and treatment of the condition. This article describes (1) the various etiological models that have been proposed to explain iliotibial band friction syndrome; (2) some of the imaging methods, research studies, and clinical experiences that support or call into question these various models; (3) commonly proposed treatment methods for iliotibial band friction syndrome; and (4) the rationale behind these methods and the clinical outcome studies that support their efficacy.

  9. Chiral Bands and Triaxiality

    SciTech Connect

    Petrache, C.M.

    2004-02-27

    The results obtained with the GASP array in the A=130 mass region are reviewed, emphasizing the discovery excited highly-deformed bands and their decay out, the study of the odd-odd Pr nuclei up to high spins, the discovery of stable triaxial bands in Nd nuclei close to the N=82 shell closure. The very recent studies of nuclei near the proton drip line are described. A discussion of the origin of the various doublet bands observed in odd-odd nuclei of the A=130 mass region is presented.

  10. Iliotibial band friction syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Published articles on iliotibial band friction syndrome have been reviewed. These articles cover the epidemiology, etiology, anatomy, pathology, prevention, and treatment of the condition. This article describes (1) the various etiological models that have been proposed to explain iliotibial band friction syndrome; (2) some of the imaging methods, research studies, and clinical experiences that support or call into question these various models; (3) commonly proposed treatment methods for iliotibial band friction syndrome; and (4) the rationale behind these methods and the clinical outcome studies that support their efficacy. PMID:21063495

  11. Tremor bands sweep Cascadia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, A.; Vidale, J. E.; Sweet, J. R.; Creager, K. C.; Wech, A.; Houston, H.

    2009-12-01

    In the last few years, the spatiotemporal distribution of non-volcanic tremor (NVT) activity has been watched with intense curiosity in Cascadia, Japan, and San Andreas Fault. During an episodic tremor and slip (ETS) event in the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ), the dominant tremor migration pattern is characterized by along-strike marching of tremor at a rate of 10 km/day. Spatiotemporal evolution gives critical clues on the physical mechanism of NVT, and the evolving state of stress in the fault. However, tremor migration, its variations over different time-scales, and its underlying physics remain poorly understood. We recorded the May 2008 ETS event in Cascadia with a dense small-aperture seismic array, and beamformed to detect and locate tremor with unparalleled resolution [Ghosh et al., GRL, 2009]. The beams reveal that tremor occurs in elongated bands that extend ~50 km in the direction parallel to the convergence of CSZ and only 10-15 km in the along-strike direction. This is in contrast to the wider blobs of tremor locations seen using a conventional envelope cross-correlation method. The peak activities of the tremor bands are well separated in space and time. Each band remains active for a good part of a day, and fades away while the adjacent band is slowly peaking up. During the 2008 ETS event, these convergence-parallel tremor bands swept the Cascadia megathrust from SE to NW in the region most clearly imaged by our array, producing the long-term tremor migration. Embedded within the bands lie long streaks of tremor that show steady and rapid migration on time-scales of several minutes to an hour at velocities of several tens of km/hr. These tremor streaks also propagate mostly convergence-parallel, along a particular band, both up- and down-dip. The elongated shape of the tremor bands may cause by the tendency of the tremor streaks to align parallel to the direction of subduction. We propose that each tremor band is the result of failure of a section

  12. ­Dynamic interactions between the October 28th 2012 Haida Gwaii and January 5th 2013 Craig earthquakes and other faults in Southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, J. I.; Kao, H.; Meng, X.; Peng, Z.; Hobbs, T. E.; Dotray, P.; Newman, A. V.; Mulder, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Mw 7.8 (28 October 2012) Haida Gwaii earthquake and the Mw 7.5 (5 January 2013) Craig, Alaska earthquake occurred just 400 km and 68 days apart from each other. The short duration and distance between the events poses the question of whether these two events are related. We combine existing seismic data from permanent networks in Alaska and Canada, including temporary aftershock deployments (both on land and ocean-bottom sensors) installed in the Haida Gwaii islands, to search for precursory activity prior to each of the events. In order to improve the catalog completeness, we utilize a matched-filter technique to identify potential missing earthquakes before and after each mainshock. This technique utilizes existing cataloged waveforms as templates to identify repeating or nearby earthquakes with high cross-correlations. We examine the seismic activity prior to and following each event and determine whether any dynamic or delayed triggering of earthquakes or tremor occurs regionally due to these earthquakes. We find small earthquakes on the Fairweather Fault, near Glacier Bay, directly triggered in the minutes after the Haida Gwaii event. In addition, preliminary evidence suggests the Haida Gwaii earthquake triggered some seismicity in the rupture region of the Craig earthquake over the ~2 month period of time between the mainshocks. We plan to assess whether the later-occurring Craig earthquake triggered any increase in aftershock activity within the Haida Gwaii rupture region. The static and dynamic transmission of stresses from large earthquakes has important implications for transient fault zone loading in areas adjacent to those initial rupture zones. This study should shed some light on large earthquake interactions at various distance scales and future seismic risks across Alaska and western Canada.

  13. Validation of S-NPP VIIRS Day-Night band and M bands performance using ground reference targets of Libya 4 and Dome C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xuexia; Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Lei, Ning; Wang, Zhipeng; Chiang, Kwofu

    2015-09-01

    This paper provides methodologies developed and implemented by the NASA VIIRS Calibration Support Team (VCST) to validate the S-NPP VIIRS Day-Night band (DNB) and M bands calibration performance. The Sensor Data Records produced by the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS) and NASA Land Product Evaluation and Algorithm Testing Element (PEATE) are acquired nearly nadir overpass for Libya 4 desert and Dome C snow surfaces. In the past 3.5 years, the modulated relative spectral responses (RSR) change with time and lead to 3.8% increase on the DNB sensed solar irradiance and 0.1% or less increases on the M4-M7 bands. After excluding data before April 5th, 2013, IDPS DNB radiance and reflectance data are consistent with Land PEATE data with 0.6% or less difference for Libya 4 site and 2% or less difference for Dome C site. These difference are caused by inconsistent LUTs and algorithms used in calibration. In Libya 4 site, the SCIAMACHY spectral and modulated RSR derived top of atmosphere (TOA) reflectance are compared with Land PEATE TOA reflectance and they indicate a decrease of 1.2% and 1.3%, respectively. The radiance of Land PEATE DNB are compared with the simulated radiance from aggregated M bands (M4, M5, and M7). These data trends match well with 2% or less difference for Libya 4 site and 4% or less difference for Dome C. This study demonstrate the consistent quality of DNB and M bands calibration for Land PEATE products during operational period and for IDPS products after April 5th, 2013.

  14. Validation of S-NPP VIIRS Day-Night Band and M Bands Performance Using Ground Reference Targets of Libya 4 and Dome C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Xuexia; Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Lei, Ning; Wang, Zhipeng; Chiang, Kwofu

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides methodologies developed and implemented by the NASA VIIRS Calibration Support Team (VCST) to validate the S-NPP VIIRS Day-Night band (DNB) and M bands calibration performance. The Sensor Data Records produced by the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS) and NASA Land Product Evaluation and Algorithm Testing Element (PEATE) are acquired nearly nadir overpass for Libya 4 desert and Dome C snow surfaces. In the past 3.5 years, the modulated relative spectral responses (RSR) change with time and lead to 3.8% increase on the DNB sensed solar irradiance and 0.1% or less increases on the M4-M7 bands. After excluding data before April 5th, 2013, IDPS DNB radiance and reflectance data are consistent with Land PEATE data with 0.6% or less difference for Libya 4 site and 2% or less difference for Dome C site. These difference are caused by inconsistent LUTs and algorithms used in calibration. In Libya 4 site, the SCIAMACHY spectral and modulated RSR derived top of atmosphere (TOA) reflectance are compared with Land PEATE TOA reflectance and they indicate a decrease of 1.2% and 1.3%, respectively. The radiance of Land PEATE DNB are compared with the simulated radiance from aggregated M bands (M4, M5, and M7). These data trends match well with 2% or less difference for Libya 4 site and 4% or less difference for Dome C. This study demonstrate the consistent quality of DNB and M bands calibration for Land PEATE products during operational period and for IDPS products after April 5th, 2013.

  15. The effect of differentiated curriculum enhancements on the achievement of at-risk and normally achieving students in 5th grade science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpkins, Pamela Mccrea

    2007-12-01

    At-risk students show consistent patterns of under achievement and social maladjustment in school which leads to their demise in high school (McMillian & Reed, 1994). Similarly, special education students are at increased risk of not completing high school and do not perform as well on national achievement tests than their nondisabled peers (Land & Legters, 2002). It is possible that students at-risk for academic failure will not meet graduation requirements unless interventions are put in place to alleviate this problem. It has been documented that science textbooks contain difficult vocabulary and high reading levels that are challenging for struggling students. Using approaches such as activities oriented instruction, which supports the cooperative learning/peer tutoring model is one approach that has been successful with normally achieving and special education students. This research examined the effect of differentiated curriculum enhancements with peer tutoring on the achievement of at-risk and normally achieving students in science. A crossover design was implemented in three fifth grade inclusive classes, consisting of typically achieving students, students at-risk, and students with learning disabilities. The participants included 16 at-risk students, three special education students and 44 normally achieving students. The science review activities were implemented during two consecutive science units. One unit covered Earth and Space science. The other unit covered Light and Sound. Each curriculum enhancement had identification and production level activities. The identification level provided prompts; the production level did not provide prompts. Pretest and posttest were administered. Overall findings of the study revealed a significant interaction between experimental condition and treatment order, suggesting an advantage for students using differentiated curriculum enhancements. Main effects analysis suggested that students performed better on one

  16. Order Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibeault, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Change orders. The words can turn the stomachs of administrators. Horror stories about change orders create fear and distrust among school officials, designers and builders. Can change orders be avoided? If car manufacturers can produce millions of intricately designed vehicles, why can't the same quality control be achieved on a construction…

  17. Decay of superdeformed bands

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, M.P.; Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T.

    1995-12-31

    One of the major challenges in the study of superdeformation is to directly connect the large number of superdeformed bands now known to the yrast states. In this way, excitation energies, spins and parities can be assigned to the levels in the second well which is essential to establish the collective and single-particle components of these bands. This paper will review some of the progress which has been made to understand the decay of superdeformed bands using the new arrays including the measurement of the total decay spectrum and the establishment of direct one-step decays from the superdeformed band to the yrast line in {sup 194}Hg. 42 refs., 5 figs.

  18. CSF oligoclonal banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... system. Oligoclonal bands may be a sign of multiple sclerosis. How the Test is Performed A sample of ... Performed This test helps support the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, it does not confirm the diagnosis. ...

  19. Laparoscopic Gastric Banding

    PubMed Central

    Suter, Michel; Giusti, Vittorio; Worreth, Marc; Héraief, Eric; Calmes, Jean-Marie

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of laparoscopic gastric banding using 2 different bands (the Lapband [Bioenterics, Carpinteria, CA] and the SAGB [Swedish Adjustable Gastric Band; Obtech Medical, 6310 Zug, Switzerland]) in terms of weight loss and correction of comorbidities, short-and long-term complications, and improvement of quality of life in morbidly obese patients Summary Background Data: During the past 10 years, gastric banding has become 1 of the most common bariatric procedures, at least in Europe and Australia. Weight loss can be excellent, but it is not sufficient in a significant proportion of patients, and a number of long-term complications can develop. We hypothesized that the type of band could be of importance in the outcome. Methods: One hundred eighty morbidly obese patients were randomly assigned to receive the Lapband or the SAGB. All the procedures were performed by the same surgeon. The primary end point was weight loss, and secondary end points were correction of comorbidities, early- and long-term complications, importance of food restriction, and improvement of quality of life. Results: Initial weight loss was faster in the Lapband group, but weight loss was eventually identical in the 2 groups. There was a trend toward more early band-related complications and more band infections with the SAGB, but the study had limited power in that respect. Correction of comorbidities, food restriction, long-term complications, and improvement of quality of life were identical. Only 55% to 60% of the patients achieved an excess weight loss of at least 50% in both groups. There was no difference in the incidence of long-term complications. Conclusions: Gastric banding can be performed safely with the Lapband or the SAGB with similar short- and midterm results with respect to weight loss and morbidity. Only 50% to 60% of the patients will achieve sufficient weight loss, and close to 10% at least will develop severe

  20. Polygonal deformation bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonellini, Marco; Mollema, Pauline Nella

    2015-12-01

    We report for the first time the occurrence of polygonal faults in sandstone, which is compelling given that layer-bound polygonal fault systems have been observed so far only in fine-grained sediments such as clay and chalk. The polygonal faults are shear deformation bands that developed under shallow burial conditions via strain hardening in dm-wide zones. The edges of the polygons are 1-5 m long. The shear deformation bands are organized as conjugate faults along each edge of the polygon and form characteristic horst-like structures. The individual deformation bands have slip magnitudes ranging from a few mm to 1.5 cm; the cumulative average slip magnitude in a zone is up to 10 cm. The deformation bands heaves, in aggregate form, accommodate a small isotropic horizontal extension (strain <0.005). The individual shear deformation bands show abutting T-junctions, veering, curving, and merging where they mechanically interact. Crosscutting relationships are rare. The interactions of the deformation bands are similar to those of mode I opening fractures. The documented fault networks have important implications for evaluating the geometry of km-scale polygonal fault systems in the subsurface, top seal integrity, as well as constraining paleo-tectonic stress regimes.

  1. Polygonal deformation bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonellini, Marco; Mollema, Pauline Nella

    2015-12-01

    We report for the first time the occurrence of polygonal faults in sandstone, which is compelling given that layer-bound polygonal fault systems have been observed so far only in fine-grained sediments such as clay and chalk. The polygonal faults are shear deformation bands that developed under shallow burial conditions via strain hardening in dm-wide zones. The edges of the polygons are 1-5 m long. The shear deformation bands are organized as conjugate faults along each edge of the polygon and form characteristic horst-like structures. The individual deformation bands have slip magnitudes ranging from a few mm to 1.5 cm; the cumulative average slip magnitude in a zone is up to 10 cm. The deformation bands heaves, in aggregate form, accommodate a small isotropic horizontal extension (strain <0.005). The individual shear deformation bands show abutting T-junctions, veering, curving, and merging where they mechanically interact. Crosscutting relationships are rare. The interactions of the deformation bands are similar to those of mode I opening fractures. The documented fault networks have important implications for evaluating the geometry of km-scale polygonal fault systems in the subsurface, top seal integrity, as well as constraining paleo-tectonic stress regimes.

  2. S-Band propagation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briskman, Robert D.

    1994-01-01

    A geosynchronous satellite system capable of providing many channels of digital audio radio service (DARS) to mobile platforms within the contiguous United States using S-band radio frequencies is being implemented. The system is designed uniquely to mitigate both multipath fading and outages from physical blockage in the transmission path by use of satellite spatial diversity in combination with radio frequency and time diversity. The system also employs a satellite orbital geometry wherein all mobile platforms in the contiguous United States have elevation angles greater than 20 deg to both of the diversity satellites. Since implementation of the satellite system will require three years, an emulation has been performed using terrestrial facilities in order to allow evaluation of DARS capabilities in advance of satellite system operations. The major objective of the emulation was to prove the feasibility of broadcasting from satellites 30 channels of CD quality programming using S-band frequencies to an automobile equipped with a small disk antenna and to obtain quantitative performance data on S-band propagation in a satellite spatial diversity system.

  3. S-Band propagation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briskman, Robert D.

    1994-08-01

    A geosynchronous satellite system capable of providing many channels of digital audio radio service (DARS) to mobile platforms within the contiguous United States using S-band radio frequencies is being implemented. The system is designed uniquely to mitigate both multipath fading and outages from physical blockage in the transmission path by use of satellite spatial diversity in combination with radio frequency and time diversity. The system also employs a satellite orbital geometry wherein all mobile platforms in the contiguous United States have elevation angles greater than 20 deg to both of the diversity satellites. Since implementation of the satellite system will require three years, an emulation has been performed using terrestrial facilities in order to allow evaluation of DARS capabilities in advance of satellite system operations. The major objective of the emulation was to prove the feasibility of broadcasting from satellites 30 channels of CD quality programming using S-band frequencies to an automobile equipped with a small disk antenna and to obtain quantitative performance data on S-band propagation in a satellite spatial diversity system.

  4. Preparation and formation mechanism of three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) MgO, MgSO{sub 4}, CaCO{sub 3}, and SrCO{sub 3}, and photonic stop band properties of 3DOM CaCO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Sadakane, Masahiro; Kato, Rika; Murayama, Toru; Ueda, Wataru

    2011-08-15

    Three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) magnesium (Mg) oxide (MgO), MgSO{sub 4}, calcium (Ca) carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}), and strontium (Sr) carbonate (SrCO{sub 3}) were prepared using a colloidal crystal of polymer spheres as a template. Ethanol or ethanol-water solution of metal salts (acetate or nitrate) and citric acid was infiltrated into the void of the colloidal crystal template of a monodispersed poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) sphere. Heating of this PMMA-metal salt-citric acid composite produced the desired well-ordered 3DOM materials with a high pore fraction, which was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) diffuse reflectance spectra. The presence of citric acid is crucial for production of the 3DOM structures. Reaction of citric acid with metal salt produces metal citrate solid in the void of PMMA spheres, which is necessary to maintain the 3DOM structure during the calcination process. 3DOM CaCO{sub 3} shows opalescent colors because of it's photonic stop band properties. - Graphical abstract: Well-ordered 3-dimensionally ordered macroporous MgO, MgSO{sub 4}, CaCO{sub 3}, and SrCO{sub 3} materials were obtained in a high pore fraction. Highlights: > An easy preparation method of 3D ordered macroporous (3DOM) MgO, MgSO{sub 4}, CaCO{sub 3}, and SrCO{sub 3} materials. > Their structural characterization. > Their formation mechanism. > Photonic properties of 3DOM CaCO{sub 3}.

  5. Tethys’ Mysterious Equatorial Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elder, Catherine; Helfenstein, P.; Thomas, P.; Veverka, J.; Burns, J. A.; Denk, T.; Porco, C.

    2007-10-01

    We investigate a conspicuous equatorial albedo band on Tethys by analyzing Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images obtained in several wavelengths. The band, first seen in Voyager data by Stooke (1989;2002) is symmetric 15° on either side of the equator and extends from 0° to 160°W that is, almost centered on the leading part of Tethys. There is no evidence that the band is topographically-based; margins are gradational and there is no visible difference in underlying geology. Because of the otherwise broadly-uniform albedo of Tethys, subtle albedo and color variations are easily detected and we sampled them after correcting each image for wavelength-dependent limb darkening effects using Hapke's (2002) photometric model. In the ISS CL1-CL2 filter (611nm), the average albedo contrast of the band with adjacent cratered plains is only about 3%. Compared to its surroundings, the band is about 2-3% brighter in the NAC CL1-UV3 filter (338nm), 2-3% darker in the NAC CL1-GRN (568nm) and 8% darker in the NAC CL1-IR3 filter (930nm). This may indicate that the band exposes regolith composed of cleaner ice with a different grain-size distribution than surrounding materials. The average global photometric properties of Tethys are affected by the E-Ring (Verbiscer et al. 2007). However, dynamical explanations for the narrow albedo band that involve E-ring particles so far are unlikely given the broad nature of the E-ring and the inclination of Tethys. References: Hapke, B. 2002. Icarus 157, 523-534; Stooke, P.J. 1989. Lunar and Planet. Sci. Conf. 20th, 1071-1072; Stooke, P.J. 2002, Lunar and Planet. Sci. Conf, 33rd, #1553; Verbiscer et al. 2007. Science 315, pp.815.

  6. Achieving Higher Energies via Passively Driven X-band Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipahi, Taylan; Sipahi, Nihan; Milton, Stephen; Biedron, Sandra

    2014-03-01

    Due to their higher intrinsic shunt impedance X-band accelerating structures significant gradients with relatively modest input powers, and this can lead to more compact particle accelerators. At the Colorado State University Accelerator Laboratory (CSUAL) we would like to adapt this technology to our 1.3 GHz L-band accelerator system using a passively driven 11.7 GHz traveling wave X-band configuration that capitalizes on the high shunt impedances achievable in X-band accelerating structures in order to increase our overall beam energy in a manner that does not require investment in an expensive, custom, high-power X-band klystron system. Here we provide the design details of the X-band structures that will allow us to achieve our goal of reaching the maximum practical net potential across the X-band accelerating structure while driven solely by the beam from the L-band system.

  7. Photonic band gap materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassagne, D.

    Photonic band gap materials Photonic band gap materials are periodic dielectric structures that control the propagation of electromagnetic waves. We describe the plane wave method, which allows to calculate the band structures of photonic crystals. By symmetry analysis and a perturbative approach, we predict the appearance of the low energy photonic band gaps of hexagonal structures. We propose new two-dimensional structures called graphite and boron nitride. Using a transfer matrix method, we calculate the transmission of the graphite structure and we show the crucial role of the coupling with external modes. We study the appearance of allowed modes in the photonic band gap by the introduction of localized defects in the periodicity. Finally, we discuss the properties of opals formed by self-organized silica microspheres, which are very promising for the fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals. Les matériaux à bandes interdites photoniques sont des structures diélectriques périodiques qui contrôlent la propagation des ondes électromagnétiques. Nous décrivons la méthode des ondes planes qui permet de calculer les structures de bandes des cristaux photoniques. Par une analyse de la symétrie et une approche perturbative, nous précisons les conditions d'existence des bandes interdites de basse énergie. Nous proposons de nouvelles structures bidimensionnelles appelées graphite et nitrure de bore. Grâce à une méthode de matrices de transfert, nous calculons la transmission de la structure graphite et nous mettons en évidence le rôle fondamental du couplage avec les modes extérieurs. Nous étudions l'apparition de modes permis dans la bande interdite grâce à l'introduction de défauts dans la périodicité. Enfin, nous discutons les propriétés des opales constituées de micro-billes de silice auto-organisées, qui sont très prometteuses pour la fabrication de cristaux photoniques tridimensionnels.

  8. Development of softcopy environment for primary color banding visibility assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Byungseok; Pizlo, Zygmunt; Allebach, Jan P.

    2008-01-01

    Fine-pitch banding is one of the most unwanted artifacts in laser electrophotographic (EP) printers. It is perceived as a quasiperiodic fluctuation in the process direction. Therefore, it is essential for printer vendors to know how banding is perceived by humans in order to improve print quality. Monochrome banding has been analyzed and assessed by many researchers; but there is no literature that deals with the banding of color laser printers as measured from actual prints. The study of color banding is complicated by the fact that the color banding signal is physically defined in a three-dimensional color space, while banding perception is described in a one-dimensional sense such as more banding or less banding. In addition, the color banding signal arises from the independent contributions of the four primary colorant banding signals. It is not known how these four distinct signals combine to give rise to the perception of color banding. In this paper, we develop a methodology to assess the banding visibility of the primary colorant cyan based on human visual perception. This is our first step toward studying the more general problem of color banding in combinations of two or more colorants. According to our method, we print and scan the cyan test patch, and extract the banding profile as a one dimensional signal so that we can freely adjust the intensity of banding. Thereafter, by exploiting the pulse width modulation capability of the laser printer, the extracted banding profile is used to modulate a pattern consisting of periodic lines oriented in the process direction, to generate extrinsic banding. This avoids the effect of the halftoning algorithm on the banding. Furthermore, to conduct various banding assessments more efficiently, we also develop a softcopy environment that emulates a hardcopy image on a calibrated monitor, which requires highly accurate device calibration throughout the whole system. To achieve the same color appearance as the hardcopy

  9. EDITORIAL: Artificial Muscles: Selected papers from the 5th World Congress on Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles and Nano-Bio (Osaka, Japan, 25-27 November 2009) Artificial Muscles: Selected papers from the 5th World Congress on Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles and Nano-Bio (Osaka, Japan, 25-27 November 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen

    2011-12-01

    The 5th World Congress on Biomimetics, Artificial Muscles and Nano-Bio and the 4th International Conference on Artificial Muscles were held in Osaka, Japan, 23-27 November 2009. This special section of Smart Materials and Structures is devoted to a selected number of research papers presented at this international conference and congress. Of the 76 or so papers presented at the conference, only 10 papers were finally selected, reviewed and accepted for this special section, following the regular reviewing procedures of the journal. This special section is focused on polymeric artificial muscles, electroactive polymers, multifunctional nanocomposites and their applications. In particular, an electromechanical model for self-sensing ionic polymer-metal composite actuating devices with patterned surface electrodes is presented which discusses the concept of creating self-sensing ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) actuating devices with patterned surface electrodes where actuator and sensor elements are separated by a grounded shielding electrode. Eventually, an electromechanical model of the device is also proposed and validated. Following that, there is broad coverage of polytetrahydrofurane-polyethylene oxide-PEDOT conducting interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) for high speed actuators. The conducting polymer (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)) is incorporated within the IPNs, which are synthesized from polyethylene oxide (PEO)/polytetrahydrofurane (PTHF) networks. PEO/PTHF IPNs are prepared using poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate and dimethacrylate and hydroxythelechelic PTHF as starting materials. The conducting IPN actuators are prepared by oxidative polymerization of 3,4-ethylenedioxithiophene (EDOT) using FeCl3 as an oxidizing agent within the PEO/PTHF IPN host matrix. Subsequently, giant and reversible magnetorheology of carrageenan/iron oxide magnetic gels are discussed and the effect of magnetic fields on the viscoelastic properties

  10. Elementary Science Guide -- 5th Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieland, Anne; And Others

    Presented is a resource book to be used with instructional kits for elementary school science students, grade 5. The individual units at this grade level are based on curriculum which has been developed by the National Science Foundation in the 1960s and revised to meet student and teacher identified needs in Anchorage, Alaska. Six units are…

  11. Radiology of bone diseases. 5th edition

    SciTech Connect

    Greenfield, G.

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of bone. This book presents alterations in overall characteristics such as density and bone texture. It describes Salterations in specific anatomic regions of bone, as well ad discuss solitary bone lesions. The style in which the diseases are grouped according to specific regions and morphologic alterations rather than by individual pathologic condition is the most powerful aspect of this format.

  12. 5TH BIOTECHNOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OCEAN MARGINS PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    DR. ARTURO MASSOL, PROGRAM CHAIR; DR. ROSA BUXEDA, PROGRAM CO-CHAIR

    2004-01-08

    BI-OMP supports DOE's mission in Climate Change Research. The program provides the fundamental understanding of the linkages between carbon and nitrogen cycles in ocean margins. Researchers are providing a mechanistic understanding of these cycles, using the tools of modern molecular biology. The models that will allow policy makers to determine safe levels of greenhouse gases for the Earth System.

