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Sample records for 6-keto prostaglandin f1

  1. Determination of 6-keto prostaglandin F1α and its metabolites in human plasma by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Enzler, Mark; Schipp, Stefan; Nicolas, Laurent B; Dingemanse, Jasper; Siethoff, Christoph

    2012-07-15

    An HPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the quantification of 6-keto prostaglandin F1α, the stable hydrolysis product of prostacyclin, and its metabolites 2,3-dinor-6-keto prostaglandin F1α and 6,15-diketo-13,14-dihydro prostaglandin F1α in human plasma. For sample preparation, a solid phase extraction step was combined with a column switching approach for analytes enrichment and further sample clean-up of the processed sample. The assay was validated in the concentration range 50.0-5000 pg/mL for 6-keto prostaglandin F1α and 6,15-diketo-13,14-dihydro prostaglandin F1α, and 100-10,000 pg/mL for 2,3-dinor-6-keto prostaglandin F1α. The inter-batch precision was better than 12.7%, 9.2%, and 9.4% for 6-keto prostaglandin F1α, 2,3-dinor-6-keto prostaglandin F1α, and 6,15-diketo-13,14-dihydro prostaglandin F1α, respectively. The inter-batch accuracy was between 97.3% and 100.8% for 6-keto prostaglandin F1α, between 97.5% and 103.0% for 2,3-dinor-6-keto prostaglandin F1α, and between 92.0% and 100.0% for 6,15-diketo-13,14-dihydro prostaglandin F1α. Further it has been demonstrated that the analytes were stable in plasma for 20 h at room temperature, during three freeze-and-thaw cycles, for 96 days at -25 °C storage temperature, and 50h in the autosampler tray at room temperature.

  2. Evaluation of plasma and urinary levels of 6-keto-prostaglandin F1alpha as a marker for asymptomatic myxomatous mitral valve disease in dogs.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Caroline E; Sundqvist, Anna V; Kjempff, Christina T; Tarnow, Inge; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Kamstrup, Thea S; Sterup, Anne-Lise; Soerensen, Tina M; Olsen, Lisbeth H

    2010-05-01

    Endothelial dysfunction might be involved in the pathogenesis of myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). The aims of this study were (1) to validate an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for canine 6-keto-prostaglandin (PG)F(1alpha) (prostacyclin metabolite and marker for endothelial function) and (2) to compare plasma and urinary 6-keto-PGF(1alpha) in dogs with asymptomatic MMVD. The study included two breeds predisposed to MMVD and two control groups (Cairn terriers and dogs of different breeds). Echocardiography was used to estimate the severity of MMVD. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were between 3.1% and 24.5% in the assay range. No echocardiographic parameter was correlated with plasma or urinary 6-keto-PGF(1alpha) (P>0.05), but all control dogs had lower urinary 6-keto-PGF(1alpha) (P<0.02) and the Cairn terriers had higher plasma 6-keto-PGF(1alpha) (P<0.02). The EIA appeared valid for measuring canine 6-keto-PGF(1alpha) in plasma and urine. It is suggested that 6-keto-PGF(1alpha) levels are related to breed and not MMVD in asymptomatic stages.

  3. Varying levels of 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α and thromboxane B2 in serum and endothelialization and hyperplasia in small-diameter grafts seeded with CD34+ bone marrow cells in canines.

    PubMed

    Lian, Weishuai; Zhang, Huayi; Wang, Kun; Jiang, Junhao; Su, Zijie; Yu, Zhenhai

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the serum levels of 6-keto-prostaglandin (PG)F1α and thromboxane (TX)B2, as well as the endothelialization and hyperplasia of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and Dacron prostheses seeded with CD34+ cells in medium-term observation. A total of 24 crossbred dogs were randomly distributed into PTFE or Dacron groups. CD34+ cells were isolated from bone marrow aspirate and collected using an immunomagnetic bead-based system. The PTFE or Dacron prostheses were implanted into the abdominal aortic artery and inferior vena cava of the dogs. In each group, 8 dogs were implanted with prostheses that had been seeded with CD34+ cells, while 4 dogs were implanted with prostheses that had been seeded with autogenous blood as a control. Serum concentrations of 6-keto-PGF1α and TXB2 were determined at days 0, 10, 30 and 60 following surgery. The grafts were removed and examined at days 10, 30, 60 and 100 following surgery. Finally, CD34 factor staining was used to identify endothelial cells, while light and electron microscopy were applied to examine endothelialization and patency. The results revealed that confluent endothelial cells appeared on the neointima of prostheses seeded with CD34+ cells at day 30 following surgery. In the control groups compared with the experimental groups, there were fewer endothelial cells and the neointima was significantly thicker in the arterial (PTFE, 174±1.41 vs. 117±2.83 μm, respectively; P=0.001; Dacron, 187.5±3.5 vs. 100±1.41 μm, respectively; P<0.001) and venous (PTFE, 230.5±6.36 vs. 135±5.66 μm, respectively; P=0.001; Dacron, 249±2.83 vs. 121.5±3.54 μm, respectively; P<0.001) prostheses. In the experimental groups, intimal hyperplasia in the venous prostheses (PTFE, 135±5.66 μm; Dacron, 121.5±3.54 μm) was more severe compared with that in the arterial prostheses (PTFE, 117±2.83 μm; Dacron, 100±1.41 μm) at day 60. Compared with the 6-keto-PGF1α concentrations in the

  4. Major urinary metabolites of 6-keto-prostaglandin F2α in mice.

    PubMed

    Kuklev, Dmitry V; Hankin, Joseph A; Uhlson, Charis L; Hong, Yu H; Murphy, Robert C; Smith, William L

    2013-07-01

    Western diets are enriched in omega-6 vs. omega-3 fatty acids, and a shift in this balance toward omega-3 fatty acids may have health benefits. There is limited information about the catabolism of 3-series prostaglandins (PG) formed from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a fish oil omega-3 fatty acid that becomes elevated in tissues following fish oil consumption. Quantification of appropriate urinary 3-series PG metabolites could be used for noninvasive measurement of omega-3 fatty acid tone. Here we describe the preparation of tritium- and deuterium-labeled 6-keto-PGF2α and their use in identifying urinary metabolites in mice using LC-MS/MS. The major 6-keto-PGF2α urinary metabolites included dinor-6-keto-PGF2α (~10%) and dinor-13,14-dihydro-6,15-diketo-PGF1α (~10%). These metabolites can arise only from the enzymatic conversion of EPA to the 3-series PGH endoperoxide by cyclooxygenases, then PGI3 by prostacyclin synthase and, finally, nonenzymatic hydrolysis to 6-keto-PGF2α. The 6-keto-PGF derivatives are not formed by free radical mechanisms that generate isoprostanes, and thus, these metabolites provide an unbiased marker for utilization of EPA by cyclooxygenases.

  5. Urinary 11-dehydro-thromboxane B₂ and 2,3-dinor-6-keto-prostaglandin-F₁α in healthy post-menopausal and pre-menopausal women receiving aspirin 100 mg.

    PubMed

    Hartanto, Marcia Dewi; Arieselia, Zita; Setiabudy, Rianto; Setiawati, Arini; Baziad, Ali

    2012-07-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in women increases sharply after menopause. In postmenopausal women, thromboxane production increases while prostacyclin decreases. Low dose aspirin reduces the production of both thromboxane and prostacyclin. The present study was an open-label clinical trial with two parallel groups of 15 premenopausal women and 15 postmenopausal women. Twenty-four hours urine was collected from each subject before and after aspirin 100 mg daily for 7 days. The concentration of thromboxane and prostacyclin was measured as their metabolites (11-dehydro-thromboxane B(2) and 2,3-dinor-6-keto-prostaglandin-F(1α)) in urine using enzyme immunoassay methods. This study showed that aspirin significantly reduced thromboxane in both groups with significantly larger percentage reduction in postmenopausal women compared to premenopausal women (73.32 vs. 61.13%, p = 0.021). This study also showed that aspirin reduced prostacyclin significantly in both groups, but the percentage reduction between the groups was not significantly different. The decrease in the ratio of 11-dTXB(2)/2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1α) should be compared to assess aspirin efficacy as an antithrombotic. Calculation of the ratio of 11-dTXB(2)/2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1α) before aspirin consumption was higher in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women. The decrease in 11-dTXB(2)/2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1α) ratio by aspirin was greater in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women (1.91 vs. 0.17; p = 0.022). It was concluded that aspirin reduced thromboxane and prostacyclin significantly in each group with significant 11-dTXB(2) percentage reduction between groups and non-significant 2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1α) percentage reduction between groups, but reduced the 11-dTXB(2)/2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1α) ratio much larger in postmenopausal women compared to that in premenopausal women.

  6. Urinary 11-dehydro-thromboxane B₂ and 2,3-dinor-6-keto-prostaglandin-F₁α in healthy post-menopausal and pre-menopausal women receiving aspirin 100 mg.

    PubMed

    Hartanto, Marcia Dewi; Arieselia, Zita; Setiabudy, Rianto; Setiawati, Arini; Baziad, Ali

    2012-07-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in women increases sharply after menopause. In postmenopausal women, thromboxane production increases while prostacyclin decreases. Low dose aspirin reduces the production of both thromboxane and prostacyclin. The present study was an open-label clinical trial with two parallel groups of 15 premenopausal women and 15 postmenopausal women. Twenty-four hours urine was collected from each subject before and after aspirin 100 mg daily for 7 days. The concentration of thromboxane and prostacyclin was measured as their metabolites (11-dehydro-thromboxane B(2) and 2,3-dinor-6-keto-prostaglandin-F(1α)) in urine using enzyme immunoassay methods. This study showed that aspirin significantly reduced thromboxane in both groups with significantly larger percentage reduction in postmenopausal women compared to premenopausal women (73.32 vs. 61.13%, p = 0.021). This study also showed that aspirin reduced prostacyclin significantly in both groups, but the percentage reduction between the groups was not significantly different. The decrease in the ratio of 11-dTXB(2)/2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1α) should be compared to assess aspirin efficacy as an antithrombotic. Calculation of the ratio of 11-dTXB(2)/2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1α) before aspirin consumption was higher in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women. The decrease in 11-dTXB(2)/2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1α) ratio by aspirin was greater in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women (1.91 vs. 0.17; p = 0.022). It was concluded that aspirin reduced thromboxane and prostacyclin significantly in each group with significant 11-dTXB(2) percentage reduction between groups and non-significant 2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1α) percentage reduction between groups, but reduced the 11-dTXB(2)/2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1α) ratio much larger in postmenopausal women compared to that in premenopausal women. PMID:22311294

  7. Stimulation of the synthesis of 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) and 6-keto-prostaglandin F/sub 1. cap alpha. / (6-keto-PGF/sub 1. cap alpha. /) by cultured human umbilical veins

    SciTech Connect

    Ibe, B.O.; Johnson, A.R.; Falck, J.R.; Campbell, W.B.

    1986-03-05

    These studies were designed to investigate the synthesis of 6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../ and 15-HETE in cultured human endothelial cells. The identification of the 15-HETE in these cells was made by UV absorption and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Specific radioimmunoassays were developed to quantify the synthesized 6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../ and 15-HETE. The release of 15-HETE and 6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../ was stimulated by arachidonic acid, histamine or the calcium ionophore A23187. The release of 15-HETE paralleled the release of 6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../ and was both concentration-related and time-dependent. Aspirin, ibuprofen and indomethacin inhibited both the formation of 6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../ and 15-HETE in similar concentrations. These data indicate that agents which stimulate PGI/sub 2/ synthesis also stimulate the synthesis of 15-HETE. Also, they implicate the cyclooxygenase pathway in the synthesis of 6-keto PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../ and 15-HETE in human endothelial cells.

  8. Prostaglandin synthesis and catabolism in the gastric mucosa: studies in normal rabbits and rabbits immunized with prostaglandin E2

    SciTech Connect

    Redfern, J.S.

    1988-09-01

    Antral and fundic mucosal homogenates obtained from prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits converted 14C-arachidonic acid to prostaglandin E2, 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, prostaglandin F2 alpha, and prostaglandin D2. Percentage conversion of 14C-arachidonic acid to these prostaglandin products was not significantly different in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits compared with control rabbits (thyroglobulin-immunized and unimmunized rabbits combined). Synthesis of 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, prostaglandin E2 and 13,14-dihydro 15-keto prostaglandin E2 from endogenous arachidonic acid after vortex mixing fundic mucosal homogenates was similar in prostaglandin E2 immunized rabbits and control rabbits. Both in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits and controls, 3H-prostaglandin E2 was catabolized extensively by the fundic mucosa, whereas 3H-6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, 3H-prostaglandin F2 alpha, and 3H-prostaglandin D2 were not catabolized to any appreciable extent. The rate of catabolism of PGs was not significantly different in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits and control rabbits, with the exception of prostaglandin F2 alpha which was catabolized slightly more rapidly in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits. These results indicate that development of gastric ulcers in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits is not associated with an alteration in the capacity of the gastric mucosa to synthesize or catabolize prostaglandins.

  9. Effect of tienoxolol, a new diuretic beta-blocking agent, on urinary prostaglandin excretion in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Caussade, F.; Cloarec, A.

    1993-01-01

    1. The effects of tienoxolol, (ethyl 2-[3-[(1,1-dimethylethyl)amino]-2-hydroxypropoxy]-5- [(2-thienylcarbonyl) amino] benzoate, hydrochloride), a novel drug exhibiting both diuretic and beta-adrenoceptor blocking properties, were investigated on urinary 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha (6-keto-PGF1 alpha) and PGE2 excretion in the rat and compared to those of reference diuretic (furosemide) and beta-adrenoceptor antagonists (acebutolol, propranolol). Since tienoxolol was shown to bind to A1 and A2 adenosine receptors, the action of theophylline was also evaluated. 2. Tienoxolol (8-128 mg kg-1, p.o.) induced a dose-related increase of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha excretion from 32 mg kg-1 but a significant elevation of urinary PGE2 levels was only reached after administration of 128 mg kg-1. However, renal prostaglandin concentrations were not modified by tienoxolol. 3. Furosemide (32 mg kg-1) displayed a strong diuretic activity but did not enhance 6-keto-PGF1 alpha excretion. Likewise, the latter was unaffected by acebutolol and propranolol (128 mg kg-1) and no significant diuresis was observed following administration of these two beta-blocking agents. Theophylline (64 mg kg-1), like tienoxolol, was able to induce both diuresis and urinary prostaglandin excretion. Furthermore, they bound with similar affinities to A1 and A2 adenosine receptors. This led to the suggestion that a relationship between P1-purinoceptors, prostaglandin release, diuresis and natriuresis could exist. 4. Oral co-administration of NECA (0.2 mg kg-1) with tienoxolol markedly reduced the urinary 6-keto-PGF1 alpha excretion observed when tienoxolol was administered alone. However, neither diuresis nor natriuresis were modified, demonstrating that the proposed relationship was untenable.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8098641

  10. Reduced progesterone and altered cotyledonary prostaglandin values induced by locoweed (Astragalus lentiginosus) in sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, L.C.; James, L.F.; McMullen, R.W.; Panter, K.E.

    1985-09-01

    Feeding 300 or 400 g of dried spotted locoweed, Astragalus lentiginosus per day to 11 pregnant Columbia ewes from the 20th to the 50th days of their gestations resulted in dead and edematous fetuses. Aspartate aminotransferase values were increased, whereas serum progesterone values were significantly diminished in a dose-dependent manner by locoweed ingestion. Cotyledonary 6-keto-prostaglandin (PG)F1 alpha (400 g/day only) and PGF2 alpha (300 and 400 g/day) values were significantly increased, whereas PGE values were not affected by the treatment. Alterations in PG values in these sheep may be a mechanism for altering corpus luteum function and inducing fetal death, which would ultimately result in abortion.

  11. Captopril-induced Changes in Prostaglandin Production

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Stephen L.; Williams, Gordon H.; Hollenberg, Norman K.; Levine, Lawrence; Dluhy, Robert G.; Moore, Thomas J.

    1980-01-01

    Captopril is a potent hypotensive agent whose efficacy has hitherto been attributed to its ability to alter either angiotensin II formation or kinin degradation. Our purpose was to examine captopril's acute effect on prostaglandin production, because changes in neither the renin-angiotensin nor the kallikrein-kinin systems appear adequate to account for the fall in arterial pressure. The plasma levels of angiotensin II, kinins, and prostaglandins were determined in response to increasing doses (5, 12.5, and 25 mg) of captopril and these responses were compared with the change in arterial pressure observed in nine supine normal male subjects studied on both a high (200 meq) and low (10 meq) sodium intake. Captopril significantly (P < 0.01) increased the levels of the 13,14-dihydro-15-keto metabolite of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2-M), a potent vasodilator, with similar responses being observed on both a high and a low sodium intake. No significant changes in the plasma levels of 6-keto-prostaglandin F 1α, or thromboxane B2, the stable products of prostacyclin and thromboxane A2, respectively, occurred. The depressor response to captopril correlated with the change in PGE2-M (r = 0.52, t = 5.44, P < 0.0001). On the other hand, although significant (P < 0.02) decrements in angiotensin II and increments in plasma kinins accompanied the hypotensive response in sodium-restricted subjects, in sodium-loaded subjects where the renin-angiotensin system was suppressed, no change in angiotensin II, and only a modest change in kinins was noted, even though significant (P < 0.01) decrements in diastolic blood pressure occurred (−10±2 mm Hg). Thus, changes in depressor prostaglandin production can better account for the hypotensive response to captopril, thereby extending to yet another vasoactive system an influence by this class of drugs and providing a new approach to dissecting the abnormality in the control of vascular tone in patients with hypertension. PMID:6997332

  12. Development and validation of a LC/MS/MS method for 6-keto PGF1α, a metabolite of prostacyclin (PGI₂).

    PubMed

    Chappell, Derek L; Xiao, Xiaoyao; Radziszewski, Waldemar; Laterza, Omar F

    2011-11-01

    A sensitive liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method was developed for the quantitation of 6-keto PGF(1α) in human urine and plasma. Prostacyclin (PGI(2)) is a locally acting prostanoid, which mediates vasorelaxation and inhibition of platelet aggregation. 6-Keto PGF(1α) is the most-immediate metabolite of PGI(2). Samples were spiked with an internal standard (6-keto PGF(1α)-d(4)), purified by immuno-affinity chromatography and selected reaction monitoring (SRM) was performed. Analytical validation of the 6-keto PGF(1α) assay was performed in urine. This included an assessment of assay precision, recovery, stability, sensitivity and linearity. Urinary 6-keto PGF(1α) concentrations were also correlated to urinary 2,3-dinor-6-keto PGF(1α) (PGIM) concentrations using urine samples collected from 16 healthy volunteers. The mean concentration of 6-keto PGF(1α) in urine (mean ± SD) was 92 ± 51 pg/ml or 168 ± 91 pg/mg creatinine. Overall, there was a statistically significant correlation between urinary 6-keto PGF(1α) and PGIM (r(2)=0.55, p ≤ 0.001; slope=2.7; y-intercept=130). However, PGIM was approximately 3-fold more abundant than 6-keto PGF(1α) in urine. In addition, 6-keto PGF(1α) concentrations were measured in EDTA plasma samples obtained from 7 healthy donors. The mean concentration of 6-keto PGF(1α) in plasma was 1.9 ± 0.8 pg/ml (± SD).

  13. Evaluation of prostaglandin biosynthetic activity in canine basilar artery following subarachnoid injection of blood.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, T; Murota, S I; Wakai, S; Asano, T; Sano, K

    1981-11-01

    Transformation of arachidonic acid into prostaglandins was investigated in the basilar artery by incubating sections of artery with carbon-14-labeled arachidonic acid. Thin-layer radiochromatography revealed that, in normal canine basilar arteries, 14C-arachidonic acid was transformed mainly to 6-keto-prostaglandin (PG)F1 alpha, a spontaneous metabolite of prostacyclin (PGI2). Among other prostaglandins, only a small amount of PGF2 alpha was detected, whereas PGD2, PGE2, and thromboxane B2 were not. Arteries removed on Days 3 and 8 after subarachnoid blood injection showed a prostaglandin synthesis profile similar to that in the normal cerebral artery. In borate-buffered saline (0.1M borate buffer, pH 9.0/0.15M NaCl = 1:9, vol/vol), canine basilar artery produced a PGI2-like substance that inhibited adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation. Its anti-aggregatory activity was completely abolished by acidification. Aspirin likewise inhibited production of the anti-aggregatory substance. From these results, it was concluded that the anti-aggregatory activity was due solely to the production of PGI2 by the arterial specimen. Based on the above results, PGI2 biosynthetic activity in the cerebral artery exposed to subarachnoid blood injection was bioassayed by measuring the inhibitory activity of the incubation product upon ADP-induced platelet aggregation following incubation of the arteries in borate-buffered saline for 5 to 30 minutes at 20 degrees C, using synthetic PGI2-Na as a standard. The synthetic activity of PGI2 in the artery exposed to subarachnoid blood injection had diminished remarkably by Days 3 and 8. This diminution of PGI2 synthesis in the cerebral artery may be involved in the pathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm.

  14. Compartmentalization of prostaglandins in the canine kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan-Boyd, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    The kidney has been shown to synthesize all of the naturally occurring major prostaglandins which may be restricted to a discrete part of the kidney where their actions are physiologically important, such as the vascular compartment and the tubular compartment. In order to examine this concept of compartmentalization, the authors conducted a series of experiments to determine whether PGl/sub 2/, measured as 6-keto-pGF/sub 1..cap alpha../, produced in the kidney is restricted to the renal vascular compartment or whether it also has access to the tubular compartment. Experiments were performed in the pentobarbital-anesthetized dog. Increasing pre-glomerular levels of 6-keto-PFG/sub 1..cap alpha../ caused marked increases in both the urinary excretion and the renal venous outflow to 6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../. When /sup 3/H-6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../ was co-infused with inulin into the renal artery, 33% of the radioactivity and 23% of the inulin was recovered on first pass. With infusion of /sup 3/H-PGl/sub 2/ and inulin, 20% of the radioactivity and 28% of the inulin reached the urine on first pass. Radioactive PGl/sub 2/ appeared to be less filterable at the glomeruli than either /sup 3/H-6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../ or inulin. In the final set of experiments, in which dogs were prepared for a ureteral stopped-flow study, the PGE/sub 2//U/P/sub In/ ratio a peak was observed proximal to the Na/sup +/ plateau but distal to the Na+ nadir. In light of the results from the stopped-flow study and the intrarenal infusion studies, they conclude that PGE/sub 2/ synthesized in the kidney enters both the renal and tubular compartments. In contrast, they find that 6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../ of renal origin enters only the renal origin enters only the renal vascular compartment and not the tubular compartment.

  15. Angiotensin II-induced hypertension in the rat. Effects on the plasma concentration, renal excretion, and tissue release of prostaglandins.

    PubMed Central

    Diz, D I; Baer, P G; Nasjletti, A

    1983-01-01

    We examined in rats the effects of intraperitoneal angiotensin II (AII) infusion for 12 d on urinary excretion, plasma concentration, and in vitro release of prostaglandin (PG) E2 and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, a PGI2 metabolite. AII at 200 ng/min increased systolic blood pressure (SBP) progressively from 125 +/- 3 to 170 +/- 9 mmHg (P less than 0.01) and elevated fluid intake and urine volume. Urinary 6-keto-PGF1 alpha excretion increased from 38 +/- 6 to 55 +/- 5 and 51 +/- 7 ng/d (P less than 0.05) on days 8 and 11, respectively, of AII infusion, but urinary PGE2 excretion did not change. Relative to a control value of 129 +/- 12 pg/ml in vehicle-infused (V) rats, arterial plasma 6-keto-PGF1 alpha concentration increased by 133% (P less than 0.01) with AII infusion. Aortic rings from AII-infused rats released more 6-keto-PGF1 alpha (68 +/- 7 ng/mg) during 15-min incubation in Krebs solution than did rings from V rats (40 +/- 3 ng/mg); release of PGE2, which was less than 1% of that of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, was also increased. Slices of inner renal medulla from AII-infused rats released more 6-keto-PGF1 alpha (14 +/- 1 ng/mg) during incubation than did slices from V rats (8 +/- 1 ng/mg, P less than 0.05), but PGE2 release was not altered. In contrast, AII infusion did not alter release of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha or PGE2 from inferior vena cava segments or from renal cortex slices. Infusion of AII at 125 ng/min also increased SBP, plasma 6-keto-PGF1 alpha concentration, and in vitro release of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha from rings of aorta and renal inner medulla slices; at 75 ng/min AII had no effect. SBP on AII infusion day 11 correlated positively with both 6-keto-PGF1 alpha plasma concentration (r = 0.54) and net aortic ring release (r = 0.70) when data from all rats were combined. We conclude that augmentation of PGI2 production is a feature of AII-induced hypertension. The enhancement of PGI2 production may be an expression of nonspecific alteration in vascular structure and

  16. Effect of phorbol ester on 6-keto PGF sup 1. alpha. production in aorta from control-salt and aldosterone-salt hypertensive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.B.; Jones, A.W. )

    1991-03-11

    The authors have previously shown that norepinephrine (NE) stimulated 6-keto-PGF{sub 1{alpha}} and thromboxane B{sub 2}(TXB{sub 2}) production in aorta from control-salt (CSR) and aldosterone-salt hypertensive rats (AHR) through the alpha-1 adrenoceptor (A1AR). While there was no difference in NE-stimulated TXB{sub 2} production between CSR and AHR, 6-keto-PGF{sub 1{alpha}} production was attenuated in aorta from AHR compared tissues. The authors were interested in whether the source of the arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites was through direct coupling of the A1AR and PLA{sub 2} or secondary to activation of PLC. One approach to answering this question was to bypass the receptor and activate protein kinase-C (PKC) directly. PMA caused a time-dependent increase in both 6-keto-PGF{sub 1{alpha}} and TXB{sub 2}. The time course was much slower than NE-stimulated production of these metabolites, but the pattern was similar with TXB{sub 2} appearing before 6-keto-PGF{sub 1{alpha}}. The PMA concentration-response curves for 6-keto-PGF{sub 1{alpha}} production for CSR and AHR were nearly superimposable. Staurosporine inhibited PMA stimulated 6-keto-PGF{sub 1{alpha}} production in CSR and AHR with nearly equal potency. Thus, while activation of PKC results in increases in AA metabolites, alterations in this pathway do not appear to be responsible for the differences observed with NE-stimulated 6-keto-PGF{sub 1{alpha}} production. These data support the concept of direct coupling between the A1AR and PLA{sub 2} in vascular smooth muscle.

  17. Prostaglandin synthesis by chicken and rat lung microsomes

    SciTech Connect

    Craig-Schmidt, M.C.; Faircloth, S.A.; Wu-Wang, C.Y.

