Science.gov

Sample records for 6 solar mass

  1. An ultraluminous quasar with a twelve-billion-solar-mass black hole at redshift 6.30.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xue-Bing; Wang, Feige; Fan, Xiaohui; Yi, Weimin; Zuo, Wenwen; Bian, Fuyan; Jiang, Linhua; McGreer, Ian D; Wang, Ran; Yang, Jinyi; Yang, Qian; Thompson, David; Beletsky, Yuri

    2015-02-26

    So far, roughly 40 quasars with redshifts greater than z = 6 have been discovered. Each quasar contains a black hole with a mass of about one billion solar masses (10(9) M Sun symbol). The existence of such black holes when the Universe was less than one billion years old presents substantial challenges to theories of the formation and growth of black holes and the coevolution of black holes and galaxies. Here we report the discovery of an ultraluminous quasar, SDSS J010013.02+280225.8, at redshift z = 6.30. It has an optical and near-infrared luminosity a few times greater than those of previously known z > 6 quasars. On the basis of the deep absorption trough on the blue side of the Lyman-α emission line in the spectrum, we estimate the proper size of the ionized proximity zone associated with the quasar to be about 26 million light years, larger than found with other z > 6.1 quasars with lower luminosities. We estimate (on the basis of a near-infrared spectrum) that the black hole has a mass of ∼1.2 × 10(10) M Sun symbol, which is consistent with the 1.3 × 10(10) M Sun symbol derived by assuming an Eddington-limited accretion rate. PMID:25719667

  2. An Unusual Coronal Mass Ejection: First Solar Wind Electron, Proton, Alpha Monitor (SWEPAM) Results from the Advanced Composition Explorer. Appendix 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McComas, D. J.; Bame, S. J.; Barker, P. L.; Delapp, D. M.; Gosling, J. T.; Skoug, R. M.; Tokar, R. L.; Riley, P.; Feldman, W. C.; Santiago, E.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the first scientific results from the Solar Wind Electron Proton Alpha Monitor (SWEPAM) instrument on board the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft. We analyzed a coronal mass ejection (CME) observed in the solar wind using data from early February, 1998. This event displayed several of the common signatures of CMEs, such as counterstreaming halo electrons and depressed ion and electron temperatures, as well as some unusual features. During a portion of the CME traversal, SWEPAM measured a very large helium to proton abundance ratio. Other heavy ions, with a set of ionization states consistent with normal (1 to 2x10(exp 6) K) coronal temperatures, were proportionately enhanced at this time. These observations suggest a source for at least some of the CME material, where heavy ions are initially concentrated relative to hydrogen and then accelerated up into the solar wind, independent of their mass and first ionization potential.

  3. 6Li from Solar Flares.

    PubMed

    Ramaty; Tatischeff; Thibaud; Kozlovsky; Mandzhavidze

    2000-05-10

    By introducing a hitherto ignored 6Li producing process, due to accelerated 3He reactions with 4He, we show that accelerated particle interactions in solar flares produce much more 6Li than 7Li. By normalizing our calculations to gamma-ray data, we demonstrate that the 6Li produced in solar flares, combined with photospheric 7Li, can account for the recently determined solar wind lithium isotopic ratio, obtained from measurements in lunar soil, provided that the bulk of the flare-produced lithium is evacuated by the solar wind. Further research in this area could provide unique information on a variety of problems, including solar atmospheric transport and mixing, solar convection and the lithium depletion issue, and solar wind and solar particle acceleration. PMID:10813684

  4. OSO-6 Orbiting Solar Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The description, development history, test history, and orbital performance analysis of the OSO-6 Orbiting Solar Observatory are presented. The OSO-6 Orbiting Solar Observatory was the sixth flight model of a series of scientific spacecraft designed to provide a stable platform for experiments engaged in the collection of solar and celestial radiation data. The design objective was 180 days of orbital operation. The OSO-6 has telemetered an enormous amount of very useful experiment and housekeeping data to GSFC ground stations. Observatory operation during the two-year reporting period was very successful except for some experiment instrument problems.

  5. REDSHIFT 6.4 HOST GALAXIES OF 10{sup 8} SOLAR MASS BLACK HOLES: LOW STAR FORMATION RATE AND DYNAMICAL MASS

    SciTech Connect

    Willott, Chris J.; Omont, Alain; Bergeron, Jacqueline

    2013-06-10

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter Array observations of rest-frame far-infrared continuum and [C II] line emission in two z = 6.4 quasars with black hole masses of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }. CFHQS J0210-0456 is detected in the continuum with a 1.2 mm flux of 120 {+-} 35 {mu}Jy, whereas CFHQS J2329-0301 is undetected at a similar noise level. J2329-0301 has a star formation rate limit of <40 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, considerably below the typical value at all redshifts for this bolometric luminosity. Through comparison with hydro simulations, we speculate that this quasar is observed at a relatively rare phase where quasar feedback has effectively shut down star formation in the host galaxy. [C II] emission is also detected only in J0210-0456. The ratio of [C II] to far-infrared luminosity is similar to that of low-redshift galaxies of comparable luminosity, suggesting that the previous finding of an offset in the relationships between this ratio and far-infrared luminosity at low and high redshifts may be partially due to a selection effect due to the limited sensitivity of previous continuum data. The [C II] line of J0210-0456 is relatively narrow (FWHM = 189 {+-} 18 km s{sup -1}), indicating a dynamical mass substantially lower than expected from the local black hole-velocity dispersion correlation. The [C II] line is marginally resolved at 0.''7 resolution with the blue and red wings spatially offset by 0.''5 (3 kpc) and a smooth velocity gradient of 100 km s{sup -1} across a scale of 6 kpc, possibly due to the rotation of a galaxy-wide disk. These observations are consistent with the idea that stellar mass growth lags black hole accretion for quasars at this epoch with respect to more recent times.

  6. Discovery of a 12 billion solar mass black hole at redshift 6.3 and its challenge to the black hole/galaxy co-evolution at cosmic dawn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xue-Bing; Wang, Feige; Fan, Xiaohui; Yi, Weimin; Zuo, Wenwen; Bian, Fuyan; Jiang, Linhua; McGreer, Ian; Wang, Ran; Yang, Jinyi; Yang, Qian; Thompson, David; Beletsky, Yuri

    2015-08-01

    To date about 40 quasars with redshifts z>6 have been discovered. Each quasar harbors a black hole with a mass of about one billion solar masses. The existence of such black holes when the Universe was less than one billion years after the Big Bang presents significant challenges to theories of the formation and growth of black holes and the black hole/galaxy co-evolution. I will report a recent discovery of an ultra-luminous quasar at redshift z=6.30, which has an observed optical and near-infrared luminosity a few times greater than those of previously known z>6 quasars. With near-infrared spectroscopy, we obtain a black hole mass of about 12 billion solar masses, which is well consistent with the mass derived by assuming an Eddington-limited accretion. This ultra-luminous quasar with a 12 billion solar mass black hole at z>6 provides a unique laboratory to the study of the mass assembly and galaxy formation around the most massive black holes in the early Universe. It raises further challenges to the black hole/galaxy co-evolution in the epoch of cosmic reionization because the black hole needs to grow much faster than the host galaxy.

  7. Early solar mass loss, element diffusion, and solar oscillation frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Guzik, J.A.; Cox, A.N.

    1994-07-01

    Swenson and Faulkner, and Boothroyd et al. investigated the possibility that early main-sequence mass loss via a stronger early solar wind could be responsible for the observed solar lithium and beryllium depiction. This depletion requires a total mass loss of {approximately}0.1 M{circle_dot}, nearly independent of the mass loss timescale. We have calculated the evolution and oscillation frequencies of solar models including helium and element diffusion, and such early solar mass loss. We show that extreme mass loss of 1 M{circle_dot} is easily ruled out by the low-degree p-modes that probe the solar center and sense the steeper molecular weight gradient produced by the early phase of more rapid hydrogen burning. The effects on central structure are much smaller for models with an initial mass of 1.1 M{circle_dot} and exponentially-decreasing mass loss irate with e-folding timescale 0.45 Gyr. While such mass loss slightly worsens the agreement between observed and calculated low-degree modes, the observational uncertainties of several tenths of a microhertz weaken this conclusion. Surprisingly, the intermediate-degree modes with much smaller observational uncertainties that probe the convection zone bottom prove to be the key to discriminating between models: The early mass loss phase decreases the total amount of helium and heavier elements diffused from the convection zone, and the extent of the diffusion produced composition gradient just below the convection zone, deteriorating the agreement with observed frequencies for these modes. Thus it appears that oscillations can also rule out this smaller amount of gradual early main-sequence mass loss in the young Sun. The mass loss phase must be confined to substantially under a billion years, probably 0.5 Gyr or less, to simultaneously solve the solar Li/Be problem and avoid discrepancies with solar oscillation frequencies.

  8. Beryllium Abundances in Solar Mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krugler, Julie A.; Boesgaard, A. M.

    2007-12-01

    Light element abundance analysis allows for a deeper understanding of the chemical composition of a star beneath its surface. Beryllium provides a probe down to 3.5x106 K, where it fuses with protons. In this study, Be abundances were determined for 52 F and G dwarfs selected from a sample of local thin disc stars. These stars were selected by their mass to be in a mass range of 0.9 to 1.1 solar masses as determined by Lambert & Reddy (2004). They have effective temperatures from 5600 to 6400 K, and their metallicities [Fe/H] -0.65 to +0.11. The data were taken over several nights, with forty-six spectra taken with the Keck HIRES instrument and six spectra on the Canada France Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) using the Gecko spectrograph. The abundances were calculated via spectral synthesis, fitting a 4Å region around the resonance lines of Be II. The data were then analyzed to investigate the Be abundance as a function of age, temperature, and metallicity and its relation to the lithium abundance for this narrow mass range. Be is found to increase with metallicity and the linear relationship evident when extended to metallicities down to -4.0 dex with slope 0.86 ± 0.02. The relation of the Be abundance to effective temperature is dependent upon metallicity, but when metallicity effects are taken into account, there is a spread 1.2 dex. We find a 1.5 dex spread in A(Be) when plotted against age, with the largest spread occurring from 6-8 Gyr. The relation with Li is found to be linear with slope 0.36 ± 0.06 for the temperature regime of 5900-6300 K. This research was conducted through the Research Experiences for Undergraduate (REU) program at the University of Hawaii's Institute for Astronomy and was funded by the NSF.

  9. Electric solar wind sail mass budget model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janhunen, P.; Quarta, A. A.; Mengali, G.

    2013-02-01

    The electric solar wind sail (E-sail) is a new type of propellantless propulsion system for Solar System transportation, which uses the natural solar wind to produce spacecraft propulsion. The E-sail consists of thin centrifugally stretched tethers that are kept charged by an onboard electron gun and, as such, experience Coulomb drag through the high-speed solar wind plasma stream. This paper discusses a mass breakdown and a performance model for an E-sail spacecraft that hosts a mission-specific payload of prescribed mass. In particular, the model is able to estimate the total spacecraft mass and its propulsive acceleration as a function of various design parameters such as the number of tethers and their length. A number of subsystem masses are calculated assuming existing or near-term E-sail technology. In light of the obtained performance estimates, an E-sail represents a promising propulsion system for a variety of transportation needs in the Solar System.

  10. Mass properties survey of solar array technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraus, Robert

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the technologies, electrical performance, and mass characteristics of many of the presently available and the more advanced developmental space solar array technologies is presented. Qualitative trends and quantitative mass estimates as total array output power is increased from 1 kW to 5 kW at End of Life (EOL) from a single wing are shown. The array technologies are part of a database supporting an ongoing solar power subsystem model development for top level subsystem and technology analyses. The model is used to estimate the overall electrical and thermal performance of the complete subsystem, and then calculate the mass and volume of the array, batteries, power management, and thermal control elements as an initial sizing. The array types considered here include planar rigid panel designs, flexible and rigid fold-out planar arrays, and two concentrator designs, one with one critical axis and the other with two critical axes. Solar cell technologies of Si, GaAs, and InP were included in the analyses. Comparisons were made at the array level; hinges, booms, harnesses, support structures, power transfer, and launch retention mountings were included. It is important to note that the results presented are approximations, and in some cases revised or modified performance and mass estimates of specific designs.

  11. Solar Eruptions: Coronal Mass Ejections and Flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat

    2012-01-01

    This lecture introduces the topic of Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and solar flares, collectively known as solar eruptions. During solar eruptions, the released energy flows out from the Sun in the form of magnetized plasma and electromagnetic radiation. The electromagnetic radiation suddenly increases the ionization content of the ionosphere, thus impacting communication and navigation systems. Flares can be eruptive or confined. Eruptive flares accompany CMEs, while confined flares hav only electromagnetic signature. CMEs can drive MHD shocks that accelerate charged particles to very high energies in the interplanetary space, which pose radiation hazard to astronauts and space systems. CMEs heading in the direction of Earth arrive in about two days and impact Earth's magnetosphere, producing geomagnetic storms. The magnetic storms result in a number of effects including induced currnts that can disrupt power grids, railroads, and underground pipelines

  12. Compositional Variability of the Solar Wind: The Need for an Ultra-High Temporal Resolution Mass Spectrometer for Studies of Solar Wind and Coronal Mass Ejection Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrian, M. L.; Sheldon, R. B.; Vaisberg, O.; Suess, S. T.; Gallagher, D. L.; Craven, P. D.; Hamilton, D. C.

    2004-05-01

    Current state-of-the-art solar wind mass spectroscopy has clearly demonstrated the compositional uniqueness between slow/fast solar wind streams and slow/fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs). As such, solar wind composition measurements serve as an indicator of the sub-coronal and coronal processes responsible for the formation of these heliospheric features. While current instrumentation have identified temporal variations in solar wind/CME composition on the order of 10's of minutes, these detections have occurred during relatively quiescent periods, such as within the magnetic cloud portion of a CME, when temporal variations of the collective solar wind (including magnetic field variations) occur over periods in excess of the current minimum instrumental duty cycle of 5-minutes. Consequently, the compositional markers of the microphysics responsible for the formation of highly variable solar wind flows and for CME/prominence formation remain overlooked. To address the need for greater temporal resolution in solar wind compositional measurements, we have undertaken the development of a novel ultra-high temporal resolution ion mass spectrometer utilizing a helical ion path time-of-flight (TOF) system within a compact, low-mass, low-power instrument. The instrument is designed specifically to measure solar wind 3He+2 < M/q < 56Fe+6 ion plasmas from 0.3-20.0 keV/q with an order of magnitude greater geometric factor than current solar wind ion mass spectrometers, and produce 1-10 ms mass spectra with a mass resolution of M/Δ M ~ 200 or greater, all within a duty cycle of < 90-s. These characteristics achieve a resolution sufficient to probe spatial/temporal dimensions down to an ion gyroradius in solar wind flow boundaries at 1 AU. This paper presents an overview of solar wind mass spectroscopy results to date, justification for solar wind composition measurements of greater temporal resolution, and an introduction to the helical ion path mass spectrometer (HIPS

  13. Solar Sources of Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) originate in the solar corona.Due to recent ample solar images from space missions, especially the STEREO mission, we know that CMEs initiate not only from flaring active regions of strong magnetic field, prominence (filaments) in decayed active regions, but also from coronal structures in higher coronaover regions no apparent strong magnetic fields on the solar disk. Regardless the differences of their appearances, these regionsmust all include non-potential magnetic field or free magnetic energy in order to produce CMEs. When an energized magnetic structure erupts, the free magnetic energy converts to kinetic energy and few other types ofenergy, and the magnetic structure leaves the corona and propagates into the interplanetary space. At the source regions, the initiations of CMEs often accompany with solar flares, filament eruptions, coronalEUV dimmings and waves, and post eruption loop brightennings. Studying the CME source regions and the processes is essential for the understanding of CME initiation and their interplanetary consequences.

  14. A broken E6 solution to the solar neutrino problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, G. G.; Segrè, G. C.

    1987-10-01

    Broken E6 models, as suggested by superstrings, may have stable massive neutrinos in matter multiplets. These can be candidates for the dark matter of the universe. If we choose an additional Z' in the E6 gauge multiplet to couple to these neutrinos, but not ordinary leptons, we may also solve the solar neutrino problem, without violating known experimental bounds. The Z' must have a mass comparable to the ordinary Z mass. On sabbatical leave from Department of Physics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

  15. Status of the Solar Mass Ejection Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, J. C.; Radick, R. R.; Webb, D. F.

    2001-05-01

    The Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) is a proof-of-concept experiment designed to detect and track coronal mass ejections (CMEs) as they propagate from the Sun through interplanetary space to the Earth and beyond. SMEI will Image CMEs by sensing sunlight scattered from the free electrons in these structures (Thomson scattering). SMEI will be launched by a Titan II rocket into a circular, sun-synchronous (830 km) orbit in 2002 as part of the Space Test Program's CORIOLIS mission. SMEI will image the entire sky once per spacecraft orbit over a mission lifetime of three years. The major subsystems of SMEI are three electronic camera assemblies and a data-handling unit. Each camera consists of a baffle, a radiator, a bright object sensor, an electronics box, and a strongbox containing a shutter, optics and a CCD. Each camera images a 3x60 degree field. Together, they view a 180-degree slice of sky, and sweep over the entire sky once per orbit. SMEI's basic data product will be a 100-minute cadence of all-sky maps of heliospheric brightness, with stars removed, having an angular resolution of about one degree and a photometric precision of about 0.1%. Successful operation of SMEI will represent a major step in improving space weather forecasts. When combined with in-situ solar wind measurements from upstream monitors such as WIND and ACE, SMEI will provide one- to three-day predictions of impending geomagnetic storms at the Earth. SMEI will complement missions such as SoHO, GOES SXI, Solar-B, and STEREO by providing data relating solar drivers to terrestrial effects. Other benefits of SMEI will include observations of variable stars, extra-Solar planetary transits, novae and supernovae, comets and asteroids. The SMEI experiment is being designed and constructed by a team of scientists and engineers from the Air Force Research Laboratory, the University of Birmingham (UB) in the United Kingdom, the University of California at San Diego (UCSD), and Boston University. The

  16. Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) space experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radick, Richard R.

    2001-12-01

    The Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) is a proof-of-concept space experiment designed to observe solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and forecast their arrival at Earth. SMEI will image CMEs by sensing sunlight scattered from the free electrons in these ejecta (i.e., Thomson scattering). SMEI will be launched by a Titan II rocket into a circular, 830-km, sun-synchronous orbit in mid-2002 as part of the Space Test Program's CORIOLIS mission. SMEI will image nearly the entire sky once per spacecraft orbit over a mission lifetime of three years. Successful operation of SMEI will represent a major step in improving space weather forecasts by providing one- to three-day predictions of geomagnetic storms at the Earth. The SMEI experiment is being designed and constructed by a team of scientists and engineers from the Air Force Research Laboratory, the University of Birmingham (UB) in the United Kingdom, the University of California at San Diego (UCSD), and Boston University. The Air Force, NASA, and UB are providing financial support.

  17. Complex Hydrocarbon Chemistry in Interstellar and Solar System Ices Revealed: A Combined Infrared Spectroscopy and Reflectron Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Ethane (C2H6) and D6-Ethane (C2D6) Ices Exposed to Ionizing Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abplanalp, Matthew J.; Kaiser, Ralf I.

    2016-08-01

    The irradiation of pure ethane (C2H6/C2D6) ices at 5.5 K, under ultrahigh vacuum conditions was conducted to investigate the formation of complex hydrocarbons via interaction with energetic electrons simulating the secondary electrons produced in the track of galactic cosmic rays. The chemical modifications of the ices were monitored in situ using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and during temperature-programmed desorption via mass spectrometry exploiting a quadrupole mass spectrometer with electron impact ionization (EI-QMS) as well as a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer coupled to a photoionization source (PI-ReTOF-MS). FTIR confirmed previous ethane studies by detecting six molecules: methane (CH4), acetylene (C2H2), ethylene (C2H4), the ethyl radical (C2H5), 1-butene (C4H8), and n-butane (C4H10). However, the TPD phase, along with EI-QMS, and most importantly, PI-ReTOF-MS, revealed the formation of at least 23 hydrocarbons, many for the first time in ethane ice, which can be arranged in four groups with an increasing carbon-to-hydrogen ratio: C n H2n+2 (n = 3, 4, 6, 8, 10), C n H2n (n = 3–10), {{{C}}}n{{{H}}}2n-2 (n = 3–10), and {{{C}}}n{{{H}}}2n-4 (n = 4–6). The processing of simple ethane ices is relevant to the hydrocarbon chemistry in the interstellar medium, as ethane has been shown to be a major product of methane, as well as in the outer solar system. These data reveal that the processing of ethane ices can synthesize several key hydrocarbons such as C3H4 and C4H6 isomers, which ha­ve been found to synthesize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons like indene (C9H8) and naphtha­lene (C10H8) in the ISM and in hydrocarbon-rich atmospheres of planets and their moons such as Titan.

  18. Bringing an Effective Solar Sail Design Toward TRL 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichodziejewski, David; West, John; Reinert, Rich; Belvin, Keith; Pappa, Richard; Derbes, Billy

    2003-01-01

    Solar sails reflect photons streaming from the sun and convert some of the energy into thrust. This thrust, though small, is continuous and acts for the life of the mission without the need for propellant ( I ) . Recent advances in sail materials and ultra-low mass structures have enabled a host of useful missions utilizing solar sail propulsion. The team of L Garde, Jet Propulsion Laboratories, Ball Aerospace, and Langley Research Center, under the direction of NASA, has been developing a solar sail configuration to address NASA s future space propulsion needs. Utilizing inflatably deployed and Sub Tg rigidized boom components, this 10,000 sq m sailcraft achieves an areal density of 14.1 g/sq m and a characteristic acceleration of 0.58 mm/s . The entire configuration released by the upper stage has a mass of 232.9 kg and requires just 1.7 d of volume in the booster. After deployment, 92.2 kg of non-flight required equipment is jettisoned resulting in a sailcraft mass, including payload and control system, of 140.7 kg. This document outlines the accomplishments of a Phase 1 effort to advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of the concept from 3 toward a TRL of 6. The Phase 1 effort, the first of three proposed phases, addressed the design of the solar sail, its application to several missions currently under review at NASA, and developed a ground tes plan to bring the technology toward a TRL of 6.

  19. Solar origins of coronal mass ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahler, Stephen

    1987-01-01

    The large scale properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), such as morphology, leading edge speed, and angular width and position, have been cataloged for many events observed with coronagraphs on the Skylab, P-78, and SMM spacecraft. While considerable study has been devoted to the characteristics of the SMEs, their solar origins are still only poorly understood. Recent observational work has involved statistical associations of CMEs with flares and filament eruptions, and some evidence exists that the flare and eruptive-filament associated CMEs define two classes of events, with the former being generally more energetic. Nevertheless, it is found that eruptive-filament CMEs can at times be very energetic, giving rise to interplanetary shocks and energetic particle events. The size of the impulsive phase in a flare-associated CME seems to play no significant role in the size or speed of the CME, but the angular sizes of CMEs may correlate with the scale sizes of the 1-8 angstrom x-ray flares. At the present time, He 10830 angstrom observations should be useful in studying the late development of double-ribbon flares and transient coronal holes to yield insights into the CME aftermath. The recently available white-light synoptic maps may also prove fruitful in defining the coronal conditions giving rise to CMEs.

  20. E sub 6 leptoquarks and the solar neutrino problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roulet, Esteban

    1991-01-01

    The possibility that non-conventional neutrino oscillations take place in the superstring inspired E sub 6 models is considered. In this context, the influence of leptoquark mediated interactions of the neutrinos with nucleons in the resonant flavor conversion is discussed. It is shown that this effect can be significant for v sub e - v sub tau oscillations if these neutrinos have masses required in the ordinary Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect, and may lead to a solution of the solar neutrino problem even in the absence of vacuum mixings. On the other hand, this model cannot lead to a resonant behavior in the sun if the neutrinos are massless.

  1. Mass-losing M supergiants in the solar neighborhood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jura, M.; Kleinmann, S. G.

    1990-01-01

    A list of the 21 mass-losing red supergiants (20 M type, one G type; L greater than 100,000 solar luminosities) within 2.5 kpc of the sun is compiled. These supergiants are highly evolved descendants of main-sequence stars with initial masses larger than 20 solar masses. The surface density is between about 1 and 2/sq kpc. As found previously, these stars are much less concentrated toward the Galactic center than W-R stars, which are also highly evolved massive stars. Although with considerable uncertainty, it is estimated that the mass return by the M supergiants is somewhere between 0.00001 and 0.00003 solar mass/sq kpc yr. In the hemisphere facing the Galactic center there is much less mass loss from M supergiants than from W-R stars, but, in the anticenter direction, the M supergiants return more mass than do the W-R stars. The duration of the M supergiant phase appears to be between 200,000 and 400,000 yr. During this phase, a star of initially at least 20 solar masses returns perhaps 3-10 solar masses into the interstellar medium.

  2. Beryllium Abundances in Solar Mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krugler, J. A.; Boesgaard, A. M.

    2008-08-01

    Light element abundance analysis allows for a deeper understanding of the chemical composition of a star beneath its surface. Beryllium provides a probe down to 3.5×106 K, where it fuses with protons. In this study, Be abundances were determined for 52 F and G dwarfs selected from a sample of local thin disc stars. These stars were selected by mass to range from 0.9 to 1.1 M⊙. They have effective temperatures from 5600 to 6400 K, and their metallicities [Fe/H]=-0.65 to +0.11. The data were taken with the Keck HIRES instrument and the Gecko spectrograph on the Canada France Hawaii Telescope. The abundances were calculated via spectral synthesis and were analyzed to investigate the Be abundance as a function of age, temperature, metallicity, and its relation to the lithium abundance for this narrow mass range. Be is found to decrease linearly with metallicity down to [Fe/H]˜-4.0 with slope 0.86 ± 0.02. The relation of the Be abundance to effective temperature is dependent upon metallicity, but when metallicity effects are taken into account, there is a spread ˜1.2 dex. We find a 1.5 dex spread in A(Be) when plotted against age, with the largest spread occurring from 6-8 Gyr. The relation with Li is found to be linear with slope 0.36 ± 0.06 for the temperature regime of 5900-6300 K.

  3. High temperature - low mass solar blanket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mesch, H. G.

    1979-01-01

    Interconnect materials and designs for use with ultrathin silicon solar cells are discussed, as well as the results of an investigation of the applicability of parallel-gap resistance welding for interconnecting these cells. Data relating contact pull strength and cell electrical degradation to variations in welding parameters such as time, voltage and pressure are presented. Methods for bonding ultrathin cells to flexible substances and for bonding thin (75 micrometers) covers to these cells are described. Also, factors influencing fabrication yield and approaches for increasing yield are discussed. The results of vacuum thermal cycling and thermal soak tests on prototype ultrathin cell test coupons and one solar module blanket are presented.

  4. Solar heater/cooler for mass market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Electrical energy consumption is reduced by half for 2 1/2 story office building. 138 liquid flat plate solar collectors are mounted on building roof, which faces nearly due south. Final project report includes detailed drawings and photographs, operation and maintenance manual, acceptance test plan, and related information.

  5. Solar heater/cooler for mass market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Report describes project to design, build, and test simple and affordable solar systems. Four combinations of heating, cooling, and domestic hot water supply systems were developed and installed. Test sites, plan for systems and components, and performance are discussed; text is complimented by detailed drawings and test data.

  6. MEASURING THE MASS OF SOLAR SYSTEM PLANETS USING PULSAR TIMING

    SciTech Connect

    Champion, D. J.; Hobbs, G. B.; Manchester, R. N.; Edwards, R. T.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Sarkissian, J. M.; Backer, D. C.; Bailes, M.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Van Straten, W.; Coles, W.; Demorest, P. B.; Ferdman, R. D.; Purver, M. B.; Folkner, W. M.; Hotan, A. W.; Kramer, M.; Lommen, A. N.; Nice, D. J.; Stairs, I. H.

    2010-09-10

    High-precision pulsar timing relies on a solar system ephemeris in order to convert times of arrival (TOAs) of pulses measured at an observatory to the solar system barycenter. Any error in the conversion to the barycentric TOAs leads to a systematic variation in the observed timing residuals; specifically, an incorrect planetary mass leads to a predominantly sinusoidal variation having a period and phase associated with the planet's orbital motion about the Sun. By using an array of pulsars (PSRs J0437-4715, J1744-1134, J1857+0943, J1909-3744), the masses of the planetary systems from Mercury to Saturn have been determined. These masses are consistent with the best-known masses determined by spacecraft observations, with the mass of the Jovian system, 9.547921(2) x10{sup -4} M {sub sun}, being significantly more accurate than the mass determined from the Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft, and consistent with but less accurate than the value from the Galileo spacecraft. While spacecraft are likely to produce the most accurate measurements for individual solar system bodies, the pulsar technique is sensitive to planetary system masses and has the potential to provide the most accurate values of these masses for some planets.

  7. VERY LOW MASS STELLAR AND SUBSTELLAR COMPANIONS TO SOLAR-LIKE STARS FROM MARVELS. V. A LOW ECCENTRICITY BROWN DWARF FROM THE DRIEST PART OF THE DESERT, MARVELS-6b

    SciTech Connect

    De Lee, Nathan; Stassun, Keivan G.; Cargile, Phillip; Ge, Jian; Fleming, Scott W.; Lee, Brian L.; Chang Liang; Crepp, Justin R.; Eastman, Jason; Gaudi, B. Scott; Esposito, Massimiliano; Femenia, Bruno; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jonay I.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Ghezzi, Luan; Wisniewski, John P.; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael; Agol, Eric; Barnes, Rory; Bizyaev, Dmitry; and others

    2013-06-15

    We describe the discovery of a likely brown dwarf (BD) companion with a minimum mass of 31.7 {+-} 2.0 M{sub Jup} to GSC 03546-01452 from the MARVELS radial velocity survey, which we designate as MARVELS-6b. For reasonable priors, our analysis gives a probability of 72% that MARVELS-6b has a mass below the hydrogen-burning limit of 0.072 M{sub Sun }, and thus it is a high-confidence BD companion. It has a moderately long orbital period of 47.8929{sup +0.0063}{sub -0.0062} days with a low eccentricity of 0.1442{sup +0.0078}{sub -0.0073}, and a semi-amplitude of 1644{sup +12}{sub -13} m s{sup -1}. Moderate resolution spectroscopy of the host star has determined the following parameters: T{sub eff} = 5598 {+-} 63, log g = 4.44 {+-} 0.17, and [Fe/H] = +0.40 {+-} 0.09. Based upon these measurements, GSC 03546-01452 has a probable mass and radius of M{sub *} = 1.11 {+-} 0.11 M{sub Sun} and R{sub *} = 1.06 {+-} 0.23 R{sub Sun} with an age consistent with less than {approx}6 Gyr at a distance of 219 {+-} 21 pc from the Sun. Although MARVELS-6b is not observed to transit, we cannot definitively rule out a transiting configuration based on our observations. There is a visual companion detected with Lucky Imaging at 7.''7 from the host star, but our analysis shows that it is not bound to this system. The minimum mass of MARVELS-6b exists at the minimum of the mass functions for both stars and planets, making this a rare object even compared to other BDs. It also exists in an underdense region in both period/eccentricity and metallicity/eccentricity space.

  8. Age and mass of solar twins constrained by lithium abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do Nascimento, J. D., Jr.; Castro, M.; Meléndez, J.; Bazot, M.; Théado, S.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; de Medeiros, J. R.

    2009-07-01

    Aims: We analyze the non-standard mixing history of the solar twins HIP 55 459, HIP 79 672, HIP 56 948, HIP 73 815, and HIP 100 963, to determine as precisely as possible their mass and age. Methods: We computed a grid of evolutionary models with non-standard mixing at several metallicities with the Toulouse-Geneva code for a range of stellar masses assuming an error bar of ±50 K in T_eff. We choose the evolutionary model that reproduces accurately the observed low lithium abundances observed in the solar twins. Results: Our best-fit model for each solar twin provides a mass and age solution constrained by their Li content and T_eff determination. HIP 56 948 is the most likely solar-twin candidate at the present time and our analysis infers a mass of 0.994 ± 0.004 {M⊙} and an age of 4.71 ± 1.39 Gyr. Conclusions: Non-standard mixing is required to explain the low Li abundances observed in solar twins. Li depletion due to additional mixing in solar twins is strongly mass dependent. An accurate lithium abundance measurement and non-standard models provide more precise information about the age and mass more robustly than determined by classical methods alone. The models are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/501/687 or via http://andromeda.dfte.ufrn.br

  9. Anomalously low C6+/C5+ ratio in solar wind: ACE/SWICS observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L.; Landi, E.; Kocher, M.; Lepri, S. T.; Fisk, L. A.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2016-03-01

    The Carbon and Oxygen ionization states in the solar wind plasma freeze-in within 2 solar radii (Rs) from the solar surface, and then they do not change as they propagate with the solar wind into the heliosphere. Therefore, the O7+/O6+ and C6+/C5+ charge state ratios measured in situ maintain a record of the thermal properties (electron temperature and density) of the inner corona where the solar wind originates. Since these two ratios freeze-in at very similar height, they are expected to be correlated. However, an investigation of the correlation between these two ratios as measured by ACE/SWICS instrument from 1998 to 201l shows that there is a subset of "Outliers" departing from the expected correlation. We find about 49.4% of these Outliers is related to the Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs), while 49.6% of them is slow speed wind (Vp < 500 km/s) and about 1.0% of them is fast solar wind (Vp > 500 km/s). We compare the outlier-slow-speed wind with the normal slow wind (defined as Vp < 500 km/s and O7+/O6+ > 0.2) and find that the reason that causes the Outliers to depart from the correlation is their extremely depleted C6+/C5+ ratio which is decreased by 80% compared to the normal slow wind. We discuss the implication of the Outlier solar wind for the solar wind acceleration mechanism.

  10. Ion implantation of solar cell junctions without mass analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, D.; Tonn, D. G.

    1981-01-01

    This paper is a summary of an investigation to determine the feasibility of producing solar cells by means of ion implantation without the use of mass analysis. Ion implants were performed using molecular and atomic phosphorus produced by the vaporization of solid red phosphorus and ionized in an electron bombardment source. Solar cell junctions were ion implanted by mass analysis of individual molecular species and by direct unanalyzed implants from the ion source. The implant dose ranged from 10 to the 14th to 10 to the 16th atoms/sq cm and the energy per implanted atom ranged from 5 KeV to 40 KeV in this study.

  11. Searching for dark matter constituents with many solar masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frampton, Paul H.

    2016-05-01

    Searches for dark matter (DM) constituents are presently mainly focused on axions and weakly interacting massive particle (WIMPs) despite the fact that far higher mass constituents are viable. We discuss and dispute whether axions exist and those arguments for WIMPs which arise from weak scale supersymmetry. We focus on the highest possible masses and argue that, since if they constitute all DM, they cannot be baryonic, they must uniquely be primordial black holes. Observational constraints require them to be of intermediate masses mostly between ten and a hundred thousand solar masses. Known search strategies for such PIMBHs include wide binaries, cosmic microwave background (CMB) distortion and, most promisingly, extended microlensing experiments.

  12. Two ten-billion-solar-mass black holes at the centres of giant elliptical galaxies.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Nicholas J; Ma, Chung-Pei; Gebhardt, Karl; Wright, Shelley A; Murphy, Jeremy D; Lauer, Tod R; Graham, James R; Richstone, Douglas O

    2011-12-01

    Observational work conducted over the past few decades indicates that all massive galaxies have supermassive black holes at their centres. Although the luminosities and brightness fluctuations of quasars in the early Universe suggest that some were powered by black holes with masses greater than 10 billion solar masses, the remnants of these objects have not been found in the nearby Universe. The giant elliptical galaxy Messier 87 hosts the hitherto most massive known black hole, which has a mass of 6.3 billion solar masses. Here we report that NGC 3842, the brightest galaxy in a cluster at a distance from Earth of 98 megaparsecs, has a central black hole with a mass of 9.7 billion solar masses, and that a black hole of comparable or greater mass is present in NGC 4889, the brightest galaxy in the Coma cluster (at a distance of 103 megaparsecs). These two black holes are significantly more massive than predicted by linearly extrapolating the widely used correlations between black-hole mass and the stellar velocity dispersion or bulge luminosity of the host galaxy. Although these correlations remain useful for predicting black-hole masses in less massive elliptical galaxies, our measurements suggest that different evolutionary processes influence the growth of the largest galaxies and their black holes. PMID:22158244

  13. Solar wind mass-loading due to dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasca, A. P.; Horányi, M.

    2013-06-01

    Collisionless mass-loading by interplanetary dust particles is expected to cause a significant disruption in the flow of the solar wind. Dust particles near the Sun can become a source of ions and neutrals due to evaporation and sputtering. This mass-loading effect can lead to the formation of collisionless shocks, as it was first discussed in the case of solar wind interaction with comets. This effect can also be compared with a de Laval nozzle, which behaves differently between subsonic and supersonic flows. We investigate the effects of mass-loading resulting from sun-grazing comets or collisions by larger bodies in the vicinity of the Sun, where the solar wind transitions from subsonic to supersonic speeds. We look at results obtained using a simple 1D hydrodynamic model to mass-load ionized dust into the the wind near the sonic point, which are relevant for understanding the acceleration of the solar wind and possible changes in its composition due to dust.

  14. Solar Wind Mass-Loading Due to Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasca, A.; Horanyi, M.

    2011-12-01

    Collisionless mass-loading by interplanetary dust particles is expected to cause a significant disruption in the flow of the solar wind. Dust particles near the Sun can become a source of ions and neutrals due to evaporation and sputtering. This mass-loading effect can lead to the formation of collisionless shocks, as it was first discussed in the case of solar wind interaction with comets. This effect can also be compared with a de Laval nozzle, which behaves differently between subsonic and supersonic flows. We investigate the effects of mass-loading resulting from sun-grazing comets or collisions in the vicinity of the Sun, where the solar wind transitions from subsonic to supersonic speeds. We implement a hydrodynamic numerical model to generate a steady wind extending out to the inner heliosphere. Dust is introduced through a set of mass-loading source terms, and the model is evolved using a shock-capturing scheme. These results are relevant for understanding the acceleration of the solar wind and possible changes in its composition due to dust.

  15. INFLUENCE OF THE AMBIENT SOLAR WIND FLOW ON THE PROPAGATION BEHAVIOR OF INTERPLANETARY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Temmer, Manuela; Rollett, Tanja; Moestl, Christian; Veronig, Astrid M.; Vrsnak, Bojan; Odstrcil, Dusan

    2011-12-20

    We study three coronal mass ejection (CME)/interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) events (2008 June 1-6, 2009 February 13-18, and 2010 April 3-5) tracked from Sun to 1 AU in remote-sensing observations of Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory Heliospheric Imagers and in situ plasma and magnetic field measurements. We focus on the ICME propagation in interplanetary (IP) space that is governed by two forces: the propelling Lorentz force and the drag force. We address the question: which heliospheric distance range does the drag become dominant and the CME adjust to the solar wind flow. To this end, we analyze speed differences between ICMEs and the ambient solar wind flow as a function of distance. The evolution of the ambient solar wind flow is derived from ENLIL three-dimensional MHD model runs using different solar wind models, namely, Wang-Sheeley-Arge and MHD-Around-A-Sphere. Comparing the measured CME kinematics with the solar wind models, we find that the CME speed becomes adjusted to the solar wind speed at very different heliospheric distances in the three events under study: from below 30 R{sub Sun }, to beyond 1 AU, depending on the CME and ambient solar wind characteristics. ENLIL can be used to derive important information about the overall structure of the background solar wind, providing more reliable results during times of low solar activity than during times of high solar activity. The results from this study enable us to obtain greater insight into the forces acting on CMEs over the IP space distance range, which is an important prerequisite for predicting their 1 AU transit times.

  16. Influence of the Ambient Solar Wind Flow on the Propagation Behavior of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temmer, Manuela; Rollett, Tanja; Möstl, Christian; Veronig, Astrid M.; Vršnak, Bojan; Odstrčil, Dusan

    2011-12-01

    We study three coronal mass ejection (CME)/interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) events (2008 June 1-6, 2009 February 13-18, and 2010 April 3-5) tracked from Sun to 1 AU in remote-sensing observations of Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory Heliospheric Imagers and in situ plasma and magnetic field measurements. We focus on the ICME propagation in interplanetary (IP) space that is governed by two forces: the propelling Lorentz force and the drag force. We address the question: which heliospheric distance range does the drag become dominant and the CME adjust to the solar wind flow. To this end, we analyze speed differences between ICMEs and the ambient solar wind flow as a function of distance. The evolution of the ambient solar wind flow is derived from ENLIL three-dimensional MHD model runs using different solar wind models, namely, Wang-Sheeley-Arge and MHD-Around-A-Sphere. Comparing the measured CME kinematics with the solar wind models, we find that the CME speed becomes adjusted to the solar wind speed at very different heliospheric distances in the three events under study: from below 30 R ⊙, to beyond 1 AU, depending on the CME and ambient solar wind characteristics. ENLIL can be used to derive important information about the overall structure of the background solar wind, providing more reliable results during times of low solar activity than during times of high solar activity. The results from this study enable us to obtain greater insight into the forces acting on CMEs over the IP space distance range, which is an important prerequisite for predicting their 1 AU transit times.

  17. MAGNETIC FIELD STRUCTURES TRIGGERING SOLAR FLARES AND CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kusano, K.; Bamba, Y.; Yamamoto, T. T.; Iida, Y.; Toriumi, S.; Asai, A.

    2012-11-20

    Solar flares and coronal mass ejections, the most catastrophic eruptions in our solar system, have been known to affect terrestrial environments and infrastructure. However, because their triggering mechanism is still not sufficiently understood, our capacity to predict the occurrence of solar eruptions and to forecast space weather is substantially hindered. Even though various models have been proposed to determine the onset of solar eruptions, the types of magnetic structures capable of triggering these eruptions are still unclear. In this study, we solved this problem by systematically surveying the nonlinear dynamics caused by a wide variety of magnetic structures in terms of three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations. As a result, we determined that two different types of small magnetic structures favor the onset of solar eruptions. These structures, which should appear near the magnetic polarity inversion line (PIL), include magnetic fluxes reversed to the potential component or the nonpotential component of major field on the PIL. In addition, we analyzed two large flares, the X-class flare on 2006 December 13 and the M-class flare on 2011 February 13, using imaging data provided by the Hinode satellite, and we demonstrated that they conform to the simulation predictions. These results suggest that forecasting of solar eruptions is possible with sophisticated observation of a solar magnetic field, although the lead time must be limited by the timescale of changes in the small magnetic structures.

  18. Defining a solar-ozone response for CMIP6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maycock, Amanda; Matthes, Katja; Tegtmeier, Susann; Thieblemont, Remi; Hood, Lon

    2016-04-01

    Variations in solar irradiance affect stratospheric ozone abundances through effects on photolysis rates and temperatures. This solar-ozone feedback enhances the warming of the upper stratosphere at solar maximum and is a key part of the atmospheric response to solar variability. The potential to constrain the magnitude and structure of the solar-ozone feedback is partly limited by the paucity of long-term continuous satellite measurements. This raises issues around how to include the solar-ozone feedback in climate models. For CMIP5, models lacking interactive chemistry were recommended to use the SPARC AC&C ozone dataset. This included a solar-ozone feedback derived from SAGE II version 6.2 volume mixing ratio (vmr) data. We highlight that the solar-ozone signal in the new SAGE II v7.0 vmr data show a smaller peak near the tropical stratopause than in v6.2. However, the two versions show greater consistency in native number density coordinates, demonstrating that differences in the temperature data used for conversion to vmr must account for the major differences. Analysis of an ensemble of chemistry-climate models reveals greater similarities across individual models than is found for the different satellite datasets. We therefore propose that the solar-ozone signal for CMIP6 be derived from these model simulations given their complete spatial and temporal sampling. This study is in support of the SolarMIP taskforce aimed at defining a solar-ozone feedback for the CMIP6 ozone database.

  19. Coronal Mass Ejections and Solar Radio Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat

    2010-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) have important connections to various types of radio emissions from the Sun. The persistent noise storm radiation (type I storm at metric wavelengths, type III storms at longer wavelengths) can be clearly interrupted by the occurrence of a CME in the active region that produces the storm. Sometimes the noise storm completely disappears and other times, it reappears in the active region. Long-lasting type III bursts are associated with CME eruption, thought to be due to the reconnection process taking place beneath the erupting CME. Type II bursts are indicative of electron acceleration in the CME-driven shocks and hence considered to be the direct response of the CME propagation in the corona and interplanetary medium. Finally type IV bursts indicate large-scale post-eruption arcades containing trapped electrons that produce radio emission. This paper summarizes some key results that connect CMEs to various types of radio emission and what we can learn about particle acceleration in the corona) and interplanetary medium. Particular emphasis will be placed on type If bursts because of their connection to interplanetary shocks detected in situ.

  20. Latitudinal variation of speed and mass flux in the acceleration region of the solar wind inferred from spectral broadening measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Richard; Goldstein, Richard M.

    1994-01-01

    Spectral broadening measurements conducted at S-band (13-cm wavelength) during solar minimum conditions in the heliocentric distance range of 3-8 R(sub O) by Mariner 4, Pioneer 10, Mariner 10, Helios 1, Helios 2, and Viking have been combined to reveal a factor of 2.6 reduction in bandwidth from equator to pole. Since spectral broadening bandwidth depends on electron density fluctuation and solar wind speed, and latitudinal variation of the former is available from coherence bandwidth measurements, the remote sensing spectral broadening measurements provide the first determination of the latitudinal variation of solar wind speed in the acceleration region. When combined with electron density measurements deduced from white-light coronagraphs, this result also leads to the first determination of the latitudinal variation of mass flux in the acceleration region. From equator to pole, solar wind speed increases by a factor of 2.2, while mass flux decreases by a factor of 2.3. These results are consistent with measurements of solar wind speed by multi-station intensity scintillation measurements, as well as measurements of mass flux inferred from Lyman alpha observations, both of which pertain to the solar wind beyond 0.5 AU. The spectral broadening observations, therefore, strengthen earlier conclusions about the latitudinal variation of solar wind speed and mass flux, and reinforce current solar coronal models and their implications for solar wind acceleration and solar wind modeling.

  1. Statistical properties of solar flares and coronal mass ejections through the solar cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telloni, Daniele; Carbone, Vincenzo; Lepreti, Fabio; Antonucci, Ester

    2016-03-01

    Waiting Time Distributions (WTDs) of solar flares are investigated all through the solar cycle. The same approach applied to Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) in a previous work is considered here for flare occurrence. Our analysis reveals that flares and CMEs share some common statistical properties, which result dependent on the level of solar activity. Both flares and CMEs seem to independently occur during minimum solar activity phases, whilst their WTDs significantly deviate from a Poisson function at solar maximum, thus suggesting that these events are correlated. The characteristics of WTDs are constrained by the physical processes generating those eruptions associated with flares and CMEs. A scenario may be drawn in which different mechanisms are actively at work during different phases of the solar cycle. Stochastic processes, most likely related to random magnetic reconnections of the field lines, seem to play a key role during solar minimum periods. On the other hand, persistent processes, like sympathetic eruptions associated to the variability of the photospheric magnetism, are suggested to dominate during periods of high solar activity. Moreover, despite the similar statistical properties shown by flares and CMEs, as it was mentioned above, their WTDs appear different in some aspects. During solar minimum periods, the flare occurrence randomness seems to be more evident than for CMEs. Those persistent mechanisms generating interdependent events during maximum periods of solar activity can be suggested to play a more important role for CMEs than for flares, thus mitigating the competitive action of the random processes, which seem instead strong enough to weaken the correlations among flare event occurrence during solar minimum periods. However, it cannot be excluded that the physical processes at the basis of the origin of the temporal correlation between solar events are different for flares and CMEs, or that, more likely, more sophisticated effects are

  2. Mass fractionation of the lunar surface by solar wind sputtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Switkowski, Z. E.; Haff, P. K.; Tombrello, T. A.; Burnett, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation is conducted concerning the mass-fractionation effects produced in connection with the bombardment of the moon by the solar wind. Most of the material ejected by sputtering escapes the moon's gravity, but some returning matter settles back onto the lunar surface. This material, which is somewhat richer in heavier atoms than the starting surface, is incorporated into the heavily radiation-damaged outer surfaces of grains. The investigation indicates that sputtering of the lunar surface by the solar wind will give rise to significant surface heavy atom enrichments if the grain surfaces are allowed to come into sputtering equilibrium.

  3. Rocket calibration of the Nimbus 6 solar constant measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. H.; Harrison, R. G.; Hickey, J. R.; Kendall, J. M., Jr.; Thekaekara, M. P.; Willson, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    Total solar irradiance was observed simultaneously outside the earth's atmosphere by three types of absolute cavity radiometers and duplicates of four of the Nimbus 6 Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) solar channels in a June 1976 sounding rocket experiment. The preliminary average solar constant result from the cavity radiometers is 1367 Wm (-2) with an uncertainty of less than + or - 0.5% in S.I. units. The duplicate ERB channel 3 on the rocket gave a value of 1389 Wm (-2) which agreed exactly with the Nimbus 6 ERB channel 3 measurement made simultaneously with the rocket flight.

  4. Solar System Portrait - Views of 6 Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    These six narrow-angle color images were made from the first ever 'portrait' of the solar system taken by Voyager 1, which was more than 4 billion miles from Earth and about 32 degrees above the ecliptic. The spacecraft acquired a total of 60 frames for a mosaic of the solar system which shows six of the planets. Mercury is too close to the sun to be seen. Mars was not detectable by the Voyager cameras due to scattered sunlight in the optics, and Pluto was not included in the mosaic because of its small size and distance from the sun. These blown-up images, left to right and top to bottom are Venus, Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn, Uranus, Neptune. The background features in the images are artifacts resulting from the magnification. The images were taken through three color filters -- violet, blue and green -- and recombined to produce the color images. Jupiter and Saturn were resolved by the camera but Uranus and Neptune appear larger than they really are because of image smear due to spacecraft motion during the long (15 second) exposure times. Earth appears to be in a band of light because it coincidentally lies right in the center of the scattered light rays resulting from taking the image so close to the sun. Earth was a crescent only 0.12 pixels in size. Venus was 0.11 pixel in diameter. The planetary images were taken with the narrow-angle camera (1500 mm focal length).

  5. High-Altitude Air Mass Zero Calibration of Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodyard, James R.; Snyder, David B.

    2005-01-01

    Air mass zero calibration of solar cells has been carried out for several years by NASA Glenn Research Center using a Lear-25 aircraft and Langley plots. The calibration flights are carried out during early fall and late winter when the tropopause is at the lowest altitude. Measurements are made starting at about 50,000 feet and continue down to the tropopause. A joint NASA/Wayne State University program called Suntracker is underway to explore the use of weather balloon and communication technologies to characterize solar cells at elevations up to about 100 kft. The balloon flights are low-cost and can be carried out any time of the year. AMO solar cell characterization employing the mountaintop, aircraft and balloon methods are reviewed. Results of cell characterization with the Suntracker are reported and compared with the NASA Glenn Research Center aircraft method.

  6. Mass fractionation of the lunar surface by solar wind sputtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Switkowski, Z. E.; Haff, P. K.; Tombrello, T. A.; Burnett, D. S.

    1975-01-01

    The sputtering of the lunar surface by the solar wind is examined as a possible mechanism of mass fractionation. Simple arguments based on current theories of sputtering and the ballistics of the sputtered atoms suggest that most ejected atoms will have sufficiently high energy to escape lunar gravity. However, the fraction of atoms which falls back to the surface is enriched in the heavier atomic components relative to the lighter ones. This material is incorporated into the heavily radiation-damaged outer surfaces of grains where it is subject to resputtering. Over the course of several hundred years an equilibrium surface layer, enriched in heavier atoms, is found to form. The dependence of the calculated results upon the sputtering rate and on the details of the energy spectrum of sputtered particles is investigated. It is concluded that mass fractionation by solar wind sputtering is likely to be an important phenomenon on the lunar surface.

  7. The latitudinal dependence of the solar ionization rate as deduced from the Prognoz-6 Lyman-alpha measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summanen, T.; Kyrola, E.; Lallement, R.; Bertaux, J. L.

    The latitudinal dependence of the solar ionization is studied using the Lyman-alpha measurements by the Prognoz-6 spacecraft during the solar minimum 1976-77. Applying a hot model for the interplanetary H-gas we have searched for an optimal ionization function to comply with the measurements. Using the optimal ionization function we have studied the latitudinal variation of the solar wind mass flux and the proton density.

  8. Solar energetic proton events and coronal mass ejections near solar minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahler, S. W.; Cliver, E. W.; Cane, H. V.; Mcguire, R. E.; Reames, D. V.; Sheeley, N. R., Jr.; Howard, R. A.

    1987-01-01

    We have examined the association of coronal mass ejections (CME's) with solar energetic (9-23 MeV) proton (SEP) events during the 1983-1985 approach to solar minimum. Twenty-two of 25 SEP events were associated with CME's, a result comparable to that previously found for the period 1979-1982 around solar maximum. Peak SEP fluxes were correlated with CME speeds but not with CME angular sizes. In addition, many associated CME's lay well out of the ecliptic plane. In a reverse study using all west hemisphere CME's of speeds exceeding 800 km/s and covering the period 1979-1985, we found that 29 of 31 events originating on the solar disk or limb were associated with observed SEP's. However, in contrast to the previous study, we found no cases of SEP events associated with magnetically well connected flares of short duration that lacked CME's.

  9. Early solar mass loss, opacity uncertainties, and the solar abundance problem

    SciTech Connect

    Guzik, Joyce Ann; Keady, John; Kilcrease, David

    2009-01-01

    Solar models calibrated with the new element abundance mixture of Asplund et al. published in 2005 no longer produce good agreement with the sound speed, convection zone depth, and convection zone helium abundance inferred from solar oscillation data. Attempts to modify the input physics of the standard model, for example, by including enhanced diffusion, increased opacities, accretion, convective overshoot, or gravity waves have not restored the good agreement attained with the prior abundances. Here we present new models including early mass loss via a stronger solar wind. Early mass loss has been investigated prior to the solar abundance problem to deplete lithium and resolve the 'faint early sun problem'. We find that mass loss modifies the core structure and deepens the convection zone, and so improves agreement with oscillation data using the new abundances: however the amount of mass loss must be small to avoid destroying all of the surface lithium, and agreement is not fully restored. We also considered the prospects for increasing solar interior opacities. In order to increase mixture opacities by the 30% required to mitigate the abundance problem, the opacities of individual elements (e.g., O, N, C, and Fe) must be revised by a factor of two to three for solar interior conditions: we are investigating the possibility of broader calculated line wings for bound-bound transitions at the relevant temperatures to enhance opacity. We find that including all of the elements in the AGS05 opacity mixture (through uranium at atomic number Z=92) instead of only the 17 elements in the OPAL opacity mixture increases opacities by a negligible 0.2%.

  10. The double solar flare of October 6, 1977

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valnichek, B.; Vedrenne, G.; Kuznetsov, A. V.; Likin, O. B.; Morozova, E. I.; Niel, M.; Pisarenko, N. F.; Farnik, F.; Hurley, K.; Chambon, G.

    Prognoz-6 data are used to examine the energetic and temporal characteristics of the 1N double solar flare of October 6, 1977. The energetic characteristics are determined on the basis of an analysis of the parameters of charged-particle propagation in interplanetary space. The energy yield of the flare in the region of thermal and bremsstrahlung X-rays is calculated.

  11. Dynamical limits on dark mass in the outer solar system

    SciTech Connect

    Hogg, D.W.; Quinlan, G.D.; Tremaine, S. MIT, Cambridge, MA )

    1991-06-01

    Simplified model solar systems with known observational errors are considered in conducting a dynamical search for dark mass and its minimum detectable amount, and in determining the significance of observed anomalies. The numerical analysis of the dynamical influence of dark mass on the orbits of outer planets and comets is presented in detail. Most conclusions presented are based on observations of the four giant planets where the observational errors in latitude and longitude are independent Gaussian variables with a standard deviation. Neptune's long orbital period cannot be predicted by modern ephemerides, and no evidence of dark mass is found in considering this planet. Studying the improvement in fit when observations are fitted to models that consider dark mass is found to be an efficient way to detect dark mass. Planet X must have a mass of more than about 10 times the minimum detectable mass to locate the hypothetical planet. It is suggested that the IRAS survey would have already located the Planet X if it is so massive and close that it dynamically influences the outer planets. Orbital residuals from comets are found to be more effective than those from planets in detecting the Kuiper belt. 35 refs.

  12. Interactive visualization of solar mass ejection imager (SMEI) volumetric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yang; Hick, P. P.; Jackson, Bernard V.

    2005-08-01

    We present a volume rendering system developed for the real time visualization and manipulation of 3D heliospheric volumetric solar wind density and velocity data obtained from the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) and interplanetary scintillation (IPS) velocities over the same time period. Our system exploits the capabilities of the VolumePro 1000 board from TeraRecon, Inc., a low-cost 64-bit PCI board capable of rendering up to a 512-cubed array of volume data in real time at up to 30 frames per second on a standard PC. Many volume-rendering operations have been implemented with this system such as stereo/perspective views, animations of time-sequences, and determination of coronal mass ejection (CME) volumes and masses. In these visualizations we highlight one time period where a halo CMEs was observed by SMEI to engulf Earth on October 29, 2003. We demonstrate how this system is used to measure the distribution of structure and provide 3D mass for individual CME features, including the ejecta associated with the large prominence viewed moving to the south of Earth following the late October CME. Comparisons with the IPS velocity volumetric data give pixel by pixel and total kinetic energies for these events.

  13. Stars Just Got Bigger - A 300 Solar Mass Star Uncovered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-07-01

    Using a combination of instruments on ESO's Very Large Telescope, astronomers have discovered the most massive stars to date, one weighing at birth more than 300 times the mass of the Sun, or twice as much as the currently accepted limit of 150 solar masses. The existence of these monsters - millions of times more luminous than the Sun, losing weight through very powerful winds - may provide an answer to the question "how massive can stars be?" A team of astronomers led by Paul Crowther, Professor of Astrophysics at the University of Sheffield, has used ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), as well as archival data from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, to study two young clusters of stars, NGC 3603 and RMC 136a in detail. NGC 3603 is a cosmic factory where stars form frantically from the nebula's extended clouds of gas and dust, located 22 000 light-years away from the Sun (eso1005). RMC 136a (more often known as R136) is another cluster of young, massive and hot stars, which is located inside the Tarantula Nebula, in one of our neighbouring galaxies, the Large Magellanic Cloud, 165 000 light-years away (eso0613). The team found several stars with surface temperatures over 40 000 degrees, more than seven times hotter than our Sun, and a few tens of times larger and several million times brighter. Comparisons with models imply that several of these stars were born with masses in excess of 150 solar masses. The star R136a1, found in the R136 cluster, is the most massive star ever found, with a current mass of about 265 solar masses and with a birthweight of as much as 320 times that of the Sun. In NGC 3603, the astronomers could also directly measure the masses of two stars that belong to a double star system [1], as a validation of the models used. The stars A1, B and C in this cluster have estimated masses at birth above or close to 150 solar masses. Very massive stars produce very powerful outflows. "Unlike humans, these stars are born heavy and lose weight as

  14. Mass and heat transfer model of Tubular Solar Still

    SciTech Connect

    Ahsan, Amimul; Fukuhara, Teruyuki

    2010-07-15

    In this paper, a new mass and heat transfer model of a Tubular Solar Still (TSS) was proposed incorporating various mass and heat transfer coefficients taking account of the humid air properties inside the still. The heat balance of the humid air and the mass balance of the water vapor in the humid air were formulized for the first time. As a result, the proposed model enabled to calculate the diurnal variations of the temperature, water vapor density and relative humidity of the humid air, and to predict the hourly condensation flux besides the temperatures of the water, cover and trough, and the hourly evaporation flux. The validity of the proposed model was verified using the field experimental results carried out in Fukui, Japan and Muscat, Oman in 2008. The diurnal variations of the calculated temperatures and water vapor densities had a good agreement with the observed ones. Furthermore, the proposed model can predict the daily and hourly production flux precisely. (author)

  15. Energetic Correlation Between Solar Flares and Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Medlin, Drew A.; Haga, Leah; Schwartz, Richard a.; Tolbert, A. Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    We find a strong correlation between the kinetic energies (KEs) of the coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and the radiated energies of the associated solar flares for the events that occurred during the period of intense solar activity between 18 October and 08 November 2003. CME start times, speeds, mass and KEs were taken from Gopalswamy et al. (2005), who used SOHO/LASCO observations. The GOES observations of the associated flares were analyzed to find the peak soft X-ray (SXR) flux, the radiated energy in SXRs (L(sub sxR)), and the radiated energy from the emitting plasma across all wavelengths (L(sub hot)). RHESSI observations were also used to find the energy in non-thermal electrons, ions, and the plasma thermal energy for some events. For two events, SORCE/TIM observations of the total solar irradiance during a flare were also available to give the total radiated flare energy (L(sub total)).W e find that the total flare energies of the larger events are of the same order of magnitude as the CME KE with a stronger correlation than has been found in the past for other time intervals.

  16. Interactive Visualization of Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) Volumetric Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Hick, P. P.; Jackson, B. V.

    2004-12-01

    We present a volume rendering system developed for the real time visualization and manipulation of 3D heliospheric volumetric solar wind density and velocity data obtained from the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) and interplanetary scintillation (IPS) velocities over the same time period. Our system exploits the capabilities of the VolumePro 1000 board from TeraRecon, Inc., a low-cost 64-bit PCI board capable of rendering up to a 512-cubed array of volume data in real time at up to 30 frames per second on a standard PC. Many volume-rendering operations have been implemented with this system such as stereo/perspective views, animations of time-sequences, and determination of CME volumes and masses. In these visualizations we highlight two time periods where halo CMEs were observed by SMEI to engulf Earth, on May 30, 2003 and on October 29, 2003. We demonstrate how this system is used to measure the distribution of structure and provide 3D mass for individual CME features, including the ejecta associated with the large prominence viewed moving to the south of Earth following the late October CME.

  17. Solar Energetic Particle Production by Coronal Mass Ejection-driven Shocks in Solar Fast-Wind Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahler, S. W.; Reames, D. V.

    2003-02-01

    Gradual solar energetic particle (SEP) events at 1 AU are produced by coronal/interplanetary shocks driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Fast (vCME>~900 km s-1) CMEs might produce stronger shocks in solar slow-wind regions, where the flow and fast-mode MHD wave speeds are low, than in fast-wind regions, where those speeds are much higher. At 1 AU the O+7/O+6 ratios distinguish between those two kinds of wind streams. We use the 20 MeV proton event intensities from the EPACT instrument on Wind, the associated CMEs observed with the LASCO coronagraph on SOHO, and the ACE SWICS solar wind values of O+7/O+6 to look for variations of peak SEP intensities as a function of O+7/O+6. No significant dependence of the SEP intensities on O+7/O+6 is found for either poorly connected or well-connected CME source regions or for different CME speed ranges. However, in the 3 yr study period we find only five cases of SEP events in fast wind, defined by regions of O+7/O+6<0.15. We suggest that in coronal holes SEP acceleration may take place only in the plume regions, where the flow and Alfvén speeds are low. A broad range of angular widths are associated with fast (vCME>=900 km s-1) CMEs, but we find that no fast CMEs with widths less than 60° are associated with SEP events. On the other hand, nearly all fast halo CMEs are associated with SEP events. Thus, the CME widths are more important in SEP production than previously thought, but the speed of the solar wind source regions in which SEPs are produced may not be a factor.

  18. Identification of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections at 1 AU Using Multiple Solar Wind Plasma Composition Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, I. G.; Cane, H. V.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the use of multiple simultaneous solar wind plasma compositional anomalies, relative to the composition of the ambient solar wind, for identifying interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) plasma. We first summarize the characteristics of several solar wind plasma composition signatures (O(+7)/O(+6), Mg/O, Ne/O, Fe charge states, He/p) observed by the ACE and WIND spacecraft within the ICMEs during 1996 - 2002 identsed by Cane and Richardson. We then develop a set of simple criteria that may be used to identify such compositional anomalies, and hence potential ICMEs. To distinguish these anomalies from the normal variations seen in ambient solar wind composition, which depend on the wind speed, we compare observed compositional signatures with those 'expected' in ambient solar wind with the same solar wind speed. This method identifies anomalies more effectively than the use of fixed thresholds. The occurrence rates of individual composition anomalies within ICMEs range from approx. 70% for enhanced iron and oxygen charge states to approx. 30% for enhanced He/p (> 0.06) and Ne/O, and are generally higher in magnetic clouds than other ICMEs. Intervals of multiple anomalies are usually associated with ICMEs, and provide a basis for the identification of the majority of ICMEs. We estimate that Cane and Richardson, who did not refer to composition data, probably identitied approx. 90% of the ICMEs present. However, around 10% of their ICMEs have weak compositional anomalies, suggesting that the presence of such signatures does not provide a necessary requirement for an ICME. We note a remarkably similar correlation between the Mg/O and O(7)/O(6) ratios in hourly-averaged data both within ICMEs and the ambient solar wind. This 'universal' relationship suggests that a similar process (such as minor ion heating by waves inside coronal magnetic field loops) produces the first-ionization potential bias and ion freezing-in temperatures in the source regions

  19. Impurity characterization of solar wind collectors for the genesis discovery mission by resonance ionization mass spectrometry.

    SciTech Connect

    Calaway, W. F.

    1999-02-01

    NASA's Genesis Discovery Mission is designed to collect solar matter and return it to earth for analysis. The mission consists of launching a spacecraft that carries high purity collector materials, inserting the spacecraft into a halo orbit about the L1 sun-earth libration point, exposing the collectors to the solar wind for two years, and then returning the collectors to earth. The collectors will then be made available for analysis by various methods to determine the elemental and isotopic abundance of the solar wind. In preparation for this mission, potential collector materials are being characterized to determine baseline impurity levels and to assess detection limits for various analysis techniques. As part of the effort, potential solar wind collector materials have been analyzed using resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS). RIMS is a particularly sensitivity variation of secondary neutral mass spectrometry that employs resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) to selectively postionize an element of interest, and thus discriminates between low levels of that element and the bulk material. The high sensitivity and selectivity of RIMS allow detection of very low concentrations while consuming only small amounts of sample. Thus, RIMS is well suited for detection of many heavy elements in the solar wind, since metals heavier than Fe are expected to range in concentrations from 1 ppm to 0.2 ppt. In addition, RIMS will be able to determine concentration profiles as a function of depth for these implanted solar wind elements effectively separating them from terrestrial contaminants. RIMS analyses to determine Ti concentrations in Si and Ge samples have been measured. Results indicate that the detection limit for RIMS analysis of Ti is below 100 ppt for 10{sup 6} averages. Background analyses of the mass spectra indicate that detection limits for heavier elements will be similar. Furthermore, detection limits near 1 ppt are possible with higher

  20. Mass motion in upper solar chromosphere detected from solar eclipse observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi; Qu, Zhongquan; Yan, Xiaoli; Dun, Guangtao; Chang, Liang

    2016-05-01

    The eclipse-observed emission lines formed in the upper solar atmosphere can be used to diagnose the atmosphere dynamics which provides an insight to the energy balance of the outer atmosphere. In this paper, we analyze the spectra formed in the upper chromospheric region by a new instrument called Fiber Arrayed Solar Optic Telescope (FASOT) around the Gabon total solar eclipse on November 3, 2013. The double Gaussian fits of the observed profiles are adopted to show enhanced emission in line wings, while red-blue (RB) asymmetry analysis informs that the cool line (about 104 K) profiles can be decomposed into two components and the secondary component is revealed to have a relative velocity of about 16-45 km s^{-1}. The other profiles can be reproduced approximately with single Gaussian fits. From these fittings, it is found that the matter in the upper solar chromosphere is highly dynamic. The motion component along the line-of-sight has a pattern asymmetric about the local solar radius. Most materials undergo significant red shift motions while a little matter show blue shift. Despite the discrepancy of the motion in different lines, we find that the width and the Doppler shifts both are function of the wavelength. These results may help us to understand the complex mass cycle between chromosphere and corona.

  1. Understanding the Global Structure and Evolution of Coronal Mass Ejections in the Solar Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Pete

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the technical progress made during the first six months of the second year of the NASA Living with a Star program contract Understanding the global structure and evolution of coronal mass ejections in the solar wind, between NASA and Science Applications International Corporation, and covers the period November 18, 2003 - May 17,2004. Under this contract SAIC has conducted numerical and data analysis related to fundamental issues concerning the origin, intrinsic properties, global structure, and evolution of coronal mass ejections in the solar wind. During this working period we have focused on a quantitative assessment of 5 flux rope fitting techniques. In the following sections we summarize the main aspects of this work and our proposed investigation plan for the next reporting period. Thus far, our investigation has resulted in 6 refereed scientific publications and we have presented the results at a number of scientific meetings and workshops.

  2. Solar wind control of magnetospheric pressure (CDAW 6)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairfield, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    The CDAW 6 data base is used to compare solar wind and magnetospheric pressures. The flaring angle of the tail magnetopause is determined by assuming that the component of solar wind pressure normal to the tail boundary is equal to the total pressure within the tail. Results indicate an increase in the tail flaring angle from 18 deg to 32 deg prior to the 1055 substorm onset and a decrease to 25 deg after the onset. This behavior supports the concept of tail energy storage before the substorm and subsequent release after the onset.

  3. Habitability of Planets Orbiting Binaries Consisting of Solar Mass Twins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Paul A.; Zuluaga, Jorge I.; Zhilkin, Andrey G.; Bisikalo, Dmitry V.

    2015-01-01

    An important problem in astrobiology is the study of the potential habitability of planets orbiting binary stars. Theoretical and observational studies of circumbinary planets indicate that it is not uncommon for circumbinary planets to be located in the habitable zones surrounding main sequence binaries. However, it is also clear that the time evolution of stellar activity of the individual stars in close binaries is of primary concern for the habitability of planets. For example, planets orbiting active stars may lose the entirety of their water budget due to atmospheric mass loss; despite being in the standard radiative habitable zone. Alternatively, stars in some binaries may undergo a reduction in stellar activity due to tidal effects that cause the rotation of the stars to slow faster than single stars. Thereby, magneto-coronal activity is reduced to less aggressive levels, allowing circumbinary planets to maintain surface water. We summarize these effects, which we call the Binary Habitability Mechanism (BHM). We performed orbital integrations of circumbinary, Earth-like, planets and find that resonances play a particularly important role in the stability of habitable zone planets orbiting solar twin binaries in the 20-60 day period range, allowing for the possibility of several habitable planets orbiting some binaries. We present numerical simulations of the effects of colliding winds in binaries containing solar mass twins. We used stellar wind parameters based on solar like conditions for our 3D hydrodynamic simulations. We find devastating effects for close in planets, yet relatively mild stellar wind conditions exist within the circumbinary habitable zone.

  4. The distribution of mass and angular momentum in the solar system

    SciTech Connect

    Marochnik, L.S.; Mukhin, L.M.; Sagdeev, R.Z. )

    1989-01-01

    This book describes the contribution of the comets in the Oort cloud to the angular momentum of the solar system. Topics covered include: Nuclear mass of the new comets observed, Mass of the Oort cloud, Mass distribution in the solar system, Zone of comet formation, Angular momentum of the Oort cloud, and Angular momentum of the Hills cloud.

  5. The speeds of coronal mass ejections in the solar wind at mid heliographic latitudes: Ulysses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosling, J. T.; Bame, S. J.; Mccomas, D. J.; Phillips, J. L.; Goldstein, B. E.; Neugebauer, M.

    1994-01-01

    Six CMEs (coronal mass ejections) have been detected in the Ulysses plasma observations poleward of S31 deg. The most striking aspect of these mid-latitude CMEs was their high speeds; the overall average speed of these CMEs was approximately 740 km/s, which was comparable to that of the rest of the solar wind at these latitudes. This average CME speed is much higher than average CME speeds observed in the solar wind in the ecliptic or in the corona close to the Sun. The evidence indicates that the CMEs were not pushed up to high speeds in interplanetary space by interaction with trailing high-speed plasma. Rather, they simply seem to have received the same basic acceleration as the rest of the solar wind at these mid-latitudes. Our results suggest that the basic acceleration process for many CMEs at all latitudes is essentially the same as for the normal solar wind. Frequently most of this acceleration must occur well beyond 6 solar radii from Sun center.