  13. Regression Analysis by Example. 5th Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterjee, Samprit; Hadi, Ali S.

    2012-01-01

    Regression analysis is a conceptually simple method for investigating relationships among variables. Carrying out a successful application of regression analysis, however, requires a balance of theoretical results, empirical rules, and subjective judgment. "Regression Analysis by Example, Fifth Edition" has been expanded and thoroughly…

  14. 5th Annual AGILE Science Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Stanley

    2008-01-01

    The EGRET model of the galactic diffuse gamma-ray emission (GALDIF) has been extended to provide full-sky coverage and improved to address the discrepancies with the EGRET data. This improved model is compared with the AGILE results from the Galactic center. The comparison is discussed.

  15. 5th Annual Monoclonal Antibodies Conference

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The conference, which was organized by Visiongain and held at the BSG Conference Center in London, provided an excellent opportunity for participants to exchange views on the development, production and marketing of therapeutic antibodies, and discuss the current business environment. The conference included numerous interactive panel and group discussions on topics such as isotyping for therapeutic antibodies (panel chair: Nick Pullen, Pfizer), prospects for fully human monoclonal antibodies (chair: Christian Rohlff, Oxford BioTherapeutics), perspectives on antibody manufacturing and development (chair: Bo Kara, Avecia), market impact and post-marketing issues (chair: Keith Rodgers, Bodiam Consulting) and angiogenesis inhibitors (chair: David Blakey, AstraZeneca). PMID:20073132

  16. Designing Effective Instruction. 5th Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Gary R.; Ross, Steven M.; Kemp, Jerrold E.

    2006-01-01

    This valuable resource provides instructional designers with the guidance they need to meet the challenge of creating effective and efficient instruction. Maintaining a careful balance between theory and application, the Fifth Edition presents a practical, easy-to-follow approach to instructional design that can be applied to K-12 classrooms,…

  17. Peace Corps 5th Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC.

    Projects, operations, and future plans are covered in this annual report for the fifth year of the Peace Corps. An introduction overviews past and future activities of the Peace Corps and its volunteers. Section 2 reviews the year 1966 and covers these topics: the new director, Jack Vaughn; countries in which new programs were begun; the…

  18. Banded transformer cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W. T. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A banded transformer core formed by positioning a pair of mated, similar core halves on a supporting pedestal. The core halves are encircled with a strap, selectively applying tension whereby a compressive force is applied to the core edge for reducing the innate air gap. A dc magnetic field is employed in supporting the core halves during initial phases of the banding operation, while an ac magnetic field subsequently is employed for detecting dimension changes occurring in the air gaps as tension is applied to the strap.

  19. Multi-Band-SWIFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idiyatullin, Djaudat; Corum, Curtis A.; Garwood, Michael

    2015-02-01

    A useful extension to SWIFT (SWeep Imaging with Fourier Transformation) utilizing sidebands of the excitation pulse is introduced. This MRI method, called Multi-Band-SWIFT, achieves much higher bandwidth than standard SWIFT by using multiple segmented excitations (bands) of the field of view. A description of the general idea and variants of the pulse sequence are presented. From simulations and semi-phenomenological theory, estimations of power deposition and signal-to-noise ratio are made. MB-SWIFT and ZTE (zero-TE) sequences are compared based on images of a phantom and human mandible. Multi-Band-SWIFT provides a bridge between SWIFT and ZTE sequences and allows greatly increased excitation and acquisition bandwidths relative to standard SWIFT for the same hardware switching parameters and requires less peak amplitude of the radiofrequency field (or greater flip angle at same peak amplitude) as compared to ZTE. Multi-Band-SWIFT appears to be an attractive extension of SWIFT for certain musculoskeletal and other medical imaging applications, as well as for imaging materials.

  20. The Steel Band.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Bruce

    1996-01-01

    Describes studying the steel drum, an import from Trinidad, as an instrument of intellectual growth. Describes how developing a steel drum band provided Montessori middle school students the opportunity to experience some important feelings necessary to emotional growth during this difficult age: competence, usefulness, independence, and…

  1. Colloquium: Topological band theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansil, A.; Lin, Hsin; Das, Tanmoy

    2016-04-01

    The first-principles band theory paradigm has been a key player not only in the process of discovering new classes of topologically interesting materials, but also for identifying salient characteristics of topological states, enabling direct and sharpened confrontation between theory and experiment. This review begins by discussing underpinnings of the topological band theory, which involve a layer of analysis and interpretation for assessing topological properties of band structures beyond the standard band theory construct. Methods for evaluating topological invariants are delineated, including crystals without inversion symmetry and interacting systems. The extent to which theoretically predicted properties and protections of topological states have been verified experimentally is discussed, including work on topological crystalline insulators, disorder and interaction driven topological insulators (TIs), topological superconductors, Weyl semimetal phases, and topological phase transitions. Successful strategies for new materials discovery process are outlined. A comprehensive survey of currently predicted 2D and 3D topological materials is provided. This includes binary, ternary, and quaternary compounds, transition metal and f -electron materials, Weyl and 3D Dirac semimetals, complex oxides, organometallics, skutterudites, and antiperovskites. Also included is the emerging area of 2D atomically thin films beyond graphene of various elements and their alloys, functional thin films, multilayer systems, and ultrathin films of 3D TIs, all of which hold exciting promise of wide-ranging applications. This Colloquium concludes by giving a perspective on research directions where further work will broadly benefit the topological materials field.

  2. Elucidating the stop bands of structurally colored systems through recursion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amir, Ariel; Vukusic, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Interference is the source of some of the spectacular colors of animals and plants in nature. In some of these systems, the physical structure consists of an ordered array of layers with alternating high and low refractive indices. This periodicity leads to an optical band structure that is analogous to the electronic band structure encountered in semiconductor physics: specific bands of wavelengths (the stop bands) are perfectly reflected. Here, we present a minimal model for optical band structure in a periodic multilayer structure and solve it using recursion relations. The stop bands emerge in the limit of an infinite number of layers by finding the fixed point of the recursion. We compare to experimental data for various beetles, whose optical structure resembles the proposed model. Thus, using only the phenomenon of interference and the idea of recursion, we are able to elucidate the concept of band structure in the context of the experimentally observed high reflectance and iridescent appearance of structurally colored beetles.

  3. Banded electromagnetic stator core

    DOEpatents

    Fanning, A.W.; Gonzales, A.A.; Patel, M.R.; Olich, E.E.

    1996-06-11

    A stator core for an electromagnetic pump includes a plurality of circumferentially adjoining groups of flat laminations disposed about a common centerline axis and collectively defining a central bore and a discontinuous outer perimeter, with adjacent groups diverging radially outwardly to form V-shaped gaps. An annular band surrounds the groups and is predeterminedly tensioned to clamp together the laminations, and has a predetermined flexibility in a radial direction to form substantially straight bridge sections between the adjacent groups. 5 figs.

  4. Banded electromagnetic stator core

    DOEpatents

    Fanning, Alan W.; Gonzales, Aaron A.; Patel, Mahadeo R.; Olich, Eugene E.

    1994-01-01

    A stator core for an electromagnetic pump includes a plurality of circumferentially adjoining groups of flat laminations disposed about a common centerline axis and collectively defining a central bore and a discontinuous outer perimeter, with adjacent groups diverging radially outwardly to form V-shaped gaps. An annular band surrounds the groups and is predeterminedly tensioned to clamp together the laminations, and has a predetermined flexibility in a radial direction to form substantially straight bridge sections between the adjacent groups.

  5. Banded electromagnetic stator core

    DOEpatents

    Fanning, Alan W.; Gonzales, Aaron A.; Patel, Mahadeo R.; Olich, Eugene E.

    1996-01-01

    A stator core for an electromagnetic pump includes a plurality of circumferentially adjoining groups of flat laminations disposed about a common centerline axis and collectively defining a central bore and a discontinuous outer perimeter, with adjacent groups diverging radially outwardly to form V-shaped gaps. An annular band surrounds the groups and is predeterminedly tensioned to clamp together the laminations, and has a predetermined flexibility in a radial direction to form substantially straight bridge sections between the adjacent groups.

  6. Banded electromagnetic stator core

    DOEpatents

    Fanning, A.W.; Gonzales, A.A.; Patel, M.R.; Olich, E.E.

    1994-04-05

    A stator core for an electromagnetic pump includes a plurality of circumferentially adjoining groups of flat laminations disposed about a common centerline axis and collectively defining a central bore and a discontinuous outer perimeter, with adjacent groups diverging radially outwardly to form V-shaped gaps. An annular band surrounds the groups and is predeterminedly tensioned to clamp together the laminations, and has a predetermined flexibility in a radial direction to form substantially straight bridge sections between the adjacent groups. 5 figures.

  7. Symmetrical band-pass loudspeaker systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matusiak, Grzegorz Piotr

    2001-12-01

    Loudspeaker systems are analyzed in a doctoral dissertation. The dissertation concerns loudspeaker systems, which are known as subwoofers or band-pass loudspeaker systems. Their advantages include: high- quality sound reproduction in the low-frequency range, small dimensions, small nonlinear distortions and the fact that they can be placed anywhere in a room or car. Band-pass loudspeaker systems are used widely in the so- called Home Theatre as well as to provide sound in cinema, theatre, concert, discotheque, opera, operetta, philharmonic and amphitheater halls, at open-air concerts, and so on. Various designs are mass-produced by a large number of manufacturers. The study covers an analysis of band-pass loudspeaker systems to which the frequency transformation, i.e. the reactance transformation, has been applied. Since this is a symmetrical transformation, amplitude frequency responses of the studied band-pass systems are also symmetrical (logarithmic scale of a frequency). As a result, the high-pass loudspeaker system design method, known as the Thiele-Small, Benson analysis, can be employed. The investigations include the formulation of band-pass system equations (fourth, sixth and eighth-order polynomials) and the subsequent derivation of relations for the calculation of system parameters. The obtained results enable the calculation of optimum designs for prescribed alignments, e.g. (Chebyshev) equal-ripple, (Butterworth) maximally flat, or quasi-maximally flat (QB). The analysis covers fourth, sixth and eighth-order symmetrical systems. Eighth-order systems have been divided into three kinds according to three ways of physical realization. The doctoral dissertation includes band-pass loudspeaker systems, which can be designed with active or passive filters or without the filter. Designed systems consist of a loudspeaker whose front of a diaphragm is loaded with a Helmholtz resonator, i.e. an enclosure with a vent, which radiates sound outwards. The back is

  8. Micromechanics of shear banding

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, J.J.

    1992-08-01

    Shear-banding is one of many instabilities observed during the plastic flow of solids. It is a consequence of the dislocation mechanism which makes plastic flow fundamentally inhomogeneous, and is exacerbated by local adiabatic heating. Dislocation lines tend to be clustered on sets of neighboring glide planes because they are heterogeneously generated; especially through the Koehler multiple-cross-glide mechanism. Factors that influence their mobilities also play a role. Strain-hardening decreases the mobilities within shear bands thereby tending to spread (delocalize) them. Strain-softening has the inverse effect. This paper reviews the micro-mechanisms of these phenomena. It will be shown that heat production is also a consequence of the heterogeneous nature of the microscopic flow, and that dislocation dipoles play an important role. They are often not directly observable, but their presence may be inferred from changes in thermal conductivity. It is argued that after deformation at low temperatures dipoles are distributed a la Pareto so there are many more small than large ones. Instability at upper yield point, the shapes of shear-band fronts, and mechanism of heat generation are also considered. It is shown that strain-rate acceleration plays a more important role than strain-rate itself in adiabatic instability.

  9. Cool Bands: Wing bands decrease rate of heating, but not equilibrium temperature in Anartia fatima.

    PubMed

    Brashears, Jake; Aiello, Annette; Seymoure, Brett M

    2016-02-01

    Butterflies regulate their internal thoracic temperature in order to optimize performance activities (e.g. flight, foraging). Previous research has shown that butterfly wings, particularly the innermost portions, play a role in thermoregulation. We investigated to see whether a lightly colored wing band would alter the thermal properties of the banded peacock butterfly (Anartia fatima) with two within subject experiments in a laboratory setting: (1) band color manipulation in which euthanized individuals were heated to thermal equilibrium with the band unaltered and then again with the wing darkened; (2) wing ablation in which individuals already run through experiment 1 were heated to equilibrium two more times; once with the outer portion of the wing including the band removed and then with the entire wing removed. Individuals were spread so that the dorsal surface of the wing was exposed to illumination from a lamp suspended above. Twelve Anartia fatima males were collected in Panama and were run through experiment one. Four individuals were run through experiment two. We found no effect of darkening the band on the internal thoracic equilibrium temperature, but the darkened band did increase the rate of heating. The wing ablation experiment revealed that wing removal lowered the internal thoracic equilibrium temperature but did not affect the heating rate. Therefore we show that butterfly bands may be important in butterfly thermoregulation and we discuss the importance of the wing band on thermoregulatory abilities in Anartia fatima with respect to the butterfly's natural history. We conclude that the wing band may allow butterflies to reduce heat stress induced by their warm environments.

  10. Cool Bands: Wing bands decrease rate of heating, but not equilibrium temperature in Anartia fatima.

    PubMed

    Brashears, Jake; Aiello, Annette; Seymoure, Brett M

    2016-02-01

    Butterflies regulate their internal thoracic temperature in order to optimize performance activities (e.g. flight, foraging). Previous research has shown that butterfly wings, particularly the innermost portions, play a role in thermoregulation. We investigated to see whether a lightly colored wing band would alter the thermal properties of the banded peacock butterfly (Anartia fatima) with two within subject experiments in a laboratory setting: (1) band color manipulation in which euthanized individuals were heated to thermal equilibrium with the band unaltered and then again with the wing darkened; (2) wing ablation in which individuals already run through experiment 1 were heated to equilibrium two more times; once with the outer portion of the wing including the band removed and then with the entire wing removed. Individuals were spread so that the dorsal surface of the wing was exposed to illumination from a lamp suspended above. Twelve Anartia fatima males were collected in Panama and were run through experiment one. Four individuals were run through experiment two. We found no effect of darkening the band on the internal thoracic equilibrium temperature, but the darkened band did increase the rate of heating. The wing ablation experiment revealed that wing removal lowered the internal thoracic equilibrium temperature but did not affect the heating rate. Therefore we show that butterfly bands may be important in butterfly thermoregulation and we discuss the importance of the wing band on thermoregulatory abilities in Anartia fatima with respect to the butterfly's natural history. We conclude that the wing band may allow butterflies to reduce heat stress induced by their warm environments. PMID:26857983

  11. Analysis of archaeological triacylglycerols by high resolution nanoESI, FT-ICR MS and IRMPD MS/MS: Application to 5th century BC-4th century AD oil lamps from Olbia (Ukraine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, Nicolas; Rolando, Christian; Høtje, Jakob Munk; Tokarski, Caroline

    2009-07-01

    This work presents the precise identification of triacylglycerols (TAGs) extracted from archaeological samples using a methodology based on nanoelectrospray and Fourier transform mass spectrometry. The archaeological TAG identification needs adapted sample preparation protocols to trace samples in advanced degradation state. More precisely, the proposed preparation procedure includes extraction of the lipid components from finely grinded ceramic using dichloromethane/methanol mixture with additional ultrasonication treatment, and TAG purification by solid phase extraction on a diol cartridge. Focusing on the analytical approach, the implementation of "in-house" species-dependent TAG database was investigated using MS and InfraRed Multiphoton Dissociation (IRMPD) MS/MS spectra; several vegetal oils, dairy products and animal fats were studied. The high mass accuracy of the Fourier transform analyzer ([Delta]m below 2.5 ppm) provides easier data interpretation, and allows distinction between products of different origins. In details, the IRMPD spectra of the lithiated TAGs reveal fragmentation reactions including loss of free neutral fatty acid and loss of fatty acid as [alpha],[beta]-unsaturated moieties. Based on the developed preparation procedure and on the constituted database, TAG extracts from 5th century BC to 4th century AD Olbia lamps were analyzed. The structural information obtained succeeds in identifying that bovine/ovine fats were used as fuel used in these archaeological Olbia lamps.

  12. Shell model description of band structure in 48Cr

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Carlos E.; Velazquez, Victor M.

    2007-02-12

    The band structure for normal and abnormal parity bands in 48Cr are described using the m-scheme shell model. In addition to full fp-shell, two particles in the 1d3/2 orbital are allowed in order to describe intruder states. The interaction includes fp-, sd- and mixed matrix elements.

  13. Radiation Dosimetry of Dental Enamel Using X-Band and Q-Band EPR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de, Tania; Romanyukha, Alex; Pass, Barry; Misra, Prabhakar

    2010-02-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimetry of tooth enamel can be used for individual dose reconstruction following radiation accidents. The purpose of this study was to develop a rapid, minimally invasive technique for obtaining a sample of dental enamel small enough to not disturb the structure and functionality of a tooth and to improve the sensitivity of the spectral signals using X-band (9.4 GHz) and Q-band (34 GHz) EPR spectroscopy. EPR measurements in X-band were performed on 100 mg isotropic powdered enamel samples and Q-band measurements done on 4 mg (1x1x3 mm) enamel biopsy samples. All samples were obtained from discarded teeth collected during normal dental treatment. In order to study the variation of the Radiation-Induced Signal (RIS) at different orientations in the applied magnetic field samples were placed in the resonance cavity for Q-band EPR. In X-band spectra, the RIS is distinct from the ``native'' radiation-independent signal only for doses > 0.5Gy. Q-band, however, resolves the RIS and ``native'' signals and improves sensitivity by a factor of 20 enabling measurements in 2-4 mg tooth enamel samples. )

  14. Intersecting kink bands quantified by laser scanning and differential geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunham, R. E.; Crider, J. G.

    2010-12-01

    Microtopography derived from laser scanning is expressed by DEMs that can be analyzed using differential geometry. We apply this technique to rock hand samples containing intersecting kink bands in order to quantitatively describe the shape of a folded surface and understand the localization of strain in deformed rocks. This study is the first to apply laser scanning and geometric curvature analysis to intersecting kink bands in order to better describe the variation of kink band geometries and intersections in plan view and to evaluate relationships between different kink band parameters. A complex set of monoclinal contractional kink bands is well exposed in outcrops of the Darrington Phyllite on Samish Island, northwestern Washington, which provide a three-dimensional view of kink band geometries. Kink bands in cross section have straight, parallel boundaries that deform a well-defined foliation; in plan view, however, kink band hinges curve and anastomose across the foliation surface, and adjacent bands commonly intersect. Three types of intersections are common: crossing (X), bifurcating (Y), and obliquely truncating (λ); many kink bands also taper out along strike. Geometric curvature analyses were performed on millimeter-resolution DEMs of hand samples containing intersecting kink bands. Maps of different curvature parameters (e.g. mean curvature, geologic curvature) clearly outline kink bands in the samples and illuminate the behavior of kink band hinges in each type of intersection. In X-type intersections, curvature increases where two hinges of similar kink sense cross (i.e. anticlinal/anticlinal hinges), increasing strain; where two hinges of opposing sense cross (anticlinal/synclinal), curvature decreases and the surface is effectively unfolded. In Y-type intersections, a single parent band widens and splits into two equally narrow daughter bands, and new inner hinges are nucleated below the bifurcation point. The two daughter bands accommodate

  15. [Evolution of differential chromosome banding].

    PubMed

    Rodionov, A V

    1999-03-01

    Specific chromosome banding patterns in different eukaryotic taxons are reviewed. In all eukaryotes, chromosomes are composed of alternating bands, each differing from the adjacent material by the molecular composition and structural characteristics. In minute chromosomes of fungi and Protozoa, these bands are represented by kinetochores (Kt- (Cd-)bands), nucleolus organizers (N-bands), and telomeres as well as the euchromatin. In genomes of most fungi and protists, long clusters of tandem repeats and, consequently, C-bands were not revealed but they are likely to be found out in species with chromosomes visible under a light microscope, which are several tens of million bp in size. Chromosomes of Metazoa are usually larger. Even in Cnidaria, they contain C-bands, which are replicated late in the S phase. In Deuterostomia, chromosome euchromatin regions differ by replication time: bands replicating at the first half of the S phase alternate with bands replicating at the second half of the S phase. Longitudinal differentiation in the replication pattern of euchromatic regions is observed in all classes of Vertebrata beginning with the bony fish although the time when it developed in Deuterostomia is unknown. Apparently, the evolution of early and late replicating subdomains in Vertebrata euchromatin promoted fast accumulation of differences in the molecular composition of nucleoproteid complexes characteristic of early and late replicating bands. As a result, the more contrasting G/R and Q-banding patterns of chromosomes developed especially in Eutheria. The evolution of Protostomia and Plantae followed another path. An increase in chromosome size was not accompanied by the appearance of wide RBE and RBL euchromatin bands. The G/R-like banding within the interstitial chromosome regions observed in some representatives of Invertebrates and higher plants arose independently in different phylogenetic lineages. This banding pattern seems to be closer to that of C-banding

  16. Broad band waveguide spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Goldman, Don S.

    1995-01-01

    A spectrometer for analyzing a sample of material utilizing a broad band source of electromagnetic radiation and a detector. The spectrometer employs a waveguide possessing an entry and an exit for the electromagnetic radiation emanating from the source. The waveguide further includes a surface between the entry and exit portions which permits interaction between the electromagnetic radiation passing through the wave guide and a sample material. A tapered portion forms a part of the entry of the wave guide and couples the electromagnetic radiation emanating from the source to the waveguide. The electromagnetic radiation passing from the exit of the waveguide is captured and directed to a detector for analysis.

  17. Crater Floor Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    12 February 2004 The somewhat concentric bands in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image may be an expression of eroded layered material. The crater in which these occur is found at middle southern latitude near the west rim of the giant Hellas impact basin. The picture is located near 36.6oS, 321.2oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left; the image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  18. Iliotibial band friction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kirk, K L; Kuklo, T; Klemme, W

    2000-11-01

    Overuse knee injuries are common, but ITBFS is often overlooked as a cause of lateral knee pain in an active population. Iliotibial band friction syndrome is an overuse injury usually seen in long distance runners, cyclists, and military personnel. The exact incidence of the syndrome has been estimated to range from 1.6%-52% depending on the population studied. The diagnosis is often made from a thorough history and clinical examination with an infrequent need for additional studies. Treatment is mostly conservative consisting of rest and anti-inflammatory agents, with only the refractory cases requiring surgical resection of the impinging portion of the ITB.

  19. The Oxygen a Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benner, D. Chris; Devi, V. Malathy; Hoo, Jiajun; Hodges, Joseph; Long, David A.; Sung, Keeyoon; Drouin, Brian; Okumura, Mitchio; Bui, Thinh Quoc; Rupasinghe, Priyanka

    2014-06-01

    The oxygen A band is used for numerous atmospheric experiments, but spectral line parameters that sufficiently describe the spectrum to the level required by OCO2 and other high precision/accuracy experiments are lacking. Fourier transform spectra from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and cavity ring down spectra from the National Institute of Standards and Technology were fitted simultaneously using the William and Mary multispectrum nonlinear least squares fitting technique into a single solution including the entire band. In addition, photoacoustic spectra already available from the California Institute of Technology will be added to the solution. The three types of spectrometers are complementary allowing the strengths of each to fill in the weaknesses of the others. With this technique line positions, intensities, widths, shifts, line mixing, Dicke narrowing, temperature dependences and collision induced absorption have been obtained in a single physically consistent fit. D. Chris Benner, C. P. Rinsland, V. M. Devi, M. A. H. Smith, and D. Atkins, JQSRT 1995;53:705-21. Part of the research described in this paper was performed at The College of William and Mary, the, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contracts and cooperative agreements with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Support for the National Institute of Standards and Technology was provided by the NIST Greenhouse Gas Measurements and Climate Research Program and a NIST Innovations in Measurement Science (IMS) award.

  20. Dichroic Filter for Separating W-Band and Ka-Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epp, Larry W.; Durden, Stephen L.; Jamnejad, Vahraz; Long, Ezra M.; Sosnowski, John B.; Higuera, Raymond J.; Chen, Jacqueline C.

    2012-01-01

    The proposed Aerosol/Cloud/Ecosystems (ACEs) mission development would advance cloud profiling radar from that used in CloudSat by adding a 35-GHz (Ka-band) channel to the 94-GHz (W-band) channel used in CloudSat. In order to illuminate a single antenna, and use CloudSat-like quasi-optical transmission lines, a spatial diplexer is needed to add the Ka-band channel. A dichroic filter separates Ka-band from W-band by employing advances in electrical discharge machining (EDM) and mode-matching analysis techniques developed and validated for designing dichroics for the Deep Space Network (DSN), to develop a preliminary design that both met the requirements of frequency separation and mechanical strength. First, a mechanical prototype was built using an approximately 102-micron-diameter EDM process, and tolerances of the hole dimensions, wall thickness, radius, and dichroic filter thickness measured. The prototype validated the manufacturing needed to design a dichroic filter for a higher-frequency usage than previously used in the DSN. The initial design was based on a Ka-band design, but thicker walls are required for mechanical rigidity than one obtains by simply scaling the Ka-band dichroic filter. The resulting trade of hole dimensions for mechanical rigidity (wall thickness) required electrical redesign of the hole dimensions. Updates to existing codes in the linear solver decreased the analysis time using mode-matching, enabling the electrical design to be realized quickly. This work is applicable to missions and instruments that seek to extend W-band cloud profiling measurements to other frequencies. By demonstrating a dichroic filter that passes W-band, but reflects a lower frequency, this opens up the development of instruments that both compare to and enhance CloudSat.

  1. Band Structure Characteristics of Nacreous Composite Materials with Various Defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, J.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, H. W.; Chen, B. S.

    2016-06-01

    Nacreous composite materials have excellent mechanical properties, such as high strength, high toughness, and wide phononic band gap. In order to research band structure characteristics of nacreous composite materials with various defects, supercell models with the Brick-and-Mortar microstructure are considered. An efficient multi-level substructure algorithm is employed to discuss the band structure. Furthermore, two common systems with point and line defects and varied material parameters are discussed. In addition, band structures concerning straight and deflected crack defects are calculated by changing the shear modulus of the mortar. Finally, the sensitivity of band structures to the random material distribution is presented by considering different volume ratios of the brick. The results reveal that the first band gap of a nacreous composite material is insensitive to defects under certain conditions. It will be of great value to the design and synthesis of new nacreous composite materials for better dynamic properties.