    1986-03-01

    A comparison between chicken and rat lung was made for microsomal prostaglandin (PG) synthesis from 1-/sup 14/C-arachidonic acid. Microsomal protein (2.0 mg) from chicken or rat lung was incubated in the presence of 20 ..mu..g of 1-/sup 14/C-arachidonic acid (specific activity = 3 x 10/sup 6/ dpm/..mu..mol for chicken; 6 x 10/sup 6/ dpm/..mu..mol for rat), 0.05 M Tris-HCl buffer (pH = 8.0), 0.5 mM epinephrine, and 1 mM reduced glutathione in a total volume of 0.5 ml in a 37/sup 0/C water bath with shaking for 15 min. After acidification with 1 M HCl to pH 3, prostaglandins were extracted with ethyl acetate. The products of the reactions were separated by reversed phase chromatography, and the radioactivity of each prostanoid fraction was determined. The predominant prostanoid synthesized by chicken lung microsomes was PGE/sub 2/, followed by much lower amounts of thromboxane B/sub 2/ (TXB/sub 2/), PGF/sub 2//sub ..cap alpha../ and PGD/sub 2/. In at lung, 6-keto-PGF/sub 1//sub ..cap alpha../ was the predominant product formed, with minor amounts of 6-keto-PGE/sub 1/, TXB/sub 2/, PGF/sub 2//sub ..cap alpha../ and PGD/sub 2/. In rat lung, 6-keto-FGF/sub 1//sub ..cap alpha../ was the predominant product formed, with minor amounts of 6-keto-PGF/sub 1//sub ..cap alpha../ was the predominant product formed, with minor amounts of 6-keto-PGE/sub 1/, TXB/sub 2/, PGF/sub 2//sub ..cap alpha../, PGE/sub 2/ and PGD/sub 2/ being formed. Enzyme specific activity (pmol of PG produced per mg microsomal protein per min) was 11.9 for PGE/sub 2/ produced by chicken lung and 16. 7 for 6-keto-P/sub 1//sub ..cap alpha../ produced by rat lung. Thus, there appears to be a species variation in chicken compared to rat for the lung prostanoids which are known to cause bronchial dilation.

  18. A theoretical model of biochemical control engineering based on the relation between oestrogens/progestagens and prostaglandins.

    PubMed

    van der Veen, P H E

    2015-06-01

    A biological complex organism is involuntarily guided from all sides by measure and regulation systems. The human being is such a complex organism. Many cyclical processes are simultaneously at work, making it unclear how and why which process takes place at which moment. Noticeable examples are the 28-day menstrual cycle and the 40-week pregnancy. The time of activation in the middle of the menstrual is fairly clear. Hormonal changes also occur in this period. Why the hormonal changes occur, and what their relationship is with the activation of the processes is unclear. That is also the case during pregnancies. What is it that determines that a pregnancy should last an average of 40 weeks? What causes the changes in a complicated pregnancy? What are those changes? Prostaglandin concentrations have been found to have some relationship with these changes, but the activation of these changes and how to examine them is unknown. Using an example from practical experience, this article illustrates what Horrobin and Manku already reported in 1977, namely, the properties of prostaglandin E1 and 6-keto pgF1α: reversal effect with elevated concentration. The properties described is exceptionally suitable for the time of activation in a biochemically regulated measure and regulation system. These properties can help explain the occurrence of physiological cycles. The known electronic saw-tooth wave has a biochemical analogue with this. This paper describes the presumed relationship between hormones and the accompanying prostaglandins with the hormone effects based on what is known regarding their concentrations progress. This relationship reveals the practical consequences of the experimentally found sensitivity of biochemical effects with regard to the accompanying prostaglandins. This paper shows how the theoretical relationship between effects of oestrogens and progestagens result in a curve that comprise observable aspects of the Basal Body Temperature Curve. The

  19. Stretch-induced prostaglandins and protein turnover in cultured skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, Herman H.; Hatfaludy, Sophia; Sohar, Istvan; Shansky, Janet

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine whether mechanical stimulation of cultured muscle cells influences prostaglandin efflux rates and whether they are related to stretch-induced alterations in protein turnover rates. The materials and methods of the experiment, including cell cultures, mechanical stimulation, protein synthesis, and degradation assays are outlined, and emphasis is placed on the effect of short-term mechanical stimulation in basal medium prostaglandin efflux from cultured skeletal muscle and stretch-induced alterations in prostaglandins efflux in complete medium. The major finding of the study is that mechanical stimulation of tissue-cultured skeletal-muscle cells under conditions inducing skeletal-muscle hypertropy increases the efflux of PGE(2) and PGE(2-alpha) but not 6-keto-PGF(1-alpha), the prostacyclin product.

  20. Influence of endogenous prostaglandins on mTAL injury.

    PubMed

    Silva, P; Rosen, S; Spokes, K; Taylor, M; Epstein, F H

    1990-11-01

    We altered renal prostaglandin production by isolated rat kidneys in several ways to see if this would influence the susceptibility of cells lining the medullary thick ascending limb to injury. Rats were fed a diet containing either safflower oil (high in linoleic acid) or fish oil (low in arachidonate precursors) as a source of fat. After 90 min of perfusion, the kidneys of rats fed safflower oil showed only 32.7 +/- 6.7% of medullary thick ascending limb cells near the inner medulla with severe damage, whereas the same zone in perfused kidneys of rats fed fish oil showed 96.6 +/- 1.3% severely damaged cells (P less than 0.01). The protection afforded by safflower oil was accompanied by a doubling of urinary excretion of PGE2 and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, and was eliminated by indomethacin, which suppressed prostaglandin synthesis. Perfusion with bradykinin also greatly increased prostaglandin excretion and reduced severe medullary thick ascending limb damage in the deepest zone of the outer medulla from 51.3 +/- 6.6% in controls to 28.5 +/- 5.9% (P less than 0.02). The protection provided by bradykinin was also completely reversed by indomethacin. The results suggest that endogenous prostaglandins serve a protective function against hypoxic injury for cells of the medullary thick ascending limb.

  1. Prostaglandins in the perilymph of guinea pig with type II collagen induced ear diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, T.; Chiang, T.; Kitano, H.; Sudo, N.; Kim, S.Y.; Ha, S.; Woo, V.; Wolf, B.; Floyd, R.; Yoo, T.J.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have studied the prostaglandins (PGs) in the perilymph from guinea pig with type II collagen induced autoimmune ear disease. Hartly guinea pigs were immunized with type II collagen in CFA and auditory brain stem responses (ABR) were measured at 2, 3, 4, and 6 months after initial immunization perilymph was obtained and the levels of PGE2 and 6 keto-PGFl..cap alpha.. were measured by radioimmunoassays. Temporal bones were examined for the histopathologic changes. Immunized guinea pigs showed the evidence of hearing loss by ABR. The temporal bones showed the following changes: spiral ganglia degeneration, mild to moderate degree of degeneration in organ of Corti, infrequent very mild endolymphatic hydrops and labrynthitis. The perilymph from immunized animals contained about 5 times more PGE2 and about 3 times more 6 keto-PGFl..cap alpha.. than control animals. However, between these two groups, there was no difference in the CSF and sera levels of PGE2 and 6 keto-PGFl..cap alpha... Thus, this study suggests that these inflammatory mediators might be involved in the pathogenesis of collagen induced autoimmune inner ear disease.

  2. The synovial prostaglandin system in chronic inflammatory arthritis: differential effects of steroidal and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    PubMed Central

    Bombardieri, S.; Cattani, P.; Ciabattoni, G.; Di Munno, O.; Pasero, G.; Patrono, C.; Pinca, E.; Pugliese, F.

    1981-01-01

    1 The present study was undertaken to characterize the spectrum of arachidonic acid metabolites present in synovial effusions of patients with rheumatoid or psoriatic arthritis, and to compare changes in their concentration following a short-term treatment with 6α-methyl-prednisolone (6-MeP: 4-8 mg/day) or indoprofen (1.2 g/day), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with proven synovial prostaglandin inhibitory effect. 2 Measurements of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), thromboxane (TX) B2, 6-keto-PGF1α and PGF2α were performed by radioimmunoassay techniques in synovial effusions obtained from 23 patients, and validated by thin-layer chromatographic analysis of the extracted immunoreactivity. 3 PGE2 and TXB2 accounted for more than 60% of the total immunoreactivity in untreated patients. The absence of any constant ratio between the different arachidonic acid metabolites detected in synovial fluid is consistent with a heterogeneous cellular origin of these compounds. 4 Indoprofen treatment was associated with a consistent reduction of synovial prostaglandin and thromboxane concentrations, ranging from 36% in the case of 6-keto-PGF1α to 90% in the case of PGE2. 5 In contrast, 6-MeP caused opposite changes on different metabolites originating via the cyclo-oxygenase pathway. Thus, 6-keto-PGF1α concentrations were reduced by 35%, PGF2α concentrations were increased by 30%, while PGE2 and TXB2 were unchanged following 6-MeP. 6 Although the mechanism(s) underlying the failure of 6-MeP to reduce synovial PGE2 and TXB2 levels are uncertain, the results of the present study clearly indicate that therapeutic doses of steroidal and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs cause quite distinct changes in arachidonic acid metabolism, which might be relevant to their specific therapeutic actions and side-effects. PMID:6895043

  3. Contrasting effects of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ agonists on membrane-associated prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 in IL-1β-stimulated rat chondrocytes: evidence for PPARγ-independent inhibition by 15-deoxy-Δ12,14prostaglandin J2

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Arnaud; Moulin, David; Sebillaud, Sylvie; Koufany, Meriem; Galteau, Marie-Madeleine; Netter, Patrick; Terlain, Bernard; Jouzeau, Jean-Yves

    2005-01-01

    Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase (mPGES)-1 is a newly identified inducible enzyme of the arachidonic acid cascade with a key function in prostaglandin (PG)E2 synthesis. We investigated the kinetics of inducible cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 and mPGES-1 expression with respect to the production of 6-keto-PGF1α and PGE2 in rat chondrocytes stimulated with 10 ng/ml IL-1β, and compared their modulation by peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ agonists. Real-time PCR analysis showed that IL-1β induced COX-2 expression maximally (37-fold) at 12 hours and mPGES-1 expression maximally (68-fold) at 24 hours. Levels of 6-keto-PGF1α and PGE2 peaked 24 hours after stimulation with IL-1β; the induction of PGE2 was greater (11-fold versus 70-fold, respectively). The cyclopentenone 15-deoxy-Δ12,14prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) decreased prostaglandin synthesis in a dose-dependent manner (0.1 to 10 μM), with more potency on PGE2 level than on 6-keto-PGF1α level (-90% versus -66% at 10 μM). A high dose of 15d-PGJ2 partly decreased COX-2 expression but decreased mPGES-1 expression almost completely at both the mRNA and protein levels. Rosiglitazone was poorly effective on these parameters even at 10 μM. Inhibitory effects of 10 μM 15d-PGJ2 were neither reduced by PPARγ blockade with GW-9662 nor enhanced by PPARγ overexpression, supporting a PPARγ-independent mechanism. EMSA and TransAM® analyses demonstrated that mutated IκBα almost completely suppressed the stimulating effect of IL-1β on mPGES-1 expression and PGE2 production, whereas 15d-PGJ2 inhibited NF-κB transactivation. These data demonstrate the following in IL-1-stimulated rat chondrocytes: first, mPGES-1 is rate limiting for PGE2 synthesis; second, activation of the prostaglandin cascade requires NF-κB activation; third, 15d-PGJ2 strongly inhibits the synthesis of prostaglandins, in contrast with rosiglitazone; fourth, inhibition by 15d-PGJ2 occurs independently of PPARγ through inhibition of

  4. Hangover headache and prostaglandins: prophylactic treatment with tolfenamic acid.

    PubMed

    Kaivola, S; Parantainen, J; Osterman, T; Timonen, H

    1983-03-01

    Tolfenamic acid (TA), a potent inhibitor of prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis and action, was tested prophylactically against hangover symptoms in 30 healthy volunteers in a double-blind cross-over study. One capsule of TA (200 mg) or placebo was taken before starting to drink alcohol and another before going to bed. The hangover symptoms were evaluated in the morning. TA was found significantly better than placebo in the subjective evaluation of drug efficacy (p less than 0.001) and in reducing the reported hangover symptoms in general (p less than 0.01). In the TA group, significantly lower symptom scores were obtained for headache (p less than 0.01), and for nausea, vomiting, irritation, tremor, thirst and dryness of mouth (all p less than 0.05). In a separate study with eight participants, plasma levels of PGs were followed during ingestion of alcohol with or without TA. The plasma concentrations of PGE2 and TXB2 (a metabolite of thromboxane A2) were lower in the TA group during alcohol ingestion, while PGF2 alpha and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha (a metabolite of prostacyclin) were unaffected. TXB2 correlated with blood alcohol levels in a U-shaped manner.

  5. M2-F1 cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    This photo shows the cockpit configuration of the M2-F1 wingless lifting body. With a top speed of about 120 knots, the M2-F1 had a simple instrument panel. Besides the panel itself, the ribs of the wooden shell (left) and the control stick (center) are also visible. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved adequate for the roughly 400 car tows that got the M2-F1 airborne to prove it could fly safely and to train pilots before they were towed behind a C-47

  6. Prostaglandin F{sub 2{alpha}} regulates cytokine responses of mast cells through the receptors for prostaglandin E

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, Izumi; Hishinuma, Takanori; Suzuki, Kaori; Owada, Yuji; Kitanaka, Noriko; Kondo, Hisatake; Goto, Junichi; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Ono, Masao

    2008-03-14

    There is an increasing body of evidence that prostanoids modulate mast cell functions and contribute to the development of allergic inflammation. The present study aimed to identify an undetermined function of prostaglandin (PG) F{sub 2{alpha}} in mast cell activation and the signaling mechanism involved in it. Simultaneous quantification of prostanoids by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry revealed the constitutive release of PGF{sub 2{alpha}}, thromboxane B{sub 2}, and 6-keto-PGF{sub 1{alpha}} from bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). Upon activation of BMMCs by lipopolysaccharide, the cytokine production in BMMCs was enhanced when the culture was supplemented with PGF{sub 2{alpha}}. However, F prostanoid receptor-a selective receptor for PGF{sub 2{alpha}}-was not detected in BMMCs. Further investigations performed using prostanoid receptor antagonists revealed an alternative mechanism wherein the receptors for PGE species-E prostanoid receptors-mediated the PGF{sub 2{alpha}} signal in BMMCs. The present study provides an insight into a novel function of PGF{sub 2{alpha}}, i.e., an autocrine accelerator for mast cell activation.

  7. Prostaglandins as abortifacients.

    PubMed

    Karim, S M

    1971-12-30

    Clinical trials have demonstrated the use of prostaglandins as effective abortifacients. Continuous intravenous infusion of the drugs however has been associated with certain side effects at therapeutically effective doses, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and a local erythematous reaction at the site of venepuncture. Higher doses result in more serious side effects such as vasovagal symptoms, pyrexia and tachycardia. Direct application of prostaglandins E2 or F2a into the uterine cavity has been shown to minimize the side effects. Appropriate doses of prostaglandins every one or 2 hours administered at the site of action between the fetal membrane and uterine wall (via the cervix) produce the strong and frequent uterine contractions necessary for the expulsion of the products of conception. A drawback of this method is the need for the uterine cavity to be continuously monitored as dosage is determined by the uterine response. Another effective method of terminating 1st and 2nd trimester pregnacy with minimal side effects is vaginal administration (into the posterior fornix) of 50 mg PGF2a or 20 mg PGE2 every 2 or 3 hours. Single injection of prostaglandins into the amniotic sac usually results in complete abortion. The method is simple but should be used only in pregnancies of over 12 weeks' gestation as the amniotic sac is inaccessible in the 1st trimester. The prostaglandin method, compared with other methods of abortion in the 1st trimester of pregnancy (e.g., suction or dilatation and curettage) is inferior in terms of time, expense and convenience. Incomplete abortion is quite common in the 1st trimester when prostaglandins are used. With respect to 2nd trimester methods (hypertonic saline and hysterotomy) however, prostaglandins given by intravaginal, intrauterine, or intraamniotic routes offer clear advantages.

  8. Regulation of prostaglandin production by nitric oxide; an in vivo analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Salvemini, D; Settle, S L; Masferrer, J L; Seibert, K; Currie, M G; Needleman, P

    1995-01-01

    1. Endotoxin E. Coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treatment in conscious, restrained rats increased plasma and urinary prostaglandin (PG) and nitric oxide (NO) production. Inducible cyclo-oxygenase (COX-2) and nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression accounted for the LPS-induced PG and NO release since the glucocorticoid, dexamethasone inhibited both effects. Thus, LPS (4 mg kg-1) increased the plasma levels of nitrite/nitrate from 14 +/- 1 to 84 +/- 7 microM within 3 h and this rise was inhibited to 35 +/- 1 microM by dexamethasone. Levels of 6-keto PGF1 alpha in the plasma were below the detection limit of the assay (< 0.2 ng ml-1). However, 3 h after the injection of LPS these levels rose to 2.6 +/- 0.2 ng ml-1 and to 0.7 +/- 0.01 ng ml-1 after LPS in rats that received dexamethasone. 2. The induced enzymes were inhibited in vivo with selective COX and NOS inhibitors. Furthermore, NOS inhibitors, that did not affect COX activity in vitro markedly suppressed PG production in the LPS-treated animals. For instance, the LPS-induced increased in plasma nitrite/nitrate and 6-keto PGF1 alpha at 3 h was decreased to 18 +/- 2 microM and 0.5 +/- 0.02 ng ml-1, 23 +/- 1 microM and 0.7 +/- 0.01 ng ml-1, 29 +/- 2 microM and 1 +/- 0.01 ng ml-1 in rats treated with LPS in the presence of the NOS inhibitors NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, NG-nitro arginine methyl ester and aminoguanidine, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7542531

  9. Glomerular and tubular adaptive responses to acute nephron loss in the rat. Effect of prostaglandin synthesis inhibition.

    PubMed Central

    Pelayo, J C; Shanley, P F

    1990-01-01

    These studies, using in vivo micropuncture techniques in the Munich-Wistar rat, document the magnitude of changes in glomerular and tubular function and structure 24 h after approximately 75% nephron loss (Nx) and compared these results with those obtained in sham-operated rats. The contribution of either nephron hypertrophy or renal prostaglandin to these adjustments in nephron function was also explored. After acute Nx, single nephron GFR (SNGFR) was increased, on average by approximately 30%, due primarily to glomerular hyperperfusion and hypertension. The approximately 45% reduction in preglomerular and the constancy in postglomerular vascular resistances was entirely responsible for these adaptations. Although increases in fluid reabsorption in proximal convoluted tubules correlated closely with increase in SNGFR, the fractional fluid reabsorption between late proximal and early distal tubular segments was depressed. Nephron hypertrophy could not be substantiated based on either measurements of protein content in renal tissue homogenates or morphometric analysis of proximal convoluted tubules. However, acute Nx was associated with increased urinary excretory rates per functional nephron for 6-keto-PGF1 alpha and TXB2. Prostaglandin synthesis inhibition did not affect function in control nephrons, but this maneuver was associated with normalization of glomerular and tubular function in remnant nephrons. The results suggest that enhanced synthesis of cyclooxygenase-dependent products is one of the earliest responses to Nx, and even before hypertrophy the pathophysiologic effects of prostaglandin may be important contributors to the adaptations in remnant nephron function. PMID:1693376

  10. HISTONE F1 OF TETRAHYMENA MACRONUCLEI

    PubMed Central

    Gorovsky, Martin A.; Keevert, Josephine Bowen; Pleger, Gloria Lorick

    1974-01-01

    Histone fraction F1 has been isolated and purified from macronuclei of the ciliated protozoan, Tetrahymena pyriformis. In many respects, Tetrahymena F1 is similar to that of other organisms. It is the only Tetrahymena histone soluble in 5% perchloric acid or 5% trichloroacetic acid, has a higher molecular weight than any other Tetrahymena histone, is the histone most easily dissociated from Tetrahymena chromatin, and is susceptible to specific proteolytic cleavage. However, unlike F1 in all other organisms, Tetrahymena F1 is not the slowest-migrating histone fraction when analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at low pH. Tetrahymena F1 also exhibits unusual behavior in sodium dodecyl sulfate-containing polyacrylamide gels, migrating faster than calf thymus F1 at pH 10, and slower than calf thymus F1 at pH 7.6. Tetrahymena F1 was found to be highly phosphorylated in rapidly growing cells, suggesting that the relationship between cell replication and F1 phosphorylation previously observed in mammalian cells may extend to all eukaryotes. The observation that extensive F1 phosphorylation occurs in macronuclei, which divide amitotically, argues against a unique role for F1 phosphorylation in the process of chromosome condensation at mitosis. PMID:4206592

  11. Curcumin blocks prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis through direct inhibition of the microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1.

    PubMed

    Koeberle, Andreas; Northoff, Hinnak; Werz, Oliver

    2009-08-01

    Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) plays a crucial role in the apparent link between tumor growth and chronic inflammation. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and microsomal PGE(2) synthase-1, which are overexpressed in many cancers, are functionally coupled and thus produce massive PGE(2) in various tumors. Curcumin, a polyphenolic beta-diketone from tumeric with anti-carcinogenic and anti-inflammatory activities, was shown to suppress PGE(2) formation and to block the expression of COX-2 and of microsomal PGE(2) synthase-1. Here, we identified microsomal PGE(2) synthase-1 as a molecular target of curcumin and we show that inhibition of microsomal PGE(2) synthase-1 activity is the predominant mechanism of curcumin to suppress PGE(2) biosynthesis. Curcumin reversibly inhibited the conversion of PGH(2) to PGE(2) by microsomal PGE(2) synthase-1 in microsomes of interleukin-1beta-stimulated A549 lung carcinoma cells with an IC(50) of 0.2 to 0.3 micromol/L. Closely related polyphenols (e.g., resveratrol, coniferyl alcohol, eugenol, rosmarinic acid) failed in this respect, and isolated ovine COX-1 and human recombinant COX-2 were not inhibited by curcumin up to 30 micromol/L. In lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human whole blood, curcumin inhibited COX-2-derived PGE(2) formation from endogenous or from exogenous arachidonic acid, whereas the concomitant formation of COX-2-mediated 6-keto PGF(1)alpha and COX-1-derived 12(S)-hydroxy-5-cis-8,10-trans-heptadecatrienoic acid was suppressed only at significant higher concentrations. Based on the key function of PGE(2) in inflammation and carcinogenesis, inhibition of microsomal PGE(2) synthase-1 by curcumin provides a molecular basis for its anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory activities.

  12. Misidentification of prostamides as prostaglandins.

    PubMed

    Glass, Michelle; Hong, Jiwon; Sato, Timothy A; Mitchell, Murray D

    2005-07-01

    Prostaglandins and endogenous cannabinoid metabolites share the same lipid backbone with differing polar head groups at exactly the position through which a large molecule is attached to provide antigenicity and thus raise antisera. Hence, we hypothesized that antisera raised against prostaglandins linked to a large molecule such as BSA at the carboxyl functional group would also recognize endogenous cannabinoid metabolites and lead to highly misleading interpretations of data. We found major cross-reactivity of commercial antisera raised to prostaglandins with endocannabinoid metabolites. Furthermore, in a well-characterized cell line (WISH) or primary amnion tissue explants, endocannabinoid treatment led to increased production of endocannabinoid metabolites as opposed to primary prostaglandins. This was apparent only after separation of products by thin-layer chromatography, because they measured as prostaglandins by radioimmunoassay. These findings have major implications for our interpretation of data in situations in which these prostaglandin-like molecules are formed, and they stress the need for chromatographic or spectrometric confirmation of prostaglandin production detected by antibody-based methods. PMID:15863842

  13. Inhibition of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 by aminothiazoles decreases prostaglandin E2 synthesis in vitro and ameliorates experimental periodontitis in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kats, Anna; Båge, Tove; Georgsson, Pierre; Jönsson, Jörgen; Quezada, Hernán Concha; Gustafsson, Anders; Jansson, Leif; Lindberg, Claes; Näsström, Karin; Yucel-Lindberg, Tülay

    2013-01-01

    The potent inflammatory mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is implicated in the pathogenesis of several chronic inflammatory conditions, including periodontitis. The inducible enzyme microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1), catalyzing the terminal step of PGE2 biosynthesis, is an attractive target for selective PGE2 inhibition. To identify mPGES-1 inhibitors, we investigated the effect of aminothiazoles on inflammation-induced PGE2 synthesis in vitro, using human gingival fibroblasts stimulated with the cytokine IL-1β and a cell-free mPGES-1 activity assay, as well as on inflammation-induced bone resorption in vivo, using ligature-induced experimental periodontitis in Sprague-Dawley rats. Aminothiazoles 4-([4-(2-naphthyl)-1,3-thiazol-2-yl]amino)phenol (TH-848) and 4-(3-fluoro-4-methoxyphenyl)-N-(4-phenoxyphenyl)-1,3-thiazol-2-amine (TH-644) reduced IL-1β-induced PGE2 production in fibroblasts (IC50 1.1 and 1.5 μM, respectively) as well as recombinant mPGES-1 activity, without affecting activity or expression of the upstream enzyme cyclooxygenase-2. In ligature-induced experimental periodontitis, alveolar bone loss, assessed by X-ray imaging, was reduced by 46% by local treatment with TH-848, compared to vehicle, without any systemic effects on PGE2, 6-keto PGF1α, LTB4 or cytokine levels. In summary, these results demonstrate that the aminothiazoles represent novel mPGES-1 inhibitors for inhibition of PGE2 production and reduction of bone resorption in experimental periodontitis, and may be used as potential anti-inflammatory drugs for treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases, including periodontitis.—Kats, A., Båge, T., Georgsson, P., Jönsson, J., Quezada, H. C., Gustafsson, A., Jansson, L., Lindberg, C., Näsström, K., Yucel-Lindberg, T. Inhibition of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 by aminothiazoles decreases prostaglandin E2 synthesis in vitro and ameliorates experimental periodontitis in vivo. PMID:23447581

  14. Neonatal dietary supplementation of arachidonic acid increases prostaglandin levels in adipose tissue but does not promote fat mass development in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Aprikian, Olivier; Reynaud, Denis; Pace-Asciak, Cecil; Leone, Patricia; Blancher, Florence; Monnard, Irina; Darimont, Christian; Macé, Katherine

    2007-11-01

    The role of arachidonic acid (AA) on the development of adipose tissue is still controversial since its metabolites, i.e., prostaglandins, can either stimulate or inhibit preadipocyte differentiation in vitro. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of early postnatal supplementation of AA on body weight and adipose tissue development in guinea pigs. Male newborn guinea pigs were fed for 21 days (day 21) with diets (milk and pellet) supplemented (+AA) or not (-AA) with 1.2% (total fatty acids) AA. From day 21 to day 105 both groups were fed a chow diet. The 21-days-old +AA pups showed a twofold higher AA accretion in phospholipids associated with a two- to sixfold increase in several prostaglandins, such as 6-keto PGF(1alpha) (the stable hydrolysis product of PGI(2)), PGF(2alpha), PGE(2), and PGD(2) in adipose tissue, compared with the -AA group. No difference in fat pad and body weight, aP2, and leptin gene expression in adipose tissue, fasting plasma glucose, free-fatty acids, and triglyceride concentration was observed between groups at day 21 or day 105. These results show that dietary supplementation of AA during the suckling/weaning period increases prostaglandin levels in adipose tissue but does not influence early fat mass development in the guinea pig.