  6. Interaction between Two Coronal Mass Ejections in the 2013 May 22 Large Solar Energetic Particle Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Liu-Guan; Li, Gang; Jiang, Yong; Le, Gui-Ming; Shen, Cheng-Long; Wang, Yu-Ming; Chen, Yao; Xu, Fei; Gu, Bin; Zhang, Ya-Nan

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the eruption and interaction of two coronal mass ejections (CMEs) during the large 2013 May 22 solar energetic particle event using multiple spacecraft observations. Two CMEs, having similar propagation directions, were found to erupt from two nearby active regions (ARs), AR11748 and AR11745, at ~08:48 UT and ~13:25 UT, respectively. The second CME was faster than the first CME. Using the graduated cylindrical shell model, we reconstructed the propagation of these two CMEs and found that the leading edge of the second CME caught up with the trailing edge of the first CME at a height of ~6 solar radii. After about two hours, the leading edges of the two CMEs merged at a height of ~20 solar radii. Type II solar radio bursts showed strong enhancement during this two hour period. Using the velocity dispersion method, we obtained the solar particle release (SPR) time and the path length for energetic electrons. Further assuming that energetic protons propagated along the same interplanetary magnetic field, we also obtained the SPR time for energetic protons, which were close to that of electrons. These release times agreed with the time when the second CME caught up with the trailing edge of the first CME, indicating that the CME-CME interaction (and shock-CME interaction) plays an important role in the process of particle acceleration in this event.

  7. INTERACTION BETWEEN TWO CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS IN THE 2013 MAY 22 LARGE SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENT

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Liu-Guan; Xu, Fei; Gu, Bin; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Li, Gang; Jiang, Yong; Le, Gui-Ming; Shen, Cheng-Long; Wang, Yu-Ming; Chen, Yao

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the eruption and interaction of two coronal mass ejections (CMEs) during the large 2013 May 22 solar energetic particle event using multiple spacecraft observations. Two CMEs, having similar propagation directions, were found to erupt from two nearby active regions (ARs), AR11748 and AR11745, at ∼08:48 UT and ∼13:25 UT, respectively. The second CME was faster than the first CME. Using the graduated cylindrical shell model, we reconstructed the propagation of these two CMEs and found that the leading edge of the second CME caught up with the trailing edge of the first CME at a height of ∼6 solar radii. After about two hours, the leading edges of the two CMEs merged at a height of ∼20 solar radii. Type II solar radio bursts showed strong enhancement during this two hour period. Using the velocity dispersion method, we obtained the solar particle release (SPR) time and the path length for energetic electrons. Further assuming that energetic protons propagated along the same interplanetary magnetic field, we also obtained the SPR time for energetic protons, which were close to that of electrons. These release times agreed with the time when the second CME caught up with the trailing edge of the first CME, indicating that the CME-CME interaction (and shock-CME interaction) plays an important role in the process of particle acceleration in this event.

  8. Mass-loss Rates for Very Massive Stars Up to 300 Solar Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vink, J. S.

    2011-06-01

    One of the key questions in Astrophysics concerns the issue of whether there exists an upper mass limit to stars and if so, what physical mechanism determines this upper limit. Here we present the latest mass-loss predictions for the most massive stars in our Universe - in the mass range up to 300 solar masses - using a novel hydrodynamic method that includes the important effects of multiple photons interactions, allowing us to predict the rate of mass loss and the wind terminal velocity simultaneously. Our model stars have a high Eddington factor (Γ) and we find an upturn in the mass-loss versus Γ dependence, where the model winds become optically thick. This is also the point where our wind efficiency numbers - defined as the wind momentum over the photon momentum - surpass the single-scattering limit (of η = 1), reaching wind efficiency numbers up to η ≃ 2.5. Our modelling indicates a natural transition from common O-type stars to Wolf-Rayet characteristics when the wind becomes optically thick. This "transitional" behaviour is also reflected in the wind acceleration parameter β, which naturally reaches values as high as 1.5-2, as well as in the spectral morphology of the He II line at 4686Å - characteristic for Of and late WN stars. In Wolf-Rayet galaxy research, the feature is sometimes referred to as "the blue bump".

  9. Coronal mass ejections in the solar wind at high solar latitudes: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosling, Jack T.

    1994-01-01

    Ulysses provided the first direct measurements of coronal mass ejections (CME's) in the solar wind at high heliographic latitudes. An overview of new results from the plasma experiment on Ulysses and magnetic field measurements, during the spacecraft's first excursion to high solar latitudes are summarized. A striking aspect of the high-latitude CME's observed is that they all had high speeds, with the overall average speed being 730 km/sec. A new class of forward-reverse shock pairs, associated with expansion of CME's was discovered at high latitudes. Of six certain CME's observed at high latitudes, three have associated shock pairs of this nature. Combined Ulysses and Yohkoh observations suggest that the flux rope topology characteristic of some CME's results from reconnection within the legs of neighboring magnetic loops embedded within the escaping CME's.

  10. Coronal mass ejections in the solar wind at high solar latitudes: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Gosling, J.T.

    1994-10-01

    Ulysses has provided the first direct measurements of coronal mass ejections, CMES, in the solar wind at high heliographic latitudes. This paper provides an overview of new and unexpected results from the plasma experiment on Ulysses, supplemented with magnetic field measurements, during the spacecraft`s first excursion to high solar latitudes. A striking aspect of the high-latitude CMEs observed is that they all had high speeds, with the overall average speed being 730 km s{sup {minus}1}. A new class of forward-reverse shock pairs, associated with expansion of CMES, has been discovered at high latitudes. Of six certain CMEs observed at high latitudes, three have associated shock pairs of this nature. Combined Ulysses and Yohkoh observations suggest that the flux rope topology characteristic of some CMEs results from reconnection within the legs of neighboring magnetic loops embedded within the escaping CMES.

  11. ( sup 6 Li, sup 6 He) measurements as an alternative calibration for solar neutrino detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Aschenauer, E.; Dennert, H.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Moosburger, M.; Wirth, H. ); Gils, H.J.; Rebel, H.; Zagromski, S. )

    1991-12-01

    The ({sup 6}Li,{sup 6}He) reaction was studied on the nuclei {sup 37}Cl and {sup 71}Ga at {ital E}{sub 6Li}=156 MeV at extreme forward angles including zero degree. Gamow-Teller strength and the corresponding {ital B}(GT) values were extracted. It is shown that these measurements provide an alternative method to calibrate solar neutrino detectors.

  12. Measurements of Faraday Rotation through the Solar Corona at 4.6 Solar Radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooi, Jason E.; Fischer, P. D.; Buffo, J. J.; Spangler, S. R.

    2013-07-01

    Identifying and understanding (1) the coronal heating mechanism and (2) the acceleration mechanism for the high-speed solar wind are two of the most important modern problems in solar physics. Many competing models of the high-speed solar wind depend on the solar magnetic field inside heliocentric distances of 5 solar radii. We report on sensitive VLA full-polarization observations made in August, 2011, at 5.0 and 6.1 GHz (each with a bandwidth of 128 MHz) of the radio galaxy 3C228 through the solar corona at heliocentric distances of 4.6 - 5.0 solar radii. Observations at 5.0 GHz (C-band frequencies) permit measurements deeper in the corona than previous VLA observations at 1.4 and 1.7 GHz. These Faraday rotation observations provide unique information on the plasma density and magnetic field strength in this region of the corona. The measured Faraday rotation on this day was lower than our a priori expectations, but we have successfully modeled the measurement in terms of observed properties of the corona on the day of observation. Further, 3C228 provides two lines of sight (separated by 46”) that allow measurement of differential Faraday rotation. These data may provide constraints on the magnitude of coronal currents and, thus, on the role Joule heating plays in the corona. Fluctuations in the observed rotation measure may also place constraints on wave-turbulence models by constraining the magnitude of coronal Alfvén waves.

  13. A 17-billion-solar-mass black hole in a group galaxy with a diffuse core.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jens; Ma, Chung-Pei; McConnell, Nicholas J; Greene, Jenny E; Blakeslee, John P; Janish, Ryan

    2016-04-21

    Quasars are associated with and powered by the accretion of material onto massive black holes; the detection of highly luminous quasars with redshifts greater than z = 6 suggests that black holes of up to ten billion solar masses already existed 13 billion years ago. Two possible present-day 'dormant' descendants of this population of 'active' black holes have been found in the galaxies NGC 3842 and NGC 4889 at the centres of the Leo and Coma galaxy clusters, which together form the central region of the Great Wall--the largest local structure of galaxies. The most luminous quasars, however, are not confined to such high-density regions of the early Universe; yet dormant black holes of this high mass have not yet been found outside of modern-day rich clusters. Here we report observations of the stellar velocity distribution in the galaxy NGC 1600--a relatively isolated elliptical galaxy near the centre of a galaxy group at a distance of 64 megaparsecs from Earth. We use orbit superposition models to determine that the black hole at the centre of NGC 1600 has a mass of 17 billion solar masses. The spatial distribution of stars near the centre of NGC 1600 is rather diffuse. We find that the region of depleted stellar density in the cores of massive elliptical galaxies extends over the same radius as the gravitational sphere of influence of the central black holes, and interpret this as the dynamical imprint of the black holes. PMID:27049949

  14. Reduction of Martian Sample Return Mission Launch Mass with Solar Sail Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Tiffany E.; Heaton, Andy F.; Young, Roy; Baysinger, Mike; Schnell, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    Solar sails have the potential to provide mass and cost savings for spacecraft traveling within the innter solar system. Companies like L'Garde have demonstrated sail manufacturability and various i-space development methods. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a current Mars sample return architecture and to determine how cost and mass would be reduced by incorporating a solar sail propulsion system. The team validated the design proposed by L'Garde, and scaled the design based on a trajectory analysis. Using the solar sail design reduced the required mass, eliminating one of the three launches required in the original architecture.

  15. Reduction of Martian Sample Return Mission Launch Mass with Solar Sail Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Tiffany E.; Heaton, Andrew; Thomas, Scott; Thomas, Dan; Young, Roy; Baysinger, Mike; Capizzo, Pete; Fabisinski, Leo; Hornsby, Linda; Maples, Dauphne; Miernik, Janie

    2013-01-01

    Solar sails have the potential to provide mass and cost savings for spacecraft traveling within the inner solar system. Companies like L'Garde have demonstrated sail manufacturability and various in-space deployment methods. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a current Mars sample return architecture and to determine how cost and mass would be reduced by incorporating a solar sail propulsion system. The team validated the design proposed by L'Garde, and scaled the design based on a trajectory analysis. Using the solar sail design reduced the required mass, eliminating one of the three launches required in the original architecture.

  16. Evidence for a solar cause of the Pleistocene mass extinction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laviolette, Paul A.

    2011-06-01

    The hypothesis is presented that an abrupt rise in atmospheric radiocarbon concentration evident in the Cariaco Basin varve record at 12,837±10 cal yrs BP contemporaneous with the Rancholabrean termination, may have been produced by a super-sized solar proton event (SPE) having a fluence of ~1.3 X 10^11 protons/cm^2. A SPE of this magnitude would have been large enough to deliver a lethal radiation dose of at least 3 - 6 Sv to the Earth's surface, and hence could have been a principal cause of the final termination of the Pleistocene megafauna and several genera of smaller mammals and birds. The event time-correlates with a large magnitude acidity spike found at 1708.65 m in the GISP2 Greenland ice record, which is associated with high NO-3 ion concentrations and a rapid rise in 10^Be deposition rate, all of which are indicators of a sudden cosmic ray influx. The depletion of nitrate ion within this acidic ice layer suggests that the snowpack surface at that time was exposed to intense UV for a prolonged period which is consistent with a temporary destruction of the polar ozone layer by solar cosmic rays. The acidity event also coincides with a large magnitude, abrupt climatic excursion and is associated with elevated ammonium ion concentrations, an indicator of global fires.

  17. Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph of the 1.6 Meter New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Jongchul; Park, Hyung-Min; Ahn, Kwangsu; Yang, Heesu; Park, Young-Deuk; Nah, Jakyoung; Jang, Bi Ho; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Cao, Wenda; Goode, Philip R.

    2013-11-01

    For high resolution spectral observations of the Sun - particularly its chromosphere, we have developed a dual-band echelle spectrograph named Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph (FISS), and installed it in a vertical optical table in the Coudé Lab of the 1.6 meter New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory. This instrument can cover any part of the visible and near-infrared spectrum, but it usually records the Hα band and the Ca ii 8542 Å band simultaneously using two CCD cameras, producing data well suited for the study of the structure and dynamics of the chromosphere and filaments/prominences. The instrument does imaging of high quality using a fast scan of the slit across the field of view with the aid of adaptive optics. We describe its design, specifics, and performance as well as data processing

  18. Solar Wind Compositional Variability and the Need for an Ultra-High Temporal Resolution Mass Spectrometer: Introduction to the Helical Ion Path Spectrometer (HIPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrian, M. L.; Gallagher, D. L.; Sheldon, R. D.; Hamilton, D. C.

    2005-05-01

    Solar wind composition measurements serve as an indicator of the sub-coronal and coronal processes responsible for the formation of these heliospheric features. While current state-of-the-art instrumentation have identified temporal variations in solar wind/CME composition on the order of 10's of minutes, these detections have occurred during relatively quiescent periods when temporal variations of the collective solar wind (including magnetic field variations) occur over periods in excess of the current minimum instrumental duty cycle of 5-minutes. Consequently, the compositional markers of the microphysics responsible for the formation of highly variable solar wind flows and for CME/prominence formation remain overlooked. The development of a novel ultra-high temporal resolution ion mass spectrometer utilizing a helical ion path time-of-flight (TOF) system within a compact, low-mass, low-power instrument has been undertaken in order to address the need for temporally enhanced solar wind composition measurements. The Helical Ion Path Spectrometer (HIPS) is designed specifically to measure solar wind heavy ion plasma from 3He+2 ≤ M/q ≤ Fe+6 and 0.6-20.0 keV/q with an order of magnitude greater geometric factor than current solar wind ion mass spectrometers, and produce 1-10 ms mass spectra with a mass resolution of M/ΔM ~ 200 or greater, all within a duty cycle of ≤ 90-s. The temporal resolution of HIPS is sufficient to probe solar wind and CME spatial/temporal dimensions down to an ion gyroradius in solar wind flow boundaries at 1 AU. We present evidence supporting the need for greater temporal resolution solar wind composition measurement through an overview of solar wind mass spectroscopy results to date, and an introduction to the HIPS mass spectrometer instrument concept.

  19. Ultra-Narrow Negative Flare Front Observed in Helium-10830 Å Using the1.6m New Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan; Cao, Wenda; Ding, Mingde; Kleint, Lucia; Su, Jiangtao; Liu, Chang; Ji, Haisheng; Chae, Jongchul; Jing, Ju; Cho, Kyuhyoun; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Gary, Dale E.; Wang, Haimin

    2016-05-01

    Solar flares are sudden flashes of brightness on the Sun and are often associated with coronal mass ejections and solar energetic particles that have adverse effects on the near-Earth environment. By definition, flares are usually referred to as bright features resulting from excess emission. Using the newly commissioned 1.6-m New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory, we show a striking “negative” flare with a narrow but unambiguous “dark” moving front observed in He I 10830 Å, which is as narrow as 340 km and is associated with distinct spectral characteristics in Hα and Mg II lines. Theoretically, such negative contrast in He I 10830 Å can be produced under special circumstances by nonthermal electron collisions or photoionization followed by recombination. Our discovery, made possible due to unprecedented spatial resolution, confirms the presence of the required plasma conditions and provides unique information in understanding the energy release and radiative transfer in solar flares.

  20. 1.6 m Off-Axis Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goode, P. R.; BBSO/NJIT Team; Mees Solar Obs./U. Hawaii Team

    2003-05-01

    New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT), in collaboration with the University of Hawaii (UH), is upgrading Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) by replacing its principal, 65 cm aperture telescope with a modern, off-axis 1.6 m clear aperture instrument from a 1.7 m blank. The new telescope offers a significant incremental improvement in ground-based infrared and high angular resolution capabilities, and enhances our continuing program to understand photospheric magneto-convection and chromospheric dynamics. These are the drivers for what is broadly called space weather -- an important problem, which impacts human technologies and life on earth. This New Solar Telescope (NST) will use the existing BBSO pedestal, pier and observatory building, which will be modified to accept the larger open telescope structure. It will be operated together with our 10 inch (for larger field-of-view vector magnetograms, Ca II K and Hα observations) and Singer-Link (full disk Hα , Ca II K and white light) synoptic telescopes. The NST optical and software control design will be similar to the existing SOLARC (UH) and the planned Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) facility led by the National Solar Observatory (NSO) -- all three are off-axis designs. The highest resolution solar telescopes currently operating are in the sub-meter class, and have diffraction limits which allow them to resolve features larger than 100 km in size on the sun. They are often photon-starved in the study of dynamic events because of the competing need for diffraction limited spatial resolution, short exposure times to minimize seeing effects, and high spectral resolution to resolve line profiles. Thus, understanding many significant and dynamic solar phenomena remains tantalizingly close, but just beyond our grasp. Research supported in part by NASA grant NAG5-12782 and NSF grant ATM-0086999.

  1. Latitudinal Variation of Solar Wind Speed and Mass Flux in the Acceleration Region of the Solar Wind during Solar Minimum Inferred from Spectral Broadening measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, R.; Goldstein, R.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, we use an aggregate of S-band 2.3 GHz (13 cm) spectral broadening observations conducted during solar minimum conditions by the Mariner 4, Pioneer 10, Mariner 10, Helios 1 & 2 and Viking spacecraft to infer the first measurements of the latitudinal variation of solar wind speed and mass flux in the acceleration region of the solar wind at 3-8 R(sub o).

  2. Progress on the 1.6-meter New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, C.; Goode, P. R.; Ren, D.; Saadeghvaziri, M. A.; Verdoni, A. P.; Wang, H.; Yang, G.; Abramenko, V.; Cao, W.; Coulter, R.; Fear, R.; Nenow, J.; Shoumko, S.; Spirock, T. J.; Varsik, J. R.; Chae, J.; Kuhn, J. R.; Moon, Y.; Park, Y. D.; Tritschler, A.

    2006-06-01

    The New Solar Telescope (NST) project at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) now has all major contracts for design and fabrication in place and construction of components is well underway. NST is a collaboration between BBSO, the Korean Astronomical Observatory (KAO) and Institute for Astronomy (IfA) at the University of Hawaii. The project will install a 1.6-meter, off-axis telescope at BBSO, replacing a number of older solar telescopes. The NST will be located in a recently refurbished dome on the BBSO causeway, which projects 300 meters into the Big Bear Lake. Recent site surveys have confirmed that BBSO is one of the premier solar observing sites in the world. NST will be uniquely equipped to take advantage of the long periods of excellent seeing common at the lake site. An up-to-date progress report will be presented including an overview of the project and details on the current state of the design. The report provides a detailed description of the optical design, the thermal control of the new dome, the optical support structure, the telescope control systems, active and adaptive optics systems, and the post-focus instrumentation for high-resolution spectro-polarimetry.

  3. Relationship of Ground Level Enhancement with Solar Flare, Coronal Mass Ejection and Solar Energetic Particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firoz, K. M.; Cho, K.; Lee, J.; Kumar, P.; Hwang, J.; Oh, S. Y.

    2009-12-01

    Ground level enhancement (GLE) is the sudden increase in the cosmic ray intensity (CRI) which is thought to be caused by solar eruption. In this study we have analyzed the CRI data from 1968 through 2008 registered by several Neutron Monitors and deduced increase rate (%) of GLE events using the 5-minute data mainly from Oulu Neutron Monitor (ONM) and Calgary Neutron Monitor (CNM). To investigate the relations of GLEs with solar X-ray flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and solar energetic particles (SEPs), we have inspected the peak time and peak intensity differences of GLE events. As results, we have found that the peak time (UT) differences vary mostly within ±20 minutes when the peak intensities vary mostly within ±50% at CNM and ONM. It has been observed that GLE events are associated with strong flares as well as fast /halo CMEs. Almost 62% of the flares associated with strong GLE were originated from south-west active region while 38% of the flares were originated from north-west active region. On an exception, an apparently weaker flare associated with GLE is not actually a weaker flare, rather a large flare existing behind the limb. The average of GLE associated CMEs is (1916.60 km/s) much faster than the average (458.53 km/s) of all CMEs. The fluences of the high energy proton flux (PF > 100MeV) associated with the GLE are stronger than those associated with non-GLE events. We will introduce our results briefly and discuss on the relationship of GLE with flare, CME and SEP.

  4. Mars Solar Balloon Landed Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, P.; Harpold, D.; Niemann, H.; Atreya, S.; Gorevan, S.; Israel, G.; Bertaux, J. L.; Jones, J.; Owen, T.; Raulin, F.

    1999-01-01

    A Mars surface lander Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) is described to measure the chemical composition of abundant and trace volatile species and isotope ratios for noble gases and other elements. These measurements are relevant to the study of atmospheric evolution and past climatic conditions. A Micromission plan is under study where a surface package including a miniaturized GCMS would be delivered to the surface by a solar heated hot air balloon based system. The balloon system would be deployed about 8 km above the surface of Mars, wherein it would rapidly fill with Martian atmosphere and be heated quickly by the sun. The combined buoyancy and parachuting effects of the solar balloon result in a surface package impact of about 5 m/sec. After delivery of the package to the surface, the balloon would ascend to about 4 km altitude, with imaging and magnetometry data being taken for the remainder of the daylight hours as the balloon is blown with the Martian winds. Total atmospheric entry mass of this mission is estimated to be approximately 50 kg, and it can fit as an Ariane 5 piggyback payload. The GCMS would obtain samples directly from the atmosphere at the surface and also from gases evolved from solid phase material collected from well below the surface with a Sample Acquisition and Transport Mechanism (SATM). The experiment envisioned in the Mars Micromission described would obtain samples from a much greater depth of up to one meter below the surface, and would search for organic molecules trapped in ancient stratified layers well below the oxidized surface. Insitu instruments on upcoming NASA missions working in concert with remote sensing measurement techniques have the potential to provide a more detailed investigation of mineralogy and the extent of simple volatiles such as CO2 and H2O in surface and subsurface solid phase materials. Within the context of subsequent mission opportunities such as those provided by the Ariane 5 piggyback

  5. A Historic View of Solar Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SaintCyr, Orville C.

    2010-01-01

    We present a historic overview of CME observations, ending with concepts for future measurement capabilities. One of the first detections of what we now call a CME was provided by instrumentation on OSO-7 and reported by Tousey (1973); but the phrase "corona) mass ejection" was coined after the Skylab/ATM coronagraph detected dozens of the transients over its nine month observing run (e.g., Munro et al., 1979). Pre-discovery identification of likely CMEs were then reported in historic eclipse photographs and drawings (e.g., Eddy, 1974; Cliver, 1989). Multi-year observations followed with groundbased MLSO MK3/4 coronagraph (1980-present), and spacebased missions: Solwind (1979-1985), SMM (1980-1989), SOHO LASCO/EIT (1996-present), SMEI (2003-present), and STEREO SECCHI (2006-present). The Spartan 201 coronagraph flew in space multiple times. The influential Gosling (1993) "solar flare myth" manuscript identified CMEs as the cause of the most severe geomagnetic storms, thus cementing their importance in Sun-Earth connection studies. A new window into CMEs was opened with the launch of SOHO in 1995 when the UVCS spectrometer began returning plasma diagnostics of a significant number of events (e.g., Ciaravella et al., 2006). What about the future for CME research? Statistical properties of the UVCS CME observations are forthcoming; the STEREO mission should continue to return views of CMEs from unique vantage points; and the recent launch of SDO should provide new insights into the small spatial scale dynamics of activity associated with CMEs. Several new observing techniques have been demonstrated at total eclipses, and inclusion on spacebased platforms in the future could also prove valuable for understanding CMEs. A common element of several recent proposals is to image the white-light corona with extremely high spatial resolution. The momentary glimpses of the corona during total solar eclipses have shown fine structure that is not captured by global models, and

  6. A multi-wavelength analysis of the February 6/7, 1997 coronal mass ejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plunkett, S. P.; Gopalswamy, N.; Kundu, M. R.; Howard, R. A.; Thompson, B. J.; Gurman, J. B.; Lepping, R. P.; Hudson, H. S.; Nitta, N.; Hanaoka, Y.; Kosugi, T.; Burkpile, J. T.

    1997-01-01

    The coronal mass ejection (CME) event on 6 to 7 February 1997 that originate from the southwest quadrant of the sun are analyzed. The CME is accelerated from a projected speed of 170 km/s to about 650 km/s at 25 solar radii. The CME is an arcade eruption followed by bright prominence core structures. The CME was accompanied by an arcade formation. The X-ray and extreme ultraviolet observations suggest that the reconnection proceeded from the northwest and the southeast end of a filament channel. The CME event caused interplanetary effects that produced a medium size geomagnetic storm on earth. Issues relating to the origin and propagation of geo-effective solar disturbances are addressed.

  7. Ground Level Enhancement in the 2014 January 6 Solar Energetic Particle Event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakur, N.; Gopalswamy, N.; Xie, H.; Makela, P.; Yashiro, S.; Akiyama, S.; Davila, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of the 2014 January 6 solar energetic particle event which produced a small ground level enhancement (GLE), making it the second GLE of this unusual solar cycle 24. This event was primarily observed by the South Pole neutron monitors (increase of approximately 2.5 percent) while a few other neutron monitors recorded smaller increases. The associated coronal mass ejection (CME) originated behind the western limb and had a speed of 1960 kilometers per second. The height of the CME at the start of the associated metric type II radio burst, which indicates the formation of a strong shock, was measured to be 1.61 solar radii using a direct image from STEREO-A/EUVI. The CME height at the time of the GLE particle release (determined using the South Pole neutron monitor data) was directly measured as 2.96 solar radii based on STEREO-A/COR1 white-light observations. These CME heights are consistent with those obtained for GLE71, the only other GLE of the current cycle, as well as cycle-23 GLEs derived using back-extrapolation. GLE72 is of special interest because it is one of only two GLEs of cycle 24, one of two behind-the-limb GLEs, and one of the two smallest GLEs of cycles 23 and 24.

  8. Numerical Simulations of Mass Loading in the Solar Wind Interaction with Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murawski, K.; Steinolfson, R. S.

    1996-01-01

    Numerical simulations are performed in the framework of nonlinear two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics to investigate the influence of mass loading on the solar wind interaction with Venus. The principal physical features of the interaction of the solar wind with the atmosphere of Venus are presented. The formation of the bow shock, the magnetic barrier, and the magnetotail are some typical features of the interaction. The deceleration of the solar wind due to the mass loading near Venus is an additional feature. The effect of the mass loading is to push the shock farther outward from the planet. The influence of different values of the magnetic field strength on plasma evolution is considered.

  9. Mass loading of the solar wind near comet 67P at low activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behar, Etienne; Nilsson, Hans; Stenberg Wieser, Gabriella; Holmstrom, Mats; Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Wedlund, Cyril Simon; Kallio, Esa; Gunell, Herbert; Burch, Jim; Carr, Chris; Eriksson, Anders; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Henri, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    The Rosetta mission reached comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko early August 2014, at a distance of ~3.65AU (5.47e8 km) to the Sun as 67P was heading to its perihelion. Data presented here are collected between 3.65 to 2 AU, and at the time of submission the comet still presents a low activity case. The atmosphere of 67P at low activity is permeated by the solar wind, the plasma boundaries (bow shock, ionopause) of larger objects such as planet ionosphere are not yet observed. As long as such structures are not formed, mass loading remains the main mechanism through which the comet atmosphere affects the solar wind. We show some clear examples of the effect of mass loading on the solar wind. Due to conservation of momentum, the solar wind is deflected in the opposite direction of the accelerated comet ions. As the solar wind electric field changes direction, the direction of both the accelerated comet water ions and the solar wind ions change in a correlated manner. We examine the mass loading process in detail, and discuss whether the observations of solar wind mass loading made by the Rosetta Plasma Consortium Ion Composition Analyser (RPC-ICA) are consistent with basic theories of solar wind mass loading.

  10. Eddy viscosity and flow properties of the solar wind: Co-rotating interaction regions, coronal-mass-ejection sheaths, and solar-wind/magnetosphere coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Borovsky, Joseph E.

    2006-05-15

    The coefficient of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) eddy viscosity of the turbulent solar wind is calculated to be {nu}{sub eddy}{approx_equal}1.3x10{sup 17} cm{sup 2}/s: this coefficient is appropriate for velocity shears with scale thicknesses larger than the {approx}10{sup 6} km correlation length of the solar-wind turbulence. The coefficient of MHD eddy viscosity is calculated again accounting for the action of smaller-scale turbulent eddies on smaller scale velocity shears in the solar wind. This eddy viscosity is quantitatively tested with spacecraft observations of shear flows in co-rotating interaction regions (CIRs) and in coronal-mass-ejection (CME) sheaths and ejecta. It is found that the large-scale ({approx}10{sup 7} km) shear of the CIR fractures into intense narrow ({approx}10{sup 5} km) slip zones between slabs of differently magnetized plasma. Similarly, it is found that the large-scale shear of CME sheaths also fracture into intense narrow slip zones between parcels of differently magnetized plasma. Using the solar-wind eddy-viscosity coefficient to calculate vorticity-diffusion time scales and comparing those time scales with the {approx}100-h age of the solar-wind plasma at 1 AU, it is found that the slip zones are much narrower than eddy-viscosity theory says they should be. Thus, our concept of MHD eddy viscosity fails testing. For the freestream turbulence effect in solar-wind magnetosphere coupling, the eddy-viscous force of the solar wind on the Earth's magnetosphere is rederived accounting for the action of turbulent eddies smaller than the correlation length, along with other corrections. The improved derivation of the solar-wind driver function for the turbulence effect fails to yield higher correlation coefficients between measurements of the solar-wind driver and measurements of the response of the Earth's magnetosphere.

  11. X1.6 Class Solar Flare on Sept. 10, 2014

    NASA Video Gallery

    An X1.6 class solar flare flashes in the middle of the sun on Sept. 10, 2014. These images were captured by NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory. It first shows the flare in the 171 Angstrom wavelengt...

  12. SOLAR RADIO TYPE-I NOISE STORM MODULATED BY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Iwai, K.; Tsuchiya, F.; Morioka, A.; Misawa, H.; Miyoshi, Y.; Masuda, S.; Shimojo, M.; Shiota, D.; Inoue, S.

    2012-01-10

    The first coordinated observations of an active region using ground-based radio telescopes and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) satellites from different heliocentric longitudes were performed to study solar radio type-I noise storms. A type-I noise storm was observed between 100 and 300 MHz during a period from 2010 February 6 to 7. During this period the two STEREO satellites were located approximately 65 Degree-Sign (ahead) and -70 Degree-Sign (behind) from the Sun-Earth line, which is well suited to observe the earthward propagating coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The radio flux of the type-I noise storm was enhanced after the preceding CME and began to decrease before the subsequent CME. This time variation of the type-I noise storm was directly related to the change of the particle acceleration processes around its source region. Potential-field source-surface extrapolation from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Michelson Doppler Imager (SOHO/MDI) magnetograms suggested that there was a multipolar magnetic system around the active region from which the CMEs occurred around the magnetic neutral line of the system. From our observational results, we suggest that the type-I noise storm was activated at a side-lobe reconnection region that was formed after eruption of the preceding CME. This magnetic structure was deformed by a loop expansion that led to the subsequent CME, which then suppressed the radio burst emission.

  13. Realization of improved efficiency on nanostructured multicrystalline silicon solar cells for mass production.

    PubMed

    Lin, X X; Zeng, Y; Zhong, S H; Huang, Z G; Qian, H Q; Ling, J; Zhu, J B; Shen, W Z

    2015-03-27

    We report the realization of both excellent optical and electrical properties of nanostructured multicrystalline silicon solar cells by a simple and industrially compatible technique of surface morphology modification. The nanostructures are prepared by Ag-catalyzed chemical etching and subsequent NaOH treatment with controllable geometrical parameters and surface area enhancement ratio. We have examined in detail the influence of different surface area enhancement ratios on reflectance, carrier recombination characteristics and cell performance. By conducting a quantitative analysis of these factors, we have successfully demonstrated a higher-than-traditional output performance of nanostructured multicrystalline silicon solar cells with a low average reflectance of 4.93%, a low effective surface recombination velocity of 6.59 m s(-1), and a certified conversion efficiency of 17.75% on large size (156 × 156 mm(2)) silicon cells, which is ∼0.3% higher than the acid textured counterparts. The present work opens a potential prospect for the mass production of nanostructured solar cells with improved efficiencies. PMID:25736199

  14. A 17-billion-solar-mass black hole in a group galaxy with a diffuse core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Jens; Ma, Chung-Pei; McConnell, Nicholas J.; Greene, Jenny E.; Blakeslee, John P.; Janish, Ryan

    2016-04-01

    Quasars are associated with and powered by the accretion of material onto massive black holes; the detection of highly luminous quasars with redshifts greater than z = 6 suggests that black holes of up to ten billion solar masses already existed 13 billion years ago. Two possible present-day ‘dormant’ descendants of this population of ‘active’ black holes have been found in the galaxies NGC 3842 and NGC 4889 at the centres of the Leo and Coma galaxy clusters, which together form the central region of the Great Wall—the largest local structure of galaxies. The most luminous quasars, however, are not confined to such high-density regions of the early Universe; yet dormant black holes of this high mass have not yet been found outside of modern-day rich clusters. Here we report observations of the stellar velocity distribution in the galaxy NGC 1600—a relatively isolated elliptical galaxy near the centre of a galaxy group at a distance of 64 megaparsecs from Earth. We use orbit superposition models to determine that the black hole at the centre of NGC 1600 has a mass of 17 billion solar masses. The spatial distribution of stars near the centre of NGC 1600 is rather diffuse. We find that the region of depleted stellar density in the cores of massive elliptical galaxies extends over the same radius as the gravitational sphere of influence of the central black holes, and interpret this as the dynamical imprint of the black holes.

  15. Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections in the Near-Earth Solar Wind During 1996-2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.; Richardson, I. G.

    2003-01-01

    We summarize the occurrence of interplanetary coronal mass injections (ICMEs) in the near-Earth solar wind during 1996-2002, corresponding to the increasing and maximum phases of solar cycle 23. In particular, we give a detailed list of such events. This list, based on in-situ observations, is not confined to subsets of ICMEs, such as magnetic clouds or those preceded by halo CMEs observed by the SOHO/LASCO coronagraph, and provides an overview of 214 ICMEs in the near-Earth solar wind during this period. The ICME rate increases by about an order of magnitude from solar minimum to solar maximum (when the rate is approximately 3 ICMEs/solar rotation period). The rate also shows a temporary reduction during 1999, and another brief, deeper reduction in late 2000-early 2001, which only approximately track variations in the solar 10 cm flux. In addition, there are occasional periods of several rotations duration when the ICME rate is enhanced in association with high solar activity levels. We find an indication of a periodic variation in the ICME rate, with a prominent period of approximately 165 days similar to that previously reported in various solar phenomena. It is found that the fraction of ICMEs that are magnetic clouds has a solar cycle variation, the fraction being larger near solar minimum. For the subset of events that we could associate with a CME at the Sun, the transit speeds from the Sun to the Earth were highest after solar maximum.

  16. Ultra-narrow Negative Flare Front Observed in Helium-10830 Å Using the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan; Cao, Wenda; Ding, Mingde; Kleint, Lucia; Su, Jiangtao; Liu, Chang; Ji, Haisheng; Chae, Jongchul; Jing, Ju; Cho, Kyuhyoun; Cho, Kyungsuk; Gary, Dale; Wang, Haimin

    2016-03-01

    Solar flares are sudden flashes of brightness on the Sun and are often associated with coronal mass ejections and solar energetic particles that have adverse effects on the near-Earth environment. By definition, flares are usually referred to as bright features resulting from excess emission. Using the newly commissioned 1.6 m New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory, we show a striking “negative” flare with a narrow but unambiguous “dark” moving front observed in He i 10830 Å, which is as narrow as 340 km and is associated with distinct spectral characteristics in Hα and Mg ii lines. Theoretically, such negative contrast in He i 10830 Å can be produced under special circumstances by nonthermal electron collisions or photoionization followed by recombination. Our discovery, made possible due to unprecedented spatial resolution, confirms the presence of the required plasma conditions and provides unique information in understanding the energy release and radiative transfer in astronomical objects.

  17. Listening to the beat of a 400 solar-mass, middle-weight black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasham, Dheeraj R.; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Mushotzky, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Accreting X-ray point sources with luminosities exceeding the Eddington limit of a 20 solar mass black hole are referred to as ultraluminous X-ray sources. The brightest of these have long been suspected to host intermediate-mass black holes (mass range of a few 100-1000 solar masses). On such object is M82 X-1, thought to be an intermediate-mass black hole because of its extremely high X-ray luminosity and variability characteristics, although some models suggested that its mass may be only of the order of 20 solar masses. The previous mass estimates were based on scaling relations which used low-frequency characteristic timescales which have large intrinsic uncertainties. In stellar-mass black holes we know that the high frequency quasi-periodic oscillations that occur in a 3:2 frequency ratio (100-450 Hz) are stable and scale inversely with black hole mass with a reasonably small dispersion. The discovery of such stable oscillations thus potentially offers an alternative and less ambiguous mass determination for intermediate-mass black holes, but has hitherto not been realized. I will discuss the discovery of stable, twin-peak (3:2 frequency ratio) X-ray quasi-periodic oscillations from M82 X-1 at the frequencies of 3.32 Hz and 5.07 Hz and how this helps overcome the systematic uncertainties present in previous studies. Assuming we can extend the stellar-mass relationship, I estimate its black hole mass to be 428+-105 solar masses. This work was recently published in Nature (DOI:10.1038/nature13710). I will also discuss future prospects of detecting more of such oscillations to weigh other intermediate-mass black hole candidates.

  18. A mass transfer origin for blue stragglers in NGC 188 as revealed by half-solar-mass companions.

    PubMed

    Geller, Aaron M; Mathieu, Robert D

    2011-10-20

    In open star clusters, where all members formed at about the same time, blue straggler stars are typically observed to be brighter and bluer than hydrogen-burning main-sequence stars, and therefore should already have evolved into giant stars and stellar remnants. Correlations between blue straggler frequency and cluster binary star fraction, core mass and radial position suggest that mass transfer or mergers in binary stars dominates the production of blue stragglers in open clusters. Analytic models, detailed observations and sophisticated N-body simulations, however, argue in favour of stellar collisions. Here we report that the blue stragglers in long-period binaries in the old (7 × 10(9)-year) open cluster NGC 188 have companions with masses of about half a solar mass, with a surprisingly narrow mass distribution. This conclusively rules out a collisional origin, as the collision hypothesis predicts a companion mass distribution with significantly higher masses. Mergers in hierarchical triple stars are marginally permitted by the data, but the observations do not favour this hypothesis. The data are highly consistent with a mass transfer origin for the long-period blue straggler binaries in NGC 188, in which the companions would be white dwarfs of about half a solar mass. PMID:22012393

  19. Core-collapse Supernovae from 9 to 120 Solar Masses Based on Neutrino-powered Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhbold, Tuguldur; Ertl, T.; Woosley, S. E.; Brown, Justin M.; Janka, H.-T.

    2016-04-01

    Nucleosynthesis, light curves, explosion energies, and remnant masses are calculated for a grid of supernovae (SNe) resulting from massive stars with solar metallicity and masses from 9.0 to 120 {M}ȯ . The full evolution is followed using an adaptive reaction network of up to 2000 nuclei. A novel aspect of the survey is the use of a one-dimensional neutrino transport model for the explosion. This explosion model has been calibrated to give the observed energy for SN 1987A, using five standard progenitors, and for the Crab SN using a 9.6 {M}ȯ progenitor. As a result of using a calibrated central engine, the final kinetic energy of the SN is variable and sensitive to the structure of each pre-SN star. Many progenitors with extended core structures do not explode, but become black holes (BHs), and the masses of exploding stars do not form a simply connected set. The resulting nucleosynthesis agrees reasonably well with the Sun provided that a reasonable contribution from SNe Ia is also allowed, but with a deficiency of light s-process isotopes. The resulting neutron star initial mass function has a mean gravitational mass near 1.4 {M}ȯ . The average BH mass is about 9 {M}ȯ if only the helium core implodes, and 14 {M}ȯ if the entire pre-SN star collapses. Only ∼10% of SNe come from stars over 20 {M}ȯ , and some of these are Type Ib or Ic. Some useful systematics of Type IIp light curves are explored.

  20. A 400-solar-mass black hole in the galaxy M82.

    PubMed

    Pasham, Dheeraj R; Strohmayer, Tod E; Mushotzky, Richard F

    2014-09-01

    M82 X-1, the brightest X-ray source in the galaxy M82, has been thought to be an intermediate-mass black hole (100 to 10,000 solar masses) because of its extremely high luminosity and variability characteristics, although some models suggest that its mass may be only about 20 solar masses. The previous mass estimates were based on scaling relations that use low-frequency characteristic timescales which have large intrinsic uncertainties. For stellar-mass black holes, we know that the high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (100-450 hertz) in the X-ray emission that occur in a 3:2 frequency ratio are stable and scale in frequency inversely with black hole mass with a reasonably small dispersion. The discovery of such stable oscillations thus potentially offers an alternative and less ambiguous means of mass determination for intermediate-mass black holes, but has hitherto not been realized. Here we report stable, twin-peak (3:2 frequency ratio) X-ray quasi-periodic oscillations from M82 X-1 at frequencies of 3.32 ± 0.06 hertz and 5.07 ± 0.06 hertz. Assuming that we can extrapolate the inverse-mass scaling that holds for stellar-mass black holes, we estimate the black hole mass of M82 X-1 to be 428 ± 105 solar masses. In addition, we can estimate the mass using the relativistic precession model, from which we get a value of 415 ± 63 solar masses. PMID:25132552

  1. Optimization of solar cells for air mass zero operation and a study of solar cells at high temperatures, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, A. E.; Hovel, H. J.; Woodall, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    The etch-back epitaxy process is described for producing thin, graded composition GaAlAs layers. The palladium-aluminum contact system is discussed along with its associated problems. Recent solar cell results under simulated air mass zero light and at elevated temperatures are reported and the growth of thin polycrystalline GaAs films on foreign substrates is developed.

  2. ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROSCOPY OF RAPIDLY ROTATING SOLAR-MASS STARS: EMISSION-LINE REDSHIFTS AS A TEST OF THE SOLAR-STELLAR CONNECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Bushinsky, Rachel; Ayres, Tom; France, Kevin

    2012-07-20

    We compare high-resolution ultraviolet spectra of the Sun and thirteen solar-mass main-sequence stars with different rotational periods that serve as proxies for their different ages and magnetic field structures. In this, the second paper in the series, we study the dependence of ultraviolet emission-line centroid velocities on stellar rotation period, as rotation rates decrease from that of the Pleiades star HII314 (P{sub rot} = 1.47 days) to {alpha} Cen A (P{sub rot} = 28 days). Our stellar sample of F9 V to G5 V stars consists of six stars observed with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and eight stars observed with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on HST. We find a systematic trend of increasing redshift with more rapid rotation (decreasing rotation period) that is similar to the increase in line redshift between quiet and plage regions on the Sun. The fastest-rotating solar-mass star in our study, HII314, shows significantly enhanced redshifts at all temperatures above log T = 4.6, including the corona, which is very different from the redshift pattern observed in the more slowly rotating stars. This difference in the redshift pattern suggests that a qualitative change in the magnetic-heating process occurs near P{sub rot} = 2 days. We propose that HII314 is an example of a solar-mass star with a magnetic heating rate too large for the physical processes responsible for the redshift pattern to operate in the same way as for the more slowly rotating stars. HII314 may therefore lie above the high activity end of the set of solar-like phenomena that is often called the 'solar-stellar connection'.

  3. Advanced solar concentrator mass production, operation, and maintenance cost assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niemeyer, W. A.; Bedard, R. J.; Bell, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    The object of this assessment was to estimate the costs of the preliminary design at: production rates of 100 to 1,000,000 concentrators per year; concentrators per aperture diameters of 5, 10, 11, and 15 meters; and various receiver/power conversion package weights. The design of the cellular glass substrate Advanced Solar Concentrator is presented. The concentrator is an 11 meter diameter, two axis tracking, parabolic dish solar concentrator. The reflective surface of this design consists of inner and outer groups of mirror glass/cellular glass gores.

  4. Solar Radiation Pressure Estimation and Analysis of a GEO Class of High Area-to-Mass Ratio Debris Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelecy, Tom; Payne, Tim; Thurston, Robin; Stansbery, Gene

    2007-01-01

    A population of deep space objects is thought to be high area-to-mass ratio (AMR) debris having origins from sources in the geosynchronous orbit (GEO) belt. The typical AMR values have been observed to range anywhere from 1's to 10's of m(sup 2)/kg, and hence, higher than average solar radiation pressure effects result in long-term migration of eccentricity (0.1-0.6) and inclination over time. However, the nature of the debris orientation-dependent dynamics also results time-varying solar radiation forces about the average which complicate the short-term orbit determination processing. The orbit determination results are presented for several of these debris objects, and highlight their unique and varied dynamic attributes. Estimation or the solar pressure dynamics over time scales suitable for resolving the shorter term dynamics improves the orbit estimation, and hence, the orbit predictions needed to conduct follow-up observations.

  5. On the deficit problem of mass and energy of solar coronal mass ejections connected with interplanetary shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanchuk, V. I.; Pishkalo, N. I.

    1995-01-01

    Mean values of a number of parameters of the most powerful coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and interplanetary shocks generated by these ejections are estimated using an analysis of data obtained by the cosmic coronagraphs and spacecrafts, and geomagnetic storm measurements. It was payed attention that the shock mass and mechanical energy, averaging 5 x 10(exp 16) grm and 2 x 10(exp 32) erg respectively, are nearly 10 times larger than corresponding parameters of the ejections. So, the CME energy deficit problem seems to exist really. To solve this problem one can make an assumption that the process of the mass and energy growth of CMEs during their propagation out of the Sun observed in the solar corona is continued in supercorona too up to distances of 10-30 solar radii. This assumption is confirmed by the data analysis of five events observed using zodiacal light photometers of the HELIOS- I and HELIOS-2 spacecrafts. The mass growth rate is estimated to be equal to (1-7) x 10(exp 11) grm/sec. It is concluded that the CME contribution to mass and energy flows in the solar winds probably, is larger enough than the value of 3-5% adopted usually.

  6. Optical Set-Up and Design for Solar Multi-conjugate Adaptive Optics at the 1.6m New Solar Telescope, Big Bear Solar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretto, Gil; Langlois, Maud; Goode, Philip; Gorceix, Nicolas; Shumko, Sergey

    2013-12-01

    The Sun is an ideal target for the development and application of Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO). A solar MCAO system is being developed by the Big Bear Solar Observatory, for the 1.6m New Solar Observatory, with the purpose of extending the corrected science field of view to 1.00Arcmin. A preliminary optical set-up, design and optical performance for such a system is presented and discussed here.

  7. A solar box cooker for mass production in East Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, P.A.; Wilcke, W.F.

    1992-12-31

    A solar box cooker produced in Tanzania, East Africa with indigenous materials is described. When compared to a commercially produced glass and cardboard one, it was found to perform as well. Heat transfer through each major component of the cooker is presented. The smallest losses were through the walls of the box. The greatest losses were observed in the cover system.

  8. Photometric and polarimetric variability and mass-loss rate of the massive binary Wolf-Rayet star HDE 311884 (WN6 + 05: V)

    SciTech Connect

    Moffat, A.F.J.; Drissen, L.; Robert, C.; Lamontagne, R.; Coziol, R. )

    1990-02-01

    Photometric and polarimetric monitoring of the Wolf-Rayet (W-R) + O-type binary system HDE 311884 = WR 47 over many orbital cycles shows the clear effects of phase-dependent electron scattering of O-star light as the orbiting O companion shines through varying column density of W-R stellar wind material. In contrast to this wind-type eclipse, the stars themselves do not quite eclipse. Both photometry and polarimetry give a consistent estimate of the mass-loss rate of the W-R component: at about 0.00003 solar mass/yr. The orbital inclination, i = 70 deg, along with the previously published velocity orbit, yields high masses: M(WN6) = 48 solar masses and M(O5:V) = 57 solar masses. 33 refs.

  9. Activity associated with coronal mass ejections at solar minimum - SMM observations from 1984-1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Cyr, O. C.; Webb, D. F.

    1991-01-01

    Seventy-three coronal mass ejections (CMEs) observed by the coronagraph aboard SMM between 1984 and 1986 were examined in order to determine the distribution of various forms of solar activity that were spatially and temporally associated with mass ejections during solar minimum phase. For each coronal mass ejection a speed was measured, and the departure time of the transient from the lower corona estimated. Other forms of solar activity that appeared within 45 deg longitude and 30 deg latitude of the mass ejection and within +/-90 min of its extrapolated departure time were explored. The statistical results of the analysis of these 73 CMEs are presented, and it is found that slightly less than half of them were infrequently associated with other forms of solar activity. It is suggested that the distribution of the various forms of activity related to CMEs does not change at different phases of the solar cycle. For those CMEs with associations, it is found that eruptive prominences and soft X-rays were the most likely forms of activity to accompany the appearance of mass ejections.

  10. New mass measurement of {sup 6}Li and ppb-level systematic studies of the Penning trap mass spectrometer TITAN

    SciTech Connect

    Brodeur, M.; Ettenauer, S.; Smith, M.; Dilling, J.; Brunner, T.; Champagne, C.; Lapierre, A.; Ringle, R.; Ryjkov, V. L.; Delheij, P.; Audi, G.; Lunney, D.

    2009-10-15

    The frequency ratio of {sup 6}Li to {sup 7}Li was measured using the TITAN Penning trap mass spectrometer. This measurement resolves a 16-ppb discrepancy between the {sup 6}Li mass of 6.015 122 795(16) u from the Atomic Mass Evaluation 2003 (AME03), which is based on a measurement by JILATRAP, and the more recent measurement of 6.015 122 890(40) u by SMILETRAP. Our measurement agrees with SMILETRAP and a more precise mass value for {sup 6}Li of 6.015 122 889(26) u is presented along with systematic evaluations of the measurement uncertainties. This result makes {sup 6}Li a solid anchor point for future mass measurements on highly charged ions with m/q{approx}6.

  11. Solar Mass Ejection Imager 3-D reconstruction of the 27-28 May 2003 coronal mass ejection sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, B. V.; Bisi, M. M.; Hick, P. P.; Buffington, A.; Clover, J. M.; Sun, W.

    2008-03-01

    The Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) has recorded the inner-heliospheric response in white-light Thomson scattering for many hundreds of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). Some of these have been observed by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) Large-Angle Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO) instruments and also in situ by near-Earth spacecraft. This article presents a low-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of the 27-28 May 2003 halo CME event sequence observed by LASCO and later using SMEI observations; this sequence was also observed by all in situ monitors near Earth. The reconstruction derives its perspective views from outward flowing solar wind. Analysis results reveal the shape, extent, and mass of this ICME sequence as it reaches the vicinity of Earth. The extended shape has considerable detail that is compared with LASCO images and masses for this event. The 3-D reconstructed density, derived from the remote-sensed Thomson scattered brightness, is also compared with the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) and Wind spacecraft in situ plasma measurements. These agree well in peak and integrated total value for this ICME event sequence when an appropriately enhanced (˜20%) electron number density is assumed to account for elements heavier than hydrogen in the ionized plasma.

  12. OXALATE MASS BALANCE DURING CHEMICAL CLEANING IN TANK 6F

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-07-22

    The Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is preparing Tank 6F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. Following mechanical sludge removal, SRS performed chemical cleaning with oxalic acid to remove the sludge heel. Personnel are currently assessing the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning to determine whether the tank is ready for closure. SRR personnel collected liquid samples during chemical cleaning and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. Following chemical cleaning, they collected a solid sample (also known as 'process sample') and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. The authors analyzed these samples to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process. Analysis of the anions showed the measured oxalate removed from Tank 6F to be approximately 50% of the amount added in the oxalic acid. To close the oxalate mass balance, the author collected solid samples, leached them with nitric acid, and measured the concentration of cations and anions in the leachate. Some conclusions from this work are: (1) Approximately 65% of the oxalate added as oxalic acid was removed with the decanted liquid. (2) Approximately 1% of the oxalate (added to the tank as oxalic acid) formed precipitates with compounds such as nickel, manganese, sodium, and iron (II), and was dissolved with nitric acid. (3) As much as 30% of the oxalate may have decomposed forming carbon dioxide. The balance does not fully account for all the oxalate added. The offset represents the combined uncertainty in the analyses and sampling.

  13. APT mass spectrometry and SEM data for CdTe solar cells

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, Chen; Paudel, Naba R.; Yan, Yanfa; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Poplawsky, Jonathan D.; Guo, Wei

    2016-03-16

    Atom probe tomography (APT) data acquired from a CAMECA LEAP 4000 XHR for the CdS/CdTe interface for a non-CdCl2 treated CdTe solar cell as well as the mass spectrum of an APT data set including a GB in a CdCl2-treated CdTe solar cell are presented. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) data showing the evolution of sample preparation for APT and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) electron beam induced current (EBIC) are also presented. As a result, these data show mass spectrometry peak decomposition of Cu and Te within an APT dataset, the CdS/CdTe interface of an untreated CdTe solar cell, preparationmore » of APT needles from the CdS/CdTe interface in superstrate grown CdTe solar cells, and the preparation of a cross-sectional STEM EBIC sample.« less

  14. Influence of a stellar wind on the evolution of a star of 30 solar masses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R.; Chin, C.

    1980-01-01

    A coarse grid of theoretical evolutionary tracks was calculated for a 30 solar mass star to determine the role of mass loss in the evolution of the star during core He burning. The Cox-Stewart opacities were applied, and the rate of mass loss, criterion for convection, and initial chemical composition were taken into consideration. Using the Schwarzschild criterion, the star undergoes little mass loss during core He burning and remains a blue supergiant separated from main sequence stars on the H-R diagram. The stellar remnant consists of the original He core and may appear bluer than equally luminous main sequence stars; a variety of possible evolutionary tracks can be obtained for an initial solar mass of 30 with proper choices of free parameters.

  15. Nanoetching process on silicon solar cell wafers during mass production for surface texture improvement.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Chisung; Kulkarni, Atul; Ha, Soohyun; Cho, Yujin; Kim, Jeongin; Park, Heejin; Kim, Taesung

    2014-12-01

    Major challenge in nanotechnology is to improve the solar cells efficiency. This can be achieved by controlling the silicon solar cell wafer surface structure. Herein, we report a KOH wet etching process along with an ultrasonic cleaning process to improve the surface texture of silicon solar cell wafers. We evaluated the KOH temperature, concentration, and ultra-sonication time. It was observed that the surface texture of the silicon solar wafer changed from a pyramid shape to a rectangular shape under edge cutting as the concentration of the KOH solution was increased. We controlled the etching time to avoid pattern damage and any further increase of the reflectance. The present study will be helpful for the mass processing of silicon solar cell wafers with improved reflectance. PMID:25971104

  16. Mass study for modular approaches to a solar electric propulsion module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, G. R.; Cake, J. E.; Oglebay, J. C.; Shaker, F. J.

    1977-01-01

    The propulsion module comprises six to eight 30-cm thruster and power processing units, a mercury propellant storage and distribution system, a solar array ranging in power from 18 to 25 kW, and the thermal and structure systems required to support the thrust and power subsystems. Launch and on-orbit configurations are presented for both modular approaches. The propulsion module satisfies the thermal design requirements of a multimission set including: Mercury, Saturn, and Jupiter orbiters, a 1-AU solar observatory, and comet and asteroid rendezvous. A detailed mass breakdown and a mass equation relating the total mass to the number of thrusters and solar array power requirement is given for both approaches.

  17. FAR-ULTRAVIOLET CONTINUUM EMISSION: APPLYING THIS DIAGNOSTIC TO THE CHROMOSPHERES OF SOLAR-MASS STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Bushinsky, Rachel; Ayres, Tom; France, Kevin; Fontenla, Juan

    2012-01-20

    The far-ultraviolet (FUV) continuum flux is recognized as a very sensitive diagnostic of the temperature structure of the Sun's lower chromosphere. Until now analysis of the available stellar FUV data has shown that solar-type stars must also have chromospheres, but quantitative analyses of stellar FUV continua require far higher quality spectra and comparison with new non-LTE chromosphere models. We present accurate far-ultraviolet (FUV, 1150-1500 A) continuum flux measurements for solar-mass stars, made feasible by the high throughput and very low detector background of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubbble Space Telescope. We show that the continuum flux can be measured above the detector background even for the faintest star in our sample. We find a clear trend of increasing continuum brightness temperature at all FUV wavelengths with decreasing rotational period, which provides an important measure of magnetic heating rates in stellar chromospheres. Comparison with semiempirical solar flux models shows that the most rapidly rotating solar-mass stars have FUV continuum brightness temperatures similar to the brightest faculae seen on the Sun. The thermal structure of the brightest solar faculae therefore provides a first-order estimate of the thermal structure and heating rate for the most rapidly rotating solar-mass stars in our sample.

  18. Cost competitiveness of a solar cell array power source for ATS-6 educational TV terminal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    A cost comparison is made between a terrestrial solar cell array power system and a variety of other power sources for the ATS-6 Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) TV terminals in India. The solar array system was sized for a typical Indian location, Lahore. Based on present capital and fuel costs, the solar cell array power system is a close competitor to the least expensive alternate power system. A feasibility demonstration of a terrestrial solar cell array system powering an ATS-6 receiver terminal at Cleveland, Ohio is described.

  19. Solar Radio Emission as a Prediction Technique for Coronal Mass Ejections' registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheiner, Olga; Fridman, Vladimir

    2016-07-01

    The concept of solar Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) as global phenomenon of solar activity caused by the global magnetohydrodynamic processes is considered commonly accepted. These processes occur in different ranges of emission, primarily in the optical and the microwave emission being generated near the surface of the sun from a total of several thousand kilometers. The usage of radio-astronomical data for CMEs prediction is convenient and promising. Actually, spectral measurements of solar radio emission cover all heights of solar atmosphere, sensitivity and accuracy of measurements make it possible to record even small energy changes. Registration of the radio emission is provided by virtually all-weather ground-based observations, and there is the relative cheapness to obtain the corresponding information due to a developed system of monitoring observations. On the large statistical material there are established regularities of the existence of sporadic radio emission at the initial stage of CMEs' formation and propagation in the lower layers of the solar atmosphere during the time interval from 2-3 days to 2 hours before registration of CMEs on coronagraph. In this report we present the prediction algorithm and scheme of short-term forecasting developed on the base of statistical analysis regularities of solar radio emission data prior to "isolated" solar Coronal Mass Ejections registered in 1998, 2003, 2009-2013.

  20. Characteristic Times of Gradual Solar Energetic Particle Events and Their Dependence on Associated Coronal Mass Ejection Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahler, S. W.

    2005-08-01

    We use 20 MeV proton intensities from the EPACT instrument on Wind and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from the LASCO coronagraph on SOHO observed during 1998-2002 to statistically determine three characteristic times of gradual solar energetic particle (SEP) events as functions of solar source longitude: (1) TO, the time from associated CME launch to SEP onset at 1 AU, (2) TR, the rise time from SEP onset to the time when the SEP intensity is a factor of 2 below peak intensity, and (3) TD, the duration over which the SEP intensity is within a factor of 2 of the peak intensity. Those SEP event times are compared with associated CME speeds, accelerations, and widths to determine whether and how the SEP event times may depend on the formation and dynamics of coronal/interplanetary shocks driven by the CMEs. Solar source longitudinal variations are clearly present in the SEP times, but TR and TD are significantly correlated with CME speeds only for SEP events in the best-connected longitude range. No significant correlations between the SEP times and CME accelerations are found except for TD in one longitude range, but there is a weak correlation of TR and TD with CME widths. We also find no correlation of any SEP times with the solar wind O+7/O+6 values, suggesting no dependence on solar wind stream type. The SEP times of the small subset of events occurring in interplanetary CMEs may be slightly shorter than those of all events.

  1. New pre-main-sequence tracks for M less than or equal to 2.5 solar mass as tests of opacities and convection model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Antona, Francesca; Mazzitelli, Italo

    1994-01-01

    We present tabular and graphic results on the computation of pre-main-sequence evolutionary tracks of Population I stellar structures from 2.5 to approximately 0.015 solar mass. Deuterium and lithium burning are followed in detail. The chosen input physics gives M approximately 0.018 solar mass as minimum mass for deuterium burning and M approximately 0.065 solar mass as minimum mass for lithium burning. While we adopt the approximations of hydrostatic equilibrium, no mass accretion and no mass loss, we have taken care to include several updates in the input physics, among them two different sets of the more recent available low-temperature opacities, and we test two different models of overdiabatic convection (the mixing-available low-temperature opacities, and we test two different models of overdiabatic convection (the mixing-length theory (MLT) with the mixing-length scale calibrated on the solar model, and the recent Canuto & Mazzitelli (CM) model). The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram location of tracks turns out to be largely model-dependent, especially for M less than or equal to 0.6 solar mass, and we are able to relate the cause of the large differences (up to 0.04 dex in Teff at 0.3 solar mass) with opacity and with the details of the convection model adopted. Since we are not able to provide 'first principle' physical reasons to choose among models, we consider these tracks as 'tests', in the hope that significant comparisons with observations can exclude some models or provide hints toward a better understanding of convection. Nevertheless, we feel obliged to call the reader's attention to the fact that theoretical Teff's, especially in the red, are intrinsically ill-determined, and no sound observational interpretation critically depending on the Teff's can be presently performed, contrary to the current habit due to an exceedingly 'faithful' use of the MLT.

  2. Probing Cloud-Driven Variability on Two of the Youngest, Lowest-Mass Brown Dwarfs in the Solar Neighborhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Adam; Cushing, Michael; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy

    2016-08-01

    Young, late-type brown dwarfs share many properties with directly imaged giant extrasolar planets. They therefore provide unique testbeds for investigating the physical conditions present in this critical temperature and mass regime. WISEA 1147-2040 and 2MASS 1119-1137, two recently discovered late-type (~L7) brown dwarfs, have both been determined to be members of the ~10 Myr old TW Hya Association (Kellogg et al. 2016, Schneider et al. 2016). Each has an estimated mass of 5-6 MJup, making them two of the youngest and lowest-mass free floating objects yet found in the solar neighborhood. As such, these two planetary mass objects provide unparalleled laboratories for investigating giant planet-like atmospheres far from the contaminating starlight of a host sun. Condensate clouds play a critical role in shaping the emergent spectra of both brown dwarfs and gas giant planets, and can cause photometric variability via their non-uniform spatial distribution. We propose to photometrically monitor WISEA 1147-2040 and 2MASS 1119-1137 in order to search for the presence of cloud-driven variability to 1) investigate the potential trend of low surface gravity with high-amplitude variability in a previously unexplored mass regime and 2) explore the angular momentum evolution of isolated planetary mass objects.

  3. Mass and Energy Transfer Between the Solar Photosphere and Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, H.

    2015-12-01

    The problem of chromospheric and coronal heating is also a problem of mass supply to the corona. On average we see redshifts at transition region temperatures of the order of 10 km/s. If interpreted as downflows, this would quickly empty the corona, and fresh material has to be transported into the corona. Several models have been proposed to understand this mass cycle between the different atmospheric layers. However, as of yet all these proposals have serious shortcomings. On the observational side open questions remain, too. With the new IRIS mission we can observe the transition region at unprecedented spatial and spectral resolution, but the observational results are still puzzling. In particular the finding that the spatial distribution of line widths and Doppler shifts do not change with increasing resolution is against physical intuition. This shows that even with IRIS we still have significant velocity gradients along the line-of-sight, indicating that shocks might play a significant role. Likewise the temporal evolution might be a key for our understanding of the mass cycle. It might well be that the filling and draining of hot plasma occurs on significantly different time scales, which might be part of the difficulty to arrive at a conclusive observational picture. Considering the progress made for the quiet Sun, it seems clear that the processes responsible for the mass exchange are not resolved (yet). Therefore one might wonder to what extent one could use larger and resolved individual events in more active parts of the Sun to understand the details of the mass transport. In particular a common understanding of reconnection events such as Ellerman bombs in the photosphere, explosive events in the transition region and the recently discovered IRIS bombs in-between might provide the key to better understand the mass cycle throughout the atmospheric layers from the photosphere to the corona.

  4. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric assay for 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate and 6-hydroxymelatonin glucuronide in urine

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, P.L.; Leone, A.M.; Young, I.M.; Stovell, P.; Silman, R.E.

    1987-04-01

    Circulating melatonin is hydroxylated to 6-hydroxymelatonin and excreted in urine as the sulfate and glucuronide conjugates. We extracted these two compounds from urine by using octadecylsilane-bonded silica cartridges to eliminate most of the urea and electrolytes, and silica cartridges to separate the sulfate and glucuronide conjugates. After hydrolyzing the separated conjugates enzymically, we determined the free hydroxymelatonin by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Though recoveries were low and variable, we were able to quantify the analyte in the original sample by adding deuterated sulfate and glucuronide conjugates to the urines before extraction.

  5. Search for sub-eV mass solar axions by the CERN Axion Solar Telescope with 3He buffer gas.

    PubMed

    Arik, M; Aune, S; Barth, K; Belov, A; Borghi, S; Bräuninger, H; Cantatore, G; Carmona, J M; Cetin, S A; Collar, J I; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Eleftheriadis, C; Elias, N; Ezer, C; Fanourakis, G; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Friedrich, P; Galán, J; García, J A; Gardikiotis, A; Gazis, E N; Geralis, T; Giomataris, I; Gninenko, S; Gómez, H; Gruber, E; Guthörl, T; Hartmann, R; Haug, F; Hasinoff, M D; Hoffmann, D H H; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Jacoby, J; Jakovčić, K; Karuza, M; Königsmann, K; Kotthaus, R; Krčmar, M; Kuster, M; Lakić, B; Laurent, J M; Liolios, A; Ljubičić, A; Lozza, V; Lutz, G; Luzón, G; Morales, J; Niinikoski, T; Nordt, A; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovaroff, M J; Raffelt, G; Rashba, T; Riege, H; Rodríguez, A; Rosu, M; Ruz, J; Savvidis, I; Silva, P S; Solanki, S K; Stewart, L; Tomás, A; Tsagri, M; van Bibber, K; Vafeiadis, T; Villar, J A; Vogel, J K; Yildiz, S C; Zioutas, K

    2011-12-23

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) has extended its search for solar axions by using (3)He as a buffer gas. At T=1.8 K this allows for larger pressure settings and hence sensitivity to higher axion masses than our previous measurements with (4)He. With about 1 h of data taking at each of 252 different pressure settings we have scanned the axion mass range 0.39 eV≲m(a)≲0.64 eV. From the absence of excess x rays when the magnet was pointing to the Sun we set a typical upper limit on the axion-photon coupling of g(aγ)≲2.3×10(-10) GeV(-1) at 95% C.L., the exact value depending on the pressure setting. Kim-Shifman-Vainshtein-Zakharov axions are excluded at the upper end of our mass range, the first time ever for any solar axion search. In the future we will extend our search to m(a)≲1.15 eV, comfortably overlapping with cosmological hot dark matter bounds. PMID:22243149

  6. Fabrication of organic solar cells with design blend P3HT: PCBM variation of mass ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supriyanto, Agus; Mustaqim, Amrina; Agustin, Maya; Ramelan, Ari H.; Suyitno; Septa Rosa, Erlyta; Yofentina; Nurosyid, Fahru

    2016-02-01

    Organic solar cells of FTO/PEDOT: PSS/P3HT: PCBM/Al has been fabricated, and its performance has been tested in dark and under various illumination of light intensity 1000 W/m2. The active materials used in this study are poly (3- hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6, 6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). P3HT is the donor while PCBM acts as an acceptor. Variation of PCBM and P3HT are 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5. P3HT: PCBM was mixed by chlorobenzene solvents. The mixing was done by using the ultrasonic cleaner. The absorbance characterization using by UV-Visible Spectrometer Lambda 25 instrument and I-V characterization has been tested using a set of 2602A Keithley instrument. Absorbance characterization shows that two peaks are formed. The first peak in the range of 300 to 350 nm which is a range of PCBM and the second peak range from 450 to 600 nm which is a range of P3HT. As the mass ratio increases, the second peak of P3HT increases while the first peak does not change. The gap energy estimated by the Tauc method is 2.0 eV. I-V characterization of the efficiency was obtained. The efficiency of sample 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 are 5.80x10-2%; 6.46x10-2%; 7.72x10-2%; 8.25x10-2% and 9.81x10-2%, respectively. The highest value of efficiency was obtained at mass ratio 1:5.

  7. A ∼0.2-solar-mass protostar with a Keplerian disk in the very young L1527 IRS system.

    PubMed

    Tobin, John J; Hartmann, Lee; Chiang, Hsin-Fang; Wilner, David J; Looney, Leslie W; Loinard, Laurent; Calvet, Nuria; D'Alessio, Paola

    2012-12-01

    In their earliest stages, protostars accrete mass from their surrounding envelopes through circumstellar disks. Until now, the smallest observed protostar-to-envelope mass ratio was about 2.1 (ref. 1). The protostar L1527 IRS is thought to be in the earliest stages of star formation. Its envelope contains about one solar mass of material within a radius of about 0.05 parsecs (refs 3, 4), and earlier observations suggested the presence of an edge-on disk. Here we report observations of dust continuum emission and (13)CO (rotational quantum number J = 2 → 1) line emission from the disk around L1527 IRS, from which we determine a protostellar mass of 0.19 ± 0.04 solar masses and a protostar-to-envelope mass ratio of about 0.2. We conclude that most of the luminosity is generated through the accretion process, with an accretion rate of about 6.6 × 10(-7) solar masses per year. If it has been accreting at that rate through much of its life, its age is approximately 300,000 years, although theory suggests larger accretion rates earlier, so it may be younger. The presence of a rotationally supported disk is confirmed, and significantly more mass may be added to its planet-forming region as well as to the protostar itself in the future. PMID:23222612

  8. Axisymmetric Ab Initio Core-Collapse Supernova Simulations of 12--25 Solar Mass Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Bruenn, S. W.; Mezzacappa, Anthony; Hix, William Raphael; Lentz, E. J.; Messer, Bronson; Lingerfelt, Eric J; Blondin, J. M.; Endeve, Eirik; Marronetti, Pedro; Yakunin, Konstantin

    2013-01-01

    We present an overview of four ab initio axisymmetric core-collapse supernova simulations employing detailed spectral neutrino transport computed with our CHIMERA code and initiated from Woosley & Heger (2007) progenitors of mass 12, 15, 20, and 25 M_sun. All four models exhibit shock revival over ~ 200 ms (leading to the possibility of explosion), driven by neutrino energy deposition. Hydrodynamic instabilities that impart substantial asymmetries to the shock aid these revivals, with convection appearing first in the 12 solar mass model and the standing accretion shock instability (SASI) appearing first in the 25 solar mass model. Three of the models have developed pronounced prolate morphologies (the 20 solar mass model has remained approximately spherical). By 500 ms after bounce the mean shock radii in all four models exceed 3,000 km and the diagnostic explosion energies are 0.33, 0.66, 0.65, and 0.70 Bethe (B=10^{51} ergs) for the 12, 15, 20, and 25 solar mass models, respectively, and are increasing. The three least massive of our models are already sufficiently energetic to completely unbind the envelopes of their progenitors (i.e., to explode), as evidenced by our best estimate of their explosion energies, which first become positive at 320, 380, and 440 ms after bounce. By 850 ms the 12 solar mass diagnostic explosion energy has saturated at 0.38 B, and our estimate for the final kinetic energy of the ejecta is ~ 0.3 B, which is comparable to observations for lower-mass progenitors.

  9. The solar minimum X2.6/1B flare and CME of 9 July 1996. Pt. 1; Solar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, M. D.; Dryer, M.; Aurass, H.; DeForest, C.; Kiplinger, A. L.; Meisner, R.; Paswaters, S. E.; Smith, Z.; Tappin, S. J.; Thompson, B. J.; Watari, S.-I.; Lamy, P.; Mann, G.; Schwenn, R.; Michels, D. J.; Brueckner, G. E.; Howard, R. A.; Koomen, M.