  2. The effect of anatomical modeling on space radiation dose estimates: a comparison of doses for NASA phantoms and the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile male and female astronauts.

    PubMed

    Bahadori, Amir A; Van Baalen, Mary; Shavers, Mark R; Dodge, Charles; Semones, Edward J; Bolch, Wesley E

    2011-03-21

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) performs organ dosimetry and risk assessment for astronauts using model-normalized measurements of the radiation fields encountered in space. To determine the radiation fields in an organ or tissue of interest, particle transport calculations are performed using self-shielding distributions generated with the computer program CAMERA to represent the human body. CAMERA mathematically traces linear rays (or path lengths) through the computerized anatomical man (CAM) phantom, a computational stylized model developed in the early 1970s with organ and body profiles modeled using solid shapes and scaled to represent the body morphometry of the 1950 50th percentile (PCTL) Air Force male. With the increasing use of voxel phantoms in medical and health physics, a conversion from a mathematical-based to a voxel-based ray-tracing algorithm is warranted. In this study, the voxel-based ray tracer (VoBRaT) is introduced to ray trace voxel phantoms using a modified version of the algorithm first proposed by Siddon (1985 Med. Phys. 12 252-5). After validation, VoBRAT is used to evaluate variations in body self-shielding distributions for NASA phantoms and six University of Florida (UF) hybrid phantoms, scaled to represent the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female astronaut body morphometries, which have changed considerably since the inception of CAM. These body self-shielding distributions are used to generate organ dose equivalents and effective doses for five commonly evaluated space radiation environments. It is found that dosimetric differences among the phantoms are greatest for soft radiation spectra and light vehicular shielding.

  3. The effect of anatomical modeling on space radiation dose estimates: a comparison of doses for NASA phantoms and the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile male and female astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahadori, Amir A.; Van Baalen, Mary; Shavers, Mark R.; Dodge, Charles; Semones, Edward J.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2011-03-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) performs organ dosimetry and risk assessment for astronauts using model-normalized measurements of the radiation fields encountered in space. To determine the radiation fields in an organ or tissue of interest, particle transport calculations are performed using self-shielding distributions generated with the computer program CAMERA to represent the human body. CAMERA mathematically traces linear rays (or path lengths) through the computerized anatomical man (CAM) phantom, a computational stylized model developed in the early 1970s with organ and body profiles modeled using solid shapes and scaled to represent the body morphometry of the 1950 50th percentile (PCTL) Air Force male. With the increasing use of voxel phantoms in medical and health physics, a conversion from a mathematical-based to a voxel-based ray-tracing algorithm is warranted. In this study, the voxel-based ray tracer (VoBRaT) is introduced to ray trace voxel phantoms using a modified version of the algorithm first proposed by Siddon (1985 Med. Phys. 12 252-5). After validation, VoBRAT is used to evaluate variations in body self-shielding distributions for NASA phantoms and six University of Florida (UF) hybrid phantoms, scaled to represent the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female astronaut body morphometries, which have changed considerably since the inception of CAM. These body self-shielding distributions are used to generate organ dose equivalents and effective doses for five commonly evaluated space radiation environments. It is found that dosimetric differences among the phantoms are greatest for soft radiation spectra and light vehicular shielding.

  4. The effect of anatomical modeling on space radiation dose estimates: a comparison of doses for NASA phantoms and the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile male and female astronauts.

    PubMed

    Bahadori, Amir A; Van Baalen, Mary; Shavers, Mark R; Dodge, Charles; Semones, Edward J; Bolch, Wesley E

    2011-03-21

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) performs organ dosimetry and risk assessment for astronauts using model-normalized measurements of the radiation fields encountered in space. To determine the radiation fields in an organ or tissue of interest, particle transport calculations are performed using self-shielding distributions generated with the computer program CAMERA to represent the human body. CAMERA mathematically traces linear rays (or path lengths) through the computerized anatomical man (CAM) phantom, a computational stylized model developed in the early 1970s with organ and body profiles modeled using solid shapes and scaled to represent the body morphometry of the 1950 50th percentile (PCTL) Air Force male. With the increasing use of voxel phantoms in medical and health physics, a conversion from a mathematical-based to a voxel-based ray-tracing algorithm is warranted. In this study, the voxel-based ray tracer (VoBRaT) is introduced to ray trace voxel phantoms using a modified version of the algorithm first proposed by Siddon (1985 Med. Phys. 12 252-5). After validation, VoBRAT is used to evaluate variations in body self-shielding distributions for NASA phantoms and six University of Florida (UF) hybrid phantoms, scaled to represent the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female astronaut body morphometries, which have changed considerably since the inception of CAM. These body self-shielding distributions are used to generate organ dose equivalents and effective doses for five commonly evaluated space radiation environments. It is found that dosimetric differences among the phantoms are greatest for soft radiation spectra and light vehicular shielding. PMID:21346276

  5. Retention of riveted aluminum leg bands by wild turkeys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diefenbach, Duane R.; Vreeland, Wendy C.; Casalena, Mary Jo; Schiavone, Michael V.

    2016-01-01

    In order for mark–recapture models to provide unbiased estimates of population parameters, it is critical that uniquely identifying tags or marks are not lost. We double-banded male and female wild turkeys with aluminum rivet bands and estimated the probability that a bird would be recovered with both bands <1–225 wk since banding (mean = 51.2 wk, SD = 44.0). We found that 100% of females (n = 37) were recovered with both bands. For males, we recovered 6 of 188 turkeys missing a rivet band for a retention probability of 0.984 (95% CI = 0.96–0.99). If male turkeys are double-banded with rivet bands the probability of recovering a turkey without any marks is <0.001. We failed to detect a change in band retention over time or differences between adults and juveniles. Given the low cost and high retention rates of rivet aluminum bands, we believe they are an effective marking technique for wild turkeys and, for most studies, will minimize any concern about the assumption that marks are not lost.

  6. Resonant radiation from oscillating higher order solitons

    SciTech Connect

    Driben, R.; Yulin, A. V.; Efimov, A.

    2015-07-15

    We present radiation mechanism exhibited by a higher order soliton. In a course of its evolution the higher-order soliton emits polychromatic radiation resulting in formation of multipeak frequency comb-like spectral band. The shape and spectral position of this band can be effectively controlled by the relative strength of the third order dispersion. An analytical description is corroborated by numerical simulations. Research showed that for longer pulses the described effect persists also under the action of higher order perturbations such as Raman and self-steepening.

  7. Gutzwiller theory of band magnetism in LaOFeAs.

    PubMed

    Schickling, Tobias; Gebhard, Florian; Bünemann, Jörg; Boeri, Lilia; Andersen, Ole K; Weber, Werner

    2012-01-20

    We use the Gutzwiller variational theory to calculate the ground-state phase diagram and quasiparticle bands of LaOFeAs. The Fe3d-As4p Wannier-orbital basis obtained from density-functional theory defines the band part of our eight-band Hubbard model. The full atomic interaction between the electrons in the iron orbitals is parametrized by the Hubbard interaction U and an average Hund's-rule interaction J. We reproduce the experimentally observed small ordered magnetic moment over a large region of (U,J) parameter space. The magnetically ordered phase is a stripe spin-density wave of quasiparticles.

  8. Resolving the forbidden band of SF6.

    PubMed

    Boudon, V; Manceron, L; Kwabia Tchana, F; Loëte, M; Lago, L; Roy, P

    2014-01-28

    Sulfur hexafluoride is an important molecule for modeling thermophysical and polarizability properties. It is also a potent greenhouse gas of anthropogenic origin, whose concentration in the atmosphere, although very low is increasing rapidly; its global warming power is mostly conferred by its strong infrared absorption in the ν3 S-F stretching region near 948 cm(-1). This heavy species, however, features many hot bands at room temperature (at which only 31% of the molecules lie in the ground vibrational state), especially those originating from the lowest, v6 = 1 vibrational state. Unfortunately, the ν6 band itself (near 347 cm(-1)), in the first approximation, is both infrared- and Raman-inactive, and no reliable spectroscopic information could be obtained up to now and this has precluded a correct modeling of the hot bands. It has been suggested theoretically and experimentally that this band might be slightly activated through Coriolis interaction with infrared-active fundamentals and appears in high pressure measurements as a very faint, unresolved band. Using a new cryogenic multipass cell with 93 m optical path length and regulated at 163 ± 2 K temperature, coupled to synchrotron radiation and a high resolution interferometer, the spectrum of the ν6 far-infrared region has been recorded. Low temperature was used to avoid the presence of hot bands. We are thus able to confirm that the small feature in this region, previously viewed at low-resolution, is indeed ν6. The fully resolved spectrum has been analyzed, thanks to the XTDS software package. The band appears to be activated by faint Coriolis interactions with the strong ν3 and ν4 fundamental bands, resulting in the appearance of a small first-order dipole moment term, inducing unusual selection rules. The band center (ν6 = 347.736707(35) cm(-1)) and rovibrational parameters are now accurately determined for the v6 = 1 level. The ν6 perturbation-induced dipole moment is estimated to be 33 ± 3

  9. Resolving the forbidden band of SF6.

    PubMed

    Boudon, V; Manceron, L; Kwabia Tchana, F; Loëte, M; Lago, L; Roy, P

    2014-01-28

    Sulfur hexafluoride is an important molecule for modeling thermophysical and polarizability properties. It is also a potent greenhouse gas of anthropogenic origin, whose concentration in the atmosphere, although very low is increasing rapidly; its global warming power is mostly conferred by its strong infrared absorption in the ν3 S-F stretching region near 948 cm(-1). This heavy species, however, features many hot bands at room temperature (at which only 31% of the molecules lie in the ground vibrational state), especially those originating from the lowest, v6 = 1 vibrational state. Unfortunately, the ν6 band itself (near 347 cm(-1)), in the first approximation, is both infrared- and Raman-inactive, and no reliable spectroscopic information could be obtained up to now and this has precluded a correct modeling of the hot bands. It has been suggested theoretically and experimentally that this band might be slightly activated through Coriolis interaction with infrared-active fundamentals and appears in high pressure measurements as a very faint, unresolved band. Using a new cryogenic multipass cell with 93 m optical path length and regulated at 163 ± 2 K temperature, coupled to synchrotron radiation and a high resolution interferometer, the spectrum of the ν6 far-infrared region has been recorded. Low temperature was used to avoid the presence of hot bands. We are thus able to confirm that the small feature in this region, previously viewed at low-resolution, is indeed ν6. The fully resolved spectrum has been analyzed, thanks to the XTDS software package. The band appears to be activated by faint Coriolis interactions with the strong ν3 and ν4 fundamental bands, resulting in the appearance of a small first-order dipole moment term, inducing unusual selection rules. The band center (ν6 = 347.736707(35) cm(-1)) and rovibrational parameters are now accurately determined for the v6 = 1 level. The ν6 perturbation-induced dipole moment is estimated to be 33 ± 3

  10. Single-order laser high harmonics in XUV for ultrafast photoelectron spectroscopy of molecular wavepacket dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Fushitani, Mizuho; Hishikawa, Akiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    We present applications of extreme ultraviolet (XUV) single-order laser harmonics to gas-phase ultrafast photoelectron spectroscopy. Ultrashort XUV pulses at 80 nm are obtained as the 5th order harmonics of the fundamental laser at 400 nm by using Xe or Kr as the nonlinear medium and separated from other harmonic orders by using an indium foil. The single-order laser harmonics is applied for real-time probing of vibrational wavepacket dynamics of I2 molecules in the bound and dissociating low-lying electronic states and electronic-vibrational wavepacket dynamics of highly excited Rydberg N2 molecules. PMID:27795976

  11. Development of Wide Band Feeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujihara, H.; Ichikawa, R.

    2012-12-01

    Wide Band feeds are being developed at NICT, NAOJ, and some universities in Japan for VLBI2010, SKA, and MARBLE. SKA, the Square Kilometre Array, will comprise thousands of radio telescopes with square kilometer aperture size for radio astronomy. MARBLE consists of small portable VLBI stations developed at NICT and GSI in Japan. They all need wide band feeds with a greater than 1:10 frequency ratio. Thus we have been studying wide band feeds with dual linear polarization for these applications.

  12. Ethmocephaly with amniotic band syndrome.

    PubMed

    Das, Gobinda; Gayen, Sibnath; Bandyopadhyay, Sabyasachi; Das, Debabrata

    2012-10-01

    Ethmocephaly is the rarest form of holoprosencephaly, which occurs due to an incomplete cleavage of the forebrain. Clinically, the disease presents with a proboscis, hypotelorism, microphthalmos and malformed ears. Amniotic band syndrome is another rare congenital malformation with ring-like constriction bands in the limbs, head, face or trunk. We present a case of ethmocephaly with amniotic band syndrome, which is likely the first of its kind, published in the literature. PMID:23248551

  13. Iliotibial band Z-lengthening.

    PubMed

    Richards, David P; Alan Barber, F; Troop, Randal L

    2003-03-01

    Iliotibial band friction syndrome (ITBFS) is a common overuse injury reported to afflict 1.6% to 12% of runners. It results from an inflammatory response secondary to excessive friction that occurs between the lateral femoral epicondyle and the iliotibial band. Initial treatments include rest, anti-inflammatory medication, modalities (ice or heat), stretching, physical therapy, and possibly a cortisone injection. In recalcitrant cases of ITBFS, surgery has been advocated. This report describes a surgical technique of Z-lengthening of the iliotibial band in patients presenting with lateral knee pain localized to the iliotibial band at the lateral femoral epicondyle and Gerdy's tubercle who failed all nonoperative efforts.

  14. Photonic band structure

    SciTech Connect

    Yablonovitch, E.

    1993-05-01

    We learned how to create 3-dimensionally periodic dielectric structures which are to photon waves, as semiconductor crystals are to electron waves. That is, these photonic crystals have a photonic bandgap, a band of frequencies in which electromagnetic waves are forbidden, irrespective of propagation direction in space. Photonic bandgaps provide for spontaneous emission inhibition and allow for a new class of electromagnetic micro-cavities. If the perfect 3-dimensional periodicity is broken by a local defect, then local electromagnetic modes can occur within the forbidden bandgap. The addition of extra dielectric material locally, inside the photonic crystal, produces {open_quotes}donor{close_quotes} modes. Conversely, the local removal of dielectric material from the photonic crystal produces {open_quotes}acceptor{close_quotes} modes. Therefore, it will now be possible to make high-Q electromagnetic cavities of volume {approx_lt}1 cubic wavelength, for short wavelengths at which metallic cavities are useless. These new dielectric micro-resonators can cover the range all the way from millimeter waves, down to ultraviolet wavelengths.

  15. Garage Band or GarageBand[R]? Remixing Musical Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vakeva, Lauri

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, I suggest that it is perhaps time to consider the pedagogy of popular music in more extensive terms than conventional rock band practices have to offer. One direction in which this might lead is the expansion of the informal pedagogy based on a "garage band" model to encompass various modes of digital artistry wherever this artistry…

  16. [Orthogonal projection divergence-based hyperspectral band selection].

    PubMed

    Su, Hong-jun; Sheng, Ye-hua; Yang, He; Du, Qian

    2011-05-01

    Due to the high data dimensionality of a hyperspectral image, dimensionality reduction algorithm has attracted much attention in hyperspectral image analysis. Band selection algorithm, which selects appropriate bands from the original set of spectral bands, can preserve original information from the data and is useful for image classification and recognition. In the present paper, a novel band selection algorithm based on orthogonal projection divergence (OPD) is proposed, it aims to discriminate the interesting objects from background and noise information, maximize the spectral similarity between different spectral vectors by projecting the original data to feature space. Two HYDICE Washington DC Mall images and an HYMAP Purdue campus image data were experimented, and support vector machine (SVM) classifier was used for classification. The selected band number varies from 5 to 40 in order to study the impacts of different band selection algorithms on different features. For the computation complex, the sequential floating forward search (SFFS) was used to get the appropriate bands. The experiments have proved that our proposed OPD algorithm can outperform other traditional band selection methods such as SAM, ED, SID, and LCMV-BCC for hyperspectral image analysis. It is proven that OPD band selection is effective and robust in hyperspectral remote sensing dimensionality reduction

  17. Optimum band selection for landslide studies in temperate environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Mohammad F.; Petley, David; Murphy, William; Inkpen, Rob

    2003-03-01

    The problems associated with the selection of the optimum band combination have been recognised since the early days of the Landsat MSS. Although this instrument consists of only four bands, it was soon realised that the number of bands would increase as the technology advanced. Obviously, to generate and analyse every combination of bands is potentially time-consuming. Various statistical methods of choosing the band combination containing the most information for environmental and geological studies such as optimum index factor, maximum variance-covariance determinant, and principal component analysis have been introduced. In order to evaluate the applicability of these methods to landslide studies, the eleven band Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) imagery of the inland slopes of Stonebarrow Hill in West Dorset, England was used. These slopes are extensively mantled with relict landslide features. The best band combination results obtained from these methods are evaluated against the visually checked imagery, where all possible bands are generated and classified in terms of texture and colour. The ability to express the texture and colour in the composite imagery that might be related to the landslide features are crucial in landslide studies.The results showed that all these statistical methods are not suitable to be used in landslides study. However, from early visual classification results showed that two combinations of three bands from three different wavelengths produced the best composite image.

  18. High-order harmonics in static gas target by 795-nm Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yuanqin; Chen, Deying; Chen, Jianxin; Wang, Qi

    2004-03-01

    The 5th-23rd high-order harmonics generation in rare gases in static gas target with 120-fs, 85-mJ/pulse, 10-Hz laser system was investigated. Compared with the traditional gas target, static gas target is simple to be used in experiment, and the experimental parameters can be easily controlled. The effects on high-order harmonics due to laser intensities (energy), polarization, gas densities, confocal parameter, and phase mismatch were studied in this paper.

  19. Flood disaster monitoring in Thailand by using a airborne L-band SAR: Polarimetric and interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar with L-band(Pi-SAR-L)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawano, N.; Sobue, S.; Shimada, M.; Ohyoshi, K.

    2012-04-01

    It was heavy rainfall around the northern region of Thailand from July to September 2011, which caused flood disaster to quite wide region of Thailand, it finally reached to the Bangkok central in the end of October 2011. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) conducted an emergency observation by using a airborne L-band SAR: Polarimetric and interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar with L-band(Pi-SAR-L) from 5th to 27th November to monitor flood area. Pi-SAR-L has a center frequency of 1271.5 MHz, a band width of 50 MHz, a slant range resolution of 3 m, and an acquisition swath of 15 km on the ground. Pi-SAR-L is boarded on an aircraft of the Gulfstream-II operated by the Diamond Air Service(DAS), Japan, and the Gulfstream-II was ferried to the Chieng-Mai airport in the North Thailand, from Japan. In our presentation, we will show flood area around Bangkok and its variations detected by Pi-SAR-L

  20. A comparative study of the effect of cholesterol on bicelle model membranes using X-band and Q-band EPR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ghimire, Harishchandra; Inbaraj, Johnson J.

    2009-01-01

    X-band and Q-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic techniques were used to investigate the structure and dynamics of cholesterol containing phospholipid bicelles based upon molecular order parameters (Smol), orientational dependent hyperfine splittings and line shape analysis of the corresponding EPR spectra. The nitroxide spin label 3-β-doxyl-5-α-cholestane (cholestane) was incorporated into DMPC/DHPC bicelles to report the alignment of bicelles in the static magnetic field. The influence of cholesterol on aligned phospholipid bicelles in terms of ordering, the ease of alignment, phase transition temperature have been studied comparatively at X-band and Q-band. At a magnetic field of 1.25 T (Q-band), bicelles with 20 mol% cholesterol aligned at a much lower temperature (313 K), when compared to 318 K at a 0.35 T field strength for X-band, showed better hyperfine splitting values (18.29 G at X-band vs. 18.55 G at Q-band for perpendicular alignment and 8.25 G at X-band vs. 7.83 G at Q-band for the parallel alignment at 318 K) and have greater molecular order parameters (0.76 at X-band vs. 0.86 at Q-band at 318 K). Increasing cholesterol content increased the bicelle ordering, the bicelle-alignment temperature and the gel to liquid crystalline phase transition temperature. We observed that Q-band is more effective than X-band for studying aligned bicelles, because it yielded a higher ordered bicelle system for EPR spectroscopic studies. PMID:19501076

  1. Band of Rubble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This artist's animation illustrates a massive asteroid belt in orbit around a star the same age and size as our Sun. Evidence for this possible belt was discovered by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope when it spotted warm dust around the star, presumably from asteroids smashing together.

    The view starts from outside the belt, where planets like the one shown here might possibly reside, then moves into to the dusty belt itself. A collision between two asteroids is depicted near the end of the movie. Collisions like this replenish the dust in the asteroid belt, making it detectable to Spitzer.

    The alien belt circles a faint, nearby star called HD 69830 located 41 light-years away in the constellation Puppis. Compared to our own solar system's asteroid belt, this one is larger and closer to its star - it is 25 times as massive, and lies just inside an orbit equivalent to that of Venus. Our asteroid belt circles between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.

    Because Jupiter acts as an outer wall to our asteroid belt, shepherding its debris into a series of bands, it is possible that an unseen planet is likewise marshalling this belt's rubble. Previous observations using the radial velocity technique did not locate any large gas giant planets, indicating that any planets present in this system would have to be the size of Saturn or smaller.

    Asteroids are chunks of rock from 'failed' planets, which never managed to coalesce into full-sized planets. Asteroid belts can be thought of as construction sites that accompany the building of rocky planets.

  2. Paleomagnetic dating of liesegang bands

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, K.A.; Elmore, R.

    1985-01-01

    Paleomagnetic analysis, in conjunction with petrographic studies, was used to date the formation of hematite liesegang bands in the Ordovician Upper Arbuckle Group in southern Oklahoma. The hematite bands form symmetrical patterns on both sides of calcite-filled fractures in dolomite beds. The bands decrease in abundance and become more diffuse away from the fractures. Dedolomite is common near the fractures. Samples from distinctly banded dolomite near the fractures contain a relatively strong chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) with a southeasterly declination and shallow inclination. Samples farther from the fractures that are less distinctly banded or have no bands contain a weaker and less table CRM. Petrographic evidence and stable demagnetization to 600/sup 0/C indicate that the CRM resides in hematite. Samples were collected from both flanks of the Arbuckle Anticline (late Pennsylvanian folding), and a fold test demonstrates that the CRM is post-folding. The pole position for the CRM corresponds to the Early Permian (approx. 280 Ma) part of the Apparent Polar Wander Path for stable North America. These results suggest that the liesegang bands formed in the Early Permian, probably by rhythmic precipitation of hematite from fluids that moved out from the fractures. The fluids also apparently caused dedolomitization and precipitation of calcite in intercrystalline pore spaces. These fluids were probably the source of iron for the bands, although iron released from dedolimitization of ferroan dolomite may have been a local source.

  3. The Moral Ends of Band

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allsup, Randall Everett

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical framework through which to reimagine and revitalize contemporary music education practices, using the large ensemble paradigm called "band" as the primary unit of analysis. Literature suggests that band places too much emphasis on teacher control and external measures of validation. Critics propose replacing…

  4. Orbiter KU-band transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halterman, R.

    1976-01-01

    The design, build, and test of an engineering breadboard Ku band quadraphase shift keyed and wideband frequency modulated transmitter are described. This orbiter Ku band transmitter drawer is to simulate the orbiter transmitter and meet the functional requirements of the orbiter communication link.

  5. Report from the banding lab

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tautin, J.

    1995-01-01

    Mr. Tautin reported on the seemingly everchanging structure of biological science units within the Interior Department. Current Congressional proposals would either change the name of the Bird Banding Lab's parent agency or make it part of the Geological Survey. The current Congress has not looked favorably on science budgets within the Interior Department, and the Banding Lab's budget is being squeezed ever tighter.

  6. Band anticrossing in dilute nitrides

    SciTech Connect

    Shan, W.; Yu, K.M.; Walukiewicz, W.; Wu, J.; Ager III, J.W.; Haller, E.E.

    2003-12-23

    Alloying III-V compounds with small amounts of nitrogen leads to dramatic reduction of the fundamental band-gap energy in the resulting dilute nitride alloys. The effect originates from an anti-crossing interaction between the extended conduction-band states and localized N states. The interaction splits the conduction band into two nonparabolic subbands. The downward shift of the lower conduction subband edge is responsible for the N-induced reduction of the fundamental band-gap energy. The changes in the conduction band structure result in significant increase in electron effective mass and decrease in the electron mobility, and lead to a large enhance of the maximum doping level in GaInNAs doped with group VI donors. In addition, a striking asymmetry in the electrical activation of group IV and group VI donors can be attributed to mutual passivation process through formation of the nearest neighbor group-IV donor nitrogen pairs.

  7. Modeling direct band-to-band tunneling: From bulk to quantum-confined semiconductor devices

    SciTech Connect

    Carrillo-Nuñez, H.; Ziegler, A.; Luisier, M.; Schenk, A.

    2015-06-21

    A rigorous framework to study direct band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) in homo- and hetero-junction semiconductor nanodevices is introduced. An interaction Hamiltonian coupling conduction and valence bands (CVBs) is derived using a multiband envelope method. A general form of the BTBT probability is then obtained from the linear response to the “CVBs interaction” that drives the system out of equilibrium. Simple expressions in terms of the one-electron spectral function are developed to compute the BTBT current in two- and three-dimensional semiconductor structures. Additionally, a two-band envelope equation based on the Flietner model of imaginary dispersion is proposed for the same purpose. In order to characterize their accuracy and differences, both approaches are compared with full-band, atomistic quantum transport simulations of Ge, InAs, and InAs-Si Esaki diodes. As another numerical application, the BTBT current in InAs-Si nanowire tunnel field-effect transistors is computed. It is found that both approaches agree with high accuracy. The first one is considerably easier to conceive and could be implemented straightforwardly in existing quantum transport tools based on the effective mass approximation to account for BTBT in nanodevices.

  8. SF_6: the Forbidden Band Unveiled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudon, V.; Manceron, L.; Kwabia-Tchana, F.; Roy, P.

