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Sample records for 6-dof parallel robot

  1. Gait simulation via a 6-DOF parallel robot with iterative learning control.

    PubMed

    Aubin, Patrick M; Cowley, Matthew S; Ledoux, William R

    2008-03-01

    We have developed a robotic gait simulator (RGS) by leveraging a 6-degree of freedom parallel robot, with the goal of overcoming three significant challenges of gait simulation, including: 1) operating at near physiologically correct velocities; 2) inputting full scale ground reaction forces; and 3) simulating motion in all three planes (sagittal, coronal and transverse). The robot will eventually be employed with cadaveric specimens, but as a means of exploring the capability of the system, we have first used it with a prosthetic foot. Gait data were recorded from one transtibial amputee using a motion analysis system and force plate. Using the same prosthetic foot as the subject, the RGS accurately reproduced the recorded kinematics and kinetics and the appropriate vertical ground reaction force was realized with a proportional iterative learning controller. After six gait iterations the controller reduced the root mean square (RMS) error between the simulated and in situ; vertical ground reaction force to 35 N during a 1.5 s simulation of the stance phase of gait with a prosthetic foot. This paper addresses the design, methodology and validation of the novel RGS. PMID:18334421

  2. Development of a 6DOF robotic motion phantom for radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Belcher, Andrew H.; Liu, Xinmin; Grelewicz, Zachary; Pearson, Erik; Wiersma, Rodney D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The use of medical technology capable of tracking patient motion or positioning patients along 6 degree-of-freedom (6DOF) has steadily increased in the field of radiation therapy. However, due to the complex nature of tracking and performing 6DOF motion, it is critical that such technology is properly verified to be operating within specifications in order to ensure patient safety. In this study, a robotic motion phantom is presented that can be programmed to perform highly accurate motion along any X (left–right), Y (superior–inferior), Z (anterior–posterior), pitch (around X), roll (around Y), and yaw (around Z) axes. In addition, highly synchronized motion along all axes can be performed in order to simulate the dynamic motion of a tumor in 6D. The accuracy and reproducibility of this 6D motion were characterized. Methods: An in-house designed and built 6D robotic motion phantom was constructed following the Stewart–Gough parallel kinematics platform archetype. The device was controlled using an inverse kinematics formulation, and precise movements in all 6 degrees-of-freedom (X, Y, Z, pitch, roll, and yaw) were performed, both simultaneously and separately for each degree-of-freedom. Additionally, previously recorded 6D cranial and prostate motions were effectively executed. The robotic phantom movements were verified using a 15 fps 6D infrared marker tracking system and the measured trajectories were compared quantitatively to the intended input trajectories. The workspace, maximum 6D velocity, backlash, and weight load capabilities of the system were also established. Results: Evaluation of the 6D platform demonstrated translational root mean square error (RMSE) values of 0.14, 0.22, and 0.08 mm over 20 mm in X and Y and 10 mm in Z, respectively, and rotational RMSE values of 0.16°, 0.06°, and 0.08° over 10° of pitch, roll, and yaw, respectively. The robotic stage also effectively performed controlled 6D motions, as well as reproduced

  3. Development of a 6DOF robotic motion phantom for radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Belcher, Andrew H.; Liu, Xinmin; Grelewicz, Zachary; Pearson, Erik; Wiersma, Rodney D.

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: The use of medical technology capable of tracking patient motion or positioning patients along 6 degree-of-freedom (6DOF) has steadily increased in the field of radiation therapy. However, due to the complex nature of tracking and performing 6DOF motion, it is critical that such technology is properly verified to be operating within specifications in order to ensure patient safety. In this study, a robotic motion phantom is presented that can be programmed to perform highly accurate motion along any X (left–right), Y (superior–inferior), Z (anterior–posterior), pitch (around X), roll (around Y), and yaw (around Z) axes. In addition, highly synchronized motion along all axes can be performed in order to simulate the dynamic motion of a tumor in 6D. The accuracy and reproducibility of this 6D motion were characterized. Methods: An in-house designed and built 6D robotic motion phantom was constructed following the Stewart–Gough parallel kinematics platform archetype. The device was controlled using an inverse kinematics formulation, and precise movements in all 6 degrees-of-freedom (X, Y, Z, pitch, roll, and yaw) were performed, both simultaneously and separately for each degree-of-freedom. Additionally, previously recorded 6D cranial and prostate motions were effectively executed. The robotic phantom movements were verified using a 15 fps 6D infrared marker tracking system and the measured trajectories were compared quantitatively to the intended input trajectories. The workspace, maximum 6D velocity, backlash, and weight load capabilities of the system were also established. Results: Evaluation of the 6D platform demonstrated translational root mean square error (RMSE) values of 0.14, 0.22, and 0.08 mm over 20 mm in X and Y and 10 mm in Z, respectively, and rotational RMSE values of 0.16°, 0.06°, and 0.08° over 10° of pitch, roll, and yaw, respectively. The robotic stage also effectively performed controlled 6D motions, as well as reproduced

  4. Kinetostatics analysis of a novel 6-DOF parallel manipulator with three planar limbs and equipped with three fingers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yi; Li, Xuepeng

    2014-09-01

    It is significant to develop a robot hand with high rigidity by a 6-DOF parallel manipulator(PM). However, the existing 6-DOF PMs include spherical joint which has less capability of pulling force bearing, less rotation range and lower precision under alternately heavy loads. A novel 6-DOF PM with three planar limbs and equipped with three fingers is proposed and its kinematics and statics are analyzed systematically. A 3-dimension simulation mechanism of the proposed manipulator is constructed and its structure characteristics is analyzed. The kinematics formulae for solving the displacement, velocity, acceleration of the platform, the active legs and the fingers are established. The statics formulae are derived for solving the active forces of PM and the finger mechanisms. An analytic example is given for solving the kinematics and statics of proposed manipulator and the analytic solved results are verified by the simulation mechanism. It is proved from the error analysis of analytic solutions and simulation solutions that the derived analytic formulae are correct and provide the theoretical and technical foundations for its manufacturing, control and application.

  5. Kinetostatics analysis of a novel 6-DOF parallel manipulator with three planar limbs and equipped with three fingers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yi; Li, Xuepeng

    2014-08-01

    It is significant to develop a robot hand with high rigidity by a 6-DOF parallel manipulator(PM). However, the existing 6-DOF PMs include spherical joint which has less capability of pulling force bearing, less rotation range and lower precision under alternately heavy loads. A novel 6-DOF PM with three planar limbs and equipped with three fingers is proposed and its kinematics and statics are analyzed systematically. A 3-dimension simulation mechanism of the proposed manipulator is constructed and its structure characteristics is analyzed. The kinematics formulae for solving the displacement, velocity, acceleration of the platform, the active legs and the fingers are established. The statics formulae are derived for solving the active forces of PM and the finger mechanisms. An analytic example is given for solving the kinematics and statics of proposed manipulator and the analytic solved results are verified by the simulation mechanism. It is proved from the error analysis of analytic solutions and simulation solutions that the derived analytic formulae are correct and provide the theoretical and technical foundations for its manufacturing, control and application.

  6. Modeling and simulation of a 6-DOF parallel platform for telescope secondary mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Zhongyu; Ye, Yu; Gu, Bozhong

    2014-07-01

    The 6-DOF parallel platform in this paper is a kind of Stewart platform. It can be used as supporting structure for telescope secondary mirror. In order to adapt the special dynamic environment of the telescope secondary mirror and to be installed in extremely narrow space, a unique parallel platform is designed. PSS Stewart platform and SPS Stewart platform are analyzed and compared. Then the PSS Stewart platform is chosen for detailed design. The virtual prototyping model of the parallel platform is built. The model is used for the analysis and calculation of multi-body dynamics. With the help of ANSYS, the finite element model of the platform is built and then the analysis is performed. According to the above analysis the experimental prototype of the platform is built.

  7. Optimal Design of a 3-Leg 6-DOF Parallel Manipulator for a Specific Workspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jianxun; Gao, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Researchers seldom study optimum design of a six-degree-of-freedom(DOF) parallel manipulator with three legs based upon the given workspace. An optimal design method of a novel three-leg six-DOF parallel manipulator(TLPM) is presented. The mechanical structure of this robot is introduced, with this structure the kinematic constrain equations is decoupled. Analytical solutions of the forward kinematics are worked out, one configuration of this robot, including position and orientation of the end-effector are graphically displayed. Then, on the basis of several extreme positions of the kinematic performances, the task workspace is given. An algorithm of optimal designing is introduced to find the smallest dimensional parameters of the proposed robot. Examples illustrate the design results, and a design stability index is introduced, which ensures that the robot remains a safe distance from the boundary of sits actual workspace. Finally, one prototype of the robot is developed based on this method. This method can easily find appropriate kinematic parameters that can size a robot having the smallest workspace enclosing a predefined task workspace. It improves the design efficiency, ensures that the robot has a small mechanical size possesses a large given workspace volume, and meets the lightweight design requirements.

  8. Use of a Force-Torque Sensor for Self-Calibration of a 6-DOF Medical Robot.

    PubMed

    Joubair, Ahmed; Zhao, Long Fei; Bigras, Pascal; Bonev, Ilian A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to improve the position accuracy of a six degree of freedom medical robot. The improvement in accuracy is achieved without the use of any external measurement device. Instead, this work presents a novel calibration approach based on using an embedded force-torque sensor to identify the robot's kinematic parameters and thereby enhance the positioning accuracy. A simulation study demonstrated that our calibration approach is effective, whether or not any measurement noise is present: the position error is improved, inside the robot target workspace, from 12 mm to 0.320 mm, for the maximum values, and from 9 mm to 0.2771 mm, for the mean errors. PMID:27258278

  9. Use of a Force-Torque Sensor for Self-Calibration of a 6-DOF Medical Robot

    PubMed Central

    Joubair, Ahmed; Zhao, Long Fei; Bigras, Pascal; Bonev, Ilian A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to improve the position accuracy of a six degree of freedom medical robot. The improvement in accuracy is achieved without the use of any external measurement device. Instead, this work presents a novel calibration approach based on using an embedded force-torque sensor to identify the robot’s kinematic parameters and thereby enhance the positioning accuracy. A simulation study demonstrated that our calibration approach is effective, whether or not any measurement noise is present: the position error is improved, inside the robot target workspace, from 12 mm to 0.320 mm, for the maximum values, and from 9 mm to 0.2771 mm, for the mean errors. PMID:27258278

  10. Developing a 6-DOF robot to investigate multi-axis ACL injuries under valgus loading coupled with tibia internal rotation.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yupeng; Jacobs, Benjamin J; Nuber, Gordon W; Koh, Jason L; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2010-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries have become more common in recent years as more young people participate in risky sporting activities [1]. Most ACL injuries occur as a result of noncontact mechanisms. Previous in vitro studies of ACL strain have found significant increases in ACL strain primarily with anterior directed force on the tibia relative to the femur and with internal rotation and often with valgus torque [2,3]. However, there remains significant controversy over the mechanisms of ACL failure and the forces on the knee that lead to injury. Some studies have also shown that isolated valgus loading may not load the ACL strongly. The goal of this study was to investigate the mechanism underlying valgus-related ACL injuries. An improved understanding of ACL failure may lead to improved ACL injury prevention programs. A novel 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) knee driving robot was developed in this study with a unique multi-axis simultaneous torque/position control. It was found that pure valgus torque caused a torque that internally rotated the tibia and thus increased ACL strain markedly, which may be an important mechanism underlying the rather common seemingly valgus-related ACL injuries. PMID:21097089

  11. New methodology for multi-dimensional spinal joint testing with a parallel robot.

    PubMed

    Walker, Matthew R; Dickey, James P

    2007-03-01

    Six degree-of-freedom (6DOF) robots can be used to examine joints and their mechanical properties with the spatial freedom encountered physiologically. Parallel robots are capable of 6DOF motion under large payloads making them ideal for joint testing. This study developed and assessed novel methods for spinal joint testing with a custom-built parallel robot implementing hybrid load-position control. We hypothesized these methods would allow multi-dimensional control of joint loading scenarios, resulting in physiological joint motions. Tests were performed in 3DOF and 6DOF. 3DOF methods controlled the forces and the principal moment within +/-10 N and 0.25 N m under combined bending and compressive loads. 6DOF tests required larger tolerances for convergence due to machine compliance, however expected motion patterns were still observed. The unique mechanism and control approaches show promise for enabling complex three-dimensional loading patterns for in vitro joint biomechanics, and could facilitate research using specimens with unknown, changing, or nonlinear load-deformation properties. PMID:17235615

  12. Design and Calibration of a New 6 DOF Haptic Device.

    PubMed

    Qin, Huanhuan; Song, Aiguo; Liu, Yuqing; Jiang, Guohua; Zhou, Bohe

    2015-01-01

    For many applications such as tele-operational robots and interactions with virtual environments, it is better to have performance with force feedback than without. Haptic devices are force reflecting interfaces. They can also track human hand positions simultaneously. A new 6 DOF (degree-of-freedom) haptic device was designed and calibrated in this study. It mainly contains a double parallel linkage, a rhombus linkage, a rotating mechanical structure and a grasping interface. Benefited from the unique design, it is a hybrid structure device with a large workspace and high output capability. Therefore, it is capable of multi-finger interactions. Moreover, with an adjustable base, operators can change different postures without interrupting haptic tasks. To investigate the performance regarding position tracking accuracy and static output forces, we conducted experiments on a three-dimensional electric sliding platform and a digital force gauge, respectively. Displacement errors and force errors are calculated and analyzed. To identify the capability and potential of the device, four application examples were programmed. PMID:26690449

  13. Design and Calibration of a New 6 DOF Haptic Device

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Huanhuan; Song, Aiguo; Liu, Yuqing; Jiang, Guohua; Zhou, Bohe

    2015-01-01

    For many applications such as tele-operational robots and interactions with virtual environments, it is better to have performance with force feedback than without. Haptic devices are force reflecting interfaces. They can also track human hand positions simultaneously. A new 6 DOF (degree-of-freedom) haptic device was designed and calibrated in this study. It mainly contains a double parallel linkage, a rhombus linkage, a rotating mechanical structure and a grasping interface. Benefited from the unique design, it is a hybrid structure device with a large workspace and high output capability. Therefore, it is capable of multi-finger interactions. Moreover, with an adjustable base, operators can change different postures without interrupting haptic tasks. To investigate the performance regarding position tracking accuracy and static output forces, we conducted experiments on a three-dimensional electric sliding platform and a digital force gauge, respectively. Displacement errors and force errors are calculated and analyzed. To identify the capability and potential of the device, four application examples were programmed. PMID:26690449

  14. Parallel Architecture For Robotics Computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, Amir; Bejczy, Antal K.

    1990-01-01

    Universal Real-Time Robotic Controller and Simulator (URRCS) is highly parallel computing architecture for control and simulation of robot motion. Result of extensive algorithmic study of different kinematic and dynamic computational problems arising in control and simulation of robot motion. Study led to development of class of efficient parallel algorithms for these problems. Represents algorithmically specialized architecture, in sense capable of exploiting common properties of this class of parallel algorithms. System with both MIMD and SIMD capabilities. Regarded as processor attached to bus of external host processor, as part of bus memory.

  15. Compact 6-DOF Stage for Optical Adjustments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafaat, Syed; Chang, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The figure depicts selected aspects of a six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) stage for mechanical adjustment of an optical component. The six degrees of freedom are translations along the Cartesian axes (x, y, and z) and rotations about these axes (theta x, theta y, and theta z, respectively). Relative to prior such stages, this stage offers advantages of compactness, stability, and robustness, plus other advantages as described below. The stage was designed specifically as part of a laser velocimeter and altimeter in which light reflected by a distant object is collected by a Cassegrainian telescope and focused into a single-mode, polarization-maintaining optical fiber. The stage is used to position and orient the input end of the optical fiber with respect to the focal point of the telescope. Stages like this one can also be adapted for use in positioning and orienting other optical components, including lenses, prisms, apertures, and photodetectors.

  16. A novel testing platform for assessing knee joint mechanics: a parallel robotic system combined with an instrumented spatial linkage.

    PubMed

    Atarod, Mohammad; Rosvold, Joshua M; Frank, Cyril B; Shrive, Nigel G

    2014-05-01

    Assessing joint function following trauma and its inter-relation with degenerative changes requires an understanding of the normal state of structural loading in the joint. Very few studies have attempted to reproduce joint specific in vivo motions in vitro to quantify the actual loads carried by different tissues within the knee joint. The most significant challenge in this area is the very high sensitivity of the loads in joint structures to motion reproduction accuracy. A novel testing platform for assessing knee joint mechanics is described, comprised of a highly accurate (0.3 ± 0.1 mm, 0.3 ± 0.1°) six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) instrumented spatial linkage (ISL) for in vivo joint kinematic assessments and a unique 6-DOF parallel robotic manipulator. A position feedback system (ISL and position controller) is used for accurate reproduction of in vivo joint motions and estimation of "in situ" joint/tissue loads. The parallel robotic manipulator provides excellent stiffness and repeatability in reproducing physiological motions in 6-DOF, compared to the commonly used serial robots. The position feedback system provides real-time feedback data to the robot to reproduce in vivo motions and significantly enhances motion reproduction accuracy by adjusting for robot end-effector movements. Using this combined robot-ISL system, in vivo motions can be reproduced in vitro with very high accuracy (0.1 mm, 0.1°). Our results indicate that this level of accuracy is essential for meaningful estimation of tissue loads during gait. Using this novel testing platform, we have determined the normal load-carrying characteristics of different tissues within the ovine knee joint. The application of this testing system will continue to increase our understanding of normal and pathological joint states. PMID:24519725

  17. Simulations of 6-DOF Motion with a Cartesian Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murman, Scott M.; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Berger, Marsha J.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Coupled 6-DOF/CFD trajectory predictions using an automated Cartesian method are demonstrated by simulating a GBU-32/JDAM store separating from an F-18C aircraft. Numerical simulations are performed at two Mach numbers near the sonic speed, and compared with flight-test telemetry and photographic-derived data. Simulation results obtained with a sequential-static series of flow solutions are contrasted with results using a time-dependent flow solver. Both numerical methods show good agreement with the flight-test data through the first half of the simulations. The sequential-static and time-dependent methods diverge over the last half of the trajectory prediction. after the store produces peak angular rates. A cost comparison for the Cartesian method is included, in terms of absolute cost and relative to computing uncoupled 6-DOF trajectories. A detailed description of the 6-DOF method, as well as a verification of its accuracy, is provided in an appendix.

  18. Algorithmically Specialized Parallel Architecture For Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, Amir; Bejczy, Antal K.

    1991-01-01

    Computing system called Robot Mathematics Processor (RMP) contains large number of processor elements (PE's) connected in various parallel and serial combinations reconfigurable via software. Special-purpose architecture designed for solving diverse computational problems in robot control, simulation, trajectory generation, workspace analysis, and like. System an MIMD-SIMD parallel architecture capable of exploiting parallelism in different forms and at several computational levels. Major advantage lies in design of cells, which provides flexibility and reconfigurability superior to previous SIMD processors.

  19. Calibration of the Aronson 6-DOF robotic platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Amy Y.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion is presented of the calibration of the Aronson six-degree-of-freedom platform. Absolute encoders are used to determine the starting positions of all six joints. The hardware implemented are described in detail. Software programs are used to calibrate the hardware and to build the look-up tables that are needed in determining the initial joint positions. The descriptions of all software routines used are given.

  20. Database Driven 6-DOF Trajectory Simulation for Debris Transport Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    Debris mitigation and risk assessment have been carried out by NASA and its contractors supporting Space Shuttle Return-To-Flight (RTF). As a part of this assessment, analysis of transport potential for debris that may be liberated from the vehicle or from pad facilities prior to tower clear (Lift-Off Debris) is being performed by MSFC. This class of debris includes plume driven and wind driven sources for which lift as well as drag are critical for the determination of the debris trajectory. As a result, NASA MSFC has a need for a debris transport or trajectory simulation that supports the computation of lift effect in addition to drag without the computational expense of fully coupled CFD with 6-DOF. A database driven 6-DOF simulation that uses aerodynamic force and moment coefficients for the debris shape that are interpolated from a database has been developed to meet this need. The design, implementation, and verification of the database driven six degree of freedom (6-DOF) simulation addition to the Lift-Off Debris Transport Analysis (LODTA) software are discussed in this paper.

  1. Construction and demonstration of a 9-string 6 DOF force reflecting joystick for telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindemann, Randel; Tesar, Delbert

    1989-01-01

    Confrontation with difficult manipulation tasks in hostile environments such as space, has led to the development of means to transport the human's senses, skills and cognition to the remote site. The use of advanced Telerobotics to achieve this goal is examined. A novel and universal hand controller based on a fully parallel mechanical architecture is discussed. The design and implementation of this 6 DOF force reflecting joystick is shown in relationship to the general philosophy of achieving telepresence in a man-machine system.

  2. A 6DOF mathematical model of parachute in Mars EDL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Ganghui; Xia, Yuanqing; Sun, Haoran

    2015-04-01

    The base of the dynamics characteristic research on the parachute and vehicle system is to establish a dynamics model, during the parachute descent phase, which can accurately display the relationship among the velocity, altitude and attitude angles as well as the variation of time. This paper starts with a new tracking law - ADRC in Mars entry guidance, which affects the initial states of the parachute deployment point and determines precision landing capability. Then, the influence of unsteady resistance to the parachute in Martian air is considered as the added mass, and a 6DOF nonlinear mathematical model of the parachute and vehicle system is established.

  3. Parallel fault-tolerant robot control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, D. L.; Bennett, J. K.; Walker, I. D.

    1992-01-01

    A shared memory multiprocessor architecture is used to develop a parallel fault-tolerant robot controller. Several versions of the robot controller are developed and compared. A robot simulation is also developed for control observation. Comparison of a serial version of the controller and a parallel version without fault tolerance showed the speedup possible with the coarse-grained parallelism currently employed. The performance degradation due to the addition of processor fault tolerance was demonstrated by comparison of these controllers with their fault-tolerant versions. Comparison of the more fault-tolerant controller with the lower-level fault-tolerant controller showed how varying the amount of redundant data affects performance. The results demonstrate the trade-off between speed performance and processor fault tolerance.

  4. Parallel-distributed mobile robot simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Hiroyuki; Sekiguchi, Minoru; Watanabe, Nobuo

    1996-06-01

    The aim of this project is to achieve an autonomous learning and growth function based on active interaction with the real world. It should also be able to autonomically acquire knowledge about the context in which jobs take place, and how the jobs are executed. This article describes a parallel distributed movable robot system simulator with an autonomous learning and growth function. The autonomous learning and growth function which we are proposing is characterized by its ability to learn and grow through interaction with the real world. When the movable robot interacts with the real world, the system compares the virtual environment simulation with the interaction result in the real world. The system then improves the virtual environment to match the real-world result more closely. This the system learns and grows. It is very important that such a simulation is time- realistic. The parallel distributed movable robot simulator was developed to simulate the space of a movable robot system with an autonomous learning and growth function. The simulator constructs a virtual space faithful to the real world and also integrates the interfaces between the user, the actual movable robot and the virtual movable robot. Using an ultrafast CG (computer graphics) system (FUJITSU AG series), time-realistic 3D CG is displayed.

  5. A 6-DOF vibration isolation system for hydraulic hybrid vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, The; Elahinia, Mohammad; Olson, Walter W.; Fontaine, Paul

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents the results of vibration isolation analysis for the pump/motor component of hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs). The HHVs are designed to combine gasoline/diesel engine and hydraulic power in order to improve the fuel efficiency and reduce the pollution. Electric hybrid technology is being applied to passenger cars with small and medium engines to improve the fuel economy. However, for heavy duty vehicles such as large SUVs, trucks, and buses, which require more power, the hydraulic hybridization is a more efficient choice. In function, the hydraulic hybrid subsystem improves the fuel efficiency of the vehicle by recovering some of the energy that is otherwise wasted in friction brakes. Since the operation of the main component of HHVs involves with rotating parts and moving fluid, noise and vibration are an issue that affects both passengers (ride comfort) as well as surrounding people (drive-by noise). This study looks into the possibility of reducing the transmitted noise and vibration from the hydraulic subsystem to the vehicle's chassis by using magnetorheological (MR) fluid mounts. To this end, the hydraulic subsystem is modeled as a six degree of freedom (6-DOF) rigid body. A 6-DOF isolation system, consisting of five mounts connected to the pump/motor at five different locations, is modeled and simulated. The mounts are designed by combining regular elastomer components with MR fluids. In the simulation, the real loading and working conditions of the hydraulic subsystem are considered and the effects of both shock and vibration are analyzed. The transmissibility of the isolation system is monitored in a wide range of frequencies. The geometry of the isolation system is considered in order to sustain the weight of the hydraulic system without affecting the design of the chassis and the effectiveness of the vibration isolating ability. The simulation results shows reduction in the transmitted vibration force for different working cycles of

  6. A parallel wire robot for epicardial interventions.

    PubMed

    Costanza, Adam D; Wood, Nathan A; Passineau, Michael J; Moraca, Robert J; Bailey, Stephen H; Yoshizumi, Tomo; Riviere, Cameron N

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and preliminary testing of a planar parallel wire robot that adheres to the surface of the beating heart and provides a stable platform for minimally invasive epicardial therapies. The device is deployed through a small subxiphoid skin incision and attaches to the heart using suction. This methodology obviates mechanical stabilization and lung deflation, which are typically required during minimally invasive beating-heart surgery. The prototype design involves three vacuum chambers connected by two flexible arms. The chambers adhere to the epicardium, forming the vertices of a triangular base structure. Three cables connect a movable end-effector head to the three bases; the cables then pass out of the body to external actuators. The surgical tool moves within the triangular workspace to perform injections, ablation, or other tasks on the beating heart. Tests in vitro and in vivo were conducted to demonstrate the capabilities of the system. Tests in vivo successfully demonstrated the ability to deploy through a subxiphoid incision, adhere to the surface of the beating heart, move the surgical tool head within the robot's workspace, and perform injections into the myocardium. PMID:25571402

  7. Prototyping artificial jaws for the Bristol Dento-Munch Robo-Simulator. 'A parallel robot to test dental components and materials'.

    PubMed

    Alemzadeh, Kazem; Raabe, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the robot periphery for the Robotic Dental Testing Simulator based on a Parallel Robot (i.e. Stewart Platform) to simulate the wear of materials on dental components, such as individual teeth, crowns or a full set of teeth. Current chewing simulators move in only 1 or 2 degrees of freedom (DOF) and therefore lack accuracy. The Bristol simulator has been developed to replicate accurate human chewing patterns in 6-DOF. This paper describes the artificial jaws and compliance module of the robot. The jaws have been reverse engineered and represent a human-like mandible and maxilla with artificial teeth. Each clinically fabricated tooth consists of a crown and glass ceramic roots which are connected using resin cement. Correct occlusion of the artificial jaws assembly was assessed by a dental teaching simulator. A compliance module had to be built between the lower jaw and the robot platform to sustain the fluctuating forces that occur during normal chewing in the occlusal contact areas, where these high bite forces are major causes of dental component failure. A strain gauge force transducer has been integrated into the machined lower jaw, underneath the second molars, to measure axial biting forces applied to the posterior teeth. PMID:18002240

  8. Kinematic calibration of precise 6-DOF Stewart platform-type positioning systems for radio telescope applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jáuregui, Juan Carlos; Hernández, Eusebio E.; Ceccarelli, Marco; López-Cajún, Carlos; García, Alejandro

    2013-09-01

    The pose accuracy of a parallel robot is a function of the mobile platform posture. Thus, there is no a single value of the robot's accuracy. In this paper, two novel methods for estimating the accuracy of parallel robots are presented. In the first method, the pose accuracy estimation is calculated by considering the propagation of each error, i.e., error variations are considered as a function of the actuator's stroke. In the second method, it is considered that each actuator has a constant error at any stroke. Both methods can predict pose accuracy of precise robots at design stages, and/or can reduce calibration time of existing robots. An example of a six degree-of-freedom parallel manipulator is included to show the application of the proposed methods.

  9. A Parallel Wire Robot for Epicardial Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Costanza, Adam D.; Wood, Nathan A.; Passineau, Michael J.; Moraca, Robert J.; Bailey, Stephen H.; Yoshizumi, Tomo; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the design and preliminary testing of a planar parallel wire robot that adheres to the surface of the beating heart and provides a stable platform for minimally invasive epicardial therapies. The device is deployed through a small subxiphoid skin incision and attaches to the heart using suction. This methodology obviates mechanical stabilization and lung deflation, which are typically required during minimally invasive beating-heart surgery. The prototype design involves three vacuum chambers connected by two flexible arms. The chambers adhere to the epicardium, forming the vertices of a triangular base structure. Three cables connect a movable end-effector head to the three bases; the cables then pass out of the body to external actuators. The surgical tool moves within the triangular workspace to perform injections, ablation, or other tasks on the beating heart. Tests in vitro and in vivo were conducted to demonstrate the capabilities of the system. Tests in vivo successfully demonstrated the ability to deploy through a subxiphoid incision, adhere to the surface of the beating heart, move the surgical tool head within the robot’s workspace, and perform injections into the myocardium. PMID:25571402

  10. Design and Analysis of 6 DOF Handheld Micromanipulator.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sungwook; Maclachlan, Robert A; Riviere, Cameron N

    2012-12-31

    This paper presents the design and analysis of a handheld manipulator for vitreoretinal microsurgery and other biomedical applications. The design involves a parallel micromanipulator utilizing six piezoelectric linear actuators, combining compactness with a large range of motion and relatively high stiffness. Given the available force of the actuators, the overall dimension of the micromanipulator was optimized considering realistic external loads on a remote center of motion representing the point of expected contact with the sclera of the eye during microsurgery. Based on optimization and workspace analysis, a benchtop version of the micromanipulator was built with a base diameter of 25 mm and a height of 50 mm. It provides a hemispherical workspace of 4.0 mm diameter at the tool tip. The manipulation performance of the constructed manipulator was measured under a lateral load applied at the remote center of motion. The micromanipulator tolerated side loads up to 200 mN. PMID:24649394

  11. Vision-based 6-DOF displacement measurement of structures with a planar marker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Donghwa; Jeon, Haemin; Myung, Hyun

    2012-04-01

    The estimation of translational and rotational displacement of large structures is usually considered as major indicators for structural safety. Recently, several vision-based measurement methods have been developed. Most vision-based systems, however, estimate displacements in 1-D or 2-D space. There are six degree of freedom (6-DOF) measurement methods using combination of lasers and cameras. But, the system is complex to install and not easy to maintain. To mitigate this problem, this paper proposes a simple 6-DOF displacement measurement system using only one camera and a planar marker. Using the square shaped planar marker, whose world geometry is known a priori, the 6-DOF relation between the marker and the camera can be calculated. The camera with a built-in lens captures a marker image and detects corners of the marker. Using homography transformation, 6-DOF relative pose information to the structure is estimated. In order to verify the feasibility of the proposed system, experimental tests are performed. The system for experiments consists of a chargecoupled device (CCD) camera with a built-in 37× zoom lens for maker image processing. The square marker is installed about 20 meters distance away from the camera, and the displacement is estimated. The results show the applicability of the proposed 6-D measurement system to real structures.

  12. PARASURG hybrid parallel robot for minimally invasive surgery.

    PubMed

    Pisla, D; Gherman, B; Plitea, N; Gyurka, B; Vaida, C; Vlad, L; Graur, F; Radu, C; Suciu, M; Szilaghi, A; Stoica, A

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the parallel hybrid robot, PARASURG 9M, for robotically assisted surgery, a robot which was entirely designed and produced in Romania. It is a versatile robot, being composed of a positioning and orientation module, PARASURG 5M with five degrees of freedom, having the possibility of attaching at its end either a laparoscope or an active surgical instrument for cutting/grasping, PARASIM, with four degrees of freedom. Based on its mathematical modelling, the first low-cost experimental model of the surgical robot has been built. The robot is part of the surgical robotic system, PARAMIS, with three arms, one used as a laparoscope holder, and other two for manipulating active instruments. When it is used as a manipulator of the camera, the user has the possibility to give commands in a large area for the positioning of the laparoscope using different interfaces: joystick, microphone, keyboard & mouse and haptic device. If the active surgical instrument, PARASIM, is attached, the robot commands are given through a haptic device. The main features that make the PARASURG 9M surgical robot suited for minimally invasive surgery are: precision, the elimination of the natural tremor of the surgeon, direct control over a smooth, precise, stable view of the internal surgical field for the surgeon. It also eliminates the need of a second surgeon to be present for the entire procedure (in the case of using the robot as a camera holder). In addition, there is improvement of surgeon dexterity in the case of using the PARASIM active instrument and better ergonomics in using the robot (in the case of the classic laparoscopy, the surgeon must adopt a difficult position for a long period of time, while the robot never gets tired). Having a relatively easy to understand, intuitive commanding system, the surgeons can rapidly adapt to the use of the PARASURG 9M robot in surgical procedures. PMID:22165061

  13. Linear quadratic optimal controller for cable-driven parallel robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdolshah, Saeed; Shojaei Barjuei, Erfan

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, various cable-driven parallel robots have been investigated for their advantages, such as low structural weight, high acceleration, and large work-space, over serial and conventional parallel systems. However, the use of cables lowers the stiffness of these robots, which in turn may decrease motion accuracy. A linear quadratic (LQ) optimal controller can provide all the states of a system for the feedback, such as position and velocity. Thus, the application of such an optimal controller in cable-driven parallel robots can result in more efficient and accurate motion compared to the performance of classical controllers such as the proportional- integral-derivative controller. This paper presents an approach to apply the LQ optimal controller on cable-driven parallel robots. To employ the optimal control theory, the static and dynamic modeling of a 3-DOF planar cable-driven parallel robot (Feriba-3) is developed. The synthesis of the LQ optimal control is described, and the significant experimental results are presented and discussed.

  14. Design and development of miniature parallel robot for eye surgery.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Tomoya; Harada, Kanako; Tanaka, Shinichi; Ueta, Takashi; Noda, Yasuo; Sugita, Naohiko; Mitsuishi, Mamoru

    2014-01-01

    A five degree-of-freedom (DOF) miniature parallel robot has been developed to precisely and safely remove the thin internal limiting membrane in the eye ground during vitreoretinal surgery. A simulator has been developed to determine the design parameters of this robot. The developed robot's size is 85 mm × 100 mm × 240 mm, and its weight is 770 g. This robot incorporates an emergency instrument retraction function to quickly remove the instrument from the eye in case of sudden intraoperative complications such as bleeding. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the robot's performance in the master-slave configuration, and the results demonstrated that it had a tracing accuracy of 40.0 μm. PMID:25569974

  15. Parallel manipulator robot assisted femoral fracture reduction on traction table.

    PubMed

    Lin, H; Wang, J Q; Han, W

    2013-01-01

    The principle of femoral shaft fracture reduction is to restore its pre-fractured limb length and mechanical axis. The current documented treatment method with traction table reduction does not conform to the quantitative alignment and reduction. There is also a great amount of X-Ray radiation exposure to both surgeon and patient during the procedure. For this reason, we introduced an innovated Parallel Manipulator Robot (PMR) application: A Femoral Shaft Fracture Reduction with Parallel Manipulator Robot on Traction Table. With this application, the quantitative control on fracture reduction and alignment can be achieved and the radiation exposure to both surgeons and patients can be greatly reduced. PMID:24110820

  16. Automation, parallelism, and robotics for proteomics.

    PubMed

    Alterovitz, Gil; Liu, Jonathan; Chow, Jijun; Ramoni, Marco F

    2006-07-01

    The speed of the human genome project (Lander, E. S., Linton, L. M., Birren, B., Nusbaum, C. et al., Nature 2001, 409, 860-921) was made possible, in part, by developments in automation of sequencing technologies. Before these technologies, sequencing was a laborious, expensive, and personnel-intensive task. Similarly, automation and robotics are changing the field of proteomics today. Proteomics is defined as the effort to understand and characterize proteins in the categories of structure, function and interaction (Englbrecht, C. C., Facius, A., Comb. Chem. High Throughput Screen. 2005, 8, 705-715). As such, this field nicely lends itself to automation technologies since these methods often require large economies of scale in order to achieve cost and time-saving benefits. This article describes some of the technologies and methods being applied in proteomics in order to facilitate automation within the field as well as in linking proteomics-based information with other related research areas. PMID:16786489

  17. Neural Network Identification For a C5 Parallel Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daachi, M. E.; Achili, B.; Daachi, B.; Chikouche, D.

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents the design and analysis of a neural network-based identification of the inverse dynamic model of a C5 parallel robot. The identification structure is designed using the black box form (the dynamic model is completely unknown). This identification uses real data acquired on the C5 parallel robot by applying a nominal control scheme (PD). The desired trajectories of this scheme are based on Fourier series and the coefficients are chosen in a heuristic way. We have used this type of desired trajectories to obtain exciting trajectories for identification procedure. Three identification schemes are tested and compared. The comparison is performed based on the number of parameters used in each architecture and the quality of the generalization error. The used neural network is of MLP type and composed of one hidden layer.

  18. Neural Network Identification For a C5 Parallel Robot

    SciTech Connect

    Daachi, M. E.; Chikouche, D.; Achili, B.; Daachi, B.

    2008-06-12

    This paper presents the design and analysis of a neural network-based identification of the inverse dynamic model of a C5 parallel robot. The identification structure is designed using the black box form (the dynamic model is completely unknown). This identification uses real data acquired on the C5 parallel robot by applying a nominal control scheme (PD). The desired trajectories of this scheme are based on Fourier series and the coefficients are chosen in a heuristic way. We have used this type of desired trajectories to obtain exciting trajectories for identification procedure. Three identification schemes are tested and compared. The comparison is performed based on the number of parameters used in each architecture and the quality of the generalization error. The used neural network is of MLP type and composed of one hidden layer.

  19. A multibody approach for 6-DOF flight dynamics and stability analysis of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joong-Kwan; Han, Jae-Hung

    2014-03-01

    This paper investigates the six degrees of freedom (6-DOF) flight dynamics and stability of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta using a multibody dynamics approach that encompasses the effects of the time varying inertia tensor of all the body segments including two wings. The quasi-steady translational and unsteady rotational aerodynamics of the flapping wings are modeled with the blade element theory with aerodynamic coefficients derived from relevant experimental studies. The aerodynamics is given instantaneously at each integration time step without wingbeat-cycle-averaging. With the multibody dynamic model and the aerodynamic model for the hawkmoth, a direct time integration of the fully coupled 6-DOF nonlinear multibody dynamics equations of motion is performed. First, the passive damping magnitude of each single DOF is quantitatively examined with the measure of the time taken to half the initial velocity (thalf). The results show that the sideslip translation is less damped approximately three times than the other two translational DOFs, and the pitch rotation is less damped approximately five times than the other two rotational DOFs; each DOF has the value of (unit in wingbeat strokes): thalf,forward/backward = 7.10, thalf,sideslip = 17.95, thalf,ascending = 7.13, thalf,descending = 5.77, thalf,roll = 0.68, thalf,pitch = 2.39, and thalf,yaw = 0.25. Second, the natural modes of motion, with the hovering flight as a reference equilibrium condition, are examined by analyzing fully coupled 6-DOF dynamic responses induced by multiple sets of force and moment disturbance combinations. The given disturbance combinations are set to excite the dynamic modes identified in relevant eigenmode analysis studies. The 6-DOF dynamic responses obtained from this study are compared with eigenmode analysis results in the relevant studies. The longitudinal modes of motion showed dynamic modal characteristics similar to the eigenmode analysis results from the relevant literature

  20. Simulation and training of lumbar punctures using haptic volume rendering and a 6DOF haptic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Färber, Matthias; Heller, Julika; Handels, Heinz

    2007-03-01

    The lumbar puncture is performed by inserting a needle into the spinal chord of the patient to inject medicaments or to extract liquor. The training of this procedure is usually done on the patient guided by experienced supervisors. A virtual reality lumbar puncture simulator has been developed in order to minimize the training costs and the patient's risk. We use a haptic device with six degrees of freedom (6DOF) to feedback forces that resist needle insertion and rotation. An improved haptic volume rendering approach is used to calculate the forces. This approach makes use of label data of relevant structures like skin, bone, muscles or fat and original CT data that contributes information about image structures that can not be segmented. A real-time 3D visualization with optional stereo view shows the punctured region. 2D visualizations of orthogonal slices enable a detailed impression of the anatomical context. The input data consisting of CT and label data and surface models of relevant structures is defined in an XML file together with haptic rendering and visualization parameters. In a first evaluation the visible human male data has been used to generate a virtual training body. Several users with different medical experience tested the lumbar puncture trainer. The simulator gives a good haptic and visual impression of the needle insertion and the haptic volume rendering technique enables the feeling of unsegmented structures. Especially, the restriction of transversal needle movement together with rotation constraints enabled by the 6DOF device facilitate a realistic puncture simulation.

  1. Compensator-based 6-DOF control for probe asteroid-orbital-frame hovering with actuator limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaosong; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Keping; Li, Yuanchun

    2016-05-01

    This paper is concerned with 6-DOF control of a probe hovering in the orbital frame of an asteroid. Considering the requirements of the scientific instruments pointing direction and orbital position in practical missions, the coordinate control of relative attitude and orbit between the probe and target asteroid is imperative. A 6-DOF dynamic equation describing the relative translational and rotational motion of a probe in the asteroid's orbital frame is derived, taking the irregular gravitation, model and parameter uncertainties and external disturbances into account. An adaptive sliding mode controller is employed to guarantee the convergence of the state error, where the adaptation law is used to estimate the unknown upper bound of system uncertainty. Then the controller is improved to deal with the practical problem of actuator limitations by introducing a RBF neural network compensator, which is used to approximate the difference between the actual control with magnitude constraint and the designed nominal control law. The closed-loop system is proved to be asymptotically stable through the Lyapunov stability analysis. Numerical simulations are performed to compare the performances of the preceding designed control laws. Simulation results demonstrate the validity of the control scheme using the compensator-based adaptive sliding mode control law in the presence of actuator limitations, system uncertainty and external disturbance.

  2. Nonlinear dynamics and health monitoring of 6-DOF breathing cracked Jeffcott rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jie; DeSmidt, Hans; Yao, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Jeffcott rotor is employed to study the nonlinear vibration characteristics of breathing cracked rotor system and explore the possibility of further damage identification. This paper is an extension work of prior study based on 4 degree-of-freedom Jeffcott rotor system. With consideration of disk tilting and gyroscopic effect, 6-dof EOM is derived and the crack model is established using SERR (strain energy release rate) in facture mechanics. Same as the prior work, the damaged stiffness matrix is updated by computing the instant crack closure line through Zero Stress Intensity Factor method. The breathing crack area is taken as a variable to analyze the breathing behavior in terms of eccentricity phase and shaft speed. Furthermore, the coupled vibration among lateral, torsional and longitudinal d.o.f is studied under torsional/axial excitation. The final part demonstrates the possibility of using vibration signal of damaged system for the crack diagnosis and health monitoring.

  3. High accuracy low-cost videogrammetric system: an application to 6DOF estimation of ship models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nocerino, Erica; Menna, Fabio; Troisi, Salvatore

    2013-04-01

    The article reports the development of an off-line low-cost videogrammetric system for measuring six degrees of freedom (6DOF) of scaled models in ship model basin. Sub-millimeter accuracy is required to measure the floating rigid body movements. To meet this requirement, in depth analyses, exposed in this paper, are performed to choose the most appropriate number of cameras, their configuration and a proper technique for camera synchronization. The proposed system, composed of three consumer-grade High Definition (Full HD) video cameras, is used to record interlaced video sequences at a frequency of 50 frames per second. A special device which emits simultaneously sounds at known frequency and flashes a LED is used to introduce a common event used for an automatic a-posteriori synchronization of video sequences up to 1 msec. The video sequences are synchronized using matching procedures based on cross correlation between audio signals recorded by camcorders. The ship model is targeted with retro illuminated (LEDs) targets whose positions in the ship reference frame are also measured with photogrammetry. The 6DOF of the ship model are estimated on the basis of rigid transformations computed through the image sequences with the tracked active targets. An error analysis is performed with the assumption of the rigid body using the target coordinates known with photogrammetry. The measured synchronization error is used to correct the image trajectories of tracked points. An improvement of the accuracy of a factor 5 was observed for the trial with highest velocity of tracked points (up to 0.35 m/s).

  4. Reproduction of in vivo motion using a parallel robot.

    PubMed

    Howard, Ryan A; Rosvold, Joshua M; Darcy, Shon P; Corr, David T; Shrive, Nigel G; Tapper, Janet E; Ronsky, Janet L; Beveridge, Jillian E; Marchuk, Linda L; Frank, Cyril B

    2007-10-01

    Although alterations in knee joint loading resulting from injury have been shown to influence the development of osteoarthritis, actual in vivo loading conditions of the joint remain unknown. A method for determining in vivo ligament loads by reproducing joint specific in vivo kinematics using a robotic testing apparatus is described. The in vivo kinematics of the ovine stifle joint during walking were measured with 3D optical motion analysis using markers rigidly affixed to the tibia and femur. An additional independent single degree of freedom measuring device was also used to record a measure of motion. Following sacrifice, the joint was mounted in a robotic/universal force sensor test apparatus and referenced using a coordinate measuring machine. A parallel robot configuration was chosen over the conventional serial manipulator because of its greater accuracy and stiffness. Median normal gait kinematics were applied to the joint and the resulting accuracy compared. The mean error in reproduction as determined by the motion analysis system varied between 0.06 mm and 0.67 mm and 0.07 deg and 0.74 deg for the two individual tests. The mean error measured by the independent device was found to be 0.07 mm and 0.83 mm for the two experiments, respectively. This study demonstrates the ability of this system to reproduce in vivo kinematics of the ovine stifle joint in vitro. The importance of system stiffness is discussed to ensure accurate reproduction of joint motion. PMID:17887900

  5. Calibration and Validation of a 6-DOF Laser Propelled Lightcraft Flight Dynamics Model vs. Experimental Data

    SciTech Connect

    Kenoyer, David A.; Anderson, Kurt S.; Myrabo, Leik N.

    2008-04-28

    A detailed description is provided of the flight dynamics model and development, as well as the procedures used and results obtained in the verification, validation, and calibration of a further refined, flight dynamics system model for a laser lightcraft. The full system model is composed of individual aerodynamic, engine, laser beam, variable vehicle inertial, and 6 DOF dynamics models which have been integrated to represent all major phenomena in a consistent framework. The resulting system level model and associated code was then validated and calibrated using experimental flight information from a 16 flight trajectory data base. This model and code are being developed for the purpose of providing a physics-based predictive tool, which may be used to evaluate the performance of proposed future lightcraft vehicle concepts, engine systems, beam shapes, and active control strategies, thereby aiding in the development of the next generation of laser propelled lightcraft. This paper describes the methods used for isolating the effects of individual component models (e.g. beam, engine, dynamics, etc.) so that the performance of each of these key components could be assessed and adjusted as necessary. As the individual component models were validated, a protocol was developed which permitted the investigators to focus on individual aspects of the system and thereby identify phenomena which explain system behavior, and account for observed deviations between portions of the simulation predictions from experimental flights. These protocols are provided herein, along with physics-based explanations for deviations observed.

  6. An adaptive 6-DOF tracking method by hybrid sensing for ultrasonic endoscopes.

    PubMed

    Du, Chengyang; Chen, Xiaodong; Wang, Yi; Li, Junwei; Yu, Daoyin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel hybrid sensing method for tracking an ultrasonic endoscope within the gastrointestinal (GI) track is presented, and the prototype of the tracking system is also developed. We implement 6-DOF localization by sensing integration and information fusion. On the hardware level, a tri-axis gyroscope and accelerometer, and a magnetic angular rate and gravity (MARG) sensor array are attached at the end of endoscopes, and three symmetric cylindrical coils are placed around patients' abdomens. On the algorithm level, an adaptive fast quaternion convergence (AFQC) algorithm is introduced to determine the orientation by fusing inertial/magnetic measurements, in which the effects of magnetic disturbance and acceleration are estimated to gain an adaptive convergence output. A simplified electro-magnetic tracking (SEMT) algorithm for dimensional position is also implemented, which can easily integrate the AFQC's results and magnetic measurements. Subsequently, the average position error is under 0.3 cm by reasonable setting, and the average orientation error is 1° without noise. If magnetic disturbance or acceleration exists, the average orientation error can be controlled to less than 3.5°. PMID:24915179

  7. An Adaptive 6-DOF Tracking Method by Hybrid Sensing for Ultrasonic Endoscopes

    PubMed Central

    Du, Chengyang; Chen, Xiaodong; Wang, Yi; Li, Junwei; Yu, Daoyin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel hybrid sensing method for tracking an ultrasonic endoscope within the gastrointestinal (GI) track is presented, and the prototype of the tracking system is also developed. We implement 6-DOF localization by sensing integration and information fusion. On the hardware level, a tri-axis gyroscope and accelerometer, and a magnetic angular rate and gravity (MARG) sensor array are attached at the end of endoscopes, and three symmetric cylindrical coils are placed around patients' abdomens. On the algorithm level, an adaptive fast quaternion convergence (AFQC) algorithm is introduced to determine the orientation by fusing inertial/magnetic measurements, in which the effects of magnetic disturbance and acceleration are estimated to gain an adaptive convergence output. A simplified electro-magnetic tracking (SEMT) algorithm for dimensional position is also implemented, which can easily integrate the AFQC's results and magnetic measurements. Subsequently, the average position error is under 0.3 cm by reasonable setting, and the average orientation error is 1° without noise. If magnetic disturbance or acceleration exists, the average orientation error can be controlled to less than 3.5°. PMID:24915179

  8. Gait analysis of a radial symmetrical hexapod robot based on parallel mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kun; Ding, Xilun

    2014-09-01

    Most gait studies of multi-legged robots in past neglected the dexterity of robot body and the relationship between stride length and body height. This paper investigates the performance of a radial symmetrical hexapod robot based on the dexterity of parallel mechanism. Assuming the constraints between the supporting feet and the ground with hinges, the supporting legs and the hexapod body are taken as a parallel mechanism, and each swing leg is regarded as a serial manipulator. The hexapod robot can be considered as a series of hybrid serial-parallel mechanisms while walking on the ground. Locomotion performance can be got by analyzing these equivalent mechanisms. The kinematics of the whole robotic system is established, and the influence of foothold position on the workspace of robot body is analyzed. A new method to calculate the stride length of multi-legged robots is proposed by analyzing the relationship between the workspaces of two adjacent equivalent parallel mechanisms in one gait cycle. Referring to service region and service sphere, weight service sphere and weight service region are put forward to evaluate the dexterity of robot body. The dexterity of single point in workspace and the dexterity distribution in vertical and horizontal projection plane are demonstrated. Simulation shows when the foothold offset goes up to 174 mm, the dexterity of robot body achieves its maximum value 0.1644 in mixed gait. The proposed methods based on parallel mechanisms can be used to calculate the stride length and the dexterity of multi-legged robot, and provide new approach to determine the stride length, body height, footholds in gait planning of multi-legged robot.

