Chao, Alexander Wu; /SLAC
2012-03-01
As accelerator technology advances, the requirements on accelerator beam quality become increasingly demanding. Facing these new demands, the topic of phase space gymnastics is becoming a new focus of accelerator physics R&D. In a phase space gymnastics, the beam's phase space distribution is manipulated and precision tailored to meet the required beam qualities. On the other hand, all realization of such gymnastics will have to obey accelerator physics principles as well as technological limitations. Recent examples of phase space gymnastics include Emittance exchanges, Phase space exchanges, Emittance partitioning, Seeded FELs and Microbunched beams. The emittance related topics of this list are reviewed in this report. The accelerator physics basis, the optics design principles that provide these phase space manipulations, and the possible applications of these gymnastics, are discussed. This fascinating new field promises to be a powerful tool of the future.
Compactification on phase space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lovelady, Benjamin; Wheeler, James
2016-03-01
A major challenge for string theory is to understand the dimensional reduction required for comparison with the standard model. We propose reducing the dimension of the compactification by interpreting some of the extra dimensions as the energy-momentum portion of a phase-space. Such models naturally arise as generalized quotients of the conformal group called biconformal spaces. By combining the standard Kaluza-Klein approach with such a conformal gauge theory, we may start from the conformal group of an n-dimensional Euclidean space to form a 2n-dimensional quotient manifold with symplectic structure. A pair of involutions leads naturally to two n-dimensional Lorentzian manifolds. For n = 5, this leaves only two extra dimensions, with a countable family of possible compactifications and an SO(5) Yang-Mills field on the fibers. Starting with n=6 leads to 4-dimensional compactification of the phase space. In the latter case, if the two dimensions each from spacetime and momentum space are compactified onto spheres, then there is an SU(2)xSU(2) (left-right symmetric electroweak) field between phase and configuration space and an SO(6) field on the fibers. Such a theory, with minor additional symmetry breaking, could contain all parts of the standard model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheehan, Daniel Peter
1987-09-01
Experimental measurements are presented of ion phase space evolution in a collisionless magnetoplasma utilizing nonperturbing laser induced fluorescence (LIF) diagnostics. Ion configuration space and velocity space transport, and ion thermodynamic information were derived from the phase space diagrams for the following beam-plasma and obstacle-plasma systems:(UNFORMATTED TABLE OR EQUATION FOLLOWS) OBSTACLE & PLASMA SPECIES qquad disc & quad Ba ^+/e^ qquad disc & quad Ba^+/SF _6^-/e^ BEAM SPECIES & PLASMA SPECIES} qquad Ba^+ & quad Cs^+/e^ qquad Cs^+ & quad Ba^+/e^ qquad Ba^+ & quad Cs^+/SF_6 ^-/e^ qquad e^- & quad Ba^+ /e^ TABLE/EQUATION ENDS The ions were roughly mass symmetric. Plasma systems were reconstructed from multiple discrete Ba(II) ion velocity distributions with spatial, temporal, and velocity resolution of 1 mm^3, 2 musec, and 3 times 1010 cm ^3/sec^3 respectively. Phase space reconstructions indicated resonant ion response to the current-driven electrostatic ion cyclotron wave (EICW) in the case of an electron beam and to the ion cyclotron-cyclotron wave in the case of ion beams. Ion energization was observed in both systems. Local particle kinetic energy densities increase far above thermal levels in the presence of the EICW and ICCW. Time-resolved measurements of the EICW identified phase space particle bunching. The nonlinear evolution of f_{rm i}(x,v,t) was investigated for both beam systems. The near wake of conducting electrically floating disc obstacle was studied. Anomalous cross field diffusion (D_bot > 10 ^4 cm^2/sec) and ion energization were correlated with strong, low-frequency turbulence generated by the obstacle. Ion perpendicular kinetic energy densities doubled over thermal levels in the near wake. Upstream of the obstacle, l ~ 50 lambda_ {rm D}, a collisionless shock was indicated; far downstream, an ion flux peak was observed. Three negative ion plasma (NIP) sources were developed and characterized in the course of research: two
Information encryption in phase space.
Liu, Jun; Xu, Xiaobin; Wu, Quanying; Sheridan, John T; Situ, Guohai
2015-03-15
In this Letter, we propose an information encryption technique based on the theory of phase-space optics. We show that encoding the plaintext in phase space provides a higher level of security: first, the key-space is significantly enlarged. Second, it is immune to various known-plaintext (cyphertext) attacks to which the double-random phase encryption (DRPE) is vulnerable. Third, the bilinearity of phase-space distributions offers additional security. Theoretical analysis and numerical calculation results show that the proposed technique has significantly different responses to errors added to the cypheretext and the two phase keys in comparison to the classical DRPE.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murphy, Andrew; Haestad, Jace; Morgan, Thomas
2015-09-01
We report characteristics of closed classical orbits in an electric field in phase space produced in photoabsorption. Rydberg states of atomic and molecular hydrogen and helium are considered. The core potential used for the hydrogen molecule is an effective one electron one center core potential evaluated at the internuclear equilibrium distance. Poincare surfaces of section in phase space are generated by integrating the equations of motion in semiparabolic coordinates u = (r + z) 1 / 2 and v = (r - z) 1 / 2, and plotting the location in phase space (pv versus v) whenever u = 0, with the electric field in the z direction. Combination orbits produced by Rydberg electron core scattering are studied and the evolution in phase space of these combination orbits due to scattering from one closed orbit into another is investigated. Connections are made to measured laser photoabsorption experiments that excite Rydberg states (20 < n < 30) and produce accompanying scaled energy recurrence spectra. The phase space structures responsible for the spectra are identified.
Phase nucleation in curved space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gómez, Leopoldo; García, Nicolás; Vitelli, Vincenzo; Lorenzana, José; Daniel, Vega
Nucleation and growth is the dominant relaxation mechanism driving first-order phase transitions. In two-dimensional flat systems, nucleation has been applied to a wide range of problems in physics, chemistry and biology. Here we study nucleation and growth of two-dimensional phases lying on curved surfaces and show that curvature modifies both critical sizes of nuclei and paths towards the equilibrium phase. In curved space, nucleation and growth becomes inherently inhomogeneous and critical nuclei form faster on regions of positive Gaussian curvature. Substrates of varying shape display complex energy landscapes with several geometry-induced local minima, where initially propagating nuclei become stabilized and trapped by the underlying curvature (Gómez, L. R. et al. Phase nucleation in curved space. Nat. Commun. 6:6856 doi: 10.1038/ncomms7856 (2015).).
Longitudinal phase space tomography with space charge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hancock, S.; Lindroos, M.; Koscielniak, S.
2000-12-01
Tomography is now a very broad topic with a wealth of algorithms for the reconstruction of both qualitative and quantitative images. In an extension in the domain of particle accelerators, one of the simplest algorithms has been modified to take into account the nonlinearity of large-amplitude synchrotron motion. This permits the accurate reconstruction of longitudinal phase space density from one-dimensional bunch profile data. The method is a hybrid one which incorporates particle tracking. Hitherto, a very simple tracking algorithm has been employed because only a brief span of measured profile data is required to build a snapshot of phase space. This is one of the strengths of the method, as tracking for relatively few turns relaxes the precision to which input machine parameters need to be known. The recent addition of longitudinal space charge considerations as an optional refinement of the code is described. Simplicity suggested an approach based on the derivative of bunch shape with the properties of the vacuum chamber parametrized by a single value of distributed reactive impedance and by a geometrical coupling coefficient. This is sufficient to model the dominant collective effects in machines of low to moderate energy. In contrast to simulation codes, binning is not an issue since the profiles to be differentiated are measured ones. The program is written in Fortran 90 with high-performance Fortran extensions for parallel processing. A major effort has been made to identify and remove execution bottlenecks, for example, by reducing floating-point calculations and recoding slow intrinsic functions. A pointerlike mechanism which avoids the problems associated with pointers and parallel processing has been implemented. This is required to handle the large, sparse matrices that the algorithm employs. Results obtained with and without the inclusion of space charge are presented and compared for proton beams in the CERN protron synchrotron booster. Comparisons
Quantum shuttle in phase space.
Novotný, Tomás; Donarini, Andrea; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2003-06-27
We present a quantum theory of the shuttle instability in electronic transport through a nanostructure with a mechanical degree of freedom. A phase space formulation in terms of the Wigner function allows us to identify a crossover from the tunneling to the shuttling regime, thus extending the previously found classical results to the quantum domain. Further, a new dynamical regime is discovered, where the shuttling is driven exclusively by the quantum noise.
Chetouani, L.; Hammann, T.F.
1987-03-01
The Hamiltonian of the three-dimensional hydrogen atom is reduced, in parabolic coordinates, to the Hamiltonians of two bidimensional harmonic oscillators, by doing several space-time transformations,separating the movement along the three parabolic directions (xi,eta,phi), and introducing two auxiliary angular variables psi and psi', 0less than or equal topsi, psi'less than or equal to2..pi... The Green's function is developed into partial Green's functions, and expressed in terms of two Green's functions that describe the movements along both the xi and eta axes. Introducing auxiliary Hamiltonians allows one to calculate the Green's function in the configurational space, via the phase-space evolution function of the two-dimensional harmonic oscillator. The auxiliary variables psi and psi' are eliminated by projection. The thus-obtained Green's function, save for a multiplicating factor, coincides with that calculated following the path-integral formalism.
Experimental compressive phase space tomography
Tian, Lei; Lee, Justin; Oh, Se Baek; Barbastathis, George
2012-01-01
Phase space tomography estimates correlation functions entirely from snapshots in the evolution of the wave function along a time or space variable. In contrast, traditional interferometric methods require measurement of multiple two–point correlations. However, as in every tomographic formulation, undersampling poses a severe limitation. Here we present the first, to our knowledge, experimental demonstration of compressive reconstruction of the classical optical correlation function, i.e. the mutual intensity function. Our compressive algorithm makes explicit use of the physically justifiable assumption of a low–entropy source (or state.) Since the source was directly accessible in our classical experiment, we were able to compare the compressive estimate of the mutual intensity to an independent ground–truth estimate from the van Cittert–Zernike theorem and verify substantial quantitative improvements in the reconstruction. PMID:22513541
A general formalism for phase space calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Norbury, John W.; Deutchman, Philip A.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.
1988-01-01
General formulas for calculating the interactions of galactic cosmic rays with target nuclei are presented. Methods for calculating the appropriate normalization volume elements and phase space factors are presented. Particular emphasis is placed on obtaining correct phase space factors for 2-, and 3-body final states. Calculations for both Lorentz-invariant and noninvariant phase space are presented.
Phase-space quantization of field theory.
Curtright, T.; Zachos, C.
1999-04-20
In this lecture, a limited introduction of gauge invariance in phase-space is provided, predicated on canonical transformations in quantum phase-space. Exact characteristic trajectories are also specified for the time-propagating Wigner phase-space distribution function: they are especially simple--indeed, classical--for the quantized simple harmonic oscillator. This serves as the underpinning of the field theoretic Wigner functional formulation introduced. Scalar field theory is thus reformulated in terms of distributions in field phase-space. This is a pedagogical selection from work published and reported at the Yukawa Institute Workshop ''Gauge Theory and Integrable Models'', 26-29 January, 1999.
Generalized Stokes parameters in phase space.
Sahin, Serkan
2010-05-15
The generalized Stokes parameters (GSP) are studied under the theory of phase space. It is noted that phase-space Stokes parameters can be a useful tool for Wigner distribution function measurements. Electromagnetic Wigner functions are introduced by use of the two-point statistics of GSP. The advantage in the GSP is that they can be measured in terms of the electric correlation matrix (which is a measurable quantity) or they can be measured independently. Hence, the GSP help in finding the polarization and coherence properties of electromagnetic beams. Within this framework, by using the GSP in phase space, the intensity feature of electromagnetic beams in phase space is given, as well.
The Way to Phase Space Crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Lingzhen; Michael, Marthaler; Schön, Gerd
A novel way to create a band structure of the quasienergy spectrum for driven systems is proposed based on the discrete symmetry in phase space. The system, e.g., an ion or ultracold atom trapped in a potential, shows no spatial periodicity, but it is driven by a time-dependent field. Under rotating wave approximation, the system can produce a periodic lattice structure in phase space. The band structure in quasienergy arises as a consequence of the n-fold discrete periodicity in phase space induced by this driving field. We propose explicit models to realize such a phase space crystal and analyze its band structure in the frame of a tightbinding approximation. The phase space lattice differs fundamentally from a lattice in real space, because its coordinate system, i.e., phase space, has a noncommutative geometry. The phase space crystal opens new ways to engineer energy band structures, with the added advantage that its properties can be changed in situ by tuning the driving field's parameters. Carl-Zeiss Stiftung.
RADON reconstruction in longitudinal phase space
Mane, V.; Peggs, S.; Wei, J.
1997-07-01
Longitudinal particle motion in circular accelerators is typically monitoring by one dimensional (1-D) profiles. Adiabatic particle motion in two dimensional (2-D) phase space can be reconstructed with tomographic techniques, using 1-D profiles. A computer program RADON has been developed in C++ to process digitized mountain range data and perform the phase space reconstruction for the AGS, and later for Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC).
Single phase space laundry development
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Colombo, Gerald V.; Putnam, David F.; Lunsford, Teddie D.; Streech, Neil D.; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Reimers, Harold
1993-01-01
This paper describes a newly designed, 2.7 Kg (6 pound) capacity, laundry machine called the Single Phase Laundry (SPSL). The machine was designed to wash and dry crew clothing in a micro-gravity environment. A prototype unit was fabricated for NASA-JSC under a Small Business Innovated Research (SBIR) contract extending from September 1990 to January 1993. The unit employs liquid jet agitation, microwave vacuum drying, and air jet tumbling, which was perfected by KC-135 zero-g flight testing. Operation is completely automated except for loading and unloading clothes. The unit uses about 20 percent less power than a conventional household appliance.
Beam Tomography in Longitudinal Phase Space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mane, V.; Wei, J.; Peggs, S.
1997-05-01
Longitudinal particle motion in circular accelerators is typically monitored by one dimensional (1-D) profiles. Adiabatic particle motion in 2-D phase space can be reconstructed with tomographic techniques, using 1-D profiles. In this paper, we discuss a filtered backprojection algorithm, with a high pass ramp or Hann filter, for phase space reconstruction. The algorithm uses several projections of the beam at equally spaced angles over half a synchrotron period. A computer program RADON has been developed to process digitized mountain range data and do the phase space reconstruction for the AGS, and later for Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Analysis has been performed to determine the sensitivity to machine parameters and data acquisition errors. During the Sextant test of RHIC in early 1997, this program has been successfully employed to reconstruct the motion of Au^77+ beam in the AGS.
Space, Phase Space and Quantum Numbers of Elementary Particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zenczykowski, P.
2007-06-01
We recall the arguments that there should be a close connection between the properties of elementary particles and the arena used for the description of macroscopic processes, and argue that a natural choice for this arena is provided by nonrelativistic phase space with momentum and position being independent variables. Accepting standard commutation relations for these variables, and adopting {x}2+{p}2 as an invariant, we linearise the latter à la Dirac. Phase space U(1) otimes SU(3) symmetry is then represented in the relevant Clifford algebra. Within this algebra, the eigenvalues of the U(1) generator are pm (+1/3,+1/3,+1/3,-1), characteristic of weak hypercharge Y for three coloured quarks and one lepton. The total U(1) generator contains contributions from the phase space and the Clifford algebra, and leads to a relation, which we propose to identify with the Gell-Mann-Nishijima-Glashow formula Q=I3+Y/2.
Noether symmetries in the phase space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Díaz, Bogar; Galindo-Linares, Elizabeth; Ramírez-Romero, Cupatitzio; Silva-Ortigoza, Gilberto; Suárez-Xique, Román; Torres del Castillo, Gerardo F.; Velázquez, Mercedes
2014-09-01
The constants of motion of a mechanical system with a finite number of degrees of freedom are related to the variational symmetries of a Lagrangian constructed from the Hamiltonian of the original system. The configuration space for this Lagrangian is the phase space of the original system. The symmetries considered in this manner include transformations of the time and may not be canonical in the standard sense.
Positive phase space distributions and uncertainty relations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kruger, Jan
1993-01-01
In contrast to a widespread belief, Wigner's theorem allows the construction of true joint probabilities in phase space for distributions describing the object system as well as for distributions depending on the measurement apparatus. The fundamental role of Heisenberg's uncertainty relations in Schroedinger form (including correlations) is pointed out for these two possible interpretations of joint probability distributions. Hence, in order that a multivariate normal probability distribution in phase space may correspond to a Wigner distribution of a pure or a mixed state, it is necessary and sufficient that Heisenberg's uncertainty relation in Schroedinger form should be satisfied.
Quantum entropy production in phase space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deffner, Sebastian
2014-03-01
A fluctuation theorem for the nonequilibrium entropy production in quantum phase space is derived, which enables the consistent thermodynamic description of arbitrary quantum systems, open and closed. The new treatment naturally generalizes classical results to the quantum domain. As an illustration the harmonic oscillator dragged through a thermal bath is solved numerically. Finally, the significance of the new approach is discussed in detail, and the phase space treatment is opposed to the two time energy measurement approach. We acknowledge financial support by a fellowship within the postdoc-program of the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD, contract No D/11/40955) and from the National Science Foundation (USA) under grant DMR-1206971.
Phase-space contraction and quantum operations
Garcia-Mata, Ignacio; Spina, Maria Elena; Saraceno, Marcos; Carlo, Gabriel
2005-12-15
We give a criterion to differentiate between dissipative and diffusive quantum operations. It is based on the classical idea that dissipative processes contract volumes in phase space. We define a quantity that can be regarded as 'quantum phase space contraction rate' and which is related to a fundamental property of quantum channels: nonunitality. We relate it to other properties of the channel and also show a simple example of dissipative noise composed with a chaotic map. The emergence of attractor-like structures is displayed.
Phase space distributions tailored for dispersive media.
Petruccelli, Jonathan C; Alonso, Miguel A
2010-05-01
New phase space distributions are proposed for describing pulse propagation in dispersive media for one spatial dimension. These distributions depend on time, position, and velocity, so that the pulse's spatial propagation or temporal evolution is described by a free-particle-like transformation followed by integration over velocity. Examples are considered for approximate Lorentz-model dielectrics and metallic waveguides.
Characterizing maximally singular phase-space distributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sperling, J.
2016-07-01
Phase-space distributions are widely applied in quantum optics to access the nonclassical features of radiations fields. In particular, the inability to interpret the Glauber-Sudarshan distribution in terms of a classical probability density is the fundamental benchmark for quantum light. However, this phase-space distribution cannot be directly reconstructed for arbitrary states, because of its singular behavior. In this work, we perform a characterization of the Glauber-Sudarshan representation in terms of distribution theory. We address important features of such distributions: (i) the maximal degree of their singularities is studied, (ii) the ambiguity of representation is shown, and (iii) their dual space for nonclassicality tests is specified. In this view, we reconsider the methods for regularizing the Glauber-Sudarshan distribution for verifying its nonclassicality. This treatment is supported with comprehensive examples and counterexamples.
Tailoring accelerating beams in phase space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, Yuanhui; Chen, Yujie; Zhang, Yanfeng; Chen, Hui; Yu, Siyuan
2017-02-01
An appropriate wave-front design will enable light fields that propagate along arbitrary trajectories, thus forming accelerating beams in free space. Previous strategies for designing such accelerating beams rely mainly on caustic methods, which start from diffraction integrals and deal only with two-dimensional fields. Here we introduce an alternate perspective to construct accelerating beams in phase space by designing the corresponding Wigner distribution function (WDF). We find that such a WDF-based method is capable of providing both the initial field distribution and the angular spectrum in need by projecting the WDF into the real space and the Fourier space, respectively. Moreover, this approach applies to the construction of both two- and three-dimensional fields, greatly generalizing previous caustic methods. It may therefore open a new route for construction of highly tailored accelerating beams and facilitate applications ranging from particle manipulation and trapping to optical routing as well as material processing.
Stratakis, D.; Kishek, R. A.; Bernal, S.; Walter, M.; Haber, I.; Fiorito, R.; Thangaraj, J. C. T.; Quinn, B.; Reiser, M.; O'Shea, P. G.; Li, H.
2006-11-27
In order to understand the charged particle dynamics, e.g. the halo formation, emittance growth, x-y energy transfer and coupling, knowledge of the actual phase space is needed. Other the past decade there is an increasing number of articles who use tomography to map the beam phase space and measure the beam emittance. These studies where performed at high energy facilities where the effect of space charge was neglible and therefore not considered in the analysis. This work extends the tomography technique to beams with space charge. In order to simplify the analysis linear forces where assumed. By carefully modeling the tomography process using the particle-in-cell code WARP we test the validity of our assumptions and the accuracy of the reconstructed phase space. Finally, we report experimental results of phase space mapping at the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER) using tomography.
Space market model development project, phase 3
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bishop, Peter C.; Hamel, Gary P.
1989-01-01
The results of a research project investigating information needs for space commercialization is described. The Space Market Model Development Project (SMMDP) was designed to help NASA identify the information needs of the business community and to explore means to meet those needs. The activity of the SMMDP is reviewed and a report of its operation via three sections is presented. The first part contains a brief historical review of the project since inception. The next part reports results of Phase 3, the most recent stage of activity. Finally, overall conclusions and observations based on the SMMDP research results are presented.
Rockstar: Phase-space halo finder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Behroozi, Peter; Wechsler, Risa; Wu, Hao-Yi
2012-10-01
Rockstar (Robust Overdensity Calculation using K-Space Topologically Adaptive Refinement) identifies dark matter halos, substructure, and tidal features. The approach is based on adaptive hierarchical refinement of friends-of-friends groups in six phase-space dimensions and one time dimension, which allows for robust (grid-independent, shape-independent, and noise-resilient) tracking of substructure. Our method is massively parallel (up to 10^5 CPUs) and runs on the largest current simulations (>10^10 particles) with high efficiency (10 CPU hours and 60 gigabytes of memory required per billion particles analyzed). Rockstar offers significant improvement in substructure recovery as compared to several other halo finders.
Thermophotovoltaic space power system, phase 3
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horne, W. E.; Lancaster, C.
1987-01-01
Work performed on a research and development program to establish the feasibility of a solar thermophotovoltaic space power generation concept was summarized. The program was multiphased. The earlier work is summarized and the work on the current phase is detailed as it pertains to and extends the earlier work. Much of the experimental hardware and materials development was performed on the internal program. Experimental measurements and data evaluation were performed on the contracted effort. The objectives of the most recent phase were: to examine the thermal control design in order to optimize it for lightweight and low cost; to examine the concentrator optics in an attempt to relieve pointing accuracy requirements to + or - 2 degrees about the optical axis; and to use the results of the thermal and optical studies to synthesize a solar thermophotovoltaic (STPV) module design that is optimized for space application.
Computed Tomography of Transverse Phase Space
Watts, A.; Johnstone, C.; Johnstone, J.
2016-09-19
Two computed tomography techniques are explored to reconstruct beam transverse phase space using both simulated beam and multi-wire profile data in the Fermilab Muon Test Area ("MTA") beamline. Both Filtered Back-Projection ("FBP") and Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique ("SART") algorithms [2] are considered and compared. Errors and artifacts are compared as a function of each algorithm’s free parameters, and it is shown through simulation and MTA beamline profiles that SART is advantageous for reconstructions with limited profile data.
Thermodynamic products in extended phase-space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pradhan, Parthapratim
We have examined the thermodynamic properties for a variety of spherically symmetric charged-AdS black hole (BH) solutions, including the charged AdS BH surrounded by quintessence dark energy and charged AdS BH in f(R) gravity in extended phase-space. This framework involves treating the cosmological constant as thermodynamic variable (for example: thermodynamic pressure and thermodynamic volume). Then they should behave as an analog of Van-der-Waal (VdW) like systems. In the extended phase-space we have calculated the entropy product and thermodynamic volume product of all horizons. The mass (or enthalpy) independent nature of the said product signals they are universal quantities. The divergence of the specific heat indicates that the second-order phase transition occurs under certain condition. In Appendix A, we have studied the thermodynamic volume products for axisymmetric spacetime and it is shown to be not universal in nature. Finally, in Appendix B, we have studied the P ‑ V criticality of Cauchy horizon for charged-AdS BH and found to be an universal relation of critical values between two horizons as Pc‑ = P c+, vc‑ = v c+, Tc‑ = ‑T c+, ρc‑ = ‑ρ c+. The symbols are defined in the main work.
Phase space analysis of velocity bunched beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filippetto, D.; Bellaveglia, M.; Castellano, M.; Chiadroni, E.; Cultrera, L.; di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M.; Ficcadenti, L.; Gallo, A.; Gatti, G.; Pace, E.; Vaccarezza, C.; Vicario, C.; Bacci, A.; Rossi, A. R.; Serafini, L.; Cianchi, A.; Marchetti, B.; Giannessi, L.; Labat, M.; Quattromini, M.; Ronsivalle, C.; Marrelli, C.; Migliorati, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Serluca, M.
2011-09-01
Peak current represents a key demand for new generation electron beam photoinjectors. Many beam applications, such as free electron laser, inverse Compton scattering, terahertz radiation generation, have efficiencies strongly dependent on the bunch length and current. A method of beam longitudinal compression (called velocity bunching) has been proposed some years ago, based on beam longitudinal phase space rotation in a rf field potential. The control of such rotation can lead to a compression factor in excess of 10, depending on the initial longitudinal emittance. Code simulations have shown the possibility to fully compensate the transverse emittance growth during rf compression, and this regime has been experimentally proven recently at SPARC. The key point is the control of transverse beam plasma oscillations, in order to freeze the emittance at its lowest value at the end of compression. Longitudinal and transverse phase space distortions have been observed during the experiments, leading to asymmetric current profiles and higher final projected emittances. In this paper we discuss in detail the results obtained at SPARC in the regime of velocity bunching, analyzing such nonlinearities and identifying the causes. The beam degradation is discussed, both for slice and projected parameters. Analytical tools are derived to experimentally quantify the effect of such distortions on the projected emittance.
Chirped nonlinear resonance dynamics in phase space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Friedland, Lazar; Armon, Tsafrir
2016-10-01
Passage through and capture into resonance in systems with slowly varying parameters is one of the outstanding problems of nonlinear dynamics. Examples include resonant capture in planetary dynamics , resonant excitation of nonlinear waves, adiabatic resonant transitions in atomic and molecular systems and more. In the most common setting the problem involves a nonlinear oscillator driven by an oscillating perturbation with a slowly varying frequency, which passes through the resonance with the unperturbed oscillator. The process of resonant capture in this case involves crossing of separatrix and, therefore, the adiabatic theorem cannot be used in studying this problem no matter how slow is the variation of the driving frequency. It will be shown that if instead of analyzing complicated single orbit dynamics in passage through resonance, one considers the evolution of a distribution of initial conditions in phase space, simple adiabaticity and phase space incompressibility arguments yield a solution to the resonant capture probability problem. The approach will be illustrated in the case of a beam of charged particles driven by a chirped frequency wave passing through the Cherenkov resonance with the velocity distribution of the particles. Supported by Israel Science Foundation Grant 30/14.
Uncertainty relations for general phase spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Werner, Reinhard F.
2016-04-01
We describe a setup for obtaining uncertainty relations for arbitrary pairs of observables related by a Fourier transform. The physical examples discussed here are the standard position and momentum, number and angle, finite qudit systems, and strings of qubits for quantum information applications. The uncertainty relations allow for an arbitrary choice of metric for the outcome distance, and the choice of an exponent distinguishing, e.g., absolute and root mean square deviations. The emphasis of this article is on developing a unified treatment, in which one observable takes on values in an arbitrary locally compact Abelian group and the other in the dual group. In all cases, the phase space symmetry implies the equality of measurement and preparation uncertainty bounds. There is also a straightforward method for determining the optimal bounds.
Geometric inequalities from phase space translations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huber, Stefan; König, Robert; Vershynina, Anna
2017-01-01
We establish a quantum version of the classical isoperimetric inequality relating the Fisher information and the entropy power of a quantum state. The key tool is a Fisher information inequality for a state which results from a certain convolution operation: the latter maps a classical probability distribution on phase space and a quantum state to a quantum state. We show that this inequality also gives rise to several related inequalities whose counterparts are well-known in the classical setting: in particular, it implies an entropy power inequality for the mentioned convolution operation as well as the isoperimetric inequality and establishes concavity of the entropy power along trajectories of the quantum heat diffusion semigroup. As an application, we derive a Log-Sobolev inequality for the quantum Ornstein-Uhlenbeck semigroup and argue that it implies fast convergence towards the fixed point for a large class of initial states.
Space market model development project, phase 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bishop, Peter C.
1988-01-01
The results of the prototype operations of the Space Business Information Center are presented. A clearinghouse for space business information for members of the U.S. space industry composed of public, private, and academic sectors was conducted. Behavioral and evaluation statistics were recorded from the clearinghouse and the conclusions from these statistics are presented. Business guidebooks on major markets in space business are discussed. Proprietary research and briefings for firms and agencies in the space industry are also discussed.
Overview of Phase Space Manipulations of Relativistic Electron Beams
Xiang, Dao; /SLAC
2012-08-31
Phase space manipulation is a process to rearrange beam's distribution in 6-D phase space. In this paper, we give an overview of the techniques for tailoring beam distribution in 2D, 4D, and 6D phase space to meet the requirements of various applications. These techniques become a new focus of accelerator physics R&D and very likely these advanced concepts will open up new opportunities in advanced accelerators and the science enabled by them.
Constructing Phase Space Distributions within the Heliosheath
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roelof, E. C.
2014-12-01
The key function in the description of the dynamics of the heliosheath (HS) is the phase space distribution (PSD) of the protons, i.e., how the interaction between the thermal and non-thermal (heated pick-up) proton populations evolves from the termination shock to the heliopause (HP) in this high-beta plasma. Voyager 1 found the heliopause to be essentially a (compound) magnetic separatrix, because the intensity of the non-thermal particle population became undetectably small beyond the HP, whereas the anisotropy characteristics of the galactic cosmic rays were consistent with no re-entry of the magnetic field lines into the HS (at either end). This paper attempts to synthesize in situ observations from Voyagers 1 and 2 (thermal plasma, magnetic field, energetic ions, and cosmic rays) with global ENA images from IBEX and Cassini/INCA into a self-consistent representation of the PSD within the noseward HS from thermal energies to several MeV/nuc. The interpretation of the ENA images requires assumptions on the global behavior of the bulk plasma flow throughout the HS that are self-consistent with all the available data (e.g., the spatial and energy dependence of the IBEX ribbon), because the Compton-Getting effects produced by the flows strongly affect the intensities (and thereby the partial densities and pressures) inferred from the ENA images.
Space shuttle phase B study plan
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hello, B.
1971-01-01
Phase B emphasis was directed toward development of data which would facilitate selection of the booster concept, and main propulsion system for the orbiter. A shuttle system is also defined which will form the baseline for Phase C program activities.
Space Shuttle aerothermodynamic data report, phase C
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1985-01-01
Space shuttle aerothermodynamic data, collected from a continuing series of wind tunnel tests, are permanently stored with the Data Management Services (DMS) system. Information pertaining to current baseline configuration definition is also stored. Documentation of DMS processed data arranged sequentially and by space shuttle configuration are included. An up-to-date record of all applicable aerothermodynamic data collected, processed, or summarized during the space shuttle program is provided. Tables are designed to provide suvery information to the various space shuttle managerial and technical levels.
A phase space theory for roaming reactions.
Andrews, Duncan U; Kable, Scott H; Jordan, Meredith J T
2013-08-15
We describe a new, simple theory for predicting the branching fraction of products in roaming reactions, compared to the analogous barrierless bond dissociation products. The theory uses a phase space theory (PST) formalism to divide reactive states in the bond dissociation channel into states with enough translational energy to dissociate and states that may roam. Two parameters are required, ΔEroam, the energy difference between the bond dissociation threshold and the roaming threshold, and the roaming probability, Proam, the probability that states that may roam do roam rather than recombine to form reactants. The PST-roaming theory is tested against experimental and theoretical data on the dissociation dynamics of H2CO, NO3, and CH3CHO. The theory accurately models the relative roaming to bond dissociation branching fraction over the experimental or theoretical energy range available in the literature for each species. For H2CO, fixing ΔEroam = 146 cm(-1), the midpoint of the experimental bounds for the roaming threshold, we obtain Proam = 1. The best-fit value, ΔEroam = 161 cm(-1), is also consistent with the experimental bounds. Using this value, the relative roaming to dissociation branching ratios are predicted to be similar in D2CO and H2CO, consistent with experimental observation. For NO3, we fix ΔEroam = 258.6 cm(-1), the experimental threshold for NO + O2 production, and we model low-temperature experimental branching fractions using the experimental rotational and vibrational temperatures of Trot = 0 K and Tvib = 300 K. The best fit to the experimental data is obtained for Proam = 0.0075, with this very small Proam being consistent with the known geometric constraints to formation of NO + O2. Using Proam = 0.0075, our PST-roaming theory also accurately predicts the low-temperature NO yield spectrum and quantum yield data for room-temperature NO3 photolysis. For CH3CHO, we fix ΔEroam = 385 cm(-1), based on theoretical calculations, and obtain a
Space law information system design, phase 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morenoff, J.; Roth, D. L.; Singleton, J. W.
1973-01-01
Design alternatives were defined for the implementation of a Space Law Information System for the Office of the General Counsel, NASA. A thesaurus of space law terms was developed and a selected document sample indexed on the basis of that thesaurus. Abstracts were also prepared for the sample document set.
Cryptanalysis of an information encryption in phase space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Y.; Quan, C.; Tay, C. J.
2016-10-01
In this paper, we evaluate the security of an information encryption in phase space. We show that the scheme is vulnerable to two kinds of attack, namely, a chosen-ciphertext attack and a known-plaintext attack which is based on an iterative phase-retrieval algorithm using multiple plaintext-ciphertext pairs. The validity of the proposed methods of attack is verified by numerical simulations. The results cast doubts on the present security of information encryption in phase space.
Real-space Berry phases: Skyrmion soccer (invited)
Everschor-Sitte, Karin Sitte, Matthias
2014-05-07
Berry phases occur when a system adiabatically evolves along a closed curve in parameter space. This tutorial-like article focuses on Berry phases accumulated in real space. In particular, we consider the situation where an electron traverses a smooth magnetic structure, while its magnetic moment adjusts to the local magnetization direction. Mapping the adiabatic physics to an effective problem in terms of emergent fields reveals that certain magnetic textures, skyrmions, are tailormade to study these Berry phase effects.
Real-space Berry phases: Skyrmion soccer (invited)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Everschor-Sitte, Karin; Sitte, Matthias
2014-05-01
Berry phases occur when a system adiabatically evolves along a closed curve in parameter space. This tutorial-like article focuses on Berry phases accumulated in real space. In particular, we consider the situation where an electron traverses a smooth magnetic structure, while its magnetic moment adjusts to the local magnetization direction. Mapping the adiabatic physics to an effective problem in terms of emergent fields reveals that certain magnetic textures, skyrmions, are tailormade to study these Berry phase effects.
Unequally spaced four levels phase encoding in holographic data storage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Ke; Huang, Yong; Lin, Xiao; Cheng, Yabin; Li, Xiaotong; Tan, Xiaodi
2016-12-01
Holographic data storage system is a candidate for the information recording due to its large storage capacity and high transfer rate. We propose an unequally spaced four levels phase encoding in the holographic data storage system here. Compared with two levels or three levels phase encoding, four levels phase encoding effectively improves the code rate. While more phase levels can further improve code rate, it also puts higher demand for the camera to differentiate the resulting smaller grayscale difference. Unequally spaced quaternary level phases eliminates the ambiguity of pixels with same phase difference relative to reference light compared to equally spaced quaternary levels. Corresponding encoding pattern design with phase pairs as the data element and decoding method were developed. Our encoding improves the code rate up to 0.875, which is 1.75 times of the conventional amplitude method with an error rate of 0.13 % according to our simulation results.
4D phase-space multiplexing for fluorescent microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Hsiou-Yuan; Zhong, Jingshan; Waller, Laura
2016-03-01
Phase-space measurements enable characterization of second-order spatial coherence properties and can be used for digital aberration removal or 3D position reconstruction. Previous methods use a scanning aperture to measure the phase space spectrogram, which is slow and light inefficient, while also attenuating information about higher-order correlations. We demonstrate a significant improvement of speed and light throughput by incorporating multiplexing techniques into our phase-space imaging system. The scheme implements 2D coded aperture patterning in the Fourier (pupil) plane of a microscope using a Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), while capturing multiple intensity images in real space. We compare various multiplexing schemes to scanning apertures and show that our phase-space reconstructions are accurate for experimental data with biological samples containing many 3D fluorophores.
A Simple, Low Cost Longitudinal Phase Space Diagnostic
Bertsche, Kirk; Emma, Paul; Shevchenko, Oleg; /Novosibirsk, IYF
2009-05-15
For proper operation of the LCLS [1] x-ray free-electron laser (FEL), and other similar machines, measurement and control of the electron bunch longitudinal phase space is critical. The LCLS accelerator includes two bunch compressor chicanes to magnify the peak current. These magnetic chicanes can generate significant coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR), which can distort the phase space distribution. We propose a diagnostic scheme by exciting a weak skew quadrupole at an energy-chirped, high dispersion point in the first LCLS bunch compressor (BC1) to reconstruct longitudinal phase space on an OTR screen after BC1, allowing a time-resolved characterization of CSR effects.
Longitudinal phase space experiments on the ELSA photoinjector
Dowell, D.H.; Joly, S.; Brion, J.P. de
1995-12-31
The excellent beam quality produced by RF photocathode injectors is well established, andhas been verified by numerous measurements of the transverse emittance. However, there are few experimental determinations of the longitudinal phase space. This paper reports on experiments performed at the ELSA FEL facility to emasure the longitudinal phase space distribution at the exit of the 144 MHz photoinjector cavity. Phase spaces were determined by the analysis of beam energy spectra and pulse shapes at 17.5 MeV for micropulse charges between 0.5 and 5 nC.
Leptons, Quarks, and Their Antiparticles: A Phase-Space View
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Żenczykowski, Piotr
2010-09-01
Recently, a correspondence has been shown to exist between the structure of a single Standard Model generation of elementary particles and the properties of the Clifford algebra of nonrelativistic phase space. Here, this correspondence is spelled out in terms of phase-space variables. Thus, a phase-space interpretation of the connections between leptons, quarks and their antiparticles is proposed, in particular providing a timeless alternative to the standard Stückelberg-Feynman interpretation. The issue of the additivity of canonical momenta is raised and argued to be intimately related to the unobservability of free quarks and the emergence of mesons and baryons.
Quantum gravity, dynamical phase-space and string theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freidel, Laurent; Leigh, Robert G.; Minic, Djordje
2014-08-01
In a natural extension of the relativity principle, we speculate that a quantum theory of gravity involves two fundamental scales associated with both dynamical spacetime as well as dynamical momentum space. This view of quantum gravity is explicitly realized in a new formulation of string theory which involves dynamical phase-space and in which spacetime is a derived concept. This formulation naturally unifies symplectic geometry of Hamiltonian dynamics, complex geometry of quantum theory and real geometry of general relativity. The spacetime and momentum space dynamics, and thus dynamical phase-space, is governed by a new version of the renormalization group (RG).
Lie algebra type noncommutative phase spaces are Hopf algebroids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meljanac, Stjepan; Škoda, Zoran; Stojić, Martina
2016-11-01
For a noncommutative configuration space whose coordinate algebra is the universal enveloping algebra of a finite-dimensional Lie algebra, it is known how to introduce an extension playing the role of the corresponding noncommutative phase space, namely by adding the commuting deformed derivatives in a consistent and nontrivial way; therefore, obtaining certain deformed Heisenberg algebra. This algebra has been studied in physical contexts, mainly in the case of the kappa-Minkowski space-time. Here, we equip the entire phase space algebra with a coproduct, so that it becomes an instance of a completed variant of a Hopf algebroid over a noncommutative base, where the base is the enveloping algebra.
The space transportation main engine phase A' study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1987-01-01
The Space Transportation Main Engine Phase A prime study was conducted over a 7 month period as an extension to the Phase A study. The Phase A prime program was designed to expand the study effort completed in Phase A, focusing on the baseline engine configuration selected. Analysis and trade studies were conducted to further optimize some of the major engine subsystems. These changes resulted in improvements to the baseline engine. Several options were evaluated for consideration by vehicle contractors.
Selected tether applications in space: Phase 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thorsen, M. H.; Lippy, L. J.
1985-01-01
System characteristics and design requirements are assessed for tether deployment. Criteria are established for comparing alternate concepts for: (1) deployment of 220 klb space shuttle from the space station; (2) tether assisted launch of a 20,000 lb payload to geosynchronous orbit; (3) placement of the 20,000 lb AXAF into 320 nmi orbit via orbiter; (4) retrieval of 20,000 lb AXAF from 205 nmi circular orbit for maintenance and reboost to 320 nmi; and (5) tethered OMV rendezvous and retrieval of OTV returning from a geosynchronous mission. Tether deployment systems and technical issues are discussed.
Phase-space geometry of the generalized Langevin equation.
Bartsch, Thomas
2009-09-28
The generalized Langevin equation is widely used to model the influence of a heat bath upon a reactive system. This equation will here be studied from a geometric point of view. A dynamical phase space that represents all possible states of the system will be constructed, the generalized Langevin equation will be formally rewritten as a pair of coupled ordinary differential equations, and the fundamental geometric structures in phase space will be described. It will be shown that the phase space itself and its geometric structure depend critically on the preparation of the system: A system that is assumed to have been in existence forever has a larger phase space with a simpler structure than a system that is prepared at a finite time. These differences persist even in the long-time limit, where one might expect the details of preparation to become irrelevant.
Phase Space Structures Explain Hydrogen Atom Roaming in Formaldehyde Decomposition.
Mauguière, Frédéric A L; Collins, Peter; Kramer, Zeb C; Carpenter, Barry K; Ezra, Gregory S; Farantos, Stavros C; Wiggins, Stephen
2015-10-15
We re-examine the prototypical roaming reaction--hydrogen atom roaming in formaldehyde decomposition--from a phase space perspective. Specifically, we address the question "why do trajectories roam, rather than dissociate through the radical channel?" We describe and compute the phase space structures that define and control all possible reactive events for this reaction, as well as provide a dynamically exact description of the roaming region in phase space. Using these phase space constructs, we show that in the roaming region, there is an unstable periodic orbit whose stable and unstable manifolds define a conduit that both encompasses all roaming trajectories exiting the formaldehyde well and shepherds them toward the H2···CO well.
An extensive phase space for the potential martian biosphere.
Jones, Eriita G; Lineweaver, Charles H; Clarke, Jonathan D
2011-12-01
We present a comprehensive model of martian pressure-temperature (P-T) phase space and compare it with that of Earth. Martian P-T conditions compatible with liquid water extend to a depth of ∼310 km. We use our phase space model of Mars and of terrestrial life to estimate the depths and extent of the water on Mars that is habitable for terrestrial life. We find an extensive overlap between inhabited terrestrial phase space and martian phase space. The lower martian surface temperatures and shallower martian geotherm suggest that, if there is a hot deep biosphere on Mars, it could extend 7 times deeper than the ∼5 km depth of the hot deep terrestrial biosphere in the crust inhabited by hyperthermophilic chemolithotrophs. This corresponds to ∼3.2% of the volume of present-day Mars being potentially habitable for terrestrial-like life.
Liquid phase sintered compacts in space
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mookherji, T. K.; Mcanelly, W. B.
1974-01-01
A model that will explain the effect of gravity on liquid phase sintering was developed. Wetting characteristics and density segregation which are the two important phenomena in liquid phase sintering are considered in the model development. Experiments were conducted on some selected material combinations to study the gravity effects on liquid phase sintering, and to verify the validity of the model. It is concluded that: (1) The surface tension forces acting on solid particles in a one-g environment are not appreciably different from those anticipated in a 0.00001g/g sub 0 (or lower) environment. (2) The capillary forces are dependent on the contact angle, the quantity of the liquid phase, and the distance between solid particles. (3) The pores (i.e., bubbles) do not appear to be driven to the surface by gravity-produced buoyancy forces. (4) The length of time to produce the same degree of settling in a low-gravity environment will be increased significantly. (5) A low gravity environment would appear to offer a unique means of satisfactorily infiltrating a larger and/or complex shaped compact.
Phase space reduction and Poisson structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaalani, Nadhem
1999-07-01
Let (P,π,B,G) be a G-principal fiber bundle. The action of G on the cotangent bundle T*P is free and Hamiltonian. By Liberman and Marle [Symplectic Geometry and Analytical Mechanics (Reidel, Dortrecht, 1987)] and Marsden and Ratiu [Lett. Math. Phys. 11, 161 (1981)] the quotient space T*P/G is a Poisson manifold. We will determine the Poisson bracket on the reduced Poisson manifold T*P/G, and its symplectic leaves.
Group theoretical construction of planar noncommutative phase spaces
Ngendakumana, Ancille Todjihoundé, Leonard; Nzotungicimpaye, Joachim
2014-01-15
Noncommutative phase spaces are generated and classified in the framework of centrally extended anisotropic planar kinematical Lie groups as well as in the framework of noncentrally abelian extended planar absolute time Lie groups. Through these constructions the coordinates of the phase spaces do not commute due to the presence of naturally introduced fields giving rise to minimal couplings. By symplectic realizations methods, physical interpretations of generators coming from the obtained structures are given.
Wigner function and Schroedinger equation in phase-space representation
Chruscinski, Dariusz; Mlodawski, Krzysztof
2005-05-15
We discuss a family of quasidistributions (s-ordered Wigner functions of Agarwal and Wolf [Phys. Rev. D 2, 2161 (1970); Phys. Rev. D 2, 2187 (1970); Phys. Rev. D 2, 2206 (1970)]) and its connection to the so-called phase space representation of the Schroedinger equation. It turns out that although Wigner functions satisfy the Schroedinger equation in phase space, they have a completely different interpretation.
The diffusion of stars through phase space
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Binney, James; Lacey, Cedric
1988-01-01
An orbit-averaged Fokker-Planck equation has been derived to study the secular evolution of stellar systems with regular orbits and the heating of stellar disks. It is shown that a population of stars with an initially Maxwellian peculiar-velocity distribution will remain Maxwellian as it diffuses through orbit space only if: (1) a second-order diffusion tensor is proportional to epicycle energy; and (2) the population's velocity dispersion grows as the square root of time. Scattering by ephemeral spiral waves is able to account for the observed kinematics of the solar neighborhood only if the waves have wavelengths in excess of 9 kpc and constantly drifting pattern speeds.
Two-Phase Technology at NASA/Johnson Space Center
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ungar, Eugene K.; Nicholson, Leonard S. (Technical Monitor)
1999-01-01
Since the baseline International Space Station (ISS) External Active Thermal Control System (EATCS) was changed from a two-phase mechanically pumped system to a single phase cascade system in the fall of 1993, two-phase EATCS research has continued at a low level at JSC. One of-the lessons of the ISS EATCS selection was that two-phase thermal control systems must have significantly lower power than comparable single phase systems to overcome their larger radiator area, larger line and fluid mass, and perceived higher technical risk. Therefore, research at JSC has concentrated on low power mechanically pumped two-phase EATCSs. In the presentation, the results of a study investigating the trade of single and two-phase mechanically pumped EATCSs for space vehicles will be summarized. The low power two-phase mechanically pumped EATCS system under development at JSC will be described in detail and the current design status of the subscale test unit will be reviewed. Also, performance predictions for a full size EATCS will be presented. In addition to the discussion of two-phase mechanically pumped EATCS development at JSC, two-phase technologies under development for biological water processing will be discussed. These biological water processor technologies are being prepared for a 2001 flight experiment and subsequent usage on the TransHab module on the International Space Station.
Symmetry induced compression of discrete phase space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krawczyk, Małgorzata J.
2011-06-01
A compressed representation is described of the state space of discrete systems with some kind of symmetry of its states. An initial state space is represented as a network of states. Two states are linked if some single process leads from one state to another. The network can be compressed by a grouping of states into classes. States in the same class are represented by nodes of equal degree. Further, subclasses are defined: states belong to the same subclass if their neighbouring states belong to the same subclasses. The goal is that the equilibrium probability distribution of states in the initial network can be found from the probability of subclasses in the compressed network. The approach is applied to three exemplary systems: two pieces of a triangular lattice (25 and 36 nodes) with Ising spins at the lattice nodes, and a roundabout with three access roads and three exit roads. The compression is from 3630 ground states to 12 subclasses, from 263 640 ground states to 409 subclasses, and from 729 states to 55 subclasses, respectively.
Space power demonstrator engine, phase 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1987-01-01
The design, analysis, and preliminary test results for a 25 kWe Free-Piston Stirling engine with integral linear alternators are described. The project is conducted by Mechanical Technology under the direction of LeRC as part of the SP-100 Nuclear Space Power Systems Program. The engine/alternator system is designed to demonstrate the following performance: (1) 25 kWe output at a specific weight less than 8 kg/kW; (2) 25 percent efficiency at a temperature ratio of 2.0; (3) low vibration (amplitude less than .003 in); (4) internal gas bearings (no wear, no external pump); and (5) heater temperature/cooler temperature from 630 to 315 K. The design approach to minimize vibration is a two-module engine (12.5 kWe per module) in a linearly-opposed configuration with a common expansion space. The low specific weight is obtained at high helium pressure (150 bar) and high frequency (105 Hz) and by using high magnetic strength (samarium cobalt) alternator magnets. Engine tests began in June 1985; 16 months following initiation of engine and test cell design. Hydrotest and consequent engine testing to date has been intentionally limited to half pressure, and electrical power output is within 15 to 20 percent of design predictions.
Space transfer concepts and analyses for exploration missions, phase 3
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woodcock, Gordon R.
1993-01-01
This report covers the third phase of a broad-scoped and systematic study of space transfer concepts for human lunar and Mars missions. The study addressed issues that were raised during Phase 2, developed generic Mars missions profile analysis data, and conducted preliminary analysis of the Mars in-space transportation requirements and implementation from Stafford Committee Synthesis Report. The major effort of the study was the development of the first Lunar Outpost (FLO) baseline which evolved from the Space Station Freedom Hab Module. Modifications for the First Lunar Outpost were made to meet mission requirements and technology advancements.
Phase space quantization, noncommutativity, and the gravitational field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chatzistavrakidis, Athanasios
2014-07-01
In this paper we study the structure of the phase space in noncommutative geometry in the presence of a nontrivial frame. Our basic assumptions are that the underlying space is a symplectic and parallelizable manifold. Furthermore, we assume the validity of the Leibniz rule and the Jacobi identities. We consider noncommutative spaces due to the quantization of the symplectic structure and determine the momentum operators that guarantee a set of canonical commutation relations, appropriately extended to include the nontrivial frame. We stress the important role of left vs right acting operators and of symplectic duality. This enables us to write down the form of the full phase space algebra on these noncommutative spaces, both in the noncompact and in the compact case. We test our results against the class of four-dimensional and six-dimensional symplectic nilmanifolds, thus presenting a large set of nontrivial examples that realizes the general formalism.
Quantum de Finetti theorem in phase-space representation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leverrier, Anthony; Cerf, Nicolas J.
2009-07-01
The quantum versions of de Finetti’s theorem derived so far express the convergence of n -partite symmetric states, i.e., states that are invariant under permutations of their n parties, toward probabilistic mixtures of independent and identically distributed (IID) states of the form σ⊗n . Unfortunately, these theorems only hold in finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces, and their direct generalization to infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces is known to fail. Here, we address this problem by considering invariance under orthogonal transformations in phase space instead of permutations in state space, which leads to a quantum de Finetti theorem particularly relevant to continuous-variable systems. Specifically, an n -mode bosonic state that is invariant with respect to this continuous symmetry in phase space is proven to converge toward a probabilistic mixture of IID Gaussian states (actually, n identical thermal states).
Phase-Space Detection of Cyber Events
Hernandez Jimenez, Jarilyn M; Ferber, Aaron E; Prowell, Stacy J; Hively, Lee M
2015-01-01
Energy Delivery Systems (EDS) are a network of processes that produce, transfer and distribute energy. EDS are increasingly dependent on networked computing assets, as are many Industrial Control Systems. Consequently, cyber-attacks pose a real and pertinent threat, as evidenced by Stuxnet, Shamoon and Dragonfly. Hence, there is a critical need for novel methods to detect, prevent, and mitigate effects of such attacks. To detect cyber-attacks in EDS, we developed a framework for gathering and analyzing timing data that involves establishing a baseline execution profile and then capturing the effect of perturbations in the state from injecting various malware. The data analysis was based on nonlinear dynamics and graph theory to improve detection of anomalous events in cyber applications. The goal was the extraction of changing dynamics or anomalous activity in the underlying computer system. Takens' theorem in nonlinear dynamics allows reconstruction of topologically invariant, time-delay-embedding states from the computer data in a sufficiently high-dimensional space. The resultant dynamical states were nodes, and the state-to-state transitions were links in a mathematical graph. Alternatively, sequential tabulation of executing instructions provides the nodes with corresponding instruction-to-instruction links. Graph theorems guarantee graph-invariant measures to quantify the dynamical changes in the running applications. Results showed a successful detection of cyber events.
Diffeomorphisms as symplectomorphisms in history phase space: Bosonic string model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kouletsis, I.; Kuchař, K. V.
2002-06-01
The structure of the history phase space G of a covariant field system and its history group (in the sense of Isham and Linden) is analyzed on an example of a bosonic string. The history space G includes the time map
Dynamical phase space from an SO (d ,d ) matrix model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chatzistavrakidis, Athanasios
2014-12-01
It is shown that a matrix model with SO (d ,d ) global symmetry is derived from a generalized Yang-Mills theory on the standard Courant algebroid. This model keeps all the positive features of the well-studied type IIB matrix model, and it has many additional welcome properties. We show that it not only captures the dynamics of spacetime, but it should be associated with the dynamics of phase space. This is supported by a large set of classical solutions of its equations of motion, which corresponds to phase spaces of noncommutative curved manifolds and points to a new mechanism of emergent gravity. The model possesses a symmetry that exchanges positions and momenta, in analogy to quantum mechanics. It is argued that the emergence of phase space in the model is an essential feature for the investigation of the precise relation of matrix models to string theory and quantum gravity.
Phase-space approach to continuous variable quantum teleportation
Ban, Masashi
2004-05-01
The phase-space method is applied for considering continuous variable quantum teleportation. It is found that the continuous variable quantum teleportation transforms the s-parametrized phase-space function of an input state into the (s+{delta})-parametrized phase-space function, where the parameter {delta} is determined by the shared quantum entanglement. It is shown from this result that the Wigner function of the teleported state is always non-negative for F{sub c}{<=}2/3 and the Glauber-Sudarshan P function non-negative for F{sub c}{<=}1/2, where F{sub c} is the fidelity of the coherent-state teleportation. Furthermore the fidelity between input and output states is calculated when Gaussian states are teleported.
Quantum mechanics on phase space and the Coulomb potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campos, P.; Martins, M. G. R.; Vianna, J. D. M.
2017-04-01
Symplectic quantum mechanics (SMQ) makes possible to derive the Wigner function without the use of the Liouville-von Neumann equation. In this formulation of the quantum theory the Galilei Lie algebra is constructed using the Weyl (or star) product with Q ˆ = q ⋆ = q +iħ/2∂p , P ˆ = p ⋆ = p -iħ/2∂q, and the Schrödinger equation is rewritten in phase space; in consequence physical applications involving the Coulomb potential present some specific difficulties. Within this context, in order to treat the Schrödinger equation in phase space, a procedure based on the Levi-Civita (or Bohlin) transformation is presented and applied to two-dimensional (2D) hydrogen atom. Amplitudes of probability in phase space and the correspondent Wigner quasi-distribution functions are derived and discussed.
Multivariable Hermite polynomials and phase-space dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dattoli, G.; Torre, Amalia; Lorenzutta, S.; Maino, G.; Chiccoli, C.
1994-01-01
The phase-space approach to classical and quantum systems demands for advanced analytical tools. Such an approach characterizes the evolution of a physical system through a set of variables, reducing to the canonically conjugate variables in the classical limit. It often happens that phase-space distributions can be written in terms of quadratic forms involving the above quoted variables. A significant analytical tool to treat these problems may come from the generalized many-variables Hermite polynomials, defined on quadratic forms in R(exp n). They form an orthonormal system in many dimensions and seem the natural tool to treat the harmonic oscillator dynamics in phase-space. In this contribution we discuss the properties of these polynomials and present some applications to physical problems.
Phase-space evolution of x-ray coherence in phase-sensitive imaging.
Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong
2008-08-01
X-ray coherence evolution in the imaging process plays a key role for x-ray phase-sensitive imaging. In this work we present a phase-space formulation for the phase-sensitive imaging. The theory is reformulated in terms of the cross-spectral density and associated Wigner distribution. The phase-space formulation enables an explicit and quantitative account of partial coherence effects on phase-sensitive imaging. The presented formulas for x-ray spectral density at the detector can be used for performing accurate phase retrieval and optimizing the phase-contrast visibility. The concept of phase-space shearing length derived from this phase-space formulation clarifies the spatial coherence requirement for phase-sensitive imaging with incoherent sources. The theory has been applied to x-ray Talbot interferometric imaging as well. The peak coherence condition derived reveals new insights into three-grating-based Talbot-interferometric imaging and gratings-based x-ray dark-field imaging.
Grassmann phase space methods for fermions. II. Field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dalton, B. J.; Jeffers, J.; Barnett, S. M.