    1997-01-01

    The solar observations from GOES-8, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), and the Yohkoh satellite concerning the events of the X-class flare are discussed. The Michelson Doppler imager (MDI) magnetometer shows a new region of magnetic activity in AR 7978. The rapid development and evolution of this region is shown by the MDI and the extreme-ultraviolet Doppler telescope (EDT) data. The coronal mass ejections (CMEs) observed using coronagraphs are presented. The possible association between the CME and the X-flare is considered.

  10. Energy efficiency and comfort conditions in passive solar buildings: Effect of thermal mass at equatorial high altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogoli, David Mwale

    This dissertation is based on the philosophy that architectural design should not just be a function of aesthetics, but also of energy-efficiency, advanced technologies and passive solar strategies. A lot of published literature is silent regarding buildings in equatorial highland regions. This dissertation is part of the body of knowledge that attempts to provide a study of energy in buildings using thermal mass. The objectives were to establish (1) effect of equatorial high-altitude climate on thermal mass, (2) effect of thermal mass on moderating indoor temperatures, (3) effect of thermal mass in reducing heating and cooling energy, and (4) the amount of time lag and decrement factor of thermal mass. Evidence to analyze the effect of thermal mass issues came from three sources. First, experimental physical models involving four houses were parametrically conducted in Nairobi, Kenya. Second, energy computations were made using variations in thermal mass for determining annual energy usage and costs. Third, the data gathered were observed, evaluated, and compared with currently published research. The findings showed that: (1) Equatorial high-altitude climates that have diurnal temperature ranging about 10--15°C allow thermal mass to moderate indoor temperatures; (2) Several equations were established that indicate that indoor mean radiant temperatures can be predicted from outdoor temperatures; (3) Thermal mass can reduce annual energy for heating and cooling by about 71%; (4) Time lag and decrement of 200mm thick stone and concrete thermal mass can be predicted by a new formula; (5) All windows on a building should be shaded. East and west windows when shaded save 51% of the cooling energy. North and south windows when fully shaded account for a further 26% of the cooling energy; (6) Insulation on the outside of a wall reduces energy use by about 19.6% below the levels with insulation on the inside. The basic premise of this dissertation is that decisions that

  11. GROUND LEVEL ENHANCEMENT IN THE 2014 JANUARY 6 SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENT

    SciTech Connect

    Thakur, N.; Gopalswamy, N.; Xie, H.; Mäkelä, P.; Yashiro, S.; Akiyama, S.; Davila, J. M.

    2014-07-20

    We present a study of the 2014 January 6 solar energetic particle event which produced a small ground level enhancement (GLE), making it the second GLE of this unusual solar cycle 24. This event was primarily observed by the South Pole neutron monitors (increase of ∼2.5%) while a few other neutron monitors recorded smaller increases. The associated coronal mass ejection (CME) originated behind the western limb and had a speed of 1960 km s{sup –1}. The height of the CME at the start of the associated metric type II radio burst, which indicates the formation of a strong shock, was measured to be 1.61 Rs using a direct image from STEREO-A/EUVI. The CME height at the time of the GLE particle release (determined using the South Pole neutron monitor data) was directly measured as 2.96 Rs based on STEREO-A/COR1 white-light observations. These CME heights are consistent with those obtained for GLE71, the only other GLE of the current cycle, as well as cycle-23 GLEs derived using back-extrapolation. GLE72 is of special interest because it is one of only two GLEs of cycle 24, one of two behind-the-limb GLEs, and one of the two smallest GLEs of cycles 23 and 24.

  12. Improved angular momentum evolution model for solar-like stars. II. Exploring the mass dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallet, F.; Bouvier, J.

    2015-05-01

    Context. Understanding the physical processes that dictate the angular momentum evolution of solar-type stars from birth to maturity remains a challenge for stellar physics. Aims: We aim to account for the observed rotational evolution of low-mass stars over the age range from 1 Myr to 10 Gyr. Methods: We developed angular momentum evolution models for 0.5 and 0.8 M⊙ stars. The parametric models include a new wind braking law based on recent numerical simulations of magnetised stellar winds, specific dynamo and mass-loss rate prescriptions, as well as core-envelope decoupling. We compare model predictions to the distributions of rotational periods measured for low-mass stars belonging to star-forming regions and young open clusters. Furthermore, we explore the mass dependence of model parameters by comparing these new models to the solar-mass models we developed earlier. Results: Rotational evolution models are computed for slow, median, and fast rotators at each stellar mass. The models reproduce reasonably well the rotational behaviour of low-mass stars between 1 Myr and 8-10 Gyr, including pre-main sequence to zero-age main sequence spin up, prompt zero-age main sequence spin down, and early-main sequence convergence of the surface rotation rates. Fast rotators are found to have systematically shorter disk lifetimes than moderate and slow rotators, thus enabling dramatic pre-main sequence spin up. They also have shorter core-envelope coupling timescales, i.e., more uniform internal rotation. As for the mass dependence, lower mass stars require significantly longer core-envelope coupling timescales than solar-type stars, which results in strong differential rotation developing in the stellar interior on the early main sequence. Lower mass stars also require a weaker braking torque to account for their longer spin-down timescale on the early main sequence, while they ultimately converge towards lower rotational velocities than solar-type stars in the longer term

  13. Mass Loss Rates for Solar-like Stars Measured from Lyα Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, B. E.; Müller, H.-R.; Linsky, J. L.

    2003-10-01

    We present a number of mass loss rate measurements for solar-like stars with coronal winds, computed using a Lyα absorption technique. The collision between the solar wind and the interstellar wind seen by the Sun defines the large scale structure of our heliosphere. Similar structures, ``astrospheres,'' exist around other solar-like stars. The deceleration of the interstellar wind at the solar or stellar bow shock heats the interstellar material. Heated neutral hydrogen in the outer astrosphere (and/or heliosphere) produces a broad Lyα absorption profile that is often detectable in high resolution Hubble Space Telescope spectra. The amount of absorption is dependent upon the strength of the stellar wind. With guidance from hydrodynamic models of astrospheres, we use detected astrospheric Lyα absorption to estimate the stellar mass loss rates. For the solar-like GK stars in our sample, mass loss appears to increase with stellar activity, suggesting that young, active stars have stronger winds than old, inactive stars. However, Proxima Cen (M5.5 Ve) and λ And (G8 IV-III+M V) appear to be inconsistent with this relation.

  14. Solar energetic particle events and coronal mass ejections: New insights from SOHO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bothmer, V.; Posner, A.; Kunow, H.; Mueller-Mellin, R.; Heber, B.; Pick, M.; Thompson, B. J.; Delaboudiniere, J.-P.; Brueckner, G. E.; Howard, R. A.; Michels, D. J.; St.Cyr, C.; Szabo, A.; Hudson, H. S.; Mann, G.; Classen, H.-T.; McKenna-Lawlor, S.

    1997-01-01

    The scientific payload of SOHO, launched in December 1995, enables comprehensive studies of the sun from its interior, to the outer corona and solar wind. In its halo orbit around the Lagrangian point of the sun-earth system, the comprehensive suprathermal and energetic particle analyzer (COSTEP) measures in situ energetic partiles in the energy range 44 keV/particle to greater than 53 MeV/n. Although solar activity was at minimum, COSTEP detected from mid December 1995 until the end of July 1997, 30 solar energetic particle (SEP) events, including both gradual and implusive type SEPs. These minimum phase SEP events are unique in the sense that their associated solar source phenomena can be investigated in detail without interference by other simultaneous solar events as is usually the case at times around solar activity maximum. Simultaneous observations of the solar corona are provided by the large angle spectroscopic coronagraph (LASCO) and the extreme ultraviolet imaging telescope (EIT). From the correlated SOHO observations, a one to one correspondence of SEP events with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) was found. Most of the SEP events were associated with west-limb CMEs, some with halo CMEs that later passed the SOHO spacecraft and with Moreton-like disturbances in the lower solar atmosphere as observed by the EIT. Many SEP events were detected at sector boundaries of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) suggesting a magnetic connection to coronal streamers at the sun as supported by LASCO observations of mass ejections at the base of helmet streamers. Energetic particle and LASCO white-light observations yield evidence that CMEs often lead to large-scale disturbances of the sun's corona, probably affecting at times areas all around the sun.

  15. A note on the total mass of comets in the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendis, D. A.; Marconi, M. L.

    1986-10-01

    The assumption that the very low albedo determined for Halley's comet is typical of all short period comets, taken together with the assumption that the average sizes of long and short-period comets are approximately equal, leads to an increase in the total mass of comets in the solar system by almost two orders of magnitude. If gravitational ejection from the Uranus-Neptune zone during the later phases of planet formation is indeed responsible for the classical Oort cloud between 0.0001 and 0.00001 AU, then the mass of comets in this transplanetary region during cosmogonic times has to exceed the combined masses of Uranus and Neptune by over an order of magnitude. Furthermore, if the recent arguments for as many as 10 to the 14th comets in an 'inner' Oort cloud between about 40 and 10,000 AU are valid, then the total mass of comets in the solar system approaches 2 percent of a solar mass.

  16. MAGNETIC FIELD STRENGTH IN THE UPPER SOLAR CORONA USING WHITE-LIGHT SHOCK STRUCTURES SURROUNDING CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, R.-S.; Gopalswamy, N.; Cho, K.-S.; Yashiro, S.; Moon, Y.-J.

    2012-02-20

    To measure the magnetic field strength in the solar corona, we examined 10 fast ({>=}1000 km s{sup -1}) limb coronal mass ejections(CMEs) that show clear shock structures in Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph images. By applying the piston-shock relationship to the observed CME's standoff distance and electron density compression ratio, we estimated the Mach number, Alfven speed, and magnetic field strength in the height range 3-15 solar radii (R{sub s} ). The main results from this study are as follows: (1) the standoff distance observed in the solar corona is consistent with those from a magnetohydrodynamic model and near-Earth observations; (2) the Mach number as a shock strength is in the range 1.49-3.43 from the standoff distance ratio, but when we use the density compression ratio, the Mach number is in the range 1.47-1.90, implying that the measured density compression ratio is likely to be underestimated owing to observational limits; (3) the Alfven speed ranges from 259 to 982 km s{sup -1} and the magnetic field strength is in the range 6-105 mG when the standoff distance is used; (4) if we multiply the density compression ratio by a factor of two, the Alfven speeds and the magnetic field strengths are consistent in both methods; and (5) the magnetic field strengths derived from the shock parameters are similar to those of empirical models and previous estimates.

  17. Near-Earth Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections During Solar Cycle 23 (1996 - 2009): Catalog and Summary of Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, I. G.; Cane, H. V.

    2010-01-01

    In a previous study (Cane and Richardson, J. Geophys. Res. l08(A4), SSH6-1, we investigated the occurrence of interplanetary coronal mass ejections in the near-Earth solar wind during 1996 - 2002, corresponding to the increasing and maximum phases of solar cycle 23, and provided a "comprehensive" catalog of these events. In this paper, we present a revised and updated catalog of the approx. =300 near-Earth ICMEs in 1996-2009, encompassing the complete cycle 23, and summarize their basic properties and geomagnetic effects. In particular, solar wind .. composition and charge state observations are now considered when identifying the ICMEs. In general, these additional data confirm the earlier identifications based predominantly on other solar wind plasma and magnetic field parameters. However, the boundaries of ICME-like plasma based on charge state/composition data may deviate significantly from those based on conventional plasma/magnetic field parameters. Furthermore, the much studied "magnetic clouds", with flux-rope-like magnetic field configurations, may form just a substructure of the total ICME interval.

  18. In-Situ Solar Wind and Magnetic Field Signatures of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Richardson, Ian G.

    2004-01-01

    The heliospheric counterparts of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) at the Sun, interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), can be identified in-situ based on a number of magnetic field, plasma, compositional and energetic particle signatures, as well as combinations thereof. Although many of these signatures have been recognized since the early space era, recent observations from improved instrumentation on spacecraft such as Ulysses, Wind, and ACE, in conjunction with solar observations from SOHO, have advanced our understanding of the characteristics of ICMEs and their solar counterparts. We summarize these signatures and their implications for understanding the nature of these structures and the physical properties of coronal mass ejections. We conclude that our understanding of ICMEs is far from complete, and formulate several challenges that, if addressed, would substantially improve our knowledge of the relationship between CMEs at the Sun and in the heliosphere.

  19. A 2000 Solar Mass Rotating Molecular Disk Around NGC 6334A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraemer, Kathleen E.; Jackson, James M.; Paglione, A. D.; Bolatto, Alberto D.

    1997-01-01

    We present millimeter and centimeter wave spectroscopic observations of the H II region NGC 6334A. We have mapped the source in several transitions of CO, CS, and NH3. The molecular emission shows a distinct flattened structure in the east-west direction. This structure is probably a thick molecular disk or torus (2.2 x 0.9 pc) responsible for the bipolarity of the near-infrared (NIR) and radio continuum emission which extends in two "lobes" to the north and south of the shell-like H II region. The molecular disk is rotating from west to east (omega approximately equals 2.4 km/s.pc) about an axis approximately parallel to the radio and NIR emission lobes. By assuming virial equilibrium, we find that the molecular disk contains approximately 2000 solar mass. Single-component gas excitation model calculations show that the molecular gas in the disk is warmer and denser (T(sub k) approximately equals 60 K, n approximately equals 3000/cc) than the gas to the north and south (T(sub k) approximately equals 50 K, n approximately equals 400/cc). High resolution (approximately 5 sec) NH3 (3, 3) images of NGC 6334A reveal several small (approximately 0.1 pc) clumps, one of which lies southwest of the radio continuum shell, and is spatially coincident with a near-infrared source, IRS 20. A second NH3 clump is coincident with an H2O maser and the center of a molecular outflow. The dense gas tracers, CS J = 5 approaches 4 and 7 approaches 6, peak near IRS 20 and the H2O maser, not at NGC 6334A. IRS 20 has a substantial far-infrared (FIR) luminosity L(sub FIR) approximately 10(exp 5) solar luminosity, which indicates the presence of an O 7.5 star but has no detected radio continuum (F(sub 6 cm) < 0.02 Jy). The combination of dense gas, a large FIR luminosity and a lack of radio continuum can best be explained if IRS 20 is a protostar. A third clump of NH3 emission lies to the west of IRS 20 but is not associated with any other molecular or continuum features. The star formation

  20. Mass breakdown model of solar-photon sail shuttle: The case for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vulpetti, Giovanni; Circi, Christian

    2016-02-01

    The main aim of this paper is to set up a many-parameter model of mass breakdown to be applied to a reusable Earth-Mars-Earth solar-photon sail shuttle, and analyze the system behavior in two sub-problems: (1) the zero-payload shuttle, and (2) given the sailcraft sail loading and the gross payload mass, find the sail area of the shuttle. The solution to the subproblem-1 is of technological and programmatic importance. The general analysis of subproblem-2 is presented as a function of the sail side length, system mass, sail loading and thickness. In addition to the behaviors of the main system masses, useful information for future work on the sailcraft trajectory optimization is obtained via (a) a detailed mass model for the descent/ascent Martian Excursion Module, and (b) the fifty-fifty solution to the sailcraft sail loading breakdown equation. Of considerable importance is the evaluation of the minimum altitude for the rendezvous between the ascent rocket vehicle and the solar-photon sail propulsion module, a task performed via the Mars Climate Database 2014-2015. The analysis shows that such altitude is 300 km; below it, the atmospheric drag prevails over the solar-radiation thrust. By this value, an example of excursion module of 1500 kg in total mass is built, and the sailcraft sail loading and the return payload are calculated. Finally, the concept of launch opportunity-wide for a shuttle driven by solar-photon sail is introduced. The previous fifty-fifty solution may be a good initial guess for the trajectory optimization of this type of shuttle.

  1. Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in coronal mass ejections and solar surges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhelyazkov, I.; Chandra, R.; Srivastava, A. K.

    2016-02-01

    In this article, we study the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves propagating in the solar atmosphere. The main focus is on the modeling the KH instability development in coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and solar surges in view of its (instability) contribution to triggering a wave turbulence subsequently leading to an effective coronal heating. KH instability of MHD waves in coronal active regions recently observed and imaged in unprecedented detail in EUV thanks to the high cadence, high-resolution observations by SDO/AIA instrument, and spectroscopic observations by Hinode/EIS instrument is a challenge for modeling these events. It is shown that considering the solar mass flows of coronal mass ejections as moving cylindrical twisted magnetic flux tubes the imaged instability can be explained in terms of unstable m = -3 MHD mode. Obtained critical jet speeds for the instability onset as well as the linear wave growth rates are in good agreement with observational data. Alongside the KH instability in CMEs, we study also the conditions for the instability onset in solar surges. It is obtained that MHD high-mode harmonics propagating along such jets might become unstable against KH instability at critical jets' velocities accessible for surges.

  2. Modelling the evolution of solar-mass stars with a range of metallicities using MESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, E. F.; Gore, P. M.

    2015-05-01

    The nuclides 1,2H, 3,4He, 7Li, 7Be, 8B, 12,13C, 13-15N, 14-18O, 17-19F, 18-22Ne, 22Mg, and 24Mg were used in the code package MESA (Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics)[Paxton] to model a one-solar-mass star with a range of metallicities, z, from 0 to 0.1. On HR diagrams of each star model's luminosity and effective temperature from before zero-age main sequence (pre-ZAMS) to white dwarf, oscillations were noted in the horizontal branch at intervals from z = 0 to 0.0070. At z, = 0, the calculated stellar lifetime is 6.09x109 years. The calculated lifetime of the model stars increases to a maximum of 1.25x1010 years at z = 0.022 and then decreases to 2.59x109 years at z = 0.1. A piecewise fit of the model lifetimes vs. metallicity was obtained.

  3. Investigation of the Large Scale Evolution and Topology of Coronal Mass Ejections in the Solar Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Peter

    1999-01-01

    This investigation is concerned with the large-scale evolution and topology of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) in the solar wind. During this reporting period we have analyzed a series of low density intervals in the ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer) plasma data set that bear many similarities to CMEs. We have begun a series of 3D, MHD (Magnetohydrodynamics) coronal models to probe potential causes of these events. We also edited two manuscripts concerning the properties of CMEs in the solar wind. One was re-submitted to the Journal of Geophysical Research.

  4. Elemental composition in the slow solar wind measured with the MASS instrument on WIND

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bochsler, P.; Gonin, M.; Sheldon, R. B.; Zurbuchen, Th.; Gloeckler, G.; Galvin, A. B.; Hovestadt, D.

    1995-01-01

    The MASS instrument on WIND contains the first isochronous time-offlight spectrometer to be flown in the solar wind. The first spectra obtained with this instrument has demonstrated its capability to measure the abundances of several high-and low-FIP elements in the solar wind. The derivation of these abundances requires a careful calibration of the charge exchange efficiencies of the relevant ions in carbon foils. These efficiencies and the corresponding instrument functions have been determined in extensive calibration campaigns at different institutions. We present first and preliminary results obtained in slow solar wind streams and we compare these results with those obtained from previous investigations of solar wind abundances and of coronal abundances as derived from Solar Energetic Particles. Recent models of the FIP related fractionation effect predict a depletion of a factor of typically 4 to 5 for high-FIP elements (He, N, O, Ne, Ar, etc.) relative to low-FIP elements (Mg, Fe, Si, etc.). We also compare our results with the detailed predictions of the different models and we discuss the resulting evidence to validate or to invalidate different physical scenarios explaining the feeding and the acceleration of slow stream solar wind.

  5. Breakout coronal mass ejections from solar active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVore, C. Richard; Lynch, Benjamin; MacNeice, Peter; Olson, Kevin; Antiochos, Spiro

    We are performing magnetohydrodynamic simulations of single bipolar active regions (ARs) embedded in the Sun's global background field and of pairs of ARs interacting with each other. The magnetic flux near the polarity inversion lines (PILs) of the ARs is subjected to twisting footpoint displacements that introduce strong magnetic shear between the two polarities and gradually inflate the coronal volume occupied by the AR fields. If the initially current-free coronal field contains a magnetic null, then it is vulnerable to eruptions triggered by magnetic breakout, which reconnects aside the previously restraining field lines overhead. The sheared core flux promptly expands outward at the Alfven speed, opening the magnetic field in the vicinity of the PIL. Flare reconnection below the ejecta, across the vertical current sheet thus established, thereafter reforms the magnetic-null configuration above the AR. This reformation sets the stage for subsequent homologous episodes of breakout reconnection and eruption, if the energizing footpoint motions are sustained. The magnetic flux and energy of an isolated AR, relative to those of the background field, determine whether the eruption is confined or ejective, as the sheared flux either comes to rest in the corona or escapes the Sun to interplanetary space, respectively. In the latter case, the field lines accompanying the coronal mass ejection can comprise a weakly twisted "magnetic bottle" as readily as a strongly twisted flux rope, both of which are observed routinely in situ. The latest developments in this research will be reported. In particular, we will emphasize the observational signatures inferred from the simulations that could be sought in STEREO data, such as multiple three-dimensional views, EUV brightenings at reconnection sites, and coronal dimmings in regions of strong expansion. Our research is sponsored by NASA and ONR.

  6. Mass Communication Research--Current Documentation; Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Press Research Centre, Krakow (Poland).

    This publication, the sixth in a series, presents abstracts of 149 publications on mass communication research and propaganda, written by social scientists in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, the German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Romania, Yugoslavia, and Poland. For each abstract, information is provided about the language of the original document,…

  7. High-power, ultralow-mass solar arrays: FY-77 solar arrays technology readiness assessment report, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costogue, E. N.; Young, L. E.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Development efforts are reported in detail for: (1) a lightweight solar array system for solar electric propulsion; (2) a high efficiency thin silicon solar cell; (3) conceptual design of 200 W/kg solar arrays; (4) fluorocarbon encapsulation for silicon solar cell array; and (5) technology assessment of concentrator solar arrays.

  8. The Minimum-Mass Surface Density of the Solar Nebula using the Disk Evolution Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Sanford S.

    2005-01-01

    The Hayashi minimum-mass power law representation of the pre-solar nebula (Hayashi 1981, Prog. Theo. Phys.70,35) is revisited using analytic solutions of the disk evolution equation. A new cumulative-planetary-mass-model (an integrated form of the surface density) is shown to predict a smoother surface density compared with methods based on direct estimates of surface density from planetary data. First, a best-fit transcendental function is applied directly to the cumulative planetary mass data with the surface density obtained by direct differentiation. Next a solution to the time-dependent disk evolution equation is parametrically adapted to the planetary data. The latter model indicates a decay rate of r -1/2 in the inner disk followed by a rapid decay which results in a sharper outer boundary than predicted by the minimum mass model. The model is shown to be a good approximation to the finite-size early Solar Nebula and by extension to extra solar protoplanetary disks.

  9. A mass of less than 15 solar masses for the black hole in an ultraluminous X-ray source.

    PubMed

    Motch, C; Pakull, M W; Soria, R; Grisé, F; Pietrzyński, G

    2014-10-01

    Most ultraluminous X-ray sources have a typical set of properties not seen in Galactic stellar-mass black holes. They have luminosities of more than 3 × 10(39) ergs per second, unusually soft X-ray components (with a typical temperature of less than about 0.3 kiloelectronvolts) and a characteristic downturn in their spectra above about 5 kiloelectronvolts. Such puzzling properties have been interpreted either as evidence of intermediate-mass black holes or as emission from stellar-mass black holes accreting above their Eddington limit, analogous to some Galactic black holes at peak luminosity. Recently, a very soft X-ray spectrum was observed in a rare and transient stellar-mass black hole. Here we report that the X-ray source P13 in the galaxy NGC 7793 is in a binary system with a period of about 64 days and exhibits all three canonical properties of ultraluminous sources. By modelling the strong optical and ultraviolet modulations arising from X-ray heating of the B9Ia donor star, we constrain the black hole mass to be less than 15 solar masses. Our results demonstrate that in P13, soft thermal emission and spectral curvature are indeed signatures of supercritical accretion. By analogy, ultraluminous X-ray sources with similar X-ray spectra and luminosities of up to a few times 10(40) ergs per second can be explained by supercritical accretion onto massive stellar-mass black holes. PMID:25297432

  10. Unprecedented Fine Structure of a Solar Flare Revealed by the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Ju; Xu, Yan; Cao, Wenda; Liu, Chang; Gary, Dale; Wang, Haimin

    2016-01-01

    Solar flares signify the sudden release of magnetic energy and are sources of so called space weather. The fine structures (below 500 km) of flares are rarely observed and are accessible to only a few instruments world-wide. Here we present observation of a solar flare using exceptionally high resolution images from the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope (NST) equipped with high order adaptive optics at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). The observation reveals the process of the flare in unprecedented detail, including the flare ribbon propagating across the sunspots, coronal rain (made of condensing plasma) streaming down along the post-flare loops, and the chromosphere’s response to the impact of coronal rain, showing fine-scale brightenings at the footpoints of the falling plasma. Taking advantage of the resolving power of the NST, we measure the cross-sectional widths of flare ribbons, post-flare loops and footpoint brighenings, which generally lie in the range of 80–200 km, well below the resolution of most current instruments used for flare studies. Confining the scale of such fine structure provides an essential piece of information in modeling the energy transport mechanism of flares, which is an important issue in solar and plasma physics. PMID:27071459

  11. Unprecedented Fine Structure of a Solar Flare Revealed by the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Ju; Xu, Yan; Cao, Wenda; Liu, Chang; Gary, Dale; Wang, Haimin

    2016-04-01

    Solar flares signify the sudden release of magnetic energy and are sources of so called space weather. The fine structures (below 500 km) of flares are rarely observed and are accessible to only a few instruments world-wide. Here we present observation of a solar flare using exceptionally high resolution images from the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope (NST) equipped with high order adaptive optics at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). The observation reveals the process of the flare in unprecedented detail, including the flare ribbon propagating across the sunspots, coronal rain (made of condensing plasma) streaming down along the post-flare loops, and the chromosphere’s response to the impact of coronal rain, showing fine-scale brightenings at the footpoints of the falling plasma. Taking advantage of the resolving power of the NST, we measure the cross-sectional widths of flare ribbons, post-flare loops and footpoint brighenings, which generally lie in the range of 80–200 km, well below the resolution of most current instruments used for flare studies. Confining the scale of such fine structure provides an essential piece of information in modeling the energy transport mechanism of flares, which is an important issue in solar and plasma physics.

  12. Unprecedented Fine Structure of a Solar Flare Revealed by the 1.6~m New Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Ju; Xu, Yan; Cao, Wenda; Liu, Chang; Gary, Dale E.; Wang, Haimin

    2016-05-01

    Solar flares signify the sudden release of magnetic energy and are sources of so called space weather. The fine structures (below 500 km) of flares are rarely observed and are accessible to only a few instruments world-wide. Here we present observation of a solar flare using exceptionally high resolution images from the 1.6~m New Solar Telescope (NST) equipped with high order adaptive optics at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). The observation reveals the process of the flare in unprecedented detail, including the flare ribbon propagating across the sunspots, coronal rain (made of condensing plasma) streaming down along the post-flare loops, and the chromosphere's response to the impact of coronal rain, showing fine-scale brightenings at the footpoints of the falling plasma. Taking advantage of the resolving power of the NST, we measure the cross-sectional widths of flare ribbons, post-flare loops and footpoint brighenings, which generally lie in the range of 80-200 km, well below the resolution of most current instruments used for flare studies. Confining the scale of such fine structure provides an essential piece of information in modeling the energy transport mechanism of flares, which is an important issue in solar and plasma physics.

  13. Unprecedented Fine Structure of a Solar Flare Revealed by the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope.

    PubMed

    Jing, Ju; Xu, Yan; Cao, Wenda; Liu, Chang; Gary, Dale; Wang, Haimin

    2016-01-01

    Solar flares signify the sudden release of magnetic energy and are sources of so called space weather. The fine structures (below 500 km) of flares are rarely observed and are accessible to only a few instruments world-wide. Here we present observation of a solar flare using exceptionally high resolution images from the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope (NST) equipped with high order adaptive optics at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). The observation reveals the process of the flare in unprecedented detail, including the flare ribbon propagating across the sunspots, coronal rain (made of condensing plasma) streaming down along the post-flare loops, and the chromosphere's response to the impact of coronal rain, showing fine-scale brightenings at the footpoints of the falling plasma. Taking advantage of the resolving power of the NST, we measure the cross-sectional widths of flare ribbons, post-flare loops and footpoint brighenings, which generally lie in the range of 80-200 km, well below the resolution of most current instruments used for flare studies. Confining the scale of such fine structure provides an essential piece of information in modeling the energy transport mechanism of flares, which is an important issue in solar and plasma physics. PMID:27071459

  14. The 1.6 m New Solar Telescope (NST) in Big Bear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, W.

    2012-12-01

    The 1.6 m clear aperture, off-axis New Solar Telescope (NST) is in regular operation in Big Bear Solar Observatory. The NST is the first facility-class solar telescope built in the U.S. in a generation. The NST provides high resolution and high sensitivity observations of the solar photosphere and chromosphere in the visible and near infrared (NIR). A high order adaptive optics system delivers corrected light to an ensemble of state-of-the-art scientific instruments in the coude laboratory including the Broad-band Filter Imagers (BFIs), NIR Imaging Spectro-polarimeter (NIRIS), Visible Imaging Spectro-polarimeter (VIS) and Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph (FISS). Some early scientific results from the NST will be presented, followed by a progress report on NST instrument development projects, as well as upgrades to existing instruments.

  15. Constraining the Masses and the Non-radial Drag Coefficient of a Solar Coronal Mass Ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, C.; dos Santos, L. F. G.; Opher, M.

    2015-03-01

    Decades of observations show that coronal mass ejections (CMEs) can deflect from a purely radial trajectory, however, no consensus exists as to the cause of these deflections. Many theories attribute CME deflection to magnetic forces. We developed Forecasting a CMEs Altered Trajectory (ForeCAT), a model for CME deflections based solely on magnetic forces, neglecting any reconnection effects. Here, we compare ForeCAT predictions to the observed deflection of the 2008 December 12 CME and find that ForeCAT can accurately reproduce the observations. Multiple observations show that this CME deflected nearly 30° in latitude and 4.°4 in longitude. From the observations, we are able to constrain all of the ForeCAT input parameters (initial position, radial propagation speed, and expansion) except the CME mass and the drag coefficient that affects the CME motion. By minimizing the reduced chi-squared, χ ν 2, between the ForeCAT results and the observations, we determine an acceptable mass range between 4.5 × 1014 and 1 × 1015 g and a drag coefficient less than 1.4 with a best fit at 7.5 × 1014 g and 0 for the mass and drag coefficient. ForeCAT is sensitive to the magnetic background and we are also able to constrain the rate at which the quiet Sun magnetic field falls to be similar or slightly slower than the Potential Field Source Surface model.

  16. Identification of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections at Ulysses Using Multiple Solar Wind Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, I. G.

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies have discussed the identification of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) near the Earth based on various solar wind signatures. In particular, methods have been developed of identifying regions of anomalously low solar wind proton temperatures ( T p) and plasma compositional anomalies relative to the composition of the ambient solar wind that are frequently indicative of ICMEs. In this study, similar methods are applied to observations from the Ulysses spacecraft that was launched in 1990 and placed in a heliocentric orbit over the poles of the Sun. Some 279 probable ICMEs are identified during the spacecraft mission, which ended in 2009. The identifications complement those found independently in other studies of the Ulysses data, but a number of additional events are identified. The properties of the ICMEs detected at Ulysses and those observed near the Earth and in the inner heliosphere are compared.

  17. Anomalous Expansion of Coronal Mass Ejections During Solar Cycle 24 and Its Space Weather Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Akiyama, Sachiko; Yashiro, Seiji; Xie, Hong; Makela, Pertti; Michalek, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    The familiar correlation between the speed and angular width of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is also found in solar cycle 24, but the regression line has a larger slope: for a given CME speed, cycle 24 CMEs are significantly wider than those in cycle 23. The slope change indicates a significant change in the physical state of the heliosphere, due to the weak solar activity. The total pressure in the heliosphere (magnetic + plasma) is reduced by approximately 40%, which leads to the anomalous expansion of CMEs explaining the increased slope. The excess CME expansion contributes to the diminished effectiveness of CMEs in producing magnetic storms during cycle 24, both because the magnetic content of the CMEs is diluted and also because of the weaker ambient fields. The reduced magnetic field in the heliosphere may contribute to the lack of solar energetic particles accelerated to very high energies during this cycle.

  18. OBSERVATIONAL EVIDENCE OF A CORONAL MASS EJECTION DISTORTION DIRECTLY ATTRIBUTABLE TO A STRUCTURED SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Savani, N. P.; Owens, M. J.; Forsyth, R. J.; Rouillard, A. P.; Davies, J. A.

    2010-05-01

    We present the first observational evidence of the near-Sun distortion of the leading edge of a coronal mass ejection (CME) by the ambient solar wind into a concave structure. On 2007 November 14, a CME was observed by coronagraphs onboard the STEREO-B spacecraft, possessing a circular cross section. Subsequently the CME passed through the field of view of the STEREO-B Heliospheric Imagers where the leading edge was observed to distort into an increasingly concave structure. The CME observations are compared to an analytical flux rope model constrained by a magnetohydrodynamic solar wind solution. The resultant bimodal speed profile is used to kinematically distort a circular structure that replicates the initial shape of the CME. The CME morphology is found to change rapidly over a relatively short distance. This indicates an approximate radial distance in the heliosphere where the solar wind forces begin to dominate over the magnetic forces of the CME influencing the shape of the CME.

  19. The HELCATS Project: Characterising the Evolution of Coronal Mass Ejections Observed During Solar Cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisi, M. M.; Harrison, R. A.; Davies, J. A.; Perry, C. H.; Moestl, C.; Rouillard, A. P.; Bothmer, V.; Rodriguez, L.; Eastwood, J. P.; Kilpua, E.; Gallagher, P.; Odstrcil, D.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the evolution of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is fundamental to advancing our knowledge of energy and mass transport in the solar system, thus also rendering it crucial to space weather and its prediction. The advent of truly wide-angle heliospheric imaging has revolutionised the study of CMEs, by enabling their direct and continuous observation as they propagate from the Sun out to 1 AU and beyond. The recently initiated EU-funded FP7 Heliospheric Cataloguing, Analysis and Technique Service (HELCATS) project combines European expertise in the field of heliospheric imaging, built up over the last decade in particular through lead involvement in NASA's STEREO mission, with expertise in such areas as solar and coronal imaging as well as the interpretation of in-situ and radio diagnostic measurements of solar wind phenomena. The goals of HELCATS include the cataloguing of CMEs observed in the heliosphere by the Heliospheric Imager (HI) instruments on the STEREO spacecraft, since their launch in late October 2006 to date, an interval that covers much of the historically weak solar cycle 24. Included in the catalogue will be estimates of the kinematic properties of the imaged CMEs, based on a variety of established, and some more speculative, modelling approaches (geometrical, forward, inverse, magneto-hydrodynamic); these kinematic properties will be verified through comparison with solar disc and coronal imaging observations, as well as through comparison with radio diagnostic and in-situ measurements made at multiple points throughout the heliosphere. We will provide an overview of the HELCATS project, and present initial results that will seek to illuminate the unusual nature of solar cycle 24.

  20. Distillation of ethanol in a solar still: Studies on heat and mass transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Shawaqfeh, A.T.; Farid, M.M.

    1995-08-01

    A single-basin solar still may be used for primary concentration of dilute ethanol produced from fermentation. In order to describe the simultaneous heat and mass transfer in the still, different models have been proposed and tested against some experimental measurements on a still having a 1 m x 1 m basin area. Measurements were based on steady-state operation using electrical heating and unsteady-state operation using solar energy. The proposed models were found to have similar trends even though their derivations were based on different approaches. The models were found to overpredict the mass fluxes of ethanol (Me) and water (Mw) at high basin temperature and ethanol concentration, with different degrees.

  1. Influence of mass moment of inertia on normal modes of preloaded solar array mast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armand, Sasan C.; Lin, Paul

    1992-01-01

    Earth-orbiting spacecraft often contain solar arrays or antennas supported by a preloaded mast. Because of weight and cost considerations, the structures supporting the spacecraft appendages are extremely light and flexible; therefore, it is vital to investigate the influence of all physical and structural parameters that may influence the dynamic behavior of the overall structure. The study primarily focuses on the mast for the space station solar arrays, but the formulations and the techniques developed in this study apply to any large and flexible mast in zero gravity. Furthermore, to determine the influence on the circular frequencies, the mass moment of inertia of the mast was incorporated into the governing equation of motion for bending. A finite element technique (MSC/NASTRAN) was used to verify the formulation. Results indicate that when the mast is relatively flexible and long, the mass moment inertia influences the circular frequencies.

  2. Fine Magnetic Structure and Origin of Counter-streaming Mass Flows in a Quiescent Solar Prominence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yuandeng; Liu, Yu; Liu, Ying D.; Chen, P. F.; Su, Jiangtao; Xu, Zhi; Liu, Zhong

    2015-11-01

    We present high-resolution observations of a quiescent solar prominence that consists of a vertical and a horizontal foot encircled by an overlying spine and has ubiquitous counter-streaming mass flows. While the horizontal foot and the spine were connected to the solar surface, the vertical foot was suspended above the solar surface and was supported by a semicircular bubble structure. The bubble first collapsed, then reformed at a similar height, and finally started to oscillate for a long time. We find that the collapse and oscillation of the bubble boundary were tightly associated with a flare-like feature located at the bottom of the bubble. Based on the observational results, we propose that the prominence should be composed of an overlying horizontal spine encircling a low-lying horizontal and vertical foot, in which the horizontal foot consists of shorter field lines running partially along the spine and has ends connected to the solar surface, while the vertical foot consists of piling-up dips due to the sagging of the spine fields and is supported by a bipolar magnetic system formed by parasitic polarities (i.e., the bubble). The upflows in the vertical foot were possibly caused by the magnetic reconnection at the separator between the bubble and the overlying dips, which intruded into the persistent downflow field and formed the picture of counter-streaming mass flows. In addition, the counter-streaming flows in the horizontal foot were possibly caused by the imbalanced pressure at the both ends.

  3. The solar minimum X2.6/1B flare and CME of 9 July 1996. Pt 2; Propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dryer, M.; Andrews, M. D.; Aurass, H.; DeForest, C.; Karlicky, M.; Kiplinger, A.; Klassen, A.; Meisner, R.; Ipavich, F. M.; Galvin, A. B.; Paswaters, S. E.; Smith, Z.; Tappin, S. J.; Thompson, B. J.; Watari, S.-I.; Michels, D. J.; Brueckner, G. E.; Howard, R. A.; Koomen, M. J.; Lanny, P.

    1997-01-01

    The interplanetary propagation aspects of the first X-class solar flare and coronal mass ejection are discussed. The solar data relevant to this event are summarized. Data from WIND and charge element and isotope analysis system (CELIAS) show solar wind plasma and interplanetary magnetic field disturbances early on 12 July 1996. It was observed that the extrapolation of the coronal mass ejection back to the flare time suggests a close association between them. Moreover, the coronal mass ejection speed is similar to the type two shock's speed. The results suggest that the coronal mass ejection is intimately related to the shock itself.

  4. Variability of Mass Dependence of Auroral Acceleration Processes with Solar Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghielmetti, Arthur G.

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of this investigation are to improve understanding of the mass dependent variability of the auroral acceleration processes and so to clarify apparent discrepancies regarding the altitude and local time variations with solar cycle by investigating: (1) the global morphological relationships between auroral electric field structures and the related particle signatures under varying conditions of solar activity, and (2) the relationships between the electric field structures and particle signatures in selected events that are representative of the different conditions occurring during a solar cycle. The investigation is based in part on the Lockheed UFI data base of UpFlowing Ion (UFI) events in the 5OO eV to 16keV energy range and associated electrons in the energy range 7O eV to 24 keV. This data base was constructed from data acquired by the ion mass spectrometer on the S3-3 satellite in the altitude range of I to 1.3 Re. The launch of the POLAR spacecraft in early 1996 and successful operation of its TIMAS ion mass spectrometer has provided us with data from within the auroral acceleration regions during the current solar minimum. The perigee of POLAR is at about 1 Re, comparable to that of S3-3. The higher sensitivity and time resolution of TIMAS compared to the ion mass spectrometer on S3-3 together with its wider energy range, 15 eV to 33 keV, facilitate more detailed studies of upflowing ions.

  5. Non-mass-analyzed ion implantation equipment for high volume solar cell production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armini, A. J.; Bunker, S. N.; Spitzer, M. B.

    1982-01-01

    Equipment designed for junction formation in silicon solar cells is described. The equipment, designed for a production level of approximately one megawatt per year, consists of an ion implanter and annealer. Low cost is achieved by foregoing the use of mass analysis during the implantation, and by the use of a belt furnace for annealing. Results of process development, machine design and cost analysis are presented.

  6. Solar neutrino limit on axions and keV-mass bosons

    SciTech Connect

    Gondolo, Paolo; Raffelt, Georg G.

    2009-05-15

    The all-flavor solar neutrino flux measured by the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory constrains nonstandard energy losses to less than about 10% of the Sun's photon luminosity, superseding a helioseismological argument and providing new limits on the interaction strength of low-mass particles. For the axion-photon coupling strength we find g{sub a{gamma}}<7x10{sup -10} GeV{sup -1}. We also derive explicit limits on the Yukawa coupling to electrons of pseudoscalar, scalar, and vector bosons with keV-scale masses.

  7. Solar wind mass and momentum flux variations at 0.3 AU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hick, P.; Jackson, B. V.

    1994-01-01

    In the past we have used electron Thomson scattering brightness observations, obtained with the zodiacal-light photometers on board the spacecraft Helios 1 and Helios 2, to study the global density structure of the quiet corona and inner heliosphere (greater than 17 solar radii). This was done by means of a comparison of synoptic maps based on these Thomson scattering observations and synoptic maps based on other solar/heliospheric data, such as IPS velocity, K-coronameter brightness and magnetic source surface data. In this paper we continue this approach by combining the Helios Thomson scattering maps (which provide density information) with IPS solar wind velocity maps to map out variations in mass and momentum flux of the solar wind as a function of latitude and phase of the solar cycle. The method used to construct the Helios and IPS synoptic maps emphasizes the global, persistent (as opposed to transient) structures, and thus can be viewed as approximating conditions in the quiet corona and inner heliosphere.

  8. Simulations of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection Events with Simple Model of Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Tomoya; den, Mitsue; Watari, Shinichi; Yamashita, Kazuyuki

    Propagation of an interplanetary shock wave depends on a solar wind situation. While a precise solar wind model in numerical simulations will produce good results in prediction of passing time of an interplanetary shock wave caused by a coronal mass ejection (CME), one attempting the prediction with a detail model will face difficulty in inputting parameters, because such quantities will often be estimated only with insufficient precisions. This study aimed to build a model whose parameters are available before a shock wave arrival. We performed simulations of interplanetaly CME events with a simple model of solar wind. The model has slow wind blowing out on a solar geodesic line into global fast wind. Tilt and phase of the plane including the geodesic line are presumed by a previous solar magnetic field. A CME is put into the simulation region. The CME model we use needs two major parameters, position and velocity. Position is assumed at the accompanied X-ray flare and velocity is estimated by LASCO observation. Some other parameters were fixed experientially after trial and error. We compare resulting fluctuation near the Earth with ACE data, and discuss limits and potentialities of the model in space weather prediction.

  9. Combined Ulysses Solar Wind and SOHO Coronal Observations of Several West Limb Coronal Mass Ejections. Appendix 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funsten, H. O.; Gosling, J. T.; Riley, P.; St.Cyr, O. C.; Forsyth, R. J.; Howard, R. A.; Schwenn, R.

    2001-01-01

    From October 1996 to January 1997, Ulysses was situated roughly above the west limb of the Sun as observed from Earth at a heliocentric distance of about 4.6 AU and a latitude of about 25 deg. This presents the first opportunity to compare Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) limb observations of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) directly with their solar wind counterparts far from the Sun using the Ulysses data. During this interval, large eruptive events were observed above the west limb of the Sun by the Large Angle Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) on SOHO on October 5, November 28, and December 21-25, 1996. Using the combined plasma and magnetic field data from Ulysses, the October 5 event was clearly identified by several distinguishing signatures as a CME. The November 28 event was also identified as a CME that trailed fast ambient solar wind, although it was identified only by an extended interval of counterstreaming suprathermal electrons. The December 21 event was apparently characterized by a six-day interval of nearly radial field and a plasma rarefaction. For the numerous eruptive events observed by the LASCO coronagraph during December 23-25, Ulysses showed no distinct, CMEs, perhaps because of intermingling of two or more of the eruptive events. By mapping the Ulysses observations back in time to the Sun assuming a constant flow speed, we have identified intervals of plasma that were accelerated or decelerated between the LASCO and Ulysses observations.

  10. General structure of democratic mass matrix of quark sector in E6 model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciftci, R.; ćiftci, A. K.

    2016-03-01

    An extension of the Standard Model (SM) fermion sector, which is inspired by the E6 Grand Unified Theory (GUT) model, might be a good candidate to explain a number of unanswered questions in SM. Existence of the isosinglet quarks might explain great mass difference of bottom and top quarks. Also, democracy on mass matrix elements is a natural approach in SM. In this study, we have given general structure of Democratic Mass Matrix (DMM) of quark sector in E6 model.

  11. Lithium Inventory of 2 Solar Mass Red Clump Stars in Open Clusters: A Test of the Helium Flash Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlberg, Joleen K.; Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V.

    2016-01-01

    The temperature distribution of field Li-rich red giants suggests the presence of a population of Li-rich red clump (RC) stars. One proposed explanation for this population is that all stars with masses near 2 solar mass experience a shortlived phase of Li-richness at the onset of core He-burning. Many of these stars have low C-12/C-13, a signature of deep mixing that is presumably associated with the Li regeneration. To test this purported mechanism of Li enrichment, we measured abundances in 38 RC stars and 6 red giant branch (RGB) stars in four open clusters selected to have RC masses near 2 solar mass. We find six Li-rich stars (A(Li) greater than or equal to 1.50 dex) of which only two may be RC stars. None of the RC stars have Li exceeding the levels observed in the RGB stars, but given the brevity of the suggested Li-rich phase and the modest sample size, it is probable that stars with larger Li-enrichments were missed simply by chance. However, we find very few stars in our sample with low C-12/C-13. Such low C-12/C-13, seen in many field Li-rich stars, should persist even after lithium has returned to normal low levels. Thus, if Li synthesis during the He flash occurs, it is a rare, but potentially long-lived occurrence rather than a short-lived phase for all stars. We estimate a conservative upper limit of the fraction of stars going through a Li-rich phase to be less than 47%, based on stars that have low C-12/C-13 for their observed A(Li).

  12. Progress in the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope in Big Bear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goode, Philip R.; NST Team

    2006-06-01

    Progress in building the NST (New Solar Telescope) will be reported. The NST is a 1.6 m clear aperture, off-axis solar telescope. The telescope is scheduled to see first light at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) in April 2007, and is a joint effort of BBSO, the University of Hawaii, the Korea Astronomy & Space Science Institute and the University of Arizona.The telescope is off-axis to optimize low-contrast imaging, and will have a 3 arcminute field of view. Figuring and testing the figure of the large off-axis primary mirror presented unique problems. The NST (New Solar Telescope) will have wavefront sensor controlled, real-time active optics, and its light will feed BBSO's adaptive optics system, which in turn feeds infrared and visible light Fabry-Perot based polarimeters, as well as a real-time image processing system utilizing parallel processing.The NST replaces the current 0.6 m solar telescope at BBSO, and required a new, larger, vented dome with new thermal and telescope control systems.The complementary value of the telescope for upcoming space missions, such as SOLAR-B, STEREO and SDO will be discussed.

  13. The Fraction of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections That Are Magnetic Clouds: Evidence for a Solar Cycle Variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, I. G.; Cane, H. V.

    2004-01-01

    "Magnetic clouds" (MCs) are a subset of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) characterized by enhanced magnetic fields with an organized rotation in direction, and low plasma beta. Though intensely studied, MCs only constitute a fraction of all the ICMEs that are detected in the solar wind. A comprehensive survey of ICMEs in the near- Earth solar wind during the ascending, maximum and early declining phases of solar cycle 23 in 1996 - 2003 shows that the MC fraction varies with the phase of the solar cycle, from approximately 100% (though with low statistics) at solar minimum to approximately 15% at solar maximum. A similar trend is evident in near-Earth observations during solar cycles 20 - 21, while Helios 1/2 spacecraft observations at 0.3 - 1.0 AU show a weaker trend and larger MC fraction.

  14. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF THE {lambda} ORIONIS CLUSTER. II. DISKS AROUND SOLAR-TYPE AND LOW-MASS STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, Jesus; Morales-Calderon, Maria; Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, L.; Muzerolle, J.; Gutermuth, R.; Luhman, K. L.; Stauffer, J. E-mail: muzerol@stsci.ed

    2010-10-20

    We present IRAC/MIPS Spitzer Space Telescope observations of the solar-type and the low-mass stellar population of the young ({approx}5 Myr) {lambda} Orionis cluster. Combining optical and Two Micron All Sky Survey photometry, we identify 436 stars as probable members of the cluster. Given the distance (450 pc) and the age of the cluster, our sample ranges in mass from 2 M{sub sun} to objects below the substellar limit. With the addition of the Spitzer mid-infrared data, we have identified 49 stars bearing disks in the stellar cluster. Using spectral energy distribution slopes, we place objects in several classes: non-excess stars (diskless), stars with optically thick disks, stars with 'evolved disks' (with smaller excesses than optically thick disk systems), and 'transitional disk' candidates (in which the inner disk is partially or fully cleared). The disk fraction depends on the stellar mass, ranging from {approx}6% for K-type stars (R{sub C} - J < 2) to {approx}27% for stars with spectral-type M5 or later (R{sub C} - J>4). We confirm the dependence of disk fraction on stellar mass in this age range found in other studies. Regarding clustering levels, the overall fraction of disks in the {lambda} Orionis cluster is similar to those reported in other stellar groups with ages normally quoted as {approx}5 Myr.

  15. Cluster of solar active regions and onset of coronal mass ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, JingXiu; Zhang, YuZong; He, Han; Chen, AnQin; Jin, ChunLan; Zhou, GuiPing

    2015-09-01

    Abstract round-the-clock solar observations with full-disk coverage of vector magnetograms and multi-wavelength images demonstrate that solar active regions (ARs) are ultimately connected with magnetic field. Often two or more ARs are clustered, creating a favorable magnetic environment for the onset of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In this work, we describe a new type of magnetic complex: cluster of solar ARs. An AR cluster is referred to as the close connection of two or more ARs which are located in nearly the same latitude and a narrow span of longitude. We illustrate three examples of AR clusters, each of which has two ARs connected and formed a common dome of magnetic flux system. They are clusters of NOAA (i.e., National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) ARs 11226 & 11227, 11429 & 11430, and 11525 & 11524. In these AR clusters, CME initiations were often tied to the instability of the magnetic structures connecting two partner ARs, in the form of inter-connecting loops and/or channeling filaments between the two ARs. We show the evidence that, at least, some of the flare/CMEs in an AR cluster are not a phenomenon of a single AR, but the result of magnetic interaction in the whole AR cluster. The observations shed new light on understanding the mechanism(s) of solar activity. Instead of the simple bipolar topology as suggested by the so-called standard flare model, a multi-bipolar magnetic topology is more common to host the violent solar activity in solar atmosphere.

  16. Two-step forecast of geomagnetic storm using coronal mass ejection and solar wind condition

    PubMed Central

    Kim, R-S; Moon, Y-J; Gopalswamy, N; Park, Y-D; Kim, Y-H

    2014-01-01

    To forecast geomagnetic storms, we had examined initially observed parameters of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and introduced an empirical storm forecast model in a previous study. Now we suggest a two-step forecast considering not only CME parameters observed in the solar vicinity but also solar wind conditions near Earth to improve the forecast capability. We consider the empirical solar wind criteria derived in this study (Bz ≤ −5 nT or Ey ≥ 3 mV/m for t≥ 2 h for moderate storms with minimum Dst less than −50 nT) and a Dst model developed by Temerin and Li (2002, 2006) (TL model). Using 55 CME-Dst pairs during 1997 to 2003, our solar wind criteria produce slightly better forecasts for 31 storm events (90%) than the forecasts based on the TL model (87%). However, the latter produces better forecasts for 24 nonstorm events (88%), while the former correctly forecasts only 71% of them. We then performed the two-step forecast. The results are as follows: (i) for 15 events that are incorrectly forecasted using CME parameters, 12 cases (80%) can be properly predicted based on solar wind conditions; (ii) if we forecast a storm when both CME and solar wind conditions are satisfied (∩), the critical success index becomes higher than that from the forecast using CME parameters alone, however, only 25 storm events (81%) are correctly forecasted; and (iii) if we forecast a storm when either set of these conditions is satisfied (∪), all geomagnetic storms are correctly forecasted. PMID:26213515

  17. MAXIMUM CORONAL MASS EJECTION SPEED AS AN INDICATOR OF SOLAR AND GEOMAGNETIC ACTIVITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Kilcik, A.; Yurchyshyn, V. B.; Abramenko, V.; Goode, P. R.; Gopalswamy, N.; Ozguc, A.; Rozelot, J. P.

    2011-01-20

    We investigate the relationship between the monthly averaged maximal speeds of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), international sunspot number (ISSN), and the geomagnetic Dst and Ap indices covering the 1996-2008 time interval (solar cycle 23). Our new findings are as follows. (1) There is a noteworthy relationship between monthly averaged maximum CME speeds and sunspot numbers, Ap and Dst indices. Various peculiarities in the monthly Dst index are correlated better with the fine structures in the CME speed profile than that in the ISSN data. (2) Unlike the sunspot numbers, the CME speed index does not exhibit a double peak maximum. Instead, the CME speed profile peaks during the declining phase of solar cycle 23. Similar to the Ap index, both CME speed and the Dst indices lag behind the sunspot numbers by several months. (3) The CME number shows a double peak similar to that seen in the sunspot numbers. The CME occurrence rate remained very high even near the minimum of the solar cycle 23, when both the sunspot number and the CME average maximum speed were reaching their minimum values. (4) A well-defined peak of the Ap index between 2002 May and 2004 August was co-temporal with the excess of the mid-latitude coronal holes during solar cycle 23. The above findings suggest that the CME speed index may be a useful indicator of both solar and geomagnetic activities. It may have advantages over the sunspot numbers, because it better reflects the intensity of Earth-directed solar eruptions.

  18. Maximum Coronal Mass Ejection Speed as an Indicator of Solar and Geomagnetic Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilcik, A.; Yurchyshyn, V. B.; Abramenko, V.; Goode, P. R.; Gopalswamy, N.; Ozguc, A.; Rozelot, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between the monthly averaged maximal speeds of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), international sunspot number (ISSN), and the geomagnetic Dst and Ap indices covering the 1996-2008 time interval (solar cycle 23). Our new findings are as follows. (1) There is a noteworthy relationship between monthly averaged maximum CME speeds and sunspot numbers, Ap and Dst indices. Various peculiarities in the monthly Dst index are correlated better with the fine structures in the CME speed profile than that in the ISSN data. (2) Unlike the sunspot numbers, the CME speed index does not exhibit a double peak maximum. Instead, the CME speed profile peaks during the declining phase of solar cycle 23. Similar to the Ap index, both CME speed and the Dst indices lag behind the sunspot numbers by several months. (3) The CME number shows a double peak similar to that seen in the sunspot numbers. The CME occurrence rate remained very high even near the minimum of the solar cycle 23, when both the sunspot number and the CME average maximum speed were reaching their minimum values. (4) A well-defined peak of the Ap index between 2002 May and 2004 August was co-temporal with the excess of the mid-latitude coronal holes during solar cycle 23. The above findings suggest that the CME speed index may be a useful indicator of both solar and geomagnetic activities. It may have advantages over the sunspot numbers, because it better reflects the intensity of Earth-directed solar eruptions.

  19. First light of the 1.6 meter off-axis New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wenda; Gorceix, Nicolas; Coulter, Roy; Coulter, Aaron; Goode, Philip R.

    2010-07-01

    New Jersey Institute of Technology, in collaboration with the University of Hawaii and the Korea Astronomy & Space Science Institute, has successfully developed and installed a 1.6 m clear aperture, off-axis New Solar Telescope (NST) at the Big Bear Solar Observatory. The NST will be the largest aperture solar telescope in the world until the 4 m Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) and 4 m European Solar Telescope (EST) begin operation in the next decade. Meanwhile, the NST will be the largest off-axis telescope before the 8.4 m segmented Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) comes on-line. The NST is configured as an off-axis Gregorian system consisting of a parabolic primary, prime focus field stop and heat reflector, elliptical secondary and diagonal flats. The primary mirror is made of Zerodur from Schott and figured to a final residual error of 16 nm rms by Steward Observatory Mirror Lab. The final focal ratio is f/52. The 180 circular opening in the field stop defines the maximal square field-of-view. The working wavelength range will cover 0.4 to 1.7 μm in the Coud´e Lab two floors beneath the telescope, and all wavelengths including far infrared at the Nasmyth focus on an optical bench attached to the side of the telescope structure. First-light scientific observations have been attained at the Nasmyth focus and in the Coud´e Lab. This paper presents a detailed description of installation and alignment of the NST. First-light observational results are also shown to demonstrate the validity of the NST optical alignment.

  20. The soft X-ray coronal mass ejection above solar limb of 1998 April 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiao-juan

    Using the observational materials of SXT/HXT aboard satellite Yohkoh and the Nobeyama Radioheliograph (NoRH) on 1998-04-23, a comprehensive study of the soft X-ray coronal mass ejection (CME) above solar SE limb shows that there were two magnetic dipolar sources (MDSs), one magnetic capacity belt (MCB) between the MDSs, one neutral current sheet (NCS) and some rare activation sources (ASs). When the MCB was changed by the ASs to become a magnetic energy belt (MEB), both mass and energy were concentrated to form the NCS. When the MDSs were connected by the MEB, the NCS was formed and the CME occurred. Mass was ejected not only from the NCS, but also from the whole MEB. The expanding loop of the CME had the two MDSs as footpoints. The top of the loop was always inclined towards the footpoint of the weaker source, and its locus marks the NCS.

  1. Revised and expanded catalogue of mass ejections observed by the solar maximum mission coronagraph. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Burkepile, J.T.; St, O.C.

    1993-01-01

    This is a revised and expanded catalogue of coronal mass ejections identified in data from the High Altitude Observatory's coronagraph aboard NASA's Solar Maximum Mission spacecraft. The list includes events observed during 1980 and the period 1984 through 1989. The first edition of the catalogue was published in July 1990 (NCAR/TN-352+STR). In the edition, descriptions and measurements of mass ejections included in the first catalogue have been expanded and revised (where necessary). A few additional mass ejections have been identified in the data and have been added to the listing. The catalogue has been expanded to include morphological descriptions of each event and apparent speed measurements, whenever possible. This data has applications to plasma and fusion physics, as well as other sciences.

  2. Mass Communication in Singapore: An Annotated Bibliography. Asian Mass Communication Bibliography Series 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espejo, Cristina Y., Ed.; Fontgalland, Guy de, Ed.

    This bibliography lists and describes published and unpublished material relating to mass communications in Singapore, from 1945 to 1973. Most of the items listed are written in English; a limited number are in Chinese. The bibliography is divided into 18 sections: bibliography and reference material; communication theory and research methods;…

  3. KINEMATIC TREATMENT OF CORONAL MASS EJECTION EVOLUTION IN THE SOLAR WIND

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Pete; Crooker, N. U.

    2004-01-01

    We present a kinematic study of the evolution of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the solar wind. Specifically, we consider the effects of (1) spherical expansion and (2) uniform expansion due to pressure gradients between the interplanetary CME (ICME) and the ambient solar wind. We compare these results with an MHD model that allows us to isolate these effects h m the combined kinematic and dynamical effects, which are included in MHD models. They also provide compelling evidence that the fundamental cross section of so-called "force-free" flux ropes (or magnetic clouds) is neither circular or elliptical, but rather a convex-outward, "pancake" shape. We apply a force-free fit to the magnetic vectors from the MHD simulation to assess how the distortion of the flux rope affects the fit. In spite of these limitations, force-free fits, which are straightforward to apply, do provide an important description of a number of parameters, including the radial dimension, orientation, and chirality of the ICME. Subject headings: MHD - solar wind - Sun: activity - Sun: corona - Sun: coronal mass ejections (CMEs) - On-line material color figures Sun: magnetic fields

  4. The speeds of coronal mass ejections in the solar wind at mid heliographic latitudes: Ulysses

    SciTech Connect

    Gosling, J.T.; Bame, S.J.; McComas, D.J.; Phillips, J.L.; Goldstein, B.E.; Neugebauer, M.

    1994-06-15

    Six CMEs have been detected in the Ulysses plasma observations poleward of S31{degrees}. The most striking aspect of these mid-latitude CMEs was their high speeds; the overall average speed of these CMEs was {approximately}740 km s{sup {minus}1}, which was comparable to that of the rest of the solar wind at these latitudes. This average CME speed is much higher than average CME speeds observed in the solar wind in the ecliptic or in the corona close to the Sun. The evidence indicates that the CMEs were not pushed up to high speeds in interplanetary space by interaction with trailing high-speed plasma. Rather, they simply seem to have received the same basic acceleration as the rest of the solar wind at these mid-latitudes. These results suggest that the basic acceleration process for many CMEs at all latitudes is essentially the same as for the normal solar wind. Frequently most of this acceleration must occur well beyond 6 solar radii from Sun`sj center. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Impact of thermal energy storage properties on solar dynamic space power conversion system mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Coles-Hamilton, Carolyn E.; Lacy, Dovie E.

    1987-01-01

    A 16 parameter solar concentrator/heat receiver mass model is used in conjunction with Stirling and Brayton Power Conversion System (PCS) performance and mass computer codes to determine the effect of thermal energy storage (TES) material property changes on overall PCS mass as a function of steady state electrical power output. Included in the PCS mass model are component masses as a function of thermal power for: concentrator, heat receiver, heat exchangers (source unless integral with heat receiver, heat sink, regenerator), heat engine units with optional parallel redundancy, power conditioning and control (PC and C), PC and C radiator, main radiator, and structure. Critical TES properties are: melting temperature, heat of fusion, density of the liquid phase, and the ratio of solid-to-liquid density. Preliminary results indicate that even though overalll system efficiency increases with TES melting temperature up to 1400 K for concentrator surface accuracies of 1 mrad or better, reductions in the overall system mass beyond that achievable with lithium fluoride (LiF) can be accomplished only if the heat of fusion is at least 800 kJ/kg and the liquid density is comparable to that of LiF (1880 kg/cu m.

  6. Impact of thermal energy storage properties on solar dynamic space power conversion system mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Coles-Hamilton, Carolyn E.; Lacy, Dovie E.

    1987-01-01

    A 16 parameter solar concentrator/heat receiver mass model is used in conjunction with Stirling and Brayton Power Conversion System (PCS) performance and mass computer codes to determine the effect of thermal energy storage (TES) material property changes on overall PCS mass as a function of steady state electrical power output. Included in the PCS mass model are component masses as a function of thermal power for: concentrator, heat receiver, heat exchangers (source unless integral with heat receiver, heat sink, regenerator), heat engine units with optional parallel redundancy, power conditioning and control (PC and C), PC and C radiator, main radiator, and structure. Critical TES properties are: melting temperature, heat of fusion, density of the liquid phase, and the ratio of solid-to-liquid density. Preliminary results indicate that even though overall system efficiency increases with TES melting temperature up to 1400 K for concentrator surface accuracies of 1 mrad or better, reductions in the overall system mass beyond that achievable with lithium fluoride (LiF) can be accomplished only if the heat of fusion is at least 800 kJ/kg and the liquid density is comparable to that of LiF (1800 kg/cu m).

  7. 17.6%-Efficient radial junction solar cells using silicon nano/micro hybrid structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kangmin; Hwang, Inchan; Kim, Namwoo; Choi, Deokjae; Um, Han-Don; Kim, Seungchul; Seo, Kwanyong

    2016-07-01

    We developed a unique nano- and microwire hybrid structure by selectively modifying only the tops of microwires using metal-assisted chemical etching. The proposed nano/micro hybrid structure not only minimizes surface recombination but also absorbs 97% of incident light under AM 1.5G illumination, demonstrating outstanding light absorption compared to that of planar (59%) and microwire arrays (85%). The proposed hybrid solar cells with an area of 1 cm2 exhibit power conversion efficiencies (Eff) of up to 17.6% under AM 1.5G illumination. In particular, the solar cells show a high short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 39.5 mA cm-2 because of the high light-absorbing characteristics of the nanostructures. This corresponds to an approximately 61.5% and 16.5% increase in efficiency compared to that of a planar silicon solar cell (Eff = 10.9%) and a microwire solar cell (Eff = 15.1%), respectively. Therefore, we expect the proposed hybrid structure to become a foundational technology for the development of highly efficient radial junction solar cells.We developed a unique nano- and microwire hybrid structure by selectively modifying only the tops of microwires using metal-assisted chemical etching. The proposed nano/micro hybrid structure not only minimizes surface recombination but also absorbs 97% of incident light under AM 1.5G illumination, demonstrating outstanding light absorption compared to that of planar (59%) and microwire arrays (85%). The proposed hybrid solar cells with an area of 1 cm2 exhibit power conversion efficiencies (Eff) of up to 17.6% under AM 1.5G illumination. In particular, the solar cells show a high short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 39.5 mA cm-2 because of the high light-absorbing characteristics of the nanostructures. This corresponds to an approximately 61.5% and 16.5% increase in efficiency compared to that of a planar silicon solar cell (Eff = 10.9%) and a microwire solar cell (Eff = 15.1%), respectively. Therefore, we expect the

  8. Investigations of the sensitivity of a coronal mass ejection model (ENLIL) to solar input parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkenberg, T. V.; Vršnak, B.; Taktakishvili, A.; Odstrcil, D.; MacNeice, P.; Hesse, M.

    2010-06-01

    Understanding space weather is not only important for satellite operations and human exploration of the solar system but also to phenomena here on Earth that may potentially disturb and disrupt electrical signals. Some of the most violent space weather effects are caused by coronal mass ejections (CMEs), but in order to predict the caused effects, we need to be able to model their propagation from their origin in the solar corona to the point of interest, e.g., Earth. Many such models exist, but to understand the models in detail we must understand the primary input parameters. Here we investigate the parameter space of the ENLILv2.5b model using the CME event of 25 July 2004. ENLIL is a time-dependent 3-D MHD model that can simulate the propagation of cone-shaped interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) through the solar system. Excepting the cone parameters (radius, position, and initial velocity), all remaining parameters are varied, resulting in more than 20 runs investigated here. The output parameters considered are velocity, density, magnetic field strength, and temperature. We find that the largest effects on the model output are the input parameters of upper limit for ambient solar wind velocity, CME density, and elongation factor, regardless of whether one's main interest is arrival time, signal shape, or signal amplitude of the ICME. We find that though ENLILv2.5b currently does not include the magnetic cloud of the ICME, it replicates the signal at L1 well in the studied event. The arrival time difference between satellite data and the ENLILv2.5b baseline run of this study is less than 30 min.

  9. On the Rates of Coronal Mass Ejections: Remote Solar and In Situ Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Pete; Schatzman, C.; Cane, H. V.; Richardson, I. G.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2006-01-01

    We compare the rates of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) as inferred from remote solar observations and interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs) as inferred from in situ observations at both 1 AU and Ulyssses from 1996 through 2004. We also distinguish between those ICMEs that contain a magnetic cloud (MC) and those that do not. While the rates of CMEs and ICMEs track each other well at solar minimum, they diverge significantly in early 1998, during the ascending phase of the solar cycle, with the remote solar observations yielding approximately 20 times more events than are seen at 1 AU. This divergence persists through 2004. A similar divergence occurs between MCs and non-MC ICMEs. We argue that these divergences are due to the birth of midlatitude active regions, which are the sites of a distinct population of CMEs, only partially intercepted by Earth, and we present a simple geometric argument showing that the CME and ICME rates are consistent with one another. We also acknowledge contributions from (1) an increased rate of high-latitude CMEs and (2) focusing effects from the global solar field. While our analysis, coupled with numerical modeling results, generally supports the interpretation that whether one observes a MC within an ICME is sensitive to the trajectory of the spacecraft through the ICME (i.e., an observational selection effect), one result directly contradicts it. Specifically, we find no systematic offset between the latitudinal origin of ICMEs that contain MCs at 1 AU in the ecliptic plane and that of those that do not.

  10. Influence of the Solar Wind Speed on the Propagation of Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashiro, S.; Tokumaru, M.; Fujiki, K.; Iju, T.; Akiyama, S.; Makela, P. A.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the influence of the solar wind (SW) on the propagation of a set of 191 coronal mass ejections (CMEs) near the Sun during the period 1996-2013. The CMEs were observed by LASCO on board SOHO and their source regions were identified using the CME-associated eruptive features (flares, filament eruptions, dimmings) in X-ray, EUV, microwave, and Hα observations. The SW speeds above the CME source regions were estimated from the interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations from the Solar Terrestrial Environ Laboratory, Nagoya University. We considered only CMEs from close to the limb in order to avoid the projection effects. We also considered CMEs with at least 10 height-time measurements in order to avoid the large uncertainty in the acceleration measurements. We confirm the well-known CME-SW relationship that the CMEs propagating faster (slower) than the ambient solar wind are likely to decelerate (accelerate). The correlation between the acceleration and the difference of the CME and the SW speeds is high with a correlation coefficient of -0.74, slightly lower compared to the one for CMEs associated with interplanetary radio bursts (Gopalswamy et al. 2001, JGR, 106, 29219). There are many accelerating CMEs in our sample with a speed similar to the ambient solar wind speed. This could be due to selection effect because accelerating CMEs tend to remain visible longer than decelerating ones. We also found that CMEs originating from around the sources of the fast solar wind tend to be faster, indicating that the open magnetic fields above the CME source regions affect the CME propagation.

  11. Coronal mass ejections and major solar flares: The great active center of March 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feynman, Joan; Hundhausen, Arthur J.

    1994-01-01

    The solar flare and coronal mass ejection (CME) events associated with the large and complex March 1989 active region are discussed. This active region gave us a chance to study the relation of CME with truly major solar flares. The work concentrates on questions of the relation of CMEs and flares to one another and to other types of activity on the Sun. As expected, some major (X-3B class) flares had associated CMEs. However, an unexpected finding is that others did not. In fact, there is strong evidence that the X4-4B flare of March 9th had no CME. This lack of a CME for such an outstanding flare event has important implications to theories of CME causation.Apparently, not all major flares cause CMEs or are caused by CMEs. The relations between CMEs and other types of solar activity are also discussed. No filament disappearances are reported for major CMEs studied here. Comparing these results with other studies, CMEs occur in association with flares and with erupting prominences, but neither are required for a CME. The relation between solar structures showing flaring without filament eruptions and structures showing filament eruptions without flares becomes important. The evolutionary relation between an active flaring sunspot region and extensive filaments without sunspots is reviewed, and the concept of an 'evolving magnetic structure' (EMS) is introduced. It is suggested that all CMEs arise in EMSs and that CMEs provide a major path through which azimuthal magnetic fields escape form the Sun during the solar cycle.

  12. Propagation of the 12 May 1997 interplanetary coronal mass ejection in evolving solar wind structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odstrcil, D.; Pizzo, V. J.; Arge, C. N.