  9. A robot-assisted orthopedic telesurgery system.

    PubMed

    Kong, M; Du, Z; Sun, L; Fu, L; Jia, Z; Wu, D

    2005-01-01

    A robot-assisted orthopedic telesurgery system, named HIT-RAOTS, has been developed according to Chinese conventional operation method. Its main function includes obtaining images with information of position and orientation of fracture, providing fracture information for doctors, assisting the doctors to complete the reposition of fracture and locking operation of intramedullary nail. In this system, a 6-dof force-reflecting master device, with a pantographic parallelogram mechanisms driven by harmonic DC servomotors, is used to control the slave manipulator movement and to translate the force from the operating room to the surgeon console; A slave robot system integrated a 6-dof force sensor, with a parallel manipulator actuated by six AC servomotors, is applied for the accurate repositioning; A virtual simulation system and human-machine interface are also developed. PI controller based on local network is used to realize the teleoperation. Only little irradiation is issued during the reposition. It can assist surgeons to perform bone-setting more safely by reducing irradiation damage to both surgeries and patients, more easily by releasing the surgeons from the heavy operation and more perfect by improving accuracy of reposition. PMID:17282120

  10. Time and Frequency-Domain Cross-Verification of SLS 6DOF Trajectory Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZwieten, Tannen; Johnson, Matthew D.; McCullough, John P.; Gilligan, Eric T.

    2014-01-01

    The SLS GNC team and its partners have developed several time- and frequency-based simulations for development and analysis of the proposed SLS launch vehicle. The simulations differ in fidelity and some have unique functionality that allows them to perform specific analyses. Some examples of the purposes of the various models are: trajectory simulation, multi-body separation, Monte Carlo, hardware in the loop, loads, and frequency domain stability analyses. While no two simulations are identical, many of the models are essentially six degree-of-freedom (6DOF) representations of the SLS plant dynamics, hardware implementation, and flight software. Thus at a high level all of those models should be in agreement. Comparison of outputs from several SLS trajectory and stability analysis tools are ongoing as part of the program's current verification effort. The purpose of these comparisons is to highlight modeling and analysis differences, verify simulation data sources, identify inconsistencies and minor errors, and ultimately to verify output data as being a good representation of the vehicle and subsystem dynamics. This paper will show selected verification work in both the time and frequency domain from the current design analysis cycle of the SLS for several of the design and analysis simulations. In the time domain, the tools that will be compared are MAVERIC, CLVTOPS, SAVANT, STARS, ARTEMIS, and POST 2. For the frequency domain analysis, the tools to be compared are FRACTAL, SAVANT, and STARS. The paper will include discussion of these tools including their capabilities, configurations, and the uses to which they are put in the SLS program. Determination of the criteria by which the simulations are compared (matching criteria) requires thoughtful consideration, and there are several pitfalls that may occur that can severely punish a simulation if not considered carefully. The paper will discuss these considerations and will present a framework for responding to

  11. Biped walking robot based on a 2-UPU+2-UU parallel mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Zhihuai; Yao, Yan'an; Kong, Xianwen

    2014-03-01

    Existing biped robots mainly fall into two categories: robots with left and right feet and robots with upper and lower feet. The load carrying capability of a biped robot is quite limited since the two feet of a walking robot supports the robot alternatively during walking. To improve the load carrying capability, a novel biped walking robot is proposed based on a 2-UPU+2-UU parallel mechanism. The biped walking robot is composed of two identical platforms(feet) and four limbs, including two UPU(universal-prismatic-universal serial chain) limbs and two UU limbs. To enhance its terrain adaptability like articulated vehicles, the two feet of the biped walking robot are designed as two vehicles in detail. The conditions that the geometric parameters of the feet must satisfy are discussed. The degrees-of-freedom of the mechanism is analyzed by using screw theory. Gait analysis, kinematic analysis and stability analysis of the mechanism are carried out to verify the structural design parameters. The simulation results validate the feasibility of walking on rugged terrain. Experiments with a physical prototype show that the novel biped walking robot can walk stably on smooth terrain. Due to its unique feet design and high stiffness, the biped walking robot may adapt to rugged terrain and is suitable for load-carrying.

  12. Error modeling and sensitivity analysis of a parallel robot with SCARA(selective compliance assembly robot arm) motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuzhen; Xie, Fugui; Liu, Xinjun; Zhou, Yanhua

    2014-07-01

    Parallel robots with SCARA(selective compliance assembly robot arm) motions are utilized widely in the field of high speed pick-and-place manipulation. Error modeling for these robots generally simplifies the parallelogram structures included by the robots as a link. As the established error model fails to reflect the error feature of the parallelogram structures, the effect of accuracy design and kinematic calibration based on the error model come to be undermined. An error modeling methodology is proposed to establish an error model of parallel robots with parallelogram structures. The error model can embody the geometric errors of all joints, including the joints of parallelogram structures. Thus it can contain more exhaustively the factors that reduce the accuracy of the robot. Based on the error model and some sensitivity indices defined in the sense of statistics, sensitivity analysis is carried out. Accordingly, some atlases are depicted to express each geometric error's influence on the moving platform's pose errors. From these atlases, the geometric errors that have greater impact on the accuracy of the moving platform are identified, and some sensitive areas where the pose errors of the moving platform are extremely sensitive to the geometric errors are also figured out. By taking into account the error factors which are generally neglected in all existing modeling methods, the proposed modeling method can thoroughly disclose the process of error transmission and enhance the efficacy of accuracy design and calibration.

  13. Calibration of the Hall Measurement System for a 6-DOF Precision Stage Using Self-Adaptive Hybrid TLBO

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhenyu; Liu, Yang; Fu, Zhenxian; Song, Shenmin; Tan, Jiubin

    2016-01-01

    To determine the planar motion of a 6-DOF precision stage, a measurement system based on three Hall sensors is adopted to obtain the X, Y, Rz motions of the stage. The machining and assembly errors in the actual mechanical system, which are difficult to measure directly, cause the parameters in the model of the Hall measurement system to deviate from their designed values. Additionally, the vertical movement of the stage will render the measurement model nonlinear. To guarantee the accuracy of the measurement, the parameters in the measurement model should be estimated and the nonlinearity compensated. In this paper, a novel approach based on self-adaptive hybrid TLBO (teaching-learning-based-optimization) is proposed to estimate the parameters in the Hall measurement model. The influences of zero deviations and vertical movements on the measurement accuracy are analyzed and compensated. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by experimental results obtained on a 6-DOF precision stage. Thanks to parameter estimation and calibration, the measurement error of the Hall sensor array is reduced to 6 micrometers. PMID:27314349

  14. Comparison between single and multi-camera view videogrammetry for estimating 6DOF of a rigid body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nocerino, Erica; Menna, Fabio; Remondino, Fabio

    2015-05-01

    Motion capture (MOCAP) systems are used in many fields of application (e.g., machine vision, navigation, industrial measurements, medicine) for tracking and measuring the 6DOF (Degrees-Of-Freedom) of bodies. A variety of systems has been developed in the commercial, as well as research domain, exploiting different sensors and techniques, among which optical methods, based on multi-epoch photogrammetry, are the most common. The authors have developed an off-line low-cost MOCAP system made up of three consumer-grade video cameras, i.e. a multi-view camera system. The system was employed in two different case studies for measuring the motion of personnel working onboard a fishing boat and of a ship model in a towing tank (or model basin) subjected to different sea conditions. In this contribution, the same three single cameras are separately processed to evaluate the performances of a sequential space resection method for estimated the 6DOF of a rigid body (a ship model during high frequency tests in a model basin). The results from each video camera are compared with the motion estimated using the multi-view approach, with the aim of providing a quantitative assessment of the performances obtainable.

  15. Calibration of the Hall Measurement System for a 6-DOF Precision Stage Using Self-Adaptive Hybrid TLBO.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhenyu; Liu, Yang; Fu, Zhenxian; Song, Shenmin; Tan, Jiubin

    2016-01-01

    To determine the planar motion of a 6-DOF precision stage, a measurement system based on three Hall sensors is adopted to obtain the X, Y, Rz motions of the stage. The machining and assembly errors in the actual mechanical system, which are difficult to measure directly, cause the parameters in the model of the Hall measurement system to deviate from their designed values. Additionally, the vertical movement of the stage will render the measurement model nonlinear. To guarantee the accuracy of the measurement, the parameters in the measurement model should be estimated and the nonlinearity compensated. In this paper, a novel approach based on self-adaptive hybrid TLBO (teaching-learning-based-optimization) is proposed to estimate the parameters in the Hall measurement model. The influences of zero deviations and vertical movements on the measurement accuracy are analyzed and compensated. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by experimental results obtained on a 6-DOF precision stage. Thanks to parameter estimation and calibration, the measurement error of the Hall sensor array is reduced to 6 micrometers. PMID:27314349

  16. Direct kinematics solution architectures for industrial robot manipulators: Bit-serial versus parallel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J.; Kim, K.

    1991-01-01

    A Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) architecture for robot direct kinematic computation suitable for industrial robot manipulators was investigated. The Denavit-Hartenberg transformations are reviewed to exploit a proper processing element, namely an augmented CORDIC. Specifically, two distinct implementations are elaborated on, such as the bit-serial and parallel. Performance of each scheme is analyzed with respect to the time to compute one location of the end-effector of a 6-links manipulator, and the number of transistors required.

  17. Direct kinematics solution architectures for industrial robot manipulators: Bit-serial versus parallel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Kim, K.

    A Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) architecture for robot direct kinematic computation suitable for industrial robot manipulators was investigated. The Denavit-Hartenberg transformations are reviewed to exploit a proper processing element, namely an augmented CORDIC. Specifically, two distinct implementations are elaborated on, such as the bit-serial and parallel. Performance of each scheme is analyzed with respect to the time to compute one location of the end-effector of a 6-links manipulator, and the number of transistors required.

  18. Development of a novel soft parallel robot equipped with polymeric artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiri Moghadam, Amir Ali; Kouzani, Abbas; Torabi, Keivan; Kaynak, Akif; Shahinpoor, Mohsen

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents the design, analysis and fabrication of a novel low-cost soft parallel robot for biomedical applications, including bio-micromanipulation devices. The robot consists of two active flexible polymer actuator-based links, which are connected to two rigid links by means of flexible joints. A mathematical model is established between the input voltage to the polymer actuators and the robot’s end effector position. The robot has two degrees-of-freedom, making it suitable for handling planar micromanipulation tasks. Moreover, a number of robots can be configured to operate in a cooperative manner for increasing micromanipulation dexterity. Finally, the experimental results demonstrate two main motion modes of the robot.

  19. Squipabot: A Mesoscale Parallel Robot for a Laser Phonosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabenorosoa, Kanty; Tasca, Bastien; Zerbib, Antonin; Rougeot, Patrick; Andreff, Nicolas; Eakkachai Pengwang, Ton

    2015-10-01

    This article presents the design of a mesoscale robot for laser phonosurgery. The proposed design is situated between conventional mechanism and MEMS technology. A combination of compliant structures and innovative micromotors enables to achieve a two decoupled tilting angle, a high range (up to 45°), and a precise positioning of a laser beam. The design methodology and the optimization of the compliant structure are detailed. Preliminary results and tests are described, which have induced promising performances of the mesoscale robot for laser steering.

  20. Insight to human and robotic parallels in spacecraft and space tool design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Ruthan

    1990-01-01

    The parallels between human space activity and robotics and the role of their compatibility in the design of critical spacecraft elements are discussed with reference to current manned spacecraft programs, such as the Shuttle and Space Station Freedom. In particular, it is noted that the human variable may be the limiting factor with regards to repetition, fatigue, and possibly strength. This limiting factor serves as the natural constraint in the design of compatible interfaces. However, the mechanism or tool, not the capability of the robot, is constrained to human limits. Results of a limited test to study the robotic compatibility of the EVA-suitable connectors are reported.

  1. Multi-objective optimization of a parallel ankle rehabilitation robot using modified differential evolution algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Congzhe; Fang, Yuefa; Guo, Sheng

    2015-07-01

    Dimensional synthesis is one of the most difficult issues in the field of parallel robots with actuation redundancy. To deal with the optimal design of a redundantly actuated parallel robot used for ankle rehabilitation, a methodology of dimensional synthesis based on multi-objective optimization is presented. First, the dimensional synthesis of the redundant parallel robot is formulated as a nonlinear constrained multi-objective optimization problem. Then four objective functions, separately reflecting occupied space, input/output transmission and torque performances, and multi-criteria constraints, such as dimension, interference and kinematics, are defined. In consideration of the passive exercise of plantar/dorsiflexion requiring large output moment, a torque index is proposed. To cope with the actuation redundancy of the parallel robot, a new output transmission index is defined as well. The multi-objective optimization problem is solved by using a modified Differential Evolution(DE) algorithm, which is characterized by new selection and mutation strategies. Meanwhile, a special penalty method is presented to tackle the multi-criteria constraints. Finally, numerical experiments for different optimization algorithms are implemented. The computation results show that the proposed indices of output transmission and torque, and constraint handling are effective for the redundant parallel robot; the modified DE algorithm is superior to the other tested algorithms, in terms of the ability of global search and the number of non-dominated solutions. The proposed methodology of multi-objective optimization can be also applied to the dimensional synthesis of other redundantly actuated parallel robots only with rotational movements.

  2. Trajectory planning and control of a 6 DOF manipulator with Stewart platform-based mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Charles C.; Antrazi, Sami

    1990-01-01

    The trajectory planning and control was studied of a robot manipulator that has 6 degrees of freedom and was designed based on the mechanism of the Stewart Platform. First the main components of the manipulator is described along with its operation. The solutions are briefly prescribed for the forward and inverse kinematics of the manipulator. After that, two trajectory planning schemes are developed using the manipulator inverse kinematics to track straight lines and circular paths. Finally experiments conducted to study the performance of the developed planning schemes in tracking a straight line and a circle are presented and discussed.

  3. Motion capability analysis of a quadruped robot as a parallel manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jingjun; Lu, Dengfeng; Zhang, Zhongxiang; Pei, Xu

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the forward and inverse displacement analysis of a quadruped robot MANA as a parallel manipulator in quadruple stance phase, which is used to obtain the workspace and control the motion of the body. The robot MANA designed on the basis of the structure of quadruped mammal is able to not only walk and turn in the uneven terrain, but also accomplish various manipulating tasks as a parallel manipulator in quadruple stance phase. The latter will be the focus of this paper, however. For this purpose, the leg kinematics is primarily analyzed, which lays the foundation on the gait planning in terms of locomotion and body kinematics analysis as a parallel manipulator. When all four feet of the robot contact on the ground, by assuming there is no slipping at the feet, each contacting point is treated as a passive spherical joint and the kinematic model of parallel manipulator is established. The method for choosing six non-redundant actuated joints for the parallel manipulator from all twelve optional joints is elaborated. The inverse and forward displacement analysis of the parallel manipulator is carried out using the method of coordinate transformation. Finally, based on the inverse and forward kinematic model, two issues on obtaining the reachable workspace of parallel manipulator and planning the motion of the body are implemented and verified by ADAMS simulation.

  4. Measuring NIRCam's position and orientation in 6 DOF using one reference mirror surface inside an environmental chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweiger, Paul F.; Andersen, Torben B.

    2015-09-01

    The Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) instrument used to align and obtain science data for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) was tested at the module level at flight-like cryogenic temperature. This paper explains the background that created the innovative techniques used to measure NIRCam's modules alignments in 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) inside a thermal vacuum chamber. All 6 DOF were measured remotely, through a single chamber window port, using only a flat reference mirror/reticle surface mounted on each module. This measured orientation was then used to determine the optical input axis and entrance pupil for each module. The accuracy achieved was on the order of 20 microns in position and 5 arc seconds in angular orientation.

  5. Robust gain-scheduling for smart-structures in parallel robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algermissen, Stephan; Rose, Michael; Keimer, Ralf; Sinapius, Michael

    2009-03-01

    In the past years parallel robots demonstrated their capability in applications with high-dynamic trajectories. Smart-structures offer the potential to further increase the productivity of parallel robots by reducing disturbing vibrations caused by high dynamic loads effectively. To investigate parallel robots and their applications, including suitable control concepts for smart-structures, the Collaborative Research Center 562 was founded by the German Research Council (DFG). The latest prototype within this research center is called Triglide. It is a four degree of freedom (DOF) robot with three translational and one rotational DOF. It realizes an acceleration of 10 g* at the effector. In the structure of the robot six active rods and a tri-axial accelerometer are integrated to control effector vibrations in three translational DOF. The main challenge of this control application is the position dependent vibration behavior. A single robust controller is not able to gain satisfying performance within the entire workspace. Therefore a strategy for describing the vibration behavior by linearization at several operating points is developed. Behavior in-between is approximated by a linear approach. On a trajectory robust controllers in all operating points are smoothly switched by robust gain-scheduling. The scheduling parameters are fast varying and though a suitable stability proof is defined, based on Small-Gain approach. Several transformations enhance the results from Small-Gain Theorem and reduce the usual conservatism. Experimental data is used to show the improvements made.

  6. Dynamics and control of cable-suspended parallel robots for giant telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Peng; Yao, Zhengqiu

    2006-06-01

    A cable-suspended parallel robot utilizes the basic idea of Stewart platform but replaces parallel links with cables and linear actuators with winches. It has many advantages over a conventional crane. The concept of applying a cable-suspended parallel robot into the construction and maintenance of giant telescope is presented in this paper. Compared with the mass and travel of the moving platform of the robot, the mass and deformation of the cables can be disregarded. Based on the premises, the kinematic and dynamic models of the robot are built. Through simulation, the inertia and gravity of moving platform are found to have dominant effect on the dynamic characteristic of the robot, while the dynamics of actuators can be disregarded, so a simplified dynamic model applicable to real-time control is obtained. Moreover, according to control-law partitioning approach and optimization theory, a workspace model-based controller is proposed considering the characteristic that the cables can only pull but not push. The simulation results indicate that the controller possesses good accuracy in pose and speed tracking, and keeps the cables in reliable tension by maintaining the minimum strain above a certain given value, thus ensures smooth motion and accurate localization for moving platform.

  7. Impedance Control of the Rehabilitation Robot Based on Sliding Mode Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiawang; Zhou, Zude; Ai, Qingsong

    As an auxiliary treatment, the 6-DOF parallel robot plays an important role in lower limb rehabilitation. In order to improve the efficiency and flexibility of the lower limb rehabilitation training, this paper studies the impedance controller based on the position control. A nonsingular terminal sliding mode control is developed to ensure the trajectory tracking precision and in contrast to traditional PID control strategy in the inner position loop, the system will be more stable. The stability of the system is proved by Lyapunov function to guarantee the convergence of the control errors. Simulation results validate the effectiveness of the target impedance model and show that the parallel robot can adjust gait trajectory online according to the human-machine interaction force to meet the gait request of patients, and changing the impedance parameters can meet the demands of different stages of rehabilitation training.

  8. The parallel approach to force/position control of robotic manipulators

    SciTech Connect

    Chiaverini, S.; Sciavicco, L.

    1993-08-01

    Force/position control strategies provide an effective framework to deal with tasks involving interaction with the environment. In this paper the parallel approach to force/position control of robotic manipulators is presented. It allows a complete use of the available sensor measurements by operating the control action in a full-dimensional space without using selection matrices. Conflicting situations between the position and force tasks are managed using a priority strategy: the force control loop is designed to prevail over the position control loop. This choice ensures limited deviations from the prescribed force trajectory in every situation, guaranteeing automatic recovery from unplanned collisions. A dynamic force/position parallel control law is presented and its performance in presence of an elastic environment is analyzed; simplification of the dynamic control law is also discussed leading to a PID-type parallel controller. Two case studies are worked out that show the effectiveness of the approach in application to an industrial robot.

  9. Setup Accuracy of the Novalis ExacTrac 6DOF System for Frameless Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Gevaert, Thierry; Verellen, Dirk; Tournel, Koen; Linthout, Nadine; Bral, Samuel; Engels, Benedikt; Collen, Christine; Depuydt, Tom; Duchateau, Michael; Reynders, Truus; Storme, Guy; De Ridder, Mark

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic radiosurgery using frame-based positioning is a well-established technique for the treatment of benign and malignant lesions. By contrast, a new trend toward frameless systems using image-guided positioning techniques is gaining mainstream acceptance. This study was designed to measure the detection and positioning accuracy of the ExacTrac/Novalis Body (ET/NB) for rotations and to compare the accuracy of the frameless with the frame-based radiosurgery technique. Methods and Materials: A program was developed in house to rotate reference computed tomography images. The angles measured by the system were compared with the known rotations. The accuracy of ET/NB was evaluated with a head phantom with seven lead beads inserted, mounted on a treatment couch equipped with a robotic tilt module, and was measured with a digital water level and portal films. Multiple hidden target tests (HTT) were performed to measure the overall accuracy of the different positioning techniques for radiosurgery (i.e., frameless and frame-based with relocatable mask or invasive ring, respectively). Results: The ET/NB system can detect rotational setup errors with an average accuracy of 0.09 Degree-Sign (standard deviation [SD] 0.06 Degree-Sign ), 0.02 Degree-Sign (SD 0.07 Degree-Sign ), and 0.06 Degree-Sign (SD 0.14 Degree-Sign ) for longitudinal, lateral, and vertical rotations, respectively. The average positioning accuracy was 0.06 Degree-Sign (SD 0.04 Degree-Sign ), 0.08 Degree-Sign (SD 0.06 Degree-Sign ), and 0.08 Degree-Sign (SD 0.07 Degree-Sign ) for longitudinal, lateral and vertical rotations, respectively. The results of the HTT showed an overall three-dimensional accuracy of 0.76 mm (SD 0.46 mm) for the frameless technique, 0.87 mm (SD 0.44 mm) for the relocatable mask, and 1.19 mm (SD 0.45 mm) for the frame-based technique. Conclusions: The study showed high detection accuracy and a subdegree positioning accuracy. On the basis of phantom studies, the

  10. Evaluation of parallel reduction strategies for fusion of sensory information from a robot team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Damian M.; Leroy, Joseph

    2015-05-01

    The advantage of using a team of robots to search or to map an area is that by navigating the robots to different parts of the area, searching or mapping can be completed more quickly. A crucial aspect of the problem is the combination, or fusion, of data from team members to generate an integrated model of the search/mapping area. In prior work we looked at the issue of removing mutual robots views from an integrated point cloud model built from laser and stereo sensors, leading to a cleaner and more accurate model. This paper addresses a further challenge: Even with mutual views removed, the stereo data from a team of robots can quickly swamp a WiFi connection. This paper proposes and evaluates a communication and fusion approach based on the parallel reduction operation, where data is combined in a series of steps of increasing subsets of the team. Eight different strategies for selecting the subsets are evaluated for bandwidth requirements using three robot missions, each carried out with teams of four Pioneer 3-AT robots. Our results indicate that selecting groups to combine based on similar pose but distant location yields the best results.

  11. Special purpose parallel computer architecture for real-time control and simulation in robotic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, Amir (Inventor); Bejczy, Antal K. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    This is a real-time robotic controller and simulator which is a MIMD-SIMD parallel architecture for interfacing with an external host computer and providing a high degree of parallelism in computations for robotic control and simulation. It includes a host processor for receiving instructions from the external host computer and for transmitting answers to the external host computer. There are a plurality of SIMD microprocessors, each SIMD processor being a SIMD parallel processor capable of exploiting fine grain parallelism and further being able to operate asynchronously to form a MIMD architecture. Each SIMD processor comprises a SIMD architecture capable of performing two matrix-vector operations in parallel while fully exploiting parallelism in each operation. There is a system bus connecting the host processor to the plurality of SIMD microprocessors and a common clock providing a continuous sequence of clock pulses. There is also a ring structure interconnecting the plurality of SIMD microprocessors and connected to the clock for providing the clock pulses to the SIMD microprocessors and for providing a path for the flow of data and instructions between the SIMD microprocessors. The host processor includes logic for controlling the RRCS by interpreting instructions sent by the external host computer, decomposing the instructions into a series of computations to be performed by the SIMD microprocessors, using the system bus to distribute associated data among the SIMD microprocessors, and initiating activity of the SIMD microprocessors to perform the computations on the data by procedure call.

  12. A spherical parallel three degrees-of-freedom robot for ankle-foot neuro-rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Malosio, Matteo; Negri, Simone Pio; Pedrocchi, Nicola; Vicentini, Federico; Caimmi, Marco; Molinari Tosatti, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    The ankle represents a fairly complex bone structure, resulting in kinematics that hinders a flawless robot-assisted recovery of foot motility in impaired subjects. The paper proposes a novel device for ankle-foot neuro-rehabilitation based on a mechatronic redesign of the remarkable Agile Eye spherical robot on the basis of clinical requisites. The kinematic design allows the positioning of the ankle articular center close to the machine rotation center with valuable benefits in term of therapy functions. The prototype, named PKAnkle, Parallel Kinematic machine for Ankle rehabilitation, provides a 6-axes load cell for the measure of subject interaction forces/torques, and it integrates a commercial EMG-acquisition system. Robot control provides active and passive therapeutic exercises. PMID:23366645

  13. The impact of lift and drag on 6DOF motion of LEO objects : formation control and debris behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Brenton; Boyce, Russell; Brown, Melrose

    2016-07-01

    Perturbing forces on spacecraft are a challenge for the establishment and maintenance of satellite formations. For large satellites, the use of thrusters is a practical means of countering perturbing forces. However, long-term thrusting is not currently feasible for miniaturised satellites due to volume and mass constraints. Astrodynamics effects - in particular, passive aerodynamic lift and drag forces - are possible means for miniaturised satellites to maintain a formation in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Currently, lift and drag for rendezvous have been considered in the presence of simplified orbital models, namely two body motion with the J2 effect. Given the small magnitude of lift and drag in LEO, it is unclear as to the control effectiveness of these aerodynamic forces under all orbital perturbations including solar radiation pressure, third body gravitation, and the non-spherical gravity. The work presented here will explore the extent to which aerodynamic lift and drag can be utilised for formation establishment and maintenance under changing operating conditions, including altitude, orbital inclination, space weather, sensor errors, and all-encompassing orbital perturbations. This work applies an in-house developed orbital propagation code to simulate the motion of formation flying spacecraft under differing conditions. The results will help miniaturised satellite formation flight planners better plan and operate future formation missions, and will also feed into improved understanding of the 6DOF motion of near-Earth orbit objects, including that of uncontrolled objects such as space debris.

  14. Six degree-of-freedom scanning supports and manipulators based on parallel robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comin, Fabio

    1995-02-01

    The exploitation of third generation SR sources heavily relies on accurate and stable positioning and scanning of samples and optical elements. In some cases, active feedback is also necessary. Normally, these tasks are carried out by serial addition of individual components, each of them providing a well-defined excursion path. On the contrary, the exploitation of the concept of parallel robots, structures in close cinematic chain, permits us to follow any given trajectory in the six-dimensional space with a large increase in accuracy and stiffness. At ESRF, the parallel robot architecture conceived some tens of years ago for flight simulators has been adapted to both actively align and operate optical elements of considerable weight and position small samples in ultrahigh vacuum. The performance of these devices gives results far superior to the initial specification and a variety of drive mechanisms are being developed to fit the different needs of the ESRF beamlines.

  15. Strength analysis of parallel robot components in PLM Siemens NX 8.5 program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ociepka, P.; Herbus, K.

    2015-11-01

    This article presents a series of numerical analyses in order to identify the states of stress in elements, which arise during the operation of the mechanism. The object of the research was parallel robot, which is the basis for the prototype of a driving simulator. To conduct the dynamic analysis was used the Motion Simulation module and the RecurDyn solver. In this module were created the joints which occur in the mechanism of a parallel robot. Next dynamic analyzes were performed to determine the maximal forces that will applied to the analyzed elements. It was also analyzed the platform motion during the simulation a collision of a car with a wall. In the next step, basing on the results obtained in the dynamic analysis, were performed the strength analyzes in the Advanced Simulation module. For calculation the NX Nastran solver was used.

  16. Robot-assisted ultrasound imaging: overview and development of a parallel telerobotic system.

    PubMed

    Monfaredi, Reza; Wilson, Emmanuel; Azizi Koutenaei, Bamshad; Labrecque, Brendan; Leroy, Kristen; Goldie, James; Louis, Eric; Swerdlow, Daniel; Cleary, Kevin

    2015-02-01

    Ultrasound imaging is frequently used in medicine. The quality of ultrasound images is often dependent on the skill of the sonographer. Several researchers have proposed robotic systems to aid in ultrasound image acquisition. In this paper we first provide a short overview of robot-assisted ultrasound imaging (US). We categorize robot-assisted US imaging systems into three approaches: autonomous US imaging, teleoperated US imaging, and human-robot cooperation. For each approach several systems are introduced and briefly discussed. We then describe a compact six degree of freedom parallel mechanism telerobotic system for ultrasound imaging developed by our research team. The long-term goal of this work is to enable remote ultrasound scanning through teleoperation. This parallel mechanism allows for both translation and rotation of an ultrasound probe mounted on the top plate along with force control. Our experimental results confirmed good mechanical system performance with a positioning error of < 1 mm. Phantom experiments by a radiologist showed promising results with good image quality. PMID:25540071

  17. New Factorization Techniques and Parallel (log N) Algorithms for Forward Dynamics Solution of Single Closed-Chain Robot Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, Amir

    1993-01-01

    In this paper parallel 0(log N) algorithms for dynamic simulation of single closed-chain rigid multibody system as specialized to the case of a robot manipulatoar in contact with the environment are developed.

  18. The JPL Serpentine Robot: A 12 DOF System for Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paljug, E.; Ohm, T.; Hayati, S.

    1995-01-01

    The Serpentine Robot is a prototype hyper-redundant (snake-like) manipulator system developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It is designed to navigate and perform tasks in obstructed and constrained environments in which conventional 6 DOF manipulators cannot function. Described are the robot mechanical design, a joint assembly low level inverse kinematic algorithm, control development, and applications.

  19. Characterization of robotics parallel algorithms and mapping onto a reconfigurable SIMD machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. S. G.; Lin, C. T.

    1989-01-01

    The kinematics, dynamics, Jacobian, and their corresponding inverse computations are six essential problems in the control of robot manipulators. Efficient parallel algorithms for these computations are discussed and analyzed. Their characteristics are identified and a scheme on the mapping of these algorithms to a reconfigurable parallel architecture is presented. Based on the characteristics including type of parallelism, degree of parallelism, uniformity of the operations, fundamental operations, data dependencies, and communication requirement, it is shown that most of the algorithms for robotic computations possess highly regular properties and some common structures, especially the linear recursive structure. Moreover, they are well-suited to be implemented on a single-instruction-stream multiple-data-stream (SIMD) computer with reconfigurable interconnection network. The model of a reconfigurable dual network SIMD machine with internal direct feedback is introduced. A systematic procedure internal direct feedback is introduced. A systematic procedure to map these computations to the proposed machine is presented. A new scheduling problem for SIMD machines is investigated and a heuristic algorithm, called neighborhood scheduling, that reorders the processing sequence of subtasks to reduce the communication time is described. Mapping results of a benchmark algorithm are illustrated and discussed.

  20. Parallel robots in a ground-based telescope active optics system: theory and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schipani, P.; Ferragina, L.; Marty, L.; Grado, A.; Di Fiore, L.; De Rosa, R.; La Rana, A.; Busatta, A.

    2007-10-01

    This work deals with the application of parallel robots for the correction of defocus and coma optical aberrations in the case study of the VST (VLT Survey Telescope) telescope, to be installed at the ESO observatory of Cerro Paranal (Chile). The parallel robots are used to change position and orientation of the secondary mirror. The secondary mirror positioning capability is a fundamental part in an active optics system, i.e. a closed loop control system for the minimization of the telescope optical aberrations, where the outer optical feedback coming from the wavefront sensor is used to generate references for the inner motion control loop of the secondary mirror positioning robots. Two devices are presented: a 6-6 Stewart platform where both fixed and mobile platforms are regular and similar hexagons whose vertexes belong to the same plane and are on a circle, and a two stages device composed by a XY table plus a tilt platform. The basic theory of active optics corrections is presented. The kinematics of both devices is solved in connection with the active optics application; first test data are presented.

  1. Motion control of planar parallel robot using the fuzzy descriptor system approach.

    PubMed

    Vermeiren, Laurent; Dequidt, Antoine; Afroun, Mohamed; Guerra, Thierry-Marie

    2012-09-01

    This work presents the control of a two-degree of freedom parallel robot manipulator. A quasi-LPV approach, through the so-called TS fuzzy model and LMI constraints problems is used. Moreover, in this context a way to derive interesting control laws is to keep the descriptor form of the mechanical system. Therefore, new LMI problems have to be defined that helps to reduce the conservatism of the usual results. Some relaxations are also proposed to leave the pure quadratic stability/stabilization framework. A comparison study between the classical control strategies from robotics and the control design using TS fuzzy descriptor models is carried out to show the interest of the proposed approach. PMID:22633366

  2. Parallel robot for micro assembly with integrated innovative optical 3D-sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesselbach, Juergen; Ispas, Diana; Pokar, Gero; Soetebier, Sven; Tutsch, Rainer

    2002-10-01

    Recent advances in the fields of MEMS and MOEMS often require precise assembly of very small parts with an accuracy of a few microns. In order to meet this demand, a new approach using a robot based on parallel mechanisms in combination with a novel 3D-vision system has been chosen. The planar parallel robot structure with 2 DOF provides a high resolution in the XY-plane. It carries two additional serial axes for linear and rotational movement in/about z direction. In order to achieve high precision as well as good dynamic capabilities, the drive concept for the parallel (main) axes incorporates air bearings in combination with a linear electric servo motors. High accuracy position feedback is provided by optical encoders with a resolution of 0.1 μm. To allow for visualization and visual control of assembly processes, a camera module fits into the hollow tool head. It consists of a miniature CCD camera and a light source. In addition a modular gripper support is integrated into the tool head. To increase the accuracy a control loop based on an optoelectronic sensor will be implemented. As a result of an in-depth analysis of different approaches a photogrammetric system using one single camera and special beam-splitting optics was chosen. A pattern of elliptical marks is applied to the surfaces of workpiece and gripper. Using a model-based recognition algorithm the image processing software identifies the gripper and the workpiece and determines their relative position. A deviation vector is calculated and fed into the robot control to guide the gripper.

  3. Adaptive Control of a Serial-in-Parallel Robotic Rehabilitation Device

    PubMed Central

    Pehlivan, Ali Utku; Sergi, Fabrizio; O’Malley, Marcia K.

    2013-01-01

    Robotic rehabilitation is an effective platform for sensorimotor training after neurological injuries. In this paper, an adaptive controller is developed and implemented for the RiceWrist, a serial-in-parallel robot mechanism for upper extremity robotic rehabilitation. The model-based adaptive controller implementation requires a closed form dynamic model, valid for a restricted domain of generalized coordinates. We have used an existing method to define this domain and verify that the domain is widely within the range of admissible tasks required for the considered application (movements-based wrist and forearm rehabilitation). Simulation and experimental results that compare the performance of the adaptive controller to a proportional- derivative controller show that the trajectory tracking performance of the adaptive controller is better compared to the performance of a PD controller using the same values of feed-back gains. Further, comparable absolute error performance is obtained with the adaptive controller for feedback gains nearly one third that required for the PD controller. With the lower gains used in the adaptive controller, good tracking performance is achieved with a more compliant controller that will allow the subject to indicate their ability to independently initiate and maintain movement during a rehabilitation session. PMID:24187231

  4. Design and real-time control of a robotic system for fracture manipulation.

    PubMed

    Dagnino, G; Georgilas, I; Tarassoli, P; Atkins, R; Dogramadzi, S

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents the design, development and control of a new robotic system for fracture manipulation. The objective is to improve the precision, ergonomics and safety of the traditional surgical procedure to treat joint fractures. The achievements toward this direction are here reported and include the design, the real-time control architecture and the evaluation of a new robotic manipulator system. The robotic manipulator is a 6-DOF parallel robot with the struts developed as linear actuators. The control architecture is also described here. The high-level controller implements a host-target structure composed by a host computer (PC), a real-time controller, and an FPGA. A graphical user interface was designed allowing the surgeon to comfortably automate and monitor the robotic system. The real-time controller guarantees the determinism of the control algorithms adding an extra level of safety for the robotic automation. The system's positioning accuracy and repeatability have been demonstrated showing a maximum positioning RMSE of 1.18 ± 1.14mm (translations) and 1.85 ± 1.54° (rotations). PMID:26737383

  5. An inexpensive method for kinematic calibration of a parallel robot by using one hand-held camera as main sensor.

    PubMed

    Traslosheros, Alberto; Sebastián, José María; Torrijos, Jesús; Carelli, Ricardo; Castillo, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for the calibration of a parallel robot, which allows a more accurate configuration instead of a configuration based on nominal parameters. It is used, as the main sensor with one camera installed in the robot hand that determines the relative position of the robot with respect to a spherical object fixed in the working area of the robot. The positions of the end effector are related to the incremental positions of resolvers of the robot motors. A kinematic model of the robot is used to find a new group of parameters, which minimizes errors in the kinematic equations. Additionally, properties of the spherical object and intrinsic camera parameters are utilized to model the projection of the object in the image and thereby improve spatial measurements. Finally, several working tests, static and tracking tests are executed in order to verify how the robotic system behaviour improves by using calibrated parameters against nominal parameters. In order to emphasize that, this proposed new method uses neither external nor expensive sensor. That is why new robots are useful in teaching and research activities. PMID:23921827

  6. Trajectory tracking control of parallel robots in the presence of joint drive flexibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ider, S. Kemal; Korkmaz, Ozan

    2009-01-01

    Trajectory tracking control of parallel manipulators is aimed in the presence of flexibility at the joint drives. Joint structural damping is also considered in the dynamic model. The system is first converted into an open-tree structure by disconnecting a sufficient number of unactuated joints. The closed loops are then expressed by constraint equations. It is shown that, in a parallel robot with flexible joint drives, the acceleration level inverse dynamics equations are singular because the control torques do not have an instantaneous effect on the end-effector accelerations due to the elastic media. Eliminating the Lagrange multipliers and the intermediate variables, a fourth-order input-output relation is obtained between the actuator torques and the end-effector position variables. The proposed control law decouples and linearizes the system and achieves asymptotic stability by feedback of positions and velocities of the actuated joints and rotors. As a case study, a three degree of freedom, two legged planar parallel manipulator is simulated to illustrate the performance of the method. The end-effector desired trajectory is chosen such that the kinematic and drive singular positions are avoided.

  7. A parallel expert system for the control of a robotic air vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shakley, Donald; Lamont, Gary B.

    1988-01-01

    Expert systems can be used to govern the intelligent control of vehicles, for example the Robotic Air Vehicle (RAV). Due to the nature of the RAV system the associated expert system needs to perform in a demanding real-time environment. The use of a parallel processing capability to support the associated expert system's computational requirement is critical in this application. Thus, algorithms for parallel real-time expert systems must be designed, analyzed, and synthesized. The design process incorporates a consideration of the rule-set/face-set size along with representation issues. These issues are looked at in reference to information movement and various inference mechanisms. Also examined is the process involved with transporting the RAV expert system functions from the TI Explorer, where they are implemented in the Automated Reasoning Tool (ART), to the iPSC Hypercube, where the system is synthesized using Concurrent Common LISP (CCLISP). The transformation process for the ART to CCLISP conversion is described. The performance characteristics of the parallel implementation of these expert systems on the iPSC Hypercube are compared to the TI Explorer implementation.

  8. Understanding of and applications for robot vision guidance at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shawaga, Lawrence M.

    1988-01-01

    The primary thrust of robotics at KSC is for the servicing of Space Shuttle remote umbilical docking functions. In order for this to occur, robots performing servicing operations must be capable of tracking a swaying Orbiter in Six Degrees of Freedom (6-DOF). Currently, in NASA KSC's Robotic Applications Development Laboratory (RADL), an ASEA IRB-90 industrial robot is being equipped with a real-time computer vision (hardware and software) system to allow it to track a simulated Orbiter interface (target) in 6-DOF. The real-time computer vision system effectively becomes the eyes for the lab robot, guiding it through a closed loop visual feedback system to move with the simulated Orbiter interface. This paper will address an understanding of this vision guidance system and how it will be applied to remote umbilical servicing at KSC. In addition, other current and future applications will be addressed.

  9. Robotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddell, Steve; Doty, Keith L.

    1999-01-01

    "Why Teach Robotics?" (Waddell) suggests that the United States lags behind Europe and Japan in use of robotics in industry and teaching. "Creating a Course in Mobile Robotics" (Doty) outlines course elements of the Intelligent Machines Design Lab. (SK)

  10. Joint-space adaptive control of a 6 DOF end-effector with closed-kinematic chain mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Charles C.; Zhou, Zhen-Lei

    1989-01-01

    The development is presented for a joint-space adaptive scheme that controls the joint position of a six-degree-of-freedom (DOF) robot end-effector performing fine and precise motion within a very limited workspace. The end-effector was built to study autonomous assembly of NASA hardware in space. The design of the adaptive controller is based on the concept of model reference adaptive control (MRAC) and Lyapunov direct method. In the development, it is assumed that the end-effector performs slowly varying motion. Computer simulation is performed to investigate the performance of the developed control scheme on position control of the end-effector. Simulation results manifest that the adaptive control scheme provides excellent tracking of several test paths.

  11. Parallel algorithm for dominant points correspondences in robot binocular stereo vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Tammami, A.; Singh, B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm to find the correspondences of points representing dominant feature in robot stereo vision. The algorithm consists of two main steps: dominant point extraction and dominant point matching. In the feature extraction phase, the algorithm utilizes the widely used Moravec Interest Operator and two other operators: the Prewitt Operator and a new operator called Gradient Angle Variance Operator. The Interest Operator in the Moravec algorithm was used to exclude featureless areas and simple edges which are oriented in the vertical, horizontal, and two diagonals. It was incorrectly detecting points on edges which are not on the four main directions (vertical, horizontal, and two diagonals). The new algorithm uses the Prewitt operator to exclude featureless areas, so that the Interest Operator is applied only on the edges to exclude simple edges and to leave interesting points. This modification speeds-up the extraction process by approximately 5 times. The Gradient Angle Variance (GAV), an operator which calculates the variance of the gradient angle in a window around the point under concern, is then applied on the interesting points to exclude the redundant ones and leave the actual dominant ones. The matching phase is performed after the extraction of the dominant points in both stereo images. The matching starts with dominant points in the left image and does a local search, looking for corresponding dominant points in the right image. The search is geometrically constrained the epipolar line of the parallel-axes stereo geometry and the maximum disparity of the application environment. If one dominant point in the right image lies in the search areas, then it is the corresponding point of the reference dominant point in the left image. A parameter provided by the GAV is thresholded and used as a rough similarity measure to select the corresponding dominant point if there is more than one point the search area. The correlation is used as

  12. Design of a Bone-Attached Parallel Robot for Percutaneous Cochlear Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Blachon, Grégoire S.; Withrow, Thomas J.; Balachandran, Ramya; Labadie, Robert F.; Webster, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Access to the cochlea requires drilling in close proximity to bone-embedded nerves, blood vessels, and other structures, the violation of which can result in complications for the patient. It has recently been shown that microstereotactic frames can enable an image-guided percutaneous approach, removing reliance on human experience and hand–eye coordination, and reducing trauma. However, constructing current microstereotactic frames disrupts the clinical workflow, requiring multiday intrasurgical manufacturing delays, or an on-call machine shop in or near the hospital. In this paper, we describe a new kind of microsterotactic frame that obviates these delay and infrastructure issues by being repositionable. Inspired by the prior success of bone-attached parallel robots in knee and spinal procedures, we present an automated image-guided microstereotactic frame. Experiments demonstrate a mean accuracy at the cochlea of 0.20 ± 0.07 mm in phantom testing with trajectories taken from a human clinical dataset. We also describe a cadaver experiment evaluating the entire image-guided surgery pipeline, where we achieved an accuracy of 0.38 mm at the cochlea. PMID:21788181

  13. Modeling and simulation of a Stewart platform type parallel structure robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Gee Kwang; Freeman, Robert A.; Tesar, Delbert

    1989-01-01

    The kinematics and dynamics of a Stewart Platform type parallel structure robot (NASA's Dynamic Docking Test System) were modeled using the method of kinematic influence coefficients (KIC) and isomorphic transformations of system dependence from one set of generalized coordinates to another. By specifying the end-effector (platform) time trajectory, the required generalized input forces which would theoretically yield the desired motion were determined. It was found that the relationship between the platform motion and the actuators motion was nonlinear. In addition, the contribution to the total generalized forces, required at the actuators, from the acceleration related terms were found to be more significant than the velocity related terms. Hence, the curve representing the total required actuator force generally resembled the curve for the acceleration related force. Another observation revealed that the acceleration related effective inertia matrix I sub dd had the tendency to decouple, with the elements on the main diagonal of I sub dd being larger than the off-diagonal elements, while the velocity related inertia power array P sub ddd did not show such tendency. This tendency results in the acceleration related force curve of a given actuator resembling the acceleration profile of that particular actuator. Furthermore, it was indicated that the effective inertia matrix for the legs is more decoupled than that for the platform. These observations provide essential information for further research to develop an effective control strategy for real-time control of the Dynamic Docking Test System.

  14. Kinematic analysis of platform-type robotic manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaolun

    New methods are developed for the kinematic analysis of serial and platform-type parallel robotic manipulators, including forward and inverse kinematic solutions, singularity identifications and workspace evaluation. Differences between serial and platform-type parallel manipulators, which can provide substantially improved end-point rigidity compared with the conventional serial robotic arms, are addressed. The problem of determining the screw parameters of rigid body motion from initial and final position data is discussed, as a basis to search for a general and efficient procedure to solve the complex forward kinematics problem of platform-type manipulators. Several Screw-Theory based approaches for solving the inverse instantaneous problem of 6 DOF serial manipulators are studied and compared in terms of their computational efficiency, accuracy, sensitivity to data error and capability of dealing with singularities. A modified Vector Decomposition method is then proposed for solving the IIK problem and for singularity analysis of serial kinematic chains, the method is especially effective when applied to the wrist partitioned serial manipulators, which are essential components to any platform-type parallel manipulators. By using the data of three point positions, velocities, and accelerations of the end effector a general method is developed for solving the forward kinematics problem, including position, velocity and acceleration kinematics, of platform-type manipulators. The solution procedure can be applied to a wide variety of platform-type manipulators such as the 6 DOF Steward Platform manipulator and other models. It is found that while the solution for the forward position kinematics of a platform-type manipulator can be obtained by solving a non-linear system of equations, the closed-form solutions for forward rate and acceleration kinematics can be found by solving a system of linear equations. Based on the proposed kinematic formulations, an algorithm

  15. Usability of robotic platforms for remote surgical teleproctoring.

    PubMed

    Ereso, Alexander Q; Garcia, Pablo; Tseng, Elaine; Dua, Monica M; Victorino, Gregory P; Guy, Ltc Thomas S

    2009-06-01

    Military field hospitals and rural medical centers may lack surgical subspecialists. Robotic technology can enable proctoring of remotely located general surgeons by subspecialists. Our objective compared three proctoring platforms: (1) 6-degree-of-freedom (DOF) computer input devices controlling a camera and laser pointer mounted on robotic arms, (2) a computer mouse controlling a pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) camera and robotic laser scanner, and (3) a computer pen/tablet controlling a PTZ-camera and robotic laser scanner. Our hypothesis was that a pen/tablet or mouse platform would be superior to the 6-DOF-input device platform. Five surgeons used each platform by simulating the creation of operative incisions. Qualitative (instrument handling, time, motion, spatial awareness) and quantitative performance (accuracy, speed) was assessed on a five-point scale. Each surgeon completed a satisfaction survey. Both mouse and pen/tablet had higher mean performance scores than the 6-DOF-input device in all quantitative (6-DOF = 1.7 +/- 0.8, mouse = 4.3 +/- 0.2, pen = 4.1 +/- 0.6; p < 0.001) and qualitative measures (6-DOF = 1.7 +/- 0.2, mouse = 4.8 +/- 0.0, pen = 4.6 +/- 0.1; p < 0.001). Handling, motion, and instrument awareness were superior with the mouse and pen/tablet versus 6-DOF-input devices (p < 0.0001). Speed and accuracy were also superior using the mouse or pen/tablet versus 6-DOF-input devices (p < 0.0001). Surgeons completed tasks faster using the mouse versus pen/tablet (p = 0.02). Satisfaction surveys revealed a preference for the mouse. This study demonstrates the superiority of a mouse or pen/tablet controlling a PTZ-camera and robotic laser scanner for remote surgical teleproctoring versus 6-DOF-input devices controlling a camera and laser pointer. Either a mouse or pen/tablet platform allows subspecialists to proctor remotely located surgeons. PMID:19548825

  16. Validation of a six degree-of-freedom robotic system for hip in vitro biomechanical testing.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Mary T; Rasmussen, Matthew T; Lee Turnbull, Travis; Trindade, Christiano A C; LaPrade, Robert F; Philippon, Marc J; Wijdicks, Coen A

    2015-11-26

    Currently, there exists a need for a more thorough understanding of native hip joint kinematics to improve the understanding of pathological conditions, injury mechanisms, and surgical interventions. A biomechanical testing system able to accomplish multiple degree-of-freedom (DOF) movements is required to study the complex articulation of the hip joint. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the repeatability and comparative accuracy of a 6 DOF robotic system as a testing platform for range of motion in vitro hip biomechanical analysis. Intact human cadaveric pelvises, complete with full femurs, were prepared, and a coordinate measuring machine collected measurements of pertinent femoral and pelvic bony landmarks used to define the anatomic hip axes. Passive flexion/extension path and simulated clinical exam kinematics were recorded using a 6 DOF robotic system. The results of this study demonstrate that the 6 DOF robotic system was able to identify hip passive paths in a highly repeatable manner (median RMS error of <0.1mm and <0.4°), and the robotically simulated clinical exams were consistent and repeatable (rotational RMS error ≤0.8°) in determining hip ranges of motion. Thus, a 6 DOF robotic system is a valuable and effective tool for range of motion in vitro hip biomechanical analysis. PMID:26537889

  17. Exploiting nonholonomic redundancy of free-flying space robots

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Yoshihiko; Mukherjee, Ranjan

    1993-08-01

    Nonholonomic redundancy is an intrinsic property of nonholonomic mechanical systems. A free-flying space robot is a nonholonomic mechanical system, and exhibits the presence of nonholonomic redundancy even in the absence of ordinary kinematic redundancy. Like ordinary kinematic redundancy, nonholonomic redundancy can also be utilized while planning trajectories for the system. In the paper, a trajectory planning scheme for a 6-DOF space robot is developed in which nonholonomic redundancy for avoiding joint limits and obstacles are utilized.