2017-02-01
In both quantum optics and cold atom physics, the behaviour of bosonic photons and atoms is often treated using phase space methods, where mode annihilation and creation operators are represented by c-number phase space variables, with the density operator equivalent to a distribution function of these variables. The anti-commutation rules for fermion annihilation, creation operators suggests the possibility of using anti-commuting Grassmann variables to represent these operators. However, in spite of the seminal work by Cahill and Glauber and a few applications, the use of Grassmann phase space methods in quantum-atom optics to treat fermionic systems is rather rare, though fermion coherent states using Grassmann variables are widely used in particle physics. This paper presents a phase space theory for fermion systems based on distribution functionals, which replace the density operator and involve Grassmann fields representing anti-commuting fermion field annihilation, creation operators. It is an extension of a previous phase space theory paper for fermions (Paper I) based on separate modes, in which the density operator is replaced by a distribution function depending on Grassmann phase space variables which represent the mode annihilation and creation operators. This further development of the theory is important for the situation when large numbers of fermions are involved, resulting in too many modes to treat separately. Here Grassmann fields, distribution functionals, functional Fokker-Planck equations and Ito stochastic field equations are involved. Typical applications to a trapped Fermi gas of interacting spin 1/2 fermionic atoms and to multi-component Fermi gases with non-zero range interactions are presented, showing that the Ito stochastic field equations are local in these cases. For the spin 1/2 case we also show how simple solutions can be obtained both for the untrapped case and for an optical lattice trapping potential.
Classical phase-space descriptions of continuous-variable teleportation.
Caves, Carlton M; Wódkiewicz, Krzysztof
2004-07-23
The non-negative Wigner function of all quantum states involved in teleportation of Gaussian states using the standard continuous-variable teleportation protocol means that there is a local realistic phase-space description of the process. This includes the coherent states teleported up to now in experiments. We extend the phase-space description to teleportation of non-Gaussian states using the standard protocol and conclude that teleportation of non-Gaussian pure states with a fidelity of 2/3 is a "gold standard" for this kind of teleportation.
Positive phase space transformation incompatible with classical physics.
Son, Wonmin; Kofler, Johannes; Kim, M S; Vedral, Vlatko; Brukner, Caslav
2009-03-20
Bell conjectured that a positive Wigner function does not allow violation of the inequalities imposed by local hidden variable theories. A requirement for this conjecture is "when phase space measurements are performed." We introduce the theory-independent concept of "operationally local transformations" which refers to the change of the switch on a local measurement apparatus. We show that two separated parties, performing only phase space measurements on a composite quantum system with a positive Wigner function and performing only operationally local transformations that preserve this positivity, can nonetheless violate Bell's inequality. Such operationally local transformations are realized using entangled ancillae.
κ-Deformed Phase Space, Hopf Algebroid and Twisting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jurić; , Tajron; Kovačević, Domagoj; Meljanac, Stjepan
2014-11-01
Hopf algebroid structures on the Weyl algebra (phase space) are presented. We define the coproduct for the Weyl generators from Leibniz rule. The codomain of the coproduct is modified in order to obtain an algebra structure. We use the dual base to construct the target map and antipode. The notion of twist is analyzed for κ-deformed phase space in Hopf algebroid setting. It is outlined how the twist in the Hopf algebroid setting reproduces the full Hopf algebra structure of κ-Poincaré algebra. Several examples of realizations are worked out in details.
Quantum phase transition induced by real-space topology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, C.; Zhang, G.; Lin, S.; Song, Z.
2016-12-01
A quantum phase transition (QPT), including both topological and symmetry breaking types, is usually induced by the change of global parameters, such as external fields or global coupling constants. In this work, we demonstrate the existence of QPT induced by the real-space topology of the system. We investigate the groundstate properties of the tight-binding model on a honeycomb lattice with the torus geometry based on exact results. It is shown that the ground state experiences a second-order QPT, exhibiting the scaling behavior, when the torus switches to a tube, which reveals the connection between quantum phase and the real-space topology of the system.
Quantum phase transition induced by real-space topology
Li, C.; Zhang, G.; Lin, S.; Song, Z.
2016-01-01
A quantum phase transition (QPT), including both topological and symmetry breaking types, is usually induced by the change of global parameters, such as external fields or global coupling constants. In this work, we demonstrate the existence of QPT induced by the real-space topology of the system. We investigate the groundstate properties of the tight-binding model on a honeycomb lattice with the torus geometry based on exact results. It is shown that the ground state experiences a second-order QPT, exhibiting the scaling behavior, when the torus switches to a tube, which reveals the connection between quantum phase and the real-space topology of the system. PMID:28004736
Adaptive optics and phase diversity imaging for responsive space applications.
Smith, Mark William; Wick, David Victor
2004-11-01
The combination of phase diversity and adaptive optics offers great flexibility. Phase diverse images can be used to diagnose aberrations and then provide feedback control to the optics to correct the aberrations. Alternatively, phase diversity can be used to partially compensate for aberrations during post-detection image processing. The adaptive optic can produce simple defocus or more complex types of phase diversity. This report presents an analysis, based on numerical simulations, of the efficiency of different modes of phase diversity with respect to compensating for specific aberrations during post-processing. It also comments on the efficiency of post-processing versus direct aberration correction. The construction of a bench top optical system that uses a membrane mirror as an active optic is described. The results of characterization tests performed on the bench top optical system are presented. The work described in this report was conducted to explore the use of adaptive optics and phase diversity imaging for responsive space applications.
Naval Space Surveillance Center uses of time, frequency, and phase
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hayden, Carroll C.; Knowles, Stephen H.
1992-01-01
The Naval Space Surveillance Center (NAVSPASUR) is an operational naval command that has the mission of determining the location of all manmade objects in space and transmitting information on objects of interest to the fleet. NAVSPASUR operates a 217 MHz radar fence that has 9 transmitting and receiving stations deployed in a line across southern Continental United States (CONUS). This surveillance fence provides unalerted detection of satellites overflying CONUS. NAVSPASUR also maintains a space catalog of all orbiting space objects. NAVSPASUR plays an important role as operational alternate to the primary national Space Surveillance Center (SSC) and Space Defence Operations Center (SPADOC). In executing these responsibilities, NAVSPASUR needs precise and/or standardized time and frequency in a number of applications. These include maintenance of the radar fence references to specification, and coordination with other commands and agencies for data receipt and dissemination. Precise time and frequency must be maintained within each site to enable proper operation of the interferometry phasing technique used. Precise time-of-day clocking must exist between sites for proper intersite coordination. Phase may be considered a derivative of time and frequency. Its control within each transmitter or receiver site is of great importance to NAVSPASUR because of the operation of the sensor as an interferometer system, with source direction angles as the primary observable. Determination of the angular position of a satellite is directly dependent on the accuracy with which the differential phase between spaced subarrays can be measured at each receiver site. Various aspects of the NAVSPASUR are discussed with respect to time, frequency, and phase.
Two Phase Flow and Space-Based Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McQuillen, John
1999-01-01
A reduced gravity environment offers the ability to remove the effect of buoyancy on two phase flows whereby density differences that normally would promote relative velocities between the phases and also alter the shape of the interface are removed. However, besides being a potent research tool, there are also many space-based technologies that will either utilize or encounter two-phase flow behavior, and as a consequence, several questions must be addressed. This paper presents some of these technologies missions. Finally, this paper gives a description of web-sites for some funding.
Wigner flow reveals topological order in quantum phase space dynamics.
Steuernagel, Ole; Kakofengitis, Dimitris; Ritter, Georg
2013-01-18
The behavior of classical mechanical systems is characterized by their phase portraits, the collections of their trajectories. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle precludes the existence of sharply defined trajectories, which is why traditionally only the time evolution of wave functions is studied in quantum dynamics. These studies are quite insensitive to the underlying structure of quantum phase space dynamics. We identify the flow that is the quantum analog of classical particle flow along phase portrait lines. It reveals hidden features of quantum dynamics and extra complexity. Being constrained by conserved flow winding numbers, it also reveals fundamental topological order in quantum dynamics that has so far gone unnoticed.
Strong Field Double Ionization: The Phase Space Perspective
Mauger, F.; Chandre, C.; Uzer, T.
2009-05-01
We identify the phase-space structures that regulate atomic double ionization in strong ultrashort laser pulses. The emerging dynamical picture complements the recollision scenario by clarifying the distinct roles played by the recolliding and core electrons, and leads to verifiable predictions on the characteristic features of the 'knee', a hallmark of the nonsequential process.
Subdivision of phase space for anisotropically interacting water molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Epifanov, S. Yu.; Vigasin, A. A.
An efficient numerical algorithm is employed which enables one to perform multidimensional integrations of complicated integrands. Temperature dependence of the second virial coefficient for water is reproduced using the Matsuoka Clementi Yoshimine intermolecular water water potential. Metastable states are shown to occupy significant domain in the water dimer phase space.
Testing Nonclassicality and Non-Gaussianity in Phase Space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Jiyong; Zhang, Junhua; Lee, Jaehak; Ji, Se-Wan; Um, Mark; Lv, Dingshun; Kim, Kihwan; Nha, Hyunchul
2015-05-01
We theoretically propose and experimentally demonstrate a nonclassicality test of a single-mode field in phase space, which has an analogy with the nonlocality test proposed by Banaszek and Wódkiewicz [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2009 (1999)]. Our approach to deriving the classical bound draws on the fact that the Wigner function of a coherent state is a product of two independent distributions as if the orthogonal quadratures (position and momentum) in phase space behave as local realistic variables. Our method detects every pure nonclassical Gaussian state, which can also be extended to mixed states. Furthermore, it sets a bound for all Gaussian states and their mixtures, thereby providing a criterion to detect a genuine quantum non-Gaussian state. Remarkably, our phase-space approach with invariance under Gaussian unitary operations leads to an optimized test for a given non-Gaussian state. We experimentally show how this enhanced method can manifest quantum non-Gaussianity of a state by simply choosing phase-space points appropriately, which is essentially equivalent to implementing a squeezing operation on a given state.
Phase space flow of particles in squeezed states
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ceperley, Peter H.
1994-01-01
The manipulation of noise and uncertainty in squeezed states is governed by the wave nature of the quantum mechanical particles in these states. This paper uses a deterministic model of quantum mechanics in which real guiding waves control the flow of localized particles. This model will be used to examine the phase space flow of particles in typical squeezed states.
Phase-space reconstruction of focused x-ray fields
Tran, Chanh Q.; Mancuso, Adrian P.; Dhal, Bipin B.; Nugent, Keith A.; Peele, Andrew G.; Cai, Zhonghou; Paterson, David
2006-01-01
The phase-space tomography is used to reconstruct x-ray beams focused using a compound refractive lens, showing that it is possible to decouple the effect of aberrations in the optical system from the field and therefore measure both them and the original field. The complex coherence function is recovered and found to be consistent with expectations.
Depositing spacing layers on magnetic film with liquid phase epitaxy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moody, J. W.; Shaw, R. W.; Sanfort, R. M.
1975-01-01
Liquid phase epitaxy spacing layer is compatible with systems which are hard-bubble proofed by use of second magnetic garnet film as capping layer. Composite is superior in that: circuit fabrication time is reduced; adherence is superior; visibility is better; and, good match of thermal expansion coefficients is provided.
Geometrical Models of the Phase Space Structures Governing Reaction Dynamics
2009-08-01
s.wiggins@bristol.ac.uk Abstract Hamiltonian dynamical systems possessing equilibria of saddle × centre × · · · × centre stability type display...definition of the phase space structures in the normal form coordinates . . . . . . . . 6 2.3 The foliation of the reaction region by Lagrangian ...McGehee representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 3.4 Implications for Nonlinear Hamiltonian Vector Fields
Octopus: An Efficient Phase Space Mapping for Light Particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kosower, David A.
1992-09-01
I present a generator for relativistic phase space that incorporates much of the effect of typical experimental cuts, and which is suitable for use in Monte Carlo calculations of cross sections for high-energy hadron-hadron or electron-positron scattering experiments.
Geometrical Series and Phase Space in a Finite Oscillatory Motion
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mareco, H. R. Olmedo
2006-01-01
This article discusses some interesting physical properties of oscillatory motion of a particle on two joined inclined planes. The geometrical series demonstrates that the particle will oscillate during a finite time. Another detail is the converging path to the origin of the phase space. Due to its simplicity, this motion may be used as a…
Vital phase of space science. [solar terrestrial interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parker, E. N.
1994-01-01
Space science began with the indirect phase where the activity in space was inferred from such terrestrial phenomena as geomagnetic storms, ionospheric variations, and fluctuations in the cosmic ray intensity. The direct phase was initiated with spaceflight placing instruments directly in space and permitting the direct observation of UV and X rays, as well as precision observations of solar luminosity variations. The evidence from these many direct studies, together with the historical record of terrestrial conditions, shows that the variations of the luminosity of the Sun affect the terrestrial atmosphere at all levels, with devastating changes in climate tracking the major changes in the activity level and luminosity of the Sun. The quantification and understanding of this vital connection should be the first priority of space science and geophysics, from oceans and atmosphere through the ionosphere, magnetosphere, and all the way to the convective zone of the Sun. It becomes the vital phase of space science, focused on the basic science of the changing habitability of Earth.
Classical mechanics in non-commutative phase space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Gao-Feng; Long, Chao-Yun; Long, Zheng-Wen; Qin, Shui-Jie; Fu, Qiang
2008-05-01
In this paper the laws of motion of classical particles have been investigated in a non-commutative phase space. The corresponding non-commutative relations contain not only spatial non-commutativity but also momentum non-commutativity. First, new Poisson brackets have been defined in non-commutative phase space. They contain corrections due to the non-commutativity of coordinates and momenta. On the basis of this new Poisson brackets, a new modified second law of Newton has been obtained. For two cases, the free particle and the harmonic oscillator, the equations of motion are derived on basis of the modified second law of Newton and the linear transformation (Phys. Rev. D, 2005, 72: 025010). The consistency between both methods is demonstrated. It is shown that a free particle in commutative space is not a free particle with zero-acceleration in the non-commutative phase space, but it remains a free particle with zero-acceleration in non-commutative space if only the coordinates are non-commutative. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (10347003, 60666001), Planned Training Excellent Scientific and Technological Youth Foundation of Guizhou Province, China (2002,2013), Science Foundation of Guizhou Province, China, and Creativity Foundation for Graduate Guizhou University, China (2006031)
Identifying the order of a quantum phase transition by means of Wehrl entropy in phase space.
Castaños, Octavio; Calixto, Manuel; Pérez-Bernal, Francisco; Romera, Elvira
2015-11-01
We propose a method to identify the order of a quantum phase transition by using area measures of the ground state in phase space. We illustrate our proposal by analyzing the well known example of the quantum cusp and four different paradigmatic boson models: Dicke, Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick, interacting boson model, and vibron model.
Identifying the order of a quantum phase transition by means of Wehrl entropy in phase space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castaños, Octavio; Calixto, Manuel; Pérez-Bernal, Francisco; Romera, Elvira
2015-11-01
We propose a method to identify the order of a quantum phase transition by using area measures of the ground state in phase space. We illustrate our proposal by analyzing the well known example of the quantum cusp and four different paradigmatic boson models: Dicke, Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick, interacting boson model, and vibron model.
Evaluations of phase-only double random phase encoding based on key-space analysis.
Nakano, Kazuya; Takeda, Masafumi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Masahiro
2013-02-20
Although initial research shows that double-random phase encoding (DRPE) is vulnerable to known-plaintext attacks that use phase retrieval algorithms, subsequent research has shown that phase-only DRPE, in which the Fourier amplitude component of an image encrypted with classical DRPE remains constant, is resistant to attacks that apply phase retrieval algorithms. Herein, we numerically analyze the key-space of DRPE and investigate the distribution property of decryption keys for classical and phase-only DRPE. We determine the difference in the distribution property of successful decryption keys for these DRPE techniques from the numerical analysis results and then discuss the security offered by them.
Driven phase space vortices in plasmas with nonextensive velocity distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trivedi, Pallavi; Ganesh, Rajaraman
2017-03-01
The evolution of chirp-driven electrostatic waves in unmagnetized plasmas is numerically investigated by using a one-dimensional (1D) Vlasov-poisson solver with periodic boundary conditions. The initial velocity distribution of the 1D plasma is assumed to be governed by nonextensive q distribution [C. Tsallis, J. Stat. Phys. 52, 479 (1988)]. For an infinitesimal amplitude of an external drive, we investigate the effects of chirp driven dynamics that leads to the formation of giant phase space vortices (PSV) for both Maxwellian (q = 1) and non-Maxwellian ( q ≠ 1 ) plasmas. For non-Maxwellian plasmas, the formation of giant PSV with multiple extrema and phase velocities is shown to be dependent on the strength of "q". Novel features such as "shark"-like and transient "honeycomb"-like structures in phase space are discussed. Wherever relevant, we compare our results with previous work.
Extended phase space description of human-controlled systems dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zgonnikov, Arkady; Lubashevsky, Ihor
2014-03-01
Humans are often incapable of precisely identifying and implementing the desired control strategy in controlling unstable dynamical systems. That is, the operator of a dynamical system treats the current control effort as acceptable even if it deviates slightly from the desired value, and starts correcting the actions only when the deviation has become evident. We argue that the standard Newtonian approach does not allow such behavior to be modeled. Instead, the physical phase space of a controlled system should be extended with an independent phase variable characterizing the motivated actions of the operator. The proposed approach is illustrated via a simple non-Newtonian model capturing the operators' fuzzy perception of their own actions. The properties of the model are investigated analytically and numerically; the results confirm that the extended phase space may aid in capturing the intricate dynamical properties of human-controlled systems.
Application of a localized chaos by rf-phase modulations in phase-space dilution
Lee, S.Y.; Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab
2010-10-01
Physics of chaos in a localized phase-space region is exploited to produce a longitudinally uniformly distributed beam. Theoretical study and simulations are used to study its origin and applicability in phase-space dilution of beam bunch. Through phase modulation to a double-rf system, a central region of localized chaos bounded by invariant tori are generated by overlapping parametric resonances. Condition and stability of the chaos will be analyzed. Applications include high-power beam, beam distribution uniformization, and industrial beam irradiation.
Gravitational phase transitions with an exclusion constraint in position space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chavanis, Pierre-Henri
2014-01-01
We discuss the statistical mechanics of a system of self-gravitating particles with an exclusion constraint in position space in a space of dimension d. The exclusion constraint puts an upper bound on the density of the system and can stabilize it against gravitational collapse. We plot the caloric curves giving the temperature as a function of the energy and investigate the nature of phase transitions as a function of the size of the system and of the dimension of space in both microcanonical and canonical ensembles. We consider stable and metastable states and emphasize the importance of the latter for systems with long-range interactions. For d ≤ 2, there is no phase transition. For d > 2, phase transitions can take place between a "gaseous" phase unaffected by the exclusion constraint and a "condensed" phase dominated by this constraint. The condensed configurations have a core-halo structure made of a "rocky core" surrounded by an "atmosphere", similar to a giant gaseous planet. For large systems there exist microcanonical and canonical first order phase transitions. For intermediate systems, only canonical first order phase transitions are present. For small systems there is no phase transition at all. As a result, the phase diagram exhibits two critical points, one in each ensemble. There also exist a region of negative specific heats and a situation of ensemble inequivalence for sufficiently large systems. We show that a statistical equilibrium state exists for any values of energy and temperature in any dimension of space. This differs from the case of the self-gravitating Fermi gas for which there is no statistical equilibrium state at low energies and low temperatures when d ≥ 4. By a proper interpretation of the parameters, our results have application for the chemotaxis of bacterial populations in biology described by a generalized Keller-Segel model including an exclusion constraint in position space. They also describe colloids at a fluid
Multiple beam phased array for Space Station Control Zone Communications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Halsema, P. B.
The Space Station Communications Control Zone is a disk shaped region 40 nautical miles in diameter and 10 nautical miles thick centered about the Space Station. It is estimated that 6 simultaneous Multiple Access (MA) channels will be required to satisfy the projected communications needs within this zone. These channels will be used to communicate with MA users located anywhere within the Control Zone. This paper details the tradeoffs and design implementation of a multiple beam integrated phased array to provide antenna coverage of the Control Zone. The array is a compact, modular assembly using Gallium Arsenide circuits, microstrip elements, and advanced packaging techniques. This results in a small, reliable antenna system capable of meeting the projected Space Station requirements and flexible enough to grow and evolve as the Space Station communications needs develop.
Phase-space Dynamics of Runaway Electrons In Tokamaks
Xiaoyin Guan, Hong Qin, and Nathaniel J. Fisch
2010-08-31
The phase-space dynamics of runaway electrons is studied, including the influence of loop voltage, radiation damping, and collisions. A theoretical model and a numerical algorithm for the runaway dynamics in phase space are developed. Instead of standard integrators, such as the Runge-Kutta method, a variational symplectic integrator is applied to simulate the long-term dynamics of a runaway electron. The variational symplectic integrator is able to globally bound the numerical error for arbitrary number of time-steps, and thus accurately track the runaway trajectory in phase space. Simulation results show that the circulating orbits of runaway electrons drift outward toward the wall, which is consistent with experimental observations. The physics of the outward drift is analyzed. It is found that the outward drift is caused by the imbalance between the increase of mechanical angular momentum and the input of toroidal angular momentum due to the parallel acceleration. An analytical expression of the outward drift velocity is derived. The knowledge of trajectory of runaway electrons in configuration space sheds light on how the electrons hit the first wall, and thus provides clues for possible remedies.
Phase-space dynamics of runaway electrons in tokamaks
Guan Xiaoyin; Qin Hong; Fisch, Nathaniel J.
2010-09-15
The phase-space dynamics of runaway electrons is studied, including the influence of loop voltage, radiation damping, and collisions. A theoretical model and a numerical algorithm for the runaway dynamics in phase space are developed. Instead of standard integrators, such as the Runge-Kutta method, a variational symplectic integrator is applied to simulate the long-term dynamics of a runaway electron. The variational symplectic integrator is able to globally bound the numerical error for arbitrary number of time-steps, and thus accurately track the runaway trajectory in phase space. Simulation results show that the circulating orbits of runaway electrons drift outward toward the wall, which is consistent with experimental observations. The physics of the outward drift is analyzed. It is found that the outward drift is caused by the imbalance between the increase of mechanical angular momentum and the input of toroidal angular momentum due to the parallel acceleration. An analytical expression of the outward drift velocity is derived. The knowledge of trajectory of runaway electrons in configuration space sheds light on how the electrons hit the first wall, and thus provides clues for possible remedies.
Phase space structure and dynamics for the Hamiltonian isokinetic thermostat.
Collins, Peter; Ezra, Gregory S; Wiggins, Stephen
2010-07-07
We investigate the phase space structure and dynamics of a Hamiltonian isokinetic thermostat, for which ergodic thermostat trajectories at fixed (zero) energy generate a canonical distribution in configuration space. Model potentials studied consist of a single bistable mode plus transverse harmonic modes. Interpreting the bistable mode as a reaction (isomerization) coordinate, we establish connections with the theory of unimolecular reaction rates, in particular the formulation of isomerization rates in terms of gap times. In the context of molecular reaction rates, the distribution of gap times (or associated lifetimes) for a microcanonical ensemble initiated on the dividing surface is of great dynamical significance; an exponential lifetime distribution is usually taken to be an indicator of "statistical" behavior. Moreover, comparison of the magnitude of the phase space volume swept out by reactive trajectories as they pass through the reactant region with the total phase space volume (classical density of states) for the reactant region provides a necessary condition for ergodic dynamics. We compute gap times, associated lifetime distributions, mean gap times, reactive fluxes, reactive volumes, and total reactant phase space volumes for model thermostat systems with three and four degrees of freedom at three different temperatures. At all three temperatures, the necessary condition for ergodicity is approximately satisfied. At high temperatures a nonexponential lifetime distribution is found, while at low temperatures the lifetime is more nearly exponential. The degree of exponentiality of the lifetime distribution is quantified by computing the information entropy deficit with respect to pure exponential decay. The efficacy of the Hamiltonian isokinetic thermostat is examined by computing coordinate distributions averaged over single long trajectories initiated on the dividing surface.
Deformation quantization: Quantum mechanics lives and works in phase space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zachos, Cosmas K.
2014-09-01
Wigner's 1932 quasi-probability Distribution Function in phase-space, his first paper in English, is a special (Weyl) representation of the density matrix. It has been useful in describing quantum flows in semiclassical limits; quantum optics; nuclear and physics; decoherence (eg, quantum computing); quantum chaos; "Welcher Weg" puzzles; molecular Talbot-Lau interferometry; atomic measurements. It is further of great importance in signal processing (time-frequency analysis). Nevertheless, a remarkable aspect of its internal logic, pioneered by H. Groenewold and J. Moyal, has only blossomed in the last quarter-century: It furnishes a third, alternate, formulation of Quantum Mechanics, independent of the conventional Hilbert Space (the gold medal), or Path Integral (the silver medal) formulations, and perhaps more intuitive, since it shares language with classical mechanics: one need not choose sides between coordinate or momentum space variables, since it is formulated simultaneously in terms of position and momentum. This bronze medal formulation is logically complete and self-standing, and accommodates the uncertainty principle in an unexpected manner, so that it offers unique insights into the classical limit of quantum theory. The observables in this formulation are cnumber functions in phase space instead of operators, with the same interpretation as their classical counterparts, only now composed together in novel algebraic ways using star products. One might then envision an imaginary world in which this formulation of quantum mechanics had preceded the conventional Hilbert-space formulation, and its own techniques and methods had arisen independently, perhaps out of generalizations of classical mechanics and statistical mechanics. A sampling of such intriguing techniques and methods has already been published in C. K. Zachos, Int Jou Mod Phys A17 297-316 (2002), and T. L. Curtright, D. B. Fairlie, and C. K. Zachos, A Concise Treatise on Quantum Mechanics in
Space transfer vehicle concepts and requirements study, phase 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cannon, Jeffrey H.; Vinopal, Tim; Andrews, Dana; Richards, Bill; Weber, Gary; Paddock, Greg; Maricich, Peter; Bouton, Bruce; Hagen, Jim; Kolesar, Richard
1992-01-01
This final report is a compilation of the Phase 1 and Phase 2 study findings and is intended as a Space Transfer Vehicle (STV) 'users guide' rather than an exhaustive explanation of STV design details. It provides a database for design choices in the general areas of basing, reusability, propulsion, and staging; with selection criteria based on cost, performance, available infrastructure, risk, and technology. The report is organized into the following three parts: (1) design guide; (2) STV Phase 1 Concepts and Requirements Study Summary; and (3) STV Phase 2 Concepts and Requirements Study Summary. The overall objectives of the STV study were to: (1) define preferred STV concepts capable of accommodating future exploration missions in a cost-effective manner; (2) determine the level of technology development required to perform these missions in the most cost effective manner; and (3) develop a decision database of programmatic approaches for the development of an STV concept.
Phase-space structures - II. Hierarchical Structure Finder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maciejewski, M.; Colombi, S.; Springel, V.; Alard, C.; Bouchet, F. R.
2009-07-01
A new multidimensional Hierarchical Structure Finder (HSF) to study the phase-space structure of dark matter in N-body cosmological simulations is presented. The algorithm depends mainly on two parameters, which control the level of connectivity of the detected structures and their significance compared to Poisson noise. By working in six-dimensional phase space, where contrasts are much more pronounced than in three-dimensional (3D) position space, our HSF algorithm is capable of detecting subhaloes including their tidal tails, and can recognize other phase-space structures such as pure streams and candidate caustics. If an additional unbinding criterion is added, the algorithm can be used as a self-consistent halo and subhalo finder. As a test, we apply it to a large halo of the Millennium Simulation, where 19 per cent of the halo mass is found to belong to bound substructures, which is more than what is detected with conventional 3D substructure finders, and an additional 23-36 per cent of the total mass belongs to unbound HSF structures. The distribution of identified phase-space density peaks is clearly bimodal: high peaks are dominated by the bound structures and show a small spread in their height distribution; low peaks belong mostly to tidal streams, as expected. However, the projected (3D) density distribution of the structures shows that some of the streams can have comparable density to the bound structures in position space. In order to better understand what HSF provides, we examine the time evolution of structures, based on the merger tree history. Given the resolution limit of the Millennium Simulation, bound structures typically make only up to six orbits inside the main halo. The number of orbits scales approximately linearly with the redshift corresponding to the moment of merging of the structures with the halo. At fixed redshift, the larger the initial mass of the structure which enters the main halo, the faster it loses mass. The difference in
Asteroid orbital inversion using uniform phase-space sampling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muinonen, K.; Pentikäinen, H.; Granvik, M.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Virtanen, J.
2014-07-01
We review statistical inverse methods for asteroid orbit computation from a small number of astrometric observations and short time intervals of observations. With the help of Markov-chain Monte Carlo methods (MCMC), we present a novel inverse method that utilizes uniform sampling of the phase space for the orbital elements. The statistical orbital ranging method (Virtanen et al. 2001, Muinonen et al. 2001) was set out to resolve the long-lasting challenges in the initial computation of orbits for asteroids. The ranging method starts from the selection of a pair of astrometric observations. Thereafter, the topocentric ranges and angular deviations in R.A. and Decl. are randomly sampled. The two Cartesian positions allow for the computation of orbital elements and, subsequently, the computation of ephemerides for the observation dates. Candidate orbital elements are included in the sample of accepted elements if the χ^2-value between the observed and computed observations is within a pre-defined threshold. The sample orbital elements obtain weights based on a certain debiasing procedure. When the weights are available, the full sample of orbital elements allows the probabilistic assessments for, e.g., object classification and ephemeris computation as well as the computation of collision probabilities. The MCMC ranging method (Oszkiewicz et al. 2009; see also Granvik et al. 2009) replaces the original sampling algorithm described above with a proposal probability density function (p.d.f.), and a chain of sample orbital elements results in the phase space. MCMC ranging is based on a bivariate Gaussian p.d.f. for the topocentric ranges, and allows for the sampling to focus on the phase-space domain with most of the probability mass. In the virtual-observation MCMC method (Muinonen et al. 2012), the proposal p.d.f. for the orbital elements is chosen to mimic the a posteriori p.d.f. for the elements: first, random errors are simulated for each observation, resulting in
Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) Far Field Phase Pattern
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Waluschka, Eugene
1999-01-01
The Laser Interferometry Space Antenna (LISA) for the detection of Gravitational Waves is a very long baseline interferometer that will measure the changes in the distance of a five million kilometer arm to pico meter accuracies. Knowledge of the phase deviations from a spherical wave and what causes these deviations are needed considerations in (as a minimum) the design of the telescope and in determining pointing requirements. Here we present the far field phase deviations from a spherical wave for given Zernike aberrations and obscurations of the exit pupil.
Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) Far Field Phase Patterns
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Waluschka, Eugene
1999-01-01
The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) for the detection of Gravitational Waves is a very long baseline interferometer, which will measure the changes in the distance of a five million kilometer arm to picometer accuracies. Knowledge of the phase deviations from a spherical wave and what causes these deviations are needed considerations in (as a minimum) the design of the telescope and in determining pointing requirements. Here we will present the far field phase deviations from a spherical wave for given Zernike aberrations of the exit pupil and discuss how these results affect the choice of a telescope design.
Space shuttle phase B wind tunnel test database
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glynn, J. L.; Poucher, D. E.
1988-01-01
Archived wind tunnel test data are available for flyback booster or other alternate recoverable configurations as well as reusable orbiters studied during initial development (Phase B) of the Space Shuttle. Considerable wind tunnel data were acquired by competing contractors and NASA centers for an extensive variety of configurations with an array of wing and body planforms. This wind tunnel test data has been compiled into a database and are available for application to current winged flyback or recoverable booster aerodynamic studies. The Space Shuttle Phase B Wind Tunnel Database is structured by vehicle component and configuration type. Basic components include the booster, the orbiter and the launch vehicle. Booster configuration types include straight and delta wings, canard, cylindrical, retro-glide and twin body. Orbiter configuration types include straight and delta wings, lifting body, drop tanks and double delta wings.
Large space telescope, phase A. Volume 1: Executive summary
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1972-01-01
The Phase A study of the Large Space Telescope (LST) is reported. The study defines an LST concept based on the broad mission guidelines provided by the Office of Space Science (OSS), the scientific requirements developed by OSS with the scientific community, and an understanding of long range NASA planning current at the time the study was performed. The LST is an unmanned astronomical observatory facility, consisting of an optical telescope assembly (OTA), scientific instrument package (SIP), and a support systems module (SSM). The report consists of five volumes. The report describes the constraints and trade off analyses that were performed to arrive at a reference design for each system and for the overall LST configuration. A low cost design approach was followed in the Phase A study. This resulted in the use of standard spacecraft hardware, the provision for maintenance at the black box level, growth potential in systems designs, and the sharing of shuttle maintenance flights with other payloads.
Probabilistic phase space trajectory description for anomalous polymer dynamics.
Panja, Debabrata
2011-03-16
It has been recently shown that the phase space trajectories for the anomalous dynamics of a tagged monomer of a polymer--for single polymeric systems and phenomena such as phantom Rouse, self-avoiding Rouse, and Zimm ones, reptation, and translocation through a narrow pore in a membrane, as well as for many polymeric systems such as polymer melts in the entangled regime--are robustly described by the generalized Langevin equation. Here I show that the probability distribution of phase space trajectories for all of these classical anomalous dynamics for single polymers is that of a fractional Brownian motion (fBm), while the dynamics for polymer melts between the entangled regime and the eventual diffusive regime exhibits small but systematic deviations from that of a fBm.
Phase space analysis of some interacting Chaplygin gas models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khurshudyan, M.; Myrzakulov, R.
2017-02-01
In this paper we discuss a phase space analysis of various interacting Chaplygin gas models in general relativity. Linear and nonlinear sign changeable interactions are considered. For each case appropriate late time attractors of field equations are found. The Chaplygin gas is one of the dark fluids actively considered in modern cosmology due to the fact that it is a joint model of dark energy and dark matter.
phase_space_cosmo_fisher: Fisher matrix 2D contours
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stark, Alejo
2016-11-01
phase_space_cosmo_fisher produces Fisher matrix 2D contours from which the constraints on cosmological parameters can be derived. Given a specified redshift array and cosmological case, 2D marginalized contours of cosmological parameters are generated; the code can also plot the derivatives used in the Fisher matrix. In addition, this package can generate 3D plots of qH^2 and other cosmological quantities as a function of redshift and cosmology.
The ESA Virtual Space Weather Modelling Centre - Phase 1
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poedts, Stefaan
The ESA ITT project (AO/1-6738/11/NL/AT) to develop Phase 1 of a Virtual Space Weather Modelling Centre has the following objectives and scope: 1. The construction of a long term (~10 yrs) plan for the future development of a European virtual space weather modelling centre consisting of a new ‘open’ and distributed framework for the coupling of physics based models for space weather phenomena; 2. The assessment of model capabilities and the amount of work required to make them operational by integrating them in this framework and the identification of computing and networking requirements to do so. 3. The design of a system to enable models and other components to be installed locally or geographically distributed and the creation of a validation plan including a system of metrics for testing results. The consortium that took up this challenge involves: 1)the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Prime Contractor, coordinator: Prof. S. Poedts); 2) the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB); 3) the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB); 4) the Von Karman Institute (VKI); 5) DH Consultancy (DHC); 6) Space Applications Services (SAS). The project started on May 14 2012, and will finish in May 2014. Thus, by the time of the meeting, both Phase 1A and Phase 1B (the development of the prototype) will be finished. The final report will be presented incl. the architecture decisions made, the framework, the current models integrated already as well as the model couplers installed. The prototype VSWMC will be demonstrated.
Prediction of Tropical Rainfall by Local Phase Space Reconstruction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Waelbroeck, H.; López-Pea, R.; Morales, T.; Zertuche, F.
1994-11-01
The authors propose a weather prediction model based on a local reconstruction of the dynamics in phase space, using an 11-year dataset from Tlaxcala, Mexico. A vector in phase space corresponds to T consecutive days of data; the best predictions are found for T = 14. The prediction for the next day, x0 fL(x0), is based on a local reconstruction of the dynamical map f in an ball centered at x0. The high dimensionality of the phase space implies a large optimal value of , so that the number of points in an ball is sufficient to reconstruct the local map. The local approximation fL f is therefore not very good and the prediction skill drops off quickly at first, with a timescale of 2 days. On the other hand, the authors find useful skill in the prediction of 10-day rainfall accumulations, which reflects the persistence of weather patterns. The mean-squared error in the prediction of the rainfall anomaly for the year 1992 was 64% of the variance, and the early beginning of the rain season was correctly predicted.
Zonal-flow dynamics from a phase-space perspective
Ruiz, D. E.; Parker, J. B.; Shi, E. L.; ...
2016-12-16
The wave kinetic equation (WKE) describing drift-wave (DW) turbulence is widely used in the studies of zonal flows (ZFs) emerging from DW turbulence. But, this formulation neglects the exchange of enstrophy between DWs and ZFs and also ignores effects beyond the geometrical-optics limit. Furthermore, we derive a modified theory that takes both of these effects into account, while still treating DW quanta (“driftons”) as particles in phase space. The drifton dynamics is described by an equation of the Wigner–Moyal type, which is commonly known in the phase-space formulation of quantum mechanics. In the geometrical-optics limit, this formulation features additional termsmore » missing in the traditional WKE that ensure exact conservation of the total enstrophy of the system, in addition to the total energy, which is the only conserved invariant in previous theories based on the WKE. We present numerical simulations to illustrate the importance of these additional terms. The proposed formulation can be considered as a phase-space representation of the second-order cumulant expansion, or CE2.« less
Zonal-flow dynamics from a phase-space perspective
Ruiz, D. E.; Parker, J. B.; Shi, E. L.; Dodin, I. Y.
2016-12-16
The wave kinetic equation (WKE) describing drift-wave (DW) turbulence is widely used in the studies of zonal flows (ZFs) emerging from DW turbulence. But, this formulation neglects the exchange of enstrophy between DWs and ZFs and also ignores effects beyond the geometrical-optics limit. Furthermore, we derive a modified theory that takes both of these effects into account, while still treating DW quanta (“driftons”) as particles in phase space. The drifton dynamics is described by an equation of the Wigner–Moyal type, which is commonly known in the phase-space formulation of quantum mechanics. In the geometrical-optics limit, this formulation features additional terms missing in the traditional WKE that ensure exact conservation of the total enstrophy of the system, in addition to the total energy, which is the only conserved invariant in previous theories based on the WKE. We present numerical simulations to illustrate the importance of these additional terms. The proposed formulation can be considered as a phase-space representation of the second-order cumulant expansion, or CE2.
Medical care capabilities for Space Station Freedom: A phase approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doarn, C. R.; Lloyd, C. W.
1992-05-01
As a result of Congressional mandate Space Station Freedom (SSF) was restructured. This restructuring activity has affected the capabilities for providing medical care on board the station. This presentation addresses the health care facility to be built and used on the orbiting space station. This unit, named the Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) is based on and modeled after remote, terrestrial medical facilities. It will provide a phased approach to health care for the crews of SSF. Beginning with a stabilization and transport phase, HMF will expand to provide the most advanced state of the art therapeutic and diagnostic capabilities. This presentation details the capabilities of such a phased HMF. As Freedom takes form over the next decade there will be ever-increasing engineering and scientific developmental activities. The HMF will evolve with this process until it eventually reaches a mature, complete stand-alone health care facility that provides a foundation to support interplanetary travel. As man's experience in space continues to grow so will the ability to provide advanced health care for Earth-orbital and exploratory missions as well.
Medical care capabilities for Space Station Freedom: A phase approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Doarn, C. R.; Lloyd, C. W.
1992-01-01
As a result of Congressional mandate Space Station Freedom (SSF) was restructured. This restructuring activity has affected the capabilities for providing medical care on board the station. This presentation addresses the health care facility to be built and used on the orbiting space station. This unit, named the Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) is based on and modeled after remote, terrestrial medical facilities. It will provide a phased approach to health care for the crews of SSF. Beginning with a stabilization and transport phase, HMF will expand to provide the most advanced state of the art therapeutic and diagnostic capabilities. This presentation details the capabilities of such a phased HMF. As Freedom takes form over the next decade there will be ever-increasing engineering and scientific developmental activities. The HMF will evolve with this process until it eventually reaches a mature, complete stand-alone health care facility that provides a foundation to support interplanetary travel. As man's experience in space continues to grow so will the ability to provide advanced health care for Earth-orbital and exploratory missions as well.
Relativistic algebraic spinors and quantum motions in phase space
Holland, P.R.
1986-08-01
Following suggestions of Schonberg and Bohm, we study the tensorial phase space representation of the Dirac and Feynman-Gell-Mann equations in terms of the complex Dirac algebra C/sub 4/, a Jordan-Wigner algebra G/sub 4/, and Wigner transformations. To do this we solve the problem of the conditions under which elements in C/sub 4/ generate minimal ideals, and extend this to G/sub 4/. This yields the linear theory of Dirac spin spaces and tensor representations of Dirac spinors, and the spin-1/2 wave equations are represented through fermionic state vectors in a higher space as a set of interconnected tensor relations.
Deep Space Habitat Team: HEFT Phase 2 Effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Toups, Larry D.; Smitherman, David; Shyface, Hilary; Simon, Matt; Bobkill, Marianne; Komar, D. R.; Guirgis, Peggy; Bagdigian, Bob; Spexarth, Gary
2011-01-01
HEFT was a NASA-wide team that performed analyses of architectures for human exploration beyond LEO, evaluating technical, programmatic, and budgetary issues to support decisions at the highest level of the agency in HSF planning. HEFT Phase I (April - September, 2010) and Phase II (September - December, 2010) examined a broad set of Human Exploration of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) Design Reference Missions (DRMs), evaluating such factors as elements, performance, technologies, schedule, and cost. At end of HEFT Phase 1, an architecture concept known as DRM 4a represented the best available option for a full capability NEO mission. Within DRM4a, the habitation system was provided by Deep Space Habitat (DSH), Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV), and Crew Transfer Vehicle (CTV) pressurized elements. HEFT Phase 2 extended DRM4a, resulting in DRM4b. Scrubbed element-level functionality assumptions and mission Concepts of Operations. Habitation Team developed more detailed concepts of the DSH and the DSH/MMSEV/CTV Conops, including functionality and accommodations, mass & volume estimates, technology requirements, and DDT&E costs. DRM 5 represented an effort to reduce cost by scaling back on technologies and eliminating the need for the development of an MMSEV.
Parametric Modeling of Transverse Phase Space of an RF Photoinjector
Hartman, E.; Sayyar-Rodsari, B.; Schweiger, C.A.; Lee, M.J.; Lui, P.; Paterson, Ewan; Schmerge, J.F.; /SLAC
2008-01-24
High brightness electron beam sources such as rf photo-injectors as proposed for SASE FELs must consistently produce the desired beam quality. We report the results of a study in which a combined neural network (NN) and first-principles (FP) model is used to model the transverse phase space of the beam as a function of quadrupole strength, while beam charge, solenoid field, accelerator gradient, and linac voltage and phase are kept constant. The parametric transport matrix between the exit of the linac section and the spectrometer screen constitutes the FP component of the combined model. The NN block provides the parameters of the transport matrix as functions of quad current. Using real data from SLAC Gun Test Facility, we will highlight the significance of the constrained training of the NN block and show that the phase space of the beam is accurately modeled by the combined NN and FP model, while variations of beam matrix parameters with the quad current are correctly captured. We plan to extend the combined model in the future to capture the effects of variations in beam charge, solenoid field, and accelerator voltage and phase.
Grassmann phase space methods for fermions. I. Mode theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dalton, B. J.; Jeffers, J.; Barnett, S. M.
2016-07-01
In both quantum optics and cold atom physics, the behaviour of bosonic photons and atoms is often treated using phase space methods, where mode annihilation and creation operators are represented by c-number phase space variables, with the density operator equivalent to a distribution function of these variables. The anti-commutation rules for fermion annihilation, creation operators suggest the possibility of using anti-commuting Grassmann variables to represent these operators. However, in spite of the seminal work by Cahill and Glauber and a few applications, the use of Grassmann phase space methods in quantum-atom optics to treat fermionic systems is rather rare, though fermion coherent states using Grassmann variables are widely used in particle physics. The theory of Grassmann phase space methods for fermions based on separate modes is developed, showing how the distribution function is defined and used to determine quantum correlation functions, Fock state populations and coherences via Grassmann phase space integrals, how the Fokker-Planck equations are obtained and then converted into equivalent Ito equations for stochastic Grassmann variables. The fermion distribution function is an even Grassmann function, and is unique. The number of c-number Wiener increments involved is 2n2, if there are n modes. The situation is somewhat different to the bosonic c-number case where only 2 n Wiener increments are involved, the sign of the drift term in the Ito equation is reversed and the diffusion matrix in the Fokker-Planck equation is anti-symmetric rather than symmetric. The un-normalised B distribution is of particular importance for determining Fock state populations and coherences, and as pointed out by Plimak, Collett and Olsen, the drift vector in its Fokker-Planck equation only depends linearly on the Grassmann variables. Using this key feature we show how the Ito stochastic equations can be solved numerically for finite times in terms of c-number stochastic
Linearization of the longitudinal phase space without higher harmonic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeitler, Benno; Floettmann, Klaus; Grüner, Florian
2015-12-01
Accelerator applications like free-electron lasers, time-resolved electron diffraction, and advanced accelerator concepts like plasma acceleration desire bunches of ever shorter longitudinal extent. However, apart from space charge repulsion, the internal bunch structure and its development along the beam line can limit the achievable compression due to nonlinear phase space correlations. In order to improve such a limited longitudinal focus, a correction by properly linearizing the phase space is required. At large scale facilities like Flash at Desy or the European Xfel, a higher harmonic cavity is installed for this purpose. In this paper, another method is described and evaluated: Expanding the beam after the electron source enables a higher order correction of the longitudinal focus by a subsequent accelerating cavity which is operated at the same frequency as the electron gun. The elaboration of this idea presented here is based on a ballistic bunching scheme, but can be extended to bunch compression based on magnetic chicanes. The core of this article is an analytic model describing this approach, which is verified by simulations, predicting possible bunch length below 1 fs at low bunch charge. Minimizing the energy spread down to σE/E <1 0-5 while keeping the bunch long is another interesting possibility, which finds applications, e.g., in time resolved transmission electron microscopy concepts.
Acceleration of Classical Mechanics by Phase Space Constraints.
Martínez-Núñez, Emilio; Shalashilin, Dmitrii V
2006-07-01
In this article phase space constrained classical mechanics (PSCCM), a version of accelerated dynamics, is suggested to speed up classical trajectory simulations of slow chemical processes. The approach is based on introducing constraints which lock trajectories in the region of the phase space close to the dividing surface, which separates reactants and products. This results in substantial (up to more than 2 orders of magnitude) speeding up of the trajectory simulation. Actual microcanonical rates are calculated by introducing a correction factor equal to the fraction of the phase volume which is allowed by the constraints. The constraints can be more complex than previously used boosting potentials. The approach has its origin in Intramolecular Dynamics Diffusion Theory, which shows that the majority of nonstatistical effects are localized near the transition state. An excellent agreement with standard trajectory simulation at high energies and Monte Carlo Transition State Theory at low energies is demonstrated for the unimolecular dissociation of methyl nitrite, proving that PSCCM works both in statistical and nonstatistical regimes.
Tomographic measurement of the phase space distribution of a space-charge-dominated beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stratakis, Diktys
Many applications of accelerators, such as free electron lasers, pulsed neutron sources, and heavy ion fusion, require a good quality beam with high intensity. In practice, the achievable intensity is often limited by the dynamics at the low-energy, space-charge dominated end of the machine. Because low-energy beams can have complex distribution functions, a good understanding of their detailed evolution is needed. To address this issue, we have developed a simple and accurate tomographic method to map the beam phase using quadrupole magnets, which includes the effects from space charge. We extend this technique to use also solenoidal magnets which are commonly used at low energies, especially in photoinjectors, thus making the diagnostic applicable to most machines. We simulate our technique using a particle in cell code (PIC), to ascertain accuracy of the reconstruction. Using this diagnostic we report a number of experiments to study and optimize injection, transport and acceleration of intense space charge dominated beams. We examine phase mixing, by studying the phase-space evolution of an intense beam with a transversely nonuniform initial density distribution. Experimental measurements, theoretical predictions and PIC simulations are in good agreement each other. Finally, we generate a parabolic beam pulse to model those beams from photoinjectors, and combine tomography with fast imaging techniques to investigate the time-sliced parameters of beam current, size, energy spread and transverse emittance. We found significant differences between the slice emittance profiles and slice orientation as the beam propagates downstream. The combined effect of longitudinal nonuniform profiles and fast imaging of the transverse phase space provided us with information about correlations between longitudinal and transverse dynamics that we report within this dissertation.
Multimegawatt space nuclear power supply, Phase 1 Final report
Not Available
1989-02-17
This Specification establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the Boeing Multimegawatt Space Nuclear Power System (MSNPS). The Boeing Multimegawatt Space Power System is part of the DOE/SDIO Multimegawatt Space Nuclear Power Program. The purpose of this program is to provide a space-based nuclear power system to meet the needs of SDIO missions. The Boeing MSNPS is a category 1 concept which is capable of delivering 10's of MW(e) for 100's of seconds with effluent permitted. A design goal is for the system to have growth or downscale capability for other power system concepts. The growth objective is to meet the category 3 capability of 100's of MW(e) for 100's of seconds, also with effluent permitted. The purpose of this preliminary document is to guide the conceptual design effort throughout the Phase 1 study effort. This document will be updated through out the study. It will thus result in a record of the development of the design effort.
Phase space analysis of multipactor saturation in rectangular waveguide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lingwood, C. J.; Burt, G.; Dexter, A. C.; Smith, J. D. A.; Goudket, P.; Stoltz, P. H.
2012-03-01
In certain high power RF systems multipactor cannot be avoided for all operating points, but its existence places limits on performance, efficiency, lifetime, and reliability. As an example multipactor in the input couplers of superconducting RF cavities can be a major limitation to the maximum RF power. Several studies have concentrated on rectangular waveguide input couplers which are used in many light sources. Most of these studies neglect space charge assuming that the effect of space charge is simply to defocus the electron bunches. Modelling multipactor to saturation is of interest in determining the performance of waveguide under a range of conditions. Particle-in-cell modelling including space charge has been performed for 500 MHz half-height rectangular waveguide. Phase plots of electron trajectories can aid understanding the processes taking place in the multipactor. Results strongly suggest that the multipacting trajectories are strongly perturbed by space charge causing the electrons to transition from two-surface to single-surface trajectories as the multipactor approaches saturation.
Lifetime of Runaway Electrons at Phase-space Attractor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fontanilla, Adrian; Breizman, Boris
2016-10-01
The kinetic theory for relativistic runaway electrons is extended to find a structure of the distribution function that is peaked around a phase-space attractor. Runaway electron dynamics are examined when the electric field is close to the threshold value required to sustain pre-existing runaways. The near vicinity of predicted stable and unstable points in momentum-space characterize a competition between accumulation and depletion which ultimately determines a finite lifetime for the accumulated runaways, albeit one that can be exponentially long and amenable to avalanche onset. The developed theory is then generalized to the case of stronger driving fields. Worked supported by the U.S. DOE Contract No. DEFG02-04ER54742.
A gauge theory of gravity in curved phase-spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castro, Carlos
2016-06-01
After a cursory introduction of the basic ideas behind Born’s Reciprocal Relativity theory, the geometry of the cotangent bundle of spacetime is studied via the introduction of nonlinear connections associated with certain nonholonomic modifications of Riemann-Cartan gravity within the context of Finsler geometry. A novel gauge theory of gravity in the 8D cotangent bundle T∗M of spacetime is explicitly constructed and based on the gauge group SO(6, 2) ×sR8 which acts on the tangent space to the cotangent bundle T(x,p)T∗M at each point (x,p). Several gravitational actions involving curvature and torsion tensors and associated with the geometry of curved phase-spaces are presented. We conclude with a brief discussion of the field equations, the geometrization of matter, quantum field theory (QFT) in accelerated frames, T-duality, double field theory, and generalized geometry.
Phase space variations of near equatorially mirroring ring current ions
Williams, D.J.
1981-01-01
We present Isee 1 observations of near equatorially mirroring ring current ions before and after the magnetic storm of November 25-26, 1977. The data are presented as phase space densities, f(s/sup 2//cm/sup 6/), versus the first adiabatic invariant, m(MeV/G), for the L range approx.2.7-8 R/sub E/. The m range covered varies from approx.50-1000 MeV/G at L = 8 to approx.1-100 MeV/G at L = 2.7. The prestorm phase space densities show an intensity peak at a m value which varies with L as m/sub peak/approx.38 MeV/G for 5< or approx. =L< or approx. =8 and m/sub peak/approx.10e/sup( 0.7L/-3) for 2.7< or approx. =L< or approx. =5. Phase space densities remain nearly constant throughout the storm for m values greater that m/sub peak/ and are enhanced for m values less than m/sub peak/. Thus high-energy ions respond adiabatically to the magnetic field changes caused by the low-energy ion enhancements. This result agrees with earlier Explorer 45 results (Lyons and Williams, 1976). The Isee 1 data are compared directly with the Explorer 45 data and are found to agree very well. The time difference of approx.6 years and local time separation of approx.12 hours between the two data sets lead to the conclusion that the ring current ion behavior presented here is a characteristic feature of geomagnetic storms.
A phase-space beam position monitor for synchrotron radiation.
Samadi, Nazanin; Bassey, Bassey; Martinson, Mercedes; Belev, George; Dallin, Les; de Jong, Mark; Chapman, Dean
2015-07-01
The stability of the photon beam position on synchrotron beamlines is critical for most if not all synchrotron radiation experiments. The position of the beam at the experiment or optical element location is set by the position and angle of the electron beam source as it traverses the magnetic field of the bend-magnet or insertion device. Thus an ideal photon beam monitor would be able to simultaneously measure the photon beam's position and angle, and thus infer the electron beam's position in phase space. X-ray diffraction is commonly used to prepare monochromatic beams on X-ray beamlines usually in the form of a double-crystal monochromator. Diffraction couples the photon wavelength or energy to the incident angle on the lattice planes within the crystal. The beam from such a monochromator will contain a spread of energies due to the vertical divergence of the photon beam from the source. This range of energies can easily cover the absorption edge of a filter element such as iodine at 33.17 keV. A vertical profile measurement of the photon beam footprint with and without the filter can be used to determine the vertical centroid position and angle of the photon beam. In the measurements described here an imaging detector is used to measure these vertical profiles with an iodine filter that horizontally covers part of the monochromatic beam. The goal was to investigate the use of a combined monochromator, filter and detector as a phase-space beam position monitor. The system was tested for sensitivity to position and angle under a number of synchrotron operating conditions, such as normal operations and special operating modes where the photon beam is intentionally altered in position and angle at the source point. The results are comparable with other methods of beam position measurement and indicate that such a system is feasible in situations where part of the synchrotron beam can be used for the phase-space measurement.
Space shuttle phase B. Volume 2: Technical summary, addendum A
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1971-01-01
A study was conducted to analyze the characteristics and performance data for the booster vehicles to be used with the space shuttle operations. It was determined that the single pressure-fed booster offered the lowest program cost per flight of the pressure-fed booster arrangements studied. The fly back booster required the highest peak annual funding and highest program cost. It was recommended that the pressure-fed booster, series burn with liquid oxygen phase, be continued for further study. The flyback booster study was discontinued. Both solid and liquid propelled booster vehicles with 14 by 45 foot and 15 by 60 foot payload orbiters were considered.
Uniformity of the phase space and fluctuations in thermal equilibrium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Majka, Arkadiusz; Wiślicki, Wojciech
2003-05-01
General relations are found between the measure of the uniformity of distributions on the phase space and the first moments and correlations of extensive variables for systems close to thermal equilibrium. The role played by the parameter of the Renyi entropy for the analysis of their fluctuations and correlations is studied. Analytical results are verified and illustrated by direct simulations of quantum systems of ideal fermions and bosons. Problems of finite statistics, usual in experiments and simulations, are addressed and discussed and solved by finding unbiased estimators for Renyi entropies and uniformities.
Values of the phase space factors for double beta decay
Stoica, Sabin Mirea, Mihai
2015-10-28
We report an up-date list of the experimentally most interesting phase space factors for double beta decay (DBD). The electron/positron wave functions are obtained by solving the Dirac equations with a Coulomb potential derived from a realistic proton density distribution in nucleus and with inclusion of the finite nuclear size (FNS) and electron screening (ES) effects. We build up new numerical routines which allow us a good control of the accuracy of calculations. We found several notable differences as compared with previous results reported in literature and possible sources of these discrepancies are discussed.
Spatial coherence wavelets and phase-space representation of diffraction.
Castañeda, Román; Carrasquilla, Juan
2008-08-01
The phase-space representation of the Fresnel-Fraunhofer diffraction of optical fields in any state of spatial coherence is based on the marginal power spectrum carried by the spatial coherence wavelets. Its structure is analyzed in terms of the classes of source pairs and the spot of the field, which is treated as the hologram of the map of classes. Negative values of the marginal power spectrum are interpreted as negative energies. The influence of the aperture edge on diffraction is stated in terms of the distortion of the supports of the complex degree of spatial coherence near it. Experimental results are presented.
Advanced microelectronics research for space applications, phase 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gaertner, W. W.
1971-01-01
Negative-resistance circuits with possible space flight applications are discussed. The basic design approach is to use impedance rotation, i.e., the conversion from capacitance to negative resistance, and from resistance to inductance by the phase shift of the transistor current gain at high frequencies. The subjects discussed in detail are the following: hybrid fabrication of VHF and UHF negative-resistance stages with lumped passive elements; formulation of measurement techniques to characterize transistors and to extend the frequency of negative-resistance transistor amplifiers to higher microwave frequencies; and derivation of transistor characteristics required to increase the frequency range of negative-resistance transistor stages.
Efficient computations of quantum canonical Gibbs state in phase space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bondar, Denys I.; Campos, Andre G.; Cabrera, Renan; Rabitz, Herschel A.
2016-06-01
The Gibbs canonical state, as a maximum entropy density matrix, represents a quantum system in equilibrium with a thermostat. This state plays an essential role in thermodynamics and serves as the initial condition for nonequilibrium dynamical simulations. We solve a long standing problem for computing the Gibbs state Wigner function with nearly machine accuracy by solving the Bloch equation directly in the phase space. Furthermore, the algorithms are provided yielding high quality Wigner distributions for pure stationary states as well as for Thomas-Fermi and Bose-Einstein distributions. The developed numerical methods furnish a long-sought efficient computation framework for nonequilibrium quantum simulations directly in the Wigner representation.