    2005-02-01

    Recently, we simulated the 12 May 1997 coronal mass ejection (CME) event with a numerical three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic model (Odstrcil et al., 2004), in which the background solar wind was determined from the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) coronal model (Riley et al., 2001) and the transient disturbance was determined from the cone model (Zhao et al., 2002). Although we reproduced with some fidelity the arrival of the shock and interplanetary CME at Earth, detailed analysis of the simulations showed a poorly defined shock and discrepancies in the standoff distance between the shock and the driving ejecta and in the inclination of the shock with respect to the Sun-Earth line. In this paper, we investigate these problems in more detail. First, we use an alternative coronal outflow model, the so-called Wang-Sheeley-Arge-Mount Wilson Observatory (WSA-MWO) model (Arge and Pizzo, 2000; Arge et al., 2002; Arge et al., 2004), to assess the effect of using synoptic, full rotation coronal maps that differ in method of preparation. Second, we investigate how differences in the presumed evolution of the coronal stream structure affect the propagation of the disturbance. We incorporate two time-dependent boundary conditions for the ambient solar wind as determined by the WSA model, one derived from pseudo daily updated maps and one derived from artificially modified full rotation maps. Numerical results from these different scenarios are compared with solar wind observations at Earth. We find that heliospheric simulations with the SAIC and WSA full rotation models provide qualitatively similar parameters of the background solar wind and transient disturbances at Earth. Improved agreement with the observations is achieved by artificially modified maps that simulate the rapid displacement of the coronal hole boundary after the CME eruption. We also consider how multipoint temporal profiles of solar wind parameters and multiperspective synthetic

  13. A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency

    PubMed Central

    You, Jingbi; Dou, Letian; Yoshimura, Ken; Kato, Takehito; Ohya, Kenichiro; Moriarty, Tom; Emery, Keith; Chen, Chun-Chao; Gao, Jing; Li, Gang; Yang, Yang

    2013-01-01

    An effective way to improve polymer solar cell efficiency is to use a tandem structure, as a broader part of the spectrum of solar radiation is used and the thermalization loss of photon energy is minimized. In the past, the lack of high-performance low-bandgap polymers was the major limiting factor for achieving high-performance tandem solar cell. Here we report the development of a high-performance low bandgap polymer (bandgap <1.4 eV), poly[2,7-(5,5-bis-(3,7-dimethyloctyl)-5H-dithieno[3,2-b:2′,3′-d]pyran)-alt-4,7-(5,6-difluoro-2,1,3-benzothia diazole)] with a bandgap of 1.38 eV, high mobility, deep highest occupied molecular orbital. As a result, a single-junction device shows high external quantum efficiency of >60% and spectral response that extends to 900 nm, with a power conversion efficiency of 7.9%. The polymer enables a solution processed tandem solar cell with certified 10.6% power conversion efficiency under standard reporting conditions (25 °C, 1,000 Wm−2, IEC 60904-3 global), which is the first certified polymer solar cell efficiency over 10%. PMID:23385590

  14. THE EVOLUTION OF THE SOLAR NEBULA I. EVOLUTION OF THE GLOBAL PROPERTIES AND PLANET MASSES

    SciTech Connect

    Jin Liping; Sui Ning E-mail: suining@email.jlu.edu.c

    2010-02-20

    We investigate the formation, structure, and evolution of the solar nebula by including nonuniform viscosity and the mass influx from the gravitational collapse of the molecular cloud core. The calculations are done by using currently accepted viscosity, which is nonuniform, and probable mass influx from star formation theory. In the calculation of the viscosity, we include the effect of magnetorotational instability. The radial distributions of the surface density and other physical quantities of the nebula are significantly different from nebula models with constant alpha viscosity and the models which do not include the mass influx. We find that the nebula starts to form from the inner boundary because of the inside-out collapse and then expands due to viscosity. The surface density is not a monotonic function of the radius like the case of uniform viscosity. There are minimums near 1.5 AU due to nonuniform viscosity. The general shape of the surface density is sustained before the mass influx stops because the mass supply offsets mass loss accreted onto the protosun and provides the mass needed for the nebula expansion. We show that not all protoplanetary disks experience gravitational instability during some periods of their lifetime. We find that the nebula becomes gravitationally unstable in some durations when the angular momentum of the cloud core is high. Our numerical calculations confirm Jin's early suggestion that nonuniform viscosity explains the differences in mass and gas content among Jovian planets. Our calculations of nebular evolution show that the nebula temperature is less than 1200 K. Even in the inner portion of the nebula, refractory material from the molecular cloud may survive and refractory condensates may form.

  15. Numerical modelling of heat and mass transfer in adsorption solar reactor of ammonia on active carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aroudam, El. H.

    In this paper, we present a modelling of the performance of a reactor of a solar cooling machine based carbon-ammonia activated bed. Hence, for a solar radiation, measured in the Energetic Laboratory of the Faculty of Sciences in Tetouan (northern Morocco), the proposed model computes the temperature distribution, the pressure and the ammonia concentration within the activated carbon bed. The Dubinin-Radushkevich formula is used to compute the ammonia concentration distribution and the daily cycled mass necessary to produce a cooling effect for an ideal machine. The reactor is heated at a maximum temperature during the day and cool at the night. A numerical simulation is carried out employing the recorded solar radiation data measured locally and the daily ambient temperature for the typical clear days. Initially the reactor is at ambient temperature, evaporating pressure; Pev=Pst(Tev=0 ∘C) and maintained at uniform concentration. It is heated successively until the threshold temperature corresponding to the condensing pressure; Pcond=Pst(Tam) (saturation pressure at ambient temperature; in the condenser) and until a maximum temperature at a constant pressure; Pcond. The cooling of the reactor is characterised by a fall of temperature to the minimal values at night corresponding to the end of a daily cycle. We use the mass balance equations as well as energy equation to describe heat and mass transfer inside the medium of three phases. A numerical solution of the obtained non linear equations system based on the implicit finite difference method allows to know all parameters characteristic of the thermodynamic cycle and consider principally the daily evolution of temperature, ammonia concentration for divers positions inside the reactor. The tube diameter of the reactor shows the dependence of the optimum value on meteorological parameters for 1 m2 of collector surface.

  16. Multipoint Observations of Coronal Mass Ejection and Solar Energetic Particle Events on Mars and Earth During November 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falkenberg, T. V.; Vennerstrom, S.; Brain, D. A.; Delory, G.; Taktakishvili, A.

    2011-01-01

    Multipoint spacecraft observations provide unique opportunities to constrain the propagation and evolution of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) throughout the heliosphere. Using Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data to study both ICME and solar energetic particle (SEP) events at Mars and OMNI and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) data to study ICMEs and SEPs at Earth, we present a detailed study of three CMEs and flares in late November 2001. In this period, Mars trailed Earth by 56deg solar longitude so that the two planets occupied interplanetary magnetic field lines separated by only approx.25deg. We model the interplanetary propagation of CME events using the ENLIL version 2.6 3-D MHD code coupled with the Wang-Sheeley-Arge version 1.6 potential source surface model, using Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) images to determine CME input parameters. We find that multipoint observations are essential to constrain the simulations of ICME propagation, as two very different ICMEs may look very similar in only one observational location. The direction and width of the CME as parameters essential to a correct estimation of arrival time and amplitude of the ICME signal. We find that these are problematic to extract from the analysis of SOHO/LASCO images commonly used for input to ICME propagation models. We further confirm that MGS magnetometer and electron reflectometer data can be used to study not only ICME events but also SEP events at Mars, with good results providing a consistent picture of the events when combined with near-Earth data.

  17. A two-solar-mass neutron star measured using Shapiro delay.

    PubMed

    Demorest, P B; Pennucci, T; Ransom, S M; Roberts, M S E; Hessels, J W T

    2010-10-28

    Neutron stars are composed of the densest form of matter known to exist in our Universe, the composition and properties of which are still theoretically uncertain. Measurements of the masses or radii of these objects can strongly constrain the neutron star matter equation of state and rule out theoretical models of their composition. The observed range of neutron star masses, however, has hitherto been too narrow to rule out many predictions of 'exotic' non-nucleonic components. The Shapiro delay is a general-relativistic increase in light travel time through the curved space-time near a massive body. For highly inclined (nearly edge-on) binary millisecond radio pulsar systems, this effect allows us to infer the masses of both the neutron star and its binary companion to high precision. Here we present radio timing observations of the binary millisecond pulsar J1614-2230 that show a strong Shapiro delay signature. We calculate the pulsar mass to be (1.97 ± 0.04)M(⊙), which rules out almost all currently proposed hyperon or boson condensate equations of state (M(⊙), solar mass). Quark matter can support a star this massive only if the quarks are strongly interacting and are therefore not 'free' quarks. PMID:20981094

  18. Compressive Acceleration of Solar Energetic Particles within Coronal Mass Ejections: Observations and Theory Relevant to the Solar Probe Plus and Solar Orbiter Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelof, E. C.

    2015-12-01

    Observations of solar energetic particles (SEPs) over Solar Cycles 22-24 included the measurement of their pitch-angle distributions (PADs). When only magnetically "well-connected" SEP events were selected, i.e., with the spacecraft on interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) lines whose coronal foot-points were within about 30 deg of the associated flare site, the PADs were usually "beam-like" during the rise-to-maximum phase (RTM) of the events. This nearly "scatter-free" propagation (due to magnetic focusing of the IMF) revealed that the injection times of the SEPs were delayed up to 10s of minutes after the onset of electromagnetic emissions from the flare. Direct comparison with the flare-associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from the western hemisphere indicated that the SEP acceleration/injection was occurring at least 1 Rs into the corona (and often continuing well above that radial distance). Moreover, the RTM profiles exhibited a continuum of shapes, from "spikes" to "pulses" to "ramps", and these shape characterizations ordered the properties of the associated CMEs. Most importantly, when compared at nearly the same near-relativistic velocities, electrons and protons exhibited similar PADs and RTM profiles. Clearly, such orderly patterns in the data call for a single dominant acceleration process that treats all particles of similar velocities the same, regardless of mass and charge. A simple theory that meets all of these requirements, based on nearly scatter-free propagation and energy change within particle "reservoirs" (such as the closed magnetic structure of a CME), has recently been proposed [Roelof, Proc. 14th Ann. Int'l. Astrophys. Conf., IOP, in press, 2015]. The acceleration results from compression (-divV) of the driver plasma, well sunward of the CME shock. Acceleration (e-folding) times of only a few minutes can be obtained from representative parameters of 1000 km/s CMEs. A companion paper [Roelof and Vourlidas, op. cit.], proposed a new

  19. Temperature of Solar Prominences Obtained with the Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph on the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyungmin; Chae, Jongchul; Song, Donguk; Maurya, Ram Ajor; Yang, Heesu; Park, Young-Deuk; Jang, Bi-Ho; Nah, Jakyoung; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Kim, Yeon-Han; Ahn, Kwangsu; Cao, Wenda; Goode, Philip R.

    2013-11-01

    We observed solar prominences with the Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph (FISS) at the Big Bear Solar Observatory on 30 June 2010 and 15 August 2011. To determine the temperature of the prominence material, we applied a nonlinear least-squares fitting of the radiative transfer model. From the Doppler broadening of the Hα and Ca ii lines, we determined the temperature and nonthermal velocity separately. The ranges of temperature and nonthermal velocity were 4000 - 20 000 K and 4 - 11 km s-1. We also found that the temperature varied much from point to point within one prominence.

  20. Solar wind data from the MIT plasma experiments on Pioneer 6 and Pioneer 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazarus, A. J.; Heinemann, M. A.; Mckinnis, R. W.; Bridge, H. S.

    1973-01-01

    Hourly averages are presented of solar wind proton parameters obtained from experiments on the Pioneer 6 and Pioneer 7 spacecraft during the period December 16, 1965 to August 1971. The number of data points available on a given day depends upon the spacecraft-earth distance, the telemetry bit rate, and the ground tracking time allotted to each spacecraft. Thus, the data obtained earlier in the life of each spacecraft are more complete. The solar wind parameters are given in the form of plots and listings. Trajectory information is also given along with a detailed description of the analysis procedures used to extract plasma parameters from the measured data.

  1. EDDINGTON-LIMITED ACCRETION AND THE BLACK HOLE MASS FUNCTION AT REDSHIFT 6

    SciTech Connect

    Willott, Chris J.; Crampton, David; Hutchings, John B.; Schade, David; Albert, Loic; Arzoumanian, Doris; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Omont, Alain; Delorme, Philippe; Reyle, Celine

    2010-08-15

    We present discovery observations of a quasar in the Canada-France High-z Quasar Survey (CFHQS) at redshift z = 6.44. We also use near-infrared spectroscopy of nine CFHQS quasars at z {approx} 6 to determine black hole masses. These are compared with similar estimates for more luminous Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars to investigate the relationship between black hole mass and quasar luminosity. We find a strong correlation between Mg II FWHM and UV luminosity and that most quasars at this early epoch are accreting close to the Eddington limit. Thus, these quasars appear to be in an early stage of their life cycle where they are building up their black hole mass exponentially. Combining these results with the quasar luminosity function, we derive the black hole mass function at z = 6. Our black hole mass function is {approx}10{sup 4} times lower than at z = 0 and substantially below estimates from previous studies. The main uncertainties which could increase the black hole mass function are a larger population of obscured quasars at high redshift than is observed at low redshift and/or a low quasar duty cycle at z = 6. In comparison, the global stellar mass function is only {approx}10{sup 2} times lower at z = 6 than at z = 0. The difference between the black hole and stellar mass function evolution is due to either rapid early star formation which is not limited by radiation pressure as is the case for black hole growth or inefficient black hole seeding. Our work predicts that the black hole mass-stellar mass relation for a volume-limited sample of galaxies declines rapidly at very high redshift. This is in contrast to the observed increase at 4 < z < 6 from the local relation if one just studies the most massive black holes.

  2. Very Low Mass Stellar and Substellar Companions to Solar-like Stars from MARVELS. I. A Low-mass Ratio Stellar Companion to TYC 4110-01037-1 in a 79 Day Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisniewski, John P.; Ge, Jian; Crepp, Justin R.; De Lee, Nathan; Eastman, Jason; Esposito, Massimiliano; Fleming, Scott W.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Ghezzi, Luan; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jonay I.; Lee, Brian L.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Agol, Eric; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Barnes, Rory; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Cargile, Phillip; Chang, Liang; Da Costa, Luiz N.; Porto De Mello, G. F.; Femenía, Bruno; Ferreira, Leticia D.; Gary, Bruce; Hebb, Leslie; Holtzman, Jon; Liu, Jian; Ma, Bo; Mack, Claude E.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; Oravetz, Daniel J.; Paegert, Martin; Pan, Kaike; Pepper, Joshua; Rebolo, Rafael; Santiago, Basilio; Schneider, Donald P.; Shelden, Alaina C.; Simmons, Audrey; Tofflemire, Benjamin M.; Wan, Xiaoke; Wang, Ji; Zhao, Bo

    2012-05-01

    TYC 4110-01037-1 has a low-mass stellar companion, whose small mass ratio and short orbital period are atypical among binary systems with solar-like (T eff <~ 6000 K) primary stars. Our analysis of TYC 4110-01037-1 reveals it to be a moderately aged (lsim5 Gyr) solar-like star having a mass of 1.07 ± 0.08 M ⊙ and radius of 0.99 ± 0.18 R ⊙. We analyze 32 radial velocity (RV) measurements from the SDSS-III MARVELS survey as well as 6 supporting RV measurements from the SARG spectrograph on the 3.6 m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo telescope obtained over a period of ~2 years. The best Keplerian orbital fit parameters were found to have a period of 78.994 ± 0.012 days, an eccentricity of 0.1095 ± 0.0023, and a semi-amplitude of 4199 ± 11 m s-1. We determine the minimum companion mass (if sin i = 1) to be 97.7 ± 5.8 M Jup. The system's companion to host star mass ratio, >=0.087 ± 0.003, places it at the lowest end of observed values for short period stellar companions to solar-like (T eff <~ 6000 K) stars. One possible way to create such a system would be if a triple-component stellar multiple broke up into a short period, low q binary during the cluster dispersal phase of its lifetime. A candidate tertiary body has been identified in the system via single-epoch, high contrast imagery. If this object is confirmed to be comoving, we estimate it would be a dM4 star. We present these results in the context of our larger-scale effort to constrain the statistics of low-mass stellar and brown dwarf companions to FGK-type stars via the MARVELS survey.

  3. Interplanetary coronal mass ejections and their geomagnetic consequences during solar cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maris Muntean, Georgeta; Mierla, Marilena; Besliu-Ionescu, Diana; Lacatus, Dana; Razvan Paraschiv, Alin

    Geomagnetic storms are known to be of great importance to life on Earth through their impact on telecommunications, electric power networks and much more. Our study will analyse in detail two months of solar and geomagnetic activity in March 2012 and, March 2013. There is an ICME (Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection) recorded on March 9, 2012 listed in the Richardson and Cane catalogue, correlated with a Halo CME (Coronal Mass Ejection) from March 7. An intense geomagnetic storm (minimum Dst = -131 nT) was registered on March 9, 2012. Out of the two ICMEs recorded on the 17th and 20th March 2013, only the first was clearly associated with a Halo CME from March, 15. March, 17 is a day of intense geomagnetic storm (minimum Dst = -132 nT). We will focus on these events, such that the interaction between ICMEs and interplanetary magnetic field from the Sun to the Earth can be thoroughly described.

  4. A CRITICAL EXAMINATION OF THE FUNDAMENTAL ASSUMPTIONS OF SOLAR FLARE AND CORONAL MASS EJECTION MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Spicer, D. S.; Bingham, R.; Harrison, R.

    2013-05-01

    The fundamental assumptions of conventional solar flare and coronal mass ejection (CME) theory are re-examined. In particular, the common theoretical assumption that magnetic energy that drives flares and CMEs can be stored in situ in the corona with sufficient energy density is found wanting. In addition, the observational constraint that flares and CMEs produce non-thermal electrons with fluxes of order 10{sup 34}-10{sup 36} electrons s{sup -1}, with energies of order 10-20 keV, must also be explained. This constraint when imposed on the ''standard model'' for flares and CMEs is found to miss the mark by many orders of magnitude. We suggest, in conclusion, there are really only two possible ways to explain the requirements of observations and theory: flares and CMEs are caused by mass-loaded prominences or driven directly by emerging magnetized flux.

  5. Voyager observations of O(+6) and other minor ions in the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villanueva, Louis; Mcnutt, Ralph L., Jr.; Lazarus, Alan J.; Steinberg, John T.

    1994-01-01

    The plasma science (PLS) experiments on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft began making measurements of the solar wind shortly after the two launches in the fall of 1977. In reviewing the data obtained prior to the Jupiter encounters in 1979, we have found that the large dynamic range of the PLS instrument generally allows a clean separation of signatures of minor ions (about 2.5% of the time) during a single instrument scan in energy per charge. The minor ions, most notably O(+6), are well separated from the protons and alpha particles during times when the solar wind Mach number (ratio of streaming speed to thermal speed) is greater than approximately 15. During the Earth to Jupiter cruise we find that the average ratio of alpha particle number density to that of oxygen is 66 +/- 7 (Voyager 1) and 71 +/- 17 (Voyager 2). These values are consistent with the value 75 +/- 20 inferred from the Ion Composition Instrument on ISEE 3 during the period spanning 1978 and 1982. We have inferred an average coronal temperature of (1.7 +/- 0.1) x 10(exp 6) K based on the ratio of O(+7) to O(+6) number densities. Our observations cover a period of increasing solar activity. During this time we have found that the alpha particle to proton number density ratio is increasing with the solar cycle, the oxygen to proton ratio increases, and the alpha particle to oxygen ratio remains relatively constant in time.

  6. Modeling heat and mass transport phenomena at higher temperatures in solar distillation systems - The Chilton-Colburn analogy

    SciTech Connect

    Tsilingiris, P.T.

    2010-02-15

    In the present investigation efforts have been devoted towards developing an analysis suitable for heat and mass transfer processes modeling in solar distillation systems, when they are operating at higher temperatures. For this purpose the use of Lewis relation is not new although its validity is based on the assumptions of identical boundary layer concentration and temperature distributions, as well as low mass flux conditions, which are not usually met in solar distillation systems operating at higher temperatures associated with considerable mass transfer rates. The present analysis, taking into consideration these conditions and the temperature dependence of all pertinent thermophysical properties of the saturated binary mixture of water vapor and dry air, leads to the development of an improved predictive accuracy model. This model, having undergone successful first order validation against earlier reported measurements from the literature, appears to offer more accurate predictions of the transport processes and mass flow rate yield of solar stills when operated at elevated temperatures. (author)

  7. DEFLECTIONS OF FAST CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS AND THE PROPERTIES OF ASSOCIATED SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kahler, S. W.; Akiyama, S.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2012-08-01

    The onset times and peak intensities of solar energetic particle (SEP) events at Earth have long been thought to be influenced by the open magnetic fields of coronal holes (CHs). The original idea was that a CH lying between the solar SEP source region and the magnetic footpoint of the 1 AU observer would result in a delay in onset and/or a decrease in the peak intensity of that SEP event. Recently, Gopalswamy et al. showed that CHs near coronal mass ejection (CME) source regions can deflect fast CMEs from their expected trajectories in space, explaining the appearance of driverless shocks at 1 AU from CMEs ejected near solar central meridian (CM). This suggests that SEP events originating in CME-driven shocks may show variations attributable to CH deflections of the CME trajectories. Here, we use a CH magnetic force parameter to examine possible effects of CHs on the timing and intensities of 41 observed gradual E {approx} 20 MeV SEP events with CME source regions within 20 Degree-Sign of CM. We find no systematic CH effects on SEP event intensity profiles. Furthermore, we find no correlation between the CME leading-edge measured position angles and SEP event properties, suggesting that the widths of CME-driven shock sources of the SEPs are much larger than the CMEs. Independently of the SEP event properties, we do find evidence for significant CME deflections by CH fields in these events.

  8. THE GENESIS SOLAR WIND CONCENTRATOR TARGET: MASS FRACTIONATION CHARACTERISED BY NE ISOTOPES

    SciTech Connect

    WIENS, ROGER C.; OLINGER, C.; HEBER, V.S.; REISENFELD, D.B.; BURNETT, D.S.; ALLTON, J.H.; BAUR, H.; WIECHERT, U.; WIELER, R.

    2007-01-02

    The concentrator on Genesis provides samples of increased fluences of solar wind ions for precise determination of the oxygen isotopic composition of the solar wind. The concentration process caused mass fractionation as function of the radial target position. They measured the fractionation using Ne released by UV laser ablation along two arms of the gold cross from the concentrator target to compare measured Ne with modeled Ne. The latter is based on simulations using actual conditions of the solar wind during Genesis operation. Measured Ne abundances and isotopic composition of both arms agree within uncertainties indicating a radial symmetric concentration process. Ne data reveal a maximum concentration factor of {approx} 30% at the target center and a target-wide fractionation of Ne isotopes of 3.8%/amu with monotonously decreasing {sup 20}Ne/{sup 22}Ne ratios towards the center. The experimentally determined data, in particular the isotopic fractionation, differ from the modeled data. They discuss potential reasons and propose future attempts to overcome these disagreements.

  9. Propagation of Solar Energetic Particles During Multiple Coronal Mass Ejection Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohjolainen, Silja; Al-Hamadani, Firas; Valtonen, Eino

    2016-02-01

    We study solar energetic particle (SEP) events during multiple solar eruptions. The analysed sequences, on 24 - 26 November 2000, 9 - 13 April 2001, and 22 - 25 August 2005, consisted of halo-type coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that originated from the same active region and were associated with intense flares, EUV waves, and interplanetary (IP) radio type II and type III bursts. The first two solar events in each of these sequences showed SEP enhancements near Earth, but the third in the row did not. We observed that in these latter events the type III radio bursts were stopped at much higher frequencies than in the earlier events, indicating that the bursts did not reach the typical plasma density levels near Earth. To explain the missing third SEP event in each sequence, we suggest that the earlier-launched CMEs and the CME-driven shocks either reduced the seed particle population and thus led to inefficient particle acceleration, or that the earlier-launched CMEs and shocks changed the propagation paths or prevented the propagation of both the electron beams and SEPs, so that they were not detected near Earth even when the shock arrivals were recorded.

  10. Solar Jet-Coronal Hole Collision and a Closely Related Coronal Mass Ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Ruisheng; Chen, Yao; Du, Guohui; Li, Chuanyang

    2016-03-01

    Jets are defined as impulsive, well-collimated upflows, occurring in different layers of the solar atmosphere with different scales. Their relationship with coronal mass ejections (CMEs), another type of solar impulsive events, remains elusive. Using high-quality imaging data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly/Solar Dynamics Observatory, we show a well-observed coronal jet event, in which the part of the jet with embedding coronal loops runs into a nearby coronal hole (CH) and gets bounced in the opposite direction. This is evidenced by the flat shape of the jet front during its interaction with the CH and the V-shaped feature in the time-slice plot of the interaction region. About a half-hour later, a CME with an initially narrow and jet-like front is observed by the LASCO C2 coronagraph propagating along the direction of the post-collision jet. We also observe some 304 Å dark material flowing from the jet-CH interaction region toward the CME. We thus suggest that the jet and the CME are physically connected, with the jet-CH collision and the large-scale magnetic topology of the CH being important in defining the eventual propagating direction of this particular jet-CME eruption.

  11. Investigation of the Large Scale Evolution and Topology of Coronal Mass Ejections in the Solar Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Pete

    2001-01-01

    This investigation is concerned with the large-scale evolution and topology of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the solar wind. During the course of this three-year investigation, we have undertaken a number of studies that are discussed in more detail in this report. For example, we conducted an analysis of all CMEs observed by the Ulysses spacecraft during its in-ecliptic phase between 1 and 5 AU. In addition to studying the properties of the ejecta, we also analyzed the shocks that could be unambiguously associated with the fast CMEs. We also analyzed a series of 'density holes' observed in the solar wind that bear many similarities with CMEs. To complement this analysis, we conducted a series of 1-D and 2 1/2-D fluid, MHD, and hybrid simulations to address a number of specific issues related to CME evolution in the solar wind. For example, we used fluid simulations to address the interpretation of negative electron temperature-density relationships often observed within CME/cloud intervals. As part of this investigation, a number of fruitful international collaborations were forged. Finally, the results of this work were presented at nine scientific meetings and communicated in eight scientific, refereed papers.

  12. Deflections of Fast Coronal Mass Ejections and the Properties of Associated Solar Energetic Particle Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahler, S. W.; Akiyama, S.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2012-01-01

    The onset times and peak intensities of solar energetic particle (SEP) events at Earth have long been thought to be influenced by the open magnetic fields of coronal holes (CHs). The original idea was that a CH lying between the solar SEP source region and the magnetic footpoint of the 1 AU observer would result in a delay in onset and/or a decrease in the peak intensity of that SEP event. Recently, Gopalswamy et al. showed that CHs near coronal mass ejection (CME) source regions can deflect fast CMEs from their expected trajectories in space, explaining the appearance of driverless shocks at 1 AU from CMEs ejected near solar central meridian (CM). This suggests that SEP events originating in CME-driven shocks may show variations attributable to CH deflections of the CME trajectories. Here, we use a CH magnetic force parameter to examine possible effects of CHs on the timing and intensities of 41 observed gradual E approx 20 MeV SEP events with CME source regions within 20 deg. of CM. We find no systematic CH effects on SEP event intensity profiles. Furthermore, we find no correlation between the CME leading-edge measured position angles and SEP event properties, suggesting that the widths of CME-driven shock sources of the SEPs are much larger than the CMEs. Independently of the SEP event properties, we do find evidence for significant CME deflections by CH fields in these events

  13. The 1.6 m off-axis New Solar Telescope (NST) in Big Bear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goode, Philip R.; Cao, Wenda

    2012-09-01

    The 1.6-m New Solar Telescope (NST) has been used to observe the Sun for more than three years with ever increasing capabilities as its commissioning phase winds down. The NST is the first facility-class solar telescope built in the U.S. in a generation, and it has an off-axis design as is planned for the 4 m Advanced Technology Solar Telescope. Lessons learned will be discussed. Current NST post-focus instrumentation includes adaptive optics (AO) feeding photometric and near-IR polarimetric sytems, as well as an imaging spectrograph. On-going instrumentation projects will be sketched, including Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO), next generation (dual Fabry- Perot) visible light and near-IR polarimeters and a fully cryogenic spectrograph. Finally, recent observational results illustrating the high resolution capabilities of the NST will be shown.

  14. 17.6%-Efficient radial junction solar cells using silicon nano/micro hybrid structures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kangmin; Hwang, Inchan; Kim, Namwoo; Choi, Deokjae; Um, Han-Don; Kim, Seungchul; Seo, Kwanyong

    2016-08-14

    We developed a unique nano- and microwire hybrid structure by selectively modifying only the tops of microwires using metal-assisted chemical etching. The proposed nano/micro hybrid structure not only minimizes surface recombination but also absorbs 97% of incident light under AM 1.5G illumination, demonstrating outstanding light absorption compared to that of planar (59%) and microwire arrays (85%). The proposed hybrid solar cells with an area of 1 cm(2) exhibit power conversion efficiencies (Eff) of up to 17.6% under AM 1.5G illumination. In particular, the solar cells show a high short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 39.5 mA cm(-2) because of the high light-absorbing characteristics of the nanostructures. This corresponds to an approximately 61.5% and 16.5% increase in efficiency compared to that of a planar silicon solar cell (Eff = 10.9%) and a microwire solar cell (Eff = 15.1%), respectively. Therefore, we expect the proposed hybrid structure to become a foundational technology for the development of highly efficient radial junction solar cells. PMID:27405387

  15. 6.5% efficient perovskite quantum-dot-sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Jeong-Hyeok; Lee, Chang-Ryul; Lee, Jin-Wook; Park, Sang-Won; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2011-10-01

    Highly efficient quantum-dot-sensitized solar cell is fabricated using ca. 2-3 nm sized perovskite (CH3NH3)PbI3 nanocrystal. Spin-coating of the equimolar mixture of CH3NH3I and PbI2 in γ-butyrolactone solution (perovskite precursor solution) leads to (CH3NH3)PbI3 quantum dots (QDs) on nanocrystalline TiO2 surface. By electrochemical junction with iodide/iodine based redox electrolyte, perovskite QD-sensitized 3.6 μm-thick TiO2 film shows maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 78.6% at 530 nm and solar-to-electrical conversion efficiency of 6.54% at AM 1.5G 1 sun intensity (100 mW cm-2), which is by far the highest efficiency among the reported inorganic quantum dot sensitizers.Highly efficient quantum-dot-sensitized solar cell is fabricated using ca. 2-3 nm sized perovskite (CH3NH3)PbI3 nanocrystal. Spin-coating of the equimolar mixture of CH3NH3I and PbI2 in γ-butyrolactone solution (perovskite precursor solution) leads to (CH3NH3)PbI3 quantum dots (QDs) on nanocrystalline TiO2 surface. By electrochemical junction with iodide/iodine based redox electrolyte, perovskite QD-sensitized 3.6 μm-thick TiO2 film shows maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 78.6% at 530 nm and solar-to-electrical conversion efficiency of 6.54% at AM 1.5G 1 sun intensity (100 mW cm-2), which is by far the highest efficiency among the reported inorganic quantum dot sensitizers. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10867k

  16. Topological model of the solar event including a flare and coronal mass ejection on October 19, 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorov, V. I.; Yazev, S. A.

    2008-08-01

    Based on the analysis of a strong solar flare X1.6/2B on October 19, 2001 in the active region 9661, accompanied by a coronal mass ejection (CME) of the halo type, a topological model of development of this solar event is suggested. The model considers a unified process of development of CME and a chromosphere flare. According to the model, this process has a common source of energy supply: the turbulent current layer lying between the arcade of flare loops and the surface of CME going away. The structures on the ends of flare bands (SEFB) represent in this model chromosphere feet of the system of large-scale coronal magnetic arches at the initial stage of the dynamic processes whose evolution results in CME. Peripheral structures (PS) of the flare (elongated double bright emission strips beyond the limits of the active region) are interpreted as chromosphere bases of magnetic field lines that form an external shell (braid) of the CME at the late stage of the flare.

  17. On the rates of coronal mass ejections: remote solar and in situ observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, P.; Cane, H.; Richardson, I. G.; Gopalswamy, N.; Linker, J. A.; Mikic, Z.; Lionello, R.

    2006-05-01

    In this study we compare the rates of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) as inferred from remote solar observations and interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs) as inferred from in situ observations at both 1 AU and Ulysses for almost an entire solar cycle (1996 through 2004). We find that, while the rates of CMEs and ICMEs track each other well at solar minimum, they diverge significantly in early 1998, during the ascending phase of the solar cycle, with the remote solar observations yielding approximately 20 times more events than are seen in situ at 1 AU. This divergence persists through 2004. We discuss several possible causes, including: (1) the appearance of mid-latitude active regions; (2) the increased rate of high-latitude CMEs; and (3) the strength of the global solar field. We conclude that the most likely interpretation is that this divergence is due to the birth of mid-latitude active regions, which are the sites of a distinct population of CMEs that are only partially intercepted by Earth. This conclusion is supported by the following points: (1) A similar divergence occurs between ICMEs in which magnetic clouds are observed (MCs), and those that are not; and (2) a number of pronounced enhancements in the CME rate, separated by approximately one year, are also mirrored and in ICME rate, but not obviously in the MC rate. We provide a simple geometric argument that shows that the computed CME and ICME rates are consistent with each other. The origins of the individual peaks can be traced back to unusually strong active regions on the Sun. Taken together, these results suggest that whether one observes a flux rope within an ICME is sensitive to the trajectory of the spacecraft through the ICME, i.e., an observational selection effect. This conclusion is supported by models of CME eruption and evolution, which: (1) are incapable of producing a CME that does not contain an embedded flux rope; and (2) demonstrate that glancing intercepts can produce ICME-like signatures

  18. Two-Step Forecast of Geomagnetic Storm Using Coronal Mass Ejection and Solar Wind Condition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, R.-S.; Moon, Y.-J.; Gopalswamy, N.; Park, Y.-D.; Kim, Y.-H.

    2014-01-01

    To forecast geomagnetic storms, we had examined initially observed parameters of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and introduced an empirical storm forecast model in a previous study. Now we suggest a two-step forecast considering not only CME parameters observed in the solar vicinity but also solar wind conditions near Earth to improve the forecast capability. We consider the empirical solar wind criteria derived in this study (Bz = -5 nT or Ey = 3 mV/m for t = 2 h for moderate storms with minimum Dst less than -50 nT) (i.e. Magnetic Field Magnitude, B (sub z) less than or equal to -5 nanoTeslas or duskward Electrical Field, E (sub y) greater than or equal to 3 millivolts per meter for time greater than or equal to 2 hours for moderate storms with Minimum Disturbance Storm Time, Dst less than -50 nanoTeslas) and a Dst model developed by Temerin and Li (2002, 2006) (TL [i.e. Temerin Li] model). Using 55 CME-Dst pairs during 1997 to 2003, our solar wind criteria produce slightly better forecasts for 31 storm events (90 percent) than the forecasts based on the TL model (87 percent). However, the latter produces better forecasts for 24 nonstorm events (88 percent), while the former correctly forecasts only 71 percent of them. We then performed the two-step forecast. The results are as follows: (i) for 15 events that are incorrectly forecasted using CME parameters, 12 cases (80 percent) can be properly predicted based on solar wind conditions; (ii) if we forecast a storm when both CME and solar wind conditions are satisfied (n, i.e. cap operator - the intersection set that is comprised of all the elements that are common to both), the critical success index becomes higher than that from the forecast using CME parameters alone, however, only 25 storm events (81 percent) are correctly forecasted; and (iii) if we forecast a storm when either set of these conditions is satisfied (?, i.e. cup operator - the union set that is comprised of all the elements of either or both

  19. IS SOLAR CYCLE 24 PRODUCING MORE CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS THAN CYCLE 23?

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.-M.; Colaninno, R. E-mail: robin.colaninno@nrl.navy.mil

    2014-04-01

    Although sunspot numbers are roughly a factor of two lower in the current cycle than in cycle 23, the rate of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) appears to be at least as high in 2011-2013 as during the corresponding phase of the previous cycle, according to three catalogs that list events observed with the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO). However, the number of CMEs detected is sensitive to such factors as the image cadence and the tendency (especially by human observers) to under-/overcount small or faint ejections during periods of high/low activity. In contrast to the total number, the total mass of CMEs is determined mainly by larger events. Using the mass measurements of 11,000 CMEs given in the manual CDAW catalog, we find that the mass loss rate remains well correlated with the sunspot number during cycle 24. In the case of the automated CACTus and SEEDS catalogs, the large increase in the number of CMEs during cycle 24 is almost certainly an artifact caused by the near-doubling of the LASCO image cadence after mid-2010. We confirm that fast CMEs undergo a much stronger solar-cycle variation than slow ones, and that the relative frequency of slow and less massive CMEs increases with decreasing sunspot number. We conclude that cycle 24 is not only producing fewer CMEs than cycle 23, but that these ejections also tend to be slower and less massive than those observed one cycle earlier.

  20. Is Solar Cycle 24 Producing More Coronal Mass Ejections Than Cycle 23?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.-M.; Colaninno, R.

    2014-04-01

    Although sunspot numbers are roughly a factor of two lower in the current cycle than in cycle 23, the rate of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) appears to be at least as high in 2011-2013 as during the corresponding phase of the previous cycle, according to three catalogs that list events observed with the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO). However, the number of CMEs detected is sensitive to such factors as the image cadence and the tendency (especially by human observers) to under-/overcount small or faint ejections during periods of high/low activity. In contrast to the total number, the total mass of CMEs is determined mainly by larger events. Using the mass measurements of 11,000 CMEs given in the manual CDAW catalog, we find that the mass loss rate remains well correlated with the sunspot number during cycle 24. In the case of the automated CACTus and SEEDS catalogs, the large increase in the number of CMEs during cycle 24 is almost certainly an artifact caused by the near-doubling of the LASCO image cadence after mid-2010. We confirm that fast CMEs undergo a much stronger solar-cycle variation than slow ones, and that the relative frequency of slow and less massive CMEs increases with decreasing sunspot number. We conclude that cycle 24 is not only producing fewer CMEs than cycle 23, but that these ejections also tend to be slower and less massive than those observed one cycle earlier.

  1. COMPARING SPATIAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF SOLAR PROMINENCE MASS DERIVED FROM CORONAL ABSORPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, Holly; Kilper, Gary; Kucera, Therese; Alexander, David

    2011-01-20

    In a previous study, Gilbert et al. derived the column density and total mass of solar prominences using a new technique, which measures how much coronal radiation in the Fe XII (195 A) spectral band is absorbed by prominence material, while considering the effects of both foreground and background radiation. In the present work, we apply this method to a sample of prominence observations in three different wavelength regimes: one in which only H{sup 0} is ionized (504 A < {lambda} < 911 A), a second where both H{sup 0} and He{sup 0} are ionized (228 A < {lambda} < 504 A), and finally at wavelengths where H{sup 0}, He{sup 0}, and He{sup +} are all ionized ({lambda} < 228 A). This approach, first suggested by Kucera et al., permits the separation of the contributions of neutral hydrogen and helium to the total column density in prominences. Additionally, an enhancement of the technique allowed the calculation of the two-dimensional (2D) spatial distribution of the column density from the continuum absorption in each extreme-ultraviolet observation. We find the total prominence mass is consistently lower in the 625 A observations compared to lines in the other wavelength regimes. There is a significant difference in total mass between the 625 A and 195 A lines, indicating the much higher opacity at 625 A is causing a saturation of the continuum absorption and thus, a potentially large underestimation of mass.

  2. Comparing Spatial Distributions of Solar Prominence Mass Derived from Coronal Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Holly; Kilper, Gary; Alexander, David; Kucera, Therese

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study, Gilbert et al. derived the column density and total mass of solar prominences using a new technique, which measures how much coronal radiation in the Fe XII (195 Å) spectral band is absorbed by prominence material, while considering the effects of both foreground and background radiation. In the present work, we apply this method to a sample of prominence observations in three different wavelength regimes: one in which only H0 is ionized (504 Å < λ < 911 Å), a second where both H0 and He0 are ionized (228 Å < λ < 504 Å), and finally at wavelengths where H0, He0, and He+ are all ionized (λ < 228 Å). This approach, first suggested by Kucera et al., permits the separation of the contributions of neutral hydrogen and helium to the total column density in prominences. Additionally, an enhancement of the technique allowed the calculation of the two-dimensional (2D) spatial distribution of the column density from the continuum absorption in each extreme-ultraviolet observation. We find the total prominence mass is consistently lower in the 625 Å observations compared to lines in the other wavelength regimes. There is a significant difference in total mass between the 625 Å and 195 Å lines, indicating the much higher opacity at 625 Å is causing a saturation of the continuum absorption and thus, a potentially large underestimation of mass.

  3. ON THE RELATIVE CONSTANCY OF THE SOLAR WIND MASS FLUX AT 1 AU

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.-M.

    2010-06-01

    Employing solar wind measurements from the Advanced Composition Explorer and Ulysses, photospheric magnetic data, and conservation laws along open field lines, we confirm that the energy and mass flux densities at the Sun increase roughly linearly with the footpoint field strength, B {sub 0}. This empirical result has a number of important physical implications. First, it supports the assumption that the magnetic field is the source of the heating in coronal holes. Second, because B {sub 0} may vary by over 2 orders of magnitude, depending on how close the footpoint is located to active regions, the heating rate in coronal holes varies over a very wide range, with active-region holes being characterized by much stronger heating and much larger mass fluxes at low heights than the large, weak-field polar holes. Third, the variation of the mass flux density at 1 AU remains very modest because the mass flux density at the Sun and the net flux-tube expansion both increase almost linearly with B {sub 0}, so that the two effects offset each other.

  4. A Statistical Study of Solar Sources of Wide Coronal Mass Ejections in 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, S.; Yashiro, S.; Gopalswamy, N.; Makela, P. A.; Xie, H.; Olmedo, O. A.

    2013-12-01

    Solar surface signatures of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are flares, filament eruptions/disappearances, EUVI waves, dimmings, and post-eruption arcades. After the SDO launch we have an excellent opportunity to investigate the solar sources of CMEs because of the high spatial- and temporal-resolution images from SDO/AIA and multiple views from SOHO, SDO, and STEREO-A/B. We examined the solar sources of all wide CMEs (width ≥ 60°) observed by either SOHO/LASCO or STEREO/SECCHI in 2011. Out of the 597 wide CMEs identified, 322 (54%) were associated with active region flares (FLs) and 164 (27%) with eruptive quiescent prominences (EPs). In 88 cases (15%) only EUV dimmings (DIMs) were observed. For the remaining 23 (4%) CMEs we were not able to identify the solar sources (UNK), i.e. they were stealth CMEs. The average speed and width of the CMEs are, 481 km/s and 115° for FLs, 349 km/s and 90° for EPs, 270 km/s and 78° for DIMs, and 171 km/s and 90° for UNKs, respectively. According to Ma et al. (2010), one third of CMEs observed by STEREO-A/B from 2009 Jan. 1 to Aug. 31 was categorized as stealth CMEs. Our study shows that the rate of stealth CMEs is much smaller for wide CMEs. We also compared the average appearance latitude of CMEs between the stealth and all wide CMEs and found that the stealth CMEs appeared from higher latitude (48°) than the general population (35°). Reference: Ma et al. (2010) ApJ, 722, 289

  5. Solar Source and Heliospheric Consequences of the 2010 April 3 Coronal Mass Ejection: A Comprehensive View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Luhmann, Janet G.; Bale, Stuart D.; Lin, Robert P.

    2011-06-01

    We study the solar source and heliospheric consequences of the 2010 April 3 coronal mass ejection (CME) in the frame of the Sun-Earth connection using observations from a fleet of spacecraft. The CME is accompanied by a B7.4 long-duration flare, dramatic coronal dimming, and EUV waves. It causes significant heliospheric consequences and space weather effects such as radio bursts, a prominent shock wave, the largest/fastest interplanetary CME at 1 AU since the 2006 December 13 CME, the first gradual solar energetic particle (SEP) events in solar cycle 24, and a prolonged geomagnetic storm resulting in a breakdown of the Galaxy 15 satellite. This event, together with several following periods of intense solar activities, indicates awakening of the Sun from a long minimum. The CME EUV loop begins to rise at least 10 minutes before the flare impulsive phase. The associated coronal wave forms an envelope around the CME, a large-scale three-dimensional structure that can only be explained by a pressure wave. The CME and its preceding shock are imaged by both STEREO A and B almost throughout the whole Sun-Earth space. CME kinematics in the ecliptic plane are obtained as a function of distance out to 0.75 AU by a geometric triangulation technique. The CME has a propagation direction near the Sun-Earth line and a speed that first increases to 1000-1100 km s-1 and then decreases to about 800 km s-1. Both the predicted arrival time and speed at the Earth are well confirmed by the in situ measurements. The gradual SEP events observed by three widely separated spacecraft show time profiles much more complicated than suggested by the standard conceptual picture of SEP event heliolongitude distribution. Evolving shock properties, the realistic time-dependent connection between the observer and shock source, and a possible role of particle perpendicular diffusion may be needed to interpret this SEP event spatial distribution.

  6. SOLAR CYCLE VARIATIONS OF CORONAL NULL POINTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE MAGNETIC BREAKOUT MODEL OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, G. R.; Mackay, D. H.; Nandy, Dibyendu E-mail: duncan@mcs.st-and.ac.u

    2009-10-20

    In this paper, we investigate the solar cycle variation of coronal null points and magnetic breakout configurations in spherical geometry, using a combination of magnetic flux transport and potential field source surface models. Within the simulations, a total of 2843 coronal null points and breakout configurations are found over two solar cycles. It is found that the number of coronal nulls present at any time varies cyclically throughout the solar cycle, in phase with the flux emergence rate. At cycle maximum, peak values of 15-17 coronal nulls per day are found. No significant variation in the number of nulls is found from the rising to the declining phase. This indicates that the magnetic breakout model is applicable throughout both phases of the solar cycle. In addition, it is shown that when the simulations are used to construct synoptic data sets, such as those produced by Kitt Peak, the number of coronal nulls drops by a factor of 1/6. The vast majority of the coronal nulls are found to lie above the active latitudes and are the result of the complex nature of the underlying active region fields. Only 8% of the coronal nulls are found to be connected to the global dipole. Another interesting feature is that 18% of coronal nulls are found to lie above the equator due to cross-equatorial interactions between bipoles lying in the northern and southern hemispheres. As the majority of coronal nulls form above active latitudes, their average radial extent is found to be in the low corona below 1.25 R {sub sun} (175, 000 km above the photosphere). Through considering the underlying photospheric flux, it is found that 71% of coronal nulls are produced though quadrupolar flux distributions resulting from bipoles in the same hemisphere interacting. When the number of coronal nulls present in each rotation is compared to the number of bipoles emerging, a wide scatter is found. The ratio of coronal nulls to emerging bipoles is found to be approximately 1/3. Overall

  7. Program of solar wind data analysis utilizing data from Pioneer 6, Mariner 5 and explorer 35

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siscoe, G. L.

    1972-01-01

    A combined data analysis and theoretical program aimed at interpreting and utilizing solar wind data obtained from Pioneer 6, Mariner 5, and Explorer 35 has been completed. A theoretical model of the radial dependence of large scale solar wind inhomogeneities was developed and used to map solar wind variations measured by Explorer 35 to various heliocentric distances and to the orbits of Mercury, Venus, and Mars. The model was also used to determine power spectra velocity, density and temperature variations of 20 R sub s from spectra obtained from the Mariner 5 data at an average heliocentric distance of 180 R sub s. Five stream-stream interaction events in the Pioneer 6 data were analyzed which confirmed the picture of a spiral compression ridge interfacing the two streams and the associated east-west deflections of the solar wind flow. Magnetopause crossings observed in Explorer 35 plasma data were used to develop statics on boundary motions at lunar distance. A study of the geomagnetic disturbance field asymmetry was performed and a model of disturbance field from a partial ring current was developed.

  8. Probing the eV-Mass Range for Solar Axions with CAST

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, J K; Pivovaroff, M J; Soufli, R; van Bibber, K; CAST, C

    2010-11-11

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is searching for solar axions which could be produced in the core of the Sun via the so-called Primakoff effect. Not only would these hypothetical particles solve the strong CP problem, but they are also one of the favored candidates for dark matter. In order to look for axions originating from the Sun, CAST uses a decommissioned LHC prototype magnet. In its 10 m long magnetic field region of 9 Tesla, axions could be reconverted into X-ray photons. Different X-ray detectors are installed on both ends of the magnet, which is mounted on a structure built to follow the Sun during sunrise and sunset for a total of about 3 hours per day. The analysis of the data acquired during the first phase of the experiment with vacuum in the magnetic field region yielded the most restrictive experimental upper limit on the axion-to-photon coupling constant for axion masses up to about 0.02 eV. In order to extend the sensitivity of the experiment to a wider mass range, the CAST experiment continues its search for axions with helium in the magnet bores. In this way it is possible to restore coherence of conversion for larger masses. Changing the pressure of the helium gas enables the experiment to scan different axion masses in the range of up to about 1.2 eV. Especially at high pressures, a precise knowledge of the gas density distribution is crucial to obtain accurate results. In the first part of this second phase of CAST, {sup 4}He was used and the axion mass region was extended up to 0.39 eV, a part of phase space favored by axion models. In CAST's ongoing {sup 3}He phase the studied mass range is now being extended further. In this contribution the final results of CAST's {sup 4}He phase will be presented and the current status of the {sup 3}He run will be given. This includes latest results as well as prospects of future axion experiments.

  9. Mass extinctions, galactic orbits in the solar neighborhood and the Sun: a connection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porto de Mello, G. F.; Dias, W. S.; Lépine, J. R. D.; Lorenzo-Oliveira, D.; Siqueira, R. K.

    2014-10-01

    The orbits of the stars in the disk of the Galaxy, and their passages through the Galactic spiral arms, are a rarely mentioned factor of biosphere stability which might be important for long-term planetary climate evolution, with a possible bearing on mass extinctions. The Sun lies very near the co-rotation radius, where stars revolve around the Galaxy in the same period as the density wave perturbations of the spiral arms. Conventional wisdom generally considers that this status makes for few passages through the spiral arms. Controversy still surrounds whether time spent inside or around spiral arms is dangerous to biospheres and conducive to mass extinctions. Possible threats include giant molecular clouds disturbing the Oort comet cloud and provoking heavy bombardment; a higher exposure to cosmic rays near star forming regions triggering increased cloudiness in Earth's atmosphere and ice ages; and the destruction of Earth's ozone layer posed by supernova explosions. We present detailed calculations of the history of spiral arm passages for all 212 solar-type stars nearer than 20 parsecs, including the total time spent inside the spiral arms in the last 500 Myr, when the spiral arm position can be traced with good accuracy. We found that there is a large diversity of stellar orbits in the solar neighborhood, and the time fraction spent inside spiral arms can vary from a few percent to nearly half the time. The Sun, despite its proximity to the galactic co-rotation radius, has exceptionally low eccentricity and a low vertical velocity component, and therefore spends 30% of its lifetime crossing the spiral arms, more than most nearby stars. We discuss the possible implications of this fact to the long-term habitability of the Earth, and possible correlations of the Sun's passage through the spiral arms with the five great mass extinctions of the Earth's biosphere from the Late Ordovician to the Cretaceous-Tertiary.

  10. Predictions for Dusty Mass Loss from Asteroids During Close Encounters with Solar Probe Plus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranmer, Steven R.

    2016-06-01

    The Solar Probe Plus (SPP) mission will explore the Sun's corona and innermost solar wind starting in 2018. The spacecraft will also come close to a number of Mercury-crossing asteroids with perihelia less than 0.3 AU. At small heliocentric distances, these objects may begin to lose mass, thus becoming "active asteroids" with comet-like comae or tails. This paper assembles a database of 97 known Mercury-crossing asteroids that may be encountered by SPP, and it presents estimates of their time-dependent visible-light fluxes and mass loss rates. Assuming a similar efficiency of sky background subtraction as was achieved by STEREO , we find that approximately 80 % of these asteroids are bright enough to be observed by the Wide-field Imager for SPP (WISPR). A model of gas/dust mass loss from these asteroids is developed and calibrated against existing observations. This model is used to estimate the visible-light fluxes and spatial extents of spherical comae. Observable dust clouds occur only when the asteroids approach the Sun closer than 0.2 AU. The model predicts that during the primary SPP mission between 2018 and 2025, there should be 113 discrete events (for 24 unique asteroids) during which the modeled comae have angular sizes resolvable by WISPR. The largest of these correspond to asteroids 3200 Phaethon, 137924, 155140, and 289227, all with angular sizes of roughly 15-30 arcminutes. We note that the SPP trajectory may still change, but no matter the details there should still be multiple opportunities for fruitful asteroid observations.

  11. A Search for Transiting Neptune-Mass Extrasolar Planets in High-Precision Photometry of Solar-Type Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Stephen M.; Gillman, Amelie r.; Henry, Gregory W.

    2005-01-01

    Tennessee State University operates several automatic photometric telescopes (APTs) at Fairborn Observatory in southern Arizona. Four 0.8 m APTs have been dedicated to measuring subtle luminosity variations that accompany magnetic cycles in solar-type stars. Over 1000 program and comparison stars have been observed every clear night in this program for up to 12 years with a precision of approximately 0.0015 mag for a single observation. We have developed a transit-search algorithm, based on fitting a computed transit template for each trial period, and have used it to search our photometric database for transits of unknown companions. Extensive simulations with the APT data have shown that we can reliably recover transits with periods under 10 days as long as the transits have a depth of at least 0.0024 mag, or about 1.6 times the scatter in the photometric observations. Thus, due to our high photometric precision, we are sensitive to transits of possible short-period Neptune-mass planets that likely would have escaped detection by current radial velocity techniques. Our search of the APT data sets for 1087 program and comparison stars revealed no new transiting planets. However, the detection of several unknown grazing eclipsing binaries from among our comparison stars, with eclipse depths of only a few millimags, illustrates the success of our technique. We have used this negative result to place limits on the frequency of Neptune-mass planets in close orbits around solar-type stars in the Sun's vicinity.

  12. Nucleosynthesis of neutron-rich heavy nuclei during explosive helium burning in a 15 solar-mass supernova

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, J. B.; Woosley, S. E.; Weaver, T. A.; Schramm, D. N.

    1980-01-01

    The production of heavy nuclei during explosive helium burning has been calculated using the Weaver and Woosley self-consistent model of a complete 15 solar-mass star and the n-process code of Blake and Schramm. It was found that the resulting neutron-rich heavy nuclei are not produced in the relative abundances of solar-system r-process material (such as a Pt peak) nor are any actinides produced. Basically insufficient neutrons are available.

  13. Outburst from low-mass X-ray binary GRS 1747-312 in Terzan 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahramian, A.; Heinke, C. O.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Kennea, J. A.; Wijnands, R.; Altamirano, D.

    2016-05-01

    GRS 1747-312 is an eclipsing transient low-mass X-ray binary in the core of the globular cluster Terzan 6. This source shows regular outbursts ~ every 6 months and, due to its eclipsing behaviour, has an accurately-constrained orbital period (12.36 hrs, in't Zand et al. 2003, A & A, 406, 233).

  14. Sixteen Years of Ulysses Interstellar Dust Measurements in the Solar System. I. Mass Distribution and Gas-to-dust Mass Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Harald; Strub, Peter; Grün, Eberhard; Sterken, Veerle J.

    2015-10-01

    In the early 1990s, contemporary interstellar dust penetrating deep into the heliosphere was identified with the in situ dust detector on board the Ulysses spacecraft. Between 1992 and the end of 2007 Ulysses monitored the interstellar dust stream. The interstellar grains act as tracers of the physical conditions in the local interstellar medium (ISM) surrounding our solar system. Earlier analyses of the Ulysses interstellar dust data measured between 1992 and 1998 implied the existence of a population of “big” interstellar grains (up to 10-13 kg). The derived gas-to-dust-mass ratio was smaller than the one derived from astronomical observations, implying a concentration of interstellar dust in the very local ISM. In this paper we analyze the entire data set from 16 yr of Ulysses interstellar dust measurements in interplanetary space. This paper concentrates on the overall mass distribution of interstellar dust. An accompanying paper investigates time-variable phenomena in the Ulysses interstellar dust data, and in a third paper we present the results from dynamical modeling of the interstellar dust flow applied to Ulysses. We use the latest values for the interstellar hydrogen and helium densities, the interstellar helium flow speed of {v}{ISM∞ }=23.2 {km} {{{s}}}-1, and the ratio of radiation pressure to gravity, β, calculated for astronomical silicates. We find a gas-to-dust mass ratio in the local interstellar cloud of {R}{{g}/{{d}}}={193}-57+85, and a dust density of (2.1 ± 0.6) × 10-24 kg m-3. For a higher inflow speed of 26 {km} {{{s}}}-1, the gas-to-dust mass ratio is 20% higher, and, accordingly, the dust density is lower by the same amount. The gas-to-dust mass ratio derived from our new analysis is compatible with the value most recently determined from astronomical observations. We confirm earlier results that the very local ISM contains “big” (i.e., ≈1 μm sized) interstellar grains. We find a dust density in the local ISM that is a

  15. An Investigation of the Large Scale Evolution and Topology of Coronal Mass Ejections in the Solar Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Peter

    2000-01-01

    This investigation is concerned with the large-scale evolution and topology of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the solar wind. During this reporting period we have focused on several aspects of CME properties, their identification and their evolution in the solar wind. The work included both analysis of Ulysses and ACE observations as well as fluid and magnetohydrodynamic simulations. In addition, we analyzed a series of "density holes" observed in the solar wind, that bear many similarities with CMEs. Finally, this work was communicated to the scientific community at three meetings and has led to three scientific papers that are in various stages of review.

  16. Monodeurated methane in the outer solar system. 2. Its detection on Uranus at 1. 6 microns

    SciTech Connect

    Debergh, C.; Lutz, B.L.; Owen, T.; Brault, J.; Chauville, J.

    1985-05-01

    Deuterium in the atmosphere of Uranus has been studied only via measurements of the exceedingly weak dipole lines of hydrogen-deuteride (HD) seen in the visible region of the spectrum. The other sensitive indicator of deuterium in the outer solar system is monodeuterated methane (CH3D) but the two bands normally used ot study this molecule, NU sub 2 near 2200 1/cm and NU sub 6 near 1161 1/cm, have not been detected in Uranus.

  17. A low-mass faraday cup experiment for the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazarus, A. J.; Steinberg, J. T.; Mcnutt, R. L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Faraday cups have proven to be very reliable and accurate instruments capable of making 3-D velocity distribution measurements on spinning or 3-axis stabilized spacecraft. Faraday cup instrumentation continues to be appropriate for heliospheric missions. As an example, the reductions in mass possible relative to the solar wind detection system about to be flown on the WIND spacecraft were estimated. Through the use of technology developed or used at the MIT Center for Space Research but were not able to utilize for WIND: surface-mount packaging, field-programmable gate arrays, an optically-switched high voltage supply, and an integrated-circuit power converter, it was estimated that the mass of the Faraday Cup system could be reduced from 5 kg to 1.8 kg. Further redesign of the electronics incorporating hybrid integrated circuits as well as a decrease in the sensor size, with a corresponding increase in measurement cycle time, could lead to a significantly lower mass for other mission applications. Reduction in mass of the entire spacecraft-experiment system is critically dependent on early and continual collaborative efforts between the spacecraft engineers and the experimenters. Those efforts concern a range of issues from spacecraft structure to data systems to the spacecraft power voltage levels. Requirements for flight qualification affect use of newer, lighter electronics packaging and its implementation; the issue of quality assurance needs to be specifically addressed. Lower cost and reduced mass can best be achieved through the efforts of a relatively small group dedicated to the success of the mission. Such a group needs a fixed budget and greater control over quality assurance requirements, together with a reasonable oversight mechanism.

  18. What fraction of boron-8 solar neutrinos arrive at the earth as a nu(2) mass eigenstate?

    SciTech Connect

    Nunokawa, Hiroshi; Parke, Stephen J.; Zukanovich Funchal, Renata; /Sao Paulo U.

    2006-01-01

    We calculate the fraction of B{sup 8} solar neutrinos that arrive at the Earth as a nu{sub 2} mass eigenstate as a function of the neutrino energy. Weighting this fraction with the B{sup 8} neutrino energy spectrum and the energy dependence of the cross section for the charged current interaction on deuteron with a threshold on the kinetic energy of the recoil electrons of 5.5 MeV, we find that the integrated weighted fraction of nu{sub 2}'s to be 91 {+-} 2 % at the 95% CL. This energy weighting procedure corresponds to the charged current response of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). We have used SNO's current best fit values for the solar mass squared difference and the mixing angle, obtained by combining the data from all solar neutrino experiments and the reactor data from KamLAND. The uncertainty on the nu{sub 2} fraction comes primarily from the uncertainty on the solar delta m{sup 2} rather than from the uncertainty on the solar mixing angle or the Standard Solar Model. Similar results for the Super-Kamiokande experiment are also given. We extend this analysis to three neutrinos and discuss how to extract the modulus of the Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata mixing matrix element U{sub e2} as well as place a lower bound on the electron number density in the solar B{sup 8} neutrino production region.

  19. Solar Flares, Type III Radio Bursts, Coronal Mass Ejections, and Energetic Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, Hilary V.; Erickson, W. C.; Prestage, N. P.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this correlative study between greater than 20 MeV solar proton events, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), flares, and radio bursts it is found that essentially all of the proton events are preceded by groups of type III bursts and all are preceded by CMEs. These type III bursts (that are a flare phenomenon) usually are long-lasting, intense bursts seen in the low-frequency observations made from space. They are caused by streams of electrons traveling from close to the solar surface out to 1 AU. In most events the type III emissions extend into, or originate at, the time when type II and type IV bursts are reported (some 5 to 10 minutes after the start of the associated soft X-ray flare) and have starting frequencies in the 500 to approximately 100 MHz range that often get lower as a function of time. These later type III emissions are often not reported by ground-based observers, probably because of undue attention to type II bursts. It is suggested to call them type III-1. Type III-1 bursts have previously been called shock accelerated (SA) events, but an examination of radio dynamic spectra over an extended frequency range shows that the type III-1 bursts usually start at frequencies above any type II burst that may be present. The bursts sometimes continue beyond the time when type II emission is seen and, furthermore, sometimes occur in the absence of any type II emission. Thus the causative electrons are unlikely to be shock accelerated and probably originate in the reconnection regions below fast CMEs. A search did not find any type III-1 bursts that were not associated with CMEs. The existence of low-frequency type III bursts proves that open field lines extend from within 0.5 radius of the Sun into the interplanetary medium (the bursts start above 100 MHz, and such emission originates within 0.5 solar radius of the solar surface). Thus it is not valid to assume that only closed field lines exist in the flaring regions associated with CMEs and some

  20. Analysis of Solar Wind Samples Returned by Genesis Using Laser Post Ionization Secondary Neutral Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veryovkin, I. V.; Calaway, W. F.; Tripa, C. E.; Pellin, M. J.; Burnett, D. S.

    2005-12-01

    A new secondary neutral mass spectrometry (SNMS) instrument implementing laser post ionization (LPI) of ion sputtered and laser desorbed neutral species has been developed and constructed for the specific purpose of quantitative analysis of metallic elements at ultra trace levels in solar wind collector samples returned to Earth by the Genesis Discovery mission. The first LPI SNMS measurements are focusing on determining Al, Ca, Cr, and Mg in these samples. These measurements provide the first concentration and isotopic abundances determinations for several key metallic elements and also elucidate possible fractionation effects between the photosphere and the solar wind compositions. It is now documented that Genesis samples suffered surface contamination both during flight and during the breach of the Sample Return Capsule when it crashed. Since accurate quantitative analysis is compromised by sample contamination, several features have been built into the new LPI SNMS instrument to mitigate this difficulty. A normally-incident, low-energy (<500 eV) ion beam combined with a keV energy ion beam and a desorbing laser beam (both microfocused) enables dual beam analyses. The low-energy ion beam can be used to remove surface contaminant by sputtering with minimum ion beam mixing. This low-energy beam also will be used to perform ion beam milling, while either the microfocused ion or laser beam probes the solar wind elemental compositions as a function of sample depth. Because of the high depth resolution of dual beam analyses, such depth profiles clearly distinguish between surface contaminants and solar wind implanted atoms. In addition, in-situ optical and electron beam imaging for observing and avoiding particulates and scratches on solar wind sample surfaces is incorporated in the new LPI SNMS instrument to further reduce quantification problems. The current status of instrument tests and analyses will be presented. This work is supported by the U. S. Department of

  1. DIRECT OBSERVATIONS OF MAGNETIC FLUX ROPE FORMATION DURING A SOLAR CORONAL MASS EJECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Song, H. Q.; Chen, Y.; Zhang, J.; Cheng, X.

    2014-09-10

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most spectacular eruptive phenomena in the solar atmosphere. It is generally accepted that CMEs are the results of eruptions of magnetic flux ropes (MFRs). However, there is heated debate on whether MFRs exist prior to the eruptions or if they are formed during the eruptions. Several coronal signatures, e.g., filaments, coronal cavities, sigmoid structures, and hot channels (or hot blobs), are proposed as MFRs and observed before the eruption, which support the pre-existing MFR scenario. There is almost no reported observation of MFR formation during the eruption. In this Letter, we present an intriguing observation of a solar eruptive event that occurred on 2013 November 21 with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory, which shows the formation process of the MFR during the eruption in detail. The process began with the expansion of a low-lying coronal arcade, possibly caused by the flare magnetic reconnection underneath. The newly formed ascending loops from below further pushed the arcade upward, stretching the surrounding magnetic field. The arcade and stretched magnetic field lines then curved in just below the arcade vertex, forming an X-point. The field lines near the X-point continued to approach each other and a second magnetic reconnection was induced. It is this high-lying magnetic reconnection that led to the formation and eruption of a hot blob (∼10 MK), presumably an MFR, producing a CME. We suggest that two spatially separated magnetic reconnections occurred in this event, which were responsible for producing the flare and the hot blob (CME)

  2. Homologous Jet-driven Coronal Mass Ejections from Solar Active Region 12192

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panesar, Navdeep K.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.

    2016-05-01

    We report observations of homologous coronal jets and their coronal mass ejections (CMEs) observed by instruments onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft. The homologous jets originated from a location with emerging and canceling magnetic field at the southeastern edge of the giant active region (AR) of 2014 October, NOAA 12192. This AR produced in its interior many non-jet major flare eruptions (X- and M- class) that made no CME. During October 20 to 27, in contrast to the major flare eruptions in the interior, six of the homologous jets from the edge resulted in CMEs. Each jet-driven CME (∼200–300 km s‑1) was slower-moving than most CMEs, with angular widths (20°–50°) comparable to that of the base of a coronal streamer straddling the AR and were of the “streamer-puff” variety, whereby the preexisting streamer was transiently inflated but not destroyed by the passage of the CME. Much of the transition-region-temperature plasma in the CME-producing jets escaped from the Sun, whereas relatively more of the transition-region plasma in non-CME-producing jets fell back to the solar surface. Also, the CME-producing jets tended to be faster and longer-lasting than the non-CME-producing jets. Our observations imply that each jet and CME resulted from reconnection opening of twisted field that erupted from the jet base and that the erupting field did not become a plasmoid as previously envisioned for streamer-puff CMEs, but instead the jet-guiding streamer-base loop was blown out by the loop’s twist from the reconnection.

  3. Nova Light Curves From The Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) - II. The extended catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hounsell, R.; Darnley, M. J.; Bode, M. F.; Harman, D. J.; Surina, F.; Starrfield, S.; Holdsworth, D. L.; Bewsher, D.; Hick, P. P.; Jackson, B. V.; Buffington, A.; Clover, J. M.; Shafter, A. W.

    2016-04-01

    We present the results from observing nine Galactic novae in eruption with the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) between 2004 and 2009. While many of these novae reached peak magnitudes that were either at or approaching the detection limits of SMEI, we were still able to produce light curves that in many cases contained more data at and around the initial rise, peak, and decline than those found in other variable star catalogs. For each nova, we obtained a peak time, maximum magnitude, and for several an estimate of the decline time ({t}{{2}}). Interestingly, although of lower quality than those found in Hounsell et al., two of the light curves may indicate the presence of a pre-maximum halt. In addition, the high cadence of the SMEI instrument has allowed the detection of low-amplitude variations in at least one of the nova light curves.

  4. The evolution of rotating stars. 1: Method and exploratory calculations for a 7 solar mass star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Endal, A. S.; Sofia, S.

    1976-01-01

    A method was developed which allows us to study the evolution of rotating stars beyond the main sequence stage. Four different cases of redistribution of angular momentum in an evolving star are considered. Evolutionary sequences for a 7 solar mass star, rotating according to these different cases, were computed from the ZAMS to the double shell source stage. Each sequence was begun with a (typical) equatorial velocity of 210 km/sec. On the main sequence, the effects of rotation are of minor importance. As the core contracts during later stages, important effects arise in all physically plausible cases. The outer regions of the cores approach critical velocities and develop unstable angular velocity distributions. The effects of these instabilities should significantly alter the subsequent evolution.

  5. On the Enhanced Coronal Mass Ejection Detection Rate since the Solar Cycle 23 Polar Field Reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrie, G. J. D.

    2015-10-01

    Compared to cycle 23, coronal mass ejections (CMEs) with angular widths >30° have been observed to occur at a higher rate during solar cycle 24, per sunspot number. This result is supported by data from three independent databases constructed using Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment coronagraph images, two employing automated detection techniques and one compiled manually by human observers. According to the two databases that cover a larger field of view, the enhanced CME rate actually began shortly after the cycle 23 polar field reversal, in 2004, when the polar fields returned with a 40% reduction in strength and the interplanetary radial magnetic field became ≈30% weaker. This result is consistent with the link between anomalous CME expansion and the heliospheric total pressure decrease recently reported by Gopalswamy et al.

  6. Mass transport, corrosion, plugging, and their reduction in solar dish/Stirling heat pipe receivers

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, D.R.; Andraka, C.E.; Bradshaw, R.W.; Goods, S.H.; Moreno, J.B.; Moss, T.A.

    1996-07-01

    Solar dish/Stirling systems using sodium heat pipe receivers are being developed by industry and government laboratories here and abroad. The unique demands of this application lead to heat pipe wicks with very large surface areas and complex three-dimensional flow patterns. These characteristics can enhance the mass transport and concentration of constituents of the wick material, resulting in wick corrosion and plugging. As the test times for heat pipe receivers lengthen, we are beginning to see these effects both indirectly, as they affect performance, and directly in post-test examinations. We are also beginning to develop corrective measures. In this paper, we report on our test experiences, our post-test examinations, and on our initial effort to ameliorate various problems.

  7. A linear MHD instability analysis of solar mass ejections with gravitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, M. T.; Wu, S. T.; Dryer, M.

    1987-01-01

    The linear MHD instability of a cylindrical plasma is used to investigate the origin of solar mass ejections, and the dispersion relation is solved numerically. The initial plasma-flow velocity is found to have a significant effect on the instability criteria and growth rate, and the instability growth-rate is shown to be larger in cases where plasma flow exists, relative to the static case. Results suggest that the plasma column may break into small pieces. Assuming a thin-tube approximation, gravity is found to have little effect on the instability of quasi-horizontal ejection, but to have considerable effect on the vertical ejection. In considering the gravitational force, an exact analytical solution is found for the vertical case, while asymptotic solutions are given for the horizontal and oblique cases.

  8. Large Angle Reorientation of a Solar Sail Using Gimballed Mass Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperber, E.; Fu, B.; Eke, F. O.

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposes a control strategy for the large angle reorientation of a solar sail equipped with a gimballed mass. The algorithm consists of a first stage that manipulates the gimbal angle in order to minimize the attitude error about a single principal axis. Once certain termination conditions are reached, a regulator is employed that selects a single gimbal angle for minimizing both the residual attitude error concomitantly with the body rate. Because the force due to the specular reflection of radiation is always directed along a reflector's surface normal, this form of thrust vector control cannot generate torques about an axis normal to the plane of the sail. Thus, in order to achieve three-axis control authority a 1-2-1 or 2-1-2 sequence of rotations about principal axes is performed. The control algorithm is implemented directly in-line with the nonlinear equations of motion and key performance characteristics are identified.

  9. The Enhanced Coronal Mass Ejection Detection Rate since the Solar Cycle 23 Polar Field Reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrie, Gordon

    2016-05-01

    Compared to cycle 23, coronal mass ejections (CMEs) with angular widths >30° have been observed to occur at a higher rate during solar cycle 24, per sunspot number. This result is supported by data from three independent databases constructed using Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment coronagraph images, two employing automated detection techniques and one compiled manually by human observers. According to the two databases that cover a larger field of view, the enhanced CME rate actually began shortly after the cycle 23 polar field reversal, in 2004, when the polar fields returned with a 40% reduction in strength and the interplanetary radial magnetic field became ≈30% weaker. This result is consistent with the link between anomalous CME expansion and the heliospheric total pressure decrease recently reported by Gopalswamy et al.