  18. Validation and verification of a high-fidelity computational model for a bounding robot's parallel actuated elastic spine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusey, Jason L.; Yoo, Jin-Hyeong

    2014-06-01

    We document the design and preliminary numerical simulation study of a high fidelity model of Canid, a recently introduced bounding robot. Canid is a free-standing, power-autonomous quadrupedal machine constructed from standard commercially available electromechanical and structural elements, incorporating compliant C-shaped legs like those of the decade old RHex design, but departing from that standard (and, to the best of our knowledge, from any prior) robot platform in its parallel actuated elastic spine. We have used a commercial modeling package to develop a finite-element model of the actuated, cable-driven, rigid-plate-reinforced harness for the carbon-fiber spring that joins the robot's fore- and hind-quarters. We compare a numerical model of this parallel actuated elastic spine with empirical data from preliminary physical experiments with the most important component of the spine assembly: the composite leaf spring. Specifically, we report our progress in tuning the mechanical properties of a standard modal approximation to a conventional compliant beam model whose boundary conditions represent constraints imposed by the actuated cable driven vertebral plates that comprise the active control affordance over the spine. We conclude with a brief look ahead at near-term future experiments that will compare predictions of this fitted composite spring model with data taken from the physical spine flexed in isolation from the actuated harness.

  19. Development of a 3D parallel mechanism robot arm with three vertical-axial pneumatic actuators combined with a stereo vision system.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Mao-Hsiung; Lin, Hao-Ting

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a novel 3D parallel mechanism robot driven by three vertical-axial pneumatic actuators with a stereo vision system for path tracking control. The mechanical system and the control system are the primary novel parts for developing a 3D parallel mechanism robot. In the mechanical system, a 3D parallel mechanism robot contains three serial chains, a fixed base, a movable platform and a pneumatic servo system. The parallel mechanism are designed and analyzed first for realizing a 3D motion in the X-Y-Z coordinate system of the robot's end-effector. The inverse kinematics and the forward kinematics of the parallel mechanism robot are investigated by using the Denavit-Hartenberg notation (D-H notation) coordinate system. The pneumatic actuators in the three vertical motion axes are modeled. In the control system, the Fourier series-based adaptive sliding-mode controller with H(∞) tracking performance is used to design the path tracking controllers of the three vertical servo pneumatic actuators for realizing 3D path tracking control of the end-effector. Three optical linear scales are used to measure the position of the three pneumatic actuators. The 3D position of the end-effector is then calculated from the measuring position of the three pneumatic actuators by means of the kinematics. However, the calculated 3D position of the end-effector cannot consider the manufacturing and assembly tolerance of the joints and the parallel mechanism so that errors between the actual position and the calculated 3D position of the end-effector exist. In order to improve this situation, sensor collaboration is developed in this paper. A stereo vision system is used to collaborate with the three position sensors of the pneumatic actuators. The stereo vision system combining two CCD serves to measure the actual 3D position of the end-effector and calibrate the error between the actual and the calculated 3D position of the end-effector. Furthermore, to

  20. Analysis of the kinematic characteristics of a high-speed parallel robot with Schönflies motion: Mobility, kinematics, and singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Fugui; Liu, Xin-Jun

    2016-05-01

    This study introduces a high-speed parallel robot with Schönflies motion. This robot exhibits a promising prospect in realizing high-speed pick-andplace manipulation for packaging production lines. The robot has four identical limbs and a single platform. Its compact structure and single-platform concept provides this robot with good dynamic response potential. A line graph method based on Grassmann line geometry is used to investigate the mobility characteristics of the proposed robot. A generalized Blanding rule is also introduced into this procedure to realize mutual conversion between the line graphs for motions and constraints. Subsequently, the inverse kinematics is derived, and the singularity issue of the robot is investigated using both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Input and output transmission singularity indices are defined based on the reciprocal product in screw theory and the virtual coefficient by considering motion/force transmission performance. Thereafter, the singular loci of the proposed robot with specific geometric parameters are derived. The mobility analysis, inverse kinematics modeling, and singularity analysis conducted in this study are helpful in developing the robot.

  1. Analysis of the kinematic characteristics of a high-speed parallel robot with Schönflies motion: Mobility, kinematics, and singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Fugui; Liu, Xin-Jun

    2016-06-01

    This study introduces a high-speed parallel robot with Schönflies motion. This robot exhibits a promising prospect in realizing high-speed pick-andplace manipulation for packaging production lines. The robot has four identical limbs and a single platform. Its compact structure and single-platform concept provides this robot with good dynamic response potential. A line graph method based on Grassmann line geometry is used to investigate the mobility characteristics of the proposed robot. A generalized Blanding rule is also introduced into this procedure to realize mutual conversion between the line graphs for motions and constraints. Subsequently, the inverse kinematics is derived, and the singularity issue of the robot is investigated using both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Input and output transmission singularity indices are defined based on the reciprocal product in screw theory and the virtual coefficient by considering motion/force transmission performance. Thereafter, the singular loci of the proposed robot with specific geometric parameters are derived. The mobility analysis, inverse kinematics modeling, and singularity analysis conducted in this study are helpful in developing the robot.

  2. Design of a series elastic actuator for a compliant parallel wrist rehabilitation robot.

    PubMed

    Sergi, Fabrizio; Lee, Melissa M; O'Malley, Marcia K

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the design of a novel linear series elastic actuator purposely designed to match the requirements of robots for wrist rehabilitation: backdriveability, intrinsic compliance, and capability to be controlled as ideal force/torque sources. An existing rehabilitation robot is adapted to include intrinsic compliance in the design. A novel linear compliant element is designed to meet dimensional and force/stiffness requirements; a force sensing scheme involving a Hall-effect sensor is optimized in FEM simulations and developed. Linearity tests of the compliant sensing element show a maximum of 4.5% of FSO combined nonlinearity and hysteresis errors. Characterization experiments show that the developed system introduces physical compliance, still guaranteeing accurate force control in a frequency range largely compatible with that required for wrist assistance during rehabilitation. PMID:24187298

  3. Robotic assisted reduction of femoral shaft fractures using Stewart platform.

    PubMed

    Majidifakhr, Kamran; Kazemirad, Siavash; Farahmand, Farzam

    2009-01-01

    A robotic system with 6 DOF mobility was proposed for reduction of femoral shaft fractures based on Stewart platform. A plan for implementing the platform on bone fragments was introduced and a step by step strategy for performing the reduction procedure, based on the system's inverse kinematic solution, was proposed. The efficacy of the system was evaluated in some case studies and it was shown that it can be locked to act as an external fixator. PMID:19377143

  4. Clinical Evaluation of a Robotic 6-Degree of Freedom Treatment Couch for Frameless Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Gevaert, Thierry; Verellen, Dirk; Engels, Benedikt; Depuydt, Tom; Heuninckx, Karina; Tournel, Koen; Duchateau, Michael; Reynders, Truus; De Ridder, Mark

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the added value of 6-degree of freedom (DOF) patient positioning with a robotic couch compared with 4DOF positioning for intracranial lesions and to estimate the immobilization characteristics of the BrainLAB frameless mask (BrainLAB AG, Feldkirchen, Germany), more specifically, the setup errors and intrafraction motion. Methods and Materials: We enrolled 40 patients with 66 brain metastases treated with frameless stereotactic radiosurgery and a 6DOF robotic couch. Patient positioning was performed with the BrainLAB ExacTrac stereoscopic X-ray system. Positioning results were collected before and after treatment to assess patient setup error and intrafraction motion. Existing treatment planning data were loaded and simulated for 4DOF positioning and compared with the 6DOF positioning. The clinical relevance was analyzed by means of the Paddick conformity index and the ratio of prescribed isodose volume covered with 4DOF to that obtained with the 6DOF positioning. Results: The mean three-dimensional setup error before 6DOF correction was 1.91 mm (SD, 1.25 mm). The rotational errors were larger in the longitudinal (mean, 0.23 Degree-Sign ; SD, 0.82 Degree-Sign ) direction compared with the lateral (mean, -0.09 Degree-Sign ; SD, 0.72 Degree-Sign ) and vertical (mean, -0.10 Degree-Sign ; SD, 1.03 Degree-Sign ) directions (p < 0.05). The mean three-dimensional intrafraction shift was 0.58 mm (SD, 0.42 mm). The mean intrafractional rotational errors were comparable for the vertical, longitudinal, and lateral directions: 0.01 Degree-Sign (SD, 0.35 Degree-Sign ), 0.03 Degree-Sign (SD, 0.31 Degree-Sign ), and -0.03 Degree-Sign (SD, 0.33 Degree-Sign ), respectively. The mean conformity index decreased from 0.68 (SD, 0.08) (6DOF) to 0.59 (SD, 0.12) (4DOF) (p < 0.05). A loss of prescribed isodose coverage of 5% (SD, 0.08) was found with the 4DOF positioning (p < 0.05). Half a degree for longitudinal and lateral rotations can be identified as a threshold

  5. Mechanical characterization of bone anchors used with a bone-attached, parallel robot for skull surgery.

    PubMed

    Kobler, Jan-Philipp; Prielozny, Lenka; Lexow, G Jakob; Rau, Thomas S; Majdani, Omid; Ortmaier, Tobias

    2015-05-01

    Bone-attached robots and microstereotactic frames, intended for deep brain stimulation and minimally invasive cochlear implantation, typically attach to a patient's skull via bone anchors. A rigid and reliable link between such devices and the skull is mandatory in order to fulfill the high accuracy demands of minimally invasive procedures while maintaining patient safety. In this paper, a method is presented to experimentally characterize the mechanical properties of the anchor-bone linkage. A custom-built universal testing machine is used to measure the pullout strength as well as the spring constants of bone anchors seated in four different bone substitutes as well as in human cranial bone. Furthermore, the angles at which forces act on the bone anchors are varied to simulate realistic conditions. Based on the experimental results, a substitute material that has mechanical properties similar to those of cranial bone is identified. The results further reveal that the pullout strength of the investigated anchor design is sufficient with respect to the proposed application. However, both the measured load capacity as well as the spring constants vary depending on the load angles. Based on these findings, an alternative bone anchor design is presented and experimentally validated. Furthermore, the results serve as a basis for stiffness simulation and optimization of bone-attached microstereotactic frames. PMID:25771430

  6. Development of kinematic equations and determination of workspace of a 6 DOF end-effector with closed-kinematic chain mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Charles C.; Pooran, Farhad J.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents results from the research grant entitled Active Control of Robot Manipulators, funded by the Goddard Space Flight Center, under Grant NAG5-780, for the period July 1, 1988 to January 1, 1989. An analysis is presented of a 6 degree-of-freedom robot end-effector built to study telerobotic assembly of NASA hardware in space. Since the end-effector is required to perform high precision motion in a limited workspace, closed-kinematic mechanisms are chosen for its design. A closed-form solution is obtained for the inverse kinematic problem and an iterative procedure employing Newton-Raphson method is proposed to solve the forward kinematic problem. A study of the end-effector workspace results in a general procedure for the workspace determination based on link constraints. Computer simulation results are presented.

  7. Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, Robert O.

    2007-01-01

    Lunar robotic functions include: 1. Transport of crew and payloads on the surface of the moon; 2. Offloading payloads from a lunar lander; 3. Handling the deployment of surface systems; with 4. Human commanding of these functions from inside a lunar vehicle, habitat, or extravehicular (space walk), with Earth-based supervision. The systems that will perform these functions may not look like robots from science fiction. In fact, robotic functions may be automated trucks, cranes and winches. Use of this equipment prior to the crew s arrival or in the potentially long periods without crews on the surface, will require that these systems be computer controlled machines. The public release of NASA's Exploration plans at the 2nd Space Exploration Conference (Houston, December 2006) included a lunar outpost with as many as four unique mobility chassis designs. The sequence of lander offloading tasks involved as many as ten payloads, each with a unique set of geometry, mass and interface requirements. This plan was refined during a second phase study concluded in August 2007. Among the many improvements to the exploration plan were a reduction in the number of unique mobility chassis designs and a reduction in unique payload specifications. As the lunar surface system payloads have matured, so have the mobility and offloading functional requirements. While the architecture work continues, the community can expect to see functional requirements in the areas of surface mobility, surface handling, and human-systems interaction as follows: Surface Mobility 1. Transport crew on the lunar surface, accelerating construction tasks, expanding the crew s sphere of influence for scientific exploration, and providing a rapid return to an ascent module in an emergency. The crew transport can be with an un-pressurized rover, a small pressurized rover, or a larger mobile habitat. 2. Transport Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) equipment and construction payloads. 3. Transport habitats and

  8. Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2012-01-01

    Earth's upper atmosphere is an extreme environment: dry, cold, and irradiated. It is unknown whether our aerobiosphere is limited to the transport of life, or there exist organisms that grow and reproduce while airborne (aerophiles); the microenvironments of suspended particles may harbor life at otherwise uninhabited altitudes[2]. The existence of aerophiles would significantly expand the range of planets considered candidates for life by, for example, including the cooler clouds of a hot Venus-like planet. The X project is an effort to engineer a robotic exploration and biosampling payload for a comprehensive survey of Earth's aerobiology. While many one-shot samples have been retrieved from above 15 km, their results are primarily qualitative; variations in method confound comparisons, leaving such major gaps in our knowledge of aerobiology as quantification of populations at different strata and relative species counts[1]. These challenges and X's preliminary solutions are explicated below. X's primary balloon payload is undergoing a series of calibrations before beginning flights in Spring 2012. A suborbital launch is currently planned for Summer 2012. A series of ground samples taken in Winter 2011 is being used to establish baseline counts and identify likely background contaminants.

  9. Calibration technology in application of robot-laser scanning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, YongJie; Yin, ShiBin; Zhu, JiGui

    2012-11-01

    A system composed of laser sensor and 6-DOF industrial robot is proposed to obtain complete three-dimensional (3-D) information of the object surface. Suitable for the different combining ways of laser sensor and robot, a new method to calibrate the position and pose between sensor and robot is presented. By using a standard sphere with known radius as a reference tool, the rotation and translation matrices between the laser sensor and robot are computed, respectively in two steps, so that many unstable factors introduced in conventional optimization methods can be avoided. The experimental results show that the accuracy of the proposed calibration method can be achieved up to 0.062 mm. The calibration method is also implemented into the automated robot scanning system to reconstruct a car door panel.

  10. Simulation and experimental control of a 3-RPR parallel robot using optimal fuzzy controller and fast on/off solenoid valves based on the PWM wave.

    PubMed

    Moezi, Seyed Alireza; Rafeeyan, Mansour; Zakeri, Ehsan; Zare, Amin

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a robust optimal fuzzy controller based on the Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique is proposed to control a laboratory parallel robot using inexpensive on/off solenoid valves. The controller coefficients are determined using Modified Cuckoo Optimization Algorithm. The objective function of this method is considered such that the results show the position tracking by the robot with less force and more efficiency. Regarding the results of experimental tests, the control strategy with on/off valves indicates good performance such that the maximum value of RMS of error for a circular path with increasing force on the system is 3.1mm. Furthermore, the results show the superiority of the optimal fuzzy controller compared with optimal PID controller in tracking paths with different conditions and uncertainties. PMID:26794489

  11. Coordinated coupling control of tethered space robot using releasing characteristics of space tether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Panfeng; Zhang, Fan; Xu, Xiudong; Meng, Zhongjie; Liu, Zhengxiong; Hu, Yongxin

    2016-04-01

    Tethered space robot (TSR) is a new concept of space robot, which is released from the platform satellite, and retrieved via connected tether after space debris capture. In this paper, we propose a new coordinate control scheme for optimal trajectory and attitude tracking, and use releasing motor torque to instead the tension force, since it is difficult to track in practical. Firstly, the 6-DOF dynamics model of TSR is derived, in which the dynamics of tether releasing system is taken into account. Then, we propose and design the coordinated coupled controller, which is composed of a 6-DOF sliding mode controller and a PD controller tether's releasing. Thrust is treated as control input of the 6-DOF sliding mode controller to control the in-plane and out-of-plane angle of the tether and attitude angles of the TSR. The torque of releasing motor is used as input of PD controller, which controls the length rate of space tether. After the verification of the control scheme, finally, the simulation experiment is presented in order to validate the effectiveness of this control method. The results show that TSR can track the optimal approaching trajectory accurately. Simultaneously, the attitude angles can be changed to the desired attitude angles in control period, and the terminal accuracy is ±0.3°.

  12. Combined Feature Based and Shape Based Visual Tracker for Robot Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deans, J.; Kunz, C.; Sargent, R.; Park, E.; Pedersen, L.

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a combined feature based and shape based visual tracking system designed to enable a planetary rover to visually track and servo to specific points chosen by a user with centimeter precision. The feature based tracker uses invariant feature detection and matching across a stereo pair, as well as matching pairs before and after robot movement in order to compute an incremental 6-DOF motion at each tracker update. This tracking method is subject to drift over time, which can be compensated by the shape based method. The shape based tracking method consists of 3D model registration, which recovers 6-DOF motion given sufficient shape and proper initialization. By integrating complementary algorithms, the combined tracker leverages the efficiency and robustness of feature based methods with the precision and accuracy of model registration. In this paper, we present the algorithms and their integration into a combined visual tracking system.

  13. Robotics for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Terrence; Deans, Mathew; Bualat, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Robots can do a variety of work to increase the productivity of human explorers. Robots can perform tasks that are tedious, highly repetitive or long-duration. Robots can perform precursor tasks, such as reconnaissance, which help prepare for future human activity. Robots can work in support of astronauts, assisting or performing tasks in parallel. Robots can also perform "follow-up" work, completing tasks designated or started by humans. In this paper, we summarize the development and testing of robots designed to improve future human exploration of space.

  14. Robotic Tube-Gap Inspector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Gutow, David A.; Maslakowski, John E.

    1993-01-01

    Robotic vision system measures small gaps between nearly parallel tubes. Robot-held video camera examines closely spaced tubes while computer determines gaps between tubes. Video monitor simultaneously displays data on gaps.

  15. Design of a surgical robot with dynamic vision field control for Single Port Endoscopic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yo; Sekiguchi, Yuta; Tomono, Yu; Watanabe, Hiroki; Toyoda, Kazutaka; Konishi, Kozo; Tomikawa, Morimasa; Ieiri, Satoshi; Tanoue, Kazuo; Hashizume, Makoto; Fujie, Masaktsu G

    2010-01-01

    Recently, a robotic system was developed to assist Single Port Endoscopic Surgery (SPS). However, the existing system required a manual change of vision field, hindering the surgical task and increasing the degrees of freedom (DOFs) of the manipulator. We proposed a surgical robot for SPS with dynamic vision field control, the endoscope view being manipulated by a master controller. The prototype robot consisted of a positioning and sheath manipulator (6 DOF) for vision field control, and dual tool tissue manipulators (gripping: 5DOF, cautery: 3DOF). Feasibility of the robot was demonstrated in vitro. The "cut and vision field control" (using tool manipulators) is suitable for precise cutting tasks in risky areas while a "cut by vision field control" (using a vision field control manipulator) is effective for rapid macro cutting of tissues. A resection task was accomplished using a combination of both methods. PMID:21096985

  16. Simulation of cooperating robot manipulators on a mobile platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Stephen H.; Wen, John Ting-Yung; Saridis, George N.

    1991-01-01

    The dynamic equations of motion are presented for two or more cooperating manipulators on a freely moving mobile platform. The system of cooperating robot manipulators forms a closed kinematic chain where the force of interaction must be included in the formulation of robot and platform dynamics. The formulation includes the full dynamic interactions from arms to platform and arm tip to arm tip, and the possible translation and rotation of the platform. The equations of motion are shown to be identical in structure to the fixed-platform cooperative manipulator dynamics. The number of DOFs of the system is sufficiently large to make recursive dynamic calculation methods potentially more efficient than closed-form solutions. A complete simulation with two 6-DOF manipulators of a free-floating platform is presented along a with a multiple-arm controller to position the common load.

  17. The servicing aid tool: A teleoperated robotics system for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorman, Keith W.; Pullen, John L.; Keksz, William O.; Eismann, Paul H.; Kowalski, Keith A.; Karlen, James P.

    1994-01-01

    The Servicing Aid Tool (SAT) is a teleoperated, force-reflecting manipulation system designed for use on the Space Shuttle. The system will assist Extravehicular Activity (EVA) servicing of spacecraft such as the Hubble Space Telescope. The SAT stands out from other robotics development programs in that special attention was given to provide a low-cost, space-qualified design which can easily and inexpensively be reconfigured and/or enhanced through the addition of existing NASA funded technology as that technology matures. SAT components are spaceflight adaptations of existing ground-based designs from Robotics Research Corporation (RRC), the leading supplier of robotics systems to the NASA and university research community in the United States. Fairchild Space is the prime contractor and provides the control electronics, safety system, system integration, and qualification testing. The manipulator consists of a 6-DOF Slave Arm mounted on a 1-DOF Positioning Link in the shuttle payload bay. The Slave Arm is controlled via a highly similar, 6-DOF, force-reflecting Master Arm from Schilling Development, Inc. This work is being performed under contract to the Goddard Space Flight Center Code, Code 442, Hubble Space Telescope Flight Systems and Servicing Project.

  18. Robotic Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A commercially available ANDROS Mark V-A robot was used by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) as the departure point in the development of the HAZBOT III, a prototype teleoperated mobile robot designed for response to emergencies. Teleoperated robots contribute significantly to reducing human injury levels by performing tasks too hazardous for humans. ANDROS' manufacturer, REMOTEC, Inc., in turn, adopted some of the JPL concepts, particularly the control panel. HAZBOT III has exceptional mobility, employs solid state electronics and brushless DC motors for safer operation, and is designed so combustible gases cannot penetrate areas containing electronics and motors. Other features include the six-degree-of-freedom manipulator, the 30-pound squeeze force parallel jaw gripper and two video cameras, one for general viewing and navigation and the other for manipulation/grasping.

  19. Design and Development of an Automatic Tool Changer for an Articulated Robot Arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosio, H.; Karamanoglu, M.

    2014-07-01

    In the creative industries, the length of time between the ideation stage and the making of physical objects is decreasing due to the use of CAD/CAM systems and adicitive manufacturing. Natural anisotropic materials, such as solid wood can also be transformed using CAD/CAM systems, but only with subtractive processes such as machining with CNC routers. Whilst some 3 axis CNC routing machines are affordable to buy and widely available, more flexible 5 axis routing machines still present themselves as a too big investment for small companies. Small refurbished articulated robots can be a cheaper alternative but they require a light end-effector. This paper presents a new lightweight tool changer that converts a small 3kg payload 6 DOF robot into a robot apprentice able to machine wood and similar soft materials.

  20. Exploratorium: Robots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium Magazine focuses on the topic robotics. It explains how to make a vibrating robotic bug and features articles on robots. Contents include: (1) "Where Robot Mice and Robot Men Run Round in Robot Towns" (Ray Bradbury); (2) "Robots at Work" (Jake Widman); (3) "Make a Vibrating Robotic Bug" (Modesto Tamez); (4) "The Robot…

  1. Robotic surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Robot-assisted surgery; Robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery; Laparoscopic surgery with robotic assistance ... computer station and directs the movements of a robot. Small surgical tools are attached to the robot's ...

  2. A planning target volume margin formula for hypofractionated intracranial stereotactic radiotherapy under cone beam CT image guidance with a six-degrees-of-freedom robotic couch and a mouthpiece-assisted mask system: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Kunishima, N; Yamamoto, K; Yoda, K

    2014-01-01

    Objective: A planning target volume (PTV) margin formula for hypofractionated intracranial stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) has been proposed under cone beam CT (CBCT) image guidance with a six-degrees-of-freedom (6-DOF) robotic couch. Methods: CBCT-based registration using a 6-DOF couch reportedly led to negligibly small systematic positioning errors, suggesting that each in-treatment positioning error during the treatment courses for the patients employing this combination was predominantly caused by a random gaussian process. Under this assumption, an anisotropic PTV margin for each axis was formulated based on a gaussian distribution model. 19 patients with intracranial lesions who underwent additional post-treatment CBCT were consecutively selected, to whom stereotactic hypofractionated radiotherapy was delivered by a linear accelerator equipped with a CBCT imager, a 6-DOF couch and a mouthpiece-assisted mask system. Time-averaged patient-positioning errors during treatment were estimated by comparing the post-treatment CBCT with the reference planning CT images. Results: It was suggested that each histogram of the in-treatment positioning error in each axis would approach each single gaussian distribution with a mean of zero. The calculated PTV margins in the x, y and z directions were 0.97, 1.30 and 0.88 mm, respectively. Conclusion: The empirical isotropic PTV margin of 2 mm used in our facility for intracranial SRT was consistent with the margin calculated by the proposed gaussian model. Advances in knowledge: We have proposed a PTV margin formula for hypofractionated intracranial SRT under CBCT image guidance with a 6-DOF robotic couch. PMID:25029296

  3. The robotics review 1

    SciTech Connect

    Khatib, O.; Craig, J.J.; Lozano-Perez, T.

    1989-01-01

    Theoretical and implementation issues in robotics are discussed in reviews of recent investigations. Sections are devoted to programming, planning, and learning; sensing and perception; kinematics, dynamics, and design; and motion and force control. Particular attention is given to a robust layered control system for a mobile robot, camera calibration for three-dimensional machine vision, walking vehicles, design and control of direct-drive vehicles, an efficient parallel algorithm for robot inverse dynamics, stability problems in contact tasks, and kinematics and reaction-moment compensation for satellite-mounted robot manipulators.

  4. Adaptive control of space-based robot manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Michael W.; Wee, Liang-Boon

    1991-01-01

    A control method is presented that achieves globally stable trajectory tracking in the presence of uncertainties in the inertial parameters of the system. The 15-DOF system dynamics are divided into two components: a 9-DOF invertible portion and 6-DOF noninvertible portion. A controller is then designed to achieve trajectory tracking of the invertible portion of the system, which consists of the manipulator-joint positions and the orientation of the base. The motion of the noninvertible portion is bounded but otherwise unspecified. This portion of the system consists of the position of the robot's base and the position of the reaction wheels. A simulation is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the controller. A quadratic polynomial is used to generate the desired trajectory to illustrate the trajectory-tracking capability of the controller.

  5. Industrial robots and robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Kafrissen, S.; Stephens, M.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses the study of robotics. It provides information of hardware, software, applications and economics. Eleven chapters examine the following: Minicomputers, Microcomputers, and Microprocessors; The Servo-Control System; The Activators; Robot Vision Systems; and Robot Workcell Environments. Twelve appendices supplement the data.

  6. Robotic surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Robot-assisted surgery; Robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery; Laparoscopic surgery with robotic assistance ... Robotic surgery is similar to laparoscopic surgery. It can be performed through smaller cuts than open surgery. ...

  7. Coordination of multiple robot arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, L. K.; Soloway, D.

    1987-01-01

    Kinematic resolved-rate control from one robot arm is extended to the coordinated control of multiple robot arms in the movement of an object. The structure supports the general movement of one axis system (moving reference frame) with respect to another axis system (control reference frame) by one or more robot arms. The grippers of the robot arms do not have to be parallel or at any pre-disposed positions on the object. For multiarm control, the operator chooses the same moving and control reference frames for each of the robot arms. Consequently, each arm then moves as though it were carrying out the commanded motions by itself.

  8. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) robotics technology testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnurr, Rick; Obrien, Maureen; Cofer, Sue

    1989-01-01

    Much of the technology planned for use in NASA's Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) and the Demonstration Test Flight (DTF) is relatively new and untested. To provide the answers needed to design safe, reliable, and fully functional robotics for flight, NASA/GSFC is developing a robotics technology testbed for research of issues such as zero-g robot control, dual arm teleoperation, simulations, and hierarchical control using a high level programming language. The testbed will be used to investigate these high risk technologies required for the FTS and DTF projects. The robotics technology testbed is centered around the dual arm teleoperation of a pair of 7 degree-of-freedom (DOF) manipulators, each with their own 6-DOF mini-master hand controllers. Several levels of safety are implemented using the control processor, a separate watchdog computer, and other low level features. High speed input/output ports allow the control processor to interface to a simulation workstation: all or part of the testbed hardware can be used in real time dynamic simulation of the testbed operations, allowing a quick and safe means for testing new control strategies. The NASA/National Bureau of Standards Standard Reference Model for Telerobot Control System Architecture (NASREM) hierarchical control scheme, is being used as the reference standard for system design. All software developed for the testbed, excluding some of simulation workstation software, is being developed in Ada. The testbed is being developed in phases. The first phase, which is nearing completion, and highlights future developments is described.

  9. 1999 IEEE international conference on robotics and automation

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    Topics covered in this conference include: biped robots; underwater vehicles; robot planning and programming for assembly; discrete event control of mobile robot maneuvering; navigation in unknown environment; biped robots; underwater vehicles; robot planning and programming for assembly; discrete event control of manufacturing systems; motion planning; robot control; actuator; teleoperation; force and position control; contact and grasping control; visual servo control; tactile sensing; mobile robots and applications; sensor-based navigation; underwater robotics; sensing, navigation and control; flexible manipulators; task scheduling; actuators and joint actuation; teleoperation; sensor-based teleoperation; contact geometry; sonar-based sensing; mobile robot-environment interaction; mobile robot motion planning; biology-inspired methods; service and underwater robots; manufacturing planning and scheduling; constraint and nonholonomic system; fault-tolerant robots; parallel manipulators; dexterous manipulation; computer vision in manufacturing; contact sensing; mobile robot field applications; flexible robots; fuzzy control; and more.

  10. Robot and robot system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto E. (Inventor); Marzwell, Neville I. (Inventor); Wall, Jonathan N. (Inventor); Poole, Michael D. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A robot and robot system that are capable of functioning in a zero-gravity environment are provided. The robot can include a body having a longitudinal axis and having a control unit and a power source. The robot can include a first leg pair including a first leg and a second leg. Each leg of the first leg pair can be pivotally attached to the body and constrained to pivot in a first leg pair plane that is substantially perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the body.

  11. Compliant Robot Wrist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voellmer, George

    1992-01-01

    Compliant element for robot wrist accepts small displacements in one direction only (to first approximation). Three such elements combined to obtain translational compliance along three orthogonal directions, without rotational compliance along any of them. Element is double-blade flexure joint in which two sheets of spring steel attached between opposing blocks, forming rectangle. Blocks moved parallel to each other in one direction only. Sheets act as double cantilever beams deforming in S-shape, keeping blocks parallel.

  12. Parallel Computation Of Forward Dynamics Of Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, Amir; Bejczy, Antal K.

    1993-01-01

    Report presents parallel algorithms and special parallel architecture for computation of forward dynamics of robotics manipulators. Products of effort to find best method of parallel computation to achieve required computational efficiency. Significant speedup of computation anticipated as well as cost reduction.

  13. Experimental study of trajectory planning and control of a high precision robot manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Charles C.; Antrazi, Sami S.

    1991-01-01

    The kinematic and trajectory planning is presented for a 6 DOF end-effector whose design was based on the Stewart Platform mechanism. The end-effector was used as a testbed for studying robotic assembly of NASA hardware with passive compliance. Vector analysis was employed to derive a closed-form solution for the end-effector inverse kinematic transformation. A computationally efficient numerical solution was obtained for the end-effector forward kinematic transformation using Newton-Raphson method. Three trajectory planning schemes, two for fine motion and one for gross motion, were developed for the end-effector. Experiments conducted to evaluate the performance of the trajectory planning schemes showed excellent tracking quality with minimal errors. Current activities focus on implementing the developed trajectory planning schemes on mating and demating space-rated connectors and using the compliant platform to acquire forces/torques applied on the end-effector during the assembly task.

  14. Adaptive parallel logic networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Tony R.; Vidal, Jacques J.

    1988-01-01

    Adaptive, self-organizing concurrent systems (ASOCS) that combine self-organization with massive parallelism for such applications as adaptive logic devices, robotics, process control, and system malfunction management, are presently discussed. In ASOCS, an adaptive network composed of many simple computing elements operating in combinational and asynchronous fashion is used and problems are specified by presenting if-then rules to the system in the form of Boolean conjunctions. During data processing, which is a different operational phase from adaptation, the network acts as a parallel hardware circuit.

  15. CASSY Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittman, Anna; Wright, Ann; Rice, Aaron; Shyaka, Claude

    2014-03-01

    The CASSY Robot project involved two square robots coded in RobotC. The goal was to code a robot to do a certain set of tasks autonomously. To begin with, our task was to code the robot so that it would roam a certain area, marked off by black tape. When the robot hit the black tape, it knew to back up and turn around. It was able to do this thanks to the light sensor that was attached to the bottom of the robot. Also, whenever the robot hit an obstacle, it knew to stop, back up, and turn around. This was primarily to prevent the robot from hurting itself if it hit an obstacle. This was accomplished by using touch sensors set up as bumpers. Once that was accomplished, we attached sonar sensors and created code so that one robot was able to find and track the other robot in a sort of intruder/police scenario. The overall goal of this project was to code the robot so that we can test it against a robot coded exactly the same, but using Layered Mode Selection Logic. Professor.

  16. The universal robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moravec, Hans

    1993-12-01

    Our artifacts are getting smarter, and a loose parallel with the evolution of animal intelligence suggests one future course for them. Computerless industrial machinery exhibits the behavioral flexibility of single-celled organisms. Today's best computer-controlled robots are like the simpler invertebrates. A thousand-fold increase in computer power in the next decade should make possible machines with reptile-like sensory and motor competence. Properly configured, such robots could do in the physical world what personal computers now do in the world of data - act on our behalf as literal-minded slaves. Growing computer power over the next half-century will allow this reptile stage to be surpassed, in stages producing robots that learn like mammals, model their world like primates, and eventually reason like humans. Depending on your point of view, humanity will then have produced a worthy successor, or transcended some of its inherited limitations and so transformed itself into something quite new.

  17. The universal robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moravec, Hans

    1993-01-01

    Our artifacts are getting smarter, and a loose parallel with the evolution of animal intelligence suggests one future course for them. Computerless industrial machinery exhibits the behavioral flexibility of single-celled organisms. Today's best computer-controlled robots are like the simpler invertebrates. A thousand-fold increase in computer power in the next decade should make possible machines with reptile-like sensory and motor competence. Properly configured, such robots could do in the physical world what personal computers now do in the world of data - act on our behalf as literal-minded slaves. Growing computer power over the next half-century will allow this reptile stage to be surpassed, in stages producing robots that learn like mammals, model their world like primates, and eventually reason like humans. Depending on your point of view, humanity will then have produced a worthy successor, or transcended some of its inherited limitations and so transformed itself into something quite new.

  18. Industrial Robots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Dean; Harden, Thomas K.

    Robots are mechanical devices that can be programmed to perform some task of manipulation or locomotion under automatic control. This paper discusses: (1) early developments of the robotics industry in the United States; (2) the present structure of the industry; (3) noneconomic factors related to the use of robots; (4) labor considerations…

  19. Basic Robotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Frank

    This curriculum outline consists of instructional materials and information concerning resources for use in teaching a course in robotics. Addressed in the individual sections of the outline are the following topics: the nature of an industrial robot; the parts of an industrial robot (the manipulator, the power structure, and the control system);…

  20. Control of robot dynamics using acceleration control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, G. L.; Prateru, S.; Li, W.; Hinman, Elaine

    1992-01-01

    Acceleration control of robotic devices can provide improvements to many space-based operations using flexible manipulators and to ground-based operations requiring better precision and efficiency than current industrial robots can provide. This paper reports on a preliminary study of acceleration measurement on robotic motion during parabolic flights on the NASA KC-135 and a parallel study of accelerations with and without gravity arising from computer simulated motions using TREETOPS software.

  1. Rapid optimization of tension distribution for cable-driven parallel manipulators with redundant cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Bo; Shang, Weiwei

    2016-03-01

    The solution of tension distributions is infinite for cable-driven parallel manipulators(CDPMs) with redundant cables. A rapid optimization method for determining the optimal tension distribution is presented. The new optimization method is primarily based on the geometry properties of a polyhedron and convex analysis. The computational efficiency of the optimization method is improved by the designed projection algorithm, and a fast algorithm is proposed to determine which two of the lines are intersected at the optimal point. Moreover, a method for avoiding the operating point on the lower tension limit is developed. Simulation experiments are implemented on a six degree-of-freedom(6-DOF) CDPM with eight cables, and the results indicate that the new method is one order of magnitude faster than the standard simplex method. The optimal distribution of tension distribution is thus rapidly established on real-time by the proposed method.

  2. The use of interactive computer vision and robot hand controllers for enhancing manufacturing safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzwell, Neville I.; Jacobus, Charles J.; Peurach, Thomas M.; Mitchell, Brian T.

    1994-01-01

    Current available robotic systems provide limited support for CAD-based model-driven visualization, sensing algorithm development and integration, and automated graphical planning systems. This paper describes ongoing work which provides the functionality necessary to apply advanced robotics to automated manufacturing and assembly operations. An interface has been built which incorporates 6-DOF tactile manipulation, displays for three dimensional graphical models, and automated tracking functions which depend on automated machine vision. A set of tools for single and multiple focal plane sensor image processing and understanding has been demonstrated which utilizes object recognition models. The resulting tool will enable sensing and planning from computationally simple graphical objects. A synergistic interplay between human and operator vision is created from programmable feedback received from the controller. This approach can be used as the basis for implementing enhanced safety in automated robotics manufacturing, assembly, repair and inspection tasks in both ground and space applications. Thus, an interactive capability has been developed to match the modeled environment to the real task environment for safe and predictable task execution.

  3. A non-linear model predictive controller with obstacle avoidance for a space robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mingming; Luo, Jianjun; Walter, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the use of the non-linear model predictive control (NMPC) strategy for a kinematically redundant space robot to approach an un-cooperative target in complex space environment. Collision avoidance, traditionally treated as a high level planning problem, can be effectively translated into control constraints as part of the NMPC. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the performance of the predictive controller in a constrained workspace and to investigate the feasibility of imposing additional constraints into the NMPC. In this paper, we reformulated the issue of the space robot motion control by using NMPC with predefined objectives under input, output and obstacle constraints over a receding horizon. An on-line quadratic programming (QP) procedure is employed to obtain the constrained optimal control decisions in real-time. This study has been implemented for a 7 degree-of-freedom (DOF) kinematically redundant manipulator mounted on a 6 DOF free-floating spacecraft via simulation studies. Real-time trajectory tracking and collision avoidance particularly demonstrate the effectiveness and potential of the proposed NMPC strategy for the space robot.

  4. Design and implementation of a multi-sensor robot system for printed circuit board insertion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sood, Deepak; Repko, Michael C.; Kelley, Robert B.

    1989-01-01

    The design and implementation of a robot system equipped with multiple sensors are described. The robotic assembly system couples the task sequence of the robot with information from different sensors, enabling the system to handle uncertainties encountered during task execution. The target task involves the insertion of a printed circuit board into a card cage. The sensors used are an overhead three-dimensional vision system, a fingertip cross-fire sensor, and a 6-DOF force/torque sensor. The vision system is used to locate the printed circuit boards and the insertion slots. Information provided by the cross-fire sensor is used to complement the information from the vision system in order to obtain a proper grasping location on the printed circuit board. A fuzzy-logic-based system is used to interpret the forces and torques generated by the force/torque sensor during the insertion process. The repeated success of this assembly task over many experimental trials verifies the modeling and controller assumptions.

  5. A Robot-Assisted Surgical System Using a Force-Image Control Method for Pedicle Screw Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Wei; Han, Xiaoguang; Liu, Bo; Liu, Yajun; Hu, Ying; Han, Xiao; Xu, Yunfeng; Fan, Mingxing; Jin, Haiyang

    2014-01-01

    Objective To introduce a robot-assisted surgical system for spinal posterior fixation that can automatically recognize the drilling state and stop potential cortical penetration with force and image information and to further evaluate the accuracy and safety of the robot for sheep vertebra pedicle screw placement. Methods The Robotic Spinal Surgery System (RSSS) was composed of an optical tracking system, a navigation and planning system, and a surgical robot equipped with a 6-DOF force/torque sensor. The robot used the image message and force signals to sense the different operation states and to prevent potential cortical penetration in the pedicle screw insertion operation. To evaluate the accuracy and safety of the RSSS, 32 screw insertions were conducted. Furthermore, six trajectories were deliberately planned incorrectly to explore whether the robot could recognize the different drilling states and immediately prevent cortical penetration. Results All 32 pedicle screws were placed in the pedicle without any broken pedicle walls. Compared with the preoperative planning, the average deviations of the entry points in the axial and sagittal views were 0.50±0.33 and 0.65±0.40 mm, and the average deviations of the angles in the axial and sagittal views were 1.9±0.82° and 1.48±1.2°. The robot successfully recognized the different drilling states and prevented potential cortical penetration. In the deliberately incorrectly planned trajectory experiments, the robot successfully prevented the cortical penetration. Conclusion These results verified the RSSS’s accuracy and safety, which supported its potential use for the spinal surgery. PMID:24466043

  6. Hopping robot

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Fischer, Gary J.; Marron, Lisa C.; Martinez, Michael A.; Kuehl, Michael A.; Feddema, John T.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a hopping robot that includes a misfire tolerant linear actuator suitable for long trips, low energy steering and control, reliable low energy righting, miniature low energy fuel control. The present invention provides a robot with hopping mobility, capable of traversing obstacles significant in size relative to the robot and capable of operation on unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides a hopping robot with misfire-tolerant combustion actuation, and with combustion actuation suitable for use in oxygen-poor environments.

  7. Robotics research

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, M.; Paul, R.

    1984-01-01

    Organized around a view of robotics as ''the intelligent connection of perception to action,'' the fifty-three contributions collected in this book present leading current research in one of the fastest moving fields of artificial intelligence. Readings Include: Hand-Eye Coordination in Rope Handling; 3-D Balance Using 2-D algorithms. A Model Driven Visual Inspection Module: Stereo Vision: Complexity and Constraints; Interpretation of Contact Geometers from Force Measurement; The Utah MIT Dextrous Hand: Work in Progress; Hierarchical Nonlinear Control for Robots; VAL-11; A Robot Programming Language and Control System; Technological Barriers in Robotics: A Perspective from Industry.

  8. Robotic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lanfranco, Anthony R.; Castellanos, Andres E.; Desai, Jaydev P.; Meyers, William C.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To review the history, development, and current applications of robotics in surgery. Background: Surgical robotics is a new technology that holds significant promise. Robotic surgery is often heralded as the new revolution, and it is one of the most talked about subjects in surgery today. Up to this point in time, however, the drive to develop and obtain robotic devices has been largely driven by the market. There is no doubt that they will become an important tool in the surgical armamentarium, but the extent of their use is still evolving. Methods: A review of the literature was undertaken using Medline. Articles describing the history and development of surgical robots were identified as were articles reporting data on applications. Results: Several centers are currently using surgical robots and publishing data. Most of these early studies report that robotic surgery is feasible. There is, however, a paucity of data regarding costs and benefits of robotics versus conventional techniques. Conclusions: Robotic surgery is still in its infancy and its niche has not yet been well defined. Its current practical uses are mostly confined to smaller surgical procedures. PMID:14685095

  9. Design of a small animal biopsy robot.

    PubMed

    Bebek, Ozkan; Hwang, Myun Joong; Fei, Baowei; Cavusoglu, M

    2008-01-01

    Small animals are widely used in biomedical research studies. They have compact anatomy and small organs. Therefore it is difficult to perceive tumors or cells and perform biopsies manually. Robotics technology offers a convenient and reliable solution for accurate needle insertion. In this paper, a novel 5 degrees of freedom (DOF) robot design for inserting needles into small animal subjects is proposed. The design has a compact size, is light weight, and has high resolution. Parallel mechanisms are used in the design for stable and reliable operation. The proposed robot has two gimbal joints that carry the needle mechanism. The robot can realize dexterous alignment of the needle before insertion. PMID:19163987

  10. Functional impacts of exoskeleton-based rehabilitation in chronic stroke: multi-joint versus single-joint robotic training.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Giuliana; Manto, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Stroke is a major cause of disability in the world. The activities of upper limb segments are often compromised following a stroke, impairing most daily tasks. Robotic training is now considered amongst the rehabilitation methods applied to promote functional recovery. However, the implementation of robotic devices remains a major challenge for the bioengineering and clinical community. Latest exoskeletons with multiple degrees of freedom (DOF) may become particularly attractive, because of their low apparent inertia, the multiple actuators generating large torques, and the fact that patients can move the arm in the normal wide workspace. A recent study published in JNER by Milot and colleagues underlines that training with a 6-DOF exoskeleton impacts positively on motor function in patients being in stable phase of recovery after a stroke. Also, multi-joint robotic training was not found to be superior to single-joint robotic training. Although it is often considered that rehabilitation should start from simple movements to complex functional movements as the recovery evolves, this study challenges this widespread notion whose scientific basis has remained uncertain. PMID:24354518

  11. HOUDINI: RECONFIGURABLE IN-TANK ROBOT

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Thompson; Adam Slifko

    1997-02-12

    This report details the development of a reconfigurable in-tank robotic cleanup system called Houdini{trademark}. Driven by the general need to develop equipment for the removal of radioactive waste from hundreds of DOE waste storage tanks and the specific needs of DOE sites such as Oak Ridge Naitonal Laboratory and Fernald, Houdini{trademark} represents one of the possible tools that can be used to mobilize and retrieve this waste material for complete remediation. Houdini{trademark} is a hydraulically powered, track driven, mobile work vehicle with a collapsible frame designed to enter underground or above ground waste tanks through existing 24 inch riser openings. After the vehicle has entered the waste tank, it unfolds and lands on the waste surface or tank floor to become a remotely operated mini-bulldozer. Houdini{trademark} utilizes a vehicle mounted plow blade and 6-DOF manipulator to mobilize waste and carry other tooling such as sluicing pumps, excavation buckets, and hydraulic shears. The complete Houdini{trademark} system consists of the tracked vehicle and other support equipment (e.g., control console, deployment system, hydraulic power supply, and controller) necessary to deploy and remotely operate this system at any DOE site. Inside the storage tanks, the system is capable of performing heel removal, waste mobilization, waste size reduction, and other tank waste retrieval and decommissioning tasks. The first Houdini{trademark} system was delivered on September 24, 1996 to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The system acceptance test was successfully performed at a cold test facility at ORNL. After completion of the cold test program and the training of site personnel, ORNL will deploy the system for clean-up and remediation of the Gunite storage tanks.

  12. HOUDINI: RECONFIGURABEL IN-TANK ROBOT

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Thompson; Adam Slifko

    1997-02-12

    This report details the development of a reconfigurable in-tank robotic cleanup systems called Houdini{trademark}. Driven by the general need to develop equipment for the removal of radioactive waste from hundreds of DOE waste storage tanks and the specific needs of DOE sites such as Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Fernald, Houdini{trademark} represents one of the possible tools that can be used to mobilize and retrieve this waste material for complete remediation. Houdini{trademark} is a hydraulically powered, track driven, mobile work vehicle with a collapsible frame designed to enter underground or above ground waste tanks through existing 24 inch riser openings. After the vehicle has entered the waste tank, it unfolds and lands on the waste surface or tank floor to become a remotely operated mini-bulldozer. Houdini{trademark} utilizes a vehicle mounted plow blade and 6-DOF manipulator to mobile waste and carry other tooling such as sluicing pumps, excavation buckets, and hydraulic shears. The complete Houdini{trademark} system consists of the tracked vehicle and other support equipment (e.g., control console, deployment system, hydraulic power supply, and controller) necessary to deploy and remotely operate this system at any DOE site. Inside the storage tanks, the system is capable of performing heel removal, waste mobilization, waste size reduction, and other tank waste retrieval and decommissioning tasks. The first Houdini{trademark} system was delivered on September 24, 1996 to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The system acceptance test was successfully performed at a cold test facility at ORNL. After completion of the cold test program and the training of site personnel, ORNL will deploy the system for clean-up and remediation of the Gunite storage tanks.

  13. Brachytherapy next generation: robotic systems.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Tiberiu; Kacsó, Alex Cristian; Pisla, Doina; Kacsó, Gabriel

    2015-12-01

    In a field dominated by external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), both the therapeutic and technical possibilities of brachytherapy (BT) are underrated, shadowed by protons and intensity modulated radiotherapy. Decreasing expertise and indications, as well as increasing lack of specific BT training for radiation therapy (RT) residents led to the real need of shortening its learning curve and making it more popular. Developing robotic BT devices can be a way to mitigate the above issues. There are many teams working at custom-made robotic BT platforms to perfect and overcome the limitations of the existing systems. This paper provides a picture of the current state-of-the-art in robotic assisted BT, as it also conveys the author's solution to the problem, a parallel robot that uses CT-guidance. PMID:26816510

  14. Coordination of two redundant robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Jian M.; Luh, J. Y. S.

    1989-01-01

    A solution is presented for the optimal force distributions of two redundant coordinating robots. Two robots whose end-effectors firmly grasp a common inertial load form a closed-chain structure, and thus the robots must observe a set of constraint conditions on (1) the end-effector positions, orientations, linear and angular velocities and (2) the forces and torques inserted onto the end-effectors by the load. To achieve the maximum load capability, the optimal force distribution under the known posture is developed. If the robots are redundant, joint solutions may be obtained if some optimization criterion such as manipulability is imposed. The singularity, manipulability, and force ellipsoids are investigated in terms of the two manipulator Jacobian matrices. The manipulability is shown to correspond to the cascade structure, while the force ellipsoid corresponds to the parallel structure in terms of the manipulator Jacobian matrices.