Numerical phase front propagation for the laser interferometer space antenna
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papalexandris, Miltiadis V.; Waluschka, Eugene
2002-06-01
The present article reports on numerical studies of phase front propagation for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). The main objective is to determine the sensitivity of the average phase of the metrology beam with respect to fluctuations of the pointing of the beam. For this purpose, the metrology beam is propagated numerically along the interferometric arm of the instrument. The effects of the obscurations from the secondary mirror and its supporting struts are studied in detail. Further, the effects of random wavefront distortions that occur due to imperfections of the optical elements are estimated through a series of Monte Carlo simulations. The results of this study can be used to determine design requirements for the instrument.
Artwork: Johnson Space Center U.S./International Cooperation Phase II -- This is a representation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1994-01-01
Artwork: Johnson Space Center U.S./International Cooperation Phase II -- This is a representation illustrating the United States' international cooperation in space. Phase II of the International Space Station is depicted with elements provided by the United States and Russia comprising the Human Tended Space Station. The scene was produced by John Frassanito and Associates. (JSC ref: S94-30086)
Coherent quantum squeezing due to the phase space noncommutativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernardini, Alex E.; Mizrahi, Salomon S.
2015-06-01
The effects of general noncommutativity of operators on producing deformed coherent squeezed states is examined in phase space. A two-dimensional noncommutative (NC) quantum system supported by a deformed mathematical structure, similar to that of Hadamard billiard, is obtained and the components behaviour is monitored in time. It is assumed that the independent degrees of freedom are two free 1D harmonic oscillators (HOs), so the system Hamiltonian does not contain interaction terms. Through the NC deformation parameterized by a Seiberg-Witten transform on the original canonical variables, one gets the standard commutation relations for the new ones, such that the obtained, new, Hamiltonian represents two interacting 1D HOs. By admitting that one HO is inverted relatively to the other, we show that their effective interaction induces a squeezing dynamics for initial coherent states imaged in the phase space. A suitable pattern of logarithmic spirals is obtained and some relevant properties are discussed in terms of Wigner functions, which are essential to put in evidence the effects of the noncommutativity.
Phase Space Velocy Correlation and Degrees of Freedom
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mattingly, Sean; Berumen, Jorge; Chu, Feng; Hood, Ryan; Skiff, Fred
2016-10-01
We measure the phase space distribution function's velocity correlation function C(v ,v' , τ) = < f (x , v , t) f(x' = x ,v' , t - τ > t in a cylindrical axially magnetized laboratory plasma (n 109 ,Te 5eV ,Ti 0.08eV) generated with an inductively coupled RF source. We use Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) with two lasers that each have their own atomic transition scheme and collection optics to simultaneously measure distinct ion subpopulations at differing velocities v and v'. A separately mounted antenna facilitates the velocity correlation measurement through either single mode excitation with a sinusoidal signal or broadband excitation with white noise. LIF photon acquisition is synchronized with digitizer sampling of the signal driving the fluctuation excitation antenna. With this we explore phase space degrees of freedom in v and v' with either monochromatic or broadband excitation. Finally, driving a sinusoidal wave near the ion cyclotron frequency causes linear wave - particle resonance ω - nΩci =k| |(ω) v| | that results in a tunable ion resonance velocity located within the Doppler broadened IVDF - making it measureable by LIF. NSF DOE Grant DE-FG02-99ER54543.
Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) Far Field Phase Patterns
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Waluschka, Eugene; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) consists of three spacecraft in orbit about the sun. The orbits are chosen such that the three spacecraft are always at (roughly) the vertices of a equilateral triangle with 5 million kilometer leg lengths. Even though the distances between the three spacecraft are 5 million kilometers, the expected phase shifts between any two beams, due to a gravitational wave, only correspond to a distance change of about 10 pico meters, which is about 10(exp -5) waves for a laser wavelength of 1064 nm. To obtain the best signal-to-noise ratio, noise sources such as changes in the apparent distances due to pointing jitter must be controlled carefully. This is the main reason for determining the far-field phase patterns of a LISA type telescope. Because of torque on the LISA spacecraft and other disturbances, continuous adjustments to the pointing of the telescopes are required. These pointing adjustments will be a "jitter" source. If the transmitted wave is perfectly spherical then rotations (Jitter) about its geometric center will not produce any effect at the receiving spacecraft. However, if the outgoing wave is not perfectly spherical, then pointing jitter will produce a phase variation at the receiving spacecraft. The following sections describe the "brute force" computational approach used to determine the scalar wave front as a function of exit pupil (Zernike) aberrations and to show the results (mostly graphically) of the computations. This approach is straightforward and produces believable phase variations to sub-pico meter accuracy over distances on the order of 5 million kilometers. As such this analyzes the far field phase sensitivity to exit pupil aberrations.
Volumic omit maps in ab initio dual-space phasing.
Oszlányi, Gábor; Sütő, András
2016-07-01
Alternating-projection-type dual-space algorithms have a clear construction, but are susceptible to stagnation and, thus, inefficient for solving the phase problem ab initio. To improve this behaviour new omit maps are introduced, which are real-space perturbations applied periodically during the iteration process. The omit maps are called volumic, because they delete some predetermined subvolume of the unit cell without searching for atomic regions or analysing the electron density in any other way. The basic algorithms of positivity, histogram matching and low-density elimination are tested by their solution statistics. It is concluded that, while all these algorithms based on weak constraints are practically useless in their pure forms, appropriate volumic omit maps can transform them to practically useful methods. In addition, the efficiency of the already useful reflector-type charge-flipping algorithm can be further improved. It is important that these results are obtained by using non-sharpened structure factors and without any weighting scheme or reciprocal-space perturbation. The mathematical background of volumic omit maps and their expected applications are also discussed.
Constraining neutron guide optimizations with phase-space considerations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertelsen, Mads; Lefmann, Kim
2016-09-01
We introduce a method named the Minimalist Principle that serves to reduce the parameter space for neutron guide optimization when the required beam divergence is limited. The reduced parameter space will restrict the optimization to guides with a minimal neutron intake that are still theoretically able to deliver the maximal possible performance. The geometrical constraints are derived using phase-space propagation from moderator to guide and from guide to sample, while assuming that the optimized guides will achieve perfect transport of the limited neutron intake. Guide systems optimized using these constraints are shown to provide performance close to guides optimized without any constraints, however the divergence received at the sample is limited to the desired interval, even when the neutron transport is not limited by the supermirrors used in the guide. As the constraints strongly limit the parameter space for the optimizer, two control parameters are introduced that can be used to adjust the selected subspace, effectively balancing between maximizing neutron transport and avoiding background from unnecessary neutrons. One parameter is needed to describe the expected focusing abilities of the guide to be optimized, going from perfectly focusing to no correlation between position and velocity. The second parameter controls neutron intake into the guide, so that one can select exactly how aggressively the background should be limited. We show examples of guides optimized using these constraints which demonstrates the higher signal to noise than conventional optimizations. Furthermore the parameter controlling neutron intake is explored which shows that the simulated optimal neutron intake is close to the analytically predicted, when assuming that the guide is dominated by multiple scattering events.
A study of the maximum entropy technique for phase space tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hock, K. M.; Ibison, M. G.
2013-02-01
We study a problem with the Maximum Entropy Technique (MENT) when applied to tomographic measurements of the transverse phase space of electron beams, and suggest some ways to improve its reliability. We show that the outcome of a phase space reconstruction can be highly sensitive to the choice of projection angles. It is quite likely to obtain reconstructed distributions of the phase space that are obviously different from the actual distributions. We propose a method to obtain a ``good'' choice of projections angles using a normalised phase space. We demonstrate that the resulting reconstructions of the phase space can be significantly improved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trahan, Corey J.; Wyatt, Robert E.
2003-10-01
Recently, Donoso and Martens described a method for evolving both classical and quantum phase-space distribution functions, W(q,p,t), that involves the propagation of an ensemble of correlated trajectories. The trajectories are linked into a unified whole by spatial and momentum derivatives of density dependent terms in the equations of motion. On each time step, these nonlocal terms were evaluated by fitting the density around each trajectory to an assumed functional form. In the present study, we develop a different trajectory method for propagating phase-space distribution functions. A hierarchy of coupled analytic equations of motion are derived for the q and p derivatives of the density and a truncated set of these are integrated along each trajectory concurrently with the equation of motion for the density. The advantage of this approach is that individual trajectories can be propagated, one at a time, and function fitting is not required to evaluate the nonlocal terms. Regional nonlocality can be incorporated at various levels of approximation to "dress" what would otherwise be "thin" locally propagating trajectories. This derivative propagation method is used to obtain trajectory solutions for the Klein-Kramers equation, the Husimi equation, and for a smoothed version of the Caldeira-Leggett equation derived by the Diosi. Trajectory solutions are obtained for the relaxation of an oscillator in contact with a thermal bath and for the decay of a metastable state.
Hubble Space Telescope characterized by using phase-retrieval algorithms.
Fienup, J R; Marron, J C; Schulz, T J; Seldin, J H
1993-04-01
We describe several results characterizing the Hubble Space Telescope from measured point spread functions by using phase-retrieval algorithms. The Cramer-Rao lower bounds show that point spread functions taken well out of focus result in smaller errors when aberrations are estimated and that, for those images, photon noise is not a limiting factor. Reconstruction experiments with both simulated and real data show that the calculation of wave-front propagation by the retrieval algorithms must be performed with a multiple-plane propagation rather than a simple fast Fourier transform to ensure the high accuracy required. Pupil reconstruction was performed and indicates a misalignment of the optical axis of a camera relay telescope relative to the main telescope. After we accounted for measured spherical aberration in the relay telescope, our estimate of the conic constant of the primary mirror of the HST was - 1.0144.
Phase-space treatment of the driven quantum harmonic oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campos, Diógenes
2017-03-01
A recent phase-space formulation of quantum mechanics in terms of the Glauber coherent states is applied to study the interaction of a one-dimensional harmonic oscillator with an arbitrary time-dependent force. Wave functions of the simultaneous values of position q and momentum p are deduced, which in turn give the standard position and momentum wave functions, together with expressions for the ηth derivatives with respect to q and p, respectively. Afterwards, general formulae for momentum, position and energy expectation values are obtained, and the Ehrenfest theorem is verified. Subsequently, general expressions for the cross-Wigner functions are deduced. Finally, a specific example is considered to numerically and graphically illustrate some results.
Phase-space noncommutative formulation of Ozawa's uncertainty principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bastos, Catarina; Bernardini, Alex E.; Bertolami, Orfeu; Costa Dias, Nuno; Prata, João Nuno
2014-08-01
Ozawa's measurement-disturbance relation is generalized to a phase-space noncommutative extension of quantum mechanics. It is shown that the measurement-disturbance relations have additional terms for backaction evading quadrature amplifiers and for noiseless quadrature transducers. Several distinctive features appear as a consequence of the noncommutative extension: measurement interactions which are noiseless, and observables which are undisturbed by a measurement, or of independent intervention in ordinary quantum mechanics, may acquire noise, become disturbed by the measurement, or no longer be an independent intervention in noncommutative quantum mechanics. It is also found that there can be states which violate Ozawa's universal noise-disturbance trade-off relation, but verify its noncommutative deformation.
Space shuttle electromagnetic environment experiment. Phase A: Definition study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haber, F.; Showers, R. M.; Taheri, S. H.; Forrest, L. A., Jr.; Kocher, C.
1974-01-01
A program is discussed which develops a concept for measuring the electromagnetic environment on earth with equipment on board an orbiting space shuttle. Earlier work on spaceborne measuring experiments is reviewed, and emissions to be expected are estimated using, in part, previously gathered data. General relations among system parameters are presented, followed by a proposal on spatial and frequency scanning concepts. The methods proposed include a nadir looking measurement with small lateral scan and a circularly scanned measurement looking tangent to the earth's surface at the horizon. Antenna requirements are given, assuming frequency coverage from 400 MHz to 40 GHz. For the low frequency range, 400-1000 MHz, a processed, thinned array is proposed which will be more fully analyzed in the next phase of the program. Preliminary hardware and data processing requirements are presented.
Interacting agegraphic dark energy models in phase space
Lemets, O.A.; Yerokhin, D.A.; Zazunov, L.G. E-mail: denyerokhin@gmail.com
2011-01-01
Agegraphic dark energy, has been recently proposed, based on the so-called Karolyhazy uncertainty relation, which arises from quantum mechanics together with general relativity. In the first part of the article we study the original agegraphic dark energy model by including the interaction between agegraphic dark energy and pressureless (dark) matter. The phase space analysis was made and the critical points were found, one of which is the attractor corresponding to an accelerated expanding Universe. Recent observations of near supernova show that the acceleration of Universe decreases. This phenomenon is called the transient acceleration. In the second part of Article we consider the 3-component Universe composed of a scalar field, interacting with the dark matter on the agegraphic dark energy background. We show that the transient acceleration appears in frame of such a model. The obtained results agree with the observations.
Semiclassical approximations in phase space with coherent states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baranger, M.; de Aguiar, M. A. M.; Keck, F.; Korsch, H. J.; Schellhaaß, B.
2001-09-01
We present a complete derivation of the semiclassical limit of the coherent-state propagator in one dimension, starting from path integrals in phase space. We show that the arbitrariness in the path integral representation, which follows from the overcompleteness of the coherent states, results in many different semiclassical limits. We explicitly derive two possible semiclassical formulae for the propagator, we suggest a third one, and we discuss their relationships. We also derive an initial-value representation for the semiclassical propagator, based on an initial Gaussian wavepacket. It turns out to be related to, but different from, Heller's thawed Gaussian approximation. It is very different from the Herman-Kluk formula, which is not a correct semiclassical limit. We point out errors in two derivations of the latter. Finally we show how the semiclassical coherent-state propagators lead to WKB-type quantization rules and to approximations for the Husimi distributions of stationary states.
Generalizing the Boltzmann equation in complex phase space.
Zadehgol, Abed
2016-08-01
In this work, a generalized form of the BGK-Boltzmann equation is proposed, where the velocity, position, and time can be represented by real or complex variables. The real representation leads to the conventional BGK-Boltzmann equation, which can recover the continuity and Navier-Stokes equations. We show that the complex representation yields a different set of equations, and it can also recover the conservation and Navier-Stokes equations, at low Mach numbers, provided that the imaginary component of the macroscopic mass can be neglected. We briefly review the Constant Speed Kinetic Model (CSKM), which was introduced in Zadehgol and Ashrafizaadeh [J. Comp. Phys. 274, 803 (2014)JCTPAH0021-999110.1016/j.jcp.2014.06.053] and Zadehgol [Phys. Rev. E 91, 063311 (2015)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.91.063311]. The CSKM is then used as a basis to show that the complex-valued equilibrium distribution function of the present model can be identified with a simple singularity in the complex phase space. The virtual particles, in the present work, are concentrated on virtual "branes" which surround the computational nodes. Employing the Cauchy integral formula, it is shown that certain variations of the "branes," in the complex phase space, do not affect the local kinetic states. This property of the new model, which is referred to as the "apparent jumps" in the present work, is used to construct new models. The theoretical findings have been tested by simulating three benchmark flows. The results of the present simulations are in excellent agreement with the previous results reported by others.
Generalizing the Boltzmann equation in complex phase space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zadehgol, Abed
2016-08-01
In this work, a generalized form of the BGK-Boltzmann equation is proposed, where the velocity, position, and time can be represented by real or complex variables. The real representation leads to the conventional BGK-Boltzmann equation, which can recover the continuity and Navier-Stokes equations. We show that the complex representation yields a different set of equations, and it can also recover the conservation and Navier-Stokes equations, at low Mach numbers, provided that the imaginary component of the macroscopic mass can be neglected. We briefly review the Constant Speed Kinetic Model (CSKM), which was introduced in Zadehgol and Ashrafizaadeh [J. Comp. Phys. 274, 803 (2014), 10.1016/j.jcp.2014.06.053] and Zadehgol [Phys. Rev. E 91, 063311 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevE.91.063311]. The CSKM is then used as a basis to show that the complex-valued equilibrium distribution function of the present model can be identified with a simple singularity in the complex phase space. The virtual particles, in the present work, are concentrated on virtual "branes" which surround the computational nodes. Employing the Cauchy integral formula, it is shown that certain variations of the "branes," in the complex phase space, do not affect the local kinetic states. This property of the new model, which is referred to as the "apparent jumps" in the present work, is used to construct new models. The theoretical findings have been tested by simulating three benchmark flows. The results of the present simulations are in excellent agreement with the previous results reported by others.
Proposal to Accomplish Phase B Space Shuttle Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mead, Lawrence M.; Gavin, Joseph G., Jr.
1970-01-01
This proposal has been prepared in response to National Aeronautics and Space Administration Request for Proposal No. 10-8423, dated February 20, 1970, and Amendments No.1, 2, 3, & 4 thereto. It is firm for a period of not less than one hundred twenty (120) days from March 30, 1970. The executed certifications requested in Enclosures 5 and 6 of the Request for Proposal are appended at the end of this proposal. Grumman Aerospace Corporation, along with its associates -- the General Electric Company, Eastern Airlines, the Northrop Corporation, and the Aerojet-General Corporation -- are pleased to submit this proposal. This study must prove that technical challenges can be met at a cost commensurate with realistic national funding levels at an early date, (perferably prior to the late 1977 initial operating capability (IOC) indicated in the Statement of Work). We have assembled a team of extremely competent associates. Together, we are fully qualified to study all facets of the proposed Phase B study, and to develop and build the product. We believe we have already made a promising start toward defining the concept of the space shuttle system.
A varying polytropic gas universe and phase space analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khurshudyan, M.
2016-05-01
In this paper, we will consider a phenomenological model of a dark fluid that is able to explain an accelerated expansion of our low redshift universe and the phase transition to this accelerated expanding universe. Recent developments in modern cosmology towards understanding of the accelerated expansion of the large scale universe involve various scenarios and approaches. Among these approaches, one of well-known and accepted practice is modeling of the content of our universe via dark fluid. There are various models of dark energy fluid actively studied in recent literature and polytropic gas is among them. In this work, we will consider a varying polytropic gas which is a phenomenological modification of polytropic gas. Our model of varying polytropic dark fluid has been constructed to analogue to a varying Chaplygin gas actively discussed in the literature. We will consider interacting models, where dark matter is a pressureless fluid, to have a comprehensive picture. Phase space analysis is an elegant mathematical tool to earn general understanding of large scale universe and easily see an existence of a solution to cosmological coincidence problem. Imposing some constraints on parameters of the models, we found late time attractors for each case analytically. Cosmological consequences for the obtained late time attractors are discussed.
Quantum trajectories in complex phase space: multidimensional barrier transmission.
Wyatt, Robert E; Rowland, Brad A
2007-07-28
The quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the action function is approximately solved by propagating individual Lagrangian quantum trajectories in complex-valued phase space. Equations of motion for these trajectories are derived through use of the derivative propagation method (DPM), which leads to a hierarchy of coupled differential equations for the action function and its spatial derivatives along each trajectory. In this study, complex-valued classical trajectories (second order DPM), along which is transported quantum phase information, are used to study low energy barrier transmission for a model two-dimensional system involving either an Eckart or Gaussian barrier along the reaction coordinate coupled to a harmonic oscillator. The arrival time for trajectories to reach the transmitted (product) region is studied. Trajectories launched from an "equal arrival time surface," defined as an isochrone, all reach the real-valued subspace in the transmitted region at the same time. The Rutherford-type diffraction of trajectories around poles in the complex extended Eckart potential energy surface is described. For thin barriers, these poles are close to the real axis and present problems for computing the transmitted density. In contrast, for the Gaussian barrier or the thick Eckart barrier where the poles are further from the real axis, smooth transmitted densities are obtained. Results obtained using higher-order quantum trajectories (third order DPM) are described for both thick and thin barriers, and some issues that arise for thin barriers are examined.
Sanpei, Akio; Soga, Yukihiro; Ito, Kiyokazu; Himura, Haruhiko
2015-06-29
A trilinear phase space analysis is applied for dynamics of three electron clumps confined with a Penning-Malmberg trap. We show that the Aref’s concept of phase space describe the observed features of the dynamics of three point vortices qualitatively. In vacuum, phase point P moves to physical region boundary in phase space, i.e. triangular configuration cannot be kept. With the addition of a low level background vorticity distribution (BGVD), the excursion of the clumps is reduced and the distance between P and stable point does not extend in the phase space.
Quantum dynamics in phase space: Moyal trajectories 2
Braunss, G.
2013-01-15
Continuing a previous paper [G. Braunss, J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 43, 025302 (2010)] where we had calculated Planck-Constant-Over-Two-Pi {sup 2}-approximations of quantum phase space viz. Moyal trajectories of examples with one and two degrees of freedom, we present in this paper the calculation of Planck-Constant-Over-Two-Pi {sup 2}-approximations for four examples: a two-dimensional Toda chain, the radially symmetric Schwarzschild field, and two examples with three degrees of freedom, the latter being the nonrelativistic spherically Coulomb potential and the relativistic cylinder symmetrical Coulomb potential with a magnetic field H. We show in particular that an Planck-Constant-Over-Two-Pi {sup 2}-approximation of the nonrelativistic Coulomb field has no singularity at the origin (r= 0) whereas the classical trajectories are singular at r= 0. In the third example, we show in particular that for an arbitrary function {gamma}(H, z) the expression {beta}{identical_to}p{sub z}+{gamma}(H, z) is classically ( Planck-Constant-Over-Two-Pi = 0) a constant of motion, whereas for Planck-Constant-Over-Two-Pi {ne} 0 this holds only if {gamma}(H, z) is an arbitrary polynomial of second order in z. This statement is shown to extend correspondingly to a cylinder symmetrical Schwarzschild field with a magnetic field. We exhibit in detail a number of properties of the radially symmetric Schwarzschild field. We exhibit finally the problems of the nonintegrable Henon-Heiles Hamiltonian and give a short review of the regular Hilbert space representation of Moyal operators.
Miniature vibration isolation system for space applications: Phase II
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobs, Jack H.; Ross, James A.; Hadden, Steve; Gonzalez, Mario; Rogers, Zach; Henderson, B. Kyle
2004-07-01
In recent years, there has been a significant interest in, and move towards using highly sensitive, precision payloads on space vehicles. In order to perform tasks such as communicating at extremely high data rates between satellites using laser cross-links, or searching for new planets in distant solar systems using sparse aperture optical elements, a satellite bus and its payload must remain relatively motionless. The ability to hold a precision payload steady is complicated by disturbances from reaction wheels, control moment gyroscopes, solar array drives, stepper motors, and other devices. Because every satellite is essentially unique in its construction, isolating or damping unwanted vibrations usually requires a robust system over a wide bandwidth. The disadvantage of these systems is that they typically are not retrofittable and not tunable to changes in payload size or inertias. During the Phase I MVIS program, funded by AFRL and DARPA, a hybrid piezoelectric/D-strut isolator was built and tested to prove its viability for retroffitable insertion into sensitive payload attachments. A second phase of the program, which is jointly funded between AFRL and Honeywell, was started in November of 2002 to build a hexapod and the supporting interface electronics and do a flight demonstration of the technology. The MVIS-II program is a systems-level demonstration of the application of advanced smart materials and structures technology that will enable programmable and retrofittable vibration control of spacecraft precision payloads. This paper describes the simulations, overall test plan and product development status of the overall MVIS-II program as it approaches flight.
PHASES: A Project to Perform Absolute Spectrophotometry from Space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
del Burgo, C.; Vather, D.; Allende Prieto, C.; Murphy, N.
2013-04-01
This paper presents the current status of the opto-mechanical design of PHASES (Planet Hunting and AsteroSeismology Explorer Spectrophotometer), which is a project to develop a space-borne telescope to obtain absolute flux calibrated spectra of bright stars. The science payload is intended to be housed in a micro-satellite launched into a low-earth Sun-synchronous orbit with an inclination to the equator of 98.7° and a local time ascending node LTAN of 6:00 AM. PHASES will be able to measure micromagnitude photometric variations due to stellar oscillations/activity and planet/moon transits. It consists of a 20 cm aperture modified Baker telescope feeding two detectors: the tracking detector provides the fine telescope guidance system with a required pointing stability of 0.2″, and the science detector performs spectrophotometry in the wavelength range 370-960 nm with a resolving power between 200 and 900. The spectrograph is designed to provide 1% RMS flux calibrated spectra with signal-to-noise ratios > 100 for stars with V < 10 in short integration times. Our strategy to calibrate the system using A type stars is explained. From comparison with model atmospheres it would be possible to determine the stellar angular diameters with an uncertainty of approximately 0.5%. In the case of a star hosting a transiting planet it would be possible to derive its light curve, and then the planet to stellar radius ratio. Bright stars have high precision Hipparcos parallaxes and the expected level of accuracy for their fluxes will be propagated to the stellar radii, and more significantly to the planetary radii. The scientific drivers for PHASES give rise to some design challenges, which are particularly related to the opto-mechanics for extreme environmental conditions. The optical design has been developed with the primary goal of avoiding stray light reaching the science detector. Three different proposals for the opto-mechanical design are under investigation.
An Effective Method to Accurately Calculate the Phase Space Factors for β - β - Decay
Neacsu, Andrei; Horoi, Mihai
2016-01-01
Accurate calculations of the electron phase space factors are necessary for reliable predictions of double-beta decay rates and for the analysis of the associated electron angular and energy distributions. We present an effective method to calculate these phase space factors that takes into account the distorted Coulomb field of the daughter nucleus, yet it allows one to easily calculate the phase space factors with good accuracy relative to the most exact methods available in the recent literature.
Phase Space Dissimilarity Measures for Structural Health Monitoring
Bubacz, Jacob A; Chmielewski, Hana T; Pape, Alexander E; Depersio, Andrew J; Hively, Lee M; Abercrombie, Robert K; Boone, Shane
2011-11-01
A novel method for structural health monitoring (SHM), known as the Phase Space Dissimilarity Measures (PSDM) approach, is proposed and developed. The patented PSDM approach has already been developed and demonstrated for a variety of equipment and biomedical applications. Here, we investigate SHM of bridges via analysis of time serial accelerometer measurements. This work has four aspects. The first is algorithm scalability, which was found to scale linearly from one processing core to four cores. Second, the same data are analyzed to determine how the use of the PSDM approach affects sensor placement. We found that a relatively low-density placement sufficiently captures the dynamics of the structure. Third, the same data are analyzed by unique combinations of accelerometer axes (vertical, longitudinal, and lateral with respect to the bridge) to determine how the choice of axes affects the analysis. The vertical axis is found to provide satisfactory SHM data. Fourth, statistical methods were investigated to validate the PSDM approach for this application, yielding statistically significant results.
Phase-space estimate of satellite coverage time
Canavan, G.H.
1992-05-01
This note derives a phase-space estimate of the overlap in satellite coverage and evaluates its impact on the time for a constellation to cover some specified area. The satellites' motion is treated as random in the calculation of the overlaps. Enough passes are prescribed to assure that an adequate probability of observing each area is accumulated. For 0.9--0.99 probabilities of coverage, overlaps increase the time for coverage by factors of 2--4 over no-overlap estimates. This model also gives the probability of different vintages of data. If a given constellation covers the whole Earth in the no-overlap time T{sub 0}, the average vintage of the data over the earth will then be the average
Phase-space estimate of satellite coverage time
Canavan, G.H.
1992-05-01
This note derives a phase-space estimate of the overlap in satellite coverage and evaluates its impact on the time for a constellation to cover some specified area. The satellites` motion is treated as random in the calculation of the overlaps. Enough passes are prescribed to assure that an adequate probability of observing each area is accumulated. For 0.9--0.99 probabilities of coverage, overlaps increase the time for coverage by factors of 2--4 over no-overlap estimates. This model also gives the probability of different vintages of data. If a given constellation covers the whole Earth in the no-overlap time T{sub 0}, the average vintage of the data over the earth will then be the average
Analysis of traffic flow models in phase space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Velasco, R. M.; Saavedra, P.
2008-11-01
Traffic flow can be studied by means of hydrodynamic concepts, through an analogy with Navier-Stokes compressible flow or with models coming from kinetic equations. In this work we will consider two models for which the density and the average velocity are the relevant variables. The Kerner-Konhäuser [1] is a phenomenological model proposed in complete analogy with a viscous flow, whereas the so called kinetic model [2] comes from the Paveri-Fontana kinetic equation [3]. Both models are seen from a moving reference frame and a phase space is defined where all the analysis is done, some orbits exemplify and contrast the behavior in these models [4]. [1] B.S. Kerner, P. Konhäuser; Phys. Rev. E 48, R2335 (1993). [2] R.M. Velasco, W. Marques Jr.; Phys. Rev. E 72, 046102 (2005). [3] S.L. Paveri-Fontana; Transp.. Res. 9, 225 (1975). [4] H.K. Lee, H.W. Lee, D. Kim; Phys. Rev. E 69, 016118 (2004).
Topology of classical molecular optimal control landscapes in phase space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joe-Wong, Carlee; Ho, Tak-San; Long, Ruixing; Rabitz, Herschel; Wu, Rebing
2013-03-01
Optimal control of molecular dynamics is commonly expressed from a quantum mechanical perspective. However, in most contexts the preponderance of molecular dynamics studies utilize classical mechanical models. This paper treats laser-driven optimal control of molecular dynamics in a classical framework. We consider the objective of steering a molecular system from an initial point in phase space to a target point, subject to the dynamic constraint of Hamilton's equations. The classical control landscape corresponding to this objective is a functional of the control field, and the topology of the landscape is analyzed through its gradient and Hessian with respect to the control. Under specific assumptions on the regularity of the control fields, the classical control landscape is found to be free of traps that could hinder reaching the objective. The Hessian associated with an optimal control field is shown to have finite rank, indicating the presence of an inherent degree of robustness to control noise. Extensive numerical simulations are performed to illustrate the theoretical principles on (a) a model diatomic molecule, (b) two coupled Morse oscillators, and (c) a chaotic system with a coupled quartic oscillator, confirming the absence of traps in the classical control landscape. We compare the classical formulation with the mathematically analogous quantum state-to-state transition probability control landscape.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sherkatghanad, Zeinab; Mirza, Behrouz; Mirzaiyan, Zahra; Mansoori, Seyed Ali Hosseini
We consider the critical behaviors and phase transitions of Gauss-Bonnet-Born-Infeld-AdS black holes (GB-BI-AdS) for d = 5, 6 and the extended phase space. We assume the cosmological constant, Λ, the coupling coefficient α, and the BI parameter β to be thermodynamic pressures of the system. Having made these assumptions, the critical behaviors are then studied in the two canonical and grand canonical ensembles. We find “reentrant and triple point phase transitions” (RPT-TP) and “multiple reentrant phase transitions” (multiple RPT) with increasing pressure of the system for specific values of the coupling coefficient α in the canonical ensemble. Also, we observe a reentrant phase transition (RPT) of GB-BI-AdS black holes in the grand canonical ensemble and for d = 6. These calculations are then expanded to the critical behavior of Born-Infeld-AdS (BI-AdS) black holes in the third-order of Lovelock gravity and in the grand canonical ensemble to find a van der Waals (vdW) behavior for d = 7 and a RPT for d = 8 for specific values of potential ϕ in the grand canonical ensemble. Furthermore, we obtain a similar behavior for the limit of β →∞, i.e. charged-AdS black holes in the third-order of the Lovelock gravity. Thus, it is shown that the critical behaviors of these black holes are independent of the parameter β in the grand canonical ensemble.
Phase-space dissimilarity measures for industrial and biomedical applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Protopopescu, V. A.; Hively, L. M.
2005-12-01
One of the most important problems in time-series analysis is the suitable characterization of the dynamics for timely, accurate, and robust condition assessment of the underlying system. Machine and physiological processes display complex, non-stationary behaviors that are affected by noise and may range from (quasi-)periodic to completely irregular (chaotic) regimes. Nevertheless, extensive experimental evidence indicates that even when the systems behave very irregularly (e.g., severe tool chatter or cardiac fibrillation), one may assume that - for all practical purposes - the dynamics are confined to low dimensional manifolds. As a result, the behavior of these systems can be described via traditional nonlinear measures (TNM), such as Lyapunov exponents, Kolmogorov entropy, and correlation dimension. While these measures are adequate for discriminating between clear-cut regular and chaotic dynamics, they are not sufficiently sensitive to distinguish between slightly different irregular (chaotic) regimes, especially when data are noisy and/or limited. Both machine and physiological dynamics usually fall into this latter category, creating a massive stumbling block to prognostication of abnormal regimes. We present here a recently developed approach that captures more efficiently changes in the underlying dynamics. We start with process-indicative, time-serial data that are checked for quality and discarded if inadequate. Acceptable data are filtered to remove confounding artifacts (e.g., sinusoidal variation in three-phase electrical signals or eye-blinks and muscular activity in EEG). The artifact-filtered data are then used to recover the essential features of the underlying dynamics via standard time-delay, phase-space reconstruction. One of the main results of this reconstruction is a discrete approximation of the distribution function (DF) on the attractor. Unaltered dynamics yield an unchanging geometry of the attractor and the visitation frequencies of
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1984-01-01
The large space structures technology development missions to be performed on an early manned space station was studied and defined and the resources needed and the design implications to an early space station to carry out these large space structures technology development missions were determined. Emphasis is being placed on more detail in mission designs and space station resource requirements.
Generalised partition functions: inferences on phase space distributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Treumann, Rudolf A.; Baumjohann, Wolfgang
2016-06-01
It is demonstrated that the statistical mechanical partition function can be used to construct various different forms of phase space distributions. This indicates that its structure is not restricted to the Gibbs-Boltzmann factor prescription which is based on counting statistics. With the widely used replacement of the Boltzmann factor by a generalised Lorentzian (also known as the q-deformed exponential function, where κ = 1/|q - 1|, with κ, q ∈ R) both the kappa-Bose and kappa-Fermi partition functions are obtained in quite a straightforward way, from which the conventional Bose and Fermi distributions follow for κ → ∞. For κ ≠ ∞ these are subject to the restrictions that they can be used only at temperatures far from zero. They thus, as shown earlier, have little value for quantum physics. This is reasonable, because physical κ systems imply strong correlations which are absent at zero temperature where apart from stochastics all dynamical interactions are frozen. In the classical large temperature limit one obtains physically reasonable κ distributions which depend on energy respectively momentum as well as on chemical potential. Looking for other functional dependencies, we examine Bessel functions whether they can be used for obtaining valid distributions. Again and for the same reason, no Fermi and Bose distributions exist in the low temperature limit. However, a classical Bessel-Boltzmann distribution can be constructed which is a Bessel-modified Lorentzian distribution. Whether it makes any physical sense remains an open question. This is not investigated here. The choice of Bessel functions is motivated solely by their convergence properties and not by reference to any physical demands. This result suggests that the Gibbs-Boltzmann partition function is fundamental not only to Gibbs-Boltzmann but also to a large class of generalised Lorentzian distributions as well as to the corresponding nonextensive statistical mechanics.
Deformed phase space Kaluza-Klein cosmology and late time acceleration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sabido, M.; Yee-Romero, C.
2016-06-01
The effects of phase space deformations on Kaluza-Klein cosmology are studied. The deformation is introduced by modifying the symplectic structure of the minisuperspace variables. In the deformed model, we find an accelerating scale factor and therefore infer the existence of an effective cosmological constant from the phase space deformation parameter β.
Phase space and phase transitions in the Penner matrix model with negative coupling constant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Álvarez, Gabriel; Martínez Alonso, Luis; Medina, Elena
2017-03-01
The partition function of the Penner matrix model for both positive and negative values of the coupling constant can be explicitly written in terms of the Barnes G function. In this paper we show that for negative values of the coupling constant this partition function can also be represented as the product of an holomorphic matrix integral by a nontrivial oscillatory function of n. We show that the planar limit of the free energy with ’t Hooft sequences does not exist. Therefore we use a certain modification that uses Kuijlaars–McLaughlin sequences instead of ’t Hooft sequences and leads to a well-defined planar free energy and to an associated two-dimensional phase space. We describe the different configurations of complex saddle points of the holomorphic matrix integral both to the left and to the right of the critical point, and interpret the phase transitions in terms of processes of gap closing, eigenvalue tunneling, and Bose condensation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heiblum, Reuven H.; Altaratz, Orit; Koren, Ilan; Feingold, Graham; Kostinski, Alexander B.; Khain, Alexander P.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Fredj, Erick; Dagan, Guy; Pinto, Lital; Yaish, Ricki; Chen, Qian
2016-06-01
We study the evolution of warm convective cloud fields using large eddy simulations of continental and trade cumulus. Individual clouds are tracked a posteriori from formation to dissipation using a 3-D cloud-tracking algorithm, and results are presented in the phase space of center of gravity altitude versus cloud liquid water mass (CvM space). The CvM space is shown to contain rich information on cloud field characteristics, cloud morphology, and common cloud development pathways, together facilitating a comprehensive understanding of the cloud field. In this part we show how the meteorological (thermodynamic) conditions that determine the cloud properties are projected on the CvM phase space and how changes in the initial conditions affect the clouds' trajectories in this space. This part sets the stage for a detailed microphysical analysis that will be shown in part II.
Caves, Leo S D; Verma, Chandra S
2002-04-01
Central to the study of a complex dynamical system is knowledge of its phase space behavior. Experimentally, it is rarely possible to record a system's (multidimensional) phase space variables. Rather, the system is observed via one (or few) scalar-valued signal(s) of emission or response. In dynamical systems analysis, the multidimensional phase space of a system can be reconstructed by manipulation of a one-dimensional signal. The trick is in the construction of a (higher-dimensional) space through the use of a time lag (or delay) on the signal time series. The trajectory in this embedding space can then be examined using phase portraits generated in selected subspaces. By contrast, in computer simulation, one has an embarrassment of riches: direct access to the complete multidimensional phase space variables, at arbitrary time resolution and precision. Here, the problem is one of reducing the dimensionality to make analysis tractable. This can be achieved through linear or nonlinear projection of the trajectory into subspaces containing high information content. This study considers trajectories of the small protein crambin from molecular dynamics simulations. The phase space behavior is examined using principal component analysis on the Cartesian coordinate covariance matrix of 138 dimensions. In addition, the phase space is reconstructed from a one dimensional signal, representing the radius of gyration of the structure along the trajectory. Comparison of low-dimensional phase portraits obtained from the two methods shows that the complete phase space distribution is well represented by the reconstruction. The study suggests that it may be possible to develop a deeper connection between the experimental and simulated dynamics of biomolecules via phase space reconstruction using data emerging from recent advances in single-molecule time-resolved biophysical techniques.
Trajectories and causal phase-space approach to relativistic quantum mechanics
Holland, P.R.; Kyprianidis, A.; Vigier, J.P.
1987-05-01
The authors analyze phase-space approaches to relativistic quantum mechanics from the viewpoint of the causal interpretation. In particular, they discuss the canonical phase space associated with stochastic quantization, its relation to Hilbert space, and the Wigner-Moyal formalism. They then consider the nature of Feynman paths, and the problem of nonlocality, and conclude that a perfectly consistent relativistically covariant interpretation of quantum mechanics which retains the notion of particle trajectory is possible.
Space shuttle auxiliary power unit study, phase 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Binsley, R. L.; Krause, A. A.; Maddox, R. D.; Marcy, R. D.; Siegler, R. S.
1972-01-01
A study was performed to establish the preliminary design of the space shuttle auxiliary power unit. Details of the analysis, optimizations, and design of the components, subsystems and systems are presented.
Research opportunities in space motion sickness, phase 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Talbot, J. M.
1983-01-01
Space and motion sickness, the current and projected NASA research program, and the conclusions and suggestions of the ad hoc Working Group are summarized. The frame of reference for the report is ground-based research.
Space station gas compressor technology study program, phase 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hafele, B. W.; Rapozo, R. R.
1989-01-01
The objectives were to identify the space station waste gases and their characteristics, and to investigate compressor and dryer types, as well as transport and storage requirements with tradeoffs leading to a preliminary system definition.
Phase C aerothermodynamic data base. [for space shuttle program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moser, M., Jr.
1974-01-01
Summary listings of published documentation of SADSAC processed data arranged chronologically and by shuttle configuration are presented to provide an up-to-date record of all applicable aerothermodynamic data collected, processed, or summarized in the course of the space shuttle program. The various tables or listings are designed to provide survey information to the various space shuttle managerial and technical levels. The various listings of the shuttle test data information, the list contents, and the purpose are described.
Multimegawatt space nuclear power supply: Phase 1, Final report
Not Available
1989-02-17
The preliminary safety assessment report analyzes the potential radiological risk of the integrated MSNPS with the launch vehicle including interface with the weapon system. Most emphasis will be placed the prime power concept design. Safety problems can occur any time during the entire life cycle of the system including contingency phases. The preliminary safety assessment report is to be delivered at the end of phase 2. This assessment will be the basis of the safety requirements which will be applied to the design of the MSNPS as it develops in subsequent phases. The assessment also focuses design activities on specific high-risk scenarios and missions that may impact safety.
Efficient molecular quantum dynamics in coordinate and phase space using pruned bases.
Larsson, H R; Hartke, B; Tannor, D J
2016-11-28
We present an efficient implementation of dynamically pruned quantum dynamics, both in coordinate space and in phase space. We combine the ideas behind the biorthogonal von Neumann basis (PvB) with the orthogonalized momentum-symmetrized Gaussians (Weylets) to create a new basis, projected Weylets, that takes the best from both methods. We benchmark pruned time-dependent dynamics using phase-space-localized PvB, projected Weylets, and coordinate-space-localized DVR bases, with real-world examples in up to six dimensions. For the examples studied, coordinate-space localization is the most important factor for efficient pruning and the pruned dynamics is much faster than the unpruned, exact dynamics. Phase-space localization is useful for more demanding dynamics where many basis functions are required. There, projected Weylets offer a more compact representation than pruned DVR bases.
Multimegawatt space nuclear power supply: Phase 1, Final report
Not Available
1989-02-17
The Phase 2 program objectives are to (1) demonstrate concept feasibility, (2) develop a preliminary design, and (3) complete Phase 3 engineering development and ground test plans. The approach to accomplish these objectives is to prove technical feasibility of our baseline design early in the program while maintaining flexibility to easily respond to changing requirements and advances in technology. This approach recognizes that technology is advancing rapidly while the operational phase MSNPS is 15 to 20 years in the future. This plan further recognizes that the weapons platform and Advanced Launch System (ALS) are in very early program definition stages; consequently, their requirements, interfaces, and technological basis will evolve. This document outlines the Phase 2 plan along with task scheduling of the various program aspects.
Comment on "Discretization Problems for Functional Integrals in Phase Space"
1980-02-25
7 , m- -P-- - - -50- 11 PROFESSIONAL PAPER 281 IMay 1980 o COMMENT ON "DISC RETIZATI ON PROBLEMS OF FUNCTIONAL INTEGRALS IN PHASE SPACE " Mau rice M...on "Discretization problems of functional integrals in phase space " Maurice M. Mizrahi Centerfor Naval Analyses of the University of Rocheste llOONorth...m ’(t)p"(l)dw(p,q) , (2) lina f q(t)p2 (l’)dw(p.q)-ih f p(t)dw(p.q) where a, is phase space and w is the "measure" (the equivalence of these
Space station contamination control study: Internal combustion, phase 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ruggeri, Robert T.
1987-01-01
Contamination inside Space Station modules was studied to determine the best methods of controlling contamination. The work was conducted in five tasks that identified existing contamination control requirements, analyzed contamination levels, developed outgassing specification for materials, wrote a contamination control plan, and evaluated current materials of offgassing tests used by NASA. It is concluded that current contamination control methods can be made to function on the Space Station for up to 1000 days, but that current methods are deficient for periods longer than about 1000 days.
Transverse emittance and phase space program developed for use at the Fermilab A0 Photoinjector
Thurman-Keup, R.; Johnson, A.S.; Lumpkin, A.H.; Ruan, J.; /Fermilab
2011-03-01
The Fermilab A0 Photoinjector is a 16 MeV high intensity, high brightness electron linac developed for advanced accelerator R&D. One of the key parameters for the electron beam is the transverse beam emittance. Here we report on a newly developed MATLAB based GUI program used for transverse emittance measurements using the multi-slit technique. This program combines the image acquisition and post-processing tools for determining the transverse phase space parameters with uncertainties. An integral part of accelerator research is a measurement of the beam phase space. Measurements of the transverse phase space can be accomplished by a variety of methods including multiple screens separated by drift spaces, or by sampling phase space via pepper pots or slits. In any case, the measurement of the phase space parameters, in particular the emittance, can be drastically simplified and sped up by automating the measurement in an intuitive fashion utilizing a graphical interface. At the A0 Photoinjector (A0PI), the control system is DOOCS, which originated at DESY. In addition, there is a library for interfacing to MATLAB, a graphically capable numerical analysis package sold by The Mathworks. It is this graphical package which was chosen as the basis for a graphical phase space measurement system due to its combination of analysis and display capabilities.
Large space telescope, phase A. Volume 3: Optical telescope assembly
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1972-01-01
The development and characteristics of the optical telescope assembly for the Large Space Telescope are discussed. The systems considerations are based on mission-related parameters and optical equipment requirements. Information is included on: (1) structural design and analysis, (2) thermal design, (3) stabilization and control, (4) alignment, focus, and figure control, (5) electronic subsystem, and (6) scientific instrument design.
Space radiation hazards to Project Skylab photographic film, phase 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hill, C. W.; Neville, C. F.
1971-01-01
The results of a study of space radiation hazards to Project Skylab photographic film are presented. Radiation components include trapped protons, trapped electrons, bremsstrahlung, and galactic cosmic radiation. The shielding afforded by the Skylab cluster is taken into account with a 5000 volume element mathematical model. A preliminary survey of expected proton spectrometer data is reported.
Large space telescope, phase A. Volume 4: Scientific instrument package
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1972-01-01
The design and characteristics of the scientific instrument package for the Large Space Telescope are discussed. The subjects include: (1) general scientific objectives, (2) package system analysis, (3) scientific instrumentation, (4) imaging photoelectric sensors, (5) environmental considerations, and (6) reliability and maintainability.
Large space telescope, phase A. Volume 5: Support systems module
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1972-01-01
The development and characteristics of the support systems module for the Large Space Telescope are discussed. The following systems and described: (1) thermal control, (2) electrical, (3) communication and data landing, (4) attitude control system, and (5) structural features. Analyses of maintainability and reliability considerations are included.
Deep Space Habitat Concept of Operations for Transit Mission Phases
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoffman, Stephen J.
2011-01-01
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has begun evaluating various mission and system components of possible implementations of what the U.S. Human Spaceflight Plans Committee (also known as the Augustine Committee) has named the flexible path (Anon., 2009). As human spaceflight missions expand further into deep space, the duration of these missions increases to the point where a dedicated crew habitat element appears necessary. There are several destinations included in this flexible path a near Earth asteroid (NEA) mission, a Phobos/Deimos (Ph/D) mission, and a Mars surface exploration mission that all include at least a portion of the total mission in which the crew spends significant periods of time (measured in months) in the deep space environment and are thus candidates for a dedicated habitat element. As one facet of a number of studies being conducted by the Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) a workshop was conducted to consider how best to define and quantify habitable volume for these future deep space missions. One conclusion reached during this workshop was the need for a description of the scope and scale of these missions and the intended uses of a habitat element. A group was set up to prepare a concept of operations document to address this need. This document describes a concept of operations for a habitat element used for these deep space missions. Although it may eventually be determined that there is significant overlap with this concept of operations and that of a habitat destined for use on planetary surfaces, such as the Moon and Mars, no such presumption is made in this document.
Optically controlled phased-array technology for space communication systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kunath, Richard R.; Bhasin, Kul B.
1988-01-01
Using MMICs in phased-array applications above 20 GHz requires complex RF and control signal distribution systems. Conventional waveguide, coaxial cable, and microstrip methods are undesirable due to their high weight, high loss, limited mechanical flexibility and large volume. An attractive alternative to these transmission media, for RF and control signal distribution in MMIC phased-array antennas, is optical fiber. Presented are potential system architectures and their associated characteristics. The status of high frequency opto-electronic components needed to realize the potential system architectures is also discussed. It is concluded that an optical fiber network will reduce weight and complexity, and increase reliability and performance, but may require higher power.
Emittance and Phase Space Exchange for Advanced Beam Manipulation and Diagnostics
Xiang, Dao; Chao, Alex; /SLAC
2012-04-27
Alternative chicane-type beam lines are proposed for exact emittance exchange between transverse phase space (x,x') and longitudinal phase space (z,{delta}), where x is the transverse position, x' is the transverse divergence, and z and {delta} are relative longitudinal position and energy deviation with respect to the reference particle. Methods to achieve exact phase space exchanges, i.e., mapping x to z, x' to {delta}, z to x, and {delta} to x', are suggested. Schemes to mitigate and completely compensate for the thick-lens effect of the transverse cavity on emittance exchange are studied. Some applications of the phase space exchange for advanced beam manipulation and diagnostics are discussed.
LDEF (Postflight), AO133 : Effect of Space Environment on Space-Based Radar Phased-Array Antenna, Tr
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1990-01-01
LDEF (Postflight), AO133 : Effect of Space Environment on Space-Based Radar Phased-Array Antenna, Tray H07 The postflight photograph was taken in the KSC SAEF II facility after the experiment was removed from the LDEF. The Space-Based Radar (SBR) Phased-Array Antenna occupies a six (6) inch deep LDEF end corner tray located on the space end of the LDEF. A light tan discoloration is visible on the left and lower flanges of the experiment tray and also on the unpainted aluminum filler to the left of the passive part of the experiment. A darker stain has discolored the lower corners of the tray structure. The SBR Phased-Array Antenna experiment, consisting of an active part in the upper half of the tray and a passive part located in the lower half of the experiment tray, appears to be intact with no apparent physical damage. The black thermal coating on the active part of the experiment appears to have changed from a flat black to a dark gray while the coating on the passive part of the experiment appears less degraded. The exposed Kapton specimen surfaces in both the active and passive parts of the experiment appear to have changed from specular to diffuse from exposure to the space environment.
Phase-space dynamics of runaway electrons in magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Zehua; McDevitt, Christopher J.; Tang, Xian-Zhu
2017-04-01
Dynamics of runaway electrons in magnetic fields are governed by the competition of three dominant physics: parallel electric field acceleration, Coulomb collision, and synchrotron radiation. Examination of the energy and pitch-angle flows reveals that the presence of local vortex structure and global circulation is crucial to the saturation of primary runaway electrons. Models for the vortex structure, which has an O-point to X-point connection, and the bump of runaway electron distribution in energy space have been developed and compared against the simulation data. Identification of these velocity-space structures opens a new venue to re-examine the conventional understanding of runaway electron dynamics in magnetic fields.
Modular space station phase B extension: Mass properties
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duffey, L. A.
1971-01-01
The MSS system, capable of supporting a six-man crew, is described as consisting of four common station modules, two special modules (core and power), and a cargo module arranged in a cruciform. The station buildup, and space station subsystems including environmental control life support, electrical power, guidance and control are also described. The MSS system weights are presented for design-to-weight, closeout weights, and shuttle payload weights.
Subpicosecond electron bunch train production using a phase-space exchange technique
Sun, Y.-E.; Piot, P.; Johnson, A.S.; Lumpkin, A.H.; Maxwell, T.J.; Ruan, J.; Thurman-Keup, R.M.; /Fermilab
2011-03-01
Our recent experimental demonstration of a photoinjector electron bunch train with sub-picosecond structures is reported in this paper. The experiment is accomplished by converting an initially horizontal beam intensity modulation into a longitudinal phase space modulation, via a beamline capable of exchanging phase-space coordinates between the horizontal and longitudinal degrees of freedom. The initial transverse modulation is produced by intercepting the beam with a multislit mask prior to the exchange. We also compare our experimental results with numerical simulations.
Reduce phase space quantization of Ashtekar's gravity on de Sitter background
I. Grigentch; D.V. Vassilevich
1994-05-01
The authors solve perturbative constraints and eliminate gauge freedom for Ashtekar's gravity on de Sitter background. They show that the reduced phase space consists of transverse, traceless, symmetric, fluctuations of the triad and of transverse, traceless, symmetric fluctuations of the connection. A part of gauge freedom corresponding to the conformal Killing vectors of the three-manifold can be fixed only by imposing conditions on Lagrange multiplier. The reduced phase space is equivalent to that of ADM gravity on the same background.
Phase 1 Space Fission Propulsion System Design Considerations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Houts, Mike; VanDyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Pedersen, Kevin; Martin, James; Carter, Robert; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Hrbud, Ivana; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Fission technology can enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. If fission propulsion systems are to be developed to their full potential; however, near-term customers must be identified and initial fission systems successfully developed, launched, and operated. Studies conducted in fiscal year 2001 (IISTP, 2001) show that fission electric propulsion (FEP) systems operating at 80 kWe or above could enhance or enable numerous robotic outer solar system missions of interest. At these power levels it is possible to develop safe, affordable systems that meet mission performance requirements. In selecting the system design to pursue, seven evaluation criteria were identified: safety, reliability, testability, specific mass, cost, schedule, and programmatic risk. A top-level comparison of three potential concepts was performed: an SP-100 based pumped liquid lithium system, a direct gas cooled system, and a heatpipe cooled system. For power levels up to at least 500 kWt (enabling electric power levels of 125-175 kWe, given 25-35% power conversion efficiency) the heatpipe system has advantages related to several criteria and is competitive with respect to all. Hardware-based research and development has further increased confidence in the heatpipe approach. Successful development and utilization of a "Phase 1" fission electric propulsion system will enable advanced Phase 2 and Phase 3 systems capable of providing rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system.
Phase 1 space fission propulsion system design considerations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Houts, Mike; van Dyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Pedersen, Kevin; Martin, James; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Hrbud, Ivana; Carter, Robert
2002-01-01
Fission technology can enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. If fission propulsion systems are to be developed to their full potential; however, near-term customers must be identified and initial fission systems successfully developed, launched, and operated. Studies conducted in fiscal year 2001 (IISTP, 2001) show that fission electric propulsion (FEP) systems operating at 80 kWe or above could enhance or enable numerous robotic outer solar system missions of interest. At these power levels it is possible to develop safe, affordable systems that meet mission performance requirements. In selecting the system design to pursue, seven evaluation criteria were identified: safety, reliability, testability, specific mass, cost, schedule, and programmatic risk. A top-level comparison of three potential concepts was performed: an SP-100 based pumped liquid lithium system, a direct gas cooled system, and a heatpipe cooled system. For power levels up to at least 500 kWt (enabling electric power levels of 125-175 kWe, given 25-35% power conversion efficiency) the heatpipe system has advantages related to several criteria and is competitive with respect to all. Hardware-based research and development has further increased confidence in the heatpipe approach. Successful development and utilization of a ``Phase 1'' fission electric propulsion system will enable advanced Phase 2 and Phase 3 systems capable of providing rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. .
Alternate space shuttle concepts study: Design requirements and phased programs evaluation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1971-01-01
A study to determine program and technical alternatives to the design of the space shuttle orbiter is described. The alternatives include a phased approach, involving orbiter development and operation with an expendable booster for an interim period, as well as design variations to the basic vehicle. The space shuttle orbiter configurations and predicted performance parameters are presented.
Development of CCD imaging sensors for space applications, phase 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Antcliffe, G. A.
1975-01-01
The results of an experimental investigation to develop a large area charge coupled device (CCD) imager for space photography applications are described. Details of the design and processing required to achieve 400 X 400 imagers are presented together with a discussion of the optical characterization techniques developed for this program. A discussion of several aspects of large CCD performance is given with detailed test reports. The areas covered include dark current, uniformity of optical response, square wave amplitude response, spectral responsivity and dynamic range.
Critical phenomena experiments in space. [for fluid phase-equilibrium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sengers, J. V.; Moldover, M. R.
1978-01-01
The paper analyzes several types of critical phenomena in fluids, shows how they are affected by the presence of gravity, and describes how experiments conducted in an orbiting laboratory under low gravity conditions could extend the range of measurements needed to study critical phenomena. Future experiments are proposed. One would be a careful measurement of the dielectric constant in a low gravity environment. Two basic problems that can benefit especially from space experiments are the specific heat near the critical point and the shear viscosity at the gas-liquid critical point.
Discrete phase-space mappings, tomographic condition and permutation invariance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muñoz, C.; Klimov, A. B.
2017-04-01
We analyze various families of discrete maps in N-qubit systems in the context of permutation invariance. We prove that the tomographic condition imposed on the self-dual (Wigner) map is incompatible with the requirement of the invariance under particle permutations (except for the two-qubit case), which makes it impossible to project the Wootters-like Wigner function into the space of symmetric measurements. We also provide several explicit forms of the self-dual mappings: (a) tomographic and (b) permutation invariant, and analyze the symmetric projection in the latter case.
Phase 1 space fission propulsion system testing and development progress
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Dyke, Melissa; Houts, Mike; Pedersen, Kevin; Godfroy, Tom; Dickens, Ricky; Poston, David; Reid, Bob; Salvail, Pat; Ring, Peter
2001-02-01
Successful development of space fission systems will require an extensive program of affordable and realistic testing. In addition to tests related to design/development of the fission system, realistic testing of the actual flight unit must also be performed. Testing can be divided into two categories, non-nuclear tests and nuclear tests. Full power nuclear tests of space fission systems are expensive, time consuming, and of limited use, even in the best of programmatic environments. If the system is designed to operate within established radiation damage and fuel burn up limits while simultaneously being designed to allow close simulation of heat from fission using resistance heaters, high confidence in fission system performance and lifetime can be attained through a series of non-nuclear tests. Non-nuclear tests are affordable and timely, and the cause of component and system failures can be quickly and accurately identified, MSFC is leading a Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) test series whose ultimate goal is the demonstration of a 300 kW flight configuration system using non-nuclear testing. This test series is carried out in collaboration with other NASA centers, other government agencies, industry, and universities. If SAFE-related nuclear tests are desired, they will have a high probability of success and can be performed at existing nuclear facilities. The paper describes the SAFE non-nuclear test series, which includes test article descriptions, test results and conclusions, and future test plans. .