    2013-06-01

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF_6) is a greenhouse gas of anthropogenic origin, whose strong infrared absorption in the ν_3 S-F stretching region near 948 cm^{-1} induces a global warming potential 23900 times bigger than CO_2. This heavy species features many hot bands at room temperature (at which the ground state population is only 30 %), especially those originating from the v_6=1 state. Unfortunately, the ν_6 band itself (near 347 cm^{-1}) being, in first approximation, both infrared and Raman inactive, no reliable information could be obtained about it up to now. A long time ago, some authors suggested that this band may be slightly activated through Coriolis interaction and may appear as a very faint band, with an integrated intensity about 2 millionths of that of ν_3. Using a new cryogenic multipass cell with 93 m optical path length and regulated at 165± 2 K temperature, we recorded a spectrum of the ν_6 far-infrared region thanks to the performances of the AILES Beamline at the SOLEIL french synchrotron facility. Low temperature was used to avoid the presence of the 2ν_6-ν_6 hot band and to reduce the neighboring, stronger ν_4-ν_2 difference band. We are thus able to confirm that the small feature in this region, previously viewed at low-resolution is indeed ν_6. We present its fully resolved spectrum. It appears to be activated thanks to unidentified faint interactions resulting in the presence of a first-order dipole moment term that induces unusual selection rules. This spectrum was analyzed thanks to the XTDS software package, leading to accurate molecular spectroscopic parameters that should be useful to model the hot bands of SF_6. W. B. Person, B. J. Krohn, J. Mol. Spectrosc. {98}, 229-257 (1983), C. Chappados, G. Birnbaum, J. Mol. Spectrosc. {105}, 206-214 (1984). Ch. Wenger, V. Boudon, M. Rotger, M. Sanzharov and J.-P. Champion, J. Mol. Spectrosc., {251} 102-113 (2008).

  9. Interlayer interaction and π-band electron occupation on top layers of freshly cleaved bulk HOPG investigated with N(E) C KVV Auger electron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dementjev, A. P.; Ivanov, K. E.; Tsyvkunova, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    N(E) C KVV Auger spectra (V = σsσpπ) were used for measurement of the π-band electron occupation of five outer layers on freshly cleaved bulk HOPG. The π-band electron occupation of the 1-5 graphene layers was measured relative to the electron concentration in the σp-band. In-depth π-band profiles were obtained by means of variation of the Auger electron takeoff angle within the range of 15-90°. Differences in the π-band electron occupation of the 1-5 graphene layers were determined. The π-band electron occupation varies from 0 at the top graphene layer to that of the π-band electron occupation typical for bulk HOPG at the 5th graphene layer counted from the outer surface. These results are discussed on the basis of the π-band formation under the interlayer interaction of the pz-electrons.

  10. Temperature-dependent internal photoemission probe for band parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lao, Yan-Feng; Perera, A. G. Unil

    2012-11-01

    The temperature-dependent characteristic of band offsets at the heterojunction interface was studied by an internal photoemission (IPE) method. In contrast to the traditional Fowler method independent of the temperature (T), this method takes into account carrier thermalization and carrier/dopant-induced band-renormalization and band-tailing effects, and thus measures the band-offset parameter at different temperatures. Despite intensive studies in the past few decades, the T dependence of this key band parameter is still not well understood. Re-examining a p-type doped GaAs emitter/undoped AlxGa1-xAs barrier heterojunction system disclosed its previously ignored T dependency in the valence-band offset, with a variation up to ˜-10-4 eV/K in order to accommodate the difference in the T-dependent band gaps between GaAs and AlGaAs. Through determining the Fermi energy level (Ef), IPE is able to distinguish the impurity (IB) and valence bands (VB) of extrinsic semiconductors. One important example is to determine Ef of dilute magnetic semiconductors such as GaMnAs, and to understand whether it is in the IB or VB.

  11. Improved target detection by IR dual-band image fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adomeit, U.; Ebert, R.

    2009-09-01

    Dual-band thermal imagers acquire information simultaneously in both the 8-12 μm (long-wave infrared, LWIR) and the 3-5 μm (mid-wave infrared, MWIR) spectral range. Compared to single-band thermal imagers they are expected to have several advantages in military applications. These advantages include the opportunity to use the best band for given atmospheric conditions (e. g. cold climate: LWIR, hot and humid climate: MWIR), the potential to better detect camouflaged targets and an improved discrimination between targets and decoys. Most of these advantages have not yet been verified and/or quantified. It is expected that image fusion allows better exploitation of the information content available with dual-band imagers especially with respect to detection of targets. We have developed a method for dual-band image fusion based on the apparent temperature differences in the two bands. This method showed promising results in laboratory tests. In order to evaluate its performance under operational conditions we conducted a field trial in an area with high thermal clutter. In such areas, targets are hardly to detect in single-band images because they vanish in the clutter structure. The image data collected in this field trial was used for a perception experiment. This perception experiment showed an enhanced target detection range and reduced false alarm rate for the fused images compared to the single-band images.

  12. Report on holographic tests at S-band and K-band on the DSS-63 64 metre antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godwin, M. P.; Schoessow, E. P.; Richards, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    High resolution holographic tests were carried out on DSS-63 at S-band and K-band during May l985. These tests followed a mechanical retrofit which involved the addition of structural bracing to the backing structure. Geosynchronous satellite beacons were used as sources for the tests. At a resolution of 0.4m the S-band and K-band tests revealed rms deviations of the surface to be 2.73mm and 1.53mm, respectively. The difference between these two results is thought to be due mainly to contamination of the S-band surface error map by expected and generally predictable subreflector diffraction effects. The S-band map is also known to be contaminated by diffraction from the subreflector support struts and has a higher noise level than the K-band map. A list of corrections to be applied to the reflector panels is derived from the K-band map. These corrections are predicted to reduce the rms deviation from 1.53mm to 0.86mm at 0.4m resolution. Comparison with results obtained before the mechanical retrofit suggests the major effect of the added structural bracing to be reduction of a third order deformation of the reflector about its axis.

  13. Simulation of radar backscattering from snowpack at X-band and Ku-band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, Michel; Phan, Xuan-Vu; Ferro-Famil, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a multilayer snowpack electromagnetic backscattering model, based on Dense Media Radiative Transfer (DMRT). This model is capable of simulating the interaction of electromagnetic wave (EMW) at X-band and Ku-band frequencies with multilayer snowpack. The air-snow interface and snow-ground backscattering components are calculated using the Integral Equation Model (IEM) by [1], whereas the volume backscattering component is calculated based on the solution of Vector Radiative Transfer (VRT) equation at order 1. Case study has been carried out using measurement data from NoSREx project [2], which include SnowScat data in X-band and Ku-band, TerraSAR-X acquisitions and snowpack stratigraphic in-situ measurements. The results of model simulations show good agreement with the radar observations, and therefore allow the DMRT model to be used in various applications, such as data assimilation [3]. [1] A.K. Fung and K.S. Chen, "An update on the iem surface backscattering model," Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, IEEE, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 75 - 77, april 2004. [2] J. Lemmetyinen, A. Kontu, J. Pulliainen, A. Wiesmann, C. Werner, T. Nagler, H. Rott, and M. Heidinger, "Technical assistance for the deployment of an x- to ku-band scatterometer during the nosrex ii experiment," Final Report, ESA ESTEC Contract No. 22671/09/NL/JA., 2011. [3] X. V. Phan, L. Ferro-Famil, M. Gay, Y. Durand, M. Dumont, S. Morin, S. Allain, G. D'Urso, and A. Girard, "3d-var multilayer assimilation of x-band sar data into a detailed snowpack model," The Cryosphere Discussions, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 4881-4912, 2013.

  14. Bonds, bands and elasticity of smithsonite rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouibes, A.; Zaoui, A.; Tunega, D.

    2013-07-01

    The objective here is to spread out in detail the various fundamental state properties of smithsonite rock (ZnCO3) for which the most intrinsic quantities remain still unknown. First-principles electronic structure calculations based on the density functional theory with the pseudopotential method were performed using diverse functionals. A number of mechanical quantities were evaluated such as bulk modulus, elastic constants, Young's and shear moduli, and transversal and longitudinal sound velocities (VS and VP). Fitting the compression data of smithsonite to the third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state gives a bulk modulus of 124.17 GPa, which reflects an important rigidity compared to the other carbonates. The analysis of the band structure reveals a band-gap energy of 3.36 eV that is close enough to some semiconductors rather than insulators. Finally the chemical bonding was analyzed through the electronic charge density of the total contributions of the valence bands. A pronounced charge transfer was observed towards the carbonate ion, indicating thereby the ionic character of ZnCO3.

  15. On the persistence of adiabatic shear bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boakye-Yiadom, S.; Bassim, M. N.; Al-Ameeri, S.

    2012-08-01

    It is generally agreed that the initiation and development of adiabatic shear bands (ASBs) are manifestations of damage in metallic materials subjected to high strain rates and large strains as those due to impact in a Hopkinson Bar system. Models for evolution of these bands have been described in the literature. One question that has not received attention is how persistent these bands are and whether their presence and effect can be reversed or eliminated by using a process of thermal (heat treatment) or thermo-mechanical treatment that would relieve the material from the high strain associated with ASBs and their role as precursors to crack initiation and subsequent failure. Since ASBs are more prevalent and more defined in BCC metals including steels, a study was conducted to investigate the best conditions of generating ASBs in a heat treatable steel, followed by determining the best conditions for heat treatment of specimens already damaged by the presence of ASBs in order to relieve the strains due to ASBs and restore the material to an apparent microstructure without the "scars" due to the previous presence of ASBs. It was found that heat treatment achieves the curing from ASBs. This presentation documents the process undertaken to achieve this objective.

  16. M1 bands and intruder bands in {sup 113}In

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrawarthy, R.S.; Pillay, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    High spin states in {sup 113}In have been established up to 6.2 MeV in excitation energy and to a tentative spin of (43/2{sup {minus}}) through the reaction {sup 110}Pd({sup 7}Li, 4n){sup 113}In at a beam energy of 40 MeV. In-beam measurements involved {gamma}-{gamma} coincidences, angular distribution of emitted gamma rays, and directional correlation of oriented states. M1 bands consisting of {Delta}I=1 dipole transitions have been observed. Possible quasiparticle configurations suggest that these bands are similar to the shears bands observed in Pb nuclei. Two intruder bands based on the {pi}h{sub 11/2} orbital and {pi}g{sub 7/2} orbital have been observed. Results of the total Routhian surface and cranked shell model calculations are compared with the experimental data. Alignment features of the intruder bands in the N=62 and 64 isotones are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  17. Aberrations of the cathode objective lens up to fifth order.

    PubMed

    Tromp, R M; Wan, W; Schramm, S M

    2012-08-01

    In this paper we discuss a topic that was close to Prof. Gertrude Rempfer s interests for many years. On this occasion of her 100th birthday, we remember and honor Gertrude for her many outstanding contributions, and for the inspiring example that she set. We derive theoretical expressions for the aberration coefficients of the uniform electrostatic field up to 5th order and compare these with raytracing calculations for the cathode lens used in Low Energy Electron Microscopy and Photo Electron Emission Microscopy experiments. These higher order aberration coefficients are of interest for aberration corrected experiments in which chromatic (C(c)) and spherical (C₃) aberrations of the microscope are set to zero. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the results of raytracing. Calculations of image resolution using the Contrast Transfer Function method show that sub-nanometer resolution is achievable in an aberration corrected LEEM system. PMID:22188906

  18. Band offsets and band bending at heterovalent semiconductor interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, A.; Bass, U.; Mahapatra, S.; Schumacher, C.; Geurts, J.; Brunner, K.

    2010-11-01

    We present a comprehensive study of band offsets and band bending at heterovalent semiconductor heterointerfaces. A perfectly abrupt heterovalent interface is usually thermodynamically unstable, and atomic intermixing of materials with different numbers of valence electrons causes large variations in band offsets and local doping density, depending on the spatial arrangement of atoms at the interface. The studied prototypical II-VI/III-V semiconductor interfaces are n -doped ZnSe/GaAs (001) heterostructures with varied composition profiles close to the interface, which were realized by molecular-beam epitaxy with different amounts of Zn or Se predeposited on n -GaAs prior to n -ZnSe layer growth. The samples are characterized by temperature-dependent electrical transport across the interface, electrochemical capacitance-voltage profiling, Raman spectroscopy, and high-resolution x-ray diffraction. We find that the potential barrier in the conduction band at a Zn-rich n -ZnSe/ n -GaAs interface is as high as 550 meV and it gradually decreases with Se predeposition down to about 70 meV. A large depletion region at the heterointerface, about 50 nm wide, is assigned to significant intermixing of acceptor-type atoms, resulting in an effective electron deficit of 1.5×1013cm-2 . The depletion width and the acceptor density around the interface are nearly independent from the growth start procedure. Se predeposition, however, partially shifts the depletion region at the heterointerface from GaAs into ZnSe, compared to Zn predeposition. The results are discussed on the basis of a band-bending model accounting for variable band offsets, interface state density and atomic interdiffusion profiles depending on growth start.

  19. Single-Band and Dual-Band Infrared Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor); Soibel, Alexander (Inventor); Nguyen, Jean (Inventor); Khoshakhlagh, Arezou (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Bias-switchable dual-band infrared detectors and methods of manufacturing such detectors are provided. The infrared detectors are based on a back-to-back heterojunction diode design, where the detector structure consists of, sequentially, a top contact layer, a unipolar hole barrier layer, an absorber layer, a unipolar electron barrier, a second absorber, a second unipolar hole barrier, and a bottom contact layer. In addition, by substantially reducing the width of one of the absorber layers, a single-band infrared detector can also be formed.

  20. Development of conjugate shear bands during bulk simple shearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, L. B.; Cobbold, P. R.

    In rocks possessing a strong planar fabric, shear bands of constant shear sense and oriented at an oblique angle to the foliation are considered by many authors to be characteristic of a non-coaxial bulk deformation history, whereas conjugate shear bands are considered to indicate coaxial shortening. However, in two areas where bulk deformation history appears to be non-coaxial (Cap Corse, Corsica and Ile de Groix, Brittany), conjugate shear bands are observed. In order to investigate this problem, experiments were performed by bulk simple shearing using Plasticine as a rock analogue. When slip between layers of the model is permitted, shear bands of normal-fault geometry form with both the same and opposite shear sense as the bulk simple shearing at approximately the same angle with the layering (40°) irrespective of layer orientation in the undeformed state (for initial orientations of 50, 30 and 15°). Shear bands are initially formed within individual layers and may propagate across layer interfaces when further movement along these is inhibited. The existence of conjugate shear bands in Corsica and Ile de Groix is therefore not incompatible with a model of bulk simple shearing for these two regions. In field studies, one should perhaps exercise care in using shear bands to determine the kind of motion or the sense of bulk shearing.

  1. William Band at Yenching University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Danian

    2008-04-01

    William Band (1906-1993) has been widely remembered by his American colleagues and students as ``a fine physicist and teacher,'' who taught at Washington State University in Pullman between 1949 and 1971 and authored Introduction to Quantum Statistics (1954) and Introduction to Mathematical Physics (1959). Not many, however, knew much about Band's early career, which was very ``uncommon and eventful.'' Born in England, Band graduated from University of Liverpool in 1927 with an MsSc degree in physics. Instead of pursuing his Ph.D. at Cambridge, he chose to teach physics at Yenching University, a prestigious Christian university in Beijing, China. Arriving in 1929, Band established his career at Yenching, where he taught and researched the theory of relativity and quantum mechanics, pioneered the study on low-temperature superconductivity in China, founded the country's first graduate program in physics, and chaired the Physics Department for 10 years until he fled from Yenching upon hearing of the attack on Pearl Harbor. It took him two years to cross Japanese occupied areas under the escort of the Communist force; he left China in early 1945. This presentation will explore Band's motivation to work in China and his contributions to the Chinese physics research and education.

  2. Ka-band study: 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layland, J. W.; Horttor, R. L.; Clauss, R. C.; Wilcher, J. H.; Wallace, R. J.; Mudgway, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    The Ka-band study team was chartered in late 1987 to bring together all the planning elements for establishing 32 GHz (Ka-band) as the primary downlink frequency for deep-space operation, and to provide a stable baseline from which to pursue that development. This article summarizes the results of that study at its conclusion in mid-1988, and corresponds to material presented to NASA's Office of Space Operations on July 14, 1988. For a variety of reasons, Ka-band is the right next major step in deep-space communications. It offers improved radio metric accuracy through reduced plasma sensitivity and increased bandwidth. Because of these improvements, it offers the opportunity to reduce costs in the flight radio system or in the DSN by allocating part of the overall benefits of Ka-band to this cost reduction. A mission scenario is being planned that can drive at least two and possibly all three of the DSN subnets to provide a Ka-band downlink capability by the turn of the century. The implementation scenario devised by the study team is believed to be feasible within reasonable resource expectations, and capable of providing the needed upgrade as a natural follow-on to the technology development which is already underway.

  3. Computations of Flow Over the Hump Model Using Higher-Order Method With Turbulence Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakumar, P.

    2007-01-01

    The flow over the two-dimensional hump model is computed by solving the RANS equations with kappa-omega (SST) model. The governing equations, the flow equations and the turbulent equations, are solved using the 5th order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme for space discretization and using explicit third order total-variation-diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta scheme for time integration. The WENO and the TVD methods and the formulas are explained in [1] and the application of ENO method to N-S equations is given in [2]. The solution method implemented in this computation is described in detail in [3].

  4. High-order harmonic generation of picosecond radiation of moderate intensity in laser plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Boltaev, G S; Ganeev, Rashid A; Kulagin, I A; Satlikov, N Kh; Usmanov, T

    2012-10-31

    The results of investigations into the generation of highorder harmonics (up to the 21st order) of picosecond ({tau} = 38 ps) Nd : YAG laser radiation in the plasma produced by laser ablation of metal and carbon-containing material surfaces are presented. We demonstrate the feasibility of generating high-order harmonics in the vacuum ultraviolet spectral range (with radiation wavelengths shorter than 120 nm) in plasmas with an efficiency of {approx}0.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}. In carbon-containing plasma, the 7th harmonic intensity exceeded that of the 5th one by a factor of seven. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  5. High-order harmonic generation of picosecond radiation of moderate intensity in laser plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boltaev, G. S.; Ganeev, Rashid A.; Kulagin, I. A.; Satlikov, N. Kh; Usmanov, T.

    2012-10-01

    The results of investigations into the generation of highorder harmonics (up to the 21st order) of picosecond (τ = 38 ps) Nd : YAG laser radiation in the plasma produced by laser ablation of metal and carbon-containing material surfaces are presented. We demonstrate the feasibility of generating high-order harmonics in the vacuum ultraviolet spectral range (with radiation wavelengths shorter than 120 nm) in plasmas with an efficiency of ~0.7 × 10-4. In carbon-containing plasma, the 7th harmonic intensity exceeded that of the 5th one by a factor of seven.

  6. Broad-Band Activatable White-Opsin

    PubMed Central

    Batabyal, Subrata; Cervenka, Gregory; Ha, Ji Hee; Kim, Young-tae; Mohanty, Samarendra

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the use of optogenetic sensitization of retinal cells combined with activation/inhibition has the potential to be an alternative to retinal implants that would require electrodes inside every single neuron for high visual resolution. However, clinical translation of optogenetic activation for restoration of vision suffers from the drawback that the narrow spectral sensitivity of an opsin requires active stimulation by a blue laser or a light emitting diode with much higher intensities than ambient light. In order to allow an ambient light-based stimulation paradigm, we report the development of a ‘white-opsin’ that has broad spectral excitability in the visible spectrum. The cells sensitized with white-opsin showed excitability at an order of magnitude higher with white light compared to using only narrow-band light components. Further, cells sensitized with white-opsin produced a photocurrent that was five times higher than Channelrhodopsin-2 under similar photo-excitation conditions. The use of fast white-opsin may allow opsin-sensitized neurons in a degenerated retina to exhibit a higher sensitivity to ambient white light. This property, therefore, significantly lowers the activation threshold in contrast to conventional approaches that use intense narrow-band opsins and light to activate cellular stimulation. PMID:26360377

  7. Direct band gap silicon allotropes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qianqian; Xu, Bo; Sun, Jian; Liu, Hanyu; Zhao, Zhisheng; Yu, Dongli; Fan, Changzeng; He, Julong

    2014-07-16

    Elemental silicon has a large impact on the economy of the modern world and is of fundamental importance in the technological field, particularly in solar cell industry. The great demand of society for new clean energy and the shortcomings of the current silicon solar cells are calling for new materials that can make full use of the solar power. In this paper, six metastable allotropes of silicon with direct or quasidirect band gaps of 0.39-1.25 eV are predicted by ab initio calculations at ambient pressure. Five of them possess band gaps within the optimal range for high converting efficiency from solar energy to electric power and also have better optical properties than the Si-I phase. These Si structures with different band gaps could be applied to multiple p-n junction photovoltaic modules.

  8. Band structures in 99Rh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Singh, V.; Singh, K.; Sihotra, S.; Singh, N.; Goswamy, J.; Malik, S. S.; Ragnarsson, I.; Trivedi, T.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Kumar, R.; Bhowmik, R. K.; Palit, R.; Bharti, A.; Mehta, D.

    2014-10-01

    Excited states in the 99Rh nucleus were populated using the fusion-evaporation reaction 75As(28Si,2p2n) at {{E}_{lab}}=120\\;MeV and the de-excitations were investigated through in-beam γ-ray spectroscopic techniques using the INGA spectrometer consisting of 18 clover detectors. The observed band structures are discussed in the framework of tilted axis cranking shell-model calculations. Level structures at low energies are identified as resulting from the rotational bands based on the \\pi {{p}_{1/2}} and \\pi {{g}_{9/2}} configurations. The \\Delta I = 1 coupled bands are observed at higher excitation energies and have been interpreted as based on the \\pi {{g}_{9/2}}\\otimes \

  9. A reward band study of mallards to estimate band reporting rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Burnham, K.P.

    1976-01-01

    Reward bands ($10) were placed on 2,122 hatching-year mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and an additional 11,490 received conventional bands (controls) to estimate band reporting rates. An analysis of band recoveries indicated that the reporting rate was dependent primarily upon three factors: (1) the distance banded birds were recovered from the banding site, (2) band collecting activities of conservation agencies (usually near banding sites), and ( 3) the intensity of banding effort in the region (frequency of banded birds in the population of the region). Reporting rates were uniformly depressed near the banding sites, but they showed an east-west cline at distances greater than 80 km from the banding sites. The reporting rate was highest in the west. Limited data on historical band reporting rates were compiled. Recommendations are given for adjusting band recoveries to account for the nonreporting of bands for 1957-73.

  10. Gastric band migration following laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB): two cases of endoscopic management using a gastric band cutter.

    PubMed

    Rogalski, Pawel; Hady, Hady Razak; Baniukiewicz, Andrzej; Dąbrowski, Andrzej; Kaminski, Fabian; Dadan, Jacek

    2012-06-01

    Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) is one of the most frequently used minimally invasive and reversible procedures for the treatment of morbid obesity. Migration of the gastric band into the gastric lumen is a rare late complication of LAGB. Previous attempts at endoscopic removal of migrated bands have included the use of endoscopic scissors, laser ablation and argon plasma coagulation (APC). We report two cases of successful endoscopic management of gastric band migration using a gastric band cutter. PMID:23256012

  11. 47 CFR 90.531 - Band plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Band plan. 90.531 Section 90.531...-805 MHz Bands § 90.531 Band plan. This section sets forth the band plan for the 763-775 MHz and 793... and portables subject to Commission-approved regional planning committee regional plans....

  12. 47 CFR 90.531 - Band plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Band plan. 90.531 Section 90.531...-805 MHz Bands § 90.531 Band plan. This section sets forth the band plan for the 758-775 MHz and 788... and portables subject to Commission-approved regional planning committee regional plans....

  13. 47 CFR 90.531 - Band plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Band plan. 90.531 Section 90.531...-805 MHz Bands § 90.531 Band plan. This section sets forth the band plan for the 758-775 MHz and 788... and portables subject to Commission-approved regional planning committee regional plans....

  14. K-Band Latching Switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piotrowski, W. S.; Raue, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    Design, development, and tests are described for two single-pole-double-throw latching waveguide ferrite switches: a K-band switch in WR-42 waveguide and a Ka-band switch in WR-28 waveguide. Both switches have structurally simple junctions, mechanically interlocked without the use of bonding materials; they are impervious to the effects of thermal, shock, and vibration stresses. Ferrite material for the Ka-band switch with a proper combination of magnetic and dielectric properties was available and resulted in excellent low loss, wideband performance. The high power handling requirement of the K-band switch limited the choice of ferrite to nickel-zinc compositions with adequate magnetic properties, but with too low relative dielectric constant. The relative dielectric constant determines the junction dimensions for given frequency responses. In this case the too low value unavoidably leads to a larger than optimum junction volume, increasing the insertion loss and restricting the operating bandwidth. Efforts to overcome the materials-related difficulties through the design of a composite junction with increased effective dielectric properties efforts to modify the relative dielectric constant of nickel-zinc ferrite are examined.

  15. Curriculum Guide for Beginners Band.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazar, W. Gayre

    This curriculum guide for beginners band is the product of a team of teachers, administrators, and supervisory personnel. The prime objectives in the beginning instrument class is the development of correct playing habits, with emphasis on posture, holding position, embouchure, breathing, tonguing, good tone production and intonation. Subjects…

  16. Wide band data collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turkiewicz, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    The Incorporated Research Institutes for Seismology (IRIS) approached NASA Headquarters in 1986 about the need to collect data daily from seismic stations around the world as part of the Earth Observing System (EOS) mission. A typical IRIS Seismic Station generates 16 Megabytes of data per day when there is seismic activity. The Preliminary Design Parameters of the Wide Band Data Collection System are summarized.

  17. Band structure in 113Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, P.; Ganguly, S.; Pradhan, M. K.; Sharma, H. P.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Bhowmik, R. K.

    2016-07-01

    The structure of collective bands in 113Sn, populated in the reaction 100Mo(19F,p 5 n ) at a beam energy of 105 MeV, has been studied. A new positive-parity sequence of eight states extending up to 7764.9 keV and spin (39 /2+) has been observed. The band is explained as arising from the coupling of the odd valence neutron in the g7 /2 or the d5 /2 orbital to the deformed 2p-2h proton configuration of the neighboring even-A Sn isotope. Lifetimes of six states up to an excitation energy of 9934.9 keV and spin 47 /2-belonging to a Δ I =2 intruder band have been measured for the first time, including an upper limit for the last state, from Doppler-shift-attenuation data. A moderate average quadrupole deformation β2=0.22 ±0.02 is deduced from these results for the five states up to spin 43 /2- . The transition quadrupole moments decrease with increase in rotational frequency, indicating a reduction of collectivity with spin, a feature common for terminating bands. The behavior of the kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia as a function of rotational frequency has been studied and total Routhian surface calculations have been performed in an attempt to obtain an insight into the nature of the states near termination.