  15. F-1 Engine Gas Generator Testing

    NASA Video Gallery

    The gas generator from an F-1 engine is test-fired at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., on Jan. 24, 2013. Data from the 30 second test will be used in the development of advance...

  16. Histamine stimulation of prostaglandin and HETE synthesis in human endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Revtyak, G.E.; Hughes, M.J.; Johnson, A.R.; Campbell, W.B.

    1988-08-01

    Endothelial cells (EC) cultured from human umbilical artery (UA) and vein (UV) metabolized (/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid to prostaglandins (PGs), monohydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs), and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Major radioactive products were identified as 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, PGE2, PGF2 alpha, 12-hydroxy heptadecatrienoic acid, 15-HETE, and 11-HETE. In addition, extracts from UV ECs contained 12-HETE, 5-HETE, 14,15-EET, and 5,6-EET as minor products, whereas extracts from UA ECs contained only 12-HETE as a minor product. UA ECs also produced metabolites comigrating with 14,15-EET, 11,12-EET, 8,9-EET, and 5,6-EET. Histamine increased the release of (/sup 14/C)PGs and (/sup 14/C)HETEs from (/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid-labeled ECs. Indomethacin, aspirin, and nordihydroguauretic acid completely inhibited synthesis of both (/sup 14/C)PGs and (/sup 14/C)HETEs from exogenous (/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid in these cells. Microsomes metabolized (/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid to the same (/sup 14/C)PGs and (/sup 14/C)HETEs as intact cells. Pretreatment of microsomes with indomethacin completely inhibited formation of these products. These data indicate that UA ECs and UV ECs metabolize endogenous and exogenous arachidonic acid to both PGs and HETEs. Also 15-HETE and 11-HETE appear to be synthesized by a microsomal enzyme with the properties of cyclooxygenase.

  17. Activation of Ftz-F1-Responsive Genes through Ftz/Ftz-F1 Dependent Enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Field, Amanda; Xiang, Jie; Anderson, W. Ray; Graham, Patricia; Pick, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    The orphan nuclear receptor Ftz-F1 is expressed in all somatic nuclei in Drosophila embryos, but mutations result in a pair-rule phenotype. This was explained by the interaction of Ftz-F1 with the homeodomain protein Ftz that is expressed in stripes in the primordia of segments missing in either ftz-f1 or ftz mutants. Ftz-F1 and Ftz were shown to physically interact and coordinately activate the expression of ftz itself and engrailed by synergistic binding to composite Ftz-F1/Ftz binding sites. However, attempts to identify additional target genes on the basis of Ftz-F1/ Ftz binding alone has met with only limited success. To discern rules for Ftz-F1 target site selection in vivo and to identify additional target genes, a microarray analysis was performed comparing wildtype and ftz-f1 mutant embryos. Ftz-F1-responsive genes most highly regulated included engrailed and nine additional genes expressed in patterns dependent on both ftz and ftz-f1. Candidate enhancers for these genes were identified by combining BDTNP Ftz ChIP-chip data with a computational search for Ftz-F1 binding sites. Of eight enhancer reporter genes tested in transgenic embryos, six generated expression patterns similar to the corresponding endogenous gene and expression was lost in ftz mutants. These studies identified a new set of Ftz-F1 targets, all of which are co-regulated by Ftz. Comparative analysis of enhancers containing Ftz/Ftz-F1 binding sites that were or were not bona fide targets in vivo suggested that GAF negatively regulates enhancers that contain Ftz/Ftz-F1 binding sites but are not actually utilized. These targets include other regulatory factors as well as genes involved directly in morphogenesis, providing insight into how pair-rule genes establish the body pattern. PMID:27723822

  18. Prostaglandins, bioassay and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Flower, R J

    2006-01-01

    The formation of the British Pharmacological Society coincided almost exactly with a series of ground-breaking studies that ushered in an entirely new field of research – that of lipid mediator pharmacology. For many years following their chemical characterisation, lipids were considered only to be of dietary or structural importance. From the 1930s, all this changed – slowly at first and then more dramatically in the 1970s and 1980s with the emergence of the prostaglandins (PGs), the first intercellular mediators to be clearly derived from lipids, in a dynamic on-demand system. The PGs exhibit a wide range of biological activities that are still being evaluated and their properties underlie the action of one of the world's all-time favourite medicines, aspirin, as well as its more modern congeners. This paper traces the development of the PG field, with particular emphasis on the skilful utilisation of the twin techniques of bioassay and analytical chemistry by U.K. and Swedish scientists, and the intellectual interplay between them that led to the award of a joint Nobel Prize to the principal researchers in the PG field, half a century after the first discovery of these astonishingly versatile mediators. PMID:16402103

  19. M2-F1 simulator cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    This early simulator of the M2-F1 lifting body was used for pilot training, to test landing techniques before the first ground tow attempts, and to test new control configurations after the first tow attempts and wind-tunnel tests. The M2-F1 simulator was limited in some ways by its analog simulator. It had only limited visual display for the pilot, as well. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved adequate for the roughly 400 car tows that got the M2-F1 airborne

  20. Chain-shortening of prostaglandin F2 alpha by rat liver peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Diczfalusy, U; Alexson, S E; Pedersen, J I

    1987-05-14

    Liver peroxisomes were isolated from di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate treated rats by isopycnic sucrose gradient centrifugation of a light mitochondrial fraction. Incubation of prostaglandin F2 alpha with purified peroxisomes resulted in conversion into a more polar product(s). In contrast, incubation with mitochondrial fractions and microsomal fractions under the same conditions did not result in any detectable conversion. The polar material obtained from a preparative incubation was purified by high performance liquid chromatography and characterized by radio-gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The structure of the polar compound was shown to be 5,7,11-trihydroxy-tetranorprost-9-enoic acid (tetranor-prostaglandin F1 alpha). Prostaglandin F2 alpha was thus chain-shortened by four carbon atoms. PMID:3472523

  1. Femtomole analysis of prostaglandin pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    McGuffin, V L; Zare, R N

    1985-12-01

    An analytical method is described whereby the major classes of prostaglandins are fully resolved by microcolumn liquid chromatography and detected at the subfemtomole level by laser-induced fluorescence. The prostaglandins are labeled with the fluorescent reagent 4-bromo-methyl-7-methoxycoumarin and are subsequently separated on a high-efficiency fused-silica microcolumn (0.2 mm i.d., 1.06 m length, 150,000 theoretical plates). The optimal chromatographic conditions consist of a 3-micron octadecylsilica packing material and an isocratic mobile phase of 47.6% methanol, 23.8% acetonitrile, and 28.6% water. The prostaglandin derivatives are detected directly on the microcolumn by laser fluorimetry, using a helium/cadmium laser (325 nm, 15 mW) as the excitation source together with a simple filter/photo-multiplier optical detection system. In real sample matrices, the prostaglandin PGF2 alpha is readily quantifiable from the detection limit (0.3 fmol) to the formulation strength of the therapeutic agent Lutalyse (Upjohn), spanning more than six orders of magnitude in concentration. The simplicity and general applicability of the present analytical methodology and instrumentation suggest that this technique can be used to attack a wide variety of biomedically important problems with exceptional sensitivity and selectivity.

  2. Radiation-induced changes in the profile of spinal cord serotonin, prostaglandin synthesis, and vascular permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Siegal, T.; Pfeffer, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    To investigate the profile of biochemical and physiological changes induced in the rat spinal cord by radiation, over a period of 8 months. The thoraco-lumbar spinal cords of Fisher rats were irradiated to a dose of 15 Gy. The rats were then followed and killed at various times afterward. Serotonin (5-HT) and its major metabolite 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA) were assayed as well as prostaglandin synthesis. Microvessel permeability was assessed by quantitative evaluation of Evans blue dye extravasation. None of the rats developed neurologic dysfunction, and histologic examination revealed only occasional gliosis in the ventral white matter at 240 days after irradiation. Serotonin levels were unchanged at 2, 14, and 56 days after radiation but increased at 120 and 240 days in the irradiated cord segments when compared to both the nonirradiated thoracic and cervical segments (p < 0.01) and age-matched controls (p < 0.03). The calculated utilization ratio of serotonin (5-HIAA/5-HT) remained unchanged. Immediately after radiation (at 3 and 24 h) an abrupt but brief increase in the synthesis of prostaglandin-E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}), thromboxane (TXB{sub 2}), and prostacyclin [6 keto-PGF1{alpha} (6KPGF)] was noted, which returned to normal at 3 days. This was followed after 7 and 14 days by a significant fall off in synthesis of all three prostaglandins. Thereafter, at 28, 56, 120, and 240 days, escalated production of thromboxane followed, white prostacyclin synthesis remained markedly reduced (-88% of control level at 240 days). Up to 7 days after radiation the calculated TXB{sub 2}/6KPGF ratio remained balanced, regardless of the observed abrupt early fluctuations in their rate of synthesis. Later, between 7 and 240 days after radiation, a significant imbalance was present which became more pronounced over time. In the first 24 h after radiation, a 104% increase in microvessel permeability was observed which returned to normal by 3 days. 57 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Anatomy of F1-ATPase powered rotation

    PubMed Central

    Martin, James L.; Ishmukhametov, Robert; Hornung, Tassilo; Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Frasch, Wayne D.

    2014-01-01

    F1-ATPase, the catalytic complex of the ATP synthase, is a molecular motor that can consume ATP to drive rotation of the γ-subunit inside the ring of three αβ-subunit heterodimers in 120° power strokes. To elucidate the mechanism of ATPase-powered rotation, we determined the angular velocity as a function of rotational position from single-molecule data collected at 200,000 frames per second with unprecedented signal-to-noise. Power stroke rotation is more complex than previously understood. This paper reports the unexpected discovery that a series of angular accelerations and decelerations occur during the power stroke. The decreases in angular velocity that occurred with the lower-affinity substrate ITP, which could not be explained by an increase in substrate-binding dwells, provides direct evidence that rotation depends on substrate binding affinity. The presence of elevated ADP concentrations not only increased dwells at 35° from the catalytic dwell consistent with competitive product inhibition but also decreased the angular velocity from 85° to 120°, indicating that ADP can remain bound to the catalytic site where product release occurs for the duration of the power stroke. The angular velocity profile also supports a model in which rotation is powered by Van der Waals repulsive forces during the final 85° of rotation, consistent with a transition from F1 structures 2HLD1 and 1H8E (Protein Data Bank). PMID:24567403

  4. M2-F1 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    This 25-second clip shows Milt Thompson being towed in the M2-F1 behind a C-47 aircraft. The M2-F1 lifting body, dubbed the 'flying bathtub' by the media, was the precursor of a remarkable series of wingless flying vehicles that contributed data used in the Space Shuttles, the X-33 Advanced Technology Demonstrator for the next century's Reusable Launch Vehicle, and the X-38 Technology Demonstrator for crew return from the International Space Station. Based on the ideas and basic design of Alfred J. Eggers and others at the Ames Aeronautical Laboratory (now the Ames Research Center), Mountain View, California, in the mid-1950's, the M2-F1 was built in 1962-63 over a four-month period for a cost of only about $30,000, plus an additional $8,000-$10,000 for an ejection seat. Engineers and technicians at the NASA Flight Research Center (now NASA Dryden) kept costs low by designing and fabricating it partly in-house, with the plywood shell constructed by a local sailplane builder. Someone at the time estimated that it would have cost a major aircraft company $150,000 to build the same vehicle. Unlike the later lifting bodies, the M2-F1 was unpowered and was initially towed by a souped-up Pontiac convertible until it was airborne. Later a C-47 took over the towing duties. Flown by such famous research pilots as Milt Thompson, Bruce Peterson, Chuck Yeager, and Bill Dana, the lightweight flying bathtub demonstrated that a wingless vehicle shaped for reentry into the Earth's atmosphere from space could be flown and landed safely. Flown from 1963 to 1966, the lightweight M2-F1 paved the way for the heavyweight M2-F2, M2-F3, HL-10, X-24A, and X-24B lifting bodies that flew under rocket power after launch from a B-52 mothership. The heavyweights flew from 1966 to 1975, demonstrating the viability and versatility of the wingless configuration and the ability of a vehicle with low lift-over-drag characteristics to fly to high altitudes and then to land precisely with their rocket

  5. Carnosol and carnosic acids from Salvia officinalis inhibit microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Julia; Kuehnl, Susanne; Rollinger, Judith M; Scherer, Olga; Northoff, Hinnak; Stuppner, Hermann; Werz, Oliver; Koeberle, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), the most relevant eicosanoid promoting inflammation and tumorigenesis, is formed by cyclooxygenases (COXs) and PGE(2) synthases from free arachidonic acid. Preparations of the leaves of Salvia officinalis are commonly used in folk medicine as an effective antiseptic and anti-inflammatory remedy and possess anticancer activity. Here, we demonstrate that a standard ethyl acetate extract of S. officinalis efficiently suppresses the formation of PGE(2) in a cell-free assay by direct interference with microsomal PGE(2) synthase (mPGES)-1. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the extract yielded closely related fractions that potently suppressed mPGES-1 with IC(50) values between 1.9 and 3.5 μg/ml. Component analysis of these fractions revealed the diterpenes carnosol and carnosic acid as potential bioactive principles inhibiting mPGES-1 activity with IC(50) values of 5.0 μM. Using a human whole-blood assay as a robust cell-based model, carnosic acid, but not carnosol, blocked PGE(2) generation upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (IC(50) = 9.3 μM). Carnosic acid neither inhibited the concomitant biosynthesis of other prostanoids [6-keto PGF(1α), 12(S)-hydroxy-5-cis-8,10-trans-heptadecatrienoic acid, and thromboxane B(2)] in human whole blood nor affected the activities of COX-1/2 in a cell-free assay. Together, S. officinalis extracts and its ingredients carnosol and carnosic acid inhibit PGE(2) formation by selectively targeting mPGES-1. We conclude that the inhibitory effect of carnosic acid on PGE(2) formation, observed in the physiologically relevant whole-blood model, may critically contribute to the anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties of S. officinalis.

  6. Carnosol and Carnosic Acids from Salvia officinalis Inhibit Microsomal Prostaglandin E2 Synthase-1

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Julia; Kuehnl, Susanne; Rollinger, Judith M.; Scherer, Olga; Northoff, Hinnak; Stuppner, Hermann; Werz, Oliver; Koeberle, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), the most relevant eicosanoid promoting inflammation and tumorigenesis, is formed by cyclooxygenases (COXs) and PGE2 synthases from free arachidonic acid. Preparations of the leaves of Salvia officinalis are commonly used in folk medicine as an effective antiseptic and anti-inflammatory remedy and possess anticancer activity. Here, we demonstrate that a standard ethyl acetate extract of S. officinalis efficiently suppresses the formation of PGE2 in a cell-free assay by direct interference with microsomal PGE2 synthase (mPGES)-1. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the extract yielded closely related fractions that potently suppressed mPGES-1 with IC50 values between 1.9 and 3.5 μg/ml. Component analysis of these fractions revealed the diterpenes carnosol and carnosic acid as potential bioactive principles inhibiting mPGES-1 activity with IC50 values of 5.0 μM. Using a human whole-blood assay as a robust cell-based model, carnosic acid, but not carnosol, blocked PGE2 generation upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (IC50 = 9.3 μM). Carnosic acid neither inhibited the concomitant biosynthesis of other prostanoids [6-keto PGF1α, 12(S)-hydroxy-5-cis-8,10-trans-heptadecatrienoic acid, and thromboxane B2] in human whole blood nor affected the activities of COX-1/2 in a cell-free assay. Together, S. officinalis extracts and its ingredients carnosol and carnosic acid inhibit PGE2 formation by selectively targeting mPGES-1. We conclude that the inhibitory effect of carnosic acid on PGE2 formation, observed in the physiologically relevant whole-blood model, may critically contribute to the anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties of S. officinalis. PMID:22511203

  7. The Enteropathy of Prostaglandin Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Adler, David H.; Phillips, John A.; Cogan, Joy D.; Iverson, Tina M.; Stein, Jeffrey A.; Brenner, David A.; Morrow, Jason D.; Boutaud, Olivier; Oates, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Small intestinal ulcers are frequent complications of therapy with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). We present here a genetic deficiency of eicosanoid biosynthesis that illuminates the mechanism of NSAID-induced ulcers of the small intestine. Methods Eicosanoids and metabolites were measured by isotope-dilution with mass spectrometry. cDNA was obtained by reverse transcription and sequenced following amplification with RT-PCR. Results We investigated the cause of chronic recurrent small intestinal ulcers, small bowel perforations, and gastrointestinal blood loss in a 45 year old male who was not taking any cyclooxygenase inhibitor. Prostaglandin metabolites in urine were significantly depressed. Serum thromboxane B2 (TxB2) production was 4.6% of normal controls (p<0.006) and serum 12-HETE was 1.3% of controls (p<0.005). Optical platelet aggregation with simultaneous monitoring of ATP release demonstrated absent granule secretion in response to ADP and a blunted aggregation response to ADP and collagen, but normal response to arachidonic acid (AA). LTB4 biosynthesis by ionophore activated leukocytes was only 3% of controls and urinary LTE4 was undetectable. These findings suggested deficient AA release from membrane phospholipids by cytosolic phospholipase A2-α (cPLA2-α) which regulates cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase mediated eicosanoid production by catalyzing the release of their substrate, AA. Sequencing of cPLA2-α cDNA demonstrated 2 heterozygous non-synonymous single base pair mutations: Ser111Pro (S111P) and Arg485His (R485H), as well as a known SNP: Lys651Arg (K651R). Conclusion Characterization of this cPLA2-α deficiency provides support for the importance of prostaglandins in protecting small intestinal integrity, and indicates that loss of prostaglandin biosynthesis is sufficient to produce small intestinal ulcers. PMID:19148786

  8. [Treatment of postpartal atony with prostaglandins].

    PubMed

    Heinzl, S; Hendry, M

    1986-01-01

    Uterine contraction can be brought about at any time with prostaglandins. This effect is exploited in the treatment of postpartal atonia. Prostaglandin was administered intravenously to 21 women for postpartal atonia. In 19 women the bleeding subsequently stopped. There were no side effects of the treatment. These results are presented and discussed with reference to other data in the literature.

  9. Prostaglandins, Thromboxanes and Leukotrienes in Clinical Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zipser, Robert D.; Laffi, Giacomo

    1985-01-01

    Although prostaglandin research began about 50 years ago, many of the most important advances in understanding the biochemistry, physiology and pharmacology have taken place within the past five to ten years. There is great potential for the extension of this research to the clinical practice of medicine. At this time, the most common interaction that clinicians have with the prostaglandin field is in administering nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which function by inhibiting prostaglandins. The uses of these drugs include treating not only inflammation, but also dysmenorrhea, some renal disease, thrombotic diseases and some metabolic disorders. Prostaglandin analogs, with their potent effects on uterine contraction, are in common use in obstetrics. Other analogs, with gastric and duodenal cytoprotective effects are useful in treating peptic ulcer disease. Future benefits from prostaglandin and leukotriene research may include new therapy for inflammatory and hypersensitivity diseases such as asthma, inflammatory bowel diseases and dermatitis. PMID:3004043

  10. 26 CFR 1.415(f)-1 - Aggregating plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aggregating plans. 1.415(f)-1 Section 1.415(f)-1...) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.415(f)-1 Aggregating plans. (a) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (g) of this section (regarding multiemployer plans), and...

  11. 26 CFR 1.415(f)-1 - Aggregating plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Aggregating plans. 1.415(f)-1 Section 1.415(f)-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.415(f)-1 Aggregating plans. (a) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (g) of this section (regarding multiemployer...

  12. 26 CFR 1.415(f)-1 - Aggregating plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aggregating plans. 1.415(f)-1 Section 1.415(f)-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.415(f)-1 Aggregating plans. (a) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (g) of this section (regarding multiemployer...

  13. Prostaglandins in human seminal plasma. Prostaglandins and related factors 46.

    PubMed

    Hamberg, M; Samuelsson, B

    1966-01-25

    This study on human seminal plasma sought after the compounds which either possess the dienone chromophore or can be converted into it by treatment with sodium hydroxide. In addition, this investigation led to the isolation of 8 more (PGs) prostaglandins which were present in higher concentrations than the previously recognized PGs. Samples of human seminal plasma were subjected to silicic acid chromatography, reversed phase partition chromatography, thin layer chromatography, and gas liquid chromatography which isolated those 8 PGs not previously recognized. 4 of these compounds, PGE1-217, PGE2-217, PGE1-278, and PGE2-278 were known from earlier studies but had not been isolated from natural sources. The other 4 were 19 hydroxy derivatives of the 4 abovementioned compounds. The concentrations of the previously recognized PGs were recently determined and it was found that the 19 hydroxy derivatives were present in concentrations 4 times higher than the PGE compounds.

  14. Enhancement of scleral macromolecular permeability with prostaglandins.

    PubMed Central

    Weinreb, R N

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: It is proposed that the sclera is a metabolically active and pharmacologically responsive tissue. These studies were undertaken to determine whether prostaglandin exposure can enhance scleral permeability to high-molecular-weight substances. METHODS: Topical prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) was administered to monkeys to determine if this altered the amount of scleral matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Experiments also were performed to determine whether the prostaglandin F (FP) receptor and gene transcripts are expressed in normal human sclera. Permeability of organ-cultured human sclera following prostaglandin exposure then was studied and the amount of MMP released into the medium measured. Finally, the permeability of human sclera to basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) was determined following prostaglandin exposure. RESULTS: Topical prostaglandin administration that reduced scleral collagen also increased scleral MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-3 by 63 +/- 35%, 267 +/- 210%, and 729 +/- 500%, respectively. FP receptor protein was localized in scleral fibroblasts, and FP receptor gene transcript was identified in sclera. Exposure to prostaglandin F2 alpha, 17-phenyltrinor, PGF2 alpha, or latanoprost acid increased scleral permeability by up to 124%, 183%, or 213%, respectively. In these cultures, MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-3 were increased by up to 37%, 267%, and 96%, respectively. Finally, transscleral absorption of FGF-2 was increased by up to 126% with scleral exposure to latanoprost. CONCLUSIONS: These studies demonstrate that the sclera is metabolically active and pharmacologically responsive to prostaglandins. Further, they demonstrate the feasibility of cotreatment with prostaglandin to enhance transscleral delivery of peptides, such as growth factors and high-molecular-weight substances, to the posterior segment of the eye. PMID:11797317

  15. Single molecule thermodynamics of ATP synthesis by F1-ATPase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyabe, Shoichi; Muneyuki, Eiro

    2015-01-01

    FoF1-ATP synthase is a factory for synthesizing ATP in virtually all cells. Its core machinery is the subcomplex F1-motor (F1-ATPase) and performs the reversible mechanochemical coupling. The isolated F1-motor hydrolyzes ATP, which is accompanied by unidirectional rotation of its central γ -shaft. When a strong opposing torque is imposed, the γ -shaft rotates in the opposite direction and drives the F1-motor to synthesize ATP. This mechanical-to-chemical free-energy transduction is the final and central step of the multistep cellular ATP-synthetic pathway. Here, we determined the amount of mechanical work exploited by the F1-motor to synthesize an ATP molecule during forced rotations using a methodology combining a nonequilibrium theory and single molecule measurements of responses to external torque. We found that the internal dissipation of the motor is negligible even during rotations far from a quasistatic process.

  16. Rotary catalysis of FoF1-ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Rikiya

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis of ATP, the key reaction of biological energy metabolism, is accomplished by the rotary motor protein; FoF1-ATP synthase (FoF1). In vivo, FoF1, located on the cell membrane, carries out ATP synthesis by using the proton motive force. This heterologous energy conversion is supposed to be mediated by the mechanical rotation of FoF1; however, it still remained unclear. Recently, we developed the novel experimental setup to reproduce the proton motive force in vitro and succeeded in directly observing the proton-driven rotation of FoF1. In this review, we describe the interesting working principles determined so far for FoF1 and then introduce results from our recent study.

  17. Efficacy of liposome-encapsulated indomethacin in response against metastatic 3LL and B16F1 tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Aliño, S F; Unda, F J; Iruarrizaga, A; Alfaro, J; Hilario, E; Pérez-Yarza, G; Bobadilla, M; Lejarreta, M

    1992-06-01

    The ability of large liposomes to be taken up by tissue phagocytic cells, e.g., macrophages, has made it possible to increase the efficacy of several drugs as immunomodulating agents. In the present work, we have evaluated the effect of indomethacin, a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor, both free and encapsulated in liposomes, on the spontaneous metastatic potential of 3LL and B16F1 tumor cells. Liposomes containing either carboxyfluorescein, indomethacin, or carboxyfluorescein plus indomethacin, were made in order to evaluate their in vitro plasma stability and in vivo clearance from the blood. The liposomes showed a high stability after 6 hours of plasma incubation and they were rapidly cleared in vivo. Liposomes encapsulating propidium iodide, a fluorescent DNA binding dye, were mainly taken up in vivo by hepatic and spleen macrophages 1 hour after intravenous injection, but not by lung macrophages. When C57BL/6 mice were intravenously inoculated with 10(5) 3LL or B16F1 tumor cells previously incubated with indomethacin (10(-7) M) for 48 hours, the number of experimental lung metastatic foci was increased with respect to their respective control groups. Also, in 3LL or B16F1 tumor-bearing mice, treatment with indomethacin (0.5 mg/kg weight/day) for 10 days enhanced the number of lung metastases, but not significantly. However, when mice received indomethacin encapsulated in liposomes, the number of metastases was significantly reduced. In addition, encapsulated indomethacin (0.5 mg/kg weight/day) inhibits prostaglandin E2 production by peritoneal and spleen macrophages, whereas no significant inhibitory effect was observed with control-liposomes or equivalent doses of free indomethacin. We conclude that intravenous administration of liposome-encapsulated indomethacin has an antimetastatic effect on tumor-bearing mice. Use of indomethacin in liposomes may avoid the stimulation of metastases observed when the drug is administered alone.