Space Fission Propulsion Testing and Development Progress. Phase 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
VanDyke, Melissa; Houts, Mike; Pedersen, Kevin; Godfroy, Tom; Dickens, Ricky; Poston, David; Reid, Bob; Salvail, Pat; Ring, Peter; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Successful development of space fission systems will require an extensive program of affordable and realistic testing. In addition to tests related to design/development of the fission system, realistic testing of the actual flight unit must also be performed. Testing can be divided into two categories, non-nuclear tests and nuclear tests. Full power nuclear tests of space fission systems we expensive, time consuming, and of limited use, even in the best of programmatic environments. If the system is designed to operate within established radiation damage and fuel burn up limits while simultaneously being designed to allow close simulation of heat from fission using resistance heaters, high confidence in fission system performance and lifetime can be attained through a series of non-nuclear tests. Non-nuclear tests are affordable and timely, and the cause of component and system failures can be quickly and accurately identified. MSFC is leading a Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) test series whose ultimate goal is the demonstration of a 300 kW flight configuration system using non-nuclear testing. This test series is carried out in collaboration with other NASA centers, other government agencies, industry, and universities. If SAFE-related nuclear tests are desired they will have a high probability of success and can be performed at existing nuclear facilities. The paper describes the SAFE non-nuclear test series, which includes test article descriptions, test results and conclusions, and future test plans.
Phase 1 Space Fission Propulsion Energy Source Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Houts, Mike; VanDyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Pedersen, Kevin; Martin, James; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Hrbud, Ivana; Carter, Robert; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Fission technology can enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. If fission propulsion systems are to be developed to their full potential; however, near-term customers must be identified and initial fission systems successfully developed, launched, and operated. Studies conducted in fiscal year 2001 (IISTP, 2001) show that fission electric propulsion (FEP) systems with a specific mass at or below 50 kg/kWjet could enhance or enable numerous robotic outer solar system missions of interest. At the required specific mass, it is possible to develop safe, affordable systems that meet mission requirements. To help select the system design to pursue, eight evaluation criteria were identified: system integration, safety, reliability, testability, specific mass, cost, schedule, and programmatic risk. A top-level comparison of four potential concepts was performed: a Testable, Passive, Redundant Reactor (TPRR), a Testable Multi-Cell In-Core Thermionic Reactor (TMCT), a Direct Gas Cooled Reactor (DGCR), and a Pumped Liquid Metal Reactor.(PLMR). Development of any of the four systems appears feasible. However, for power levels up to at least 500 kWt (enabling electric power levels of 125-175 kWe, given 25-35% power conversion efficiency) the TPRR has advantages related to several criteria and is competitive with respect to all. Hardware-based research and development has further increased confidence in the TPRR approach. Successful development and utilization of a "Phase I" fission electric propulsion system will enable advanced Phase 2 and Phase 3 systems capable of providing rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system.
Phased Array Ultrasonic Evaluation of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Nozzle Weld
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
James, Steve; Engel, J.; Kimbrough, D.; Suits, M.; Hopson, George (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the phased array ultrasonic evaluation of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) nozzle weld. Details are given on the nondestructive testing evaluation approach, conventional shear wave and phased array techniques, and an x-ray versus phased array risk analysis. The field set-up was duplicated to the greatest extent possible in the laboratory and the phased array ultrasonic technique was developed and validated prior to weld evaluation. Results are shown for the phased array ultrasonic evaluation and conventional ultrasonic evaluation results.
3D imaging of translucent media with a plenoptic sensor based on phase space optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xuanzhe; Shu, Bohong; Du, Shaojun
2015-05-01
Traditional stereo imaging technology is not working for dynamical translucent media, because there are no obvious characteristic patterns on it and it's not allowed using multi-cameras in most cases, while phase space optics can solve the problem, extracting depth information directly from "space-spatial frequency" distribution of the target obtained by plenoptic sensor with single lens. This paper discussed the presentation of depth information in phase space data, and calculating algorithms with different transparency. A 3D imaging example of waterfall was given at last.
PARAS program: Phased array radio astronomy from space
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jakubowski, Antoni K.; Haynes, David A.; Nuss, Ken; Hoffmann, Chris; Madden, Michael; Dungan, Michael
1992-01-01
An orbiting radio telescope is proposed which, when operated in a Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBLI) scheme, would allow higher (than currently available) angular resolution and dynamic range in the maps, and the ability of observing rapidly changing astronomical sources. Using a passive phases array technology, the proposed design consists of 656 hexagonal modules forming a 150 meter diameter dish. Each observatory module is largely autonomous, having its own photovoltaic power supply and low-noise receiver and processor for phase shifting. The signals received by the modules are channeled via fiber optics to the central control computer in the central bus module. After processing and multiplexing, the data is transmitted to telemetry stations on the ground. The truss frame supporting each observatory pane is a hybrid structure consisting of a bottom graphite/epoxy tubular triangle and rigidized inflatable Kevlar tubes connecting the top observatory panel and bottom triangle. Attitude control and stationkeeping functions are performed by a system of momentum wheels in the bus and four propulsion modules located at the compass points on the periphery of the observatory dish. Each propulsion module has four monopropellant thrusters and six hydrazine arcjets, the latter supported by a nuclear reactor. The total mass of the spacecraft is 22,060 kg.
Project PARAS: Phased array radio astronomy from space
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nuss, Kenneth; Hoffmann, Christopher; Dungan, Michael; Madden, Michael; Bendakhlia, Monia
1992-01-01
An orbiting radio telescope is proposed which, when operated in a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) scheme, would allow higher than currently available angular resolution and dynamic range in the maps and the ability to observe rapidly changing astronomical sources. Using passive phased array technology, the proposed design consists of 656 hexagonal modules forming a 150-m diameter antenna dish. Each observatory module is largely autonomous, having its own photovoltaic power supply and low-noise receiver and processor for phase shifting. The signals received by the modules are channeled via fiber optics to the central control computer in the central bus module. After processing and multiplexing, the data are transmitted to telemetry stations on the ground. The truss frame supporting each observatory panel is a novel hybrid structure consisting of a bottom graphite/epoxy tubular triangle and rigidized inflatable Kevlar tubes connecting the top observatory panel and the bottom triangle. Attitude control and station keeping functions will be performed by a system of momentum wheels in the bus and four propulsion modules located at the compass points on the periphery of the observatory dish. Each propulsion module has four monopropellant thrusters and four hydrazine arcjets, the latter supported by either a photovoltaic array or a radioisotope thermoelectric generator. The total mass of the spacecraft is about 20,500 kg.
Space shuttle electromagnetic environment experiment. Phase A: Definition study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haber, F.; Showers, R. M.; Kocher, C.; Forrest, L. A., Jr.
1976-01-01
Methods for carrying out measurements of earth electromagnetic environment using the space shuttle as a measurement system platform are herein reported. The goal is to provide means for mapping intentional and nonintentional emitters on earth in the frequency range 0.4 to 40 GHz. A survey was made of known emitters using available data from national and international regulatory agencies, and from industry sources. The spatial distribution of sources, power levels, frequencies, degree of frequency re-use, etc., found in the survey, are here presented. A concept is developed for scanning the earth using a directive antenna whose beam is made to rotate at a fixed angle relative to the nadir; the illuminated area swept by the beam is of the form of cycloidal annulus over a sphere. During the beam's sojourn over a point, the receiver sweeps in frequency over ranges in the order of octave width using sweeping filter bandwidths sufficient to give stable readings.
Free-space microwave power transmission study, phase 3
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, W. C.
1975-01-01
The results of an investigation of the technology of free-space power transmission by microwave beam are presented. A description of the steps that were taken to increase the overall dc to dc efficiency of microwave power transmission from 15 percent to over 50 percent is given. Included in this overall efficiency were the efficiencies of the dc to microwave conversion, the microwave transmission itself, and the microwave to dc conversion. Improvements in launching the microwave beam with high efficiency by means of a dual mode horn resulted in 95 percent of the output of the microwave generator reaching the receiving area. Emphasis was placed upon successive improvements in reception and rectification of the microwave power, resulting in the design of a rectenna device for this purpose whose efficiency was 75 percent. The procedures and the hardware developed were the basis for tests certified by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in which an overall dc to dc efficiency of 54 percent was achieved.
Effects of phase conjugation on electromagnetic optical fields propagating in free space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanseri, Bhaskar
2017-03-01
By using the property of phase conjugation, we demonstrate that the inverse of van Cittert–Zernike theorem holds for electromagnetic (EM) fields propagating in free space. This essentially implies that spatially incoherent partially polarized field distributions can be generated from spatially coherent partially polarized optical fields. We further utilize phase conjugation with a polarization rotator to swap the spatial coherence properties of orthogonal polarization components of EM fields on propagation, at least in free space. This study suggests that the method of phase conjugation could be potentially useful in arbitrarily manipulating spatial coherence properties of vector optical fields in the field plane.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Muxin; Thiemann, T.
2010-11-01
Path integral formulations for gauge theories must start from the canonical formulation in order to obtain the correct measure. A possible avenue to derive it is to start from the reduced phase space formulation. In this paper we review this rather involved procedure in full generality. Moreover, we demonstrate that the reduced phase space path integral formulation formally agrees with the Dirac's operator constraint quantization and, more specifically, with the master constraint quantization for first-class constraints. For first-class constraints with nontrivial structure functions the equivalence can only be established by passing to Abelian(ized) constraints which is always possible locally in phase space. Generically, the correct configuration space path integral measure deviates from the exponential of the Lagrangian action. The corrections are especially severe if the theory suffers from second-class secondary constraints. In a companion paper we compute these corrections for the Holst and Plebanski formulations of GR on which current spin foam models are based.
The effective two-dimensional phase space of cosmological scalar fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Edwards, David C.
2016-08-01
It has been shown by Remmen and Carroll [1] that, for a model universe which contains only a kinetically canonical scalar field minimally coupled to gravity it is possible to choose `special coordinates' to describe a two-dimensional effective phase space. The special, non-canonical, coordinates are phi,dot phi and the ability to describe an effective phase space with these coordinates empowers the common usage of phi-dot phi as the space to define inflationary initial conditions. This paper extends the result to the full Horndeski action. The existence of a two-dimensional effective phase space is shown for the general case. Subsets of the Horndeski action, relevant to cosmology are considered as particular examples to highlight important aspects of the procedure.
Space observations of cold-cloud phase change.
Choi, Yong-Sang; Lindzen, Richard S; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Kim, Jinwon
2010-06-22
This study examines the vertically resolved cloud measurements from the cloud-aerosol lidar with orthogonal polarization instrument on Aqua satellite from June 2006 through May 2007 to estimate the extent to which the mixed cloud-phase composition can vary according to the ambient temperature, an important concern for the uncertainty in calculating cloud radiative effects. At -20 degrees C, the global average fraction of supercooled clouds in the total cloud population is found to be about 50% in the data period. Between -10 and -40 degrees C, the fraction is smaller at lower temperatures. However, there are appreciable regional and temporal deviations from the global mean (> +/- 20%) at the isotherm. In the analysis with coincident dust aerosol data from the same instrument, it appears that the variation in the supercooled cloud fraction is negatively correlated with the frequencies of dust aerosols at the -20 degrees C isotherm. This result suggests a possibility that dust particles lifted to the cold cloud layer effectively glaciate supercooled clouds. Observations of radiative flux from the clouds and earth's radiant energy system instrument aboard Terra satellite, as well as radiative transfer model simulations, show that the 20% variation in the supercooled cloud fraction is quantitatively important in cloud radiative effects, especially in shortwave, which are 10-20 W m(-2) for regions of mixed-phase clouds affected by dust. In particular, our results demonstrate that dust, by glaciating supercooled water, can decrease albedo, thus compensating for the increase in albedo due to the dust aerosols themselves. This has important implications for the determination of climate sensitivity.
Space observations of cold-cloud phase change
Choi, Yong-Sang; Lindzen, Richard S.; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Kim, Jinwon
2010-01-01
This study examines the vertically resolved cloud measurements from the cloud-aerosol lidar with orthogonal polarization instrument on Aqua satellite from June 2006 through May 2007 to estimate the extent to which the mixed cloud-phase composition can vary according to the ambient temperature, an important concern for the uncertainty in calculating cloud radiative effects. At -20 °C, the global average fraction of supercooled clouds in the total cloud population is found to be about 50% in the data period. Between -10 and -40 °C, the fraction is smaller at lower temperatures. However, there are appreciable regional and temporal deviations from the global mean (> ± 20%) at the isotherm. In the analysis with coincident dust aerosol data from the same instrument, it appears that the variation in the supercooled cloud fraction is negatively correlated with the frequencies of dust aerosols at the -20 °C isotherm. This result suggests a possibility that dust particles lifted to the cold cloud layer effectively glaciate supercooled clouds. Observations of radiative flux from the clouds and earth’s radiant energy system instrument aboard Terra satellite, as well as radiative transfer model simulations, show that the 20% variation in the supercooled cloud fraction is quantitatively important in cloud radiative effects, especially in shortwave, which are 10 - 20 W m-2 for regions of mixed-phase clouds affected by dust. In particular, our results demonstrate that dust, by glaciating supercooled water, can decrease albedo, thus compensating for the increase in albedo due to the dust aerosols themselves. This has important implications for the determination of climate sensitivity. PMID:20534562
Phase 1 Space Fission Propulsion System Testing and Development Progress
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
VanDyke, Melissa; Houts, Mike; Godfroy, Tom; Dickens, Ricky; Poston, David; Kapernick, Rick; Reid, Bob; Salvail, Pat; Ring, Peter; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Successful development of space fission systems requires an extensive program of affordable and realistic testing. In addition to tests related to design/development of the fission system, realistic testing of the actual flight unit must also be performed. If the system is designed to operate within established radiation damage and fuel burn up limits while simultaneously being designed to allow close simulation of heat from fission using resistance heaters, high confidence in fission system performance and lifetime can be attained through a series of non-nuclear tests. The Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) test series, whose ultimate goal is the demonstration of a 300 kW flight configuration system, has demonstrated that realistic testing can be performed using non-nuclear methods. This test series, carried out in collaboration with other NASA centers, other government agencies, industry, and universities, successfully completed a testing program with a 30 kWt core, Stirling engine, and ion engine configuration. Additionally, a 100 kWt core is in fabrication and appropriate test facilities are being reconfigured. This paper describes the current SAFE non-nuclear tests, which includes test article descriptions, test results and conclusions, and future test plans.
Phase-Stable Free-Space Optical Lattices for Trapped Ions.
Schmiegelow, C T; Kaufmann, H; Ruster, T; Schulz, J; Kaushal, V; Hettrich, M; Schmidt-Kaler, F; Poschinger, U G
2016-01-22
We demonstrate control of the absolute phase of an optical lattice with respect to a single trapped ion. The lattice is generated by off-resonant free-space laser beams, and we actively stabilize its phase by measuring its ac-Stark shift on a trapped ion. The ion is localized within the standing wave to better than 2% of its period. The locked lattice allows us to apply displacement operations via resonant optical forces with a controlled direction in phase space. Moreover, we observe the lattice-induced phase evolution of spin superposition states in order to analyze the relevant decoherence mechanisms. Finally, we employ lattice-induced phase shifts for inferring the variation of the ion position over the 157 μm range along the trap axis at accuracies of better than 6 nm.
Phase-Stable Free-Space Optical Lattices for Trapped Ions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmiegelow, C. T.; Kaufmann, H.; Ruster, T.; Schulz, J.; Kaushal, V.; Hettrich, M.; Schmidt-Kaler, F.; Poschinger, U. G.
2016-01-01
We demonstrate control of the absolute phase of an optical lattice with respect to a single trapped ion. The lattice is generated by off-resonant free-space laser beams, and we actively stabilize its phase by measuring its ac-Stark shift on a trapped ion. The ion is localized within the standing wave to better than 2% of its period. The locked lattice allows us to apply displacement operations via resonant optical forces with a controlled direction in phase space. Moreover, we observe the lattice-induced phase evolution of spin superposition states in order to analyze the relevant decoherence mechanisms. Finally, we employ lattice-induced phase shifts for inferring the variation of the ion position over the 157 μ m range along the trap axis at accuracies of better than 6 nm.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peters, Bruce; Wingo, Dennis; Bower, Mark; Amborski, Robert; Blount, Laura; Daniel, Alan; Hagood, Bob; Handley, James; Hediger, Donald; Jimmerson, Lisa
1990-01-01
The separation of fluid phases in microgravity environments is of importance to environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) and materials processing in space. A successful fluid phase separation experiment will demonstrate a proof of concept for the separation technique and add to the knowledge base of material behavior. The phase separation experiment will contain a premixed fluid which will be exposed to a microgravity environment. After the phase separation of the compound has occurred, small samples of each of the species will be taken for analysis on the Earth. By correlating the time of separation and the temperature history of the fluid, it will be possible to characterize the process. The experiment has been integrated into space available on a manifested Get Away Special (GAS) experiment, CONCAP 2, part of the Consortium for Materials Complex Autonomous Payload (CAP) Program, scheduled for STS-42. The design and the production of a fluid phase separation experiment for rapid implementation at low cost is presented.
Performance evaluation of digital phase-locked loops for advanced deep space transponders
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, T. M.; Hinedi, S. M.; Yeh, H.-G.; Kyriacou, C.
1994-01-01
The performances of the digital phase-locked loops (DPLL's) for the advanced deep-space transponders (ADT's) are investigated. DPLL's considered in this article are derived from the analog phase-locked loop, which is currently employed by the NASA standard deep space transponder, using S-domain to Z-domain mapping techniques. Three mappings are used to develop digital approximations of the standard deep space analog phase-locked loop, namely the bilinear transformation (BT), impulse invariant transformation (IIT), and step invariant transformation (SIT) techniques. The performance in terms of the closed loop phase and magnitude responses, carrier tracking jitter, and response of the loop to the phase offset (the difference between in incoming phase and reference phase) is evaluated for each digital approximation. Theoretical results of the carrier tracking jitter for command-on and command-off cases are then validated by computer simulation. Both theoretical and computer simulation results show that at high sampling frequency, the DPLL's approximated by all three transformations have the same tracking jitter. However, at low sampling frequency, the digital approximation using BT outperforms the others. The minimum sampling frequency for adequate tracking performance is determined for each digital approximation of the analog loop. In addition, computer simulation shows that the DPLL developed by BT provides faster response to the phase offset than IIT and SIT.
White-light diffraction phase microscopy at doubled space-bandwidth product.
Shan, Mingguang; Kandel, Mikhail E; Majeed, Hassaan; Nastasa, Viorel; Popescu, Gabriel
2016-12-12
White light diffraction microscopy (wDPM) is a quantitative phase imaging method that benefits from both temporal and spatial phase sensitivity, granted, respectively, by the common-path geometry and white light illumination. However, like all off-axis quantitative phase imaging methods, wDPM is characterized by a reduced space-bandwidth product compared to phase shifting approaches. This happens essentially because the ultimate resolution of the image is governed by the period of the interferogram and not just the diffraction limit. As a result, off-axis techniques generates single-shot, i.e., high time-bandwidth, phase measurements, at the expense of either spatial resolution or field of view. Here, we show that combining phase-shifting and off-axis, the original space-bandwidth is preserved. Specifically, we developed phase-shifting diffraction phase microscopy with white light, in which we measure and combine two phase shifted interferograms. Due to the white light illumination, the phase images are characterized by low spatial noise, i.e., <1nm pathlength. We illustrate the operation of the instrument with test samples, blood cells, and unlabeled prostate tissue biopsy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ellison, James A.; Heinemann, Klaus
2007-10-01
A class of orbital motions with volume preserving flows and with vector fields periodic in the “time” parameter θ is defined. Spin motion coupled to the orbital dynamics is then defined, resulting in a class of spin-orbit motions which are important for storage rings. Phase space densities and polarization fields are introduced. It is important, in the context of storage rings, to understand the behavior of periodic polarization fields and phase space densities. Due to the 2π time periodicity of the spin-orbit equations of motion the polarization field, taken at a sequence of increasing time values θ,θ+2π,θ+4π,…, gives a sequence of polarization fields, called the stroboscopic sequence. We show, by using the Birkhoff ergodic theorem, that under very general conditions the Cesàro averages of that sequence converge almost everywhere on phase space to a polarization field which is 2π-periodic in time. This fulfills the main aim of this paper in that it demonstrates that the tracking algorithm for stroboscopic averaging, encoded in the program SPRINT and used in the study of spin motion in storage rings, is mathematically well-founded. The machinery developed is also shown to work for the stroboscopic average of phase space densities associated with the orbital dynamics. This yields a large family of periodic phase space densities and, as an example, a quite detailed analysis of the so-called betatron motion in a storage ring is presented.
Looking for phase-space structures in star-forming regions: an MST-based methodology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alfaro, Emilio J.; González, Marta
2016-03-01
We present a method for analysing the phase space of star-forming regions. In particular we are searching for clumpy structures in the 3D sub-space formed by two position coordinates and radial velocity. The aim of the method is the detection of kinematic segregated radial velocity groups, that is, radial velocity intervals whose associated stars are spatially concentrated. To this end we define a kinematic segregation index, tilde{Λ }(RV), based on the Minimum Spanning Tree graph algorithm, which is estimated for a set of radial velocity intervals in the region. When tilde{Λ }(RV) is significantly greater than 1 we consider that this bin represents a grouping in the phase space. We split a star-forming region into radial velocity bins and calculate the kinematic segregation index for each bin, and then we obtain the spectrum of kinematic groupings, which enables a quick visualization of the kinematic behaviour of the region under study. We carried out numerical models of different configurations in the sub-space of the phase space formed by the coordinates and the that various case studies illustrate. The analysis of the test cases demonstrates the potential of the new methodology for detecting different kind of groupings in phase space.
Quantum phase-space picture of Bose-Einstein condensates in a double well
Mahmud, Khan W.; Perry, Heidi; Reinhardt, William P.
2005-02-01
We present a quantum phase-space model of the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in a double-well potential. In a quantum two-mode approximation we examine the eigenvectors and eigenvalues and find that the energy correlation diagram indicates a transition from a delocalized to a fragmented regime. Phase-space information is extracted from the stationary quantum states using the Husimi distribution function. We show that the mean-field phase-space characteristics of a nonrigid physical pendulum arises from the exact quantum states, and that only 4-8 particles per well are needed to reach the semiclassical limit. For a driven double-well BEC, we show that the classical chaotic dynamics is manifest in the dynamics of the quantum states. Phase-space analogy also suggests that a {pi} phase-displaced wave packet put on the unstable fixed point on a separatrix bifurcates to create a superposition of two pendulum rotor states--a macroscopic superposition state of BEC. We show that the choice of initial barrier height and ramping, following a {pi} phase imprinting on the condensate, can be used to generate controlled entangled number states with tunable extremity and sharpness.
Phase and Pupil Amplitude Recovery for JWST Space-Optics Control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dean, B. H.; Zielinski, T. P.; Smith, J. S.; Bolcar, M. R.; Aronstein, D. L.; Fienup, J. R.
2010-01-01
This slide presentation reviews the phase and pupil amplitude recovery for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam). It includes views of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM), the NIRCam, examples of Phase Retrieval Data, Ghost Irradiance, Pupil Amplitude Estimation, Amplitude Retrieval, Initial Plate Scale Estimation using the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), Pupil Amplitude Estimation vs lambda, Pupil Amplitude Estimation vs. number of Images, Pupil Amplitude Estimation vs Rotation (clocking), and Typical Phase Retrieval Results Also included is information about the phase retrieval approach, Non-Linear Optimization (NLO) Optimized Diversity Functions, and Least Square Error vs. Starting Pupil Amplitude.
Phase space structures in gyrokinetic simulations of fusion plasma turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghendrih, Philippe; Norscini, Claudia; Cartier-Michaud, Thomas; Dif-Pradalier, Guilhem; Abiteboul, Jérémie; Dong, Yue; Garbet, Xavier; Gürcan, Ozgür; Hennequin, Pascale; Grandgirard, Virginie; Latu, Guillaume; Morel, Pierre; Sarazin, Yanick; Storelli, Alexandre; Vermare, Laure
2014-10-01
Gyrokinetic simulations of fusion plasmas give extensive information in 5D on turbulence and transport. This paper highlights a few of these challenging physics in global, flux driven simulations using experimental inputs from Tore Supra shot TS45511. The electrostatic gyrokinetic code GYSELA is used for these simulations. The 3D structure of avalanches indicates that these structures propagate radially at localised toroidal angles and then expand along the field line at sound speed to form the filaments. Analysing the poloidal mode structure of the potential fluctuations (at a given toroidal location), one finds that the low modes m = 0 and m = 1 exhibit a global structure; the magnitude of the m = 0 mode is much larger than that of the m = 1 mode. The shear layers of the corrugation structures are thus found to be dominated by the m = 0 contribution, that are comparable to that of the zonal flows. This global mode seems to localise the m = 2 mode but has little effect on the localisation of the higher mode numbers. However when analysing the pulsation of the latter modes one finds that all modes exhibit a similar phase velocity, comparable to the local zonal flow velocity. The consequent dispersion like relation between the modes pulsation and the mode numbers provides a means to measure the zonal flow. Temperature fluctuations and the turbulent heat flux are localised between the corrugation structures. Temperature fluctuations are found to exhibit two scales, small fluctuations that are localised by the corrugation shear layers, and appear to bounce back and forth radially, and large fluctuations, also readily observed on the flux, which are associated to the disruption of the corrugations. The radial ballistic velocity of both avalanche events if of the order of 0.5ρ∗c0 where ρ∗ = ρ0/a, a being the tokamak minor radius and ρ0 being the characteristic Larmor radius, ρ0 = c0/Ω0. c0 is the reference ion thermal velocity and Ω0 = qiB0/mi the reference
Phase-space model of a collisionless stellar cylinder embedded in a rotating halo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kondratyev, B. P.; Kireeva, E. N.
The phase-space model of a stellar cylindrical bar embedded in a rotating triaxial halo is constructed. The equations of motion of an individual star in the bar are derived and solved. The model has three integrals of motion and the condition of the cylinder boundary conservation is derived. The model is found to represent a four-dimensional ellipsoid in six-dimensional phase space. The phase-space distribution function of stars is derived, which depends on isolating integrals of motion. The centroid velocity field describes longitudinal shear averaged flows in the cylinder. Two non-zero components of the velocity dispersion tensor depend quadratically on coordinates and vanish at the surface of the cylindrical bar.
Measurement of Phase Space Structure of Fast Ions Interacting with Alfven Eigenmodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagaoka, Kenichi; Osakabe, Masaki; Isobe, Mitsutaka; Ogawa, Kunihiro; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Shinji; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Katoh, Yuto; Fontdecaba, Jose M.
2015-11-01
Experimentally observed Alfven eigenmodes (AEs) shows nonlinear behaviors such as intermittency, fast sweep in frequency and so on. In order to understand such nonlinear behaviors of AEs, it is widely recognized that the phase space structure have to be taken into account. However, there are few direct measurements of phase space structure in experiments so far. Here, we propose to apply the wave-particle interaction analyzer (WPIA) technique being developed for magnetosphere plasma physics (ERG project) to magnetically confinement fusion experiments. In the meeting, we present a high speed pulse analyzer system for WPIA using the field programmable gate array (FPGA) module and discuss the phase space structures observed in the LHD experiment. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (A) 26709071.
From time series to complex networks: The phase space coarse graining
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Minggang; Tian, Lixin
2016-11-01
In this paper, we present a simple and fast computational method, the phase space coarse graining algorithm that converts a time series into a directed and weighted complex network. The constructed directed and weighted complex network inherits several properties of the series in its structure. Thereby, periodic series convert into regular networks, and random series do so into random networks. Moreover, chaotic series convert into scale-free networks. It is shown that the phase space coarse graining algorithm allows us to distinguish, identify and describe in detail various time series. Finally, we apply the phase space coarse graining algorithm to the practical observations series, international gasoline regular spot price series and identify its dynamic characteristics.
High-order continuum kinetic method for modeling plasma dynamics in phase space
Vogman, G. V.; Colella, P.; Shumlak, U.
2014-12-15
Continuum methods offer a high-fidelity means of simulating plasma kinetics. While computationally intensive, these methods are advantageous because they can be cast in conservation-law form, are not susceptible to noise, and can be implemented using high-order numerical methods. Advances in continuum method capabilities for modeling kinetic phenomena in plasmas require the development of validation tools in higher dimensional phase space and an ability to handle non-cartesian geometries. To that end, a new benchmark for validating Vlasov-Poisson simulations in 3D (x,vx,vy) is presented. The benchmark is based on the Dory-Guest-Harris instability and is successfully used to validate a continuum finite volumemore » algorithm. To address challenges associated with non-cartesian geometries, unique features of cylindrical phase space coordinates are described. Preliminary results of continuum kinetic simulations in 4D (r,z,vr,vz) phase space are presented.« less
Note on the phase space of asymptotically flat gravity in Ashtekar-Barbero variables
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campiglia, Miguel
2015-07-01
We describe the canonical phase space of asymptotically flat gravity in Ashtekar-Barbero (AB) variables. We show that the Gauss constraint multiplier must fall off slower than previously considered in order to recover ADM phase space. The generators of the asymptotic Poincare group are derived within the AB phase space without reference to the ADM generators. The resulting expressions are shown to agree, modulo Gauss constraint terms, with those obtained from the ADM generators. A payoff of this procedure is a new expression for the generator of asymptotic rotations, which is polynomial in the triad and hence better suited for quantum theory. Our treatment complements an earlier description by Thiemann in the context of self-dual variables.
Amateur Radio on the International Space Station - Phase 2 Hardware System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauer, F.; McFadin, L.; Bruninga, B.; Watarikawa, H.
2003-01-01
The International Space Station (ISS) ham radio system has been on-orbit for over 3 years. Since its first use in November 2000, the first seven expedition crews and three Soyuz taxi crews have utilized the amateur radio station in the Functional Cargo Block (also referred to as the FGB or Zarya module) to talk to thousands of students in schools, to their families on Earth, and to amateur radio operators around the world. Early on, the Amateur Radio on the International Space Station (ARISS) international team devised a multi-phased hardware development approach for the ISS ham radio station. Three internal development Phases. Initial Phase 1, Mobile Radio Phase 2 and Permanently Mounted Phase 3 plus an externally mounted system, were proposed and agreed to by the ARISS team. The Phase 1 system hardware development which was started in 1996 has since been delivered to ISS. It is currently operational on 2 meters. The 70 cm system is expected to be installed and operated later this year. Since 2001, the ARISS international team have worked to bring the second generation ham system, called Phase 2, to flight qualification status. At this time, major portions of the Phase 2 hardware system have been delivered to ISS and will soon be installed and checked out. This paper intends to provide an overview of the Phase 1 system for background and then describe the capabilities of the Phase 2 radio system. It will also describe the current plans to finalize the Phase 1 and Phase 2 testing in Russia and outlines the plans to bring the Phase 2 hardware system to full operation.
The fault monitoring and diagnosis knowledge-based system for space power systems: AMPERES, phase 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, S. C.
1989-01-01
The objective is to develop a real time fault monitoring and diagnosis knowledge-based system (KBS) for space power systems which can save costly operational manpower and can achieve more reliable space power system operation. The proposed KBS was developed using the Autonomously Managed Power System (AMPS) test facility currently installed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), but the basic approach taken for this project could be applicable for other space power systems. The proposed KBS is entitled Autonomously Managed Power-System Extendible Real-time Expert System (AMPERES). In Phase 1 the emphasis was put on the design of the overall KBS, the identification of the basic research required, the initial performance of the research, and the development of a prototype KBS. In Phase 2, emphasis is put on the completion of the research initiated in Phase 1, and the enhancement of the prototype KBS developed in Phase 1. This enhancement is intended to achieve a working real time KBS incorporated with the NASA space power system test facilities. Three major research areas were identified and progress was made in each area. These areas are real time data acquisition and its supporting data structure; sensor value validations; development of inference scheme for effective fault monitoring and diagnosis, and its supporting knowledge representation scheme.
Space shuttle main engine definition (phase B). Volume 2: Avionics. [for space shuttle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1971-01-01
The advent of the space shuttle engine with its requirements for high specific impulse, long life, and low cost have dictated a combustion cycle and a closed loop control system to allow the engine components to run close to operating limits. These performance requirements, combined with the necessity for low operational costs, have placed new demands on rocket engine control, system checkout, and diagnosis technology. Based on considerations of precision environment, and compatibility with vehicle interface commands, an electronic control, makes available many functions that logically provide the information required for engine system checkout and diagnosis.
GPU-based Monte Carlo radiotherapy dose calculation using phase-space sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Townson, Reid W.; Jia, Xun; Tian, Zhen; Jiang Graves, Yan; Zavgorodni, Sergei; Jiang, Steve B.
2013-06-01
A novel phase-space source implementation has been designed for graphics processing unit (GPU)-based Monte Carlo dose calculation engines. Short of full simulation of the linac head, using a phase-space source is the most accurate method to model a clinical radiation beam in dose calculations. However, in GPU-based Monte Carlo dose calculations where the computation efficiency is very high, the time required to read and process a large phase-space file becomes comparable to the particle transport time. Moreover, due to the parallelized nature of GPU hardware, it is essential to simultaneously transport particles of the same type and similar energies but separated spatially to yield a high efficiency. We present three methods for phase-space implementation that have been integrated into the most recent version of the GPU-based Monte Carlo radiotherapy dose calculation package gDPM v3.0. The first method is to sequentially read particles from a patient-dependent phase-space and sort them on-the-fly based on particle type and energy. The second method supplements this with a simple secondary collimator model and fluence map implementation so that patient-independent phase-space sources can be used. Finally, as the third method (called the phase-space-let, or PSL, method) we introduce a novel source implementation utilizing pre-processed patient-independent phase-spaces that are sorted by particle type, energy and position. Position bins located outside a rectangular region of interest enclosing the treatment field are ignored, substantially decreasing simulation time with little effect on the final dose distribution. The three methods were validated in absolute dose against BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc and compared using gamma-index tests (2%/2 mm above the 10% isodose). It was found that the PSL method has the optimal balance between accuracy and efficiency and thus is used as the default method in gDPM v3.0. Using the PSL method, open fields of 4 × 4, 10 × 10 and 30 × 30 cm
Differential spectra and phase space densities of trapped electrons at Jupiter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcilwain, C. E.; Fillius, R. W.
1975-01-01
Using Pioneer 10 data, differential spectra and phase-space densities have been constructed for trapped electrons at Jupiter. These quantities should assist in calculating synchrotron radiation from these particles and in evaluating the diffusion mechanisms that accelerate the particles. Absorption by the moons Io and Europa is evident, and injection by Io is demonstrated by a density peak in phase space, which demands a local source. There is also a rapid decrease in density between the moons, which could call for either a local loss mechanism or nonlocal losses fed by diffusion.
Ion phase-space vortices and their relation to small amplitude double layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pecseli, Hans L.
1987-01-01
The properties of ion phase-space vortices are reviewed with particular attention to their role in the formation of small amplitude double layers in current-carrying plasmas. In a one-dimensional analysis, many such double layers simply add up to produce a large voltage drop. A laboratory experiment is carried out in order to investigate the properties of ion phase-space vortices in three dimensions. Their lifetime is significantly reduced as compared with similar results from one-dimensional numerical simulations of the problem.
Phase-space description of the coherent state dynamics in a small one-dimensional system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaczor, Urszula; Klimas, Bogusław; Szydłowski, Dominik; Wołoszyn, Maciej; Spisak, Bartłomiej J.
2016-10-01
The Wigner-Moyal approach is applied to investigate the dynamics of the Gaussian wave packet moving in a double-well potential in the `Mexican hat' form. Quantum trajectories in the phase space are computed for different kinetic energies of the initial wave packet in the Wigner form. The results are compared with the classical trajectories. Some additional information on the dynamics of the wave packet in the phase space is extracted from the analysis of the cross-correlation of the Wigner distribution function with itself at different points in time.
Hamiltonian reductions of the one-dimensional Vlasov equation using phase-space moments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chandre, C.; Perin, M.
2016-03-01
We consider Hamiltonian closures of the Vlasov equation using the phase-space moments of the distribution function. We provide some conditions on the closures imposed by the Jacobi identity. We completely solve some families of examples. As a result, we show that imposing that the resulting reduced system preserves the Hamiltonian character of the parent model shapes its phase space by creating a set of Casimir invariants as a direct consequence of the Jacobi identity. We exhibit three main families of Hamiltonian models with two, three, and four degrees of freedom aiming at modeling the complexity of the bunch of particles in the Vlasov dynamics.
A Gaussian wave packet phase-space representation of quantum canonical statistics
Coughtrie, David J.; Tew, David P.
2015-07-28
We present a mapping of quantum canonical statistical averages onto a phase-space average over thawed Gaussian wave-packet (GWP) parameters, which is exact for harmonic systems at all temperatures. The mapping invokes an effective potential surface, experienced by the wave packets, and a temperature-dependent phase-space integrand, to correctly transition from the GWP average at low temperature to classical statistics at high temperature. Numerical tests on weakly and strongly anharmonic model systems demonstrate that thermal averages of the system energy and geometric properties are accurate to within 1% of the exact quantum values at all temperatures.
High order surface aberration contributions from phase space analysis of differential rays.
Chen, Bo; Herkommer, Alois M
2016-03-21
Phase space methods are very popular for illumination systems or paraxial system analysis. In this paper it will be shown that it is also a promising tool to visualize and quantify surface aberration contributions, including all orders. The method is based on the calculation and propagation of a differential ray pair. In order to validate the method we compare to Aldis calculus, an exact method to determine high order aberrations in rotational symmetric systems. A triplet lens is used as an example to visualize the results. The analysis indicates that the phase space method is a very good approximation to Aldis calculus and moreover it is not limited to any symmetry assumptions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roberts, B. C.; Carrasquillo, R. L.; Dubiel, M. Y.; Ogle, K. Y.; Perry, J. L.; Whitley, K. M.
1990-01-01
A description of the phase 3 simplified integrated test (SIT) conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Core Module Integration Facility (CMIF) in 1989 is presented. This was the first test in the phase 3 series integrated environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) tests. The basic goal of the SIT was to achieve full integration of the baseline air revitalization (AR) subsystems for Space Station Freedom. Included is a description of the SIT configuration, a performance analysis of each subsystem, results from air and water sampling, and a discussion of lessons learned from the test. Also included is a full description of the preprototype ECLSS hardware used in the test.
Phase-space dynamics of ionization injection in plasma-based accelerators.
Xu, X L; Hua, J F; Li, F; Zhang, C J; Yan, L X; Du, Y C; Huang, W H; Chen, H B; Tang, C X; Lu, W; Yu, P; An, W; Joshi, C; Mori, W B
2014-01-24
The evolution of beam phase space in ionization injection into plasma wakefields is studied using theory and particle-in-cell simulations. The injection process involves both longitudinal and transverse phase mixing, leading initially to a rapid emittance growth followed by oscillation, decay, and a slow growth to saturation. An analytic theory for this evolution is presented and verified through particle-in-cell simulations. This theory includes the effects of injection distance (time), acceleration distance, wakefield structure, and nonlinear space charge forces, and it also shows how ultralow emittance beams can be produced using ionization injection methods.
GPU-based Monte Carlo radiotherapy dose calculation using phase-space sources.
Townson, Reid W; Jia, Xun; Tian, Zhen; Graves, Yan Jiang; Zavgorodni, Sergei; Jiang, Steve B
2013-06-21
A novel phase-space source implementation has been designed for graphics processing unit (GPU)-based Monte Carlo dose calculation engines. Short of full simulation of the linac head, using a phase-space source is the most accurate method to model a clinical radiation beam in dose calculations. However, in GPU-based Monte Carlo dose calculations where the computation efficiency is very high, the time required to read and process a large phase-space file becomes comparable to the particle transport time. Moreover, due to the parallelized nature of GPU hardware, it is essential to simultaneously transport particles of the same type and similar energies but separated spatially to yield a high efficiency. We present three methods for phase-space implementation that have been integrated into the most recent version of the GPU-based Monte Carlo radiotherapy dose calculation package gDPM v3.0. The first method is to sequentially read particles from a patient-dependent phase-space and sort them on-the-fly based on particle type and energy. The second method supplements this with a simple secondary collimator model and fluence map implementation so that patient-independent phase-space sources can be used. Finally, as the third method (called the phase-space-let, or PSL, method) we introduce a novel source implementation utilizing pre-processed patient-independent phase-spaces that are sorted by particle type, energy and position. Position bins located outside a rectangular region of interest enclosing the treatment field are ignored, substantially decreasing simulation time with little effect on the final dose distribution. The three methods were validated in absolute dose against BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc and compared using gamma-index tests (2%/2 mm above the 10% isodose). It was found that the PSL method has the optimal balance between accuracy and efficiency and thus is used as the default method in gDPM v3.0. Using the PSL method, open fields of 4 × 4, 10 × 10 and 30 × 30 cm
A Gaussian wave packet phase-space representation of quantum canonical statistics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coughtrie, David J.; Tew, David P.
2015-07-01
We present a mapping of quantum canonical statistical averages onto a phase-space average over thawed Gaussian wave-packet (GWP) parameters, which is exact for harmonic systems at all temperatures. The mapping invokes an effective potential surface, experienced by the wave packets, and a temperature-dependent phase-space integrand, to correctly transition from the GWP average at low temperature to classical statistics at high temperature. Numerical tests on weakly and strongly anharmonic model systems demonstrate that thermal averages of the system energy and geometric properties are accurate to within 1% of the exact quantum values at all temperatures.
Phase-space methods for the spin dynamics in condensed matter systems.
Hurst, Jérôme; Hervieux, Paul-Antoine; Manfredi, Giovanni
2017-04-28
Using the phase-space formulation of quantum mechanics, we derive a four-component Wigner equation for a system composed of spin-[Formula: see text] fermions (typically, electrons) including the Zeeman effect and the spin-orbit coupling. This Wigner equation is coupled to the appropriate Maxwell equations to form a self-consistent mean-field model. A set of semiclassical Vlasov equations with spin effects is obtained by expanding the full quantum model to first order in the Planck constant. The corresponding hydrodynamic equations are derived by taking velocity moments of the phase-space distribution function. A simple closure relation is proposed to obtain a closed set of hydrodynamic equations.This article is part of the themed issue 'Theoretical and computational studies of non-equilibrium and non-statistical dynamics in the gas phase, in the condensed phase and at interfaces'.
Free space optical communication link using a silicon photonic optical phased array
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rabinovich, William S.; Goetz, Peter G.; Pruessner, Marcel; Mahon, Rita; Ferraro, Mike S.; Park, Doe; Fleet, Erin; DePrenger, Michael J.
2015-03-01
Many components for free space optical communication systems have shrunken in size over the last decade. However, the steering systems have remained large and power hungry. Non-mechanical beam steering offers a path to reducing the size of these systems. Optical phased arrays can allow integrated beam steering elements. One of the most important aspects of an optical phased array technology is its scalability to a large number of elements. Silicon photonics can potentially offer this scalability using CMOS foundry techniques. In this paper a small-scale silicon photonic optical phased array is demonstrated for both the transmitter and receiver functions in a free space optical link. The device using an array of thermo-optically controlled waveguide phase shifters and demonstrates one-dimensional steering with a single control electrode. Transmission of a digitized video data stream over the link is shown.
Phased Array Ultrasonic Examination of Space Shuttle Main Engine Nozzle Weld
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
James, S.; Engel, J.; Kimbrough, D.; Suits, M.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
This paper describes a Phased Array Ultrasonic Examination that was developed for the examination of a limited access circumferential Inconel 718 fusion weld of a Space Shuttle Main Engine Nozzle - Cone. The paper discusses the selection and formation criteria used for the phased array focal laws, the reference standard that simulated hardware conditions, the examination concept, and results. Several unique constraints present during this examination included limited probe movement to a single axis and one-sided access to the weld.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1974-01-01
The 12 month Phase A Conceptual Design Study of the Atmospheric, Magnetospheric and Plasmas in Space (AMPS) payload performed within the Program Development Directorate of the Marshall Space Flight Center is presented. The AMPS payload makes use of the Spacelab pressurized module and pallet, is launched by the space shuttle, and will have initial flight durations of 7 days. Scientific instruments including particle accelerators, high power transmitters, optical instruments, and chemical release devices are mounted externally on the Spacelab pallet and are controlled by the experimenters from within the pressurized module. The capability of real-time scientist interaction on-orbit with the experiment is a major characteristic of AMPS.
Phase space localization for anti-de Sitter quantum mechanics and its zero curvature limit
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elgradechi, Amine M.
1993-01-01
Using techniques of geometric quantization and SO(sub 0)(3,2)-coherent states, a notion of optimal localization on phase space is defined for the quantum theory of a massive and spinning particle in anti-de Sitter space time. It is shown that this notion disappears in the zero curvature limit, providing one with a concrete example of the regularizing character of the constant (nonzero) curvature of the anti-de Sitter space time. As a byproduct a geometric characterization of masslessness is obtained.
Extending the scanning angle of a phased array antenna by using a null-space medium
Sun, Fei; He, Sailing
2014-01-01
By introducing a columnar null-space region as the reference space, we design a radome that can extend the scanning angle of a phased array antenna (PAA) by a predetermined relationship (e.g. a linear relationship between the incident angle and steered output angle can be achieved). After some approximation, we only need two homogeneous materials to construct the proposed radome layer by layer. This kind of medium is called a null-space medium, which has been studied and fabricated for realizing hyper-lenses and some other devices. Numerical simulations verify the performance of our radome. PMID:25355198
Simulations of phase space distributions of storm time proton ring current
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Margaret W.; Lyons, Larry R.; Schulz, Michael
1994-01-01
We use results of guiding-center simulations of ion transport to map phase space densities of the stormtime proton ring current. We model a storm as a sequence of substorm-associated enhancements in the convection electric field. Our pre-storm phase space distribution is an analytical solution to a steady-state transport model in which quiet-time radial diffusion balances charge exchange. This pre-storm phase space spectra at L approximately 2 to 4 reproduce many of the features found in observed quiet-time spectra. Using results from simulations of ion transport during model storms having main phases of 3, 6, and 12 hr, we map phase space distributions from the pre-storm distribution in accordance with Liouville's theorem. We find stormtime enhancements in the phase space densities at energies E approximately 30-160 keV for L approximately 2.5 to 4. These enhancements agree well with the observed stormtime ring current. For storms with shorter main phases (approximately 3 hr), the enhancements are caused mainly by the trapping of ions injected from open night side trajectories, and diffusive transport of higher-energy (greater than or approximately 160 keV) ions contributes little to the stormtime ring current. However, the stormtime ring current is augmented also by the diffusive transport of higher-energy ions (E greater than or approximately 160 keV) durinng stroms having longer main phases (greater than or approximately 6 hr). In order to account for the increase in Dst associated with the formation of the stormtime ring current, we estimate the enhancement in particle-energy content that results from stormtime ion transport in the equatorial magnetosphere. We find that transport alone cannot account for the entire increase in absolute value of Dst typical of a major storm. However, we can account for the entire increase in absolute value of Dst by realistically increasing the stormtime outer boundary value of the phase space density relative to the quiet
Phase-space structure of the Buckingham's two-body problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pricopi, D.; Popescu, E.
2016-06-01
In this paper, we study the global flow for the two-body problem associated to the Buckingham potential. For this, using McGehee-type transformations, we write the regularized equations of motion. Then, reducing the 4-dimensional phase space to a 2-dimension one, the global flow in the phase plane is described for all possible values of the parameters of the potential and those of the energy and angular momentum constants. Every phase trajectory is interpreted in terms of physical motion, our problem being depicted both geometrically and physically.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deuser, Mark S.; Vanalstine, James M.; Vellinger, John C.; Wessling, Francis C.; Lundquist, Charles A.
1992-01-01
Traditional separation techniques are inadequate for many new bioprocessing challenges. Innovative separation methods such as aqueous two phase partitioning are needed to perpetuate bioprocess commercialization. Aqueous two phase polymer partitioning systems provide a process for separating biological materials when combined with microgravity. An innovative space qualified apparatus developed for carrying out separations by partitioning in immiscible polymer systems under mirogravity conditions is described. The apparatus offers an innovative approach to low gravity bioseparations in general and phase partitioning in particular. These capabilities support NASA's interest in serving the biotechnology research community and providing quantitative data in the gravity dependent components of separation processes.
Real-Space and Reciprocal-Space Berry Phases in the Hall Effect of Mn1-xFexSi
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franz, C.; Freimuth, F.; Bauer, A.; Ritz, R.; Schnarr, C.; Duvinage, C.; Adams, T.; Blügel, S.; Rosch, A.; Mokrousov, Y.; Pfleiderer, C.
2014-05-01
We report an experimental and computational study of the Hall effect in Mn1-xFexSi, as complemented by measurements in Mn1-xCoxSi, when helimagnetic order is suppressed under substitutional doping. For small x the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and the topological Hall effect (THE) change sign. Under larger doping the AHE remains small and consistent with the magnetization, while the THE grows by over a factor of 10. Both the sign and the magnitude of the AHE and the THE are in excellent agreement with calculations based on density functional theory. Our study provides the long-sought material-specific microscopic justification that, while the AHE is due to the reciprocal-space Berry curvature, the THE originates in real-space Berry phases.
Ray tracing method in phase space for two-dimensional optical systems.
Filosa, C; Ten Thije Boonkkamp, J H M; IJzerman, W L
2016-05-01
Ray tracing is a forward method to calculate the photometric variables at the target of a non-imaging optical system. In this paper, a new ray tracing technique is presented to improve the accuracy and to reduce the computational time of the classical ray tracing approach. The method is based on the phase space representation of the source and the target of the optical system, and it is applied to a two-dimensional TIR-collimator. The strength of the method lies in tracing fewer rays through the system. Only rays that lie in the meridional plane are considered. A procedure that disregards rays in smooth regions in phase space, where the luminance is continuous, is implemented and only the rays close to discontinuities are traced. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated by numerical simulations that compare the new method with Monte Carlo ray tracing. The results show that the phase space approach is faster and more accurate than the already existing ray tracing method; moreover the phase space method converges as one over the number of rays traced unlike Monte Carlo ray tracing in which the speed of convergence is proportional to one over the square root of the number of rays.
Plimak, L.I.; Fleischhauer, M.; Olsen, M.K.; Collett, M.J.
2003-01-01
We present an introduction to phase-space techniques (PST) based on a quantum-field-theoretical (QFT) approach. In addition to bridging the gap between PST and QFT, our approach results in a number of generalizations of the PST. First, for problems where the usual PST do not result in a genuine Fokker-Planck equation (even after phase-space doubling) and hence fail to produce a stochastic differential equation (SDE), we show how the system in question may be approximated via stochastic difference equations (S{delta}E). Second, we show that introducing sources into the SDE's (or S{delta}E's) generalizes them to a full quantum nonlinear stochastic response problem (thus generalizing Kubo's linear reaction theory to a quantum nonlinear stochastic response theory). Third, we establish general relations linking quantum response properties of the system in question to averages of operator products ordered in a way different from time normal. This extends PST to a much wider assemblage of operator products than are usually considered in phase-space approaches. In all cases, our approach yields a very simple and straightforward way of deriving stochastic equations in phase space.
Numerical method for estimating the size of chaotic regions of phase space
Henyey, F.S.; Pomphrey, N.
1987-10-01
A numerical method for estimating irregular volumes of phase space is derived. The estimate weights the irregular area on a surface of section with the average return time to the section. We illustrate the method by application to the stadium and oval billiard systems and also apply the method to the continuous Henon-Heiles system. 15 refs., 10 figs. (LSP)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Endeve, Eirik; Hauck, Cory D.; Xing, Yulong; Mezzacappa, Anthony
2015-04-01
We extend the positivity-preserving method of Zhang and Shu [49] to simulate the advection of neutral particles in phase space using curvilinear coordinates. The ability to utilize these coordinates is important for non-equilibrium transport problems in general relativity and also in science and engineering applications with specific geometries. The method achieves high-order accuracy using Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) discretization of phase space and strong stability-preserving, Runge-Kutta (SSP-RK) time integration. Special care is taken to ensure that the method preserves strict bounds for the phase space distribution function f; i.e., f ∈ [ 0 , 1 ]. The combination of suitable CFL conditions and the use of the high-order limiter proposed in [49] is sufficient to ensure positivity of the distribution function. However, to ensure that the distribution function satisfies the upper bound, the discretization must, in addition, preserve the divergence-free property of the phase space flow. Proofs that highlight the necessary conditions are presented for general curvilinear coordinates, and the details of these conditions are worked out for some commonly used coordinate systems (i.e., spherical polar spatial coordinates in spherical symmetry and cylindrical spatial coordinates in axial symmetry, both with spherical momentum coordinates). Results from numerical experiments - including one example in spherical symmetry adopting the Schwarzschild metric - demonstrate that the method achieves high-order accuracy and that the distribution function satisfies the maximum principle.
Phase space and jet definitions in soft-collinear effective theory
Cheung, William Man-Yin; Luke, Michael; Zuberi, Saba
2009-12-01
We discuss consistent power counting for integrating soft and collinear degrees of freedom over arbitrary regions of phase space in the soft-collinear effective theory, and illustrate our results at one-loop with several jet algorithms: JADE, Sterman-Weinberg and k{sub perpendicular}. Consistently applying soft-collinear effective theory power counting in phase space, along with nontrivial zero-bin subtractions, prevents double counting of final states. The resulting phase space integrals over soft and collinear regions are individually ultraviolet divergent, but the phase space ultraviolet divergences cancel in the sum. Whether the soft and collinear contributions are individually infrared safe depends on the jet definition. We show that while this is true at one-loop for JADE and Sterman-Weinberg, the k{sub perpendicular} algorithm does not factorize into individually infrared safe soft and collinear pieces in dimensional regularization. We point out that this statement depends on the ultraviolet regulator, and that in a cutoff scheme the soft functions are infrared safe.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
de Silva, Chamelle R.; Chigona, A.; Adendorff, S. A.
2016-01-01
Among its many affordances, the interactive whiteboard (IWB) as a digital space for children's dialogic engagement in the Foundation Phase classroom remains largely under-exploited. This paper emanates from a study which was undertaken in an attempt to understand how teachers acquire knowledge of emerging technologies and how this shapes their…
Quantum de Finetti theorems and mean-field theory from quantum phase space representations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trimborn, F.; Werner, R. F.; Witthaut, D.
2016-04-01
We introduce the number-conserving quantum phase space description as a versatile tool to address fundamental aspects of quantum many-body systems. Using phase space methods we prove two alternative versions of the quantum de Finetti theorem for finite-dimensional bosonic quantum systems, which states that a reduced density matrix of a many-body quantum state can be approximated by a convex combination of product states where the error is proportional to the inverse particle number. This theorem provides a formal justification for the mean-field description of many-body quantum systems, as it shows that quantum correlations can be neglected for the calculation of few-body observables when the particle number is large. Furthermore we discuss methods to derive the exact evolution equations for quantum phase space distribution functions as well as upper and lower bounds for the ground state energy. As an important example, we consider the Bose-Hubbard model and show that the mean-field dynamics is given by a classical phase space flow equivalent to the discrete Gross-Pitaevskii equation.
A high-resolution multi-slit phase space measurement technique for low-emittance beams
Thangaraj, J. C. T.; Piot, P.
2012-12-21
Precise measurement of transverse phase space of a high-brightness electron beamis of fundamental importance in modern accelerators and free-electron lasers. Often, the transverse phase space of a high-brightness, space-charge-dominated electron beam is measured using a multi-slit method. In this method, a transverse mask (slit/pepperpot) samples the beaminto a set of beamlets, which are then analyzed on to a screen downstream. The resolution in this method is limited by the type of screen used which is typically around 20 {mu}m for a high-sensitivity Yttrium Aluminum Garnet screen. Accurate measurement of sub-micron transverse emittance using this method would require a long drift space between the multi-slit mask and observation screen. In this paper, we explore a variation of the technique that incorporates quadrupole magnets between the multi-slit mask and the screen. It is shown that this arrangement can improve the resolution of the transverse-phase-space measurement with in a short footprint.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurien, Binoy G.; Ashcom, Jonathan B.; Shah, Vinay N.; Rachlin, Yaron; Tarokh, Vahid
2017-01-01
Atmospheric turbulence presents a fundamental challenge to Fourier phase recovery in optical interferometry. Typical reconstruction algorithms employ Bayesian inference techniques which rely on prior knowledge of the scene under observation. In contrast, redundant spacing calibration (RSC) algorithms employ redundancy in the baselines of the interferometric array to directly expose the contribution of turbulence, thereby enabling phase recovery for targets of arbitrary and unknown complexity. Traditionally RSC algorithms have been applied directly to single-exposure measurements, which are reliable only at high photon flux in general. In scenarios of low photon flux, such as those arising in the observation of dim objects in space, one must instead rely on time-averaged, atmosphere-invariant quantities such as the bispectrum. In this paper, we develop a novel RSC-based algorithm for prior-less phase recovery in which we generalize the bispectrum to higher order atmosphere-invariants (n-spectra) for improved sensitivity. We provide a strategy for selection of a high-signal-to-noise ratio set of n-spectra using the graph-theoretic notion of the minimum cycle basis. We also discuss a key property of this set (wrap-invariance), which then enables reliable application of standard linear estimation techniques to recover the Fourier phases from the 2π-wrapped n-spectra phases. For validation, we analyse the expected shot-noise-limited performance of our algorithm for both pairwise and Fizeau interferometric architectures, and corroborate this analysis with simulation results showing performance near an atmosphere-oracle Cramer-Rao bound. Lastly, we apply techniques from the field of compressed sensing to perform image reconstruction from the estimated complex visibilities.
Direct-space methods in phase extension and phase refinement. IV. The double-histogram method.