  18. Broad-band beam buncher

    DOEpatents

    Goldberg, David A.; Flood, William S.; Arthur, Allan A.; Voelker, Ferdinand

    1986-01-01

    A broad-band beam buncher is disclosed, comprising an evacuated housing, an electron gun therein for producing an electron beam, a buncher cavity having entrance and exit openings through which the beam is directed, grids across such openings, a source providing a positive DC voltage between the cavity and the electron gun, a drift tube through which the electron beam travels in passing through such cavity, grids across the ends of such drift tube, gaps being provided between the drift tube grids and the entrance and exit grids, a modulator for supplying an ultrahigh frequency modulating signal to the drift tube for producing velocity modulation of the electrons in the beam, a drift space in the housing through which the velocity modulated electron beam travels and in which the beam is bunched, and a discharge opening from such drift tube and having a grid across such opening through which the bunched electron beam is discharged into an accelerator or the like. The buncher cavity and the drift tube may be arranged to constitute an extension of a coaxial transmission line which is employed to deliver the modulating signal from a signal source. The extended transmission line may be terminated in its characteristic impedance to afford a broad-band response and the device as a whole designed to effect broad-band beam coupling, so as to minimize variations of the output across the response band.

  19. Band Spectra and Molecular Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronig, R. De L.

    2011-06-01

    Introduction; Part I. The Energy Levels of Diatomic Molecules and their Classification by Means of Quantum Numbers: 1. General foundations; 2. Wave mechanics of diatomic molecules; 3. Electronic levels; 4. Vibrational levels; 5. Rotational levels; 6. Stark and Zeeman effect; 7. Energy levels of polyatomic molecules; Part II. Fine Structure and Wave Mechanical Properties of the Energy Levels of Diatomic Molecules: 8. The perturbation function; 9. Rotational distortion of spin multiplets; 10. Fine structure; 11. Perturbations and predissociation; 12. Even and odd levels; 13. Symmetrical and antisymmetrical levels; Part III. Selection Rules and Intensities in Diatomic Molecules: 14. General foundations; 15. Electronic bands; 16. Vibrational bands; 17. Rotational bands; 18. Band spectra and nuclear structure; 19. Transitions in the Stark and Zeeman effect; Part IV. Macroscopic Properties of Molecular Gases: 20. Scattering; 21. Dispersion; 22. Kerr and Faraday effect; 23. Dielectric constants; 24. Magnetic susceptibilities; 25. Specific heats; Part V. Molecule Formation and Chemical Binding: 26. Heteropolar molecules; 27. Homopolar molecules. Chemical forces between two H-atoms and two He-atoms; 28. The general theory of homopolar compounds; Bibliography; Subject index.

  20. Resistive band for turbomachine blade

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Herbert Chidsey; Taxacher, Glenn Curtis

    2015-08-25

    A turbomachine system includes a rotor that defines a longitudinal axis of the turbomachine system. A first blade is coupled to the rotor, and the first blade has first and second laminated plies. A first band is coupled to the first blade and is configured to resist separation of the first and second laminated plies.

  1. Variable Order and Distributed Order Fractional Operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

    2002-01-01

    Many physical processes appear to exhibit fractional order behavior that may vary with time or space. The continuum of order in the fractional calculus allows the order of the fractional operator to be considered as a variable. This paper develops the concept of variable and distributed order fractional operators. Definitions based on the Riemann-Liouville definitions are introduced and behavior of the operators is studied. Several time domain definitions that assign different arguments to the order q in the Riemann-Liouville definition are introduced. For each of these definitions various characteristics are determined. These include: time invariance of the operator, operator initialization, physical realization, linearity, operational transforms. and memory characteristics of the defining kernels. A measure (m2) for memory retentiveness of the order history is introduced. A generalized linear argument for the order q allows the concept of "tailored" variable order fractional operators whose a, memory may be chosen for a particular application. Memory retentiveness (m2) and order dynamic behavior are investigated and applications are shown. The concept of distributed order operators where the order of the time based operator depends on an additional independent (spatial) variable is also forwarded. Several definitions and their Laplace transforms are developed, analysis methods with these operators are demonstrated, and examples shown. Finally operators of multivariable and distributed order are defined in their various applications are outlined.

  2. A Comparison of the Ka-Band Deep-Space Link with the X-Band Link through Emulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shambayati, S.

    2009-08-01

    In this article, the performance of the 32-GHz (Ka-band) deep-space link is compared to that of the 8.41-GHz (X-band) link through emulation. Sky brightness time series from water vapor radiometers (WVRs) and advanced WVRs (AWVRs) were used to emulate the effects of increased system noise temperature (SNT) and line-of-sight atmospheric attenuation due for both X-band and Ka-band. Models for Deep Space Network (DSN) ground antennas were used to obtain ground antenna gain and system noise temperature performance. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) X-band and Ka-band capabilities with slightly different coding and data rates were chosen for the spacecraft link design and emulation. A total of 207 passes (69 per DSN complex) from MRO's DSN tracking schedule were selected for these emulations. For each pass, the actual link geometry was used to design and emulate the link. The Ka-band link was designed so that the expected pass capacity is maximized with at most two data rates, subject to a minimum availability requirement (MAR). Two X-band link designs were used. The first design approach, similar to Ka-band, maximized the expected link capacity with at most two data rates subject to a MAR. The second design approach was similar to the current MRO link design practice. In this approach, the X-band link was designed for operations above 20 deg elevation with a single data rate that has at least 1 dB of margin over 90 percent supportable data rate at 20 deg elevation. The analysis provides continuity and completeness statistics as well as delay-throughput performance characteristics for both Ka-band and X-band. The analysis indicates that the optimized X-band link has only a 2-dB advantage over current practice in terms of capacity and the Ka-band link offers an approximately 5.5-dB advantage over current practice (normalized for onboard DC power used). The analysis also indicates that even with a 99 percent MAR, the Ka-band link suffers an order of magnitude more losses

  3. Industry looks at military exceptionally high frequency bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, F. L.

    1982-10-01

    Various programs and systems in the developing EHF communications band usage, including satellites, are examined. Commercial systems, built by companies which also hold military contracts, are beginning to feature capabilities formerly reserved for the military, in order to meet increased demands for voice, video, and data links. The C-band, from 4-6 GHz is becoming oversubscribed, leading to the implementation of the Ku-band, from 11-14 GHz. Saturation of these bands is expected to occur in the early 1990s. The Japanese have been experimenting with the 20/30 THz bands since 1976, the Italians are planning the Italsat, and ESA is developing the L-Sat, all in the same frequency bands. NASA explored the region partially with the ATS-6 spacecraft, but funding has lagged. Plans exist for an Advanced Communications Technology Satellite, operating up to 50 GHz, to be launched in 1987 and function for two years. It is suggested that military users may benefit from leasing dedicated commercial satellite channels, while the commercial operators will profit from greater guaranteed use of the equipment.

  4. A dual-band adaptor for infrared imaging.

    PubMed

    McLean, A G; Ahn, J-W; Maingi, R; Gray, T K; Roquemore, A L

    2012-05-01

    A novel imaging adaptor providing the capability to extend a standard single-band infrared (IR) camera into a two-color or dual-band device has been developed for application to high-speed IR thermography on the National Spherical Tokamak Experiment (NSTX). Temperature measurement with two-band infrared imaging has the advantage of being mostly independent of surface emissivity, which may vary significantly in the liquid lithium divertor installed on NSTX as compared to that of an all-carbon first wall. In order to take advantage of the high-speed capability of the existing IR camera at NSTX (1.6-6.2 kHz frame rate), a commercial visible-range optical splitter was extensively modified to operate in the medium wavelength and long wavelength IR. This two-band IR adapter utilizes a dichroic beamsplitter, which reflects 4-6 μm wavelengths and transmits 7-10 μm wavelength radiation, each with >95% efficiency and projects each IR channel image side-by-side on the camera's detector. Cutoff filters are used in each IR channel, and ZnSe imaging optics and mirrors optimized for broadband IR use are incorporated into the design. In-situ and ex-situ temperature calibration and preliminary data of the NSTX divertor during plasma discharges are presented, with contrasting results for dual-band vs. single-band IR operation.

  5. Hypersonic crystal band gaps in Ni/Cu superlattice nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jia-Guang; Shen, Tie

    2016-03-01

    The hexagonal and tetragonal ordered arrays were prepared by Ni/Cu superlattice nanowires on the porous anodic alumina membrane template, and their phonon band structures were calculated by using the plane wave expansion method. Numerical results show that the hypersonic band gaps can be acquired by adjusting the structural parameters. Along the different wave-vector directions, the width and position of band gap would vary. If the nanowires'filling fraction is increased continuously, the width of the first band gap firstly increases and then decreases within a certain range. The height of superlattice nanowire elementary unit can only affect the width of band gap within a quite narrow range. When the height of elementary unit remains unchanged, the decrease of the Cu-component ratio can contribute to the formation of a wider band gap. Additionally, the wide band gap is more easily formed in tetragonal structure than in hexagonal structure.

  6. 75 FR 35363 - Improving Public Safety Communications in the 800 MHz Band; New 800 MHz Band Plan for Puerto Rico...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... Filing of Documents in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121 (1998). Electronic Filers: Comments may be..., 69 FR 67823, November 22, 2004. In a Second Memorandum Opinion and Order, adopted in May 2007, the... markets, 72 FR 39756, July 20, 2007. Rather than specify a band plan for Puerto Rico, the...

  7. A comparative study of RADAR Ka-band backscatter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mapelli, D.; Pierdicca, N.; Guerriero, L.; Ferrazzoli, Paolo; Calleja, Eduardo; Rommen, B.; Giudici, D.; Monti Guarnieri, A.

    2014-10-01

    Ka-band RADAR frequency range has not yet been used for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) from space so far, although this technology may lead to important applications for the next generation of SAR space sensors. Therefore, feasibility studies regarding a Ka-band SAR instrument have been started [1][2], for the next generation of SAR space sensors. In spite of this, the lack of trusted references on backscatter at Ka-band revealed to be the main limitation for the investigation of the potentialities of this technology. In the framework of the ESA project "Ka-band SAR backscatter analysis in support of future applications", this paper is aimed at the study of wave interaction at Ka-band for a wide range of targets in order to define a set of well calibrated and reliable Ka-band backscatter coefficients for different kinds of targets. We propose several examples of backscatter data resulting from a critical survey of available datasets at Ka-band, focusing on the most interesting cases and addressing both correspondences and differences. The reliability of the results will be assessed via a preliminary comparison with ElectroMagnetic (EM) theoretical models. Furthermore, in support of future technological applications, we have designed a prototypal software acting as a "library" of earth surface radar response. In our intention, the output of the study shall contribute to answer to the need of a trustworthy Ka-Band backscatter reference. It will be of great value for future technological applications, such as support to instrument analysis, design and requirements' definition (e.g.: Signal to Noise Ratio, Noise Equivalent Sigma Zero).

  8. Ku-band miniature modulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Ku-band microminiature modulators were designed to convert a 10 mW signal at 400 MHz to a 10 mW signal at 15 GHz. The designs incorporate gallium arsenide Schottky barrier varactors used in upper-sideband up-converters. The use of Ku-band microstrip circulators and hairpin resonator bandpass filters at 2.1 GHz and 2.5 GHz is included. The design and fabrication of a single up-conversion unit with a double up-conversion unit are compared. Various filter configurations are studies, and the use of both alumina and quartz substrates are considered. The various impedance matching networks are evaluated using computer aided design techniques.

  9. ALMA Band 5 Cartridge Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billade, Bhushan; Lapkin, I.; Nystrom, O.; Sundin, E.; Fredrixon, M.; Finger, R.; Rashid, H.; Desmaris, V.; Meledin, D.; Pavolotsky, A.; Belitsky, Victor

    2010-03-01

    Work presented here concerns the design and performance of the ALMA Band 5 cold cartridge, one of the 10 frequency channels of ALMA project, a radio interferometer under construction at Atacama Desert in Chile. The Band 5 cartridge is a dual polarization receiver with the polarization separation performed by orthomode transducer (OMT). For each polarization, Band 5 receiver employs sideband rejection (2SB) scheme based on quadrature layout, with SIS mixers covering 163-211 GHz with 4-8 GHz IF. The LO injection circuitry is integrated with mixer chip and is implemented on the same substrate, resulting in a compact 2SB assembly. Amongst the other ALMA bands, the ALMA Band 5 being the lowest frequency band that uses all cold optics, has the largest mirror. Consequently, ALMA Band 5 mirror along with its support structure leaves very little room for placing OMT, mixers and IF subsystems. The constraints put by the size of cold optics and limited cartridge space, required of us to revise the original 2SB design and adopt a design where all the components like OMT, mixer, IF hybrid, isolators and IF amplifier are directly connected to each other without using any co-ax cables in-between. The IF subsystem uses the space between 4 K and 15 K stage of the cartridge and is thermally connected to 4 K stage. Avoiding co-ax cabling required use of custom designed IF hybrid, furthermore, due to limited cooling capacity at 4 K stage, resistive bias circuitry for the mixers is moved to 15 K stage and the IF hybrid along with an integrated bias-T is implemented using superconducting micro-strip lines. The E-probes for both LO and RF waveguide-to-microstrip transitions are placed perpendicular to the wave direction (back-piece configuration). The RF choke at the end of the probes provides a virtual ground for the RF/LO signal, and the choke is DC grounded to the chassis. The on-chip LO injection is done using a microstrip line directional coupler with slot-line branches in the

  10. Infrared radiation parameterizations for the minor CO2 bands and for several CFC bands in the window region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kratz, David P.; Chou, Ming-Dah; Yan, Michael M.-H.

    1993-01-01

    Fast and accurate parameterizations have been developed for the transmission functions of the CO2 9.4- and 10.4-micron bands, as well as the CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-22 bands located in the 8-12-micron region. The parameterizations are based on line-by-line calculations of transmission functions for the CO2 bands and on high spectral resolution laboratory measurements of the absorption coefficients for the CFC bands. Also developed are the parameterizations for the H2O transmission functions for the corresponding spectral bands. Compared to the high-resolution calculations, fluxes at the tropopause computed with the parameterizations are accurate to within 10 percent when overlapping of gas absorptions within a band is taken into account. For individual gas absorption, the accuracy is of order 0-2 percent. The climatic effects of these trace gases have been studied using a zonally averaged multilayer energy balance model, which includes seasonal cycles and a simplified deep ocean. With the trace gas abundances taken to follow the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Low Emissions 'B' scenario, the transient response of the surface temperature is simulated for the period 1900-2060.

  11. ASTRONOMY: Researchers Get Spectrum Bands.

    PubMed

    Taubes, G

    2000-06-23

    Radio astronomers have been in danger of losing a precious band of the electromagnetic spectrum--the millimeter wavelengths, which promise insight into subjects as diverse as the origins of life and the birth of stars--to the burgeoning telecommunications industry, as millimeter wavelengths also look promising for transmitting high-bandwidth wireless information over relatively short distances. Earlier this month, however, astronomers won an international agreement that guarantees critical wavelengths safe for research. PMID:17758893

  12. Synchrotron studies of narrow band materials

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Objective was to determine the single-particle electronic structure of selected narrow band materials in order to understand the relation between their electronic structures and novel low energy properties, such as mixed valence, heavy Fermions, Kondo effect, insulator-metal transitions, non-Fermi liquid behavior, and high-temperature superconductivity. This program supports photoemission spectroscopy (PES) at various synchrotrons. The progress is reported under the following section titles: ZSA (Zaanen-Sawatzky-Allen) systematics and I-M transitions in 3d transition metal oxides, insulator-metal transitions in superconducting cuprates, Fermi liquid and non-Fermi liquid behavior in angular resolved PES lineshapes, heavy-Fermion and non-Fermi liquid 5f electron systems, and Kondo insulators.

  13. Incompressible Polaritons in a Flat Band.

    PubMed

    Biondi, Matteo; van Nieuwenburg, Evert P L; Blatter, Gianni; Huber, Sebastian D; Schmidt, Sebastian

    2015-10-01

    We study the interplay of geometric frustration and interactions in a nonequilibrium photonic lattice system exhibiting a polariton flat band as described by a variant of the Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard model. We show how to engineer strong photonic correlations in such a driven, dissipative system by quenching the kinetic energy through frustration. This produces an incompressible state of photons characterized by short-ranged crystalline order with period doubling. The latter manifests itself in strong spatial correlations, i.e., on-site and nearest-neighbor antibunching combined with extended density-wave oscillations at larger distances. We propose a state-of-the-art circuit QED realization of our system, which is tunable in situ.

  14. Incompressible Polaritons in a Flat Band.

    PubMed

    Biondi, Matteo; van Nieuwenburg, Evert P L; Blatter, Gianni; Huber, Sebastian D; Schmidt, Sebastian

    2015-10-01

    We study the interplay of geometric frustration and interactions in a nonequilibrium photonic lattice system exhibiting a polariton flat band as described by a variant of the Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard model. We show how to engineer strong photonic correlations in such a driven, dissipative system by quenching the kinetic energy through frustration. This produces an incompressible state of photons characterized by short-ranged crystalline order with period doubling. The latter manifests itself in strong spatial correlations, i.e., on-site and nearest-neighbor antibunching combined with extended density-wave oscillations at larger distances. We propose a state-of-the-art circuit QED realization of our system, which is tunable in situ. PMID:26551811

  15. Incompressible Polaritons in a Flat Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biondi, Matteo; van Nieuwenburg, Evert P. L.; Blatter, Gianni; Huber, Sebastian D.; Schmidt, Sebastian

    2015-10-01

    We study the interplay of geometric frustration and interactions in a nonequilibrium photonic lattice system exhibiting a polariton flat band as described by a variant of the Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard model. We show how to engineer strong photonic correlations in such a driven, dissipative system by quenching the kinetic energy through frustration. This produces an incompressible state of photons characterized by short-ranged crystalline order with period doubling. The latter manifests itself in strong spatial correlations, i.e., on-site and nearest-neighbor antibunching combined with extended density-wave oscillations at larger distances. We propose a state-of-the-art circuit QED realization of our system, which is tunable in situ.

  16. W/V-Band RF Propagation Experiment Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, Roberto J.; Nessel, James A.; Simons, Rainee N.; Zemba, Michael J.; Morse, Jacquelynne Rose; Budinger, James M.

    2012-01-01

    The utilization of frequency spectrum for space-to-ground communications applications has generally progressed from the lowest available bands capable of supporting transmission through the atmosphere to the higher bands, which have required research and technological advancement to implement. As communications needs increase and the available spectrum in the microwave frequency bands (3 30 GHz) becomes congested globally, future systems will move into the millimeter wave (mm-wave) range (30 300 GHz). While current systems are operating in the Ka-band (20 30 GHz), systems planned for the coming decades will initiate operations in the Q-Band (33 50 GHz), V-Band (50 75 GHz) and W Band (75 110 GHz) of the spectrum. These bands offer extremely broadband capabilities (contiguous allocations of 500 MHz to 1GHz or more) and an uncluttered spectrum for a wide range of applications. NASA, DoD and commercial missions that can benefit from moving into the mm-wave bands include data relay and near-Earth data communications, unmanned aircraft communications, NASA science missions, and commercial broadcast/internet services, all able to be implemented via very small terminals. NASA Glenn Research Center has a long history of performing the inherently governmental function of opening new frequency spectrum by characterizing atmospheric effects on electromagnetic propagation and collaborating with the satellite communication industry to develop specific communications technologies for use by NASA and the nation. Along these lines, there are critical issues related to W/V-band propagation that need to be thoroughly understood before design of any operational system can commence. These issues arise primarily due to the limitations imposed on W/V-band signal propagation by the Earth s atmosphere, and to the fundamental lack of understanding of these effects with regards to proper system design and fade mitigation. In this paper, The GRC RF propagation team recommends measurements

  17. A bi-periodic X-Band cavity for SPARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spataro, B.; Alesini, D.; Bacci, A.; Ficcadenti, L.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Parodi, R.

    2008-02-01

    In order to produce a high brightness electron beam for the Frascati Linac coherent light source (SPARC) the use of an accelerating section with frequency equal to the fourth harmonic of the main S-Band Linac frequency is needed. This paper discusses the design and the realization of a compact X-Band linear accelerating section for obtaining 5 MV average accelerating gradient, working at a frequency of 11.424 GHz and operating on the π/2 standing wave mode. Numerical predictions compared with measurements made on a copper prototype at room temperature are reported.

  18. Multitude of bands in ^156Dy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedinger, L. L.; Hartley, D. J.; Curien, D.; Dudek, J.; Gall, B.; Allmond, M.; Beausang, C.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chiara, C. J.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Kondev, F. G.; Lauritsen, T.; McCutchan, E. A.; Stefanescu, I.; Zhu, S.; Garrett, P. E.; Kulp, W. D.; Wood, J. L.; Riley, M. A.; Wang, X. F.; Schunck, N.; Yu, C. H.; Sharpey-Schafer, J.; Majola, S.; Simpson, J.

    2009-10-01

    A Gammasphere measurement was performed on rotational bands in ^156Dy using the ^148Nd(^12C,4n) reaction at 65 MeV with the Atlas accelerator at Argonne. The projectile was chosen to populate many bands at low to medium spins. We have added new transitions and new bands to the family of negative-parity structures in this N = 90 nucleus. The lowest lying bands in this region have generally been associated with octupole vibrational modes, converting to two-quasiparticle bands at moderate frequencies. There are deviations from this picture in ^156Dy, due perhaps to the robustness of the octupole vibration through the first band crossing.

  19. An extension to flat band ferromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulacsi, M.; Kovacs, G.; Gulacsi, Z.

    2014-11-01

    From flat band ferromagnetism, we learned that the lowest energy half-filled flat band gives always ferromagnetism if the localized Wannier states on the flat band satisfy the connectivity condition. If the connectivity conditions are not satisfied, ferromagnetism does not appear. We show that this is not always the case namely, we show that ferromagnetism due to flat bands can appear even if the connectivity condition does not hold due to a peculiar behavior of the band situated just above the flat band.

  20. Urban High-Resolution Precipitation Product: Combining C-Band and Local X-Band Radar Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lengfeld, Katharina; Clemens, Marco; Münster, Hans; Ament, Felix

    2014-05-01

    Modelling precipitation induced floods and their impact on flood-prone regions is one of the biggest challenges for hydrometeorological forecasters. The largest source of error in flood forecasting systems is uncertainty in precipitation estimation. In state of the art rainfall-runoff models, precipitation fields from C-band radars are used as input with temporal resolution in the order of 5 minutes and spatial resolution in the order of kilometres. These radars cannot observe the small scale structure of rain events that influences runoff especially in impermeable urban areas. Therefore, precipitation fields with higher spatial and temporal resolution would improve flood forecasting. In recent years radar systems operating in the X-band frequency range have been developed to provide precipitation fields for areas of special interest in higher temporal (1 min or below) and higher spatial resolution (250 m or below) in complementation to nationwide radar networks. However single X-band radars are highly influenced by attenuation. Within the project Precipitation and Attenuation Estimates from a High-Resolution Weather Radar Network (PATTERN) the University of Hamburg and the Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology operate a single X-band radar covering the city of Hamburg, Germany. The radar provides precipitation fields with temporal resolution of 30 s and range resolution of 60 m. The area is also covered by the C-band radar Fuhlsbüttel operated by the German Weather Service (DWD) that gives precipitation estimates with a temporal resolution of 5 min and a range resolution of 1 km. We will introduce a method to merge the precipitation fields derived from the X-band radar into the precipitation field provided by the C-band radar Fuhlsbüttel. The observations of radar Fuhlsbüttel will also be integrated in the correction of the attenuated measurements of the X-band radar. The merged precipitation field of both radars will be a valid product to improve rainfall

  1. Elucidation of the highest valence band and lowest conduction band shifts using XPS for ZnO and Zn0.99Cu0.01O band gap changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamarulzaman, N.; Kasim, M. F.; Chayed, N. F.

    ZnO and Zn0.99Cu0.01O nanostructures were prepared by a simple sol-gel method. The band gaps of the materials were systematically studied based on the dependence of the dimensions of the nanostructures as well as the presence of a dopant material, Cu. ZnO and Zn0.99Cu0.01O nanostructures were found to exhibit band gap widening whilst substitution of Cu in the lattice of ZnO caused its band gap to narrow with respect to the pure ZnO materials. In order to understand the phenomenon of band gap change, structural, spectroscopic, particle size and morphological studies were done. The band gap change occurring when the materials were in the nanostructured phase was proven to be mainly due to the downward shift of the valence band. Interestingly, when the band gaps of the pure ZnO and Cu doped ZnO were compared, the band gap changes were due to different shifts of the valence bands.

  2. The Submesoscale from VIIRS Imagery-Band (375 m) Sea Surface Temperature Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornillon, P. C.; Pan, G.; Schloesser, F.

    2014-12-01

    The Visible-Infrared Imager-Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) carried on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) spacecraft makes measurements in spectral bands in the infrared at a nadir spatial resolution of 750 m, in what are referred to as the Moderate Resolution Bands (M-Bands), and at a nadir spatial resolution of 375 m in "Imagery Bands" (I-Bands). The spectral coverage of M-Bands allows for the high quality retrieval of sea surface temperature (SST) under cloud-free conditions. In particular, the M-Band suite includes a "split window" in the 10 to 12 micrometer range with which correction for atmospheric water vapor can be made while avoiding issues associated with solar reflection, which afflicts observations in some of the shorter wave-length spectral windows during daylight hours. Unfortunately, there is only one I-Band channel in the 10 to 12 micrometer range precluding the same approach used for M-Band retrievals. In this presentation, we discuss an algorithm developed at the University of Rhode Island that makes use of the atmospheric correction available from M-Band retrieval algorithms together with I-Band radiances to produce a high quality 375 m SST product. The M-Band retrievals used are those from NOAA's Advanced Clear Sky Processor for Oceans (ACSPO) program. In comparisons with ship-borne radiometer SST retrievals, we show that the I-Band retrievals are of similar quality to the underlying M-Band retrievals. We then go on to demonstrate the sub-kilometer scale of the features resolved in the I-Band retrievals as well as how these data may be used to infer near-surface currents on a spatial grid of order 10 kilometers.