  15. Brachytherapy next generation: robotic systems

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, Tiberiu; Kacsó, Alex Cristian; Pisla, Doina

    2015-01-01

    In a field dominated by external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), both the therapeutic and technical possibilities of brachytherapy (BT) are underrated, shadowed by protons and intensity modulated radiotherapy. Decreasing expertise and indications, as well as increasing lack of specific BT training for radiation therapy (RT) residents led to the real need of shortening its learning curve and making it more popular. Developing robotic BT devices can be a way to mitigate the above issues. There are many teams working at custom-made robotic BT platforms to perfect and overcome the limitations of the existing systems. This paper provides a picture of the current state-of-the-art in robotic assisted BT, as it also conveys the author's solution to the problem, a parallel robot that uses CT-guidance. PMID:26816510

  16. Parallel Assembly of LIGA Components

    SciTech Connect

    Christenson, T.R.; Feddema, J.T.

    1999-03-04

    In this paper, a prototype robotic workcell for the parallel assembly of LIGA components is described. A Cartesian robot is used to press 386 and 485 micron diameter pins into a LIGA substrate and then place a 3-inch diameter wafer with LIGA gears onto the pins. Upward and downward looking microscopes are used to locate holes in the LIGA substrate, pins to be pressed in the holes, and gears to be placed on the pins. This vision system can locate parts within 3 microns, while the Cartesian manipulator can place the parts within 0.4 microns.

  17. Robotic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A robot having a plurality of interconnected sections is disclosed. Each of the sections includes components which are moveable relative to components of an adjacent section. A plurality of electric motors are operably connected to at least two of said relatively moveable components to effect relative movement. A fitted, removable protective covering surrounds the sections to protect the robot.

  18. Robotics 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultan, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Robots are used in all kinds of industrial settings. They are used to rivet bolts to cars, to move items from one conveyor belt to another, to gather information from other planets, and even to perform some very delicate types of surgery. Anyone who has watched a robot perform its tasks cannot help but be impressed by how it works. This article…

  19. Highly parallel computer architecture for robotic computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, Amir (Inventor); Bejczy, Anta K. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    In a computer having a large number of single instruction multiple data (SIMD) processors, each of the SIMD processors has two sets of three individual processor elements controlled by a master control unit and interconnected among a plurality of register file units where data is stored. The register files input and output data in synchronism with a minor cycle clock under control of two slave control units controlling the register file units connected to respective ones of the two sets of processor elements. Depending upon which ones of the register file units are enabled to store or transmit data during a particular minor clock cycle, the processor elements within an SIMD processor are connected in rings or in pipeline arrays, and may exchange data with the internal bus or with neighboring SIMD processors through interface units controlled by respective ones of the two slave control units.

  20. Robotic Surgery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Automated Endoscopic System for Optimal Positioning, or AESOP, was developed by Computer Motion, Inc. under a SBIR contract from the Jet Propulsion Lab. AESOP is a robotic endoscopic positioning system used to control the motion of a camera during endoscopic surgery. The camera, which is mounted at the end of a robotic arm, previously had to be held in place by the surgical staff. With AESOP the robotic arm can make more precise and consistent movements. AESOP is also voice controlled by the surgeon. It is hoped that this technology can be used in space repair missions which require precision beyond human dexterity. A new generation of the same technology entitled the ZEUS Robotic Surgical System can make endoscopic procedures even more successful. ZEUS allows the surgeon control various instruments in its robotic arms, allowing for the precision the procedure requires.

  1. New UWA robot--possible application to robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Miller, K; Chinzei, K

    2000-01-01

    This research is motivated by the need to design a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Image guided surgical robot. The achievement of this objective requires the solution of two problems: design and construction of a magnetic resonance compatible mechanical manipulator and development of the appropriate robot control system. It is beneficial to keep robot actuators outside the magnet. Therefore, the parallel architecture should be used for the mechanical manipulator. Newly developed University of Western Australia Robot satisfies this requirement. Moreover, it has substantially larger workspace and torsional stiffness when compared to existing parallel configurations such as the Delta. The plausible method of dealing with the delays in the robot control system caused by the image analysis is the prediction of the deformation based on the mathematical model of the organ mechanical and geometric properties. The hyper-viscoelastic constitutive models offer a good way of representing non-linear stress-strain and stress-strain rate relations of soft tissues such as the brain. The numerical values for material constants for brain tissue are given. Additional advantage of the proposed model is that it can be easily implemented in commercially available finite element codes and immediately applied to large-scale computer simulations. PMID:10834222

  2. Robotic transportation.

    PubMed

    Lob, W S

    1990-09-01

    Mobile robots perform fetch-and-carry tasks autonomously. An intelligent, sensor-equipped mobile robot does not require dedicated pathways or extensive facility modification. In the hospital, mobile robots can be used to carry specimens, pharmaceuticals, meals, etc. between supply centers, patient areas, and laboratories. The HelpMate (Transitions Research Corp.) mobile robot was developed specifically for hospital environments. To reach a desired destination, Help-Mate navigates with an on-board computer that continuously polls a suite of sensors, matches the sensor data against a pre-programmed map of the environment, and issues drive commands and path corrections. A sender operates the robot with a user-friendly menu that prompts for payload insertion and desired destination(s). Upon arrival at its selected destination, the robot prompts the recipient for a security code or physical key and awaits acknowledgement of payload removal. In the future, the integration of HelpMate with robot manipulators, test equipment, and central institutional information systems will open new applications in more localized areas and should help overcome difficulties in filling transport staff positions. PMID:2208684

  3. [Robotic surgery].

    PubMed

    Sándor, József; Haidegger, Tamás; Kormos, Katalin; Ferencz, Andrea; Csukás, Domokos; Bráth, Endre; Szabó, Györgyi; Wéber, György

    2013-10-01

    Due to the fast spread of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, surgical procedures have been changed essentially. The new techniques applied for both abdominal and thoracic procedures provided the possibility for minimally invasive access with all its advantages. Robots - originally developed for industrial applications - were retrofitted for laparoscopic procedures. The currently prevailing robot-assisted surgery is ergonomically more advantageous for the surgeon, as well as for the patient through the more precise preparative activity thanks to the regained 3D vision. The gradual decrease of costs of robotic surgical systems and development of new generations of minimally invasive devices may lead to substantial changes in routine surgical procedures. PMID:24144815

  4. Parallel rendering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crockett, Thomas W.

    1995-01-01

    This article provides a broad introduction to the subject of parallel rendering, encompassing both hardware and software systems. The focus is on the underlying concepts and the issues which arise in the design of parallel rendering algorithms and systems. We examine the different types of parallelism and how they can be applied in rendering applications. Concepts from parallel computing, such as data decomposition, task granularity, scalability, and load balancing, are considered in relation to the rendering problem. We also explore concepts from computer graphics, such as coherence and projection, which have a significant impact on the structure of parallel rendering algorithms. Our survey covers a number of practical considerations as well, including the choice of architectural platform, communication and memory requirements, and the problem of image assembly and display. We illustrate the discussion with numerous examples from the parallel rendering literature, representing most of the principal rendering methods currently used in computer graphics.

  5. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1998-08-11

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendible appendages, each of which is radially extendible relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendible members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

  6. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1997-02-11

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

  7. Robotic arm

    SciTech Connect

    Kwech, H.

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube is disclosed. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel. 23 figs.

  8. Robotic arm

    SciTech Connect

    Kwech, Horst

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel.

  9. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1998-01-01

    A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

  10. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1997-01-01

    A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

  11. Robot Rescue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morring, Frank, Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Tests with robots and the high-fidelity Hubble Space Telescope mockup astronauts use to train for servicing missions have convinced NASA managers it may be possible to maintain and upgrade the orbiting observatory without sending a space shuttle to do the job. In a formal request last week, the agency gave bidders until July 16 to sub-mit proposals for a robotic mission to the space telescope before the end of 2007. At a minimum, the mission would attach a rocket motor to deorbit the telescope safely when its service life ends. In the best case, it would use state-of-the- art robotics to prolong its life on orbit and install new instruments. With the space shuttle off-limits for the job under strict post-Columbia safety policies set by Administrator Sean O'Keefe, NASA has designed a "straw- man" robotic mission that would use an Atlas V or Delta N to launch a 20,ooO-lb. "Hubble Robotic Vehicle" to service the telescope. There, a robotic arm would grapple it, much as the shuttle does.

  12. The slider motion error analysis by positive solution method in parallel mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Lisong; Zhu, Liang; Yang, Wenguo; Hu, Penghao

    2016-01-01

    Motion error of slider plays key role in 3-PUU parallel coordinates measuring machine (CMM) performance and influence the CMM accuracy, which attracts lots of experts eyes in the world, Generally, the analysis method is based on the view of space 6-DOF. Here, a new analysis method is provided. First, the structure relation of slider and guideway can be abstracted as a 4-bar parallel mechanism. So, the sliders can be considered as moving platform in parallel kinematic mechanism PKM. Its motion error analysis is also transferred to moving platform position analysis in PKM. Then, after establishing the positive and negative solutions, some existed theory and technology for PKM can be applied to analyze slider straightness motion error and angular motion error simultaneously. Thirdly, some experiments by autocollimator are carried out to capture the original error data about guideway its own error, the data can be described as straightness error function by fitting curvilinear equation. Finally, the Straightness error of two guideways are considered as the variation of rod length in parallel mechanism, the slider's straightness error and angular error can be obtained by putting data into the established model. The calculated result is generally consistent with experiment result. The idea will be beneficial on accuracy calibration and error correction of 3-PUU CMM and also provides a new thought to analyze kinematic error of guideway in precision machine tool and precision instrument.

  13. Fast Parallel Computation Of Manipulator Inverse Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, Amir; Bejczy, Antal K.

    1991-01-01

    Method for fast parallel computation of inverse dynamics problem, essential for real-time dynamic control and simulation of robot manipulators, undergoing development. Enables exploitation of high degree of parallelism and, achievement of significant computational efficiency, while minimizing various communication and synchronization overheads as well as complexity of required computer architecture. Universal real-time robotic controller and simulator (URRCS) consists of internal host processor and several SIMD processors with ring topology. Architecture modular and expandable: more SIMD processors added to match size of problem. Operate asynchronously and in MIMD fashion.

  14. Massively parallel visualization: Parallel rendering

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, C.D.; Krogh, M.; White, W.

    1995-12-01

    This paper presents rendering algorithms, developed for massively parallel processors (MPPs), for polygonal, spheres, and volumetric data. The polygon algorithm uses a data parallel approach whereas the sphere and volume renderer use a MIMD approach. Implementations for these algorithms are presented for the Thinking Machines Corporation CM-5 MPP.

  15. Motion vision for mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrb, Matthieu

    The problem of using computer vision in mobile robots is dealt with. The datacube specialized cards and a parallel machine using a transputer network are studied. The tracking and localization of a three dimensional object in a sequence of images is examined, using first order prediction of the motion in the image plane and verification by a maximal clique search in the graph of mutually compatible matchings. A dynamic environment modeling module, using numerical fusion between trinocular stereovision and tracking of stereo matched primitives is presented. The integration of this perception system in the control architecture of a mobile robot is examined to achieve various functions, such as vision servo motion and environment modeling. The functional units implementing vision tasks and the data exchanged with other units are outlined. Experiments realized with the mobile robot Hilare 1.5 allowed the proposed algorithms and concepts to be validated.

  16. Rehabilitation robotics

    PubMed Central

    KREBS, H.I.; VOLPE, B.T.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter focuses on rehabilitation robotics which can be used to augment the clinician’s toolbox in order to deliver meaningful restorative therapy for an aging population, as well as on advances in orthotics to augment an individual’s functional abilities beyond neurorestoration potential. The interest in rehabilitation robotics and orthotics is increasing steadily with marked growth in the last 10 years. This growth is understandable in view of the increased demand for caregivers and rehabilitation services escalating apace with the graying of the population. We will provide an overview on improving function in people with a weak limb due to a neurological disorder who cannot properly control it to interact with the environment (orthotics); we will then focus on tools to assist the clinician in promoting rehabilitation of an individual so that s/he can interact with the environment unassisted (rehabilitation robotics). We will present a few clinical results occurring immediately poststroke as well as during the chronic phase that demonstrate superior gains for the upper extremity when employing rehabilitation robotics instead of usual care. These include the landmark VA-ROBOTICS multisite, randomized clinical study which demonstrates clinical gains for chronic stroke that go beyond usual care at no additional cost. PMID:23312648

  17. Medical robotics.

    PubMed

    Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Baroni, Guido; Casolo, Federico; De Momi, Elena; Gini, Giuseppina; Matteucci, Matteo; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) and mechatronics play a basic role in medical robotics and computer-aided therapy. In the last three decades, in fact, ICT technology has strongly entered the health-care field, bringing in new techniques to support therapy and rehabilitation. In this frame, medical robotics is an expansion of the service and professional robotics as well as other technologies, as surgical navigation has been introduced especially in minimally invasive surgery. Localization systems also provide treatments in radiotherapy and radiosurgery with high precision. Virtual or augmented reality plays a role for both surgical training and planning and for safe rehabilitation in the first stage of the recovery from neurological diseases. Also, in the chronic phase of motor diseases, robotics helps with special assistive devices and prostheses. Although, in the past, the actual need and advantage of navigation, localization, and robotics in surgery and therapy has been in doubt, today, the availability of better hardware (e.g., microrobots) and more sophisticated algorithms(e.g., machine learning and other cognitive approaches)has largely increased the field of applications of these technologies,making it more likely that, in the near future, their presence will be dramatically increased, taking advantage of the generational change of the end users and the increasing request of quality in health-care delivery and management. PMID:21642033

  18. Adaptive parallel logic networks

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, T.R.; Vidal, J.J.

    1988-02-01

    This paper presents a novel class of special purpose processors referred to as ASOCS (adaptive self-organizing concurrent systems). Intended applications include adaptive logic devices, robotics, process control, system malfunction management, and in general, applications of logic reasoning. ASOCS combines massive parallelism with self-organization to attain a distributed mechanism for adaptation. The ASOCS approach is based on an adaptive network composed of many simple computing elements (nodes) which operate in a combinational and asynchronous fashion. Problem specification (programming) is obtained by presenting to the system if-then rules expressed as Boolean conjunctions. New rules are added incrementally. In the current model, when conflicts occur, precedence is given to the most recent inputs. With each rule, desired network response is simply presented to the system, following which the network adjusts itself to maintain consistency and parsimony of representation. Data processing and adaptation form two separate phases of operation. During processing, the network acts as a parallel hardware circuit. Control of the adaptive process is distributed among the network nodes and efficiently exploits parallelism.

  19. Generic robot architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Bruemmer, David J; Few, Douglas A

    2010-09-21

    The present invention provides methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses for a generic robot architecture providing a framework that is easily portable to a variety of robot platforms and is configured to provide hardware abstractions, abstractions for generic robot attributes, environment abstractions, and robot behaviors. The generic robot architecture includes a hardware abstraction level and a robot abstraction level. The hardware abstraction level is configured for developing hardware abstractions that define, monitor, and control hardware modules available on a robot platform. The robot abstraction level is configured for defining robot attributes and provides a software framework for building robot behaviors from the robot attributes. Each of the robot attributes includes hardware information from at least one hardware abstraction. In addition, each robot attribute is configured to substantially isolate the robot behaviors from the at least one hardware abstraction.

  20. Robot Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Space Shuttle's Remote Manipulator System (Canadarm) is a 50 foot robot arm used to deploy, retrieve or repair satellites in orbit. Initial spinoff version is designed to remove, inspect and replace large components of Ontario Hydro's CANDU nuclear reactors, which supply 50 percent of Ontario Hydro's total power reduction. CANDU robot is the first of SPAR's Remote Manipulator Systems intended for remote materials handling operations in nuclear servicing, chemical processing, smelting and manufacturing. Inco Limited used remote manipulator for remote control mining equipment to enhance safety and productivity of Inco's hardrock mining operations. System not only improves safety in a hazardous operation that costs more than a score of lives annually, it also increases productivity fourfold. Remote Manipulator System Division is also manufacturing a line of industrial robots and developing additional system for nuclear servicing, mining, defense and space operations.

  1. Robot Swarms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morring, Frank, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Engineers and interns at this NASA field center are building the prototype of a robotic rover that could go where no wheeled rover has gone before-into the dark cold craters at the lunar poles and across the Moon s rugged highlands-like a walking tetrahedron. With NASA pushing to meet President Bush's new exploration objectives, the robots taking shape here today could be on the Moon in a decade. In the longer term, the concept could lead to shape-shifting robot swarms designed to explore distant planetary surfaces in advance of humans. "If you look at all of NASA s projections of the future, anyone s projections of the space program, they re all rigid-body architecture," says Steven Curtis, principal investigator on the effort. "This is not rigid-body. The whole key here is flexibility and reconfigurability with a capital R."

  2. Robotic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, H. I.; Hogan, N.

    2012-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a remarkable shift in the neuro-rehabilitation paradigm. Neuroscientists and clinicians moved away from the perception that the brain is static and hardwired, to a new dynamic understanding that plasticity is a fundamental property of the adult human brain and might be harnessed to remap or create new neural pathways. Capitalizing on this innovative understanding, we introduced a paradigm shift in the clinical practice in 1989 when we initiated the development of the MIT-Manus robot for neuro-rehabilitation and deployed it in the clinic in 1994 10. Since then, we and others have developed and tested a multitude of robotic devices for stroke, spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson’s disease. Here we discuss whether robotic therapy has achieved a level of maturity to justify its broad adoption in the clinical realm as a tool for motor recovery. PMID:23080044

  3. Cooperating mobile robots

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, John J.; Eskridge, Steven E.; Hurtado, John E.; Byrne, Raymond H.

    2004-02-03

    A miniature mobile robot provides a relatively inexpensive mobile robot. A mobile robot for searching an area provides a way for multiple mobile robots in cooperating teams. A robotic system with a team of mobile robots communicating information among each other provides a way to locate a source in cooperation. A mobile robot with a sensor, a communication system, and a processor, provides a way to execute a strategy for searching an area.

  4. Parallel machines: Parallel machine languages

    SciTech Connect

    Iannucci, R.A. )

    1990-01-01

    This book presents a framework for understanding the tradeoffs between the conventional view and the dataflow view with the objective of discovering the critical hardware structures which must be present in any scalable, general-purpose parallel computer to effectively tolerate latency and synchronization costs. The author presents an approach to scalable general purpose parallel computation. Linguistic Concerns, Compiling Issues, Intermediate Language Issues, and hardware/technological constraints are presented as a combined approach to architectural Develoement. This book presents the notion of a parallel machine language.

  5. Robot Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Mecanotron, now division of Robotics and Automation Corporation, developed a quick-change welding method called the Automatic Robotics Tool-change System (ARTS) under Marshall Space Flight Center and Rockwell International contracts. The ARTS system has six tool positions ranging from coarse sanding disks and abrasive wheels to cloth polishing wheels with motors of various horsepower. The system is used by fabricators of plastic body parts for the auto industry, by Texas Instruments for making radar domes, and for advanced composites at Aerospatiale in France.

  6. Fast Parallel Computation Of Multibody Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, Amir; Kwan, Gregory L.; Bagherzadeh, Nader

    1996-01-01

    Constraint-force algorithm fast, efficient, parallel-computation algorithm for solving forward dynamics problem of multibody system like robot arm or vehicle. Solves problem in minimum time proportional to log(N) by use of optimal number of processors proportional to N, where N is number of dynamical degrees of freedom: in this sense, constraint-force algorithm both time-optimal and processor-optimal parallel-processing algorithm.

  7. Computational structures for robotic computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. S. G.; Chang, P. R.

    1987-01-01

    The computational problem of inverse kinematics and inverse dynamics of robot manipulators by taking advantage of parallelism and pipelining architectures is discussed. For the computation of inverse kinematic position solution, a maximum pipelined CORDIC architecture has been designed based on a functional decomposition of the closed-form joint equations. For the inverse dynamics computation, an efficient p-fold parallel algorithm to overcome the recurrence problem of the Newton-Euler equations of motion to achieve the time lower bound of O(log sub 2 n) has also been developed.

  8. Beyond Robotics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tally, Beth; Laverdure, Nate

    2006-01-01

    Chantilly High School Academy Robotics Team Number 612 from Chantilly, Virginia, is an award-winning team of high school students actively involved with FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology), a multinational nonprofit organization that inspires students to transform culture--making science, math, engineering and…

  9. Robotic Surgery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childress, Vincent W.

    2007-01-01

    The medical field has many uses for automated and remote-controlled technology. For example, if a tissue sample is only handled in the laboratory by a robotic handling system, then it will never come into contact with a human. Such a system not only helps to automate the medical testing process, but it also helps to reduce the chances of…

  10. Parallel pipelining

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, D.D.; Bai, R.; Liao, T.Y.; Huang, A.; Hu, H.H.

    1995-09-01

    In this paper the authors introduce the idea of parallel pipelining for water lubricated transportation of oil (or other viscous material). A parallel system can have major advantages over a single pipe with respect to the cost of maintenance and continuous operation of the system, to the pressure gradients required to restart a stopped system and to the reduction and even elimination of the fouling of pipe walls in continuous operation. The authors show that the action of capillarity in small pipes is more favorable for restart than in large pipes. In a parallel pipeline system, they estimate the number of small pipes needed to deliver the same oil flux as in one larger pipe as N = (R/r){sup {alpha}}, where r and R are the radii of the small and large pipes, respectively, and {alpha} = 4 or 19/7 when the lubricating water flow is laminar or turbulent.

  11. Data parallelism

    SciTech Connect

    Gorda, B.C.

    1992-09-01

    Data locality is fundamental to performance on distributed memory parallel architectures. Application programmers know this well and go to great pains to arrange data for optimal performance. Data Parallelism, a model from the Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) architecture, is finding a new home on the Multiple Instruction Multiple Data (MIMD) architectures. This style of programming, distinguished by taking the computation to the data, is what programmers have been doing by hand for a long time. Recent work in this area holds the promise of making the programmer's task easier.

  12. Data parallelism

    SciTech Connect

    Gorda, B.C.

    1992-09-01

    Data locality is fundamental to performance on distributed memory parallel architectures. Application programmers know this well and go to great pains to arrange data for optimal performance. Data Parallelism, a model from the Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) architecture, is finding a new home on the Multiple Instruction Multiple Data (MIMD) architectures. This style of programming, distinguished by taking the computation to the data, is what programmers have been doing by hand for a long time. Recent work in this area holds the promise of making the programmer`s task easier.

  13. Design and Dynamic Analysis of a Novel Biomimetic Robotics Hip Joint.

    PubMed

    Cui, Bingyan; Chen, Liwen; Wang, Zhijun; Zhao, Yuanhao; Li, Zhanxian; Jin, Zhenlin

    2015-01-01

    In order to increase the workspace and the carrying capacity of biomimetic robotics hip joint, a novel biomimetic robotics hip joint was developed. The biomimetic robotics hip joint is mainly composed of a moving platform, frame, and 3-RRR orthogonal spherical parallel mechanism branched chains, and has the characteristics of compact structure, large bearing capacity, high positioning accuracy, and good controllability. The functions of the biomimetic robotics hip joint are introduced, such as the technical parameters, the structure and the driving mode. The biomimetic robotics hip joint model of the robot is established, the kinematics equation is described, and then the dynamics are analyzed and simulated with ADAMS software. The proposed analysis methodology can be provided a theoretical base for biomimetic robotics hip joint of the servo motor selection and structural design. The designed hip joint can be applied in serial and parallel robots or any other mechanisms. PMID:27018226

  14. Design and Dynamic Analysis of a Novel Biomimetic Robotics Hip Joint

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Bingyan; Chen, Liwen; Wang, Zhijun; Zhao, Yuanhao; Li, Zhanxian; Jin, Zhenlin

    2015-01-01

    In order to increase the workspace and the carrying capacity of biomimetic robotics hip joint, a novel biomimetic robotics hip joint was developed. The biomimetic robotics hip joint is mainly composed of a moving platform, frame, and 3-RRR orthogonal spherical parallel mechanism branched chains, and has the characteristics of compact structure, large bearing capacity, high positioning accuracy, and good controllability. The functions of the biomimetic robotics hip joint are introduced, such as the technical parameters, the structure and the driving mode. The biomimetic robotics hip joint model of the robot is established, the kinematics equation is described, and then the dynamics are analyzed and simulated with ADAMS software. The proposed analysis methodology can be provided a theoretical base for biomimetic robotics hip joint of the servo motor selection and structural design. The designed hip joint can be applied in serial and parallel robots or any other mechanisms. PMID:27018226

  15. Cooperative intelligent robotics in space III; Proceedings of the Meeting, Boston, MA, Nov. 16-18, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Jon D. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The present volume on cooperative intelligent robotics in space discusses sensing and perception, Space Station Freedom robotics, cooperative human/intelligent robot teams, and intelligent space robotics. Attention is given to space robotics reasoning and control, ground-based space applications, intelligent space robotics architectures, free-flying orbital space robotics, and cooperative intelligent robotics in space exploration. Topics addressed include proportional proximity sensing for telerobots using coherent lasar radar, ground operation of the mobile servicing system on Space Station Freedom, teleprogramming a cooperative space robotic workcell for space stations, and knowledge-based task planning for the special-purpose dextrous manipulator. Also discussed are dimensions of complexity in learning from interactive instruction, an overview of the dynamic predictive architecture for robotic assistants, recent developments at the Goddard engineering testbed, and parallel fault-tolerant robot control.

  16. Robotics Education and Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnell, Charles C.

    1993-01-01

    Describes characteristics of robots, provides a glossary of related terms, and discusses available careers in the field of robotics. Includes a list of postsecondary institutions with robotics programs. (JOW)

  17. Tandem mobile robot system

    DOEpatents

    Buttz, James H.; Shirey, David L.; Hayward, David R.

    2003-01-01

    A robotic vehicle system for terrain navigation mobility provides a way to climb stairs, cross crevices, and navigate across difficult terrain by coupling two or more mobile robots with a coupling device and controlling the robots cooperatively in tandem.

  18. Balance maintenance in high-speed motion of humanoid robot arm-based on the 6D constraints of momentum change rate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Da-song; Xiong, Rong; Wu, Jun; Chu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Based on the 6D constraints of momentum change rate (CMCR), this paper puts forward a real-time and full balance maintenance method for the humanoid robot during high-speed movement of its 7-DOF arm. First, the total momentum formula for the robot's two arms is given and the momentum change rate is defined by the time derivative of the total momentum. The author also illustrates the idea of full balance maintenance and analyzes the physical meaning of 6D CMCR and its fundamental relation to full balance maintenance. Moreover, discretization and optimization solution of CMCR has been provided with the motion constraint of the auxiliary arm's joint, and the solving algorithm is optimized. The simulation results have shown the validity and generality of the proposed method on the full balance maintenance in the 6 DOFs of the robot body under 6D CMCR. This method ensures 6D dynamics balance performance and increases abundant ZMP stability margin. The resulting motion of the auxiliary arm has large abundance in joint space, and the angular velocity and the angular acceleration of these joints lie within the predefined limits. The proposed algorithm also has good real-time performance. PMID:24883404

  19. Robotic real-time translational and rotational head motion correction during frameless stereotactic radiosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinmin; Belcher, Andrew H.; Grelewicz, Zachary; Wiersma, Rodney D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a control system to correct both translational and rotational head motion deviations in real-time during frameless stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods: A novel feedback control with a feed-forward algorithm was utilized to correct for the coupling of translation and rotation present in serial kinematic robotic systems. Input parameters for the algorithm include the real-time 6DOF target position, the frame pitch pivot point to target distance constant, and the translational and angular Linac beam off (gating) tolerance constants for patient safety. Testing of the algorithm was done using a 4D (XY Z + pitch) robotic stage, an infrared head position sensing unit and a control computer. The measured head position signal was processed and a resulting command was sent to the interface of a four-axis motor controller, through which four stepper motors were driven to perform motion compensation. Results: The control of the translation of a brain target was decoupled with the control of the rotation. For a phantom study, the corrected position was within a translational displacement of 0.35 mm and a pitch displacement of 0.15° 100% of the time. For a volunteer study, the corrected position was within displacements of 0.4 mm and 0.2° over 98.5% of the time, while it was 10.7% without correction. Conclusions: The authors report a control design approach for both translational and rotational head motion correction. The experiments demonstrated that control performance of the 4D robotic stage meets the submillimeter and subdegree accuracy required by SRS. PMID:26127028

  20. Robotic real-time translational and rotational head motion correction during frameless stereotactic radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xinmin; Belcher, Andrew H.; Grelewicz, Zachary; Wiersma, Rodney D.

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a control system to correct both translational and rotational head motion deviations in real-time during frameless stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods: A novel feedback control with a feed-forward algorithm was utilized to correct for the coupling of translation and rotation present in serial kinematic robotic systems. Input parameters for the algorithm include the real-time 6DOF target position, the frame pitch pivot point to target distance constant, and the translational and angular Linac beam off (gating) tolerance constants for patient safety. Testing of the algorithm was done using a 4D (XY Z + pitch) robotic stage, an infrared head position sensing unit and a control computer. The measured head position signal was processed and a resulting command was sent to the interface of a four-axis motor controller, through which four stepper motors were driven to perform motion compensation. Results: The control of the translation of a brain target was decoupled with the control of the rotation. For a phantom study, the corrected position was within a translational displacement of 0.35 mm and a pitch displacement of 0.15° 100% of the time. For a volunteer study, the corrected position was within displacements of 0.4 mm and 0.2° over 98.5% of the time, while it was 10.7% without correction. Conclusions: The authors report a control design approach for both translational and rotational head motion correction. The experiments demonstrated that control performance of the 4D robotic stage meets the submillimeter and subdegree accuracy required by SRS.

  1. Three dialogues concerning robots in elder care.

    PubMed

    Metzler, Theodore A; Barnes, Susan J

    2014-01-01

    The three dialogues in this contribution concern 21st century application of life-like robots in the care of older adults. They depict conversations set in the near future, involving a philosopher (Dr Phonius) and a nurse (Dr Myloss) who manages care at a large facility for assisted living. In their first dialogue, the speakers discover that their quite different attitudes towards human-robot interaction parallel fundamental differences separating their respective concepts of consciousness. The second dialogue similarly uncovers deeply contrasting notions of personhood that appear to be associated with respective communities of nursing and robotics. The additional key awareness that arises in their final dialogue links applications of life-like robots in the care of older adults with potential transformations in our understandings of ourselves - indeed, in our understandings of the nature of our own humanity. This series of dialogues, therefore, appears to address a topic in nursing philosophy that merits our careful attention. PMID:24320977

  2. Hierarchical Robot Control In A Multisensor Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhanu, Bir; Thune, Nils; Lee, Jih Kun; Thune, Mari

    1987-03-01

    Automatic recognition, inspection, manipulation and assembly of objects will be a common denominator in most of tomorrow's highly automated factories. These tasks will be handled by intelligent computer controlled robots with multisensor capabilities which contribute to desired flexibility and adaptability. The control of a robot in such a multisensor environment becomes of crucial importance as the complexity of the problem grows exponentially with the number of sensors, tasks, commands and objects. In this paper we present an approach which uses CAD (Computer-Aided Design) based geometric and functional models of objects together with action oriented neuroschemas to recognize and manipulate objects by a robot in a multisensor environment. The hierarchical robot control system is being implemented on a BBN Butterfly multi processor. Index terms: CAD, Hierarchical Control, Hypothesis Generation and Verification, Parallel Processing, Schemas

  3. Experiments in evolutionary synthesis of robotic neurocontrollers

    SciTech Connect

    Balakrishnan, K.; Honavar, V.

    1996-12-31

    Artificial neural networks offer an attractive paradigm for the design of behavior and control systems in robots and autonomous agents for a variety of reasons, including: ability to adapt and learn, potential for resistance to noise, faults and component failures, potential for real-time performance in dynamic environments (through massive parallelism and suitable hardware realization) etc.

  4. Steering a robot with vanishing points

    SciTech Connect

    Schuster, R.; Ansari, N.; Bani-Hashemi, A.R.

    1993-08-01

    The paper analyzes the use of vanishing points for steering a robot. Parallel lines in the environment of the robot are used to compute vanishing points which serve as a reference for guiding the robot. To accomplish the steering task, three subtasks are performed: detection of straight lines, computation of vanishing points, and robot steering using vanishing points. Straight lines are detected by employing a high precision edge detector and a line-fitting algorithm. The cross product method introduced by Magee and Aggarwal is modified to make the detection of vanishing points appropriate for an indoor environment. Properties of vanishing points under camera rotation and translation are derived. Using these properties, the location of the vanishing points can serve as a reference for steering the robot. A model of the robot environment is defined, summarizing the minimum number of constraints necessary for the method to work. Finally, the limitations as well as the advantage of using vanishing points in robot navigation are discussed.

  5. Target berthing and base reorientation of free-floating space robotic system after capturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenfu; Li, Cheng; Liang, Bin; Xu, Yangsheng; Liu, Yu; Qiang, Wenyi

    2009-01-01

    Space robots are playing an increasingly important role in on-orbital servicing, including repairing, refueling, or de-orbiting the satellite. The target must be captured and berthed before the servicing task starts. However, the attitude of the base may lean much and needs re-orientating after capturing. In this paper, a method is proposed to berth the target, and re-orientate the base at the same time, using manipulator motion only. Firstly, the system state is formed of the attitude quaternion and joint variables, and the joint paths are parameterized by sinusoidal functions. Then, the trajectory planning is transformed to an optimization problem. The cost function, defined according to the accuracy requirements of system variables, is the function of the parameters to be determined. Finally, we solve the parameters using the particle swarm optimization algorithm. Two typical cases of the spacecraft with a 6-DOF manipulator are dynamically simulated, one is that the variation of base attitude is limited; the other is that both the base attitude and the joint rates are constrained. The simulation results verify the presented method.

  6. Intuitive wireless control of a robotic arm for people living with an upper body disability.

    PubMed

    Fall, C L; Turgeon, P; Campeau-Lecours, A; Maheu, V; Boukadoum, M; Roy, S; Massicotte, D; Gosselin, C; Gosselin, B

    2015-08-01

    Assistive Technologies (ATs) also called extrinsic enablers are useful tools for people living with various disabilities. The key points when designing such useful devices not only concern their intended goal, but also the most suitable human-machine interface (HMI) that should be provided to users. This paper describes the design of a highly intuitive wireless controller for people living with upper body disabilities with a residual or complete control of their neck and their shoulders. Tested with JACO, a six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) assistive robotic arm with 3 flexible fingers on its end-effector, the system described in this article is made of low-cost commercial off-the-shelf components and allows a full emulation of JACO's standard controller, a 3 axis joystick with 7 user buttons. To do so, three nine-degree-of-freedom (9-DOF) inertial measurement units (IMUs) are connected to a microcontroller and help measuring the user's head and shoulders position, using a complementary filter approach. The results are then transmitted to a base-station via a 2.4-GHz low-power wireless transceiver and interpreted by the control algorithm running on a PC host. A dedicated software interface allows the user to quickly calibrate the controller, and translates the information into suitable commands for JACO. The proposed controller is thoroughly described, from the electronic design to implemented algorithms and user interfaces. Its performance and future improvements are discussed as well. PMID:26737270

  7. An intelligent assistive robotic manipulator.

    PubMed

    Farahmand, Fazel; Pourazad, Mahsa; Moussavi, Zahra

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the design of an automatic and intelligent robot arm for object grasping for people on wheelchair with mild to severe disabilities. The system is equipped with stereovision detection in order to distinguish different objects from the background. The robot arm has been designed with 6 degrees of action to grasp the detected object from the floor and bring it in front of the user. Two precalibrated digital cameras, facing downward, simultaneously take pictures of the surface where the object is located. Then by applying a new and robust 3D object detection method, the height, location and orientation of the object with respect to the robot's base point are found. The resulting rotation periods are transferred through a designated electronic driver board to the joints' motors via the PC parallel port. Overall, the system detects the object, moves the robot arm to the location of the object, grasps it, moves it to a predefined position in front of the user, releases the object and finally returns to its home position. The system is automatic and is operated by only one command. PMID:17281375

  8. Overhead robot system for remote HEPA filter replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Wiesener, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    A high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter system for facility exhaust air filtraction of radioactive particles has been designed that utilizes a modified industrial gantry robot to remotely replace filter elements. The system filtration design capacity can be readily changed by increasing or decreasing the number of plenums, which only affects the cell length and robot bridge travel. The parallel flow plenum design incorporates remote HEPA filter housings, which are commercially available. Filter removal and replacement is accomplished with the robot under sequenced program control. A custom-designed robot control console, which interfaces with the standard gantry robot power center controller, minimizes operator training. Critical sequence steps are operator verified, using closed-circuit television (CCTV), before proceeding to the next programmed stop point. The robot can be operated in a teleoperator mode to perform unstructured maintenance tasks, such as replacing filter housing components and cell lights.

  9. Configuration space representation in parallel coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiorini, Paolo; Inselberg, Alfred

    1989-01-01

    By means of a system of parallel coordinates, a nonprojective mapping from R exp N to R squared is obtained for any positive integer N. In this way multivariate data and relations can be represented in the Euclidean plane (embedded in the projective plane). Basically, R squared with Cartesian coordinates is augmented by N parallel axes, one for each variable. The N joint variables of a robotic device can be represented graphically by using parallel coordinates. It is pointed out that some properties of the relation are better perceived visually from the parallel coordinate representation, and that new algorithms and data structures can be obtained from this representation. The main features of parallel coordinates are described, and an example is presented of their use for configuration space representation of a mechanical arm (where Cartesian coordinates cannot be used).

  10. Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Omni-Hand was developed by Ross-Hime Designs, Inc. for Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. The multiple digit hand has an opposable thumb and a flexible wrist. Electric muscles called Minnacs power wrist joints and the interchangeable digits. Two hands have been delivered to NASA for evaluation for potential use on space missions and the unit is commercially available for applications like hazardous materials handling and manufacturing automation. Previous SBIR contracts resulted in the Omni-Wrist and Omni-Wrist II robotic systems, which are commercially available for spray painting, sealing, ultrasonic testing, as well as other uses.

  11. Robotic Stripping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    UltraStrip Systems, Inc.'s M-200 removes paint from the hulls of ships faster than traditional grit-blasting methods. And, it does so without producing toxic airborne particles common to traditional methods. The M-2000 magnetically attaches itself to the hull of the ship. Its water jets generate 40,000 pounds of pressure per square inch, blasting away paint down to the ships steel substrate. The only by product is water and dried paint chips and these are captured by a vacuum system so no toxic residue can escape. It was built out of a partnership between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the National Robotics Engineering Consortium.

  12. Intelligent robots and computer vision; Proceedings of the Seventh Meeting, Cambridge, MA, Nov. 7-11, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Casasent, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    Various papers on intelligent robots and computer vision are presented. The general topics addressed include: pattern recognition, boundary description in pattern recognition, image processing, segmentation and feature extraction, color vision and multisensor processing, neural nets, image understanding, fuzzy logic in image processing and computer vision, robot vision software, parallel computer vision architectures, three-dimensional object recognition, and intelligent control of robot systems.

  13. Robots and manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heer, E.

    1981-11-01

    Robots are defined and described for various applications. The key feature of robots is programmability, which allows teleoperation, repair work in hazardous situations, and unsupervised operation in industrial functions. Two types of robots now exist: special purpose, with equipment for a specific task; and general purpose, which include nonservo-controlled robots, servo-controlled robots, and sensory control robots. Sensory robots are the most sophisticated, and are equipped with both internal control sensors and external sensors such as TV cameras, pressure detectors, laser range finders, etc. Sensory feedback to a central computer enables the robots to make appropriate modifications to the control program to adapt to new situations. Pattern recognition and scans for size are features of the TV sensors, and programs to develop a universal effector (hand) are outlined. Finally, robot programming in terms of manual, walkthrough, and textual methods are described, and the potential uses of robots for space and undersea construction and repair are discussed.

  14. Robot Hand Grips Cylinders Securely

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parma, George F.

    1989-01-01

    Jaws and linkage accommodate various sizes. Robot hand includes two pairs of parallel jaws that grasp rods, pipes, tubes, struts, and other long, heavy cylindrical objects. Hand features compact rotary drive and butterfly configuration simplifying approach and gripping maneuvers of robot. Parallelogram linkages maintain alignment of each jaw with other jaws. One bar of each linkage connected to one of two concentric, counterrotating shafts; rotation of shafts moves jaws in each pair toward or away from each other to grasp or release workpiece. Each jaw includes rigid gripping pad lined with rubber to give firm grip and to prevent damage to workpiece. Inner cylindrical surface (corner) of each jaw tapers off to flat sides. Enables jaw to grasp workpieces with diameters larger than or equal to twice the corner radius.

  15. Parallel Information Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Edie M.

    1992-01-01

    Examines parallel computer architecture and the use of parallel processors for text. Topics discussed include parallel algorithms; performance evaluation; parallel information processing; parallel access methods for text; parallel and distributed information retrieval systems; parallel hardware for text; and network models for information…

  16. Robotic Vision for Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Vision system for robotic welder looks at weld along axis of welding electrode. Gives robot view of most of weld area, including yet-unwelded joint, weld pool, and completed weld bead. Protected within welding-torch body, lens and fiber bundle give robot closeup view of weld in progress. Relayed to video camera on robot manipulator frame, weld image provides data for automatic control of robot motion and welding parameters.

  17. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1994-03-15

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 11 figures.

  18. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1996-03-12

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 14 figs.

  19. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1996-01-01

    A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

  20. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1994-01-01

    A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

  1. Robotic sacrocolpopexy

    PubMed Central

    Danforth, Teresa L.; Aron, Monish; Ginsberg, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a prevalent condition with 1 in 9 women seeking surgical treatment by the age of 80 years. Goals of treatment are relief and prevention of symptoms, and restoration of pelvic floor support. The gold standard for surgical treatment of POP has been abdominal sacrocolpopexy (ASC). However, emerging technologies have allowed for more minimally invasive approach including the use of laparoscopic assisted sacrocolpopexy and robotic assisted sacrocolpopexy (RASC). We performed a PubMed literature search for sacrocolpopexy, “robotic sacrocolpopexy” and “RASC” and reviewed all retrospective, prospective and randomized controlled trials. The techniques, objective and subjective outcomes and complications are discussed. The most frequent technique involves a polypropylene Y mesh attached to the anterior and posterior walls of the vagina with the single arm attached to the sacrum. Multiple concomitant procedures have been described including hysterectomy, anti-incontinence procedures and concomitant vaginal prolapse repairs. There are few studies comparing RASC to ASC, with the longest follow-up data showing no difference in subjective and objective outcomes. Anatomic success rates have been reported at 79-100% with up to 9% of patients requiring successive surgery for recurrence. Subjective success is poorly defined, but has been reported at 88-97%. Most common complications are urinary retention, urinary tract infection, bladder injury and vaginal mucosal injury. Mesh exposure is reported in up to 10% of patients. RASC allows for a minimally invasive approach to treatment of POP with comparable outcomes and low complication rates. PMID:25097320

  2. Hexapod Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begody, Ericka

    2016-01-01

    The project I am working on at NASA-Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX is a hexapod robot. This project was started by various engineers at the Trick Lab. The goal of this project is to have the hexapod track a yellow ball or possibly another object from left to right and up/down. The purpose is to have it track an object like a real creature. The project will consist of using software and hardware. This project started with a hexapod robot which uses a senor bar to track a yellow ball but with a limited field of vision. The sensor bar acts as the robots "head." Two servos will be added to the hexapod to create flexion and extension of the head. The neck and head servos will have to be programmed to be added to the original memory map of the existing servos. I will be using preexisting code. The main programming language that will be used to add to the preexisting code is C++. The trick modeling and simulation software will also be used in the process to improve its tracking and movement. This project will use a trial and error approach, basically seeing what works and what does not. The first step is to initially understand how the hexapod works. To get a general understanding of how the hexapod maneuvers and plan on how to had a neck and head servo which works with the rest of the body. The second step would be configuring the head and neck servos with the leg servos. During this step, limits will be programmed specifically for the each servo. By doing this, the servo is limited to how far it can rotate both clockwise and counterclockwise and this is to prevent hardware damage. The hexapod will have two modes in which it works in. The first mode will be if the sensor bar does not detect an object. If the object it is programmed to look for is not in its view it will automatically scan from left to right 3 times then up and down once. The second mode will be if the sensor bar does detect the object. In this mode the hexapod will track the object from left to

  3. Workspace Analysis and Optimization of 3-PUU Parallel Mechanism in Medicine Base on Genetic Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yongchao; Zhao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    A novel 3-PUU parallel robot was put forward, on which kinematic analysis was conducted to obtain its inverse kinematics solution, and on this basis, the limitations of the sliding pair and the Hooke joint on the workspace were analyzed. Moreover, the workspace was solved through the three dimensional limit search method, and then optimization analysis was performed on the workspace of this parallel robot, which laid the foundations for the configuration design and further analysis of the parallel mechanism, with the result indicated that this type of robot was equipped with promising application prospect. In addition that, the workspace after optimization can meet more requirements of patients. PMID:26628930

  4. Workspace Analysis and Optimization of 3-PUU Parallel Mechanism in Medicine Base on Genetic Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yongchao; Zhao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    A novel 3-PUU parallel robot was put forward, on which kinematic analysis was conducted to obtain its inverse kinematics solution, and on this basis, the limitations of the sliding pair and the Hooke joint on the workspace were analyzed. Moreover, the workspace was solved through the three dimensional limit search method, and then optimization analysis was performed on the workspace of this parallel robot, which laid the foundations for the configuration design and further analysis of the parallel mechanism, with the result indicated that this type of robot was equipped with promising application prospect. In addition that, the workspace after optimization can meet more requirements of patients. PMID:26628930

  5. Multiple robot systems in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, Antal K.

    1987-01-01

    Viewgraphs from a presentation on multiple robot systems in space are included. Topics covered include categories of robots in space; scenarios of robot applications in space; some characteristics of robots in space; and some interesting problems and issues.

  6. Robotic intelligence kernel

    SciTech Connect

    Bruemmer, David J.

    2009-11-17

    A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller. The system controller executes a robot intelligence kernel (RIK) that includes a multi-level architecture and a dynamic autonomy structure. The multi-level architecture includes a robot behavior level for defining robot behaviors, that incorporate robot attributes and a cognitive level for defining conduct modules that blend an adaptive interaction between predefined decision functions and the robot behaviors. The dynamic autonomy structure is configured for modifying a transaction capacity between an operator intervention and a robot initiative and may include multiple levels with at least a teleoperation mode configured to maximize the operator intervention and minimize the robot initiative and an autonomous mode configured to minimize the operator intervention and maximize the robot initiative. Within the RIK at least the cognitive level includes the dynamic autonomy structure.

  7. Humanoid Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linn, Douglas M. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Askew, Scott R. (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S. (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A. (Inventor); Strawser, Phillip A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Wampler, II, Charles W. (Inventor); Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor); Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Reiland, Matthew J. (Inventor); Sanders, Adam M. (Inventor); Reich, David M. (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Parsons, Adam H. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank N. (Inventor); Davis, Donald R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A humanoid robot includes a torso, a pair of arms, two hands, a neck, and a head. The torso extends along a primary axis and presents a pair of shoulders. The pair of arms movably extend from a respective one of the pair of shoulders. Each of the arms has a plurality of arm joints. The neck movably extends from the torso along the primary axis. The neck has at least one neck joint. The head movably extends from the neck along the primary axis. The head has at least one head joint. The shoulders are canted toward one another at a shrug angle that is defined between each of the shoulders such that a workspace is defined between the shoulders.

  8. Petri net controllers for distributed robotic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefebvre, D. R.; Saridis, George N.

    1992-01-01

    Petri nets are a well established modelling technique for analyzing parallel systems. When coupled with an event-driven operating system, Petri nets can provide an effective means for integrating and controlling the functions of distributed robotic applications. Recent work has shown that Petri net graphs can also serve as remarkably intuitive operator interfaces. In this paper, the advantages of using Petri nets as high-level controllers to coordinate robotic functions are outlined, the considerations for designing Petri net controllers are discussed, and simple Petri net structures for implementing an interface for operator supervision are presented. A detailed example is presented which illustrates these concepts for a sensor-based assembly application.

  9. Intelligent robots and computer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Casasent, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference which examined artificial intelligence and image processing in relation to robotics. Topics considered at the conference included feature extraction and pattern recognition for computer vision, image processing for intelligent robotics, robot sensors, image understanding and artificial intelligence, optical processing techniques in robotic applications, robot languages and programming, processor architectures for computer vision, mobile robots, multisensor fusion, three-dimensional modeling and recognition, intelligent robots applications, and intelligent robot systems.

  10. Applications of artificial intelligence X: Machine vision and robotics; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 22-24, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, K.W.

    1992-01-01

    Various papers on artificial intelligence in machine vision and robotics are presented. The general topics addressed include: design of a robot head, machine vision inspection techniques, segmentation of fused range and intensity imagery, parallel and VLSI architectures for machine vision, comparison of range image segmentation algorithms, state of the art in postcanny edge detection, simulation and visualization environments for autonomous robots, exploration of recognition by components representation and matching, reactive robotic control strategies, image processing techniques.

  11. Redundancy resolution of a human arm for controlling a seven DOF wearable robotic system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunchul; Miller, Levi Makaio; Al-Refai, Aimen; Brand, Moshe; Rosen, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    The human arm including the shoulder, elbow, wrist joints and exclusion scapular motion has 7 Degrees of Freedom (DOF) while positioning of the wrist in space and orientating the palm is a task that requires 6 DOF. As such it includes one more DOF than is needed to complete the task. Given the redundant nature of the arm, multiple arm configurations can be used to complete a task, which is expressed mathematically by none unique solution for the inverse kinematics. Despite this mathematical difficulty, the motor control provides a unique solution for the arm redundancy as the arm is moved in space. Resolving this redundancy is becoming critical as the human interacts with a wearable robotic system(exoskeleton) which includes the same redundancy as the human arm. Therefore, the inverse kinematics solution resolving the redundancy of these two coupled systems must be identical in order to guarantee a seamless integration. The redundancy of the arm can be formulated kinematically by defining the swivel angle - the rotation angle of the plane including the upper and lower arm around a virtual axis connecting the shoulder and wrist joints which are fixed in space. Analyzing reaching tasks recorded with a motion capture lab indicates that the swivel angle is selected such that when the elbow joint is flexed, the palm points the head. Based on these experimental results, selecting the point around the center of the head as a stationary target allows to calculate the swivel angle and in that way to resolve the human arm redundancy. Experimental results indicated that by using the proposed redundancy resolution criteria the error between the predicted swivel angle and the actual swivel angle adopted by the motor control system is less then 5 Deg. This criterion or a synthesis of several additional criteria may improve the synergistic relationships between an operator and a wearable robotic system. PMID:22255087

  12. Modeling robot contour processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, D. E.; Edsall, A. C.

    Robot contour processes include those with contact force like car body grinding or deburring of complex castings, as well as those with little or no contact force like inspection. This paper describes ways of characterizing, identifying, and estimating contours and robot trajectories. Contour and robot are modeled as stochastic processes in order to emphasize that both successive robot cycles and successive industrial workpieces are similar but not exactly the same. The stochastic models can be used to identify the state of a workpiece or process, or to design a filter to estimate workpiece, shape and robot position from robot-based measurements.