  18. 26 CFR 48.6416(f)-1 - Credit on returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Credit on returns. 48.6416(f)-1 Section 48.6416... Special Application to Retailers and Manufacturers Taxes § 48.6416(f)-1 Credit on returns. Any person..., in lieu of claiming refund of the overpayment, claim credit for the overpayment on any return of...

  19. 12 CFR 563f.1 - Authority, purpose, and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority, purpose, and scope. 563f.1 Section 563f.1 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MANAGEMENT OFFICIAL... the Depository Institution Management Interlocks Act (Interlocks Act) (12 U.S.C. 3201 et seq.),...

  20. 26 CFR 1.263(f)-1 - Reasonable repair allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reasonable repair allowance. 1.263(f)-1 Section... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Items Not Deductible § 1.263(f)-1 Reasonable repair allowance. (a) For rules regarding the election of the repair allowance authorized by section 263(f), the definition...

  1. 12 CFR 563f.1 - Authority, purpose, and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Authority, purpose, and scope. 563f.1 Section 563f.1 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MANAGEMENT OFFICIAL... amended. (b) Purpose. The purpose of the Interlocks Act and this part is to foster competition...

  2. Charmless hadronic B →(f1(1285 ),f1(1420 ))P decays in the perturbative QCD approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Xiao, Zhen-Jun; Li, Jing-Wu; Zou, Zhi-Tian

    2015-01-01

    We study 20 charmless hadronic B →f1P decays in the perturbative QCD (pQCD) formalism with B denoting Bu, Bd, and Bs mesons; P standing for the light pseudoscalar mesons; and f1 representing axial-vector mesons f1(1285 ) and f1(1420 ) that result from a mixing of quark-flavor f1 q[u/u ¯ +d d ¯ √{2 } ] and f1 s[s s ¯ ] states with the angle ϕf1.The estimations of C P -averaged branching ratios and C P asymmetries of the considered B →f1P decays, in which the Bs→f1P modes are investigated for the first time, are presented in the pQCD approach with ϕf 1˜24 ° from recently measured Bd /s→J /ψ f1(1285 ) decays. It is found that (a) the tree (penguin) dominant B+→f1π+(K+) decays with large branching ratios [O (10-6) ] and large direct C P violations (around 14%-28% in magnitude) simultaneously are believed to be clearly measurable at the LHCb and Belle II experiments; (b) the Bd→f1KS0 and Bs→f1(η ,η') decays with nearly pure penguin contributions and safely negligible tree pollution also have large decay rates in the order of 10-6- 10-5 , which can be confronted with the experimental measurements in the near future; (c) as the alternative channels, the B+→f1(π+,K+) and Bd→f1KS0 decays have the supplementary power in providing more effective constraints on the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa weak phases α , γ , and β , correspondingly, which are explicitly analyzed through the large decay rates and the direct and mixing-induced C P asymmetries in the pQCD approach and are expected to be stringently examined by the measurements with high precision; (d) the weak annihilation amplitudes play important roles in the B+→f1(1420 )K+ , Bd→f1(1420 )KS0 , Bs→f1(1420 )η' decays, and so on, which would offer more evidence, once they are confirmed by the experiments, to identify the soft-collinear effective theory and the pQCD approach on the evaluations of annihilation diagrams and to help further understand the annihilation mechanism in the heavy

  3. Prostaglandin transporter mutations cause pachydermoperiostosis with myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Diggle, Christine P; Parry, David A; Logan, Clare V; Laissue, Paul; Rivera, Carolina; Restrepo, Carlos Martín; Fonseca, Dora J; Morgan, Joanne E; Allanore, Yannick; Fontenay, Michaela; Wipff, Julien; Varret, Mathilde; Gibault, Laure; Dalantaeva, Nadezhda; Korbonits, Márta; Zhou, Bowen; Yuan, Gang; Harifi, Ghita; Cefle, Kivanc; Palanduz, Sukru; Akoglu, Hadim; Zwijnenburg, Petra J; Lichtenbelt, Klaske D; Aubry-Rozier, Bérengère; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Accadia, Maria; Brancati, Francesco; Sheridan, Eamonn G; Taylor, Graham R; Carr, Ian M; Johnson, Colin A; Markham, Alexander F; Bonthron, David T

    2012-08-01

    Pachydermoperiostosis, or primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (PHO), is an inherited multisystem disorder, whose features closely mimic the reactive osteoarthropathy that commonly accompanies neoplastic and inflammatory pathologies. We previously described deficiency of the prostaglandin-degrading enzyme 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (HPGD) as a cause of this condition, implicating elevated circulating prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) as causative of PHO, and perhaps also as the principal mediator of secondary HO. However, PHO is genetically heterogeneous. Here, we use whole-exome sequencing to identify recessive mutations of the prostaglandin transporter SLCO2A1, in individuals lacking HPGD mutations. We performed exome sequencing of four probands with severe PHO, followed by conventional mutation analysis of SLCO2A1 in nine others. Biallelic SLCO2A1 mutations were identified in 12 of the 13 families. Affected individuals had elevated urinary PGE(2), but unlike HPGD-deficient patients, also excreted considerable quantities of the PGE(2) metabolite, PGE-M. Clinical differences between the two groups were also identified, notably that SLCO2A1-deficient individuals have a high frequency of severe anemia due to myelofibrosis. These findings reinforce the key role of systemic or local prostaglandin excess as the stimulus to HO. They also suggest that the induction or maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells by prostaglandin may depend upon transporter activity. PMID:22553128

  4. Thermodynamic efficiency and mechanochemical coupling of F1-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Toyabe, Shoichi; Watanabe-Nakayama, Takahiro; Okamoto, Tetsuaki; Kudo, Seishi; Muneyuki, Eiro

    2011-01-01

    F1-ATPase is a nanosized biological energy transducer working as part of FoF1-ATP synthase. Its rotary machinery transduces energy between chemical free energy and mechanical work and plays a central role in the cellular energy transduction by synthesizing most ATP in virtually all organisms. However, information about its energetics is limited compared to that of the reaction scheme. Actually, fundamental questions such as how efficiently F1-ATPase transduces free energy remain unanswered. Here, we demonstrated reversible rotations of isolated F1-ATPase in discrete 120° steps by precisely controlling both the external torque and the chemical potential of ATP hydrolysis as a model system of FoF1-ATP synthase. We found that the maximum work performed by F1-ATPase per 120° step is nearly equal to the thermodynamical maximum work that can be extracted from a single ATP hydrolysis under a broad range of conditions. Our results suggested a 100% free-energy transduction efficiency and a tight mechanochemical coupling of F1-ATPase. PMID:21997211

  5. On the origin of POU5F1

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pluripotency is a fundamental property of early mammalian development but it is currently unclear to what extent its cellular mechanisms are conserved in vertebrates or metazoans. POU5F1 and POU2 are the two principle members constituting the class V POU domain family of transcription factors, thought to have a conserved role in the regulation of pluripotency in vertebrates as well as germ cell maintenance and neural patterning. They have undergone a complex pattern of evolution which is poorly understood and controversial. Results By analyzing the sequences of POU5F1, POU2 and their flanking genes, we provide strong indirect evidence that POU5F1 originated at least as early as a common ancestor of gnathostomes but became extinct in a common ancestor of teleost fishes, while both POU5F1 and POU2 survived in the sarcopterygian lineage leading to tetrapods. Less divergent forms of POU5F1 and POU2 appear to have persisted among cartilaginous fishes. Conclusions Our study resolves the controversial evolutionary relationship between teleost pou2 and tetrapod POU2 and POU5F1, and shows that class V POU transcription factors have existed at least since the common ancestor of gnathostome vertebrates. It provides a framework for elucidating the basis for the lineage-specific extinctions of POU2 and POU5F1. PMID:23659605

  6. A unique mechanism of curcumin inhibition on F1 ATPase.

    PubMed

    Sekiya, Mizuki; Hisasaka, Ryosuke; Iwamoto-Kihara, Atsuko; Futai, Masamitsu; Nakanishi-Matsui, Mayumi

    2014-10-01

    ATP synthase (F-ATPase) function depends upon catalytic and rotation cycles of the F1 sector. Previously, we found that F1 ATPase activity is inhibited by the dietary polyphenols, curcumin, quercetin, and piceatannol, but that the inhibitory kinetics of curcumin differs from that of the other two polyphenols (Sekiya et al., 2012, 2014). In the present study, we analyzed Escherichia coli F1 ATPase rotational catalysis to identify differences in the inhibitory mechanism of curcumin versus quercetin and piceatannol. These compounds did not affect the 120° rotation step for ATP binding and ADP release, though they significantly increased the catalytic dwell duration for ATP hydrolysis. Analysis of wild-type F1 and a mutant lacking part of the piceatannol binding site (γΔ277-286) indicates that curcumin binds to F1 differently from piceatannol and quercetin. The unique inhibitory mechanism of curcumin is also suggested from its effect on F1 mutants with defective β-γ subunit interactions (γMet23 to Lys) or β conformational changes (βSer174 to Phe). These results confirm that smooth interaction between each β subunit and entire γ subunit in F1 is pertinent for rotational catalysis. PMID:25230139

  7. Genetic identification of F1 and post-F1 serrasalmid juvenile hybrids in Brazilian aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Diogo Teruo; Senhorini, José Augusto; Foresti, Fausto; Martínez, Paulino; Porto-Foresti, Fábio

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile fish trade monitoring is an important task on Brazilian fish farms. However, the identification of juvenile fish through morphological analysis is not feasible, particularly between interspecific hybrids and pure species individuals, making the monitoring of these individuals difficult. Hybrids can be erroneously identified as pure species in breeding facilities, which might reduce production on farms and negatively affect native populations due to escapes or stocking practices. In the present study, we used a multi-approach analysis (molecular and cytogenetic markers) to identify juveniles of three serrasalmid species (Colossoma macropomum, Piaractus mesopotamicus and Piaractus brachypomus) and their hybrids in different stocks purchased from three seed producers in Brazil. The main findings of this study were the detection of intergenus backcrossing between the hybrid ♀ patinga (P. mesopotamicus×P. brachypomus)×♂ C. macropomum and the occurrence of one hybrid triploid individual. This atypical specimen might result from automixis, a mechanism that produces unreduced gametes in some organisms. Moreover, molecular identification indicated that hybrid individuals are traded as pure species or other types of interspecific hybrids, particularly post-F1 individuals. These results show that serrasalmid fish genomes exhibit high genetic heterogeneity, and multi-approach methods and regulators could improve the surveillance of the production and trade of fish species and their hybrids, thereby facilitating the sustainable development of fish farming. PMID:24594674

  8. Genetic Identification of F1 and Post-F1 Serrasalmid Juvenile Hybrids in Brazilian Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Diogo Teruo; Senhorini, José Augusto; Foresti, Fausto; Martínez, Paulino; Porto-Foresti, Fábio

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile fish trade monitoring is an important task on Brazilian fish farms. However, the identification of juvenile fish through morphological analysis is not feasible, particularly between interspecific hybrids and pure species individuals, making the monitoring of these individuals difficult. Hybrids can be erroneously identified as pure species in breeding facilities, which might reduce production on farms and negatively affect native populations due to escapes or stocking practices. In the present study, we used a multi-approach analysis (molecular and cytogenetic markers) to identify juveniles of three serrasalmid species (Colossoma macropomum, Piaractus mesopotamicus and Piaractus brachypomus) and their hybrids in different stocks purchased from three seed producers in Brazil. The main findings of this study were the detection of intergenus backcrossing between the hybrid ♀ patinga (P. mesopotamicus×P. brachypomus)×♂ C. macropomum and the occurrence of one hybrid triploid individual. This atypical specimen might result from automixis, a mechanism that produces unreduced gametes in some organisms. Moreover, molecular identification indicated that hybrid individuals are traded as pure species or other types of interspecific hybrids, particularly post-F1 individuals. These results show that serrasalmid fish genomes exhibit high genetic heterogeneity, and multi-approach methods and regulators could improve the surveillance of the production and trade of fish species and their hybrids, thereby facilitating the sustainable development of fish farming. PMID:24594674

  9. Prostaglandins and their receptors in insect biology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We treat the biological significance of prostaglandins (PGs) and their known receptors in insect biology. PGs and related eicosanoids are oxygenated derivatives of arachidonic acid (AA) and two other C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids. PGs are mostly appreciated in the context of biomedicine, but a gr...

  10. Goiter formation following prostaglandin administration in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Lupulescu, A.

    1976-01-01

    Prostaglandins (PGE1 and PGE2) induced a hyperplastic microfollicular goiter with a high radioiodine (131I) thyroid uptake, increased endocytosis, a heavy autoradiographic (125I) reaction, and a moderate increase of thyroid hormones (T4, T3), thyroxine-binding globulin (TGB), and thyrotropin (TSH) concentrations in adult rats. Ultrastructurally, both prostaglandins (E1 and E2) markedly stimulated the thyroid cell activity and increased the number of pseudopodia, the size of colloid and dense granule populations, and the number of polysomes. Conversely, a hypofunction of thyroid glands with low radioiodine (131I) thyroid uptake, a decreased autoradiographic (125I) reaction, and a moderate decrease in T4, T3, TGB, and TSH concentrations were observed following prostaglandin F 2alpha. Ultrastructurally, a decrease in size of the colloid and dense granule population and the number of degenerative mitochondria occurred infollicular cells. An intense hyperplasia of parafollicular (C) cells, with abundant population of characteristic dense granules, could be seen in PGF 2alpha-treated rats. A marked decrease of radioiodine (131I) uptake, endocytosis, and autoradiographic (125I) reaction and a sharp decline in T4, T3, and TBG were observed in hypophysectomized and chronically prostaglandin-treated rats. Light and electron microscopy revealed signs of an advanced thyroid hypofunction with flat cuboidal cells, reduced microvilli, scarce endoplasmic reticulum, and few dense droplets. The present findings demonstrate that the chronic administration of prostaglandins exerts significant effects of thyroid gland and goiter formation (goitrogenesis), radioiodine metabolism, and hormone synthesis, and that these effects are mediated by TSH secretion. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:970439

  11. Torque transmission mechanism via DELSEED loop of F1-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Rikiya; Koyasu, Kazuma; You, Huijuan; Tanigawara, Mizue; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-10

    F1-ATPase (F1) is an ATP-driven rotary motor in which the three catalytic β subunits in the stator ring sequentially induce the unidirectional rotation of the rotary γ subunit. Many lines of evidence have revealed open-to-closed conformational transitions in the β subunit that swing the C-terminal domain inward. This conformational transition causes a C-terminal protruding loop with conserved sequence DELSEED to push the γ subunit. Previous work, where all residues of DELSEED were substituted with glycine to disrupt the specific interaction with γ and introduce conformational flexibility, showed that F1 still rotated, but that the torque was halved, indicating a remarkable impact on torque transmission. In this study, we conducted a stall-and-release experiment on F1 with a glycine-substituted DELSEED loop to investigate the impact of the glycine substitution on torque transmission upon ATP binding and ATP hydrolysis. The mutant F1 showed a significantly reduced angle-dependent change in ATP affinity, whereas there was no change in the equilibrium for ATP hydrolysis. These findings indicate that the DELSEED loop is predominantly responsible for torque transmission upon ATP binding but not for that upon ATP hydrolysis.

  12. Torque Transmission Mechanism via DELSEED Loop of F1-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Rikiya; Koyasu, Kazuma; You, Huijuan; Tanigawara, Mizue; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    F1-ATPase (F1) is an ATP-driven rotary motor in which the three catalytic β subunits in the stator ring sequentially induce the unidirectional rotation of the rotary γ subunit. Many lines of evidence have revealed open-to-closed conformational transitions in the β subunit that swing the C-terminal domain inward. This conformational transition causes a C-terminal protruding loop with conserved sequence DELSEED to push the γ subunit. Previous work, where all residues of DELSEED were substituted with glycine to disrupt the specific interaction with γ and introduce conformational flexibility, showed that F1 still rotated, but that the torque was halved, indicating a remarkable impact on torque transmission. In this study, we conducted a stall-and-release experiment on F1 with a glycine-substituted DELSEED loop to investigate the impact of the glycine substitution on torque transmission upon ATP binding and ATP hydrolysis. The mutant F1 showed a significantly reduced angle-dependent change in ATP affinity, whereas there was no change in the equilibrium for ATP hydrolysis. These findings indicate that the DELSEED loop is predominantly responsible for torque transmission upon ATP binding but not for that upon ATP hydrolysis. PMID:25762326

  13. Catalysis-enhancement via rotary fluctuation of F1-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Rikiya; Hayashi, Kumiko; Ueno, Hiroshi; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2013-11-19

    Protein conformational fluctuations modulate the catalytic powers of enzymes. The frequency of conformational fluctuations may modulate the catalytic rate at individual reaction steps. In this study, we modulated the rotary fluctuation frequency of F1-ATPase (F1) by attaching probes with different viscous drag coefficients at the rotary shaft of F1. Individual rotation pauses of F1 between rotary steps correspond to the waiting state of a certain elementary reaction step of ATP hydrolysis. This allows us to investigate the impact of the frequency modulation of the rotary fluctuation on the rate of the individual reaction steps by measuring the duration of rotation pauses. Although phosphate release was significantly decelerated, the ATP-binding and hydrolysis steps were less sensitive or insensitive to the viscous drag coefficient of the probe. Brownian dynamics simulation based on a model similar to the Sumi-Marcus theory reproduced the experimental results, providing a theoretical framework for the role of rotational fluctuation in F1 rate enhancement.

  14. Hemoglobin - a novel ligand of hepatocyte ectopic F1-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Gburek, J; Konopska, B; Juszczynska, K; Piwowar, A; Dziegiel, P; Borska, S; Tolosano, E; Golab, K

    2015-12-01

    The liver is largely responsible for free hemoglobin uptake, but the molecular mechanism of this phenomenon has never been revealed. This paper presents the results of the study on hemoglobin binding components of the hepatocyte membrane that were purified using affinity chromatography on a hemoglobin matrix and identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. Both F1-ATPase alpha and beta subunits were retrieved. The binding was confirmed via an intrinsic fluorescence quenching study using a purified recombinant F1-ATPase beta subunit, and the dissociation constant for the complex was estimated from the saturation binding curve (Kd = 7.5 x 10(-7) M). The results indicate that haemoglobin binds to hepatocyte ectopic F1-ATPase. We suggested the plausible role of the receptor in endocytosis of haemoglobin by the hepatocyte.

  15. Prostaglandins and the regulation of parturition in mares.

    PubMed

    Ousey, J C; Fowden, A L

    2012-02-01

    Prostaglandins play an essential role during the perinatal period in the mare. Prostaglandin concentrations are low for the majority of pregnancy due to the regulatory action of progestagens on those enzymes responsible for metabolism of prostaglandins. Towards term, prostaglandin concentrations gradually increase, closely associated with upregulation of the fetal hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, stimulation of the prostaglandin synthesising enzyme PGHS-2 and changes in the ratio of progestagens and oestrogens. Recent evidence in the mare indicates that proinflammatory cytokines are key mediators of prostaglandin synthesis both at term parturition in healthy mares and at preterm parturition associated with placental infection. Prostaglandin concentrations rise substantially during active labour and decline after birth, associated with delivery of the placenta. During induced labour, prostaglandin concentrations are variable depending on the proximity to spontaneous parturition at term. Once the proinflammatory endocrine cascade is initiated, it is difficult to prevent active labour by administration of drugs that reduce prostaglandin concentrations in peripheral plasma. Further work is needed to establish the inter-relationships between prostaglandin production and other endocrine changes associated with labour at term and preterm in the mare.

  16. M2-F1 ejection seat test at South Edwards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    The M2-F1 was fitted with an ejection seat before the airtow flights began. The project selected the seat used in the T-37 as modified by the Weber Company to use a rocket rather than a ballistic charge for ejection. To test the ejection seat, the Flight Research Center's Dick Klein constructed a plywood mockup of the M2-F1's top deck and canopy. On the first firings, the test was unsuccessful, but on the final test the dummy in the seat landed safely. The M2-F1 ejection seat was later used in the two Lunar Landing Research Vehicles and the three Lunar Landing Training Vehicles. Three of them crashed, but in each case the pilot ejected from the vehicle successfully. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with

  17. M2-F1 on lakebed with pilot Milt Thompson

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    NASA Flight Research Pilot Milt Thompson, shown here on the lakebed with the M2-F1 lifting body, was an early backer of R. Dale Reed's lifting-body proposal. He urged Flight Research Center director Paul Bikle to approve the M2-F1's construction. Thompson also made the first glide flights in both the M2-F1 and its successor, the heavyweight M2-F2. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, NASA Flight Research Center (later Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA) management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved

  18. Torque Generation Mechanism of F1-ATPase upon NTP Binding

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Hidenobu C.; Yukawa, Ayako; Iwatate, Ryu John; Kamiya, Mako; Watanabe, Rikiya; Urano, Yasuteru; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Molecular machines fueled by NTP play pivotal roles in a wide range of cellular activities. One common feature among NTP-driven molecular machines is that NTP binding is a major force-generating step among the elementary reaction steps comprising NTP hydrolysis. To understand the mechanism in detail,in this study, we conducted a single-molecule rotation assay of the ATP-driven rotary motor protein F1-ATPase using uridine triphosphate (UTP) and a base-free nucleotide (ribose triphosphate) to investigate the impact of a pyrimidine base or base depletion on kinetics and force generation. Although the binding rates of UTP and ribose triphosphate were 103 and 106 times, respectively, slower than that of ATP, they supported rotation, generating torque comparable to that generated by ATP. Affinity change of F1 to UTP coupled with rotation was determined, and the results again were comparable to those for ATP, suggesting that F1 exerts torque upon the affinity change to UTP via rotation similar to ATP-driven rotation. Thus, the adenine-ring significantly enhances the binding rate, although it is not directly involved in force generation. Taking into account the findings from another study on F1 with mutated phosphate-binding residues, it was proposed that progressive bond formation between the phosphate region and catalytic residues is responsible for the rotation-coupled change in affinity. PMID:24988350

  19. Torque generation mechanism of F1-ATPase upon NTP binding.

    PubMed

    Arai, Hidenobu C; Yukawa, Ayako; Iwatate, Ryu John; Kamiya, Mako; Watanabe, Rikiya; Urano, Yasuteru; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2014-07-01

    Molecular machines fueled by NTP play pivotal roles in a wide range of cellular activities. One common feature among NTP-driven molecular machines is that NTP binding is a major force-generating step among the elementary reaction steps comprising NTP hydrolysis. To understand the mechanism in detail,in this study, we conducted a single-molecule rotation assay of the ATP-driven rotary motor protein F1-ATPase using uridine triphosphate (UTP) and a base-free nucleotide (ribose triphosphate) to investigate the impact of a pyrimidine base or base depletion on kinetics and force generation. Although the binding rates of UTP and ribose triphosphate were 10(3) and 10(6) times, respectively, slower than that of ATP, they supported rotation, generating torque comparable to that generated by ATP. Affinity change of F1 to UTP coupled with rotation was determined, and the results again were comparable to those for ATP, suggesting that F1 exerts torque upon the affinity change to UTP via rotation similar to ATP-driven rotation. Thus, the adenine-ring significantly enhances the binding rate, although it is not directly involved in force generation. Taking into account the findings from another study on F1 with mutated phosphate-binding residues, it was proposed that progressive bond formation between the phosphate region and catalytic residues is responsible for the rotation-coupled change in affinity.

  20. Robustness of the rotary catalysis mechanism of F1-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Rikiya; Matsukage, Yuki; Yukawa, Ayako; Tabata, Kazuhito V; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2014-07-11

    F1-ATPase (F1) is the rotary motor protein fueled by ATP hydrolysis. Previous studies have suggested that three charged residues are indispensable for catalysis of F1 as follows: the P-loop lysine in the phosphate-binding loop, GXXXXGK(T/S); a glutamic acid that activates water molecules for nucleophilic attack on the γ-phosphate of ATP (general base); and an arginine directly contacting the γ-phosphate (arginine finger). These residues are well conserved among P-loop NTPases. In this study, we investigated the role of these charged residues in catalysis and torque generation by analyzing alanine-substituted mutants in the single-molecule rotation assay. Surprisingly, all mutants continuously drove rotary motion, even though the rotational velocity was at least 100,000 times slower than that of wild type. Thus, although these charged residues contribute to highly efficient catalysis, they are not indispensable to chemo-mechanical energy coupling, and the rotary catalysis mechanism of F1 is far more robust than previously thought.

  1. Prostaglandin Endoperoxides. A New Concept Concerning the Mode of Action and Release of Prostaglandins*

    PubMed Central

    Hamberg, Mats; Svensson, Jan; Samuelsson, Bengt

    1974-01-01

    Methods were developed for quantitative determination of the three major metabolites of arachidonic acid in human platelets, i.e., 12L-hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), 12L-hydroxy-5,8,10-heptadecatrienoic acid (HHT) and 8-(1-hydroxy-3-oxopropyl)-9,12L-dihydroxy-5,10-heptadecadienoic acid (PHD). Aggregation of washed platelets by thrombin was accompanied by release of 1163-2175 ng/ml of HETE, 1129-2430 ng/ml of HHT, and 998-2299 ng/ml of PHD. The amount of PGG2 (prostaglandin G2) produced as calculated from the sum of the amounts of its metabolites (HHT and PHD) was 2477-5480 ng/ml. In contrast, the amounts of PGE2 (prostaglandin E2) and PGF2α (prostaglandin F2α) released were approximately two orders of magnitude lower. In this system, the prostaglandins thus exert their biological action through the endoperoxides, which are almost exclusively metabolized to nonprostanoate structures and only to a small extent to the classical prostaglandins. Platelets from subjects given aspirin produced less than 5% of the above mentioned amounts of HHT and PHD, whereas the production of HETE was stimulated about 3-fold. This provides additional evidence for our earlier proposal [Hamberg, M., Svensson, J., Wakabayashi, T. & Samuelsson, B. (1974) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 71, 345-349] that the anti-aggregating effect of aspirin is through inhibition of PGG2 formation. PMID:4530264

  2. Electrostatic interactions in catalytic centers of F1-ATPase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogrebnaya, Alexandra F.; Romanovsky, Yury M.; Tikhonov, Alexander N.