  3. Asymmetric Magnon Excitation by Spontaneous Toroidal Ordering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayami, Satoru; Kusunose, Hiroaki; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2016-05-01

    The effects of spontaneous toroidal ordering on magnetic excitation are theoretically investigated for a localized spin model that includes a staggered Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction and anisotropic exchange interactions, which arise from the antisymmetric spin-orbit coupling and the multiorbital correlation effect. We show that the model exhibits a Néel-type antiferromagnetic order, which simultaneously accompanies a ferroic toroidal order. We find that the occurrence of toroidal order modulates the magnon dispersion in an asymmetric way with respect to the wave number: a toroidal dipole order on the zigzag chain leads to a band-bottom shift, while a toroidal octupole order on the honeycomb lattice gives rise to a valley splitting. These asymmetric magnon excitations could be a source of unusual magnetic responses, such as nonreciprocal magnon transport. A variety of modulations are discussed while changing the lattice and magnetic symmetries. The implications regarding candidate materials for asymmetric magnon excitations are presented.

  4. Orchestrating the Band: A New Direction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mairs, David

    2000-01-01

    Contends that marching bands should explore the classical repertoire of the symphony orchestra. Discusses three reasons why the audience and students enjoy this type of music. Includes a list of classical music that has worked for bands. (CMK)

  5. Design of visible/infrared double-band spectral imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tianjin, Tang; Zhuo, Zhang; Bao-hua, Wang

    2016-01-01

    OFFNER hyperspectral imager using convex grating as spectral splitting component has many merits including large relative aperture, no smile, small key stone, compact construction and easier assembly and etc, has widely used in many occasions of various fields. Design of double-band hyperspectral imager using OFFNER structure is presented in this paper. SHAFER fore telescope system and convex grating imaging are adopted, groove etching density is different in different region on the same substrate for different spectral band, and different diffractive order is used respectively to split the two spectral bands. The optical system achieves good image quality in wide spectral range, compact construction and small volume. And all the reflective curved face are sphere, moderate tolerances are good for the processing and alignment.

  6. Shear banding in molecular dynamics of polymer melts.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jing; Likhtman, Alexei E

    2012-01-13

    In order to establish constitutive equations for a viscoelastic fluid uniform shear flow is usually required. However, in the last 10 years S. Q. Wang and co-workers have demonstrated that some entangled polymers do not flow with the uniform shear rate as usually assumed, but instead choose to separate into fast and slow flowing regions. This phenomenon, known as shear banding, causes flow instabilities and in principle invalidates all rheological measurements when it occurs. In this Letter we report the first observation of shear banding in molecular dynamics simulations of entangled polymer melts. We show that our observations are in a very good agreement with the phenomenology developed by Fielding and Olmsted. Our findings provide a simple way of validating the empirical macroscopic phenomenology of shear banding.

  7. Migration of salt bands through a porous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitelman, E. M.; Dragila, M. I.

    2010-12-01

    In order to improve agricultural conditions in saline and sodic soils, we must better understand salt precipitation dynamics and the limiting kinetic mechanisms associated with the salinization process. We used laboratory techniques to monitor salt crystal formation in porous media cells under highly controlled conditions to examine the temporal evolution of salt crystallization. We found that salt crusts first precipitate on the surface and then move down through the porous media towards the water source forming bands collinear with equipotential moisture planes. We compare the kinetic data with a salt crystal formation and transport model and conclude that salt band formation and transport occurs via a cycle of vapor transport, osmotic deposition and deliquescence in the moving front, followed by evaporation and recrystallization in the receding front. Vapor density gradients and deliquescence kinetics controls the transport rate of salt bands through porous media.

  8. Atmospheric solar heating rate in the water vapor bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Ming-Dah

    1986-01-01

    The total absorption of solar radiation by water vapor in clear atmospheres is parameterized as a simple function of the scaled water vapor amount. For applications to cloudy and hazy atmospheres, the flux-weighted k-distribution functions are computed for individual absorption bands and for the total near-infrared region. The parameterization is based upon monochromatic calculations and follows essentially the scaling approximation of Chou and Arking, but the effect of temperature variation with height is taken into account in order to enhance the accuracy. Furthermore, the spectral range is extended to cover the two weak bands centered at 0.72 and 0.82 micron. Comparisons with monochromatic calculations show that the atmospheric heating rate and the surface radiation can be accurately computed from the parameterization. Comparisons are also made with other parameterizations. It is found that the absorption of solar radiation can be computed reasonably well using the Goody band model and the Curtis-Godson approximation.

  9. Rotational Bands in 11B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demyanova, A. S.; Danilov, A. N.; Dmitriev, S. V.; Ogloblin, A. A.; Belyaeva, T. L.; Goncharov, S. A.; Gurov, Yu. B.; Maslov, V. A.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Trzaska, W.; Heikkinen, P.; Julin, R.; Khlebnikov, S. V.; Tyurin, G. P.; Burtebaev, N.; Zholdybayev, T.

    2015-06-01

    Differential cross-sections of the 11B + α inelastic scattering at E(α) = 65 leading to the most of the known 11B states at the excitation energies up to 14 MeV were measured. The data analysis was done by DWBA and in some cases by the modified diffraction model allowing determining the radii of the excited states. The radii of the states with excitation energies less than ~ 7 MeV with the accuracy not less than 0.1-0.15 fm coincide with the radius of the ground state. This result is consistent with the traditional view of the shell structure of the low-lying states in 11B. Most of the observed high-energy excited states are distributed among four rotational bands. The moments of inertia of band states are close to the moment of inertia of the Hoyle state of 12C. The calculated radii, related to these bands, are 0.7 - 1.0 fm larger than the radius of the ground state, and are close to the radius of the Hoyle state. These results are in agreement with existing predictions about various cluster structure of 11B at high excitation energies. The state with the excitation energy 12.56 MeV, Iπ = 1/2+, T = 1/2 and the root mean square radius R ~ 6 fm predicted in the frame of the alpha condensate hypothesis was not found. The observed level at 12.6 MeV really has T = 1/2, probably, Iπ = 3/2+ and the radius close to that of the ground state.

  10. Identification of the UIR bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Fred M.

    2016-06-01

    Starlight undergoing multiple scattering processes within fluffy grains results in extinction, UV 2175A bump, DIBs and the UIR bands. Spectroscopic lab and DIB data has identified the highly fluorescent molecule Dipyridyl Magnesium Tetrabenzoporphyrin (MgTBP). Reflection and Raman scattering experimental data will be presented which designates this molecule as the primary source for UIR signals. MgTBP sublimes at about 500OC. It is produced via high temperature plasma synthesis within and subsequently ejected from comets which in turn are by-products of solar system-planetary development. Interstellar dust is the left-over refuse which implies prodigious solar system evolution in each galaxy.

  11. Formation mechanism of orderly structures in Au films deposited on silicone oil surfaces [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bo

    2005-06-01

    An optical microscopy study of ordered structures, namely bands, and self-organized phenomena in a continuous gold film system deposited on silicone oil surfaces is presented. The bands are composed of a large number of parallel keys with different width w but nearly uniform length L; the characteristic length of the bands is of the order of 101 102 μm. After disturbed with an external force, the growth process of the bands is observed directly. The experiment indicates that the formation mechanism of bands can be explained in terms of the relaxation of the compressive stress, which mainly results from the characteristic boundary condition of the nearly free sustained films.

  12. Control Banding and Nanotechnology Synergist

    SciTech Connect

    Zalk, D; Paik, S

    2009-12-15

    The average Industrial Hygienist (IH) loves a challenge, right? Okay, well here is one with more than a few twists. We start by going through the basics of a risk assessment. You have some chemical agents, a few workers, and the makings of your basic exposure characterization. However, you have no occupational exposure limit (OEL), essentially no toxicological basis, and no epidemiology. Now the real handicap is that you cannot use sampling pumps, cassettes, tubes, or any of the media in your toolbox, and the whole concept of mass-to-dose is out the window, even at high exposure levels. Of course, by the title, you knew we were talking about nanomaterials (NM). However, we wonder how many IHs know that this topic takes everything you know about your profession and turns it upside down. It takes the very foundations that you worked so hard in college and in the field to master and pulls it out from underneath you. It even takes the gold standard of our profession, the quantitative science of exposure assessment, and makes it look pretty darn rusty. Now with NM there is the potential to get some aspect of quantitative measurements, but the instruments are generally very expensive and getting an appropriate workplace personal exposure measurement can be very difficult if not impossible. The potential for workers getting exposures, however, is very real, as evidenced by a recent publication reporting worker exposures to polyacrylate nanoparticles in a Chinese factory (Song et al. 2009). With something this complex and challenging, how does a concept as simple as Control Banding (CB) save the day? Although many IHs have heard of CB, most of their knowledge comes from its application in the COSHH Essentials toolkit. While there is conflicting published research on COSHH Essentials and its value for risk assessments, almost all of the experts agree that it can be useful when no OELs are available (Zalk and Nelson 2008). It is this aspect of CB, its utility with

  13. On sampling band-pass signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadr, R.; Shahshahani, M.

    1989-01-01

    Four techniques for uniform sampling of band-bass signals are examined. The in-phase and quadrature components of the band-pass signal are computed in terms of the samples of the original band-pass signal. The relative implementation merits of these techniques are discussed with reference to the Deep Space Network (DSN).

  14. Prenatal diagnosis of amniotic band syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhan, Laxmi Devi; Hamza, Zareena V; Thampi, Madhavan Venugopalan; Nampoothiri, Sheela

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic band can cause a broad spectrum of anomalies ranging from simple band constrictions to major craniofacial and visceral defects. It can cause significant neonatal morbidity. Accurate diagnosis will help in the management of the present pregnancy and in counseling with regard to future pregnancies. Here we report three cases of amniotic band syndrome detected in the prenatal period. PMID:27081225

  15. Black Scholes’ model and Bollinger bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Huang, Xudong; Zheng, Weian

    2006-11-01

    Bollinger bands are well-known in stock market as a popular technical analysis tool. We found that Black-Scholes stock price model had this Bollinger bands property also. In this paper, we give the proof of this phenomenon, and give a new distribution of a statistics generated by the Bollinger bands.

  16. Prenatal diagnosis of amniotic band syndrome.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Laxmi Devi; Hamza, Zareena V; Thampi, Madhavan Venugopalan; Nampoothiri, Sheela

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic band can cause a broad spectrum of anomalies ranging from simple band constrictions to major craniofacial and visceral defects. It can cause significant neonatal morbidity. Accurate diagnosis will help in the management of the present pregnancy and in counseling with regard to future pregnancies. Here we report three cases of amniotic band syndrome detected in the prenatal period.

  17. Tap Teens' Curiosity with Lab Band.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Jane

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Lab Band project used with 12th grade students at the Westgate Collegiate and Vocational Institute in Thunder Bay, Ontario (Canada). Explains that each band student taught a peer how to play their instrument which created versatility in the band. States that all students kept a reflective journal. (CMK)

  18. Spiral Cloud Band Associated with a Tornado.

    PubMed

    Sadowski, A

    1960-09-16

    The radarscope photographic sequence, by far the best example on record, reveals a spirally banded structure about 10 miles in diameter which is similar to spiral bands of hurricanes ranging as far as 250 miles and to the banded cloud structure of well-developed storms of 1000 miles as photographed by Tiros I.

  19. S and Ku band frequency source development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The results of the two part S- and Ku-band source development program are described. The S- and Ku-band sources were designed, fabricated, and evaluated. A high performance S- and Ku-band microwave signal source using state-of-the-art oscillator and microwave source technology was developed.

  20. Numerical study of the periodic Anderson model with a quarter-filled conduction band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shuxiang; Moreno, Juana; Jarrell, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Using the dynamical cluster approximation with continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo as the cluster solver and the recently introduced dual-fermion method, we study the underlying physics of the periodic Anderson model where the conduction band is near quarter-filling while the f-band electron band is half filled. For these parameters, the RKKY coupling changes its nature from ferromagnetic to anti-ferromagnetic, yielding an interesting phase-diagram. Especially, we find the charge ordering of the conduction band is strongly enhanced, which could be due to the proximity to a quantum critical point.

  1. [Gangrene of the penis due to strangulation by a rubber band: a case report].

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Yutaro; Oda, Shinpei; Fujikata, Shiro; Tanimoto, Shuji; Kan, Masaharu

    2014-03-01

    We report a case of strangulation of the penis by a rubber band. A 79-year-old man placed a rubber band tightly around the corona of his glans penis in order to prevent urinary incontinence. After five days, he was taken to our hospital in an ambulance for high temperature and general malaise. We found the rubber band and removed it immediately. Gangrene of the penis continued and he did not recover from sepsis, so we performed partial penectomy. After the operation, he completely recovered. Penile strangulation using a soft constricting object such as a rubber band might result in severe complications and we should be careful.

  2. Spin susceptibility of Anderson impurities in arbitrary conduction bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Tie-Feng; Tong, Ning-Hua; Cao, Zhan; Sun, Qing-Feng; Luo, Hong-Gang

    2015-10-01

    Spin susceptibility of Anderson impurities is a key quantity in understanding the physics of Kondo screening. Traditional numerical renormalization group (NRG) calculation of the impurity contribution χimp to susceptibility, defined originally by Wilson in a flat wide band, has been generalized before to structured conduction bands. The results brought about non-Fermi-liquid and diamagnetic Kondo behaviors in χimp, even when the bands are not gapped at the Fermi energy. Here, we use the full density-matrix (FDM) NRG to present high-quality data for the local susceptibility χloc and to compare them with χimp obtained by the traditional NRG. Our results indicate that those exotic behaviors observed in χimp are unphysical. Instead, the low-energy excitations of the impurity in arbitrary bands only without gap at the Fermi energy are still a Fermi liquid and paramagnetic. We also demonstrate that unlike the traditional NRG yielding χloc less accurate than χimp, the FDM method allows a high-precision dynamical calculation of χloc at much reduced computational cost, with an accuracy at least one order higher than χimp. Moreover, artifacts in the FDM algorithm to χimp and origins of the spurious non-Fermi-liquid and diamagnetic features are clarified. Our work provides an efficient high-precision algorithm to calculate the spin susceptibility of impurity for arbitrary structured bands, while negating the applicability of Wilson's definition to such cases.

  3. V-band IMPATT transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D.; Ying, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    A V-band transmitter for communication application was developed that has 30 dB gain and consists of six stages of IMPATT amplifiers. The low and medium power stages are stable amplifiers while the two high power stages are triggered oscillators. Hybrid couplers in the form of Magic Tees were used for power combining two single diode IMPATT modules in the high driver stage and for a single diode IMPATT modules at the output stage. Output power of 4 watts CW across a 2.5 GHz band centered at 60 GHz was achieved with an input power of 4 mW. Dynamic range of the amplifier chain is in excess of 7 dB. A single diode one watt stable amplifier over a bandwidth greater than 2.5 GHz, a high power ( 1 watt) stable amplifier capable of operating in either the constant current or constant voltage mode and verification of the advantages of the latter mode of operation; and a 10 channel modulator with built in test equipment (specifically protective circuitry, failure monitoring, and mode of failure indicated) were also developed. The performance requirements of circulators/isolators for reflection amplifiers were also defined and verified.

  4. Order Theoretical Semantic Recommendation

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.; Paulson, Patrick R.; Peterson, Elena S.; Stephan, Eric G.; Thomas, Dennis G.

    2013-07-23

    Mathematical concepts of order and ordering relations play multiple roles in semantic technologies. Discrete totally ordered data characterize both input streams and top-k rank-ordered recommendations and query output, while temporal attributes establish numerical total orders, either over time points or in the more complex case of startend temporal intervals. But also of note are the fully partially ordered data, including both lattices and non-lattices, which actually dominate the semantic strcuture of ontological systems. Scalar semantic similarities over partially-ordered semantic data are traditionally used to return rank-ordered recommendations, but these require complementation with true metrics available over partially ordered sets. In this paper we report on our work in the foundations of partial order measurement in ontologies, with application to top-k semantic recommendation in workflows.

  5. Iliotibial band syndrome: evaluation and management.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Eric J; Kim, Suezie; Calcei, Jacob G; Park, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    Iliotibial band syndrome is a common overuse injury typically seen in runners, cyclists, and military recruits. Affected patients report lateral knee pain associated with repetitive motion activities. The diagnosis is usually made based on a characteristic history and physical examination, with imaging studies reserved for cases of recalcitrant disease to rule out other pathologic entities. Several etiologies have been proposed for iliotibial band syndrome, including friction of the iliotibial band against the lateral femoral epicondyle, compression of the fat and connective tissue deep to the iliotibial band, and chronic inflammation of the iliotibial band bursa. The mainstay of treatment is nonsurgical; however, in persistent or chronic cases, surgical management is indicated.

  6. Dust bands in the asteroid belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sykes, Mark V.; Greenberg, Richard; Dermott, Stanley F.; Nicholson, Philip D.; Burns, Joseph A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the original IRAS observations leading to the discovery of the three dust bands in the asteroid belt and the analysis of data. Special attention is given to an analytical model of the dust band torus and to theories concerning the origin of the dust bands, with special attention given to the collisional equilibrium (asteroid family), the nonequilibrium (random collision), and the comet hypotheses of dust-band origin. It is noted that neither the equilibrium nor nonequilibrium models, as currently formulated, present a complete picture of the IRAS dust-band observations.

  7. WIDE BAND REGENERATIVE FREQUENCY DIVIDER AND MULTIPLIER

    DOEpatents

    Laine, E.F.

    1959-11-17

    A regenerative frequency divider and multiplier having wide band input characteristics is presented. The circuit produces output oscillations having frequencies related by a fixed ratio to input oscillations over a wide band of frequencies. In accomplishing this end, the divider-multiplier includes a wide band input circuit coupled by mixer means to a wide band output circuit having a pass band related by a fixed ratio to that of the input circuit. A regenerative feedback circuit derives a fixed frequency ratio feedback signal from the output circuit and applies same to the mixer means in proper phase relation to sustain fixed frequency ratio oscillations in the output circuit.

  8. A probabilistic union model with automatic order selection for noisy speech recognition.

    PubMed

    Jancovic, P; Ming, J

    2001-09-01

    A critical issue in exploiting the potential of the sub-band-based approach to robust speech recognition is the method of combining the sub-band observations, for selecting the bands unaffected by noise. A new method for this purpose, i.e., the probabilistic union model, was recently introduced. This model has been shown to be capable of dealing with band-limited corruption, requiring no knowledge about the band position and statistical distribution of the noise. A parameter within the model, which we call its order, gives the best results when it equals the number of noisy bands. Since this information may not be available in practice, in this paper we introduce an automatic algorithm for selecting the order, based on the state duration pattern generated by the hidden Markov model (HMM). The algorithm has been tested on the TIDIGITS database corrupted by various types of additive band-limited noise with unknown noisy bands. The results have shown that the union model equipped with the new algorithm can achieve a recognition performance similar to that achieved when the number of noisy bands is known. The results show a very significant improvement over the traditional full-band model, without requiring prior information on either the position or the number of noisy bands. The principle of the algorithm for selecting the order based on state duration may also be applied to other sub-band combination methods.

  9. The Effects of Band Director Leadership Style and Student Leadership Ability on Band Festival Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, P. Dru

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between band director leadership styles and the strength of student leadership within the bands. This study also examined the differences between leadership styles, student leadership strength, and band festival ratings (marching and concert). Subjects (N = 42) were band directors from Texas and Arkansas who…

  10. A Survey of Beginning Band Methods for Elementary, Middle and High School Band Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVito, Donald R.

    A survey explored the various band method books available for use with public school beginning band programs. The selection of a beginning band method has an affect on the curriculum and future musical growth and development of public school music education students. The first section surveys band methods for the concepts they cover, the choice of…

  11. A Novel Ku-Band/Ka-Band and Ka-Band/E-Band Multimode Waveguide Couplers for Power Measurement of Traveling-Wave Tube Amplifier Harmonic Frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wintucky, Edwin G.; Simons, Rainee N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication and test results for a novel waveguide multimode directional coupler (MDC). The coupler, fabricated from two dissimilar frequency band waveguides, is capable of isolating power at the second harmonic frequency from the fundamental power at the output port of a traveling-wave tube (TWT) amplifier. Test results from proof-of-concept demonstrations are presented for a Ku-band/Ka-band MDC and a Ka-band/E-band MDC. In addition to power measurements at harmonic frequencies, a potential application of the MDC is in the design of a satellite borne beacon source for atmospheric propagation studies at millimeter-wave (mm-wave) frequencies (Ka-band and E-band).

  12. Band models and correlations for infrared radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.

    1975-01-01

    Absorption of infrared radiation by various line and band models are briefly reviewed. Narrow band model relations for absorptance are used to develop 'exact' formulations for total absorption by four wide band models. Application of a wide band model to a particular gas largely depends upon the spectroscopic characteristic of the absorbing-emitting molecule. Seven continuous correlations for the absorption of a wide band model are presented and each one of these is compared with the exact (numerical) solutions of the wide band models. Comparison of these results indicate the validity of a correlation for a particular radiative transfer application. In radiative transfer analyses, use of continuous correlations for total band absorptance provides flexibilities in various mathematical operations.

  13. [Band depth analysis and partial least square regression based winter wheat biomass estimation using hyperspectral measurements].

    PubMed

    Fu, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Ji-Hua; Yang, Gui-Jun; Song, Xiao-Yu; Xu, Xin-Gang; Feng, Hai-Kuan

    2013-05-01

    The major limitation of using existing vegetation indices for crop biomass estimation is that it approaches a saturation level asymptotically for a certain range of biomass. In order to resolve this problem, band depth analysis and partial least square regression (PLSR) were combined to establish winter wheat biomass estimation model in the present study. The models based on the combination of band depth analysis and PLSR were compared with the models based on common vegetation indexes from the point of view of estimation accuracy, subsequently. Band depth analysis was conducted in the visible spectral domain (550-750 nm). Band depth, band depth ratio (BDR), normalized band depth index, and band depth normalized to area were utilized to represent band depth information. Among the calibrated estimation models, the models based on the combination of band depth analysis and PLSR reached higher accuracy than those based on the vegetation indices. Among them, the combination of BDR and PLSR got the highest accuracy (R2 = 0.792, RMSE = 0.164 kg x m(-2)). The results indicated that the combination of band depth analysis and PLSR could well overcome the saturation problem and improve the biomass estimation accuracy when winter wheat biomass is large.

  14. Effective Ginzburg-Landau free energy functional for multi-band isotropic superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigorishin, Konstantin V.

    2016-04-01

    It has been shown that interband mixing of gradients of two order parameters (drag effect) in an isotropic bulk two-band superconductor plays important role - such a quantity of the intergradients coupling exists that the two-band superconductor is characterized with a single coherence length and a single Ginzburg-Landau (GL) parameter. Other quantities or neglecting of the drag effect lead to existence of two coherence lengths and dynamical instability due to violation of the phase relations between the order parameters. Thus so-called type-1.5 superconductors are impossible. An approximate method for solving of set of GL equations for a multi-band superconductor has been developed: using the result about the drag effect it has been shown that the free-energy functional for a multi-band superconductor can be reduced to the GL functional for an effective single-band superconductor.

  15. Deformation bands at andesitic stratovolcanoes and their impact on permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farquharson, Jamie; Heap, Michael; Varley, Nick; Baud, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    The edifice-forming andesitic rocks at Volcán de Colima (Mexico) host a multitude of curious planar to subplanar deformation features. During a recent field campaign (May/June 2014) we collected 14 blocks from different localities around the volcano (from debris-flow tracks and parasitic dome "Volcancito"), chosen to represent the variety of observable features. First order observations suggest that, while some of these bands (usually distinguished by a difference in colour) are essentially planar, others have undergone various degrees of post-formation viscous deformation. In the most extreme cases, the bands have been twisted and stretched to the point were they are preserved as wispy lenses. Scanning electron microscopy has shown that the different bands are characterised by very different microstructural textures, suggesting fundamentally different mechanisms of genesis. For example, some features are bands of higher porosity than the surrounding host rock in which the groundmass appears to have been removed by the movement of hydrothermal fluids along pre-existing cracks or in thicker (1-2 cm) zones now characterised by pervasive microporous textures. Some bands, observable because macropores (1 mm) have been filled by secondary mineralisation, contain a lower porosity than the adjacent host rock. We also find evidence of variably efficient bubble elongation, possibly indicating "frozen" decompression events within pumiceous samples. We cored cylindrical samples from the blocks to contain bands either parallel or perpendicular to the fluid (gas) flow direction in our laboratory permeameter setup (other samples were cored to contain no bands; i.e., the host rock). Our permeability measurements show that some features act as conduits while others serve as barriers to fluid flow. The importance of such features is emphasised by their large impact on permeability; changes in permeability can be as high as two orders of magnitude for certain bands. These data do

  16. Single Molecule Studies of the Diffusion of Band 3 in Sickle Cell Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Jeff; Kodippili, Gayani C.; Ritchie, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is caused by an inherited mutation in hemoglobin that leads to sickle hemoglobin (HbS) polymerization and premature HbS denaturation. Previous publications have shown that HbS denaturation is followed by binding of denatured HbS (a.k.a. hemichromes) to band 3, the consequent clustering of band 3 in the plane of the erythrocyte membrane that in turn promotes binding of autologous antibodies to the clustered band 3, and removal of the antibody-coated erythrocytes from circulation. Although each step of the above process has been individually demonstrated, the fraction of band 3 that is altered by association with denatured HbS has never been determined. For this purpose, we evaluated the lateral diffusion of band 3 in normal cells, reversibly sickled cells (RSC), irreversibly sickled cells (ISC), and hemoglobin SC erythrocytes (HbSC) in order to estimate the fraction of band 3 that was diffusing more slowly due to hemichrome-induced clustering. We labeled fewer than ten band 3 molecules per intact erythrocyte with a quantum dot to avoid perturbing membrane structure and we then monitored band 3 lateral diffusion by single particle tracking. We report here that the size of the slowly diffusing population of band 3 increases in the sequence: normal cellsband 3 is free to diffuse decreases roughly in the same order, with band 3 diffusing in two compartments of sizes 35 and 71 nm in normal cells, but only a single compartment in HbSC cells (58 nm), RSC (45 nm) and ISC (36 nm). These data suggest that the mobility of band 3 is increasingly constrained during SCD progression, suggesting a global impact of the mutated hemoglobin on erythrocyte membrane properties. PMID:27598991

  17. Single Molecule Studies of the Diffusion of Band 3 in Sickle Cell Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Spector, Jeff; Kodippili, Gayani C; Ritchie, Ken; Low, Philip S

    2016-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is caused by an inherited mutation in hemoglobin that leads to sickle hemoglobin (HbS) polymerization and premature HbS denaturation. Previous publications have shown that HbS denaturation is followed by binding of denatured HbS (a.k.a. hemichromes) to band 3, the consequent clustering of band 3 in the plane of the erythrocyte membrane that in turn promotes binding of autologous antibodies to the clustered band 3, and removal of the antibody-coated erythrocytes from circulation. Although each step of the above process has been individually demonstrated, the fraction of band 3 that is altered by association with denatured HbS has never been determined. For this purpose, we evaluated the lateral diffusion of band 3 in normal cells, reversibly sickled cells (RSC), irreversibly sickled cells (ISC), and hemoglobin SC erythrocytes (HbSC) in order to estimate the fraction of band 3 that was diffusing more slowly due to hemichrome-induced clustering. We labeled fewer than ten band 3 molecules per intact erythrocyte with a quantum dot to avoid perturbing membrane structure and we then monitored band 3 lateral diffusion by single particle tracking. We report here that the size of the slowly diffusing population of band 3 increases in the sequence: normal cellsband 3 is free to diffuse decreases roughly in the same order, with band 3 diffusing in two compartments of sizes 35 and 71 nm in normal cells, but only a single compartment in HbSC cells (58 nm), RSC (45 nm) and ISC (36 nm). These data suggest that the mobility of band 3 is increasingly constrained during SCD progression, suggesting a global impact of the mutated hemoglobin on erythrocyte membrane properties. PMID:27598991

  18. S-band transponder experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sjogren, W. L.; Gottlieb, P.; Muller, P. M.; Wollenhaupt, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    The experiment which derives data from three lunar-orbiting objects, the command-service module (CSM), the lunar module (LM), and the subsatellite in the S-band is described. Each provides detailed information on the near-side lunar gravitational field. The primary emphasis is on the low-altitude (20 km) CSM data. The LM data cover a very short time span and are somewhat redundant with the CSM data. The resolution of the high-altitude (100 km) CSM data is not as great as that of the low altitude data. The low-altitude CSM and LM data coverage and the complementary coverage obtained during the Apollo 14 mission are presented. The experiment uses the same technique of gravity determination employed on the Lunar Orbiter, in the data of which the large anomalies called mascons were first observed. The data consist of variations in the spacecraft speed as measured by the Earth-based radio tracking system.