  13. Robotic technology in urology.

    PubMed

    Murphy, D; Challacombe, B; Khan, M S; Dasgupta, P

    2006-11-01

    Urology has increasingly become a technology-driven specialty. The advent of robotic surgical systems in the past 10 years has led to urologists becoming the world leaders in the use of such technology. In this paper, we review the history and current status of robotic technology in urology. From the earliest uses of robots for transurethral resection of the prostate, to robotic devices for manipulating laparoscopes and to the current crop of master-slave devices for robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery, the evolution of robotics in the urology operating theatre is presented. Future possibilities, including the prospects for nanotechnology in urology, are awaited. PMID:17099094

  14. Soft robotics: a bioinspired evolution in robotics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangbae; Laschi, Cecilia; Trimmer, Barry

    2013-05-01

    Animals exploit soft structures to move effectively in complex natural environments. These capabilities have inspired robotic engineers to incorporate soft technologies into their designs. The goal is to endow robots with new, bioinspired capabilities that permit adaptive, flexible interactions with unpredictable environments. Here, we review emerging soft-bodied robotic systems, and in particular recent developments inspired by soft-bodied animals. Incorporating soft technologies can potentially reduce the mechanical and algorithmic complexity involved in robot design. Incorporating soft technologies will also expedite the evolution of robots that can safely interact with humans and natural environments. Finally, soft robotics technology can be combined with tissue engineering to create hybrid systems for medical applications. PMID:23582470

  15. Competencies Identification for Robotics Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Le D.

    A study focused on the task of identifying competencies for robotics training. The level of robotics training was limited to that of robot technicians. Study objectives were to obtain a list of occupational competencies; to rank their order of importance; and to compare opinions from robot manufacturers, robot users, and robotics educators…

  16. A surface-matching technique for robot-assisted registration.

    PubMed

    Glozman, D; Shoham, M; Fischer, A

    2001-01-01

    Successful implementation of robot-assisted surgery (RAS) requires coherent integration of spatial image data with sensing and actuating devices, each having its own coordinate system. Hence, accurate estimation of the geometric relationships between relevant reference frames, known as registration, is a crucial procedure in all RAS applications. The purpose of this paper is to present a new registration scheme, along with the results of an experimental evaluation of a robot-assisted registration method for RAS applications in orthopedics. The accuracy of the proposed registration is appropriate for specified orthopedic surgical applications such as Total Knee Replacement. The registration method is based on a surface-matching algorithm that does not require marker implants, thereby reducing surgical invasiveness. Points on the bone surface are sampled by the robot, which in turn directs the surgical tool. This technique eliminates additional coordinate transformations to an external device (such as a digitizer), resulting in increased surgical accuracy. The registration technique was tested on an RSPR six-degrees-of-freedom parallel robot specifically designed for medical applications. A six-axis force sensor attached to the robot's moving platform enables fast and accurate acquisition of positions and surface normal directions at sampled points. Sampling with a robot probe was shown to be accurate, fast, and easy to perform. The whole procedure takes about 2 min, with the robot performing most of the registration procedures, leaving the surgeon's hands free. Robotic registration was shown to provide a flawless link between preoperative planning and robotic assistance during surgery. PMID:11892002

  17. Robotic Surveying

    SciTech Connect

    Suzy Cantor-McKinney; Michael Kruzic

    2007-03-01

    ZAPATA ENGINEERING challenged our engineers and scientists, which included robotics expertise from Carnegie Mellon University, to design a solution to meet our client's requirements for rapid digital geophysical and radiological data collection of a munitions test range with no down-range personnel. A prime concern of the project was to minimize exposure of personnel to unexploded ordnance and radiation. The field season was limited by extreme heat, cold and snow. Geographical Information System (GIS) tools were used throughout this project to accurately define the limits of mapped areas, build a common mapping platform from various client products, track production progress, allocate resources and relate subsurface geophysical information to geographical features for use in rapidly reacquiring targets for investigation. We were hopeful that our platform could meet the proposed 35 acres per day, towing both a geophysical package and a radiological monitoring trailer. We held our breath and crossed our fingers as the autonomous Speedrower began to crawl across the playa lakebed. We met our proposed production rate, and we averaged just less than 50 acres per 12-hour day using the autonomous platform with a path tracking error of less than +/- 4 inches. Our project team mapped over 1,800 acres in an 8-week (4 days per week) timeframe. The expertise of our partner, Carnegie Mellon University, was recently demonstrated when their two autonomous vehicle entries finished second and third at the 2005 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Grand Challenge. 'The Grand Challenge program was established to help foster the development of autonomous vehicle technology that will some day help save the lives of Americans who are protecting our country on the battlefield', said DARPA Grand Challenge Program Manager, Ron Kurjanowicz. Our autonomous remote-controlled vehicle (ARCV) was a modified New Holland 2550 Speedrower retrofitted to allow the machine

  18. Robotic Lander Prototype

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA engineers successfully integrated and completed system testing on a new robotic lander recently at Teledyne Brown Engineering’s facility in Huntsville in support of the Robotic Lunar Lander ...

  19. Robotic space colonies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenker, P.; Easter, R.; Rodriguez, G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in these technologies, with a particular focus on experimental state-of-the-art robot work crew system demonstrations at JPL, that are being conducted now to begin to realize the futuristic robotic colony vision.

  20. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Communications

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, Mike C.

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel-Comms is the communication server that transmits information between one or more robots using the RIK and one or more user interfaces. It supports event handling and multiple hardware communication protocols.

  1. Robots and the Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albus, James S.

    1984-01-01

    Spectacular advances in microcomputers are forging new technological frontiers in robotics. For example, many factories will be totally automated. Economic implications of the new technology of robotics for the future are examined. (RM)

  2. Robotic Lander Development Project

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Robotic Lander Development Project at the Marshall Center is testing a prototype lander that will aid in the design and development of a new generation of small, smart, versatile robotic lander...

  3. Teleoperator/robot technology can help solve biomedical problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, E.; Bejczy, A. K.

    1975-01-01

    Teleoperator and robot technology appears to offer the possibility to apply these techniques to the benefit for the severely handicapped giving them greater self reliance and independence. Major problem areas in the development of prostheses and remotely controlled devices for the handicapped are briefly discussed, and the parallelism with problems in the development of teleoperator/robots identified. A brief description of specific ongoing and projected developments in the area of remotely controlled devices (wheelchairs and manipulators) is provided.

  4. RHOBOT: Radiation hardened robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, P.C.; Posey, L.D.

    1997-10-01

    A survey of robotic applications in radioactive environments has been conducted, and analysis of robotic system components and their response to the varying types and strengths of radiation has been completed. Two specific robotic systems for accident recovery and nuclear fuel movement have been analyzed in detail for radiation hardness. Finally, a general design approach for radiation-hardened robotics systems has been developed and is presented. This report completes this project which was funded under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

  5. Robotics research projects report

    SciTech Connect

    Hsia, T.C.

    1983-06-01

    The research results of the Robotics Research Laboratory are summarized. Areas of research include robotic control, a stand-alone vision system for industrial robots, and sensors other than vision that would be useful for image ranging, including ultrasonic and infra-red devices. One particular project involves RHINO, a 6-axis robotic arm that can be manipulated by serial transmission of ASCII command strings to its interfaced controller. (LEW)

  6. Modular robot

    DOEpatents

    Ferrante, T.A.

    1997-11-11

    A modular robot may comprise a main body having a structure defined by a plurality of stackable modules. The stackable modules may comprise a manifold, a valve module, and a control module. The manifold may comprise a top surface and a bottom surface having a plurality of fluid passages contained therein, at least one of the plurality of fluid passages terminating in a valve port located on the bottom surface of the manifold. The valve module is removably connected to the manifold and selectively fluidically connects the plurality of fluid passages contained in the manifold to a supply of pressurized fluid and to a vent. The control module is removably connected to the valve module and actuates the valve module to selectively control a flow of pressurized fluid through different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. The manifold, valve module, and control module are mounted together in a sandwich-like manner and comprise a main body. A plurality of leg assemblies are removably connected to the main body and are removably fluidically connected to the fluid passages in the manifold so that each of the leg assemblies can be selectively actuated by the flow of pressurized fluid in different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. 12 figs.

  7. Modular robot

    DOEpatents

    Ferrante, Todd A.

    1997-01-01

    A modular robot may comprise a main body having a structure defined by a plurality of stackable modules. The stackable modules may comprise a manifold, a valve module, and a control module. The manifold may comprise a top surface and a bottom surface having a plurality of fluid passages contained therein, at least one of the plurality of fluid passages terminating in a valve port located on the bottom surface of the manifold. The valve module is removably connected to the manifold and selectively fluidically connects the plurality of fluid passages contained in the manifold to a supply of pressurized fluid and to a vent. The control module is removably connected to the valve module and actuates the valve module to selectively control a flow of pressurized fluid through different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. The manifold, valve module, and control module are mounted together in a sandwich-like manner and comprise a main body. A plurality of leg assemblies are removably connected to the main body and are removably fluidically connected to the fluid passages in the manifold so that each of the leg assemblies can be selectively actuated by the flow of pressurized fluid in different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold.

  8. Robotic Follow Algorithm

    2005-03-30

    The Robotic Follow Algorithm enables allows any robotic vehicle to follow a moving target while reactively choosing a route around nearby obstacles. The robotic follow behavior can be used with different camera systems and can be used with thermal or visual tracking as well as other tracking methods such as radio frequency tags.

  9. Robotics development programs overview

    SciTech Connect

    Heckendorn, F.M.

    1990-11-01

    This paper discusses the applications of robotics at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site. The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) continues to provide support to the Savannah River Site (SRS) in many areas of Robotics and Remote Vision. An overview of the current and near term future developments are presented. The driving forces for Robotics and Vision developments at SRS include the classic reasons for industrial robotics installation (i.e. repetitive and undesirable jobs) and those reasons related to radioactive environments. Protection of personnel from both radiation and radioactive contamination benefit greatly from both Robotics and Telerobotics. Additionally, the quality of information available from remote locations benefits greatly from the ability to visually monitor and remotely sense. The systems discussed include a glovebox waste handling and bagout robot, a shielded cells robot for radioactive waste sample transfer, waste handling gantry robots, a two armed master/slave manipulator as an attachment to a gantry robot, navigation robot research/testing, demonstration of the mobile underwater remote cleaning and inspection device, a camera deployment robot to support remote crane operations and for deployment of radiation sensors directly over a hazardous site, and demonstration of a large mobile robot for high radiation environments. Development of specialized and limited life vision/viewing systems for hazardous environments is also discussed.

  10. Building a Better Robot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navah, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Kids love to build robots, letting their imaginations run wild with thoughts of what they might look like and what they could be programmed to do. Yet when students use cereal boxes and found objects to make robots, often the projects look too similar and tend to fall apart. This alternative allows students to "build" robots in a different way,…

  11. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Visualization

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel-Visualization is the software that supports the user interface. It uses the RIK-C software to communicate information to and from the robot. The RIK-V illustrates the data in a 3D display and provides an operating picture wherein the user can task the robot.

  12. Distributed Self-Organizing Intelligent Control For Dendritic Robotic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Alexander Y. K.

    1990-02-01

    A new control methodology is presented to effectively operate a robotic system with redundant degrees of freedom. The utilized Decomposed Optimization Technique (DOT) is part of the AISP (An Intelligent Spatial Planner) development. DOT considers the robotic system as several connected subsystems with locally distributed intelligence. Each subsystem has certain degrees of freedom to pursue local optimum state. The resulting parallel distributed processing architecture presents a flexible structure to accommodate sophisticated manipulators with higher level of difficulty. The employed robot dynamics model for each subsystem is generically simple such that the corresponded read-time control scheme can incorporate self-correction mechanism in parameter identification.

  13. Social robots in advanced dementia

    PubMed Central

    Valentí Soler, Meritxell; Agüera-Ortiz, Luis; Olazarán Rodríguez, Javier; Mendoza Rebolledo, Carolina; Pérez Muñoz, Almudena; Rodríguez Pérez, Irene; Osa Ruiz, Emma; Barrios Sánchez, Ana; Herrero Cano, Vanesa; Carrasco Chillón, Laura; Felipe Ruiz, Silvia; López Alvarez, Jorge; León Salas, Beatriz; Cañas Plaza, José M.; Martín Rico, Francisco; Abella Dago, Gonzalo; Martínez Martín, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Pilot studies applying a humanoid robot (NAO), a pet robot (PARO) and a real animal (DOG) in therapy sessions of patients with dementia in a nursing home and a day care center. Methods:In the nursing home, patients were assigned by living units, based on dementia severity, to one of the three parallel therapeutic arms to compare: CONTROL, PARO and NAO (Phase 1) and CONTROL, PARO, and DOG (Phase 2). In the day care center, all patients received therapy with NAO (Phase 1) and PARO (Phase 2). Therapy sessions were held 2 days per week during 3 months. Evaluation, at baseline and follow-up, was carried out by blind raters using: the Global Deterioration Scale (GDS), the Severe Mini Mental State Examination (sMMSE), the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), the Apathy Scale for Institutionalized Patients with Dementia Nursing Home version (APADEM-NH), the Apathy Inventory (AI) and the Quality of Life Scale (QUALID). Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests performed by a blinded investigator. Results: In the nursing home, 101 patients (Phase 1) and 110 patients (Phase 2) were included. There were no significant differences at baseline. The relevant changes at follow-up were: (Phase 1) patients in the robot groups showed an improvement in apathy; patients in NAO group showed a decline in cognition as measured by the MMSE scores, but not the sMMSE; the robot groups showed no significant changes between them; (Phase 2) QUALID scores increased in the PARO group. In the day care center, 20 patients (Phase 1) and 17 patients (Phase 2) were included. The main findings were: (Phase 1) improvement in the NPI irritability and the NPI total score; (Phase 2) no differences were observed at follow-up. PMID:26388764

  14. Parallaxis: A Flexible Parallel Programming Environment For AI Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braeunl, Thomas

    1989-03-01

    A parallel language has to match or reflect the hardware underneath to use these resources efficiently. Though every parallel language has to have some kind of parallel machine model, no existing language states this explicitly. The Parallaxis parallel programming environment introduces a different approach. The system comprises the specification of the parallel algorithm and the parallel hardware as well. Parallaxis has been designed for single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) system architectures, consisting of identical processing elements (PEs) with local memory. Data exchange is handled by message passing through a local network. In Parallaxis, the hardware structure is specified in the beginning of each program to establish the environment for coding the parallel algorithm. This is necessary for actually arranging this topology using a reconfigurable system, but it is also profitable for performing a simulation, or just stating the used topology. Parallelizable AI applications that demonstrate Parallaxis' usefulness include computer vision, productions systems, neural networks and robot control.

  15. Intelligent robots and computer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Casasent, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on artificial intelligence and robot vision. Topics considered at the conference included pattern recognition, image processing for intelligent robotics, three-dimensional vision (depth and motion), vision modeling and shape estimation, spatial reasoning, the symbolic processing visual information, robotic sensors and applications, intelligent control architectures for robot systems, robot languages and programming, human-machine interfaces, robotics applications, and architectures of robotics.

  16. Reverse control for humanoid robot task recognition.

    PubMed

    Hak, Sovannara; Mansard, Nicolas; Stasse, Olivier; Laumond, Jean Paul

    2012-12-01

    Efficient methods to perform motion recognition have been developed using statistical tools. Those methods rely on primitive learning in a suitable space, for example, the latent space of the joint angle and/or adequate task spaces. Learned primitives are often sequential: A motion is segmented according to the time axis. When working with a humanoid robot, a motion can be decomposed into parallel subtasks. For example, in a waiter scenario, the robot has to keep some plates horizontal with one of its arms while placing a plate on the table with its free hand. Recognition can thus not be limited to one task per consecutive segment of time. The method presented in this paper takes advantage of the knowledge of what tasks the robot is able to do and how the motion is generated from this set of known controllers, to perform a reverse engineering of an observed motion. This analysis is intended to recognize parallel tasks that have been used to generate a motion. The method relies on the task-function formalism and the projection operation into the null space of a task to decouple the controllers. The approach is successfully applied on a real robot to disambiguate motion in different scenarios where two motions look similar but have different purposes. PMID:22552575

  17. Impacts of industrial robots

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, R.; Miller, S.

    1981-11-01

    This report briefly describes robot technology and goes into more depth about where robots are used, and some of the anticipated social and economic impacts of their use. A number of short term transitional issues, including problems of potential displacement, are discussed. The ways in which robots may impact the economics of batch production are described. A framework for analyzing the impacts of robotics on economywide economic growth and employment is presented. Human resource policy issues are discussed. A chronology of robotics technology is also given.

  18. Microgravity robotics technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohn, Douglas A.; Lawrence, Charles; Brush, Andrew S.

    1988-01-01

    A research program to develop technology for robots operating in the microgravity environment of the space station laboratory is described. These robots must be capable of manipulating payloads without causing them to experience harmful levels of acceleration, and the motion of these robots must not disturb adjacent experiments and operations by transmitting reactions that translate into damaging effects throughout the laboratory. Solutions to these problems, based on both mechanism technology and control strategies, are discussed. Methods are presented for reduction of robot base reactions through the use of redundant degrees of freedom, and the development of smoothly operating roller-driven robot joints for microgravity manipulators is discussed.

  19. Walking control of small size humanoid robot: HAJIME ROBOT 18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Hajime; Nakatsu, Ryohei

    2007-12-01

    HAJIME ROBOT 18 is a fully autonomous biped robot. It has been developed for RoboCup which is a worldwide soccer competition of robots. It is necessary for a robot to have high mobility to play soccer. High speed walking and all directional walking are important to approach and to locate in front of a ball. HAJIME ROBOT achieved these walking. This paper describes walking control of a small size humanoid robot 'HAJIME ROBOT 18' and shows the measurement result of ZMP (Zero Moment Point). HAJIME ROBOT won the Robotics Society of Japan Award in RoboCup 2005 and in RoboCup 2006 Japan Open.

  20. Revolutionizing (robot-assisted) laparoscopic gamma tracing using a drop-in gamma probe technology

    PubMed Central

    van Oosterom, Matthias N; Simon, Hervé; Mengus, Laurent; Welling, Mick M; van der Poel, Henk G; van den Berg, Nynke S; van Leeuwen, Fijs WB

    2016-01-01

    In complex (robot-assisted) laparoscopic radioguided surgery procedures, or when low activity lesions are located nearby a high activity background, the limited maneuverability of a laparoscopic gamma probe (LGP; 4 degrees of freedom (DOF)) may hinder lesion identification. We investigated a drop-in gamma probe (DIGP) technology to be inserted via a trocar, after which the laparoscopic surgical tool at hand can pick it up and maneuver it. Phantom experiments showed that distinguishing a low objective from a high background source (1:100 ratio) was only possible with the detector faced >90° from the high background source. Signal-low-objective-to-background ratios of 3.77, 2.01 and 1.84 were found for detector angles of 90°, 135° and 180°, respectively, whereas detector angles of 0° and 45° were unable to distinguish the sources. This underlines the critical role probe positioning plays. We then focused on engineering of the gripping part for optimal DIGP pick-up with a conventional laparoscopic forceps (4 DOF) or a robotic forceps (6 DOF). DIGPs with 0°, 45°, 90°, and 135° -grip orientations were designed, and their maneuverability- and scanning direction were evaluated and compared to a conventional LGP. The maneuverability- and scanning direction of the DIGP was found highest when using the robotic forceps, with the largest effective scanning direction range obtained with the 90° -grip design (0-180° versus 0-111°, 0-140°, and 37-180° for 0°, 45° and 135° -grip designs, respectively). For the laparoscopic forceps, the scan direction directly translated from the angle of the grip design with the advantage that the 135° -gripped DIGP could be faced backwards (not possible with the conventional LGP). In the ex vivo clinical setup, the surgeon rated DIGP pick-up most convenient for the 45°-grip design. Concluding, the DIGP technology was successfully introduced. Optimization of the grip design and grasping angle of the DIGP increased its utility

  1. Space robotics in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, William; Lowrie, James W.; McCain, Harry; Bejczy, Antal; Sheridan, Tom; Kanade, Takeo; Allen, Peter

    1994-03-01

    Japan has been one of the most successful countries in the world in the realm of terrestrial robot applications. The panel found that Japan has in place a broad base of robotics research and development, ranging from components to working systems for manufacturing, construction, and human service industries. From this base, Japan looks to the use of robotics in space applications and has funded work in space robotics since the mid-1980's. The Japanese are focusing on a clear image of what they hope to achieve through three objectives for the 1990's: developing long-reach manipulation for tending experiments on Space Station Freedom, capturing satellites using a free-flying manipulator, and surveying part of the moon with a mobile robot. This focus and a sound robotics infrastructure is enabling the young Japanese space program to develop relevant systems for extraterrestrial robotics applications.

  2. Space robotics in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittaker, William; Lowrie, James W.; Mccain, Harry; Bejczy, Antal; Sheridan, Tom; Kanade, Takeo; Allen, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Japan has been one of the most successful countries in the world in the realm of terrestrial robot applications. The panel found that Japan has in place a broad base of robotics research and development, ranging from components to working systems for manufacturing, construction, and human service industries. From this base, Japan looks to the use of robotics in space applications and has funded work in space robotics since the mid-1980's. The Japanese are focusing on a clear image of what they hope to achieve through three objectives for the 1990's: developing long-reach manipulation for tending experiments on Space Station Freedom, capturing satellites using a free-flying manipulator, and surveying part of the moon with a mobile robot. This focus and a sound robotics infrastructure is enabling the young Japanese space program to develop relevant systems for extraterrestrial robotics applications.

  3. The Charlotte (TM) intra-vehicular robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swaim, Patrick L.; Thompson, Clark J.; Campbell, Perry D.

    1994-01-01

    NASA has identified telerobotics and telescience as essential technologies to reduce the crew extra-vehicular activity (EVA) and intra-vehicular activity (IVA) workloads. Under this project, we are developing and flight testing a novel IVA robot to relieve the crew of tedious and routine tasks. Through ground telerobotic control of this robot, we will enable ground researchers to routinely interact with experiments in space. Our approach is to develop an IVA robot system incrementally by employing a series of flight tests with increasing complexity. This approach has the advantages of providing an early IVA capability that can assist the crew, demonstrate capabilities that ground researchers can be confident of in planning for future experiments, and allow incremental refinement of system capabilities and insertion of new technology. In parallel with this approach to flight testing, we seek to establish ground test beds, in which the requirements of payload experimenters can be further investigated. In 1993 we reviewed manifested SpaceHab experiments and defined IVA robot requirements to assist in their operation. We also examined previous IVA robot designs and assessed them against flight requirements. We rejected previous design concepts on the basis of threat to crew safety, operability, and maintainability. Based on this insight, we developed an entirely new concept for IVA robotics, the CHARLOTTE robot system. Ground based testing of a prototype version of the system has already proven its ability to perform most common tasks demanded of the crew, including operation of switches, buttons, knobs, dials, and performing video surveys of experiments and switch panels.

  4. Special parallel processing workshop

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    This report contains viewgraphs from the Special Parallel Processing Workshop. These viewgraphs deal with topics such as parallel processing performance, message passing, queue structure, and other basic concept detailing with parallel processing.

  5. HyBAR: hybrid bone-attached robot for joint arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Song, S.; Mor, A.; Jaramaz, B.

    2013-01-01

    Background A number of small bone-attached surgical robots have been introduced to overcome some disadvantages of large stand-alone surgical robots. In orthopaedics, increasing demand on minimally invasive joint replacement surgery has also been encouraging small surgical robot developments. Among various technical aspects of such an approach, optimal miniaturization that maintains structural strength for high speed bone removal was investigated. Methods By observing advantages and disadvantages from serial and parallel robot structures, a new hybrid kinematic configuration was designed for a bone-attached robot to perform precision bone removal for cutting the femoral implant cavity during patellofemoral joint arthroplasty surgery. A series of experimental tests were conducted in order to evaluate the performance of the new robot, especially with respect to accuracy of bone preparation. Results A miniaturized and rigidly-structured robot prototype was developed for minimally invasive bone-attached robotic surgery. A new minimally invasive modular clamping system was also introduced to enhance the robotic procedure. Foam and pig bone experimental results demonstrated a successful implementation of the new robot that eliminated a number of major design problems of a previous prototype. Conclusions For small bone-attached surgical robots that utilize high speed orthopaedic tools, structural rigidity and clamping mechanism are major design issues. The new kinematic configuration using hinged prismatic joints enabled an effective miniaturization with good structural rigidity. Although minor problems still exist at the prototype stage, the new development would be a significant step towards the practical use of such a robot. PMID:19347881

  6. Ant-like task allocation and recruitment in cooperative robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieger, Michael J. B.; Billeter, Jean-Bernard; Keller, Laurent

    2000-08-01

    One of the greatest challenges in robotics is to create machines that are able to interact with unpredictable environments in real time. A possible solution may be to use swarms of robots behaving in a self-organized manner, similar to workers in an ant colony. Efficient mechanisms of division of labour, in particular series-parallel operation and transfer of information among group members, are key components of the tremendous ecological success of ants. Here we show that the general principles regulating division of labour in ant colonies indeed allow the design of flexible, robust and effective robotic systems. Groups of robots using ant-inspired algorithms of decentralized control techniques foraged more efficiently and maintained higher levels of group energy than single robots. But the benefits of group living decreased in larger groups, most probably because of interference during foraging. Intriguingly, a similar relationship between group size and efficiency has been documented in social insects. Moreover, when food items were clustered, groups where robots could recruit other robots in an ant-like manner were more efficient than groups without information transfer, suggesting that group dynamics of swarms of robots may follow rules similar to those governing social insects.

  7. Marsupial robots for law enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Robin R.

    2001-02-01

    Marsupial robots are a type of heterogeneous mobile robot team. A mother robot transports, supports, and recovers one or more daughter robots. This paper will cover the marsupial robot concept, the application of law enforcement, and recent results in collaborative teleoperation for the related task of urban search and rescue.

  8. Humanlike Robots - The Upcoming Revolution in Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2009-01-01

    Humans have always sought to imitate the human appearance, functions and intelligence. Human-like robots, which for many years have been a science fiction, are increasingly becoming an engineering reality resulting from the many advances in biologically inspired technologies. These biomimetic technologies include artificial intelligence, artificial vision and hearing as well as artificial muscles, also known as electroactive polymers (EAP). Robots, such as the vacuum cleaner Rumba and the robotic lawnmower, that don't have human shape, are already finding growing use in homes worldwide. As opposed to other human-made machines and devices, this technology raises also various questions and concerns and they need to be addressed as the technology advances. These include the need to prevent accidents, deliberate harm, or their use in crime. In this paper the state-of-the-art of the ultimate goal of biomimetics, the development of humanlike robots, the potentials and the challenges are reviewed.

  9. Parallel rendering techniques for massively parallel visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, C.; Krogh, M.; Painter, J.

    1995-07-01

    As the resolution of simulation models increases, scientific visualization algorithms which take advantage of the large memory. and parallelism of Massively Parallel Processors (MPPs) are becoming increasingly important. For large applications rendering on the MPP tends to be preferable to rendering on a graphics workstation due to the MPP`s abundant resources: memory, disk, and numerous processors. The challenge becomes developing algorithms that can exploit these resources while minimizing overhead, typically communication costs. This paper will describe recent efforts in parallel rendering for polygonal primitives as well as parallel volumetric techniques. This paper presents rendering algorithms, developed for massively parallel processors (MPPs), for polygonal, spheres, and volumetric data. The polygon algorithm uses a data parallel approach whereas the sphere and volume render use a MIMD approach. Implementations for these algorithms are presented for the Thinking Ma.chines Corporation CM-5 MPP.

  10. [Robotics and laparoscopic surgery].

    PubMed

    Martínez Ramos, Carlos

    2006-10-01

    Laparoscopic surgery has completely revolutionized modern surgery. In addition to its advantages, however, this approach also presents significant limitations. The most important are loss of the sense of depth, tactile sensation and resistance, as well as loss of natural hand-eye coordination and manual dexterity. The main motivation for the development of surgical robots is the possibility of eliminating all these limitations. Robots have acquired great potential to improve the operative possibilities of surgeons. Given the continual increase in the use of surgical robots, in the near future the structure and appearance of current operating rooms will change. The present article analyzes the origin and development of robotic systems, as well as the characteristics of the latest generation of robots. Because of the strong interest in robotic surgery and its future prospects, surgeons should be familiar with these emerging and innovative techniques. PMID:17040667

  11. Applying robotics to HAZMAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Richard V.; Edmonds, Gary O.

    1994-01-01

    The use of robotics in situations involving hazardous materials can significantly reduce the risk of human injuries. The Emergency Response Robotics Project, which began in October 1990 at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is developing a teleoperated mobile robot allowing HAZMAT (hazardous materials) teams to remotely respond to incidents involving hazardous materials. The current robot, called HAZBOT III, can assist in locating characterizing, identifying, and mitigating hazardous material incidents without risking entry team personnel. The active involvement of the JPL Fire Department HAZMAT team has been vital in developing a robotic system which enables them to perform remote reconnaissance of a HAZMAT incident site. This paper provides a brief review of the history of the project, discusses the current system in detail, and presents other areas in which robotics can be applied removing people from hazardous environments/operations.

  12. Applying robotics to HAZMAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Richard V.; Edmonds, Gary O.

    1994-02-01

    The use of robotics in situations involving hazardous materials can significantly reduce the risk of human injuries. The Emergency Response Robotics Project, which began in October 1990 at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is developing a teleoperated mobile robot allowing HAZMAT (hazardous materials) teams to remotely respond to incidents involving hazardous materials. The current robot, called HAZBOT III, can assist in locating characterizing, identifying, and mitigating hazardous material incidents without risking entry team personnel. The active involvement of the JPL Fire Department HAZMAT team has been vital in developing a robotic system which enables them to perform remote reconnaissance of a HAZMAT incident site. This paper provides a brief review of the history of the project, discusses the current system in detail, and presents other areas in which robotics can be applied removing people from hazardous environments/operations.

  13. Survival of falling robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-01-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  14. Robotics and industrial inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Casasent, D.P.

    1983-01-01

    Image processing algorithms are discussed, taking into account hidden information in early visual processing, three-dimensional shape recognition by moirecorrelation, spatial-frequency representations of images with scale invariant properties, image-based focusing, the computational structure for the Walsh-Hadamard transform, a hybrid optical/digital moment-based robotic pattern recognition system, affordable implementations of image processing algorithms, and an analysis of low-level computer vision algorithms for implementation on a very large scale integrated processor array. Other topics considered are related to government programs and needs in robotics, DoD research and applications in robotics, time-varying image processing and control, industrial robotics, industrial applications of computer vision, and object perception and mensuration for robotics. Attention is given to laser scanning techniques for automatic inspection of heat-sealed film packages, computer software for robotic vision, and computerized tomography on a logarithmic polar grid.

  15. Survival of falling robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-02-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  16. Parallel algorithms and architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, A.; Jung, H.; Mehlhorn, K.

    1987-01-01

    Contents of this book are the following: Preparata: Deterministic simulation of idealized parallel computers on more realistic ones; Convex hull of randomly chosen points from a polytope; Dataflow computing; Parallel in sequence; Towards the architecture of an elementary cortical processor; Parallel algorithms and static analysis of parallel programs; Parallel processing of combinatorial search; Communications; An O(nlogn) cost parallel algorithms for the single function coarsest partition problem; Systolic algorithms for computing the visibility polygon and triangulation of a polygonal region; and RELACS - A recursive layout computing system. Parallel linear conflict-free subtree access.

  17. INL Multi-Robot Control Interface

    2005-03-30

    The INL Multi-Robot Control Interface controls many robots through a single user interface. The interface includes a robot display window for each robot showing the robot’s condition. More than one window can be used depending on the number of robots. The user interface also includes a robot control window configured to receive commands for sending to the respective robot and a multi-robot common window showing information received from each robot.

  18. NASA Robot Brain Surgeon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Mechanical Engineer Michael Guerrero works on the Robot Brain Surgeon testbed in the NeuroEngineering Group at the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. Principal investigator Dr. Robert W. Mah states that potentially the simple robot will be able to feel brain structures better than any human surgeon, making slow, very precise movements during an operation. The brain surgery robot that may give surgeons finer control of surgical instruments during delicate brain operations is still under development.

  19. Robotic liver surgery

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Universe

    2014-01-01

    Robotic surgery is an evolving technology that has been successfully applied to a number of surgical specialties, but its use in liver surgery has so far been limited. In this review article we discuss the challenges of minimally invasive liver surgery, the pros and cons of robotics, the evolution of medical robots, and the potentials in applying this technology to liver surgery. The current data in the literature are also presented. PMID:25392840

  20. Sensor-guided parking system for a carlike robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Kaichum; Seneviratne, L. D.

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents an automated parking strategy for a car- like mobile robot. The study considers general parking manoeuvre cases for a rectangular robot, including parallel parking. The robot is constructed simulating a conventional car, which is subject to non-holonomic constraints and thus only has two degrees of freedom. The parking space is considered as rectangular, and detected by ultrasonic sensors mounted on the robot. A motion planning algorithm develops a collision-free path for parking, taking into account the non- holonomic constraints acting on the car-like robot. A research into general car maneuvers has been conducted and useful results have been achieved. The motion planning algorithm uses these results, combined with configuration space method, to produce a collision-free path for parallel parking, depending on the parking space detected. A control program in the form of a graphical user interface has been developed for users to operate the system with ease. The strategy is implemented on a modified B12 mobile robot. The strategy presented has the potential for application in automobiles.

  1. New design for a 6 dof vibration simulator with improved reliability and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hostens, I.; Anthonis, J.; Ramon, H.

    2005-01-01

    Simulators are an indispensable tool to study present-day machinery dynamics in a repeatable way and under controlled laboratory conditions. In the past Stewart configurations are described thoroughly using inverse kinematics and forward kinematics. When optimising such a design for specific performance criteria, kinematics and hydraulic restrictions are to be taken into account. In this paper an already designed and constructed 6 degrees of freedom (dof) electro-hydraulic vibration test rig is virtually redesigned, constructed and validated using the Stewart configuration as a basis. The former structure has fundamental faults, which prohibit an optimised performance. An important weakness lies in the use of Hook's joints, which are too weak for the exerted forces and introduce an eigenfrequency that lies in the excitation band of the simulator. The aim is to find the optimal angle between ground and cylinder α that provides minimum rotation, force and torque within the Hook's joints, satisfies a number of performance criteria, respects the symmetry of the construction, tries to minimise the asymmetry in the cylinder movement and provides a movement of the platform with high resolution. An inverse kinematics and a dynamic model are constructed. The result is a vibration simulator with great stability and performance.

  2. 6-DOF robust adaptive terminal sliding mode control for spacecraft formation flying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianying; Sun, Zhaowei

    2012-04-01

    This paper addresses the tracking control problem of the leader-follower spacecraft formation, by which we mean that the relative motion between the leader and the follower is required to track a desired time-varying trajectory given in advance. Using dual number, the six-degree-of-freedom motion of the follower spacecraft relative to the leader spacecraft is modeled, where the coupling effect between the translational motion and the rotational one is accounted. A robust adaptive terminal sliding mode control law, including the adaptive algorithms, is proposed to ensure the finite time convergence of the relative motion tracking errors despite the presence of model uncertainties and external disturbances, based on which a modified controller is furthermore developed to solve the dual-equilibrium problem caused by dual quaternion representation. In addition, to alleviate the chattering, hyperbolic tangent function is adopted to substitute for the sign function. And by theoretical analysis, it is proved that the tracking error in such case will converge to a neighborhood of the origin in finite time. Finally, numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the validity of the proposed approaches.

  3. A preliminary 6 DOF attitude and translation control system design for Starprobe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mak, P.; Mettler, E.; Vijayarahgavan, A.

    1981-01-01

    The extreme thermal environment near perihelion and the high-accuracy gravitational science experiments impose unique design requirements on various subsystems of Starprobe. This paper examines some of these requirements and their impact on the preliminary design of a six-degree-of-freedom attitude and translational control system. Attention is given to design considerations, the baseline attitude/translational control system, system modeling, and simulation studies.

  4. Hopping Robot with Wheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, Edward; Marzwell, Nevellie; Fuller, Sawyer; Fionni, Paolo; Tretton, Andy; Burdick, Joel; Schell, Steve

    2003-01-01

    A small prototype mobile robot is capable of (1) hopping to move rapidly or avoid obstacles and then (2) moving relatively slowly and precisely on the ground by use of wheels in the manner of previously reported exploratory robots of the "rover" type. This robot is a descendant of a more primitive hopping robot described in "Minimally Actuated Hopping Robot" (NPO- 20911), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 11 (November 2002), page 50. There are many potential applications for robots with hopping and wheeled-locomotion (roving) capabilities in diverse fields of endeavor, including agriculture, search-and-rescue operations, general military operations, removal or safe detonation of land mines, inspection, law enforcement, and scientific exploration on Earth and remote planets. The combination of hopping and roving enables this robot to move rapidly over very rugged terrain, to overcome obstacles several times its height, and then to position itself precisely next to a desired target. Before a long hop, the robot aims itself in the desired hopping azimuth and at a desired takeoff angle above horizontal. The robot approaches the target through a series of hops and short driving operations utilizing the steering wheels for precise positioning.

  5. Advanced robot locomotion.

    SciTech Connect

    Neely, Jason C.; Sturgis, Beverly Rainwater; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Feddema, John Todd; Spletzer, Barry Louis; Rose, Scott E.; Novick, David Keith; Wilson, David Gerald; Buerger, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    This report contains the results of a research effort on advanced robot locomotion. The majority of this work focuses on walking robots. Walking robot applications include delivery of special payloads to unique locations that require human locomotion to exo-skeleton human assistance applications. A walking robot could step over obstacles and move through narrow openings that a wheeled or tracked vehicle could not overcome. It could pick up and manipulate objects in ways that a standard robot gripper could not. Most importantly, a walking robot would be able to rapidly perform these tasks through an intuitive user interface that mimics natural human motion. The largest obstacle arises in emulating stability and balance control naturally present in humans but needed for bipedal locomotion in a robot. A tracked robot is bulky and limited, but a wide wheel base assures passive stability. Human bipedal motion is so common that it is taken for granted, but bipedal motion requires active balance and stability control for which the analysis is non-trivial. This report contains an extensive literature study on the state-of-the-art of legged robotics, and it additionally provides the analysis, simulation, and hardware verification of two variants of a proto-type leg design.

  6. [Robots and intellectual property].

    PubMed

    Larrieu, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    This topic is part of the global issue concerning the necessity to adapt intellectual property law to constant changes in technology. The relationship between robots and IP is dual. On one hand, the robots may be regarded as objects of intellectual property. A robot, like any new machine, could qualify for a protection by a patent. A copyright may protect its appearance if it is original. Its memory, like a database, could be covered by a sui generis right. On the other hand, the question of the protection of the outputs of the robot must be raised. The robots, as the physical embodiment of artificial intelligence, are becoming more and more autonomous. Robot-generated works include less and less human inputs. Are these objects created or invented by a robot copyrightable or patentable? To whom the ownership of these IP rights will be allocated? To the person who manufactured the machine ? To the user of the robot? To the robot itself? All these questions are worth discussing. PMID:24558740

  7. Robotics for welding research

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, G.; Jones, J.

    1984-09-01

    The welding metallurgy research and education program at Colorado School of Mines (CSM) is helping industries make the transition toward automation by training students in robotics. Industry's interest is primarily in pick and place operations, although robotics can increase efficiency in areas other than production. Training students to develop fully automated robotic welding systems will usher in new curriculum requirements in the area of computers and microprocessors. The Puma 560 robot is CSM's newest acquisition for welding research 5 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  8. Human-Robot Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Cross, E. Vincent, II; Chang, Mai Lee

    2015-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is a discipline investigating the factors affecting the interactions between humans and robots. It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces affect the human's ability to perform tasks effectively and efficiently when working with a robot. By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed to appropriately support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for the design of robotic systems. For efficient and effective remote navigation of a rover, a human operator needs to be aware of the robot's environment. However, during teleoperation, operators may get information about the environment only through a robot's front-mounted camera causing a keyhole effect. The keyhole effect reduces situation awareness which may manifest in navigation issues such as higher number of collisions, missing critical aspects of the environment, or reduced speed. One way to compensate for the keyhole effect and the ambiguities operators experience when they teleoperate a robot is adding multiple cameras and including the robot chassis in the camera view. Augmented reality, such as overlays, can also enhance the way a person sees objects in the environment or in camera views by making them more visible. Scenes can be augmented with integrated telemetry, procedures, or map information. Furthermore, the addition of an exocentric (i.e., third-person) field of view from a camera placed in the robot's environment may provide operators with the additional information needed to gain spatial awareness of the robot. Two research studies investigated possible mitigation approaches to address the keyhole effect: 1) combining the inclusion of the robot chassis in the camera view with augmented reality overlays, and 2) modifying the camera

  9. [Robotic surgery in gynecology].

    PubMed

    Csorba, Roland

    2012-06-24

    Minimally invasive surgery has revolutionized gynecological interventions over the past 30 years. The introduction of the da Vinci robotic surgery in 2005 has resulted in large changes in surgical management. The robotic platform allows less experienced laparoscopic surgeons to perform more complex procedures. It can be utilized mainly in general gynecology and reproductive gynecology. The robot is being increasingly used for procedures such as hysterectomy, myomectomy, adnexal surgery, and tubal anastomosis. In urogynecology, the robot is being utilized for sacrocolopexy as well. In the field of gynecologic oncology, the robot is being increasingly used for hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy in oncologic diseases. Despite the rapid and widespread adaption of robotic surgery in gynecology, there are no randomized trials comparing its efficacy and safety to other traditional surgical approaches. This article presents the development, technical aspects and indications of robotic surgery in gynecology, based on the previously published reviews. Robotic surgery can be highly advantageous with the right amount of training, along with appropriate patient selection. Patients will have less blood loss, less post-operative pain, faster recovery, and fewer complications compared to open surgery and laparoscopy. However, until larger randomized control trials are completed which report long-term outcomes, robotic surgery cannot be stated to have priority over other surgical methods. PMID:22714030

  10. Robotic hair restoration.

    PubMed

    Rose, Paul T; Nusbaum, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The latest innovation to hair restoration surgery has been the introduction of a robotic system for harvesting grafts. This system uses the follicular unit extraction/follicular isolation technique method for harvesting follicular units, which is particularly well suited to the abilities of a robotic technology. The ARTAS system analyzes images of the donor area and then a dual-chamber needle and blunt dissecting punch are used to harvest the follicular units. The robotic technology is now being used in various locations around the world. This article discusses the use of the robotic system, its capabilities, and the advantages and disadvantages of the system. PMID:24267426

  11. Hazardous Environment Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) developed video overlay calibration and demonstration techniques for ground-based telerobotics. Through a technology sharing agreement with JPL, Deneb Robotics added this as an option to its robotics software, TELEGRIP. The software is used for remotely operating robots in nuclear and hazardous environments in industries including automotive and medical. The option allows the operator to utilize video to calibrate 3-D computer models with the actual environment, and thus plan and optimize robot trajectories before the program is automatically generated.

  12. Robotic Thumb Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Wampler, II, Charles W. (Inventor); Goza, S. Michael (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An improved robotic thumb for a robotic hand assembly is provided. According to one aspect of the disclosure, improved tendon routing in the robotic thumb provides control of four degrees of freedom with only five tendons. According to another aspect of the disclosure, one of the five degrees of freedom of a human thumb is replaced in the robotic thumb with a permanent twist in the shape of a phalange. According to yet another aspect of the disclosure, a position sensor includes a magnet having two portions shaped as circle segments with different center points. The magnet provides a linearized output from a Hall effect sensor.

  13. Asteroid Redirect Mission: Robotic Segment

    NASA Video Gallery

    This concept animation illustrates the robotic segment of NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission. The Asteroid Redirect Vehicle, powered by solar electric propulsion, travels to a large asteroid to robot...

  14. Robotic Ankle for Omnidirectional Rock Anchors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew; Thatte, Nitish

    2013-01-01

    rotary DC motor that can drag the microspine arrays across the surface to engage them with asperities, as well as a linear actuator to disengage the hooks from the surface. Additionally, the ankle allows the gripper to rotate freely about all three axes so that when the robot takes a step, the gripper may optimally orient itself with respect to the wall or ground. Finally, the ankle contains some minimal elasticity, so that between steps, the gripper returns to a default position that is roughly parallel to the wall.

  15. Houdini{trademark}: Reconfigurable in-tank mobile robot. Final report, June 1995--January 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, B.; Slifko, A.

    1998-12-31

    This report details the development of a reconfigurable in-tank robotic cleanup system called Houdini{trademark}. Driven by the general need to develop equipment for the removal of radioactive waste from hundreds of DOE waste storage tanks and the specific needs of DOE sites such as Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Fernald, Houdini{trademark} represents one of the possible tools that can be used to mobilize and retrieve this waste material for complete remediation. Houdini{trademark} is a hydraulically powered, track driven, mobile work vehicle with a collapsible frame designed to enter underground or above ground waste tanks through existing 24 inch riser openings. After the vehicle has entered the waste tank, it unfolds and lands on the waste surface or tank floor to become a remotely operated mini-bulldozer. Houdini{trademark} utilizes a vehicle mounted plow blade and 6-DOF manipulator to mobilize waste and carry other tooling such as sluicing pumps, excavation buckets, and hydraulic shears. The complete Houdini{trademark} system consists of the tracked vehicle and other support equipment (e.g., control console, deployment system, hydraulic power supply, and controller) necessary to deploy and remotely operate this system at any DOE site. Inside the storage tanks, the system is capable of performing heel removal, waste mobilization, waste size reduction, and other tank waste retrieval and decommissioning tasks. The first Houdini{trademark} system was delivered on September 24, 1996 to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The system acceptance test was successfully performed at a cold test facility at ORNL. After completion of the cold test program and the training of site personnel, ORNL will deploy the system for clean-up and remediation of the Gunite storage tanks.

  16. Canadian space robotic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallaberger, Christian; Space Plan Task Force, Canadian Space Agency

    The Canadian Space Agency has chosen space robotics as one of its key niche areas, and is currently preparing to deliver the first flight elements for the main robotic system of the international space station. The Mobile Servicing System (MSS) is the Canadian contribution to the international space station. It consists of three main elements. The Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) is a 7-metre, 7-dof, robotic arm. The Special Purpose Dextrous Manipulator (SPDM), a smaller 2-metre, 7-dof, robotic arm can be used independently, or attached to the end of the SSRMS. The Mobile Base System (MBS) will be used as a support platform and will also provide power and data links for both the SSRMS and the SPDM. A Space Vision System (SVS) has been tested on Shuttle flights, and is being further developed to enhance the autonomous capabilities of the MSS. The CSA also has a Strategic Technologies in Automation and Robotics Program which is developing new technologies to fulfill future robotic space mission needs. This program is currently developing in industry technological capabilities in the areas of automation of operations, autonomous robotics, vision systems, trajectory planning and object avoidance, tactile and proximity sensors, and ground control of space robots. Within the CSA, a robotic testbed and several research programs are also advancing technologies such as haptic devices, control via head-mounted displays, predictive and preview displays, and the dynamic characterization of robotic arms. Canada is also now developing its next Long Term Space Plan. In this context, a planetary exploration program is being considered, which would utilize Canadian space robotic technologies in this new arena.

  17. Multi-robot control interface

    DOEpatents

    Bruemmer, David J.; Walton, Miles C.

    2011-12-06

    Methods and systems for controlling a plurality of robots through a single user interface include at least one robot display window for each of the plurality of robots with the at least one robot display window illustrating one or more conditions of a respective one of the plurality of robots. The user interface further includes at least one robot control window for each of the plurality of robots with the at least one robot control window configured to receive one or more commands for sending to the respective one of the plurality of robots. The user interface further includes a multi-robot common window comprised of information received from each of the plurality of robots.

  18. High Performance Parallel Computational Nanotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saini, Subhash; Craw, James M. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    control mini robotic manipulators for positional control; scalable numerical algorithms for reliability, verifications and testability. There appears no fundamental obstacle to simulating molecular compilers and molecular computers on high performance parallel computers, just as the Boeing 777 was simulated on a computer before manufacturing it.

  19. Cooperative crossing of traffic intersections in a distributed robot system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rausch, Alexander; Oswald, Norbert; Levi, Paul

    1995-09-01

    In traffic scenarios a distributed robot system has to cope with problems like resource sharing, distributed planning, distributed job scheduling, etc. While travelling along a street segment can be done autonomously by each robot, crossing of an intersection as a shared resource forces the robot to coordinate its actions with those of other robots e.g. by means of negotiations. We discuss the issue of cooperation on the design of a robot control architecture. Task and sensor specific cooperation between robots requires the robots' architectures to be interlinked at different hierarchical levels. Inside each level control cycles are running in parallel and provide fast reaction on events. Internal cooperation may occur between cycles of the same level. Altogether the architecture is matrix-shaped and contains abstract control cycles with a certain degree of autonomy. Based upon the internal structure of a cycle we consider the horizontal and vertical interconnection of cycles to form an individual architecture. Thereafter we examine the linkage of several agents and its influence on an interacting architecture. A prototypical implementation of a scenario, which combines aspects of active vision and cooperation, illustrates our approach. Two vision-guided vehicles are faced with line following, intersection recognition and negotiation.

  20. MPP parallel forth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorband, John E.

    1987-01-01

    Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) Parallel FORTH is a derivative of FORTH-83 and Unified Software Systems' Uni-FORTH. The extension of FORTH into the realm of parallel processing on the MPP is described. With few exceptions, Parallel FORTH was made to follow the description of Uni-FORTH as closely as possible. Likewise, the parallel FORTH extensions were designed as philosophically similar to serial FORTH as possible. The MPP hardware characteristics, as viewed by the FORTH programmer, is discussed. Then a description is presented of how parallel FORTH is implemented on the MPP.