  10. Association of Coronal Mass Ejections and Type II Radio Bursts with Impulsive Solar Energetic Particle Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashiro, S.; Gopalswamy, N.; Cliver, E. W.; Reames, D. V.; Kaiser, M. L.; Howard, R. A.

    2004-12-01

    We report the association of impulsive solar energetic particle (SEP) events with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and metric type II radio bursts. We identified 38 impulsive SEP events using the WIND/EPACT instrument and their CME association was investigated using white light data from SOHO/LASCO. We found that (1) at least ˜ 28--39 % of impulsive SEP events were associated with CMEs, (2) only 8--13 % were associated with metric type II radio bursts. The statistical properties of the associated CMEs were investigated and compared with those of general CMEs and CMEs associated with large gradual SEP events. The CMEs associated with impulsive SEP events were significantly slower (median speed of 613 kmps) and narrower (49 deg) than those of CMEs associated with large gradual SEP events (1336 kmps, 360 deg), but faster than the general CMEs (408 kmps).

  11. Large Angle Reorientation of a Solar Sail Using Gimballed Mass Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperber, E.; Fu, B.; Eke, F. O.

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a control strategy for the large angle reorientation of a solar sail equipped with a gimballed mass. The algorithm consists of a first stage that manipulates the gimbal angle in order to minimize the attitude error about a single principal axis. Once certain termination conditions are reached, a regulator is employed that selects a single gimbal angle for minimizing both the residual attitude error concomitantly with the body rate. Because the force due to the specular reflection of radiation is always directed along a reflector's surface normal, this form of thrust vector control cannot generate torques about an axis normal to the plane of the sail. Thus, in order to achieve three-axis control authority a 1-2-1 or 2-1-2 sequence of rotations about principal axes is performed. The control algorithm is implemented directly in-line with the nonlinear equations of motion and key performance characteristics are identified.

  12. COMBINED STEREO/RHESSI STUDY OF CORONAL MASS EJECTION ACCELERATION AND PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Temmer, M.; Veronig, A. M.; Krucker, S.; Vrsnak, B. E-mail: asv@igam.uni-graz.a E-mail: krucker@ssl.berkeley.ed

    2010-04-01

    Using the potential of two unprecedented missions, Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) and Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), we study three well-observed fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that occurred close to the limb together with their associated high-energy flare emissions in terms of RHESSI hard X-ray (HXR) spectra and flux evolution. From STEREO/EUVI and STEREO/COR1 data, the full CME kinematics of the impulsive acceleration phase up to {approx}4 R{sub sun} is measured with a high time cadence of <=2.5 minutes. For deriving CME velocity and acceleration, we apply and test a new algorithm based on regularization methods. The CME maximum acceleration is achieved at heights h <= 0.4 R{sub sun}, and the peak velocity at h <= 2.1 R{sub sun} (in one case, as small as 0.5 R{sub sun}). We find that the CME acceleration profile and the flare energy release as evidenced in the RHESSI HXR flux evolve in a synchronized manner. These results support the 'standard' flare/CME model which is characterized by a feedback relationship between the large-scale CME acceleration process and the energy release in the associated flare.

  13. OBSERVATION OF HEATING BY FLARE-ACCELERATED ELECTRONS IN A SOLAR CORONAL MASS EJECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Glesener, Lindsay; Bain, Hazel M.; Krucker, Säm; Lin, Robert P.

    2013-12-20

    We report a Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) observation of flare-accelerated electrons in the core of a coronal mass ejection (CME) and examine their role in heating the CME. Previous CME observations have revealed remarkably high thermal energies that can far surpass the CME's kinetic energy. A joint observation by RHESSI and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly of a partly occulted flare on 2010 November 3 allows us to test the hypothesis that this excess energy is collisionally deposited by flare-accelerated electrons. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images show an ejection forming the CME core and sheath, with isothermal multifilter analysis revealing temperatures of ∼11 MK in the core. RHESSI images reveal a large (∼100 × 50 arcsec{sup 2}) hard X-ray (HXR) source matching the location, shape, and evolution of the EUV plasma, indicating that the emerging CME is filled with flare-accelerated electrons. The time derivative of the EUV emission matches the HXR light curve (similar to the Neupert effect observed in soft and HXR time profiles), directly linking the CME temperature increase with the nonthermal electron energy loss, while HXR spectroscopy demonstrates that the nonthermal electrons contain enough energy to heat the CME. This is the most direct observation to date of flare-accelerated electrons heating a CME, emphasizing the close relationship of the two in solar eruptive events.

  14. Lunar surface composition and solar wind-induced secondary ion mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Elphic, R.C.; Funsten, H.O. III; Barraclough, B.L.; McComas, D.J.; Paffett, M.T.; Vaniman, D.T.; Heiken, G. )

    1991-11-01

    The Moon has no strong global magnetic field and only a tenuous atmosphere, so solar wind ions ({approximately}95% H{sup +}, 5% He{sup ++}) directly bombard the lunar surface, sputtering atoms and secondary ions from the exposed grains of the regolith. The secondary ions potentially provide surface composition information through secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), a standard laboratory surface composition analysis technique. In this paper the authors report the results of laboratory SIMS experiments on lunar soil simulants using solar wind-like ions. They find that H{sup +} and He{sup ++}, while not efficient sputterers, nevertheless produce significant fluxes of secondary lunar ions, including Na{sup +}, Mg{sup +}, Al{sup +}, Si{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup +}, Ti{sup +}, Mn{sup +} and Fe{sup +}. They predict that lunar surface secondary-ion fluxes range between {approximately}10 and 10{sup 4} ions cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}, depending on the species.

  15. Coronal Mass Ejections and the Solar Cycle Variation of the Sun's Open Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.-M.; Sheeley, N. R., Jr.

    2015-08-01

    The strength of the radial component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), which is a measure of the Sun’s total open flux, is observed to vary by roughly a factor of two over the 11 year solar cycle. Several recent studies have proposed that the Sun’s open flux consists of a constant or “floor” component that dominates at sunspot minimum, and a time-varying component due to coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Here, we point out that CMEs cannot account for the large peaks in the IMF strength which occurred in 2003 and late 2014, and which coincided with peaks in the Sun’s equatorial dipole moment. We also show that near-Earth interplanetary CMEs, as identified in the catalog of Richardson and Cane, contribute at most ∼30% of the average radial IMF strength even during sunspot maximum. We conclude that the long-term variation of the radial IMF strength is determined mainly by the Sun’s total dipole moment, with the quadrupole moment and CMEs providing an additional boost near sunspot maximum. Most of the open flux is rooted in coronal holes, whose solar cycle evolution in turn reflects that of the Sun’s lowest-order multipoles.

  16. Tether-cutting Reconnection between Two Solar Filaments Triggering Outflows and a Coronal Mass Ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huadong; Zhang, Jun; Li, Leping; Ma, Suli

    2016-02-01

    Triggering mechanisms of solar eruptions have long been a challenge. A few previous case studies have indicated that preceding gentle filament merging via magnetic reconnection may launch following intense eruption, according to the tether-cutting (TC) model. However, the detailed process of TC reconnection between filaments has not been exhibited yet. In this work, we report the high-resolution observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrometer (IRIS) of TC reconnection between two sheared filaments in NOAA active region 12146. The TC reconnection commenced on ∼15:35 UT on 2014 August 29 and triggered an eruptive GOES C4.3-class flare ∼8 minutes later. An associated coronal mass ejection appeared in the field of view of the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/LASCO C2 about 40 minutes later. Thanks to the high spatial resolution of IRIS data, bright plasma outflows generated by the TC reconnection are clearly observed, which moved along the subarcsecond fine-scale flux tube structures in the erupting filament. Based on the imaging and spectral observations, the mean plane-of-sky and line-of-sight velocities of the TC reconnection outflows are separately measured to be ∼79 and 86 km s‑1, which derives an average real speed of ∼120 km s‑1. In addition, it is found that spectral features, such as peak intensities, Doppler shifts, and line widths in the TC reconnection region are evidently enhanced compared to those in the nearby region just before the flare.

  17. CCL20/CCR6 Signaling Regulates Bone Mass Accrual in Mice.

    PubMed

    Doucet, Michele; Jayaraman, Swaathi; Swenson, Emily; Tusing, Brittany; Weber, Kristy L; Kominsky, Scott L

    2016-07-01

    CCL20 is a member of the macrophage inflammatory protein family and is reported to signal monogamously through the receptor CCR6. Although studies have identified the genomic locations of both Ccl20 and Ccr6 as regions important for bone quality, the role of CCL20/CCR6 signaling in regulating bone mass is unknown. By micro-computed tomography (μCT) and histomorphometric analysis, we show that global loss of Ccr6 in mice significantly decreases trabecular bone mass coincident with reduced osteoblast numbers. Notably, CCL20 and CCR6 were co-expressed in osteoblast progenitors and levels increased during osteoblast differentiation, indicating the potential of CCL20/CCR6 signaling to influence osteoblasts through both autocrine and paracrine actions. With respect to autocrine effects, CCR6 was found to act as a functional G protein-coupled receptor in osteoblasts and although its loss did not appear to affect the number or proliferation rate of osteoblast progenitors, differentiation was significantly inhibited as evidenced by delays in osteoblast marker gene expression, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineralization. In addition, CCL20 promoted osteoblast survival concordant with activation of the PI3K-AKT pathway. Beyond these potential autocrine effects, osteoblast-derived CCL20 stimulated the recruitment of macrophages and T cells, known facilitators of osteoblast differentiation and survival. Finally, we generated mice harboring a global deletion of Ccl20 and found that Ccl20(-/-) mice exhibit a reduction in bone mass similar to that observed in Ccr6(-/-) mice, confirming that this phenomenon is regulated by CCL20 rather than alternate CCR6 ligands. Collectively, these data indicate that CCL20/CCR6 signaling may play an important role in regulating bone mass accrual, potentially by modulating osteoblast maturation, survival, and the recruitment of osteoblast-supporting cells. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:26890063

  18. Scientific instrumentation for the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope in Big Bear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, W.; Gorceix, N.; Coulter, R.; Ahn, K.; Rimmele, T. R.; Goode, P. R.

    2010-06-01

    The NST (New Solar Telescope), a 1.6 m clear aperture, off-axis telescope, is in its commissioning phase at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). It will be the most capable, largest aperture solar telescope in the US until the 4 m ATST (Advanced Technology Solar Telescope) comes on-line late in the next decade. The NST will be outfitted with state-of-the-art scientific instruments at the Nasmyth focus on the telescope floor and in the Coudé Lab beneath the telescope. At the Nasmyth focus, several filtergraphs already in routine operation have offered high spatial resolution photometry in TiO 706 nm, H\\alpha 656 nm, G-band 430 nm and the near infrared (NIR), with the aid of a correlation tracker and image reconstruction system. Also, a Cryogenic Infrared Spectrograph (CYRA) is being developed to supply high signal-to-noise-ratio spectrometry and polarimetry spanning 1.0 to 5.0 μm. The Coudé Lab instrumentation will include Adaptive Optics (AO), InfraRed Imaging Magnetograph (IRIM), Visible Imaging Magnetograph (VIM), and Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph (FISS). A 308 sub-aperture (349-actuator deformable mirror) AO system will enable nearly diffraction limited observations over the NST's principal operating wavelengths from 0.4 μm through 1.7 μm. IRIM and VIM are Fabry-Pérot based narrow-band tunable filters, which provide high resolution two-dimensional spectroscopic and polarimetric imaging in the NIR and visible respectively. FISS is a collaboration between BBSO and Seoul National University focussing on chromosphere dynamics. This paper reports the up-to-date progress on these instruments including an overview of each instrument and details of the current state of design, integration, calibration and setup/testing on the NST.

  19. 1.6 M Solar Telescope in Big Bear -- The NST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goode, Philip R.; Denker, Carsten J.; Didkovsky, Leonid I.; Kuhn, J. R.; Wang, Haimin

    2003-06-01

    New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT), in collaboration with the University of Hawaii (UH), is upgrading Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) by replacing its principal, 65 cm aperture telescope with a modern, off-axis 1.6 m clear aperture instrument from a 1.7 m blank. The new telescope offers a significant incremental improvement in ground-based infrared and high angular resolution capabilities, and enhances our continuing program to understand photospheric magneto-convection and chromospheric dynamics. These are the drivers for what is broadly called space weather -- an important problem, which impacts human technologies and life on earth. This New Solar Telescope (NST) will use the existing BBSO pedestal, pier and observatory building, which will be modified to accept the larger open telescope structure. It will be operated together with our 10 inch (for larger field-of-view vector magnetograms, Ca II K and Hα observations) and Singer-Link (full disk Hα, Ca II K and white light) synoptic telescopes. The NST optical and software control design will be similar to the existing SOLARC (UH) and the planned Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) facility led by the National Solar Observatory (NSO) -- all three are off-axis designs. The NST will be available to guest observers and will continue BBSO's open data policy. The polishing of the primary will be done in partnership with the University of Arizona Mirror Lab, where their proof-of-concept for figuring 8 m pieces of 20 m nighttime telescopes will be the NST's primary mirror. We plan for the NST's first light in late 2005. This new telescope will be the largest aperture solar telescope, and the largest aperture off-axis telescope, located in one of the best observing sites. It will enable new, cutting edge science. The scientific results will be extremely important to space weather and global climate change research.

  20. CNO abundances and hydrodynamic models of the nova outburst. III - 0.5 solar mass models with enhanced carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starrfield, S.; Sparks, W. M.; Truran, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    Consideration of the evolution of thermonuclear runaways in the hydrogen-rich envelopes of 0.5 solar mass carbon-oxygen white dwarfs. The larger radii of these stars, compared with the 1.00 solar mass white dwarfs, results in a lesser degree of degeneracy at the same depth in the star. Four models of luminosity with .00355 solar luminosity, differing only in the initial abundances of C-12, N-14, and O-16, are presented. The degree of enhancement required to produce mass ejection, and thereby a nova-type outburst, is greater than for the 1.00 solar mass model. Nevertheless, the evolution of the 0.5 solar mass model that ejected material is very similar to that of the 1.00 solar mass models, and it also ejects significant amounts of C-13, N-15, and O-17 into the interstellar medium. The 0.5 solar mass outburst is considerably less intense than the 1.00 solar mass outburst (even under optimum conditions), and this lower mass behavior is interpreted as associated with the observed outburst of the slowest novae.

  1. SOLAR SOURCE AND HELIOSPHERIC CONSEQUENCES OF THE 2010 APRIL 3 CORONAL MASS EJECTION: A COMPREHENSIVE VIEW

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Ying; Luhmann, Janet G.; Bale, Stuart D.; Lin, Robert P.

    2011-06-20

    We study the solar source and heliospheric consequences of the 2010 April 3 coronal mass ejection (CME) in the frame of the Sun-Earth connection using observations from a fleet of spacecraft. The CME is accompanied by a B7.4 long-duration flare, dramatic coronal dimming, and EUV waves. It causes significant heliospheric consequences and space weather effects such as radio bursts, a prominent shock wave, the largest/fastest interplanetary CME at 1 AU since the 2006 December 13 CME, the first gradual solar energetic particle (SEP) events in solar cycle 24, and a prolonged geomagnetic storm resulting in a breakdown of the Galaxy 15 satellite. This event, together with several following periods of intense solar activities, indicates awakening of the Sun from a long minimum. The CME EUV loop begins to rise at least 10 minutes before the flare impulsive phase. The associated coronal wave forms an envelope around the CME, a large-scale three-dimensional structure that can only be explained by a pressure wave. The CME and its preceding shock are imaged by both STEREO A and B almost throughout the whole Sun-Earth space. CME kinematics in the ecliptic plane are obtained as a function of distance out to 0.75 AU by a geometric triangulation technique. The CME has a propagation direction near the Sun-Earth line and a speed that first increases to 1000-1100 km s{sup -1} and then decreases to about 800 km s{sup -1}. Both the predicted arrival time and speed at the Earth are well confirmed by the in situ measurements. The gradual SEP events observed by three widely separated spacecraft show time profiles much more complicated than suggested by the standard conceptual picture of SEP event heliolongitude distribution. Evolving shock properties, the realistic time-dependent connection between the observer and shock source, and a possible role of particle perpendicular diffusion may be needed to interpret this SEP event spatial distribution.

  2. 10.6% Certified Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells via Solvent-Polarity-Engineered Halide Passivation.

    PubMed

    Lan, Xinzheng; Voznyy, Oleksandr; García de Arquer, F Pelayo; Liu, Mengxia; Xu, Jixian; Proppe, Andrew H; Walters, Grant; Fan, Fengjia; Tan, Hairen; Liu, Min; Yang, Zhenyu; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H

    2016-07-13

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells are solution-processed photovoltaics with broad spectral absorption tunability. Major advances in their efficiency have been made via improved CQD surface passivation and device architectures with enhanced charge carrier collection. Herein, we demonstrate a new strategy to improve further the passivation of CQDs starting from the solution phase. A cosolvent system is employed to tune the solvent polarity in order to achieve the solvation of methylammonium iodide (MAI) and the dispersion of hydrophobic PbS CQDs simultaneously in a homogeneous phase, otherwise not achieved in a single solvent. This process enables MAI to access the CQDs to confer improved passivation. This, in turn, allows for efficient charge extraction from a thicker photoactive layer device, leading to a certified solar cell power conversion efficiency of 10.6%, a new certified record in CQD photovoltaics. PMID:27351104

  3. Automated solar cell assembly teamed process research. Semiannual subcontract report, December 6, 1993--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Nowlan, M.

    1995-01-01

    This is the second Semiannual Technical Progress Report for the program titled `Automated Solar Cell Assembly Teamed Process Research` funded under National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) subcontract No. ZAG-3-11219-01. This report describes the work done on Phase II of the program in the period from December 6, 1993 to June 30, 1994. Spire`s objective in this program is to develop high throughput (5 MW/yr) automated processes for interconnecting thin (200 {mu}m) silicon solar cells. High yield will be achieved with these fragile cells through the development of low mechanical stress and low thermal stress processes. For example, a machine vision system is being developed for cell alignment without mechanically contacting the cell edges, while a new soldering process is being developed to solder metal interconnect ribbons simultaneously to a cells` front and back contacts, eliminating one of the two heating steps normally used for soldering each cell.

  4. MASS AND ENERGY OF ERUPTING SOLAR PLASMA OBSERVED WITH THE X-RAY TELESCOPE ON HINODE

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jin-Yi; Moon, Yong-Jae; Kim, Kap-Sung; Raymond, John C.; Reeves, Katharine K.

    2015-01-10

    We investigate seven eruptive plasma observations by Hinode/XRT. Their corresponding EUV and/or white light coronal mass ejection features are visible in some events. Five events are observed in several passbands in X-rays, which allows for the determination of the eruptive plasma temperature using a filter ratio method. We find that the isothermal temperatures vary from 1.6 to 10 MK. These temperatures are an average weighted toward higher temperature plasma. We determine the mass constraints of eruptive plasmas by assuming simplified geometrical structures of the plasma with isothermal plasma temperatures. This method provides an upper limit to the masses of the observed eruptive plasmas in X-ray passbands since any clumping causes the overestimation of the mass. For the other two events, we assume the temperatures are at the maximum temperature of the X-ray Telescope (XRT) temperature response function, which gives a lower limit of the masses. We find that the masses in XRT, ∼3 × 10{sup 13}-5 × 10{sup 14} g, are smaller in their upper limit than the total masses obtained by LASCO, ∼1 × 10{sup 15} g. In addition, we estimate the radiative loss, thermal conduction, thermal, and kinetic energies of the eruptive plasma in X-rays. For four events, we find that the thermal conduction timescales are much shorter than the duration of eruption. This result implies that additional heating during the eruption may be required to explain the plasma observations in X-rays for the four events.

  5. EXQUISITE NOVA LIGHT CURVES FROM THE SOLAR MASS EJECTION IMAGER (SMEI)

    SciTech Connect

    Hounsell, R.; Bode, M. F.; Darnley, M. J.; Mawson, N. R.; Steele, I. A.; Hick, P. P.; Buffington, A.; Jackson, B. V.; Clover, J. M.; Shafter, A. W.; Evans, A.; Eyres, S. P. S.; O'Brien, T. J.

    2010-11-20

    We present light curves of three classical novae (CNe; KT Eridani, V598 Puppis, V1280 Scorpii) and one recurrent nova (RS Ophiuchi) derived from data obtained by the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) on board the Coriolis satellite. SMEI provides near complete skymap coverage with precision visible-light photometry at 102 minute cadence. The light curves derived from these skymaps offer unprecedented temporal resolution around, and especially before, maximum light, a phase of the eruption normally not covered by ground-based observations. They allow us to explore fundamental parameters of individual objects including the epoch of the initial explosion, the reality and duration of any pre-maximum halt (found in all three fast novae in our sample), the presence of secondary maxima, speed of decline of the initial light curve, plus precise timing of the onset of dust formation (in V1280 Sco) leading to estimation of the bolometric luminosity, white dwarf mass, and object distance. For KT Eri, Liverpool Telescope SkyCamT data confirm important features of the SMEI light curve and overall our results add weight to the proposed similarities of this object to recurrent rather than to CNe. In RS Oph, comparison with hard X-ray data from the 2006 outburst implies that the onset of the outburst coincides with extensive high-velocity mass loss. It is also noted that two of the four novae we have detected (V598 Pup and KT Eri) were only discovered by ground-based observers weeks or months after maximum light, yet these novae reached peak magnitudes of 3.46 and 5.42, respectively. This emphasizes the fact that many bright novae per year are still overlooked, particularly those of the very fast speed class. Coupled with its ability to observe novae in detail even when relatively close to the Sun in the sky, we estimate that as many as five novae per year may be detectable by SMEI.

  6. Influences of atmospheric conditions and air mass on the ratio of ultraviolet to total solar radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Riordan, C.J.; Hulstrom, R.L.; Myers, D.R.

    1990-08-01

    The technology to detoxify hazardous wastes using ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation is being investigated by the DOE/SERI Solar Thermal Technology Program. One of the elements of the technology evaluation is the assessment and characterization of UV solar radiation resources available for detoxification processes. This report describes the major atmospheric variables that determine the amount of UV solar radiation at the earth's surface, and how the ratio of UV-to-total solar radiation varies with atmospheric conditions. These ratios are calculated from broadband and spectral solar radiation measurements acquired at SERI, and obtained from the literature on modeled and measured UV solar radiation. The following sections discuss the atmospheric effects on UV solar radiation and provide UV-to-total solar radiation ratios from published studies, as well as measured values from SERI's data. A summary and conclusions are also given.

  7. A grid of MHD models for stellar mass loss and spin-down rates of solar analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, O.; Drake, J. J.

    2014-03-01

    Stellar winds are believed to be the dominant factor in the spin-down of stars over time. However, stellar winds of solar analogs are poorly constrained due to observational challenges. In this paper, we present a grid of magnetohydrodynamic models to study and quantify the values of stellar mass loss and angular momentum loss rates as a function of the stellar rotation period, magnetic dipole component, and coronal base density. We derive simple scaling laws for the loss rates as a function of these parameters, and constrain the possible mass loss rate of stars with thermally driven winds. Despite the success of our scaling law in matching the results of the model, we find a deviation between the 'solar dipole' case and a real case based on solar observations that overestimates the actual solar mass loss rate by a factor of three. This implies that the model for stellar fields might require a further investigation with additional complexity. Mass loss rates in general are largely controlled by the magnetic field strength, with the wind density varying in proportion to the confining magnetic pressure B {sup 2}. We also find that the mass loss rates obtained using our grid models drop much faster with the increase in rotation period than scaling laws derived using observed stellar activity. For main-sequence solar-like stars, our scaling law for angular momentum loss versus poloidal magnetic field strength retrieves the well-known Skumanich decline of angular velocity with time, Ω{sub *}∝t {sup –1/2}, if the large-scale poloidal magnetic field scales with rotation rate as B{sub p}∝Ω{sub ⋆}{sup 2}.

  8. Measured Mass-Loss Rates of Solar-like Stars as a Function of Age and Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Brian E.; Müller, Hans-Reinhard; Zank, Gary P.; Linsky, Jeffrey L.

    2002-07-01

    Collisions between the winds of solar-like stars and the local interstellar medium result in a population of hot hydrogen gas surrounding these stars. Absorption from this hot H I can be detected in high-resolution Lyα spectra of these stars from the Hubble Space Telescope. The amount of absorption can be used as a diagnostic for the stellar mass-loss rate. We present new mass-loss rate measurements derived in this fashion for four stars (ɛ Eri, 61 Cyg A, 36 Oph AB, and 40 Eri A). Combining these measurements with others, we study how mass loss varies with stellar activity. We find that for the solar-like GK dwarfs, the mass loss per unit surface area is correlated with X-ray surface flux. Fitting a power law to this relation yields M~F1.15+/-0.20X. The active M dwarf Proxima Cen and the very active RS CVn system λ And appear to be inconsistent with this relation. Since activity is known to decrease with age, the above power-law relation for solar-like stars suggests that mass loss decreases with time. We infer a power-law relation of M~t-2.00+/-0.52. This suggests that the solar wind may have been as much as 1000 times more massive in the distant past, which may have had important ramifications for the history of planetary atmospheres in our solar system, that of Mars in particular. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  9. Submillimetre galaxies reside in dark matter haloes with masses greater than 3 × 10(11) solar masses.

    PubMed

    Amblard, Alexandre; Cooray, Asantha; Serra, Paolo; Altieri, B; Arumugam, V; Aussel, H; Blain, A; Bock, J; Boselli, A; Buat, V; Castro-Rodríguez, N; Cava, A; Chanial, P; Chapin, E; Clements, D L; Conley, A; Conversi, L; Dowell, C D; Dwek, E; Eales, S; Elbaz, D; Farrah, D; Franceschini, A; Gear, W; Glenn, J; Griffin, M; Halpern, M; Hatziminaoglou, E; Ibar, E; Isaak, K; Ivison, R J; Khostovan, A A; Lagache, G; Levenson, L; Lu, N; Madden, S; Maffei, B; Mainetti, G; Marchetti, L; Marsden, G; Mitchell-Wynne, K; Nguyen, H T; O'Halloran, B; Oliver, S J; Omont, A; Page, M J; Panuzzo, P; Papageorgiou, A; Pearson, C P; Pérez-Fournon, I; Pohlen, M; Rangwala, N; Roseboom, I G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Portal, M Sánchez; Schulz, B; Scott, Douglas; Seymour, N; Shupe, D L; Smith, A J; Stevens, J A; Symeonidis, M; Trichas, M; Tugwell, K; Vaccari, M; Valiante, E; Valtchanov, I; Vieira, J D; Vigroux, L; Wang, L; Ward, R; Wright, G; Xu, C K; Zemcov, M

    2011-02-24

    The extragalactic background light at far-infrared wavelengths comes from optically faint, dusty, star-forming galaxies in the Universe with star formation rates of a few hundred solar masses per year. These faint, submillimetre galaxies are challenging to study individually because of the relatively poor spatial resolution of far-infrared telescopes. Instead, their average properties can be studied using statistics such as the angular power spectrum of the background intensity variations. A previous attempt at measuring this power spectrum resulted in the suggestion that the clustering amplitude is below the level computed with a simple ansatz based on a halo model. Here we report excess clustering over the linear prediction at arcminute angular scales in the power spectrum of brightness fluctuations at 250, 350 and 500 μm. From this excess, we find that submillimetre galaxies are located in dark matter haloes with a minimum mass, M(min), such that log(10)[M(min)/M(⊙)] = 11.5(+0.7)(-0.2) at 350 μm, where M(⊙) is the solar mass. This minimum dark matter halo mass corresponds to the most efficient mass scale for star formation in the Universe, and is lower than that predicted by semi-analytical models for galaxy formation. PMID:21326201

  10. Calibration of NOAA-7 AVHRR, GOES-5 and GOES-6 VISSR/VAS solar channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frouin, R.; Gautier, C.

    1986-01-01

    The NOAA-7, GOES-5 and GOES-6 Visible Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer/Vertical Atmospheric Sounder (VISSR/VAS) solar channels were calibrated. The White Sands Monument area in New Mexico, whose reflectance properties are well known, and space are used as calibration targets. The shortwave reflected terrestrial irradiance that is measured at satellite altitude is computed using a fairly accurate radiative transfer model which accounts for multiple scattering and bidirectional effects. The ground target reflectance and relevant characteristics of the overlying atmosphere are estimated from climatological data and observation at the nearest meteorological sites. The approach is believed to produce accuracies of 8 to 13% depending on the channel considered.

  11. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Kkkk of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... Metal Cans Pt. 63, Subpt. KKKK, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart KKKK of Part 63—Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends You may use the mass fraction values in the following table...

  12. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Kkkk of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... Metal Cans Pt. 63, Subpt. KKKK, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart KKKK of Part 63—Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends You may use the mass fraction values in the following table...

  13. A comparison of solar energetic particle event timescales with properties of associated coronal mass ejections

    SciTech Connect

    Kahler, S. W.

    2013-06-01

    The dependence of solar energetic proton (SEP) event peak intensities Ip on properties of associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs) has been extensively examined, but the dependence of SEP event timescales is not well known. We define three timescales of 20 MeV SEP events and ask how they are related to speeds v {sub CME} or widths W of their associated CMEs observed by LASCO/SOHO. The timescales of the EPACT/Wind 20 MeV events are TO, the onset time from CME launch to SEP onset; TR, the rise time from onset to half the peak intensity (0.5Ip); and TD, the duration of the SEP intensity above 0.5Ip. This is a statistical study based on 217 SEP-CME events observed during 1996-2008. The large number of SEP events allows us to examine the SEP-CME relationship in five solar-source longitude ranges. In general, we statistically find that TO declines slightly with v {sub CME}, and TR and TD increase with both v {sub CME} and W. TO is inversely correlated with log Ip, as expected from a particle background effect. We discuss the implications of this result and find that a background-independent parameter TO+TR also increases with v {sub CME} and W. The correlations generally fall below the 98% significance level, but there is a significant correlation between v {sub CME} and W which renders interpretation of the timescale results uncertain. We suggest that faster (and wider) CMEs drive shocks and accelerate SEPs over longer times to produce the longer TR and TD SEP timescales.

  14. The Correlation Between Solar Energetic Particle Events and Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karelitz, A. M.; Pulkkinen, A.

    2012-12-01

    Solar energetic particle (SEP) events are a wide scale phenomena that are not only an issue for the 2,000+ costly satellites in the sky but also have negative implications on aviation, and even ground based communication. Forecasting the magnitude and duration of strong SEP events based on preceding events that are often associated with them, such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and solar flares, is an important step in future operational space weather as well as research. In order to provide a model connecting SEP and CME characteristics, six specific CMEs between 8/14/2010 and 5/17/12 that met specific qualifications (i.e. earth directed), were chosen and several parameters characterizing the connections were derived. From the derived data, correlations between many of the different parameters were tested. One of the more meaningful correlations that was found is between the peak flux of >10 MeV GOES protons and the speed of the CME. A logarithmic correlation between these two entities is clearly seen with a R^2 value of 0.78 and a fit of y=2.74e.^(003x). For forecasting purposes, the times of the arrival of the SEP event with respect to the evolution of the CME was also recorded. Another possibly meaningful correlation was found between SEP duration and CME speed with R^2 value of 0.56. The identified connections were verified by adding an event that occurred on July 12, 2012. Using the model connecting SEP peak flux and CME speed as produced in this study, space weather forecasters can better predict the magnitude of the SEP event that is a result of an earth directed CME. Doing so will enable precautions to be taken on spacecraft as well as ground based entities that are vulnerable to the high-energy protons. In future work, we plan to perform

  15. Do interacting coronal mass ejections play a role in solar energetic particle events?

    SciTech Connect

    Kahler, S. W.; Vourlidas, A.

    2014-03-20

    Gradual solar energetic (E > 10 MeV) particle (SEP) events are produced in shocks driven by fast and wide coronal mass ejections (CMEs). With a set of western hemisphere 20 MeV SEP events, we test the possibility that SEP peak intensities, Ip, are enhanced by interactions of their associated CMEs with preceding CMEs (preCMEs) launched during the previous 12 hr. Among SEP events with no, 1, or 2 or more (2+) preCMEs, we find enhanced Ip for the groups with preCMEs, but no differences in TO+TR, the time from CME launch to SEP onset and the time from onset to SEP half-peak Ip. Neither the timings of the preCMEs relative to their associated CMEs nor the preCME widths W {sub pre}, speeds V {sub pre}, or numbers correlate with the SEP Ip values. The 20 MeV Ip of all the preCME groups correlate with the 2 MeV proton background intensities, consistent with a general correlation with possible seed particle populations. Furthermore, the fraction of CMEs with preCMEs also increases with the 2 MeV proton background intensities. This implies that the higher SEP Ip values with preCMEs may not be due primarily to CME interactions, such as the 'twin-CME' scenario, but are explained by a general increase of both background seed particles and more frequent CMEs during times of higher solar activity. This explanation is not supported by our analysis of 2 MeV proton backgrounds in two earlier preCME studies of SEP events, so the relevance of CME interactions for larger SEP event intensities remains unclear.

  16. Solar system constraints on planetary Coriolis-type effects induced by rotation of distant masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2010-08-01

    We phenomenologically put local constraints on the rotation of distant masses by using the planets of the solar system. First, we analytically compute the orbital secular precessions induced on the motion of a test particle about a massive primary by a Coriolis-like force, treated as a small perturbation, in the case of a constant angular velocity vector Ψ directed along a generic direction in space. The semimajor axis a and the eccentricity e of the test particle do not secularly change, contrary to the inclination I, the longitude of the ascending node Ω, the longitude of the pericenter varpi and the mean anomaly Script M. Then, we compare our prediction for langledot varpirangle with the corrections Δdot varpi to the usual perihelion precessions of the inner planets recently estimated by fitting long data sets with different versions of the EPM ephemerides. We obtain as preliminary upper bounds |Ψz| <= 0.0006-0.013 arcsec cty-1, |Ψx| <= 0.1-2.7 arcsec cty-1, |Ψy| <= 0.3-2.3 arcsec cty-1. Interpreted in terms of models of space-time involving cosmic rotation, our results are able to yield constraints on cosmological parameters like the cosmological constant Λ and the Hubble parameter H0 not too far from their values determined with cosmological observations and, in some cases, several orders of magnitude better than the constraints usually obtained so far from space-time models not involving rotation. In the case of the rotation of the solar system throughout the Galaxy, occurring clockwise about the North Galactic Pole, our results for Ψz are in disagreement with the expected value of it at more than 3-σ level. Modeling the Oort cloud as an Einstein-Thirring slowly rotating massive shell inducing Coriolis-type forces inside yields unphysical results for its putative rotation.

  17. A Comparison of Solar Energetic Particle Event Timescales with Properties of Associated Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahler, S. W.

    2013-06-01

    The dependence of solar energetic proton (SEP) event peak intensities Ip on properties of associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs) has been extensively examined, but the dependence of SEP event timescales is not well known. We define three timescales of 20 MeV SEP events and ask how they are related to speeds v CME or widths W of their associated CMEs observed by LASCO/SOHO. The timescales of the EPACT/Wind 20 MeV events are TO, the onset time from CME launch to SEP onset; TR, the rise time from onset to half the peak intensity (0.5Ip); and TD, the duration of the SEP intensity above 0.5Ip. This is a statistical study based on 217 SEP-CME events observed during 1996-2008. The large number of SEP events allows us to examine the SEP-CME relationship in five solar-source longitude ranges. In general, we statistically find that TO declines slightly with v CME, and TR and TD increase with both v CME and W. TO is inversely correlated with log Ip, as expected from a particle background effect. We discuss the implications of this result and find that a background-independent parameter TO+TR also increases with v CME and W. The correlations generally fall below the 98% significance level, but there is a significant correlation between v CME and W which renders interpretation of the timescale results uncertain. We suggest that faster (and wider) CMEs drive shocks and accelerate SEPs over longer times to produce the longer TR and TD SEP timescales.

  18. CNO abundances and hydrodynamic studies of the Nova outburst. V - 1.00-solar-mass models with small mass envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starrfield, S.; Truran, J. W.; Sparks, W. M.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reports on an investigation into the consequences of thermonuclear runaways in accreted hydrogen envelopes of 100 millionths of a solar mass on 1-solar-mass white dwarfs. These evolutionary sequences predict that from 10 to 50 millionths of a solar mass will be ejected with speeds from 300 to 3800 km/s (kinetic energies of 10 to the 44th-45th power ergs). Absolute visual magnitudes as high as -8.1 are attained, well within the observed range for fast novae. In addition, the shapes of the theoretical light curves are more reminiscent of an observed fast-nova light curve than those in earlier studies. The ejected material is strongly enhanced in the products of incomplete CNO burning; the most abundant of the ejected nuclei is C-13, followed by N-14 and C-12. The differences from previous studies are attributable to the lower peak temperatures reached in these sequences. These models also produce a large overabundance of Li-7, suggesting that novae may represent significant contributors to the galactic enrichment of this nucleus.

  19. Quantitation of vitamin B6 in biological samples by isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Hachey, D.L.; Coburn, S.P.; Brown, L.T.; Erbelding, W.F.; DeMark, B.; Klein, P.D.

    1985-11-15

    Methods have been developed for the simultaneous quantitative analysis of vitamin B6 forms in biological samples by isotope dilution mass spectrometry using deuterated forms of pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine, and pyridoxic acid. The biological fluid or tissue sample was homogenized and then treated with a cocktail containing appropriate amounts of each deuterated vitamer, as well as the deuterated, phosphorylated vitamer forms. The individual vitamers were isolated from the homogenate by a complex high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure that provided separate fractions for each of the six vitamers found in biological samples. Aldehydic B6 vitamers were reduced to the alcohol form prior to acetylation and analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The three resulting vitamers were analyzed by electron ionization GC/MS using a silicone capillary column. The methods have been applied to analysis of vitamin B6 in liver, milk, urine, and feces at levels as low as 0.02 nmol/ml.

  20. Effect of the relative optical air mass and the clearness index on solar erythemal UV irradiance.

    PubMed

    Moreno, J C; Serrano, M A; Cañada, J; Gurrea, G; Utrillas, M P

    2014-09-01

    This paper analyses the effects of the clearness index (Kt) and the relative optical air mass (mr) on erythemal UV irradiance (UVER). The UVER measurements were made in Valencia (Spain) from 6:00 am to 6:00 pm between June 2003 and December 2012 and (140,000 data points). Firstly, two models were used to calculate values for the erythemal ultraviolet irradiance clearness index (KtUVER) as a function of the global irradiance clearness index (Kt). Secondly, a potential regression model to measure the KtUVER as a function of the relative optical air mass was studied. The coefficients of this regression were evaluated for clear and cloudy days, as well as for days with high and low ozone levels. Thirdly, an analysis was made of the relationship between the two effects in the experimental database, with it being found that the highest degree of agreement, or the joint highest frequencies, are located in the optical mass range mr∈[1.0, 1.2] and the clearness index range of Kt∈[0.8, 1.0]. This is useful for establishing the ranges of parameters where models are more efficient. Simple equations have been tested that can provide additional information for the engineering projects concerning thermal installations. Fourthly, a high dispersion of radiation data was observed for intermediate values of the clearness for UV and UVER. PMID:24911276

  1. The Stellar Mass Fundamental Plane and Compact Quiescent Galaxies at z < 0.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahid, H. Jabran; Damjanov, Ivana; Geller, Margaret J.; Hwang, Ho Seong; Fabricant, Daniel G.

    2016-04-01

    We examine the evolution of the relation between stellar mass surface density, velocity dispersion, and half-light radius—the stellar mass fundamental plane (MFP)—for quiescent galaxies at z < 0.6. We measure the local relation from galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the intermediate redshift relation from ∼500 quiescent galaxies with stellar masses 10 ≲ log(M*/M⊙) ≲ 11.5. Nearly half of the quiescent galaxies in our intermediate redshift sample are compact. After accounting for important selection and systematic effects, the velocity dispersion distribution of galaxies at intermediate redshifts is similar to that of galaxies in the local universe. Galaxies at z < 0.6 appear to be smaller (≲0.1 dex) than galaxies in the local sample. The orientation of the stellar MFP is independent of redshift for massive quiescent galaxies at z < 0.6 and the zero-point evolves by ∼0.04 dex. Compact quiescent galaxies fall on the same relation as the extended objects. We confirm that compact quiescent galaxies are the tail of the size and mass distribution of the normal quiescent galaxy population.

  2. Masses of third family vectorlike quarks and leptons in Yukawa-unified E6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebbar, Aditya; Leontaris, George K.; Shafi, Qaisar

    2016-06-01

    In supersymmetric E6 the masses of the third family quarks and charged lepton, t -b -τ , as well as the masses of the vectorlike quarks and leptons, D -D ¯ and L -L ¯, may arise from the coupling 2 73×2 73×2 7H, where 2 73 and 2 7H denote the third family matter and Higgs multiplets, respectively. We assume that the SO(10) singlet component in 2 7H acquires a TeV-scale vacuum expectation value that spontaneously breaks U (1 )ψ and provides masses to the vectorlike particles in 2 73, while the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model doublets in 2 7H provide masses to t , b , and τ . Imposing Yukawa coupling unification ht=hb=hτ=hD=hL at MGUT and employing the ATLAS and CMS constraints on the Zψ' boson mass, we estimate the lower bounds on the third family vectorlike particles D -D ¯ and L -L ¯ masses to be around 5.85 TeV and 2.9 TeV, respectively. These bounds apply in the supersymmetric limit.

  3. 6-Year Periodicity and Variable Synchronicity in a Mass-Flowering Plant

    PubMed Central

    Kakishima, Satoshi; Yoshimura, Jin; Murata, Hiroko; Murata, Jin

    2011-01-01

    Periodical organisms, such as bamboos and periodical cicadas, are very famous for their synchronous reproduction. In bamboos and other periodical plants, the synchronicity of mass-flowering and withering has been often reported indicating these species are monocarpic (semelparous) species. Therefore, synchronicity and periodicity are often suspected to be fairly tightly coupled traits in these periodical plants. We investigate the periodicity and synchronicity of Strobilanthes flexicaulis, and a closely related species S. tashiroi on Okinawa Island, Japan. The genus Strobilanthes is known for several periodical species. Based on 32-year observational data, we confirmed that S. flexicaulis is 6-year periodical mass-flowering monocarpic plant. All the flowering plants had died after flowering. In contrast, we found that S. tashiroi is a polycarpic perennial with no mass-flowering from three-year individual tracking. We also surveyed six local populations of S. flexicaulis and found variation in the synchronicity from four highly synchronized populations (>98% of plants flowering in the mass year) to two less synchronized one with 11–47% of plants flowering before and after the mass year. This result might imply that synchrony may be selected for when periodicity is established in monocarpic species. We found the selective advantages for mass-flowering in pollinator activities and predator satiation. The current results suggest that the periodical S. flexicaulis might have evolved periodicity from a non-periodical close relative. The current report should become a key finding for understanding the evolution of periodical plants. PMID:22163279

  4. Applications of thin film technology toward a low-mass solar power satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Cull, Ronald C.

    1990-01-01

    Previous concepts for solar power satellites have used conventional-technology photovoltaics and microwave tubes. The authors propose using thin film photovoltaics and an integrated solid state phased array to design an ultra-lightweight solar power satellite, resulting in a potential reduction in weight by a factor of ten to a hundred over conventional concepts for solar power satellites.

  5. Wind modelling of very massive stars up to 300 solar masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vink, Jorick S.; Muijres, L. E.; Anthonisse, B.; de Koter, A.; Gräfener, G.; Langer, N.

    2011-07-01

    The stellar upper-mass limit is highly uncertain. Some studies have claimed there is a universal upper limit of 150 M⊙. A factor that is often overlooked is that there might be a significant difference between the present-day and the initial masses of the most massive stars - as a result of mass loss. The upper-mass limit may easily supersede 200 M⊙. For these reasons, we present new mass-loss predictions from Monte Carlo radiative transfer models for very massive stars (VMS) in the mass range 40-300 M⊙, and with very high luminosities 6.0 ≤ log (L ⋆ /L⊙) ≤ 7.03, corresponding to large Eddington factors Γ. Using our new dynamical approach, we find an upturn or "kink" in the mass-loss versus Γ dependence, at the point where the model winds become optically thick. This coincides with the location where our wind efficiency numbers surpass the single-scattering limit of η = 1, reaching values up to η ≃ 2.5. In all, our modelling suggests a transition from common O-type winds to Wolf-Rayet characteristics at the point where the winds become optically thick. This transitional behaviour is also revealed with respect to the wind acceleration parameter, β, which starts at values below 1 for the optically thin O-stars, and naturally reaches values as high as 1.5-2 for the optically thick Wolf-Rayet models. An additional finding concerns the transition in spectral morphology of the Of and WN characteristic He ii line at 4686 Å. When we express our mass-loss predictions as a function of the electron scattering Eddington factor Γe L ⋆ /M ⋆ alone, we obtain an Ṁ vs. Γe dependence that is consistent with a previously reported power law Ṁ∝ Γ_e{5} (Vink 2006) that was based on our previous semi-empirical modelling approach. When we express Ṁ in terms of both Γe and stellar mass, we find optically thin winds and Ṁ ∝ Mstar0.68 Γ_e^{2.2} for the Γe range 0.4 ≲ Γe ≲ 0.7, and mass-loss rates that agree with the standard Vink et al. recipe

  6. Solar cycle variation of interplanetary shocks, coronal mass ejections, and stream interactions observed at 0.7 AU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsay, G. M.; Luhmann, J. G.; Russell, C. T.; Gazis, P.

    1995-01-01

    A survey of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) magnetometer and plasma data from 1979-1980, shows that the occurrence frequency of interplanetary shocks, coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and stream interactions observed at 0.7 AU exhibits a solar cycle variation. As previously found at 1 AU, the observed number of both interplanetary shocks and CMEs peaks during solar maximum (approximately 16 and approximately 27 per year, respectively) and reaches a low during solar minimum (approximately 0 and approximately 7 per year, respectively), in phase with the variation in smoothed sunspot number. The number of stream interactions observed varies in the opposite manner, having a minimum during solar maximum (approximately 15 per year) and a maximum during solar minimum (approximately 34 per year). The percentage of CMEs and stream interactions producing interplanetary shocks also varies during the solar-cycle and exhibits interesting behavior during the declining phase. While the number of CMEs observed during this phase is decreasing, the percentage of CMEs producing interplanetary shocks reaches a maximum. Also, while the number of stream interactions observed is increasing, but has not reached maximum during the declining phase, the percentage of stream interactions producing interplanety shocks is at a maximum.

  7. Akebono/Suprathermal Mass Spectrometer observations of low-energy ion outflow: Dependence on magnetic activity and solar wind conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cully, C. M.; Donovan, E. F.; Yau, A. W.; Arkos, G. G.

    2003-02-01

    We present observations by the Suprathermal Mass Spectrometer (SMS) on Akebono (EXOS-D) of ion outflow in the energy range from <1 to ˜70 eV. These observations cover a unique region of phase space and present an opportunity to "tie together" observations from disparate satellites. Variation of the total hemispheric O+ and H+ outflow rates with solar radio flux (monitored by the Penticton F10.7 index), with geomagnetic activity (monitored by the Kp index), and with solar wind parameters is discussed. Comparisons of F10.7 and Kp trends to results from Polar and Dynamics Explorer-1 (DE-1) lead us to conclude that flows of H+ in this low energy range are entirely sufficient to account for higher-energy flows at higher altitudes. On the other hand, we infer a substantial amount of O+ at energies above 70 eV. Both H+ and O+ outflow rates in this range exhibit a strong correlation with the solar wind kinetic pressure, the solar wind electric field, and the variability in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) in the hour preceding. While these factors are also associated with increased geomagnetic activity (Kp), a separate, Kp-independent effect is also found, showing a correlation of ion outflow with solar wind density and an anticorrelation with solar wind velocity.

  8. Solar Cooling for Buildings. Workshop Proceedings (Los Angeles, California, February 6-8, 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Winter, Francis, Ed.

    A consensus has developed among U.S. solar researchers that the solar-powered cooling of buildings is an important topic. Most solar heating systems are technically simpler, and more highly developed, than solar cooling devices are. The determination of the best design concept for any particular application is not a simple process. Significant…

  9. Comparison of polar cap potential drops estimated from solar wind and ground magnetometer data - CDAW 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiff, P. H.; Spiro, R. W.; Wolf, R. A.; Kamide, Y.; King, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that the maximum electrostatic potential difference across the polar cap, Phi, is a fundamental measure of the coupling between the solar wind and the earth's magnetosphere/ionosphere sytem. During the Coordinated Data Analysis Workshop (CDAW) 6 intervals, no suitably instrumented spacecraft was in an appropriate orbit to determine the polar-cap potential drop directly. However, two recently developed independent techniques make it possible to estimate the polar-cap potential drop for times when direct spacecraft data are not available. The present investigation is concerned with a comparison of cross-polar-cap potential drop estimates calculated for the two CDAW 6 intervals on the basis of these two techniques. In the case of one interval, the agreement between the potential drops and Joule heating rates is relatively good. In the second interval, however, the agreement is not very good. Explanations for this discrepancy are discussed.

  10. Scientific Instruments of 1.6 m New Solar Telescope in Big Bear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, W.

    2009-12-01

    The NST (New Solar Telescope) is in its commissioning phase at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). It will be the most capable, largest aperture solar telescope in the US until the 4 m ATST (Advanced Technology Solar Telescope) comes on-line in the middle of the next decade. The NST will be outfitted with state-of-the-art post-focus instrumentations at the Nasmyth focus on the dome floor and in the Coude Lab beneath the telescope. At the Nasmyth focus, several filter-based systems already in routine operation offer high spatial resolution photometry in TiO 704 nm, Hα 656 nm, G-band 430 nm and near infrared 1.56 μm & 2.2 μm, with the assistance of local correlation tracking and image reconstruction. As well, a Cryogenic InfraRed Spectrograph (CIRS) is being developed to supply high signal-to-noise-ratio spectrometry and polarimetry spanning 1.0 to 5.0 μm. The Coudé-lab instrumentations will include Adaptive Optics system (AO), InfraRed Imaging Magnetograph (IRIM), Visible Imaging Magnetograph (VIM), Real-time Image Reconstruction System (RIRS), and Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph (FISS) -- most of these instruments operated on the old 0.6 m BBSO telescope. AO is being upgraded to a 308 sub-aperture (349-actuator Deformable Mirror) AO system that will enable diffraction limited observations over the NST's principal operating wavelengths from 0.4 through 1.7 μm. IRIM and VIM are Fabry-Pérot based narrow-band tunable filter, which provide high resolution two-dimensional spectroscopic and polarimetric imaging in the near infrared and visible respectively. Using a 32-node parallel computing system, RIRS is capable of performing real-time image reconstruction with one image every minute. FISS is a collaboration between BBSO and Seoul National University to focus on chromosphere dynamics. Key tasks including optical design, hardware/software integration and subsequent setup/testing on the NST, will be presented here. Some preliminary observation results in the near

  11. VERY LOW MASS STELLAR AND SUBSTELLAR COMPANIONS TO SOLAR-LIKE STARS FROM MARVELS. I. A LOW-MASS RATIO STELLAR COMPANION TO TYC 4110-01037-1 IN A 79 DAY ORBIT

    SciTech Connect

    Wisniewski, John P.; Agol, Eric; Barnes, Rory; Ge, Jian; De Lee, Nathan; Fleming, Scott W.; Lee, Brian L.; Chang, Liang; Crepp, Justin R.; Eastman, Jason; Gaudi, B. Scott; Esposito, Massimiliano; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jonay I.; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Ghezzi, Luan; Da Costa, Luiz N.; Porto De Mello, G. F.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Cargile, Phillip; Bizyaev, Dmitry; and others

    2012-05-15

    TYC 4110-01037-1 has a low-mass stellar companion, whose small mass ratio and short orbital period are atypical among binary systems with solar-like (T{sub eff} {approx}< 6000 K) primary stars. Our analysis of TYC 4110-01037-1 reveals it to be a moderately aged ({approx}<5 Gyr) solar-like star having a mass of 1.07 {+-} 0.08 M{sub Sun} and radius of 0.99 {+-} 0.18 R{sub Sun }. We analyze 32 radial velocity (RV) measurements from the SDSS-III MARVELS survey as well as 6 supporting RV measurements from the SARG spectrograph on the 3.6 m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo telescope obtained over a period of {approx}2 years. The best Keplerian orbital fit parameters were found to have a period of 78.994 {+-} 0.012 days, an eccentricity of 0.1095 {+-} 0.0023, and a semi-amplitude of 4199 {+-} 11 m s{sup -1}. We determine the minimum companion mass (if sin i = 1) to be 97.7 {+-} 5.8 M{sub Jup}. The system's companion to host star mass ratio, {>=}0.087 {+-} 0.003, places it at the lowest end of observed values for short period stellar companions to solar-like (T{sub eff} {approx}< 6000 K) stars. One possible way to create such a system would be if a triple-component stellar multiple broke up into a short period, low q binary during the cluster dispersal phase of its lifetime. A candidate tertiary body has been identified in the system via single-epoch, high contrast imagery. If this object is confirmed to be comoving, we estimate it would be a dM4 star. We present these results in the context of our larger-scale effort to constrain the statistics of low-mass stellar and brown dwarf companions to FGK-type stars via the MARVELS survey.

  12. Clinical Impact of the KL-6 Concentration of Pancreatic Juice for Diagnosing Pancreatic Masses

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Kazuya; Takeda, Yohei; Harada, Kenichi; Onoyama, Takumi; Kawata, Soichiro; Horie, Yasushi; Sakamoto, Teruhisa; Ueki, Masaru; Miura, Norimasa; Murawaki, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim. Pancreatic juice cytology (PJC) is considered optimal for differentially diagnosing pancreatic masses, but the accuracy of PJC ranges from 46.7% to 93.0%. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical impact of measuring the KL-6 concentration of pancreatic juice for diagnosing pancreatic masses. Methods. PJC and the KL-6 concentration measurements of pancreatic juice were performed for 70 consecutive patients with pancreatic masses (39 malignancies and 31 benign). Results. The average KL-6 concentration of pancreatic juice was significantly higher for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) (167.7 ± 396.1 U/mL) and intraductal papillary mucinous carcinomas (IPMCs) (86.9 ± 21.1 U/mL) than for pancreatic inflammatory lesions (17.5 ± 15.7 U/mL, P = 0.034) and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (14.4 ± 2.0 U/mL, P = 0.026), respectively. When the cut-off level of the KL-6 concentration of pancreatic juice was 16 U/mL, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the KL-6 concentration of pancreatic juice alone were 79.5%, 64.5%, and 72.9%, respectively. Adding the KL-6 concentration of pancreatic juice to PJC when making a diagnosis caused the values of sensitivity and accuracy of PJC to increase by 15.3% (P = 0.025) and 8.5% (P = 0.048), respectively. Conclusions. The KL-6 concentration of pancreatic juice may be as useful as PJC for diagnosing PDACs. PMID:26451373

  13. The X-Ray Properties of Million Solar Mass Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotkin, Richard. M.; Gallo, Elena; Haardt, Francesco; Miller, Brendan P.; Wood, Callum J. L.; Reines, Amy E.; Wu, Jianfeng; Greene, Jenny E.

    2016-07-01

    We present new Chandra X-ray observations of seven low-mass black holes ({M}{{BH}}≈ {10}6 {M}ȯ ) accreting at low-bolometric Eddington ratios between -2.0≲ {log}{L}{{bol}}/{L}{{Edd}}≲ -1.5. We compare the X-ray properties of these seven low-mass active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to a total of 73 other low-mass AGNs in the literature with published Chandra observations (with Eddington ratios extending from -2.0≲ {log}{L}{{bol}}/{L}{{Edd}}≲ -0.1). We do not find any statistical differences between the low and high Eddington ratio low-mass AGNs in the distributions of their X-ray to ultraviolet luminosity ratios ({α }{{ox}}), or in their X-ray spectral shapes. Furthermore, the {α }{{ox}} distribution of low-{L}{{bol}}/{L}{{Edd}} AGNs displays an X-ray weak tail that is also observed within high-{L}{{bol}}/{L}{{Edd}} objects. Our results indicate that between -2≲ {log}{L}{{bol}}/{L}{{Edd}}≲ -0.1, there is no systematic change in the structure of the accretion flow for active galaxies hosting {10}6 {M}ȯ black holes. We examine the accuracy of current bolometric luminosity estimates for our low-{L}{{bol}}/{L}{{Edd}} objects with new Chandra observations, and it is plausible that their Eddington ratios could be underestimated by up to an order of magnitude. If so, then in analogy with weak emission line quasars, we suggest that accretion from a geometrically thick, radiatively inefficient “slim disk” could explain their diverse properties in {α }{{ox}}. Alternatively, if current Eddington ratios are correct (or overestimated), then the X-ray weak tail would imply that there is diversity in disk/corona couplings among individual low-mass objects. Finally, we conclude by noting that the {α }{{ox}} distribution for low-mass black holes may have favorable consequences for the epoch of cosmic reionization being driven by AGN.

  14. Numerical experiments on magnetic reconnection in solar flare and coronal mass ejection current sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Z.; Shen, C.; Wu, N.; Lin, J.; Murphy, N. A.; Roussev, I. I.

    2012-10-01

    Magnetic reconnection plays a critical role in energy conversion during solar eruptions. This paper presents a set of magnetohydrodynamic experiments for the magnetic reconnection process in a current sheet (CS) formed in the wake of the rising flux rope. The eruption results from the loss of equilibrium in a magnetic configuration that includes a current-carrying flux rope, representing a pre-existing filament. In order to study the fine structure and micro processes inside the CS, mesh refinement is used to reduce the numerical diffusion. We start with a uniform, explicitly defined resistivity which results in a Lundquist number S = 104 in the vicinity of CS. The use of mesh refinement allows the simulation to capture high-resolution features such as plasmoids from the tearing mode and plasmoid instability regions of turbulence and slow-mode shocks. Inside the CS, magnetic reconnection goes through the Sweet-Parker and the fractal stages, and eventually displays a time-dependent Petschek pattern. Our results support the concept of fractal reconnection suggested by Shibata et al. and Shibata & Tanuma, and also suggest that the CS evolves through Sweet-Parker reconnection prior to the fast reconnection stage. For the first time, the detailed features and/or fine structures inside the coronal mass ejection/flare CS in the eruption were investigated in this work.

  15. A soft x-ray coronal mass ejection occurred on solar limb on 1998 April 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, X. J.

    2001-11-01

    Using some data observed with SXT/HXT aboard Yohkoh and the Nobeyama Radioheliograph (NoRH) on 1998 April 23, a comprehensive study on the soft X-ray coronal mass ejection (CME) on solar SE limb shows there were two magnetic dipole sources (MDSs), one magnetic capacity belt (MCB) between MDSs, one neutral current sheet (NCS) and only a few activation sources (ASs). During the MCB was changed by the ASs into a magnetic energy belt (MEB), the material and energy both concentrated to the NCS in the course of its formation. When the MDSs were put through by the MEB, the NCS formed and the CME occurred. The matter ejected not only from the NCS, but also from the whole MEB. The expanding loop of the CME had two footprints, they were just the MDSs. The head of the expanding loop always tended to the foot point of weak source. The locus of the head was just neutral line. From this, the position of NCS also could be determined.

  16. Three Dimensional Parameters and Geoeffectiveness of Full Halo Coronal Mass Ejections During the Solar Raising Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, C.; Wang, Y.; Liu, Y.; Wang, S.; Ye, P.

    2012-12-01

    Real positions and geometric parameters of the full halo coronal mass ejections (FHCMEs) in the CDAW CME catalog, derived by the Graduated Cylindrial Shell (GCS) model, were studied, together with the in situ observations from WIND and ACE satellites and the observation from the large field-of-view SETEREO/SECCHI coronagraph. It is found that: (1) the 3-Dimensional speed and angular width of the FHCMEs vary in a large range and they are correlated; (2) there are two different types of FHCMEs; one is normal or narrow CMEs but the projection effect makes a halo-like pattern, and the other is indeed wide CMEs; (3) about 65% front-side FHCMEs (FFHCMEs) hit the Earth, and, almost all the FFHCMEs originated from the vicinity of solar disk center (Θ <45o) can hit the Earth while most limb FFHCMEs (Θ >45o) did not even though they were wider; (4) 35% FFHCMEs caused moderate to intense geomagnetic storms with minimum Dst index less than -50nT.

  17. Characterization of Morphine-Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Conjugates by Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, May L.; Ytterberg, A. Jimmy; Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R.; Loo, Joseph A.; Monbouquette, Harold G.

    2011-01-01

    A key characteristic of the analyte-reporter enzyme conjugate used in the enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) is the inhibition of the conjugate enzyme upon anti-analyte antibody binding. Toward understanding the antibody-induced inhibition mechanism, characterization of morphine-glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) conjugates as model EMIT analyte-reporter enzyme conjugates was pursued. Morphine-G6PDH conjugates were prepared by acylating predominantly the primary amines on G6PDH with morphine-3-glucuronide NHS-ester molecules. In this study, morphine-G6PDH conjugates were characterized using a combination of methods including tryptic digestion, immunoprecipitation, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Twenty-six conjugation sites were identified. The identified sites all were found to be primary amines. The degree of conjugation was determined to be less than the number of conjugation sites, suggesting heterogeneity within the morphine-G6PDH conjugate population. Two catalytically important residues in the active site (K22 and K183) were among the identified conjugation sites, explaining at least partially, the cause of activity loss due to the coupling reaction. PMID:21678975

  18. Multiscale mass transport in z ˜6 galactic discs: fuelling black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Joaquin; Escala, Andrés

    2016-08-01

    By using Adaptive Mesh Refinement cosmological hydrodynamic N-body zoom-in simulations, with the RAMSES code, we studied the mass transport processes on to galactic nuclei from high redshift up to z ˜6. Due to the large dynamical range of the simulations, we were able to study the mass accretion process on scales from ˜50 kpc to ˜few 1 pc. We studied the black hole (BH) growth on to the Galactic Centre in relation with the mass transport processes associated to both the Reynolds stress and the gravitational stress on the disc. Such methodology allowed us to identify the main mass transport process as a function of the scales of the problem. We found that in simulations that include radiative cooling and supernovae feedback, the supermassive black hole (SMBH) grows at the Eddington limit for some periods of time presenting ≈ 0.5 throughout its evolution. The α parameter is dominated by the Reynolds term, αR, with αR ≫ 1. The gravitational part of the α parameter, αG, has an increasing trend towards the Galactic Centre at higher redshifts, with values αG ˜1 at radii ≲ few 101 pc contributing to the BH fuelling. In terms of torques, we also found that gravity has an increasing contribution towards the Galactic Centre at earlier epochs with a mixed contribution above ˜100 pc. This complementary work between pressure gradients and gravitational potential gradients allows an efficient mass transport on the disc with average mass accretion rates of the order of ˜few 1 M⊙ yr-1. These levels of SMBH accretion rates found in our cosmological simulations are needed in all models of SMBH growth that attempt to explain the formation of redshift 6-7 quasars.

  19. Multiscale mass transport inz ˜6 galactic discs: fuelling black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Joaquin; Escala, Andrés

    2016-08-01

    By using AMR cosmological hydrodynamic N-body zoom-in simulations, with the RAMSES code, we studied the mass transport processes onto galactic nuclei from high redshift up to $z\\sim6$. Due to the large dynamical range of the simulations we were able to study the mass accretion process on scales from $\\sim50[kpc]$ to $\\sim$ few $1[pc]$. We studied the BH growth on to the galactic center in relation with the mass transport processes associated to both the Reynolds stress and the gravitational stress on the disc. Such methodology allowed us to identify the main mass transport process as a function of the scales of the problem. We found that in simulations that include radiative cooling and SNe feedback, the SMBH grows at the Eddington limit for some periods of time presenting $\\langle f_{EDD}\\rangle\\approx 0.5$ throughout its evolution. The $\\alpha$ parameter is dominated by the Reynolds term, $\\alpha_R$, with $\\alpha_R\\gg 1$. The gravitational part of the $\\alpha$ parameter, $\\alpha_G$, has an increasing trend toward the galactic center at higher redshifts, with values $\\alpha_G\\sim 1$ at radii <$\\sim$ few $ 10^1[pc]$ contributing to the BH fueling. In terms of torques, we also found that gravity has an increasing contribution toward the galactic center at earlier epochs with a mixed contribution above $\\sim 100 [pc]$. This complementary work between pressure gradients and gravitational potential gradients allows an efficient mass transport on the disc with average mass accretion rates of the order $\\sim$ few $1 [M_{\\odot}/yr]$. These level of SMBH accretion rates found in our cosmological simulations are needed in all models of SMBH growth that attempt to explain the formation of redshift $6-7$ quasars.

  20. Multiscale mass transport in z˜6 galactic discs: fueling black holes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Joaquin; Escala, Andrés

    2016-05-01

    By using AMR cosmological hydrodynamic N-body zoom-in simulations, with the RAMSES code, we studied the mass transport processes onto galactic nuclei from high redshift up to z ˜ 6. Due to the large dynamical range of the simulations we were able to study the mass accretion process on scales from ˜50[kpc] to ˜ few 1[pc]. We studied the BH growth on to the galactic center in relation with the mass transport processes associated to both the Reynolds stress and the gravitational stress on the disc. Such methodology allowed us to identify the main mass transport process as a function of the scales of the problem. We found that in simulations that include radiative cooling and SNe feedback, the SMBH grows at the Eddington limit for some periods of time presenting ≈ 0.5 throughout its evolution. The α parameter is dominated by the Reynolds term, αR, with αR ≫ 1. The gravitational part of the α parameter, αG, has an increasing trend toward the galactic center at higher redshifts, with values αG ˜ 1 at radii ≲ few 101[pc] contributing to the BH fueling. In terms of torques, we also found that gravity has an increasing contribution toward the galactic center at earlier epochs with a mixed contribution above ˜100[pc]. This complementary work between pressure gradients and gravitational potential gradients allows an efficient mass transport on the disc with average mass accretion rates of the order ˜ few 1[M⊙/yr]. These level of SMBH accretion rates found in our cosmological simulations are needed in all models of SMBH growth that attempt to explain the formation of redshift 6 - 7 quasars.

  1. SOHO Captures CME From X5.4 Solar Flare

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Solar Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) captured this movie of the sun's coronal mass ejection (CME) associated with an X5.4 solar flare on the evening of March 6, 2012. The extremely fast and en...

  2. Solar wind proton density variations that preceded the M6,1 earthquake occurred in New Caledonia on November 10, 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cataldi, Gabriele; Cataldi, Daniele; Straser, Valentino

    2015-04-01

    This work analyzed the modulation of the solar wind proton density variation that preceded the M6,1 earthquake occurred in New Caledonia on November 10, 2014 at 10:04:21 UTC. The purpose of the study has been to verify the existence of a correlation between solar activity and the earthquake and for testing a method to be applied in the future also for the prediction of tsunami. The ionic data used to realize the correlation study are represented by: solar wind ion density variation detected by ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer) Satellite, in orbit near the L1 Lagrange point, at 1.5 million of km from Earth, in direction of the Sun. The instrument used to perform the measurement of the solar wind ion density is the Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (EPAM) instrument, equipped on the ACE Satellite. To conduct the study, the authors have taken in consideration the variation of the solar wind protons density that have these characteristics: differential proton flux 1060-1900 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV); differential proton flux 761-1220 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV); differential proton flux 310-580 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV) and differential proton flux 115-195 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV). The sample data used to conduct the study refers the period going from 7 to 10 November 2014. The data on the M6,1 earthquake are provided in real time by the USGS (United States Geological Survey). The data analysis revealed that the M6,1 earthquake occurred in New Caledonia on November 10, 2014 at 10:04:21 UTC, was preceded by a solar coronal mass ejection (CME) that reached Earth at 19:31:04 UTC (± 6 hours, ISWA data) on November 9, 2014. The CME event produced an increase of solar wind ion density that preceded the earthquakes of about 14.5 hours.

  3. PREDICTION OF TYPE II SOLAR RADIO BURSTS BY THREE-DIMENSIONAL MHD CORONAL MASS EJECTION AND KINETIC RADIO EMISSION SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J. M.; Cairns, Iver H.; Hillan, D. S.

    2013-08-20

    Type II solar radio bursts are the primary radio emissions generated by shocks and they are linked with impending space weather events at Earth. We simulate type II bursts by combining elaborate three-dimensional MHD simulations of realistic coronal mass ejections (CMEs) at the Sun with an analytic kinetic radiation theory developed recently. The modeling includes initialization with solar magnetic and active region fields reconstructed from magnetograms of the Sun, a flux rope of the initial CME dimensioned with STEREO spacecraft observations, and a solar wind driven with averaged empirical data. We demonstrate impressive accuracy in time, frequency, and intensity for the CME and type II burst observed on 2011 February 15. This implies real understanding of the physical processes involved regarding the radio emission excitation by shocks and supports the near-term development of a capability to predict and track these events for space weather prediction.

  4. Solar abundances and the role of nucleogenesis in low-to-medium mass stars in the galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aller, L. H.

    1985-01-01

    The pattern of solar elemental abundances agrees well with that shown by Cl chondrites for nonvolatile elements. For metals of the iron peak, the chief source of uncertainty seems to be the structure of the solar atmosphere. Lines of rare elements are frequently masked by atomic and molecular lines of abundant species. The vast majority of stars (including the sun) will do little to change the bulk composition of the interstellar medium from which new stars are formed. He, C, and N in small quantities are supplied by stars from 1 to 8 solar masses as they evolve and produce nebular envelopes that dissipate into the interstellar medium, but as has long been recognized, oxygen, heavier elements, and all r-process and proton-rich nuclides are made in massive stars.

  5. COUPLING THE SOLAR DYNAMO AND THE CORONA: WIND PROPERTIES, MASS, AND MOMENTUM LOSSES DURING AN ACTIVITY CYCLE

    SciTech Connect

    Pinto, Rui F.; Brun, Allan Sacha; Grappin, Roland

    2011-08-20

    We study the connections between the Sun's convection zone and the evolution of the solar wind and corona. We let the magnetic fields generated by a 2.5-dimensional (2.5D) axisymmetric kinematic dynamo code (STELEM) evolve in a 2.5D axisymmetric coronal isothermal magnetohydrodynamic code (DIP). The computations cover an 11 year activity cycle. The solar wind's asymptotic velocity varies in latitude and in time in good agreement with the available observations. The magnetic polarity reversal happens at different paces at different coronal heights. Overall the Sun's mass-loss rate, momentum flux, and magnetic braking torque vary considerably throughout the cycle. This cyclic modulation is determined by the latitudinal distribution of the sources of open flux and solar wind and the geometry of the Alfven surface. Wind sources and braking torque application zones also vary accordingly.

  6. GW151226: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a 22-Solar-Mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dasgupta, A.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Fenyvesi, E.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fong, H.; Fournier, J.-D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Geng, P.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hamilton, H.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jian, L.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Johnson-McDaniel, N. K.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; K, Haris; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kéfélian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, N.; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.-M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lousto, C. O.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magaña Zertuche, L.; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O. E. S.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stevenson, S. P.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; ZadroŻny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; Boyle, M.; Hemberger, D.; Kidder, L. E.; Lovelace, G.; Ossokine, S.; Scheel, M.; Szilagyi, B.; Teukolsky, S.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    We report the observation of a gravitational-wave signal produced by the coalescence of two stellar-mass black holes. The signal, GW151226, was observed by the twin detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) on December 26, 2015 at 03:38:53 UTC. The signal was initially identified within 70 s by an online matched-filter search targeting binary coalescences. Subsequent off-line analyses recovered GW151226 with a network signal-to-noise ratio of 13 and a significance greater than 5 σ . The signal persisted in the LIGO frequency band for approximately 1 s, increasing in frequency and amplitude over about 55 cycles from 35 to 450 Hz, and reached a peak gravitational strain of 3. 4-0.9+0.7×10-22 . The inferred source-frame initial black hole masses are 14.2-3.7+8.3 M⊙ and 7. 5-2.3+2.3 M⊙, and the final black hole mass is 20.8-1.7+6.1 M⊙. We find that at least one of the component black holes has spin greater than 0.2. This source is located at a luminosity distance of 44 0-190+180 Mpc corresponding to a redshift of 0.0 9-0.04+0.03. All uncertainties define a 90% credible interval. This second gravitational-wave observation provides improved constraints on stellar populations and on deviations from general relativity.