  19. Photonic band gap structure simulator

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Chiping; Shapiro, Michael A.; Smirnova, Evgenya I.; Temkin, Richard J.; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R.

    2006-10-03

    A system and method for designing photonic band gap structures. The system and method provide a user with the capability to produce a model of a two-dimensional array of conductors corresponding to a unit cell. The model involves a linear equation. Boundary conditions representative of conditions at the boundary of the unit cell are applied to a solution of the Helmholtz equation defined for the unit cell. The linear equation can be approximated by a Hermitian matrix. An eigenvalue of the Helmholtz equation is calculated. One computation approach involves calculating finite differences. The model can include a symmetry element, such as a center of inversion, a rotation axis, and a mirror plane. A graphical user interface is provided for the user's convenience. A display is provided to display to a user the calculated eigenvalue, corresponding to a photonic energy level in the Brilloin zone of the unit cell.

  20. Circular birefringence of banded spherulites.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaoyan; Shtukenberg, Alexander G; Freudenthal, John; Nichols, Shane; Kahr, Bart

    2014-04-01

    Crystal optical properties of banded spherulites of 21 different compounds--molecular crystals, polymers, and minerals--with helically twisted fibers were analyzed with Mueller matrix polarimetry. The well-established radial oscillations in linear birefringence of many polycrystalline ensembles is accompanied by oscillations in circular birefringence that cannot be explained by the natural optical activity of corresponding compounds, some of which are centrosymmetric in the crystalline state. The circular birefringence is shown to be a consequence of misoriented, overlapping anisotropic lamellae, a kind of optical activity associated with the mesoscale stereochemistry of the refracting components. Lamellae splay as a consequence of space constraints related to simultaneous twisting of anisometric lamellae. This mechanism is supported by quantitative simulations of circular birefringence arising from crystallite twisting and splaying under confinement. PMID:24625095

  1. Topics in topological band systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhoushen

    The discovery of integer quantum Hall effect and its subsequent theoretical formulation heralded a new paradigm of thinking in condensed matter physics, which has by now blossomed into the rapidly growing field of topological phases. In this work we investigate several mutually related topics in the framework of topological band theory. In Chapter 2, we study solutions to boundary states on a lattice and see how they are related to the bulk topology. To elicit a real space manifestation of the non-trivial topology, the presence of a physical edge is not strictly necessary. We study two other possibilities, namely the entanglement spectrum associated with an imaginary spatial boundary, and the localization centers of Wannier functions, in Chapters 3,4, and 5. Topological classification through discrete indices is so far possible only for systems described by pure quantum states---in the existing scheme, quantization is lost for systems in mixed states. In Chapter 6, we present a program through which discrete topological indices can be defined for topological band systems at finite temperature, based on Uhlmann's parallel transport of density matrices. The potential of topologocal insulators in realistic applications lies in the existence of Dirac nodes on its surface spectrum. Dirac physics, however, is not exclusive to TI surfaces. In a recently discovered class of materials known as Weyl semimetals, energy nodes which emit linear dispersions also occur in the bulk material. In Chapter 7, we study the possibility of resonance states induced by localized impurities near the nodal energy in Weyl semimetals, which will help us in understanding the stability of density-of-state suppression at the energy nodes. Finally, in Chapter 8, we apply the topological characterization developed for noninteracting particles to a class of interacting spin models in 3D, which are generalizations of Kitaev's honeycomb model, and identify several exotic quantum phases such as spin

  2. L-band/P-band SAR comparison for search and rescue: recent results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rais, Houra; Mansfield, Arthur W.

    1999-08-01

    A key question in SAR-aided search is the relative utility of L-Band versus P-Band data. A continuing study is underway using target data collected by the NASA Search and Rescue Mission. This paper presents the most recent results of the investigation, including Navy P-3 SAR data at L-Band and JPL SAR data at L-band and P-band.

  3. Parallel preconditioning for the solution of nonsymmetric banded linear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Amodio, P.; Mazzia, F.

    1994-12-31

    Many computational techniques require the solution of banded linear systems. Common examples derive from the solution of partial differential equations and of boundary value problems. In particular the authors are interested in the parallel solution of block Hessemberg linear systems Gx = f, arising from the solution of ordinary differential equations by means of boundary value methods (BVMs), even if the considered preconditioning may be applied to any block banded linear system. BVMs have been extensively investigated in the last few years and their stability properties give promising results. A new class of BVMs called Reverse Adams, which are BV-A-stable for orders up to 6, and BV-A{sub 0}-stable for orders up to 9, have been studied.

  4. Miniature L-Band Radar Transceiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McWatters, Dalia; Price, Douglas; Edelstein, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    A miniature L-band transceiver that operates at a carrier frequency of 1.25 GHz has been developed as part of a generic radar electronics module (REM) that would constitute one unit in an array of many identical units in a very-large-aperture phased-array antenna. NASA and the Department of Defense are considering the deployment of such antennas in outer space; the underlying principles of operation, and some of those of design, also are applicable on Earth. The large dimensions of the antennas make it advantageous to distribute radio-frequency electronic circuitry into elements of the arrays. The design of the REM is intended to implement the distribution. The design also reflects a requirement to minimize the size and weight of the circuitry in order to minimize the weight of any such antenna. Other requirements include making the transceiver robust and radiation-hard and minimizing power demand. Figure 1 depicts the functional blocks of the REM, including the L-band transceiver. The key functions of the REM include signal generation, frequency translation, amplification, detection, handling of data, and radar control and timing. An arbitrary-waveform generator that includes logic circuitry and a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) generates a linear-frequency-modulation chirp waveform. A frequency synthesizer produces local-oscillator signals used for frequency conversion and clock signals for the arbitrary-waveform generator, for a digitizer [that is, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC)], and for a control and timing unit. Digital functions include command, timing, telemetry, filtering, and high-rate framing and serialization of data for a high-speed scientific-data interface. The aforementioned digital implementation of filtering is a key feature of the REM architecture. Digital filters, in contradistinction to analog ones, provide consistent and temperature-independent performance, which is particularly important when REMs are distributed throughout a large

  5. First-order inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, E.W. Chicago Univ., IL . Enrico Fermi Inst.)

    1990-09-01

    In the original proposal, inflation occurred in the process of a strongly first-order phase transition. This model was soon demonstrated to be fatally flawed. Subsequent models for inflation involved phase transitions that were second-order, or perhaps weakly first-order; some even involved no phase transition at all. Recently the possibility of inflation during a strongly first-order phase transition has been revived. In this talk I will discuss some models for first-order inflation, and emphasize unique signatures that result in inflation is realized in a first-order transition. Before discussing first-order inflation, I will briefly review some of the history of inflation to demonstrate how first-order inflation differs from other models. 58 refs., 3 figs.

  6. First-order inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Edward W.

    1991-01-01

    In the original proposal, inflation occurred in the process of a strongly first-order phase transition. This model was soon demonstrated to be fatally flawed. Subsequent models for inflation involved phase transitions that were second-order, or perhaps weakly first-order; some even involved no phase transition at all. Recently the possibility of inflation during a strongly first-order phase transition has been revived. In this talk I will discuss some models for first-order inflation, and emphasize unique signatures that result if inflation is realized in a first-order transition. Before discussing first-order inflation, I will briefly review some of the history of inflation to demonstrate how first-order inflation differs from other models.

  7. Integrated circuit narrowband dielectric filters for D-band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, G. B.; Singh, D.

    1987-06-01

    Dielectrics offer the highest Q-factor for integrated circuit resonators. In the D-band, low-order modes, with higher Q than the fundamental, are worthwhile, despite mode competition and slightly increased area. A 2-pole bandpass filter with a bandwidth of about 1.5 percent at 127 GHz is described. Insertion loss and return loss data are presented. Mode resonances and circuit substrates are also discussed.

  8. Educational and Training Opportunities in Sustainable Agriculture. 5th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Jane Potter

    This directory lists 151 programs in alternative farming systems (systems that aim at maintaining agricultural productivity and profitability, while protecting natural resources, especially sustainable, low-input, regenerative, biodynamic or organic farming and gardening). It includes programs conducted by colleges and universities, research…

  9. Screening and Brief Intervention Enter Their 5th Decade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saitz, Richard

    2007-01-01

    About 40 years since the first controlled study, screening and brief intervention (SBI) are being disseminated into practice. But many unanswered questions remain. Studies in this special issue address what we know and don't know about alcohol and drug SBI, cost-effectiveness, patient preferences, education for clinicians, quality performance…

  10. Engineering Salaries Top Other Fields for 5th Straight Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Debra E.

    1988-01-01

    An annual survey of college faculty pay shows faculty in "hard-to-hire" disciplines such as engineering, accounting, physics, and computer science continue to command higher-than-average salaries, while disciplines recently at the bottom of the pay scale remain there. At all ranks except full professor, private college faculty earned more. (MSE)

  11. Immigration: Law, Customs, History. 5th Grade Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertz, Gayle; And Others

    A fifth grade unit presents the history of immigration to the United States from a legal perspective. The eight sections are suitable for a comprehensive unit but may also be used selectively. Section A contains teacher materials: a chronological chart tying immigration laws to historical and cultural events, an overview of immigration…

  12. Purdue University Physics 152L [Manual] (5th Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN.

    This document is a laboratory manual for an undergraduate physics course at Purdue University, the major goals of which are to develop students' laboratory skills, to illustrate principles and phenomena described in the physics lectures, and to promote conceptual change about the major topics in Newtonian mechanics. A hardware and software guide…

  13. Observations of 4th and 5th Hour Doubles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiley, E. O.

    2009-04-01

    I report measures for 100 visual doubles, many of which are neglected. Three new pairs are reported. Observations were made with the GRAS002 robotic telescope located at the Remote Astronomical Society Observatory, Mayhill, NM, USA (http://www.remote-astronomical-society.org/). In addition to theta and rho values (and standard deviations), I report catalog numbers and magnitude differences of pairs, some of which lack precise positional information, and delta-M values.

  14. The 5th Generation model of Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lach, Theodore

    2009-05-01

    The Standard model of Particle Physics is able to account for all known HEP phenomenon, yet it is not able to predict the masses of the quarks or leptons nor can it explain why they have their respective values. The Checker Board Model (CBM) predicts that there are 5 generation of quarks and leptons and shows a pattern to those masses, namely each three quarks or leptons (within adjacent generations or within a generation) are related to each other by a geometric mean relationship. A 2D structure of the nucleus can be imaged as 2D plate spinning on its axis, it would for all practical circumstances appear to be a 3D object. The masses of the hypothesized ``up'' and ``dn'' quarks determined by the CBM are 237.31 MeV and 42.392 MeV respectively. These new quarks in addition to a lepton of 7.4 MeV make up one of the missing generations. The details of this new particle physics model can be found at the web site: checkerboard.dnsalias.net. The only areas were this theory conflicts with existing dogma is in the value of the mass of the Top quark. The particle found at Fermi Lab must be some sort of composite particle containing Top quarks.

  15. Recreation Programming: Designing Leisure Experiences. 5th Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossman, J. Robert; Schlatter, Barbara Elwood

    2008-01-01

    Originally published in 1989, "Recreation Programming: Designing Leisure Experiences" has become a standard in the park, recreation, and leisure service industry. This title has been used to teach beginning and experienced programmers in over 100 higher-education institutions, both nationally and internationally. Designed in a user-friendly…

  16. Key Findings. 5th Grade. Fall 2004. Sample Report Elementary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WestED (NJ3), 2004

    2004-01-01

    This document is a sample framework for elementary school reports. The framework is for an elementary school district that administered the Elementary School California Healthy Kids Survey (CHKS) in Fall 2004 to fifth-grade students. The CHKS is a comprehensive youth health-risk and resilience data collection service, sponsored by the California…

  17. Nutrition Super Stars [5th and 6th Grades].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtkooper, Linda; And Others

    This nutrition and physical fitness curriculum kit provides a means for students, teachers, parents, and school health and food service staff to learn about the nutritional value of food and the relationship of food and physical fitness to growth, development, and health; develop food and activity habits which promote good health; and share this…

  18. Multicultural Education: Issues and Perspectives. 5th Edition, Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A.; Banks, Cherry A. McGee

    2004-01-01

    With this collection of chapters by leading scholars and researchers in the field, the reader can develop the knowledge and skills needed to maximize the opportunities that diversity offers while minimizing its challenges. The reader will explore current and emerging research, concepts, debates, and teaching strategies for educating students from…

  19. Background Materials for Chairman's Workshop. 5th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimble, Gregory A.

    Information for newly appointed heads of graduate departments of psychology is presented as background material for the 1974 Chairman's Workshop. Topics include the following: the budgetary situation, pressures for increased teaching loads, effects upon recruiting faculty, faculty morale, graduate and undergraduate student morale, the intellectual…

  20. NASA-marks 5th anniversary of first lunar landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The accomplishments of the Apollo 11 Flight are presented as a tribute to the fifth anniversary of the first landing on the moon. The document contains: (1) a general description of the Apollo 11 Flight, (2) Presidential statements, (3) Apollo historical summary, (4) Apollo mission facts, (5) information on astronauts who are no longer in the program, and (6) transcripts of the landing sequence and first extravehicular activities on the moon.

  1. Proceedings of the 5th Annual Users' Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szczur, M. (Editor); Harris, E. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The Transportable Applications Executive (TAE) was conceived in 1979. It was proposed to be a general purpose software executive that could be applied in various systems. The success of this concept and of TAE was demonstrated. Topics included: TAE current status; TAE development; TAE applications; and UNIX emphasis.

  2. 5th International School on Field Theory and Gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Following the philosophy that the International School on Field Theory and Gravitation must be held each three years in different Brazilian Universities and, if possible, in different brazilian states, the next meeting will take place at Physics Institute of Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso, UFMT, Cuiabá city on April, 20-24/2009 very close to the beautiful Pantanal and Chapada dos Guimarães area. The goal of the meeting is to promote a greater integration among many physicists from the local university, UFMT, Co-organizing institutions in Brasil and foreign countries such as Canada, USA, Italy, China, England, Swiss, Spain, Brazil and others; to stimulate the organization of scientific events in our physics Institute and thus contributing to local research activities; to exhibit different fields of physics and to stimulate new lines of theoretical research and technological developments in the Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso, UFMT. Finally, we make efforts to promote the development of advanced studies, taking it to the present core of research in a strong process of affirmation of new lines of theoretical studies in our Physics Institute. To this, we invite colleagues, collaborators, researchers, students, and friends to attend this fifth edition of International School on Field Theory and gravitation-2009.

  3. PREFACE: 5th International Conference on Mechatronics (ICOM'13)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akramin Shafie, Amir; Raisuddin Khan, Md

    2013-12-01

    The Fifth International Conference on Mechatronics (ICOM2013), took place in Kuala Lumpur Malaysia from 2-4 July 2013. The biannual conference which started in 2001 is regularly organized by Faculty of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) with the aims to serve as a platform for exchange of ideas on advances of in mechatronics and their applications as well as to foster research and worldwide collaboration. The theme for the 2013 conference was 'Mechatronics: Sustainable Development through Innovative Solutions'. The ICOM 2013 Conference consisted of Keynote Speeches (5) and oral contributions (150). The topics of the conference were: Mechatronic systems and Applications Intelligent Systems Control and Instrumentation Signal and Image Processing Machine Vision Robotics and Automation Manufacturing Mechatronics Green Mechatronics Mechatronic Education Smart Materials and Structures Active Vibration Control Computer and Information Technology MEMS and NEMS Biomechatronics and Rehabilitation Engineering Autonomous Systems Energy and Sustainability Transportation System It is our great pleasure to present this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (MSE) to the scientific community to promote further research in these areas. We believe that this volume will be both an excellent source of scientific material in the fast evolving fields that were covered by ICOM 2013. We thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contributions. We would also like to express our gratitude to the Organizing Committee, the Institutions and Sponsors and everyone who contributed to this conference through their supports and invaluable efforts. Editors Amir A Shafie aashafie@iium.edu.my Raisuddin Khan raisuddin@iium.edu.my Mahbubur Rashid mahbub@iium.edu.my Department of Mechatronics, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Kuala Lumpur Malaysia Organizing Committee Md Raisuddin Khan Md Mozasser Rahman Shahrul Naim Sidek Muhammad Mahbubur Rashid Amir Akramin Shafie Nahrul Khair Alang Md Rasyid Rini Akmeliati Roslizar Mat Ali Hazlina Md Yusof Asan Gani Abdul Muthalif Wahju Sediono Salmiah Ahmad Iskandar Al-Thani Mahmood Yasir Mohd Mustafah Moinul Bhuiyan Zulkifli Zainal Abidin Nadzril Sulaiman Momoh J Salami Conference logos

  4. How Zucchini Won 5th-Grade Hearts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaliere, Denise

    1987-01-01

    Describes an innovative gardening/nutrition education program in Tucson, Arizona, public elementary schools--Meals for Millions "Sow and Grow"--where children in kindergarten to sixth grade invest time and "tender loving cultivation" into their own school vegetable gardens and learn to like foods--zucchini--that are good for them. (Author/BB)

  5. Highlights of the 5th Annual ATS Convention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbot, Stuart

    The convention was held in Bath, hosted by Ron Maddison. The Lord Mayor of Bath held a reception in the Roman Baths before the keynote address by Dr. Allan Chapman, The Brotherhood of Big Reflecting Telescopes: William Herschel to William Lassell. An ATS award was presented to Dr. Henry King for The History of the Telescope, as was one presented to Robert Hambleton, ATS editor. The lectures included one given by Patrick Moore, Peter Louwman, Rolf Willach, Eugene Rudd, and Ken Launie. Tours were conducted of the Science Museum London's Blythe House, the Royal Society, the Whipple Museum and the University Observatory, both at Cambridge, Wollsthorpe Manor, Issac Newton's home, the University of London Observatory at Mill Hill, and the Royal Observatory at Greenwich. Several pictures of the convention are included in the article.

  6. PREFACE: 5th European Conference on Neutron Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikula, Pavel; Hlinka, Jiří; Prokeš, Karel; Dohnálek, Jan; Šittner, Petr; Javorský, Pavel

    2012-02-01

    This volume contains proceedings of ECNS 2011, held in Prague, Czech Republic, 17-22 July 2011. ECNS 2011 was the fifth Conference in a series of meetings organized in various European cities under patronage of the European Neutron Scattering Association, and was preceded by the European Neutron Scattering Conferences in Interlaken (1996), Budapest (1999), Montpellier (2003) and Lund (2007). The positive atmosphere of the Prague meeting of the neutron community can certainly be attributed to recent progress in the extension of the European neutron experimental base, in particular the completion of the ISIS second target station and considerable progress in the European Spallation Source project in Lund. The success of ECNS 2011 has been manifested by the participation of 698 scientists from 36 countries, who presented 231 talks and 534 posters. This proceedings contains 112 papers from authors who wished to have the written versions of their contributions published. The contributions illustrate the broad scale of scientific problems investigated by neutron scattering methods and give a picture of growing activities in the field. The conference chairmen wish to express their thanks to all colleagues who contributed to the organization and preparation of ECNS 2011, in particular the members of the International Advisory Committee, the International Program Committee and the Local Organizing Committee. We very much appreciate the role of Professor Michael Steiner, the President of ENSA, and all ENSA representatives who contributed valuable conceptual input and advice in the preparatory phase of the conference organization. Special thanks go to the editors and all the referees who helped us to publish the ECNS 2011 Proceedings in such a short time. Vladimír SechovskýPetr Lukáš Conference chairmen The PDF contains photographs from the conference and a full list of participants.

  7. Theoretical study of the role of charge ordering in antiferromagnetically ordered manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Saswati; Kar, J. K.; Rout, G. C.

    2016-09-01

    We address the interplay of charge and magnetic orderings in colossal magnetoresistive material manganese oxides. We propose here on-site double exchange spin-spin interaction in the presence of Heisenberg-type spin-spin interaction in localized t 2g core electrons. We consider charge-density wave (CDW) interaction in the crystal lattice as an extra mechanism in the itinerant e g band, to take into account of colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) in the system. We calculate electron Green’s functions by Zubarev’s Green’s function technique and hence calculate the charge-ordering gap and magnetic gap in the conduction band as well as core electron states. These orders are solved self-consistently for different model parameters of the system. We observe that the induced magnetic gap in the conduction band exists near the antiferromagnetic Néel temperature, which accounts for the CMR in the system. For all values of temperature, the CDW coupling lies in the range of g = 0.04 to 0.06, where the induced magnetic gap exists. The temperature-dependent specific heat exhibits anomalous jumps near charge-ordering and magnetic-ordering temperatures. The e g electron density of states exhibits a two-gap structure which explains tunneling conductance spectra measurements.

  8. Microstrip Triband Bandstop Fitler with Sharp Stop Band Skirts and Independently Controllable Second Stop Band Response

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam-Young

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a compact planar triband bandstop filter (TBBSF) with compact size and high selectivity. The structure of the filter incorporates two folded trisection stepped-impedance resonators (TSSIRs). One of these resonators is designed to operate at the first and third center frequencies and the other resonator is designed to operate at the second center frequency of the proposed filter. To achieve a compact size filter, alternating impedance lines of the resonators are folded widthwise and also one resonator is embedded within another. Theoretical analysis and design procedures are described, including the synthesis equations for each resonator. The main advantage of the proposed method is that the filter provides flexibility to tune the second center frequency and control the corresponding bandwidth without changing the first and third stop band response. Additionally, several reflection zeros (RZs) are introduced in the pass band to improve its flatness. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed design method, both the first and second order TBBSFs were designed, simulated, and fabricated, with center frequencies of 1.92 GHz, 3.55 GHz, and 5.5 GHz. PMID:25019098

  9. Parallel preconditioners for monolithic solution of shear bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger-Vergiat, Luc; McAuliffe, Colin; Waisman, Haim

    2016-01-01

    Shear bands are one of the most fascinating instabilities in metals that occur under high strain rates. They describe narrow regions, on the order of micron scales, where plastic deformations and significant heating are localized which eventually leads to fracture nucleation and failure of the component. In this work shear bands are described by a set of four strongly coupled thermo-mechanical equations discretized by a mixed finite element formulation. A thermo-viscoplastic flow rule is used to model the inelastic constitutive law and finite thermal conductivity is prescribed which gives rise to an inherent physical length scale, governed by competition of shear heating and thermal diffusion. The residual equations are solved monolithically by a Newton type method at every time step and have been shown to yield mesh insensitive result. The Jacobian of the system is sparse and has a nonsymmetric block structure that varies with the different stages of shear bands formation. The aim of the current work is to develop robust parallel preconditioners to GMRES in order to solve the resulting Jacobian systems efficiently. The main idea is to design Schur complements tailored to the specific block structure of the system and that account for the varying stages of shear bands. We develop multipurpose preconditioners that apply to standard irreducible discretizations as well as our recent work on isogeometric discretizations of shear bands. The proposed preconditioners are tested on benchmark examples and compared to standard state of practice solvers such as GMRES/ILU and LU direct solvers. Nonlinear and linear iterations counts as well as CPU times and computational speedups are reported and it is shown that the proposed preconditioners are robust, efficient and outperform traditional state of the art solvers.

  10. Shuttle Ku-band and S-band communications implementations study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, G. K.; Nessibou, T.; Nilsen, P. W.; Simon, M. K.; Weber, C. L.

    1979-01-01

    The interfaces between the Ku-band system and the TDRSS, between the S-band system and the TDRSS, GSTDN and SGLS networks, and between the S-band payload communication equipment and the other Orbiter avionic equipment were investigated. The principal activities reported are: (1) performance analysis of the payload narrowband bent-pipe through the Ku-band communication system; (2) performance evaluation of the TDRSS user constraints placed on the S-band and Ku-band communication systems; (3) assessment of the shuttle-unique S-band TDRSS ground station false lock susceptibility; (4) development of procedure to make S-band antenna measurements during orbital flight; (5) development of procedure to make RFI measurements during orbital flight to assess the performance degradation to the TDRSS S-band communication link; and (6) analysis of the payload interface integration problem areas.