  1. Robotics technology discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montemerlo, Melvin D.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on robotics technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: mechanisms; sensors; systems engineering processes for integrated robotics; man/machine cooperative control; 3D-real-time machine perception; multiple arm redundancy control; manipulator control from a movable base; multi-agent reasoning; and surfacing evolution technologies.

  2. Robot Vision Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Andrew B.; Ansar, Adnan I.; Litwin, Todd E.; Goldberg, Steven B.

    2009-01-01

    The JPL Robot Vision Library (JPLV) provides real-time robot vision algorithms for developers who are not vision specialists. The package includes algorithms for stereo ranging, visual odometry and unsurveyed camera calibration, and has unique support for very wideangle lenses

  3. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Architecture

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel Architecture (RIK-A) is a multi-level architecture that supports a dynamic autonomy structure. The RIK-A is used to coalesce hardware for sensing and action as well as software components for perception, communication, behavior and world modeling into a framework that can be used to create behaviors for humans to interact with the robot.

  4. Robotics in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, D. N.; Syryamkin, V. I.

    2015-11-01

    Modern technologies play a very important role in our lives. It is hard to imagine how people can get along without personal computers, and companies - without powerful computer centers. Nowadays, many devices make modern medicine more effective. Medicine is developing constantly, so introduction of robots in this sector is a very promising activity. Advances in technology have influenced medicine greatly. Robotic surgery is now actively developing worldwide. Scientists have been carrying out research and practical attempts to create robotic surgeons for more than 20 years, since the mid-80s of the last century. Robotic assistants play an important role in modern medicine. This industry is new enough and is at the early stage of development; despite this, some developments already have worldwide application; they function successfully and bring invaluable help to employees of medical institutions. Today, doctors can perform operations that seemed impossible a few years ago. Such progress in medicine is due to many factors. First, modern operating rooms are equipped with up-to-date equipment, allowing doctors to make operations more accurately and with less risk to the patient. Second, technology has enabled to improve the quality of doctors' training. Various types of robots exist now: assistants, military robots, space, household and medical, of course. Further, we should make a detailed analysis of existing types of robots and their application. The purpose of the article is to illustrate the most popular types of robots used in medicine.

  5. Robotics and Industrial Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmison, Glenn A.; And Others

    Robots are becoming increasingly common in American industry. By l990, they will revolutionize the way industry functions, replacing hundreds of workers and doing hot, dirty jobs better and more quickly than the workers could have done them. Robotics should be taught in high school industrial arts programs as a major curriculum component. The…

  6. Robots in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, George; Spain, Tom

    1984-01-01

    Educational robots are defined, their essential characteristics and features are outlined, and their educational applications and what makes them run are discussed. Classroom experiences with five educational robots--Topo, Rhino XR-2, RB5X, Hero I and Tasman Turtle--are described. (MBR)

  7. Next generation space robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwata, Tsutomu; Oda, Mitsushige; Imai, Ryoichi

    1989-01-01

    The recent research effort on the next generation space robots is presented. The goals of this research are to develop the fundamental technologies and to acquire the design parameters of the next generation space robot. Visual sensing and perception, dexterous manipulation, man machine interface and artificial intelligence techniques such as task planning are identified as the key technologies.

  8. The 50-Minute Robot.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckland, Miram R.

    1985-01-01

    Sixth graders built working "robots" (or grasping bars) for remote control use during a unit on simple mechanics. Steps for making a robot are presented, including: cutting the wood, drilling and nailing, assembling the jaws, and making them work. The "jaws," used to pick up objects, illustrate principles of levers. (DH)

  9. Real World Robotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Lisa J.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a project for elementary school students in which students build a robot by following instructions and then write a computer program to run their robot by using LabView graphical development software. Uses ROBOLAB curriculum which is designed for grade levels K-12. (YDS)

  10. Education by Robot!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    This article describes BEST (Boosting Engineering, Science, and Technology), a hands-on robotics program founded by Texas Instruments engineers Ted Mahler and Steve Marum. BEST links educators with industry to provide middle and high school students with a peek into the exciting world of robotics, with the goal of inspiring and interesting…

  11. Randomization in robot tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdmann, Michael

    1992-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of randomization in the solution of robot manipulation tasks. One example of randomization is shown by the strategy of shaking a bin holding a part in order to orient the part in a desired stable state with some high probability. Randomization can be useful for mobile robot navigation and as a means of guiding the design process.

  12. Self-Reconfigurable Robots

    SciTech Connect

    HENSINGER, DAVID M.; JOHNSTON, GABRIEL A.; HINMAN-SWEENEY, ELAINE M.; FEDDEMA, JOHN T.; ESKRIDGE, STEVEN E.

    2002-10-01

    A distributed reconfigurable micro-robotic system is a collection of unlimited numbers of distributed small, homogeneous robots designed to autonomously organize and reorganize in order to achieve mission-specified geometric shapes and functions. This project investigated the design, control, and planning issues for self-configuring and self-organizing robots. In the 2D space a system consisting of two robots was prototyped and successfully displayed automatic docking/undocking to operate dependently or independently. Additional modules were constructed to display the usefulness of a self-configuring system in various situations. In 3D a self-reconfiguring robot system of 4 identical modules was built. Each module connects to its neighbors using rotating actuators. An individual component can move in three dimensions on its neighbors. We have also built a self-reconfiguring robot system consisting of 9-module Crystalline Robot. Each module in this robot is actuated by expansion/contraction. The system is fully distributed, has local communication (to neighbors) capabilities and it has global sensing capabilities.

  13. Mechanochemically Active Soft Robots.

    PubMed

    Gossweiler, Gregory R; Brown, Cameron L; Hewage, Gihan B; Sapiro-Gheiler, Eitan; Trautman, William J; Welshofer, Garrett W; Craig, Stephen L

    2015-10-14

    The functions of soft robotics are intimately tied to their form-channels and voids defined by an elastomeric superstructure that reversibly stores and releases mechanical energy to change shape, grip objects, and achieve complex motions. Here, we demonstrate that covalent polymer mechanochemistry provides a viable mechanism to convert the same mechanical potential energy used for actuation in soft robots into a mechanochromic, covalent chemical response. A bis-alkene functionalized spiropyran (SP) mechanophore is cured into a molded poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) soft robot walker and gripper. The stresses and strains necessary for SP activation are compatible with soft robot function. The color change associated with actuation suggests opportunities for not only new color changing or camouflaging strategies, but also the possibility for simultaneous activation of latent chemistry (e.g., release of small molecules, change in mechanical properties, activation of catalysts, etc.) in soft robots. In addition, mechanochromic stress mapping in a functional robotic device might provide a useful design and optimization tool, revealing spatial and temporal force evolution within the robot in a way that might be coupled to autonomous feedback loops that allow the robot to regulate its own activity. The demonstration motivates the simultaneous development of new combinations of mechanophores, materials, and soft, active devices for enhanced functionality. PMID:26390078

  14. Robot Rodeo 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Deuel, Jake

    2013-08-27

    Sandia National Laboratories hosted the seventh annual Western National Robot Rodeo and Capability Exercise in June 2013. The five-day event is a lively and challenging competition that draws civilian and military bomb squad teams from across the country to see who can most effectively defuse dangerous situations with the help of robots.

  15. Motivating Students with Robotics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Brenda; Collver, Michael; Kasarda, Mary

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the need to advance the number of individuals pursuing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields has gained much attention. The Montgomery County/Virginia Tech Robotics Collaborative (MCVTRC), a yearlong high school robotics program housed in an educational shop facility in Montgomery County, Virginia, seeks to…

  16. Robot Rodeo 2013

    ScienceCinema

    Deuel, Jake

    2014-02-26

    Sandia National Laboratories hosted the seventh annual Western National Robot Rodeo and Capability Exercise in June 2013. The five-day event is a lively and challenging competition that draws civilian and military bomb squad teams from across the country to see who can most effectively defuse dangerous situations with the help of robots.

  17. INL Generic Robot Architecture

    2005-03-30

    The INL Generic Robot Architecture is a generic, extensible software framework that can be applied across a variety of different robot geometries, sensor suites and low-level proprietary control application programming interfaces (e.g. mobility, aria, aware, player, etc.).

  18. Going Green Robots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jacqueline M.

    2011-01-01

    In looking at the interesting shapes and sizes of old computer parts, creating robots quickly came to the author's mind. In this article, she describes how computer parts can be used creatively. Students will surely enjoy creating their very own robots while learning about the importance of recycling in the society. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  19. Babybot: a biologically inspired developing robotic agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metta, Giorgio; Panerai, Francesco M.; Sandini, Giulio

    2000-10-01

    The study of development, either artificial or biological, can highlight the mechanisms underlying learning and adaptive behavior. We shall argue whether developmental studies might provide a different and potentially interesting perspective either on how to build an artificial adaptive agent, or on understanding how the brain solves sensory, motor, and cognitive tasks. It is our opinion that the acquisition of the proper behavior might indeed be facilitated because within an ecological context, the agent, its adaptive structure and the environment dynamically interact thus constraining the otherwise difficult learning problem. In very general terms we shall describe the proposed approach and supporting biological related facts. In order to further analyze these aspects from the modeling point of view, we shall demonstrate how a twelve degrees of freedom baby humanoid robot acquires orienting and reaching behaviors, and what advantages the proposed framework might offer. In particular, the experimental setup consists of five degrees-of-freedom (dof) robot head, and an off-the-shelf six dof robot manipulator, both mounted on a rotating base: i.e. the torso. From the sensory point of view, the robot is equipped with two space-variant cameras, an inertial sensor simulating the vestibular system, and proprioceptive information through motor encoders. The biological parallel is exploited at many implementation levels. It is worth mentioning, for example, the space- variant eyes, exploiting foveal and peripheral vision in a single arrangement, the inertial sensor providing efficient image stabilization (vestibulo-ocular reflex).

  20. Dictionary of robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, H.

    1985-01-01

    The idea of using robots to perform repetitious tasks quickly, cheaply and efficiently has intrigued humans since the Industrial Revolution. Growth has occurred geometrically from the introduction of the first industrial robot in 1955, and continues, unabated, as industry sales are expected to increase 20-fold with applications in both high technology and industry. The Dictionary defines not only those terms standard to robotics but also those used in areas that are just beginning to be involved. The book offers concise, readable descriptions of robot systems, actions, hardware (including applications), communications, computer control, dynamics, cost justification, feedback, kinematics, man-machine interface, sensors and software. There are references to all major robots and manufacturers in the US, Europe and Japan.

  1. Intelligent Articulated Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyein, Aung Kyaw; Thu, Theint Theint

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, an articulated type of industrial used robot is discussed. The robot is mainly intended to be used in pick and place operation. It will sense the object at the specified place and move it to a desired location. A peripheral interface controller (PIC16F84A) is used as the main controller of the robot. Infrared LED and IR receiver unit for object detection and 4-bit bidirectional universal shift registers (74LS194) and high current and high voltage Darlington transistors arrays (ULN2003) for driving the arms' motors are used in this robot. The amount of rotation for each arm is regulated by the limit switches. The operation of the robot is very simple but it has the ability of to overcome resetting position after power failure. It can continue its work from the last position before the power is failed without needing to come back to home position.

  2. Honda humanoid robots development.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Masato; Ogawa, Kenichi

    2007-01-15

    Honda has been doing research on robotics since 1986 with a focus upon bipedal walking technology. The research started with straight and static walking of the first prototype two-legged robot. Now, the continuous transition from walking in a straight line to making a turn has been achieved with the latest humanoid robot ASIMO. ASIMO is the most advanced robot of Honda so far in the mechanism and the control system. ASIMO's configuration allows it to operate freely in the human living space. It could be of practical help to humans with its ability of five-finger arms as well as its walking function. The target of further development of ASIMO is to develop a robot to improve life in human society. Much development work will be continued both mechanically and electronically, staying true to Honda's 'challenging spirit'. PMID:17148047

  3. Serpentine Robot Model and Gait Design Using Autodesk Inventor and Simulink SimMechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel; Iman Alamsyah, Mohammad; Erwin; Tan, Sofyan

    2014-03-01

    The authors introduce gaits of a serpentine robot with linear expansion mechanism where the robot varies its length using joints with three degrees of freedom. The 3D model of the serpentine robot is drawed in Autocad Inventor® and exported to SimMechanics® for straighforward modeling of the kinematics. The gaits are important for robots designed to explore ruins of disasters where the working spaces are very tight. For maximum flexibility of the serpentine robot, we adopted a joint design with three parallel actuators, where the joint is capable of linear movement in the forward axis, and rotational movements around two other axes. The designed linear expansion gaits is calculated for forward movement when the robot is posing straight or turning laterally.

  4. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  5. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    1984-08-07

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  6. Robots in Space -Psychological Aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipes, Walter E.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the psychological aspects of developing robots to perform routine operations associated with monitoring, inspection, maintenance and repair in space is shown. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Vision; 3) Current Robots in Space; 4) Ground Based Robots; 5) AERCam; 6) Rotating Bladder Robot (ROBLR); 7) DART; 8) Robonaut; 9) Full Immersion Telepresence Testbed; 10) ERA; and 11) Psychological Aspects

  7. Parallel processing architecture for computing inverse differential kinematic equations of the PUMA arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsia, T. C.; Lu, G. Z.; Han, W. H.

    1987-01-01

    In advanced robot control problems, on-line computation of inverse Jacobian solution is frequently required. Parallel processing architecture is an effective way to reduce computation time. A parallel processing architecture is developed for the inverse Jacobian (inverse differential kinematic equation) of the PUMA arm. The proposed pipeline/parallel algorithm can be inplemented on an IC chip using systolic linear arrays. This implementation requires 27 processing cells and 25 time units. Computation time is thus significantly reduced.

  8. A Survey of Space Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedersen, L.; Kortenkamp, D.; Wettergreen, D.; Nourbakhsh, I.; Korsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we summarize a survey conducted by NASA to determine the state-of-the-art in space robotics and to predict future robotic capabilities under either nominal and intensive development effort. The space robotics assessment study examined both in-space operations including assembly, inspection, and maintenance and planetary surface operations like mobility and exploration. Applications of robotic autonomy and human-robot cooperation were considered. The study group devised a decomposition of robotic capabilities and then suggested metrics to specify the technical challenges associated with each. The conclusion of this paper identifies possible areas in which investment in space robotics could lead to significant advances of important technologies.

  9. Parallel simulation today

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, David; Fujimoto, Richard

    1992-01-01

    This paper surveys topics that presently define the state of the art in parallel simulation. Included in the tutorial are discussions on new protocols, mathematical performance analysis, time parallelism, hardware support for parallel simulation, load balancing algorithms, and dynamic memory management for optimistic synchronization.

  10. Partner Ballroom Dance Robot -PBDR-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosuge, Kazuhiro; Takeda, Takahiro; Hirata, Yasuhisa; Endo, Mitsuru; Nomura, Minoru; Sakai, Kazuhisa; Koizumi, Mizuo; Oconogi, Tatsuya

    In this research, we have developed a dance partner robot, which has been developed as a platform for realizing the effective human-robot coordination with physical interaction. The robot could estimate the next dance step intended by a human and dance the step with the human. This paper introduce the robot referred to as PBDR (Partner Ballroom Dance Robot), which has performed graceful dancing with the human in EXPO 2005, Aichi, Japan.

  11. Guarded Motion for Mobile Robots

    2005-03-30

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has created codes that ensure that a robot will come to a stop at a precise, specified distance from any obstacle regardless of the robot's initial speed, its physical characteristics, and the responsiveness of the low-level motor control schema. This Guarded Motion for Mobile Robots system iteratively adjusts the robot's action in response to information about the robot's environment.

  12. Eclipse Parallel Tools Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Gregory; DeBardeleben, Nathan; Rasmussen, Craig

    2005-02-18

    Designing and developing parallel programs is an inherently complex task. Developers must choose from the many parallel architectures and programming paradigms that are available, and face a plethora of tools that are required to execute, debug, and analyze parallel programs i these environments. Few, if any, of these tools provide any degree of integration, or indeed any commonality in their user interfaces at all. This further complicates the parallel developer's task, hampering software engineering practices, and ultimately reducing productivity. One consequence of this complexity is that best practice in parallel application development has not advanced to the same degree as more traditional programming methodologies. The result is that there is currently no open-source, industry-strength platform that provides a highly integrated environment specifically designed for parallel application development. Eclipse is a universal tool-hosting platform that is designed to providing a robust, full-featured, commercial-quality, industry platform for the development of highly integrated tools. It provides a wide range of core services for tool integration that allow tool producers to concentrate on their tool technology rather than on platform specific issues. The Eclipse Integrated Development Environment is an open-source project that is supported by over 70 organizations, including IBM, Intel and HP. The Eclipse Parallel Tools Platform (PTP) plug-in extends the Eclipse framwork by providing support for a rich set of parallel programming languages and paradigms, and a core infrastructure for the integration of a wide variety of parallel tools. The first version of the PTP is a prototype that only provides minimal functionality for parallel tool integration of a wide variety of parallel tools. The first version of the PTP is a prototype that only provides minimal functionality for parallel tool integration, support for a small number of parallel architectures, and basis

  13. Control of parallel manipulators using force feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nanua, Prabjot

    1994-01-01

    Two control schemes are compared for parallel robotic mechanisms actuated by hydraulic cylinders. One scheme, the 'rate based scheme', uses the position and rate information only for feedback. The second scheme, the 'force based scheme' feeds back the force information also. The force control scheme is shown to improve the response over the rate control one. It is a simple constant gain control scheme better suited to parallel mechanisms. The force control scheme can be easily modified for the dynamic forces on the end effector. This paper presents the results of a computer simulation of both the rate and force control schemes. The gains in the force based scheme can be individually adjusted in all three directions, whereas the adjustment in just one direction of the rate based scheme directly affects the other two directions.

  14. A robot arm simulation with a shared memory multiprocessor machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Sung-Soo; Chuang, Li-Ping

    1989-01-01

    A parallel processing scheme for a single chain robot arm is presented for high speed computation on a shared memory multiprocessor. A recursive formulation that is derived from a virtual work form of the d'Alembert equations of motion is utilized for robot arm dynamics. A joint drive system that consists of a motor rotor and gears is included in the arm dynamics model, in order to take into account gyroscopic effects due to the spinning of the rotor. The fine grain parallelism of mechanical and control subsystem models is exploited, based on independent computation associated with bodies, joint drive systems, and controllers. Efficiency and effectiveness of the parallel scheme are demonstrated through simulations of a telerobotic manipulator arm. Two different mechanical subsystem models, i.e., with and without gyroscopic effects, are compared, to show the trade-off between efficiency and accuracy.

  15. Toward cognitive robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laird, John E.

    2009-05-01

    Our long-term goal is to develop autonomous robotic systems that have the cognitive abilities of humans, including communication, coordination, adapting to novel situations, and learning through experience. Our approach rests on the recent integration of the Soar cognitive architecture with both virtual and physical robotic systems. Soar has been used to develop a wide variety of knowledge-rich agents for complex virtual environments, including distributed training environments and interactive computer games. For development and testing in robotic virtual environments, Soar interfaces to a variety of robotic simulators and a simple mobile robot. We have recently made significant extensions to Soar that add new memories and new non-symbolic reasoning to Soar's original symbolic processing, which should significantly improve Soar abilities for control of robots. These extensions include episodic memory, semantic memory, reinforcement learning, and mental imagery. Episodic memory and semantic memory support the learning and recalling of prior events and situations as well as facts about the world. Reinforcement learning provides the ability of the system to tune its procedural knowledge - knowledge about how to do things. Mental imagery supports the use of diagrammatic and visual representations that are critical to support spatial reasoning. We speculate on the future of unmanned systems and the need for cognitive robotics to support dynamic instruction and taskability.

  16. Future of robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Lendvay, Thomas Sean; Hannaford, Blake; Satava, Richard M

    2013-01-01

    In just over a decade, robotic surgery has penetrated almost every surgical subspecialty and has even replaced some of the most commonly performed open oncologic procedures. The initial reports on patient outcomes yielded mixed results, but as more medical centers develop high-volume robotics programs, outcomes appear comparable if not improved for some applications. There are limitations to the current commercially available system, and new robotic platforms, some designed to compete in the current market and some to address niche surgical considerations, are being developed that will change the robotic landscape in the next decade. Adoption of these new systems will be dependent on overcoming barriers to true telesurgery that range from legal to logistical. As additional surgical disciplines embrace robotics and open surgery continues to be replaced by robotic approaches, it will be imperative that adequate education and training keep pace with technology. Methods to enhance surgical performance in robotics through the use of simulation and telementoring promise to accelerate learning curves and perhaps even improve surgical readiness through brief virtual-reality warm-ups and presurgical rehearsal. All these advances will need to be carefully and rigorously validated through not only patient outcomes, but also cost efficiency. PMID:23528717

  17. Door breaching robotic manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenfeld, Erik; Parrington, Lawrence; von Muehlen, Stephan

    2008-04-01

    As unmanned systems become more commonplace in military, police, and other security forces, they are tasked to perform missions that the original hardware was not designed for. Current military robots are built for rough outdoor conditions and have strong inflexible manipulators designed to handle a wide range of operations. However, these manipulators are not well suited for some essential indoor tasks, including opening doors. This is a complicated kinematic task that places prohibitively difficult control challenges on the robot and the operator. Honeybee and iRobot have designed a modular door-breaching manipulator that mechanically simplifies the demands upon operator and robot. The manipulator connects to the existing robotic arm of the iRobot PackBot EOD. The gripper is optimized for grasping a variety of door knobs, levers, and car-door handles. It works in conjunction with a compliant wrist and magnetic lock-out mechanism that allows the wrist to remain rigid until the gripper has a firm grasp of the handle and then bend with its rotation and the swing of the door. Once the door is unlatched, the operator simply drives the robot through the doorway while the wrist compensates for the complex, multiple degree-of-freedom motion of the door. Once in the doorway the operator releases the handle, the wrist pops back into place, and the robot is ready for the next door. The new manipulator dramatically improves a robot's ability to non-destructively breach doors and perform an inspection of a room's content, a capability that was previously out of reach of unmanned systems.

  18. Parallel Atomistic Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    HEFFELFINGER,GRANT S.

    2000-01-18

    Algorithms developed to enable the use of atomistic molecular simulation methods with parallel computers are reviewed. Methods appropriate for bonded as well as non-bonded (and charged) interactions are included. While strategies for obtaining parallel molecular simulations have been developed for the full variety of atomistic simulation methods, molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo have received the most attention. Three main types of parallel molecular dynamics simulations have been developed, the replicated data decomposition, the spatial decomposition, and the force decomposition. For Monte Carlo simulations, parallel algorithms have been developed which can be divided into two categories, those which require a modified Markov chain and those which do not. Parallel algorithms developed for other simulation methods such as Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo, grand canonical molecular dynamics, and Monte Carlo methods for protein structure determination are also reviewed and issues such as how to measure parallel efficiency, especially in the case of parallel Monte Carlo algorithms with modified Markov chains are discussed.

  19. Robotics in shoulder rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Sicuri, Chiara; Porcellini, Giuseppe; Merolla, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Summary In the last few decades, several researches have been conducted in the field of robotic rehabilitation to meet the intensive, repetitive and task-oriented training, with the goal to recover the motor function. Up to now, robotic rehabilitation studies of the upper extremity have generally focused on stroke survivors leaving less explored the field of orthopaedic shoulder rehabilitation. In this review we analyse the present status of robotic technologies, in order to understand which are the current indications and which may be the future perspective for their application in both neurological and orthopaedic shoulder rehabilitation. PMID:25332937

  20. Agile Walking Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larimer, Stanley J.; Lisec, Thomas R.; Spiessbach, Andrew J.; Waldron, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed agile walking robot operates over rocky, sandy, and sloping terrain. Offers stability and climbing ability superior to other conceptual mobile robots. Equipped with six articulated legs like those of insect, continually feels ground under leg before applying weight to it. If leg sensed unexpected object or failed to make contact with ground at expected point, seeks alternative position within radius of 20 cm. Failing that, robot halts, examines area around foot in detail with laser ranging imager, and replans entire cycle of steps for all legs before proceeding.

  1. Advanced mechanisms for robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of applied research and development at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) on mechanisms and collision avoidance skin for robots is presented. The work on robot end effectors is outlined, followed by a brief discussion of robot-friendly payload latching mechanisms and compliant joints. This is followed by discussions of the collision avoidance/management skin and the GSFC research on magnetorestrictive direct drive motors. A new project, the artificial muscle, is introduced. Each of the devices is described sufficiently to permit a basic understanding of its purpose, capabilities, and operating fundamentals. The implications for commercialization are discussed.

  2. Autonomous mobile robot teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agah, Arvin; Bekey, George A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes autonomous mobile robot teams performing tasks in unstructured environments. The behavior and the intelligence of the group is distributed, and the system does not include a central command base or leader. The novel concept of the Tropism-Based Cognitive Architecture is introduced, which is used by the robots in order to produce behavior transforming their sensory information to proper action. The results of a number of simulation experiments are presented. These experiments include worlds where the robot teams must locate, decompose, and gather objects, and defend themselves against hostile predators, while navigating around stationary and mobile obstacles.

  3. MVACS Robotic Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonitz, R.; Slostad, J.; Bon, B.; Braun, D.; Brill, R.; Buck, C.; Fleischner, R.; Haldeman, A.; Herman, J.; Hertzel, M.; Noon, D.; Pixler, G.; Schenker, P.; Ton, T.; Tucker, C.; Zimmerman, W.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Robotic Arm is to support to the other MVACS science instruments by digging trenches in the Martian soil; acquiring and dumping soil samples into the thermal evolved gas analyzer (TEGA); positioning the Soil Temperature Probe (STP) in the soil: positioning the Robotic Arm Air Temperature Sensor (RAATS) at various heights above the surface, and positioning the Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) for taking images of the surface, trench, soil samples, magnetic targets and other objects of scientific interest within its workspace.

  4. Architecture for robot intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, II, Richard Alan (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An architecture for robot intelligence enables a robot to learn new behaviors and create new behavior sequences autonomously and interact with a dynamically changing environment. Sensory information is mapped onto a Sensory Ego-Sphere (SES) that rapidly identifies important changes in the environment and functions much like short term memory. Behaviors are stored in a DBAM that creates an active map from the robot's current state to a goal state and functions much like long term memory. A dream state converts recent activities stored in the SES and creates or modifies behaviors in the DBAM.

  5. Soft Robotics: New Perspectives for Robot Bodyware and Control

    PubMed Central

    Laschi, Cecilia; Cianchetti, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    The remarkable advances of robotics in the last 50 years, which represent an incredible wealth of knowledge, are based on the fundamental assumption that robots are chains of rigid links. The use of soft materials in robotics, driven not only by new scientific paradigms (biomimetics, morphological computation, and others), but also by many applications (biomedical, service, rescue robots, and many more), is going to overcome these basic assumptions and makes the well-known theories and techniques poorly applicable, opening new perspectives for robot design and control. The current examples of soft robots represent a variety of solutions for actuation and control. Though very first steps, they have the potential for a radical technological change. Soft robotics is not just a new direction of technological development, but a novel approach to robotics, unhinging its fundamentals, with the potential to produce a new generation of robots, in the support of humans in our natural environments. PMID:25022259

  6. Soft Robotics: New Perspectives for Robot Bodyware and Control.

    PubMed

    Laschi, Cecilia; Cianchetti, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    The remarkable advances of robotics in the last 50 years, which represent an incredible wealth of knowledge, are based on the fundamental assumption that robots are chains of rigid links. The use of soft materials in robotics, driven not only by new scientific paradigms (biomimetics, morphological computation, and others), but also by many applications (biomedical, service, rescue robots, and many more), is going to overcome these basic assumptions and makes the well-known theories and techniques poorly applicable, opening new perspectives for robot design and control. The current examples of soft robots represent a variety of solutions for actuation and control. Though very first steps, they have the potential for a radical technological change. Soft robotics is not just a new direction of technological development, but a novel approach to robotics, unhinging its fundamentals, with the potential to produce a new generation of robots, in the support of humans in our natural environments. PMID:25022259

  7. Flocking algorithm for autonomous flying robots.

    PubMed

    Virágh, Csaba; Vásárhelyi, Gábor; Tarcai, Norbert; Szörényi, Tamás; Somorjai, Gergő; Nepusz, Tamás; Vicsek, Tamás

    2014-06-01

    Animal swarms displaying a variety of typical flocking patterns would not exist without the underlying safe, optimal and stable dynamics of the individuals. The emergence of these universal patterns can be efficiently reconstructed with agent-based models. If we want to reproduce these patterns with artificial systems, such as autonomous aerial robots, agent-based models can also be used in their control algorithms. However, finding the proper algorithms and thus understanding the essential characteristics of the emergent collective behaviour requires thorough and realistic modeling of the robot and also the environment. In this paper, we first present an abstract mathematical model of an autonomous flying robot. The model takes into account several realistic features, such as time delay and locality of communication, inaccuracy of the on-board sensors and inertial effects. We present two decentralized control algorithms. One is based on a simple self-propelled flocking model of animal collective motion, the other is a collective target tracking algorithm. Both algorithms contain a viscous friction-like term, which aligns the velocities of neighbouring agents parallel to each other. We show that this term can be essential for reducing the inherent instabilities of such a noisy and delayed realistic system. We discuss simulation results on the stability of the control algorithms, and perform real experiments to show the applicability of the algorithms on a group of autonomous quadcopters. In our case, bio-inspiration works in two ways. On the one hand, the whole idea of trying to build and control a swarm of robots comes from the observation that birds tend to flock to optimize their behaviour as a group. On the other hand, by using a realistic simulation framework and studying the group behaviour of autonomous robots we can learn about the major factors influencing the flight of bird flocks. PMID:24852272

  8. Switch for serial or parallel communication networks

    DOEpatents

    Crosette, D.B.

    1994-07-19

    A communication switch apparatus and a method for use in a geographically extensive serial, parallel or hybrid communication network linking a multi-processor or parallel processing system has a very low software processing overhead in order to accommodate random burst of high density data. Associated with each processor is a communication switch. A data source and a data destination, a sensor suite or robot for example, may also be associated with a switch. The configuration of the switches in the network are coordinated through a master processor node and depends on the operational phase of the multi-processor network: data acquisition, data processing, and data exchange. The master processor node passes information on the state to be assumed by each switch to the processor node associated with the switch. The processor node then operates a series of multi-state switches internal to each communication switch. The communication switch does not parse and interpret communication protocol and message routing information. During a data acquisition phase, the communication switch couples sensors producing data to the processor node associated with the switch, to a downlink destination on the communications network, or to both. It also may couple an uplink data source to its processor node. During the data exchange phase, the switch couples its processor node or an uplink data source to a downlink destination (which may include a processor node or a robot), or couples an uplink source to its processor node and its processor node to a downlink destination. 9 figs.

  9. Switch for serial or parallel communication networks

    DOEpatents

    Crosette, Dario B.

    1994-01-01

    A communication switch apparatus and a method for use in a geographically extensive serial, parallel or hybrid communication network linking a multi-processor or parallel processing system has a very low software processing overhead in order to accommodate random burst of high density data. Associated with each processor is a communication switch. A data source and a data destination, a sensor suite or robot for example, may also be associated with a switch. The configuration of the switches in the network are coordinated through a master processor node and depends on the operational phase of the multi-processor network: data acquisition, data processing, and data exchange. The master processor node passes information on the state to be assumed by each switch to the processor node associated with the switch. The processor node then operates a series of multi-state switches internal to each communication switch. The communication switch does not parse and interpret communication protocol and message routing information. During a data acquisition phase, the communication switch couples sensors producing data to the processor node associated with the switch, to a downlink destination on the communications network, or to both. It also may couple an uplink data source to its processor node. During the data exchange phase, the switch couples its processor node or an uplink data source to a downlink destination (which may include a processor node or a robot), or couples an uplink source to its processor node and its processor node to a downlink destination.

  10. Software Architecture for Planetary and Lunar Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utz, Hans; Fong, Teny; Nesnas, Iasa A. D.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the role that software architecture plays in space and lunar robotics is shown. The topics include: 1) The Intelligent Robotics Group; 2) The Lunar Mission; 3) Lunar Robotics; and 4) Software Architecture for Space Robotics.

  11. Application of robotics in nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, J S; Fisher, J J

    1986-01-01

    Industrial robots and other robotic systems have been successfully applied at the Savannah River nuclear site. These applications, new robotic systems presently under development, general techniques for the employment of robots in nuclear facilities, and future systems are discussed.

  12. Robotics and remote systems applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rabold, D.E.

    1996-05-01

    This article is a review of numerous remote inspection techniques in use at the Savannah River (and other) facilities. These include: (1) reactor tank inspection robot, (2) californium waste removal robot, (3) fuel rod lubrication robot, (4) cesium source manipulation robot, (5) tank 13 survey and decontamination robots, (6) hot gang valve corridor decontamination and junction box removal robots, (7) lead removal from deionizer vessels robot, (8) HB line cleanup robot, (9) remote operation of a front end loader at WIPP, (10) remote overhead video extendible robot, (11) semi-intelligent mobile observing navigator, (12) remote camera systems in the SRS canyons, (13) cameras and borescope for the DWPF, (14) Hanford waste tank camera system, (15) in-tank precipitation camera system, (16) F-area retention basin pipe crawler, (17) waste tank wall crawler and annulus camera, (18) duct inspection, and (19) deionizer resin sampling.

  13. Robotic follow system and method

    SciTech Connect

    Bruemmer, David J; Anderson, Matthew O

    2007-05-01

    Robot platforms, methods, and computer media are disclosed. The robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller, which executes instructions for a robot to follow a target in its environment. The method includes receiving a target bearing and sensing whether the robot is blocked front. If the robot is blocked in front, then the robot's motion is adjusted to avoid the nearest obstacle in front. If the robot is not blocked in front, then the method senses whether the robot is blocked toward the target bearing and if so, sets the rotational direction opposite from the target bearing, and adjusts the rotational velocity and translational velocity. If the robot is not blocked toward the target bearing, then the rotational velocity is adjusted proportional to an angle of the target bearing and the translational velocity is adjusted proportional to a distance to the nearest obstacle in front.

  14. K-10 Robots

    NASA Video Gallery

    Robots, scientists, engineers and flight controllers from NASA's Ames Research Center at Moffett Field, Calif., and NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston, gathered at NASA Ames to perform a series...

  15. DOE Robotics Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This document provide the bimonthly progress reports on the Department of Energy (DOE) Robotics Project by the University of Michigan. Reports are provided for the time periods of December 90/January 91 through June 91/July 91. (FI)

  16. Laser radar in robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Carmer, D.C.; Peterson, L.M.

    1996-02-01

    In this paper the authors describe the basic operating principles of laser radar sensors and the typical algorithms used to process laser radar imagery for robotic applications. The authors review 12 laser radar sensors to illustrate the variety of systems that have been applied to robotic applications wherein information extracted from the laser radar data is used to automatically control a mechanism or process. Next, they describe selected robotic applications in seven areas: autonomous vehicle navigation, walking machine foot placement, automated service vehicles, manufacturing and inspection, automotive, military, and agriculture. They conclude with a discussion of the status of laser radar technology and suggest trends seen in the application of laser radar sensors to robotics. Many new applications are expected as the maturity level progresses and system costs are reduced.

  17. FIRST Robotics Kickoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA engineers Scott Olive (left) and Bo Clarke answer questions during the 2007 FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Robotics Competition regional kickoff event held Saturday, Jan. 6, 2007, at StenniSphere, the visitor center at NASA Stennis Space Center near Bay St. Louis, Miss. The SSC employees and FIRST Robotics volunteer mentors are standing near a mock-up of the playing field for the FIRST Robotics' 2007 `Rack n' Roll' challenge. Roughly 300 students and adult volunteers - representing 29 high schools from four states - attended the kickoff to hear the rules of `Rack n' Roll.' The teams will spend the next six weeks building and programming robots from parts kits they received Saturday, then battle their creations at regional spring competitions in New Orleans, Houston, Atlanta and other cities around the nation. FIRST aims to inspire students in the pursuit of engineering and technology studies and careers.

  18. Rolling friction robot fingers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A low friction, object guidance, and gripping finger device for a robotic end effector on a robotic arm is disclosed, having a pair of robotic fingers each having a finger shaft slideably located on a gripper housing attached to the end effector. Each of the robotic fingers has a roller housing attached to the finger shaft. The roller housing has a ball bearing mounted centering roller located at the center, and a pair of ball bearing mounted clamping rollers located on either side of the centering roller. The object has a recess to engage the centering roller and a number of seating ramps for engaging the clamping rollers. The centering roller acts to position and hold the object symmetrically about the centering roller with respect to the X axis and the clamping rollers act to position and hold the object with respect to the Y and Z axis.

  19. Tank-automotive robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Gerald R.

    1999-07-01

    To provide an overview of Tank-Automotive Robotics. The briefing will contain program overviews & inter-relationships and technology challenges of TARDEC managed unmanned and robotic ground vehicle programs. Specific emphasis will focus on technology developments/approaches to achieve semi- autonomous operation and inherent chassis mobility features. Programs to be discussed include: DemoIII Experimental Unmanned Vehicle (XUV), Tactical Mobile Robotics (TMR), Intelligent Mobility, Commanders Driver Testbed, Collision Avoidance, International Ground Robotics Competition (ICGRC). Specifically, the paper will discuss unique exterior/outdoor challenges facing the IGRC competing teams and the synergy created between the IGRC and ongoing DoD semi-autonomous Unmanned Ground Vehicle and DoT Intelligent Transportation System programs. Sensor and chassis approaches to meet the IGRC challenges and obstacles will be shown and discussed. Shortfalls in performance to meet the IGRC challenges will be identified.

  20. Biological Soft Robotics.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Adam W

    2015-01-01

    In nature, nanometer-scale molecular motors are used to generate force within cells for diverse processes from transcription and transport to muscle contraction. This adaptability and scalability across wide temporal, spatial, and force regimes have spurred the development of biological soft robotic systems that seek to mimic and extend these capabilities. This review describes how molecular motors are hierarchically organized into larger-scale structures in order to provide a basic understanding of how these systems work in nature and the complexity and functionality we hope to replicate in biological soft robotics. These span the subcellular scale to macroscale, and this article focuses on the integration of biological components with synthetic materials, coupled with bioinspired robotic design. Key examples include nanoscale molecular motor-powered actuators, microscale bacteria-controlled devices, and macroscale muscle-powered robots that grasp, walk, and swim. Finally, the current challenges and future opportunities in the field are addressed. PMID:26643022

  1. Lunar robotic maintenance module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayres, Michael L.

    1988-01-01

    A design for a robotic maintenance module that will assist a mobile 100-meter lunar drill is introduced. The design considers the following areas of interest: the atmospheric conditions, actuator systems, power supply, material selection, weight, cooling system and operation.

  2. Robots in operating theatres.

    PubMed Central

    Buckingham, R. A.; Buckingham, R. O.

    1995-01-01

    Robots designed for surgery have three main advantages over humans. They have greater three dimensional spatial accuracy, are more reliable, and can achieve much greater precision. Although few surgical robots are yet in clinical trials one or two have advanced to the stage of seeking approval from the UK's Medical Devices Agency and the US Federal Drug Administration. Safety is a key concern. A robotic device can be designed in an intrinsically safe way by restricting its range of movement to an area where it can do no damage. Furthermore, safety can be increased by making it passive, guided at all times by a surgeon. Nevertheless, some of the most promising developments may come from robots that are active (monitored rather than controlled by the surgeon) and not limited to intrinsically safe motion. Images Fig 1 Fig 3 Fig 4 PMID:8520340

  3. Robots on the Roof

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) is one of the first places that scientists turn when volcanoes, wildfires, pollution plumes, dust storms and many other phenomena—both natural and manmade—...

  4. Biomimetic smart sensors for autonomous robotic behavior I: acoustic processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deligeorges, Socrates; Xue, Shuwan; Soloway, Aaron; Lichtenstein, Lee; Gore, Tyler; Hubbard, Allyn

    2009-05-01

    Robotics are rapidly becoming an integral tool on the battlefield and in homeland security, replacing humans in hazardous conditions. To enhance the effectiveness of robotic assets and their interaction with human operators, smart sensors are required to give more autonomous function to robotic platforms. Biologically inspired sensors are an essential part of this development of autonomous behavior and can increase both capability and performance of robotic systems. Smart, biologically inspired acoustic sensors have the potential to extend autonomous capabilities of robotic platforms to include sniper detection, vehicle tracking, personnel detection, and general acoustic monitoring. The key to enabling these capabilities is biomimetic acoustic processing using a time domain processing method based on the neural structures of the mammalian auditory system. These biologically inspired algorithms replicate the extremely adaptive processing of the auditory system yielding high sensitivity over broad dynamic range. The algorithms provide tremendous robustness in noisy and echoic spaces; properties necessary for autonomous function in real world acoustic environments. These biomimetic acoustic algorithms also provide highly accurate localization of both persistent and transient sounds over a wide frequency range, using baselines on the order of only inches. A specialized smart sensor has been developed to interface with an iRobot Packbot® platform specifically to enhance its autonomous behaviors in response to personnel and gunfire. The low power, highly parallel biomimetic processor, in conjunction with a biomimetic vestibular system (discussed in the companion paper), has shown the system's autonomous response to gunfire in complicated acoustic environments to be highly effective.

  5. Analysis of a closed-kinematic chain robot manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Charles C.; Pooran, Farhad J.

    1988-01-01

    Presented are the research results from the research grant entitled: Active Control of Robot Manipulators, sponsored by the Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA) under grant number NAG-780. This report considers a class of robot manipulators based on the closed-kinematic chain mechanism (CKCM). This type of robot manipulators mainly consists of two platforms, one is stationary and the other moving, and they are coupled together through a number of in-parallel actuators. Using spatial geometry and homogeneous transformation, a closed-form solution is derived for the inverse kinematic problem of the six-degree-of-freedom manipulator, built to study robotic assembly in space. Iterative Newton Raphson method is employed to solve the forward kinematic problem. Finally, the equations of motion of the above manipulators are obtained by employing the Lagrangian method. Study of the manipulator dynamics is performed using computer simulation whose results show that the robot actuating forces are strongly dependent on the mass and centroid locations of the robot links.

  6. Robot Grasps Rotating Object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.; Tso, Kam S.; Litwin, Todd E.; Hayati, Samad A.; Bon, Bruce B.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental robotic system semiautomatically grasps rotating object, stops rotation, and pulls object to rest in fixture. Based on combination of advanced techniques for sensing and control, constructed to test concepts for robotic recapture of spinning artificial satellites. Potential terrestrial applications for technology developed with help of system includes tracking and grasping of industrial parts on conveyor belts, tracking of vehicles and animals, and soft grasping of moving objects in general.

  7. Robotic inguinal hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Escobar Dominguez, Jose E; Gonzalez, Anthony; Donkor, Charan

    2015-09-01

    Inguinal hernias have been described throughout the history of medicine with many efforts to achieve the cure. Currently, with the advantages of minimally invasive surgery, new questions arise: what is going to be the best approach for inguinal hernia repair? Is there a real benefit with the robotic approach? Should minimally invasive hernia surgery be the standard of care? In this report we address these questions by describing our experience with robotic inguinal hernia repair. PMID:26153353

  8. Wheeled hopping robot

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Gary J.

    2010-08-17

    The present invention provides robotic vehicles having wheeled and hopping mobilities that are capable of traversing (e.g. by hopping over) obstacles that are large in size relative to the robot and, are capable of operation in unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides combustion powered linear actuators, which can include latching mechanisms to facilitate pressurized fueling of the actuators, as can be used to provide wheeled vehicles with a hopping mobility.

  9. Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.

    SciTech Connect

    Liebrock, Lorie M.; Duggan, David Patrick

    2009-10-01

    This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

  10. Robotic surgery in gynecology

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Rooma; Sanjay, Madhumati; Rupa, B.; Kumari, Samita

    2015-01-01

    FDA approved Da Vinci Surgical System in 2005 for gynecological surgery. It has been rapidly adopted and it has already assumed an important position at various centers where this is available. It comprises of three components: A surgeon's console, a patient-side cart with four robotic arms and a high-definition three-dimensional (3D) vision system. In this review we have discussed various robotic-assisted laparoscopic benign gynecological procedures like myomectomy, hysterectomy, endometriosis, tubal anastomosis and sacrocolpopexy. A PubMed search was done and relevant published studies were reviewed. Surgeries that can have future applications are also mentioned. At present most studies do not give significant advantage over conventional laparoscopic surgery in benign gynecological disease. However robotics do give an edge in more complex surgeries. The conversion rate to open surgery is lesser with robotic assistance when compared to laparoscopy. For myomectomy surgery, Endo wrist movement of robotic instrument allows better and precise suturing than conventional straight stick laparoscopy. The robotic platform is a logical step forward to laparoscopy and if cost considerations are addressed may become popular among gynecological surgeons world over. PMID:25598600

  11. Robotic surgery in gynecology.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Rooma; Sanjay, Madhumati; Rupa, B; Kumari, Samita

    2015-01-01

    FDA approved Da Vinci Surgical System in 2005 for gynecological surgery. It has been rapidly adopted and it has already assumed an important position at various centers where this is available. It comprises of three components: A surgeon's console, a patient-side cart with four robotic arms and a high-definition three-dimensional (3D) vision system. In this review we have discussed various robotic-assisted laparoscopic benign gynecological procedures like myomectomy, hysterectomy, endometriosis, tubal anastomosis and sacrocolpopexy. A PubMed search was done and relevant published studies were reviewed. Surgeries that can have future applications are also mentioned. At present most studies do not give significant advantage over conventional laparoscopic surgery in benign gynecological disease. However robotics do give an edge in more complex surgeries. The conversion rate to open surgery is lesser with robotic assistance when compared to laparoscopy. For myomectomy surgery, Endo wrist movement of robotic instrument allows better and precise suturing than conventional straight stick laparoscopy. The robotic platform is a logical step forward to laparoscopy and if cost considerations are addressed may become popular among gynecological surgeons world over. PMID:25598600

  12. Modularity in robotic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tesar, Delbert; Butler, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    Most robotic systems today are designed one at a time, at a high cost of time and money. This wasteful approach has been necessary because the industry has not established a foundation for the continued evolution of intelligent machines. The next generation of robots will have to be generic, versatile machines capable of absorbing new technology rapidly and economically. This approach is demonstrated in the success of the personal computer, which can be upgraded or expanded with new software and hardware at virtually every level. Modularity is perceived as a major opportunity to reduce the 6 to 7 year design cycle time now required for new robotic manipulators, greatly increasing the breadth and speed of diffusion of robotic systems in manufacturing. Modularity and its crucial role in the next generation of intelligent machines are the focus of interest. The main advantages that modularity provides are examined; types of modules needed to create a generic robot are discussed. Structural modules designed by the robotics group at the University of Texas at Austin are examined to demonstrate the advantages of modular design.

  13. Robot goniophotometry at PTB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindemann, M.; Maass, R.; Sauter, G.

    2015-04-01

    The total luminous flux of a light source is the complete integration of its spectral radiance distribution weighted with the photopic observer and taken over all parts of its surface and over the full solid angle of emittance. The spatial distributions are measured with various types of goniophotometers and the PTB robot goniophotometer is a new type with many unique features. It is built as an arrangement of three robots with arms of more than 6 m in length and with 7 degrees of freedom each. The extreme flexibility of the robots allows computer controlled tracks with variable radii and speeds up to 3 m and 1 m s-1, respectively. One robot aligns the light source and the two other robots move photometers and array spectrometers in their hemispheres simultaneously measuring planar illuminance and the related relative spectral distribution. The robot goniophotometer is optimized for the realisation of the luminous flux unit, the lumen and it is completely characterized in this report. The relevant properties and correction factors are explained, as well as the implementation of techniques for synchronisation and stabilisation of spatially resolved or integrated photometric and colorimetric quantities. Finally, all contributions are combined in the model of evaluation for the (total) luminous flux value and the measurement uncertainty associated with that value is evaluated in the presented uncertainty budget. The goniophotometric determination of the values for colorimetric quantities is explained for the total luminous flux and the spatially distributed radiant power.

  14. Robotic assisted andrological surgery

    PubMed Central

    Parekattil, Sijo J; Gudeloglu, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the operative microscope for andrological surgery in the 1970s provided enhanced magnification and accuracy, unparalleled to any previous visual loop or magnification techniques. This technology revolutionized techniques for microsurgery in andrology. Today, we may be on the verge of a second such revolution by the incorporation of robotic assisted platforms for microsurgery in andrology. Robotic assisted microsurgery is being utilized to a greater degree in andrology and a number of other microsurgical fields, such as ophthalmology, hand surgery, plastics and reconstructive surgery. The potential advantages of robotic assisted platforms include elimination of tremor, improved stability, surgeon ergonomics, scalability of motion, multi-input visual interphases with up to three simultaneous visual views, enhanced magnification, and the ability to manipulate three surgical instruments and cameras simultaneously. This review paper begins with the historical development of robotic microsurgery. It then provides an in-depth presentation of the technique and outcomes of common robotic microsurgical andrological procedures, such as vasectomy reversal, subinguinal varicocelectomy, targeted spermatic cord denervation (for chronic orchialgia) and robotic assisted microsurgical testicular sperm extraction (microTESE). PMID:23241637

  15. Swarm robotics and minimalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkey, Amanda J. C.

    2007-09-01

    Swarm Robotics (SR) is closely related to Swarm Intelligence, and both were initially inspired by studies of social insects. Their guiding principles are based on their biological inspiration and take the form of an emphasis on decentralized local control and communication. Earlier studies went a step further in emphasizing the use of simple reactive robots that only communicate indirectly through the environment. More recently SR studies have moved beyond these constraints to explore the use of non-reactive robots that communicate directly, and that can learn and represent their environment. There is no clear agreement in the literature about how far such extensions of the original principles could go. Should there be any limitations on the individual abilities of the robots used in SR studies? Should knowledge of the capabilities of social insects lead to constraints on the capabilities of individual robots in SR studies? There is a lack of explicit discussion of such questions, and researchers have adopted a variety of constraints for a variety of reasons. A simple taxonomy of swarm robotics is presented here with the aim of addressing and clarifying these questions. The taxonomy distinguishes subareas of SR based on the emphases and justifications for minimalism and individual simplicity.