  7. Interactions of Dust Grains with Coronal Mass Ejections and Solar Cycle Variations of the F-Coronal Brightness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragot, B. R.; Kahler, S. W.

    2003-01-01

    The density of interplanetary dust increases sunward to reach its maximum in the F corona, where its scattered white-light emission dominates that of the electron K corona above about 3 Solar Radius. The dust will interact with both the particles and fields of antisunward propagating coronal mass ejections (CMEs). To understand the effects of the CME/dust interactions we consider the dominant forces, with and without CMEs. acting on the dust in the 3-5 Solar Radius region. Dust grain orbits are then computed to compare the drift rates from 5 to 3 Solar Radius. for periods of minimum and maximum solar activity, where a simple CME model is adopted to distinguish between the two periods. The ion-drag force, even in the quiet solar wind, reduces the drift time by a significant factor from its value estimated with the Poynting-Robertson drag force alone. The ion-drag effects of CMEs result in even shorter drift times of the large (greater than or approx. 3 microns) dust grains. hence faster depletion rates and lower dust-pain densities, at solar maxima. If dominated by thermal emission, the near-infrared brightness will thus display solar cycle variations close to the dust plane of symmetry. While trapping the smallest of the grains, the CME magnetic fields also scatter the grains of intermediate size (0.1-3 microns) in latitude. If light scattering by small grains close to the Sun dominates the optical brightness. the scattering by the CME magnetic fields will result in a solar cycle variation of the optical brightness distribution not exceeding 100% at high latitudes, with a higher isotropy reached at solar maxima. A good degree of latitudinal isotropy is already reached at low solar activity since the magnetic fields of the quiet solar wind so close to the Sun are able to scatter the small (less than or approx. 3 microns) grains up to the polar regions in only a few days or less, producing strong perturbations of their trajectories in less than half their orbital

  8. Solar system constraints on planetary Coriolis-type effects induced by rotation of distant masses

    SciTech Connect

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2010-08-01

    We phenomenologically put local constraints on the rotation of distant masses by using the planets of the solar system. First, we analytically compute the orbital secular precessions induced on the motion of a test particle about a massive primary by a Coriolis-like force, treated as a small perturbation, in the case of a constant angular velocity vector Ψ directed along a generic direction in space. The semimajor axis a and the eccentricity e of the test particle do not secularly change, contrary to the inclination I, the longitude of the ascending node Ω, the longitude of the pericenter varpi and the mean anomaly M. Then, we compare our prediction for (dot varpi) with the corrections Δdot varpi to the usual perihelion precessions of the inner planets recently estimated by fitting long data sets with different versions of the EPM ephemerides. We obtain as preliminary upper bounds |Ψ{sub z}| ≤ 0.0006−0.013 arcsec cty{sup −1}, |Ψ{sub x}| ≤ 0.1−2.7 arcsec cty{sup −1}, |Ψ{sub y}| ≤ 0.3−2.3 arcsec cty{sup −1}. Interpreted in terms of models of space-time involving cosmic rotation, our results are able to yield constraints on cosmological parameters like the cosmological constant Λ and the Hubble parameter H{sub 0} not too far from their values determined with cosmological observations and, in some cases, several orders of magnitude better than the constraints usually obtained so far from space-time models not involving rotation. In the case of the rotation of the solar system throughout the Galaxy, occurring clockwise about the North Galactic Pole, our results for Ψ{sub z} are in disagreement with the expected value of it at more than 3−σ level. Modeling the Oort cloud as an Einstein-Thirring slowly rotating massive shell inducing Coriolis-type forces inside yields unphysical results for its putative rotation.

  9. Onset of the Magnetic Explosion in Solar Flames and Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Hudson, Hugh S.; Lemen, James R.

    2001-01-01

    We present observations of the magnetic field configuration and its transformation in six solar eruptive events that show good agreement with the standard bipolar model for eruptive flares. The observations are X-ray images from the Yohkoh soft X-ray telescope (SXT) and magnetograms from Kitt Peak National Solar Observatory, interpreted together with the 1-8 Angstrom X-ray flux observed by Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). The observations yield the following interpretations: (1) Each event is a magnetic explosion that occurs in an initially closed single bipole in which the core field is sheared and twisted in the shape of a sigmoid, having an oppositely curved elbow on each end. The arms of the opposite elbows are sheared past each other so that they overlap and are crossed low above the neutral line in the middle of the bipole. The elbows and arms seen in the SXT images are illuminated strands of the sigmoidal core field, which is a continuum of sheared/twisted field that fills these strands as well as the space between and around them; (2) Although four of the explosions are ejective (appearing to blow open the bipole) and two are confined (appearing to be arrested within the closed bipole), all six begin the same way. In the SXT images, the explosion begins with brightening and expansion of the two elbows together with the appearance of short bright sheared loops low over the neutral line under the crossed arms and, rising up from the crossed arms, long strands connecting the far ends of the elbows; and (3) All six events are single-bipole events in that during the onset and early development of the explosion they show no evidence for reconnection between the exploding bipole and any surrounding magnetic fields. We conclude that in each of our events the magnetic explosion was unleashed by runaway tether-cutting via implosive/explosive reconnection in the middle of the sigmoid, as in the standard model. The similarity of the onsets of

  10. Study of Quasi-Homologous Coronal Mass Ejections from Super Active Regions in Solar Cycle 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Wang, Y.; Shen, C.; Liu, R.; Ye, P.; Wang, S.

    2014-12-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections are most severe eruptive phenomenon in the solar atmosphere and are believed as the major energy source of the Near-Earth Space Environment. The study of CMEs is very important for the Space Weather forecast. The active regions , especially super-active regions, containing lots of magnetic free energy, are considered as the most important source regions of CMEs. Knowing why and how may some active regions (ARs) frequently produce CMEs is one of the key questions to deepen our understanding of the mechanisms and processes of energy accumulation and sudden release in ARs as well as improving our capability of space weather prediction. Based on above, we have done two parts of work: the first one is selecting all 37 SARs in the entire 23 solar cycle, using data provided by SOHO/LASCO C2|EIT|MDI, manually determining 285 CMEs produced by those SARs; second, we use the term 'quasi-homologous'to refer to successive CMEs originating from the same ARs within a short interval, analyze the rules of quasi-homologous CMEs' generation. Finally, we got two conclusions. 1. The waiting times of quasi-homologous CMEs have a two-component distribution with a separation at about 18 hours. The first component is a Gaussian-like distribution with a peak at about 7 hours, which indicates a tight physical connection between these quasi-homologous CMEs. The likelihood of occurrences of two or more CMEs faster than 1200 km /s from the same AR within 18 hours is about 20%. 2. The correlation analysis among CME waiting times, CME speeds and CME occurrence rates reveals that these quantities are independent to each other, suggesting that the perturbation by preceding CMEs rather than free energy input be the direct cause of quasi-homologous CMEs. The peak waiting time of 7 hours probably characterize the time scale of the growth of instabilities triggered by preceding CMEs. This study uncovers more clues from a statistical perspective for us to understand quasi

  11. Efficient near-infrared quantum cutting and downshift in Ce3+-Pr3+ codoped SrLaGa3S6O suitable for solar spectral converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Gongguo; Cui, Qiuyu; Liu, Guodong

    2016-03-01

    A novel solar spectral converter SrLaGa3S6O:Ce3+, Pr3+ for Si solar cells is developed. The luminescence spectra and the decay curves were investigated. The results show that through dual-mode NIR downconversions mechanism (quantum cutting and downshift), it can almost convert UV-blue-red (250-625 nm) photons into an intense NIR emission (930-1060 nm), perfectly matching the maximum spectral response of Si solar cells. The solar utilization of Si solar cell has been greatly broadening and enhancing. We believe this phosphor may open a new route for designing an advanced solar spectral converter for Si solar cells.

  12. Simulated (STEREO) Views of the Solar Wind Disturbances Following the Coronal Mass Ejections of 1 August 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Du, A. M.; Feng, X. S.; Sun, W.; Liu, Y. D.; Fry, C. D.; Deehr, C. S.; Dryer, M.; Zieger, B.; Xie, Y. Q.

    2014-01-01

    Images observed by the twin spacecraft Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) A and B appear as complex structures for two coronal mass ejections (CMEs) on 1 August 2010. Therefore, a series of sky maps of Thomson-scattered white light by interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) on 1 August 2010 are simulated using the Hakamada-Akasofu-Fry (HAF) three-dimensional solar-wind model. A comparison between the simulated images and observations of STEREO-A and -B clarifies the structure and evolution of ICMEs (including shocks) in the observed images. The results demonstrate that the simulated images from the HAF model are very useful in the interpretation of the observed images when the ICMEs overlap within the fields of view of the instruments onboard STEREO-A and -B.

  13. Applied research on 2-6 compound materials for heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bube, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    Several II-VI heterojunctions show promise for photovoltaic conversion of solar energy. The three of greatest interest are p-CdTe/n-CdS, p-CdTe/n-ZnSe, and p-ZnTe/n-CdSe. Several p-CdTe/n-CdS heterojunction cells have been prepared by close spaced transport deposition of p-CdTe on single crystal n-CdS, and by two source vacuum evaporation of n-CdS on single crystal p-CdTe. Both types of cells, in an experimental stage, are quite comparable, exhibiting values of quantum efficiency between 0.5 and 0.9, open circuit voltages between 0.50 and 0.66 V, fill factors between 0.4 and 0.6, and solar efficiencies up to 4 percent. Cells of p-ZnTe/n-CdSe have also been made by close spaced vapor transport deposition of n-CdSe on single crystal p-ZnTe.

  14. PbSe Quantum Dot Solar Cells with More than 6% Efficiency Fabricated in Ambient Atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jianbing; Gao, Jianbo; Church, Carena P.; Miller, Elisa M.; Luther, Joseph M.; Klimov, Victor I.; Beard, Matthew C.

    2014-09-09

    Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) are promising candidates for the next generation of photovoltaic (PV) technologies. Much of the progress in QD PVs is based on using PbS QDs, partly because they are stable under ambient conditions. There is considerable interest in extending this work to PbSe QDs, which have shown an enhanced photocurrent due to multiple exciton generation (MEG). One problem complicating such device-based studies is a poor stability of PbSe QDs toward exposure to ambient air. We develop a direct cation exchange synthesis to produce PbSe QDs with a large range of sizes and with in situ chloride and cadmium passivation. The synthesized QDs have excellent air stability, maintaining their photoluminescence quantum yield under ambient conditions for more than 30 days. When we use QDs, we fabricate high-performance solar cells without any protection and demonstrate a power conversion efficiency exceeding 6%, which is a current record for PbSe QD solar cells.

  15. First Results from 1.6 m Off-Axis Solar Telescope in Big Bear (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goode, P. R.

    2009-12-01

    In early 2009 at Big Bear Solar Observatory, first light science observations were made with BBSO's NST (New Solar Telescope), which has a 1.6m clear aperture (0.06” resolution at 500 nm). After a brief introduction to some of the lessons learned in making the telescope, first light observations in TiO, Halpha, G-Band and 1.56 micron lines will be introduced with detailed results presented in other talks in this session, including joint observations with Hinode and other satellites. The NST has an off-axis Gregorian configuration consisting of a parabolic primary, heat-stop, elliptical secondary and diagonal flats. The focal ratio of the primary mirror is f/2.4, and the final ratio is f/50. The working wavelength range covers from 0.4 to 1.7 microns in the Coude Lab beneath the telescope and all wavelengths including the far infrared at the Nasmyth focus on the dome floor. Plans for the on-going commissioning phase will be sketched.

  16. PbSe quantum dot solar cells with more than 6% efficiency fabricated in ambient atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianbing; Gao, Jianbo; Church, Carena P; Miller, Elisa M; Luther, Joseph M; Klimov, Victor I; Beard, Matthew C

    2014-10-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) are promising candidates for the next generation of photovoltaic (PV) technologies. Much of the progress in QD PVs is based on using PbS QDs, partly because they are stable under ambient conditions. There is considerable interest in extending this work to PbSe QDs, which have shown an enhanced photocurrent due to multiple exciton generation (MEG). One problem complicating such device-based studies is a poor stability of PbSe QDs toward exposure to ambient air. Here we develop a direct cation exchange synthesis to produce PbSe QDs with a large range of sizes and with in situ chloride and cadmium passivation. The synthesized QDs have excellent air stability, maintaining their photoluminescence quantum yield under ambient conditions for more than 30 days. Using these QDs, we fabricate high-performance solar cells without any protection and demonstrate a power conversion efficiency exceeding 6%, which is a current record for PbSe QD solar cells. PMID:25203870

  17. A Search for Early Optical Emission at Gamma-Ray Burst Locations by the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, David L.; Buffington, Andrew; Jackson, Bernard V.; Hick, P. Paul; Smith, Aaron C.

    2005-01-01

    The Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) views nearly every point on the sky once every 102 minutes and can detect point sources as faint as R approx. 10th magnitude. Therefore, SMEI can detect or provide upper limits for the optical afterglow from gamma-ray bursts in the tens of minutes after the burst when different shocked regions may emit optically. Here we provide upper limits for 58 bursts between 2003 February and 2005 April.

  18. The coherent relation between the solar wind proton speed and O7+/O6+ ratio and its coronal sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L.; Landi, E.; Fisk, L. A.; Lepri, S. T.

    2016-03-01

    We analyze the two-hour resolution solar wind proton speed (Vp) and charge state ratio of O7+/O6+ measured by ACE (SWICS and SWEPAM) from 1998 to 2011 at 1 AU. By applying a two-step mapping method, we link the solar wind in-situ observations to the corona images captured by SOHO and STEREO, in which we identify the different plasma structures, such as active regions (ARs), coronal holes (CHs) and quiet Sun regions (QS), using a classification scheme based on pixel brightness. Then we determine from which region in the corona the solar wind originates. We examine the in-situ properties of the solar wind streams associated with CHs, ARs and QS regions. We find that more than half of CH associated wind is actually slow wind, and O7+/O6+ ratio has a strong coherent correlation with the location of the solar wind coronal sources. Therefore, we conclude that O7+/O6+ ratio can be used as a much more effective discriminator to identify solar wind coronal sources region than Vp.

  19. Laser Post-Ionization Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Genesis Solar Wind Collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veryovkin, I. V.; Tripa, C. E.; Zinovev, A. V.; Hiller, J. M.; Pellin, M. J.; Burnett, D. S.

    2008-12-01

    The samples returned to Earth by the NASA's Genesis Mission contain a record of the elemental and isotopic abundances of the Solar Wind (SW). This record is formed by the SW ions implanted in the near-surface regions of the Genesis sample collectors, so that the SW material can be distinguished from a terrestrial contamination, which occurred due to the crash landing of the spacecraft Sample Return Capsule. At Argonne National Laboratory, we are conducting analyzes of the Genesis SW collectors using a specially developed Laser Post-Ionization Secondary Neutral Mass Spectrometer (LPI SNMS), SARISA. This approach, based on ion sputtering of a SW collector surface and laser post-ionization of the neutral atoms sputtered from it, has proved to be sensitive, accurate and well suited for the quantitative analysis of the Genesis samples. We will report in this work the abundances of SW Mg and Ca measured with SARISA in two types of SW collector materials, silicon and diamond-like carbon (DLC). These LPI SNMS measurements were conducted in Resonance-Enhanced Multi-Photon Ionization (REMPI) regime using a sputter depth profiling method. In order to make our analyzes quantitative, we used specially prepared standards, made from exactly the same materials as the flown Genesis SW collectors and implanted with known fluencies of Mg and Ca ions. The REMPI analyzes of these standards allowed us to characterize the actual efficiency and detection limits of the SARISA instrument: for Mg, its useful yield peaked at about 20% and detection limits corresponded to < 50 part-per-trillion. We measured concentration vs depth profiles for Mg and Ca in SW collectors (Si and DLC, respectively) and compared them to the corresponding implant standards. One striking feature of the SW implants (compared to the standards) was that maxima of the SW element concentration vs depth profiles were broad, with apparent diffusion of the implanted atoms towards the surface and into the bulk. Since these

  20. Solar Wind Sputtering of Lunar Soil Analogs: The Effect of Ionic Charge and Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hijazi, H.; Bannister, M. E.; Meyer, F. W.; Rouleau, C. M.; Barghouty, A. F.; Rickman, D. L.; Hijazi, H.

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution we report sput-tering measurements of anorthite, an analog material representative of the lunar highlands, by singly and multicharged ions representative of the solar wind. The ions investigated include protons, as well as singly and multicharged Ar ions (as proxies for the heavier solar wind constituents), in the charge state range +1 to +9, and had a fixed solar-wind-relevant impact velocity of approximately 310 km/s or 500 eV/ amu. The goal of the measurements was to determine the sputtering contribution of the heavy, multicharged minority solar wind constituents in comparison to that due to the dominant H+ fraction.

  1. Study of the geoeffectiveness of coronal mass ejections, corotating interaction regions and their associated structures observed during Solar Cycle 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badruddin, A.; Falak, Z.

    2016-08-01

    The interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) and the corotating interaction regions (CIRs) are the two most important structures of the interplanetary medium affecting the Earth and the near-Earth space environment. We study the solar wind-magnetosphere coupling during the passage of ICMEs and CIRs, in the Solar Cycle 23 (Jan. 1995-Dec. 2009), and their relative geoeffectiveness. We utilize the timings of different features of these structures, their arrival and duration. As geomagnetic parameter, we utilize high time resolution data of Dst and AE indices. In addition to these geomagnetic indices, we utilize the simultaneous and similar time resolution data of interplanetary plasma and field, namely, solar wind velocity, interplanetary magnetic field, its north-south component and dawn-dusk electric field. We apply the method of superposed epoch analysis. Utilizing the properties of various structures during the passage of ICMEs and CIRs, and variations observed in plasma and field parameters during their passage along with the simultaneous changes observed in geomagnetic parameters, we identify the interplanetary conditions, plasma/field parameters and their relative importance in solar wind-magnetosphere coupling. Geospace consequences of ICMEs and CIRs, and the implications of these results for solar wind-magnetosphere coupling are discussed.

  2. Comparing SSN Index to X-Ray Flare and Coronal Mass Ejection Rates from Solar Cycles 22 - 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, L. M.; Pernak, R. L.; Balasubramaniam, K. S.

    2016-05-01

    The newly revised sunspot-number series allows for placing historical geoeffective storms in the context of several hundred years of solar activity. Using statistical analyses of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) X-ray observations from the past {≈} 30 years and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) catalog (1996 - present), we present sunspot-number-dependent flare and CME rates. In particular, we present X-ray flare rates as a function of sunspot number for the past three cycles. We also show that the 1 - 8 Å X-ray background flux is strongly correlated with sunspot number across solar cycles. Similarly, we show that the CME properties (e.g. proxies related to the CME linear speed and width) are also correlated with sunspot number for Solar Cycles 23 and 24. These updated rates will enable future predictions for geoeffective events and place historical storms in the context of present solar activity.

  3. Control and operation of the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope in Big Bear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varsik, J.; Plymate, C.; Goode, P.; Kosovichev, A.; Cao, W.; Coulter, R.; Ahn, K.; Gorceix, N.; Shumko, S.

    2014-08-01

    The 1.6m New Solar Telescope (NST) has developed a modern and comprehensive suite of instruments which allow high resolution observations of the Sun. The current instrument package comprises diffraction limited imaging, spectroscopic and polarimetric instruments covering the wavelength range from 0.4 to 5.0 microns. The instruments include broadband imaging, visible and near-infrared scanning Fabry-Perot interferometers, an imaging spectropolarimeter, a fast visible-light imaging spectrograph, and a unique new scanning cryogenic infrared spectrometer/spectropolarimeter that is nearing completion. Most instruments are operated with a 308 subaperture adaptive optics system, while the thermal-IR spectrometer has a correlation tracker. This paper reports on the current observational programs and operational performance of the telescope and instrumentation. The current control, data processing, and archiving systems are also briefly discussed.

  4. Solar flare line emission between 6 A and 25 A. [using crystal spectrometer onboard OSO-5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neupert, W. M.; Swartz, M.; Kastner, S. O.

    1973-01-01

    A list of emission lines in the spectra of solar flares between 6 and 25 A has been compiled using data obtained with a KAP crystal spectrometer on the OSO-5 satellite. The emission lines have been classified according to their sensitivity to flare activity. This classification provides a method for discriminating between iron in high stages of ionization (Fe XX-Fe XXV) and lower stages (Fe XVII-Fe XIX), the lines of which are both present in the same spectral region during flares. Identifications consistent with these classifications are proposed. Anomalous intensities in the spectra of Fe XVII and Fe XX are pointed out, and implications of the observations for models of the X-ray emitting regions are discussed.

  5. ASYMMETRIC MAGNETIC RECONNECTION IN SOLAR FLARE AND CORONAL MASS EJECTION CURRENT SHEETS

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, N. A.; Miralles, M. P.; Pope, C. L.; Raymond, J. C.; Winter, H. D.; Reeves, K. K.; Van Ballegooijen, A. A.; Lin, J.; Seaton, D. B.

    2012-05-20

    We present two-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations of line-tied asymmetric magnetic reconnection in the context of solar flare and coronal mass ejection current sheets. The reconnection process is made asymmetric along the inflow direction by allowing the initial upstream magnetic field strengths and densities to differ, and along the outflow direction by placing the initial perturbation near a conducting wall boundary that represents the photosphere. When the upstream magnetic fields are asymmetric, the post-flare loop structure is distorted into a characteristic skewed candle flame shape. The simulations can thus be used to provide constraints on the reconnection asymmetry in post-flare loops. More hard X-ray emission is expected to occur at the footpoint on the weak magnetic field side because energetic particles are more likely to escape the magnetic mirror there than at the strong magnetic field footpoint. The footpoint on the weak magnetic field side is predicted to move more quickly because of the requirement in two dimensions that equal amounts of flux must be reconnected from each upstream region. The X-line drifts away from the conducting wall in all simulations with asymmetric outflow and into the strong magnetic field region during most of the simulations with asymmetric inflow. There is net plasma flow across the X-line for both the inflow and outflow directions. The reconnection exhaust directed away from the obstructing wall is significantly faster than the exhaust directed toward it. The asymmetric inflow condition allows net vorticity in the rising outflow plasmoid which would appear as rolling motions about the flux rope axis.

  6. ARE THE FAINT STRUCTURES AHEAD OF SOLAR CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS REAL SIGNATURES OF DRIVEN SHOCKS?

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jae-Ok; Moon, Y.-J.; Lee, Kangjin; Lee, Jin-Yi; Lee, Kyoung-Sun; Kim, Sujin E-mail: moonyj@khu.ac.kr

    2014-11-20

    Recently, several studies have assumed that the faint structures ahead of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are caused by CME-driven shocks. In this study, we have conducted a statistical investigation to determine whether or not the appearance of such faint structures depends on CME speeds. For this purpose, we use 127 Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Large Angle Spectroscopic COronagraph (LASCO) front-side halo (partial and full) CMEs near the limb from 1997 to 2011. We classify these CMEs into two groups by visual inspection of CMEs in the LASCO-C2 field of view: Group 1 has the faint structure ahead of a CME and Group 2 does not have such a structure. We find the following results. (1) Eighty-seven CMEs belong to Group 1 and 40 CMEs belong to Group 2. (2) Group 1 events have much higher speeds (average = 1230 km s{sup –1} and median = 1199 km s{sup –1}) than Group 2 events (average = 598 km s{sup –1} and median = 518 km s{sup –1}). (3) The fraction of CMEs with faint structures strongly depends on CME speeds (V): 0.93 (50/54) for fast CMEs with V ≥ 1000 km s{sup –1}, 0.65 (34/52) for intermediate CMEs with 500 km s{sup –1} ≤ V < 1000 km s{sup –1}, and 0.14 (3/21) for slow CMEs with V < 500 km s{sup –1}. We also find that the fraction of CMEs with deca-hecto metric type II radio bursts is consistent with the above tendency. Our results indicate that the observed faint structures ahead of fast CMEs are most likely an enhanced density manifestation of CME-driven shocks.

  7. Possible earthquake trigger for 6th century mass wasting deposit at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, B.; Francke, A.; Sulpizio, R.; Zanchetta, G.; Lindhorst, K.; Krastel, S.; Vogel, H.; Rethemeyer, J.; Daut, G.; Grazhdani, A.; Lushaj, B.; Trajanovski, S.

    2012-12-01

    Lake Ohrid shared by the Republics of Albania and Macedonia is formed by a tectonically active graben within the south Balkans and suggested to be the oldest lake in Europe. Several studies have shown that the lake provides a valuable record of climatic and environmental changes and a distal tephrostratigraphic record of volcanic eruptions from Italy. Fault structures identified in seismic data demonstrate that sediments have also the potential to record tectonic activity in the region. Here, we provide an example of linking seismic and sedimentological information with tectonic activity and historical documents. Historical documents indicate that a major earthquake destroyed the city of Lychnidus (today: city of Ohrid) in the early 6th century AD. Multichannel seismic profiles, parametric sediment echosounder profiles, and a 10.08 m long sediment record from the western part of the lake indicate a 2 m thick mass wasting deposit, which is tentatively correlated with this earthquake. The mass wasting deposit is chronologically well constrained, as it directly overlays the AD 472/AD 512 tephra. Moreover, radiocarbon dates and cross correlation with other sediment sequences with similar geochemical characteristics of the Holocene indicate that the mass wasting event took place prior to the onset of the Medieval Warm Period, and is attributed it to one of the known earthquakes in the region in the early 6th century AD.

  8. Continuous Infusion of 20-Hydroxyecdysone Increased Mass of Triceps Brachii in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Diana M.; Kutzler, Louis W.; Boler, Dustin D.; Drnevich, Jenny; Killefer, John; Lila, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    Phytoecdysteroids have been attributed with numerous pharmacological properties in animals, including increasing muscle mass, and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) is one of the most abundant phytoecdysteroids produced by plants. In this study, the physiological and gene expression effects of 20E were analyzed in C57BL/6 mice given a continuous infusion of saline or 20E (5 mg/kg/day) for 5 or 15 d using subcutaneously implanted Alzet® osmotic pumps. The masses of the total body, muscle groups and organs were determined. There was a significant increase (p = 0.01) in the mass of triceps brachii in mice treated with 20E for 5 d (115 +/− 8 mg) compared to mice treated with saline for 5 d (88 +/− 3 mg), however, there were no differences in the other measured parameters. To determine potential mechanisms of 20E in skeletal muscle, Illumina’s Mouse Whole Genome-6 v2.0 Expression BeadChips were used to evaluate changes in gene expression of the triceps brachii after 20E infusion. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis was used to identify genes with the most evidence for differential expression, of which, 16 genes involved in the skeletal and muscular system were identified. Overall, the data suggests that 20E does not have potent anabolic properties, however, a muscle-specific increase was observed and genes were identified to provide an explanation for the muscle accretion. PMID:22495969

  9. Implications of the X-Ray Variability for the Mass of MCG -6-30-15.

    PubMed

    Nowak; Chiang

    2000-03-01

    The bright Seyfert 1 galaxy MCG -6-30-15 shows large variability on a variety of timescales. We study the less, similar3 day timescale variability using a set of simultaneous archival observations that were obtained from the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA). The RXTE observations span nearly 106 s and indicate that the X-ray Fourier power spectral density has an rms variability of 16%, is flat from approximately 10-6 to 10-5 Hz, and then steepens into a power law proportional to f-alpha with alpha greater, similar1. A further steepening to alpha approximately 2 occurs between 10-4 and 10-3 Hz. The shape and rms amplitude are comparable to what has been observed in NGC 5548 and Cyg X-1, albeit with break frequencies that differ by a factor of 10-2 and 104, respectively. If the break frequencies are indicative of the central black hole mass, then this mass may be as low as 106 M middle dot in circle. An upper limit of approximately 2 ks for the relative lag between the 0.5-2 keV ASCA band compared to the 8-15 keV RXTE band was also found. Again by analogy with NGC 5548 and Cyg X-1, this limit is consistent with a relatively low central black hole mass. PMID:10673403

  10. Catalyzing Mass Production of Solar Photovoltaic Cells Using University Driven Green Purchasing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Joshua M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of the purchase power of the higher education system to catalyze the economy of scale necessary to ensure market competitiveness for solar photovoltaic electricity. Design/methodology/approach: The approach used here was to first determine the demand necessary to construct "Solar City…

  11. Solar wind ion density variations that preceded the M6+ earthquakes occurring on a global scale between 3 and 15 September 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cataldi, Gabriele; Cataldi, Daniele; Straser, Valentino

    2015-04-01

    3 and 15 September 2013. The result of the analysis showed that the nine M6+ earthquakes occurred on a global scale in the time period taken as a reference, were preceded by a significant variation of the solar wind proton density to which was superimposed on a coronal mass ejection (CME) that reached the Earth on September 1, 2013 at 09:19 UTC (± 6 hours, iSWA data). The CME event preceded the first earthquake taken in reference (Canada M6,1 earthquake occurred on September 3 at 20:19 UTC) of about 59 hours.

  12. GW151226: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a 22-Solar-Mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence.

    PubMed

    Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Aiello, L; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Altin, P A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Arun, K G; Ascenzi, S; Ashton, G; Ast, M; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Bacon, P; Bader, M K M; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barta, D; Bartlett, J; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Bazzan, M; Bejger, M; Bell, A S; Berger, B K; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Birney, R; Birnholtz, O; Biscans, S; Bisht, A; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blair, C D; Blair, D G; Blair, R M; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bohe, A; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonnand, R; Boom, B A; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bouffanais, Y; Bozzi, A; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brockill, P; Broida, J E; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Brunett, S; Buchanan, C C; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cabero, M; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cahillane, C; Calderón Bustillo, J; Callister, T; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Capocasa, E; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Casanueva Diaz, J; Casentini, C; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C B; Cerboni Baiardi, L; Cerretani, G; Cesarini, E; Chamberlin, S J; Chan, M; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Cheeseboro, B D; Chen, H Y; Chen, Y; Cheng, C; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P-F; Colla, A; Collette, C G; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Conti, L; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Cortese, S; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S B; Coulon, J-P; Countryman, S T; Couvares, P; Cowan, E E; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Dal Canton, T; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Darman, N S; Dasgupta, A; Da Silva Costa, C F; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; De, S; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Devine, R C; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M C; Di Fiore, L; Di Giovanni, M; Di Girolamo, T; Di Lieto, A; Di Pace, S; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Dolique, V; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Ducrot, M; Dwyer, S E; Edo, T B; Edwards, M C; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H-B; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Engels, W; Essick, R C; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T M; Everett, R; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fair, H; Fairhurst, S; Fan, X; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fays, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Fenyvesi, E; Ferrante, I; Ferreira, E C; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Fiori, I; Fiorucci, D; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fletcher, M; Fong, H; Fournier, J-D; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Frey, V; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gabbard, H A G; Gair, J R; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S G; Garufi, F; Gaur, G; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Geng, P; Genin, E; Gennai, A; George, J; Gergely, L; Germain, V; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, K; Glaefke, A; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Gonzalez Castro, J M; Gopakumar, A; Gordon, N A; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S E; Gosselin, M; Gouaty, R; Grado, A; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greco, G; Green, A C; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guo, X; Gupta, A; Gupta, M K; Gushwa, K E; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hacker, J J; Hall, B R; Hall, E D; Hamilton, H; Hammond, G; Haney, M; Hanke, M M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hannam, M D; Hanson, J; Hardwick, T; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Hart, M J; Hartman, M T; Haster, C-J; Haughian, K; Healy, J; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Hennig, J; Henry, J; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hofman, D; Holt, K; Holz, D E; Hopkins, P; Hough, J; Houston, E A; Howell, E J; Hu, Y M; Huang, S; Huerta, E A; Huet, D; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh-Dinh, T; Indik, N; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isa, H N; Isac, J-M; Isi, M; Isogai, T; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacqmin, T; Jang, H; Jani, K; Jaranowski, P; Jawahar, S; Jian, L; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Johnson-McDaniel, N K; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalaghatgi, C V; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Kapadia, S J; Karki, S; Karvinen, K S; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, S; Kaur, T; Kawabe, K; Kéfélian, F; Kehl, M S; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Kennedy, R; Key, J S; Khalili, F Y; Khan, I; Khan, S; Khan, Z; Khazanov, E A; Kijbunchoo, N; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, W; Kim, Y-M; Kimbrell, S J; King, E J; King, P J; Kissel, J S; Klein, B; Kleybolte, L; Klimenko, S; Koehlenbeck, S M; Koley, S; Kondrashov, V; Kontos, A; Korobko, M; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Krueger, C; Kuehn, G; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Lackey, B D; Landry, M; Lange, J; Lantz, B; Lasky, P D; Laxen, M; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, K; Lenon, A; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Lewis, J B; Li, T G F; Libson, A; Littenberg, T B; Lockerbie, N A; Lombardi, A L; London, L T; Lord, J E; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J D; Lousto, C O; Lück, H; Lundgren, A P; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magaña-Sandoval, F; Magaña Zertuche, L; Magee, R M; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mansell, G L; Manske, M; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A S; Maros, E; Martelli, F; Martellini, L; Martin, I W; Martynov, D V; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Masso-Reid, M; Mastrogiovanni, S; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McCormick, S; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McManus, D J; McRae, T; McWilliams, S T; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Meidam, J; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Merilh, E L; Merzougui, M; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Messick, C; Metzdorff, R; Meyers, P M; Mezzani, F; Miao, H; Michel, C; Middleton, H; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Miller, A L; Miller, A; Miller, B B; Miller, J; Millhouse, M; Minenkov, Y; Ming, J; Mirshekari, S; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moggi, A; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Montani, M; Moore, B C; Moore, C J; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, G; Muir, A W; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D; Mukherjee, S; Mukund, N; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D J; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Nedkova, K; Nelemans, G; Nelson, T J N; Neri, M; Neunzert, A; Newton, G; Nguyen, T T; Nielsen, A B; Nissanke, S; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E N; Nuttall, L K; Oberling, J; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oliver, M; Oppermann, P; Oram, Richard J; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ottaway, D J; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pai, A; Pai, S A; Palamos, J R; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pal-Singh, A; Pan, H; Pankow, C; Pannarale, F; Pant, B C; Paoletti, F; Paoli, A; Papa, M A; Paris, H R; Parker, W; Pascucci, D; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patricelli, B; Patrick, Z; Pearlstone, B L; Pedraza, M; Pedurand, R; Pekowsky, L; Pele, A; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Perri, L M; Pfeiffer, H P; Phelps, M; Piccinni, O J; Pichot, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pillant, G; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poe, M; Poggiani, R; Popolizio, P; Post, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Predoi, V; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prix, R; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Pürrer, M; Qi, H; Qin, J; Qiu, S; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E A; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rajan, C; Rakhmanov, M; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Razzano, M; Re, V; Read, J; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Rei, L; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Rew, H; Reyes, S D; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Rizzo, M; Robertson, N A; Robie, R; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Roma, V J; Romano, J D; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Sachdev, S; Sadecki, T; Sadeghian, L; Sakellariadou, M; Salconi, L; Saleem, M; Salemi, F; Samajdar, A; Sammut, L; Sanchez, E J; Sandberg, V; Sandeen, B; Sanders, J R; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Sauter, O E S; Savage, R L; Sawadsky, A; Schale, P; Schilling, R; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schönbeck, A; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Setyawati, Y; Shaddock, D A; Shaffer, T; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Sheperd, A; Shoemaker, D H; Shoemaker, D M; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sieniawska, M; Sigg, D; Silva, A D; Singer, A; Singer, L P; Singh, A; Singh, R; Singhal, A; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Smith, J R; Smith, N D; Smith, R J E; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Sorrentino, F; Souradeep, T; Srivastava, A K; Staley, A; Steinke, M; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steinmeyer, D; Stephens, B C; Stevenson, S P; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Stratta, G; Strauss, N A; Strigin, S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, L; Sunil, S; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B L; Szczepańczyk, M J; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tápai, M; Tarabrin, S P; Taracchini, A; Taylor, R; Theeg, T; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, E G; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thrane, E; Tiwari, S; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Toland, K; Tomlinson, C; Tonelli, M; Tornasi, Z; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; Töyrä, D; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Trifirò, D; Tringali, M C; Trozzo, L; Tse, M; Turconi, M; Tuyenbayev, D; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Usman, S A; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; Vallisneri, M; van Bakel, N; van Beuzekom, M; van den Brand, J F J; Van Den Broeck, C; Vander-Hyde, D C; van der Schaaf, L; van Heijningen, J V; van Veggel, A A; Vardaro, M; Vass, S; Vasúth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Vinciguerra, S; Vine, D J; Vinet, J-Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Voss, D V; Vousden, W D; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A R; Wade, L E; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Walsh, S; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, M; Wang, X; Wang, Y; Ward, R L; Warner, J; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L-W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Wen, L; Weßels, P; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whiting, B F; Williams, R D; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M H; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Woehler, J; Worden, J; Wright, J L; Wu, D S; Wu, G; Yablon, J; Yam, W; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yu, H; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zangrando, L; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J-P; Zevin, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C; Zhou, M; Zhou, Z; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S E; Zweizig, J; Boyle, M; Hemberger, D; Kidder, L E; Lovelace, G; Ossokine, S; Scheel, M; Szilagyi, B; Teukolsky, S

    2016-06-17

    We report the observation of a gravitational-wave signal produced by the coalescence of two stellar-mass black holes. The signal, GW151226, was observed by the twin detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) on December 26, 2015 at 03:38:53 UTC. The signal was initially identified within 70 s by an online matched-filter search targeting binary coalescences. Subsequent off-line analyses recovered GW151226 with a network signal-to-noise ratio of 13 and a significance greater than 5σ. The signal persisted in the LIGO frequency band for approximately 1 s, increasing in frequency and amplitude over about 55 cycles from 35 to 450 Hz, and reached a peak gravitational strain of 3.4_{-0.9}^{+0.7}×10^{-22}. The inferred source-frame initial black hole masses are 14.2_{-3.7}^{+8.3}M_{⊙} and 7.5_{-2.3}^{+2.3}M_{⊙}, and the final black hole mass is 20.8_{-1.7}^{+6.1}M_{⊙}. We find that at least one of the component black holes has spin greater than 0.2. This source is located at a luminosity distance of 440_{-190}^{+180}  Mpc corresponding to a redshift of 0.09_{-0.04}^{+0.03}. All uncertainties define a 90% credible interval. This second gravitational-wave observation provides improved constraints on stellar populations and on deviations from general relativity. PMID:27367379

  13. Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Quigg

    2007-12-05

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  14. Gravitational lensing of supernovae by dark matter candidates of mass M greater than about 0.001 solar masses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagoner, Robert V.; Linder, Eric V.

    1987-01-01

    A review is presented concerning the gravitational lensing of supernovae by intervening condensed objects, including dark matter candidates such as dim stars and black holes. the expansion of the supernova beam within the lens produces characteristic time-dependent amplification and polarization which depend upon the mass of the lens. The effects of the shearing of the beam due to surrounding masses are considered, although the study of these effects is confined to isolated masses whose size is much less than that of the supernova (about 10 to the 15th cm). Equations for the effects of lensing and graphs comparing these effects in different classes of supernovae are compared. It is found that candidates for lensing would be those supernovae at least as bright as their parent galaxy, or above the range of luminosities expected for their spectral class.

  15. Witnessing magnetic twist with high-resolution observation from the 1.6-m New Solar Telescope.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haimin; Cao, Wenda; Liu, Chang; Xu, Yan; Liu, Rui; Zeng, Zhicheng; Chae, Jongchul; Ji, Haisheng

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic flux ropes are highly twisted, current-carrying magnetic fields. They are crucial for the instability of plasma involved in solar eruptions, which may lead to adverse space weather effects. Here we present observations of a flaring using the highest resolution chromospheric images from the 1.6-m New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory, supplemented by a magnetic field extrapolation model. A set of loops initially appear to peel off from an overall inverse S-shaped flux bundle, and then develop into a multi-stranded twisted flux rope, producing a two-ribbon flare. We show evidence that the flux rope is embedded in sheared arcades and becomes unstable following the enhancement of its twists. The subsequent motion of the flux rope is confined due to the strong strapping effect of the overlying field. These results provide a first opportunity to witness the detailed structure and evolution of flux ropes in the low solar atmosphere. PMID:25919706

  16. Witnessing magnetic twist with high-resolution observation from the 1.6-m New Solar Telescope

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haimin; Cao, Wenda; Liu, Chang; Xu, Yan; Liu, Rui; Zeng, Zhicheng; Chae, Jongchul; Ji, Haisheng

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic flux ropes are highly twisted, current-carrying magnetic fields. They are crucial for the instability of plasma involved in solar eruptions, which may lead to adverse space weather effects. Here we present observations of a flaring using the highest resolution chromospheric images from the 1.6-m New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory, supplemented by a magnetic field extrapolation model. A set of loops initially appear to peel off from an overall inverse S-shaped flux bundle, and then develop into a multi-stranded twisted flux rope, producing a two-ribbon flare. We show evidence that the flux rope is embedded in sheared arcades and becomes unstable following the enhancement of its twists. The subsequent motion of the flux rope is confined due to the strong strapping effect of the overlying field. These results provide a first opportunity to witness the detailed structure and evolution of flux ropes in the low solar atmosphere. PMID:25919706

  17. Systems efficiency and specific mass estimates for direct and indirect solar-pumped closed-cycle high-energy lasers in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monson, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    Based on expected advances in technology, the maximum system efficiency and minimum specific mass have been calculated for closed-cycle CO and CO2 electric-discharge lasers (EDL's) and a direct solar-pumped laser in space. The efficiency calculations take into account losses from excitation gas heating, ducting frictional and turning losses, and the compressor efficiency. The mass calculations include the power source, radiator, compressor, fluids, ducting, laser channel, optics, and heat exchanger for all of the systems; and in addition the power conditioner for the EDL's and a focusing mirror for the solar-pumped laser. The results show the major component masses in each system, show which is the lightest system, and provide the necessary criteria for solar-pumped lasers to be lighter than the EDL's. Finally, the masses are compared with results from other studies for a closed-cycle CO2 gasdynamic laser (GDL) and the proposed microwave satellite solar power station (SSPS).

  18. High band gap 2-6 and 3-5 tunneling junctions for silicon multijunction solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daud, Taher (Inventor); Kachare, Akaram H. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A multijunction silicon solar cell of high efficiency is provided by providing a tunnel junction between the solar cell junctions to connect them in series. The tunnel junction is comprised of p+ and n+ layers of high band gap 3-5 or 2-6 semiconductor materials that match the lattice structure of silicon, such as GaP (band gap 2.24 eV) or ZnS (band gap 3.6 eV). Each of which has a perfect lattice match with silicon to avoid defects normally associated with lattice mismatch.

  19. A global empirical model of thermospheric composition based on OGO-6 mass spectrometer measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedin, A. E.; Mayr, H. G.; Reber, C. A.; Carignan, G. R.; Spencer, N. W.

    1972-01-01

    The analysis of composition measurements made with the neutral mass spectrometer aboard the OGO-6 satellite leads to the following conclusions. The measured atomic oxygen densities are generally in good agreement with those deduced from drag. The molecular nitrogen densities in the annual and semiannual variations depart significantly from those predicted by drag models and suggest similar departures for exospheric temperatures. The helium densities generally tend to vary in an inverse manner to the nitrogen densities. These composition changes are consistent with dynamical processes associated with the global circulation in the thermosphere.

  20. Optimization of solar cells for air mass zero operation and study of solar cells at high temperatures, phase 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hovel, H. J.; Woodall, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    The Pd contact to GaAs was studied using backscattering, Auger analysis, and sheet resistance measurements. Several metallurgical phases were present at low temperatures, but PdGa was the dominant phase in samples annealed at 500 C. Ti/Pd/Ag contacts appeared to have the lowest contact resistance. Etchback epitaxy (EBE) was compared to saturated melt epitaxy (SME) method of growing liquid phase epitaxial layers. The SME method resulted in a lower density of Ga microdroplets in the grown layer, although the best solar cells were made by the EBE method. Photoluminescence was developed as a tool for contactless analysis of GaAs cells. Efficiencies of over 8 percent were measured at 250 C.

  1. Coronal mass ejections over solar cycle 23 and 24 from LASCO-C2 white-light images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamy, Philippe; Barlyaeva, Tatiana; Boclet, Brice

    2016-07-01

    It is now well established that coronal mass ejections (CMEs) play a major role in the heliosphere, starting from the corona to interplanetary space and interacting with planets. The almost uninterrupted observations by the LASCO coronagraph onboard SOHO since January 1996 have allowed an unprecedented view of CMEs over almost two solar cycles 23 and 24. The ARTEMIS-II catalog based on their automatic detection on high-quality calibrated synoptic maps of the corona offers a dataset free of selection effects. It is thus possible to perform an unbiased statistical analysis of their properties and investigate how they evolve with solar activity. We will present an extended comparison of their properties during the two solar cycles 23 and 24 emphasizing the differences. We will further compare them with those of the standard indices of solar activity such as the international sunspot number (SSN), the sunspot area (SSA) and the radio flux at 10.7 cm (F10.7) as well as those of their potential progenitors, flares and eruptive prominences, in order to ascertain their connection, and we will consider the two hemispheres separately whenever possible.

  2. Height of Shock Formation in the Solar Corona Inferred from Observations of Type II Radio Bursts and Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Xie, H.; Makela, P.; Yashiro, S.; Akiyama, S.; Uddin, W.; Srivastava, A. K.; Joshi, N. C.; Chandra, R.; Manoharan, P. K.

    2013-01-01

    Employing coronagraphic and EUV observations close to the solar surface made by the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) mission, we determined the heliocentric distance of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) at the starting time of associated metric type II bursts. We used the wave diameter and leading edge methods and measured the CME heights for a set of 32 metric type II bursts from solar cycle 24. We minimized the projection effects by making the measurements from a view that is roughly orthogonal to the direction of the ejection. We also chose image frames close to the onset times of the type II bursts, so no extrapolation was necessary. We found that the CMEs were located in the heliocentric distance range from 1.20 to 1.93 solar radii (Rs), with mean and median values of 1.43 and 1.38 Rs, respectively. We conclusively find that the shock formation can occur at heights substantially below 1.5 Rs. In a few cases, the CME height at type II onset was close to 2 Rs. In these cases, the starting frequency of the type II bursts was very low, in the range 25-40 MHz, which confirms that the shock can also form at larger heights. The starting frequencies of metric type II bursts have a weak correlation with the measured CME/shock heights and are consistent with the rapid decline of density with height in the inner corona.

  3. Gnevyshev Peaks and Gaps for Coronal Mass Ejections of Different Widths Originating in Different Solar Position Angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, R. P.

    2008-06-01

    The sunspot number series at the peak of sunspot activity often has two or three peaks (Gnevyshev peaks; Gnevyshev, Solar Phys. 1, 107, 1967; Solar Phys. 51, 175, 1977). The sunspot group number (SGN) data were examined for 1997 - 2003 (part of cycle 23) and compared with data for coronal mass ejection (CME) events. It was noticed that they exhibited mostly two Gnevyshev peaks in each of the four latitude belts 0° - 10°, 10° - 20°, 20 ° - 30°, and > 30°, in both N (northern) and S (southern) solar hemispheres. The SGN were confined to within latitudes ± 50° around the Equator, mostly around ± 35°, and seemed to occur later in lower latitudes, indicating possible latitudinal migration as in the Maunder butterfly diagrams. In CMEs, less energetic CMEs (of widths < 71°) showed prominent Gnevyshev peaks during sunspot maximum years in almost all latitude belts, including near the poles. The CME activity lasted longer than the SGN activity. However, the CME peaks did not match the SGN peaks and were almost simultaneous at different latitudes, indicating no latitudinal migration. In energetic CMEs including halo CMEs, the Gnevyshev peaks were obscure and ill-defined. The solar polar magnetic fields show polarity reversal during sunspot maximum years, first at the North Pole and, a few months later, at the South Pole. However, the CME peaks and gaps did not match with the magnetic field reversal times, preceding them by several months, rendering any cause - effect relationship doubtful.

  4. Rest-frame Optical Spectra and Black Hole Masses of 3 6 Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Hyunsung David; Im, Myungshin; Lee, Hyung Mok; Ohyama, Youichi; Woo, Jong-Hak; Fan, Xiaohui; Goto, Tomotsugu; Kim, Dohyeong; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Minjin; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Nakagawa, Takao; Pearson, Chris; Serjeant, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    We present the rest-frame optical spectral properties of 155 luminous quasars at 3.3 < z < 6.4 taken with the AKARI space telescope, including the first detection of the Hα emission line as far out as z ˜ 6. We extend the scaling relation between the rest-frame optical continuum and the line luminosity of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to the high-luminosity, high-redshift regime that has rarely been probed before. Remarkably, we find that a single log-linear relation can be applied to the 5100 Å and Hα AGN luminosities over a wide range of luminosity (1042 < {{L}5100} < 1047 ergs s-1) or redshift (0 < z < 6), suggesting that the physical mechanism governing this relation is unchanged from z = 0 to 6, over five decades in luminosity. Similar scaling relations are found between the optical and the UV continuum luminosities or line widths. Applying the scaling relations to the Hβ black hole (BH) mass ({{M}BH}) estimator of local AGNs, we derive the {{M}BH} estimators based on the Hα, Mg ii, and C iv lines, finding that the UV-line-based masses are overall consistent with the Balmer-line-based, but with a large intrinsic scatter of 0.40 dex for the C iv estimates. Our 43 {{M}BH} estimates from Hα confirm the existence of BHs as massive as ˜ {{10}10} {{M}⊙ } out to z ˜ 5 and provide a secure footing for previous results from Mg ii-line-based studies that a rapid {{M}BH} growth has occurred in the early universe.

  5. First detection of ND in the solar-mass protostar IRAS16293-2422

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacmann, A.; Caux, E.; Hily-Blant, P.; Parise, B.; Pagani, L.; Bottinelli, S.; Maret, S.; Vastel, C.; Ceccarelli, C.; Cernicharo, J.; Henning, T.; Castets, A.; Coutens, A.; Bergin, E. A.; Blake, G. A.; Crimier, N.; Demyk, K.; Dominik, C.; Gerin, M.; Hennebelle, P.; Kahane, C.; Klotz, A.; Melnick, G.; Schilke, P.; Wakelam, V.; Walters, A.; Baudry, A.; Bell, T.; Benedettini, M.; Boogert, A.; Cabrit, S.; Caselli, P.; Codella, C.; Comito, C.; Encrenaz, P.; Falgarone, E.; Fuente, A.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Helmich, F.; Herbst, E.; Jacq, T.; Kama, M.; Langer, W.; Lefloch, B.; Lis, D.; Lord, S.; Lorenzani, A.; Neufeld, D.; Nisini, B.; Pacheco, S.; Pearson, J.; Phillips, T.; Salez, M.; Saraceno, P.; Schuster, K.; Tielens, X.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; van der Wiel, M. H. D.; Viti, S.; Wyrowski, F.; Yorke, H.; Faure, A.; Benz, A.; Coeur-Joly, O.; Cros, A.; Güsten, R.; Ravera, L.

    2010-10-01

    Context. In the past decade, much progress has been made in characterising the processes leading to the enhanced deuterium fractionation observed in the ISM and in particular in the cold, dense parts of star forming regions such as protostellar envelopes. Very high molecular D/H ratios have been found for saturated molecules and ions. However, little is known about the deuterium fractionation in radicals, even though simple radicals often represent an intermediate stage in the formation of more complex, saturated molecules. The imidogen radical NH is such an intermediate species for the ammonia synthesis in the gas phase. Many of these light molecules however have their fundamental transitions in the submillimetre domain and their detection is hampered by the opacity of the atmosphere at these wavelengths. Herschel/HIFI represents a unique opportunity to study the deuteration and formation mechanisms of species not observable from the ground. Aims: We searched here for the deuterated radical ND in order to determine the deuterium fractionation of imidogen and constrain the deuteration mechanism of this species. Methods: We observed the solar-mass Class 0 protostar IRAS16293-2422 with the heterodyne instrument HIFI in Bands 1a (480-560 GHz), 3b (858-961 GHz), and 4a (949-1061 GHz) as part of the Herschel key programme CHESS (Chemical HErschel Survey of Star forming regions). Results: The deuterated form of the imidogen radical ND was detected and securely identified with 2 hyperfine component groups of its fundamental transition (N = 0-1) at 522.1 and 546.2 GHz, in absorption against the continuum background emitted from the nascent protostar. The 3 groups of hyperfine components of its hydrogenated counterpart NH were also detected in absorption. The absorption arises from the cold envelope, where many deuterated species have been shown to be abundant. The estimated column densities are ~2 × 1014 cm-2 for NH and ~ 1.3 × 1014 cm-2 for ND. We derive a very high

  6. Fluid Aspects of Solar Wind Disturbances Driven by Coronal Mass Ejections. Appendix 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosling, J. T.; Riley, Pete

    2001-01-01

    Transient disturbances in the solar wind initiated by coronal eruptions have been modeled for many years, beginning with the self-similar analytical models of Parker and Simon and Axford. The first numerical computer code (one-dimensional, gas dynamic) to study disturbance propagation in the solar wind was developed in the late 1960s, and a variety of other codes ranging from simple one-dimensional gas dynamic codes through three-dimensional gas dynamic and magnetohydrodynamic codes have been developed in subsequent years. For the most part, these codes have been applied to the problem of disturbances driven by fast CMEs propagating into a structureless solar wind. Pizzo provided an excellent summary of the level of understanding achieved from such simulation studies through about 1984, and other reviews have subsequently become available. More recently, some attention has been focused on disturbances generated by slow CMEs, on disturbances driven by CMEs having high internal pressures, and disturbance propagation effects associated with a structured ambient solar wind. Our purpose here is to provide a brief tutorial on fluid aspects of solar wind disturbances derived from numerical gas dynamic simulations. For the most part we illustrate disturbance evolution by propagating idealized perturbations, mimicking different types of CMEs, into a structureless solar wind using a simple one-dimensional, adiabatic (except at shocks), gas dynamic code. The simulations begin outside the critical point where the solar wind becomes supersonic and thus do not address questions of how the CMEs themselves are initiated. Limited to one dimension (the radial direction), the simulation code predicts too strong an interaction between newly ejected solar material and the ambient wind because it neglects azimuthal and meridional motions of the plasma that help relieve pressure stresses. Moreover, the code ignores magnetic forces and thus also underestimates the speed with which

  7. Heliocentric Distance of Coronal Mass Ejections at the Time of Energetic Particle Release: Revisiting the Ground Level Enhancement Events of Solar Cycle 23

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2011-01-01

    Using the kinematics of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), onset time of soft X-ray flares, and the finite size of the pre-eruption CME structure, we derive the heliocentric distane at which the energetic particles during the ground level enhancement (GLE) events of Solar Cycle 23. We find that the GLE particles are released when the CMEs reach an average heliocentric distance of approx.3.25 solar radii (Rs). From this we infer that the shocks accelerating the particles are located at similar heights. Type II radio burst observations indicate that the CMEs are at much lower distances (average approx.1.4 Rs) when the CME-driven shock first forms. The shock seems to travel approx.1.8 Rs over a period of approox.30 min on the average before releasing the GLE particles. In deriving these results, we made three assumptions that have observational support: (i) the CME lift off occurs from an initial distance of about 1.25 Rs; (ii) the flare onset and CME onset are one and the same because these are two different manifestations of the same eruption; and (iii) the CME has positive acceleration from the onset to the first appearance in the coronagraphic field of view (2.5 to 6 Rs). Observations of coronal cavities in eclipse pictures and in coronagraphic images justify the assumption (i). The close relationship between the flare reconnection magnetic flux and the azimuthal flux of interplanetary magnetic clouds justify assumption (ii) consistent with the standard model (CSHKP) of solar eruption. Coronagraphic observations made close to the solar surface indicate a large positive acceleration of CMEs to a heliocentric distance of approx.3 Rs before they start slowing down due to the drag force. The inferred acceleration (approx.1.5 km/s/s) is consistent with reported values in the literature.

  8. Photoelectrochemical Properties of Nanocrystalline Sb6O13, MgSb2O6, and ZnSb2O6-Based Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Jiyeon; Kim, Seung-Joo

    2012-10-01

    Three kinds of antimony compounds - Sb6O13, MgSb2O6 and ZnSb2O6 - were prepared in the form of nanocrystalline film and their photo-electrochemical properties were investigated. The preparation of Sb6O13 was based on thermolysis of a colloidal Sb2O5·4H2O suspension. MgSb2O6 and ZnSb2O6 were prepared via low-temperature hydrothermal methods. All the compounds exhibited semiconducting properties applicable to dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The energy band gaps were estimated to be 3.39 eV for Sb6O13, 3.60 eV for MgSb2O6, and 3.31 eV for ZnSb2O6, respectively. After sensitization with a conventional ruthenium-dye (N719), Sb6O13-based solar cell exhibited the highest open circuit voltage (Voc = 0.76 V) whereas the Voc values (0.44-0.46 V) of MgSb2O6 and ZnSb2O6 are relatively low. The Voc values were proven to be related to the flat band potentials of the antimony compounds. The overall solar-to-electric energy conversion efficiencies were in the range of 0.7-1.0% under AM 1.5, 100 mW/cm2 illumination.

  9. High Angular Resolution Radio Observations of a Coronal Mass Ejection Source Region at Low Frequencies during a Solar Eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, R.; Kathiravan, C.; Barve, Indrajit V.; Rajalingam, M.

    2012-01-01

    We carried out radio observations of the solar corona in the frequency range 109-50 MHz during the annular eclipse of 2010 January 15 from the Gauribidanur Observatory, located about 100 km north of Bangalore in India. The radio emission in the above frequency range originates typically in the radial distance range ≈1.2-1.5 R ⊙ in the "undisturbed" solar atmosphere. Our analysis indicates that (1) the angular size of the smallest observable radio source (associated with a coronal mass ejection in the present case) is ≈1' ± 0farcm3, (2) the source size does not vary with radial distance, (3) the peak brightness temperature of the source corresponding to the above size at a typical frequency like 77 MHz is ≈3 × 109 K, and (4) the coronal magnetic field near the source region is ≈70 mG.

  10. The Location of Solar Metric Type II Radio Bursts with Respect to the Associated Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, R.; Lakshmi, M. Anna; Kathiravan, C.; Gopalswamy, N.; Umapathy, S.

    2012-06-01

    Forty-one solar type II radio bursts located close to the solar limb (projected radial distance r >~ 0.8 R ⊙) were observed at 109 MHz by the radioheliograph at the Gauribidanur observatory near Bangalore during the period 1997-2007. The positions of the bursts were compared with the estimated location of the leading edge (LE) of the associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs) close to the Sun. 38/41 of the type II bursts studied were located either at or above the LE of the associated CME. In the remaining 3/41 cases, the burst was located behind the LE of the associated CME at a distance of <0.5 R ⊙. Our results suggest that nearly all the metric type II bursts are driven by the CMEs.

  11. Geo-effectiveness and GCR-effectiveness of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections Observed during the Solar Cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslam, O. P. M.; Badruddin, B.

    2016-07-01

    We study the geomagnetic and Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) response of Interplanetary Coronal Mass ejections (ICMEs) observed for the period of 2010 - 2015. We identify the distinct features of ICMEs during their passage. We analyze the hourly resolution data of geomagnetic indices and ground based neutron monitors, with the simultaneous and same time resolution data of interplanetary plasma and field parameters to identify the features of ICMEs and solar wind parameters during their passage when GCR intensity is affected to its maximum level. Similarly, we identify features of ICMEs and solar wind parameters during their passage when geo-effectiveness is at its maximum level. We discuss the similarities and distinctions in the Geo-effectiveness and GCR-effectiveness of the same ICME structure in the light of plasma and field variations, and physical mechanism(s) playing important role in influencing the GCR intensity and geomagnetic activity.

  12. A solar type II radio burst from coronal mass ejection-coronal ray interaction: Simultaneous radio and extreme ultraviolet imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yao; Du, Guohui; Feng, Shiwei; Kong, Xiangliang; Wang, Bing; Feng, Li; Guo, Fan; Li, Gang

    2014-05-20

    Simultaneous radio and extreme ultraviolet (EUV)/white-light imaging data are examined for a solar type II radio burst occurring on 2010 March 18 to deduce its source location. Using a bow-shock model, we reconstruct the three-dimensional EUV wave front (presumably the type-II-emitting shock) based on the imaging data of the two Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory spacecraft. It is then combined with the Nançay radio imaging data to infer the three-dimensional position of the type II source. It is found that the type II source coincides with the interface between the coronal mass ejection (CME) EUV wave front and a nearby coronal ray structure, providing evidence that the type II emission is physically related to the CME-ray interaction. This result, consistent with those of previous studies, is based on simultaneous radio and EUV imaging data for the first time.

  13. Coronal mass ejection speeds measured in the solar corona using LASCO C2 and C3 images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Lago, A.; Schwerin, R.; Stenborg, G.; Gonzalez, W. D.

    In this work we present height-time diagrams of 2 halo coronal mass ejections, observed on September 28th, 1997 and June 29th, 1999. The CMEs were observed by the Large Angle and Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO), which observes the solar corona from 2 to 32 solar radii. To obtain these diagrams we divide the LASCO images of a given sequence in angular slices, transform them into rectangular slices (their width chosen proportional to the time distance to the next image) and place them side by side. Thus, the speed profile of any pattern moving in the particular latitudinal slice can be derived. With this method we were able to identify even minor speed changes in several angular positions for the chosen events. This technique is particularly appropriate to identify acceleration or deceleration of structures in halo CMEs.

  14. Investigations in the solar wind and near the magnetopause during the IMS from the Prognoz 4, 5, and 6 satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gringauz, K. I.; Bezrukikh, V. V.; Verigin, M. I.; Kotova, G. A.; Remizov, A. P.

    Prognoz 4-6 measurements of plasma, magnetic field, and energetic particles in the solar wind and near the magnetopause were carried out during the IMS (International Magnetospheric Studies). It is found that the outer radiation belt is a source of energetic (1 MeV) electrons in the magnetosheath near the magnetopause.

  15. SMEI 3D RECONSTRUCTION OF A CORONAL MASS EJECTION INTERACTING WITH A COROTATING SOLAR WIND DENSITY ENHANCEMENT: THE 2008 APRIL 26 CME

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, B. V.; Buffington, A.; Hick, P. P.; Clover, J. M.; Bisi, M. M.; Webb, D. F.

    2010-12-01

    The Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) has recorded the brightness responses of hundreds of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the interplanetary medium. Using a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction technique that derives its perspective views from outward-flowing solar wind, analysis of SMEI data has revealed the shapes, extents, and masses of CMEs. Here, for the first time, and using SMEI data, we report on the 3D reconstruction of a CME that intersects a corotating region marked by a curved density enhancement in the ecliptic. Both the CME and the corotating region are reconstructed and demonstrate that the CME disrupts the otherwise regular density pattern of the corotating material. Most of the dense CME material passes north of the ecliptic and east of the Sun-Earth line: thus, in situ measurements in the ecliptic near Earth and at the Solar-TErrestrial RElations Observatory Behind spacecraft show the CME as a minor density increase in the solar wind. The mass of the dense portion of the CME is consistent with that measured by the Large Angle Spectrometric Coronagraph on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory spacecraft, and is comparable to the masses of many other three-dimensionally reconstructed solar wind features at 1 AU observed in SMEI 3D reconstructions.

  16. Embedded Protostellar Disks Around (Sub-)Solar Stars. II. Disk Masses, Sizes, Densities, Temperatures, and the Planet Formation Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobyov, Eduard I.

    2011-03-01

    We present basic properties of protostellar disks in the embedded phase of star formation (EPSF), which is difficult to probe observationally using available observational facilities. We use numerical hydrodynamics simulations of cloud core collapse and focus on disks formed around stars in the 0.03-1.0 M sun mass range. Our obtained disk masses scale near-linearly with the stellar mass. The mean and median disk masses in the Class 0 and I phases (M mean d,C0 = 0.12 M sun, M mdn d,C0 = 0.09 M sun and M mean d,CI = 0.18 M sun, M mdn d,CI = 0.15 M sun, respectively) are greater than those inferred from observations by (at least) a factor of 2-3. We demonstrate that this disagreement may (in part) be caused by the optically thick inner regions of protostellar disks, which do not contribute to millimeter dust flux. We find that disk masses and surface densities start to systematically exceed that of the minimum mass solar nebular for objects with stellar mass as low as M * = 0.05-0.1 M sun. Concurrently, disk radii start to grow beyond 100 AU, making gravitational fragmentation in the disk outer regions possible. Large disk masses, surface densities, and sizes suggest that giant planets may start forming as early as in the EPSF, either by means of core accretion (inner disk regions) or direct gravitational instability (outer disk regions), thus breaking a longstanding stereotype that the planet formation process begins in the Class II phase.

  17. An estimate of the magnetic field strength associated with a solar coronal mass ejection from low frequency radio observations

    SciTech Connect

    Sasikumar Raja, K.; Ramesh, R.; Hariharan, K.; Kathiravan, C.; Wang, T. J.

    2014-11-20

    We report ground based, low frequency heliograph (80 MHz), spectral (85-35 MHz), and polarimeter (80 and 40 MHz) observations of drifting, non-thermal radio continuum associated with the 'halo' coronal mass ejection that occurred in the solar atmosphere on 2013 March 15. The magnetic field strengths (B) near the radio source were estimated to be B ≈ 2.2 ± 0.4 G at 80 MHz and B ≈ 1.4 ± 0.2 G at 40 MHz. The corresponding radial distances (r) are r ≈ 1.9 R {sub ☉} (80 MHz) and r ≈ 2.2 R {sub ☉} (40 MHz).

  18. The temperature structure, mass, and energy flow in the corona and inner solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withbroe, George L.

    1988-01-01

    Remote-sensing and in situ data are used to constrain a radiative energy balance model in order to study the radial variations of coronal temperatures, densities, and outflow speeds in several types of coronal holes and in an unstructured quiet region of the corona. A one-fluid solar wind model is used which takes into account the effects of radiative and inward conductive losses in the low corona and the chromospheric-coronal transition region. The results show that the total nonradiative energy input in magnetically open coronal regions is 5 + or - 10 to the 5th ergs/sq cm, and that most of the energy heating the coronal plasma is dissipated within 2 solar radii of the solar surface.

  19. Upper limits to the masses of objects in the solar comet cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Hills, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    The lack of a large steady stream of long-period comets with semi-major axes less than 2 x 10/sup 4/ AU rules out the sun having a companion more massive than about 0.01 M/sub solar/ with a semi-major axis less than about 1 x 10/sup 4/ AU. Any companion with a semi-major axis between 1 x 10/sup 4/ AU and 5 x 10/sup 4/ AU has more than a 50% probability of having entered the planetary system during the lifetime of the Solar System. The lack of apparent damage to the planetary system rules out any companion more massive than about 0.02 M/sub solar/ with a semi-major axis less than about 5 x 10/sup 4/ AU.

  20. Data processing for a cosmic ray experiment onboard the solar probes Helios 1 and 2: Experiment 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller-Mellin, R.; Green, G.; Iwers, B.; Kunow, H.; Wibberenz, G.; Fuckner, J.; Hempe, H.; Witte, M.

    1982-01-01

    The data processing system for the Helios experiment 6, measuring energetic charged particles of solar, planetary and galactic origin in the inner solar system, is described. The aim of this experiment is to extend knowledge on origin and propagation of cosmic rays. The different programs for data reduction, analysis, presentation, and scientific evaluation are described as well as hardware and software of the data processing equipment. A chronological presentation of the data processing operation is given. Procedures and methods for data analysis which were developed can be used with minor modifications for analysis of other space research experiments.

  1. Dynamics of solar filaments. IV - Structure and mass flow of an active region filament

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmieder, B.; Malherbe, J. M.; Simon, G.; Poland, A. I.

    1985-01-01

    An active region filament near the center of the solar disk was observed on September 29-30, 1980, with the Multichannel Subtractive Double Pass Spectrograph of the Meudon solar tower and the UV Spectrograph and Polarimeter aboard the SMM satellite. H-alpha and C IV measurements are presently used to study brightness and material velocity in the 10,000 and 100,000 K temperature ranges, and photospheric magnetograms are used to investigate the underlying magnetic field. Attention is given to the constraints imposed on possible filament structures by observations, as well as the expected MHD relationships.

  2. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE SOLAR MORETON WAVE OF 2006 DECEMBER 6

    SciTech Connect

    Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Cliver, E. W.; Pevtsov, A.; Henry, T. W.; Neidig, D. F.; Temmer, M.; Muhr, N.; Veronig, A. M.; Imada, S.; Ling, A. G.; Moore, R. L.; Petrie, G. J. D.; Vrsnak, B.; White, S. M.

    2010-11-01

    We analyzed ground- and space-based observations of the eruptive flare (3B/X6.5) and associated Moreton wave ({approx}850 km s{sup -1}; {approx}270{sup 0} azimuthal span) of 2006 December 6 to determine the wave driver-either flare pressure pulse (blast) or coronal mass ejection (CME). Kinematic analysis favors a CME driver of the wave, despite key gaps in coronal data. The CME scenario has a less constrained/smoother velocity versus time profile than is the case for the flare hypothesis and requires an acceleration rate more in accord with observations. The CME picture is based, in part, on the assumption that a strong and impulsive magnetic field change observed by a GONG magnetograph during the rapid rise phase of the flare corresponds to the main acceleration phase of the CME. The Moreton wave evolution tracks the inferred eruption of an extended coronal arcade, overlying a region of weak magnetic field to the west of the principal flare in NOAA active region 10930. Observations of H{alpha} foot point brightenings, disturbance contours in off-band H{alpha} images, and He I 10830 A flare ribbons trace the eruption from 18:42 to 18:44 UT as it progressed southwest along the arcade. Hinode EIS observations show strong blueshifts at foot points of this arcade during the post-eruption phase, indicating mass outflow. At 18:45 UT, the Moreton wave exhibited two separate arcs (one off each flank of the tip of the arcade) that merged and coalesced by 18:47 UT to form a single smooth wave front, having its maximum amplitude in the southwest direction. We suggest that the erupting arcade (i.e., CME) expanded laterally to drive a coronal shock responsible for the Moreton wave. We attribute a darkening in H{alpha} from a region underlying the arcade to absorption by faint unresolved post-eruption loops.

  3. Solar-wind/magnetospheric dynamos: MHD-scale collective entry of the solar wind energy, momentum and mass into the magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Yan; Lysak, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    A quasi open MHD (Magnetohydrodynamic) scale anomalous transport controlled boundary layer model is proposed, where the MHD collective behavior of magnetofluids (direct dynamo effect, anomalous viscous interaction and anomalous diffusion of the mass and the magnetic field) plays the main role in the conversion of the Solar Wind (SW) kinetic and magnetic energy into electromagnetic energy in the Magnetosphere (MSp). The so called direct and indirect dynamo effects are based on inductive and purely dissipative energy conversion, respectively. The self organization ability of vector fields in turbulent magnetofluids implies an inductive response of the plasma, which leads to the direct dynamo effect. The direct dynamo effect describes the direct formation of localized field aligned currents and the transverse Alfven waves and provides a source for MHD scale anomalous diffusivity and viscosity. The SW/MSp coupling depends on the dynamo efficiency.

  4. Modeling Effects of Plasma Drag on Low Earth Orbiting Satellites due to Upper Atmospheric Heating by Coronal Mass Ejections and other Solar Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwankwo, Victor U. J.; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar

    Influence of solar storms and Earth-directed solar energy induced by coronal mass ejections and other solar events on Earth’s upper atmosphere and satellite’s orbit has been studied. It is known that energetic ultraviolet, X-ray and particles emitted from the sun during solar events collectively heat up and subsequently expand the upper atmosphere. This increases drag on LEO satellites. The extent of impact, however, depends on the phase of the solar 11-year cycle. In this study, we first perform a statistical analysis of the time distribution of space environmental parameters such as F10.7 and Ap indices and events due to solar activity during the past cycle. We compute plasma drag on a model artificial satellite during events and predict, using solar cycle forecast, how the satellite orbit would be affected around the peak of current emerging maximum. We find that depending on orbital and design parameters, a typical satellite orbital radius could experience a mean decay of up to 27.44±5.10km per year (with as much as 5.5km contribution from major solar events) during the emerging solar maximum. We also applied the model on a few isolated cases of reported major solar events. The results of the model compared well with reported results of some exiting LEO satellites.