Refaat, L S; Tate, C; Woolfson, M M
1996-03-01
In the conventional histogram-matching technique for phase extension and refinement for proteins a simple one-to-one transformation is made in the protein region to modify calculated density so that it will have some target histogram in addition to solvent flattening. This work describes an investigation where the density modification takes into account not only the current calculated density at a grid point but also some characteristic of the environment of the grid point within some distance R. This characteristic can be one of the local maximum density, the local minimum density or the local variance of density. The grid points are divided into ten groups, each containing the same number of grid points, for ten different ranges of value of the local characteristic. The ten groups are modified to give different histograms, each corresponding to that obtained under the same circumstances from a structure similar to the one under investigation. This process is referred to as the double-histogram matching method. Other processes which have been investigated are the weighting of structure factors when calculating maps with estimated phases and also the use of a factor to dampen the change of density and so control the refinement process. Two protein structures were used in numerical trials, RNApl [Bezborodova, Ermekbaeva, Shlyapnikov, Polyakov & Bezborodov (1988). Biokhimiya, 53, 965-973] and 2-Zn insulin [Baker, Blundell, Cutfield, Cutfield, Dodson, Dodson, Hodgkin, Hubbard, lsaacs, Reynolds, Sakabe, Sakabe & Vijayan (1988). Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B, 319, 456--469]. Comparison of the proposed procedures with the normal histogram-matching technique without structure-factor weighting or damping gives mean phase errors reduced by up to 10 degrees with map correlation coefficients improved by as much as 0.14. Compared to the normal histogram used with weighting of structure factors and damping, the improvement due to the use of the double-histogram method is
Universal space-time scaling symmetry in the dynamics of bosons across a quantum phase transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clark, Logan W.; Feng, Lei; Chin, Cheng
2016-11-01
The dynamics of many-body systems spanning condensed matter, cosmology, and beyond are hypothesized to be universal when the systems cross continuous phase transitions. The universal dynamics are expected to satisfy a scaling symmetry of space and time with the crossing rate, inspired by the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. We test this symmetry based on Bose condensates in a shaken optical lattice. Shaking the lattice drives condensates across an effectively ferromagnetic quantum phase transition. After crossing the critical point, the condensates manifest delayed growth of spin fluctuations and develop antiferromagnetic spatial correlations resulting from the sub-Poisson distribution of the spacing between topological defects. The fluctuations and correlations are invariant in scaled space-time coordinates, in support of the scaling symmetry of quantum critical dynamics.
Decryption with incomplete cyphertext and multiple-information encryption in phase space.
Xu, Xiaobin; Wu, Quanying; Liu, Jun; Situ, Guohai
2016-01-25
Recently, we have demonstrated that information encryption in phase space offers security enhancement over the traditional encryption schemes operating in real space. However, there is also an important issue with this technique: increasing the cost for data transmitting and storage. To address this issue, here we investigate the problem of decryption using incomplete cyphertext. We show that the analytic solution under the traditional framework set the lower limit of decryption performance. More importantly, we demonstrate that one just needs a small amount of cyphertext to recover the plaintext signal faithfully using compressive sensing, meaning that the amount of data that needs to transmit and store can be significantly reduced. This leads to multiple information encryption so that we can use the system bandwidth more effectively. We also provide an optical experimental result to demonstrate the plaintext recovered in phase space.
Simulated response of top-hat electrostatic analysers - importance of phase-space resolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Marco, Rossana; Bruno, Roberto; D'Amicis, Raffaella; Federica Marcucci, Maria; Servidio, Sergio; Valentini, Francesco
2016-04-01
We use a numerical code able to reproduce the angular/energy response of a typical electrostatic analyzer of top-hat type starting from velocity distribution functions (VDFs) generated by numerical imulations.The simulations are based on the Hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell (HVM) numerical algorithm which integrates the Vlasov equation for the ion distribution function in multi-dimensional geometry in phase space, while the electrons are treated as a fluid. Virtual satellites launched through the simulation box measure the particle VDFs. Such VDFs are interpolated into a spacecraft reference frame and moved from the simulation Cartesian grid to energy-angular coordinates to mimic the response of a real electrostatic sensor in the solar wind and in the magnetosheath for different conditions. We discuss the results of this study with respect to the importance of phase-space resolution for a space plasma experiment meant to investigate kinetic plasma regime.
Universal space-time scaling symmetry in the dynamics of bosons across a quantum phase transition.
Clark, Logan W; Feng, Lei; Chin, Cheng
2016-11-04
The dynamics of many-body systems spanning condensed matter, cosmology, and beyond are hypothesized to be universal when the systems cross continuous phase transitions. The universal dynamics are expected to satisfy a scaling symmetry of space and time with the crossing rate, inspired by the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. We test this symmetry based on Bose condensates in a shaken optical lattice. Shaking the lattice drives condensates across an effectively ferromagnetic quantum phase transition. After crossing the critical point, the condensates manifest delayed growth of spin fluctuations and develop antiferromagnetic spatial correlations resulting from the sub-Poisson distribution of the spacing between topological defects. The fluctuations and correlations are invariant in scaled space-time coordinates, in support of the scaling symmetry of quantum critical dynamics.
Phase space simulation of collisionless stellar systems on the massively parallel processor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
White, Richard L.
1987-01-01
A numerical technique for solving the collisionless Boltzmann equation describing the time evolution of a self gravitating fluid in phase space was implemented on the Massively Parallel Processor (MPP). The code performs calculations for a two dimensional phase space grid (with one space and one velocity dimension). Some results from calculations are presented. The execution speed of the code is comparable to the speed of a single processor of a Cray-XMP. Advantages and disadvantages of the MPP architecture for this type of problem are discussed. The nearest neighbor connectivity of the MPP array does not pose a significant obstacle. Future MPP-like machines should have much more local memory and easier access to staging memory and disks in order to be effective for this type of problem.
The phase space of the focused cubic Schroedinger equation: A numerical study
Burlakov, Yuri O.
1998-05-01
In a paper of 1988 [41] on statistical mechanics of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation, it was observed that a Gibbs canonical ensemble associated with the nonlinear Schroedinger equation exhibits behavior reminiscent of a phase transition in classical statistical mechanics. The existence of a phase transition in the canonical ensemble of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation would be very interesting and would have important implications for the role of this equation in modeling physical phenomena; it would also have an important bearing on the theory of weak solutions of nonlinear wave equations. The cubic Schroedinger equation, as will be shown later, is equivalent to the self-induction approximation for vortices, which is a widely used equation of motion for a thin vortex filament in classical and superfluid mechanics. The existence of a phase transition in such a system would be very interesting and actually very surprising for the following reasons: in classical fluid mechanics it is believed that the turbulent regime is dominated by strong vortex stretching, while the vortex system described by the cubic Schroedinger equation does not allow for stretching. In superfluid mechanics the self-induction approximation and its modifications have been used to describe the motion of thin superfluid vortices, which exhibit a phase transition; however, more recently some authors concluded that these equations do not adequately describe superfluid turbulence, and the absence of a phase transition in the cubic Schroedinger equation would strengthen their argument. The self-induction approximation for vortices takes into account only very localized interactions, and the existence of a phase transition in such a simplified system would be very unexpected. In this thesis the authors present a numerical study of the phase transition type phenomena observed in [41]; in particular, they find that these phenomena are strongly related to the splitting of the phase space into
The effect of phase angle and wing spacing on tandem flapping wings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Broering, Timothy M.; Lian, Yong-Sheng
2012-12-01
In a tandem wing configuration, the hindwing often operates in the wake of the forewing and, hence, its performance is affected by the vortices shed by the forewing. Changes in the phase angle between the flapping motions of the fore and the hind wings, as well as the spacing between them, can affect the resulting vortex/wing and vortex/vortex interactions. This study uses 2D numerical simulations to investigate how these changes affect the leading dege vortexes (LEV) generated by the hindwing and the resulting effect on the lift and thrust coefficients as well as the efficiencies. The tandem wing configuration was simulated using an incompressible Navier-Stokes solver at a chord-based Reynolds number of 5 000. A harmonic single frequency sinusoidal oscillation consisting of a combined pitch and plunge motion was used for the flapping wing kinematics at a Strouhal number of 0.3. Four different spacings ranging from 0.1 chords to 1 chord were tested at three different phase angles, 0°, 90° and 180°. It was found that changes in the spacing and phase angle affected the timing of the interaction between the vortex shed from the forewing and the hindwing. Such an interaction affects the LEV formation on the hindwing and results in changes in aerodynamic force production and efficiencies of the hindwing. It is also observed that changing the phase angle has a similar effect as changing the spacing. The results further show that at different spacings the peak force generation occurs at different phase angles, as do the peak efficiencies.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Romanofsky, Robert R.
2007-01-01
Though there are a few examples of scanning phased array antennas that have flown successfully in space, the quest for low-cost, high-efficiency, large aperture microwave phased arrays continues. Fixed and mobile applications that may be part of a heterogeneous exploration communication architecture will benefit from the agile (rapid) beam steering and graceful degradation afforded by phased array antennas. The reflectarray promises greater efficiency and economy compared to directly-radiating varieties. Implementing a practical scanning version has proven elusive. The ferroelectric reflectarray, under development and described herein, involves phase shifters based on coupled microstrip patterned on Ba(x)Sr(1-x)TiO3 films, that were laser ablated onto LaAlO3 substrates. These devices outperform their semiconductor counterparts from X- through and K-band frequencies. There are special issues associated with the implementation of a scanning reflectarray antenna, especially one realized with thin film ferroelectric phase shifters. This paper will discuss these issues which include: relevance of phase shifter loss; modulo 2(pi) effects and phase shifter transient effects on bit error rate; scattering from the ground plane; presentation of a novel hybrid ferroelectric-semiconductor phase shifter; and the effect of mild radiation exposure on phase shifter performance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yiming; Gao, Chao; Liang, Haodong; Miao, Maoke; Li, Xiaofeng
2017-04-01
This paper investigates an adaptive phase estimator for coherent free-space optical (FSO) communication systems. Closed-form solutions for variance of phase errors are derived when the optical beam is subjected to Gamma-Gamma distributed turbulence. The adaptive phase estimator has improved upon the phase error performance in comparison to conventional phase estimators. We also demonstrate notable improvement in BER performance when applying our adaptive phase estimator to coherent FSO communication systems.
Phase-space structures - I. A comparison of 6D density estimators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maciejewski, M.; Colombi, S.; Alard, C.; Bouchet, F.; Pichon, C.
2009-03-01
In the framework of particle-based Vlasov systems, this paper reviews and analyses different methods recently proposed in the literature to identify neighbours in 6D space and estimate the corresponding phase-space density. Specifically, it compares smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods based on tree partitioning to 6D Delaunay tessellation. This comparison is carried out on statistical and dynamical realizations of single halo profiles, paying particular attention to the unknown scaling, SG, used to relate the spatial dimensions to the velocity dimensions. It is found that, in practice, the methods with local adaptive metric provide the best phase-space estimators. They make use of a Shannon entropy criterion combined with a binary tree partitioning and with subsequent SPH interpolation using 10-40 nearest neighbours. We note that the local scaling SG implemented by such methods, which enforces local isotropy of the distribution function, can vary by about one order of magnitude in different regions within the system. It presents a bimodal distribution, in which one component is dominated by the main part of the halo and the other one is dominated by the substructures of the halo. While potentially better than SPH techniques, since it yields an optimal estimate of the local softening volume (and therefore the local number of neighbours required to perform the interpolation), the Delaunay tessellation in fact generally poorly estimates the phase-space distribution function. Indeed, it requires, prior to its implementation, the choice of a global scaling SG. We propose two simple but efficient methods to estimate SG that yield a good global compromise. However, the Delaunay interpolation still remains quite sensitive to local anisotropies in the distribution. To emphasize the advantages of 6D analysis versus traditional 3D analysis, we also compare realistic 6D phase-space density estimation with the proxy proposed earlier in the literature, Q = ρ/σ3
MMIC linear-phase and digital modulators for deep space spacecraft X-band transponder applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mysoor, Narayan R.; Ali, Fazal
1991-01-01
The design concepts, analyses, and development of GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) linear-phase and digital modulators for the next generation of space-borne communications systems are summarized. The design approach uses a compact lumped element quadrature hybrid and Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MESFET)-varactors to provide low loss and well-controlled phase performance for deep space transponder (DST) applications. The measured results of the MESFET-diode show a capacitance range of 2:1 under reverse bias, and a Q of 38 at 10 GHz. Three cascaded sections of hybrid-coupled reflection phase shifters were modeled and simulations performed to provide an X-band (8415 +/- 50 MHz) DST phase modulator with +/- 2.5 radians of peak phase deviation. The modulator will accommodate downlink signal modulation with composite telemetry and ranging data, with a deviation linearity tolerance of +/- 8 percent and insertion loss of less than 8 +/- 0.5 dB. The MMIC digital modulator is designed to provide greater than 10 Mb/s of bi-phase modulation at X-band.
Model for the overall phase-space acceptance in a Zeeman decelerator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dulitz, Katrin; Vanhaecke, Nicolas; Softley, Timothy P.
2015-01-01
We present a formalism to calculate phase-space acceptance in a Zeeman decelerator. Using parameters closely mimicking previous Zeeman deceleration experiments, this approach reveals a velocity dependence of the phase stability which we ascribe to the finite rise and fall times of the current pulses that generate the magnetic fields inside the deceleration coils. It is shown that changing the current switch-off times (characterized by the reduced position of the synchronous particle κ0) as the sequence progresses, so as to maintain a constant mean acceleration per pulse, can lead to a constant phase stability and hence a beam with well-defined characteristics. We also find that the time overlap between fields of adjacent coils has an influence on the phase-space acceptance. Previous theoretical and experimental results [A. W. Wiederkehr et al., Phys. Rev. A 82, 043428 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevA.82.043428; J. Chem. Phys. 135, 214202 (2011)., 10.1063/1.3662141] suggested unfilled regions in phase space that influence particle transmission through the decelerator. Our model provides a means to directly identify the origin of these effects due to coupling between longitudinal and transverse dynamics. Since optimum phase stability is restricted to a rather small parameter range in terms of the reduced position of the synchronous particle κ0, only a limited range of final velocities can be attained using a given number of coils. We evaluate phase stability for different Zeeman deceleration sequences, and by comparison with numerical three-dimensional particle-trajectory simulations, we demonstrate that our model provides a valuable tool to find optimum parameter sets for improved Zeeman deceleration schemes. An acceleration-deceleration scheme is shown to be a useful approach to generating beams with well-defined properties for variable-energy collision experiments. More generally, the model provides significant physical insights that are applicable to other types of
Free space and waveguide Talbot effect: phase relations and planar light circuit applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nikkhah, H.; Zheng, Q.; Hasan, I.; Abdul-Majid, S.; Hall, T. J.
2012-10-01
Optical fields that are periodic in the transverse plane self-image periodically as they propagate along the optical axis: a phenomenon known as the Talbot effect. A transfer matrix may be defined that relates the amplitude and phase of point sources placed on a particular grid at the input to their respective multiple images at an image plane. The free-space Talbot effect may be mapped to the waveguide Talbot effect. Applying this mapping to the transfer matrix enables the prediction of the phase and amplitude relations between the ports of a Multimode Interference (MMI) coupler- a planar waveguide device. The transfer matrix approach has not previously been applied to the free-space case and its mapping to the waveguide case provides greater clarity and physical insight into the phase relationships than previous treatments. The paper first introduces the underlying physics of the Talbot effect in free space with emphasis on the positions along the optical axis at which images occur; their multiplicity; and their relative phase relations determined by the Gauss Quadratic Sum of number theory. The analysis is then adapted to predict the phase relationships between the ports of an MMI. These phase relationships are critical to planar light circuit (PLC) applications such as 90° optical hybrids for coherent optical receiver front-ends, external optical I-Q modulators for coherent optical transmitters; and optical phased array switches. These applications are illustrated by results obtained from devices that have been fabricated and tested by the PTLab in Si micro-photonic integration platforms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saraceno, Marcos; Ermann, Leonardo; Cormick, Cecilia
2017-03-01
The problem of finding symmetric informationally complete positive-operator-valued-measures (SIC-POVMs) has been solved numerically for all dimensions d up to 67 [A. J. Scott and M. Grassl, J. Math. Phys. 51, 042203 (2010), 10.1063/1.3374022], but a general proof of existence is still lacking. For each dimension, it was shown that it is possible to find a SIC-POVM that is generated from a fiducial state upon application of the operators of the Heisenberg-Weyl group. We draw on the numerically determined fiducial states to study their phase-space features, as displayed by the characteristic function and the Wigner, Bargmann, and Husimi representations, adapted to a Hilbert space of finite dimension. We analyze the phase-space localization of fiducial states, and observe that the SIC-POVM condition is equivalent to a maximal delocalization property. Finally, we explore the consequences in phase space of the conjectured Zauner symmetry. In particular, we construct a Hermitian operator commuting with this symmetry that leads to a representation of fiducial states in terms of eigenfunctions with definite semiclassical features.
GPS-Like Phasing Control of the Space Solar Power System Transmission Array
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Psiaki, Mark L.
2003-01-01
The problem of phasing of the Space Solar Power System's transmission array has been addressed by developing a GPS-like radio navigation system. The goal of this system is to provide power transmission phasing control for each node of the array that causes the power signals to add constructively at the ground reception station. The phasing control system operates in a distributed manner, which makes it practical to implement. A leader node and two radio navigation beacons are used to control the power transmission phasing of multiple follower nodes. The necessary one-way communications to the follower nodes are implemented using the RF beacon signals. The phasing control system uses differential carrier phase relative navigation/timing techniques. A special feature of the system is an integer ambiguity resolution procedure that periodically resolves carrier phase cycle count ambiguities via encoding of pseudo-random number codes on the power transmission signals. The system is capable of achieving phasing accuracies on the order of 3 mm down to 0.4 mm depending on whether the radio navigation beacons operate in the L or C bands.
Quantum effects in nanosystems: Good reasons to use phase-space Weyl symbols
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaia, Ruggero
2016-12-01
Bogoliubov transformations have been successfully applied in several condensed-matter contexts, e.g., in the theory of superconductors, superfluids, and antiferromagnets. These applications are based on bulk models where translation symmetry can be assumed, so that few degrees of freedom in Fourier space can be "diagonalized" separately, and in this way it is easy to find the approximate ground state and its excitations. As translation symmetry cannot be invoked when it comes to nanoscopic systems, the corresponding multidimensional Bogoliubov transformations are more complicated. For bosonic systems it is much simpler to proceed using phase-space variables, i.e., coordinates and momenta. Interactions can be accounted for by the self-consistent harmonic approximation, which is naturally developed using phase-space Weyl symbols. The spin-flop transition in a short antiferromagnetic chain is illustrated as an example. This approach, rarely used in the past, is expected to be generally useful to estimate quantum effects, e.g., on phase diagrams of ordered vs disordered phases.
Penco, G; Danailov, M; Demidovich, A; Allaria, E; De Ninno, G; Di Mitri, S; Fawley, W M; Ferrari, E; Giannessi, L; Trovó, M
2014-01-31
Control of the electron-beam longitudinal-phase-space distribution is of crucial importance in a number of accelerator applications, such as linac-driven free-electron lasers, colliders and energy recovery linacs. Some longitudinal-phase-space features produced by nonlinear electron beam self- fields, such as a quadratic energy chirp introduced by geometric longitudinal wakefields in radio-frequency (rf) accelerator structures, cannot be compensated by ordinary tuning of the linac rf phases nor corrected by a single high harmonic accelerating cavity. In this Letter we report an experimental demonstration of the removal of the quadratic energy chirp by properly shaping the electron beam current at the photoinjector. Specifically, a longitudinal ramp in the current distribution at the cathode linearizes the longitudinal wakefields in the downstream linac, resulting in a flat electron current and energy distribution. We present longitudinal-phase-space measurements in this novel configuration compared to those typically obtained without longitudinal current shaping at the FERMI linac.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cadogan, Dave; Lingo, Bob
1996-01-01
In July of 1996, ILC Dover was awarded Phase 1 of a contract for NASA to develop a prototype Power Assisted Space Suit glove to enhance the performance of astronauts during Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). This report summarizes the work performed to date on Phase 1, and details the work to be conducted on Phase 2 of the program. Phase 1 of the program consisted of research and review of related technical sources, concept brainstorming, baseline design development, modeling and analysis, component mock-up testing, and test data analysis. ILC worked in conjunction with the University of Maryland's Space Systems Laboratory (SSL) to develop the power assisted glove. Phase 2 activities will focus on the design maturation and the manufacture of a working prototype system. The prototype will be tested and evaluated in conjunction with existing space suit glove technology to determine the performance enhancement anticipated with the implementation of the power assisted joint technology in space suit gloves.
Zero-g experiments with a He II active phase separator for space application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Denner, H. D.; Klipping, G.; Lueders, K.; Ruppert, U.; Stahnke, F.; Szuecs, Z.; Elleman, D.; Petrac, D.
An active phase separator (APS) for temperature control of He II space cooling systems was tested in a zero-g environment during a series of parabolic flights on a NASA KC 135 aircraft. The APS provides for liquid-gas separation and features an annular gap, a downstream heat exchanger and an upstream ball closure. The apparatus was operated during acceleration and floating and in two different heat load situations. The tests confirmed that adequate mass flow rates could be maintained using a vacuum pump to simulate space vacuum and that residual liquid could be evaporated from the heat exchanger after closing a ball valve to seal off flows.
Akkelin, S.V.; Sinyukov, Yu.M.
2004-12-01
A method allowing analysis of the overpopulation of phase space in heavy ion collisions in a model-independent way is proposed within the hydrodynamic approach. It makes it possible to extract a chemical potential of thermal pions at freeze-out, irrespective of the form of freeze-out (isothermal) hypersurface in Minkowski space and transverse flows on it. The contributions of resonance (with masses up to 2 GeV) decays to spectra, interferometry volumes, and phase-space densities are calculated and discussed in detail. The estimates of average phase-space densities and chemical potentials of thermal pions are obtained for SPS and RHIC energies. They demonstrate that multibosonic phenomena at those energies might be considered as a correction factor rather than as a significant physical effect. The analysis of the evolution of the pion average phase-space density in chemically frozen hadron systems shows that it is almost constant or slightly increases with time while the particle density and phase-space density at each space point decreases rapidly during the system's expansion. We found that, unlike the particle density, the average phase-space density has no direct link to the freeze-out criterion and final thermodynamic parameters, being connected rather to the initial phase-space density of hadronic matter formed in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nicolaides, Cleanthes A.; Constantoudis, Vasilios
2009-01-01
In Planck's model of the harmonic oscillator (HO) a century ago, both the energy and the phase space were quantized according to epsilon[subscript n] = nhv, n = 0, 1, 2..., and [double integral]dp[subscript x] dx = h. By referring to just these two relations, we show how the adoption of "cycle-averaged phase-space states" (CAPSSs) leads to the…
Movie of phase separation during physics of colloids in space experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2002-01-01
Still photographs taken over 16 hours on Nov. 13, 2001, on the International Space Station have been condensed into a few seconds to show the de-mixing -- or phase separation -- process studied by the Experiment on Physics of Colloids in Space. Commanded from the ground, dozens of similar tests have been conducted since the experiment arrived on ISS in 2000. The sample is a mix of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA or acrylic) colloids, polystyrene polymers and solvents. The circular area in the video is 2 cm (0.8 in.) in diameter. The phase separation process occurs spontaneously after the sample is mechanically mixed. The evolving lighter regions are rich in colloid and have the structure of a liquid. The dark regions are poor in colloids and have the structure of a gas. This behavior carnot be observed on Earth because gravity causes the particles to fall out of solution faster than the phase separation can occur. While similar to a gas-liquid phase transition, the growth rate observed in this test is different from any atomic gas-liquid or liquid-liquid phase transition ever measured experimentally. Ultimately, the sample separates into colloid-poor and colloid-rich areas, just as oil and vinegar separate. The fundamental science of de-mixing in this colloid-polymer sample is the same found in the annealing of metal alloys and plastic polymer blends. Improving the understanding of this process may lead to improving processing of these materials on Earth.
Phase separation during the Experiment on Physics of Colloids in Space
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2003-01-01
Still photographs taken over 16 hours on Nov. 13, 2001, on the International Space Station have been condensed into a few seconds to show the de-mixing -- or phase separation -- process studied by the Experiment on Physics of Colloids in Space. Commanded from the ground, dozens of similar tests have been conducted since the experiment arrived on ISS in 2000. The sample is a mix of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA or acrylic) colloids, polystyrene polymers and solvents. The circular area is 2 cm (0.8 in.) in diameter. The phase separation process occurs spontaneously after the sample is mechanically mixed. The evolving lighter regions are rich in colloid and have the structure of a liquid. The dark regions are poor in colloids and have the structure of a gas. This behavior carnot be observed on Earth because gravity causes the particles to fall out of solution faster than the phase separation can occur. While similar to a gas-liquid phase transition, the growth rate observed in this test is different from any atomic gas-liquid or liquid-liquid phase transition ever measured experimentally. Ultimately, the sample separates into colloid-poor and colloid-rich areas, just as oil and vinegar separate. The fundamental science of de-mixing in this colloid-polymer sample is the same found in the annealing of metal alloys and plastic polymer blends. Improving the understanding of this process may lead to improving processing of these materials on Earth.
Computation of Space Shuttle high-pressure cryogenic turbopump ball bearing two-phase coolant flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Yen-Sen
1990-01-01
A homogeneous two-phase fluid flow model, implemented in a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver using computational fluid dynamics methodology is described. The application of the model to the analysis of the pump-end bearing coolant flow of the high-pressure oxygen turbopump of the Space Shuttle main engine is studied. Results indicate large boiling zones and hot spots near the ball/race contact points. The extent of the phase change of the liquid oxygen coolant flow due to the frictional and viscous heat fluxes near the contact areas has been investigated for the given inlet conditions of the coolant.
Inspection of multidimensional phase spaces with an application to the dynamics of hormonal systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brosa, U.; Harms, H.-M.; Prank, K.; Hesch, R.-D.
1991-03-01
We look directly into multidimensional phase spaces. This is useful if little is known about suitable observables and underlying laws. The dynamical system we examine is the human body, in particular the secretion of the parathyroid hormone (PTH). Time series of PTH concentrations are transformed to multidimensional data sets. From their representations in phase space we derive a suitable observable: the average lifetime of a PTH fluctuation. It provides a clear-cut discrimination between health and two metabolic bone diseases, viz. osteoporosis and hyperparathyroidism. The derivation is done step by step: First we consider multidimensional displays and observe that it is certain correlation function which plays an important role. Then a single number is taken from that correlation function, and a threshold value is suggested.
Shape Measurement by Whole-space Tabulation Method Using Phase-shifting LED Projector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morimoto, Yoshiharu; Fujigaki, Motoharu; Masaya, Akihiro; Amino, Yuki
2010-04-01
In order to obtain a 3D-shape with grating projection method, the authors previously presented whole-space tabulation method (WSTM). The relationship between the coordinates and the phase of the grating recorded at each pixel of a camera is obtained as calibration tables in three-dimensional space by experiment beforehand. Therefore the analysis is very fast because of looking at the calibration tables without any complex calculation. It provides fine resolution even when the phase distribution of the grating is not linear. In this paper, a grating projector with three light emitted diode (LED) light sources is proposed. It provides a low cost system. The theory and experimental results are shown.
New Thermodynamical Force in Plasma Phase Space that Controls Turbulence and Turbulent Transport
Itoh, Sanae-I.; Itoh, Kimitaka
2012-01-01
Physics of turbulence and turbulent transport has been developed on the central dogma that spatial gradients constitute the controlling parameters, such as Reynolds number and Rayleigh number. Recent experiments with the nonequilibrium plasmas in magnetic confinement devices, however, have shown that the turbulence and transport change much faster than global parameters, after an abrupt change of heating power. Here we propose a theory of turbulence in inhomogeneous magnetized plasmas, showing that the heating power directly influences the turbulence. New mechanism, that an external source couples with plasma fluctuations in phase space so as to affect turbulence, is investigated. A new thermodynamical force in phase-space, i.e., the derivative of heating power by plasma pressure, plays the role of new control parameter, in addition to spatial gradients. Following the change of turbulence, turbulent transport is modified accordingly. The condition under which this new effect can be observed is also evaluated. PMID:23155481
The Approach for Action Recognition Based on the Reconstructed Phase Spaces
Tu, Hong-bin; Xia, Li-min
2014-01-01
This paper presents a novel method of human action recognition, which is based on the reconstructed phase space. Firstly, the human body is divided into 15 key points, whose trajectory represents the human body behavior, and the modified particle filter is used to track these key points for self-occlusion. Secondly, we reconstruct the phase spaces for extracting more useful information from human action trajectories. Finally, we apply the semisupervised probability model and Bayes classified method for classification. Experiments are performed on the Weizmann, KTH, UCF sports, and our action dataset to test and evaluate the proposed method. The compare experiment results showed that the proposed method can achieve was more effective than compare methods. PMID:25436224
Berg, J. S.
2015-05-03
The International Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is an experiment to demonstrate ionization cooling of a muon beam in a beamline that shares characteristics with one that might be used for a muon collider or neutrino factory. I describe a way to quantify cooling performance by examining the phase space density of muons, and determining how much that density increases. This contrasts with the more common methods that rely on the covariance matrix and compute emittances from that. I discuss why a direct measure of phase space density might be preferable to a covariance matrix method. I apply this technique to an early proposal for the MICE final step beamline. I discuss how matching impacts the measured performance.
Phase-retrieval analysis of pre- and post-repair Hubble Space Telescope images.
Krist, J E; Burrows, C J
1995-08-01
Phase-retrieval measurements of point-spread functions from the pre- and post-repair Hubble Space Telescope are presented. The primary goal was to determine the aberrations present in the second wide-field and planetary camera (WFPC2) to align and validate its corrective optics. With both parametric model-fitting techniques and iterative (Gerchberg-Saxton) methods, accurate measurements have been obtained of the WFPC2 and Hubble Space Telescope optics, including improved maps of the zonal errors in the mirrors. Additional phase-retrieval results were obtained for the aberrated, prerepair cameras and the corrected faint-object camera. The information has been used to improve models produced by point-spread-function simulation programs. On the basis of the measurements a conic constant for the primary mirror of κ = -1.0144 has been derived.
A method for calculating phase-space densities in ion-optical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanelt, E.; Schmidt, K.-H.
1992-10-01
A method for calculating the motion of an ensemble of beam particles through an ion-optical system is presented. The collective motion of the ensemble which covers a finite phase-space volume is described by an analytical transformation of the corresponding particle density distribution in phase space. This density distribution is represented by a convolution of generating functions. It is transformed by applying the ion-optical matrix formalism tto the generating functions. Physical effects acting on the particle ensemble on its way through the ion-optical system are taken into account by additional generating functions. This method allows to calculate rare processes in ion-optical systems with low computational effort.
Longitudinal phase-space coating of beam in a storage ring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhat, C. M.
2014-06-01
In this Letter, I report on a novel scheme for beam stacking without any beam emittance dilution using a barrier rf system in synchrotrons. The general principle of the scheme called longitudinal phase-space coating, validation of the concept via multi-particle beam dynamics simulations applied to the Fermilab Recycler, and its experimental demonstration are presented. In addition, it has been shown and illustrated that the rf gymnastics involved in this scheme can be used in measuring the incoherent synchrotron tune spectrum of the beam in barrier buckets and in producing a clean hollow beam in longitudinal phase space. The method of beam stacking in synchrotrons presented here is the first of its kind.
Workshop on Two-Phase Fluid Behavior in a Space Environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Swanson, Theodore D.; Juhasz, Al; Long, W. Russ; Ottenstein, Laura
The Workshop was successful in achieving its main objective of identifying a large number of technical issues relating to the design of two-phase systems for space applications. The principal concern expressed was the need for verified analytical tools that will allow an engineer to confidently design a system to a known degree of accuracy. New and improved materials, for such applications as thermal storage and as heat transfer fluids, were also identified as major needs. In addition to these research efforts, a number of specific hardware needs were identified which will require development. These include heat pumps, low weight radiators, advanced heat pipes, stability enhancement devices, high heat flux evaporators, and liquid/vapor separators. Also identified was the need for a centralized source of reliable, up-to-date information on two-phase flow in a space environment.
Explosive synchronization as a process of explosive percolation in dynamical phase space
Zhang, Xiyun; Zou, Yong; Boccaletti, S.; Liu, Zonghua
2014-01-01
Explosive synchronization and explosive percolation are currently two independent phenomena occurring in complex networks, where the former takes place in dynamical phase space while the latter in configuration space. It has been revealed that the mechanism of EP can be explained by the Achlioptas process, where the formation of a giant component is controlled by a suppressive rule. We here introduce an equivalent suppressive rule for ES. Before the critical point of ES, the suppressive rule induces the presence of multiple, small sized, synchronized clusters, while inducing the abrupt formation of a giant cluster of synchronized oscillators at the critical coupling strength. We also show how the explosive character of ES degrades into a second-order phase transition when the suppressive rule is broken. These results suggest that our suppressive rule can be considered as a dynamical counterpart of the Achlioptas process, indicating that ES and EP can be unified into a same framework. PMID:24903808
Workshop on Two-Phase Fluid Behavior in a Space Environment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swanson, Theodore D. (Editor); Juhasz, AL (Editor); Long, W. Russ (Editor); Ottenstein, Laura (Editor)
1989-01-01
The Workshop was successful in achieving its main objective of identifying a large number of technical issues relating to the design of two-phase systems for space applications. The principal concern expressed was the need for verified analytical tools that will allow an engineer to confidently design a system to a known degree of accuracy. New and improved materials, for such applications as thermal storage and as heat transfer fluids, were also identified as major needs. In addition to these research efforts, a number of specific hardware needs were identified which will require development. These include heat pumps, low weight radiators, advanced heat pipes, stability enhancement devices, high heat flux evaporators, and liquid/vapor separators. Also identified was the need for a centralized source of reliable, up-to-date information on two-phase flow in a space environment.
Exploring the phase space of multiple states in highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van der Veen, Roeland C. A.; Huisman, Sander G.; Dung, On-Yu; Tang, Ho L.; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef
2016-06-01
We investigate the existence of multiple turbulent states in highly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow in the range of Ta =1011 to 9 ×1012 by measuring the global torques and the local velocities while probing the phase space spanned by the rotation rates of the inner and outer cylinders. The multiple states are found to be very robust and are expected to persist beyond Ta =1013 . The rotation ratio is the parameter that most strongly controls the transitions between the flow states; the transitional values only weakly depend on the Taylor number. However, complex paths in the phase space are necessary to unlock the full region of multiple states. By mapping the flow structures for various rotation ratios in a Taylor-Couette setup with an equal radius ratio but a larger aspect ratio than before, multiple states are again observed. Here they are characterized by even richer roll structure phenomena, including an antisymmetrical roll state.
Cámara, Alejandro; Alieva, Tatiana; Rodrigo, José A; Calvo, María L
2009-06-01
We propose a simple approach for the phase space tomography reconstruction of the Wigner distribution of paraxial optical beams separable in Cartesian coordinates. It is based on the measurements of the antisymmetric fractional Fourier transform power spectra, which can be taken using a flexible optical setup consisting of four cylindrical lenses. The numerical simulations and the experimental results clearly demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed scheme.
Concatenated shift registers generating maximally spaced phase shifts of PN-sequences
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hurd, W. J.; Welch, L. R.
1977-01-01
A large class of linearly concatenated shift registers is shown to generate approximately maximally spaced phase shifts of pn-sequences, for use in pseudorandom number generation. A constructive method is presented for finding members of this class, for almost all degrees for which primitive trinomials exist. The sequences which result are not normally characterized by trinomial recursions, which is desirable since trinomial sequences can have some undesirable randomness properties.
Communication: phase space approach to laser-driven electronic wavepacket propagation.
Takemoto, Norio; Shimshovitz, Asaf; Tannor, David J
2012-07-07
We propose a phase space method to propagate a quantum wavepacket driven by a strong external field. The method employs the periodic von Neumann basis with biorthogonal exchange recently introduced for the calculation of the energy eigenstates of time-independent quantum systems [A. Shimshovitz and D. J. Tannor, Phys. Rev. Lett. (in press) [e-print arXiv:1201.2299v1
Communication: Phase space approach to laser-driven electronic wavepacket propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takemoto, Norio; Shimshovitz, Asaf; Tannor, David J.
2012-07-01
We propose a phase space method to propagate a quantum wavepacket driven by a strong external field. The method employs the periodic von Neumann basis with biorthogonal exchange recently introduced for the calculation of the energy eigenstates of time-independent quantum systems [A. Shimshovitz and D. J. Tannor, Phys. Rev. Lett. (in press) [e-print arXiv:1201.2299v1
Quantum simulations in phase-space: from quantum optics to ultra-cold physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drummond, Peter D.; Chaturvedi, Subhash
2016-07-01
As a contribution to the international year of light, we give a brief history of quantum optics in phase-space, with new directions including quantum simulations of multipartite Bell violations, opto-mechanics, ultra-cold atomic systems, matter-wave Bell violations, coherent transport and quantum fluctuations in the early Universe. We mostly focus on exact methods using the positive-P representation, and semiclassical truncated Wigner approximations.
Monte-Carlo simulation of phase space transformation of ultra-cold neutrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayer, S.; Zsigmond, G.; Allenspach, P.
2008-02-01
The very high phase space density of ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) originating from a superthermal UCN-source can be exploited for the production of intense cold neutron beams. UCN are accelerated by means of Doppler-shifter crystals. This method is called phase space transformation (PST). In the cold regime, gain factors of 100 are theoretically expected compared to standard beam generation. The Atominstitut in Vienna and the Paul Scherrer Institut have joined to design and construct a "proof of principle"-experiment for such a phase space transformer in the framework of the FP7-NMI3-JRA3 European project. The aims of this experiment are to explore its feasibility, its experimental limitations and to validate preceding MC-simulations. Employing a sophisticated mechanical system, stage-2 Potassium intercalated HOPG crystals (d=8.74 Å) will be moved with velocities of up to 250 m/s. The experiment is planned to take place at the PF-2 UCN source at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) in the second half of 2007. In this contribution recent results of preliminary Monte-Carlo simulations of the experiment are presented.
Mauguière, Frédéric A L; Collins, Peter; Ezra, Gregory S; Farantos, Stavros C; Wiggins, Stephen
2014-04-07
A model Hamiltonian for the reaction CH4(+) -> CH3(+) + H, parametrized to exhibit either early or late inner transition states, is employed to investigate the dynamical characteristics of the roaming mechanism. Tight/loose transition states and conventional/roaming reaction pathways are identified in terms of time-invariant objects in phase space. These are dividing surfaces associated with normally hyperbolic invariant manifolds (NHIMs). For systems with two degrees of freedom NHIMS are unstable periodic orbits which, in conjunction with their stable and unstable manifolds, unambiguously define the (locally) non-recrossing dividing surfaces assumed in statistical theories of reaction rates. By constructing periodic orbit continuation/bifurcation diagrams for two values of the potential function parameter corresponding to late and early transition states, respectively, and using the total energy as another parameter, we dynamically assign different regions of phase space to reactants and products as well as to conventional and roaming reaction pathways. The classical dynamics of the system are investigated by uniformly sampling trajectory initial conditions on the dividing surfaces. Trajectories are classified into four different categories: direct reactive and non-reactive trajectories, which lead to the formation of molecular and radical products respectively, and roaming reactive and non-reactive orbiting trajectories, which represent alternative pathways to form molecular and radical products. By analysing gap time distributions at several energies, we demonstrate that the phase space structure of the roaming region, which is strongly influenced by nonlinear resonances between the two degrees of freedom, results in nonexponential (nonstatistical) decay.
Defending against Internet worms using a phase space method from chaos theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Jing; Gao, Jianbo; Rao, Nageswara S.
2007-04-01
Enterprise networks are facing ever-increasing security threats from Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks, worms, viruses, intrusions, Trojans, port scans, and network misuses, and thus effective monitoring approaches to quickly detect these activities are greatly needed. In this paper, we employ chaos theory and propose an interesting phase space method to detect Internet worms. An Internet worm is a self-propagating program that automatically replicates itself to vulnerable systems and spreads across the Internet. Most deployed worm-detection systems are signature-based. They look for specific byte sequences (called attack signatures) that are known to appear in the attack traffic. Conventionally, the signatures are manually identified by human experts through careful analysis of the byte sequence from captured attack traffic. We propose to embed the traffic sequence to a high-dimensional phase space using chaos theory. We have observed that the signature sequence of a specific worm will occupy specific regions in the phase space, which may be appropriately called the invariant subspace of the worm. The invariant subspace of the worm separates itself widely from the subspace of the normal traffic. This separation allows us to construct three simple metrics, each of which completely separates 100 normal traffic streams from 200 worm traffic streams, without training in the conventional sense. Therefore, the method is at least as accurate as any existing methods. More importantly, our method is much faster than existing methods, such as based on expectation maximization and hidden Markov models.
Phase-space structures and stellar populations in the star-forming region NGC 2264
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
González, Marta; Alfaro, Emilio J.
2017-02-01
In this work, we analyse the structure of a subspace of the phase space of the star-forming region NGC 2264 using the spectrum of kinematic groupings (SKG). We show that the SKG can be used to process a collection of star data to find substructure at different scales. We have found structure associated with the NGC 2264 region and also with the background area. In the NGC 2264 region, a hierarchical analysis shows substructure compatible with that found in previous specific studies of the area but with an objective, compact methodology that allows us to homogeneously compare the structure of different clusters and star-forming regions. Moreover, this structure is compatible with the different ages of the main NGC 2264 star-forming populations. The structure found in the field can be roughly associated with giant stars far in the background, dynamically decoupled from NGC 2264, which could be related either with the Outer Arm or Monoceros Ring. The results in this paper confirm the relationship between structure in the radial velocity phase-space subspace and different kinds of populations, defined by other variables not necessarily analysed with the SKG, such as age or distance, showing the importance of detecting phase-space substructure in order to trace stellar populations in the broadest sense of the word.
High-order continuum kinetic method for modeling plasma dynamics in phase space
Vogman, G. V.; Colella, P.; Shumlak, U.
2014-12-15
Continuum methods offer a high-fidelity means of simulating plasma kinetics. While computationally intensive, these methods are advantageous because they can be cast in conservation-law form, are not susceptible to noise, and can be implemented using high-order numerical methods. Advances in continuum method capabilities for modeling kinetic phenomena in plasmas require the development of validation tools in higher dimensional phase space and an ability to handle non-cartesian geometries. To that end, a new benchmark for validating Vlasov-Poisson simulations in 3D (x,v_{x},v_{y}) is presented. The benchmark is based on the Dory-Guest-Harris instability and is successfully used to validate a continuum finite volume algorithm. To address challenges associated with non-cartesian geometries, unique features of cylindrical phase space coordinates are described. Preliminary results of continuum kinetic simulations in 4D (r,z,v_{r},v_{z}) phase space are presented.
Phase space effects on fast ion distribution function modeling in tokamaks
Podesta, M.; Gorelenkova, M.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; White, R. B.
2016-04-14
Here, integrated simulations of tokamak discharges typically rely on classical physics to model energetic particle (EP) dynamics. However, there are numerous cases in which energetic particles can suffer additional transport that is not classical in nature. Examples include transport by applied 3D magnetic perturbations and, more notably, by plasma instabilities. Focusing on the effects of instabilities,ad-hocmodels can empirically reproduce increased transport, but the choice of transport coefficients is usually somehow arbitrary. New approaches based on physics-based reduced models are being developed to address those issues in a simplified way, while retaining a more correct treatment of resonant wave-particle interactions. The kick model implemented in the tokamaktransport code TRANSP is an example of such reduced models. It includes modifications of the EP distribution by instabilities in real and velocity space, retaining correlations between transport in energy and space typical of resonant EP transport. The relevance of EP phase space modifications by instabilities is first discussed in terms of predicted fast ion distribution. Results are compared with those from a simple, ad-hoc diffusive model. It is then shown that the phase-space resolved model can also provide additional insight into important issues such as internal consistency of the simulations and mode stability through the analysis of the power exchanged between energetic particles and the instabilities.
Phase space effects on fast ion distribution function modeling in tokamaks
Podesta, M.; Gorelenkova, M.; Fredrickson, E. D.; ...
2016-04-14
Here, integrated simulations of tokamak discharges typically rely on classical physics to model energetic particle (EP) dynamics. However, there are numerous cases in which energetic particles can suffer additional transport that is not classical in nature. Examples include transport by applied 3D magnetic perturbations and, more notably, by plasma instabilities. Focusing on the effects of instabilities,ad-hocmodels can empirically reproduce increased transport, but the choice of transport coefficients is usually somehow arbitrary. New approaches based on physics-based reduced models are being developed to address those issues in a simplified way, while retaining a more correct treatment of resonant wave-particle interactions. Themore » kick model implemented in the tokamaktransport code TRANSP is an example of such reduced models. It includes modifications of the EP distribution by instabilities in real and velocity space, retaining correlations between transport in energy and space typical of resonant EP transport. The relevance of EP phase space modifications by instabilities is first discussed in terms of predicted fast ion distribution. Results are compared with those from a simple, ad-hoc diffusive model. It is then shown that the phase-space resolved model can also provide additional insight into important issues such as internal consistency of the simulations and mode stability through the analysis of the power exchanged between energetic particles and the instabilities.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hogg, David W.; Casey, Andrew R.; Ness, Melissa; Rix, Hans-Walter; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel; Hasselquist, Sten; Ho, Anna Y. Q.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Majewski, Steven R.; Martell, Sarah L.; Mészáros, Szabolcs; Nidever, David L.; Shetrone, Matthew
2016-12-01
Chemical tagging promises to use detailed abundance measurements to identify spatially separated stars that were, in fact, born together (in the same molecular cloud) long ago. This idea has not yielded much practical success, presumably because of the noise and incompleteness in chemical-abundance measurements. We have succeeded in substantially improving spectroscopic measurements with The Cannon, which has now delivered 15 individual abundances for ∼ {10}5 stars observed as part of the APOGEE spectroscopic survey, with precisions around 0.04 dex. We test the chemical-tagging hypothesis by looking at clusters in abundance space and confirming that they are clustered in phase space. We identify (by the k-means algorithm) overdensities of stars in the 15-dimensional chemical-abundance space delivered by The Cannon, and plot the associated stars in phase space. We use only abundance-space information (no positional information) to identify stellar groups. We find that clusters in abundance space are indeed clusters in phase space, and we recover some known phase-space clusters and find other interesting structures. This is the first-ever project to identify phase-space structures at the survey-scale by blind search purely in abundance space; it verifies the precision of the abundance measurements delivered by The Cannon the prospects for future data sets appear very good.
Development of a coal fired pulse combustor for residential space heating. Phase I, Final report
1988-04-01
This report presents the results of the first phase of a program for the development of a coal-fired residential combustion system. This phase consisted of the design, fabrication, testing, and evaluation of an advanced pulse combustor sized for residential space heating requirements. The objective was to develop an advanced pulse coal combustor at the {approximately} 100,000 Btu/hr scale that can be integrated into a packaged space heating system for small residential applications. The strategy for the development effort included the scale down of the feasibility unit from 1-2 MMBtu/hr to 100,000 Btu/hr to establish a baseline for isolating the effect of scale-down and new chamber configurations separately. Initial focus at the residential scale was concentrated on methods of fuel injection and atomization in a bare metal unit. This was followed by incorporating changes to the advanced chamber designs and testing of refractory-lined units. Multi-fuel capability for firing oil or gas as a secondary fuel was also established. Upon completion of the configuration and component testing, an optimum configuration would be selected for integrated testing of the pulse combustor unit. The strategy also defined the use of Dry Ultrafine Coal (DUC) for Phases 1 and 2 of the development program with CWM firing to be a product improvement activity for a later phase of the program.
Image inversion analysis of the HST OTA (Hubble Space Telescope Optical Telescope Assembly), phase A
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Litvak, M. M.
1991-01-01
Technical work during September-December 1990 consisted of: (1) analyzing HST point source images obtained from JPL; (2) retrieving phase information from the images by a direct (noniterative) technique; and (3) characterizing the wavefront aberration due to the errors in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) mirrors, in a preliminary manner. This work was in support of JPL design of compensating optics for the next generation wide-field planetary camera on HST. This digital technique for phase retrieval from pairs of defocused images, is based on the energy transport equation between these image planes. In addition, an end-to-end wave optics routine, based on the JPL Code 5 prescription of the unaberrated HST and WFPC, was derived for output of the reference phase front when mirror error is absent. Also, the Roddier routine unwrapped the retrieved phase by inserting the required jumps of +/- 2(pi) radians for the sake of smoothness. A least-squares fitting routine, insensitive to phase unwrapping, but nonlinear, was used to obtain estimates of the Zernike polynomial coefficients that describe the aberration. The phase results were close to, but higher than, the expected error in conic constant of the primary mirror suggested by the fossil evidence. The analysis of aberration contributed by the camera itself could be responsible for the small discrepancy, but was not verified by analysis.
Scalar-tensor cosmologies with a potential in the general relativity limit: Phase space view
Jaerv, Laur; Kuusk, Piret; Saal, Margus
2010-05-15
We consider Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker flat cosmological models in the framework of general Jordan frame scalar-tensor theories of gravity with arbitrary coupling functions, in the era when the energy density of the scalar potential dominates over the energy density of ordinary matter. We focus upon the phase space of the scalar field. To study the regime suggested by the local weak field tests (i.e. close to the so-called limit of general relativity) we propose a nonlinear approximation scheme, solve for the phase trajectories, and provide a complete classification of possible phase portraits. We argue that the topology of trajectories in the nonlinear approximation is representative of those of the full system, and thus can tell for which scalar-tensor models general relativity functions as an attractor.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beisert, Susan; Rodriggs, Michael; Moreno, Francisco; Korth, David; Gibson, Stephen; Lee, Young H.; Eagles, Donald E.
2013-01-01
Now that major assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) is complete, NASA's focus has turned to using this high fidelity in-space research testbed to not only advance fundamental science research, but also demonstrate and mature technologies and develop operational concepts that will enable future human exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. The ISS as a Testbed for Analog Research (ISTAR) project was established to reduce risks for manned missions to exploration destinations by utilizing ISS as a high fidelity micro-g laboratory to demonstrate technologies, operations concepts, and techniques associated with crew autonomous operations. One of these focus areas is the development and execution of ISS Testbed for Analog Research (ISTAR) autonomous flight crew procedures intended to increase crew autonomy that will be required for long duration human exploration missions. Due to increasing communications delays and reduced logistics resupply, autonomous procedures are expected to help reduce crew reliance on the ground flight control team, increase crew performance, and enable the crew to become more subject-matter experts on both the exploration space vehicle systems and the scientific investigation operations that will be conducted on a long duration human space exploration mission. These tests make use of previous or ongoing projects tested in ground analogs such as Research and Technology Studies (RATS) and NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO). Since the latter half of 2012, selected non-critical ISS systems crew procedures have been used to develop techniques for building ISTAR autonomous procedures, and ISS flight crews have successfully executed them without flight controller involvement. Although the main focus has been preparing for exploration, the ISS has been a beneficiary of this synergistic effort and is considering modifying additional standard ISS procedures that may increase crew efficiency, reduce operational costs, and
Aydin, Ilhan; Karakose, Mehmet; Akin, Erhan
2014-03-01
Although reconstructed phase space is one of the most powerful methods for analyzing a time series, it can fail in fault diagnosis of an induction motor when the appropriate pre-processing is not performed. Therefore, boundary analysis based a new feature extraction method in phase space is proposed for diagnosis of induction motor faults. The proposed approach requires the measurement of one phase current signal to construct the phase space representation. Each phase space is converted into an image, and the boundary of each image is extracted by a boundary detection algorithm. A fuzzy decision tree has been designed to detect broken rotor bars and broken connector faults. The results indicate that the proposed approach has a higher recognition rate than other methods on the same dataset.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ban, Masashi
1999-08-01
Phase-space representation of quantum state vectors has been recently formulated by means of the relative-state method developed by the present author [J. Math. Phys. 39, 1744 (1998)]. It is, however, pointed out by Mo/ller that the displacement-operator method provides another basis of phase-space representation of quantum state vectors [J. Math. Phys. (to appear)]. Hence the relation between the relative-state approach and the displacement-operator approach is discussed, both of which yield equivalent phase-space representations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singh, Bhim S.
2003-01-01
NASA is preparing to undertake science-driven exploration missions. The NASA Exploration Team's vision is a cascade of stepping stones. The stepping-stone will build the technical capabilities needed for each step with multi-use technologies and capabilities. An Agency-wide technology investment and development program is necessary to implement the vision. The NASA Exploration Team has identified a number of areas where significant advances are needed to overcome all engineering and medical barriers to the expansion of human space exploration beyond low-Earth orbit. Closed-loop life support systems and advanced propulsion and power technologies are among the areas requiring significant advances from the current state-of-the-art. Studies conducted by the National Academy of Science's National Research Council and Workshops organized by NASA have shown that multiphase flow and phase change play a crucial role in many of these advanced technology concepts. Lack of understanding of multiphase flow, phase change, and interfacial phenomena in the microgravity environment has been a major hurdle. An understanding of multiphase flow and phase change in microgravity is, therefore, critical to advancing many technologies needed. Recognizing this, the Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) has initiated a strategic research thrust to augment the ongoing fundamental research in fluid physics and transport phenomena discipline with research especially aimed at understanding key multiphase flow related issues in propulsion, power, thermal control, and closed-loop advanced life support systems. A plan for integrated theoretical and experimental research that has the highest probability of providing data, predictive tools, and models needed by the systems developers to incorporate highly promising multiphase-based technologies is currently in preparation. This plan is being developed with inputs from scientific community, NASA mission planners and industry personnel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laguna, Humberto; Sagar, Robin
2013-03-01
The confined quantum harmonic oscillator (CHO) is an intermediate model which lies between the particle-in-a-box (PIAB), where the free particle is confined, and the quantum harmonic oscillator (HO) where the particle is not confined but is under the influence of a harmonic potential. Position and momentum space densities, and phase-space Wigner functions, are obtained for this system and analyzed using tools from information theory. Shannon entropies are used to gain insights into the localization of the particle in position, momentum and phase-space. The statistical correlation between the position and momentum of the particle is examined using the Wigner function and its mutual information. The analysis is performed as a function of the quantum number and of the box length, and the calculated quantities are compared to those of the PIAB and HO models. Our interests lie in determining similarities or differences among the different models and if there are regimes where the behavior of the CHO model more closely resembles either that of the PIAB or HO model. Departamento de Quimica
Overcoming turbulence-induced space-variant blur by using phase-diverse speckle.
Thelen, Brian J; Paxman, Richard G; Carrara, David A; Seldin, John H
2009-01-01
Space-variant blur occurs when imaging through volume turbulence over sufficiently large fields of view. Space-variant effects are particularly severe in horizontal-path imaging, slant-path (air-to-ground or ground-to-air) geometries, and ground-based imaging of low-elevation satellites or astronomical objects. In these geometries, the isoplanatic angle can be comparable to or even smaller than the diffraction-limited resolution angle. We report on a postdetection correction method that seeks to correct for the effects of space-variant aberrations, with the goal of reconstructing near-diffraction-limited imagery. Our approach has been to generalize the method of phase-diverse speckle (PDS) by using a physically motivated distributed-phase-screen model. Simulation results are presented that demonstrate the reconstruction of near-diffraction-limited imagery under both matched and mismatched model assumptions. In addition, we present evidence that PDS could be used as a beaconless wavefront sensor in a multiconjugate adaptive optics system when imaging extended scenes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roberts, L.; Francis, S.; Sibley, P.; Ward, R.; Smith, C.; McClelland, D.; Shaddock, D.
2016-09-01
Optical phased arrays (OPAs) provide a way to scale optical power beyond the capabilities of conventional CW lasers via coherent beam combination. By stabilising the relative output phase of multiple spatially separate lasers, OPAs form a coherent optical wavefront in the far field. Since the phase of each laser can be controlled independently, OPAs also have the ability to manipulate the distribution of optical power in the far field, and therefore may provide the capability to compensate for atmospheric turbulence. Combined with their inherent scalability and high power handling capabilities, OPAs are a promising technology for CW space debris ranging and manoeuvring. The OPA presented here is unique in its ability to sense the phase of each laser internally, without requiring any external sampling optics between it and the telescope. This allows the internally sensed OPA to be constructed entirely within fibre, utilising high-power fiber amplifiers to scale optical power beyond the limits of any conventional single lasers. The total power that can be delivered by each emitter in the OPA is limited only by the onset of stimulated Brillouin scattering, a non-linear effect that clamps the amount of power that can be delivered through a fiber waveguide. A three element internally sensed OPA developed at the Australian National University has been demonstrated to coherently combine three commercial 15 Watt fiber amplifiers with an output phase stability of one 200th of a wavelength. We have also demonstrated the ability to dynamically manipulate the distribution of optical power in the far-field at a bandwidth of up to 10 kHz. Since the OPA's control system is implemented using field-programmable gate-array technology, the system may be scaled beyond 100 emitters, potentially reaching the kilowatt level optical powers required to perturb the orbit of space debris.
Ku- and Ka-Band Phased Array Antenna for the Space-Based Telemetry and Range Safety Project
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whiteman, Donald E.; Valencia, Lisa M.; Birr, Richard B.
2005-01-01
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space-Based Telemetry and Range Safety study is a multiphase project to increase data rates and flexibility and decrease costs by using space-based communications assets for telemetry during launches and landings. Phase 1 used standard S-band antennas with the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System to obtain a baseline performance. The selection process and available resources for Phase 2 resulted in a Ku-band phased array antenna system. Several development efforts are under way for a Ka-band phased array antenna system for Phase 3. Each phase includes test flights to demonstrate performance and capabilities. Successful completion of this project will result in a set of communications requirements for the next generation of launch vehicles.
Space-Based Telemetry and Range Safety Project Ku-Band and Ka-Band Phased Array Antenna
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whiteman, Donald E.; Valencia, Lisa M.; Birr, Richard B.