    2003-10-01

    F1-ATPase is one of the most important enzymes of membrane bioenergetics. F1-ATPase is the constituent complex that provides the ATP formation from ADP and inorganic phosphate (Pi) at the expense of energy of electrochemical gradient of hydrogen ions generated across the energy transducing mitochondrial, chloroplast or bacterial membrane. F1-ATPase is a reversible molecular machine that can work as a proton pump due to energy released in the course of ATP hydrolysis (ATPase reaction). The unusual feature of this enzyme is that it operates as a rotary molecular motor. Recently, using the fluorescence microscopy method for the real time visualization of molecular mobility of individual molecules, it was demonstrated directly that the ATP hydrolysis by F1-ATPase is accompanied by unidirectional rotations of mobile subunits (rotor) of F1F0-ATP synthase. In this work, we calculated the contribution of electrostatic interactions between charged groups of a substrate (MgATP), products molecules (MgADP and Pi), and charged amino acid residuals of ATPase molecule to the energy changes associated with the substrate binding and their chemical transformations in the catalytic centers located at the interface of α and β subunits of the enzyme (oligomer complex α3β3γ of bovine mitochondria ATPase). A catalytic cycle of ATP hydrolysis considered in our work includes conformational changes of α and β subunits caused by unidirectional rotations of an eccentric γ subunit. The knowledge of energy characteristics and force field in catalytic center of an enzyme in different conformational states may be important for further simulation dynamic properties of ATP synthase complex.

  3. M2-F1 in hangar with Pontiac tow vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    The M2-F1 Lifting Body is seen here in a hangar with its hotrod Pontiac convertible tow vehicle at the Flight Research Center (later the Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California. The car was a 1963 Pontiac Catalina convertible, fitted with a 421-cubic-inch tripower engine like those being run at the Daytona 500 auto race. The vehicle also had a four-speed transmission and a heavy-duty suspension and cooling system. A roll bar was also added and the passenger seat turned around so an observer could watch the M2-F1 while it was being towed. The rear seat was removed and a second, side-facing seat installed. The lifting-body team used the Pontiac for all the ground-tow flights over the next three years. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey

  4. Comet C/1917 F1 (Mellish) meteor shower complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajdukova, M.; Neslusan, L.

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we mapped the whole meteor complex of the long-period comet C/1917 F1 (Mellish), using a procedure of proven reliability when investigating the 96P/Machholz and 2003 EH1 streams (Neslusan et al., 2013a; 2013b). For five perihelion passages of the comet C/1917 F1 in the past, we modeled associated theoretical streams, each consisting of 10000 test particles, and followed their dynamical evolution until the present. Subsequently, we analyzed the orbital characteristics of the parts of a stream that approach the Earth's orbit. These particles were used to predict the corresponding meteor showers. The predicted showers were searched for in the databases of actually observed meteors. According to our modeling, the meteoroid stream of the comet Mellish can be split into 4 filaments (F1 to F4), with 4 distinct radiant areas. The most numerous shower that originates in the comet nucleus of C/1917 F1 corresponds to theoretical filament F3. The meteoroids of this filament approach to the Earth's orbit relatively soon after their ejection from the nucleus. We identified this filament as the December Monocerotids (No. 19 in the IAU MDC list of the established showers). In the phase space of orbital elements, the shower occurs in the vicinity of another established shower, 250 November Orionids. However, shower No. 250 is obviously not related to C/1917 F1 since no single theoretical particle, in all five models, is in an orbit similar to the mean orbit of this shower. Filament F1 might be identified to 348 April rho-Cygnids, the meteoroid stream that was recently discovered by the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (Brown et al., 2010). In our models, this filament is numerous and, hence, the shower is well predicted. The particles of filament F1 and, therefore, the real April rho-Cygnids originating in C/1917 F1 can approach the Earth's orbit and collide with our planet not earlier than about 20 millennia after their release from the parent-comet nucleus. Despite this

  5. Internal steel structure of M2-F1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    The internal steel structure for the M2-F1 was built at the Flight Research Center (predecessor of the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA) in a section of the calibration hangar dubbed 'Wright Bicycle Shop.' Visible are the stick, rudder pedals, and ejection seat. The external wooden shell was attached to the steel structure. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved adequate for the roughly 400 car tows that got the M2-F1 airborne to prove it could fly

  6. A study of F1 coarticulation in VCV sequences.

    PubMed

    Recasens, D; Pallarès, M D

    2000-04-01

    This study investigates F1 coarticulatory patterns in a large sample of VCV sequences with 7 consonants and 2 vowels uttered by 5 Catalan speakers. Measures of the size and the temporal extent of anticipatory and carryover coarticulation were obtained for the consonantal effects during the adjacent vowels, for the vocalic effects at the consonantal period, and during each transconsonantal vowel; F1 coarticulatory patterns are interpreted in the light of coarticulation data for the jaw and for dorsopalatal contact and F2 reported in the literature. Results show that consonantal effects reflect trends in lingual and jaw coarticulation, whereas vocalic effects are mostly in agreement with jaw coarticulatory trends. This finding is consistent with the view that consonantal and vocalic gestures overlap in VCV sequences and are ruled by relatively independent articulatory subsystems.

  7. Nonequilibrium energetics of a single F1-ATPase molecule.

    PubMed

    Toyabe, Shoichi; Okamoto, Tetsuaki; Watanabe-Nakayama, Takahiro; Taketani, Hiroshi; Kudo, Seishi; Muneyuki, Eiro

    2010-05-14

    Molecular motors drive mechanical motions utilizing the free energy liberated from chemical reactions such as ATP hydrolysis. Although it is essential to know the efficiency of this free energy transduction, it has been a challenge due to the system's microscopic scale. Here, we evaluate the single-molecule energetics of a rotary molecular motor, F1-ATPase, by applying a recently derived nonequilibrium equality together with an electrorotation method. We show that the sum of the heat flow through the probe's rotational degree of freedom and the work against an external load is almost equal to the free energy change per a single ATP hydrolysis under various conditions. This implies that F1-ATPase works at an efficiency of nearly 100% in a thermally fluctuating environment. PMID:20867002

  8. Meteor showers of comet C/1917 F1 Mellish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vereš, P.; Kornoš, L.; Tóth, J.

    2011-03-01

    December Monocerotids and November Orionids are weak but established annual meteor showers active throughout November and December. Analysis of a high quality orbits subset of the SonotaCo video meteor data base shows that the distribution of orbital elements, geocentric velocity and also the orbital evolution of the meteors and potential parent body may imply a common origin for these meteors coming from the parent comet C/1917 F1 Mellish. This is also confirmed by the physical properties and activity of these shower meteors. An assumed release of meteoroids at the perihelion of the comet in the past and the sky-plane radiant distribution reveal that the December Monocerotid stream might be younger than the November Orionids. A meteoroid transversal component of ejection velocity at the perihelion must be larger than 100 m s-1. A few authors have also associated December Canis Minorids with the comet C/1917 F1 Mellish. However, we did not find any connection.

  9. Regulation of the thermoalkaliphilic F1-ATPase from Caldalkalibacillus thermarum

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Scott A.; Cook, Gregory M.; Montgomery, Martin G.; Leslie, Andrew G. W.

    2016-01-01

    The crystal structure has been determined of the F1-catalytic domain of the F-ATPase from Caldalkalibacillus thermarum, which hydrolyzes adenosine triphosphate (ATP) poorly. It is very similar to those of active mitochondrial and bacterial F1-ATPases. In the F-ATPase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus, conformational changes in the ε-subunit are influenced by intracellular ATP concentration and membrane potential. When ATP is plentiful, the ε-subunit assumes a “down” state, with an ATP molecule bound to its two C-terminal α-helices; when ATP is scarce, the α-helices are proposed to inhibit ATP hydrolysis by assuming an “up” state, where the α-helices, devoid of ATP, enter the α3β3-catalytic region. However, in the Escherichia coli enzyme, there is no evidence that such ATP binding to the ε-subunit is mechanistically important for modulating the enzyme’s hydrolytic activity. In the structure of the F1-ATPase from C. thermarum, ATP and a magnesium ion are bound to the α-helices in the down state. In a form with a mutated ε-subunit unable to bind ATP, the enzyme remains inactive and the ε-subunit is down. Therefore, neither the γ-subunit nor the regulatory ATP bound to the ε-subunit is involved in the inhibitory mechanism of this particular enzyme. The structure of the α3β3-catalytic domain is likewise closely similar to those of active F1-ATPases. However, although the βE-catalytic site is in the usual “open” conformation, it is occupied by the unique combination of an ADP molecule with no magnesium ion and a phosphate ion. These bound hydrolytic products are likely to be the basis of inhibition of ATP hydrolysis. PMID:27621435

  10. Regulation of the thermoalkaliphilic F1-ATPase from Caldalkalibacillus thermarum.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Scott A; Cook, Gregory M; Montgomery, Martin G; Leslie, Andrew G W; Walker, John E

    2016-09-27

    The crystal structure has been determined of the F1-catalytic domain of the F-ATPase from Caldalkalibacillus thermarum, which hydrolyzes adenosine triphosphate (ATP) poorly. It is very similar to those of active mitochondrial and bacterial F1-ATPases. In the F-ATPase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus, conformational changes in the ε-subunit are influenced by intracellular ATP concentration and membrane potential. When ATP is plentiful, the ε-subunit assumes a "down" state, with an ATP molecule bound to its two C-terminal α-helices; when ATP is scarce, the α-helices are proposed to inhibit ATP hydrolysis by assuming an "up" state, where the α-helices, devoid of ATP, enter the α3β3-catalytic region. However, in the Escherichia coli enzyme, there is no evidence that such ATP binding to the ε-subunit is mechanistically important for modulating the enzyme's hydrolytic activity. In the structure of the F1-ATPase from C. thermarum, ATP and a magnesium ion are bound to the α-helices in the down state. In a form with a mutated ε-subunit unable to bind ATP, the enzyme remains inactive and the ε-subunit is down. Therefore, neither the γ-subunit nor the regulatory ATP bound to the ε-subunit is involved in the inhibitory mechanism of this particular enzyme. The structure of the α3β3-catalytic domain is likewise closely similar to those of active F1-ATPases. However, although the βE-catalytic site is in the usual "open" conformation, it is occupied by the unique combination of an ADP molecule with no magnesium ion and a phosphate ion. These bound hydrolytic products are likely to be the basis of inhibition of ATP hydrolysis. PMID:27621435

  11. The stochastic model of F1-ATPase molecular motor functioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogrebnaya, Aleksandra F.; Romanovsky, Yury M.; Tikhonov, Aleksander N.

    2004-05-01

    This work is devoted to the study of the energy characteristics of the F1ATPase-substrate complex. The results of calculations of the electrostatic energy in the enzyme-substrate complex are presented in the first part. In calculations, we take into account the electrostatic interactions between the charged groups of the substrate (MgATP) and reaction products (MgADP and Pi) and charged amino acid residues of the α3β3γ complex that correspond to various conformations of the enzyme. The hydrolysis of ATP in the catalytic site leads to coordinated conformational changes in α, β subunits and to ordered rotation of γ subunit located in the center of F1ATPase complex. The calculations show that the energetically favorable process involving MgATP binding at the catalytic site in the "open" conformation initiates γ subunit rotation followed by the hydrolysis in the other (tight) catalytic site. In the second part, we propose the simplest stochastic model describing the ordered rotation of γ subunit (the rotor of F1-ATPase molecular motor). In the model we take into account the electrostatic interaction using the results of the previous calculations. We employ experimentally obtained dynamic parameters. The model takes into account the thermal fluctuations of the bath and the random processes of the substrate binding and the escape of the reaction products.

  12. Rotation and structure of FoF1-ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Okuno, Daichi; Iino, Ryota; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2011-06-01

    F(o)F(1)-ATP synthase is one of the most ubiquitous enzymes; it is found widely in the biological world, including the plasma membrane of bacteria, inner membrane of mitochondria and thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts. However, this enzyme has a unique mechanism of action: it is composed of two mechanical rotary motors, each driven by ATP hydrolysis or proton flux down the membrane potential of protons. The two molecular motors interconvert the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis and proton electrochemical potential via the mechanical rotation of the rotary shaft. This unique energy transmission mechanism is not found in other biological systems. Although there are other similar man-made systems like hydroelectric generators, F(o)F(1)-ATP synthase operates on the nanometre scale and works with extremely high efficiency. Therefore, this enzyme has attracted significant attention in a wide variety of fields from bioenergetics and biophysics to chemistry, physics and nanoscience. This review summarizes the latest findings about the two motors of F(o)F(1)-ATP synthase as well as a brief historical background.

  13. The Drosophila nuclear receptors FTZ-F1 alpha and FTZ-F1 beta compete as monomers for binding to a site in the fushi tarazu gene.

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, C K; Ueda, H; Petkovich, M

    1994-01-01

    The striped pattern of fushi tarazu (ftz) expression found in the blastoderm of the Drosophila melanogaster embryo is generated largely through complex interactions between multiple transcription factors that bind to the zebra element of the ftz gene. A motif in the zebra element, the FTZ-F1 recognition element (F1RE), has been shown to bind a transcription factor, FTZ-F1 alpha, that is a member of the nuclear receptor family. We recently identified a second, related member of this family, FTZ-F1 beta, that also binds to this motif. To investigate the possibility that FTZ-F1 alpha and FTZ-F1 beta coregulate ftz transcription through the F1RE, we have studied the DNA binding properties of FTZ-F1 alpha and FTZ-F1 beta. We demonstrate that recombinant FTZ-F1 alpha and FTZ-F1 beta proteins produce similar in vitro DNase I footprint patterns on a 14-nucleotide region of the zebra element and bind to this site with similar affinities and sequence specificities. Using wild-type and N-terminally truncated receptors, we have determined that FTZ-F1 alpha and FTZ-F1 beta both bind as monomers to the 9-bp F1RE in the zebra element, as well as to an imperfect inverted F1RE repeat present in the Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase gene. A polyclonal antibody raised against FTZ-F1 beta identifies a predominant F1RE-binding component in embryonic nuclear extracts. Although FTZ-F1 alpha is also present in these extracts, FTZ-F1 alpha and FTZ-F1 beta do not appear to form heterodimers with each other. Cotransfection assays in mammalian cell culture indicate that both receptors contribute to the net transcriptional activity of a reporter gene through their direct interaction with the F1RE. These data suggest that FTZ-F1 alpha and FTZ-F1 beta likely coregulate common target genes by competition for binding to a 9-bp recognition element. Images PMID:8164672

  14. Cyclooxygenase-2 induced β1-integrin expression in NSCLC and promoted cell invasion via the EP1/MAPK/E2F-1/FoxC2 signal pathway

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jinshun; Yang, Qinyi; Shao, Jiaofang; Zhang, Li; Ma, Juan; Wang, Yipin; Jiang, Bing-Hua; Leng, Jing; Bai, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been implicated in cell invasion in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the mechanism is unclear. The present study investigated the effect of COX-2 on β1-integrin expression and cell invasion in NSCLC. COX-2 and β1-integrin were co-expressed in NSCLC tissues. COX-2 overexpression or Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) treatment increased β1-integrin expression in NSCLC cell lines. β1-integrin silencing suppressed COX-2-mediated tumour growth and cancer cell invasion in vivo and in vitro. Prostaglandin E Receptor EP1 transfection or treatment with EP1 agonist mimicked the effect of PGE2 treatment. EP1 siRNA blocked PGE2-mediated β1-integrin expression. EP1 agonist treatment promoted Erk1/2, p38 phosphorylation and E2F-1 expression. MEK1/2 and p38 inhibitors suppressed EP1-mediated β1-integrin expression. E2F-1 silencing suppressed EP1-mediated FoxC2 and β1-integrin upregulation. ChIP and Luciferase Reporter assays identified that EP1 agonist treatment induced E2F-1 binding to FoxC2 promotor directly and improved FoxC2 transcription. FoxC2 siRNA suppressed β1-integrin expression and EP1-mediated cell invasion. Immunohistochemistry showed E2F-1, FoxC2, and EP1R were all highly expressed in the NSCLC cases. This study suggested that COX-2 upregulates β1-integrin expression and cell invasion in NSCLC by activating the MAPK/E2F-1 signalling pathway. Targeting the COX-2/EP1/PKC/MAPK/E2F-1/FoxC2/β1-integrin pathway might represent a new therapeutic strategy for the prevention and treatment of this cancer. PMID:27654511

  15. Importance of endogenous prostaglandins for the toxicity of cyclosporin A to rat endocrine and exocrine pancreas?

    PubMed Central

    Rünzi, M; Peskar, B M; von Schönfeld, J; Müller, M K

    1992-01-01

    Previous work has shown that cyclosporin A is toxic to the endocrine and exocrine pancreas. The aim of this study was to examine whether endogenous eicosanoids play a role in controlling cyclosporin A induced toxicity. Rats were treated for eight days with indomethacin (2 mg/kg, twice daily) in addition to cyclosporin A (5 or 10 mg/kg daily). Effects of drug treatments on exocrine (as assessed by amylase and protein secretion into the pancreatic juice) and endocrine (as assessed by the glucose dependent insulin release) pancreatic functions, and pancreatic formation of prostaglandins and thromboxane were evaluated. Treatment with cyclosporin A in the doses used did not inhibit eicosanoid formation by the pancreatic tissue ex vivo. Indomethacin caused significant inhibition of pancreatic formation of prostaglandin E2, 6k prostaglandin F1 alpha and thromboxane B2. Combined treatment with indomethacin and cyclosporin A (5 or 10 mg/kg) augmented cyclosporin A induced pancreatic toxicity with further impairment of insulin release, amylase secretion, and pancreatic juice protein content, but did not result in more pronounced inhibition of pancreatic eicosanoid formation. The increased toxicity of the combined treatment was, however, associated with raised cyclosporin A whole blood concentrations. The data suggest that the potentiation of pancreatic toxicity of cyclosporin A observed during coadministration of indomethacin is not the result of suppression of endogenous pancreatic eicosanoid biosynthesis, but more likely results from altered cyclosporin A pharmacokinetic which may be caused by an interference of indomethacin with the hepatic cytochrome P-450 dependent monooxygenase involved in cyclosporin A metabolism. The possibility that coadministration of non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs aggravates toxic effects in cyclosporin A treated patients should be considered. PMID:1280611

  16. UVB light upregulates prostaglandin synthases and prostaglandin receptors in mouse keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Adrienne T.; Gray, Joshua P.; Shakarjian, Michael P.; Mishin, Vladimir; Laskin, Debra L.; Heck, Diane E.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2008-10-01

    Prostaglandins belong to a class of cyclic lipid-derived mediators synthesized from arachidonic acid via COX-1, COX-2 and various prostaglandin synthases. Members of this family include prostaglandins such as PGE{sub 2}, PGF{sub 2{alpha}}, PGD{sub 2} and PGI{sub 2} (prostacyclin) as well as thromboxane. In the present studies we analyzed the effects of UVB on prostaglandin production and prostaglandin synthase expression in primary cultures of undifferentiated and calcium-differentiated mouse keratinocytes. Both cell types were found to constitutively synthesize PGE{sub 2}, PGD{sub 2} and the PGD{sub 2} metabolite PGJ{sub 2}. Twenty-four hours after treatment with UVB (25 mJ/cm{sup 2}), production of PGE{sub 2} and PGJ{sub 2} increased, while PGD{sub 2} production decreased. This was associated with increased expression of COX-2 mRNA and protein. UVB (2.5-25 mJ/cm{sup 2}) also caused marked increases in mRNA expression for the prostanoid synthases PGDS, mPGES-1, mPGES-2, PGFS and PGIS, as well as expression of receptors for PGE{sub 2} (EP1 and EP2), PGD{sub 2} (DP and CRTH2) and prostacyclin (IP). UVB was more effective in inducing COX-2 and DP in differentiated cells and EP1 and IP in undifferentiated cells. UVB readily activated keratinocyte PI-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, JNK and p38 MAP signaling pathways which are known to regulate COX-2 expression. While inhibition of PI3K suppressed UVB-induced mPGES-1 and CRTH2 expression, JNK inhibition suppressed mPGES-1, PGIS, EP2 and CRTH2, and p38 kinase inhibition only suppressed EP1 and EP2. These data indicate that UVB modulates expression of prostaglandin synthases and receptors by distinct mechanisms. Moreover, both the capacity of keratinocytes to generate prostaglandins and their ability to respond to these lipid mediators are stimulated by exposure to UVB.

  17. Pulmonary biosynthesis and metabolism of prostaglandins and related substances.

    PubMed Central

    Eling, T E; Ally, A I

    1984-01-01

    On passage through the lung vascular bed, prostaglandins are removed from the circulation by a transport carrier and subsequently inactivated by intracellular enzymes. However, PGI2 is not inactivated by the lung in vivo. Although PGI2 is an excellent substrate for the intracellular enzymes in vitro, PGI2 is not a substrate for the carrier system. Thus, the transport carrier determines which circulating prostaglandin is inactivated by the pulmonary vascular bed. Also, the lung has a high capacity for forming prostaglandins from arachidonic acid. Considerable differences exist between species in relation to amount and specific prostaglandin formed as determined by incubation of 11C-PGH2 with pulmonary microsomes. The pulmonary biosynthesis and metabolism of these prostaglandins and related substances are discussed. PMID:6428876

  18. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-1 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    E. J. Farris and H. M. Sulloway

    2008-01-10

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-1 Burial Ground on the Hanford Site. This burial ground is a combination of two locations formerly called Minor Construction Burial Ground No. 2 and Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2. This waste site received radioactive equipment and other miscellaneous waste from 105-F Reactor operations, including dummy elements and irradiated process tubing; gun barrel tips, steel sleeves, and metal chips removed from the reactor; filter boxes containing reactor graphite chips; and miscellaneous construction solid waste.

  19. Prostaglandin E3 metabolism and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Peiying; Jiang, Yan; Fischer, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    The anticancer activity of n-3 fatty acids, especially those derived from fish, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid) (DHA), has been studied for centuries. While there is a growing body of evidence that EPA and DHA may influence cancer initiation and development through targeting multiple events of tumor development, the underlying mechanisms responsible for these activities are still not fully understood. A number of studies have suggested that the anticancer activities of EPA and DHA are associated with their effects on eicosanoid metabolism by which they inhibit prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. In contrast to DHA, EPA can function as a substrate for cyclooxygenases (COXs) to synthesize unique 3-series prostaglandin compounds, especially PGE3. With advance technology in mass spectrometry, there is renewed interest in studying the role of PGE3 in EPA elicited anti-proliferative activity in various cancers, with some promising results. Here, we summarize the regulation of PGE3 synthesis in cancer cells and its role in EPA elicited anticancer activity. The development of PGE3 and its metabolites as potential biomarkers for future clinical evaluation of EPA and fish oil in cancer care is discussed. PMID:24657656

  20. April ρ Cygnids and comet C/1917 F1 Mellish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajdukova, Maria; Rudawska, Regina; Kornos, Leonard; Toth, Juraj

    2015-12-01

    We have examined the recently-established April ρ Cygnids meteor shower (ARC, IAU#348). The ARC was discovered by the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar survey (Brown et al., 2010), and later confirmed by video observations made by the Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance project in America (Phillips et al., 2011). As reported by Neslusan and Hajdukova (2014c), the shower could be part of a broader meteor-shower complex associated with the comet C/1917 F1 (Mellish). According to their model of the meteoroid stream originating from the comet, one of the filaments (F1) approximately corresponds to the ARC. The present study is based on an analysis of the orbital parameters of the ARC from the EDMOND (Kornos et al., 2014a), CAMS (Phillips et al., 2011), and SonotaCo (SonotaCo, 2009) databases. We followed dynamical evolutions of simulated meteoroid streams modeled from observational data. We found that the April ρ Cygnids may consist of both short and long-period components. However, it cannot be excluded that the meteors investigated belong to two different meteor showers situated in the same phase space. It was not possible to make a definitive conclusion concerning their relation to the proposed parent comet.

  1. Energy transduction in the F1 motor of ATP synthase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongyun; Oster, George

    1998-11-01

    ATP synthase is the universal enzyme that manufactures ATP from ADP and phosphate by using the energy derived from a transmembrane protonmotive gradient. It can also reverse itself and hydrolyse ATP to pump protons against an electrochemical gradient. ATP synthase carries out both its synthetic and hydrolytic cycles by a rotary mechanism. This has been confirmed in the direction of hydrolysis, after isolation of the soluble F1 portion of the protein and visualization of the actual rotation of the central `shaft' of the enzyme with respect to the rest of the molecule, making ATP synthase the world's smallest rotary engine. Here we present a model for this engine that accounts for its mechanochemical behaviour in both the hydrolysing and synthesizing directions. We conclude that the F1 motor achieves its high mechanical torque and almost 100% efficiency because it converts the free energy of ATP binding into elastic strain, which is then released by a coordinated kinetic and tightly coupled conformational mechanism to create a rotary torque.

  2. E2F-1 binding affinity for pRb is not the only determinant of the E2F-1 activity.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Fikret; Sladek, Todd L

    2010-07-04

    E2F-1 is the major cellular target of pRB and is regulated by pRB during cell proliferation. Interaction between pRB and E2F-1 is dependent on the phosphorylation status of pRB. Despite the fact that E2F-1 and pRB have antagonistic activities when they are overexpressed, the role of the E2F-1-pRB interaction in cell growth largely remains unknown. Ideally, it would be better to study the properties of a pRB mutant that fails to bind to E2F, but retains all other activities. To date, no pRB mutation has been characterized in sufficient detail to show that it specifically eliminates E2F binding but leaves other interactions intact. An alternative approach to this issue is to ask whether mutations that change E2F proteins binding affinity to pRB are sufficient to change cell growth in aspect of cell cycle and tumor formation. Therefore, we used the E2F-1 mutants including E2F-1/S332-7A, E2F-1/S375A, E2F-1/S403A, E2F-1/Y411A and E2F-1/L132Q that have different binding affinities for pRB to better understand the roles of the E2F-1 phosphorylation and E2F-1-pRB interaction in the cell cycle, as well as in transformation and gene expression. Data presented in this study suggests that in vivo phosphorylation at amino acids 332-337, 375 and 403 is important for the E2F-1 and pRB interaction in vivo. However, although E2F-1 mutants 332-7, 375 and 403 showed similar binding affinity to pRB, they showed different characteristics in transformation efficiency, G(0) accumulation, and target gene experiments.