  5. A sputtered CdS buffer layer for co-electrodeposited Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells with 6.6% efficiency.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jiahua; Zhang, Kezhi; Zhang, Chuanjun; Chen, Leilei; Cao, Huiyi; Liu, Junfeng; Jiang, Jinchun; Sun, Lin; Yang, Pingxiong; Chu, Junhao

    2015-06-28

    Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films with thicknesses ranging from 0.35 to 1.85 μm and micron-sized grains (0.5-1.5 μm) were synthesized using co-electrodeposited Cu-Zn-Sn-S precursors with different deposition times. Here we have introduced a sputtered CdS buffer layer for the development of CZTS solar cells for the first time, which enables breakthrough efficiencies up to 6.6%. PMID:26027699

  6. Design and Performance of a Triple Source Air Mass Zero Solar Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Phillip; Scheiman, David; Snyder, David

    2005-01-01

    Simulating the sun in a laboratory for the purpose of measuring solar cells has long been a challenge for engineers and scientists. Multi-junction cells demand higher fidelity of a solar simulator than do single junction cells, due to a need for close spectral matching as well as AM0 intensity. A GaInP/GaAs/Ge solar cell for example, requires spectral matching in three distinct spectral bands (figure 1). A commercial single source high-pressure xenon arc solar simulator such as the Spectrolab X-25 at NASA Glenn Research Center, can match the top two junctions of a GaInP/GaAs/Ge cell to within 1.3% mismatch, with the GaAs cell receiving slightly more current than required. The Ge bottom cell however, is mismatched +8.8%. Multi source simulators are designed to match the current for all junctions but typically have small illuminated areas, less uniformity and less beam collimation compared to an X-25 simulator. It was our intent when designing a multi source simulator to preserve as many aspects of the X-25 while adding multi-source capability.

  7. The 1.6 m Off-Axis New Solar Telescope (NST) in Big Bear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goode, P. R.; Cao, W.

    2012-12-01

    The New Solar Telescope (NST) in Big Bear is the first facility-class solar telescope built in the US in a generation, and it has an off-axis design as is planned for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST). The NST is in regular operation with adaptive optics (AO) correcting the light currently feeding photometric and near-IR polarimetric systems, as well as an imaging spectrograph. Here we show the high resolution capabilities of the NST. As well, we sketch our plans for, and reasoning behind the next generation NST instrumentation.

  8. Tracking halo coronal mass ejections from 0-1 AU and space weather forecasting using the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, T. A.; Webb, D. F.; Tappin, S. J.; Mizuno, D. R.; Johnston, J. C.

    2006-04-01

    The Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) has been tracking coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from the Sun to the Earth and beyond since it came online in February 2003. This paper presents some results from the first 19 months of data from SMEI, when over 140 transients of many kinds were observed in SMEI's all-sky cameras. We focus specifically on 20 earthward directed transients, and compare distance-time plots obtained from the SMEI transients with those observed in halo CMEs by Large-Angle Spectrometric Coronograph (LASCO) aboard Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), and the arrival time of the shock observed by ACE at 0.99 AU. The geometry of one particular transient is compared using both LASCO and SMEI images in a first attempt to investigate geometry evolution as the transient propagates through the interplanetary medium. For some events, the halo CME, SMEI transient, and shock at 0.99 AU do not match, suggesting that some transients may not correspond to a halo CME. Finally, an evaluation of the potential of SMEI to be used as a predictor of space weather is presented, by comparing the transients observed in SMEI with the 22 geomagnetic storms which occurred during this timeframe. A transient was observed in 14 cases, and distance-time profiles would have allowed a prediction of the arrival time at ACE within 2 hours of its actual arrival for three events, and within 10 hours for eight events. Of these eight events, seven were detected by SMEI more than 1 day before the transient's arrival at the Earth.

  9. Global numerical modeling of energetic proton acceleration in a coronal mass ejection traveling through the solar corona

    SciTech Connect

    Kozarev, Kamen A.; Opher, Merav; Evans, Rebekah M.; Dayeh, Maher A.; Korreck, Kelly E.; Van der Holst, Bart

    2013-11-20

    The acceleration of protons and electrons to high (sometimes GeV/nucleon) energies by solar phenomena is a key component of space weather. These solar energetic particle (SEP) events can damage spacecraft and communications, as well as present radiation hazards to humans. In-depth particle acceleration simulations have been performed for idealized magnetic fields for diffusive acceleration and particle propagation, and at the same time the quality of MHD simulations of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) has improved significantly. However, to date these two pieces of the same puzzle have remained largely decoupled. Such structures may contain not just a shock but also sizable sheath and pileup compression regions behind it, and may vary considerably with longitude and latitude based on the underlying coronal conditions. In this work, we have coupled results from a detailed global three-dimensional MHD time-dependent CME simulation to a global proton acceleration and transport model, in order to study time-dependent effects of SEP acceleration between 1.8 and 8 solar radii in the 2005 May 13 CME. We find that the source population is accelerated to at least 100 MeV, with distributions enhanced up to six orders of magnitude. Acceleration efficiency varies strongly along field lines probing different regions of the dynamically evolving CME, whose dynamics is influenced by the large-scale coronal magnetic field structure. We observe strong acceleration in sheath regions immediately behind the shock.

  10. Kepler-423b: a half-Jupiter mass planet transiting a very old solar-like star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandolfi, D.; Parviainen, H.; Deeg, H. J.; Lanza, A. F.; Fridlund, M.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Alonso, R.; Augusteijn, T.; Cabrera, J.; Evans, T.; Geier, S.; Hatzes, A. P.; Holczer, T.; Hoyer, S.; Kangas, T.; Mazeh, T.; Pagano, I.; Tal-Or, L.; Tingley, B.

    2015-04-01

    We report the spectroscopic confirmation of the Kepler object of interest KOI-183.01 (Kepler-423b), a half-Jupiter mass planet transiting an old solar-like star every 2.7 days. Our analysis is the first to combine the full Kepler photometry (quarters 1-17) with high-precision radial velocity measurements taken with the FIES spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope. We simultaneously modelled the photometric and spectroscopic data-sets using Bayesian approach coupled with Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. We found that the Kepler pre-search data conditioned light curve of Kepler-423 exhibits quarter-to-quarter systematic variations of the transit depth, with a peak-to-peak amplitude of ~4.3% and seasonal trends reoccurring every four quarters. We attributed these systematics to an incorrect assessment of the quarterly variation of the crowding metric. The host star Kepler-423 is a G4 dwarf with M⋆ = 0.85 ± 0.04 M⊙, R⋆ = 0.95 ± 0.04 R⊙, Teff= 5560 ± 80 K, [M/H] = - 0.10 ± 0.05 dex, and with an age of 11 ± 2 Gyr. The planet Kepler-423b has a mass of Mp= 0.595 ± 0.081MJup and a radius of Rp= 1.192 ± 0.052RJup, yielding a planetary bulk density of ρp = 0.459 ± 0.083 g cm-3. The radius of Kepler-423b is consistent with both theoretical models for irradiated coreless giant planets and expectations based on empirical laws. The inclination of the stellar spin axis suggests that the system is aligned along the line of sight. We detected a tentative secondary eclipse of the planet at a 2σ confidence level (ΔFec = 14.2 ± 6.6 ppm) and found that the orbit might have asmall non-zero eccentricity of 0.019+0.028-0.014. With a Bond albedo of AB = 0.037 ± 0.019, Kepler-423b is one of the gas-giant planets with the lowest albedo known so far. Based on observations obtained with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of

  11. ROTATING MOTIONS AND MODELING OF THE ERUPTING SOLAR POLAR-CROWN PROMINENCE ON 2010 DECEMBER 6

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Yingna; Van Ballegooijen, Adriaan

    2013-02-10

    A large polar-crown prominence composed of different segments spanning nearly the entire solar disk erupted on 2010 December 6. Prior to the eruption, the filament in the active region part split into two layers: a lower layer and an elevated layer. The eruption occurs in several episodes. Around 14:12 UT, the lower layer of the active region filament breaks apart: One part ejects toward the west, while the other part ejects toward the east, which leads to the explosive eruption of the eastern quiescent filament. During the early rise phase, part of the quiescent filament sheet displays strong rolling motion (observed by STEREO-B) in the clockwise direction (viewed from east to west) around the filament axis. This rolling motion appears to start from the border of the active region, then propagates toward the east. The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) observes another type of rotating motion: In some other parts of the erupting quiescent prominence, the vertical threads turn horizontal, then turn upside down. The elevated active region filament does not erupt until 18:00 UT, when the erupting quiescent filament has already reached a very large height. We develop two simplified three-dimensional models that qualitatively reproduce the observed rolling and rotating motions. The prominence in the models is assumed to consist of a collection of discrete blobs that are tied to particular field lines of a helical flux rope. The observed rolling motion is reproduced by continuous twist injection into the flux rope in Model 1 from the active region side. Asymmetric reconnection induced by the asymmetric distribution of the magnetic fields on the two sides of the filament may cause the observed rolling motion. The rotating motion of the prominence threads observed by AIA is consistent with the removal of the field line dips in Model 2 from the top down during the eruption.

  12. STUDY OF TWO SUCCESSIVE THREE-RIBBON SOLAR FLARES ON 2012 JULY 6

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Haimin; Liu, Chang; Deng, Na; Xu, Yan; Jing, Ju; Zeng, Zhicheng; Cao, Wenda

    2014-01-20

    This Letter reports two rarely observed three-ribbon flares (M1.9 and C9.2) on 2012 July 6 in NOAA AR 11515, which we found using Hα observations of 0.''1 resolution from the New Solar Telescope and Ca II H images from Hinode. The flaring site is characterized by an intriguing ''fish-bone-like'' morphology evidenced by both Hα images and a nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation, where two semi-parallel rows of low-lying, sheared loops connect an elongated, parasitic negative field with the sandwiching positive fields. The NLFFF model also shows that the two rows of loops are asymmetric in height and have opposite twists, and are enveloped by large-scale field lines including open fields. The two flares occurred in succession within half an hour and are located at the two ends of the flaring region. The three ribbons of each flare run parallel to the magnetic polarity inversion line, with the outer two lying in the positive field and the central one in the negative field. Both flares show surge-like flows in Hα apparently toward the remote region, while the C9.2 flare is also accompanied by EUV jets possibly along the open field lines. Interestingly, the 12-25 keV hard X-ray sources of the C9.2 flare first line up with the central ribbon then shift to concentrate on the top of the higher branch of loops. These results are discussed in favor of reconnection along the coronal null line, producing the three flare ribbons and the associated ejections.

  13. On the Relationship between Solar Wind Speed, Earthward-Directed Coronal Mass Ejections, Geomagnetic Activity, and the Sunspot Cycle Using 12-Month Moving Averages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.

    2008-01-01

    For 1996 .2006 (cycle 23), 12-month moving averages of the aa geomagnetic index strongly correlate (r = 0.92) with 12-month moving averages of solar wind speed, and 12-month moving averages of the number of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) (halo and partial halo events) strongly correlate (r = 0.87) with 12-month moving averages of sunspot number. In particular, the minimum (15.8, September/October 1997) and maximum (38.0, August 2003) values of the aa geomagnetic index occur simultaneously with the minimum (376 km/s) and maximum (547 km/s) solar wind speeds, both being strongly correlated with the following recurrent component (due to high-speed streams). The large peak of aa geomagnetic activity in cycle 23, the largest on record, spans the interval late 2002 to mid 2004 and is associated with a decreased number of halo and partial halo CMEs, whereas the smaller secondary peak of early 2005 seems to be associated with a slight rebound in the number of halo and partial halo CMEs. Based on the observed aaM during the declining portion of cycle 23, RM for cycle 24 is predicted to be larger than average, being about 168+/-60 (the 90% prediction interval), whereas based on the expected aam for cycle 24 (greater than or equal to 14.6), RM for cycle 24 should measure greater than or equal to 118+/-30, yielding an overlap of about 128+/-20.

  14. Grids of white dwarf evolutionary models with masses from M=0.1 to 1.2 m_solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benvenuto, O. G.; Althaus, L. G.

    1999-02-01

    We present detailed evolutionary calculations for carbon-oxygen- and helium-core white dwarf models with masses ranging from M= 0.1 to 1.2 M_solar and for metallicities Z = 0.001 and 0. The sequences cover a wide range of hydrogen envelopes as well. We have taken finite-temperature effects fully into account by means of a detailed white dwarf evolutionary code, in which updated radiative opacities and equations of state for hydrogen and helium plasmas are considered. The energy transport by convection is treated within the formalism of the full-spectrum turbulence theory, as given by the self-consistent model of Canuto, Goldman & Mazzitelli. Convective mixing, crystallization, hydrogen burning and neutrino energy losses are taken into account as well. The set of models presented here is very detailed and should be valuable, particularly for the interpretation of observational data on low-mass white dwarfs recently discovered in numerous binary configurations, and also for the general problem of determining the theoretical luminosity function for white dwarfs. In this context, we compare our cooling sequences with the observed white dwarf luminosity function recently improved by Leggett, Ruiz & Bergeron and we obtain an age for the Galactic disc of ~ 8 Gyr. Finally, we apply the results of this paper to derive stellar masses of a sample of low-mass white dwarfs.

  15. RR-Lyrae-type pulsations from a 0.26-solar-mass star in a binary system.

    PubMed

    Pietrzyński, G; Thompson, I B; Gieren, W; Graczyk, D; Stępień, K; Bono, G; Moroni, P G Prada; Pilecki, B; Udalski, A; Soszyński, I; Preston, G W; Nardetto, N; McWilliam, A; Roederer, I U; Górski, M; Konorski, P; Storm, J

    2012-04-01

    RR Lyrae pulsating stars have been extensively used as tracers of old stellar populations for the purpose of determining the ages of galaxies, and as tools to measure distances to nearby galaxies. There was accordingly considerable interest when the RR Lyrae star OGLE-BLG-RRLYR-02792 (referred to here as RRLYR-02792) was found to be a member of an eclipsing binary system, because the mass of the pulsator (hitherto constrained only by models) could be unambiguously determined. Here we report that RRLYR-02792 has a mass of 0.26 solar masses M[symbol see text] and therefore cannot be a classical RR Lyrae star. Using models, we find that its properties are best explained by the evolution of a close binary system that started with M[symbol see text] and 0.8M[symbol see text]stars orbiting each other with an initial period of 2.9 days. Mass exchange over 5.4 billion years produced the observed system, which is now in a very short-lived phase where the physical properties of the pulsator happen to place it in the same instability strip of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram as that occupied by RR Lyrae stars. We estimate that only 0.2 per cent of RR Lyrae stars may be contaminated by systems similar to this one, which implies that distances measured with RR Lyrae stars should not be significantly affected by these binary interlopers. PMID:22481359

  16. Symmetric or asymmetric energy transfer from Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections to the magnetosphere depending on the solar dipole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranyi, T.; Ludmány, A.

    The annual behaviour of monthly number of hours spent by the Earth in domains of either positive or negative By component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) was studied. We used the hourly OMNI data in the cases of Kp > 3. The study was confined to the ascending phases of the four recent sunspot cycles when Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs) dominate among the sources of geoeffectiveness. Definite differences were found between the annual variations of the hourly sums. When the solar dipole is opposite to the terrestrial one, the sums exhibit the the combined effect of Rosenberg-Coleman and Russell-McPherron effects. Thus, in the geomagnetically active hours the negative By dominates during the first half of the year and the positive By dominates during the second half of the year. However, these effects can not be detected in the occurrence of the negative and positive GSM By values when the solar and terrestrial dipoles are parallel. In this case one can see polarity-independent semiannual variations instead of the polarity-dependent opposite annual variations. It is well-known that the By component modulates the energy transfer from the solar wind to the magnetosphere causing marked asymmetries in magnetospheric convective flow patterns at high latitudes. Our results hint that the occurrences of these asymmetries related to the ICMEs depend on the solar dipole cycle. In the antiparallel years one of them dominates during half a year causing asymmetric energy transfer to the magnetosphere. In the parallel years the occurrences of the two kind of asymmetries are equal on monthly time scale, thus the energy transfer is symmetric within a monthly and yearly time interval.

  17. Yohkoh/SXT soft x-ray observations of sudden mass loss from the solar corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, H. S.; Acton, L. W.; Alexander, D.; Freeland, S. L.; Lemen, J. R.; Harvey, K. L.

    1995-01-01

    Direct X-ray observations allow us to estimate the hot coronal mass before and after a flare or other disturbance of the type leading to a coronal mass ejection. The sudden disappearance of a large coronal structure (scale greater than 105 km) gives evidence that an ejection has occurred, if the time scales are much shorter than the conductive or radiative cooling times for such structures. A flare also typically adds large amounts of new material to the corona via evaporation resulting from the coronal energy release. This provides a competing mechanism that makes the estimation of the total mass loss somewhat difficult. We note that the X-ray observations have the advantage of covering the entire corona rather than the limb regions unlike the coronagraph observations. We have identified two examples of coronal mass disappearances. before and during long duration flare events on 21 Feb. 1992 (on the E limb) and 13 Nov. 1994 (near disk center). In latter case the total mass amounted to some 4 x 10(exp 14) g with a density of 3 x 10(exp 8)cm(exp -3) and a temperature of 2.8 MK before its disappearance. This corresponds to a radiative cooling time of some 104 S. much longer than the observed time of disappearance. We therefore suggest that these sudden mass disappearances correspond with coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and suggest that further data analysis will be able to confirm this by comparison with optical observations of specific CMEs.

  18. New development in the theory of heat and mass transfer in solar stills

    SciTech Connect

    Shawaqfeh, A.T.; Farid, M.M.

    1995-12-31

    A single basin solar still with basin area of 0.98 x 0.98 m was constructed from galvanized iron sheets and an inclined glass cover. The still was provided with 525 W electrical heating tapes, fixed under the still basin for indoor steady state operation. The variation of basin temperature, glass temperature and evaporation rate were measured during both indoor and outdoor operation. The hourly variation of solar radiation, ambient temperature, and wind velocity were also taken during the outdoor measurements. Transient analysis of the still requires the evaluation of evaporative, convective and radiative heat transfer coefficients. The Dunkle model, which has been widely used for the prediction of the evaporative coefficient, was found to overpredict evaporation rates. The models developed in this work were found to provide better prediction for the evaporation rate measured in this work and in some previous works. 17 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Stacbeam - An efficient, low-mass, sequentially deployable structure. [for satellite solar power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, L. R.

    1982-01-01

    Design features of the stacking triangular articulated compact beam (Stacbeam) as a candidate truss structure for GEOS spacecraft solar power arrays are explored. Solar arrays of increasing size require folding, noninterfering structures, minimal thermal effects, slow and controlled deployment, and a high aspect ratio. The Stacbeam consists of a triangular batten frame perpendicular to the beam axis, three longerons attached at the corners of the batten frame and mounted parallel to the beam axis, and three diagonals to provide shear and torsional stiffness. Locking hinges are installed at the midpoint and ends of each longeron and at the midpoint and ends of each diagonal. The material is graphite/epoxy composite with a 120 GPa modulus and a 1500 kg/sq m density. Successful vertical deployment on the ground has been effected with a prototype deployer, together with horizontal cantilever in a fully deployed configuration.

  20. Calculating Coronal Mass Ejection Magnetic Field at 1 AU Using Solar Observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Kunkel, V.

    2013-12-01

    It is well-established that most major nonrecurrent geomagnetic storms are caused by solar wind structures with long durations of strong southward (Bz < 0) interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Such geoeffective IMF structures are associated with CME events at the Sun. Unfortunately, neither the duration nor the internal magnetic field vector of the ejecta--the key determinants of geoeffectiveness--is measurable until the observer (e.g., Earth) passes through the ejecta. In this paper, we discuss the quantitative relationships between the ejecta magnetic field at 1 AU and remotely observable solar quantities associated with the eruption of a given CME. In particular, we show that observed CME trajectories (position-time data) within, say, 1/3 AU of the Sun, contain sufficient information to allow the calculation of the ejecta magnetic field (magnitude and components) at 1 AU using the Erupting Flux Rope (EFR) model of CMEs. Furthermore, in order to accurately determine the size and arrival time of the ejecta as seen by a fixed observer at 1 AU (e.g., ACE), it is essential to accurately calculate the three-dimensional geometry of the underlying magnetic structure. Accordingly, we have extended the physics-based EFR model to include a self-consistent calculation of the transverse expansion taking into account the non-symmetric drag coupling between an expanding CME flux rope and the ambient solar wind. The dependence of the minor radius of the flux rope at 1 AU that determines the perceived size of the ejecta on solar quantities is discussed. Work supported by the NRL Base Program.

  1. CONSTRUCTING A ONE-SOLAR-MASS EVOLUTIONARY SEQUENCE USING ASTEROSEISMIC DATA FROM KEPLER

    SciTech Connect

    Silva Aguirre, V.; Weiss, A.; Casagrande, L.; Chaplin, W. J.; Verner, G. A.; Miglio, A.; Broomhall, A. M.; Elsworth, Y.; Ballot, J.; Basu, S.; Bedding, T. R.; Serenelli, A. M.; Monteiro, M. J. P. F. G.; Campante, T. L.; Appourchaux, T.; Gaulme, P.; Bonanno, A.; Corsaro, E.; Bruntt, H.; GarcIa, R. A.

    2011-10-10

    Asteroseismology of solar-type stars has entered a new era of large surveys with the success of the NASA Kepler mission, which is providing exquisite data on oscillations of stars across the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. From the time-series photometry, the two seismic parameters that can be most readily extracted are the large frequency separation ({Delta}{nu}) and the frequency of maximum oscillation power ({nu}{sub max}). After the survey phase, these quantities are available for hundreds of solar-type stars. By scaling from solar values, we use these two asteroseismic observables to identify for the first time an evolutionary sequence of 1 M{sub sun} field stars, without the need for further information from stellar models. Comparison of our determinations with the few available spectroscopic results shows an excellent level of agreement. We discuss the potential of the method for differential analysis throughout the main-sequence evolution and the possibility of detecting twins of very well-known stars.

  2. Solar flares associated coronal mass ejections in case of type II radio bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Beena; Prasad, Lalan; Chandra, Harish; Garia, Suman

    2016-08-01

    We have statistically studied 220 events from 1996 to 2008 (i.e. solar cycle 23). Two set of flare-CME is examined one with Deca-hectometric (DH) type II and other without DH type II radio burst. Out of 220 events 135 (flare-halo CME) are accompanied with DH type II radio burst and 85 are without DH type II radio burst. Statistical analysis is performed to examine the distribution of solar flare-halo CME around the solar disk and to investigate the relationship between solar flare and halo CME parameters in case of with and without DH type II radio burst. In our analysis we have observed that: (i) 10-20° latitudinal belt is more effective than the other belts for DH type II and without DH type II radio burst. In this belt, the southern region is more effective in case of DH type II radio burst, whereas in case of without DH type II radio burst dominance exits in the northern region. (ii) 0-10° longitudinal belt is more effective than the other belts for DH type II radio burst and without DH type II radio burst. In this belt, the western region is more effective in case of DH type II radio burst, while in case of without DH type II radio burst dominance exits in the eastern region. (iii) Mean speed of halo CMEs (1382 km/s) with DH type II radio burst is more than the mean speed of halo CMEs (775 km/s) without DH type II radio burst. (iv) Maximum number of M-class flares is found in both the cases. (v) Average speed of halo CMEs in each class accompanied with DH type II radio burst is higher than the average speed of halo CMEs in each class without DH type II radio burst. (vi) Average speed of halo CMEs, associated with X-class flares, is greater than the other class of solar flares in both the cases.

  3. Monodeurated methane in the outer solar system. 2. Its detection on Uranus at 1.6 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debergh, C.; Lutz, B. L.; Owen, T.; Brault, J.; Chauville, J.

    1985-01-01

    Deuterium in the atmosphere of Uranus has been studied only via measurements of the exceedingly weak dipole lines of hydrogen-deuteride (HD) seen in the visible region of the spectrum. The other sensitive indicator of deuterium in the outer solar system is monodeuterated methane (CH3D) but the two bands normally used ot study this molecule, NU sub 2 near 2200 1/cm and NU sub 6 near 1161 1/cm, have not been detected in Uranus.

  4. Response of Venus exospheric temperature measured by neutral mass spectrometer to solar EUV flux measured by Langmuir probe on the Pioneer Venus orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahajan, K. K.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Brace, L. H.; Niemann, H. B.; Hoegy, W. R.

    1990-01-01

    The photoelectron current from the Pioneer Venus Langmuir probe has provided measurements of the total flux of solar EUV photons at Venus since 1979. The neutral oxygen scale height measured by the orbiter neutral mass spectrometer has permitted the exospheric temperature to be derived during the same mission. In this paper, the EUV observations are used to examine the response of exospheric temperature to changes in solar activity, primarily those related to solar rotation. It is found that the dayside exospheric temperature quite faithfully tracks variations in the EUV flux. Comparison is also made with the earth-based solar activity index F10.7 adjusted to the position of Venus. This index varied from 142 to 249 flux units during the period of measurements. The exospheric temperature is better correlated with EUV flux than with the 10.7-cm solar radio flux.

  5. A 15.65-solar-mass black hole in an eclipsing binary in the nearby spiral galaxy M 33.

    PubMed

    Orosz, Jerome A; McClintock, Jeffrey E; Narayan, Ramesh; Bailyn, Charles D; Hartman, Joel D; Macri, Lucas; Liu, Jiefeng; Pietsch, Wolfgang; Remillard, Ronald A; Shporer, Avi; Mazeh, Tsevi

    2007-10-18

    Stellar-mass black holes are found in X-ray-emitting binary systems, where their mass can be determined from the dynamics of their companion stars. Models of stellar evolution have difficulty producing black holes in close binaries with masses more than ten times that of the Sun (>10; ref. 4), which is consistent with the fact that the most massive stellar black holes known so far all have masses within one standard deviation of 10. Here we report a mass of (15.65 +/- 1.45) for the black hole in the recently discovered system M 33 X-7, which is located in the nearby galaxy Messier 33 (M 33) and is the only known black hole that is in an eclipsing binary. To produce such a massive black hole, the progenitor star must have retained much of its outer envelope until after helium fusion in the core was completed. On the other hand, in order for the black hole to be in its present 3.45-day orbit about its (70.0 +/- 6.9) companion, there must have been a 'common envelope' phase of evolution in which a significant amount of mass was lost from the system. We find that the common envelope phase could not have occurred in M 33 X-7 unless the amount of mass lost from the progenitor during its evolution was an order of magnitude less than what is usually assumed in evolutionary models of massive stars. PMID:17943124

  6. A 15.65-solar-mass black hole in an eclipsing binary in the nearby spiral galaxy M 33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orosz, Jerome A.; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Narayan, Ramesh; Bailyn, Charles D.; Hartman, Joel D.; Macri, Lucas; Liu, Jiefeng; Pietsch, Wolfgang; Remillard, Ronald A.; Shporer, Avi; Mazeh, Tsevi

    2007-10-01

    Stellar-mass black holes are found in X-ray-emitting binary systems, where their mass can be determined from the dynamics of their companion stars. Models of stellar evolution have difficulty producing black holes in close binaries with masses more than ten times that of the Sun (>10; ref. 4), which is consistent with the fact that the most massive stellar black holes known so far all have masses within one standard deviation of 10. Here we report a mass of (15.65+/-1.45) for the black hole in the recently discovered system M 33 X-7, which is located in the nearby galaxy Messier 33 (M 33) and is the only known black hole that is in an eclipsing binary. To produce such a massive black hole, the progenitor star must have retained much of its outer envelope until after helium fusion in the core was completed. On the other hand, in order for the black hole to be in its present 3.45-day orbit about its (70.0+/-6.9) companion, there must have been a `common envelope' phase of evolution in which a significant amount of mass was lost from the system. We find that the common envelope phase could not have occurred in M 33 X-7 unless the amount of mass lost from the progenitor during its evolution was an order of magnitude less than what is usually assumed in evolutionary models of massive stars.

  7. Building America Best Practices Series, Volume 6: High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Ruiz, Kathleen A.; Steward, Heidi E.; Love, Pat M.

    2007-06-04

    This guide is was written by PNNL for the US Department of Energy's Building America program to provide information for residential production builders interested in building near zero energy homes. The guide provides indepth descriptions of various roof-top photovoltaic power generating systems for homes. The guide also provides extensive information on various designs of solar thermal water heating systems for homes. The guide also provides construction company owners and managers with an understanding of how solar technologies can be added to their homes in a way that is cost effective, practical, and marketable. Twelve case studies provide examples of production builders across the United States who are building energy-efficient homes with photovoltaic or solar water heating systems.

  8. Inward Motions in the Outer Solar Corona Between 6 And 12 R : Evidence For Waves or Magnetic Reconnection Jets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velli, Marco; Tenerani, Anna; DeForest, Craig

    2016-05-01

    DeForest et al. (2014) used synoptic visible-light image sequences from the COR2 coronagraph on board the STEREO-A spacecraft to identify inbound wave motions in the outer corona beyond 6 solar radii and inferred, from the observation, that the Alfven surface separating the magnetically dominated corona from the ow dominated wind must be located at least 12 solar radii from the Sun over polar coronal holes and 15 solar radii in the streamer belt. Here we will discuss both this and previous observations of inflows further down and attempt identification of the observed inward signals. We will theoretically reconstruct height-speed diagrams and compare them to the observed profiles. Interpretation in terms of Alfven / magnetoacouatic modes or Alfvenic turbulence appears to be ruled out by the fact that the observed signal shows a deceleration of inward motion when approaching the Sun. Fast magnetoacoustic waves are not directly ruled out in this way, as it is possible for inward waves observed in quadrature, but not propagating exactly radially, to suffer total reflection as the Alfven speed rises close to the Sun. However, the reconstructed signal in the height speed diagram has the wrong concavity. A final possibility is decelerating reconnection jets, most probably from component reconnection, in the accelerating wind: the profile in this case appears to match the observations very well. This interpretation does not alter the conclusion that the Alfven surface must be at least 12 solar radii from the photosphere.

  9. Transient heat and mass transfer analysis in a porous ceria structure of a novel solar redox reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Chandran, RB; Bader, R; Lipinski, W

    2015-06-01

    Thermal transport processes are numerically analyzed for a porous ceria structure undergoing reduction in a novel redox reactor for solar thermochemical fuel production. The cylindrical reactor cavity is formed by an array of annular reactive elements comprising the porous ceria monolith integrated with gas inlet and outlet channels. Two configurations are considered, with the reactor cavity consisting of 10 and 20 reactive elements, respectively. Temperature dependent boundary heat fluxes are obtained on the irradiated cavity wall by solving for the surface radiative exchange using the net radiation method coupled to the heat and mass transfer model of the reactive element. Predicted oxygen production rates are in the range 40-60 mu mol s(-1) for the geometries considered. After an initial rise, the average temperature of the reactive element levels off at 1660 and 1680 K for the two geometries, respectively. For the chosen reduction reaction rate model, oxygen release continues after the temperature has leveled off which indicates that the oxygen release reaction is limited by chemical kinetics and/or mass transfer rather than by the heating rate. For a fixed total mass of ceria, the peak oxygen release rate is doubled for the cavity with 20 reactive elements due to lower local oxygen partial pressure. (C) 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 6.7GHz methanol masers survey of low-mass YSO (Minier+, 2003)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minier, V.; Ellingsen, S. P.; Norris, R. P.; Booth, R. S.

    2003-07-01

    We report the results of a search for 6.7-GHz methanol masers toward low-mass young stellar objects (YSOs) and (pre)protostellar condensations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). Our sample consisted of 13 class 0 protostars and 44 class I YSOs as well as 66 (pre)protostellar condensations. A single detection was obtained toward NGC 2024: FIR4 in the Orion B region. This is the first detection of a 6.7-GHz methanol maser in Orion. The nature of FIR4 has been a subject of debate with some evidence suggesting that it is a very cold high-mass (pre)protostellar condensation and others arguing that it is a low-mass YSO. The discovery of a methanol maser associated with this source is inconsistent with both of these hypotheses and we suggest that FIR4 probably harbours an intermediate- or high-mass YSO. (1 data file).

  11. 40 CFR Table F-6 to Subpart F of... - Estimated Mass Concentration Measurement of PM 2.5 for Idealized Fine Aerosol Size Distribution

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Estimated Mass Concentration... Equivalent Methods for PM 2.5 Pt. 53, Subpt. F, Table F-6 Table F-6 to Subpart F of Part 53—Estimated Mass... (µm) Test Sampler Fractional Sampling Effectiveness Interval Mass Concentration (µg/m3) Estimated...

  12. 40 CFR Table F-6 to Subpart F of... - Estimated Mass Concentration Measurement of PM 2.5 for Idealized Fine Aerosol Size Distribution

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Estimated Mass Concentration... Equivalent Methods for PM 2.5 Pt. 53, Subpt. F, Table F-6 Table F-6 to Subpart F of Part 53—Estimated Mass... (µm) Test Sampler Fractional Sampling Effectiveness Interval Mass Concentration (µg/m 3)...

  13. 40 CFR Table F-6 to Subpart F of... - Estimated Mass Concentration Measurement of PM2.5 for Idealized Fine Aerosol Size Distribution

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Estimated Mass Concentration... Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 Pt. 53, Subpt. F, Table F-6 Table F-6 to Subpart F of Part 53—Estimated Mass... (µm) Test Sampler Fractional Sampling Effectiveness Interval Mass Concentration (µg/m3) Estimated...

  14. THE MAGNETIC SYSTEMS TRIGGERING THE M6.6 CLASS SOLAR FLARE IN NOAA ACTIVE REGION 11158

    SciTech Connect

    Toriumi, Shin; Iida, Yusuke; Bamba, Yumi; Kusano, Kanya; Imada, Shinsuke; Inoue, Satoshi

    2013-08-20

    We report a detailed event analysis of the M6.6 class flare in the active region (AR) NOAA 11158 on 2011 February 13. AR 11158, which consisted of two major emerging bipoles, showed prominent activity including one X- and several M-class flares. In order to investigate the magnetic structures related to the M6.6 event, particularly the formation process of a flare-triggering magnetic region, we analyzed multiple spacecraft observations and numerical results of a flare simulation. We observed that, in the center of this quadrupolar AR, a highly sheared polarity inversion line (PIL) was formed through proper motions of the major magnetic elements, which built a sheared coronal arcade lying over the PIL. The observations lend support to the interpretation that the target flare was triggered by a localized magnetic region that had an intrusive structure, namely, a positive polarity penetrating into a negative counterpart. The geometrical relationship between the sheared coronal arcade and the triggering region is consistent with the theoretical flare model based on the previous numerical study. We found that the formation of the trigger region was due to the continuous accumulation of small-scale magnetic patches. A few hours before the flare occurred, the series of emerged/advected patches reconnected with a pre-existing field. Finally, the abrupt flare eruption of the M6.6 event started around 17:30 UT. Our analysis suggests that in the process of triggering flare activity, all magnetic systems on multiple scales are included, not only the entire AR evolution but also the fine magnetic elements.

  15. Coronal mass ejection speeds measured in the solar corona using LASCO C2 and C3 images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dal Lago, A.; Schwenn, R.; Stenborg, G.; Gonzalez, W.

    In this work we present height-time diagrams of 3 halo coronal mass ejections, observed on July 25th,1999, September 28th,1997, and June 29th,1999. The CMEs were observed by the Large Angle and Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO) which is an instrument on board of the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO observing the solar corona from 2 to 32 solar radii. To obtain these diagrams we divide the LASCO images of a given sequence in angular slices, transform them into rectangular slices (their width chosen proportional to the time distance to the next image) and place them side by side. Thus, the speed profile of any pattern moving in the particular latitudinal slice can be derived. With this method we were able to identify even minor speed changes in several angular positions for the chosen events. This technique is particularly appropriate to identify acceleration or deceleration of structures in halo CMEs. This information may be used to improve predictions of CME travel times to earth. From the analysis of these 3 events we conclude that: (a) the CME observed on September 28th,1997, started very slowly, with initial speeds ranging from 107 to 178 km/s, and accelerated in the C2 field of view reaching final constant speeds of 352 to 400 km/s in the C3 field of view; (b) the CMEs observed on July 25th,1999, and June 29th,1999 started with initial speeds from 310 to 650 km/s and 435 to 650 km/s, respectively. They decelerated smoothly in the C3 field of view and reached a variety of speeds ranging from 150 to 330 km/s, depending on the direction around the sun.

  16. The evolution of rotating stars. I - Method and exploratory calculations for a 7-solar-mass star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Endal, A. S.; Sofia, S.

    1976-01-01

    A method is developed which allows the evolution of rotating stars to be studied well beyond the main-sequence stage. Four different cases of redistribution of angular momentum in an evolving star are considered. Evolutionary sequences for a 7-solar-mass star, rotating according to these different cases, were computed from the zero-age main-sequence to the double-shell-source stage. Each sequence was begun with a (typical) equatorial rotational velocity of 210 km/s. On the main sequence, the effects of rotation are of minor importance. However, as the core contracts during later stages, important effects arise in all physically plausible cases. The outer regions of the cores approach critical velocities and develop unstable angular-velocity distributions. The effects of these instabilities should significantly alter the subsequent evolution.

  17. The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. XXVIII. Up to seven planets orbiting HD 10180: probing the architecture of low-mass planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovis, C.; Ségransan, D.; Mayor, M.; Udry, S.; Benz, W.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Bouchy, F.; Correia, A. C. M.; Laskar, J.; Lo Curto, G.; Mordasini, C.; Pepe, F.; Queloz, D.; Santos, N. C.

    2011-04-01

    Context. Low-mass extrasolar planets are presently being discovered at an increased pace by radial velocity and transit surveys, which opens a new window on planetary systems. Aims: We are conducting a high-precision radial velocity survey with the HARPS spectrograph, which aims at characterizing the population of ice giants and super-Earths around nearby solar-type stars. This will lead to a better understanding of their formation and evolution, and will yield a global picture of planetary systems from gas giants down to telluric planets. Methods: Progress has been possible in this field thanks in particular to the sub-m s-1 radial velocity precision achieved by HARPS. We present here new high-quality measurements from this instrument. Results: We report the discovery of a planetary system comprising at least five Neptune-like planets with minimum masses ranging from 12 to 25 M⊕, orbiting the solar-type star HD 10180 at separations between 0.06 and 1.4 AU. A sixth radial velocity signal is present at a longer period, probably caused by a 65-M⊕ object. Moreover, another body with a minimum mass as low as 1.4 M⊕ may be present at 0.02 AU from the star. This is the most populated exoplanetary system known to date. The planets are in a dense but still well separated configuration, with significant secular interactions. Some of the orbital period ratios are fairly close to integer or half-integer values, but the system does not exhibit any mean-motion resonances. General relativity effects and tidal dissipation play an important role to stabilize the innermost planet and the system as a whole. Numerical integrations show long-term dynamical stability provided true masses are within a factor ~3 from minimum masses. We further note that several low-mass planetary systems exhibit a rather "packed" orbital architecture with little or no space left for additional planets. In several cases, semi-major axes are fairly regularly spaced on a logarithmic scale, giving rise

  18. Solar and terrestrial physics. [effects of solar activities on earth environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The effects of solar radiation on the near space and biomental earth, the upper atmosphere, and the magnetosphere are discussed. Data obtained from the OSO satellites pertaining to the solar cycle variation of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation are analyzed. The effects of solar cycle variation of the characteristics of the solar wind are examined. The fluid mechanics of shock waves and the specific relationship to the characteristics of solar shock waves are investigated. The solar and corpuscular heating of the upper atmosphere is reported based on the findings of the AEROS and NATE experiments. Seasonal variations of the upper atmosphere composition are plotted based on OGO-6 mass spectrometer data.

  19. An estimate of the coronal magnetic field near a solar coronal mass ejection from low-frequency radio observations

    SciTech Connect

    Hariharan, K.; Ramesh, R.; Kishore, P.; Kathiravan, C.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2014-11-01

    We report ground-based, low-frequency (<100 MHz) radio imaging, spectral, and polarimeter observations of the type II radio burst associated with the solar coronal mass ejection (CME) that occurred on 2013 May 2. The spectral observations indicate that the burst has fundamental (F) and harmonic (H) emission components with split-band and herringbone structures. The imaging observations at 80 MHz indicate that the H component of the burst was located close to leading edge of the CME at a radial distance of r ≈ 2 R {sub ☉} in the solar atmosphere. The polarimeter observations of the type II burst, also at 80 MHz, indicate that the peak degree of circular polarization (dcp) corresponding to the emission generated in the corona ahead of and behind the associated MHD shock front are ≈0.05 ± 0.02 and ≈0.1 ± 0.01, respectively. We calculated the magnetic field B in the above two coronal regions by adopting the empirical relationship between the dcp and B for the harmonic plasma emission and the values are ≈(0.7-1.4) ± 0.2 G and ≈(1.4-2.8) ± 0.1 G, respectively.

  20. HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION RADIO OBSERVATIONS OF A CORONAL MASS EJECTION SOURCE REGION AT LOW FREQUENCIES DURING A SOLAR ECLIPSE

    SciTech Connect

    Ramesh, R.; Kathiravan, C.; Barve, Indrajit V.; Rajalingam, M. E-mail: kathir@iiap.res.in E-mail: rajalingam@iiap.res.in

    2012-01-10

    We carried out radio observations of the solar corona in the frequency range 109-50 MHz during the annular eclipse of 2010 January 15 from the Gauribidanur Observatory, located about 100 km north of Bangalore in India. The radio emission in the above frequency range originates typically in the radial distance range Almost-Equal-To 1.2-1.5 R{sub Sun} in the 'undisturbed' solar atmosphere. Our analysis indicates that (1) the angular size of the smallest observable radio source (associated with a coronal mass ejection in the present case) is Almost-Equal-To 1' {+-} 0.'3, (2) the source size does not vary with radial distance, (3) the peak brightness temperature of the source corresponding to the above size at a typical frequency like 77 MHz is Almost-Equal-To 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} K, and (4) the coronal magnetic field near the source region is Almost-Equal-To 70 mG.

  1. Direct evidence of an eruptive, filament-hosting magnetic flux rope leading to a fast solar coronal mass ejection

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Bin; Gary, D. E.; Bastian, T. S.

    2014-10-20

    Magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) are believed to be at the heart of solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs). A well-known example is the prominence cavity in the low corona that sometimes makes up a three-part white-light (WL) CME upon its eruption. Such a system, which is usually observed in quiet-Sun regions, has long been suggested to be the manifestation of an MFR with relatively cool filament material collecting near its bottom. However, observational evidence of eruptive, filament-hosting MFR systems has been elusive for those originating in active regions. By utilizing multi-passband extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) observations from Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly, we present direct evidence of an eruptive MFR in the low corona that exhibits a hot envelope and a cooler core; the latter is likely the upper part of a filament that undergoes a partial eruption, which is later observed in the upper corona as the coiled kernel of a fast, WL CME. This MFR-like structure exists more than 1 hr prior to its eruption, and displays successive stages of dynamical evolution, in which both ideal and non-ideal physical processes may be involved. The timing of the MFR kinematics is found to be well correlated with the energy release of the associated long-duration C1.9 flare. We suggest that the long-duration flare is the result of prolonged energy release associated with the vertical current sheet induced by the erupting MFR.

  2. Open and disconnected magnetic field lines within coronal mass ejections in the solar wind: Evidence for 3-dimensional reconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosling, J. T.; Birn, J.; McComas, D. J.; Phillips, J. L.; Hesse, M.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements of suprathermal electron fluxes in the solar wind at energies greater than approximatley 80 eV indicate that magnetic field lines within coronal mass ejections. CMEs, near and beyond 1 AU are normally connected to the Sun at both ends. However, a preliminary reexamination of events previously identified as CMEs in the ISEE 3 data reveals that about 1/4 of all such events contain limited regions where field lines appear to be either connected to the Sun at only one end or connected to the outer heliosphere at both ends. Similar intervals of open and disconnected field lines within CMEs have been identified in the Ulysses observations. We believe that these anomalous field topologies within CMEs are most naturally interpreted in terms of 3-dimensional reconnection behind CMEs close to the Sun. Such reconnection also provides a natural explanation both for the flux rope topology of many CMEs as well as the coronal loops formed during long-duration solar soft X ray events. Although detailed numerical simulations of 3-dimensional reconnection behind CMEs are not yet available, such simulations have been done for the qualitatively similar geometry that prevails within the geomagnetic tail. Those simulations of plasmoid formation in the geomagnetic tail do produce the mixture of field topologies within plasmoids discussed here for CMEs.

  3. A HIGH-FREQUENCY TYPE II SOLAR RADIO BURST ASSOCIATED WITH THE 2011 FEBRUARY 13 CORONAL MASS EJECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, K.-S.; Kim, R.-S.; Gopalswamy, N.; Kwon, R.-Y.; Yashiro, S.

    2013-03-10

    We examine the relationship between the high-frequency (425 MHz) type II radio burst and the associated white-light coronal mass ejection (CME) that occurred on 2011 February 13. The radio burst had a drift rate of 2.5 MHz s{sup -1}, indicating a relatively high shock speed. From SDO/AIA observations we find that a loop-like erupting front sweeps across high-density coronal loops near the start time of the burst (17:34:17 UT). The deduced distance of shock formation (0.06 Rs) from the flare center and speed of the shock (1100 km s{sup -1}) using the measured density from SDO/AIA observations are comparable to the height (0.05 Rs, from the solar surface) and speed (700 km s{sup -1}) of the CME leading edge observed by STEREO/EUVI. We conclude that the type II burst originates even in the low corona (<59 Mm or 0.08 Rs, above the solar surface) due to the fast CME shock passing through high-density loops.

  4. Combined Multipoint Remote and in situ Observations of the Asymmetric Evolution of a Fast Solar Coronal Mass Ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollett, T.; Möstl, C.; Temmer, M.; Frahm, R. A.; Davies, J. A.; Veronig, A. M.; Vršnak, B.; Amerstorfer, U. V.; Farrugia, C. J.; Žic, T.; Zhang, T. L.

    2014-07-01

    We present an analysis of the fast coronal mass ejection (CME) of 2012 March 7, which was imaged by both STEREO spacecraft and observed in situ by MESSENGER, Venus Express, Wind, and Mars Express. Based on detected arrivals at four different positions in interplanetary space, it was possible to strongly constrain the kinematics and the shape of the ejection. Using the white-light heliospheric imagery from STEREO-A and B, we derived two different kinematical profiles for the CME by applying the novel constrained self-similar expansion method. In addition, we used a drag-based model to investigate the influence of the ambient solar wind on the CME's propagation. We found that two preceding CMEs heading in different directions disturbed the overall shape of the CME and influenced its propagation behavior. While the Venus-directed segment underwent a gradual deceleration (from ~2700 km s-1 at 15 R ⊙ to ~1500 km s-1 at 154 R ⊙), the Earth-directed part showed an abrupt retardation below 35 R ⊙ (from ~1700 to ~900 km s-1). After that, it was propagating with a quasi-constant speed in the wake of a preceding event. Our results highlight the importance of studies concerning the unequal evolution of CMEs. Forecasting can only be improved if conditions in the solar wind are properly taken into account and if attention is also paid to large events preceding the one being studied.

  5. The Relation between Coronal Holes and Coronal Mass Ejections during the Rise, Maximum, and Declining Phases of Solar Cycle 23

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohamed, A. A.; Gopalswamy, N; Yashiro, S.; Akiyama, S.; Makela, P.; Xie, H.; Jung, H.

    2012-01-01

    We study the interaction between coronal holes (CHs) and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) using a resultant force exerted by all the coronal holes present on the disk and is defined as the coronal hole influence parameter (CHIP). The CHIP magnitude for each CH depends on the CH area, the distance between the CH centroid and the eruption region, and the average magnetic field within the CH at the photospheric level. The CHIP direction for each CH points from the CH centroid to the eruption region. We focus on Solar Cycle 23 CMEs originating from the disk center of the Sun (central meridian distance =15deg) and resulting in magnetic clouds (MCs) and non-MCs in the solar wind. The CHIP is found to be the smallest during the rise phase for MCs and non-MCs. The maximum phase has the largest CHIP value (2.9 G) for non-MCs. The CHIP is the largest (5.8 G) for driverless (DL) shocks, which are shocks at 1 AU with no discernible MC or non-MC. These results suggest that the behavior of non-MCs is similar to that of the DL shocks and different from that of MCs. In other words, the CHs may deflect the CMEs away from the Sun-Earth line and force them to behave like limb CMEs with DL shocks. This finding supports the idea that all CMEs may be flux ropes if viewed from an appropriate vantage point.

  6. First-principles prediction of solar radiation shielding performance for transparent windows of GdB6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Lihua; Su, Yuchang; Ran, Jingyu; Liu, Yike; Qiu, Wei; Wu, Jianming; Lu, Fanghai; Shao, Fang; Tang, Dongsheng; Peng, Ping

    2016-04-01

    The structural, electronic, magnetic, and optical properties of GdB6 are studied using the first-principles calculations. Calculated values for magnetic and optical properties and lattice constant are found to be consistent with previously reported experimental results. The calculated results show that GdB6 is a perfect near-infrared absorption/reflectance material that could serve as a solar radiation shielding material for windows with high visible light transmittance, similar to LaB6, which is assigned to its plasma oscillation and a collective oscillation (volume plasmon) of carrier electrons. It was found that the magnetic 4f electrons of Gd are not relevant to the important optical properties of GdB6. These theoretical studies serve as a reference for future studies.

  7. Investigation of TiO2 Surface Modification with [6,6]-Phenyl-C61-butyric Acid for Titania/Polymer Hybrid Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Teng; Zhang, Jinyu; Kojima, Ryota; Tadaki, Daisuke; Kimura, Yasuo; Niwano, Michio

    2013-11-01

    We have investigated modification of TiO2 surfaces with [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid (PCBA) used for fabrication of TiO2/poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) hybrid solar cells. The surface modification process was monitored using in-situ infrared absorption spectroscopy in the multiple-internal reflection geometry (MIR-IRAS). IR data showed that longer exposure of TiO2 surfaces to an organic solution of PCBA leads to undesirable formation of a physisorbed PCBA overlayer that cannot be removed by rinsing the surface in pure solvent. We found that ultrasonic cleaning of the TiO2 surface removed most of the physisorbed PCBA molecules. Modification of TiO2 surfaces with PCBA molecules drastically increased the short circuit current of TiO2/P3HT-based hybrid solar cells, which is ascribed to improved charge separation efficiency at the TiO2/P3HT interface. The physisorbed PCBA molecules decreased the open circuit voltage and the fill factor. We demonstrated that the power conversion efficiency is improved by ultrasonic cleaning following PCBA deposition.

  8. Changes of the first Schumann resonance frequency during relativistic solar proton precipitation in the 6 November 1997 event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roldugin, V. C.; Maltsev, Ye. P.; Vasiljev, A. N.; Vashenyuk, E. V.

    1999-10-01

    The variations of the first mode of Schumann resonance are analyzed using data from Kola peninsula stations during the solar proton event of 6 November 1997. On this day the intensive flux of energetic protons on GOES-8 and the 10% increase of the count rate of the neutron monitor in Apatity between 1220 and 2000 UT were preceded by a solar X-ray burst at 1155 UT. This burst was accompanied by a simultaneous increase of the Schumann frequency by 3.5%, and the relativistic proton flux increase was accompanied by 1% frequency decrease. These effects are explained by changes of the height and dielectric permeability of the Earth-ionosphere cavity.

  9. Comparing Spatial Distributions of Solar Prominence Mass Derived from Coronal Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Holly; Kilper, Gary; Alexander, David; Kucera, Therese

    2010-01-01

    In the present work we extend the use of this mass-inference technique to a sample of prominences observed in at least two coronal lines. This approach, in theory, allows a direct calculation of prominence mass and helium abundance and how these properties vary spatially and temporally. Our motivation is two-fold: to obtain a He(exp 0)/H(exp 0) abundance ratio, and to determine how the relative spatial distribution of the two species varies in prominences. The first of these relies on the theoretical expectation that the amount of absorption at each EUV wavelength is well-characterized. However, in this work we show that due to a saturation of the continuum absorption in the 625 A and 368 A lines (which have much higher opacity compared to 195 A-) the uncertainties in obtaining the relative abundances are too high to give meaningful estimates. This is an important finding because of its impact on future studies in this area. The comparison of the spatial distribution of helium and hydrogen presented here augments previous observational work indicating that cross-field diffusion of neutrals is an important mechanism for mass loss. Significantly different loss timescales for neutral He and H (helium drains much more rapidly than hydrogen) can impact prominence structure, and both the present and past studies suggest this mechanism is playing a role in structure and possibly dynamics. Section 2 of this paper contains a description of the observations and Section 3 summarizes the method used to infer mass along with the criteria imposed in choosing prominences appropriate for this study. Section 3 also contains a discussion of the problems due to limitations of the available data and the implications for determining relative abundances. We present our results in Section 4, including plots of radial-like scans of prominence mass in different lines to show the spatial distribution of the different species. The last section contains a discussion summarizing the importance

  10. The Orbitrap mass analyzer as a space instrument for the understanding of prebiotic chemistry in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuitton, Véronique; Briois, Christelle; Makarov, Alexander

    Over the past decade, it has become apparent that organic molecules are widespread in our Solar System and beyond. The better understand of the prebiotic chemistry leading to their formation is a primary objective of many ongoing space missions. Cassini-Huygens revealed the existence of very large molecular structures in Titan's atmosphere as well as on its surface, in the form of dune deposits, but their exact nature remains elusive. One key science goal of the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover is to assess the presence of organics on the red planet. Rosetta will characterize the elemental and isotopic composition of the gas and dust ejected from comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko, while amino acids have been detected in meteorites. This search for complex organics relies heavily on mass spectrometry, which has the remarkable ability to analyze and quantify species from almost any type of sample (provided that the appropriate sampling and ionizing method is used). Because of the harsh constraints of the spatial environment, the mass resolution of the spectrometers onboard current space probes is quite limited compared to laboratory instruments, leading to significant limitations in the scientific return of the data collected. Therefore, future in situ solar system exploration missions would significantly benefit from instruments relying on High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS). Since 2009, 5 French laboratories (LPC2E, IPAG, LATMOS, LISA, CSNSM) involved in the chemical investigation of solar system bodies form a Consortium to develop HRMS for future space exploration, based on the use of the Orbitrap technology (C. Briois et al., 2014, to be submitted). The work is undertaken in close collaboration with the Thermo Fisher Scientific Company, which commercializes Orbitrap based laboratory instruments. The Orbitrap is an electrostatic mass analyzer, it is compact, lightweight, and can reach a good sensitivity and dynamic range. A prototype is under development at

  11. Proton intensity spectra during the solar energetic particle events of May 17, 2012 and January 6, 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühl, P.; Banjac, S.; Dresing, N.; Goméz-Herrero, R.; Heber, B.; Klassen, A.; Terasa, C.

    2015-04-01

    Context. Ground-level enhancements (GLEs) are solar energetic particle events that show a significant intensity increase at energies that can be measured by neutron monitors. The most recent GLE-like events were recorded on May 17, 2012 and January 6, 2014. They were also measured by sophisticated instrumentation in space such as PAMELA and the Electron Proton Helium INstrument (EPHIN) onboard SOHO. Since neutron monitors are only sensitive to protons above 400 MeV with maximum sensitivity at 1 to 2 GeV, the spectra of such weak GLE-like events (January 6, 2014) can only be measured by space instrumentation. Aims: We show that the SOHO/EPHIN is capable of measuring the solar energetic particle proton event spectra between 100 MeV and above 800 MeV. Methods: We performed a GEANT Monte Carlo simulation to determine the energy response function of EPHIN. Based on this calculation, we derived the corresponding proton energy spectra. The method was successfully validated against previous PAMELA measurements. Results: We present event spectra from EPHIN for May 17, 2012 and January 6, 2014. During the event in May 2012, protons were accelerated to energies above 700 MeV, while we found no significant increase for protons above 600 MeV during the event on January 6, 2014.

  12. SWAP-SECCHI OBSERVATIONS OF A MASS-LOADING TYPE SOLAR ERUPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Seaton, Daniel B.; Mierla, Marilena; Berghmans, David; Zhukov, Andrei N.; Dolla, Laurent

    2011-01-20

    We present a three-dimensional reconstruction of an eruption that occurred on 2010 April 3 using observations from SWAP on board PROBA2 and SECCHI on board STEREO. The event unfolded in two parts: an initial flow of cooler material confined to a height low in the corona, followed by a flux rope eruption higher in the corona. We conclude that mass off-loading from the first part triggered a rise and, subsequently, catastrophic loss of equilibrium of the flux rope.

  13. SWAP-SECCHI Observations of a Mass-loading Type Solar Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaton, Daniel B.; Mierla, Marilena; Berghmans, David; Zhukov, Andrei N.; Dolla, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional reconstruction of an eruption that occurred on 2010 April 3 using observations from SWAP on board PROBA2 and SECCHI on board STEREO. The event unfolded in two parts: an initial flow of cooler material confined to a height low in the corona, followed by a flux rope eruption higher in the corona. We conclude that mass off-loading from the first part triggered a rise and, subsequently, catastrophic loss of equilibrium of the flux rope.

  14. SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 6. Science Applications, Incorporated system analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the systems analysis task for the conceptual design of a commercial size, solar powered, controlled environment agriculture system. The baseline greenhouse system consists of a 5-hectare growing facility utilizing an innovative fluid roof filter concept to provide temperature and humidity control. Fresh water for the system is produced by means of a reverse osmosis desalination unit and energy is provided by means of a solar photovoltaic array in conjunction with storage batteries and a power conditioning unit. The greenhouse environment is controlled via circulation of brackish groundwater in a closed system, which permits water recovery during dehumidification as well as CO/sub 2/ enrichment for increased crop productivity.

  15. Verification of the sputter-generated 32SFn- (n = 1-6) anions by accelerator mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mane, R. G.; Surendran, P.; Kumar, Sanjay; Nair, J. P.; Yadav, M. L.; Hemalatha, M.; Thomas, R. G.; Mahata, K.; Kailas, S.; Gupta, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we have performed systematic Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) measurements at our ion source test set up and have demonstrated that gas phase 32SFn- (n = 1-6) anions for all size 'n' can be readily generated from a variety of surfaces undergoing Cs+ ion sputtering in the presence of high purity SF6 gas by employing the gas spray-cesium sputter technique. In our SIMS measurements, the isotopic yield ratio 34SFn-/32SFn- (n = 1-6) was found to be close to its natural abundance but not for all size 'n'. In order to gain further insight into the constituents of these molecular anions, ultra sensitive Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) measurements were conducted with the most abundant 32SFn- (n = 1-6) anions, at BARC-TIFR 14 UD Pelletron accelerator. The results from these measurements are discussed in this paper.

  16. New HDAC6-mediated deacetylation sites of tubulin in the mouse brain identified by quantitative mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ningning; Xiong, Yun; Li, Shanshan; Ren, Yiran; He, Qianqian; Gao, Siqi; Zhou, Jun; Shui, Wenqing

    2015-01-01

    The post-translational modifications (PTMs) occurring on microtubules have been implicated in the regulation of microtubule properties and functions. Acetylated K40 of α-tubulin, a hallmark of long-lived stable microtubules, is known to be negatively controlled by histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6). However, the vital roles of HDAC6 in microtubule-related processes such as cell motility and cell division cannot be fully explained by the only known target site on tubulin. Here, we attempt to comprehensively map lysine acetylation sites on tubulin purified from mouse brain tissues. Furthermore, mass spectrometry-based quantitative comparison of acetylated peptides from wild-type vs HDAC6 knockout mice allowed us to identify six new deacetylation sites possibly mediated by HDAC6. Thus, adding new sites to the repertoire of HDAC6-mediated tubulin deacetylation events would further our understanding of the multi-faceted roles of HDAC6 in regulating microtubule stability and cellular functions. PMID:26581825

  17. Radio range measurements of coronal electron densities at 13 and 3.6 centimeter wavelengths during the 1988 solar conjunction of Voyager 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krisher, T. P.; Anderson, J. D.; Morabito, D. D.; Asmar, S. W.; Borutzki, S. E.; Delitsky, M. L.; Densmore, A. C.; Eshe, P. M.; Lewis, G. D.; Maurer, M. J.; Roth, D. C.; Son, Y. H.; Spilker, T. R.; Sweetnam, D. N.; Taylor, A. H.; Tyler, G. L.; Gresh, D. L.; Rosen, P. A.

    1991-07-01

    Radio range measurements of total solar plasma delay obtained during the solar conjunction of the Voyager 2 spacecraft in December 1988, which occurred near solar maximum activity in the 11 yr cycle are reported. The radio range measurements were generated by the Deep Space Network at two wavelengths on the downlink from the spacecraft: 3.6 and 13 cm. A direct measurement of the integrated electron density along the ray path between the earth stations and the spacecraft was obtained by differencing the range at the two wavelengths. Coronal electron density profiles have been derived during ingress and egress of the ray path, which approached the sun to within 5 solar radii. At 10 solar radii, the derived density profiles yield 34079 + or - 611/cu cm on ingress and 49688 + or - 983/cu cm on egress. These density levels are significantly higher than observed near previous solar maxima.

  18. Formation of Super-Earth Mass Planets at 125-250 AU from a Solar-type Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenyon, Scott J.; Bromley, Benjamin C.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate pathways for the formation of icy super-Earth mass planets orbiting at 125-250 AU around a 1 {{M}⊙ } star. An extensive suite of coagulation calculations demonstrates that swarms of 1 cm-10 m planetesimals can form super-Earth mass planets on timescales of 1-3 Gyr. Collisional damping of 10-2-102 cm particles during oligarchic growth is a highlight of these simulations. In some situations, damping initiates a second runaway growth phase where 1000-3000 km protoplanets grow to super-Earth sizes. Our results establish the initial conditions and physical processes required for in situ formation of super-Earth planets at large distances from the host star. For nearby dusty disks in HD 107146, HD 202628, and HD 207129, ongoing super-Earth formation at 80-150 AU could produce gaps and other structures in the debris. In the solar system, forming a putative planet X at a≲ 300 AU (a≳ 1000 AU) requires a modest (very massive) protosolar nebula.

  19. Consciousness Can Change the Output Signals of a Solar Cell and the Photoelectric Conversion Equation of Slow Mass Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Dayong

    2009-03-01

    The experiment's results show that human consciousness can change output signals such as Voc (open-circuit voltage) and Isc (short circuit current) of a solar cell placed some distance from a participant. For the first time, a consciousness signal is able to be recorded through the experiment conducted in Oct 2002. The order and rhythm of the changing wave pattern of Voc is related to the action of consciousness. The order and rhythm of slow brain signal of ERP and EEG are related to the cognized objects. Consciousness is independent and self-determined while brain signal is passive and driven. Consciousness is spiritual and Intelligence while brain signal is physical, corporality and mechanic. So consciousness is different from the brain signal. And consciousness effection is different from physical effection of light. Because consciousness can choose the object which it acts on. The light have a pairt of mass wave of low frequency and energy wave of high frequency. In photoelectric conversion process, We only use the energy wave to get the η (photoelectric transformation efficiency) which is little. If being used a pairt of wave, we will get a larger η. The photoelectric conversion equation of slow mass wave are being put forward.

  20. Ultramassive (about 10 to the 11th solar mass) dark core in the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 6240?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland-Hawthorn, Jonathan; Wilson, Andrew S.; Tully, R. Brent

    1991-01-01

    The first complete kinematic maps for the superluminous IR galaxy NGC 6240 are reported. The data reveal two dynamical disks that exhibit radically different rotation and are closely spaced in velocity and position. One disk is roughly aligned with the major axis of the near-IR continuum and exhibits flat rotation out to about 20 arsec in radius, centered on the doubled nucleus seen at optical, near-IR, and radio wavelengths. The rotation turns over at r(t1) roughly 7.2 arcsec with a peak-to-peak velocity amplitude of roughly 280/sin i1 km/s, where i1 is the disk inclination. The rotation curve of the second disk comprises an unresolved or marginally resolved central velocity gradient with a peak-to-peak amplitude of roughly 800/sin i2 km/s within r(t2) of 2.5 arcsec, and a faster than Keplerian dropoff outside r(t2). The peak rotation implies a compact mass M2 greater than 4.5 x 10 to the 10th solar mass/sin-squared i2 within a radius of 1.2 kpc.

  1. Onset of the Magnetic Explosion in Solar Flares and Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. L.; Sterling, A. C.; Hudson, H.; Lemen, J. R.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We present observations of the magnetic field configuration and its transformation in six solar eruptive events that show good agreement with the Hirayama-Shibata model for eruptive flares. The observations arc X-ray images from the Yohkoh Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) and magnetograms from Kitt Peak National Solar Observatory, interpreted together with the 1-8 Angstrom X-ray flux observed by GOES. The observations show: 1. Each event is a magnetic explosion that occurs in an initially closed magnetic bipole in which the core field is sheared and twisted in the shape of a sigmoid, having an oppositely curved elbow on each end. The arms of the opposite elbows are sheared past each other so that they overlap and are crossed low above the neutral line in the middle of the bipole. 2. Although four of the explosions arc ejective (blow open the bipole) and two are confined (arc arrested within the closed bipole), all six begin the same way. In the SXT iniages, the explosion begins with brightening and expansion of the two elbows together with the appearance of short bright sheared loops low over the neutral line under the crossed arms and, rising up from the crossed arms, long strands connecting the far ends of the elbows. 3. All six events arc single-bipole events in that during the onset and early development of the explosion they show no evidence for reconnection between the exploding bipole and any surrounding magnetic fields. We conclude that in each of our events the magnetic explosion was unleashed by runaway tether-cutting via implosive/explosive rcconnection in the middle of the sigmoid, as in the Hirayama-Shibata model. The similarity of the onsets of the two confined explosions to the onsets of the four ejective explosions and their agreement with the model indicate that runaway reconnection inside a sheared core field can begin whether or not the overlying fields (the envelope field and contiguous fields that press down on the envelope) allow the explosion to be

  2. Analysis of the 3d(sup 6)4s((sup 6)D)4f-5g supermultiplet of Fe I in laboratory and solar infrared spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johansson, S.; Nave, G.; Geller, M.; Sauval, A. J.; Grevesse, N.; Schoenfeld, W. G.; Change, E. S.; Farmer, C. B.

    1994-01-01

    The combined laboratory and solar analysis of the highly excited subconfigurations 3d(sup 6)4s((sup 6)D)4f and 3d(sup 6)4s((sup 6)D)5g of Fe I has allowed us to classify 87 lines of the 4f-5g supermultiplet in the spectral region 2545-2585 per cm. The level structure of these JK-coupled configurations is predicted by semiempirical calculations and the quardrupolic approximation. Semiempirical gf-values have been calculated and are compared to gf-values derived from the solar spectrum. The solar analysis has shown that these lines, which should be much less sensitive than lower excitation lines to departures from Local Thermal Equilibrium (LTE) and to temperature uncertanties, lead to a solar abundance of iron which is consistent with the meteoritic value (A(sub Fe) = 7.51).

  3. Trial of the Sodium detection in the Lunar / Venusian atmosphere: Solar Eclipse (May 21) / Venus Transit (June 6)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasaba, Y.; Sakanoi, T.; Ueno, S.; Suzuki, T.; Kagitani, M.; Okano, S.; Yamazaki, A.; Yoshikawa, I.; Kanao, M.

    2012-12-01

    We tried the detection of sodium in the Lunar and Venusian atmosphere by the absorption of Na DI (5895.92 A) during their transit on the solar surface occurred in 2012. Both observations were done by the 60cm Dome-less Solar Telescope (DST) of Kyoto University Hida Observatory. Lunar transit, i.e., the solar eclipse, occurred in 6:19-8:59 JST (93.3% eclipse at Hida) on 21 May 2012. It was find weather but at lower elevation angle, 18-50 deg. Venusian transit occurred 7:09-13:49 JST on June 6 2012. The elevation was enough, 29-76-60 deg, but the weather was not stabled. Venusian transit was also observed at Mt. Haleakala, by the Univ. Hawaii 50cm Solar telescope SOLAR-C. [The EUV observation by HINODE was also performed.] Both Hida observations were performed by the same settings. This telescope succeeded to detect Herman sodium atmosphere (Doppler shift: ~5 km/s, absorption: ~6%, column density: 6x10^10 /cm2) in the Herman transit on Nov. 9, 2006 [Yoshikawa et al., 2007]. This telescope has two spectrographs. In both observations, we used the Vertical Spectrograph with the wavelength resolution of 840,000 (7 mA) to obtain a long slit spectrum (slit width: 0.32 arcsec). We attached the Tohoku University CCD detector (Andor, 512x512 pixel), which achieved the field length of 52.5 arcsec (1 pixel: 0.1 arcsec) and the wavelength range of 1.58A (1 pixel: 3 mA). The lunar observation was executed not only for the rehearsal of the Venus observation but also aiming the first detection of low temperature sodium atmosphere nearby the surface. Na DI/DII emission lines have been observed by ground-based telescopes (incl. Tohoku Univ. 40cm telescope at Haleakala) and the Lunar orbiter Kaguya [Kagitani et al., 2010]. However, the distribution below the altitude of 10 km (corresponding to 5 arcsec in our observation) is hard to detect by the contamination of strong scattered light. We observed four points, dawn-side N20deg (mere), dawn-side S20deg (mountain), dusk-side N20deg

  4. Chemical Composition of Intermediate-mass Star Members of the M6 (NGC 6405) Open Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kılıçoğlu, T.; Monier, R.; Richer, J.; Fossati, L.; Albayrak, B.

    2016-03-01

    We present here the first abundance analysis of 44 late B-, A-, and F-type members of the young open cluster M6 (NGC 6405, age about 75 Myr). Low- and medium-resolution spectra, covering the 4500-5840 Å wavelength range, were obtained using the FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectrograph attached to the ESO Very Large Telescopes. We determined the atmospheric parameters using calibrations of the Geneva photometry and by adjusting the Hβ profiles to synthetic ones. The abundances of up to 20 chemical elements, from helium to mercury, were derived for 19 late B, 16 A, and 9 F stars by iteratively adjusting synthetic spectra to the observations. We also derived a mean cluster metallicity of [Fe/H] = 0.07 ± 0.03 dex from the iron abundances of the F-type stars. We find that for most chemical elements, the normal late B- and A-type stars exhibit larger star-to-star abundance variations than the F-type stars probably because of the faster rotation of the B and A stars. The abundances of C, O, Mg, Si, and Sc appear to be anticorrelated with that of Fe, while the opposite holds for the abundances of Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Y, and Ba as expected if radiative diffusion is efficient in the envelopes of these stars. In the course of this analysis, we discovered five new peculiar stars: one mild Am, one Am, and one Fm star (HD 318091, CD-32 13109, GSC 07380-01211, CP1), one HgMn star (HD 318126, CP3), and one He-weak P-rich (HD 318101, CP4) star. We also discovered a new spectroscopic binary, most likely a SB2. We performed a detailed modeling of HD 318101, the new He-weak P-rich CP star, using the Montréal stellar evolution code XEVOL which self-consistently treats all particle transport processes. Although the overall abundance pattern of this star is properly reproduced, we find that detailed abundances (in particular the high P excess) resisted modeling attempts even when a range of turbulence profiles and mass-loss rates were considered. Solutions are proposed which are still under

  5. Mass Conservation in a Chemical Transport Model and its Effect on CO2 and SF6 Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Z.; Weaver, C.; Kawa, S. R.; Douglass, A. R.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Chemical transport models (CTMs) must conserve mass to be useful for applications involving assessment of the effect of various pollutants on the troposphere and stratosphere. Furthermore, calculations of the evolution of constituents such as SF6 are used to evaluate overall model transport, and interpretation of such simulations is clouded if mass conservation is not assured. For realistic simulations or predictions, it is crucial that constituents are not produced or lost by transport or other processes in the CTMs. Analysis of CO2 and SF6 experiments using a CTM shows that problems with mass conservation can seriously degrade the simulations. Failure to conserve mass results from inconsistency of the surface pressure tendency and the divergence of horizontal mass flux when the model is forced by assimilated meteorological data. We have developed an effective method to eliminate the inconsistency by modifying the divergent part of the wind field. The changes in the wind fields are quite small but the impact on mass conservation is large. Parameterizations of physical processes such as convection or turbulent transport can also affect mass conservation. The lack of conservation is small but accumulates when integrations are lengthy such as required for SF6. This lack of conservation is found using winds from either a GCM or from an assimilation system. A simple adjustment removes much of the inaccuracy in the convective parameterization. A CO2 simulation using assimilated winds from the most recent version of the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System will be used to illustrate the impact of these transport improvements.