2005-01-01
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space-Based Telemetry and Range Safety study is a multiphase project to increase data rates and flexibility and decrease costs by using space-based communications assets for telemetry during launches and landings. Phase 1 used standard S-band antennas with the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System to obtain a baseline performance. The selection process and available resources for Phase 2 resulted in a Ku-band phased array antenna system. Several development efforts are under way for a Ka-band phased array antenna system for Phase 3. Each phase includes test flights to demonstrate performance and capabilities. Successful completion of this project will result in a set of communications requirements for the next generation of launch vehicles.
Zhou, F.; Kabel, A.; Rosenzweig, J.; Agustsson, R.; Andonian, G.; Cline, D.; Murokh, A.; Yakimenko, V.; /UCLA /SLAC /Brookhaven
2007-02-12
Space charge and coherent synchrotron radiation may deteriorate electron beam quality when the beam passes through a magnetic bunch compressor. This paper presents the transverse phase-space tomographic measurements for a compressed beam at 60 MeV, around which energy the first stage of magnetic bunch compression takes place in most advanced linacs. Transverse phase-space bifurcation of a compressed beam is observed at that energy, but the degree of the space charge-induced bifurcation is appreciably lower than the one observed at 12 MeV.
Space shuttle phase B wind tunnel model and test information. Volume 1: Booster configuration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glynn, J. L.; Poucher, D. E.
1988-01-01
Archived wind tunnel test data are available for flyback booster or other alternative recoverable configurations as well as reusable orbiters studied during initial development (Phase B) of the Space Shuttle. Considerable wind tunnel data was acquired by the competing contractors and the NASA Centers for an extensive variety of configurations with an array of wing and body planforms. All contractor and NASA wind tunnel test data acquired in the Phase B development have been compiled into a database and are available for application to current winged flyback or recoverable booster aerodynamic studies. The Space Shuttle Phase B Wind Tunnel Database is structured by vehicle component and configuration type. Basic components include the booster, the orbiter and the launch vehicle. Booster configuration types include straight and delta wings, canard, cylindrical, retroglide and twin body. Orbiter configuration types include straight and delta wings, lifting body, drop tanks, and double delta wings. Launch configurations include booster and orbiter components in various stacked and tandem combinations. This is Volume 1 (Part 1) of the report -- Booster Configuration.
Interference effects in phased beam tracing using exact half-space solutions.
Boucher, Matthew A; Pluymers, Bert; Desmet, Wim
2016-12-01
Geometrical acoustics provides a correct solution to the wave equation for rectangular rooms with rigid boundaries and is an accurate approximation at high frequencies with nearly hard walls. When interference effects are important, phased geometrical acoustics is employed in order to account for phase shifts due to propagation and reflection. Error increases, however, with more absorption, complex impedance values, grazing incidence, smaller volumes and lower frequencies. Replacing the plane wave reflection coefficient with a spherical one reduces the error but results in slower convergence. Frequency-dependent stopping criteria are then applied to avoid calculating higher order reflections for frequencies that have already converged. Exact half-space solutions are used to derive two additional spherical wave reflection coefficients: (i) the Sommerfeld integral, consisting of a plane wave decomposition of a point source and (ii) a line of image sources located at complex coordinates. Phased beam tracing using exact half-space solutions agrees well with the finite element method for rectangular rooms with absorbing boundaries, at low frequencies and for rooms with different aspect ratios. Results are accurate even for long source-to-receiver distances. Finally, the crossover frequency between the plane and spherical wave reflection coefficients is discussed.
Fast transport in phase space due to nonlinear wave-particle interaction in the radiation belts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Artemyev, Anton; Vasiliev, Alexii; Mourenas, Didier; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Krasnoselskikh, Vladimir; Boscher, Daniel; Rolland, Guy
2014-05-01
We present an analytical, simplified formulation accounting for the fast transport of particles in phase space, in the presence of nonlinear wave-particle resonant interactions in an inhomogeneous magnetic field representative of the radiation belts. We show that the general approach for the description of the evolution of the particle velocity distribution based on the Fokker-Plank equation can be modified to consider the process of nonlinear wave-particle interaction, including particle trapping. Such a modification consists in one additional operator describing fast particle jumps in phase space. The proposed approach is illustrated by considering the acceleration of relativistic electrons by strongly oblique whistler waves. We determine the typical variation of electron phase-density due to nonlinear wave-particle interaction and compare this variation with pitch-angle/energy diffusion due to quasi-linear electron scattering. We show that relation between nonlinear and quasi-linear effects is controlled by the distribution of wave-amplitudes. When this distribution has a heavy tail, nonlinear effects can become dominant in the formation of the electron energy distribution.
Non-singular Brans-Dicke collapse in deformed phase space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rasouli, S. M. M.; Ziaie, A. H.; Jalalzadeh, S.; Moniz, P. V.
2016-12-01
We study the collapse process of a homogeneous perfect fluid (in FLRW background) with a barotropic equation of state in Brans-Dicke (BD) theory in the presence of phase space deformation effects. Such a deformation is introduced as a particular type of non-commutativity between phase space coordinates. For the commutative case, it has been shown in the literature (Scheel, 1995), that the dust collapse in BD theory leads to the formation of a spacetime singularity which is covered by an event horizon. In comparison to general relativity (GR), the authors concluded that the final state of black holes in BD theory is identical to the GR case but differs from GR during the dynamical evolution of the collapse process. However, the presence of non-commutative effects influences the dynamics of the collapse scenario and consequently a non-singular evolution is developed in the sense that a bounce emerges at a minimum radius, after which an expanding phase begins. Such a behavior is observed for positive values of the BD coupling parameter. For large positive values of the BD coupling parameter, when non-commutative effects are present, the dynamics of collapse process differs from the GR case. Finally, we show that for negative values of the BD coupling parameter, the singularity is replaced by an oscillatory bounce occurring at a finite time, with the frequency of oscillation and amplitude being damped at late times.
Phase change cells and the verification of gallium as a thermal calibration reference in space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Latvikoski, Harri; Bingham, Gail E.; Topham, T. S.; Podolski, Igor
2015-09-01
The validation of models of global climate change and accurate measurement of the atmosphere and surface temperatures require that orbital sensors have low drift rates, and are monitored or regularly recalibrated by accepted standards. Phase change materials (PCM), such as those that make up the ITS-90 standard, are the basis for international commerce and have been suggested for monitoring and recalibration of orbital temperature sensors. Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL) and its partners have been developing miniaturized phase change reference technologies that could be deployed on an orbital blackbody for nearly a decade. A significant part of this effort has been the exploration of the behavior of gallium (Ga) and its eutectics, gallium-tin (GaSn) and gallium-indium (GaIn) in conditions expected to be encountered in this application. In this paper, these behaviors are detailed and an example of a hardware design that could be used as an infrared blackbody calibration monitor is presented. To determine if and how microgravity will affect the behavior of Ga, the authors conducted an experiment on the International Space Station (ISS) and compared the observed phase change temperature with earth-based measurements. This paper also provides a brief description of the experiment hardware, microgravity considerations, and the pre-flight, flight and post-flight data analysis.
Space shuttle phase B wind tunnel model and test information. Volume 2: Orbiter configuration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glynn, J. L.; Poucher, D. E.
1988-01-01
Archived wind tunnel test data are available for flyback booster or other alternate recoverable configurations as well as reusable orbiters studied during initial development (Phase B) of the Space Shuttle. Considerable wind tunnel data was acquired by the competing contractors and the NASA centers for an extensive variety of configurations with an array of wing and body planforms. All contractor and NASA wind tunnel test data acquiredin the Phase B development have been compiled into a database and are available for applying to current winged flyback or recoverable booster aerodynamic studies. The Space Shuttle Phase B Wind Tunnel Database is structured by vehicle component and configuration type. Basic components include the booster, the orbiter, and the launch vehicle. Booster configuration types include straight and delta wings, canard, cylindrical, retroglide, and twin body. Orbiter configuration types include straight and delta wings, lifting body, drop tanks, and double delta wings. Launch configration types include booster and orbiter components in various stacked and tandom combinations. The digital database consists of 220 files of data containing basic tunnel recorded data.
Space shuttle phase B wind tunnel model and test information. Volume 1: Booster configuration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glynn, J. L.; Poucher, D. E.
1988-01-01
Archived wind tunnel test data are available for flyback booster or other alternative recoverable configurations as well as reusable orbiters studied during initial development (Phase B) of the Space Shuttle. Considerable wind tunnel data was acquired by the competing contractors and the NASA Centers for an extensive variety of configurations with an array of wing and body planforms. All contractor and NASA wind tunnel test data acquired in the Phase B development have been compiled into a database and are available for application to current winged flyback or recoverable booster aerodynamic studies. The Space Shuttle Phase B Wind Tunnel Database is structured by vehicle component and configuration type. Basic components include the booster, the orbiter, and the launch vehicle. Booster configuration types include straight and delta wings, canard, cylindrical, retroglide and twin body. Orbiter configuration types include straight and delta wings, lifting body, drop tanks and double delta wings. Launch configurations include booster and orbiter components in various stacked and tandem combinations. This is Volume 1 (Part 2) of the report -- Booster Configuration.
Van, Anh T; Karampinos, Dimitrios C; Georgiadis, John G; Sutton, Bradley P
2009-11-01
Motion during diffusion encodings leads to different phase errors in different shots of multishot diffusion-weighted acquisitions. Phase error incoherence among shots results in undesired signal cancellation when data from all shots are combined. Motion-induced phase error correction for multishot diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been studied extensively and there exist multiple phase error correction algorithms. A commonly used correction method is the direct phase subtraction (DPS). DPS, however, can suffer from incomplete phase error correction due to the aliasing of the phase errors in the high spatial resolution phases. Furthermore, improper sampling density compensation is also a possible issue of DPS. Recently, motion-induced phase error correction was incorporated in the conjugate gradient (CG) image reconstruction procedure to get a nonlinear phase correction method that is also applicable to parallel DWI. Although the CG method overcomes the issues of DPS, its computational requirement is high. Further, CG restricts to sensitivity encoding (SENSE) for parallel reconstruction. In this paper, a new time-efficient and flexible k-space and image-space combination (KICT) algorithm for rigid body motion-induced phase error correction is introduced. KICT estimates the motion-induced phase errors in image space using the self-navigated capability of the variable density spiral trajectory. The correction is then performed in k -space. The algorithm is shown to overcome the problem of aliased phase errors. Further, the algorithm preserves the phase of the imaging object and receiver coils in the corrected k -space data, which is important for parallel imaging applications. After phase error correction, any parallel reconstruction method can be used. The KICT algorithm is tested with both simulated and in vivo data with both multishot single-coil and multishot multicoil acquisitions. We show that KICT correction results in diffusion-weighted images with higher
Dust environment of an airless object: A phase space study with kinetic models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kallio, E.; Dyadechkin, S.; Fatemi, S.; Holmström, M.; Futaana, Y.; Wurz, P.; Fernandes, V. A.; Álvarez, F.; Heilimo, J.; Jarvinen, R.; Schmidt, W.; Harri, A.-M.; Barabash, S.; Mäkelä, J.; Porjo, N.; Alho, M.
2016-01-01
The study of dust above the lunar surface is important for both science and technology. Dust particles are electrically charged due to impact of the solar radiation and the solar wind plasma and, therefore, they affect the plasma above the lunar surface. Dust is also a health hazard for crewed missions because micron and sub-micron sized dust particles can be toxic and harmful to the human body. Dust also causes malfunctions in mechanical devices and is therefore a risk for spacecraft and instruments on the lunar surface. Properties of dust particles above the lunar surface are not fully known. However, it can be stated that their large surface area to volume ratio due to their irregular shape, broken chemical bonds on the surface of each dust particle, together with the reduced lunar environment cause the dust particles to be chemically very reactive. One critical unknown factor is the electric field and the electric potential near the lunar surface. We have developed a modelling suite, Dusty Plasma Environments: near-surface characterisation and Modelling (DPEM), to study globally and locally dust environments of the Moon and other airless bodies. The DPEM model combines three independent kinetic models: (1) a 3D hybrid model, where ions are modelled as particles and electrons are modelled as a charged neutralising fluid, (2) a 2D electrostatic Particle-in-Cell (PIC) model where both ions and electrons are treated as particles, and (3) a 3D Monte Carlo (MC) model where dust particles are modelled as test particles. The three models are linked to each other unidirectionally; the hybrid model provides upstream plasma parameters to be used as boundary conditions for the PIC model which generates the surface potential for the MC model. We have used the DPEM model to study properties of dust particles injected from the surface of airless objects such as the Moon, the Martian moon Phobos and the asteroid RQ36. We have performed a (v0, m/q)-phase space study where the
Study of selected tether applications in space, phase 3, volume 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1986-01-01
The results of a Phase 3 study of two Selected Tether Applications in Space (STAIS); deorbit of a Shuttle and launch of an Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), both from the space station using a tether were examined. The study objectives were to: perform a preliminary engineering design, define operational scenarios, develop a common cost model, perform cost benefits analyses, and develop a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). Key features of the performance analysis were to identify the net increases in effective Shuttle cargo capability if tethers are used to assist in the deorbit of Shuttles and the launching of the OTVs from the space station and to define deployer system designs required to accomplish these tasks. Deployer concepts were designed and discussed. Operational scenarios, including timelines, for both tethered and nontethered Shuttle and OTV operations at the space station were evaluated. A summary discussion of the Selected Tether Applications Cost Model (STACOM) and the results of the cost benefits analysis are presented. Several critical technologies needed to implement tether assisted deployment of payloads are also discussed. Conclusions and recommendations are presented.
Deformation Quantization: Quantum Mechanic Lives and Works in Phase-Space
Zachos, Cosmas
2001-08-01
Wigner's 1932 quasi-probability Distribution Function in phase-space is a special (Weyl) representation of the density matrix. It has been useful in describing quantum flows in: quantum optics; nuclear physics; decoherence (eg, quantum computing); quantum chaos; 'Welcher Weg' discussions; semiclassical limits. It is also of importance in signal processing. Nevertheless, a remarkable aspect of its internal logic, pioneered by the late Moyal, has only emerged in the last quarter-century: It furnishes a third, alternate, formulation of Quantum Mechanics, independent of the conventional Hilbert Space, or Path Integral formulations. It is logically complete and self-standing, and accommodates the uncertainty principle in an unexpected manner. Simple illustrations of this fact will be detailed.
Delaney, P.
1984-01-01
Analytical solutions are developed for the pressurization, expansion, and flow of one- and two-phase liquids during heating of fully saturated and hydraulically open Darcian half-spaces subjected to a step rise in temperature at its surface. For silicate materials, advective transfer is commonly unimportant in the liquid region; this is not always the case in the vapor region. Volume change is commonly more important than heat of vaporization in determining the position of the liquid-vapor interface, assuring that the temperatures cannot be determined independently of pressures. Pressure increases reach a maximum near the leading edge of the thermal front and penetrate well into the isothermal region of the body. Mass flux is insensitive to the hydraulic properties of the half-space. ?? 1984.
Phase space matching and finite lifetime effects for top-pair production close to threshold
Hoang, Andre H.; Reisser, Christoph J.; Ruiz-Femenia, Pedro
2010-07-01
The top-pair tt production cross section close to threshold in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions is strongly affected by the small lifetime of the top quark. Since the cross section is defined through final states containing the top decay products, a consistent definition of the cross section depends on prescriptions of how these final states are accounted for the cross section. Experimentally, these prescriptions are implemented, for example, through cuts on kinematic quantities such as the reconstructed top quark invariant masses. As long as these cuts do not reject final states that can arise from the decay of a top and an antitop quark with a small off-shellness compatible with the nonrelativistic power counting, they can be implemented through imaginary phase space matching conditions in nonrelativistic QCD. The prescription-dependent cross section can then be determined from the optical theorem using the e{sup +}e{sup -} forward scattering amplitude. We compute the phase space matching conditions associated to cuts on the top and antitop invariant masses at next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic order and partially at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic order in the nonrelativistic expansion accounting also for higher order QCD effects. Together with finite lifetime and electroweak effects known from previous work, we analyze their numerical impact on the tt cross section. We show that the phase space matching contributions are essential to make reliable nonrelativistic QCD predictions, particularly for energies below the peak region, where the cross section is small. We find that irreducible background contributions associated to final states that do not come from top decays are strongly suppressed and can be neglected for the theoretical predictions.
Combining phase information in reciprocal space for molecular replacement with partial models.
Millán, Claudia; Sammito, Massimo; Garcia-Ferrer, Irene; Goulas, Theodoros; Sheldrick, George M; Usón, Isabel
2015-09-01
ARCIMBOLDO allows ab initio phasing of macromolecular structures below atomic resolution by exploiting the location of small model fragments combined with density modification in a multisolution frame. The model fragments can be either secondary-structure elements predicted from the sequence or tertiary-structure fragments. The latter can be derived from libraries of typical local folds or from related structures, such as a low-homology model that is unsuccessful in molecular replacement. In all ARCIMBOLDO applications, fragments are searched for sequentially. Correct partial solutions obtained after each fragment-search stage but lacking the necessary phasing power can, if combined, succeed. Here, an analysis is presented of the clustering of partial solutions in reciprocal space and of its application to a set of different cases. In practice, the task of combining model fragments from an ARCIMBOLDO run requires their referral to a common origin and is complicated by the presence of correct and incorrect solutions as well as by their not being independent. The F-weighted mean phase difference has been used as a figure of merit. Clustering perfect, non-overlapping fragments dismembered from test structures in polar and nonpolar space groups shows that density modification before determining the relative origin shift enhances its discrimination. In the case of nonpolar space groups, clustering of ARCIMBOLDO solutions from secondary-structure models is feasible. The use of partially overlapping search fragments provides a more favourable circumstance and was assessed on a test case. Applying the devised strategy, a previously unknown structure was solved from clustered correct partial solutions.
Ishizawa, Atsushi; Nishikawa, Tadashi; Mizutori, Akira; Takara, Hidehiko; Takada, Atsushi; Sogawa, Tetsuomi; Koga, Masafumi
2013-12-02
We investigated phase-noise characteristics of both a phase/intensity-modulated laser with 25-GHz mode spacing and a mode-locked fiber laser with carrier-envelope-offset (CEO) locking. As the separation from the frequency of the continuous wave (CW) laser diode (LD) for a seed light source increases, the integrated phase noise of each comb mode of both the phase/intensity-modulated laser and supercontinuum light originating from it increases with the same slope as a function of mode number. The dependence of the integrated phase noise on mode number with the phase/intensity-modulated laser is much larger than with the mode-locked fiber laser of the CEO locking. However, the phase noise of the phase/intensity-modulated laser is extremely lower than that of the mode-locked fiber laser with CEO locking in the frequency region around the CW LD. The phase noise of the phase/intensity-modulated laser with 25-GHz mode spacing and that of the mode-locked fiber laser with the CEO locking could be estimated and were found to be almost the same at the wavelengths required in an f-to-2f self-referencing interferometer. Our experimental results indicate the possibility of achieving an offset-frequency-locked frequency comb with the phase/intensity-modulated laser.
Phase-space finite elements in a least-squares solution of the transport equation
Drumm, C.; Fan, W.; Pautz, S.
2013-07-01
The linear Boltzmann transport equation is solved using a least-squares finite element approximation in the space, angular and energy phase-space variables. The method is applied to both neutral particle transport and also to charged particle transport in the presence of an electric field, where the angular and energy derivative terms are handled with the energy/angular finite elements approximation, in a manner analogous to the way the spatial streaming term is handled. For multi-dimensional problems, a novel approach is used for the angular finite elements: mapping the surface of a unit sphere to a two-dimensional planar region and using a meshing tool to generate a mesh. In this manner, much of the spatial finite-elements machinery can be easily adapted to handle the angular variable. The energy variable and the angular variable for one-dimensional problems make use of edge/beam elements, also building upon the spatial finite elements capabilities. The methods described here can make use of either continuous or discontinuous finite elements in space, angle and/or energy, with the use of continuous finite elements resulting in a smaller problem size and the use of discontinuous finite elements resulting in more accurate solutions for certain types of problems. The work described in this paper makes use of continuous finite elements, so that the resulting linear system is symmetric positive definite and can be solved with a highly efficient parallel preconditioned conjugate gradients algorithm. The phase-space finite elements capability has been built into the Sceptre code and applied to several test problems, including a simple one-dimensional problem with an analytic solution available, a two-dimensional problem with an isolated source term, showing how the method essentially eliminates ray effects encountered with discrete ordinates, and a simple one-dimensional charged-particle transport problem in the presence of an electric field. (authors)
Electron Holes in phase-space: what they are and why they matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hutchinson, I. H.
2016-10-01
Plasma electron holes are soliton-like electric potential structures sustained self-consistently by a deficit of phase-space density on trapped orbits. They are a class of Bernstein Green and Kruskal (BGK)-mode phase-space vortices, long studied in basic analytic and computational theory and observed in some experiments. Recently it has become clear from space-craft observations that isolated potential structures with the character of electron holes constitute an important component of space-plasma turbulence. Modern computational simulations of collisionless plasmas also often observe electron holes to form as a nonlinear consequence of kinetic electron instabilities. This tutorial will explain the basic theory of electron hole structure, trace the development of the understanding of electron holes, and survey some of the observational evidence for their significance. It was found early on that unmagnetized multidimensional simulations of electron two-stream instabilities do not show the long lived holes that appear in one dimension. Deliberately-created 1-D slab holes in multiple dimensions experience a transverse instability unless the guiding magnetic field is strong enough. Analysis has yet to identify unequivocally the instability mechanism and threshold; but it can show that spherically symmetric holes in 3-D without magnetic field are essentially impossible. Recent simulations have studied holes' formation, self-acceleration, merging, splitting, and growth. Analytic understanding of many of these phenomena is gained from the kinematics of the hole regarded as a coherent entity, accounting for the plasma momentum changes it induces, and especially the interaction with the ions. Electron holes can travel at up to approximately the electron thermal speed, but not slower (relative to ions) than several times the ion acoustic speed. Some notable current research questions will be described.
Phased Array-Fed Reflector (PAFR) Antenna Architectures for Space-Based Sensors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cooley, Michael E.
2014-01-01
Communication link and target ranges for satellite communications (SATCOM) and space-based sensors (e.g. radars) vary from approximately 1000 km (for LEO satellites) to 35,800 km (for GEO satellites). At these long ranges, large antenna gains are required and legacy payloads have usually employed large reflectors with single beams that are either fixed or mechanically steered. For many applications, there are inherent limitations that are associated with the use of these legacy antennas/payloads. Hybrid antenna designs using Phased Array Fed Reflectors (PAFRs) provide a compromise between reflectors and Direct Radiating phased Arrays (DRAs). PAFRs provide many of the performance benefits of DRAs while utilizing much smaller, lower cost (feed) arrays. The primary limitation associated with hybrid PAFR architectures is electronic scan range; approximately +/-5 to +/- 10 degrees is typical, but this range depends on many factors. For LEO applications, the earth FOV is approximately +/-55 degrees which is well beyond the range of electronic scanning for PAFRs. However, for some LEO missions, limited scanning is sufficient or the CONOPS and space vehicle designs can be developed to incorporate a combination mechanical slewing and electronic scanning. In this paper, we review, compare and contrast various PAFR architectures with a focus on their general applicability to space missions. We compare the RF performance of various PAFR architectures and describe key hardware design and implementation trades. Space-based PAFR designs are highly multi-disciplinary and we briefly address key hardware engineering design areas. Finally, we briefly describe two PAFR antenna architectures that have been developed at Northrop Grumman.
Hubble Space Telescope cycle 5. Phase 1: Proposal instructions, version 4.0
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Madau, Piero (Editor)
1994-01-01
This document has the following purposes: it describes the information that must be submitted to the Space Telescope Science Institute by Phase 1 proposers, both electronically and on paper, and describes how to submit it; it describes how to fill out the proposal LATEX templates; it describes how to estimate the number of spacecraft orbits that the proposed observations will require; it provides detailed information about the parameters that are used in the forms to describe the requested observations; and it provides information about the preparation and electronic submission of proposal files. Examples of completed proposal forms are included.
Requirements and concept for an on-orbit construction facility for phase 1 Space Station Freedom
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buchan, Robert W.; Waters, Laura M.; Gates, Richard M.
1990-01-01
A construction facility attached to NASA's Space Station Freedom (SSF) will be required for the accommodation of assembly activities for large payloads, as well as demonstration of the on-orbit construction of future spacecraft. This facility's capabilities must be sufficiently flexible to address the wide variety of future spacecraft needs without compromising the SSF's phase 1 configuration. The proposed construction facility concept will incorporate a storage module, a construction turntable, equipment-attachment platforms, a surrogate payload bay structure, and a portable workstation. Attention is given to this configuration's resulting mass properties and control characteristics.
Linear canonical transformations of coherent and squeezed states in the Wigner phase space
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Han, D.; Kim, Y. S.; Noz, Marilyn E.
1988-01-01
It is shown that classical linear canonical transformations are possible in the Wigner phase space. Coherent and squeezed states are shown to be linear canonical transforms of the ground-state harmonic oscillator. It is therefore possible to evaluate the Wigner functions for coherent and squeezed states from that for the harmonic oscillator. Since the group of linear canonical transformations has a subgroup whose algebraic property is the same as that of the (2+1)-dimensional Lorentz group, it may be possible to test certain properties of the Lorentz group using optical devices. A possible experiment to measure the Wigner rotation angle is discussed.
Schach Von Wittenau, Alexis E.
2003-01-01
A method is provided to represent the calculated phase space of photons emanating from medical accelerators used in photon teletherapy. The method reproduces the energy distributions and trajectories of the photons originating in the bremsstrahlung target and of photons scattered by components within the accelerator head. The method reproduces the energy and directional information from sources up to several centimeters in radial extent, so it is expected to generalize well to accelerators made by different manufacturers. The method is computationally both fast and efficient overall sampling efficiency of 80% or higher for most field sizes. The computational cost is independent of the number of beams used in the treatment plan.
Solid Phase Characterization of Tank 241-AY-102 Annulus Space Particulate
Cooke, G. A.
2013-01-30
The Special Analytical Studies Group at the 222-S Laboratory (222-S) examined the particulate recovered from a series of samples from the annular space of tank 241-AY-102 (AY-102) using solid phase characterization (SPC) methods. These include scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using the ASPEX®1 scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction (XRD) using the Rigaku®2 MiniFlex X-ray diffractometer, and polarized light microscopy (PLM) using the Nikon®3 Eclipse Pol optical microscope. The SEM is equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) to provide chemical information.
Spinor Field at the Phase Transition Point of Reissner-Nordström de Sitter Space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyu, Yan; Zhang, Li-Qing; Zheng, Wei; Pan, Qing-Chao
2010-08-01
The radial parts of Dirac equation between the outer black hole horizon and the cosmological horizon are solved in Reissner-Nordström de Sitter (RNdS) space when it is at the phase transition point. We use an accurate polynomial approximation to approximate the modified tortoise coordinate hat{r}_{*} in order to get the inverse function r=r(hat{r}_{*}) and the potential V(hat{r}_{*}). Then we use a quantum mechanical method to solve the wave equation numerically. We consider two cases, one is when the two horizons are lying close to each other, the other is when the two horizons are widely separated.
Phase-space analysis of charged and optical beam transport: Wigner rotation angle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dattoli, G.; Torre, Amalia
1994-01-01
The possibility of using the phase space formalism to establish a correspondence between the dynamical behavior of squeezed states and optical or charged beams, propagating through linear systems, has received a great deal of attention during the last years. In this connection, it has been indicated how optical experiments may be conceived to measure the Wigner rotation angle. In this paper we address the topic within the context of the paraxial propagation of optical or charged beams and suggest a possible experiment for measuring the Wigner angle using an electron beam passing through quadrupoles and drift sections. The analogous optical system is also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shu, X. F.; Liu, S. B.; Song, H. Y.
2016-04-01
In this paper, the ionization processes during laser-atom interaction are investigated in phase-space using Gabor transformation. Based on the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE), the depletion of the whole system caused by the mask function is taken into consideration in calculating the plasma density. We obtain the momentum distribution via the Gabor transformation of the escaping portions of the time-dependent wave packet at the detector-like points on the interior boundaries from which the kinetic energies carried by the escaping portions are calculated.
New features of electron phase space holes observed by the THEMIS mission.
Andersson, L; Ergun, R E; Tao, J; Roux, A; Lecontel, O; Angelopoulos, V; Bonnell, J; McFadden, J P; Larson, D E; Eriksson, S; Johansson, T; Cully, C M; Newman, D L; Newman, D N; Goldman, M V; Glassmeier, K-H; Baumjohann, W
2009-06-05
Observations of electron phase-space holes (EHs) in Earth's plasma sheet by the THEMIS satellites include the first detection of a magnetic perturbation (deltaB_{ parallel}) parallel to the ambient magnetic field (B0). EHs with a detectable deltaB_{ parallel} have several distinguishing features including large electric field amplitudes, a magnetic perturbation perpendicular to B0, high speeds ( approximately 0.3c) along B0, and sizes along B0 of tens of Debye lengths. These EHs have a significant center potential (Phi approximately k_{B}T_{e}/e), suggesting strongly nonlinear behavior nearby such as double layers or magnetic reconnection.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Han, D.; Kim, Y. S.; Noz, Marilyn E.
1989-01-01
It is possible to calculate expectation values and transition probabilities from the Wigner phase-space distribution function. Based on the canonical transformation properties of the Wigner function, an algorithm is developed for calculating these quantities in quantum optics for coherent and squeezed states. It is shown that the expectation value of a dynamical variable can be written in terms of its vacuum expectation value of the canonically transformed variable. Parallel-axis theorems are established for the photon number and its variant. It is also shown that the transition probability between two squeezed states can be reduced to that of the transition from one squeezed state to vacuum.
Brown, James Carrington, Tucker
2015-07-28
Although phase-space localized Gaussians are themselves poor basis functions, they can be used to effectively contract a discrete variable representation basis [A. Shimshovitz and D. J. Tannor, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 070402 (2012)]. This works despite the fact that elements of the Hamiltonian and overlap matrices labelled by discarded Gaussians are not small. By formulating the matrix problem as a regular (i.e., not a generalized) matrix eigenvalue problem, we show that it is possible to use an iterative eigensolver to compute vibrational energy levels in the Gaussian basis.
Noether theorem for nonholonomic nonconservative mechanical systems in phase space on time scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zu, Qi-hang; Zhu, Jian-qing
2016-08-01
The paper focuses on studying the Noether theorem for nonholonomic nonconservative mechanical systems in phase space on time scales. First, the Hamilton equations of nonholonomic nonconservative systems on time scales are established, which is based on the Lagrange equations for nonholonomic systems on time scales. Then, based upon the quasi-invariance of Hamilton action of systems under the infinitesimal transformations with respect to the time and generalized coordinate on time scale, the Noether identity and the conserved quantity of nonholonomic nonconservative systems on time scales are obtained. Finally, an example is presented to illustrate the application of the results.
The Impact of Early Design Phase Risk Identification Biases on Space System Project Performance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reeves, John D., Jr.; Eveleigh, Tim; Holzer, Thomas; Sarkani, Shahryar
2012-01-01
Risk identification during the early design phases of complex systems is commonly implemented but often fails to result in the identification of events and circumstances that truly challenge project performance. Inefficiencies in cost and schedule estimation are usually held accountable for cost and schedule overruns, but the true root cause is often the realization of programmatic risks. A deeper understanding of frequent risk identification trends and biases pervasive during space system design and development is needed, for it would lead to improved execution of existing identification processes and methods.
Working fluid selection for space-based two-phase heat transport systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mclinden, Mark O.
1988-01-01
The working fluid for externally-mounted, space-based two-phase heat transport systems is considered. A sequence of screening criteria involving freezing and critical point temperatures and latent heat of vaporization and vapor density are applied to a data base of 860 fluids. The thermal performance of the 52 fluids which pass this preliminary screening are then ranked according to their impact on the weight of a reference system. Upon considering other nonthermal criteria (flammability, toxicity, and chemical stability) a final set of 10 preferred fluids is obtained. The effects of variations in system parameters is investigated for these 10 fluids by means of a factorial design.
Optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) for free-space laser communications with heterodyne detection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Win, Moe Z.; Chen, Chien-Chung; Scholtz, Robert A.
1991-01-01
Several advantages of coherent free-space optical communications are outlined. Theoretical analysis is formulated for an OPLL disturbed by shot noise, modulation noise, and frequency noise consisting of a white component, a 1/f component, and a 1/f-squared component. Each of the noise components is characterized by its associated power spectral density. It is shown that the effect of modulation depends only on the ratio of loop bandwidth and data rate, and is negligible for an OPLL with loop bandwidth smaller than one fourth the data rate. Total phase error variance as a function of loop bandwidth is displayed for several values of carrier signal to noise ratio. Optimal loop bandwidth is also calculated as a function of carrier signal to noise ratio. An OPLL experiment is performed, where it is shown that the measured phase error variance closely matches the theoretical predictions.
Jingshan, Zhong; Claus, Rene A; Dauwels, Justin; Tian, Lei; Waller, Laura
2014-05-05
We propose an alternative method for solving the Transport of Intensity equation (TIE) from a stack of through-focus intensity images taken by a microscope or lensless imager. Our method enables quantitative phase and amplitude imaging with improved accuracy and reduced data capture, while also being computationally efficient and robust to noise. We use prior knowledge of how intensity varies with propagation in the spatial frequency domain in order to constrain a fitting algorithm [Gaussian process (GP) regression] for estimating the axial intensity derivative. Solving the problem in the frequency domain inspires an efficient measurement scheme which captures images at exponentially spaced focal steps, significantly reducing the number of images required. Low-frequency artifacts that plague traditional TIE methods can be suppressed without an excessive number of captured images. We validate our technique experimentally by recovering the phase of human cheek cells in a brightfield microscope.
Three-Class EEG-Based Motor Imagery Classification Using Phase-Space Reconstruction Technique
Djemal, Ridha; Bazyed, Ayad G.; Belwafi, Kais; Gannouni, Sofien; Kaaniche, Walid
2016-01-01
Over the last few decades, brain signals have been significantly exploited for brain-computer interface (BCI) applications. In this paper, we study the extraction of features using event-related desynchronization/synchronization techniques to improve the classification accuracy for three-class motor imagery (MI) BCI. The classification approach is based on combining the features of the phase and amplitude of the brain signals using fast Fourier transform (FFT) and autoregressive (AR) modeling of the reconstructed phase space as well as the modification of the BCI parameters (trial length, trial frequency band, classification method). We report interesting results compared with those present in the literature by utilizing sequential forward floating selection (SFFS) and a multi-class linear discriminant analysis (LDA), our findings showed superior classification results, a classification accuracy of 86.06% and 93% for two BCI competition datasets, with respect to results from previous studies. PMID:27563927
Mendoza-Hernández, J; Arroyo Carrasco, M L; Méndez Otero, M M; Chávez-Cerda, S; Iturbe Castillo, M D
2014-12-12
In this paper, we demonstrate, numerically and experimentally that using the mask-lens setup used by Durnin to generate Bessel beams Durnin [Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987)], it is possible to generate different kinds of propagation invariant beams. A modification in the amplitude or phase of the field that illuminates the annular slit is proposed that corresponds to modulation in frequency space. In particular, we characterize the new invariant beams that were obtained by modulating the amplitude of the annular mask and when the incident field was modulated with a one-dimensional quadratic or cubic phase. Experimental results using an amplitude mask are shown in order to corroborate the numerical predictions.
Mendoza-Hernández, J.; Arroyo Carrasco, M.L.; Méndez Otero, M.M.; Chávez-Cerda, S.; Iturbe Castillo, M.D.
2014-01-01
In this paper, we demonstrate, numerically and experimentally that using the mask-lens setup used by Durnin to generate Bessel beams Durnin [Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987)], it is possible to generate different kinds of propagation invariant beams. A modification in the amplitude or phase of the field that illuminates the annular slit is proposed that corresponds to modulation in frequency space. In particular, we characterize the new invariant beams that were obtained by modulating the amplitude of the annular mask and when the incident field was modulated with a one-dimensional quadratic or cubic phase. Experimental results using an amplitude mask are shown in order to corroborate the numerical predictions. PMID:25705088
Paz, Juan Pablo; Roncaglia, Augusto Jose; Saraceno, Marcos
2005-07-15
We analyze and further develop a method to represent the quantum state of a system of n qubits in a phase-space grid of NxN points (where N=2{sup n}). The method, which was recently proposed by Wootters and co-workers (Gibbons et al., Phys. Rev. A 70, 062101 (2004).), is based on the use of the elements of the finite field GF(2{sup n}) to label the phase-space axes. We present a self-contained overview of the method, we give insights into some of its features, and we apply it to investigate problems which are of interest for quantum-information theory: We analyze the phase-space representation of stabilizer states and quantum error-correction codes and present a phase-space solution to the so-called mean king problem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Xiaoping; Sun, Jianfeng; Hou, Peipei; Lu, Wei; Xu, Qian; Liu, Liren
2015-09-01
The technique of differential phase shift keying(DPSK) modulation is applied into demodulating phase information in the coherent optical receiver. The dual rate free-space receiving structure on the base of Mach-Zehnder delay interferometer with the lens is used suitably for differential delay which is equal to the one bit corresponding to a certain data rate. Delay distance at the interference receiver is varied with transmission rata from satellite to ground. Differential information is obtained by the subtraction of the two successive wave-front phases when made to interfere. The phase demodulation is extremely sensitive to phase fluctuation. Because of the incident light through atmospheric turbulence, the wave-front of optical signal became jittered in the temporal and spatial domain rapidly. In the paper, the dual rate free-space laser communication receiver for phase lock to stable signal light phase is proposed, increasing the homodyne efficiency and decreasing the bit error rate.
GeneLab Phase 2: Integrated Search Data Federation of Space Biology Experimental Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tran, P. B.; Berrios, D. C.; Gurram, M. M.; Hashim, J. C. M.; Raghunandan, S.; Lin, S. Y.; Le, T. Q.; Heher, D. M.; Thai, H. T.; Welch, J. D.; Caldwell, S. M.; Stotzky, O. G.; Skidmore, M. G.
2016-01-01
The GeneLab project is a science initiative to maximize the scientific return of omics data collected from spaceflight and from ground simulations of microgravity and radiation experiments, supported by a data system for a public bioinformatics repository and collaborative analysis tools for these data. The mission of GeneLab is to maximize the utilization of the valuable biological research resources aboard the ISS by collecting genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic (so-called omics) data to enable the exploration of the molecular network responses of terrestrial biology to space environments using a systems biology approach. All GeneLab data are made available to a worldwide network of researchers through its open-access data system. GeneLab is currently being developed by NASA to support Open Science biomedical research in order to enable the human exploration of space and improve life on earth. Open access to Phase 1 of the GeneLab Data Systems (GLDS) was implemented in April 2015. Download volumes have grown steadily, mirroring the growth in curated space biology research data sets (61 as of June 2016), now exceeding 10 TB/month, with over 10,000 file downloads since the start of Phase 1. For the period April 2015 to May 2016, most frequently downloaded were data from studies of Mus musculus (39) followed closely by Arabidopsis thaliana (30), with the remaining downloads roughly equally split across 12 other organisms (each 10 of total downloads). GLDS Phase 2 is focusing on interoperability, supporting data federation, including integrated search capabilities, of GLDS-housed data sets with external data sources, such as gene expression data from NIHNCBIs Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), proteomic data from EBIs PRIDE system, and metagenomic data from Argonne National Laboratory's MG-RAST. GEO and MG-RAST employ specifications for investigation metadata that are different from those used by the GLDS and PRIDE (e.g., ISA-Tab). The GLDS Phase 2 system
Three-phase photoconductive elements for directional free-space optical sensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Xian; Guerrero, Daniel; Holzman, Jonathan F.
2012-02-01
An integrated photoconductive (PC) element is introduced as a new optoelectronic device in free-space optical (FSO) wireless applications. The device is a fundamental extension of the standard PC switch, as it has the capabilities for both local optoelectronic signal reception and active directional angle of arrival (AOA) sensing. This second capability is brought about through the use of a three-phase differential technique through three triangular PC switches arranged in a corner-cube architecture. Each PC switch is comprised of 50/150 nm Cr/Au electrodes, patterned on either side of a 200- micron GaAs PC gap, and is biased with the superposition of common DC and AC three-phase (120° phase-shifted) bias voltages. The DC bias forms a summed signal photocurrent on the central vertex output electrode and facilitates data reception; the AC three-phase bias facilitates link reliability for diversity reception in optical wireless communication systems. Complete theoretical and experimental angular characteristics of this device are presented in this work.
James Webb Space Telescope segment phasing using differential optical transfer functions
Codona, Johanan L.; Doble, Nathan
2015-01-01
Differential optical transfer function (dOTF) is an image-based, noniterative wavefront sensing method that uses two star images with a single small change in the pupil. We describe two possible methods for introducing the required pupil modification to the James Webb Space Telescope, one using a small (<λ/4) displacement of a single segment's actuator and another that uses small misalignments of the NIRCam's filter wheel. While both methods should work with NIRCam, the actuator method will allow both MIRI and NIRISS to be used for segment phasing, which is a new functionality. Since the actuator method requires only small displacements, it should provide a fast and safe phasing alternative that reduces the mission risk and can be performed frequently for alignment monitoring and maintenance. Since a single actuator modification can be seen by all three cameras, it should be possible to calibrate the non-common-path aberrations between them. Large segment discontinuities can be measured using dOTFs in two filter bands. Using two images of a star field, aberrations along multiple lines of sight through the telescope can be measured simultaneously. Also, since dOTF gives the pupil field amplitude as well as the phase, it could provide a first approximation or constraint to the planned iterative phase retrieval algorithms. PMID:27042684
James Webb Space Telescope segment phasing using differential optical transfer functions.
Codona, Johanan L; Doble, Nathan
2015-03-01
Differential optical transfer function (dOTF) is an image-based, noniterative wavefront sensing method that uses two star images with a single small change in the pupil. We describe two possible methods for introducing the required pupil modification to the James Webb Space Telescope, one using a small (<λ/4) displacement of a single segment's actuator and another that uses small misalignments of the NIRCam's filter wheel. While both methods should work with NIRCam, the actuator method will allow both MIRI and NIRISS to be used for segment phasing, which is a new functionality. Since the actuator method requires only small displacements, it should provide a fast and safe phasing alternative that reduces the mission risk and can be performed frequently for alignment monitoring and maintenance. Since a single actuator modification can be seen by all three cameras, it should be possible to calibrate the non-common-path aberrations between them. Large segment discontinuities can be measured using dOTFs in two filter bands. Using two images of a star field, aberrations along multiple lines of sight through the telescope can be measured simultaneously. Also, since dOTF gives the pupil field amplitude as well as the phase, it could provide a first approximation or constraint to the planned iterative phase retrieval algorithms.
Incomplete phase-space method to reveal time delay from scalar time series.
Zhu, Shengli; Gan, Lu
2016-11-01
A computationally quick and conceptually simple method to recover time delay of the chaotic system from scalar time series is developed in this paper. We show that the orbits in the incomplete two-dimensional reconstructed phase-space will show local clustering phenomenon after the component reordering procedure proposed in this work. We find that information captured by the incomplete two-dimensional reconstructed phase-space is related to the time delay τ_{0} present in the system, and will be transferred to the reordered component by the procedure of component reordering. We then propose the segmented mean variance (SMV) from the reordered component to identify the time delay τ_{0} of the system. The proposed SMV shows clear maximum when the embedding delay τ of the incomplete reconstruction matches the time delay τ_{0} of the chaotic system. Numerical data generated by a time-delay system based on the Mackey-Glass equation operating in the chaotic regime are used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed SMV. Experimental results show that the proposed SMV is robust to additive observational noise and is able to recover the time delay of the chaotic system even though the amount of data is relatively small and the feedback strength is weak. Moreover, the time complexity of the proposed method is quite low.
A History of H i Stripping in Virgo: A Phase-space View of VIVA Galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoon, Hyein; Chung, Aeree; Smith, Rory; Jaffé, Yara L.
2017-04-01
We investigate the orbital histories of Virgo galaxies at various stages of H i gas stripping. In particular, we compare the location of galaxies with different H i morphology in phase space. This method is a great tool for tracing the gas stripping histories of galaxies as they fall into the cluster. Most galaxies at the early stage of H i stripping are found in the first infall region of Virgo, while galaxies undergoing active H i stripping mostly appear to be falling in or moving out near the cluster core for the first time. Galaxies with severely stripped, yet symmetric, H i disks are found in one of two locations. Some are deep inside the cluster, but others are found in the cluster outskirts with low orbital velocities. We suggest that the latter group of galaxies belong to a “backsplash” population. These present the clearest candidates for backsplashed galaxies observationally identified to date. We further investigate the distribution of a large sample of H i-detected galaxies toward Virgo in phase space, confirming that most galaxies are stripped of their gas as they settle into the gravitational potential of the cluster. In addition, we discuss the impact of tidal interactions between galaxies and group preprocessing on the H i properties of the cluster galaxies, and link the associated star formation evolution to the stripping sequence of cluster galaxies.
RADIATION FROM ELECTRON PHASE SPACE HOLES AS A POSSIBLE SOURCE OF JOVIAN S-BURSTS
Goodrich, K. A.; Ergun, R. E.
2015-08-10
Radio-frequency short burst emissions (10–40 MHz), known as Jovian S-bursts, have been observed from the Jovian aurora for over fifty years. These emissions, associated with Io’s motion, have a rapidly declining frequency and an exceptionally narrow bandwidth. While it is widely believed that S-bursts are generated by the electron cyclotron maser instability, the mechanism responsible for the rapidly declining frequency and narrow bandwidth currently is not well established. We explore a hypothesis that electron phase space holes radiate or stimulate radiation in the Jovian aurora plasma environment as a possible source of S-burst emissions. Electron phase-space holes (EHs) are ubiquitous in an auroral environment and travel at the implied speeds (∼20,000 km s{sup −1}) of the structures creating the Jovian S-bursts. Furthermore, EHs have the proper physical size to create the observed bandwidth, have sufficient energy content, and can create an environment whereby X mode emissions can be excited. If verified, these findings imply that EHs may be an important source of radiation from strongly magnetized or relativistic astrophysical plasmas.
The Phase Space Structure Near Neptune Resonances in the Kuiper Belt
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Malhotra, Renu
1996-01-01
The Solar system beyond Neptune is believed to house a population of small primordial bodies left over from the planet formation process. The region up to heliocentric distance -50 AU (a.k.a. the Kuiper Belt) may be the source of the observed short-period comets. In this region, the phase space structure near orbital resonances with Neptune is of special interest for the long-term stability of orbits. There is reason to believe that a significant fraction (perhaps most) of the Kuiper Belt objects reside preferentially in these resonance locations. This paper describes the dynamics of small objects near the major orbital resonances with Neptune. Estimates of the widths of stable resonance zones as well as the properties of resonant orbits are obtained from the circular, planar restricted three-body model. Although this model does not contain the full complexity of the long-term orbital dynamics of Kuiper Belt objects subject to the full N-body perturbations of all the planets, it does provide a baseline for the phase space structure and properties of resonant orbits in the trans-Neptunian Solar system.
EEMD Independent Extraction for Mixing Features of Rotating Machinery Reconstructed in Phase Space
Ma, Zaichao; Wen, Guangrui; Jiang, Cheng
2015-01-01
Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), due to its adaptive decomposition property for the non-linear and non-stationary signals, has been widely used in vibration analyses for rotating machinery. However, EMD suffers from mode mixing, which is difficult to extract features independently. Although the improved EMD, well known as the ensemble EMD (EEMD), has been proposed, mode mixing is alleviated only to a certain degree. Moreover, EEMD needs to determine the amplitude of added noise. In this paper, we propose Phase Space Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (PSEEMD) integrating Phase Space Reconstruction (PSR) and Manifold Learning (ML) for modifying EEMD. We also provide the principle and detailed procedure of PSEEMD, and the analyses on a simulation signal and an actual vibration signal derived from a rubbing rotor are performed. The results show that PSEEMD is more efficient and convenient than EEMD in extracting the mixing features from the investigated signal and in optimizing the amplitude of the necessary added noise. Additionally PSEEMD can extract the weak features interfered with a certain amount of noise. PMID:25871723
Phase-space path-integral calculation of the Wigner function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samson, J. H.
2003-10-01
The Wigner function W(q, p) is formulated as a phase-space path integral, whereby its sign oscillations can be seen to follow from interference between the geometrical phases of the paths. The approach has similarities to the path-centroid method in the configuration-space path integral. Paths can be classified by the midpoint of their ends; short paths where the midpoint is close to (q, p) and which lie in regions of low energy (low P function of the Hamiltonian) will dominate, and the enclosed area will determine the sign of the Wigner function. As a demonstration, the method is applied to a sequence of density matrices interpolating between a Poissonian number distribution and a number state, each member of which can be represented exactly by a discretized path integral with a finite number of vertices. Saddle-point evaluation of these integrals recovers (up to a constant factor) the WKB approximation to the Wigner function of a number state.
Reconfiguration of a four-bar mechanism using phase space connections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jiaying; McInnes, Colin R.
2016-12-01
Linkage mechanisms are perhaps the simplest mechanical structures in engineering, but they can exhibit significant nonlinearity which can in principle be exploited. In this paper a simple smart structure model is developed based on such nonlinearity to investigate the reconfiguration of a four-bar mechanism through phase space connections. The central idea is based on heteroclinic connections in the mechanism phase space between equal-energy unstable equilibria. It is proposed that transitions between such equal-energy unstable (but actively controlled) equilibria in principle require zero net energy input, compared to transitions between stable equilibria which require the input and then dissipation of energy. However, it can be difficult to obtain such heteroclinic connections numerically in complex dynamical systems, therefore an objective function approach is used to seek transitions between unstable equilibria which approximate true heteroclinic connections. The instability inherent in the model is therefore actively utilised to provide energy-efficient transitions between configurations of the mechanism. It will be shown that the four-bar mechanism then forms the basis for an elastic model of a smart buckling beam.
On the non-equivalence of observables in phase-space reconstructions from recorded time series
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Letellier, C.; Maquet, J.; LeSceller, L.; Gouesbet, G.; Aguirre, L. A.
1998-10-01
In practical problems of phase-space reconstruction, it is usually the case that the reconstruction is much easier using a particular recorded scalar variable. This seems to contradict the general belief that all variables of a dynamical system are equivalent in phase-space reconstruction problems. This paper will argue that, in many cases, the choice of a particular scalar time series from which to reconstruct the original dynamics could be critical. It is argued that different dynamical variables do not provide the same level of information (observability) of the underlying dynamics and, as a consequence, the quality of a global reconstruction critically depends on the recorded variable. Examples in which the choice of observables is critical are discussed and the level of information contained in a given variable is quantified in the case where the original system is known. A clear example of such a situation arises in the Rössler system for which the performance of a global vector field reconstruction technique is investigated using time series of variables x, y or z, taken one at a time.
A fast chopper for programmed population of the longitudinal phase space of the AGS
Brennan, J.M.; Ahrens, L.; Alessi, J.; Brodowski, J.; Kats, J.; van Asselt, W.
1989-01-01
A fast beam chopper has been built that can produce an arbitrary pulse program of the 200 MeV H/sup /minus// beam for synchronous injection into moving rf buckets in the AGS. The chopper will eliminate rf capture losses and can be used to tailor the initial distribution in longitudinal phase space by varying the pulse parameters, width and phase, on a bunch-by-bunch time scale, during multi-turn injection. The chopper also serves as a studies tool since it can provide controllable beam intensity with fixed longitudinal emittance (and conversely) and/or missing bunches. It is an electrostatic deflection device with 15 pairs of plates located above and below the 35 keV H/sup /minus// beam between the ion source and the RFQ preinjector. The plates are space 26 mm apart in the beam direction and connected as a slow-wave structure by coaxial cables. They are driven to +- 760 V by dc-coupled pulse generators. Beam current rise and fall times are less than 10 ns. 3 figs.
de Almeida, V.F.
2004-01-28
A phase-space discontinuous Galerkin (PSDG) method is presented for the solution of stellar radiative transfer problems. It allows for greater adaptivity than competing methods without sacrificing generality. The method is extensively tested on a spherically symmetric, static, inverse-power-law scattering atmosphere. Results for different sizes of atmospheres and intensities of scattering agreed with asymptotic values. The exponentially decaying behavior of the radiative field in the diffusive-transparent transition region and the forward peaking behavior at the surface of extended atmospheres were accurately captured. The integrodifferential equation of radiation transfer is solved iteratively by alternating between the radiative pressure equation and the original equation with the integral term treated as an energy density source term. In each iteration, the equations are solved via an explicit, flux-conserving, discontinuous Galerkin method. Finite elements are ordered in wave fronts perpendicularly to the characteristic curves so that elemental linear algebraic systems are solved quickly by sweeping the phase space element by element. Two implementations of a diffusive boundary condition at the origin are demonstrated wherein the finite discontinuity in the radiative intensity is accurately captured by the proposed method. This allows for a consistent mechanism to preserve photon luminosity. The method was proved to be robust and fast, and a case is made for the adequacy of parallel processing. In addition to classical two-dimensional plots, results of normalized radiative intensity were mapped onto a log-polar surface exhibiting all distinguishing features of the problem studied.
Space shuttle phase B wind tunnel model and test information. Volume 3: Launch configuration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glynn, J. L.; Poucher, D. E.
1988-01-01
Archived wind tunnel test data are available for flyback booster or other alternate recoverable configuration as well as reusable orbiters studied during initial development (Phase B) of the Space Shuttle, including contractor data for an extensive variety of configurations with an array of wing and body planforms. The test data have been compiled into a database and are available for application to current winged flyback or recoverable booster aerodynamic studies. The Space Shuttle Phase B Wind Tunnel Database is structured by vehicle component and configuration. Basic components include booster, orbiter, and launch vehicle. Booster configuration types include straight and delta wings, canard, cylindrical, retroglide and twin body. Orbiter configurations include straight and delta wings, lifting body, drop tanks and double delta wings. Launch configurations include booster and orbiter components in various stacked and tandem combinations. The digital database consists of 220 files containing basic tunnel data. Database structure is documented in a series of reports which include configuration sketches for the various planforms tested. This is Volume 3 -- launch configurations.
ENTROPY PRODUCTION IN COLLISIONLESS SYSTEMS. II. ARBITRARY PHASE-SPACE OCCUPATION NUMBERS
Barnes, Eric I.; Williams, Liliya L. R. E-mail: llrw@astro.umn.edu
2012-04-01
We present an analysis of two thermodynamic techniques for determining equilibria of self-gravitating systems. One is the Lynden-Bell (LB) entropy maximization analysis that introduced violent relaxation. Since we do not use the Stirling approximation, which is invalid at small occupation numbers, our systems have finite mass, unlike LB's isothermal spheres. (Instead of Stirling, we utilize a very accurate smooth approximation for ln x{exclamation_point}.) The second analysis extends entropy production extremization to self-gravitating systems, also without the use of the Stirling approximation. In addition to the LB statistical family characterized by the exclusion principle in phase space, and designed to treat collisionless systems, we also apply the two approaches to the Maxwell-Boltzmann (MB) families, which have no exclusion principle and hence represent collisional systems. We implicitly assume that all of the phase space is equally accessible. We derive entropy production expressions for both families and give the extremum conditions for entropy production. Surprisingly, our analysis indicates that extremizing entropy production rate results in systems that have maximum entropy, in both LB and MB statistics. In other words, both thermodynamic approaches lead to the same equilibrium structures.
The Phase Space Structure Near Neptune Resonances in the Kuiper Belt
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malhotra, Renu
1996-01-01
The Solar system beyond Neptune is believed to house a population of small primordial bodies left over from the planet formation process. The region up to heliocentric distance ˜50 AU (a.k.a. the Kuiper Belt) may be the source of the observed short-period comets. In this region, the phase space structure near orbital resonances with Neptune is of special interest for the long-term stability of orbits. There is reason to believe that a significant fraction (perhaps most) of the Kuiper Belt objects reside preferentially in these resonance locations. This paper describes the dynamics of small objects near the major orbital resonances with Neptune. Estimates of the widths of stable resonance zones as well as the properties of resonant orbits are obtained from the circular, planar restricted three-body model. Although this model does not contain the full complexity of the long-term orbital dynamics of Kuiper Belt objects subject to the full N-body perturbations of all the planets, it does provide a baseline for the phase space structure and properties of resonant orbits in the trans-Neptunian Solar system.
A plan for time-phased incorporation of automation and robotics on the US space station
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Purves, R. B.; Lin, P. S.; Fisher, E. M., Jr.
1988-01-01
A plan for the incorporation of Automation and Robotics technology on the Space Station is presented. The time phased introduction of twenty two selected candidates is set forth in accordance with a technology development forecast. Twenty candidates were chosed primarily for their potential to relieve the crew of mundane or dangerous operations and maintenance burdens, thus freeing crew time for mission duties and enhancing safety. Two candidates were chosen based on a potential for increasing the productivity of laboratory experiments and thus directly enhancing the scientific value of the Space Station. A technology assessment for each candidate investigates present state of the art, development timelines including space qualification considerations, and potential for technology transfer to earth applications. Each candidate is evaluated using a crew workload model driven by crew size, number of pressurized U.S. modules and external payloads, which makes it possible to assess the impact of automation during a growth scenario. Costs for each increment of implementation are estimated and accumulated.
On-orbit servicing for USAF space missions: A phased development approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shanney, Bill
1993-01-01
On-orbit servicing has been studied for years by the U.S. Air Force Space Systems Division--which recently cosponsored the Space Assembly, Maintenance, and Servicing Study with NASA and SDIO; but an Air force servicing program has yet to emerge. The Air Force has a limited set of servicing requirements, and the practices of 'pipelining' (incremental improvements to a space vehicle series) and orbital sparing provide many similar benefits. It is postulated that an Air Force Program will be initiated in response to a new critical mission requirement that calls for a spacecraft with the operational character of a Servicer, which will evolve into a servicing program. Such a requirement may be emerging. The Air Force organizations charged with on-orbit test safety for the Department of Defense are concerned with the hazard from uncontrolled reentry of low Earth orbit test spacecraft, which are increasing in number. Analysis and observations of actual reentries show that debris reaches the Earth's surface. A phased development of a system to remove these spacecraft from orbit can evolve into a servicing program.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Y.; Friedel, R. H. W.; Reeves, G. D.; Cayton, T. E.; Christensen, R.