  3. M2-F1 under tow across lakebed by car

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    This 20-second clip shows the M2-F1 being towed by the Pontiac across Rogers Dry Lakebed. The M2-F1 lifting body, dubbed the 'flying bathtub' by the media, was the precursor of a remarkable series of wingless flying vehicles that contributed data used in the Space Shuttles, the X-33 Advanced Technology Demonstrator for the next century's Reusable Launch Vehicle, and the X-38 Technology Demonstrator for crew return from the International Space Station. Based on the ideas and basic design of Alfred J. Eggers and others at the Ames Aeronautical Laboratory (now the Ames Research Center), Mountain View, California, in the mid-1950's, the M2-F1 was built in 1962-63 over a four-month period for a cost of only about $30,000, plus an additional $8,000-$10,000 for an ejection seat. Engineers and technicians at the NASA Flight Research Center (now NASA Dryden) kept costs low by designing and fabricating it partly in-house, with the plywood shell constructed by a local sailplane builder. Someone at the time estimated that it would have cost a major aircraft company $150,000 to build the same vehicle. Unlike the later lifting bodies, the M2-F1 was unpowered and was initially towed by a souped-up Pontiac convertible until it was airborne. Later a C-47 took over the towing duties. Flown by such famous research pilots as Milt Thompson, Bruce Peterson, Chuck Yeager, and Bill Dana, the lightweight flying bathtub demonstrated that a wingless vehicle shaped for reentry into the Earth's atmosphere from space could be flown and landed safely. Flown from 1963 to 1966, the lightweight M2-F1 paved the way for the heavyweight M2-F2, M2`F3, HL-10, X-24A, and X-24B lifting bodies that flew under rocket power after launch from a B-52 mothership. The heavyweights flew from 1966 to 1975, demonstrating the viability and versatility of the wingless configuration and the ability of a vehicle with low lift-over-drag characteristics to fly to high altitudes and then to land precisely with their

  4. Radiation hepatology of the rat: Association of the production of prostacyclin with radiation-induced hepatic fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Geraci, J.P.; Mariano, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The hypothesis that hepatic fibrosis is preceded by inflammation and formation of prostanoids from arachidonic acid liberated from damaged cell membranes was investigated. Liver slices were prepared using a Krumdieck precision tissue slicer from sham-irradiated rats or from rats whose livers had been irradiated with 25 Gy {sup 137}Cs {gamma} rays in which injury was allowed to develop in vivo for 6 to 55 days. Unused portions of the liver were analyzed for hydroxyproline content to determine hepatic fibrosis. A unique organ culture system was used to incubate liver slices for 2 h. Secretion into the incubation medium of aspartate aminotransferase and 6-keto prostaglandin F{sub 1{alpha}} were measured to quantify damage to the hepatocyte membrane and production of prostacyclin, respectively. A threefold increase in the concentration of 6-keto prostaglandin F{sub 1{alpha}} in the medium was evident by 13 days after irradiation. This elevated concentration of 6-keto prostaglandin F{sub 1{alpha}} persisted for the remainder of the study and preceded fibrosis, as measured by liver hydroxyproline concentration, and hepatocyte membrane damage, as measured by release of aspartate aminotransferase into the incubation medium or plasma. We therefore suggest that, in the nonregenerating liver, damage and breakdown of nonparenchymal liver cell membrane is the principal source of 6-keto prostaglandin F1. These results are also compatible with the supposition that inflammation and release of arachidonic acid metabolites are one of the early biochemical events leading to hepatic fibrosis. How the release of arachidonic acid metabolites might initiate and sustain radiation-induced fibrosis is discussed. An explanation for the difference in liver fibrosis induced by chemicals and radiation is also presented. 30 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Suppression of newborn natural killer cell activity by prostaglandin E2

    SciTech Connect

    Milch, P.O.; Salvatore, W.; Luft, B.; Baker, D.A.

    1988-10-01

    The effect of prostaglandin E2 on natural killer cell activity of cord blood was examined. Natural killer cell activity, determined by chromium 51 release, was significantly reduced after prostaglandin E2 (1 microgram/ml) treatment. Prostaglandin E2 has been found to enhance the cellular spread of herpesvirus. Thus prostaglandins may enhance viral infections indirectly by suppressing natural killer cell activity.

  6. Measurement of inclusive f1(1285) and f1(1420) production in /Z decays with the DELPHI detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DELPHI Collaboration; Abdallah, J.; Abreu, P.; Adam, W.; Adzic, P.; Albrecht, T.; Alderweireld, T.; Alemany-Fernandez, R.; Allmendinger, T.; Allport, P. P.; Amaldi, U.; Amapane, N.; Amato, S.; Anashkin, E.; Andreazza, A.; Andringa, S.; Anjos, N.; Antilogus, P.; Apel, W.-D.; Arnoud, Y.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Augustin, J. E.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Ballestrero, A.; Bambade, P.; Barbier, R.; Bardin, D.; Barker, G.; Baroncelli, A.; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Becks, K.-H.; Begalli, M.; Behrmann, A.; Ben-Haim, E.; Benekos, N.; Benvenuti, A.; Berat, C.; Berggren, M.; Berntzon, L.; Bertrand, D.; Besancon, M.; Besson, N.; Bloch, D.; Blom, M.; Bluj, M.; Bonesini, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, P. S. L.; Borisov, G.; Botner, O.; Bouquet, B.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Boyko, I.; Bracko, M.; Brenner, R.; Brodet, E.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J. M.; Bugge, L.; Buschmann, P.; Calvi, M.; Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Castro, N.; Cavallo, F.; Chapkin, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Checchia, P.; Chierici, R.; Chliapnikov, P.; Chudoba, J.; Chung, S. U.; Cieslik, K.; Collins, P.; Contri, R.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Costa, M. J.; Crawley, B.; Crennell, D.; Cuevas, J.; D'Hondt, J.; Dalmau, J.; da Silva, T.; da Silva, W.; della Ricca, G.; de Angelis, A.; de Boer, W.; de Clercq, C.; de Lotto, B.; de Maria, N.; de Min, A.; de Paula, L.; di Ciaccio, L.; di Simone, A.; Doroba, K.; Drees, J.; Dris, M.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ellert, M.; Elsing, M.; Espirito Santo, M. C.; Fanourakis, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J.; Ferrer, A.; Ferro, F.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Gavillet, Ph.; Gazis, E.; Gokieli, R.; Golob, B.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncalves, P.; Graziani, E.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Guy, J.; Haag, C.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Hamilton, K.; Hansen, J.; Haug, S.; Hauler, F.; Hedberg, V.; Hennecke, M.; Herr, H.; Hoffman, J.; Holmgren, S.-O.; Holt, P. J.; Houlden, M. A.; Hultqvist, K.; Jackson, J. N.; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jeans, D.; Johansson, E. K.; Johansson, P. D.; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Jungermann, L.; Kapusta, F.; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.; Kernel, G.; Kersevan, B. P.; Kiiskinen, A.; King, B. T.; Kjaer, N. J.; Kluit, P.; Kokkinias, P.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krumstein, Z.; Kucharczyk, M.; Lamsa, J.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, F.; Leinonen, L.; Leitner, R.; Lemonne, J.; Lepeltier, V.; Lesiak, T.; Liebig, W.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez, J. M.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; MacNaughton, J.; Malek, A.; Maltezos, S.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.-C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Masik, J.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; Mc Nulty, R.; Meroni, C.; Meyer, W. T.; Migliore, E.; Mitaroff, W.; Mjoernmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Moenig, K.; Monge, R.; Montenegro, J.; Moraes, D.; Moreno, S.; Morettini, P.; Mueller, U.; Muenich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mundim, L.; Murray, W.; Muryn, B.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F.; Nawrocki, K.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nikolenko, M.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Olshevski, A.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Palacios, J. P.; Palka, H.; Papadopoulou, Th. D.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Peralta, L.; Perepelitsa, V.; Perrotta, A.; Petrolini, A.; Piedra, J.; Pieri, L.; Pierre, F.; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Podobnik, T.; Poireau, V.; Pol, M. E.; Polok, G.; Poropat, P.; Pozdniakov, V.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Rames, J.; Ramler, L.; Read, A.; Rebecchi, P.; Rehn, J.; Reid, D.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rivero, M.; Rodriguez, D.; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Rosenberg, E.; Roudeau, P.; Rovelli, T.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ryabtchikov, D.; Sadovsky, A.; Salmi, L.; Salt, J.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schwickerath, U.; Segar, A.; Sekulin, R.; Siebel, M.; Sisakian, A.; Smadja, G.; Smirnova, O.; Sokolov, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassov, T.; Stanitzki, M.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Szumlak, T.; Tabarelli, T.; Taffard, A. C.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Timmermans, J.; Tkatchev, L.; Tobin, M.; Todorovova, S.; Tome, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortosa, P.; Travnicek, P.; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Trochimczuk, M.; Troncon, C.; Turluer, M.-L.; Tyapkin, I. A.; Tyapkin, P.; Tzamarias, S.; Uvarov, V.; Valenti, G.; van Dam, P.; van Eldik, J.; van Lysebetten, A.; van Remortel, N.; van Vulpen, I.; Vegni, G.; Veloso, F.; Venus, W.; Verbeure, F.; Verdier, P.; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, L.; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Washbrook, A. J.; Weiser, C.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Winter, M.; Witek, M.; Yushchenko, O.; Zalewska, A.; Zalewski, P.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zimin, N. I.; Zintchenko, A.; Zupan, M.

    2003-09-01

    DELPHI results are presented on the inclusive production of two (KKπ)0 states in the mass region 1.2-1.6 GeV/c2 in hadronic /Z decays at LEP I. The measured masses (widths) are /1274+/-6 MeV/c2 (/29+/-12 MeV/c2) and /1426+/-6 MeV/c2 (/51+/-14 MeV/c2), respectively. A partial-wave analysis of the (KKπ)0 system shows that the first peak is consistent with the IG(JPC)=0+(1++)/(0-+)a0(980)π and the second with the IG(JPC)=0+(1++)K*(892)K+c.c. assignments. The total hadronic production rates per hadronic /Z decay are /(0.165+/-0.051) and /(0.056+/-0.012), respectively. These measurements are consistent with the two states being the f1(1285) and f1(1420) mesons.

  7. Measurement of inclusive f1(1285) and f1(1420) production in Z decays with the DELPHI detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, J.; Abreu, P.; Adam, W.; Adzic, P.; Albrecht, T.; Alderweireld, T.; Alemany-Fernandez, R.; Allmendinger, T.; Allport, P. P.; Amaldi, U.; Amapane, N.; Amato, S.; Anashkin, E.; Andreazza, A.; Andringa, S.; Anjos, N.; Antilogus, P.; Apel, W.-D.; Arnoud, Y.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Augustin, J. E.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Ballestrero, A.; Bambade, P.; Barbier, R.; Bardin, D.; Barker, G.; Baroncelli, A.; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Becks, K.-H.; Begalli, M.; Behrmann, A.; Ben-Haim, E.; Benekos, N.; Benvenuti, A.; Berat, C.; Berggren, M.; Berntzon, L.; Bertrand, D.; Besancon, M.; Besson, N.; Bloch, D.; Blom, M.; Bluj, M.; Bonesini, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, P. S. L.; Borisov, G.; Botner, O.; Bouquet, B.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Boyko, I.; Bracko, M.; Brenner, R.; Brodet, E.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J. M.; Bugge, L.; Buschmann, P.; Calvi, M.; Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Castro, N.; Cavallo, F.; Chapkin, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Checchia, P.; Chierici, R.; Chliapnikov, P.; Chudoba, J.; Chung, S. U.; Cieslik, K.; Collins, P.; Contri, R.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Costa, M. J.; Crawley, B.; Crennell, D.; Cuevas, J.; D'Hondt, J.; Dalmau, J.; da Silva, T.; da Silva, W.; Della Ricca, G.; de Angelis, A.; de Boer, W.; de Clercq, C.; de Lotto, B.; de Maria, N.; de Min, A.; de Paula, L.; di Ciaccio, L.; di Simone, A.; Doroba, K.; Drees, J.; Dris, M.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ellert, M.; Elsing, M.; Espirito Santo, M. C.; Fanourakis, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J.; Ferrer, A.; Ferro, F.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Gavillet, Ph.; Gazis, E.; Gokieli, R.; Golob, B.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncalves, P.; Graziani, E.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Guy, J.; Haag, C.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Hamilton, K.; Hansen, J.; Haug, S.; Hauler, F.; Hedberg, V.; Hennecke, M.; Herr, H.; Hoffman, J.; Holmgren, S.-O.; Holt, P. J.; Houlden, M. A.; Hultqvist, K.; Jackson, J. N.; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jeans, D.; Johansson, E. K.; Johansson, P. D.; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Jungermann, L.; Kapusta, F.; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.; Kernel, G.; Kersevan, B. P.; Kiiskinen, A.; King, B. T.; Kjaer, N. J.; Kluit, P.; Kokkinias, P.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krumstein, Z.; Kucharczyk, M.; Lamsa, J.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, F.; Leinonen, L.; Leitner, R.; Lemonne, J.; Lepeltier, V.; Lesiak, T.; Liebig, W.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez, J. M.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; MacNaughton, J.; Malek, A.; Maltezos, S.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.-C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Masik, J.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; Mc Nulty, R.; Meroni, C.; Meyer, W. T.; Migliore, E.; Mitaroff, W.; Mjoernmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Moenig, K.; Monge, R.; Montenegro, J.; Moraes, D.; Moreno, S.; Morettini, P.; Mueller, U.; Muenich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mundim, L.; Murray, W.; Muryn, B.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F.; Nawrocki, K.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nikolenko, M.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Olshevski, A.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Palacios, J. P.; Palka, H.; Papadopoulou, Th. D.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Peralta, L.; Perepelitsa, V.; Perrotta, A.; Petrolini, A.; Piedra, J.; Pieri, L.; Pierre, F.; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Podobnik, T.; Poireau, V.; Pol, M. E.; Polok, G.; Poropat, P.; Pozdniakov, V.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Rames, J.; Ramler, L.; Read, A.; Rebecchi, P.; Rehn, J.; Reid, D.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rivero, M.; Rodriguez, D.; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Rosenberg, E.; Roudeau, P.; Rovelli, T.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ryabtchikov, D.; Sadovsky, A.; Salmi, L.; Salt, J.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schwickerath, U.; Segar, A.; Sekulin, R.; Siebel, M.; Sisakian, A.; Smadja, G.; Smirnova, O.; Sokolov, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassov, T.; Stanitzki, M.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Szumlak, T.; Tabarelli, T.; Taffard, A. C.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Timmermans, J.; Tkatchev, L.; Tobin, M.; Todorovova, S.; Tome, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortosa, P.; Travnicek, P.; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Trochimczuk, M.; Troncon, C.; Turluer, M.-L.; Tyapkin, I. A.; Tyapkin, P.; Tzamarias, S.; Uvarov, V.; Valenti, G.; van Dam, P.; van Eldik, J.; van Lysebetten, A.; van Remortel, N.; van Vulpen, I.; Vegni, G.; Veloso, F.; Venus, W.; Verbeure, F.; Verdier, P.; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, L.; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Washbrook, A. J.; Weiser, C.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Winter, M.; Witek, M.; Yushchenko, O.; Zalewska, A.; Zalewski, P.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zimin, N. I.; Zintchenko, A.; Zupan, M.; Delphi Collaboration

    2003-09-01

    DELPHI results are presented on the inclusive production of two (KoverlineKπ)0 states in the mass region 1.2-1.6 GeV/c2 in hadronic Z decays at LEP I. The measured masses (widths) are 1274±6 MeV/c2 (29±12 MeV/c2) and 1426±6 MeV/c2 (51±14 MeV/c2), respectively. A partial-wave analysis of the (KoverlineKπ)0 system shows that the first peak is consistent with the IG(JPC)=0+(1++)/(0-+)a0(980)π and the second with the IG(JPC)=0+(1++)K∗(892)overlineK+c.c. assignments. The total hadronic production rates per hadronic Z decay are (0.165±0.051) and (0.056±0.012), respectively. These measurements are consistent with the two states being the f1(1285) and f1(1420) mesons.

  8. Prostaglandins and estradiol-induced attenuation of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Sylvester, J T; Gordon, J B; Malamet, R L; Wetzel, R C

    1985-10-01

    Pretreatment with estradiol (20 mg IM) attenuated vasoreactivity to decreases in inspired PIO2, lowered baseline resistance measured under conditions of maximal vasodilation (PIO2 = 0 mm Hg), and appeared to increase prostaglandin release in isolated, blood-perfused lungs of juvenile female sheep. Indomethacin (40 micrograms/ml) inhibited prostaglandin release and restored hypoxic vasoreactivity in estrogen-treated lungs, but did not alter the estrogen-induced decrease in baseline resistance. These results suggest that estradiol enhanced the production of prostaglandins which secondarily attenuated hypoxic vasoreactivity. The estradiol-induced decrease in baseline resistance, however, must have been mediated by some other mechanism.

  9. Neural Circuitry Engaged by Prostaglandins during the Sickness Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Saper, Clifford B.; Romanovsky, Andrej A.; Scammell, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    During illnesses caused by infectious disease or other sources of inflammation, a suite of brain-mediated responses called the “sickness syndrome” occurs, including fever, anorexia, sleepiness, hyperalgesia, and elevated corticosteroid secretion. Much of the sickness syndrome is mediated by prostaglandins acting on the brain, and can be prevented by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as aspirin or ibuprofen, that block prostaglandin synthesis. By examining which prostaglandins are produced at which sites and how they interact with the nervous system, researchers have identified specific neural circuits that underlie the sickness syndrome. PMID:22837039

  10. Phosphate release coupled to rotary motion of F1-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, Kei-ichi; Hummer, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    F1-ATPase, the catalytic domain of ATP synthase, synthesizes most of the ATP in living organisms. Running in reverse powered by ATP hydrolysis, this hexameric ring-shaped molecular motor formed by three αβ-dimers creates torque on its central γ-subunit. This reverse operation enables detailed explorations of the mechanochemical coupling mechanisms in experiment and simulation. Here, we use molecular dynamics simulations to construct a first atomistic conformation of the intermediate state following the 40° substep of rotary motion, and to study the timing and molecular mechanism of inorganic phosphate (Pi) release coupled to the rotation. In response to torque-driven rotation of the γ-subunit in the hydrolysis direction, the nucleotide-free αβE interface forming the “empty” E site loosens and singly charged Pi readily escapes to the P loop. By contrast, the interface stays closed with doubly charged Pi. The γ-rotation tightens the ATP-bound αβTP interface, as required for hydrolysis. The calculated rate for the outward release of doubly charged Pi from the αβE interface 120° after ATP hydrolysis closely matches the ∼1-ms functional timescale. Conversely, Pi release from the ADP-bound αβDP interface postulated in earlier models would occur through a kinetically infeasible inward-directed pathway. Our simulations help reconcile conflicting interpretations of single-molecule experiments and crystallographic studies by clarifying the timing of Pi exit, its pathway and kinetics, associated changes in Pi protonation, and changes of the F1-ATPase structure in the 40° substep. Important elements of the molecular mechanism of Pi release emerging from our simulations appear to be conserved in myosin despite the different functional motions. PMID:24062450

  11. Attenuated cardiovascular effects of prostaglandin I2 and prostaglandin F2 alpha in cold acclimated American bullfrogs, Rana catesbeiana.

    PubMed

    Herman, C A; Robleto, D O; Mata, P L; Lujan, M D

    1986-05-01

    American bullfrogs, Rana catesbeiana respond to prostaglandins with changes in heart rate and blood pressure. These studies compare responses of warm (22 degrees C) and cold acclimated (5 degrees C) bullfrogs to prostaglandins. Gas chromatographic analysis determined equivalent fatty acid profiles in total lipids of heart and artery tissue from warm and cold acclimated animals. Arachidonic acid was the fatty acid precursor found in greatest abundance in both groups. For cardiovascular experiments, bullfrogs were cannulated by using a T-cannula implanted in the right sciatic artery. In warm acclimated bullfrogs, preinfusion systemic arterial pressure (SAP) was 14.7 +/- 0.5 mm Hg, and heart rate was 33.0 +/- 1.7 beats/min. Cold acclimated bullfrogs had SAP values of 8.0 +/- 0.8 mm Hg, and heart rate was 6.9 +/- 0.3 beats/min. Arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acid infusions (2,000 micrograms/kg body weight [bw]) were hypertensive in cold acclimated and hypotensive in warm acclimated animals. These effects were blocked by indomethacin (4 mg/kg bw). In both warm and cold acclimated bullfrogs, prostaglandin F2 alpha (3-100 micrograms/kg bw) was hypertensive, while prostaglandin I2 (0.03-3 micrograms/kg bw) was hypotensive, with both prostaglandins stimulating a greater absolute response in warm acclimated animals. In addition, both prostaglandins increased heart rate in warm but not in cold acclimated bullfrogs. The results suggest diminished cardiovascular sensitivity to prostaglandins at low environmental temperatures.

  12. ERK activation is regulated by E2F1 and is essential for E2F1-induced S phase entry.

    PubMed

    Korotayev, Katya; Chaussepied, Marie; Ginsberg, Doron

    2008-06-01

    The E2F family of transcription factors regulates a diverse array of cellular functions including cell cycle progression, cell differentiation and apoptosis. Recent studies indicate that E2F1 influences the activity of signal transduction pathways. We identify here a novel link between E2F1 and the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway, namely that E2F1 levels affect growth factor-induced ERK phosphorylation. Specifically, downregulating E2F1 inhibits PDGF-induced ERK phosphorylation and ectopic expression of E2F1 sensitizes cells to PDGF. We demonstrate that E2F1 induces ERK activation via a transcriptional mechanism and upregulates the expression of two guanine nucleotide exchange factors, RASGRP1 and RASGEF1B, which promote Ras activation. Furthermore, we show that E2F1-induced ERK activity is essential for E2F1-induced S phase entry. Current literature dictates that the cyclin D/pRB/E2F pathway lies downstream of the mitogenically activated Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK cascade. Our results indicate that the relationship between these signaling modules is not a simple unidirectional linear one and suggests there exists a positive feedback loop that may enhance both ERK signaling and E2F1 activity. PMID:18396012

  13. Inhibitory effects and mechanisms of high molecular-weight phlorotannins from Sargassum thunbergii on ADP-induced platelet aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yuxi; Wang, Changyun; Li, Jing; Guo, Qi; Qi, Hongtao

    2009-09-01

    We evaluated the effects of high molecular-weight phlorotannins from Sargassum thunbergii (STP) on ADP-induced platelet aggregation and arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism in New Zealand white rabbits and Wistar rats. The inhibition of STP on platelet aggregation was investigated using a turbidimetric method, and the levels of the terminal products of AA metabolism were measured using the corresponding kits for maleic dialdehyde (MDA), thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-keto-PGF1α) by colorimetry and radioimmunoassay, as appropriate. We found that STP could inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation, and the inhibitory ratio was 91.50% at the STP concentration of 4.0 mg/mL. Furthermore, STP markedly affected AA metabolism by decreasing the synthesis of MDA ( P<0.01) and increasing the synthesis of 6-keto-PGF1α, thus changing the plasma TXB2/6-keto-PGF1α balance when the platelets were activated ( P<0.01). Therefore, STP altered AA metabolism and these findings partly revealed the molecular mechanism by which STP inhibits ADP-induced platelet aggregation.

  14. The role of prostaglandines in peristalsis of the human colon.

    PubMed

    Bruch, H P; Schmidt, E; Laven, R; Kehrer, G; Wasner, K H

    1978-08-01

    Prostaglandines (PG) of the E and F series cause peristaltic activity in isolated longitudinal muscle strips of the human colon. As this phasic motor reaction can be varied by acetyl choline and adrenaline it was supposed, that prostaglandines contribute to peristalsis. The role of PG E and F in the human colon was studied by inhibiting the prostaglandine synthesis and by antagonizing the prostaglandine-effects. Indomethacin proved to be a suitable inhibitor. HR 546 was found a powerful antagonist. The effect of Pentagastrin and Cholecystokinin (CCK) on peristaltic activity were suppressed by Indomethacin and HR 546. The inhibition of peristalsis by Indomethacin and HR 546 was removed by high doses of PG E and F. On the basis of these results the role of PG for the motility of the gut is discussed.

  15. Effects of Prostaglandin Analogues on Aqueous Humor Outflow Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Nelson S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is the most prevalent risk factor for glaucoma. All treatments, whether surgical or pharmaceutical, are aimed at lowering IOP. Prostaglandin analogues are a first line therapy for glaucoma due to their ability to reduce IOP, once-daily dosing, efficacy, and minimal side-effect profile. Whereas prostaglandin analogues have been known to alter aqueous humor outflow through the unconventional (uveoscleral) pathway, more recent evidence suggests their action also occurs through the conventional (trabecular) pathway. Understanding how prostaglandin analogues successfully lower IOP is important, as this information may lead to the discovery of new molecular targets for future therapeutic intervention. This review explores the current understanding of prostaglandin analogue biology as it pertains to IOP reduction and improved aqueous humor outflow facility. PMID:24359106

  16. Identification and functional characterization of grass carp IL-17A/F1: An evaluation of the immunoregulatory role of teleost IL-17A/F1.