  11. Adaptive Confidence Bands for Nonparametric Regression Functions

    PubMed Central

    Cai, T. Tony; Low, Mark; Ma, Zongming

    2014-01-01

    A new formulation for the construction of adaptive confidence bands in non-parametric function estimation problems is proposed. Confidence bands are constructed which have size that adapts to the smoothness of the function while guaranteeing that both the relative excess mass of the function lying outside the band and the measure of the set of points where the function lies outside the band are small. It is shown that the bands adapt over a maximum range of Lipschitz classes. The adaptive confidence band can be easily implemented in standard statistical software with wavelet support. Numerical performance of the procedure is investigated using both simulated and real datasets. The numerical results agree well with the theoretical analysis. The procedure can be easily modified and used for other nonparametric function estimation models. PMID:26269661

  12. Heme charge-transfer band III is vibronically coupled to the Soret band.

    PubMed

    Franzen, Stefan; Wallace-Williams, Stacie E; Shreve, Andrew P

    2002-06-19

    A complete resonance Raman excitation profile of the heme charge-transfer band known as band III is presented. The data obtained throughout the near-infrared region show preresonance with the Q-band, but the data also clearly show the enhancement of a number of modes in the spectral region of band III. Only nontotally symmetric modes are observed to have resonance enhancement in the band III region. The observed resonance enhancements in modes of B(1g) symmetry are compared with the enhancements of those same modes in the excitation profiles of the Q-band of deoxy myoglobin, also presented here for this first time. The Q-band data agree well with the theory of vibronic coupling in metalloporphyrins (Shelnutt, J. A. J. Chem. Phys. 1981, 74, 6644-6657). The strong vibronic coupling of the Q-band of the deoxy form of hemes is discussed in terms of the enhancement of modes with both B(1g) and A(2g) symmetry. The comparison between the Q-band and band III reveals that, consistent with the theory, only modes of B(1g) symmetry are enhanced in the vicinity of band III. These results show that band III is vibronically coupled to the Soret band. The coupling of band III to modes with strong rhombic distortion of the heme macrocycle calls into question the hypothesis that the axial iron out-of-plane displacement is primarily responsible for the structure-dynamics correlations observed in myoglobin.

  13. Fade Mitigation Techniques at Ka-Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dissanayake, Asoka (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    Rain fading is the dominant propagation impairment affecting Ka-band satellite links and rain fade mitigation is a key element in the design of Ka-band satellite networks. Some of the common fade mitigation techniques include: power control, diversity, adaptive coding, and resource sharing. The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) provides an excellent opportunity to develop and test Ka-band rain impairment amelioration techniques. Up-link power control and diversity are discussed in this paper.

  14. X-BAND KLYSTRON DEVELOPMENT AT SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Vlieks, Arnold E.; /SLAC

    2009-08-03

    The development of X-band klystrons at SLAC originated with the idea of building an X-band Linear Collider in the late 1980's. Since then much effort has been expended in developing a reliable X-band Power source capable of delivering >50 MW RF power in pulse widths >1.5 {micro}s. I will report on some of the technical issues and design strategies which have led to the current SLAC klystron designs.

  15. Effect of PCM encoding on wide band telemetry data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, T. F.; Nichols, M. H.

    In order to comply with certain mission requirements, it is necessary to encode telemetry data into pulse code modulation (PCM). For this reason, test data have been obtained in order to determine the effects of quantization errors and bit errors with special reference to wide-band noise-like data signals involving data reduction by spectral analysis. The use of notch noises tests for determining coder/decoder (CODEC) performance has been evaluated. Test procedures and test results are given using CODEC configurations of 4 to 12 bits per word. Parameters for encoding constant bandwidth (CBW) and proportional bandwidth (PBW) subcarrier multiplexes for PCM transmission are included.

  16. Four-dimensional investigation of the 2nd order volume autocorrelation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faucher, O.; Tzallas, P.; Benis, E. P.; Kruse, J.; Peralta Conde, A.; Kalpouzos, C.; Charalambidis, D.

    2009-10-01

    The 2nd order volume autocorrelation technique, widely utilized in directly measuring ultra-short light pulses durations, is examined in detail via model calculations that include three-dimensional integration over a large ionization volume, temporal delay and spatial displacement of the two beams of the autocorrelator at the focus. The effects of the inherent displacement to the 2nd order autocorrelation technique are demonstrated for short and long pulses, elucidating the appropriate implementation of the technique in tight focusing conditions. Based on the above investigations, a high accuracy 2nd order volume autocorrelation measurement of the duration of the 5th harmonic of a 50 fs long laser pulse, including the measurement of the carrier wavelength oscillation, is presented.

  17. Possible chiral bands in {sup 194}Tl

    SciTech Connect

    Masiteng, P. L.; Ramashidzha, T. M.; Maliage, S. M.; Sharpey-Schafer, J. F.; Vymers, P. A.; Lawrie, E. A.; Lawrie, J. J.; Bark, R. A.; Mullins, S. M.; Murray, S. H. T.; Kau, J.; Komati, F.; Lindsay, R.; Matamba, I.; Mutshena, P.; Zhang, Y.

    2011-10-28

    High spin states in {sup 194}Tl, excited through the {sup 181}Ta({sup 18}O,5n) fusion evaporation reaction, were studied using the AFRODITE array at iThemba LABS. Candidate chiral bands built on the {pi}h{sub 9/2} x {nu}i{sub 13/2}{sup 1} configuration were found. Furthermore these bands were observed through a band crossing caused by the excitation of a {nu}i{sub 13/2} pair. Above the band crossing the excitation energies remain close, suggesting that chirality may persist for the four quasiparticle configuration too.

  18. Metal band drives in spacecraft mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maus, Daryl

    1993-05-01

    Transmitting and changing the characteristics of force and stroke is a requirement in nearly all mechanisms. Examples include changing linear to rotary motion, providing a 90 deg change in direction, and amplifying stroke or force. Requirements for size, weight, efficiency and reliability create unique problems in spacecraft mechanisms. Flexible metal band and cam drive systems provide powerful solutions to these problems. Band drives, rack and pinion gears, and bell cranks are compared for effectiveness. Band drive issues are discussed including materials, bend radius, fabrication, attachment and reliability. Numerous mechanisms are shown which illustrate practical applications of band drives.

  19. Metal band drives in spacecraft mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maus, Daryl

    1993-01-01

    Transmitting and changing the characteristics of force and stroke is a requirement in nearly all mechanisms. Examples include changing linear to rotary motion, providing a 90 deg change in direction, and amplifying stroke or force. Requirements for size, weight, efficiency and reliability create unique problems in spacecraft mechanisms. Flexible metal band and cam drive systems provide powerful solutions to these problems. Band drives, rack and pinion gears, and bell cranks are compared for effectiveness. Band drive issues are discussed including materials, bend radius, fabrication, attachment and reliability. Numerous mechanisms are shown which illustrate practical applications of band drives.

  20. Sub-band adaptive noise cancelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, James G.; Goubran, Rafik A.

    The technique of using sub-band adaptive filters for acoustic noise suppression is examined. Simulation results are presented for experimental systems trained with white noise and colored noise for both decimated and non-decimated sub-band signals. To illustrate the usefulness of the sub-band approach for a real application, the full band and sub-band noise cancellers were applied to car data. Estimates of the input and output power spectra for the different cases are presented. It is shown that the full-band noise canceller is unable to attenuate the noise in the higher frequencies due to the low input signal power in this region. The sub-band decomposition of the input signal can significantly increase the rate as compared to a full-band implementation under certain conditions. This increase in convergence speed is manifested as an increased noise attenuation in those regions of the input spectrum with relatively low amounts of power. In addition, the sub-band processing is seen to eliminate the noise enhancement phenomenon found in acoustic noise cancellers for mobile telephony.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of iliotibial band syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ekman, E F; Pope, T; Martin, D F; Curl, W W

    1994-01-01

    Seven cases of iliotibial band syndrome and the pathoanatomic findings of each, as demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging, are presented. These findings were compared with magnetic resonance imaging scans of 10 age- and sex-matched control knees without evidence of lateral knee pain. Magnetic resonance imaging signal consistent with fluid was seen deep to the iliotibial band in the region of the lateral femoral epicondyle in five of the seven cases. Additionally, when compared with the control group, patients with iliotibial band syndrome demonstrated a significantly thicker iliotibial band over the lateral femoral epicondyle (P < 0.05). Thickness of the iliotibial band in the disease group was 5.49 +/- 2.12 mm, as opposed to 2.52 +/- 1.56 mm in the control group. Cadaveric dissections were performed on 10 normal knees to further elucidate the exact nature of the area under the iliotibial band. A potential space, i.e., a bursa, was found between the iliotibial band and the knee capsule. This series suggests that magnetic resonance imaging demonstrates objective evidence of iliotibial band syndrome and can be helpful when a definitive diagnosis is essential. Furthermore, correlated with anatomic dissection, magnetic resonance imaging identifies this as a problem within a bursa beneath the iliotibial band and not a problem within the knee joint.

  2. Proportion of recovered waterfowl bands reported

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geis, A.D.; Atwood, E.L.

    1961-01-01

    Data from the annual mail survey of waterfowl hunters in the United States were used to estimate the total numbers of banded waterfowl that were shot. These estimates were compared with Banding Office records to estimate the proportion of recovered bands that was reported. On the average, about two banded birds were recovered for each one reported. The proportion reported was higher for some areas and for some species than for others. The proportion reported was higher when more of the reports came through employees of conservation agencies.

  3. Band engineering of thermoelectric materials.

    PubMed

    Pei, Yanzhong; Wang, Heng; Snyder, G J

    2012-12-01

    Lead chalcogenides have long been used for space-based and thermoelectric remote power generation applications, but recent discoveries have revealed a much greater potential for these materials. This renaissance of interest combined with the need for increased energy efficiency has led to active consideration of thermoelectrics for practical waste heat recovery systems-such as the conversion of car exhaust heat into electricity. The simple high symmetry NaCl-type cubic structure, leads to several properties desirable for thermoelectricity, such as high valley degeneracy for high electrical conductivity and phonon anharmonicity for low thermal conductivity. The rich capabilities for both band structure and microstructure engineering enable a variety of approaches for achieving high thermoelectric performance in lead chalcogenides. This Review focuses on manipulation of the electronic and atomic structural features which makes up the thermoelectric quality factor. While these strategies are well demonstrated in lead chalcogenides, the principles used are equally applicable to most good thermoelectric materials that could enable improvement of thermoelectric devices from niche applications into the mainstream of energy technologies. PMID:23074043

  4. Band engineering of thermoelectric materials.

    PubMed

    Pei, Yanzhong; Wang, Heng; Snyder, G J

    2012-12-01

    Lead chalcogenides have long been used for space-based and thermoelectric remote power generation applications, but recent discoveries have revealed a much greater potential for these materials. This renaissance of interest combined with the need for increased energy efficiency has led to active consideration of thermoelectrics for practical waste heat recovery systems-such as the conversion of car exhaust heat into electricity. The simple high symmetry NaCl-type cubic structure, leads to several properties desirable for thermoelectricity, such as high valley degeneracy for high electrical conductivity and phonon anharmonicity for low thermal conductivity. The rich capabilities for both band structure and microstructure engineering enable a variety of approaches for achieving high thermoelectric performance in lead chalcogenides. This Review focuses on manipulation of the electronic and atomic structural features which makes up the thermoelectric quality factor. While these strategies are well demonstrated in lead chalcogenides, the principles used are equally applicable to most good thermoelectric materials that could enable improvement of thermoelectric devices from niche applications into the mainstream of energy technologies.

  5. Endoscopy of vertical banded gastroplasty.

    PubMed

    Deitel, M; Bendago, M

    1989-05-01

    Vertical banded gastroplasty is the most common operation for morbid obesity. Postoperative gastroscopy was needed 91 times in 79 of 696 patients for 1) abdominal pain (23), 2) excess vomiting (22), 3) inadequate weight loss (14), 4) excess weight loss (13), 5) and a sudden increase in eating capacity (7). A normal appearance consisted of a clean gastric channel 6.8 +/- 1.4 SD cm long, with a rosette 46.6 +/- 2.1 cm from the incisors and, with insufflation, an 11 mm scope passed through this pseudopylorus snugly, but without difficulty. In Group 1, no problem was seen in the channel, and cholecystitis was found to be the cause. In Group 2, no problem was observed in ten (poor teeth and chewing), six experienced stasis or pill ulcerations, four had bezoars (fragmented or removed with basket), and two had intraluminal mesh. In Group 3, the scope floated through too large an outlet (greater than or equal to 13 mm) in eight, and no cause was seen in six (gorgers, sweets-eaters). In Group 4, tightness or stricture resolved with dilatations (Eder-Puestow; Savary; balloon dilators) in six, but seven required re-operation. In Group 5, the scope travelled through four breakdowns in the partition and three outlets were too large. Gastroscopy viewed problems accurately, indicated treatment and suggested modifications in gastroplasty technique. PMID:2719405

  6. Broad-band beam buncher

    DOEpatents

    Goldberg, D.A.; Flood, W.S.; Arthur, A.A.; Voelker, F.

    1984-03-20

    A broad-band beam bunther is disclosed, comprising an evacuated housing, an electron gun therein for producing an electron beam, a buncher cavity having entrance and exit openings through which the beam is directed, grids across such openings, a source providing a positive DC voltage between the cavity and the electron gun, a drift tube through which the electron beam travels in passing through such cavity, grids across the ends of such drift tube, gaps being provided between the drift tube grids and the entrance and exit grids, a modulator for supplying an ultrahigh frequency modulating signal to the drift tube for producing velocity modulation of the electrons in the beam, a drift space in the housing through which the velocity modulated electron beam travels and in which the beam is bunched, and a discharge opening from such drift tube and having a grid across such opening through which the bunched electron beam is discharged into an accelerator or the like. The buncher cavity and the drift tube may be arranged to constitute an extension of a coaxial transmission line which is employed to deliver the modulating signal from a signal source. The extended transmission line may be terminated in its characteristic impedance to afford a broad-

  7. The Formation of Banded Zebra Rocks, Permeability Changes and Ore Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehn, D.; Chung, P.

    2012-04-01

    Dolomites can develop characteristic patterns of white and dark bands that form so called "Zebra" rocks. Often these patterns are mineralized and host ore deposits. How the Zebra stripes form and what effect their formation has on permeability changes within rocks is not well understood. In this contribution we study striped dolomites from the San Vicente Lead-Zink mine in Peru in order to understand how the pattern forms and how it influences the development of the ore deposit. We analysed thin-sections under an optical microscope and the SEM in order to map the difference between the white and dark bands of dolomite. The main difference between the two is the grain size, where dark bands always contain smaller grains than white bands. This leads to a marked difference in permeability, with the large grains in the white bands containing open space and ore-filled holes. EDS mapping of Si and Al shows that the dark bands mainly contain these elements and that they are absent in the large grains. This can also be seen in thin-section where the dark bands seem to contain the main impurities. Because of the difference in grain size and impurity content we argue that the pattern forms due to a grain-growth process where grains in the white bands grow without including impurities whereas grains in the dark bands shrink and collect impurities. This in turn also influences the permeability of the system where white layers become more permeable. Lead seems to precipitate mainly in these high permeability regions in the middle of the white bands whereas Zink travels to the boundary between white and dark bands where Sphalerite precipitates. Structures of the precipitated ore minerals indicate that the dolomite dissolves while the ore minerals precipitate. We will discuss implications of our model for this specific type of ore deposits.

  8. Band head spin assignment of Tl isotopes of superdeformed rotational bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, Alpana; Nair, Uma; Yadav, Archana

    2014-09-01

    The Variable Moment of Inertia (VMI) model is proposed for the assignment of band head spin of super deformed (SD) rotational bands, which in turn is helpful in the spin prediction of SD bands. The moment of inertia and stiffness parameter (C), were calculated by fitting the proposed transition energies. The calculated transition energies are highly dependent on the prescribed spins. The calculated and observed transition energies agree well when an accurate band head spin (I 0) is assigned. The results are in good agreement with other theoretical results reported in literature. In this paper, we have reported the band head spin value 16 rotational band of super deformed Tl isotopes.

  9. Band head spin assignment of Tl isotopes of superdeformed rotational bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, Alpana; Nair, Uma V. Sasidharan; Yadav, Archana

    2014-09-01

    The Variable Moment of Inertia (VMI) model is proposed for the assignment of band head spin of super deformed (SD) rotational bands, which in turn is helpful in the spin prediction of SD bands. The moment of inertia and stiffness parameter (C), were calculated by fitting the proposed transition energies. The calculated transition energies are highly dependent on the prescribed spins. The calculated and observed transition energies agree well when an accurate band head spin ( I 0) is assigned. The results are in good agreement with other theoretical results reported in literature. In this paper, we have reported the band head spin value 16 rotational band of super deformed Tl isotopes.

  10. Reward banding to determine reporting rate of recovered mourning dove bands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tomlinson, R.E.

    1968-01-01

    Reward bands placed on the other leg of certain regularly banded immature mourning doves (Zenaidura macroura) were used to develop information on reporting rates of recovered dove bands. Reports from 15 widely separated sections of the United States showed considerable variation in recovery rate of doves both with and without reward bands. The overall percentages of banded doves that were reported as recovered were 9.69% for those with reward bands and 3.83% for controls. The bandreporting rate for states influenced by publicity was 66%; that for states not influenced was 32%.

  11. Systematic topology optimization of solid-solid phononic crystals for multiple separate band-gaps with different polarizations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zong-Fa; Wu, Bin; He, Cun-Fu

    2016-02-01

    Phononic crystals (PnCs) have attracted considerable interest due to their unique and outstanding band-gap characteristics. In many applications, it is desirable to have a unit cell with specific band-gaps. The distribution of elastic materials within a unit cell has significant effect on the band-gaps, which is extremely difficult to be determined without systematic synthesis method. In this paper, topology optimization techniques are utilized to obtain two-dimensional (2D) square lattice PnCs with maximized relative band-gaps between multiple consecutive bands. The optimization follows two-stage design process using Genetic algorithms (GAs) in combination with finite element method (FEM). Three numerical examples are given to optimize 2D steel/epoxy PnCs in one-eighth symmetry for coupled mode, shear mode and mixed mode respectively. The results show that the optimized PnCs with different band-gaps, which can easily be found by the developed method, have different materials layout, and the PnCs with the lowest order band-gap are simple lattice and have the highest value of application in noise reduction and vibration isolation. Some optimized PnCs with higher order band-gaps have the same lattice as those with the lowest order band-gap, and whose absolute band-gaps are inversely proportional to the minimum feature size of primitive cells. PMID:26456279

  12. Constraints to the flat band potential of hematite photo-electrodes.

    PubMed

    Hankin, A; Alexander, J C; Kelsall, G H

    2014-08-14

    We revisit the fundamental constraints that apply to flat band potential values at semiconductor photo-electrodes. On the physical scale, the Fermi level energy of a non-degenerate semiconductor at the flat band condition, EF(FB), is constrained to a position between the conduction band, EC, and the valence band, EV,: |EC| < |EF(FB)| < |EV| throughout the depth of the semiconductor. The same constraint applies on the electrode potential scale, where the values are referenced against a common reference electrode: UC(FB) < UF(FB) < UV(FB). Some experimentally determined flat band potentials appear to lie outside these fundamental boundaries. In order to assess the validity of any determined flat band potential, the boundaries set by the conduction band and the valence band must be computed on both scales a priori, where possible. This is accomplished with the aid of an analytical reconstruction of the semiconductor|electrolyte interface in question. To illustrate this approach, we provide a case study based on synthetic hematite, α-Fe2O3. The analysis of this particular semiconductor is motivated by the large variance in the flat band potential values reported in the literature.

  13. Modeling Multi-Bunch X-band Photoinjector Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, R A; Anderson, S G; Gibson, D J; Barty, C J

    2012-05-09

    An X-band test station is being developed at LLNL to investigate accelerator optimization for future upgrades to mono-energetic gamma-ray technology at LLNL. The test station will consist of a 5.5 cell X-band rf photoinjector, single accelerator section, and beam diagnostics. Of critical import to the functioning of the LLNL X-band system with multiple electron bunches is the performance of the photoinjector. In depth modeling of the Mark 1 LLNL/SLAC X-band rf photoinjector performance will be presented addressing important challenges that must be addressed in order to fabricate a multi-bunch Mark 2 photoinjector. Emittance performance is evaluated under different nominal electron bunch parameters using electrostatic codes such as PARMELA. Wake potential is analyzed using electromagnetic time domain simulations using the ACE3P code T3P. Plans for multi-bunch experiments and implementation of photoinjector advances for the Mark 2 design will also be discussed.

  14. Ultrathin flexible dual band terahertz absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Yan; Chen, Lin; Shi, Cheng; Cheng, Zhaoxiang; Zang, Xiaofei; Xu, Boqing; Zhu, Yiming

    2015-09-01

    We propose an ultrathin and flexible dual band absorber operated at terahertz frequencies based on metamaterial. The metamaterial structure consists of periodical split ring resonators with two asymmetric gaps and a metallic ground plane, separated by a thin-flexible dielectric spacer. Particularly, the dielectric spacer is a free-standing polyimide film with thickness of 25 μm, resulting in highly flexible for our absorber and making it promising for non-planar applications such as micro-bolometers and stealth aircraft. Experimental results show that the absorber has two resonant absorption frequencies (0.41 THz and 0.75 THz) with absorption rates 92.2% and 97.4%, respectively. The resonances at the absorption frequencies come from normal dipole resonance and high-order dipole resonance which is inaccessible in the symmetrical structure. Multiple reflection interference theory is used to analyze the mechanism of the absorber and the results are in good agreement with simulated and experimental results. Furthermore, the absorption properties are studied under various spacer thicknesses. This kind of metamaterial absorber is insensitive to polarization, has high absorption rates (over 90%) with wide incident angles range from 0° to 45° and the absorption rates are also above 90% when wrapping it to a curved surface.

  15. Characterizing limit order prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withanawasam, R. M.; Whigham, P. A.; Crack, Timothy Falcon

    2013-11-01

    A computational model of a limit order book is used to study the effect of different limit order distribution offsets. Reference prices such as same side/contra side best market prices and last traded price are considered in combination with different price offset distributions. We show that when characterizing limit order prices, varying the offset distribution only produces different behavior when the reference price is the contra side best price. Irrespective of the underlying mechanisms used in computing the limit order prices, the shape of the price graph and the behavior of the average order book profile distribution are strikingly similar in all the considered reference prices/offset distributions. This implies that existing averaging methods can cancel variabilities in limit order book shape/attributes and may be misleading.

  16. X-Band Acquisition Aid Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britcliffe, Michael J.; Strain, Martha M.; Wert, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The X-band Acquisition Aid (AAP) software is a low-cost acquisition aid for the Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas, and is used while acquiring a spacecraft shortly after it has launched. When enabled, the acquisition aid provides corrections to the antenna-predicted trajectory of the spacecraft to compensate for the variations that occur during the actual launch. The AAP software also provides the corrections to the antenna-predicted trajectory to the navigation team that uses the corrections to refine their model of the spacecraft in order to produce improved antenna-predicted trajectories for each spacecraft that passes over each complex. The software provides an automated Acquisition Aid receiver calibration, and provides graphical displays to the operator and remote viewers via an Ethernet connection. It has a Web server, and the remote workstations use the Firefox browser to view the displays. At any given time, only one operator can control any particular display in order to avoid conflicting commands from more than one control point. The configuration and control is accomplished solely via the graphical displays. The operator does not have to remember any commands. Only a few configuration parameters need to be changed, and can be saved to the appropriate spacecraft-dependent configuration file on the AAP s hard disk. AAP automates the calibration sequence by first commanding the antenna to the correct position, starting the receiver calibration sequence, and then providing the operator with the option of accepting or rejecting the new calibration parameters. If accepted, the new parameters are stored in the appropriate spacecraft-dependent configuration file. The calibration can be performed on the Sun, greatly expanding the window of opportunity for calibration. The spacecraft traditionally used for calibration is in view typically twice per day, and only for about ten minutes each pass.

  17. Comparison of X-Band, L-Band and C-Band Radar Images in Monitoring Subsidence in Agricultural Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motagh, Mahdi; Haghshenas Haghighi, Mahmud; Shamshiri, Roghaye; Esmaeili, Mustapha

    2015-05-01

    The ongoing pattern of groundwater induced land subsidence in major valleys and agricultural regions of Iran has been recently documented by several studies (e.g. [1-4]) using C-band Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) observations. In this article we present the results of our research in which we evaluated the performance of C-band, L-band and X-band SAR data, using time-series method of small baseline subset (SBAS), to retrieve long time series of ground subsidence in agricultural regions in the country. Two major groundwater basins have been selected for this purpose: (1) Rafsanjan Valley in the Kerman province of central Iran and (2) Tehran Plain (capital of Iran). We also report on our experience using dualpolarimetry (HH/VV) X-band SAR data for Persistent Scatterer (PS) deformation analysis in natural terrains subject to high rate of deformation.

  18. After order 636

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, M.G.

    1995-02-01

    Through its Order 636, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) completed a restructuring of the natural gas industry. The order severed the last links in the chain linking gas producers to pipeline companies to local gas distribution companies (LDCs) to customers. Before Order 636 took effect, many predicted electric power generation, particularly by cogenerators and independent power producers (IPPs), would be a major growth area for natural gas. In fact, what Order 636 has shown is, that timing is everything, and that it`s difficult to sort out the effect of one agent of change when many others are at work.

  19. Bioregions and World Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breakthrough, 1985

    1985-01-01

    What bioregions can do to contribute to world order and security is discussed in this newsletter. A bioregion is defined as an identifiable geographical area of interacting life-systems that is relatively self-sustaining in the ever-renewing processes of nature. Articles included are: "Bioregionalism and World Order" (Gerald Mische); "Bioregions:…

  20. The energetics of ordered intermetallic alloys (of the transition metals)

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, R.E.; Weinert, M.; Davenport, J.W. ); Fernando, G.W. . Dept. of Physics); Bennett, L.H. . Metallurgy Div.)

    1992-01-01

    The atomically ordered phases in ordered transition metal alloys are discussed. This chapter is divided into: physical parameters controlling phase stability (Hume-Rothery, structural maps, Miedema Hamiltonian), wave functions band theory, comment on entropy terms, cohesive energies (electron promotion energies, Hund's rule on orbital effects), structural energies/stabilities of elemental solids, total energies and atomic positions, charge transfer (Au alloys, charge tailing), heats of formation of ordered compounds.