2007-11-01
An integrated investigation method, which can study the relativistic electron phase space density distribution and check the reliability of employed magnetic field models simultaneously, is developed and applied to the geosynchronous orbit region for 53 geomagnetic storms during a ˜190-d period. First, to test how the magnetospheric magnetic field affects the study of phase space density, two approaches are taken on handling the magnetic field model: One is to use an existing empirical model through the whole storm period; the other is to select one from a list of existing magnetic field models for each time bin during the period by fitting to multipoint in situ measurements. The magnetic field models in both approaches are again tested by Liouville's theorem, which requires the conserved phase space density for fixed phase space coordinates given no local losses and sources. Then on the basis of the selected magnetic field model, the phase space density is calculated by transforming the flux data from three Los Alamos National Laboratory geosynchronous satellites. By following the procedure developed here and using the cross-satellite calibration achieved in previous work, we deduce the storm time electron phase space density distribution for the region near geosynchronous orbit, covering a range of L shells with L* centered ˜6. This work establishes the radial phase space density gradient at constant adiabatic invariants as a function of universal time during storm times, and three types of geomagnetic storms are defined according to the degree of energy-dependent enhancements of energetic electrons during recovery phases. Initial results from this study suggest a source outside geosynchronous orbit for low-energy electrons and a major source inside for high-energy electrons.
Volume and Mass Estimation of Three-Phase High Power Transformers for Space Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kimnach, Greg L.
2004-01-01
Spacecraft historically have had sub-1kW(sub e), electrical requirements for GN&C, science, and communications: Galileo at 600W(sub e), and Cassini at 900W(sub e), for example. Because most missions have had the same order of magnitude power requirements, the Power Distribution Systems (PDS) use existing, space-qualified technology and are DC. As science payload and mission duration requirements increase, however, the required electrical power increases. Subsequently, this requires a change from a passive energy conversion (solar arrays and batteries) to dynamic (alternator, solar dynamic, etc.), because dynamic conversion has higher thermal and conversion efficiencies, has higher power densities, and scales more readily to higher power levels. Furthermore, increased power requirements and physical distribution lengths are best served with high-voltage, multi-phase AC to maintain distribution efficiency and minimize voltage drops. The generated AC-voltage must be stepped-up (or down) to interface with various subsystems or electrical hardware. Part of the trade-space design for AC distribution systems is volume and mass estimation of high-power transformers. The volume and mass are functions of the power rating, operating frequency, the ambient and allowable temperature rise, the types and amount of heat transfer available, the core material and shape, the required flux density in a core, the maximum current density, etc. McLyman has tabulated the performance of a number of transformers cores and derived a "cookbook" methodology to determine the volume of transformers, whereas Schawrze had derived an empirical method to estimate the mass of single-phase transformers. Based on the work of McLyman and Schwarze, it is the intent herein to derive an empirical solution to the volume and mass estimation of three-phase, laminated EI-core power transformers, having radiated and conducted heat transfer mechanisms available. Estimation of the mounting hardware, connectors
Free-piston Stirling engine conceptual design and technologies for space power, phase 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Penswick, L. Barry; Beale, William T.; Wood, J. Gary
1990-01-01
As part of the SP-100 program, a phase 1 effort to design a free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE) for a space dynamic power conversion system was completed. SP-100 is a combined DOD/DOE/NASA program to develop nuclear power for space. This work was completed in the initial phases of the SP-100 program prior to the power conversion concept selection for the Ground Engineering System (GES). Stirling engine technology development as a growth option for SP-100 is continuing after this phase 1 effort. Following a review of various engine concepts, a single-cylinder engine with a linear alternator was selected for the remainder of the study. The relationships of specific mass and efficiency versus temperature ratio were determined for a power output of 25 kWe. This parametric study was done for a temperature ratio range of 1.5 to 2.0 and for hot-end temperatures of 875 K and 1075 K. A conceptual design of a 1080 K FPSE with a linear alternator producing 25 kWe output was completed. This was a single-cylinder engine designed for a 62,000 hour life and a temperature ratio of 2.0. The heat transport systems were pumped liquid-metal loops on both the hot and cold ends. These specifications were selected to match the SP-100 power system designs that were being evaluated at that time. The hot end of the engine used both refractory and superalloy materials; the hot-end pressure vessel featured an insulated design that allowed use of the superalloy material. The design was supported by the hardware demonstration of two of the component concepts - the hydrodynamic gas bearing for the displacer and the dynamic balance system. The hydrodynamic gas bearing was demonstrated on a test rig. The dynamic balance system was tested on the 1 kW RE-1000 engine at NASA Lewis.
Heiblum, Reuven H.; Altaratz, Orit; Koren, Ilan; Feingold, Graham; Kostinski, Alexander B.; Khain, Alexander P.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Fredj, Erick; Dagan, Guy; Pinto, Lital; Yaish, Ricki; Chen, Qian
2016-06-07
We study the evolution of warm convective cloud fields using large eddy simulations of continental and trade cumulus. Individual clouds are tracked a posteriori from formation to dissipation using a 3D cloud tracking algorithm and results are presented in the phase- space of center of gravity altitude versus cloud liquid water mass (CvM space). The CvM space is shown to contain rich information on cloud field characteristics, cloud morphology, and common cloud development pathways, together facilitating a comprehensive understanding of the cloud field. In this part we show how the meteorological (thermodynamic) conditions that determine the cloud properties are projected on the CvM phase space and how changes in the initial conditions affect the clouds' trajectories in this space. This part sets the stage for a detailed microphysical analysis that will be shown in part II.
PHASES: Opto-mechanical solutions to perform absolute spectrophotometry from space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
del Burgo, Carlos; Vather, Dinesh; Murphy, Niall
2013-04-01
This work provides an update of the current status of PHASES, which is a project aimed at developing a space-borne telescope to perform absolute flux calibrated spectroscopy of bright stars. PHASES will make it possible to measure micromagnitude photometric variations due to, e.g., exo-planet/moon transits. It is designed to obtain 1% RMS flux calibrated low resolution spectra in the wavelength range 370-960 nm with signal-to-noise ratios >100 for stars with V<10 in short integration times of ˜1 minute. The strategy to calibrate the system using A-type stars is outlined. PHASES will make possible a complete characterization of stars, some of them hosting planets. From the comparison of observed spectra with accurate model atmospheres stellar angular diameters will be determined with precisions of ˜0.5%. The light curves of transiting systems will be then used to extract the radius of the planet with similar precision. The demanding scientific requirements to be achieved under extreme observing conditions have shaped the optomechanical design. A computational model and a high-precision interferometric system have been developed to test the performance of the instrument.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiggins, Stephen
2016-11-01
In this paper we give an introduction to the notion of a normally hyperbolic invariant manifold (NHIM) and its role in chemical reaction dynamics.We do this by considering simple examples for one-, two-, and three-degree-of-freedom systems where explicit calculations can be carried out for all of the relevant geometrical structures and their properties can be explicitly understood. We specifically emphasize the notion of a NHIM as a "phase space concept". In particular, we make the observation that the (phase space) NHIM plays the role of "carrying" the (configuration space) properties of a saddle point of the potential energy surface into phase space. We also consider an explicit example of a 2-degree-of-freedom system where a "global" dividing surface can be constructed using two index one saddles and one index two saddle. Such a dividing surface has arisen in several recent applications and, therefore, such a construction may be of wider interest.
Yue, Huimin; Song, Lei; Hu, Zexiong; Liu, Hongxiang; Liu, Yong; Liu, Yongzhi; Peng, Zengshou
2012-07-01
Characterization of a phase modulator or phase shifter has always been an integral part of phase-modulating or phase-adjusting applications. We propose a simplified approach to characterize a phase modulator by investigating the performance of phase shifts from grabbed interferograms using the phase extraction method. After reviewing some phase analysis techniques, the interframe intensity correlation (IIC) matrix method is introduced to the investigation. The proposed strategy is illustrated by the measurement of a free-space electro-optic modulator (EOM). Placing the modulator in one arm of a Michelson interferometer, the global phase shifts are estimated by the IIC method from the phase-stepped interferograms. Experimental results demonstrate the tested EOM has a phase modulation response of at least 2π rad with a π/20 rad modulation precision for λ=1064 nm. In addition, our method is applicable to various types of phase modulator or phase shifter calibration, e.g., electro-optic phase modulator, spatial light modulator, or piezoelectric transducer (PZT).
Abrupt onset of tongue deformation and phase space response of ions in magnetically-confined plasmas
Ida, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Itoh, K.; Yoshinuma, M.; Tokuzawa, T.; Akiyama, T.; Moon, C.; Tsuchiya, H.; Inagaki, S.; Itoh, S.-I.
2016-01-01
An abrupt onset of the new tongue-shaped deformation of magnetic surface in magnetized plasmas, which was conjectured in since the 1960s but has not been observed, is experimentally identified just before an abrupt onset of a large-scale collapse event. Two novel properties of the event are identified. First, the transition of symmetry of perturbation (rather than a growth of linearly unstable MHD modes) was found to be a key for the onset of abrupt collapse, i.e., the transition of symmetry gives a new route to the collapse from stable state. Second, as a phase-space response of ions, the distortion from Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of epithermal ions was observed for the first time. PMID:27796370
Bonetto, F.; Chernov, N. I.; Lebowitz, J. L.
1998-12-01
We studied numerically the validity of the fluctuation relation introduced in Evans et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2401-2404 (1993)] and proved under suitable conditions by Gallavotti and Cohen [J. Stat. Phys. 80, 931-970 (1995)] for a two-dimensional system of particles maintained in a steady shear flow by Maxwell demon boundary conditions [Chernov and Lebowitz, J. Stat. Phys. 86, 953-990 (1997)]. The theorem was found to hold if one considers the total phase space contraction sigma occurring at collisions with both walls: sigma=sigma( upward arrow )+sigma( downward arrow ). An attempt to extend it to more local quantities sigma( upward arrow ) and sigma( downward arrow ), corresponding to the collisions with the top or bottom wall only, gave negative results. The time decay of the correlations in sigma( upward arrow, downward arrow ) was very slow compared to that of sigma. (c) 1998 American Institute of Physics.
Action scales for quantum decoherence and their relation to structures in phase space
Alonso, Daniel; Brouard, S.; Palao, Jose P.; Mayato, R. Sala
2004-05-01
A characteristic action {delta}S is defined whose magnitude determines some properties of the expectation value of a general quantum displacement operator. These properties are related to the capability of a given environmental ''monitoring'' system to induce decoherence in quantum systems coupled to it. We show that the scale for effective decoherence is given by {delta}S{approx_equal}({Dirac_h}/2{pi}). We relate this characteristic action with a complementary quantity, {delta}Z, and analyze their connection with the main features of the pattern of structures developed by the environmental state in different phase space representations. The relevance of the {delta}S-action scale is illustrated using both a model quantum system solved numerically and a set of model quantum systems for which analytical expressions for the time-averaged expectation value of the displacement operator are obtained explicitly.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Olivas, J. D.; Wright, M. C.; Christoffersen, R.; Cone, D. M.; McDanels, S. J.
2009-01-01
Analyzing the remains of Space Shuttle Columbia has proven technically beneficial years after the vehicle breakup. This investigation focused on charred deposits on fragments of Columbia overhead windowpanes. Results were unexpected relative to the engineering understanding of material performance in a reentry environment. The TEM analysis demonstrated that the oxides of aluminum and titanium mixed with silicon oxides to preserve a history of thermal conditions to which portions of the vehicle were exposed. The presence of Ti during the beginning of the deposition process, along with the thermodynamic phase precipitation upon cool down, indicate that temperatures well above the Ti melt point were experienced. The stratified observations implied that additional exothermic reaction, expectedly metal combustion of a Ti structure, had to be present for oxide formation. Results are significant for aerospace vehicles where thermal protection system (TPS) breaches cause substructures to be in direct path with the reentry plasma. 1
Laboratory observation of electron phase-space holes during magnetic reconnection.
Fox, W; Porkolab, M; Egedal, J; Katz, N; Le, A
2008-12-19
We report the observation of large-amplitude, nonlinear electrostatic structures, identified as electron phase-space holes, during magnetic reconnection experiments on the Versatile Toroidal Facility at MIT. The holes are positive electric potential spikes, observed on high-bandwidth ( approximately 2 GHz) Langmuir probes. Investigations with multiple probes establish that the holes travel at or above the electron thermal speed and have a three-dimensional, approximately spherical shape, with a scale size approximately 2 mm. This corresponds to a few electron gyroradii, or many tens of Debye lengths, which is large compared to holes considered in simulations and observed by satellites, whose length scale is typically only a few Debye lengths. Finally, a statistical study over many discharges confirms that the holes appear in conjunction with the large inductive electric fields and the creation of energetic electrons associated with the magnetic energy release.
An Analysis of the Spekkens Toy Theory with Connection to Wootters Discrete Phase Space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aliakbarzadeh, Mojtaba; Zainuddin, Hishamuddin
2014-11-01
The toy model of Spekkens is a formalism which can partially describe quantum mechanics. The theory deals with the (epistemic) states of a spin-1/2 particle, or qubits and it is closely related to the discrete phase space formalism of Wootters and collaborators. One can apply the stabilizer formalism for finding similarities of these two models. Noting that MUB basis vectors are obtained by eigenstates of generalized Pauli operators, the MUB basis vectors are thus the set of stabilizer states. Galvao has characterized the set of states with non-negative Wigner function class; they form the convex hull of the stabilizer states used as the MUB basis vectors. By combining both approaches, one can show epistemic states that are analogous to the convex hull of the stabilizer states (used as basis vectors in the MUB set) always make valid nonmaximal knowledge epistemic states.
Shortcuts to adiabaticity by counterdiabatic driving for trapped-ion displacement in phase space
An, Shuoming; Lv, Dingshun; del Campo, Adolfo; Kim, Kihwan
2016-01-01
The application of adiabatic protocols in quantum technologies is severely limited by environmental sources of noise and decoherence. Shortcuts to adiabaticity by counterdiabatic driving constitute a powerful alternative that speed up time-evolution while mimicking adiabatic dynamics. Here we report the experimental implementation of counterdiabatic driving in a continuous variable system, a shortcut to the adiabatic transport of a trapped ion in phase space. The resulting dynamics is equivalent to a ‘fast-motion video' of the adiabatic trajectory. The robustness of this protocol is shown to surpass that of competing schemes based on classical local controls and Fourier optimization methods. Our results demonstrate that shortcuts to adiabaticity provide a robust speedup of quantum protocols of wide applicability in quantum technologies. PMID:27669897
Spacecraft flight control with the new phase space control law and optimal linear jet select
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bergmann, E. V.; Croopnick, S. R.; Turkovich, J. J.; Work, C. C.
1977-01-01
An autopilot designed for rotation and translation control of a rigid spacecraft is described. The autopilot uses reaction control jets as control effectors and incorporates a six-dimensional phase space control law as well as a linear programming algorithm for jet selection. The interaction of the control law and jet selection was investigated and a recommended configuration proposed. By means of a simulation procedure the new autopilot was compared with an existing system and was found to be superior in terms of core memory, central processing unit time, firings, and propellant consumption. But it is thought that the cycle time required to perform the jet selection computations might render the new autopilot unsuitable for existing flight computer applications, without modifications. The new autopilot is capable of maintaining attitude control in the presence of a large number of jet failures.
Issues with Phase Space Characterization of Laser-plasma Generated Electron Beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cianchi, A.; Alesini, D.; Anania, M. P.; Bellaveglia, M.; Castellano, M.; Chiadroni, E.; Di Giovenale, D.; Ferrario, M.; Mostacci, A.; Musumeci, P.; Pompili, R.; Ronsivalle, C.; Rossi, A. R.; Serafini, L.; Villa, F.
Plasma acceleration is the new frontier in particle beam accelerators. Using the strong electric fields inside a plasma it is possible to achieve accelerating gradients orders of magnitude larger with respect to current technologies. Different schemes, using completely different approaches, have been proposed and several already tested, producing beams of energy up to several GeV. Regardless of the technique used for acceleration a precise determination of the output beam parameters is mandatory for the fine tuning of the process. The measurement of these parameters, in particular the beam distribution in transverse and longitudinal phase space, is not trivial, mainly due to the large energy spread and to the tight focusing of these beams or to the background noise produced in the plasma channel. We illustrate the main problems related to the diagnostic of this kind of beams and some of the proposed or already realized solutions
Abrupt onset of tongue deformation and phase space response of ions in magnetically-confined plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ida, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Itoh, K.; Yoshinuma, M.; Tokuzawa, T.; Akiyama, T.; Moon, C.; Tsuchiya, H.; Inagaki, S.; Itoh, S.-I.
2016-10-01
An abrupt onset of the new tongue-shaped deformation of magnetic surface in magnetized plasmas, which was conjectured in since the 1960s but has not been observed, is experimentally identified just before an abrupt onset of a large-scale collapse event. Two novel properties of the event are identified. First, the transition of symmetry of perturbation (rather than a growth of linearly unstable MHD modes) was found to be a key for the onset of abrupt collapse, i.e., the transition of symmetry gives a new route to the collapse from stable state. Second, as a phase-space response of ions, the distortion from Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of epithermal ions was observed for the first time.
North Atlantic weather regimes: A synoptic study of phase space. M.S. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Orrhede, Anna Karin
1990-01-01
In the phase space of weather, low frequency variability (LFV) of the atmosphere can be captured in a large scale subspace, where a trajectory connects consecutive large scale weather maps, thus revealing flow changes and recurrences. Using this approach, Vautard applied the trajectory speed minimization method (Vautard and Legras) to atmospheric data. From 37 winters of 700 mb geopotential height anomalies over the North Atlantic and the adjacent land masses, four persistent and recurrent weather patterns, interpreted as weather regimes, were discernable: a blocking regime, a zonal regime, a Greenland anticyclone regime, and an Atlantic regime. These regimes are studied further in terms of maintenance and transitions. A regime survey unveils preferences regarding event durations and precursors for the onset or break of an event. The transition frequencies between regimes vary, and together with the transition times, suggest the existence of easier transition routes. These matters are more systematically studied using complete synoptic map sequences from a number of events.
River flow forecasting: use of phase-space reconstruction and artificial neural networks approaches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sivakumar, B.; Jayawardena, A. W.; Fernando, T. M. K. G.
2002-08-01
The use of two non-linear black-box approaches, phase-space reconstruction (PSR) and artificial neural networks (ANN), for forecasting river flow dynamics is studied and a comparison of their performances is made. This is done by attempting 1-day and 7-day ahead forecasts of the daily river flow from the Nakhon Sawan station at the Chao Phraya River basin in Thailand. The results indicate a reasonably good performance of both approaches for both 1-day and 7-day ahead forecasts. However, the performance of the PSR approach is found to be consistently better than that of ANN. One reason for this could be that in the PSR approach the flow series in the phase-space is represented step by step in local neighborhoods, rather than a global approximation as is done in ANN. Another reason could be the use of the multi-layer perceptron (MLP) in ANN, since MLPs may not be most appropriate for forecasting at longer lead times. The selection of training set for the ANN may also contribute to such results. A comparison of the optimal number of variables for capturing the flow dynamics, as identified by the two approaches, indicates a large discrepancy in the case of 7-day ahead forecasts (1 and 7 variables, respectively), though for 1-day ahead forecasts it is found to be consistent (3 variables). A possible explanation for this could be the influence of noise in the data, an observation also made from the 1-day ahead forecast results using the PSR approach. The present results lead to observation on: (1) the use of other neural networks for runoff forecasting, particularly at longer lead times; (2) the influence of training set used in the ANN; and (3) the effect of noise on forecast accuracy, particularly in the PSR approach.
An angularly refineable phase space finite element method with approximate sweeping procedure
Kophazi, J.; Lathouwers, D.
2013-07-01
An angularly refineable phase space finite element method is proposed to solve the neutron transport equation. The method combines the advantages of two recently published schemes. The angular domain is discretized into small patches and patch-wise discontinuous angular basis functions are restricted to these patches, i.e. there is no overlap between basis functions corresponding to different patches. This approach yields block diagonal Jacobians with small block size and retains the possibility for S{sub n}-like approximate sweeping of the spatially discontinuous elements in order to provide efficient preconditioners for the solution procedure. On the other hand, the preservation of the full FEM framework (as opposed to collocation into a high-order S{sub n} scheme) retains the possibility of the Galerkin interpolated connection between phase space elements at arbitrary levels of discretization. Since the basis vectors are not orthonormal, a generalization of the Riemann procedure is introduced to separate the incoming and outgoing contributions in case of unstructured meshes. However, due to the properties of the angular discretization, the Riemann procedure can be avoided at a large fraction of the faces and this fraction rapidly increases as the level of refinement increases, contributing to the computational efficiency. In this paper the properties of the discretization scheme are studied with uniform refinement using an iterative solver based on the S{sub 2} sweep order of the spatial elements. The fourth order convergence of the scalar flux is shown as anticipated from earlier schemes and the rapidly decreasing fraction of required Riemann faces is illustrated. (authors)
Non-extended phase space thermodynamics of Lovelock AdS black holes in the grand canonical ensemble
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mo, Jie-Xiong; Liu, Wen-Biao
2015-05-01
Recently, extended phase space thermodynamics of Lovelock AdS black holes has been of great interest. To provide insight from a different perspective and gain a unified phase transition picture, the non-extended phase space thermodynamics of -dimensional charged topological Lovelock AdS black holes is investigated in detail in the grand canonical ensemble. Specifically, the specific heat at constant electric potential is calculated and the phase transition in the grand canonical ensemble is discussed. To probe the impact of the various parameters, we utilize the control variate method and solve the phase transition condition equation numerically for the cases . There are two critical points for the case , while there is only one for the other cases. For , there exists no phase transition point. To figure out the nature of the phase transition in the grand canonical ensemble, we carry out an analytic check of the analog form of the Ehrenfest equations proposed by Banerjee et al. It is shown that Lovelock AdS black holes in the grand canonical ensemble undergo a second-order phase transition. To examine the phase structure in the grand canonical ensemble, we utilize the thermodynamic geometry method and calculate both the Weinhold metric and the Ruppeiner metric. It is shown that for both analytic and graphical results that the divergence structure of the Ruppeiner scalar curvature coincides with that of the specific heat. Our research provides one more example that Ruppeiner metric serves as a wonderful tool to probe the phase structures of black holes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dechant, Andreas; Shafier, Shalom Tzvi; Kessler, David A.; Barkai, Eli
2016-08-01
The Boltzmann-Gibbs density, a central result of equilibrium statistical mechanics, relates the energy of a system in contact with a thermal bath to its equilibrium statistics. This relation is lost for nonthermal systems such as cold atoms in optical lattices, where the heat bath is replaced with the laser beams of the lattice. We investigate in detail the stationary phase-space probability for Sisyphus cooling under harmonic confinement. In particular, we elucidate whether the total energy of the system still describes its stationary state statistics. We find that this is true for the center part of the phase-space density for deep lattices, where the Boltzmann-Gibbs density provides an approximate description. The relation between energy and statistics also persists for strong confinement and in the limit of high energies, where the system becomes underdamped. However, the phase-space density now exhibits heavy power-law tails. In all three cases we find expressions for the leading-order phase-space density and corrections which break the equivalence of probability and energy and violate energy equipartition. The nonequilibrium nature of the steady state is corroborated by explicit violations of detailed balance. We complement these analytical results with numerical simulations to map out the intricate structure of the phase-space density.
Plesko, Catherine S; Clement, R Ryan; Weaver, Robert P; Bradley, Paul A; Huebner, Walter F
2009-01-01
The mitigation of impact hazards resulting from Earth-approaching asteroids and comets has received much attention in the popular press. However, many questions remain about the near-term and long-term, feasibility and appropriate application of all proposed methods. Recent and ongoing ground- and space-based observations of small solar-system body composition and dynamics have revolutionized our understanding of these bodies (e.g., Ryan (2000), Fujiwara et al. (2006), and Jedicke et al. (2006)). Ongoing increases in computing power and algorithm sophistication make it possible to calculate the response of these inhomogeneous objects to proposed mitigation techniques. Here we present the first phase of a comprehensive hazard mitigation planning effort undertaken by Southwest Research Institute and Los Alamos National Laboratory. We begin by reviewing the parameter space of the object's physical and chemical composition and trajectory. We then use the radiation hydrocode RAGE (Gittings et al. 2008), Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) radiation transport (see Clement et al., this conference), and N-body dynamics codes to explore the effects these variations in object properties have on the coupling of energy into the object from a variety of mitigation techniques, including deflection and disruption by nuclear and conventional munitions, and a kinetic impactor.
Phase space optimisation of the USANS instrument Kookaburra at the ANSTO OPAL reactor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freund, A. K.; Rehm, C.
2011-04-01
An optimisation of the USANS instrument Kookaburra has been conducted determining the most efficient type of premonochromator crystal and scattering geometry. The approach has been based on representations in phase space combining direct and reciprocal space diagrams. Results are presented for several scenarios involving flat and curved, perfect and mosaic crystals, horizontal and vertical scattering planes. The highest peak current density of 1.7×105 cm-2 s-1 is provided for a wavelength of 4.43 Å by a doubly curved pyrolytic graphite premonochromator diffracting in a horizontal plane and producing a beam size of about 50 cm2 at the sample position. The smallest background is achieved for a wavelength of 2.56 Å and a vertical scattering plane using a bent perfect premonochromator crystal and optionally a collimator to decrease the divergence of the beam exiting the cold neutron guide. For this wavelength a peak current density of 6.6×104 cm-2 s-1 is collected into a sample area of 10 cm2. The bent perfect crystal design is of particular advantage for small samples.
Transport of phase space densities through tetrahedral meshes using discrete flow mapping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bajars, Janis; Chappell, David J.; Søndergaard, Niels; Tanner, Gregor
2017-01-01
Discrete flow mapping was recently introduced as an efficient ray based method determining wave energy distributions in complex built up structures. Wave energy densities are transported along ray trajectories through polygonal mesh elements using a finite dimensional approximation of a ray transfer operator. In this way the method can be viewed as a smoothed ray tracing method defined over meshed surfaces. Many applications require the resolution of wave energy distributions in three-dimensional domains, such as in room acoustics, underwater acoustics and for electromagnetic cavity problems. In this work we extend discrete flow mapping to three-dimensional domains by propagating wave energy densities through tetrahedral meshes. The geometric simplicity of the tetrahedral mesh elements is utilised to efficiently compute the ray transfer operator using a mixture of analytic and spectrally accurate numerical integration. The important issue of how to choose a suitable basis approximation in phase space whilst maintaining a reasonable computational cost is addressed via low order local approximations on tetrahedral faces in the position coordinate and high order orthogonal polynomial expansions in momentum space.
A field-space conformal-solution method: Binary vapor-liquid phase behavior
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Storvick, T. S.; Fox, J. R.
1990-01-01
The field-space conformal solution method provides an entirely new thermodynamic framework for the description of fluid mixtures in terms of the properties of a pure reference fluid. The utility and performance of the method are examined in the special case of vapor-liquid equilibrium correlation for simple mixtures. This is one of several cases in which field-space methods have numerical or theoretical advantages over methods presently used in mixture property correlation; only properties along the vapor pressure curve of the purefluid reference system are required for a complete description of the mixture phase behavior. Vapor-liquid equilibrium data for three binary hydrocarbon mixtures, n-butane + n-pentane, n-butane + n-hexane, and n-butane + n-octane, are correlated with a simple implementation of the method having two independent mixture parameters. Two pure-fluid equations of state, a Peng-Robinson equation and a 32-constant modified Benedict-Webb-Rubin equation, are tested as reference systems. The effects of differences in the quality of the reference system and of a range of mixture component size ratios are examined.
Trajectory approach to dissipative quantum phase space dynamics: Application to barrier scattering.
Hughes, Keith H; Wyatt, Robert E
2004-03-01
The Caldeira-Leggett master equation, expressed in Lindblad form, has been used in the numerical study of the effect of a thermal environment on the dynamics of the scattering of a wave packet from a repulsive Eckart barrier. The dynamics are studied in terms of phase space trajectories associated with the distribution function, W(q,p,t). The equations of motion for the trajectories include quantum terms that introduce nonlocality into the motion, which imply that an ensemble of correlated trajectories needs to be propagated. However, use of the derivative propagation method (DPM) allows each trajectory to be propagated individually. This is achieved by deriving equations of motion for the partial derivatives of W(q,p,t) that appear in the master equation. The effects of dissipation on the trajectories are studied and results are shown for the transmission probability. On short time scales, decoherence is demonstrated by a swelling of trajectories into momentum space. For a nondissipative system, a comparison is made of the DPM with the "exact" transmission probability calculated from a fixed grid calculation.
Phase space path-integral formulation of the above-threshold ionization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milošević, D. B.
2013-04-01
Atoms and molecules submitted to a strong laser field can emit electrons of high energies in the above-threshold ionization (ATI) process. This process finds a highly intuitive and also quantitative explanation in terms of Feynman's path integral and the concept of quantum orbits [P. Salières et al., Science 292, 902 (2001)], 10.1126/science.108836. However, the connection with the Feynman path-integral formalism is explained only by intuition and analogy and within the so-called strong-field approximation (SFA). Using the phase space path-integral formalism we have obtained an exact result for the momentum-space matrix element of the total time-evolution operator. Applying this result to the ATI we show that the SFA and the so-called improved SFA are, respectively, the zeroth- and the first-order terms of the expansion in powers of the laser-free effective interaction of the electron with the rest of the atom (molecule). We have also presented the second-order term of this expansion which is responsible for the ATI with double scattering of the ionized electron.
International Space Station Program Phase 3 Integrated Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem Test
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Perry, J. L.; Franks, G. D.; Knox, J. C.
1997-01-01
Testing of the International Space Station (ISS) U.S. Segment baseline configuration of the Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem (ARS) by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was conducted as part of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) design and development program. This testing was designed to answer specific questions regarding the control and performance of the baseline ARS subassemblies in the ISS U.S. Segment configuration. These questions resulted from the continued maturation of the ISS ECLSS configuration and design requirement changes since 1992. The test used pressurized oxygen injection, a mass spectrometric major constituent analyzer, a Four-Bed Molecular Sieve Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly, and a Trace Contaminant Control Subassembly to maintain the atmospheric composition in a sealed chamber at ISS specifications for 30 days. Human metabolic processes for a crew of four were simulated according to projected ISS mission time lines. The performance of a static feed water electrolysis Oxygen Generator Assembly was investigated during the test preparation phases; however, technical difficulties prevented its use during the integrated test. The Integrated ARS Test (IART) program built upon previous closed-door and open-door integrated testing conducted at MSFC between 1987 and 1992. It is the most advanced test of an integrated ARS conducted by NASA to demonstrate its end-to-end control and overall performance. IART test objectives, facility design, pretest analyses, test and control requirements, and test results are presented.
The ROCKSTAR Phase-space Temporal Halo Finder and the Velocity Offsets of Cluster Cores
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Wu, Hao-Yi
2013-01-01
We present a new algorithm for identifying dark matter halos, substructure, and tidal features. The approach is based on adaptive hierarchical refinement of friends-of-friends groups in six phase-space dimensions and one time dimension, which allows for robust (grid-independent, shape-independent, and noise-resilient) tracking of substructure; as such, it is named ROCKSTAR (Robust Overdensity Calculation using K-Space Topologically Adaptive Refinement). Our method is massively parallel (up to 105 CPUs) and runs on the largest current simulations (>1010 particles) with high efficiency (10 CPU hours and 60 gigabytes of memory required per billion particles analyzed). A previous paper has shown ROCKSTAR to have excellent recovery of halo properties; we expand on these comparisons with more tests and higher-resolution simulations. We show a significant improvement in substructure recovery compared to several other halo finders and discuss the theoretical and practical limits of simulations in this regard. Finally, we present results that demonstrate conclusively that dark matter halo cores are not at rest relative to the halo bulk or substructure average velocities and have coherent velocity offsets across a wide range of halo masses and redshifts. For massive clusters, these offsets can be up to 350 km s-1 at z = 0 and even higher at high redshifts. Our implementation is publicly available at http://code.google.com/p/rockstar.
TIME-DEPENDENT PHASE SPACE MEASUREMENTS OF THE LONGITUDINALLY COMPRESSING BEAM IN NDCX-I
LBNL; Lidia, S.M.; Bazouin, G.; Seidl, P.A.
2011-03-15
The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCXI) generates high intensity ion beams to explore Warm Dense Matter physics. A {approx}150 kV, {approx}500 ns modulating voltage pulse is applied to a {approx}300 kV, 5-10 {mu}s, 25 mA K+ ion beam across a single induction gap. The velocity modulated beam compresses longitudinally during ballistic transport along a space charge neutralizing plasma transport line, resulting in {approx}3A peak current with {approx}2-3 ns pulse durations (FWHM) at the target plane. Transverse final focusing is accomplished with a {approx}8 T, 10 cm long pulsed solenoid magnet. Time-dependent electrostatic focusing in the induction gap, and chromatic aberrations in the final focus optics limit the peak fluenceat the target plane for the compressed beam pulse. We report on time-dependent phase space measurements of the compressed pulse in the ballistic transport beamline, and measurement of the time-dependent radial impulses derived from the interaction of the beam and the induction gap voltage. We present results of start-to-end simulations to benchmark the experiments. Fast correction strategies are discussed with application to both NDCX-I and the soon to be commissioned NDCX-II accelerators.
Kinetic theory of phase space plateaux in a non-thermal energetic particle distribution
Eriksson, F. Nyqvist, R. M.; Lilley, M. K.
2015-09-15
The transformation of kinetically unstable plasma eigenmodes into hole-clump pairs with temporally evolving carrier frequencies was recently attributed to the emergence of an intermediate stage in the mode evolution cycle, that of an unmodulated plateau in the phase space distribution of fast particles. The role of the plateau as the hole-clump breeding ground is further substantiated in this article via consideration of its linear and nonlinear stability in the presence of fast particle collisions and sources, which are known to affect the production rates and subsequent frequency sweeping of holes and clumps. In particular, collisional relaxation, as mediated by e.g. velocity space diffusion or even simple Krook-type collisions, is found to inhibit hole-clump generation and detachment from the plateau, as it should. On the other hand, slowing down of the fast particles turns out to have an asymmetrically destabilizing/stabilizing effect, which explains the well-known result that collisional drag enhances holes and their sweeping rates but suppresses clumps. It is further demonstrated that relaxation of the plateau edge gradients has only a minor quantitative effect and does not change the plateau stability qualitatively, unless the edge region extends far into the plateau shelf and the corresponding Landau pole needs to be taken into account.
Beyond the continuum: a multi-dimensional phase space for neutral–niche community assembly
Latombe, Guillaume; McGeoch, Melodie A.
2015-01-01
Neutral and niche processes are generally considered to interact in natural communities along a continuum, exhibiting community patterns bounded by pure neutral and pure niche processes. The continuum concept uses niche separation, an attribute of the community, to test the hypothesis that communities are bounded by pure niche or pure neutral conditions. It does not accommodate interactions via feedback between processes and the environment. By contrast, we introduce the Community Assembly Phase Space (CAPS), a multi-dimensional space that uses community processes (such as dispersal and niche selection) to define the limiting neutral and niche conditions and to test the continuum hypothesis. We compare the outputs of modelled communities in a heterogeneous landscape, assembled by pure neutral, pure niche and composite processes. Differences in patterns under different combinations of processes in CAPS reveal hidden complexity in neutral–niche community dynamics. The neutral–niche continuum only holds for strong dispersal limitation and niche separation. For weaker dispersal limitation and niche separation, neutral and niche processes amplify each other via feedback with the environment. This generates patterns that lie well beyond those predicted by a continuum. Inferences drawn from patterns about community assembly processes can therefore be misguided when based on the continuum perspective. CAPS also demonstrates the complementary information value of different patterns for inferring community processes and captures the complexity of community assembly. It provides a general tool for studying the processes structuring communities and can be applied to address a range of questions in community and metacommunity ecology. PMID:26702047
Beam Phase Space of an Intense Ion Beam in a Neutralizing Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seidl, Peter A.; Bazouin, Guillaume; Beneytout, Alice; Lidia, Steven M.; Vay, Jean-Luc; Grote, David P.
2011-10-01
The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX-I) generates high intensity ion beams to explore warm dense matter physics. Transverse final focusing is accomplished with an 8-Tesla, 10-cm long pulsed solenoid magnet combined with a background neutralizing plasma to effectively cancel the space charge field of the ion beam. We report on phase space measurements of the beam before the neutralization channel and of the focused ion beam at the target plane. These are compared to WARP particle-in-cell simulations of the ion beam propagation through the focusing system and neutralizing plasma. Due to the orientation of the plasma sources with respect to the focusing magnet, the plasma distribution within the final focusing lens is strongly affected by the magnetic field, an effect which can influence the peak intensity at the target and which is included in the model of the experiment. Work performed under auspices of U.S. DoE by LLNL, LBNL under Contracts DE-AC52-07NA27344, DE-AC02-05CH1123.
Tahara, Tatsuki; Ito, Yasunori; Xia, Peng; Awatsuji, Yasuhiro; Nishio, Kenzo; Ura, Shogo; Kubota, Toshihiro; Matoba, Osamu
2013-07-15
We propose a method for extending the space bandwidth (SBW) available for recording an object wave in parallel phase-shifting digital holography using a four-channel polarization-imaging camera. A linear spatial carrier of the reference wave is introduced to an optical setup of parallel four-step phase-shifting interferometry using a commercially available polarization-imaging camera that has four polarization-detection channels. Then a hologram required for parallel two-step phase shifting, which is a technique capable of recording the widest SBW in parallel phase shifting, can be obtained. The effectiveness of the proposed method was numerically and experimentally verified.
Structural Diversity of Arthropod Biophotonic Nanostructures Spans Amphiphilic Phase-Space
Saranathan, Vinod Kumar; Seago, Ainsley E.; Sandy, Alec; Narayanan, Suresh; Mochrie, Simon G.J.; Dufresne, Eric R.; Cao, Hui; Osuji, Chinedum O.; Prum, Richard Owen
2015-05-04
Many organisms, especially arthropods, produce vivid interference colors using diverse mesoscopic (100-350 nm) integumentary biophotonic nanostructures that are increasingly being investigated for technological applications. Despite a century of interest, precise structural knowledge of many biophotonic nanostructures and the mechanisms controlling their development remain tentative, when such knowledge can open novel biomimetic routes to facilely self-assemble tunable, multifunctional materials. Here, we use synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering and electron microscopy to characterize the photonic nanostructure of 140 integumentary scales and setae from ~127 species of terrestrial arthropods in 85 genera from 5 orders. We report a rich nanostructural diversity, including triply periodic bicontinuous networks, close-packed spheres, inverse columnar, perforated lamellar, and disordered spongelike morphologies, commonly observed as stable phases of amphiphilic surfactants, block copolymer, and lyotropic lipid-water systems. Diverse arthropod lineages appear to have independently evolved to utilize the self-assembly of infolding lipid-bilayer membranes to develop biophotonic nanostructures that span the phase-space of amphiphilic morphologies, but at optical length scales.
Phase Space Theory of Evaporation in Neon Clusters: The Role of Quantum Effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calvo, F.; Parneix, P.
2009-07-01
Unimolecular evaporation of neon clusters containing between 14 and 148 atoms is theoretically investigated in the framework of phase space theory. Quantum effects are incorporated in the vibrational densities of states, which include both zero-point and anharmonic contributions, and in the possible tunneling through the centrifugal barrier. The evaporation rates, kinetic energy released, and product angular momentum are calculated as a function of excess energy or temperature in the parent cluster and compared to the classical results. Quantum fluctuations are found to generally increase both the kinetic energy released and the angular momentum of the product, but the effects on the rate constants depend nontrivially on the excess energy. These results are interpreted as due to the very few vibrational states available in the product cluster when described quantum mechanically. Because delocalization also leads to much narrower thermal energy distributions, the variations of evaporation observables as a function of canonical temperature appear much less marked than in the microcanonical ensemble. While quantum effects tend to smooth the caloric curve in the product cluster, the melting phase change clearly keeps a signature on these observables. The microcanonical temperature extracted from fitting the kinetic energy released distribution using an improved Arrhenius form further suggests a backbending in the quantum Ne13 cluster that is absent in the classical system. Finally, in contrast to delocalization effects, quantum tunneling through the centrifugal barrier does not play any appreciable role on the evaporation kinetics of these rather heavy clusters.
Trugenberger, Carlo A
2015-12-01
Recently I proposed a simple dynamical network model for discrete space-time that self-organizes as a graph with Hausdorff dimension d(H)=4. The model has a geometric quantum phase transition with disorder parameter (d(H)-d(s)), where d(s) is the spectral dimension of the dynamical graph. Self-organization in this network model is based on a competition between a ferromagnetic Ising model for vertices and an antiferromagnetic Ising model for edges. In this paper I solve a toy version of this model defined on a bipartite graph in the mean-field approximation. I show that the geometric phase transition corresponds exactly to the antiferromagnetic transition for edges, the dimensional disorder parameter of the former being mapped to the staggered magnetization order parameter of the latter. The model has a critical point with long-range correlations between edges, where a continuum random geometry can be defined, exactly as in Kazakov's famed 2D random lattice Ising model but now in any number of dimensions.
Ocean rogue waves and their phase space dynamics in the limit of a linear interference model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Birkholz, Simon; Brée, Carsten; Veselić, Ivan; Demircan, Ayhan; Steinmeyer, Günter
2016-10-01
We reanalyse the probability for formation of extreme waves using the simple model of linear interference of a finite number of elementary waves with fixed amplitude and random phase fluctuations. Under these model assumptions no rogue waves appear when less than 10 elementary waves interfere with each other. Above this threshold rogue wave formation becomes increasingly likely, with appearance frequencies that may even exceed long-term observations by an order of magnitude. For estimation of the effective number of interfering waves, we suggest the Grassberger-Procaccia dimensional analysis of individual time series. For the ocean system, it is further shown that the resulting phase space dimension may vary, such that the threshold for rogue wave formation is not always reached. Time series analysis as well as the appearance of particular focusing wind conditions may enable an effective forecast of such rogue-wave prone situations. In particular, extracting the dimension from ocean time series allows much more specific estimation of the rogue wave probability.
Critical space-time networks and geometric phase transitions from frustrated edge antiferromagnetism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trugenberger, Carlo A.
2015-12-01
Recently I proposed a simple dynamical network model for discrete space-time that self-organizes as a graph with Hausdorff dimension dH=4 . The model has a geometric quantum phase transition with disorder parameter (dH-ds) , where ds is the spectral dimension of the dynamical graph. Self-organization in this network model is based on a competition between a ferromagnetic Ising model for vertices and an antiferromagnetic Ising model for edges. In this paper I solve a toy version of this model defined on a bipartite graph in the mean-field approximation. I show that the geometric phase transition corresponds exactly to the antiferromagnetic transition for edges, the dimensional disorder parameter of the former being mapped to the staggered magnetization order parameter of the latter. The model has a critical point with long-range correlations between edges, where a continuum random geometry can be defined, exactly as in Kazakov's famed 2D random lattice Ising model but now in any number of dimensions.
Ocean rogue waves and their phase space dynamics in the limit of a linear interference model
Birkholz, Simon; Brée, Carsten; Veselić, Ivan; Demircan, Ayhan; Steinmeyer, Günter
2016-01-01
We reanalyse the probability for formation of extreme waves using the simple model of linear interference of a finite number of elementary waves with fixed amplitude and random phase fluctuations. Under these model assumptions no rogue waves appear when less than 10 elementary waves interfere with each other. Above this threshold rogue wave formation becomes increasingly likely, with appearance frequencies that may even exceed long-term observations by an order of magnitude. For estimation of the effective number of interfering waves, we suggest the Grassberger-Procaccia dimensional analysis of individual time series. For the ocean system, it is further shown that the resulting phase space dimension may vary, such that the threshold for rogue wave formation is not always reached. Time series analysis as well as the appearance of particular focusing wind conditions may enable an effective forecast of such rogue-wave prone situations. In particular, extracting the dimension from ocean time series allows much more specific estimation of the rogue wave probability. PMID:27731411
Ocean rogue waves and their phase space dynamics in the limit of a linear interference model.
Birkholz, Simon; Brée, Carsten; Veselić, Ivan; Demircan, Ayhan; Steinmeyer, Günter
2016-10-12
We reanalyse the probability for formation of extreme waves using the simple model of linear interference of a finite number of elementary waves with fixed amplitude and random phase fluctuations. Under these model assumptions no rogue waves appear when less than 10 elementary waves interfere with each other. Above this threshold rogue wave formation becomes increasingly likely, with appearance frequencies that may even exceed long-term observations by an order of magnitude. For estimation of the effective number of interfering waves, we suggest the Grassberger-Procaccia dimensional analysis of individual time series. For the ocean system, it is further shown that the resulting phase space dimension may vary, such that the threshold for rogue wave formation is not always reached. Time series analysis as well as the appearance of particular focusing wind conditions may enable an effective forecast of such rogue-wave prone situations. In particular, extracting the dimension from ocean time series allows much more specific estimation of the rogue wave probability.
Structural Diversity of Arthropod Biophotonic Nanostructures Spans Amphiphilic Phase-Space.
Saranathan, Vinodkumar; Seago, Ainsley E; Sandy, Alec; Narayanan, Suresh; Mochrie, Simon G J; Dufresne, Eric R; Cao, Hui; Osuji, Chinedum O; Prum, Richard O
2015-06-10
Many organisms, especially arthropods, produce vivid interference colors using diverse mesoscopic (100-350 nm) integumentary biophotonic nanostructures that are increasingly being investigated for technological applications. Despite a century of interest, precise structural knowledge of many biophotonic nanostructures and the mechanisms controlling their development remain tentative, when such knowledge can open novel biomimetic routes to facilely self-assemble tunable, multifunctional materials. Here, we use synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering and electron microscopy to characterize the photonic nanostructure of 140 integumentary scales and setae from ∼127 species of terrestrial arthropods in 85 genera from 5 orders. We report a rich nanostructural diversity, including triply periodic bicontinuous networks, close-packed spheres, inverse columnar, perforated lamellar, and disordered spongelike morphologies, commonly observed as stable phases of amphiphilic surfactants, block copolymer, and lyotropic lipid-water systems. Diverse arthropod lineages appear to have independently evolved to utilize the self-assembly of infolding lipid-bilayer membranes to develop biophotonic nanostructures that span the phase-space of amphiphilic morphologies, but at optical length scales.
Phase space theory of Bose-Einstein condensates and time-dependent modes
Dalton, B.J.
2012-10-15
A phase space theory approach for treating dynamical behaviour of Bose-Einstein condensates applicable to situations such as interferometry with BEC in time-dependent double well potentials is presented. Time-dependent mode functions are used, chosen so that one, two, Horizontal-Ellipsis highly occupied modes describe well the physics of interacting condensate bosons in time dependent potentials at well below the transition temperature. Time dependent mode annihilation, creation operators are represented by time dependent phase variables, but time independent total field annihilation, creation operators are represented by time independent field functions. Two situations are treated, one (mode theory) is where specific mode annihilation, creation operators and their related phase variables and distribution functions are dealt with, the other (field theory) is where only field creation, annihilation operators and their related field functions and distribution functionals are involved. The field theory treatment is more suitable when large boson numbers are involved. The paper focuses on the hybrid approach, where the modes are divided up between condensate (highly occupied) modes and non-condensate (sparsely occupied) modes. It is found that there are extra terms in the Ito stochastic equations both for the stochastic phases and stochastic fields, involving coupling coefficients defined via overlap integrals between mode functions and their time derivatives. For the hybrid approach both the Fokker-Planck and functional Fokker-Planck equations differ from those derived via the correspondence rules, the drift vectors are unchanged but the diffusion matrices contain additional terms involving the coupling coefficients. Results are also presented for the combined approach where all the modes are treated as one set. Here both the Fokker-Planck and functional Fokker-Planck equations are exactly the same as those derived via the correspondence rules. However, although the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Summerer, Leopold
2014-08-01
In 2009, the International Safety Framework for Nuclear Power Source Applications in Outer Space [1] has been adopted, following a multi-year process that involved all major space faring nations in the frame of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. The safety framework reflects an international consensus on best practices. After the older 1992 Principles Relevant to the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space, it is the second document at UN level dedicated entirely to space nuclear power sources.This paper analyses aspects of the safety framework relevant for the design and development phases of space nuclear power sources. While early publications have started analysing the legal aspects of the safety framework, its technical guidance has not yet been subject to scholarly articles. The present paper therefore focuses on the technical guidance provided in the safety framework, in an attempt to assist engineers and practitioners to benefit from these.
Limits to the Stability of Phase Transfer from Ground to Space
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Linfield, Roger P.
1997-01-01
An alternative to having a primary frequency standard on board a spacecraft is to phase lock a simple oscillator on the spacecraft to a microwave tone transmitted from the ground. The received tone is transponded and rebroadcast to the ground. The round trip phase is measured, and used to correct for effects on time scales longer than the round trip light travel time. This method is used with the TDRSS relay satellites, and will be used for the Japanese space VLBI mission VSOP. There are several sources of error introduced by this process. The most important error source is a loss of the on board standard for all times that the satellite is out of contact with a ground tracking station. The fractional loss will be greater than 10% for almost any orbit, even with a network of several ground tracking stations, and it will be considerably worse for a low earth orbit. Only a geostationary orbit can eliminate this problem. Another error source is connected to the previous one. Round trip phase tracking can remove, after the fact, link effects during a tracking pass on time scales greater than the round trip light travel time. However, there will be a jump in the spacecraft clock when multiple passes are connected (e.g. when the spacecraft is reacquired after passing out of sight). These jumps will be equal in magnitude (except for a geometrical factor) to the accuracy with which the spacecraft orbit is known. With a GPS receiver and GPS-like beacon on a spacecraft, the orbit can be known to a few cm, giving timing jumps on the order of 100 picoseconds. Even with a geostationary orbit, these jumps would occur any time the link was interrupted due to mechanical or electrical problems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fabris, Gracio
1992-01-01
Two-phase energy conversion systems could be liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic (LMMHD) with no moving parts or two-phase turbines. Both of them are inherently simple and reliable devices which can operate in a wide range of temperatures. Their thermal efficiency is significantly higher than for conventional cycles due to reheat of vapor by liquid phase during the energy converting expansion. Often they can be more easily coupled to heat sources. These features make two-phase systems particularly promising for space application. Insufficient research has been done in the past. So far achieved LMMHD generator and two-phase turbine efficiencies are in the 40 to 45 percent range. However if certain fluid dynamic and design problems are resolved these efficiencies could be brought into the range of 70 percent. This would make two-phase systems extremely competitive as compared to present or other proposed conversion system for space. Accordingly, well directed research effort on potential space applications of two-phase conversion systems would be a wise investment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshida, Z.; Mahajan, S. M.
2014-07-01
Adiabatic invariants foliate phase space, and impart a macro-scale hierarchy by separating microscopic variables. On a macroscopic leaf, long-scale ordered structures are created while maximizing entropy. A plasma confined in a magnetosphere is invoked to unveil the organizing principle-in the vicinity of a magnetic dipole, the plasma self-organizes to a state with a steep density gradient. The resulting nontrivial structure has maximum entropy in an appropriate, constrained phase space. One could view such a phase space as a leaf foliated in terms of Casimir invariants-adiabatic invariants measuring the number of quasi-particles (macroscopic representation of periodic motions) are identified as the relevant Casimir invariants. The density clump is created in response to the inhomogeneity of the energy levels (frequencies) of the quasi-particles.
Tahara, Tatsuki; Shimozato, Yuki; Xia, Peng; Ito, Yasunori; Awatsuji, Yasuhiro; Nishio, Kenzo; Ura, Shogo; Matoba, Osamu; Kubota, Toshihiro
2012-08-27
We propose an image-reconstruction algorithm of parallel phase-shifting digital holography (PPSDH) which is a technique of single-shot phase-shifting interferometry. In the conventional algorithms in PPSDH, the residual 0th-order diffraction wave and the conjugate images cannot be removed completely and a part of space-bandwidth information is discarded. The proposed algorithm can remove these residual images by modifying the calculation of phase-shifting interferometry and by using Fourier transform technique, respectively. Then, several types of complex amplitudes are derived from a recorded hologram according to the directions in which the neighboring pixels used for carrying out the spatial phase-shifting interferometry are aligned. Several distributions are Fourier-transformed and wide space-bandwidth information of the object wave is obtained by selecting the spectrum among the Fourier-transformed images in each region of the spatial frequency domain and synthesizing a Fourier-transformed image from the spectrum.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Gang; Mao, Zhu; Todd, Michael
2016-11-01
This paper proposes a damage detection method based on the geometrical variation of transient trajectories in phase-space, and the proposed methodology is compatible with non-stationary excitations (e.g., earthquake-induced ground motion). The work presented assumes zero-mean non-stationary excitation, and extends the random decrement technique to convert non-stationary response signals of the structure into free-vibration data. Transient trajectories of the structure are reconstructed via the embedding theorem from the converted free-vibration data, and trajectories are mapped successively into phase-space to enhance statistical analysis. Based upon the characterized system dynamics in terms of phase-space, the time prediction error is adopted as the damage index. To identify the presence and severity of damage in a statistically rigorous way, receiver operating characteristic curves and the Bhattacharyya distance are employed. The results from both numerical simulations and experiments validate the proposed framework, when the test structures are subject to non-stationary excitations. The extension achieved in this paper enables the phase-space damage detection approach to be compatible with non-stationary scenarios, such as traffic, wind, and earthquake loadings. Moreover, the results indicate that this phase-state-based method is able to identify damage-induced nonlinearity in response, which is an intrinsic characteristic associated with most structural damage types.
Analysis of Preferred Directions in Phase Space for Tidal Measurements at Europa
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boone, D.; Scheeres, D. J.
2012-12-01
The NASA Jupiter Europa Orbiter mission requires a circular, near-polar orbit to measure Europa's Love numbers, geophysical coefficients which give insight into whether a liquid ocean exists. This type of orbit about planetary satellites is known to be unstable. The effects of Jupiter's tidal gravity are seen in changes in Europa's gravity field and surface deformation, which are sensed through doppler tracking over time and altimetry measurements respectively. These two measurement types separately determine the h and k Love numbers, a combination of which bounds how thick the ice shell of Europa is and whether liquid water is present. This work shows how the properties of an unstable periodic orbit about Europa generate preferred measurement directions in position and velocity phase space for the orbit determination process. We generate an error covariance over seven days for the orbiter state and science parameters using a periodic orbit and then disperse the orbit initial conditions in a Monte Carlo simulation according to this covariance. The dispersed orbits are shown to have a bias toward longer lifetimes and we discuss this as an effect of the stable and unstable manifolds of the periodic orbit. Using an epoch formulation of a square-root information filter, measurements aligned with the unstable manifold mapped back in time add more information to the orbit determination process than measurements aligned with the stable manifold. This corresponds to a contraction in the uncertainty of the estimate of the desired parameters, including the Love numbers. We demonstrate this mapping mathematically using a representation of the State Transition Matrix involving its eigenvectors and eigenvalues. Then using the properties of left and right eigenvectors, we show how measurements in the orbit determination process are mapped in time leading to a concentration of information at epoch. We present examples of measurements taken on different time schedules to show the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Jun; Guan, Zhi-Hua; Liu, Yan-Chun; Liu, Bo
2017-02-01
The P- v criticality and phase transition in the extended phase space of a noncommutative geometry inspired Reissner-Nordström (RN) black hole in Anti-de Sitter (AdS) space-time are studied, where the cosmological constant appears as a dynamical pressure and its conjugate quantity is thermodynamic volume of the black hole. It is found that the P- v criticality and the small black hole/large black hole phase transition appear for the noncommutative RN-AdS black hole. Numerical calculations indicate that the noncommutative parameter affects the phase transition as well as the critical temperature, horizon radius, pressure and ratio. The critical ratio is no longer universal, which is different from the result in the van de Waals liquid-gas system. The nature of phase transition at the critical point is also discussed. Especially, for the noncommutative geometry inspired RN-AdS black hole, a new thermodynamic quantity Ψ conjugate to the noncommutative parameter θ has to be defined further, which is required for consistency of both the first law of thermodynamics and the corresponding Smarr relation.
Effects of energetic particle phase space modifications by instabilities on integrated modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Podestà, M.; Gorelenkova, M.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; White, R. B.
2016-11-01
Tokamak plasmas can feature a large population of energetic particles (EP) from neutral beam injection or fusion reactions. In turn, energetic particles can drive instabilities, which affect the driving EP population leading to a distortion of the original EP distribution function and of quantities that depend on it. The latter include, for example, neutral beam (NB) current drive and plasma heating through EP thermalization. Those effects must be taken into account to enable reliable and quantitative simulations of discharges for present devices as well as predictions for future burning plasmas. Reduced models for EP transport are emerging as an effective tool for long time-scale integrated simulations of tokamak plasmas, possibly including the effects of instabilities on EP dynamics. Available models differ in how EP distribution properties are modified by instabilities, e.g. in terms of gradients in real or phase space. It is therefore crucial to assess to what extent different assumptions in the transport models affect predicted quantities such as EP profile, energy distribution, NB driven current and energy/momentum transfer to the thermal populations. A newly developed kick model, which includes modifications of the EP distribution by instabilities in both real and velocity space, is used in this work to investigate these issues. Coupled to TRANSP simulations, the kick model is used to analyze NB-heated NSTX and DIII-D discharges featuring unstable Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs). Results show that instabilities can strongly affect the EP distribution function, and modifications propagate to macroscopic quantities such as NB-driven current profile and NB power transferred to the thermal plasma species. Those important aspects are only qualitatively captured by simpler fast ion transport models that are based on radial diffusion of energetic ions only.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plesko, C. Weaver, R.; Clement, R.; Bradley, P.; Huebner, W.