  16. Robotic assisted andrological surgery.

    PubMed

    Parekattil, Sijo J; Gudeloglu, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the operative microscope for andrological surgery in the 1970s provided enhanced magnification and accuracy, unparalleled to any previous visual loop or magnification techniques. This technology revolutionized techniques for microsurgery in andrology. Today, we may be on the verge of a second such revolution by the incorporation of robotic assisted platforms for microsurgery in andrology. Robotic assisted microsurgery is being utilized to a greater degree in andrology and a number of other microsurgical fields, such as ophthalmology, hand surgery, plastics and reconstructive surgery. The potential advantages of robotic assisted platforms include elimination of tremor, improved stability, surgeon ergonomics, scalability of motion, multi-input visual interphases with up to three simultaneous visual views, enhanced magnification, and the ability to manipulate three surgical instruments and cameras simultaneously. This review paper begins with the historical development of robotic microsurgery. It then provides an in-depth presentation of the technique and outcomes of common robotic microsurgical andrological procedures, such as vasectomy reversal, subinguinal varicocelectomy, targeted spermatic cord denervation (for chronic orchialgia) and robotic assisted microsurgical testicular sperm extraction (microTESE). PMID:23241637

  17. Robotic hand with modular extensions

    DOEpatents

    Salisbury, Curt Michael; Quigley, Morgan

    2015-01-20

    A robotic device is described herein. The robotic device includes a frame that comprises a plurality of receiving regions that are configured to receive a respective plurality of modular robotic extensions. The modular robotic extensions are removably attachable to the frame at the respective receiving regions by way of respective mechanical fuses. Each mechanical fuse is configured to trip when a respective modular robotic extension experiences a predefined load condition, such that the respective modular robotic extension detaches from the frame when the load condition is met.

  18. Active object programming for military autonomous mobile robot software prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cozien, Roger F.

    2001-10-01

    While designing mobile robots, we do think that the prototyping phase is really critical. Good and clever choices have to be made. Indeed, we may not easily upgrade such robots, and most of all, when the robot is on its own, any change in both the software and the physical body is going to be very difficult, if not impossible. Thus, a great effort has to be made when prototyping the robot. Furthermore, I think that the kind of programming is very important. If your programming model is not expressive enough, you may experience a great deal of difficulties to add all the features you want, in order to give your robot reactiveness and decision making autonomy. Moreover, designing, and prototyping the on-board software of a reactive robot brings other difficulties. A reactive robot does not include any matter of rapidity. A reactive system is a system able to respond to a huge panel of situations of which it does not have the schedule. In other words, for instance, the robot does not know when a particular situation may occur, and overall, what it would be doing at this time, and what would be its internal state. This kind of robot must be able to take a decision and to act even if they do not have all the contextual information. To do so, we use a computer language named oRis featuring object and active object oriented programming, but also parallel and dynamic code, (the code can be changed during its own execution). This last point has been made possible because oRis is fully interpreted. However oRis may call fully compiled code, but also Prolog and Java code. An oRis program may be distributed on several computers using TCP/IP network connections. The main issue in this paper is to show how active objet oriented programming, as a modern extension of object oriented programming, may help us in designing autonomous mobile robots. Based on a fully parallel software programming, an active object code allows us to give many features to a robot, and to easily solve

  19. Active objects programming for military autonomous mobile robots software prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cozien, Roger F.

    2001-09-01

    While designing mobile robots, we do think that the prototyping phase is really critical. Good and clever choices have to be made. Indeed, we may not easily upgrade such robots, and most of all, when the robot is on its own, any change in both the software and the physical body is going to be very difficult, if not impossible. Thus, a great effort has to be made when prototyping the robot. Furthermore, I think that the kind of programming is very important. If your programming model is not expressive enough, you may experience a great deal of difficulties to add all the features you want, in order to give your robot reactiveness and decision making autonomy. Moreover, designing, and prototyping the on-board software of a reactive robot brings other difficulties. A reactive robot does not include any matter of rapidity. A reactive system is a system able to respond to a huge pannel of situations of which it does not have the schedule. In other words, for instance, the robot does not know when a particular situation may occur, and overall, what it would be doing at this time, and what would be its internal state. This kind of robot must be able to take a decision and to act even if they do not have all the contextual information. To do so, we use a computer language named oRis featuring object and active object oriented programming, but also parallel and dynamic code, (the code can be changed during its own execution). This last point has been made possible because oRis is fully interpreted. However oRis may call fully compiled code, but also Prolog and Java code. An oRis program may be distributed on several computers using TCP/IP network connections. The main issue in this paper is to show how active objet oriented programming, as a modern extension of object oriented programming, may help us in designing autonomous mobile robots. Based on a fully parallel software programming, an active object code allows us to give many features to a robot, and to easily solve

  20. Parallel MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Deshmane, Anagha; Gulani, Vikas; Griswold, Mark A.; Seiberlich, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Parallel imaging is a robust method for accelerating the acquisition of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, and has made possible many new applications of MR imaging. Parallel imaging works by acquiring a reduced amount of k-space data with an array of receiver coils. These undersampled data can be acquired more quickly, but the undersampling leads to aliased images. One of several parallel imaging algorithms can then be used to reconstruct artifact-free images from either the aliased images (SENSE-type reconstruction) or from the under-sampled data (GRAPPA-type reconstruction). The advantages of parallel imaging in a clinical setting include faster image acquisition, which can be used, for instance, to shorten breath-hold times resulting in fewer motion-corrupted examinations. In this article the basic concepts behind parallel imaging are introduced. The relationship between undersampling and aliasing is discussed and two commonly used parallel imaging methods, SENSE and GRAPPA, are explained in detail. Examples of artifacts arising from parallel imaging are shown and ways to detect and mitigate these artifacts are described. Finally, several current applications of parallel imaging are presented and recent advancements and promising research in parallel imaging are briefly reviewed. PMID:22696125

  1. PCLIPS: Parallel CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Lawrence O.; Bennett, Bonnie H.; Tello, Ivan

    1994-01-01

    A parallel version of CLIPS 5.1 has been developed to run on Intel Hypercubes. The user interface is the same as that for CLIPS with some added commands to allow for parallel calls. A complete version of CLIPS runs on each node of the hypercube. The system has been instrumented to display the time spent in the match, recognize, and act cycles on each node. Only rule-level parallelism is supported. Parallel commands enable the assertion and retraction of facts to/from remote nodes working memory. Parallel CLIPS was used to implement a knowledge-based command, control, communications, and intelligence (C(sup 3)I) system to demonstrate the fusion of high-level, disparate sources. We discuss the nature of the information fusion problem, our approach, and implementation. Parallel CLIPS has also be used to run several benchmark parallel knowledge bases such as one to set up a cafeteria. Results show from running Parallel CLIPS with parallel knowledge base partitions indicate that significant speed increases, including superlinear in some cases, are possible.

  2. Eclipse Parallel Tools Platform

    2005-02-18

    Designing and developing parallel programs is an inherently complex task. Developers must choose from the many parallel architectures and programming paradigms that are available, and face a plethora of tools that are required to execute, debug, and analyze parallel programs i these environments. Few, if any, of these tools provide any degree of integration, or indeed any commonality in their user interfaces at all. This further complicates the parallel developer's task, hampering software engineering practices,more » and ultimately reducing productivity. One consequence of this complexity is that best practice in parallel application development has not advanced to the same degree as more traditional programming methodologies. The result is that there is currently no open-source, industry-strength platform that provides a highly integrated environment specifically designed for parallel application development. Eclipse is a universal tool-hosting platform that is designed to providing a robust, full-featured, commercial-quality, industry platform for the development of highly integrated tools. It provides a wide range of core services for tool integration that allow tool producers to concentrate on their tool technology rather than on platform specific issues. The Eclipse Integrated Development Environment is an open-source project that is supported by over 70 organizations, including IBM, Intel and HP. The Eclipse Parallel Tools Platform (PTP) plug-in extends the Eclipse framwork by providing support for a rich set of parallel programming languages and paradigms, and a core infrastructure for the integration of a wide variety of parallel tools. The first version of the PTP is a prototype that only provides minimal functionality for parallel tool integration of a wide variety of parallel tools. The first version of the PTP is a prototype that only provides minimal functionality for parallel tool integration, support for a small number of parallel architectures

  3. An overview of artificial intelligence and robotics. Volume 2: Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1982-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the rapidly changing field of robotics. The report incorporates definitions of the various types of robots, a summary of the basic concepts, utilized in each of the many technical areas, review of the state of the art and statistics of robot manufacture and usage. Particular attention is paid to the status of robot development, the organizations involved, their activities, and their funding.

  4. Parallel-Processing Software for Correlating Stereo Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimeck, Gerhard; Deen, Robert; Mcauley, Michael; DeJong, Eric

    2007-01-01

    A computer program implements parallel- processing algorithms for cor relating images of terrain acquired by stereoscopic pairs of digital stereo cameras on an exploratory robotic vehicle (e.g., a Mars rove r). Such correlations are used to create three-dimensional computatio nal models of the terrain for navigation. In this program, the scene viewed by the cameras is segmented into subimages. Each subimage is assigned to one of a number of central processing units (CPUs) opera ting simultaneously.

  5. Robots for Astrobiology!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boston, Penelope J.

    2016-01-01

    The search for life and its study is known as astrobiology. Conducting that search on other planets in our Solar System is a major goal of NASA and other space agencies, and a driving passion of the community of scientists and engineers around the world. We practice for that search in many ways, from exploring and studying extreme environments on Earth, to developing robots to go to other planets and help us look for any possible life that may be there or may have been there in the past. The unique challenges of space exploration make collaborations between robots and humans essential. The products of those collaborations will be novel and driven by the features of wholly new environments. For space and planetary environments that are intolerable for humans or where humans present an unacceptable risk to possible biologically sensitive sites, autonomous robots or telepresence offer excellent choices. The search for life signs on Mars fits within this category, especially in advance of human landed missions there, but also as assistants and tools once humans reach the Red Planet. For planetary destinations where we do not envision humans ever going in person, like bitterly cold icy moons, or ocean worlds with thick ice roofs that essentially make them planetary-sized ice caves, we will rely on robots alone to visit those environments for us and enable us to explore and understand any life that we may find there. Current generation robots are not quite ready for some of the tasks that we need them to do, so there are many opportunities for roboticists of the future to advance novel types of mobility, autonomy, and bio-inspired robotic designs to help us accomplish our astrobiological goals. We see an exciting partnership between robotics and astrobiology continually strengthening as we jointly pursue the quest to find extraterrestrial life.

  6. Socially intelligent robots: dimensions of human-robot interaction.

    PubMed

    Dautenhahn, Kerstin

    2007-04-29

    Social intelligence in robots has a quite recent history in artificial intelligence and robotics. However, it has become increasingly apparent that social and interactive skills are necessary requirements in many application areas and contexts where robots need to interact and collaborate with other robots or humans. Research on human-robot interaction (HRI) poses many challenges regarding the nature of interactivity and 'social behaviour' in robot and humans. The first part of this paper addresses dimensions of HRI, discussing requirements on social skills for robots and introducing the conceptual space of HRI studies. In order to illustrate these concepts, two examples of HRI research are presented. First, research is surveyed which investigates the development of a cognitive robot companion. The aim of this work is to develop social rules for robot behaviour (a 'robotiquette') that is comfortable and acceptable to humans. Second, robots are discussed as possible educational or therapeutic toys for children with autism. The concept of interactive emergence in human-child interactions is highlighted. Different types of play among children are discussed in the light of their potential investigation in human-robot experiments. The paper concludes by examining different paradigms regarding 'social relationships' of robots and people interacting with them. PMID:17301026

  7. Supersmart Robots: The Next Generation of Robots Has Evolutionary Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simkins, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Robots that can learn new behaviors. Robots that can reproduce themselves. Science fiction? Not anymore. Roboticists at Cornell's Computational Synthesis Lab have developed just such engineered creatures that offer interesting implications for education. The team, headed by Hod Lipson, was intrigued by the question, "How can you get robots to be…

  8. Parallel scheduling algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Dekel, E.; Sahni, S.

    1983-01-01

    Parallel algorithms are given for scheduling problems such as scheduling to minimize the number of tardy jobs, job sequencing with deadlines, scheduling to minimize earliness and tardiness penalties, channel assignment, and minimizing the mean finish time. The shared memory model of parallel computers is used to obtain fast algorithms. 26 references.

  9. Industrial Robots on the Line.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayres, Robert; Miller, Steve

    1982-01-01

    Explores the history of robotics and its effects upon the manufacturing industry. Topics include robots' capabilities and limitations, the factory of the future, displacement of the workforce, and implications for management and labor. (SK)

  10. Robots Aboard International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Ames Research Center, MIT and Johnson Space Center have two new robotics projects aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Robonaut 2, a two-armed humanoid robot with astronaut-like dexterity,...

  11. Industrial robots on the line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, R.; Miller, S.

    1982-06-01

    The characteristics, applications, and operational capabilities of currently available robots are examined. Designed to function at tasks of a repetitive, hazardous, or uncreative nature, robot appendages are controlled by microprocessors which permit some simple decision-making on-the-job, and have served for sample gathering on the Mars Viking lander. Critical developmental areas concern active sensors at the robot grappler-object interface, where sufficient data must be gathered for the central processor to which the robot is attached to conclude the state of completion and suitability of the workpiece. Although present robots must be programmed through every step of a particular industrial process, thus limiting each robot to specialized tasks, the potential for closed cells of batch-processing robot-run units is noted to be close to realization. Finally, consideration is given to methods for retraining the human workforce that robots replace

  12. Robots and Kids: Classroom Encounters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Twila

    1984-01-01

    Describes how three different levels of students interacted with three different commercially available robots. Considers the educational value of these devices and provides a list of seven robots (indicating their source, computer compatibility, language, current cost, capabilities, and options). (JN)

  13. Basic Operational Robotics Instructional System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, Brian Keith; Fischer, James; Falgout, Jane; Schweers, John

    2013-01-01

    The Basic Operational Robotics Instructional System (BORIS) is a six-degree-of-freedom rotational robotic manipulator system simulation used for training of fundamental robotics concepts, with in-line shoulder, offset elbow, and offset wrist. BORIS is used to provide generic robotics training to aerospace professionals including flight crews, flight controllers, and robotics instructors. It uses forward kinematic and inverse kinematic algorithms to simulate joint and end-effector motion, combined with a multibody dynamics model, moving-object contact model, and X-Windows based graphical user interfaces, coordinated in the Trick Simulation modeling environment. The motivation for development of BORIS was the need for a generic system for basic robotics training. Before BORIS, introductory robotics training was done with either the SRMS (Shuttle Remote Manipulator System) or SSRMS (Space Station Remote Manipulator System) simulations. The unique construction of each of these systems required some specialized training that distracted students from the ideas and goals of the basic robotics instruction.

  14. ISS Update: Robotic Refueling Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot interviews Alex Janas, robotics operator from the Goddard Space Flight Center, about the Robotic Refueling Mission that has been taking place on the space stati...

  15. Linguistic decision making for robot route learning.

    PubMed

    He, Hongmei; McGinnity, Thomas Martin; Coleman, Sonya; Gardiner, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Machine learning enables the creation of a nonlinear mapping that describes robot-environment interaction, whereas computing linguistics make the interaction transparent. In this paper, we develop a novel application of a linguistic decision tree for a robot route learning problem by dynamically deciding the robot's behavior, which is decomposed into atomic actions in the context of a specified task. We examine the real-time performance of training and control of a linguistic decision tree, and explore the possibility of training a machine learning model in an adaptive system without dual CPUs for parallelization of training and control. A quantified evaluation approach is proposed, and a score is defined for the evaluation of a model's robustness regarding the quality of training data. Compared with the nonlinear system identification nonlinear auto-regressive moving average with eXogeneous inputs model structure with offline parameter estimation, the linguistic decision tree model with online linguistic ID3 learning achieves much better performance, robustness, and reliability. PMID:24806654

  16. Massively parallel mathematical sieves

    SciTech Connect

    Montry, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Sieve of Eratosthenes is a well-known algorithm for finding all prime numbers in a given subset of integers. A parallel version of the Sieve is described that produces computational speedups over 800 on a hypercube with 1,024 processing elements for problems of fixed size. Computational speedups as high as 980 are achieved when the problem size per processor is fixed. The method of parallelization generalizes to other sieves and will be efficient on any ensemble architecture. We investigate two highly parallel sieves using scattered decomposition and compare their performance on a hypercube multiprocessor. A comparison of different parallelization techniques for the sieve illustrates the trade-offs necessary in the design and implementation of massively parallel algorithms for large ensemble computers.

  17. Parallel computing works

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-23

    An account of the Caltech Concurrent Computation Program (C{sup 3}P), a five year project that focused on answering the question: Can parallel computers be used to do large-scale scientific computations '' As the title indicates, the question is answered in the affirmative, by implementing numerous scientific applications on real parallel computers and doing computations that produced new scientific results. In the process of doing so, C{sup 3}P helped design and build several new computers, designed and implemented basic system software, developed algorithms for frequently used mathematical computations on massively parallel machines, devised performance models and measured the performance of many computers, and created a high performance computing facility based exclusively on parallel computers. While the initial focus of C{sup 3}P was the hypercube architecture developed by C. Seitz, many of the methods developed and lessons learned have been applied successfully on other massively parallel architectures.

  18. Parallel algorithms and architectures for the manipulator inertia matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Amin-Javaheri, M.

    1989-01-01

    Several parallel algorithms and architectures to compute the manipulator inertia matrix in real time are proposed. An O(N) and an O(log{sub 2}N) parallel algorithm based upon recursive computation of the inertial parameters of sets of composite rigid bodies are formulated. One- and two-dimensional systolic architectures are presented to implement the O(N) parallel algorithm. A cube architecture is employed to implement the diagonal element of the inertia matrix in O(log{sub 2}N) time and the upper off-diagonal elements in O(N) time. The resulting K{sub 1}O(N) + K{sub 2}O(log{sub 2}N) parallel algorithm is more efficient for a cube network implementation. All the architectural configurations are based upon a VLSI Robotics Processor exploiting fine-grain parallelism. In evaluation all the architectural configurations, significant performance parameters such as I/O time and idle time due to processor synchronization as well as CPU utilization and on-chip memory size are fully included. The O(N) and O(log{sub 2}N) parallel algorithms adhere to the precedence relationships among the processors. In order to achieve a higher speedup factor; however, parallel algorithms in conjunction with Non-Strict Computational Models are devised to relax interprocess precedence, and as a result, to decrease the effective computational delays. The effectiveness of the Non-strict Computational Algorithms is verified by computer simulations, based on a PUMA 560 robot manipulator. It is demonstrated that a combination of parallel algorithms and architectures results in a very effective approach to achieve real-time response for computing the manipulator inertia matrix.

  19. Method for Six-Legged Robot Stepping on Obstacles by Indirect Force Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yilin; Gao, Feng; Pan, Yang; Chai, Xun

    2016-04-01

    Adaptive gaits for legged robots often requires force sensors installed on foot-tips, however impact, temperature or humidity can affect or even damage those sensors. Efforts have been made to realize indirect force estimation on the legged robots using leg structures based on planar mechanisms. Robot Octopus III is a six-legged robot using spatial parallel mechanism(UP-2UPS) legs. This paper proposed a novel method to realize indirect force estimation on walking robot based on a spatial parallel mechanism. The direct kinematics model and the inverse kinematics model are established. The force Jacobian matrix is derived based on the kinematics model. Thus, the indirect force estimation model is established. Then, the relation between the output torques of the three motors installed on one leg to the external force exerted on the foot tip is described. Furthermore, an adaptive tripod static gait is designed. The robot alters its leg trajectory to step on obstacles by using the proposed adaptive gait. Both the indirect force estimation model and the adaptive gait are implemented and optimized in a real time control system. An experiment is carried out to validate the indirect force estimation model. The adaptive gait is tested in another experiment. Experiment results show that the robot can successfully step on a 0.2 m-high obstacle. This paper proposes a novel method to overcome obstacles for the six-legged robot using spatial parallel mechanism legs and to avoid installing the electric force sensors in harsh environment of the robot's foot tips.

  20. Aerial Explorers and Robotic Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg

    2004-01-01

    A unique bio-inspired approach to autonomous aerial vehicle, a.k.a. aerial explorer technology is discussed. The work is focused on defining and studying aerial explorer mission concepts, both as an individual robotic system and as a member of a small robotic "ecosystem." Members of this robotic ecosystem include the aerial explorer, air-deployed sensors and robotic symbiotes, and other assets such as rovers, landers, and orbiters.

  1. Teen Sized Humanoid Robot: Archie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Jacky; Byagowi, Ahmad; Anderson, John; Kopacek, Peter

    This paper describes our first teen sized humanoid robot Archie. This robot has been developed in conjunction with Prof. Kopacek’s lab from the Technical University of Vienna. Archie uses brushless motors and harmonic gears with a novel approach to position encoding. Based on our previous experience with small humanoid robots, we developed software to create, store, and play back motions as well as control methods which automatically balance the robot using feedback from an internal measurement unit (IMU).

  2. Simply Coded Evolutionary Artificial Neural Networks on a Mobile Robot Control Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katada, Yoshiaki; Hidaka, Takuya

    One of the advantages of evolutionary robotics over other approaches in embodied cognitive science would be its parallel population search. Due to the population search, it takes a long time to evaluate all robot in a real environment. Thus, such techniques as to shorten the time are required for real robots to evolve in a real environment. This paper proposes to use simply coded evolutionary artificial neural networks for mobile robot control to make genetic search space as small as possible and investigates the performance of them using simulated and real robots. Two types of genetic algorithm (GA) are employed, one is the standard GA and the other is an extended GA, to achieve higher final fitnesses. The results suggest the benefits of the proposed method.

  3. [Advanced Development for Space Robotics With Emphasis on Fault Tolerance Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tesar, Delbert

    1997-01-01

    This report describes work developing fault tolerant redundant robotic architectures and adaptive control strategies for robotic manipulator systems which can dynamically accommodate drastic robot manipulator mechanism, sensor or control failures and maintain stable end-point trajectory control with minimum disturbance. Kinematic designs of redundant, modular, reconfigurable arms for fault tolerance were pursued at a fundamental level. The approach developed robotic testbeds to evaluate disturbance responses of fault tolerant concepts in robotic mechanisms and controllers. The development was implemented in various fault tolerant mechanism testbeds including duality in the joint servo motor modules, parallel and serial structural architectures, and dual arms. All have real-time adaptive controller technologies to react to mechanism or controller disturbances (failures) to perform real-time reconfiguration to continue the task operations. The developments fall into three main areas: hardware, software, and theoretical.

  4. Space-time modeling using environmental constraints in a mobile robot system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, Marc G.

    1990-01-01

    Grid-based models of a robot's local environment have been used by many researchers building mobile robot control systems. The attraction of grid-based models is their clear parallel between the internal model and the external world. However, the discrete nature of such representations does not match well with the continuous nature of actions and usually serves to limit the abilities of the robot. This work describes a spatial modeling system that extracts information from a grid-based representation to form a symbolic representation of the robot's local environment. The approach makes a separation between the representation provided by the sensing system and the representation used by the action system. Separation allows asynchronous operation between sensing and action in a mobile robot, as well as the generation of a more continuous representation upon which to base actions.

  5. Applications of concurrent neuromorphic algorithms for autonomous robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhen, J.; Dress, W. B.; Jorgensen, C. C.

    1988-01-01

    This article provides an overview of studies at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) of neural networks running on parallel machines applied to the problems of autonomous robotics. The first section provides the motivation for our work in autonomous robotics and introduces the computational hardware in use. Section 2 presents two theorems concerning the storage capacity and stability of neural networks. Section 3 presents a novel load-balancing algorithm implemented with a neural network. Section 4 introduces the robotics test bed now in place. Section 5 concerns navigation issues in the test-bed system. Finally, Section 6 presents a frequency-coded network model and shows how Darwinian techniques are applied to issues of parameter optimization and on-line design.

  6. Technical issues in using robots to reproduce joint specific gait.

    PubMed

    Rosvold, J M; Darcy, S P; Peterson, R C; Achari, Y; Corr, D T; Marchuk, L L; Frank, C B; Shrive, N G; Rosvold, Joshua M; Darcy, Shon P; Peterson, Robert C; Achari, Yamini; Corr, David T; Marchuk, Linda L; Frank, Cyril B; Shrive, Nigel G

    2011-05-01

    Reproduction of the in vivo motions of joints has become possible with improvements in robot technology and in vivo measuring techniques. A motion analysis system has been used to measure the motions of the tibia and femur of the ovine stifle joint during normal gait. These in vivo motions are then reproduced with a parallel robot. To ensure that the motion of the joint is accurately reproduced and that the resulting data are reliable, the testing frame, the data acquisition system, and the effects of limitations of the testing platform need to be considered. Of the latter, the stiffness of the robot and the ability of the control system to process sequential points on the path of motion in a timely fashion for repeatable path accuracy are of particular importance. Use of the system developed will lead to a better understanding of the mechanical environment of joints and ligaments in vivo. PMID:21599101

  7. Biologically inspired intelligent robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Breazeal, Cynthia

    2003-07-01

    Humans throughout history have always sought to mimic the appearance, mobility, functionality, intelligent operation, and thinking process of biological creatures. This field of biologically inspired technology, having the moniker biomimetics, has evolved from making static copies of human and animals in the form of statues to the emergence of robots that operate with realistic behavior. Imagine a person walking towards you where suddenly you notice something weird about him--he is not real but rather he is a robot. Your reaction would probably be "I can't believe it but this robot looks very real" just as you would react to an artificial flower that is a good imitation. You may even proceed and touch the robot to check if your assessment is correct but, as oppose to the flower case, the robot may be programmed to respond physical and verbally. This science fiction scenario could become a reality as the current trend continues in developing biologically inspired technologies. Technology evolution led to such fields as artificial muscles, artificial intelligence, and artificial vision as well as biomimetic capabilities in materials science, mechanics, electronics, computing science, information technology and many others. This paper will review the state of the art and challenges to biologically-inspired technologies and the role that EAP is expected to play as the technology evolves.

  8. Robotic Microsurgery Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Brahmbhatt, Jamin V; Gudeloglu, Ahmet; Liverneaux, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The increased application of the da Vinci robotic platform (Intuitive Surgical Inc.) for microsurgery has led to the development of new adjunctive surgical instrumentation. In microsurgery, the robotic platform can provide high definition 12×-15× digital magnification, broader range of motion, fine instrument handling with decreased tremor, reduced surgeon fatigue, and improved surgical productivity. This paper presents novel adjunctive tools that provide enhanced optical magnification, micro-Doppler sensing of vessels down to a 1-mm size, vein mapping capabilities, hydro-dissection, micro-ablation technology (with minimal thermal spread-CO2 laser technology), and confocal microscopy to provide imaging at a cellular level. Microsurgical outcomes from the use of these tools in the management of patients with infertility and chronic groin and testicular pain are reviewed. All these instruments have been adapted for the robotic console and enhance the robot-assisted microsurgery experience. As the popularity of robot-assisted microsurgery grows, so will its breadth of instrumentation. PMID:24883272

  9. Modular robotic architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smurlo, Richard P.; Laird, Robin T.

    1991-03-01

    The development of control architectures for mobile systems is typically a task undertaken with each new application. These architectures address different operational needs and tend to be difficult to adapt to more than the problem at hand. The development of a flexible and extendible control system with evolutionary growth potential for use on mobile robots will help alleviate these problems and if made widely available will promote standardization and cornpatibility among systems throughout the industry. The Modular Robotic Architecture (MRA) is a generic control systern that meets the above needs by providing developers with a standard set of software hardware tools that can be used to design modular robots (MODBOTs) with nearly unlimited growth potential. The MODBOT itself is a generic creature that must be customized by the developer for a particular application. The MRA facilitates customization of the MODBOT by providing sensor actuator and processing modules that can be configured in almost any manner as demanded by the application. The Mobile Security Robot (MOSER) is an instance of a MODBOT that is being developed using the MRA. Navigational Sonar Module RF Link Control Station Module hR Link Detection Module Near hR Proximi Sensor Module Fluxgate Compass and Rate Gyro Collision Avoidance Sonar Module Figure 1. Remote platform module configuration of the Mobile Security Robot (MOSER). Acoustical Detection Array Stereoscopic Pan and Tilt Module High Level Processing Module Mobile Base 566

  10. Robotic microsurgery optimization.

    PubMed

    Brahmbhatt, Jamin V; Gudeloglu, Ahmet; Liverneaux, Philippe; Parekattil, Sijo J

    2014-05-01

    The increased application of the da Vinci robotic platform (Intuitive Surgical Inc.) for microsurgery has led to the development of new adjunctive surgical instrumentation. In microsurgery, the robotic platform can provide high definition 12×-15× digital magnification, broader range of motion, fine instrument handling with decreased tremor, reduced surgeon fatigue, and improved surgical productivity. This paper presents novel adjunctive tools that provide enhanced optical magnification, micro-Doppler sensing of vessels down to a 1-mm size, vein mapping capabilities, hydro-dissection, micro-ablation technology (with minimal thermal spread-CO2 laser technology), and confocal microscopy to provide imaging at a cellular level. Microsurgical outcomes from the use of these tools in the management of patients with infertility and chronic groin and testicular pain are reviewed. All these instruments have been adapted for the robotic console and enhance the robot-assisted microsurgery experience. As the popularity of robot-assisted microsurgery grows, so will its breadth of instrumentation. PMID:24883272

  11. Engineering robust intelligent robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, E. L.; Ali, S. M. Alhaj; Ghaffari, M.; Liao, X.; Cao, M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the challenge of engineering robust intelligent robots. Robust intelligent robots may be considered as ones that not only work in one environment but rather in all types of situations and conditions. Our past work has described sensors for intelligent robots that permit adaptation to changes in the environment. We have also described the combination of these sensors with a "creative controller" that permits adaptive critic, neural network learning, and a dynamic database that permits task selection and criteria adjustment. However, the emphasis of this paper is on engineering solutions which are designed for robust operations and worst case situations such as day night cameras or rain and snow solutions. This ideal model may be compared to various approaches that have been implemented on "production vehicles and equipment" using Ethernet, CAN Bus and JAUS architectures and to modern, embedded, mobile computing architectures. Many prototype intelligent robots have been developed and demonstrated in terms of scientific feasibility but few have reached the stage of a robust engineering solution. Continual innovation and improvement are still required. The significance of this comparison is that it provides some insights that may be useful in designing future robots for various manufacturing, medical, and defense applications where robust and reliable performance is essential.

  12. Robotics, Ethics, and Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganascia, Jean-Gabriel

    It may seem out of character to find a chapter on robotics in a book about nanotechnology, and even more so a chapter on the application of ethics to robots. Indeed, as we shall see, the questions look quite different in these two fields, i.e., in robotics and nanoscience. In short, in the case of robots, we are dealing with artificial beings endowed with higher cognitive faculties, such as language, reasoning, action, and perception, whereas in the case of nano-objects, we are talking about invisible macromolecules which act, move, and duplicate unseen to us. In one case, we find ourselves confronted by a possibly evil double of ourselves, and in the other, a creeping and intangible nebula assails us from all sides. In one case, we are faced with an alter ego which, although unknown, is clearly perceptible, while in the other, an unspeakable ooze, the notorious grey goo, whose properties are both mysterious and sinister, enters and immerses us. This leads to a shift in the ethical problem situation: the notion of responsibility can no longer be worded in the same terms because, despite its otherness, the robot can always be located somewhere, while in the case of nanotechnologies, myriad nanometric objects permeate everywhere, disseminating uncontrollably.

  13. Quantum robots plus environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Benioff, P.

    1998-07-23

    A quantum robot is a mobile quantum system, including an on board quantum computer and needed ancillary systems, that interacts with an environment of quantum systems. Quantum robots carry out tasks whose goals include making specified changes in the state of the environment or carrying out measurements on the environment. The environments considered so far, oracles, data bases, and quantum registers, are seen to be special cases of environments considered here. It is also seen that a quantum robot should include a quantum computer and cannot be simply a multistate head. A model of quantum robots and their interactions is discussed in which each task, as a sequence of alternating computation and action phases,is described by a unitary single time step operator T {approx} T{sub a} + T{sub c} (discrete space and time are assumed). The overall system dynamics is described as a sum over paths of completed computation (T{sub c}) and action (T{sub a}) phases. A simple example of a task, measuring the distance between the quantum robot and a particle on a 1D lattice with quantum phase path dispersion present, is analyzed. A decision diagram for the task is presented and analyzed.

  14. The problem with multiple robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Marcus J.; Kenny, Patrick G.

    1994-01-01

    The issues that can arise in research associated with multiple, robotic agents are discussed. Two particular multi-robot projects are presented as examples. This paper was written in the hope that it might ease the transition from single to multiple robot research.

  15. Adaptive Language Games with Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steels, Luc

    2010-11-01

    This paper surveys recent research into language evolution using computer simulations and robotic experiments. This field has made tremendous progress in the past decade going from simple simulations of lexicon formation with animallike cybernetic robots to sophisticated grammatical experiments with humanoid robots.

  16. Humans and Robots. Educational Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This brief discusses human movement and robotic human movement simulators. The activity for students in grades 5-12 provides a history of robotic movement and includes making an End Effector for the robotic arms used on the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS). (MVL)

  17. Flexible control for welding robots

    SciTech Connect

    Mangold, V.L. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    The single limiting characteristic of robot welding applications that typically impairs the success and functionality of a robot welding work cell is workpiece or process-specific variances. Nearly as problematic for most robot arc welding applications in the near term, and potentially a larger problem in the future, is the compatibility of control systems utilized with industrial robots. The robot industry has developed over time in a manner that is significantly different than a related capital equipment genre, metal cutting machine tools. The robot industry, impacted by the overwhelming dominance of Japanese and European producers, have tended toward proprietary control systems that utilized application software that is nonstandard in nature and nontransportable from one robot product to another. This presentation discusses the use of standard platform controls with transportable welding software written in C or C++ code that can greatly increase the flexibility of robot welding operations. The presentation discusses the use of an Adept 1, Allen Bradley and Giddings and Lewis control system interchangeably with the same 6-axis arm robot for arc welding purposes. The flexibility of pin compatible control systems and software that is transportable from one robot line to another will greatly improve robot system performance. The long term maintenance cost and ultimately the financial viability of job shop, small parts robotic arc welding applications will also be enhanced.

  18. Robot Technology: Implications for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Paul E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Provides an introduction to robotic technology, and describes current robot models. Three ways of using robots in education are discussed--as exemplars of other processes, as objects of instruction, and as prosthetic aids--and selection criteria are outlined. (17 references) (CLB)

  19. Robotic Design for the Classroom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbert, Chris; Burns, Kaylynn

    2001-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of robotic design to interest students in science and engineering. It describes one program, BEST, and resources that area available to design and create a robot. BEST is a competition for sixth and seventh graders that is designed to engage gifted and talented students. A couple of scenarios involving the use of a robot are outlined.

  20. Smart robots: a handbook of intelligent robotic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, V.D.

    1985-01-01

    Smart robots, designed to improve the quality and increase both the productivity and profitability of manufactured goods, are discussed in detail. Attention is focused on: (1) artificial intelligence for smart robots, (2) smart robot systems, (3) sensor-controlled robots, (4) machine vision systems, (5) robot manipulators, (6) locomotion, (7) natural languagae processing, (8) expert systems, and (9) computer integrated manufacturing. Photographs, charts and diagrams illustrate the systems covered. Areas of successful application to date include the automobile industry, textiles, forging, die casting and electronics. 110 references.

  1. Dimensional synthesis of a 3-DOF parallel manipulator with full circle rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Yanbing; Wu, Nan; Zhong, Xueyong; Zhang, Biao

    2015-07-01

    Parallel robots are widely used in the academic and industrial fields. In spite of the numerous achievements in the design and dimensional synthesis of the low-mobility parallel robots, few research efforts are directed towards the asymmetric 3-DOF parallel robots whose end-effector can realize 2 translational and 1 rotational(2T1R) motion. In order to develop a manipulator with the capability of full circle rotation to enlarge the workspace, a new 2T1R parallel mechanism is proposed. The modeling approach and kinematic analysis of this proposed mechanism are investigated. Using the method of vector analysis, the inverse kinematic equations are established. This is followed by a vigorous proof that this mechanism attains an annular workspace through its circular rotation and 2 dimensional translations. Taking the first order perturbation of the kinematic equations, the error Jacobian matrix which represents the mapping relationship between the error sources of geometric parameters and the end-effector position errors is derived. With consideration of the constraint conditions of pressure angles and feasible workspace, the dimensional synthesis is conducted with a goal to minimize the global comprehensive performance index. The dimension parameters making the mechanism to have optimal error mapping and kinematic performance are obtained through the optimization algorithm. All these research achievements lay the foundation for the prototype building of such kind of parallel robots.

  2. Parallel nearest neighbor calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trease, Harold

    We are just starting to parallelize the nearest neighbor portion of our free-Lagrange code. Our implementation of the nearest neighbor reconnection algorithm has not been parallelizable (i.e., we just flip one connection at a time). In this paper we consider what sort of nearest neighbor algorithms lend themselves to being parallelized. For example, the construction of the Voronoi mesh can be parallelized, but the construction of the Delaunay mesh (dual to the Voronoi mesh) cannot because of degenerate connections. We will show our most recent attempt to tessellate space with triangles or tetrahedrons with a new nearest neighbor construction algorithm called DAM (Dial-A-Mesh). This method has the characteristics of a parallel algorithm and produces a better tessellation of space than the Delaunay mesh. Parallel processing is becoming an everyday reality for us at Los Alamos. Our current production machines are Cray YMPs with 8 processors that can run independently or combined to work on one job. We are also exploring massive parallelism through the use of two 64K processor Connection Machines (CM2), where all the processors run in lock step mode. The effective application of 3-D computer models requires the use of parallel processing to achieve reasonable "turn around" times for our calculations.

  3. Bilingual parallel programming

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.; Overbeek, R.

    1990-01-01

    Numerous experiments have demonstrated that computationally intensive algorithms support adequate parallelism to exploit the potential of large parallel machines. Yet successful parallel implementations of serious applications are rare. The limiting factor is clearly programming technology. None of the approaches to parallel programming that have been proposed to date -- whether parallelizing compilers, language extensions, or new concurrent languages -- seem to adequately address the central problems of portability, expressiveness, efficiency, and compatibility with existing software. In this paper, we advocate an alternative approach to parallel programming based on what we call bilingual programming. We present evidence that this approach provides and effective solution to parallel programming problems. The key idea in bilingual programming is to construct the upper levels of applications in a high-level language while coding selected low-level components in low-level languages. This approach permits the advantages of a high-level notation (expressiveness, elegance, conciseness) to be obtained without the cost in performance normally associated with high-level approaches. In addition, it provides a natural framework for reusing existing code.

  4. RX130 Robot Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fugal, Mario

    2012-10-01

    In order to create precision magnets for an experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a new reverse engineering method has been proposed that uses the magnetic scalar potential to solve for the currents necessary to produce the desired field. To make the magnet it is proposed to use a copper coated G10 form, upon which a drill, mounted on a robotic arm, will carve wires. The accuracy required in the manufacturing of the wires exceeds nominal robot capabilities. However, due to the rigidity as well as the precision servo motor and harmonic gear drivers, there are robots capable of meeting this requirement with proper calibration. Improving the accuracy of an RX130 to be within 35 microns (the accuracy necessary of the wires) is the goal of this project. Using feedback from a displacement sensor, or camera and inverse kinematics it is possible to achieve this accuracy.

  5. Advanced mechanisms for robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of applied research and development at NASA-Goddard (GSFC) on mechanisms and the collision avoidance skin for robots is presented. First the work on robot end effectors is outlined, followed by a brief discussion on robot-friendly payload latching mechanisms and compliant joints. This, in turn, is followed by the collision avoidance/management skin and the GSFC research on magnetostrictive direct drive motors. Finally, a new project, the artificial muscle, is introduced. Each of the devices is described in sufficient detail to permit a basic understanding of its purpose, fundamental principles of operation, and capabilities. In addition, the development status of each is reported along with descriptions of breadboards and prototypes and their test results. In each case, the implications of the research for commercialization is discussed. The chronology of the presentation will give a clear idea of both the evolution of the R&D in recent years and its likely direction in the future.

  6. The Robotic FLOYDS Spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sand, D.

    I will discuss the twin FLOYDS robotic spectrographs, operating at the 2m Faulkes Telescopes North and South. The FLOYDS instruments were designed with supernova classification and monitoring in mind, with a very large wavelength coverage (˜320 to 1000 nm) and a resolution (R ˜ 300 - 500, wavelength dependent) well-matched to the broad features of these and other transient and time domain events. Robotic acquisition of spectroscopic targets is the key ingredient for making robotic spectroscopy possible, and FLOYDS uses a slit-viewing camera with a ˜ 4‧ × 6‧ field to either do direct world coordinate system fitting or standard blind offsets to automatically place science targets into the slit. Future work includes an 'all-electronic' target of opportunity mode, which will allow for fast transient spectroscopy with no human necessary, even for inputting information into a phase 2 GUI. Initial science highlights from FLOYDS will also be presented.

  7. FIRST robots compete

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    FIRST teams and their robots work to go through the right motions at the FIRST competition. Students from all over the country are at the KSC Visitor Complex for the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Southeast Regional competition March 9-11 in the Rocket Garden. Teams of high school students are testing the limits of their imagination using robots they have designed, with the support of business and engineering professionals and corporate sponsors, to compete in a technological battle against other schools' robots. Of the 30 high school teams competing, 16 are Florida teams co-sponsored by NASA and KSC contractors. Local high schools participating are Astronaut, Bayside, Cocoa Beach, Eau Gallie, Melbourne, Melbourne Central Catholic, Palm Bay, Rockledge, Satellite, and Titusville.

  8. Forward Deployed Robotic Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brendle, Bruce E., Jr.; Bornstein, Jonathan A.

    2000-07-01

    Forward Deployed Robotic Unit (FDRU) is a core science and technology objective of the US Army, which will demonstrate the impact of autonomous systems on all phases of future land warfare. It will develop, integrate and demonstrate technology required to achieve robotic and fire control capabilities for future land combat vehicles, e.g., Future Combat Systems, using a system of systems approach that culminates in a field demonstration in 2005. It will also provide the required unmanned assets and conduct the demonstration. Battle Lab Warfighting Experiments and data analysis required to understand the effects of unmanned assets on combat operations. The US Army Tank- Automotive & Armaments Command and the US Army Research Laboratory are teaming in an effort to leverage prior technology achievements in the areas of autonomous mobility, architecture, sensor and robotics system integration; advance the state-of-the-art in these areas; and to provide field demonstration/application of the technologies.

  9. ISS Robotic Student Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, J.; Benavides, J.; Hanson, R.; Cortez, J.; Le Vasseur, D.; Soloway, D.; Oyadomari, K.

    2016-01-01

    The SPHERES facility is a set of three free-flying satellites launched in 2006. In addition to scientists and engineering, middle- and high-school students program the SPHERES during the annual Zero Robotics programming competition. Zero Robotics conducts virtual competitions via simulator and on SPHERES aboard the ISS, with students doing the programming. A web interface allows teams to submit code, receive results, collaborate, and compete in simulator-based initial rounds and semi-final rounds. The final round of each competition is conducted with SPHERES aboard the ISS. At the end of 2017 a new robotic platform called Astrobee will launch, providing new game elements and new ground support for even more student interaction.

  10. Human-Robot Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochlis-Zumbado, Jennifer; Sandor, Aniko; Ezer, Neta

    2012-01-01

    Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI) is a new Human Research Program (HRP) risk. HRI is a research area that seeks to understand the complex relationship among variables that affect the way humans and robots work together to accomplish goals. The DRP addresses three major HRI study areas that will provide appropriate information for navigation guidance to a teleoperator of a robot system, and contribute to the closure of currently identified HRP gaps: (1) Overlays -- Use of overlays for teleoperation to augment the information available on the video feed (2) Camera views -- Type and arrangement of camera views for better task performance and awareness of surroundings (3) Command modalities -- Development of gesture and voice command vocabularies

  11. Parallel system simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, H.M.; Saeks, R.

    1984-03-01

    A relaxation algorithm for solving large-scale system simulation problems in parallel is proposed. The algorithm, which is composed of both a time-step parallel algorithm and a component-wise parallel algorithm, is described. The interconnected nature of the system, which is characterized by the component connection model, is fully exploited by this approach. A technique for finding an optimal number of the time steps is also described. Finally, this algorithm is illustrated via several examples in which the possible trade-offs between the speed-up ratio, efficiency, and waiting time are analyzed.

  12. The NAS parallel benchmarks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, David (Editor); Barton, John (Editor); Lasinski, Thomas (Editor); Simon, Horst (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    A new set of benchmarks was developed for the performance evaluation of highly parallel supercomputers. These benchmarks consist of a set of kernels, the 'Parallel Kernels,' and a simulated application benchmark. Together they mimic the computation and data movement characteristics of large scale computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applications. The principal distinguishing feature of these benchmarks is their 'pencil and paper' specification - all details of these benchmarks are specified only algorithmically. In this way many of the difficulties associated with conventional benchmarking approaches on highly parallel systems are avoided.

  13. Put Your Robot In, Put Your Robot Out: Sequencing through Programming Robots in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazakoff, Elizabeth R.; Bers, Marina Umaschi

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the impact of programming robots on sequencing ability in early childhood. Thirty-four children (ages 4.5-6.5 years) participated in computer programming activities with a developmentally appropriate tool, CHERP, specifically designed to program a robot's behaviors. The children learned to build and program robots over three…

  14. Robot welding process control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romine, Peter L.

    1991-01-01

    This final report documents the development and installation of software and hardware for Robotic Welding Process Control. Primary emphasis is on serial communications between the CYRO 750 robotic welder, Heurikon minicomputer running Hunter & Ready VRTX, and an IBM PC/AT, for offline programming and control and closed-loop welding control. The requirements for completion of the implementation of the Rocketdyne weld tracking control are discussed. The procedure for downloading programs from the Intergraph, over the network, is discussed. Conclusions are made on the results of this task, and recommendations are made for efficient implementation of communications, weld process control development, and advanced process control procedures using the Heurikon.

  15. Robotic Planetary Drill Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Brian J.; Thompson, S.; Paulsen, G.

    2010-01-01

    Several proposed or planned planetary science missions to Mars and other Solar System bodies over the next decade require subsurface access by drilling. This paper discusses the problems of remote robotic drilling, an automation and control architecture based loosely on observed human behaviors in drilling on Earth, and an overview of robotic drilling field test results using this architecture since 2005. Both rotary-drag and rotary-percussive drills are targeted. A hybrid diagnostic approach incorporates heuristics, model-based reasoning and vibration monitoring with neural nets. Ongoing work leads to flight-ready drilling software.

  16. Robotic component preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Dokos, J.R.

    1986-04-01

    This report provides information on the preparation of robotic components. Component preparation includes pretinning or solder dipping, preforming, and pretrimming of component leads. Since about 70% of all components are axial-leaded resistor-type components, it was decided to begin with them and then later develop capabilities to handle other types. The first workcell is the first phase of an overall system to pretin, preform, and pretrim all components and to feed them to an automatic insertion system. Before use of the robot, a Unimation PUMA Modal 260, pretinning and preforming was done by first hand with a shield and vented booth.

  17. [Nephrectomy - pro robotic].

    PubMed

    Buse, S

    2012-05-01

    The last two decades have witnessed the rapid dissemination of robot-assisted laparoscopic urological surgery related to the technical advantages of this new laparoscopic tool. Master-slave systems ease intracorporeal anastomosis and the performance of technically highly demanding procedures, as reflected by a steep learning curve. Robot-assistance is particularly useful for partial nephrectomy, live-donor kidney transplantation, extended procedures, e.g. upper and lower urogenital tract resection and difficult anatomy as encountered in obese patients or patient with a history of multiple intraperitoneal procedures. PMID:22526189

  18. Microwave vision for robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Leon; Struckman, Keith

    1994-01-01

    Microwave Vision (MV), a concept originally developed in 1985, could play a significant role in the solution to robotic vision problems. Originally our Microwave Vision concept was based on a pattern matching approach employing computer based stored replica correlation processing. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) processor technology offers an attractive alternative to the correlation processing approach, namely the ability to learn and to adapt to changing environments. This paper describes the Microwave Vision concept, some initial ANN-MV experiments, and the design of an ANN-MV system that has led to a second patent disclosure in the robotic vision field.

  19. Segway robotic mobility platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hoa G.; Morrell, John; Mullens, Katherine D.; Burmeister, Aaron B.; Miles, Susan; Farrington, Nathan; Thomas, Kari M.; Gage, Douglas W.

    2004-12-01

    The Segway Robotic Mobility Platform (RMP) is a new mobile robotic platform based on the self-balancing Segway Human Transporter (HT). The Segway RMP is faster, cheaper, and more agile than existing comparable platforms. It is also rugged, has a small footprint, a zero turning radius, and yet can carry a greater payload. The new geometry of the platform presents researchers with an opportunity to examine novel topics, including people-height sensing and actuation modalities. This paper describes the history and development of the platform, its characteristics, and a summary of current research projects involving the platform at various institutions across the United States.

  20. Transoral robotic thyroid surgery

    PubMed Central

    Clark, James H.; Kim, Hoon Yub

    2015-01-01

    There is currently significant demand for minimally invasive thyroid surgery; however the majority of proposed surgical approaches necessitate a compromise between minimal tissue dissection with a visible cervical scar or extensive tissue dissection with a remote, hidden scar. The development of transoral endoscopic thyroid surgery however provides an approach which is truly minimally invasive, as it conceals the incision within the oral cavity without significantly increasing the amount of required dissection. The transoral endoscopic approach however presents multiple technical challenges, which could be overcome with the incorporation of a robotic operating system. This manuscript summarizes the literature on the feasibility and current clinical experience with transoral robotic thyroid surgery. PMID:26425456

  1. Dextrous robot hands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkataraman, Subramanian T. (Editor); Iberall, Thea (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies of human hand function and their implications for the design of robot hands are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include human grasp choice and robotic grasp analysis, opposition space and human prehension, coordination in normal and prosthetic reaching, and intelligent exploration by the human hand. Consideration is given to a task-oriented dextrous manipulation architecture, the control architecture for the Belgrade/USC hand, the analysis of multifingered grasping and manipulation, and tactile sensing for shape interpretation. Diagrams, graphs, and photographs are provided.