    PubMed

    Du, Linyong; Feng, Shiyu; Yin, Licheng; Wang, Xinyan; Zhang, Anying; Yang, Kun; Zhou, Hong

    2015-07-01

    In mammals, IL-17A and IL-17F are hallmark cytokines of Th17 cells which act significant roles in eradicating extracellular pathogens. IL-17A and IL-17F homologs nominated as IL-17A/F1-3 have been revealed in fish and their functions remain largely undefined. Here we identified and characterized grass carp IL-17A/F1 (gcIL-17A/F1) in fish immune system. In this regard, both tissue distribution and inductive expression of gcIL-17A/F1 indicated its possible involvement in immune response. Moreover, recombinant gcIL-17A/F1 (rgcIL-17A/F1) was prepared and displayed an ability to enhance pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6) mRNA expression in head kidney leukocytes. It is suggestive of that gcIL-17A/F1 may act as a proinflammatory cytokine in fish immunity. Besides, rgcIL-17A/F1 induced gene expression and protein release of grass carp chemokine CXCL-8 (gcCXCL-8) in head kidney cells (HKCs), probably via NF-κB, p38 and Erk1/2 pathways. In particular, culture medium from the HKCs treated by rgcIL-17A/F1 could stimulate peripheral blood leukocytes migration and immunoneutralization of endogenous gcCXCL-8 could partially attenuate this stimulation, suggesting that rgcIL-17A/F1 could recruit immune cells through producing gcCXCL-8 as mammalian IL-17 A and F. Taken together, we not only identified the pro-inflammatory role of gcIL-17A/F1 in host defense, but also provided the basis for clarifying Th17 cells in teleost. PMID:25847875

  17. Close phylogenetic relationship between Angolan and Romanian HIV-1 subtype F1 isolates

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Monick L; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Otsuki, Koko; da Silva, Rosa Ferreira FC; Francisco, Moises; da Silva, Filomena Gomes; Serrano, Ducelina; Morgado, Mariza G; Bello, Gonzalo

    2009-01-01

    Background Here, we investigated the phylogenetic relationships of the HIV-1 subtype F1 circulating in Angola with subtype F1 strains sampled worldwide and reconstructed the evolutionary history of this subtype in Central Africa. Methods Forty-six HIV-1-positive samples were collected in Angola in 2006 and subtyped at the env-gp41 region. Partial env-gp120 and pol-RT sequences and near full-length genomes from those env-gp41 subtype F1 samples were further generated. Phylogenetic analyses of partial and full-length subtype F1 strains isolated worldwide were carried out. The onset date of the subtype F1 epidemic in Central Africa was estimated using a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo approach. Results Nine Angolan samples were classified as subtype F1 based on the analysis of the env-gp41 region. All nine Angolan sequences were also classified as subtype F1 in both env-gp120 and pol-RT genomic regions, and near full-length genome analysis of four of these samples confirmed their classification as "pure" subtype F1. Phylogenetic analyses of subtype F1 strains isolated worldwide revealed that isolates from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) were the earliest branching lineages within the subtype F1 phylogeny. Most strains from Angola segregated in a monophyletic group together with Romanian sequences; whereas South American F1 sequences emerged as an independent cluster. The origin of the subtype F1 epidemic in Central African was estimated at 1958 (1934–1971). Conclusion "Pure" subtype F1 strains are common in Angola and seem to be the result of a single founder event. Subtype F1 sequences from Angola are closely related to those described in Romania, and only distantly related to the subtype F1 lineage circulating in South America. Original diversification of subtype F1 probably occurred within the DRC around the late 1950s. PMID:19386115

  18. ERG oncogene modulates prostaglandin signaling in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Ahmed A; Tan, Shyh-Han; Sun, Chen; Shaheduzzaman, Syed; Hu, Ying; Petrovics, Gyorgy; Chen, Yongmei; Sesterhenn, Isabell A; Li, Hua; Sreenath, Taduru; McLeod, David G; Dobi, Albert; Srivastava, Shiv

    2011-02-15

    Androgen dependent induction of the ETS related gene (ERG) expression in more than half of all prostate cancers results from gene fusions involving regulatory sequence of androgen regulated genes (i.e. TMPRSS2, SLC45A3 and NDRG1) and protein coding sequence of the ERG. Emerging studies in experimental models underscore the functions of ERG in prostate tumorigenesis. However, biological and biochemical functions of ERG in prostate cancer (CaP) remain to be elucidated. This study suggests that ERG activation plays a role in prostaglandin signaling because knockdown of ERG expression in TMPRSS2-ERG fusion containing CaP cells leads to altered levels of the 15-hydroxy-prostaglandin dehydrogenase (HPGD), a tumor suppressor and prostaglandin catabolizing enzyme, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) . We demonstrate that HPGD expression is regulated by the binding of the ERG protein to the core promoter of this gene. Moreover, prostaglandin E2 dependent cell growth and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) expression are also affected by ERG knockdown. Together, these data imply that the ERG oncoprotein in CaP cells positively influence prostaglandin mediated signaling, which may contribute to tumor progression. PMID:21178489

  19. Theoretical analysis of the F(1)-ATPase experimental data.

    PubMed

    Perez-Carrasco, Ruben; Sancho, J M

    2010-06-01

    F(1)-ATPase is a rotatory molecular motor fueled by ATP nucleotides. Different loads can be attached to the motor axis to show that it rotates in main discrete steps of 120 degrees with substeps of approximately 80 degrees and 40 degrees . Experimental data show the dependence on the mean rotational velocity omega with respect to the external control parameters: the nucleotide concentration [ATP] and the friction of the load gamma(L). In this work we present a theoretical analysis of the experimental data whose main results are: 1), A derivation of a simple analytical formula for omega([ATP], gamma(L)) that compares favorably with experiments; 2), The introduction of a two-state flashing ratchet model that exhibits experimental phenomenology of a greater specificity than has been, to our knowledge, previously available; 3), The derivation of an argument to obtain the values of the substep sizes; 4), An analysis of the energy constraints of the model; and 5), The theoretical analysis of the coupling ratio between the ATP consumed and the success of a forward step. We also discuss the compatibility of our approach with recent experimental observations.

  20. Theoretical Analysis of the F1-ATPase Experimental Data

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Carrasco, Ruben; Sancho, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract F1-ATPase is a rotatory molecular motor fueled by ATP nucleotides. Different loads can be attached to the motor axis to show that it rotates in main discrete steps of 120° with substeps of ∼80° and 40°. Experimental data show the dependence on the mean rotational velocity ω with respect to the external control parameters: the nucleotide concentration [ATP] and the friction of the load γL. In this work we present a theoretical analysis of the experimental data whose main results are: 1), A derivation of a simple analytical formula for ω([ATP], γL) that compares favorably with experiments; 2), The introduction of a two-state flashing ratchet model that exhibits experimental phenomenology of a greater specificity than has been, to our knowledge, previously available; 3), The derivation of an argument to obtain the values of the substep sizes; 4), An analysis of the energy constraints of the model; and 5), The theoretical analysis of the coupling ratio between the ATP consumed and the success of a forward step. We also discuss the compatibility of our approach with recent experimental observations. PMID:20513403

  1. Changes in F2-F1 as a voicing cue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Willis J.; Coren, Amy E.

    2003-10-01

    The interaction between formant transitions and vowel length was measured with respect to syllable final voicing distinctions. A synthesized ad VC token of 360 ms was edited in 5-ms intervals from either side, onset or offset, so that 260 ms were preserved. Ten subjects were asked to make final voicing judgments for the words ``odd'' and ``ought'' ([ad] vs [at]) when hearing the 20 edited tokens. Each token was presented five times, randomly, for a total of 1000 judgements. Results showed an overwhelming number of voiced responses when the entire offset was preserved and symmetrical voiceless results with the deletion of offset. A follow-up experiment utilized a similarly synthesized token of 460 ms. The results when adding 100 ms onto the vowel were insignificantly different than the results acquired for formant transitions, suggesting the latter are a more important cue for syllable final voicing distinctions. These findings contradict previous vowel length conclusions [L. J. Raphael, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 51, 1296-1303 (1972)] and further suggest that in addition to F1 [V. Summers, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 84, 485-492 (1988)], F2 transitions are also an important cue to final voicing distinctions in low vowel contexts.

  2. 26 CFR 1.430(f)-1 - Effect of prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effect of prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance. 1.430(f)-1 Section 1.430(f)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.430(f)-1 Effect of prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance. (a) In...

  3. 26 CFR 1.430(f)-1 - Effect of prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Effect of prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance. 1.430(f)-1 Section 1.430(f)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...(f)-1 Effect of prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance. (a) In...

  4. 26 CFR 1.430(f)-1 - Effect of prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effect of prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance. 1.430(f)-1 Section 1.430(f)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.430(f)-1 Effect of prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance. (a) In...

  5. 26 CFR 1.430(f)-1 - Effect of prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effect of prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance. 1.430(f)-1 Section 1.430(f)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.430(f)-1 Effect of prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance. (a) In...

  6. 17 CFR 240.12f-1 - Applications for permission to reinstate unlisted trading privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... reinstate unlisted trading privileges. 240.12f-1 Section 240.12f-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Rules and Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Unlisted Trading § 240.12f-1 Applications for permission to reinstate unlisted trading privileges. (a) An application to reinstate...

  7. ELL inhibits E2F1 transcriptional activity by enhancing E2F1 deacetylation via recruitment of histone deacetylase 1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Ji, Wei; Liu, Xing; Ouyang, Gang; Xiao, Wuhan

    2014-02-01

    ELL (eleven-nineteen lysine-rich leukemia protein) was first identified as a translocation partner of MLL in acute myeloid leukemia; however, the exact mechanism of its action has remained elusive. In this study, we identified ELL as a direct downstream target gene of E2F1. Coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that ELL interacted with E2F1 in vitro and in vivo, leading to inhibition of E2F1 transcriptional activity. In addition, ELL enhanced E2F1 deacetylation via recruitment of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1). Notably, the MLL-ELL fusion protein lost the inhibitory role of ELL in E2F1 transcriptional activity. Furthermore, DNA damage induced ELL in an E2F1-dependent manner and ELL protected cells against E2F1-dependent apoptosis. Our findings not only connect ELL to E2F1 function and uncover a novel role of ELL in response to DNA damage but also provide an insight into the mechanism for MLL-ELL-associated leukemogenesis.

  8. 17 CFR 274.51 - Form N-18F-1, for notification of election pursuant to § 270.18f-1 of this chapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... section. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-18F-1, see the List of CFR... Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT... notification of election pursuant to § 270.18f-1 of this chapter by a registered open-end investment company...

  9. 17 CFR 274.51 - Form N-18F-1, for notification of election pursuant to § 270.18f-1 of this chapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... section. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-18F-1, see the List of CFR... Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT... notification of election pursuant to § 270.18f-1 of this chapter by a registered open-end investment company...

  10. 17 CFR 274.51 - Form N-18F-1, for notification of election pursuant to § 270.18f-1 of this chapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... section. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-18F-1, see the List of CFR... Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT... notification of election pursuant to § 270.18f-1 of this chapter by a registered open-end investment company...

  11. Detection of Hearing Loss Using 2f2-f1 and 2f1-f2 Distortion-Product Otoacoustic Emissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Tracy S.; Prieve, Beth A.

    2005-01-01

    Although many distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) may be measured in the ear canal in response to 2 pure tone stimuli, the majority of clinical studies have focused exclusively on the DPOAE at the frequency 2f1-f2. This study investigated another DPOAE, 2f2-f1, in an attempt to determine the following: (a) the optimal stimulus…

  12. Bacteriophage f1 infection of Escherichia coli: identification and possible processing of f1-specific mRNAs in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Cashman, J S; Webster, R E

    1979-01-01

    [3H]Uracil-pulse-labeled RNA from Escherichia coli infected with f1 bacteriophage was fractionated on polyacrylamide gels containing urea. Eight phage-specific RNA species were present with approximate lengths ranging from 2100 to 400 nucleotides. The amount of the seven largest species was increased when the infected bacteria were incubated at 41 degrees C. When the RNA was isolated and used as message in an in vitro protein-synthesizing system, most of the RNA species appeared to direct the synthesis of the phage gene VIII protein. The six largest species also directed the synthesis of the phage gene V protein. Some of the labeled smaller RNA species increased in amount after addition to rifampicin, suggesting that they may have resulted from cleavage of larger RNA species. These particular smaller RNA species also were present in infected bacteria containing a mutant RNase III. The data are discussed in terms of the regulation of synthesis of the phage-specific proteins. Images PMID:375228

  13. Pharmacogenomics of Prostaglandin and Leukotriene Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Cornejo-García, José A.; Perkins, James R.; Jurado-Escobar, Raquel; García-Martín, Elena; Agúndez, José A.; Viguera, Enrique; Pérez-Sánchez, Natalia; Blanca-López, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Individual genetic background together with environmental effects are thought to be behind many human complex diseases. A number of genetic variants, mainly single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), have been shown to be associated with various pathological and inflammatory conditions, representing potential therapeutic targets. Prostaglandins (PTGs) and leukotrienes (LTs) are eicosanoids derived from arachidonic acid and related polyunsaturated fatty acids that participate in both normal homeostasis and inflammatory conditions. These bioactive lipid mediators are synthesized through two major multistep enzymatic pathways: PTGs by cyclooxygenase and LTs by 5-lipoxygenase. The main physiological effects of PTGs include vasodilation and vascular leakage (PTGE2); mast cell maturation, eosinophil recruitment, and allergic responses (PTGD2); vascular and respiratory smooth muscle contraction (PTGF2), and inhibition of platelet aggregation (PTGI2). LTB4 is mainly involved in neutrophil recruitment, vascular leakage, and epithelial barrier function, whereas cysteinyl LTs (CysLTs) (LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4) induce bronchoconstriction and neutrophil extravasation, and also participate in vascular leakage. PTGs and LTs exert their biological functions by binding to cognate receptors, which belong to the seven transmembrane, G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. SNPs in genes encoding these receptors may influence their functionality and have a role in disease susceptibility and drug treatment response. In this review we summarize SNPs in PTGs and LTs receptors and their relevance in human diseases. We also provide information on gene expression. Finally, we speculate on future directions for this topic. PMID:27708579

  14. Simulated microgravity upregulates an endothelial vasoconstrictor prostaglandin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sangha, D. S.; Han, S.; Purdy, R. E.

    2001-01-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide contributes to the vascular hyporesponsiveness to norepinephrine (NE) observed in carotid arteries from rats exposed to simulated microgravity. The goal of the present study was to determine whether a cyclooxygenase product of arachidonic acid also influences vascular responsiveness in this setting. Microgravity was simulated in rats by hindlimb unweighting (HU). After 20 days of HU, carotid arteries were isolated from control and HU-treated rats, and vascular rings were mounted in tissue baths for the measurement of isometric contraction. Two cyclooxygenase inhibitors, indomethacin and ibuprofen, and the selective thromboxane A(2) prostanoid-receptor antagonist, SQ-29548, had no effect on the contraction to NE in control vessels but markedly reduced contraction to NE in HU vessels. When the endothelium was removed, indomethacin no longer had any effect on the NE-induced contraction in HU vessels. In endothelium-intact vessels in the presence of indomethacin, the addition of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N(G)-L-nitro-arginine methyl ester, to the medium bathing HU vessels increased the contraction to NE to the level of that of the control vessels. These results indicate that HU treatment induced two endothelial changes in carotid artery that opposed each other. Nitric oxide activity was increased and was responsible for the vascular hyporesponsiveness to NE. The activity of a vasoconstrictor prostaglandin was also increased, and attenuated the vasodilating effect of nitric oxide.

  15. Sulforaphane Inhibits Prostaglandin E2 Synthesis by Suppressing Microsomal Prostaglandin E Synthase 1

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiping; Joplin, Denise G.; Cross, Janet V.; Templeton, Dennis J.

    2012-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN) is a dietary cancer preventive with incompletely characterized mechanism(s) of cancer prevention. Since prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) promotes cancer progression, we hypothesized that SFN may block PGE2 synthesis in cancer cells. We found that SFN indeed blocked PGE2 production in human A549 cancer cells not by inhibiting COX-2, but rather by suppressing the expression of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase (mPGES-1), the enzyme that directly synthesizes PGE2. We identified the Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) as the target of SFN-mediated mPGES-1 suppression. SFN suppressed HIF-1α protein expression and the presence of HIF-1α at the mPGES-1 promoter, resulting in reduced transcription of mPGES-1. Finally, SFN also reduced expression of mPGES-1 and PGE2 production in A549 xenograft tumors in mice. Together, these results point to the HIF-1α, mPGES-1 and PGE2 axis as a potential mediator of the anti-cancer effects of SFN, and illustrate the potential of SFN for therapeutic control of cancer and inflammation. Harmful side effects in patients taking agents that target the more upstream COX-2 enzyme render the downstream target mPGES-1 a significant target for anti-inflammatory therapy. Thus, SFN could prove to be an important therapeutic approach to both cancer and inflammation. PMID:23166763

  16. Suppression of Alzheimer-associated inflammation by microglial prostaglandin-E2 EP4 receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Woodling, Nathaniel S; Wang, Qian; Priyam, Prachi G; Larkin, Paul; Shi, Ju; Johansson, Jenny U; Zagol-Ikapitte, Irene; Boutaud, Olivier; Andreasson, Katrin I

    2014-04-23

    A persistent and nonresolving inflammatory response to accumulating Aβ peptide species is a cardinal feature in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In response to accumulating Aβ peptide species, microglia, the innate immune cells of the brain, generate a toxic inflammatory response that accelerates synaptic and neuronal injury. Many proinflammatory signaling pathways are linked to progression of neurodegeneration. However, endogenous anti-inflammatory pathways capable of suppressing Aβ-induced inflammation represent a relatively unexplored area. Here we report that signaling through the prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2) EP4 receptor potently suppresses microglial inflammatory responses to Aβ42 peptides. In cultured microglial cells, EP4 stimulation attenuated levels of Aβ42-induced inflammatory factors and potentiated phagocytosis of Aβ42. Microarray analysis demonstrated that EP4 stimulation broadly opposed Aβ42-driven gene expression changes in microglia, with enrichment for targets of IRF1, IRF7, and NF-κB transcription factors. In vivo, conditional deletion of microglial EP4 in APPSwe-PS1ΔE9 (APP-PS1) mice conversely increased inflammatory gene expression, oxidative protein modification, and Aβ deposition in brain at early stages of pathology, but not at later stages, suggesting an early anti-inflammatory function of microglial EP4 signaling in the APP-PS1 model. Finally, EP4 receptor levels decreased significantly in human cortex with progression from normal to AD states, suggesting that early loss of this beneficial signaling system in preclinical AD development may contribute to subsequent progression of pathology.

  17. Cardiovascular effects of prostaglandin I2 and prostaglandin F2 alpha in the unanesthetized bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana.

    PubMed

    Robleto, D O; Herman, C A

    1988-04-01

    The cardiovascular effects of prostaglandin (PG)I2 and PGF2 alpha were compared in the unanesthetized American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana). Control mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were 25.7 +/- 1.1 mm Hg and 35.1 +/- 1.1 beats/min, respectively. Intravenous injections of PGI2 decreased MAP and increased HR in a dose-dependent fashion over the range of concentrations tested (0.03, 0.3, 3, and 10 micrograms/kg-body weight [bw]. Neither atropine (1 mg/kg-bw) nor verapamil (1 mg/kg-bw) treatment altered the MAP or HR responses to PGI2 (3 micrograms/kg-bw). However, propranolol (5 mg/kg-bw) significantly blunted the hypotensive effects without affecting the increase in HR. Prostaglandin F2 alpha (tested at 0.3, 3, 30, and 100 micrograms/kg-bw) increased both MAP and HR. Mean arterial pressure increased with concentrations greater than 0.3 microgram/kg-bw and reached peak effects at 30 micrograms/kg-bw. Prostaglandin F2 alpha increased HR at doses greater than 0.3 microgram/kg-bw. Neither the pressor nor positive chronotropic effects of PGF2 alpha (30 micrograms/kg-bw) were affected by atropine or propranolol. However, verapamil significantly attenuated the pressor effects without affecting the increase in HR. These results demonstrate that both prostaglandins have qualitatively similar effects on HR, but opposite effects on MAP. Prostaglandin I2 is a hypotensive prostaglandin, while PGF2 alpha is hypertensive. The pressor effects of PGF2 alpha are partially dependent on calcium influx. The positive chronotropic effects of both prostaglandins are independent of the autonomic nervous system, suggesting a different mechanism of action.

  18. Prostaglandin receptor EP4 in abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Cao, Richard Y; St Amand, Tim; Li, XinZhi; Yoon, Sung-Hee; Wang, Carol P; Song, Hui; Maruyama, Takayuki; Brown, Peter M; Zelt, David T; Funk, Colin D

    2012-07-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) pathogenesis is distinguished by vessel wall inflammation. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1, key components of the most well-characterized inflammatory prostaglandin pathway, contribute to AAA development in the 28-day angiotensin II infusion model in mice. In this study, we used this model to examine the role of the prostaglandin E receptor subtype 4 (EP4) and genetic knockdown of COX-2 expression (70% to 90%) in AAA pathogenesis. The administration of the prostaglandin receptor EP4 antagonist AE3-208 (10 mg/kg per day) to apolipoprotein E (apoE)-deficient mice led to active drug plasma concentrations and reduced AAA incidence and severity compared with control apoE-deficient mice (P < 0.01), whereas COX-2 genetic knockdown/apoE-deficient mice displayed only a minor, nonsignificant decrease in incidence of AAA. EP4 receptor protein was present in human and mouse AAA, as observed by using Western blot analysis. Aortas from AE3-208-treated mice displayed evidence of a reduced inflammatory phenotype compared with controls. Atherosclerotic lesion size at the aortic root was similar between all groups. In conclusion, the prostaglandin E(2)-EP4 signaling pathway plays a role in the AAA inflammatory process. Blocking the EP4 receptor pharmacologically reduces both the incidence and severity of AAA in the angiotensin II mouse model, potentially via attenuation of cytokine/chemokine synthesis and the reduction of matrix metalloproteinase activities.

  19. Control of parturition in the sow using progesterone and prostaglandin.

    PubMed

    Gooneratne, A; Hartmann, P E; McCauley, I; Martin, C E

    1979-12-01

    The effect of progesterone and prostaglandin administration on the timing of farrowing was studied in three groups of 25 sows each. Progesterone treatment (100 mg/day) on days 112, 113 and 114 of gestation (group I) significantly prolonged the gestation length to 116.4 +/- 0.4 (mean +/- s.e.) days compared to the control sows (group III; 115.5 +/- 0.2; P less than 0.05). Administration of prostaglandin (200 micrograms Cloprostanol intramuscularly) on day 115 of gestation following progesterone treatment (group II) resulted in a gestation length of 116.0 +/- 0.1 days, with the sows farrowing 25.4 +/- 1.0 h after the prostaglandin injection. 80% of the sows farrowed between 0800 and 1700 h of day 116 of gestation. Plasma progesterone levels were maintained by the exogenous progesterone during treatment. At farrowing, higher levels of progesterone were observed in groups I and II compared to controls. Prostaglandin treatment did not significantly alter withdrawal of progesterone in progesterone treated sows, suggesting that the actions of exogenous prostaglandin is primarily on the myometrium and the cervix. Hormonal treatment in late pregnancy did not have any adverse effects on piglet viability and growth rate, or subsequent reproductive performances of sows. Lactation was initiated normally, and the concentrations of lactose, protein, fat, IgG, Na+, Ca2+ and K+ in colostrum and milk were similar in all groups during the first 5 days of lactation.

  20. Impotence evaluated by the use of prostaglandin E1

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, T.I.; Yang, C.R.; Wang, S.J.; Chang, C.L.; Tzai, T.S.; Chang, C.H.; Wu, H.C.

    1989-06-01

    We screened 80 patients at our hospital for the differential diagnosis of impotence using intracavernous injection of prostaglandin E1 (20 micrograms). The rate of positive response was 78.8 per cent (63 patients). Neither systemic reactions nor priapism occurred. However, a considerable incidence (23.8 per cent, 19 of 80 patients) of tolerable injection pain was encountered. The 133-xenon penile washout study was conducted routinely in impotent men for hemodynamic evaluation of penile vascularity. In 80 patients a positive correlation between the response of intracavernous prostaglandin E1 injection and the result of the washout study was found (r equals 0.381, p less than 0.0002). We selected 14 subjects randomly to receive additional intravenous infusions of prostaglandin E1 (6 ampules, 120 micrograms total) for 3 days, after which another 133-xenon washout study was done. The washout studies before and after intravenous prostaglandin E1 infusion were compared, and 10 patients (71.4 per cent) appeared to obtain improvement in half-time clearance and penile blood flow. However, only 3 patients noticed improvement subjectively. We suggest that prostaglandin E1 could be a desirable alternative for the diagnosis and treatment of impotence.

  1. E2F1 Regulates Cellular Growth by mTORC1 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Real, Sebastian; Meo-Evoli, Nathalie; Espada, Lilia; Tauler, Albert

    2011-01-01

    During cell proliferation, growth must occur to maintain homeostatic cell size. Here we show that E2F1 is capable of inducing growth by regulating mTORC1 activity. The activation of cell growth and mTORC1 by E2F1 is dependent on both E2F1's ability to bind DNA and to regulate gene transcription, demonstrating that a gene induction expression program is required in this process. Unlike E2F1, E2F3 is unable to activate mTORC1, suggesting that growth activity could be restricted to individual E2F members. The effect of E2F1 on the activation of mTORC1 does not depend on Akt. Furthermore, over-expression of TSC2 does not interfere with the effect of E2F1, indicating that the E2F1-induced signal pathway can compensate for the inhibitory effect of TSC2 on Rheb. Immunolocalization studies demonstrate that E2F1 induces the translocation of mTORC1 to the late endosome vesicles, in a mechanism dependent of leucine. E2F1 and leucine, or insulin, together affect the activation of S6K stronger than alone suggesting that they are complementary in activating the signal pathway. From these studies, E2F1 emerges as a key protein that integrates cell division and growth, both of which are essential for cell proliferation. PMID:21283628

  2. Ectopic POU5F1 in the male germ lineage disrupts differentiation and spermatogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu; Phillips, LeAnna J; Hartman, Rachel; An, Junhui; Dann, Christina T

    2016-10-01

    Expression levels of the pluripotency determinant, POU5F1, are tightly regulated to ensure appropriate differentiation during early embryogenesis. POU5F1 is also present in the spermatogonial stem cell/progenitor cell population in mice and it is downregulated as spermatogenesis progresses. To test if POU5F1 downregulation is required for SSCs to differentiate, we produced transgenic mice that ubiquitously express POU5F1 in Cre-expressing lineages. Using a Vasa-Cre driver to produce ectopic POU5F1 in all postnatal germ cells, we found that POU5F1 downregulation was necessary for spermatogonial expansion during the first wave of spermatogenesis and for the production of differentiated spermatogonia capable of undergoing meiosis. In contrast, undifferentiated spermatogonia were maintained throughout adulthood, consistent with a normal presence of POU5F1 in these cells. The results suggest that POU5F1 downregulation in differentiating spermatogonia is a necessary step for the progression of spermatogenesis. Further, the creation of a transgenic mouse model for conditional ectopic expression of POU5F1 may be a useful resource for studies of POU5F1 in other cell lineages, during tumorogenesis and cell fate reprogramming. PMID:27486267

  3. Homologous desensitization to prostaglandins in rabbit ileum

    SciTech Connect

    Musch, M.W.; Field, M.; Miller, R.J.; Stoff, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Prostaglandins (PG's) increase short-circuit current (I/sub sc/), inhibit NaCl absorption, and stimulate Cl secretion in rabbit ileum. These changes occur with the following PGs; E/sub 3/, E/sub 1/, nitrilo-I/sub 2/ and, to a lesser extent, with A/sub 2/, D/sub 2/, and F/sub 2..cap alpha../. Arachidonic acid (AA) also stimulates secretion. The PG- or AA-stimulated I/sub sc/ does not persist, however, and on prolonged exposure tachyphylaxis develops. Resensitization of the I/sub sc/ response to PGE/sub 2/ is rapid, being essentially complete in 15 min after the PG is removed. Desensitization to AA is not reflected by diminished PG generation. PGE/sub 2/ release from the mucosa after AA addition is constant, although the AA-stimulated I/sub sc/ decreases. I/sub sc/ measurements indicate that PGE/sub 2/ at slightly below its EC/sub 50/ partially desensitizes and a near-maximal concentration completely desensitizes to PGE/sub 2/ but does not, however, inhibit the subsequent change in I/sub sc/ caused by theophylline or vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). Adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) measurements suggest that desensitization applies to cAMP production. PGE/sub 2/ (10/sup -5/ M) increases mucosal cAMP three- to sevenfold, but this elevation is transient; a second challenge dose, which fails to elicit a I/sub sc/ change, also fails to increase mucosal cAMP. Adenylate cyclase measurements from untreated and PGE/sub 2/-treated enterocytes demonstrate a decrease in stimulation by PGE/sub 2/ but not in stimulation by VIP, fluoride, or 5-guanylylimidodiphosphate.