The mitigation of impact hazards resulting from Earth-approaching asteroids and comets has received much attention in the popular press. However, many questions remain about the near-term and long-term feasibility and appropriate application of all proposed methods. Recent and ongoing ground and space-based observations of small solar system body composition and dynamics have revolutionized our understanding of these bodies (e.g., Ryan (2000), Fujiwara et al. (2006), and Jedicke et al. (2006)). Ongoing increases in computing power and algorithm sophistication make it possible to calculate the response of these inhomogeneous objects to proposed mitigation techniques. Here we present the first phase of a comprehensive hazard mitigation planning effort undertaken by Southwest Research Institute and Los Alamos National Laboratory. We begin by reviewing the parameter space of the objects physical and chemical composition and trajectory. We then use the radiation hydrocode RAGE (Gittings et al. 2008), Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) radiation transport (see Clement et al., this conference), and N-body dynamics codes to explore the effects these variations in object properties have on the coupling of energy into the object from a variety of mitigation techniques, including deflection and disruption by nuclear and conventional munitions, and a kinetic impactor. Preliminary results for models of the deflection of a 100 m basalt sphere by a 100 kt nuclear burst (Bradley et al., LPSC 2009) are encouraging. A 40 cm/s velocity away from the burst is imparted to the objects center of mass without disruption. Further results will be presented at the meeting.
Effects of energetic particle phase space modifications by instabilities on integrated modeling
Podesta, M.; Gorelenkova, M.; Fredrickson, E. D.; ...
2016-07-22
Tokamak plasmas can feature a large population of energetic particles (EP) from neutral beam injection or fusion reactions. In turn, energetic particles can drive instabilities, which affect the driving EP population leading to a distortion of the original EP distribution function and of quantities that depend on it. The latter include, for example, neutral beam (NB) current drive and plasma heating through EP thermalization. Those effects must be taken into account to enable reliable and quantitative simulations of discharges for present devices as well as predictions for future burning plasmas. Reduced models for EP transport are emerging as an effectivemore » tool for long time-scale integrated simulations of tokamak plasmas, possibly including the effects of instabilities on EP dynamics. Available models differ in how EP distribution properties are modified by instabilities, e.g. in terms of gradients in real or phase space. It is therefore crucial to assess to what extent different assumptions in the transport models affect predicted quantities such as EP profile, energy distribution, NB driven current and energy/momentum transfer to the thermal populations. A newly developed kick model, which includes modifications of the EP distribution by instabilities in both real and velocity space, is used in this work to investigate these issues. Coupled to TRANSP simulations, the kick model is used to analyze NB-heated NSTX and DIII-D discharges featuring unstable Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs). Results show that instabilities can strongly affect the EP distribution function, and modifications propagate to macroscopic quantities such as NB-driven current profile and NB power transferred to the thermal plasma species. Furthermore, those important aspects are only qualitatively captured by simpler fast ion transport models that are based on radial diffusion of energetic ions only.« less
Effects of energetic particle phase space modifications by instabilities on integrated modeling
Podesta, M.; Gorelenkova, M.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; White, R. B.
2016-07-22
Tokamak plasmas can feature a large population of energetic particles (EP) from neutral beam injection or fusion reactions. In turn, energetic particles can drive instabilities, which affect the driving EP population leading to a distortion of the original EP distribution function and of quantities that depend on it. The latter include, for example, neutral beam (NB) current drive and plasma heating through EP thermalization. Those effects must be taken into account to enable reliable and quantitative simulations of discharges for present devices as well as predictions for future burning plasmas. Reduced models for EP transport are emerging as an effective tool for long time-scale integrated simulations of tokamak plasmas, possibly including the effects of instabilities on EP dynamics. Available models differ in how EP distribution properties are modified by instabilities, e.g. in terms of gradients in real or phase space. It is therefore crucial to assess to what extent different assumptions in the transport models affect predicted quantities such as EP profile, energy distribution, NB driven current and energy/momentum transfer to the thermal populations. A newly developed kick model, which includes modifications of the EP distribution by instabilities in both real and velocity space, is used in this work to investigate these issues. Coupled to TRANSP simulations, the kick model is used to analyze NB-heated NSTX and DIII-D discharges featuring unstable Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs). Results show that instabilities can strongly affect the EP distribution function, and modifications propagate to macroscopic quantities such as NB-driven current profile and NB power transferred to the thermal plasma species. Furthermore, those important aspects are only qualitatively captured by simpler fast ion transport models that are based on radial diffusion of energetic ions only.
Experimental measurement of the 4-d transverse phase space map of a heavy ion beam
Hopkins, H S
1997-12-01
The development and employment of a new diagnostic instrument for characterizing intense, heavy ion beams is reported on. This instrument, the ''Gated Beam Imager'' or ''GBI'' was designed for use on Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Heavy Ion Fusion Project's ''Small Recirculator'', an integrated, scaled physics experiment and engineering development project for studying the transport and control of intense heavy ion beams as inertial fusion drivers in the production of electric power. The GBI allows rapid measurement and calculation of a heavy ion beam's characteristics to include all the first and second moments of the transverse phase space distribution, transverse emittance, envelope parameters and beam centroid. The GBI, with appropriate gating produces a time history of the beam resulting in a 4-D phase-space and time ''map'' of the beam. A unique capability of the GBI over existing diagnostic instruments is its ability to measure the ''cross'' moments between the two transverse orthogonal directions. Non-zero ''cross'' moments in the alternating gradient lattice of the Small Recirculator are indicative of focusing element rotational misalignments contributing to beam emittance growth. This emittance growth, while having the same effect on the ability to focus a beam as emittance growth caused by non-linear effects, is in principle removable by an appropriate number of focusing elements. The instrument uses the pepperpot method of introducing a plate with many pinholes into the beam and observing the images of the resulting beamlets as they interact with a detector after an appropriate drift distance. In order to produce adequate optical signal and repeatability, the detector was chosen to be a microchannel plate (MCP) with a phosphor readout screen. The heavy ions in the pepperpot beamlets are stopped in the MCP's thin front metal anode and the resulting secondary electron signal is amplified and proximity-focused onto the phosphor while maintaining
Future space transportation systems analysis study. Phase 1 extension: Executive summary
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1975-01-01
Potential future space programs are analyzed beyond the scope of the current shuttle traffic model to determine their transportation needs and alternative ways of evolving future space transportation systems from the baseline space transportation system (space shuttle and upper stage). Objectives of the entire study are summarized along with results to date.
The validation of made-to-measure method for reconstruction of phase-space distribution functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tagawa, H.; Gouda, N.; Yano, T.; Hara, T.
2016-11-01
We investigate how accurately phase-space distribution functions (DFs) in galactic models can be reconstructed by a made-to-measure (M2M) method, which constructs N-particle models of stellar systems from photometric and various kinematic data. The advantage of the M2M method is that this method can be applied to various galactic models without assumption of the spatial symmetries of gravitational potentials adopted in galactic models, and furthermore, numerical calculations of the orbits of the stars cannot be severely constrained by the capacities of computer memories. The M2M method has been applied to various galactic models. However, the degree of accuracy for the recovery of DFs derived by the M2M method in galactic models has never been investigated carefully. Therefore, we show the degree of accuracy for the recovery of the DFs for the anisotropic Plummer model and the axisymmetric Stäckel model, which have analytic solutions of the DFs. Furthermore, this study provides the dependence of the degree of accuracy for the recovery of the DFs on various parameters and a procedure adopted in this paper. As a result, we find that the degree of accuracy for the recovery of the DFs derived by the M2M method for the spherical target model is a few per cent, and more than 10 per cent for the axisymmetric target model.
Experiments with phase-change thermal-energy-storage canisters for Space Station Freedom
Kerslake, T.W.
1991-01-01
The solar dynamic power module proposed for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) uses the heat of fusion of a phase change material (PCM) to efficiently store thermal energy for use during eclipse periods. The PCM, a LiF-20CaF2 salt, is contained in annular, metal canisters located in a heat receiver at the focus of a solar concentrator. PCM canister ground-based experiments and analytical heat transfer studies are discussed. The hardware, test procedures, and test results from these experiments are discussed. After more than 900 simulated SSF orbital cycles, no canister cracks or leaks were observed and all data were successfully collected. The effect of 1-g test orientation on canister wall temperatures was generally small while void position was strongly dependent on test orientation and canister cooling. In one test orientation, alternating wall temperature data were measured that supports an earlier theory of oscillating vortex flow in the PCM melt. Analytical canister wall temperatures compared very favorably with experimental temperature data. This illustrates that ground-based canister thermal performance can be predicted well by analyses that employ straight-forward, engineering models of void behavior and liquid PCM free convection. Because of the accuracy of analytical models and the relative insensitivity of 1-g performance to test orientation, canister performance in micro-g should be predictable with a high degree of confidence by removing gravity effects from the analytical modeling.
R×B drift momentum spectrometer with high resolution and large phase space acceptance.
Wang, X; Konrad, G; Abele, H
2013-02-11
We propose a new type of momentum spectrometer, which uses the R×B drift effect to disperse the charged particles in a uniformly curved magnetic field, and measures the particles with large phase space acceptance and high resolution. This kind of R×B spectrometer is designed for the momentum analyses of the decay electrons and protons in the PERC (Proton and Electron Radiation Channel) beam station, which provides a strong magnetic field to guide the charged particles in the instrument. Instead of eliminating the guiding field, the R×B spectrometer evolves the field gradually to the analysing field, and the charged particles can be adiabatically transported during the dispersion and detection. The drifts of the particles have similar properties as their dispersion in the normal magnetic spectrometer. Besides, the R×B spectrometer is especially ideal for the measurements of particles with low momenta and large incident angles. We present a design of the R×B spectrometer, which can be used in PERC. For the particles with solid angle smaller than 88 msr, the maximum aberration is below 10(-4). The resolution of the momentum spectra can reach 14.4 keV/c, if the particle position measurements have a resolution of 1 mm.
Time-resolved phase-space tomography of an optomechanical cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suchoi, Oren; Shlomi, Keren; Ella, Lior; Buks, Eyal
2015-04-01
We experimentally study the phase-space distribution (PSD) of a mechanical resonator that is simultaneously coupled to two electromagnetic cavities. The first one, operating in the microwave band, is employed for inducing either cooling or self-excited oscillation (SEO), whereas the second one, operating in the optical band, is used for displacement detection. A tomography technique is employed for extracting the PSD from the signal reflected by the optical cavity. Measurements of PSD are performed in steady state near the threshold of SEO while sweeping the microwave cavity detuning. In addition, we monitor the time evolution of the transitions from an optomechanically cooled state to a state of self-excited oscillation. This transition is induced by abruptly switching the microwave driving frequency from the red-detuned region to the blue-detuned one. The experimental results are compared with theoretical predictions that are obtained by solving the Fokker-Planck equation. The feasibility of generating quantum superposition states in the system under study is briefly discussed.
Kamarchik, Eugene; Jasper, Ahren W
2013-05-21
An algorithm is presented for calculating fully anharmonic vibrational state counts, state densities, and partition functions for molecules using Monte Carlo integration of classical phase space. The algorithm includes numerical evaluations of the elements of the Jacobian and is general enough to allow for sampling in arbitrary curvilinear or rectilinear coordinate systems. Invariance to the choice of coordinate system is demonstrated for vibrational state densities of methane, where we find comparable sampling efficiency when using curvilinear z-matrix and rectilinear Cartesian normal mode coordinates. In agreement with past work, we find that anharmonicity increases the vibrational state density of methane by a factor of ∼2 at its dissociation threshold. For the vinyl radical, we find a significant (∼10×) improvement in sampling efficiency when using curvilinear z-matrix coordinates relative to Cartesian normal mode coordinates. We attribute this improved efficiency, in part, to a more natural curvilinear coordinate description of the double well associated with the H2C-C-H wagging motion. The anharmonicity correction for the vinyl radical state density is ∼1.4 at its dissociation threshold. Finally, we demonstrate that with trivial parallelizations of the Monte Carlo step, tractable calculations can be made for the vinyl radical using direct ab initio potential energy surface evaluations and a composite QCISD(T)/MP2 method.
A Prototype Novel Sensor for Autonomous, Space Based Robots - Phase 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Squillante, M. R.; Derochemont, L. P.; Cirignano, L.; Lieberman, P.; Soller, M. S.
1990-01-01
The goal of this program was to develop new sensing capabilities for autonomous robots operating in space. Information gained by the robot using these new capabilities would be combined with other information gained through more traditional capabilities, such as video, to help the robot characterize its environment as well as to identify known or unknown objects that it encounters. Several sensing capabilities using nuclear radiation detectors and backscatter technology were investigated. The result of this research has been the construction and delivery to NASA of a prototype system with three capabilities for use by autonomous robots. The primary capability was the use of beta particle backscatter measurements to determine the average atomic number (Z) of an object. This gives the robot a powerful tool to differentiate objects which may look the same, such as objects made out of different plastics or other light weight materials. In addition, the same nuclear sensor used in the backscatter measurement can be used as a nuclear spectrometer to identify sources of nuclear radiation that may be encountered by the robot, such as nuclear powered satellites. A complete nuclear analysis system is included in the software and hardware of the prototype system built in phase 2 of this effort. Finally, a method to estimate the radiation dose in the environment of the robot has been included as a third capability. Again, the same nuclear sensor is used in a different operating mode and with different analysis software. Each of these capabilities are described.
Exact Enumeration of the Phase Space of an Ising Model of Ni2MnGa
Eisenbach, Markus; Brown, Greg; Rusanu, Aurelian; Odbadrakh, Khorgolkhuu; Nicholson, Don M; McCarthy, Carrie V.
2013-01-01
Exact evaluations of partition functions are generally prohibitively expensive due to exponential growth of phase space with the number of degrees of freedom. For an Ising model with sites the number of possible states is requiring the use of better scaling methods such as importance sampling Monte-Carlo calculations for all but the smallest systems. Yet the ability to obtain exact solutions for as large as possible systems can provide important benchmark results and opportunities for unobscured insight into the underlying physicsofthesystem.HerewepresentanIsingmodelforthemagneticsublatticesoftheimportantmagneto-caloricmaterialNi MnGa and use an exact enumeration algorithm to calculate the number of states for each energy and sublattice magne- tizations and . This allows the efficient calculation of the partition function and derived thermodynamic quantities such as specific heat and susceptibility. Utilizing the jaguarpf system at Oak Ridge we are able to calculate for systems of up to48sites,whichprovidesimportantinsightintothemechanismforthelargemagnet-caloriceffectinNi MnGaaswellasanimportant benchmark for Monte-Carlo (esp. Wang-Landau method).
Experiments with phase change thermal energy storage canisters for Space Station Freedom
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kerslake, Thomas W.
1991-01-01
The solar dynamic power module proposed for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) uses the heat of fusion of a phase change material (PCM) to efficiently store thermal energy for use during eclipse periods. The PCM, a LiF-20CaF2 salt, is contained in annular, metal canisters located in a heat receiver at the focus of a solar concentrator. PCM canister ground-based experiments and analytical heat transfer studies are discussed. The hardware, test procedures, and test results from these experiments are discussed. After more than 900 simulated SSF orbital cycles, no canister cracks or leaks were observed and all data were successfully collected. The effect of 1-g test orientation on canister wall temperatures was generally small while void position was strongly dependent on test orientation and canister cooling. In one test orientation, alternating wall temperature data were measured that supports an earlier theory of oscillating vortex flow in the PCM melt. Analytical canister wall temperatures compared very favorably with experimental temperature data. This illustrates that ground-based canister thermal performance can be predicted well by analyses that employ straight-forward, engineering models of void behavior and liquid PCM free convection.
Environmentally Compatible Vapor-Phase Corrosion Inhibitor for Space Shuttle Hardware
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Novak, Howard L.; Hall, Phillip B.; Martin, David (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
USA-SRB Element is responsible for the assembly and refurbishment of the non-motor components of the SRB as part of Space Shuttle. Thrust Vector Control (TVC) frames structurally support components of the TVC system located in the aft skirt of the SRB (Solid Rocket Booster). TVC frames are exposed to the seacoast environment after refurbishment and, also, to seawater immersion after splashdown, and during tow-back to CCAFS-Hangar AF refurbishment facilities. During refurbishment operations it was found that numerous TVC frames were experiencing internal corrosion and coating failures, both from salt air and seawater intrusions. Inspectors using borescopes would visually examine the internal cavities of the complicated aluminum alloy welded tubular structure. It was very difficult for inspectors to examine cavity corners and tubing intersections and particularly. to determine the extent of the corrosion and coating anomalies. Physical access to TVC frame internal cavities for corrosion removal and coating repair was virtually impossible, and an improved method using a Liquid (water based) Vapor-phase Corrosion Inhibitor (LVCI) for preventing initiation of new corrosion, and mitigating and/or stopping existing corrosion growth was recommended in lieu of hazardous paint solvents and high VOC/solvent based corrosion inhibitors. In addition, the borescopic inspection method used to detect corrosion, and/or coating anomalies had severe limitations because of part geometry, and an improved non-destructive inspection (NDI) method using Neutron Radiography (N-Ray) was also recommended.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, D. N.; Jaynes, A. N.; Li, X.; Henderson, M. G.; Kanekal, S. G.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Fennell, J. F.; Hudson, M. K.
2014-01-01
The dual-spacecraft Van Allen Probes mission has provided a new window into mega electron volt (MeV) particle dynamics in the Earth's radiation belts. Observations (up to E (is) approximately 10MeV) show clearly the behavior of the outer electron radiation belt at different timescales: months-long periods of gradual inward radial diffusive transport and weak loss being punctuated by dramatic flux changes driven by strong solar wind transient events. We present analysis of multi-MeV electron flux and phase space density (PSD) changes during March 2013 in the context of the first year of Van Allen Probes operation. This March period demonstrates the classic signatures both of inward radial diffusive energization and abrupt localized acceleration deep within the outer Van Allen zone (L (is) approximately 4.0 +/- 0.5). This reveals graphically that both 'competing' mechanisms of multi-MeV electron energization are at play in the radiation belts, often acting almost concurrently or at least in rapid succession.
An Overview of SBIR Phase 2 In-Space Propulsion and Cryogenic Fluids Management
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.
2015-01-01
Technological innovation is the overall focus of NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The program invests in the development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA's mission directorates address critical research and development needs for agency projects. This report highlights innovative SBIR Phase II projects from 2007-2012 specifically addressing Areas in In-Space Propulsion and Cryogenic Fluids Management which is one of six core competencies at NASA Glenn Research Center. There are nineteen technologies featured with emphasis on a wide spectrum of applications such as high-performance Hall thruster support system, thruster discharge power converter, high-performance combustion chamber, ion thruster design tool, green liquid monopropellant thruster, and much more. Each article in this booklet describes an innovation, technical objective, and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report serves as an opportunity for NASA personnel including engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn of NASA SBIR's capabilities that might be crosscutting into this technology area. As the result, it would cause collaborations and partnerships between the small companies and NASA Programs and Projects resulting in benefit to both SBIR companies and NASA.
Environmentally Compatible Vapor-Phase Corrosion Inhibitor for Space Shuttle Hardware
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Novak, Howard L.; Hall, Phillip B.
2003-01-01
USA-SRB Element is responsible for the assembly and refurbishment of the non-motor components of the SRB as part of Space Shuttle. Thrust Vector Control (TVC) frames structurally support components of the TVC system located in the aft skirt of the SRB. TVC frames are exposed to the seacoast environment after refurbishment and, also, to seawater immersion after splashdown, and during tow-back to CCAFS-Hangar AF refurbishment facilities. During refurbishment operations it was found that numerous TVC frames were experiencing internal corrosion and coating failures, both from salt air and seawater intrusions. Inspectors using borescopes would visually examine the internal cavities of the complicated aluminum alloy welded tubular structure. It was very difficult for inspectors to examine cavity corners and tubing intersections and particularly, to determine the extent of the corrosion and coating anomalies. Physical access to TVC frame internal cavities for corrosion removal and coating repair was virtually impossible, and an improved method using a Liquid (water based) Vapor-phase Corrosion Inhibitor (LVCI) for preventing initiation of new corrosion, and mitigating and/or stopping existing corrosion growth was recommended in lieu of hazardous paint solvents and high VOC / solvent based corrosion inhibitors. In addition, the borescopic inspection method used to detect corrosion, and/or coating anomalies had severe limitations because of part geometry, and an improved non-destructive inspection (NDI) method using Neutron Radiography (N-Ray) was also recommended.
Environmentally Compatible Vapor-Phase Corrosion Inhibitor for Space Shuttle Hardware
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Novak, Howard L.; Hall, Phillip B.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
USA-SRB Element is responsible for the assembly and refurbishment of the non-motor components of the SRB as part of Space Shuttle. Thrust Vector Control (TVC) frames structurally support components of the TVC system located in the aft skirt of the SRB. TVC frames are exposed to the seacoast environment after refurbishment and, also, to seawater immersion after splashdown, and during tow-back to CCAFS-Hangar AF refurbishment facilities. During refurbishment operations it was found that numerous TVC frames were experiencing internal corrosion and coating failures, both from salt air and seawater intrusions. Inspectors using borescopes would visually examine the internal cavities of the complicated aluminum alloy welded tubular structure. It was very difficult for inspectors to examine cavity corners and tubing intersections and particularly, to determine the extent of the corrosion and coating anomalies. Physical access to TVC frame internal cavities for corrosion removal and coating repair was virtually impossible, and an improved method using a Liquid (water based) Vapor-phase Corrosion Inhibitor (LVCI) for preventing initiation of new corrosion, and mitigating and/or stopping existing corrosion growth was recommended in lieu of hazardous paint solvents and high VOC/solvent based corrosion inhibitors. In addition, the borescopic inspection method used to detect corrosion, and/or coating anomalies had severe limitations because of part geometry, and an improved non-destructive inspection (NDI) method using Neutron Radiography (N-Ray) was also recommended.
A variational principle in Wigner phase-space with applications to statistical mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poulsen, Jens Aage
2011-01-01
We consider the Dirac-Frenkel variational principle in Wigner phase-space and apply it to the Wigner-Liouville equation for both imaginary and real time dynamical problems. The variational principle allows us to deduce the optimal time-evolution of the parameter-dependent Wigner distribution. It is shown that the variational principle can be formulated alternatively as a "principle of least action." Several low-dimensional problems are considered. In imaginary time, high-temperature classical distributions are "cooled" to arrive at low-temperature quantum Wigner distributions whereas in real time, the coherent dynamics of a particle in a double well is considered. Especially appealing is the relative ease at which Feynman's path integral centroid variable can be incorporated as a variational parameter. This is done by splitting the high-temperature Boltzmann distribution into exact local centroid constrained distributions, which are thereafter cooled using the variational principle. The local distributions are sampled by Metropolis Monte Carlo by performing a random walk in the centroid variable. The combination of a Monte Carlo and a variational procedure enables the study of quantum effects in low-temperature many-body systems, via a method that can be systematically improved.
Probing theories of gravity with phase space-inferred potentials of galaxy clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stark, Alejo; Miller, Christopher J.; Kern, Nicholas; Gifford, Daniel; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Li, Baojiu; Koyama, Kazuya; Nichol, Robert C.
2016-04-01
Modified theories of gravity provide us with a unique opportunity to generate innovative tests of gravity. In Chameleon f (R ) gravity, the gravitational potential differs from the weak-field limit of general relativity (GR) in a mass dependent way. We develop a probe of gravity which compares high mass clusters, where Chameleon effects are weak, to low mass clusters, where the effects can be strong. We utilize the escape velocity edges in the radius/velocity phase space to infer the gravitational potential profiles on scales of 0.3-1 virial radii. We show that the escape edges of low mass clusters are enhanced compared to GR, where the magnitude of the difference depends on the background field value |fR 0 ¯ | . We validate our probe using N-body simulations and simulated light cone galaxy data. For a Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument Bright Galaxy Sample, including observational systematics, projection effects, and cosmic variance, our test can differentiate between GR and Chameleon f (R ) gravity models, |fR 0 ¯ |=4 ×10-6 (2 ×10-6) at >5 σ (>2 σ ), more than an order of magnitude better than current cluster-scale constraints.
An Overview of SBIR Phase 2 Physical Sciences and Biomedical Technologies in Space
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.
2015-01-01
Technological innovation is the overall focus of NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The program invests in the development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA's mission directorates address critical research and development needs for agency projects. This report highlights innovative SBIR Phase II projects from 2007-2012 specifically addressing areas in physical sciences and biomedical technologies in space, which is one of six core competencies at NASA Glenn Research Center. There are twenty two technologies featured with emphasis on a wide spectrum of applications such as reusable handheld electrolyte, sensor for bone markers, wideband single crystal transducer, mini treadmill for musculoskeletal, and much more. Each article in this report describes an innovation, technical objective, and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report serves as an opportunity for NASA personnel including engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn of NASA SBIR's capabilities that might be crosscutting into this technology area. As the result, it would cause collaborations and partnerships between the small companies and NASA Programs and Projects resulting in benefit to both SBIR companies and NASA.
Exotic Explosions and Eruptions: Exploring a New Transient Phase-Space with Pan-STARRS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berger, Edo; Roth, Kathy; Soderberg, Alicia; Narayan, Gautham; Czekala, Ian; Sanders, Nathan; Stubbs, Christopher; Chornock, Ryan; Foley, Ryan; Rest, Armin
2011-08-01
For over a century two classes of optical transients - nova eruptions and supernova explosions - have been studied in great detail. These two classes occupy narrow ranges of absolute magnitudes, around -8 and -18 mag (+/-2 mag) respectively. However, in recent years several transients have been discovered in the wide nova-SN gap and at very high luminosity (<-20 mag), suggesting that new classes of optical transients remain to be discovered. The origin of these events is hotly debated: they are argued to represent massive star eruptions, deficient white dwarf thermonuclear explosions, eta Carina-like ejections, and possibly new SN mechanisms (electron-capture, fallback, pair-instability). The Pan-STARRS project provides an unprecedented opportunity to explore this sparsely-sampled phase-space thanks to its unmatched depth and areal coverage. Here we propose to continue our successful TOO spectroscopy of Pan-STARRS transients in the nova-SN gap and at high luminosity to classify and characterize their origin for the first time. Our Gemini program recently led to the discovery of the most luminous SN-like event to date (z=1.4 with a peak of -24 mag!), as well as other high- and intermediate-luminosity events. Pan-STARRS will continue to discover many such transients and Gemini spectroscopy will determine their origin.
Exotic Explosions and Eruptions: Exploring a New Transient Phase-Space with Pan-STARRS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berger, Edo; Roth, Kathy; Soderberg, Alicia; Stubbs, Christopher; Narayan, Gautham; Czekala, Ian; Fong, Wen-Fai; Chornock, Ryan; Foley, Ryan; Rest, Armin
2011-02-01
For over a century two classes of optical transients - nova eruptions and supernova explosions - have been studied in great detail. These two classes occupy narrow ranges of absolute magnitudes, around -8 and -18 mag (+/-2 mag) respectively. However, in recent years several transients have been discovered in the wide nova-SN gap and at very high luminosity (<-20 mag), suggesting that new classes of optical transients remain to be discovered. The origin of these events is hotly debated: they are argued to represent massive star eruptions, deficient white dwarf thermonuclear explosions, eta Carina-like ejections, and possibly new SN mechanisms (electron-capture, fallback, pair-instability). The fully-operational Pan-STARRS project provides an unprecedented opportunity to explore this sparsely-sampled phase-space thanks to its unmatched depth and areal coverage. Here we propose to continue our successful TOO spectroscopy of Pan-STARRS transients in the nova-SN gap and at high luminosity to classify and characterize their origin for the first time. Our Gemini program recently led to the discovery of the most luminous SN-like event to date (z=1.4 with a peak of -23.5 mag!), as well as other high- and intermediate-luminosity events. Pan-STARRS will continue to discover many such transients and Gemini spectroscopy will determine their origin.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yeh, Leehwa
1993-01-01
The phase-space-picture approach to quantum non-equilibrium statistical mechanics via the characteristic function of infinite-mode squeezed coherent states is introduced. We use quantum Brownian motion as an example to show how this approach provides an interesting geometrical interpretation of quantum non-equilibrium phenomena.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roman, Monsi C.; Mittelman, Marc W.
2010-01-01
This slide presentation summarizes the studies performed to assess the bulk phase microbial community during the Space Station Water Recover Tests (WRT) from 1990-1998. These tests show that it is possible to recycle water from different sources including urine, and produce water that can exceed the quality of municpally produced tap water.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bowyer, J. M.
1977-01-01
The principal chemical species emitted and/or entrained by the rocket motors of the space shuttle vehicle during the launch phase of its trajectory are considered. Results are presented for two extreme trajectories, both of which were calculated in 1976.
Kozanecki, W; Bevan, A.J.; Viaud, B.F.; Cai, Y.; Fisher, A.S.; O'Grady, C.; Lindquist, B.; Roodman, A.; J.M.Thompson, M.Weaver; /SLAC
2008-09-09
We present an extensive experimental characterization of the e{sup {+-}} phase space at the interaction point of the SLAC PEP-II B-Factory, that combines a detailed mapping of luminous-region observables using the BABAR detector, with stored-beam measurements by accelerator techniques.
Shinohara, Kouji; Kim, Junghee; Kim, Jun Young; Rhee, Tongnyeol
2016-11-01
The orbits of lost ions can be calculated from the information obtained by a fast ion loss detector (FILD). The orbits suggest a source of the lost fast ions in a phase space. However, it is not obvious whether an observable set of orbits, or phase space, of a FILD appropriately covers the region of interest to be investigated since the observable phase space can be affected by plasma facing components (PFCs) and a magnetic configuration. A tool has been developed to evaluate the observable phase space of FILD diagnostic by calculating particle orbits by taking the PFCs and 3D magnetic field into account.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kusoljariyakul, K.; Thongbai, C.
2011-07-01
A high brightness electron source of ultra-small emittance and high-average current is one of the most important components for future accelerators. In a RF-electron-gun, rapid acceleration can reduce emittance growth due to space charge effects. However, twisting or rotation of the transverse phase-space distribution as a function of time is observed in thermionic RF-electron-guns and may set a lower limit to the projected beam emittance. Such rotation being caused by the variation of the RF field with time may be compensated by fields from a specific cavity. In this work, we study RF-electron-gun phase-space dynamics and emittance under the influence of external fields to evaluate the compensation schemes.
Piot, P.; Sun, Y.-E; Power, J.G.; Rihaoui, M.; /NICADD, DeKalb
2010-07-01
We propose a general method for tailoring the current distribution of relativistic electron bunches. The technique relies on a recently proposed method to exchange the longitudinal phase space emittance with one of the transverse emittances. The method consists of transversely shaping the bunch and then converting its transverse profile into a current profile via a transverse-to-longitudinal phase-space-exchange beamline. We show that it is possible to tailor the current profile to follow, in principle, any desired distributions. We demonstrate, via computer simulations, the application of the method to generate trains of microbunches with tunable spacing and linearly-ramped current profiles. We also briefly explore potential applications of the technique.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leverrier, A.; Karpov, E.; Grangier, P.; Cerf, N. J.
2009-11-01
Proving the unconditional security of quantum key distribution (QKD) is a highly challenging task as one needs to determine the most efficient attack compatible with experimental data. This task is even more demanding for continuous-variable QKD as the Hilbert space where the protocol is described is infinite dimensional. A possible strategy to address this problem is to make an extensive use of the symmetries of the protocol. In this paper, we investigate a rotation symmetry in phase space that is particularly relevant to continuous-variable QKD, and explore the way towards a new quantum de Finetti theorem that would exploit this symmetry and provide a powerful tool to assess the security of continuous-variable protocols. As a first step, a single-party asymptotic version of this quantum de Finetti theorem in phase space is derived.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pohner, John A.; Dempsey, Brian P.; Herold, Leroy M.
1990-01-01
Space Station elements and advanced military spacecraft will require rejection of tens of kilowatts of waste heat. Large space radiators and two-phase heat transport loops will be required. To minimize radiator size and weight, it is critical to minimize the temperature drop between the heat source and sink. Under an Air Force contract, a unique, high-performance heat exchanger is developed for coupling the radiator to the transport loop. Since fluid flow through the heat exchanger is driven by capillary forces which are easily dominated by gravity forces in ground testing, it is necessary to perform microgravity thermal testing to verify the design. This contract consists of an experiment definition phase leading to a preliminary design and cost estimate for a shuttle-based flight experiment of this heat exchanger design. This program will utilize modified hardware from a ground test program for the heat exchanger.
BUDHIES II: a phase-space view of H I gas stripping and star formation quenching in cluster galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaffé, Yara L.; Smith, Rory; Candlish, Graeme N.; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Sheen, Yun-Kyeong; Verheijen, Marc A. W.
2015-04-01
We investigate the effect of ram-pressure from the intracluster medium on the stripping of H I gas in galaxies in a massive, relaxed, X-ray bright, galaxy cluster at z = 0.2 from the Blind Ultra Deep H I Environmental Survey (BUDHIES). We use cosmological simulations, and velocity versus position phase-space diagrams to infer the orbital histories of the cluster galaxies. In particular, we embed a simple analytical description of ram-pressure stripping in the simulations to identify the regions in phase-space where galaxies are more likely to have been sufficiently stripped of their H I gas to fall below the detection limit of our survey. We find a striking agreement between the model predictions and the observed location of H I-detected and non-detected blue (late-type) galaxies in phase-space, strongly implying that ram-pressure plays a key role in the gas removal from galaxies, and that this can happen during their first infall into the cluster. However, we also find a significant number of gas-poor, red (early-type) galaxies in the infall region of the cluster that cannot easily be explained with our model of ram-pressure stripping alone. We discuss different possible additional mechanisms that could be at play, including the pre-processing of galaxies in their previous environment. Our results are strengthened by the distribution of galaxy colours (optical and UV) in phase-space, that suggests that after a (gas-rich) field galaxy falls into the cluster, it will lose its gas via ram-pressure stripping, and as it settles into the cluster, its star formation will decay until it is completely quenched. Finally, this work demonstrates the utility of phase-space diagrams to analyse the physical processes driving the evolution of cluster galaxies, in particular H I gas stripping.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hofmann, M.; Rudolph, G.; Schmidt, M.
2013-08-01
We consider a system with symmetries whose configuration space is a compact Lie group, acted upon by inner automorphisms. The classical reduced phase space of this system decomposes into connected components of orbit type subsets. To investigate hypothetical quantum effects of this decomposition one has to construct the associated costratification of the Hilbert space of the quantum system in the sense of Huebschmann. In the present paper, instead of the decomposition by orbit types, we consider the related decomposition by reflection types (conjugacy classes of reflection subgroups). These two decompositions turn out to coincide, e.g., for the classical groups SU(n) and Sp(n). We derive defining relations for reflection type subsets in terms of irreducible characters and discuss how to obtain from that the corresponding costratification of the Hilbert space of the system. To illustrate the method, we give explicit results for some low rank classical groups.
Using Pre-Melted Phase Change Material to Keep Payloads in Space Warm for Hours without Power
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choi, Michael
2013-01-01
Adding phase change material (PCM) to a mission payload can maintain its temperature above the cold survival limit, without power, for several hours in space. For the International Space Station, PCM is melted by heaters just prior to the payload translation to the worksite when power is available. When power is cut off during the six-hour translation, the PCM releases its latent heat to make up the heat loss from the radiator(s) to space. For the interplanetary Probe, PCM is melted by heaters just prior to separation from the orbiter when power is available from the orbiter power system. After the Probe separates from the orbiter, the PCM releases its latent heat to make up the heat loss from the Probe exterior to space. Paraffin wax is a good PCM candidate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Dongliang
The thermoelectric cooling system has advantages over conventional vapor compression cooling devices, including compact in size, light in weight, high reliability, no mechanical moving parts, no refrigerant, being powered by direct current, and easily switching between cooling and heating modes. However, it has been long suffering from its relatively high cost and low energy efficiency, which has restricted its usage to niche applications, such as space missions, portable cooling devices, scientific and medical equipment, where coefficient of performance (COP) is not as important as reliability, energy availability, and quiet operation environment. Enhancement of thermoelectric cooling system performance generally relies on two methods: improving thermoelectric material efficiency and through thermoelectric cooling system thermal design. This research has been focused on the latter one. A prototype thermoelectric cooling system integrated with phase change material (PCM) thermal energy storage unit for space cooling has been developed. The PCM thermal storage unit used for cold storage at night, functions as the thermoelectric cooling system's heat sink during daytime's cooling period and provides relatively lower hot side temperature for the thermoelectric cooling system. The experimental test of the prototype system in a reduced-scale chamber has realized an average cooling COP of 0.87, with the maximum value of 1.22. Another comparison test for efficacy of PCM thermal storage unit shows that 35.3% electrical energy has been saved from using PCM for the thermoelectric cooling system. In general, PCM faces difficulty of poor thermal conductivity at both solid and liquid phases. This system implemented a finned inner tube to increase heat transfer during PCM charging (melting) process that directly impacts thermoelectric system's performance. A simulation tool for the entire system has been developed including mathematical models for a single thermoelectric module
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Mingyu; Lu, Quanming; Huang, Can; Wang, Shui
2010-10-01
A multidimensional electron phase-space hole (electron hole) is considered to be unstable to the transverse instability. In this paper, we perform two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations to study the evolution of electron holes at different plasma conditions; we find that the evolution is determined by combined actions between the transverse instability and the stabilization by the background magnetic field. In very weakly magnetized plasma (Ωe $\\ll$ ωpe, where Ωe and ωpe are the electron gyrofrequency and plasma frequency, respectively), the transverse instability dominates the evolution of the electron holes. The parallel cut of the perpendicular electric field (E$\\perp$) has bipolar structures, accompanied by the kinking of the electron holes. Such structures last for only tens of electron plasma periods. With the increase of the background magnetic field, the evolution of the electron holes becomes slower. The bipolar structures of the parallel cut of E$\\perp$ in the electron holes can evolve into unipolar structures. In very strongly magnetized plasma (Ωe $\\gg$ ωpe), the unipolar structures of the parallel cut of E$\\perp$ can last for thousands of electron plasma periods. At the same time, the perpendicular electric field (E$\\perp$) in the electron holes can also influence electron trajectories passing through the electron holes, which results in variations of charge density along the direction perpendicular to the background magnetic field outside of the electron holes. When the amplitude of the electron hole is sufficiently strong, streaked structures of E$\\perp$ can be formed outside of the electron holes, which then emit electrostatic whistler waves because of the interactions between the streaked structures of E$\\perp$ and vibrations of the kinked electron holes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, M.; Lu, Q.; Huang, C.; Wang, S.
2010-12-01
A multi-dimensional electron phase-space hole (electron hole) is considered to be unstable to the transverse instability. In this paper, we perform two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations to study the evolution of electron holes at different plasma conditions, and find that the evolution is determined by combined actions between the transverse instability and the stabilization of the background magnetic field. In very weakly magnetized plasma (Ωe<<ωpe, where Ωe andωpe are the electron gyrofrequency and plasma frequency, respectively), the transverse instability dominates the evolution of the electron holes. Accompanied by the kinking of the electron holes, the parallel cut of the perpendicular electric field (E⊥) has bipolar structures. Such structures last for only tens of electron plasma periods. With the increase of the background magnetic field, the evolution of the electron holes becomes slower. The bipolar structures of the parallel cut of E⊥ in the electron holes can evolve into unipolar structures. In very strongly magnetized plasma (Ωe>>ωpe), the unipolar structures of the parallel cut of E⊥ can last for thousands of electron plasma periods. At the same time, the perpendicular electric field (E⊥) in electron holes can also influence electron trajectories passing through the electron holes, which results in the variations of charge density along the direction perpendicular to the background magnetic field outside of the electron holes. When the amplitude of the electron hole is sufficiently strong, streaked structures of E⊥ can be formed outside of the electron holes, which then emit electrostatic whistler waves due to the interactions between the streaked structures of E⊥ and vibrations of the kinked electron hole.
Mass, velocity anisotropy, and pseudo phase-space density profiles of Abell 2142
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munari, E.; Biviano, A.; Mamon, G. A.
2014-06-01
Aims: We aim to compute the mass and velocity anisotropy profiles of Abell 2142 and, from there, the pseudo phase-space density profile Q(r) and the density slope - velocity anisotropy β - γ relation, and then to compare them with theoretical expectations. Methods: The mass profiles were obtained by using three techniques based on member galaxy kinematics, namely the caustic method, the method of dispersion-kurtosis, and MAMPOSSt. Through the inversion of the Jeans equation, it was possible to compute the velocity anisotropy profiles. Results: The mass profiles, as well as the virial values of mass and radius, computed with the different techniques agree with one another and with the estimates coming from X-ray and weak lensing studies. A combined mass profile is obtained by averaging the lensing, X-ray, and kinematics determinations. The cluster mass profile is well fitted by an NFW profile with c = 4.0 ± 0.5. The population of red and blue galaxies appear to have a different velocity anisotropy configuration, since red galaxies are almost isotropic, while blue galaxies are radially anisotropic, with a weak dependence on radius. The Q(r) profile for the red galaxy population agrees with the theoretical results found in cosmological simulations, suggesting that any bias, relative to the dark matter particles, in velocity dispersion of the red component is independent of radius. The β - γ relation for red galaxies matches the theoretical relation only in the inner region. The deviations might be due to the use of galaxies as tracers of the gravitational potential, unlike the non-collisional tracer used in the theoretical relation.
The separation of the head and phantom scatter components from a phase space description.
Sanz, Darío Esteban; Nelli, Flavio Enrico
2004-09-21
The formalism based on phantom and collimator scatter factors for high energy photon beams is deduced using a phase space description. The phantom scatter factors (Sp) depend on the field size and shape at the level of the phantom and are generally considered independent of the collimation details used to form the desired field provided the effect of contaminant electrons can be neglected. As demonstrated in this work, this behaviour leads to the applicability of the Clarkson method in irregular fields. However, for a given field formed with a tertiary collimator it is not a priori clear that the variations of extrafocal radiation due to secondary collimator setting do not affect the phantom scatter correction factors. In fact, the extrafocal radiation has a lower mean energy than that of unscattered photons, and this radiation can reach points well outside the radiation field increasing the irradiated phantom volume. Besides, transmission through the blocks contributes to phantom scatter. Therefore, for a given block-defined field, the associated phantom scatter dose, per unit of fluence in air on the central axis, should in principle increase when enlarging the secondary collimator field. To confirm this, isocentric Sp data for 6 MV photons were measured at 10 cm depth in water, reducing with cerrobend blocks several fields formed with the secondary collimators. In particular, when a 30 x 30 cm2 collimator field is reduced with blocks to a 7 x 7 cm2 field, the dose per unit of fluence in air is 1.4% higher than that of the square collimator field equating the given block field. Our calculations indicate that in this case the block transmission accounts for only 0.2% of this increment, showing that the remaining effect is due to extrafocal radiation. As a concluding remark, this work contributes to a better understanding of the classical Clarkson method for irregular fields giving, additionally, a formal interpretation of the commonly used quantities.
Yonehara, Takehiro; Takatsuka, Kazuo
2008-10-07
We propose a simple and tractable method to treat quantum electron wavepacket dynamics that nonadiabatically couples with "classical" nuclear motions in mixed quantum-classical representation. The electron wavepacket is propagated inducing electronic-state mixing along our proposed paths. It has been shown in our previous studies that classical force working on nuclei in a nonadiabatic region is represented in a matrix form (called the force matrix), and the solutions of the Hamilton canonical equations of motion for nuclei based on this force matrix give rise to a cascade of infinitely many branching paths when solved simultaneously with electronic-state mixing. As a tractable approximation to these rigorous solutions, we here devise a method to provide much simpler nonadiabatic paths: (i) extract one or a few number of representative paths by taking an average over the paths in phase space (not averaging over the forces) that should be otherwise undergo the fine branching. (ii) After the nonadiabatic coupling becomes sufficiently small, let these paths naturally branch by running them with their own individual eigenforces (the eigenvalues of the force matrix). Since the eigenforces coincide with the forces of adiabatic potential energy surfaces in the limit of zero nonadiabatic coupling, these branching paths eventually run on one of possible adiabatic potential energy surfaces, converging to a classical path (Born-Oppenheimer path). The paths thus created are theoretically satisfactory in that they realize the coherent mixing of electronic states in the manner of quantum entanglement and yet eventually become consistent with the Born-Oppenheimer classical trajectories. We test the present method numerically with the use of two- and three-state systems that are extracted from ab initio calculations for the excited states of LiH molecule.
Quantum harmonic Brownian motion in a general environment: A modified phase-space approach
Yeh, L. |
1993-06-23
After extensive investigations over three decades, the linear-coupling model and its equivalents have become the standard microscopic models for quantum harmonic Brownian motion, in which a harmonically bound Brownian particle is coupled to a quantum dissipative heat bath of general type modeled by infinitely many harmonic oscillators. The dynamics of these models have been studied by many authors using the quantum Langevin equation, the path-integral approach, quasi-probability distribution functions (e.g., the Wigner function), etc. However, the quantum Langevin equation is only applicable to some special problems, while other approaches all involve complicated calculations due to the inevitable reduction (i.e., contraction) operation for ignoring/eliminating the degrees of freedom of the heat bath. In this dissertation, the author proposes an improved methodology via a modified phase-space approach which employs the characteristic function (the symplectic Fourier transform of the Wigner function) as the representative of the density operator. This representative is claimed to be the most natural one for performing the reduction, not only because of its simplicity but also because of its manifestation of geometric meaning. Accordingly, it is particularly convenient for studying the time evolution of the Brownian particle with an arbitrary initial state. The power of this characteristic function is illuminated through a detailed study of several physically interesting problems, including the environment-induced damping of quantum interference, the exact quantum Fokker-Planck equations, and the relaxation of non-factorizable initial states. All derivations and calculations axe shown to be much simplified in comparison with other approaches. In addition to dynamical problems, a novel derivation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem which is valid for all quantum linear systems is presented.
Duality in Phase Space and Complex Dynamics of an Integrated Pest Management Network Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Baoyin; Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A.
Fragmented habitat patches between which plants and animals can disperse can be modeled as networks with varying degrees of connectivity. A predator-prey model with network structures is proposed for integrated pest management (IPM) with impulsive control actions. The model was analyzed using numerical methods to investigate how factors such as the impulsive period, the releasing constant of natural enemies and the mode of connections between the patches affect pest outbreak patterns and the success or failure of pest control. The concept of the cluster as defined by Holland and Hastings is used to describe variations in results ranging from global synchrony when all patches have identical fluctuations to n-cluster solutions with all patches having different dynamics. Heterogeneity in the initial densities of either pest or natural enemy generally resulted in a variety of cluster oscillations. Surprisingly, if n > 1, the clusters fall into two groups one with low amplitude fluctuations and the other with high amplitude fluctuations (i.e. duality in phase space), implying that control actions radically alter the system's characteristics by inducing duality and more complex dynamics. When the impulsive period is small enough, i.e. the control strategy is undertaken frequently, the pest can be eradicated. As the period increases, the pest's dynamics shift from a steady state to become chaotic with periodic windows and more multicluster oscillations arise for heterogenous initial density distributions. Period-doubling bifurcation and periodic halving cascades occur as the releasing constant of the natural enemy increases. For the same ecological system with five differently connected networks, as the randomness of the connectedness increases, the transient duration becomes smaller and the probability of multicluster oscillations appearing becomes higher.
Asymptotically scale-invariant occupancy of phase space makes the entropy Sq extensive
Tsallis, Constantino; Gell-Mann, Murray; Sato, Yuzuru
2005-01-01
Phase space can be constructed for N equal and distinguishable subsystems that could be probabilistically either weakly correlated or strongly correlated. If they are locally correlated, we expect the Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy SBG ≡ -k Σi pi ln pi to be extensive, i.e., SBG(N) ∝ N for N → ∞. In particular, if they are independent, SBG is strictly additive, i.e., SBG(N) = NSBG(1), ∀N. However, if the subsystems are globally correlated, we expect, for a vast class of systems, the entropy Sq ≡ k[1 - Σi pqi]/(q - 1) (with S1 = SBG) for some special value of q ≠ 1 to be the one which is extensive [i.e., Sq(N) ∝ N for N → ∞]. Another concept which is relevant is strict or asymptotic scale-freedom (or scale-invariance), defined as the situation for which all marginal probabilities of the N-system coincide or asymptotically approach (for N → ∞) the joint probabilities of the (N - 1)-system. If each subsystem is a binary one, scale-freedom is guaranteed by what we hereafter refer to as the Leibnitz rule, i.e., the sum of two successive joint probabilities of the N-system coincides or asymptotically approaches the corresponding joint probability of the (N - 1)-system. The kinds of interplay of these various concepts are illustrated in several examples. One of them justifies the title of this paper. We conjecture that these mechanisms are deeply related to the very frequent emergence, in natural and artificial complex systems, of scale-free structures and to their connections with nonextensive statistical mechanics. Summarizing, we have shown that, for asymptotically scale-invariant systems, it is Sq with q ≠ 1, and not SBG, the entropy which matches standard, clausius-like, prescriptions of classical thermodynamics. PMID:16230624
Xu, Tianhua; Liga, Gabriele; Lavery, Domaniç; Thomsen, Benn C.; Savory, Seb J.; Killey, Robert I.; Bayvel, Polina
2015-01-01
Superchannel transmission spaced at the symbol rate, known as Nyquist spacing, has been demonstrated for effectively maximizing the optical communication channel capacity and spectral efficiency. However, the achievable capacity and reach of transmission systems using advanced modulation formats are affected by fibre nonlinearities and equalization enhanced phase noise (EEPN). Fibre nonlinearities can be effectively compensated using digital back-propagation (DBP). However EEPN which arises from the interaction between laser phase noise and dispersion cannot be efficiently mitigated, and can significantly degrade the performance of transmission systems. Here we report the first investigation of the origin and the impact of EEPN in Nyquist-spaced superchannel system, employing electronic dispersion compensation (EDC) and multi-channel DBP (MC-DBP). Analysis was carried out in a Nyquist-spaced 9-channel 32-Gbaud DP-64QAM transmission system. Results confirm that EEPN significantly degrades the performance of all sub-channels of the superchannel system and that the distortions are more severe for the outer sub-channels, both using EDC and MC-DBP. It is also found that the origin of EEPN depends on the relative position between the carrier phase recovery module and the EDC (or MC-DBP) module. Considering EEPN, diverse coding techniques and modulation formats have to be applied for optimizing different sub-channels in superchannel systems. PMID:26365422
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aydoğmuş, Tarik; Bor, Elif Tarhan; Bor, Şakir
2011-09-01
Porous TiNi alloys with porosities in the range of 51 to 73 pct were prepared successfully applying a new powder metallurgy fabrication route in which magnesium was used as a space holder, resulting in either single austenite phase or a mixture of austenite and martensite phases dictated by the composition of the starting powders, but entirely free from secondary brittle intermetallics, oxides, nitrides, and carbonitrides. Since transformation temperatures are very sensitive to composition, deformation, and oxidation, for the first time, transformation temperatures of porous TiNi alloys were investigated using chemically homogeneous specimens in as-sintered and aged conditions eliminating secondary phase, contamination, and deformation effects. It was found that the porosity content of the foams has no influence on the phase transformation temperatures both in as-sintered and aged conditions, while deformation, oxidation, and aging treatment are severely influential.
Compact direct space-to-time pulse shaping with a phase-only spatial light modulator.
Mansuryan, T; Kalashyan, M; Lhermite, J; Suran, E; Kermene, V; Barthelemy, A; Louradour, F
2011-05-01
A very compact and innovative pulse shaper is proposed and demonstrated. The standard architecture for pulse shaping that is composed of diffraction gratings associated with an amplitude-phase spatial light modulator (SLM) is replaced by a single phase-only SLM. It acts as a pulse stretcher and as an amplitude and phase modulator at the same time. Preliminary experiments demonstrate the accurate control of amplitude and phase of shaped pulses.
Thomas E. Cayton
2005-08-01
The AE-8 trapped electron and the AP-8 trapped proton models are used to examine the L-shell variation of phase-space densities for sets of transverse (or 1st) invariants, {mu}, and geometrical invariants, K (related to the first two adiabatic invariants). The motivation for this study is twofold: first, to discover the functional dependence of the phase-space density upon the invariants; and, second, to explore the global structure of the radiation belts within this context. Variation due to particle rest mass is considered as well. The overall goal of this work is to provide a framework for analyzing energetic particle data collected by instruments on Global Positioning System (GPS) spacecraft that fly through the most intense region of the radiation belt. For all considered values of {mu} and K, and for 3.5 R{sub E} < L < 6.5 R{sub E}, the AE-8 electron phase-space density increases with increasing L; this trend--the expected one for a population diffusing inward from an external source--continues to L = 7.5 R{sub E} for both small and large values of K but reverses slightly for intermediate values of K. The AP-8 proton phase-space density exhibits {mu}-dependent local minima around L = 5 R{sub E}. Both AE-8 and AP-8 exhibit critical or cutoff values for the invariants beyond which the flux and therefore the phase-space density vanish. For both electrons and protons, these cutoff values vary systematically with magnetic moment and L-shell and are smaller than those estimated for the atmospheric loss cone. For large magnetic moments, for both electrons and protons, the K-dependence of the phase-space density is exponential, with maxima at the magnetic equator (K = 0) and vanishing beyond a cutoff value, K{sub c}. Such features suggest that momentum-dependent trapping boundaries, perhaps drift-type loss cones, serve as boundary conditions for trapped electrons as well as trapped protons.
T.E. Cayton
2005-08-12
The AE-8 trapped electron and the AP-8 trapped proton models are used to examine the L-shell variation of phase-space densities for sets of transverse (or 1st) invariants, {mu}, and geometrical invariants, K (related to the first two adiabatic invariants). The motivation for this study is twofold: first, to discover the functional dependence of the phase-space density upon the invariants; and, second, to explore the global structure of the radiation belts within this context. Variation due to particle rest mass is considered as well. The overall goal of this work is to provide a framework for analyzing energetic particle data collected by instruments on Global Positioning System (GPS) spacecraft that fly through the most intense region of the radiation belt. For all considered values of {mu} and K, and for 3.5 R{sub E} < L < 6.5 R{sub E}, the AE-8 electron phase-space density increases with increasing L; this trend--the expected one for a population diffusing inward from an external source--continues to L = 7.5 R{sub E} for both small and large values of K but reverses slightly for intermediate values of K. The AP-8 proton phase-space density exhibits {mu}-dependent local minima around L = 5 R{sub E}. Both AE-8 and AP-8 exhibit critical or cutoff values for the invariants beyond which the flux and therefore the phase-space density vanish. For both electrons and protons, these cutoff values vary systematically with magnetic moment and L-shell and are smaller than those estimated for the atmospheric loss cone. For large magnetic moments, for both electrons and protons, the K-dependence of the phase-space density is exponential, with maxima at the magnetic equator (K = 0) and vanishing beyond a cutoff value, K{sub c}. Such features suggest that momentum-dependent trapping boundaries, perhaps drift-type loss cones, serve as boundary conditions for trapped electrons as well as trapped protons.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Perry, J. L.
1990-01-01
Space Station Freedom environmental control and life support system testing has been conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center since 1986. The phase 3 simplified integrated test (SIT) conducted from July 30, 1989, through August 11, 1989, tested an integrated air revitalization system. During this test, the trace contaminant control subsystem (TCCS) was directly integrated with the bleed stream from the carbon dioxide reduction subsystem. The TCCS performed as expected with minor anomalies. The test set the basis for further characterizing the TCCS performance as part of advance air revitalization system configurations.
Beyond optical molasses: 3D raman sideband cooling of atomic cesium to high phase-space density
Kerman; Vuletic; Chin; Chu
2000-01-17
We demonstrate a simple, general purpose method to cool neutral atoms. A sample containing 3x10(8) cesium atoms prepared in a magneto-optical trap is cooled and simultaneously spin polarized in 10 ms at a density of 1.1x10(11) cm (-3) to a phase space density nlambda(3)(dB) = 1/500, which is almost 3 orders of magnitude higher than attainable in free space with optical molasses. The technique is based on 3D degenerate Raman sideband cooling in optical lattices and remains efficient even at densities where the mean lattice site occupation is close to unity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whiteside, J. B.; Giangano, D.; Heuer, R. L.; Kamykowski, E.; Kesselman, M.; Rooney, W. D.; Schulte, R.; Stauber, M.
1992-01-01
The overall objective of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of the space environment on components considered for a Space-Based Radar (SBR) Phased-Array Antenna. Of primary interest was a study of the degradation of the polyimide film Kapton (DuPont trademark), the material considered for use in the antenna plane. The most striking result of the experiment was the overall good condition of the Kapton antenna planes and Kapton tensile specimens, despite nearly six years of exposure to the space environment. This was largely attributable to the orientation of the Kapton (parallel and flush on the space end) and the stability of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) in orbit. However, weathering of exposed Kapton surfaces was not insignificant. Results on elongation and mechanical properties of the plain and the fiberglass-reinforced Kapton are presented. Reduction in strain to failure of flight-exposed Kapton is attributed to surface defects of these specimens. Physical property testing of the materials to date reveals no significant difference between flight-exposed and control material. The second objective was to investigate the interaction between high-voltage electrodes and typical spacecraft contaminants in simulation of discharge triggering across differentially charged dielectric surfaces (spacecraft charging conditions). Electronic data acquisition and memory systems appeared to operate correctly, but very few discharges were recorded. Induced radioactivity, contamination, impacts, and orientation features of atomic oxygen erosion were observed.
Real-space and reciprocal-space Berry phases in the Hall effect of Mn(1-x)Fe(x)Si.
Franz, C; Freimuth, F; Bauer, A; Ritz, R; Schnarr, C; Duvinage, C; Adams, T; Blügel, S; Rosch, A; Mokrousov, Y; Pfleiderer, C
2014-05-09
We report an experimental and computational study of the Hall effect in Mn(1-x)Fe(x)Si, as complemented by measurements in Mn(1-x)Co(x)Si, when helimagnetic order is suppressed under substitutional doping. For small x the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and the topological Hall effect (THE) change sign. Under larger doping the AHE remains small and consistent with the magnetization, while the THE grows by over a factor of 10. Both the sign and the magnitude of the AHE and the THE are in excellent agreement with calculations based on density functional theory. Our study provides the long-sought material-specific microscopic justification that, while the AHE is due to the reciprocal-space Berry curvature, the THE originates in real-space Berry phases.