  2. Robust Software Architecture for Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aghazanian, Hrand; Baumgartner, Eric; Garrett, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Robust Real-Time Reconfigurable Robotics Software Architecture (R4SA) is the name of both a software architecture and software that embodies the architecture. The architecture was conceived in the spirit of current practice in designing modular, hard, realtime aerospace systems. The architecture facilitates the integration of new sensory, motor, and control software modules into the software of a given robotic system. R4SA was developed for initial application aboard exploratory mobile robots on Mars, but is adaptable to terrestrial robotic systems, real-time embedded computing systems in general, and robotic toys.

  3. SDIO robotics in space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Richard

    1990-01-01

    Robotics in space supporting the Strategic Defense System (SDS) program is discussed. Ongoing initiatives which are intended to establish an initial Robotics in Space capability are addressed. This is specifically being referred to as the Satellite Servicing System (SSS). This system is based on the NASA Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) with a Robotic Manipulator(s) based on the NASA Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) and other SSS equipment required to do the satellite servicing work attached to the OMV. Specific Robotics in Space Requirements which have resulted from the completion of the Robotics Requirements Study Contract are addressed.

  4. Programming environment for parallel-vision algorithms. Final technical report, February 1988-December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.

    1990-04-11

    This contract developed and disseminated papers, ideas, algorithms, analysis, software, applications, and implementations for parallel programming environments for computer vision and for vision applications. The work has been widely reported and highly influential. The most significant work centered on the Butterfly Parallel Processor, the MaxVideo pipelined parallel image processor, and the development of the real-time computer vision laboratory. For the Butterfly, the Psyche multi-model operating system was developed and the CONSUL autoparallelizing compiler was designed. Much basic and influential performance monitoring and debugging work was completed, resulting in working systems and novel algorithms. There was also significant research in systems and applications using other parallel architectures in the laboratory, such as the MaxVideo parallel pipelined image processor. The contract developed a heterogeneous parallel architecture involving pipelined and MIMD parallelism and integrated it with a robot head.

  5. Rochester checkers player: Multi-model parallel programming for animate vision. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, B.D.; Brown, C.M.; LeBlanc, T.J.; Scott, M.L.; Becker, T.G.

    1991-06-01

    Animate vision systems couple computer vision and robotics to achieve robust and accurate vision, as well as other complex behavior. These systems combine low-level sensory processing and effector output with high-level cognitive planning - all computationally intensive tasks that can benefit from parallel processing. No single model of parallel programming is likely to serve for all tasks, however. Early vision algorithms are intensely data parallel, often utilizing fine-grain parallel computations that share an image, while cognition algorithms decompose naturally by function, often consisting of loosely-coupled, coarse-grain parallel units. A typical animate vision application will likely consist of many tasks, each of which may require a different parallel programming model, and all of which must cooperate to achieve the desired behavior. These multi-model programs require an underlying software system that not only supports several different models of parallel computation simultaneously, but which also allows tasks implemented in different models to interact.

  6. Parallel programming with PCN

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.; Tuecke, S.

    1991-12-01

    PCN is a system for developing and executing parallel programs. It comprises a high-level programming language, tools for developing and debugging programs in this language, and interfaces to Fortran and C that allow the reuse of existing code in multilingual parallel programs. Programs developed using PCN are portable across many different workstations, networks, and parallel computers. This document provides all the information required to develop parallel programs with the PCN programming system. In includes both tutorial and reference material. It also presents the basic concepts that underly PCN, particularly where these are likely to be unfamiliar to the reader, and provides pointers to other documentation on the PCN language, programming techniques, and tools. PCN is in the public domain. The latest version of both the software and this manual can be obtained by anonymous FTP from Argonne National Laboratory in the directory pub/pcn at info.mcs.anl.gov (c.f. Appendix A).

  7. Parallels with nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-10-01

    Adam Nelson and Stuart Warriner, from the University of Leeds, talk with Nature Chemistry about their work to develop viable synthetic strategies for preparing new chemical structures in parallel with the identification of desirable biological activity.

  8. The Parallel Axiom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Pat

    1972-01-01

    Criteria for a reasonable axiomatic system are discussed. A discussion of the historical attempts to prove the independence of Euclids parallel postulate introduces non-Euclidean geometries. Poincare's model for a non-Euclidean geometry is defined and analyzed. (LS)

  9. Simplified Parallel Domain Traversal

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson III, David J

    2011-01-01

    Many data-intensive scientific analysis techniques require global domain traversal, which over the years has been a bottleneck for efficient parallelization across distributed-memory architectures. Inspired by MapReduce and other simplified parallel programming approaches, we have designed DStep, a flexible system that greatly simplifies efficient parallelization of domain traversal techniques at scale. In order to deliver both simplicity to users as well as scalability on HPC platforms, we introduce a novel two-tiered communication architecture for managing and exploiting asynchronous communication loads. We also integrate our design with advanced parallel I/O techniques that operate directly on native simulation output. We demonstrate DStep by performing teleconnection analysis across ensemble runs of terascale atmospheric CO{sub 2} and climate data, and we show scalability results on up to 65,536 IBM BlueGene/P cores.

  10. Partitioning and parallel radiosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merzouk, S.; Winkler, C.; Paul, J. C.

    1996-03-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework, based on domain subdivision for parallel radiosity. Moreover, three various implementation approaches, taking advantage of partitioning algorithms and global shared memory architecture, are presented.

  11. Scalable parallel communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maly, K.; Khanna, S.; Overstreet, C. M.; Mukkamala, R.; Zubair, M.; Sekhar, Y. S.; Foudriat, E. C.

    1992-01-01

    Coarse-grain parallelism in networking (that is, the use of multiple protocol processors running replicated software sending over several physical channels) can be used to provide gigabit communications for a single application. Since parallel network performance is highly dependent on real issues such as hardware properties (e.g., memory speeds and cache hit rates), operating system overhead (e.g., interrupt handling), and protocol performance (e.g., effect of timeouts), we have performed detailed simulations studies of both a bus-based multiprocessor workstation node (based on the Sun Galaxy MP multiprocessor) and a distributed-memory parallel computer node (based on the Touchstone DELTA) to evaluate the behavior of coarse-grain parallelism. Our results indicate: (1) coarse-grain parallelism can deliver multiple 100 Mbps with currently available hardware platforms and existing networking protocols (such as Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and parallel Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) rings); (2) scale-up is near linear in n, the number of protocol processors, and channels (for small n and up to a few hundred Mbps); and (3) since these results are based on existing hardware without specialized devices (except perhaps for some simple modifications of the FDDI boards), this is a low cost solution to providing multiple 100 Mbps on current machines. In addition, from both the performance analysis and the properties of these architectures, we conclude: (1) multiple processors providing identical services and the use of space division multiplexing for the physical channels can provide better reliability than monolithic approaches (it also provides graceful degradation and low-cost load balancing); (2) coarse-grain parallelism supports running several transport protocols in parallel to provide different types of service (for example, one TCP handles small messages for many users, other TCP's running in parallel provide high bandwidth

  12. [Robotic surgery in gynecology].

    PubMed

    Hibner, Michał; Marianowski, Piotr; Szymusik, Iwona; Wielgós, Mirosław

    2012-12-01

    Introduction of robotic surgery in the first decade of the 21 century was one of the biggest breakthroughs in surgery since the introduction of anesthesia. For the first time in history the surgeon was placed remotely from the patient and was able to operate with the device that has more degrees of freedom than human hand. Initially developed for the US Military in order to allow surgeons to be removed from the battlefield, surgical robots quickly made a leap to the mainstream medicine. One of the first surgical uses for the robot was cardiac surgery but it is urology and prostate surgery that gave it a widespread popularity Gynecologic surgeons caught on very quickly and it is estimated that 31% of hysterectomies done in the United States in 2012 will be done robotically. With over half a million hysterectomies done each year in the US alone, gynecologic surgery is one of the main driving forces behind the growth of robotic surgery Other applications in gynecology include myomectomy oophorectomy and ovarian cystectomy resection of endometriosis and lymphadenectomy Advantages of the surgical robot are clearly seen in myomectomy The wrist motion allows for better more precise suturing than conventional "straight stick" laparoscopy The strength of the arms allow for better pulling of the suture and the third arm for holding the suture on tension. Other advantage of the robot is scaling of the movements when big movement on the outside translates to very fine movement on the inside. This enables much more precise surgery and may be important in the procedures like tubal anastomosis and implantation of the ureter Three-dimensional vision provides excellent depth of field perception. It is important for surgeons who are switching from open surgeries and preliminary evidence shows that it may allow for better identification of lesions like endometriosis. Another big advantage of robotics is that the surgeon sits comfortably with his/her arms and head supported. This

  13. Open Issues in Evolutionary Robotics.

    PubMed

    Silva, Fernando; Duarte, Miguel; Correia, Luís; Oliveira, Sancho Moura; Christensen, Anders Lyhne

    2016-01-01

    One of the long-term goals in evolutionary robotics is to be able to automatically synthesize controllers for real autonomous robots based only on a task specification. While a number of studies have shown the applicability of evolutionary robotics techniques for the synthesis of behavioral control, researchers have consistently been faced with a number of issues preventing the widespread adoption of evolutionary robotics for engineering purposes. In this article, we review and discuss the open issues in evolutionary robotics. First, we analyze the benefits and challenges of simulation-based evolution and subsequent deployment of controllers versus evolution on real robotic hardware. Second, we discuss specific evolutionary computation issues that have plagued evolutionary robotics: (1) the bootstrap problem, (2) deception, and (3) the role of genomic encoding and genotype-phenotype mapping in the evolution of controllers for complex tasks. Finally, we address the absence of standard research practices in the field. We also discuss promising avenues of research. Our underlying motivation is the reduction of the current gap between evolutionary robotics and mainstream robotics, and the establishment of evolutionary robotics as a canonical approach for the engineering of autonomous robots. PMID:26581015

  14. Robotic technology in cardiovascular medicine.

    PubMed

    Bonatti, Johannes; Vetrovec, George; Riga, Celia; Wazni, Oussama; Stadler, Petr

    2014-05-01

    Robotic technology has been used in cardiovascular medicine since the late 1990s. Interventional cardiology, electrophysiology, endovascular surgery, minimally invasive cardiac surgery, and laparoscopic vascular surgery are all fields of application. Robotic devices enable endoscopic reconstructive surgery in narrow spaces and fast, very precise placement of catheters and devices in catheter-based interventions. In all robotic systems, the operator manipulates the robotic arms from a control station or console. In the field of cardiac surgery, mitral valve repair, CABG surgery, atrial septal defect repair, and myxoma resection can be achieved using robotic technology. Furthermore, vascular surgeons can perform a variety of robotically assisted operations to treat aortic, visceral, and peripheral artery disease. In electrophysiology, ablation procedures for atrial fibrillation can be carried out with robotic support. In the past few years, robotically assisted percutaneous coronary intervention and abdominal aortic endovascular surgery techniques have been developed. The basic feasibility and safety of robotic approaches in cardiovascular medicine has been demonstrated, but learning curves and the high costs associated with this technology have limited its widespread use. Nonetheless, increased procedural speed, accuracy, and reduced exposure to radiation and contrast agent in robotically assisted catheter-based interventions, as well as reduced surgical trauma and shortened patient recovery times after robotic cardiovascular surgery are promising achievements in the field. PMID:24663088

  15. Image processing photosensor for robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradov, Sergey L.; Shubin, Vitaly E.

    1995-01-01

    Some aspects of the possible applications of new, nontraditional generation of the advanced photosensors having the inherent internal image processing for multifunctional optoelectronic systems such as machine vision systems (MVS) are discussed. The optical information in these solid-state photosensors, so-called photoelectric structures with memory (PESM), is registered and stored in the form of 2D charge and potential patterns in the plane of the layers, and then it may be transferred and transformed in a normal direction due to interaction of these patterns. PESM ensure high operation potential of the massively parallel processing with effective rate up to 1014 operation/bit/s in such integral operations as addition, subtraction, contouring, correlation of images and so on. Most diverse devices and apparatus may be developed on their base, ranging from automatic rangefinders to the MVS for furnishing robotized industries. Principal features, physical backgrounds of the main primary operations, complex functional algorithms for object selection, tracking, and guidance are briefly described. The examples of the possible application of the PESM as an intellectual 'supervideosensor', that combines a high-quality imager, memory media and a high-capacity special-purpose processor will be presented.

  16. Very fast motion planning for highly dexterous-articulated robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Challou, Daniel J.; Gini, Maria; Kumar, Vipin

    1994-01-01

    Due to the inherent danger of space exploration, the need for greater use of teleoperated and autonomous robotic systems in space-based applications has long been apparent. Autonomous and semi-autonomous robotic devices have been proposed for carrying out routine functions associated with scientific experiments aboard the shuttle and space station. Finally, research into the use of such devices for planetary exploration continues. To accomplish their assigned tasks, all such autonomous and semi-autonomous devices will require the ability to move themselves through space without hitting themselves or the objects which surround them. In space it is important to execute the necessary motions correctly when they are first attempted because repositioning is expensive in terms of both time and resources (e.g., fuel). Finally, such devices will have to function in a variety of different environments. Given these constraints, a means for fast motion planning to insure the correct movement of robotic devices would be ideal. Unfortunately, motion planning algorithms are rarely used in practice because of their computational complexity. Fast methods have been developed for detecting imminent collisions, but the more general problem of motion planning remains computationally intractable. However, in this paper we show how the use of multicomputers and appropriate parallel algorithms can substantially reduce the time required to synthesize paths for dexterous articulated robots with a large number of joints. We have developed a parallel formulation of the Randomized Path Planner proposed by Barraquand and Latombe. We have shown that our parallel formulation is capable of formulating plans in a few seconds or less on various parallel architectures including: the nCUBE2 multicomputer with up to 1024 processors (nCUBE2 is a registered trademark of the nCUBE corporation), and a network of workstations.

  17. A prototype surgical manipulator for robotic intraocular micro surgery.

    PubMed

    Mulgaonkar, Amit P; Hubschman, Jean-Pierre; Bourges, Jean-Louis; Jordan, Brett L; Cham, Christopher; Wilson, Jason T; Tsao, Tsu-Chin; Culjat, Martin O

    2009-01-01

    A prototype manipulator system was developed for ophthalmologic microsurgery. The system, consisting of two parallel X-Y stages, can mechanically maintain a fixed-point of rotation at the surface of the eye, potentially reducing trauma during surgical procedures. The initial prototype was designed to function in concert with the da Vinci Surgical System for gross positioning. Robotic tests demonstrated the mechanical fitness of the prototype while an in vitro surgical sclerectomy was performed to demonstrate functionality of the approach. PMID:19377152

  18. Parallel image compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reif, John H.

    1987-01-01

    A parallel compression algorithm for the 16,384 processor MPP machine was developed. The serial version of the algorithm can be viewed as a combination of on-line dynamic lossless test compression techniques (which employ simple learning strategies) and vector quantization. These concepts are described. How these concepts are combined to form a new strategy for performing dynamic on-line lossy compression is discussed. Finally, the implementation of this algorithm in a massively parallel fashion on the MPP is discussed.

  19. Intelligent robotics research at Waterloo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Andrew K. C.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents the recent intelligent robotics research being carried out at the PAMI Lab of the University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario. The intelligence control of manipulators is directed and guided by 3-D vision. It is implemented for a mobile robot and robot manipulators in a workcell. The intelligent robotic system is capable of: (1) real-time recognition and location of 3-D objects and obstacles with a single camera system mounted on the robot arm; (2) optimal trajectory planning for a robotic manipulator with obstacle and singularity avoidance capability; and (3) vision directed navigation of a mobile robot. Application of this technology to industrial and space station projects is included in the discussion.

  20. Robotic servicing of EOS instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Razzaghi, Andrea I.; Juberts, Maris

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses robotic servicing of the Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) instruments. The goals of implementing a robotic servicing system on EOS would be to maintain the instruments throughout the required mission life and minimize life-cycle costs. To address robot servicing, an initial design concept has been developed which will be applied to a representative EOS instrument. This instrument will be used as a model for determining the most practical level of servicing of its parts, and how to design these parts for robot servicing. Using this representative EOS instrument as a model, a generic design scheme will be developed that can be applied to all EOS instruments. The first task is to determine how to identify which parts must be designed for robot servicing. Next, the requirements imposed on the instruments and the servicing robot when designing for robot serviceability must be examined.

  1. Fruit harvesting robots in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kondo, N; Monta, M; Fujiura, T

    1996-01-01

    We have developed harvesting robots for tomato, petty-tomato, cucumber and grape in Japan. These robots mainly consist of manipulators, end-effectors, visual sensors and traveling devices. These mechanisms of the robot components were developed based on the physical properties of the work objects. The robots must work automatically by themselves in greenhouses or fields, since we are considering for one operator to tend several robots in the production system. The system is modeled after Japanese agriculture which is commonly seen to produce many kinds of crops in greenhouses and in many small fields intensively. Bioproduction in space is somewhat similar to the agricultural system in Japan, because few operators have to work in a small space. Employing robots for bioproduction in space is considered desirable in near future. The following is a description of the harvesting robots. PMID:11538961

  2. A tesselated probabilistic representation for spatial robot perception and navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elfes, Alberto

    1989-01-01

    The ability to recover robust spatial descriptions from sensory information and to efficiently utilize these descriptions in appropriate planning and problem-solving activities are crucial requirements for the development of more powerful robotic systems. Traditional approaches to sensor interpretation, with their emphasis on geometric models, are of limited use for autonomous mobile robots operating in and exploring unknown and unstructured environments. Here, researchers present a new approach to robot perception that addresses such scenarios using a probabilistic tesselated representation of spatial information called the Occupancy Grid. The Occupancy Grid is a multi-dimensional random field that maintains stochastic estimates of the occupancy state of each cell in the grid. The cell estimates are obtained by interpreting incoming range readings using probabilistic models that capture the uncertainty in the spatial information provided by the sensor. A Bayesian estimation procedure allows the incremental updating of the map using readings taken from several sensors over multiple points of view. An overview of the Occupancy Grid framework is given, and its application to a number of problems in mobile robot mapping and navigation are illustrated. It is argued that a number of robotic problem-solving activities can be performed directly on the Occupancy Grid representation. Some parallels are drawn between operations on Occupancy Grids and related image processing operations.

  3. Controlling legs for locomotion-insights from robotics and neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Buschmann, Thomas; Ewald, Alexander; von Twickel, Arndt; Büschges, Ansgar

    2015-08-01

    Walking is the most common terrestrial form of locomotion in animals. Its great versatility and flexibility has led to many attempts at building walking machines with similar capabilities. The control of walking is an active research area both in neurobiology and robotics, with a large and growing body of work. This paper gives an overview of the current knowledge on the control of legged locomotion in animals and machines and attempts to give walking control researchers from biology and robotics an overview of the current knowledge in both fields. We try to summarize the knowledge on the neurobiological basis of walking control in animals, emphasizing common principles seen in different species. In a section on walking robots, we review common approaches to walking controller design with a slight emphasis on biped walking control. We show where parallels between robotic and neurobiological walking controllers exist and how robotics and biology may benefit from each other. Finally, we discuss where research in the two fields diverges and suggest ways to bridge these gaps. PMID:26119450

  4. Continuous parallel coordinates.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Julian; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Typical scientific data is represented on a grid with appropriate interpolation or approximation schemes,defined on a continuous domain. The visualization of such data in parallel coordinates may reveal patterns latently contained in the data and thus can improve the understanding of multidimensional relations. In this paper, we adopt the concept of continuous scatterplots for the visualization of spatially continuous input data to derive a density model for parallel coordinates. Based on the point-line duality between scatterplots and parallel coordinates, we propose a mathematical model that maps density from a continuous scatterplot to parallel coordinates and present different algorithms for both numerical and analytical computation of the resulting density field. In addition, we show how the 2-D model can be used to successively construct continuous parallel coordinates with an arbitrary number of dimensions. Since continuous parallel coordinates interpolate data values within grid cells, a scalable and dense visualization is achieved, which will be demonstrated for typical multi-variate scientific data. PMID:19834230

  5. Cooperative robotics: bringing autonomy to explosive ordnance disposal robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Signore, Michael J.; Czop, Andrew; Hacker, Kurt

    2008-04-01

    An ongoing effort within the US Naval EOD Technology Division (NAVEODTECHDIV) is exploring the integration of autonomous robotic technologies onto current and future Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) robot platforms. The Cooperative Robotics program, though the support of the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise (JGRE), has identified several autonomous robotic technologies useful to the EOD operator, and with the collaboration of academia and industry is in the process of bringing these technologies to EOD robot operators in the field. Initiated in January 2007, the Cooperative Robotics program includes the demonstration of various autonomous technologies to the EOD user community, and the optimization of these technologies for use on small EOD Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) in relevant environments. Through close interaction with actual EOD operators, these autonomous behaviors will be designed to work within the bounds of current EOD Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTP). This paper will detail the ongoing and future efforts encompassing the Cooperative Robotics program including: technology demonstrations of autonomous robotic capabilities, development of autonomous capability requirements based on user focus groups, optimization of autonomous UGV behaviors to enable use in relevant environments based on current EOD TTP, and finally the transition of these technologies to current and future EOD robotic systems.

  6. Robot Serviced Space Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, Lloyd R. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A robot serviced space facility includes multiple modules which are identical in physical structure, but selectively differing in function. and purpose. Each module includes multiple like attachment points which are identically placed on each module so as to permit interconnection with immediately adjacent modules. Connection is made through like outwardly extending flange assemblies having identical male and female configurations for interconnecting to and locking to a complementary side of another flange. Multiple rows of interconnected modules permit force, fluid, data and power transfer to be accomplished by redundant circuit paths. Redundant modules of critical subsystems are included. Redundancy of modules and of interconnections results in a space complex with any module being removable upon demand, either for module replacement or facility reconfiguration. without eliminating any vital functions of the complex. Module replacement and facility assembly or reconfiguration are accomplished by a computer controlled articulated walker type robotic manipulator arm assembly having two identical end-effectors in the form of male configurations which are identical to those on module flanges and which interconnect to female configurations on other flanges. The robotic arm assembly moves along a connected set or modules by successively disconnecting, moving and reconnecting alternate ends of itself to a succession of flanges in a walking type maneuver. To transport a module, the robot keeps the transported module attached to one of its end-effectors and uses another flange male configuration of the attached module as a substitute end-effector during walking.

  7. Josef, the Robot.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomek, Ivan

    1982-01-01

    Describes "Josef," a robot programing language similar to the LOGO turtle language, which has been designed as an instructional system through which the algorithmic problem-solving skills required in computer programing can be developed and tested in a controlled learning environment. Four figures and a reference list are included. (JL)

  8. Touch Sensor for Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primus, H. C.

    1986-01-01

    Touch sensor for robot hands provides information about shape of grasped object and force exerted by gripper on object. Pins projecting from sensor create electrical signals when pressed. When grasped object depresses pin, it contacts electrode under it, connecting electrode to common electrode. Sensor indicates where, and how firmly, gripper has touched object.

  9. Information Robots and Manipulators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katys, G. P.; And Others

    In the modern concept a robot is a complex automatic cybernetics system capable of executing various operations in the sphere of human activity and in various respects combining the imitative capacity of the physical and mental activity of man. They are a class of automatic information systems intended for search, collection, processing, and…

  10. Robots in the Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Joan; Shanahan, Dolores

    1983-01-01

    Describes work with kindergarten children to improve their development of estimation, decision making, divergent thinking, directionality, numerical concepts, and creative problem solving skills through learning to program and control the robot Big Trak, a truck which moves along the floor in response to their commands. (EAO)

  11. Industrial robot's vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iureva, Radda A.; Raskin, Evgeni O.; Komarov, Igor I.; Maltseva, Nadezhda K.; Fedosovsky, Michael E.

    2016-03-01

    Due to the improved economic situation in the high technology sectors, work on the creation of industrial robots and special mobile robotic systems are resumed. Despite this, the robotic control systems mostly remained unchanged. Hence one can see all advantages and disadvantages of these systems. This is due to lack of funds, which could greatly facilitate the work of the operator, and in some cases, completely replace it. The paper is concerned with the complex machine vision of robotic system for monitoring of underground pipelines, which collects and analyzes up to 90% of the necessary information. Vision Systems are used to identify obstacles to the process of movement on a trajectory to determine their origin, dimensions and character. The object is illuminated in a structured light, TV camera records projected structure. Distortions of the structure uniquely determine the shape of the object in view of the camera. The reference illumination is synchronized with the camera. The main parameters of the system are the basic distance between the generator and the lights and the camera parallax angle (the angle between the optical axes of the projection unit and camera).

  12. Robotic Water Blast Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpe, M. H.; Roberts, M. L.; Hill, W. E.; Jackson, C. H.

    1983-01-01

    Water blasting system under development removes hard, dense, extraneous material from surfaces. High pressure pump forces water at supersonic speed through nozzle manipulated by robot. Impact of water blasts away unwanted material from workpiece rotated on air bearing turntable. Designed for removing thermal-protection material, system is adaptable to such industrial processes as cleaning iron or steel castings.

  13. Space robot simulator vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, R. H., Jr.; Alexander, H.

    1985-01-01

    A Space Robot Simulator Vehicle (SRSV) was constructed to model a free-flying robot capable of doing construction, manipulation and repair work in space. The SRSV is intended as a test bed for development of dynamic and static control methods for space robots. The vehicle is built around a two-foot-diameter air-cushion vehicle that carries batteries, power supplies, gas tanks, computer, reaction jets and radio equipment. It is fitted with one or two two-link manipulators, which may be of many possible designs, including flexible-link versions. Both the vehicle body and its first arm are nearly complete. Inverse dynamic control of the robot's manipulator has been successfully simulated using equations generated by the dynamic simulation package SDEXACT. In this mode, the position of the manipulator tip is controlled not by fixing the vehicle base through thruster operation, but by controlling the manipulator joint torques to achieve the desired tip motion, while allowing for the free motion of the vehicle base. One of the primary goals is to minimize use of the thrusters in favor of intelligent control of the manipulator. Ways to reduce the computational burden of control are described.

  14. Savannah River Site Robotics

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2012-06-14

    Meet Sandmantis and Frankie, two advanced robotic devices that are key to cleanup at Savannah River Site. Sandmantis cleans hard, residual waste off huge underground storage tanks. Frankie is equipped with unique satellite capabilities and sensing abilties that can determine what chemicals still reside in the tanks in a cost effective manner.

  15. Artificial intelligence and robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Peden, I.C.; Braddock, J.V.; Brown, W.; Langendorf, R.M.

    1982-09-01

    This report examines the state-of-the-art in artificial intelligence and robotics technologies and their potential in terms of Army needs. Assessment includes battlefield technology, research and technology insertions, management considerations and recommendations related to research and development personnel, and recommendations regarding the Army's involvement in the automated plant.

  16. Brain controlled robots.

    PubMed

    Kawato, Mitsuo

    2008-06-01

    In January 2008, Duke University and the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) publicized their successful control of a brain-machine interface for a humanoid robot by a monkey brain across the Pacific Ocean. The activities of a few hundred neurons were recorded from a monkey's motor cortex in Miguel Nicolelis's lab at Duke University, and the kinematic features of monkey locomotion on a treadmill were decoded from neural firing rates in real time. The decoded information was sent to a humanoid robot, CB-i, in ATR Computational Neuroscience Laboratories located in Kyoto, Japan. This robot was developed by the JST International Collaborative Research Project (ICORP) as the "Computational Brain Project." CB-i's locomotion-like movement was video-recorded and projected on a screen in front of the monkey. Although the bidirectional communication used a conventional Internet connection, its delay was suppressed below one over several seconds, partly due to a video-streaming technique, and this encouraged the monkey's voluntary locomotion and influenced its brain activity. This commentary introduces the background and future directions of the brain-controlled robot. PMID:19404467

  17. Underwater robotic suturing.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Masahiko; Shimada, Masanari; Ishikawa, Norihiko; Watanabe, Go

    2016-06-01

    Background Laparoscopic and robotic surgeries have become popular, and this popularity is increasing. However, the environment in which such surgeries are performed is rarely discussed. Similar to arthrosurgery performed in water, artificial ascites could be a new environment for laparoscopic surgery. This study was performed to determine whether robotic surgery is applicable to complicated suturing underwater. Material and methods A da Vinci Surgical System S was used. A weighted fabric sheet was placed at the bottom of a tank. Identical sets were made for each environment: One tank was dry, and the other was filled with water. The suturing task involved placement of a running silk suture around the perimeter of a small circle. The task was performed eight times in each environment. The task time and integrity score were determined. The integrity score was calculated by evaluating accuracy, tightness, thread damage, and uniformity; each factor was evaluated using a five-point scale. Results Although statistically significant differences were not shown in either task time or integrity score between the underwater and air environments, robotic suturing underwater is not inferior to performance in air. Conclusions The feasibility of robotic suturing underwater was confirmed under the herein-described experimental conditions. PMID:26853072

  18. An Inexpensive Robotics Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inigo, R. M.; Angulo, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the design and implementation of a simple robot manipulator. The manipulator has three degrees of freedom and is controlled by a general purpose microcomputer. The basis for the manipulator (which costs under $100) is a simple working model of a crane. (Author/JN)

  19. Mathematics and "Lego" Robots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Janus Halkier; Traeholt, Rune

    2007-01-01

    For the last four years, Soenderholm School, near the town of Aalborg, Northjutland, Denmark, has had an optional subject in the seventh grade called First "Lego" League (FLL). FLL is an international contest which aims to advance pupils' scientific interest. The task is for participants to build and program a "Lego" robot able to solve eight…

  20. MRV - Modular Robotic Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridley, Justin; Bluethmann, Bill

    2015-01-01

    The Modular Robotic Vehicle, or MRV, completed in 2013, was developed at the Johnson Space Center in order to advance technologies which have applications for future vehicles both in space and on Earth. With seating for two people, MRV is a fully electric vehicle modeled as a "city car", suited for busy urban environments.

  1. Savannah River Site Robotics

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Meet Sandmantis and Frankie, two advanced robotic devices that are key to cleanup at Savannah River Site. Sandmantis cleans hard, residual waste off huge underground storage tanks. Frankie is equipped with unique satellite capabilities and sensing abilties that can determine what chemicals still reside in the tanks in a cost effective manner.

  2. Parallel conjugate gradient algorithms for manipulator dynamic simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, Amir; Scheld, Robert E.

    1989-01-01

    Parallel conjugate gradient algorithms for the computation of multibody dynamics are developed for the specialized case of a robot manipulator. For an n-dimensional positive-definite linear system, the Classical Conjugate Gradient (CCG) algorithms are guaranteed to converge in n iterations, each with a computation cost of O(n); this leads to a total computational cost of O(n sq) on a serial processor. A conjugate gradient algorithms is presented that provide greater efficiency using a preconditioner, which reduces the number of iterations required, and by exploiting parallelism, which reduces the cost of each iteration. Two Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG) algorithms are proposed which respectively use a diagonal and a tridiagonal matrix, composed of the diagonal and tridiagonal elements of the mass matrix, as preconditioners. Parallel algorithms are developed to compute the preconditioners and their inversions in O(log sub 2 n) steps using n processors. A parallel algorithm is also presented which, on the same architecture, achieves the computational time of O(log sub 2 n) for each iteration. Simulation results for a seven degree-of-freedom manipulator are presented. Variants of the proposed algorithms are also developed which can be efficiently implemented on the Robot Mathematics Processor (RMP).

  3. Principles of goal-directed spatial robot navigation in biomimetic models

    PubMed Central

    Milford, Michael; Schulz, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Mobile robots and animals alike must effectively navigate their environments in order to achieve their goals. For animals goal-directed navigation facilitates finding food, seeking shelter or migration; similarly robots perform goal-directed navigation to find a charging station, get out of the rain or guide a person to a destination. This similarity in tasks extends to the environment as well; increasingly, mobile robots are operating in the same underwater, ground and aerial environments that animals do. Yet despite these similarities, goal-directed navigation research in robotics and biology has proceeded largely in parallel, linked only by a small amount of interdisciplinary research spanning both areas. Most state-of-the-art robotic navigation systems employ a range of sensors, world representations and navigation algorithms that seem far removed from what we know of how animals navigate; their navigation systems are shaped by key principles of navigation in ‘real-world’ environments including dealing with uncertainty in sensing, landmark observation and world modelling. By contrast, biomimetic animal navigation models produce plausible animal navigation behaviour in a range of laboratory experimental navigation paradigms, typically without addressing many of these robotic navigation principles. In this paper, we attempt to link robotics and biology by reviewing the current state of the art in conventional and biomimetic goal-directed navigation models, focusing on the key principles of goal-oriented robotic navigation and the extent to which these principles have been adapted by biomimetic navigation models and why. PMID:25267826

  4. Principles of goal-directed spatial robot navigation in biomimetic models.

    PubMed

    Milford, Michael; Schulz, Ruth

    2014-11-01

    Mobile robots and animals alike must effectively navigate their environments in order to achieve their goals. For animals goal-directed navigation facilitates finding food, seeking shelter or migration; similarly robots perform goal-directed navigation to find a charging station, get out of the rain or guide a person to a destination. This similarity in tasks extends to the environment as well; increasingly, mobile robots are operating in the same underwater, ground and aerial environments that animals do. Yet despite these similarities, goal-directed navigation research in robotics and biology has proceeded largely in parallel, linked only by a small amount of interdisciplinary research spanning both areas. Most state-of-the-art robotic navigation systems employ a range of sensors, world representations and navigation algorithms that seem far removed from what we know of how animals navigate; their navigation systems are shaped by key principles of navigation in 'real-world' environments including dealing with uncertainty in sensing, landmark observation and world modelling. By contrast, biomimetic animal navigation models produce plausible animal navigation behaviour in a range of laboratory experimental navigation paradigms, typically without addressing many of these robotic navigation principles. In this paper, we attempt to link robotics and biology by reviewing the current state of the art in conventional and biomimetic goal-directed navigation models, focusing on the key principles of goal-oriented robotic navigation and the extent to which these principles have been adapted by biomimetic navigation models and why. PMID:25267826

  5. Working with Robots: The Real Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fey, Carol

    1986-01-01

    Looks at some of the realities of life with robots: robots aren't replacing entire shifts of workers; a robot is just a tool; regular plant personnel maintain robots; and job category and seniority dictate who is trained to maintain robots. (CT)

  6. Solid modeling on a massively parallel processor

    SciTech Connect

    Strip, D. ); Karasick, M. )

    1992-01-01

    Solid modeling underlies many technologies that are key to modern manufacturing. These range from computer-aided design systems to robot simulators, from finite element analysis to integrated circuit process modeling. The accuracy, and hence the utility, of these models is often constrained by the amount of computer time required to perform the desired operations. This paper presents a family of algorithms for solid modeling operations using the Connection Machine, a massively parallel SIMD processor. The authors describe a data structure for representing solid models and algorithms that use the representation to implement efficiently a variety of solid modeling operations. The authors give a sketch of the algorithm for intersecting solids and present computational experience using these algorithms. The data structure and algorithms are contrasted with those of serial architectures, and execution times are compared.

  7. Robotic Rock Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebert, Martial

    1999-01-01

    This report describes a three-month research program undertook jointly by the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University and Ames Research Center as part of the Ames' Joint Research Initiative (JRI.) The work was conducted at the Ames Research Center by Mr. Liam Pedersen, a graduate student in the CMU Ph.D. program in Robotics under the supervision Dr. Ted Roush at the Space Science Division of the Ames Research Center from May 15 1999 to August 15, 1999. Dr. Martial Hebert is Mr. Pedersen's research adviser at CMU and is Principal Investigator of this Grant. The goal of this project is to investigate and implement methods suitable for a robotic rover to autonomously identify rocks and minerals in its vicinity, and to statistically characterize the local geological environment. Although primary sensors for these tasks are a reflection spectrometer and color camera, the goal is to create a framework under which data from multiple sensors, and multiple readings on the same object, can be combined in a principled manner. Furthermore, it is envisioned that knowledge of the local area, either a priori or gathered by the robot, will be used to improve classification accuracy. The key results obtained during this project are: The continuation of the development of a rock classifier; development of theoretical statistical methods; development of methods for evaluating and selecting sensors; and experimentation with data mining techniques on the Ames spectral library. The results of this work are being applied at CMU, in particular in the context of the Winter 99 Antarctica expedition in which the classification techniques will be used on the Nomad robot. Conversely, the software developed based on those techniques will continue to be made available to NASA Ames and the data collected from the Nomad experiments will also be made available.

  8. Robot mother ship design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budulas, Peter P.; Young, Stuart H.; Emmerman, Philip J.

    2000-07-01

    Small physical agents will be ubiquitous on the battlefield of the 21st century, principally to lower the exposure to harm of our ground forces. Teams of small collaborating physical agents conducting tasks such as Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (RSTA); chemical and biological agent detection, logistics, sentry; and communications relay will have advanced sensor and mobility characteristics. The mother ship much effectively deliver/retrieve, service, and control these robots as well as fuse the information gathered by these highly mobile robot teams. The mother ship concept presented in this paper includes the case where the mother ship is itself a robot or a manned system. The mother ship must have long-range mobility to deploy the small, highly maneuverable agents that will operate in urban environments and more localized areas, and act as a logistics base for the robot teams. The mother ship must also establish a robust communications network between the agents and is an up-link point for disseminating the intelligence gathered by the smaller agents; and, because of its global knowledge, provides the high-level information fusion, control and planning for the collaborative physical agents. Additionally, the mother ship incorporates battlefield visualization, information fusion, and multi-resolution analysis, and intelligent software agent technology, to support mission planning and execution. This paper discusses on going research at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory that supports the development of a robot mother ship. This research includes docking, battlefield visualization, intelligent software agents, adaptive communications, information fusion, and multi- modal human computer interaction.

  9. Quantum robots and environments

    SciTech Connect

    Benioff, P.

    1998-08-01

    Quantum robots and their interactions with environments of quantum systems are described, and their study justified. A quantum robot is a mobile quantum system that includes an on-board quantum computer and needed ancillary systems. Quantum robots carry out tasks whose goals include specified changes in the state of the environment, or carrying out measurements on the environment. Each task is a sequence of alternating computation and action phases. Computation phase activites include determination of the action to be carried out in the next phase, and recording of information on neighborhood environmental system states. Action phase activities include motion of the quantum robot and changes in the neighborhood environment system states. Models of quantum robots and their interactions with environments are described using discrete space and time. A unitary step operator T that gives the single time step dynamics is associated with each task. T=T{sub a}+T{sub c} is a sum of action phase and computation phase step operators. Conditions that T{sub a} and T{sub c} should satisfy are given along with a description of the evolution as a sum over paths of completed phase input and output states. A simple example of a task{emdash}carrying out a measurement on a very simple environment{emdash}is analyzed in detail. A decision tree for the task is presented and discussed in terms of the sums over phase paths. It is seen that no definite times or durations are associated with the phase steps in the tree, and that the tree describes the successive phase steps in each path in the sum over phase paths. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  10. Soldier universal robot controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyams, Jeffrey; Batavia, Parag; Liao, Elizabeth; Somerville, Andrew

    2008-04-01

    The Soldier Universal Robot Controller (SURC) is a modular OCU designed for simultaneous control of heterogeneous unmanned vehicles. It has a well defined, published API., defined using XML schemas, that allows other potential users of the system to develop their own modules for rapid integration with SURC. The SURC architecture is broken down into three layers: User Interface, Core Functions, and Transport. The User Interface layer is the front end module which provides the human computer interface for user control of robots. The Core layer is further divided into the following modules: Capabilities, Tactical, Mobility, and World Model. The Capabilities module keeps track of the known robots and provides a list of specifications and services. The Mobility module provides path planning via D*, while the Tactical module provides higher level mission planning (multi-agent/multi-mission) capabilities for collaborative operations. The World Model module is a relational database which stores world model objects. Finally, a Transport module provides translation from the SURC architecture to the robot specific messaging protocols (such as JAUS). This allows fast integration of new robot protocols into an existing SURC implementation to enable a new system to rapidly leverage existing SURC capabilities. The communication between different modules within the SURC architecture is done via XML. This gives developers and users the flexibility to extend existing messages without breaking backwards compatibility. The modularity of SURC offers users and developers alike the capability to create custom modules and plug them into place, as long as they follow the pre defined messaging API for that module.

  11. A hardware investigation of robotic SPECT for functional and molecular imaging onboard radiation therapy systems

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Susu; Bowsher, James; Tough, MengHeng; Cheng, Lin; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To construct a robotic SPECT system and to demonstrate its capability to image a thorax phantom on a radiation therapy flat-top couch, as a step toward onboard functional and molecular imaging in radiation therapy. Methods: A robotic SPECT imaging system was constructed utilizing a gamma camera detector (Digirad 2020tc) and a robot (KUKA KR150 L110 robot). An imaging study was performed with a phantom (PET CT PhantomTM), which includes five spheres of 10, 13, 17, 22, and 28 mm diameters. The phantom was placed on a flat-top couch. SPECT projections were acquired either with a parallel-hole collimator or a single-pinhole collimator, both without background in the phantom and with background at 1/10th the sphere activity concentration. The imaging trajectories of parallel-hole and pinhole collimated detectors spanned 180° and 228°, respectively. The pinhole detector viewed an off-centered spherical common volume which encompassed the 28 and 22 mm spheres. The common volume for parallel-hole system was centered at the phantom which encompassed all five spheres in the phantom. The maneuverability of the robotic system was tested by navigating the detector to trace the phantom and flat-top table while avoiding collision and maintaining the closest possible proximity to the common volume. The robot base and tool coordinates were used for image reconstruction. Results: The robotic SPECT system was able to maneuver parallel-hole and pinhole collimated SPECT detectors in close proximity to the phantom, minimizing impact of the flat-top couch on detector radius of rotation. Without background, all five spheres were visible in the reconstructed parallel-hole image, while four spheres, all except the smallest one, were visible in the reconstructed pinhole image. With background, three spheres of 17, 22, and 28 mm diameters were readily observed with the parallel-hole imaging, and the targeted spheres (22 and 28 mm diameters) were readily observed in the pinhole

  12. A hardware investigation of robotic SPECT for functional and molecular imaging onboard radiation therapy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Susu Tough, MengHeng; Bowsher, James; Yin, Fang-Fang; Cheng, Lin

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To construct a robotic SPECT system and to demonstrate its capability to image a thorax phantom on a radiation therapy flat-top couch, as a step toward onboard functional and molecular imaging in radiation therapy. Methods: A robotic SPECT imaging system was constructed utilizing a gamma camera detector (Digirad 2020tc) and a robot (KUKA KR150 L110 robot). An imaging study was performed with a phantom (PET CT Phantom{sup TM}), which includes five spheres of 10, 13, 17, 22, and 28 mm diameters. The phantom was placed on a flat-top couch. SPECT projections were acquired either with a parallel-hole collimator or a single-pinhole collimator, both without background in the phantom and with background at 1/10th the sphere activity concentration. The imaging trajectories of parallel-hole and pinhole collimated detectors spanned 180° and 228°, respectively. The pinhole detector viewed an off-centered spherical common volume which encompassed the 28 and 22 mm spheres. The common volume for parallel-hole system was centered at the phantom which encompassed all five spheres in the phantom. The maneuverability of the robotic system was tested by navigating the detector to trace the phantom and flat-top table while avoiding collision and maintaining the closest possible proximity to the common volume. The robot base and tool coordinates were used for image reconstruction. Results: The robotic SPECT system was able to maneuver parallel-hole and pinhole collimated SPECT detectors in close proximity to the phantom, minimizing impact of the flat-top couch on detector radius of rotation. Without background, all five spheres were visible in the reconstructed parallel-hole image, while four spheres, all except the smallest one, were visible in the reconstructed pinhole image. With background, three spheres of 17, 22, and 28 mm diameters were readily observed with the parallel-hole imaging, and the targeted spheres (22 and 28 mm diameters) were readily observed in the

  13. Parallel time integration software

    2014-07-01

    This package implements an optimal-scaling multigrid solver for the (non) linear systems that arise from the discretization of problems with evolutionary behavior. Typically, solution algorithms for evolution equations are based on a time-marching approach, solving sequentially for one time step after the other. Parallelism in these traditional time-integrarion techniques is limited to spatial parallelism. However, current trends in computer architectures are leading twards system with more, but not faster. processors. Therefore, faster compute speeds mustmore » come from greater parallelism. One approach to achieve parallelism in time is with multigrid, but extending classical multigrid methods for elliptic poerators to this setting is a significant achievement. In this software, we implement a non-intrusive, optimal-scaling time-parallel method based on multigrid reduction techniques. The examples in the package demonstrate optimality of our multigrid-reduction-in-time algorithm (MGRIT) for solving a variety of parabolic equations in two and three sparial dimensions. These examples can also be used to show that MGRIT can achieve significant speedup in comparison to sequential time marching on modern architectures.« less

  14. Parallel time integration software

    SciTech Connect

    2014-07-01

    This package implements an optimal-scaling multigrid solver for the (non) linear systems that arise from the discretization of problems with evolutionary behavior. Typically, solution algorithms for evolution equations are based on a time-marching approach, solving sequentially for one time step after the other. Parallelism in these traditional time-integrarion techniques is limited to spatial parallelism. However, current trends in computer architectures are leading twards system with more, but not faster. processors. Therefore, faster compute speeds must come from greater parallelism. One approach to achieve parallelism in time is with multigrid, but extending classical multigrid methods for elliptic poerators to this setting is a significant achievement. In this software, we implement a non-intrusive, optimal-scaling time-parallel method based on multigrid reduction techniques. The examples in the package demonstrate optimality of our multigrid-reduction-in-time algorithm (MGRIT) for solving a variety of parabolic equations in two and three sparial dimensions. These examples can also be used to show that MGRIT can achieve significant speedup in comparison to sequential time marching on modern architectures.

  15. Requirements for implementing real-time control functional modules on a hierarchical parallel pipelined system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheatley, Thomas E.; Michaloski, John L.; Lumia, Ronald

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of a robot control system leads to a broad range of processing requirements. One fundamental requirement of a robot control system is the necessity of a microcomputer system in order to provide sufficient processing capability.The use of multiple processors in a parallel architecture is beneficial for a number of reasons, including better cost performance, modular growth, increased reliability through replication, and flexibility for testing alternate control strategies via different partitioning. A survey of the progression from low level control synchronizing primitives to higher level communication tools is presented. The system communication and control mechanisms of existing robot control systems are compared to the hierarchical control model. The impact of this design methodology on the current robot control systems is explored.

  16. Robots hooked on drugs. Robotic automation expands pharmacy services.

    PubMed

    Marietti, C

    1997-11-01

    Hospitals are not known for automating labor-intensive tasks but robots are just beginning to make inroads in health-care. The first--and still only--robot grew from a class assignment to use an established technology in a new growth industry. The established technology was bar coding; the industry health-care; and the result a robotic device for the hospital pharmacy. PMID:10174843

  17. Mobile robotic assistive balance trainer - an intelligent compliant and adaptive robotic balance assistant for daily living.

    PubMed

    Tiseo, Carlo; Lim, Zhen Yi; Shee, Cheng Yap; Ang, Wei Tech

    2014-01-01

    Balance control probably has the greatest impact on independence in activities of daily living (ADL), because it is a fundamental motor skill and prerequisite to the maintenance of a myriad of postures and mobile activities. We propose a new rehabilitation therapy to administer standing and mobile balance control training, enabled by a Mobile Robotic Assistive Balance Trainer (MRABT). The targeted group for this initial work is post stroke patients, although it can be extended to subjects with other neurological insults in the future. The proposed system consists of a mobile base and a parallel robotic arm which provides support to the patient at the hip. The compliant robotic arm with intelligent control algorithm will only provide support and assistance to the patient when the center of mass of the body deviates beyond the predefined safety boundary, mimicking the helping hands of a parent when a toddler learns to walk. In this paper, we present our initial work in the design and kinematic analysis of the system. PMID:25571190

  18. Parallel optical sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Skogen, Erik J; Vawter, Gregory A

    2014-05-20

    An optical sampler includes a first and second 1.times.n optical beam splitters splitting an input optical sampling signal and an optical analog input signal into n parallel channels, respectively, a plurality of optical delay elements providing n parallel delayed input optical sampling signals, n photodiodes converting the n parallel optical analog input signals into n respective electrical output signals, and n optical modulators modulating the input optical sampling signal or the optical analog input signal by the respective electrical output signals, and providing n successive optical samples of the optical analog input signal. A plurality of output photodiodes and eADCs convert the n successive optical samples to n successive digital samples. The optical modulator may be a photodiode interconnected Mach-Zehnder Modulator. A method of sampling the optical analog input signal is disclosed.

  19. DEMONSTRATION OF AUTONOMOUS AIR MONITORING THROUGH ROBOTICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project included modifying an existing teleoperated robot to include autonomous navigation, large object avoidance, and air monitoring and demonstrating that prototype robot system in indoor and outdoor environments. An existing teleoperated "Surveyor" robot developed by ARD...

  20. The NAS Parallel Benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.

    2009-11-15

    The NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) are a suite of parallel computer performance benchmarks. They were originally developed at the NASA Ames Research Center in 1991 to assess high-end parallel supercomputers. Although they are no longer used as widely as they once were for comparing high-end system performance, they continue to be studied and analyzed a great deal in the high-performance computing community. The acronym 'NAS' originally stood for the Numerical Aeronautical Simulation Program at NASA Ames. The name of this organization was subsequently changed to the Numerical Aerospace Simulation Program, and more recently to the NASA Advanced Supercomputing Center, although the acronym remains 'NAS.' The developers of the original NPB suite were David H. Bailey, Eric Barszcz, John Barton, David Browning, Russell Carter, LeoDagum, Rod Fatoohi, Samuel Fineberg, Paul Frederickson, Thomas Lasinski, Rob Schreiber, Horst Simon, V. Venkatakrishnan and Sisira Weeratunga. The original NAS Parallel Benchmarks consisted of eight individual benchmark problems, each of which focused on some aspect of scientific computing. The principal focus was in computational aerophysics, although most of these benchmarks have much broader relevance, since in a much larger sense they are typical of many real-world scientific computing applications. The NPB suite grew out of the need for a more rational procedure to select new supercomputers for acquisition by NASA. The emergence of commercially available highly parallel computer systems in the late 1980s offered an attractive alternative to parallel vector supercomputers that had been the mainstay of high-end scientific computing. However, the introduction of highly parallel systems was accompanied by a regrettable level of hype, not only on the part of the commercial vendors but even, in some cases, by scientists using the systems. As a result, it was difficult to discern whether the new systems offered any fundamental performance advantage