  6. A study of mass production and installation of small solar thermal electric power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butterfield, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    Technological constraints, materials availability, production capacity, and manufacturing and installations plans and costs at different production levels are included in a study of concentrating collector industrialization. As cobalt for the engine and receiver is supply limited, alternative lower temperature alloys and higher temperature materials such as ceramics are discussed. Economics and production efficiency favor co-location of cellular and thin glass production for reflectors. Assembly and installation are expensive for small sites and few alternatives exist to apply mass production techniques to lower these costs for the selected design. Stepping motors in the size and quantities required are not commercially available today but could be in the future.

  7. Intact molecular characterization of cord factor (trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate) from nine species of mycobacteria by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yukiko; Naka, Takashi; McNeil, Michael R; Yano, Ikuya

    2005-10-01

    Cord factor (trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate, TDM) is an unique glycolipid with a trehalose and two molecules of mycolic acids in the mycobacterial cell envelope. Since TDM consists of two molecules of very long branched-chain 3-hydroxy fatty acids, the molecular mass ranges widely and in a complex manner. To characterize the molecular structure of TDM precisely and simply, an attempt was made to determine the mycolic acid subclasses of TDM and the molecular species composition of intact TDM by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry for the first time. The results showed that less than 1 microg mycolic acid methyl ester of TDM from nine representative species of mycobacteria and TDM from the same species was sufficient to obtain well-resolved mass spectra composed of pseudomolecular ions [M+Na]+. Although the mass ion distribution was extremely diverse, the molecular species of each TDM was identified clearly by constructing a molecular ion matrix consisting of the combination of two molecules of mycolic acids. The results showed a marked difference in the molecular structure of TDM among mycobacterial species and subspecies. TDM from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Rv and Aoyama B) showed a distinctive mass pattern and consisted of over 60 molecular ions with alpha-, methoxy- and ketomycolate. TDM from Mycobacterium bovis BCG Tokyo 172 similarly showed over 35 molecular ions, but that from M. bovis BCG Connaught showed simpler molecular ion clusters consisting of less than 35 molecular species due to a complete lack of methoxymycolate. Mass ions due to TDM from M. bovis BCG Connaught and Mycobacterium kansasii showed a biphasic distribution, but the two major peaks of TDM from M. kansasii were shifted up two or three carbon units higher compared with M. bovis BCG Connaught. Within the rapid grower group, in TDM consisting of alpha-, keto- and wax ester mycolate from Mycobacterium phlei and Mycobacterium flavescens, the

  8. 40 CFR Table F-6 to Subpart F of... - Estimated Mass Concentration Measurement of PM2.5 for Idealized Fine Aerosol Size Distribution

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Estimated Mass Concentration... Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 Pt. 53, Subpt. F, Table F-6 Table F-6 to Subpart F of Part 53—Estimated Mass... (µm) Test Sampler Fractional Sampling Effectiveness Interval Mass Concentration (µg/m3) Estimated...

  9. 40 CFR Table F-6 to Subpart F of... - Estimated Mass Concentration Measurement of PM2.5 for Idealized Fine Aerosol Size Distribution

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Estimated Mass Concentration... Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 Pt. 53, Subpt. F, Table F-6 Table F-6 to Subpart F of Part 53—Estimated Mass... (µm) Test Sampler Fractional Sampling Effectiveness Interval Mass Concentration (µg/m3) Estimated...

  10. Relation Between Low Latitude Pc3 Magnetic Micropulsations and Solar Wind (P6)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, I. A.

    2006-11-01

    iaaamphysics@yahoo.co.in iaaphysicsamu@yahoo.com.au Geomagnetic pulsations recorded on the ground are the signatures of the integrated signals from the magnetosphere. Pc3 Geomagnetic pulsations are quasi-sinusoidal variations in the Earth’s Magnetic field in the period range 10-45 seconds. The magnitude of these pulsations ranges from fraction of a nT (nano Tesla) to several nT. These pulsations can be observed in a number of ways. However the application of ground based magnetometer arrays has proven to be one of the most successful methods of studying the spatial structure of hydromagnetic waves in the Earth’s Magnetosphere. The solar wind provides the energy for the Earth’s magnetospheric processes. Pc3-5 geomagnetic pulsations can be generated either externally or internally with respect to the magnetosphere. The Pc3 studies undertaken in the past have been confined to middle and high latitudes. The spatial and temporal variations observed in Pc3 occurrence are of vital importance because they provide evidence which can be directly related to wave generation mechanisms both inside and external to the magnetosphere. At low latitudes (L < 3) wave energy predominates in the Pc3 band and the spatial characteristics of these pulsations have received little attention in the past. An array of four low latitude induction coil magnetometers was established in south-east Australia over a longitudinal range of 17 degrees at L=1.8 to 2.7 for carrying out the study of the effect of the solar wind velocity on these pulsations. Digital dynamic spectra showing Pc3 pulsation activity over a period of about six months have been used to evaluate Pc3 pulsation occurrence. Pc3 occurrence probability at low latitudes has been found to be dominant for the solar wind velocity in the range 400-700 Km/sec. The results suggest that solar wind controls Pc3 occurrence through a mechanism in which Pc3 wave energy is convected through the magnetosheath and coupled to the standing

  11. NIRIS: The Second Generation Near-Infrared Imaging Spectro-polarimeter for the 1.6 Meter New Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, W.; Goode, P. R.; Ahn, K.; Gorceix, N.; Schmidt, W.; Lin, H.

    2012-12-01

    The largest aperture solar telescope, the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope (NST) has been installed at the Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). To take full advantage of the NST's greatest potential, we are upgrading the routinely operational InfraRed Imaging Magnetograph (IRIM) to its second generation, the NIRIS (Near-InfraRed Imaging Spectropolarimeter). NIRIS will offer unprecedented high resolution spectroscopic and polarimetric imaging data of the solar atmosphere from the deepest photosphere through the base of the corona. With the aid of the BBSO adaptive optics (AO) system, the spatial resolution will be close to the diffraction limit of the NST. The spectroscopic cadence will reach one second, while polarimetric measurements, including Stokes I, Q, U, V profiles, remain at a better than 10 s cadence. Polarization sensitivity is expected to be reach ˜ 10-4Ic. NIRIS will cover a broad spectral range from 1.0 to 1.7μm, with particular attention to two unique spectral lines: the Fe I 1565 nm doublet has already proven to be the most sensitive to Zeeman effect for probing the magnetic field in the deepest photosphere; the He I 1083 nm multiplet is one of the best currently available diagnostic of upper chromospheric magnetic fields that allows one to map the vector field at the base of the corona. NIRIS will be built on dual Fabry-Pérot Interferometers (FPIs), each of which has an aperture of 100 mm. The larger aperture of FPIs allows the available field-of-view up to one and half minutes with a spectral power of ˜ 105.

  12. Asteroseismic analysis of solar-mass subgiants KIC 6442183 and KIC 11137075 observed by Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zhijia; Bi, Shaolan; Bedding, Timothy R.; Yang, Wuming

    2015-08-01

    Context. Asteroseismology provides a powerful way to constrain stellar parameters. Solar-like oscillations have been observed on subgiant stars with the Kepler mission. The continuous and high-precision time series enables us to carry out a detailed asteroseismic study for these stars. Aims: We carry out data processing of two subgiants of spectral type G: KIC 6442183 and KIC 11137075 observed with the Kepler mission, and perform seismic analysis for the two evolved stars. Methods: We estimated the global asteroseismic parameters Δν = 64.9 ± 0.2 μHz and νmax = 1225 ± 17 μHz for KIC 6442183, Δν = 65.5 ± 0.2 μHz and νmax = 1171 ± 8μHz for KIC 11137075, respectively. In addition, we extracted the individual mode frequencies of the two stars. We compared stellar models and observations, including mode frequencies and mode inertias. The mode inertias of mixed modes, which are sensitive to the stellar interior, were used to constrain stellar models. We defined a quantity dνm-p that measures the difference between the mixed modes and the expected pure pressure modes, which is related to the inertia ratio of mixed modes to radial modes. Results: Asteroseismic together with spectroscopic constraints provide the estimates of the stellar parameters: M = 1.04-0.04+ 0.01 M⊙, R = 1.66-0.02+ 0.01R⊙ and t = 8.65-0.06+1.12 Gyr for KIC 6442183, and M = 1.00-0.01+ 0.01 M⊙, R = 1.63-0.01+ 0.01R⊙ and t = 10.36-0.20+0.01 Gyr for KIC 11137075. Either mode inertias or dνm-p can be used to constrain stellar models.

  13. The Width of a Solar Coronal Mass Ejection and the Source of the Driving Magnetic Explosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Suess, Steven T.

    2007-01-01

    We show that the strength of the magnetic field in the area covered by the flare arcade following a CME-producing ejective solar eruption can be estimated from the final angular width of the CME in the outer corona and the final angular width of the flare arcade. We assume (1) the flux-rope plasmoid ejected from the flare site becomes the interior of the CME plasmoid, (2) in the outer corona (R greater than 2R(sub Sun)) the CME is roughly a spherical plasmoid with legs shaped like a light bulb, and (3) beyond some height in or below the outer corona the CME plasmoid is in lateral pressure balance with the surrounding magnetic field. The strength of the nearly radial magnetic field in the outer corona is estimated from the radial component of the interplanetary magnetic field measured by Ulysses. We apply this model to three well-observed CMEs that exploded from flare regions of extremely different size and magnetic setting. One of these CMEs is an over-and-out CME that exploded from a laterally far offset compact ejective flare. In each event, the estimated source-region field strength is appropriate for the magnetic setting of the flare. This agreement (1) indicates that CMEs are propelled by the magnetic field of the CME plasmoid pushing against the surrounding magnetic field, (2) supports the magnetic-arch-blowout scenario for over-and-out CMEs, and (3) shows that a CME s final angular width in the outer corona can be estimated from the amount of magnetic flux covered by the source-region flare arcade.

  14. Solar gamma-ray-line flares, type II radio bursts, and coronal mass ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cliver, E. W.; Cane, H. V.; Forrest, D. J.; Koomen, M. J.; Howard, R. A.; Wright, C. S.

    1991-10-01

    A Big Flare Syndrome (BFS) test is used to substantiate earlier reports of a statistically significant association between nuclear gamma-ray-line (GRL) flares and metric type II bursts from coronal shocks. The type II onset characteristically follows the onset of gamma-ray emission with a median delay of two minutes. It is found that 70-90 percent of GRL flares for which coronagraph data were available were associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Gradual and impulsive GRL flares were equally well associated with CMEs. The CMEs were typically fast, with a median speed greater than 800 km/s. possible `non-BFS' explanations for the GRL-type II association are discussed.

  15. Solar gamma-ray-line flares, type II radio bursts, and coronal mass ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliver, E. W.; Cane, H. V.; Forrest, D. J.; Koomen, M. J.; Howard, R. A.; Wright, C. S.

    1991-01-01

    A Big Flare Syndrome (BFS) test is used to substantiate earlier reports of a statistically significant association between nuclear gamma-ray-line (GRL) flares and metric type II bursts from coronal shocks. The type II onset characteristically follows the onset of gamma-ray emission with a median delay of two minutes. It is found that 70-90 percent of GRL flares for which coronagraph data were available were associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Gradual and impulsive GRL flares were equally well associated with CMEs. The CMEs were typically fast, with a median speed greater than 800 km/s. possible `non-BFS' explanations for the GRL-type II association are discussed.

  16. An Analysis of Interplanetary Solar Radio Emissions Associated with a Coronal Mass Ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupar, V.; Eastwood, J. P.; Kruparova, O.; Santolik, O.; Soucek, J.; Magdalenić, J.; Vourlidas, A.; Maksimovic, M.; Bonnin, X.; Bothmer, V.; Mrotzek, N.; Pluta, A.; Barnes, D.; Davies, J. A.; Martínez Oliveros, J. C.; Bale, S. D.

    2016-05-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are large-scale eruptions of magnetized plasma that may cause severe geomagnetic storms if Earth directed. Here, we report a rare instance with comprehensive in situ and remote sensing observations of a CME combining white-light, radio, and plasma measurements from four different vantage points. For the first time, we have successfully applied a radio direction-finding technique to an interplanetary type II burst detected by two identical widely separated radio receivers. The derived locations of the type II and type III bursts are in general agreement with the white-light CME reconstruction. We find that the radio emission arises from the flanks of the CME and are most likely associated with the CME-driven shock. Our work demonstrates the complementarity between radio triangulation and 3D reconstruction techniques for space weather applications.

  17. Self-similar expansion of solar coronal mass ejections: Implications for Lorentz self-force driving

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, Prasad; Arunbabu, K. P.; Mauriya, Adwiteey; Vourlidas, Angelos

    2014-08-01

    We examine the propagation of several coronal mass ejections (CMEs) with well-observed flux rope signatures in the field of view of the SECCHI coronagraphs on board the STEREO satellites using the graduated cylindrical shell fitting method of Thernisien et al. We find that the manner in which they propagate is approximately self-similar; i.e., the ratio (κ) of the flux rope minor radius to its major radius remains approximately constant with time. We use this observation of self-similarity to draw conclusions regarding the local pitch angle (γ) of the flux rope magnetic field and the misalignment angle (χ) between the current density J and the magnetic field B. Our results suggest that the magnetic field and current configurations inside flux ropes deviate substantially from a force-free state in typical coronagraph fields of view, validating the idea of CMEs being driven by Lorentz self-forces.

  18. Self-similar Expansion of Solar Coronal Mass Ejections: Implications for Lorentz Self-force Driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Prasad; Arunbabu, K. P.; Vourlidas, Angelos; Mauriya, Adwiteey

    2014-08-01

    We examine the propagation of several coronal mass ejections (CMEs) with well-observed flux rope signatures in the field of view of the SECCHI coronagraphs on board the STEREO satellites using the graduated cylindrical shell fitting method of Thernisien et al. We find that the manner in which they propagate is approximately self-similar; i.e., the ratio (κ) of the flux rope minor radius to its major radius remains approximately constant with time. We use this observation of self-similarity to draw conclusions regarding the local pitch angle (γ) of the flux rope magnetic field and the misalignment angle (χ) between the current density J and the magnetic field B. Our results suggest that the magnetic field and current configurations inside flux ropes deviate substantially from a force-free state in typical coronagraph fields of view, validating the idea of CMEs being driven by Lorentz self-forces.

  19. Characterization of Evaporating Species from B2O3, B6O, and Their Mixtures by Knudsen Cell Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Hideaki; Kobashi, Yoshifumi; Maeda, Masafumi

    2016-02-01

    Species evaporating from B2O3(l), B6O(s) and their mixtures were observed by a multiple Knudsen cell mass spectrometer between 1373 K and 1573 K (1100 °C and 1300 °C). Ions with mass-to-charge ratios of 70, 54, and 27 from the samples were observable, indicating the formations of B2O3(g), B2O2(g), and BO(g). The vapor pressures of the gas species were estimated by referring to thermodynamic information previously reported on B6O(s). Evaporation of B2O2(g) from a mixture [ p_{B}_{2} O_{2} }} = 6 Pa at 1473 K (1200 °C)] was observed, and it was consistent with a preceding study by a different method.

  20. Relationships Between Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection Characteristics and Geoeffectiveness in the Rising Phase of Solar Cycles 23 and 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrance, M. Bendict; Shanmugaraju, A.; Moon, Y.-J.; Ibrahim, M. Syed; Umapathy, S.

    2016-05-01

    The characteristics and geoeffectiveness of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are derived and their relationships are investigated. The results are compared for a set of events in the rising phase of Solar Cycles 23 and 24. These events are considered from the reported list of Cane and Richardson ( Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3591, 2000). The geoeffectiveness is studied independently for ICME and sheath. The results obtained are that i) CMEs of Cycle 23 have generated a higher Dst index than Cycle 24 CMEs and that ii) the southward magnetic component (Bs) and the Dst index of ICMEs correlate well for both Cycles 23 and 24 in their rising phase. These findings agree with the literature, which has described Cycle 24 to be weaker than Cycle 23 and where the ICME/sheath regions of Cycle 23 are found to have a greater Bs that results in stronger storms. In addition, other results obtained are as follows: i) The relation between ICME size and the related Dst index gives a weak correlation for the rising phases of both Cycles 23 and 24. ii) The correlation between sheath size and Dst index is higher in the rising phase of Cycle 24 than in the rising phase of Cycle 23. iii) The average ICME size of the rising phase of Cycle 23 (84 R_{⊙}) is greater than that of the rising phase of Cycle 24 (58 R_{⊙}). However, the average sheath size is 24 R_{⊙}, which is nearly equal to that of Cycle 24 (26 R_{⊙}). Thus the differences between the properties of ICME and sheath in both the cycles are demonstrated. Nearly 75 % of geomagnetic storm peaks occurred in the ICME duration in the rising phase of Cycles 23 and 24. This shows that the ICMEs are more important in generating the storms than the sheaths in the rising phase of a solar cycle.

  1. COMBINED MULTIPOINT REMOTE AND IN SITU OBSERVATIONS OF THE ASYMMETRIC EVOLUTION OF A FAST SOLAR CORONAL MASS EJECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Rollett, T.; Möstl, C.; Temmer, M.; Veronig, A. M.; Amerstorfer, U. V.; Frahm, R. A.; Davies, J. A.; Vršnak, B.; Žic, T.; Farrugia, C. J.; Zhang, T. L.

    2014-07-20

    We present an analysis of the fast coronal mass ejection (CME) of 2012  March 7, which was imaged by both STEREO spacecraft and observed in situ by MESSENGER, Venus Express, Wind, and Mars Express. Based on detected arrivals at four different positions in interplanetary space, it was possible to strongly constrain the kinematics and the shape of the ejection. Using the white-light heliospheric imagery from STEREO-A and B, we derived two different kinematical profiles for the CME by applying the novel constrained self-similar expansion method. In addition, we used a drag-based model to investigate the influence of the ambient solar wind on the CME's propagation. We found that two preceding CMEs heading in different directions disturbed the overall shape of the CME and influenced its propagation behavior. While the Venus-directed segment underwent a gradual deceleration (from ∼2700 km s{sup –1} at 15 R {sub ☉} to ∼1500 km s{sup –1} at 154 R {sub ☉}), the Earth-directed part showed an abrupt retardation below 35 R {sub ☉} (from ∼1700 to ∼900 km s{sup –1}). After that, it was propagating with a quasi-constant speed in the wake of a preceding event. Our results highlight the importance of studies concerning the unequal evolution of CMEs. Forecasting can only be improved if conditions in the solar wind are properly taken into account and if attention is also paid to large events preceding the one being studied.

  2. Plasma and Magnetic Field Characteristics of Solar Coronal Mass Ejections in Relation to Geomagnetic Storm Intensity and Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying D.; Hu, Huidong; Wang, Rui; Yang, Zhongwei; Zhu, Bei; Liu, Yi A.; Luhmann, Janet G.; Richardson, John D.

    2015-08-01

    The largest geomagnetic storms of solar cycle 24 so far occurred on 2015 March 17 and June 22 with {D}{st} minima of -223 and -195 nT, respectively. Both of the geomagnetic storms show a multi-step development. We examine the plasma and magnetic field characteristics of the driving coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in connection with the development of the geomagnetic storms. A particular effort is to reconstruct the in situ structure using a Grad-Shafranov technique and compare the reconstruction results with solar observations, which gives a larger spatial perspective of the source conditions than one-dimensional in situ measurements. Key results are obtained concerning how the plasma and magnetic field characteristics of CMEs control the geomagnetic storm intensity and variability: (1) a sheath-ejecta-ejecta mechanism and a sheath-sheath-ejecta scenario are proposed for the multi-step development of the 2015 March 17 and June 22 geomagnetic storms, respectively; (2) two contrasting cases of how the CME flux-rope characteristics generate intense geomagnetic storms are found, which indicates that a southward flux-rope orientation is not a necessity for a strong geomagnetic storm; and (3) the unexpected 2015 March 17 intense geomagnetic storm resulted from the interaction between two successive CMEs plus the compression by a high-speed stream from behind, which is essentially the “perfect storm” scenario proposed by Liu et al. (i.e., a combination of circumstances results in an event of unusual magnitude), so the “perfect storm” scenario may not be as rare as the phrase implies.

  3. Relationships Between Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection Characteristics and Geoeffectiveness in the Rising Phase of Solar Cycles 23 and 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrance, M. Bendict; Shanmugaraju, A.; Moon, Y.-J.; Ibrahim, M. Syed; Umapathy, S.

    2016-06-01

    The characteristics and geoeffectiveness of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are derived and their relationships are investigated. The results are compared for a set of events in the rising phase of Solar Cycles 23 and 24. These events are considered from the reported list of Cane and Richardson (Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3591, 2000). The geoeffectiveness is studied independently for ICME and sheath. The results obtained are that i) CMEs of Cycle 23 have generated a higher Dst index than Cycle 24 CMEs and that ii) the southward magnetic component ( Bs) and the Dst index of ICMEs correlate well for both Cycles 23 and 24 in their rising phase. These findings agree with the literature, which has described Cycle 24 to be weaker than Cycle 23 and where the ICME/sheath regions of Cycle 23 are found to have a greater Bs that results in stronger storms. In addition, other results obtained are as follows: i) The relation between ICME size and the related Dst index gives a weak correlation for the rising phases of both Cycles 23 and 24. ii) The correlation between sheath size and Dst index is higher in the rising phase of Cycle 24 than in the rising phase of Cycle 23. iii) The average ICME size of the rising phase of Cycle 23 (84 R_{⊙}) is greater than that of the rising phase of Cycle 24 (58 R_{⊙}). However, the average sheath size is 24 R_{⊙}, which is nearly equal to that of Cycle 24 (26 R_{⊙}). Thus the differences between the properties of ICME and sheath in both the cycles are demonstrated. Nearly 75 % of geomagnetic storm peaks occurred in the ICME duration in the rising phase of Cycles 23 and 24. This shows that the ICMEs are more important in generating the storms than the sheaths in the rising phase of a solar cycle.

  4. Titius-Bode law in the Solar System. Dependence of the regularity parameter on the central body mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, Tsvetan B.

    2016-07-01

    Near-commensurability of the orbital sizes or periods exists in the Solar system for the massive planets and the massive satellites of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus. It is well revealed by the Titius-Bode law (TBL) long ago by Dermott (1968), but is not been explained convincingly yet. Independently on this fact, the question about the dependence of the scale constant of the TBL on the mass of the central body is open. In this paper we show such a dependence. Due to the dynamic evolution the orbits of the massive planets and satellites may be in a transient stage when a primary TBL is well pronounced. Simultaneously a secondary TBL, a trail from the past as a hint for the future, may be less pronounced. The TBL is fitted after the numeration of the objects. For this reason we derive a special "curve" and we use 2 its minimums to introduce a primary and a secondary numeration for the objects. Thus we derive constants of 2 TBLs and build the searched dependence by twice as many points. In this paper we show and use pairs of TBLs for the satellite systems of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto, as well as for the solar system in two cases - with 4 massive planets and with 8 massive planets. In fig. 10 we show the statistically significant dependences where the coefficient of the near-commensurability for the orbital sizes varies from about 1.3 for the satellites of Pluto to about 1.7 for the planets of the Sun.

  5. The ATS-5 solar cell experiment after 6-1/2 years in synchronous orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B.

    1976-01-01

    Several types of solar cell/coverslide combinations were launched into synchronous orbit. The cells were 2 and 10 ohm-cm crucible-grown silicon with thicknesses of 0.2 and 0.3 mm. Coverslides were fused silica, ranging in thickness from 0.15 to 1.52 mm. The cells were mounted on two panels, one a rigid aluminum honeycomb structure, giving essentially infinite backshielding; the other was a thin Kapton-fiberglass substrate, offering minimal protection to the rear surface of the cells. The current-voltage curves of the cells were measured. Correction of cell electrical output to standard temperature and solar intensity was performed, using empirical radiation-dependent corrections. It is found that the cells on the flexible panel degrade much more rapidly than predicted, while the rigid panel cells follow the predictions fairly well. The anomalous behavior of the flexible panel cells is attributed to the deposition of a contaminant on the cell coverslides.

  6. Solar Cycle 24 UV Radiation: Lowest in more than 6 Decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroder, Klaus-Peter; Mittag, Marco; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Using spectra taken by the robotic telescope ``TIGRE'' (see Fig. 1 and the TIGRE-poster presented by Schmitt et al. at this conference) and its mid-resolution (R=20,000) HEROS double-channel echelle spectrograph, we present our measurements of the solar Ca II H&K chromospheric emission. Using moonlight, we applied the calibration and definition of the Mt. Wilson S-index , which allows a direct comparison with historic observations, reaching back to the early 1960's. At the same time, coming from the same EUV emitting plage regions, the Ca II H&K emission is a good proxy for the latter, which is of interest as a forcing factor in climate models. Our measurements probe the weak, asynchronous activity cycle 24 around its 2nd maximum during the past winter. Our S-values suggest that this maximum is the lowest in chromospheric emission since at least 60 years -- following the longest and deepest minimum since a century. Our observations suggest a similarly long-term (on a scale of decades) low of the far-UV radiation, which should be considered by the next generation of climate models. The current, very interesting activity behaviour calls for a concerted effort on long-term solar monitoring.

  7. Investigation of technology for the monitoring of UF/sub 6/ mass flow in UF/sub 6/ streams diluted with H/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, O.J.; Cooley, J.N.; Hewgley, W.A.; Moran, B.W.; Swindle, D.W. Jr.

    1986-12-01

    The applicability, availability, and effectiveness of gas flow meters are assessed as a means for verifying the mass flows of pure UF/sub 6/ streams diluted with a carrier gas. The initial survey identified the orifice, pitot tube, thermal, vortex shedding, and vortex precession (swirl) meters as promising for the intended use. Subsequent assessments of these flow meters revealed that two - the orifice meter and the pitot tube meter - are the best choices for the proposed applications: the first is recommended for low velocity gas, small diameter piping; the latter, for high velocity gas, large diameter piping. Final selection of the gas flow meters should be based on test loop evaluations in which the proposed meters are subjected to gas flows, temperatures, and pressures representative of those expected in service. Known instruments are evaluated that may be applicable to the measurement of uranium or UF/sub 6/ concentration in a UF/sub 6/ - H/sub 2/ process stream at an aerodynamic enrichment plant. Of the six procedures evaluated, four have been used for process monitoring in a UF/sub 6/ environment: gas mass spectrometry, infrared-ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, gas chromatography, and acoustic gas analysis. The remaining two procedures, laser fluorimetry and atomic absorption spectroscopy, would require significant development work before they could be used for process monitoring. Infrared-ultravioloet-visible spectrophotometry is judged to be the best procedure currently available to perform the required measurement.

  8. An Ultra-Trace Analysis Technique for SF6 Using Gas Chromatography with Negative Ion Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jong, Edmund C; Macek, Paul V; Perera, Inoka E; Luxbacher, Kray D; McNair, Harold M

    2015-07-01

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is widely used as a tracer gas because of its detectability at low concentrations. This attribute of SF6 allows the quantification of both small-scale flows, such as leakage, and large-scale flows, such as atmospheric currents. SF6's high detection sensitivity also facilitates greater usage efficiency and lower operating cost for tracer deployments by reducing quantity requirements. The detectability of SF6 is produced by its high molecular electronegativity. This property provides a high potential for negative ion formation through electron capture thus naturally translating to selective detection using negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry (NCI-MS). This paper investigates the potential of using gas chromatography (GC) with NCI-MS for the detection of SF6. The experimental parameters for an ultra-trace SF6 detection method utilizing minimal customizations of the analytical instrument are detailed. A method for the detection of parts per trillion (ppt) level concentrations of SF6 for the purpose of underground ventilation tracer gas analysis was successfully developed in this study. The method utilized a Shimadzu gas chromatography with negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry system equipped with an Agilent J&W HP-porous layer open tubular column coated with an alumina oxide (Al2O3) S column. The method detection limit (MDL) analysis as defined by the Environmental Protection Agency of the tracer data showed the method MDL to be 5.2 ppt. PMID:25452581

  9. Role of gas-surface interactions in the reduction of Ogo 6 neutral particle mass spectrometer data.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedin, A. E.; Hinton, B. B.; Schmitt, G. A.

    1973-01-01

    Data obtained with the quadrupole mass spectrometer aboard the Ogo 6 satellite show the effects of significant surface interaction processes, including nearly complete recombination of incoming atomic oxygen on the walls of the instrument antechamber plus adsorption and desorption of oxygen and carbon monoxide. The observed data are fit by solving the time-dependent continuity equations accounting for production and loss of atomic oxygen, molecular oxygen, and (in the case of mass 28) carbon monoxide. The surface parameters that best fit the data are selected and applied to the determination of ambient densities and their estimated errors.

  10. The first gravitational-wave source from the isolated evolution of two stars in the 40–100 solar mass range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belczynski, Krzysztof; Holz, Daniel E.; Bulik, Tomasz; O’Shaughnessy, Richard

    2016-06-01

    The merger of two massive (about 30 solar masses) black holes has been detected in gravitational waves. This discovery validates recent predictions that massive binary black holes would constitute the first detection. Previous calculations, however, have not sampled the relevant binary-black-hole progenitors—massive, low-metallicity binary stars—with sufficient accuracy nor included sufficiently realistic physics to enable robust predictions to better than several orders of magnitude. Here we report high-precision numerical simulations of the formation of binary black holes via the evolution of isolated binary stars, providing a framework within which to interpret the first gravitational-wave source, GW150914, and to predict the properties of subsequent binary-black-hole gravitational-wave events. Our models imply that these events form in an environment in which the metallicity is less than ten per cent of solar metallicity, and involve stars with initial masses of 40–100 solar masses that interact through mass transfer and a common-envelope phase. These progenitor stars probably formed either about 2 billion years or, with a smaller probability, 11 billion years after the Big Bang. Most binary black holes form without supernova explosions, and their spins are nearly unchanged since birth, but do not have to be parallel. The classical field formation of binary black holes we propose, with low natal kicks (the velocity of the black hole at birth) and restricted common-envelope evolution, produces approximately 40 times more binary-black-holes mergers than do dynamical formation channels involving globular clusters; our predicted detection rate of these mergers is comparable to that from homogeneous evolution channels. Our calculations predict detections of about 1,000 black-hole mergers per year with total masses of 20–80 solar masses once second-generation ground-based gravitational-wave observatories reach full sensitivity.

  11. The first gravitational-wave source from the isolated evolution of two stars in the 40-100 solar mass range.

    PubMed

    Belczynski, Krzysztof; Holz, Daniel E; Bulik, Tomasz; O'Shaughnessy, Richard

    2016-06-23

    The merger of two massive (about 30 solar masses) black holes has been detected in gravitational waves. This discovery validates recent predictions that massive binary black holes would constitute the first detection. Previous calculations, however, have not sampled the relevant binary-black-hole progenitors--massive, low-metallicity binary stars--with sufficient accuracy nor included sufficiently realistic physics to enable robust predictions to better than several orders of magnitude. Here we report high-precision numerical simulations of the formation of binary black holes via the evolution of isolated binary stars, providing a framework within which to interpret the first gravitational-wave source, GW150914, and to predict the properties of subsequent binary-black-hole gravitational-wave events. Our models imply that these events form in an environment in which the metallicity is less than ten per cent of solar metallicity, and involve stars with initial masses of 40-100 solar masses that interact through mass transfer and a common-envelope phase. These progenitor stars probably formed either about 2 billion years or, with a smaller probability, 11 billion years after the Big Bang. Most binary black holes form without supernova explosions, and their spins are nearly unchanged since birth, but do not have to be parallel. The classical field formation of binary black holes we propose, with low natal kicks (the velocity of the black hole at birth) and restricted common-envelope evolution, produces approximately 40 times more binary-black-holes mergers than do dynamical formation channels involving globular clusters; our predicted detection rate of these mergers is comparable to that from homogeneous evolution channels. Our calculations predict detections of about 1,000 black-hole mergers per year with total masses of 20-80 solar masses once second-generation ground-based gravitational-wave observatories reach full sensitivity. PMID:27337338

  12. High-lying bound Rydberg states of excited Hg(6s6p {sup 3}P{sub 1}) atoms from two-color resonance ionization mass spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bisling, Peter; Dederichs, Jan; Neidhart, Bernd; Weitkamp, Claus

    1998-12-16

    Mercury isotopes are investigated with two-color resonance ionization mass spectroscopy (RIMS). Isotope shifts, hyperfine structure splittings, and the lifetime of the intermediate 6s6p {sup 3}P{sub 1} state are determined by RIMS. Ion yields at the threshold region in various static electric fields are measured in order to determine an extrapolated ionization energy value at zero field strength. New energy values for high-lying bound 6s nd {sup 3}D (21

  13. The Peculiar Behavior of Halo Coronal Mass Ejections in Solar Cycle 24

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Xie, H.; Akiyama, S.; Makela, P.; Yashiro, S.; Michalek, G.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the remarkable finding that the halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in cycle 24 are more abundant than in cycle 23, although the sunspot number in cycle 24 has dropped by approx. 40%. We also find that the distribution of halo-CME source locations is different in cycle 24: the longitude distribution of halos is much flatter with the number of halos originating at a central meridian distance greater than or equal to 60deg twice as large as that in cycle 23. On the other hand, the average speed and associated soft X-ray flare size are the same in both cycles, suggesting that the ambient medium into which the CMEs are ejected is significantly different. We suggest that both the higher abundance and larger central meridian longitudes of halo CMEs can be explained as a consequence of the diminished total pressure in the heliosphere in cycle 24. The reduced total pressure allows CMEs to expand more than usual making them appear as halos.

  14. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 6: Engineering sciences and reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.; Smokler, M. I.

    1986-01-01

    The Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project activities directed at developing the engineering technology base required to achieve modules that meet the functional, safety, and reliability requirements of large scale terrestrial photovoltaic systems applications are reported. These activities included: (1) development of functional, safety, and reliability requirements for such applications; (2) development of the engineering analytical approaches, test techniques, and design solutions required to meet the requirements; (3) synthesis and procurement of candidate designs for test and evaluation; and (4) performance of extensive testing, evaluation, and failure analysis of define design shortfalls and, thus, areas requiring additional research and development. A summary of the approach and technical outcome of these activities are provided along with a complete bibliography of the published documentation covering the detailed accomplishments and technologies developed.

  15. Mass-independent isotope effect in the earliest processed solids in the solar system: a possible chemical mechanism.

    PubMed

    Marcus, R A

    2004-11-01

    A major constraint is described for a possible chemical origin for the "mass-independent" oxygen isotope phenomenon in calcium-aluminum rich inclusions (CAIs) in meteorites at high temperatures ( approximately 1500-2000 K). A symmetry-based dynamical eta effect is postulated for O atom-monoxide recombination on the surface of growing CAIs. It is the surface analog of the volume-based eta effect occurring in a similar phenomenon for ozone in the gas phase [Y. Q. Gao, W. C. Chen, and R. A. Marcus, J. Chem. Phys. 117, 1536 (2002), and references cited therein]: In the growth of CAI grains an equilibrium is postulated between adsorbed species XO (ads)+O (ads) <==>XO*(2)(ads), where XO*(2)(ads) is a vibrationally excited adsorbed dioxide molecule and X can be Si, Al, Ti, or other metals and can be C for minerals less refractory than the CAIs. The surface of a growing grain has an entropic effect of many order of magnitude on the position of this monoxide-dioxide equilibrium relative to its volume-based position by acting as a concentrator. The volume-based eta effect for ozone in the earlier study is not applicable to gas phase precursors of CAIs, due to the rarity of three-body recombination collisions at very low pressures and because of the high H(2) and H concentration in solar gas, which reduces gaseous O and gaseous dioxides and prevents the latter from acting as storage reservoirs for the two heavier oxygen isotopes. A surface eta effect yields XO*(2)(ads) that is mass-independently rich in (17)O and (18)O, and yields XO (ads)+O (ads) that is mass-independently poor in the two heavier oxygen isotopes. When the XO*(2)(ads) is deactivated by vibrational energy loss to the grain, it has only one subsequent fate, evaporation, and so undergoes no further isotopic fractionation. After evaporation the XO(2) again has only one fate, which is to react rapidly with H and ultimately form (16)O-poor H(2)O. The other species, O (ads)+XO (ads), are (16)O rich and react with Ca

  16. A hot Jupiter orbiting a 2-million-year-old solar-mass T Tauri star.

    PubMed

    Donati, J F; Moutou, C; Malo, L; Baruteau, C; Yu, L; Hébrard, E; Hussain, G; Alencar, S; Ménard, F; Bouvier, J; Petit, P; Takami, M; Doyon, R; Collier Cameron, A

    2016-06-30

    Hot Jupiters are giant Jupiter-like exoplanets that orbit their host stars 100 times more closely than Jupiter orbits the Sun. These planets presumably form in the outer part of the primordial disk from which both the central star and surrounding planets are born, then migrate inwards and yet avoid falling into their host star. It is, however, unclear whether this occurs early in the lives of hot Jupiters, when they are still embedded within protoplanetary disks, or later, once multiple planets are formed and interact. Although numerous hot Jupiters have been detected around mature Sun-like stars, their existence has not yet been firmly demonstrated for young stars, whose magnetic activity is so intense that it overshadows the radial velocity signal that close-in giant planets can induce. Here we report that the radial velocities of the young star V830 Tau exhibit a sine wave of period 4.93 days and semi-amplitude 75 metres per second, detected with a false-alarm probability of less than 0.03 per cent, after filtering out the magnetic activity plaguing the spectra. We find that this signal is unrelated to the 2.741-day rotation period of V830 Tau and we attribute it to the presence of a planet of mass 0.77 times that of Jupiter, orbiting at a distance of 0.057 astronomical units from the host star. Our result demonstrates that hot Jupiters can migrate inwards in less than two million years, probably as a result of planet–disk interactions. PMID:27324847

  17. Are Halo-Like Solar Coronal Mass Ejections Merely a Matter of Geometric Projection Effect?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Ryun Young; Vourlidas, Angelos; Zhang, Jie

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the physical nature of halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs) based on the stereoscopic observations from two STEREO Ahead and Behind (hereafter A and B) and SOHO spacecraft. There occurred 62 halo CMEs as observed by SOHO LASCO C2 for the three-year period from 2010 to 2012 during which the separation angles between SOHO and STEREOs were nearly 90 degrees. In such quadrature configuration, the coronagraphs of STEREOs, COR2-A and -B, showed the side view of those halo CMEs seen by C2. It has been widely believed that the halo appearance of a CME is caused by the geometric projection effect, i.e., a CME moves along the Sun-observer line. In other words, it would appear as a non-halo CME if viewed from the side. However, to our surprise, we found that 41 out of 62 events (66%) were observed as halo CMEs by all coronagraphs. This result suggests that a halo CME is not only a matter of the propagating direction. In addition, we show that a CME propagating normal to the line of sight can be observed as a halo CME due to the associated fast magnetosonic wave or shock front. We conclude that the apparent width of CMEs, especially halos or partial halos is driven by the existence, and the extent, of the associated waves or shocks and does not represent an accurate measure of the CME ejecta size. This effect needs to be taken into careful consideration in Space Weather predictions and modeling efforts.

  18. Are Halo-like Solar Coronal Mass Ejections Merely a Matter of Geometric Projection Effects?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Ryun-Young; Zhang, Jie; Vourlidas, Angelos

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the physical nature of halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs) based on the stereoscopic observations from the two STEREO spacecraft, Ahead and Behind (hereafter A and B), and the SOHO spacecraft. Sixty-two halo CMEs occurred as observed by SOHO LASCO C2 for the three-year period from 2010 to 2012 during which the separation angles between SOHO and STEREO were nearly 90°. In such quadrature configuration, the coronagraphs of STEREO, COR2-A and -B, showed the side view of those halo CMEs seen by C2. It has been widely believed that the halo appearance of a CME is caused by the geometric projection effect, i.e., a CME moves along the Sun-observer line. In other words, it would appear as a non-halo CME if viewed from the side. However, to our surprise, we found that 41 out of 62 events (66%) were observed as halo CMEs by all coronagraphs. This result suggests that a halo CME is not just a matter of the propagating direction. In addition, we show that a CME propagating normal to the line of sight can be observed as a halo CME due to the associated fast magnetosonic wave or shock front. We conclude that the apparent width of CMEs, especially halos or partial halos is driven by the existence and the extent of the associated waves or shocks and does not represent an accurate measure of the CME ejecta size. This effect needs to be taken into careful consideration in space weather predictions and modeling efforts.

  19. A hot Jupiter orbiting a 2-million-year-old solar-mass T Tauri star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donati, J. F.; Moutou, C.; Malo, L.; Baruteau, C.; Yu, L.; Hébrard, E.; Hussain, G.; Alencar, S.; Ménard, F.; Bouvier, J.; Petit, P.; Takami, M.; Doyon, R.; Cameron, A. Collier

    2016-06-01

    Hot Jupiters are giant Jupiter-like exoplanets that orbit their host stars 100 times more closely than Jupiter orbits the Sun. These planets presumably form in the outer part of the primordial disk from which both the central star and surrounding planets are born, then migrate inwards and yet avoid falling into their host star. It is, however, unclear whether this occurs early in the lives of hot Jupiters, when they are still embedded within protoplanetary disks, or later, once multiple planets are formed and interact. Although numerous hot Jupiters have been detected around mature Sun-like stars, their existence has not yet been firmly demonstrated for young stars, whose magnetic activity is so intense that it overshadows the radial velocity signal that close-in giant planets can induce. Here we report that the radial velocities of the young star V830 Tau exhibit a sine wave of period 4.93 days and semi-amplitude 75 metres per second, detected with a false-alarm probability of less than 0.03 per cent, after filtering out the magnetic activity plaguing the spectra. We find that this signal is unrelated to the 2.741-day rotation period of V830 Tau and we attribute it to the presence of a planet of mass 0.77 times that of Jupiter, orbiting at a distance of 0.057 astronomical units from the host star. Our result demonstrates that hot Jupiters can migrate inwards in less than two million years, probably as a result of planet–disk interactions.

  20. ARE HALO-LIKE SOLAR CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS MERELY A MATTER OF GEOMETRIC PROJECTION EFFECTS?

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Ryun-Young; Zhang, Jie; Vourlidas, Angelos

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the physical nature of halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs) based on the stereoscopic observations from the two STEREO spacecraft, Ahead and Behind (hereafter A and B), and the SOHO spacecraft. Sixty-two halo CMEs occurred as observed by SOHO LASCO C2 for the three-year period from 2010 to 2012 during which the separation angles between SOHO and STEREO were nearly 90°. In such quadrature configuration, the coronagraphs of STEREO, COR2-A and -B, showed the side view of those halo CMEs seen by C2. It has been widely believed that the halo appearance of a CME is caused by the geometric projection effect, i.e., a CME moves along the Sun-observer line. In other words, it would appear as a non-halo CME if viewed from the side. However, to our surprise, we found that 41 out of 62 events (66%) were observed as halo CMEs by all coronagraphs. This result suggests that a halo CME is not just a matter of the propagating direction. In addition, we show that a CME propagating normal to the line of sight can be observed as a halo CME due to the associated fast magnetosonic wave or shock front. We conclude that the apparent width of CMEs, especially halos or partial halos is driven by the existence and the extent of the associated waves or shocks and does not represent an accurate measure of the CME ejecta size. This effect needs to be taken into careful consideration in space weather predictions and modeling efforts.

  1. Understanding coronal mass ejections and associated shocks in the solar corona by merging multiwavelength observations

    SciTech Connect

    Zucca, P.; Gallagher, P. T.; Pick, M.; Démoulin, P.; Kerdraon, A.; Lecacheux, A.

    2014-11-01

    Using multiwavelength imaging observations, in EUV, white light and radio, and radio spectral data over a large frequency range, we analyzed the triggering and development of a complex eruptive event. This one includes two components, an eruptive jet and a coronal mass ejection (CME), which interact during more than 30 minutes, and can be considered as physically linked. This was an unusual event. The jet is generated above a typical complex magnetic configuration that has been investigated in many former studies related to the build-up of eruptive jets; this configuration includes fan-field lines originating from a corona null point above a parasitic polarity, which is embedded in one polarity region of a large active region. The initiation and development of the CME, observed first in EUV, does not show usual signatures. In this case, the eruptive jet is the main actor of this event. The CME appears first as a simple loop system that becomes destabilized by magnetic reconnection between the outer part of the jet and the ambient medium. The progression of the CME is closely associated with the occurrence of two successive type II bursts from a distinct origin. An important part of this study is the first radio type II burst for which the joint spectral and imaging observations were allowed: (1) to follow, step by step, the evolution of the spectrum and of the trajectory of the radio burst, in relationship with the CME evolution and (2) to obtain, without introducing an electronic density model, the B field and the Alfvén speed.

  2. Core and wing densities of asymmetric coronal spectral profiles: Implications for the mass supply of the solar corona

    SciTech Connect

    Patsourakos, S.; Klimchuk, J. A.; Young, P. R. E-mail: james.a.klimchuk@nasa.gov

    2014-02-01

    Recent solar spectroscopic observations have shown that coronal spectral lines can exhibit asymmetric profiles, with enhanced emissions at their blue wings. These asymmetries correspond to rapidly upflowing plasmas at speeds exceeding ≈50 km s{sup –1}. Here, we perform a study of the density of the rapidly upflowing material and compare it with that of the line core that corresponds to the bulk of the plasma. For this task, we use spectroscopic observations of several active regions taken by the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer of the Hinode mission. The density sensitive ratio of the Fe XIV lines at 264.78 and 274.20 Å is used to determine wing and core densities. We compute the ratio of the blue wing density to the core density and find that most values are of order unity. This is consistent with the predictions for coronal nanoflares if most of the observed coronal mass is supplied by chromospheric evaporation driven by the nanoflares. However, much larger blue wing-to-core density ratios are predicted if most of the coronal mass is supplied by heated material ejected with type II spicules. Our measurements do not rule out a spicule origin for the blue wing emission, but they argue against spicules being a primary source of the hot plasma in the corona. We note that only about 40% of the pixels where line blends could be safely ignored have blue wing asymmetries in both Fe XIV lines. Anticipated sub-arcsecond spatial resolution spectroscopic observations in future missions could shed more light on the origin of blue, red, and mixed asymmetries.

  3. Core and Wing Densities of Asymmetric Coronal Spectral Profiles: Implications for the Mass Supply of the Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patsourakos, S.; Klimchuk, J. A.; Young, P. R.

    2014-01-01

    Recent solar spectroscopic observations have shown that coronal spectral lines can exhibit asymmetric profiles, with enhanced emissions at their blue wings. These asymmetries correspond to rapidly upflowing plasmas at speeds exceeding approximately equal to 50 km per sec. Here, we perform a study of the density of the rapidly upflowing material and compare it with that of the line core that corresponds to the bulk of the plasma. For this task, we use spectroscopic observations of several active regions taken by the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer of the Hinode mission. The density sensitive ratio of the Fe(sub XIV) lines at 264.78 and 274.20 Angstroms is used to determine wing and core densities.We compute the ratio of the blue wing density to the core density and find that most values are of order unity. This is consistent with the predictions for coronal nanoflares if most of the observed coronal mass is supplied by chromospheric evaporation driven by the nanoflares. However, much larger blue wing-to-core density ratios are predicted if most of the coronal mass is supplied by heated material ejected with type II spicules. Our measurements do not rule out a spicule origin for the blue wing emission, but they argue against spicules being a primary source of the hot plasma in the corona. We note that only about 40% of the pixels where line blends could be safely ignored have blue wing asymmetries in both Fe(sub XIV) lines. Anticipated sub-arcsecond spatial resolution spectroscopic observations in future missions could shed more light on the origin of blue, red, and mixed asymmetries.

  4. Core and Wing Densities of Asymmetric Coronal Spectral Profiles: Implications for the Mass Supply of the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patsourakos, S.; Klimchuk, J. A.; Young, P. R.

    2014-02-01

    Recent solar spectroscopic observations have shown that coronal spectral lines can exhibit asymmetric profiles, with enhanced emissions at their blue wings. These asymmetries correspond to rapidly upflowing plasmas at speeds exceeding ≈50 km s-1. Here, we perform a study of the density of the rapidly upflowing material and compare it with that of the line core that corresponds to the bulk of the plasma. For this task, we use spectroscopic observations of several active regions taken by the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer of the Hinode mission. The density sensitive ratio of the Fe XIV lines at 264.78 and 274.20 Å is used to determine wing and core densities. We compute the ratio of the blue wing density to the core density and find that most values are of order unity. This is consistent with the predictions for coronal nanoflares if most of the observed coronal mass is supplied by chromospheric evaporation driven by the nanoflares. However, much larger blue wing-to-core density ratios are predicted if most of the coronal mass is supplied by heated material ejected with type II spicules. Our measurements do not rule out a spicule origin for the blue wing emission, but they argue against spicules being a primary source of the hot plasma in the corona. We note that only about 40% of the pixels where line blends could be safely ignored have blue wing asymmetries in both Fe XIV lines. Anticipated sub-arcsecond spatial resolution spectroscopic observations in future missions could shed more light on the origin of blue, red, and mixed asymmetries.

  5. Detection of Biosignatures using Geomatrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry: Implications for the Search for Life in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, C. D.; Kotler, J. M.; Hinman, N. W.; Scott, J. R.

    2008-12-01

    Detection of bio/organic signatures, defined as an organic structure produced by living organisms or derived from other biogenic organic compounds, is essential to investigating the origin and distribution of extant or extinct life in the solar system. In conjunction with mineralogical, inorganic, and isotopic data, the detection and identification of bio/organic signatures can assist in linking biochemical and geochemical processes. Geomatrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (GALDI) in conjunction with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) is a proven method of obtaining bio/organic signatures from a range of geological materials. Sulfate salts were studied because they are found on Mars and Jovian satellites. The goal here was to determine (1) which combinations of bio/organic compounds and sulfate salts produced distinctive spectral signatures, and (2) the detection limit of the method. In these experiments, thenardite (Na2SO4) was mixed with stearic acid to determine the detection limit of GALDI-FTICR-MS, previously estimated to be 3 ppt, which corresponds to approximately 7 zeptomoles (10-21) per laser shot. All spectra were collected with little to no sample preparation and were acquired using a single laser shot. Unlike conventional analytical practices, the signal-to-noise ratio increased as the concentration of bio/organic compounds decreased relative to the mineral host. In combination with thenardite, aromatic amino acids were observed to undergo simple cation attachment ([M+Na]+) due to the π-bonded aromatic ring. Subsequent cation substitution of the carboxyl group led to formation of peaks representing double cation attachment ([M-H+Na]Na+). Spectra from naturally occurring thenardite and jarosite (XFe3(OH)6(SO4)2) revealed the presence of high mass cluster ions; analysis of their isotopic distribution suggested the presence of bio/organic compounds. High mass cluster ions, both organic and inorganic, readily

  6. Interplanetary ions during an energetic storm particle event - The distribution function from solar wind thermal energies to 1.6 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosling, J. T.; Asbridge, J. R.; Bame, S. J.; Feldman, W. C.; Zwickl, R. D.; Paschmann, G.; Sckopke, N.; Hynds, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    An ion velocity distribution function of the postshock phase of an energetic storm particle (ESP) event is obtained from data from the ISEE 2 and ISEE 3 experiments. The distribution function is roughly isotropic in the solar wind frame from solar wind thermal energies to 1.6 MeV. The ESP event studied (8/27/78) is superposed upon a more energetic particle event which was predominantly field-aligned and which was probably of solar origin. The observations suggest that the ESP population is accelerated directly out of the solar wind thermal population or its quiescent suprathermal tail by a stochastic process associated with shock wave disturbance. The acceleration mechanism is sufficiently efficient so that approximately 1% of the solar wind population is accelerated to suprathermal energies. These suprathermal particles have an energy density of approximately 290 eV cubic centimeters.

  7. Radio Detections During Two State Transitions of the Intermediate-Mass Black Hole HLX-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Natalie; Cseh, David; Lenc, Emil; Godet, Olivier; Barret, Didier; Corbel, Stephane; Farrell, Sean; Fender, Robert; Gehrels, Neil; Heywood, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Relativistic jets are streams of plasma moving at appreciable fractions of the speed of light. They have been observed from stellar-mass black holes (approx. 3 to 20 solar masses) as well as supermassive black holes (approx.. 10(exp 6) to 10(exp 9) Solar Mass) found in the centers of most galaxies. Jets should also be produced by intermediate-mass black holes (approx. 10(exp 2) to 10(exp 5) Solar Mass), although evidence for this third class of black hole has, until recently, been weak. We report the detection of transient radio emission at the location of the intermediate-mass black hole candidate ESO 243-49 HLX-1, which is consistent with a discrete jet ejection event. These observations also allow us to refine the mass estimate of the black hole to be between approx. 9 × 10(exp 3) Solar Mass and approx. 9 × 10(exp 4) Solar Mass.

  8. Final report of CCM key comparison of mass standards CCM.M-K6, 50 kg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Patrick J.; Becerra, Luis O.; Borys, Michael; Davidson, Stuart; Jacques, Claude; Lee, Sungjun; Loayza, Víctor; Malengo, Andrea; Nieves Medina, Ma

    2015-01-01

    In order to show equivalence in mass standards calibration among National Metrology Institutes of member countries of the 'Comité international des poids et mesures' (CIPM), key comparisons of mass standards have been carried out under the auspices of the 'Comité Consultatif pour la Masse et les Grandeurs Apparentées' (CCM). This key comparison on 50 kg standards in standard stainless steel was based on the decision of the CCM during the 11th meeting held in April 2008 at the 'Bureau International des Poids et Mesures' (BIPM). For this key comparison CENAM—Mexico acted as pilot laboratory, and NPL—United Kingdom accepted to be co-pilot laboratory. The aims of this key comparison were to compare the results obtained by NMIs in calibration of 50 kg stainless steel weights and to repeat the exercise realized in 2001-2002 with the key comparison identified as CCM.M-K3. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  9. Evidence of a Plasmoid-Looptop Interaction and Magnetic Inflows During a Solar Flare/Coronal Mass Ejection Eruptive Event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milligan, Ryan O.; McAteer, R. T. James; Dennis, Brian R.; Young, C. Alex

    2010-01-01

    Observational evidence is presented for the merging of a downward-propagating plasmoid with a looptop kernel during an occulted limb event on 2007 January 25. RHESSI light curves in the 9-18 keV energy range, as well as that of the 245 MHz channel of the Learmonth Solar Observatory, show enhanced nonthermal emission in the corona at the time of the merging suggesting that additional particle acceleration took place. This was attributed to a secondary episode of reconnection in the current sheet that formed between the two merging sources. RHESSI images were used to establish a mean downward velocity of the plasmoid of 12 km/s. Complementary observations from the SECCHI suite of instruments on board STEREO-B showed that this process occurred during the acceleration phase of the associated coronal mass ejection (CME). From wavelet-enhanced EUV Imager, image evidence of inflowing magnetic field lines prior to the CME eruption is also presented. The derived inflow velocity was found to be 1.5 km/s. This combination of observations supports a recent numerical simulation of plasmoid formation, propagation, and subsequent particle acceleration due to the tearing mode instability during current sheet formation.

  10. Measurements and an empirical model of the Zodiacal brightness as observed by the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buffington, Andrew; Bisi, Mario M.; Clover, John M.; Hick, P. Paul; Jackson, Bernard V.; Kuchar, Thomas A.; Price, Stephan D.

    2016-07-01

    The Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) provided near-full-sky broadband visible-light photometric maps for 8.5 years from 2003 to 2011. At a cadence of typically 14 maps per day, these each have an angular resolution of about 0.5º and differential photometric stability of about 1% throughout this time. When individual bright stars are removed from the maps and an empirical sidereal background subtracted, the residue is dominated by the zodiacal light. This sky coverage enables the formation of an empirical zodiacal-light model for observations at 1 AU which summarizes the SMEI data. When this is subtracted, analysis of the ensemble of residual sky maps sets upper limits of typically 1% for potential secular change of the zodiacal light for each of nine chosen ecliptic sky locations. An overall long-term photometric stability of 0.25% is certified by analysis of three stable sidereal objects. Averaging the nine ecliptic results together yields a 1-σ upper limit of 0.3% for zodiacal light change over this 8.5 year period.

  11. Measurements and an Empirical Model of the Zodiacal Brightness as Observed by the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buffington, A.; Bisi, M. M.; Clover, J. M.; Hick, P. P.; Jackson, B. V.; Kuchar, T. A.; Price, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) has provided near-full-sky broadband visible-light photometric maps for 8.5 years from 2003 to 2011. These have an angular resolution of about 0.5º and differential photometric stability of about 1% per map throughout this time. When individual bright stars are removed from the maps and an empirical sidereal background subtracted, the residue is dominated by the zodiacal light. This sky coverage enables the formation of an empirical zodiacal-light model for observations at 1 AU which summarizes the SMEI data. When this is subtracted, analysis of the ensemble of residual sky maps sets upper limits of typically 1% for potential secular change of the zodiacal light for each of nine chosen ecliptic sky locations. An overall long-term photometric stability of 0.25% is certified by analysis of three stable sidereal objects. Averaging the nine ecliptic results together yields a 1-σ upper limit of 0.3% for zodiacal light change over this 8.5 year period.

  12. Impulsively Fast Magnetic Reconnection in Solar Flares and Coronal Mass Ejections and in Laboratory Plasma Merging Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chio Z.; Ono, Yasushi; Yang, Ya-Hui; Choe, Gwangson

    2012-10-01

    Impulsively fast magnetic reconnection has been shown to be the major mechanism responsible for explosive flare non-thermal energy release and acceleration of coronal mass ejection (CME) motion. It has been observed that for most large solar flares non-thermal emissions in hard X-rays (HXR) and millimeter/submillimeter waves impulsively rise and decade during the soft X-ray (SXR) emission rise phase. Moreover, the filament/CME upward motion is accelerated temporally in correlation with the impulsive enhancement of flare non-thermal emission and reconnection electric field in the current sheet in both simulations and observations. The peak reconnection electric field during flare impulsive phase is on the order of a few kV/m for X-class flares. Here, we demonstrated for the first time in laboratory plasma merging experiments the correlation of the magnetic reconnection rate with the acceleration of plasmoid ejected from the current sheet using the TS-4 device of the Tokyo University. Moreover, we have also found that the electron heating occurs in the current sheet and the ion heating occurs in the down-stream outflow region. Thus, we conclude that the plasmoid/CME acceleration is a key mechanism for the impulsive enhancement of magnetic reconnection rate (electric field).

  13. The structure of mass-loading shocks. [interaction of solar wind with cometary coma or local interstellar medium using two-fluid model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zank, G. P.; Khabibrakhmanov, I. KH.; Story, T.

    1993-01-01

    A new two-fluid model which describes mass loading in the solar wind (e.g., the interaction of the solar wind with a cometary coma or the local interstellar medium) is presented. The self-consistent back-reaction of the mass-loaded ions is included through their effective scattering in low-frequency MHD turbulence and the invocation of a diffusive approximation. Such an approximation has the advantage of introducing self-consistent dissipation coefficients into the governing equations, thereby facilitating the investigation of the internal structure of shocks in mass-loading environments. To illustrate the utility of the new model, we consider the structure of cometary shocks in the hypersonic one-dimensional limit, finding that the incoming solar wind is slowed by both mass loading and the development of a large cometary ion pressure gradient. The shock is broadened and smoothed by the cometary ions with a thickness of the order of the cometary ion diffusion scale.

  14. Heteroadamantanes and their derivatives. 6. Synthesis and mass-spectrometric investigation of 5-mono- and 5,6-disubstituted 6-oxo-1,3-diazaadamantanes

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, A.I.; Basargin, E.B.; Moskovkin, A.S.; Ba, M.Kh.; Miroshnichenko, I.V.; Botnikov, M.Ya.; Unkovskii, B.V.

    1986-06-01

    The corresponding 5-mono- and 5,7-disubstituted 6-oxo-1,3-diazaadamantanes were obtained with high yields by the condensation of mono- and ..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..'-disubstituted acetones with hexamethylenetetramine in the presence of glacial acetic acid, and their structures were confirmed by IR and PMR spectra. The behavior of the compounds under electron impact was studied, and the main fragmentation paths of their molecules were determined.

  15. Low-frequency observations of drifting, non-thermal continuum radio emission associated with the solar coronal mass ejections

    SciTech Connect

    Ramesh, R.; Kishore, P.; Barve, Indrajit V.; Kathiravan, C.; Mulay, Sargam M.; Wang, T. J.

    2013-11-20

    Low-frequency (80 MHz) imaging and spectral (≈85-20 MHz) observations of moving type IV radio bursts associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from the Sun on three different days are reported. The estimated drift speed of the bursts is in the range ≈150-500 km s{sup –1}. We find that all three bursts are most likely due to second harmonic plasma emission from the enhanced electron density in the associated white-light CMEs. The derived maximum magnetic field strength of the latter is B ≈ 4 G at a radial distance of r ≈ 1.6 R {sub ☉}.

  16. Evaluation of solar cells for potential space satellite power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The evaluation focused on the following subjects: (1) the relative merits of alternative solar cell materials, based on performance and availability, (2) the best manufacturing methods for various solar cell options and the effects of extremely large production volumes on their ultimate costs and operational characteristics, (3) the areas of uncertainty in achieving large solar cell production volumes, (4) the effects of concentration ratios on solar array mass and system performance, (5) the factors influencing solar cell life in the radiation environment during transport to and in geosynchronous orbit, and (6) the merits of conducting solar cell manufacturing operations in space.

  17. Determination of the 235U Mass and Enrichment within Small UF6 Cylinders via a Neutron Coincidence Well Counting System

    SciTech Connect

    McElroy, Robert Dennis; Croft, Dr. Stephen; Young, Brian M; Venkataraman, Ram

    2011-01-01

    The construction of three new uranium enrichment facilities in the United States has sparked renewed interest in the development and enhancement of methods to determine the enrichment and fissile mass content of UF6 cylinders. We describe the design and examine the expected performance of a UF6 bottle counter developed for the assay of Type 5A cylinders. The counter, as designed and subsequently constructed, is a tall passive neutron well counter with a clam-shell configuration and graphite end plugs operated in fast neutron mode. Factory performance against expectation is described. The relatively high detection efficiency and effectively 4 detection geometry provide a near-ideal measurement configuration, making the UF6 bottle counter a valuable tool for the evaluation of the neutron coincidence approach to UF6 cylinder assay. The impacts of non-uniform filling, voids, enrichment, and mixed enrichments are examined

  18. THE DISCOVERY OF THE YOUNGEST MOLECULAR OUTFLOW ASSOCIATED WITH AN INTERMEDIATE-MASS PROTOSTELLAR CORE, MMS-6/OMC-3

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Satoko; Ho, Paul T. P.

    2012-01-20

    We present subarcsecond resolution HCN (4-3) and CO (3-2) observations made with the Submillimeter Array, toward an extremely young intermediate-mass protostellar core, MMS 6-main, located in the Orion Molecular Cloud 3 region (OMC-3). We have successfully imaged a compact molecular outflow lobe ( Almost-Equal-To 1000 AU) associated with MMS 6-main, which is also the smallest molecular outflow ever found in the intermediate-mass protostellar cores. The dynamical timescale of this outflow is estimated to be {<=}100 yr. The line width dramatically increases downstream at the end of the molecular outflow ({Delta}v {approx} 25 km s{sup -1}) and clearly shows the bow-shock-type velocity structure. The estimated outflow mass ( Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -4} M{sub Sun }) and outflow size are approximately two to four orders and one to three orders of magnitude smaller, respectively, while the outflow force ( Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -4} M{sub Sun} km s{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) is similar, compared to the other molecular outflows studied in OMC-2/3. These results show that MMS 6-main is a protostellar core at the earliest evolutionary stage, most likely shortly after the second core formation.

  19. Interaction of the plasma tail of comet Bradfield 1979L on 1980 February 6 with a possibly flare-generated solar-wind disturbance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedner, M. B., Jr.; Brandt, J. C.; Zwickl, R. D.; Bame, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    Solar wind plasma data from the ISEE-3 and Helios 2 spacecraft were examined to explain a uniquely rapid 10 deg turning of the plasma tail of comet Bradfield 1979L on 1980 February 6. It was suggested that the tail position angle change occurred in response to a solar wind velocity shear across which the polar component changed by approx. 50 km s-1. The present activity was caused by noncorotating, disturbed plasma flows probably associated with an Importance 1B solar flare.

  20. Performance Comparisons and Down Selection of Small Motors for Two-Blade Heliogyro Solar Sail 6U CubeSat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiwattananon, Peerawan; Bryant, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    This report compiles a review of 130 commercial small scale motors (piezoelectric and electric motors) and almost 20 researched-type small scale piezoelectricmotors for potential use in a 2 blades Heliogyro Solar Sail 6U CubeSat. In this application, a motor and gearhead (drive system) will deploy a roll of solar sailthin film (2 um thick)accommodated in a 2U CubeSat (100 x 200 x 100 mm) housing. The application requirements are: space rated, output torque at fulldeployment of 0.8 Nm, reel speed of 3 rpm, drive system weight limited to 150 grams, diameter limited to 50 mm, and the length not to exceed 40 mm. The 50mm diameter limit was imposed as motors with larger diameters would likely weigh too much and use more space on the satellite wall. This would limit theamount of the payload. The motors performance are compared between small scale, volume within 3x102 cm3 (3x105 mm3), commercial electric DC motors,commercial piezoelectric motors, and researched-type (non-commercial) piezoelectric motors extracted from scientific and product literature. The comparisonssuggest that piezoelectric motors without a gearhead exhibit larger output torque with respect to their volume and weight and require less input power toproduce high torque. A commercially available electric motor plus a gearhead was chosen through a proposed selection process to meet the applications designrequirements.

  1. Heterogeneous Distribution of ^2^6Al at the Birth of the Solar System: Evidence from Corundum-Bearing Refractory Inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krot, A. N.; Makide, K.; Nagashima, K.; Huss, G. R.; Hellebrand, E.; Petaev, M. I.

    2012-03-01

    Corundum-bearing CAIs recorded heterogeneous distribution of ^2^6Al at the birth of the solar system. We suggest that ^2^6Al was injected into the protosolar molecular cloud core by a wind from a massive star and was later homogenized through the disk.

  2. Monodeuterated methane in the outer solar system. II. Its detection on Uranus at 1. 6 microns

    SciTech Connect

    De bergh, C.; Chauville, J.; Lutz, B.L.; Owen, T.; Brault, J.

    1986-12-01

    The 3 nu 2 band of CH3D has been detected in the spectrum of Uranus recorded with the Fourier Transform Spectrometer at the 4 m Mayall telescope of Kitt Peak National Observatory. A scattering-model atmosphere and spectral synthesis techniques are used to derive a bulk CH3D/CH4 mixing ratio of 3.6 + 3.6 or - 2.8 x 10 to the -4th from these observations that suggests a deuterium enhancement in methane relative to that observed on Jupiter and Saturn. 34 references.

  3. Ratio of Dietary n-6/n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Independently Related to Muscle Mass Decline in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Te-Chih; Chen, Yu-Tong; Wu, Pei-Yu; Chen, Tzen-Wen; Chen, Hsi-Hsien; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Yang, Shwu-Huey

    2015-01-01

    Background n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might be useful nutritional strategy for treating patients with sarcopenia. We evaluated the effect of the intake of dietary n-3 PUFAs on the skeletal muscle mass (SMM), appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM), and its determinants in patients receiving standard hemodialysis (HD) treatment for the management of end stage renal disease. Methods In this cross-sectional study, data of 111 HD patients were analyzed. Anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance measurements used to estimate the muscle mass were performed the day of dialysis immediately after the dialysis session. Routine laboratory and 3-day dietary data were also collected. The cutoff value of adequate intake (AI) for both n-3 PUFAs and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) was 1.6 g/day and 1.1 g/day for men and women, respectively. Results The mean age, mean dietary n-3 PUFAs intake, ALA intake, ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs intake, SMM, and ASM of patients were 61.4 ± 10.4 years, 2.0 ± 1.3 g/day, 1.5 ± 1.0 g/day, 9.5 ± 6.7 g/day, 23.9 ± 5.5 kg, and 17.5 ± 4.5 kg, respectively. A higher SMM and ASM significantly observed in patients who achieved an AI of n-3 PUFAs. Similar trends appeared to be observed among those patients who achieved the AI of ALA, but the difference was not significantly, except for ASM (P = 0.047). No relevant differences in demographics, laboratory and nutritional parameters were observed, regardless of whether the patients achieved an AI of n-3 PUFAs. Multivariate analysis showed that the BMI and equilibrated Kt/V were independent determinants of the muscle mass. Moreover, the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was an independent risk determinant of reduced ASM in HD patients. Conclusion Patients with an AI of n-3 PUFAs had better total-body SMM and ASM. A higher dietary ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs seemed to be associated with a reduced muscle mass in HD patients. PMID:26466314

  4. An ultra-high-resolution survey of the interstellar lithium-7 to lithium-6 isotope ratio in the solar neighborhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knauth, David C.

    Previous studies on the interstellar 7Li/6Li ratio show variations in its value. In an effort to probe the extent of these variations, ultra-high-resolution (R ˜ 360,000), high signal-to-noise spectra of stars in the Perseus OB2 and Scorpius OB2 Associations were obtained. These observations confirm my earlier findings of an interstellar 7Li/6Li ratio of about 2 toward o Per, the value predicted from models of GCR spallation reactions. However, observations of the other nearby stars yield isotopic ratios closer to that seen in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites (7Li/6Li = 12.3). My results suggest that the 7Li/6Li ratio has not changed significantly during the last 4.5 billion years (Gyr) and that a ratio ˜12 represents most gas in the solar neighborhood. Some directions reveal the presence of interesting processes taking place. If the Solar System value of about 12 originally represented the gas toward o Per, then an increase in the Li abundance by an order of magnitude is expected, but is not seen. The elemental K/Li ratio is not unusual, although Li and K are formed via different nucleosynthetic pathways. Fractionation cannot account for the low 7Li/6Li ratio; the abundance of LiH is too low. In attempt to explain the low ratio toward o Per, the role of stellar flares from young stars in IC 348 was investigated, but the amount of 6Li created in stellar flares is negligible. Another interesting result is evidence for enhanced depletion toward X Per, since both the Li and K abundances are lower by a factor of 4 when compared to other sight lines. Moreover, enhanced destruction of Li relative to H and K is suggested by my measurements of 20 Aql. A possible cause is the proximity of the line of sight toward 20 Aql to the supernova remnant, Radio Loop I, but a simple calculation for Li destruction indicates timescales much longer than the estimated age of the remnant. From knowledge of the interstellar 7Li/6Li ratio, the amount of 7Li from stellar sources needed to

  5. An Ultra-High-Resolution Survey of the Interstellar Lithium-7 to Lithium-6 Isotope Ratio in the Solar Neighborhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knauth, D. C.

    2002-04-01

    Previous studies on the interstellar 7Li/6Li ratio show variations in its value. In an effort to probe the extent of these variations, ultra-high-resolution (R ˜ 360,000), high signal-to-noise spectra of stars in the Perseus OB2 and Scorpius OB2 Associations were obtained. These observations confirm my earlier findings of an interstellar 7Li/6Li ratio of about 2 toward o Per, the value predicted from models of GCR spallation reactions. However, observations of the other nearby stars yield isotopic ratios closer to that seen in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites (7Li/6Li = 12.3). My results suggest that the 7Li/6Li ratio has not changed significantly during the last 4.5 billion years (Gyr) and that a ratio ˜12 represents most