  4. 17 CFR 274.127f-1 - Form N-27F-1, notice to periodic payment plan certificate holders of 45-day withdrawal right with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-27F-1, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 Forms for Reports §...

  5. Regulation of E2F1-induced apoptosis by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, A; Iwasaki, T; Pyndiah, S; Cassimere, E K; Palani, C D; Sakamuro, D

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor adenovirus E2 promoter-binding factor (E2F)-1 normally enhances cell-cycle progression, but it also induces apoptosis under certain conditions, including DNA damage and serum deprivation. Although DNA damage facilitates the phosphorylation and stabilization of E2F1 to trigger apoptosis, how serum starvation renders cells vulnerable to E2F1-induced apoptosis remains unclear. Because poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), a nuclear enzyme essential for genomic stability and chromatin remodeling, interacts directly with E2F1, we investigated the effects of PARP1 on E2F1-mediated functions in the presence and absence of serum. PARP1 attenuation, which increased E2F1 transactivation, induced G2/M cell-cycle arrest under normal growth conditions, but enhanced E2F1-induced apoptosis in serum-starved cells. Interestingly, basal PARP1 activity was sufficient to modify E2F1 by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, which stabilized the interaction between E2F1 and the BIN1 tumor suppressor in the nucleus. Accordingly, BIN1 acted as an RB1-independent E2F1 corepressor. Because E2F1 directly activates the BIN1 gene promoter, BIN1 curbed E2F1 activity through a negative-feedback mechanism. Conversely, when the BIN1–E2F1 interaction was abolished by PARP1 suppression, E2F1 continuously increased BIN1 levels. This is functionally germane, as PARP1-depletion-associated G2/M arrest was reversed by the transfection of BIN1 siRNA. Moreover, PARP-inhibitor-associated anti-transformation activity was compromised by the coexpression of dominant-negative BIN1. Because serum starvation massively reduced the E2F1 poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, we conclude that the release of BIN1 from hypo-poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated E2F1 is a mechanism by which serum starvation promotes E2F1-induced apoptosis. PMID:25257171

  6. Protein Kinase C-α Interaction with F0F1-ATPase Promotes F0F1-ATPase Activity and Reduces Energy Deficits in Injured Renal Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Grażyna; Bakajsova, Diana

    2015-01-01

    We showed previously that active PKC-α maintains F0F1-ATPase activity, whereas inactive PKC-α mutant (dnPKC-α) blocks recovery of F0F1-ATPase activity after injury in renal proximal tubules (RPTC). This study tested whether mitochondrial PKC-α interacts with and phosphorylates F0F1-ATPase. Wild-type PKC-α (wtPKC-α) and dnPKC-α were overexpressed in RPTC to increase their mitochondrial levels, and RPTC were exposed to oxidant or hypoxia. Mitochondrial levels of the γ-subunit, but not the α- and β-subunits, were decreased by injury, an event associated with 54% inhibition of F0F1-ATPase activity. Overexpressing wtPKC-α blocked decreases in γ-subunit levels, maintained F0F1-ATPase activity, and improved ATP levels after injury. Deletion of PKC-α decreased levels of α-, β-, and γ-subunits, decreased F0F1-ATPase activity, and hindered the recovery of ATP content after RPTC injury. Mitochondrial PKC-α co-immunoprecipitated with α-, β-, and γ-subunits of F0F1-ATPase. The association of PKC-α with these subunits decreased in injured RPTC overexpressing dnPKC-α. Immunocapture of F0F1-ATPase and immunoblotting with phospho(Ser) PKC substrate antibody identified phosphorylation of serine in the PKC consensus site on the α- or β- and γ-subunits. Overexpressing wtPKC-α increased phosphorylation and protein levels, whereas deletion of PKC-α decreased protein levels of α-, β-, and γ-subunits of F0F1-ATPase in RPTC. Phosphoproteomics revealed phosphorylation of Ser146 on the γ subunit in response to wtPKC-α overexpression. We concluded that active PKC-α 1) prevents injury-induced decreases in levels of γ subunit of F0F1-ATPase, 2) interacts with α-, β-, and γ-subunits leading to increases in their phosphorylation, and 3) promotes the recovery of F0F1-ATPase activity and ATP content after injury in RPTC. PMID:25627689

  7. 17 CFR 274.51 - Form N-18F-1, for notification of election pursuant to § 270.18f-1 of this chapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Form N-18F-1, for notification of election pursuant to § 270.18f-1 of this chapter. 274.51 Section 274.51 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 Registration Statements §...

  8. Prostaglandins, H2-receptor antagonists and peptic ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    Bright-Asare, P; Habte, T; Yirgou, B; Benjamin, J

    1988-01-01

    Peptic ulcer develops when offensive factors overwhelm defensive processes in the gastroduodenal mucosa. Offensive factors include NSAIDs, hydrochloric acid-peptic activity, bile reflux, and some products of the lipoxygenase pathway such as leukotriene B4; whereas defensive processes are largely mediated by prostaglandins through poorly understood mechanisms uniformly termed cytoprotection. Cytoprotection, a physiological process working through the products of arachidonic acid metabolism, may result from the net effect of the protective actions of prostaglandins versus the damaging actions of leukotrienes. Some prostaglandins also have antisecretory effects. Therefore the peptic ulcer healing effects of prostaglandin analogues, all of which have significant antisecretory activity, may be more due to their antisecretory effects than primarily to their effects on mucosal defences. Certain drug-induced gastroduodenal lesions, e.g. NSAID-induced ulcers, which are often unresponsive to H2-receptor antagonists, have been healed and their recurrence prevented by the use of PGE1 and PGE2 analogues. All the prostaglandin analogues investigated to date in humans have the potential for inducing abortion, an important side effect which may limit their worldwide use. The optimal prostaglandin analogue for ulcer healing should not induce abortion and should be potently cytoprotective. The predominant damaging agent in the development of peptic ulcer disease is gastric hydrochloric acid. Thus, the worldwide established efficacy and safety of H2-receptor antagonists such as cimetidine, ranitidine, famotidine and most recently of roxatidine acetate suggest that these agents have become the standard by which other forms of anti-ulcer therapy should be judged. PMID:2905237

  9. Parameters to Maximize 2f2-f1 Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emission Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Jennifer H.; Pratt, Shiela R.; Durrant, John D.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Past research has established parameters for the 2f1-f2 distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) that enhance response levels (e.g., L1 - L2 = 10 dB; f2/f1 = 1.22; L1, L2 = 65, 55 dB SPL). These same parameters do not optimize 2f2-f1 DPOAEs. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate more completely those parameters that…

  10. Suppression of Alzheimer-Associated Inflammation by Microglial Prostaglandin-E2 EP4 Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Woodling, Nathaniel S.; Wang, Qian; Priyam, Prachi G.; Larkin, Paul; Shi, Ju; Johansson, Jenny U.; Zagol-Ikapitte, Irene; Boutaud, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    A persistent and nonresolving inflammatory response to accumulating Aβ peptide species is a cardinal feature in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In response to accumulating Aβ peptide species, microglia, the innate immune cells of the brain, generate a toxic inflammatory response that accelerates synaptic and neuronal injury. Many proinflammatory signaling pathways are linked to progression of neurodegeneration. However, endogenous anti-inflammatory pathways capable of suppressing Aβ-induced inflammation represent a relatively unexplored area. Here we report that signaling through the prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2) EP4 receptor potently suppresses microglial inflammatory responses to Aβ42 peptides. In cultured microglial cells, EP4 stimulation attenuated levels of Aβ42-induced inflammatory factors and potentiated phagocytosis of Aβ42. Microarray analysis demonstrated that EP4 stimulation broadly opposed Aβ42-driven gene expression changes in microglia, with enrichment for targets of IRF1, IRF7, and NF-κB transcription factors. In vivo, conditional deletion of microglial EP4 in APPSwe-PS1ΔE9 (APP-PS1) mice conversely increased inflammatory gene expression, oxidative protein modification, and Aβ deposition in brain at early stages of pathology, but not at later stages, suggesting an early anti-inflammatory function of microglial EP4 signaling in the APP-PS1 model. Finally, EP4 receptor levels decreased significantly in human cortex with progression from normal to AD states, suggesting that early loss of this beneficial signaling system in preclinical AD development may contribute to subsequent progression of pathology. PMID:24760848

  11. [Receptors involved in the mechanism of action of topical prostaglandines].

    PubMed

    Neacsu, Alina Mihaela

    2009-01-01

    Hypotensive effect to prostaglandins analogs (latanoprost, travoprost, tafluprost) means to increase uveoscleral outflow by action to FP receptors who generated extracellular matrix changes and intermuscular spaces changes. Syntetic prostamides analogs (bimatoprost) have a particulary action with a receptors most and intensive studied. The bimatoprost effect is the consequences to preferated stimulations on the specific receptors who have action only the tissue with prostaglandins activity is important to specify what the bimatoprost have dual effect: to uveoscleral outflow and classic outflow by increase hidraulic conductivity.

  12. [Receptors involved in the mechanism of action of topical prostaglandines].

    PubMed

    Neacsu, Alina Mihaela

    2009-01-01

    Hypotensive effect to prostaglandins analogs (latanoprost, travoprost, tafluprost) means to increase uveoscleral outflow by action to FP receptors who generated extracellular matrix changes and intermuscular spaces changes. Syntetic prostamides analogs (bimatoprost) have a particulary action with a receptors most and intensive studied. The bimatoprost effect is the consequences to preferated stimulations on the specific receptors who have action only the tissue with prostaglandins activity is important to specify what the bimatoprost have dual effect: to uveoscleral outflow and classic outflow by increase hidraulic conductivity. PMID:19697832

  13. Alimentary tract absorption (f1 values) for radionuclides in local and regional fallout from nuclear tests.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Shawki A; Simon, Steven L; Bouville, André; Melo, Dunstana; Beck, Harold L

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents gastrointestinal absorption fractions (f1 values) for estimating internal doses from local and regional fallout radionuclides due to nuclear tests. The choice of f1 values are based on specific circumstances of weapons test conditions and a review of reported f1 values for elements in different physical and chemical states. Special attention is given to fallout from nuclear tests conducted at the Marshall Islands. We make a distinction between the f1 values for intakes of radioactive materials immediately after deposition (acute intakes) and intakes that occur in the course of months and years after deposition, following incorporation into terrestrial and aquatic foodstuffs (chronic intakes). Multiple f1 values for different circumstances where persons are exposed to radioactive fallout (e.g., local vs. regional fallout and coral vs. continental tests) are presented when supportive information is available. In some cases, our selected f1 values are similar to those adopted by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) (e.g., iodine and most actinides). However, f1 values for cesium and strontium derived from urine bioassay data of the Marshallese population are notably lower than the generic f1 values recommended by ICRP, particularly for acute intakes from local fallout (0.4 and 0.05 for Cs and Sr, respectively). The f1 values presented here form the first complete set of values relevant to realistic dose assessments for exposure to local or regional radioactive fallout. PMID:20622554

  14. Characteristics Analysis of F1 Hybrids between Genetically Modified Brassica napus and B. rapa

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Soo-In; Oh, Young-Ju; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Ko, Ho-Cheol; Cho, Hyun-Suk; Lee, Yeon-Hee; Chang, Ancheol

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have been conducted on hybridization between transgenic Brassica napus and B. rapa or backcross of F1 hybrid to their parents. However, trait changes must be analyzed to evaluate hybrid sustainability in nature. In the present study, B. rapa and transgenic (BrAGL20) B. napus were hybridized to verify the early flowering phenomenon of F1 hybrids, and F1 hybrid traits were analyzed to predict their impact on sustainability. Flowering of F1 hybrid has been induced slightly later than that of the transgenic B. napus, but flowering was available in the greenhouse without low temperature treatment to young plant, similar to the transgenic B. napus. It is because the BrAGL20 gene has been transferred from transgenic B. napus to F1 hybrid. The size of F1 hybrid seeds was intermediate between those of B. rapa and transgenic B. napus, and ~40% of F1 pollen exhibited abnormal size and morphology. The form of the F1 stomata was also intermediate between that of B. rapa and transgenic B. napus, and the number of stomata was close to the parental mean. Among various fatty acids, the content of erucic acid exhibited the greatest change, owing to the polymorphism of parental FATTY ACID ELONGASE 1 alleles. Furthermore, F2 hybrids could not be obtained. However, BC1 progeny were obtained by hand pollination of B. rapa with F1 hybrid pollen, with an outcrossing rate of 50%. PMID:27632286

  15. Characteristics Analysis of F1 Hybrids between Genetically Modified Brassica napus and B. rapa.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Soo-In; Oh, Young-Ju; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Ko, Ho-Cheol; Cho, Hyun-Suk; Lee, Yeon-Hee; Chang, Ancheol

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have been conducted on hybridization between transgenic Brassica napus and B. rapa or backcross of F1 hybrid to their parents. However, trait changes must be analyzed to evaluate hybrid sustainability in nature. In the present study, B. rapa and transgenic (BrAGL20) B. napus were hybridized to verify the early flowering phenomenon of F1 hybrids, and F1 hybrid traits were analyzed to predict their impact on sustainability. Flowering of F1 hybrid has been induced slightly later than that of the transgenic B. napus, but flowering was available in the greenhouse without low temperature treatment to young plant, similar to the transgenic B. napus. It is because the BrAGL20 gene has been transferred from transgenic B. napus to F1 hybrid. The size of F1 hybrid seeds was intermediate between those of B. rapa and transgenic B. napus, and ~40% of F1 pollen exhibited abnormal size and morphology. The form of the F1 stomata was also intermediate between that of B. rapa and transgenic B. napus, and the number of stomata was close to the parental mean. Among various fatty acids, the content of erucic acid exhibited the greatest change, owing to the polymorphism of parental FATTY ACID ELONGASE 1 alleles. Furthermore, F2 hybrids could not be obtained. However, BC1 progeny were obtained by hand pollination of B. rapa with F1 hybrid pollen, with an outcrossing rate of 50%.

  16. Alimentary Tract Absorption (f1 Values) for Radionuclides in Local and Regional Fallout from Nuclear Tests

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Shawki; Simon, Steven L; Bouville, André; Melo, Dunstana; Beck, Harold

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents gastrointestinal absorption fractions (f1 values) for estimating internal doses from local and regional fallout radionuclides due to nuclear tests. The choice of f1 values are based on specific circumstances of weapons test conditions and a review of reported f1 values for elements in different physical and chemical states. Special attention is given to fallout from nuclear tests conducted at the Marshall Islands. We make a distinction between the f1 values for intakes of radioactive materials immediately after deposition (acute intakes) and intakes that occur in the course of months and years after deposition, following incorporation into terrestrial and aquatic foodstuffs (chronic intakes). Multiple f1 values for different circumstances where persons are exposed to radioactive fallout (e.g. local vs. regional fallout and coral vs. continental tests) are presented when supportive information is available. In some cases, our selected f1 values are similar to those adopted by the ICRP (e.g. iodine and most actinides). However, f1 values for cesium and strontium derived from urine bioassay data of the Marshallese population are notably lower than the generic f1 values recommended by ICRP, particularly for acute intakes from local fallout (0.4 and 0.05 for Cs and Sr, respectively. The f1 values presented here form the first complete set of values relevant to realistic dose assessments for exposure to local or regional radioactive fallout. PMID:20622554

  17. Characteristics Analysis of F1 Hybrids between Genetically Modified Brassica napus and B. rapa.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Soo-In; Oh, Young-Ju; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Ko, Ho-Cheol; Cho, Hyun-Suk; Lee, Yeon-Hee; Chang, Ancheol

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have been conducted on hybridization between transgenic Brassica napus and B. rapa or backcross of F1 hybrid to their parents. However, trait changes must be analyzed to evaluate hybrid sustainability in nature. In the present study, B. rapa and transgenic (BrAGL20) B. napus were hybridized to verify the early flowering phenomenon of F1 hybrids, and F1 hybrid traits were analyzed to predict their impact on sustainability. Flowering of F1 hybrid has been induced slightly later than that of the transgenic B. napus, but flowering was available in the greenhouse without low temperature treatment to young plant, similar to the transgenic B. napus. It is because the BrAGL20 gene has been transferred from transgenic B. napus to F1 hybrid. The size of F1 hybrid seeds was intermediate between those of B. rapa and transgenic B. napus, and ~40% of F1 pollen exhibited abnormal size and morphology. The form of the F1 stomata was also intermediate between that of B. rapa and transgenic B. napus, and the number of stomata was close to the parental mean. Among various fatty acids, the content of erucic acid exhibited the greatest change, owing to the polymorphism of parental FATTY ACID ELONGASE 1 alleles. Furthermore, F2 hybrids could not be obtained. However, BC1 progeny were obtained by hand pollination of B. rapa with F1 hybrid pollen, with an outcrossing rate of 50%. PMID:27632286

  18. Alimentary tract absorption (f1 values) for radionuclides in local and regional fallout from nuclear tests.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Shawki A; Simon, Steven L; Bouville, André; Melo, Dunstana; Beck, Harold L

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents gastrointestinal absorption fractions (f1 values) for estimating internal doses from local and regional fallout radionuclides due to nuclear tests. The choice of f1 values are based on specific circumstances of weapons test conditions and a review of reported f1 values for elements in different physical and chemical states. Special attention is given to fallout from nuclear tests conducted at the Marshall Islands. We make a distinction between the f1 values for intakes of radioactive materials immediately after deposition (acute intakes) and intakes that occur in the course of months and years after deposition, following incorporation into terrestrial and aquatic foodstuffs (chronic intakes). Multiple f1 values for different circumstances where persons are exposed to radioactive fallout (e.g., local vs. regional fallout and coral vs. continental tests) are presented when supportive information is available. In some cases, our selected f1 values are similar to those adopted by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) (e.g., iodine and most actinides). However, f1 values for cesium and strontium derived from urine bioassay data of the Marshallese population are notably lower than the generic f1 values recommended by ICRP, particularly for acute intakes from local fallout (0.4 and 0.05 for Cs and Sr, respectively). The f1 values presented here form the first complete set of values relevant to realistic dose assessments for exposure to local or regional radioactive fallout.

  19. Interaction of beef-heart mitochondrial ATPase, coupling factor F1, with aurovertin.

    PubMed

    Yeates, R A

    1974-02-22

    The antibiotic aurovertin binds to beef-heart mitochondrial ATPase, coupling Factor F1, with biphasic fluorescence enhancement. Specific binding effects, polarity and viscosity changes may all contribute to the enhancement. Evidence is presented that it stems from aurovertin binding followed by a slow conformational change in F1. This occurs more rapidly in dissociated F1. The effect of substrates of the enzyme on the fluorescence enhancement is examined. Evidence is presented that in the absence of added magnesium, F1 can hydrolyse low concentrations of added ATP.

  20. E2F1 enhances glycolysis through suppressing Sirt6 transcription in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Minghui; Seto, Edward; Zhang, Jingsong

    2015-05-10

    The fast proliferation of cancer cells requires reprogramming of its energy metabolism with aerobic glycolysis as a major energy source. Sirt6, a class III histone deacetylase, has been shown to down regulate glycolysis by inhibiting the expression of several key glycolytic genes. Based on the published study on the metabolic phenotype of E2F1 -/- mice and SIRT6 -/- mice, we hypothesize that E2F1 enhances glycolysis and inhibits the expression of Sirt6. Indeed, over-expressing of E2F1, but not its DNA binding deficient mutant, significantly enhanced glucose uptake and lactate production in bladder and prostate cancer cell lines. E2F1 over-expression also suppressed Sirt6 expression and function. Moreover, E2F1 directly bound to Sirt6 promoter and suppressed Sirt6 promoter activity under both normoxic and hypoxic culture conditions. E2F1 siRNA blocked the up-regulation of E2F1 under hypoxia, increased Sirt6 expression and decreased glycolysis compared to those of scrambled siRNA transected cells. Furthermore, HDAC1 deacetylated E2F1 and diminished its transcription suppression of Sirt6 promoter. Treatment with the HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA), suppressed Sirt6 promoter activity with increased binding of acetylated E2F1 to Sirt6 promoter. Mutating the E2F1 binding site on the proximal Sirt6 promoter abolished the suppression of Sirt6 transcription by TSA. These data indicate a novel oncogenic role of E2F1, i.e. enhancing glycolysis by suppressing Sirt6 transcription.

  1. Alterations in locomotor activity induced by radioprotective doses of 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2

    SciTech Connect

    Landauer, M.R.; Walden, T.L.; Davis, H.D.; Dominitz, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    16,16-Dimethyl prostaglandin E2 (DiPGE2) is an effective radioprotectant when administered before irradiation. A notable side effect of this compound is sedation. In separate experiments, the dose-response determinations of the time course of locomotor activity and 30-day survival after 10 Gy gamma irradiation (LD100) were made. Adult male CD2F1 mice were injected subcutaneously with vehicle or DiPGE2 in doses ranging from 0.01 to 40 micrograms per mouse. A dose of 0.01 micrograms did not result in alterations in locomotor behaviour or enhance survival. Doses greater than 1 microgram produced ataxia and enhanced radiation survival in a dose-dependent fashion. Full recovery of locomotor activity did not occur until 6 and 30 hr after injection for the 10 microgram and 40 microgram groups, respectively. Radioprotection was observed when DiPGE2 was administered preirradiation but not postirradiation. Doses of 1 and 10 micrograms were maximally effective as a radioprotectant if injected 5 min prior to irradiation (80%-90% survival). A dose of 40 micrograms resulted in 100% survival when injected 5-30 min before irradiation. Therefore, increasing doses of DiPGE2 resulted in an enhanced effectiveness as a radioprotectant. However, the doses that were the most radioprotective were also the most debilitating to the animal.

  2. Contrasting feature in the repopulation of host-type T cells in the spleens of F1----P and P----F1 radiation bone marrow chimeras

    SciTech Connect

    Hirokawa, K.; Sado, T.; Kubo, S.; Kamisaku, H.; Utsuyama, M.

    1986-11-01

    The regeneration and persistence of host- and donor-derived T cells were examined in the thymus as well as the spleen of mouse radiation bone marrow chimeras of two semiallogeneic combinations (F1----P, P----F1) with different Thy-1 markers on T cells of donor and host origins. An unexpectedly large number of host-type T cells were recovered from the spleens of F1----P chimeras, amounting to as high as 45 and 25% of total T cells at 6 and 14 weeks after bone marrow transplantation (BMT), respectively. To the contrary, the residual host-type T cells in the spleens of P----F1 chimeras disappeared quickly, resulting in less than 0.1% of total T cells at 6 weeks after BMT. It was also revealed that the number of host-type T cells in the spleens of F1----P chimeras decreased in proportion to increase of radiation dose given to the recipients.

  3. Characterization of Prostaglandin E2 Production by Candida albicans▿

    PubMed Central

    Erb-Downward, John R.; Noverr, Mairi C.

    2007-01-01

    Candida albicans produces lipid metabolites that are functionally similar to host prostaglandins. These studies, using mass spectrometry, demonstrate that C. albicans produces authentic prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) from arachidonic acid. Maximal PGE2 production was achieved at 37°C in stationary-phase culture supernatants and in cell-free lysates generated from stationary-phase cells. Interestingly, PGE2 production is inhibited by both nonspecific cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitors but not by inhibitors specific for the cyclooxygenase 2 isoenzyme. The C. albicans genome does not possess a cyclooxygenase homolog; however, several genes that may play a role in prostaglandin production from C. albicans were investigated. It was found that a C. albicans fatty acid desaturase homolog (Ole2) and a multicopper oxidase homolog (Fet3) play roles in prostaglandin production, with ole2/ole2 and fet3/fet3 mutant strains exhibiting reduced PGE2 levels compared with parent strains. This work demonstrates that the synthesis of PGE2 in C. albicans proceeds via novel pathways. PMID:17470538

  4. Reducing prostaglandin E2 production to raise cancer immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Zelenay, Santiago; Reis E Sousa, Caetano

    2016-05-01

    Cyclooxygenases (COX), commonly upregulated in numerous cancers, generate prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which has been implicated in key aspects of malignant growth including proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis. Recently, we showed that production of PGE2 by cancer cells dominantly enables progressive tumor growth via immune escape and that cyclooxygenase inhibitors synergize with immunotherapy to enhance tumor eradication. PMID:27467936

  5. 26 CFR 1.430(f)-1 - Effect of prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance. 1.430(f)-1 Section 1.430(f)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Effect of prefunding balance and funding standard carryover balance. (a) In general—(1) Overview....

  6. Bmal1 is a direct transcriptional target of the orphan nuclear receptor, NR2F1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orphan nuclear receptor NR2F1 (also known as COUP-TFI, Chicken Ovalbumin Upstream Promoter Transcription Factor I) is a highly conserved member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. NR2F1 plays a critical role during embryonic development, particularly in the central and peripheral nervous systems a...

  7. 26 CFR 1.514(f)-1 - Definition of business lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definition of business lease. 1.514(f)-1 Section... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.514(f)-1 Definition of business lease. (a) In general. The term business lease means any...

  8. Sterile Insect Technique and F1 Sterility in the European Grapevine Moth, Lobesia botrana

    PubMed Central

    Saour, George

    2014-01-01

    Newly emerged adults of the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were irradiated with various doses of gamma radiation and crossed to unirradiated counterparts of the opposite sex. Fecundity was decreased when unirradiated females were mated with either 300- or 350-Gy-irradiated males. Adult males that were irradiated with 400 Gy and mated with unirradiated females retained a residual fertility of 2.7%. The radiation dose at which irradiated females were found to be 100% sterile when mated with unirradiated males was 150 Gy. The inherited effects in the F1 progeny of irradiated male parents were examined at 100, 150, and 200 Gy. Fecundity and fertility of the F1 progeny of males irradiated with 150 Gy and inbred or crossed with irradiated and unirradiated moths were also recorded. A significant reduction in fertility was observed when F1 males mated with either F1 or unirradiated females. According to sterility index, F1 females who mated with F1 males had greater sterility than when F1 females were crossed to 150-Gy-irradiated males. Based upon the results of this study, 150 Gy of gamma radiation would be the optimal dose to use in a sterile insect technique and F1 sterility program against L. botrana. PMID:25373155

  9. 16 CFR Appendix F1 to Part 305 - Standard Clothes Washers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standard Clothes Washers F1 Appendix F1 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND...

  10. 26 CFR 301.6501(f)-1 - Personal holding company tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Personal holding company tax. 301.6501(f)-1... Collection § 301.6501(f)-1 Personal holding company tax. If a corporation which is a personal holding company... capital stock of the corporation, the personal holding company tax for such year may be assessed, or...

  11. 26 CFR 5c.44F-1 - Leases and qualified research expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leases and qualified research expenses. 5c.44F-1 Section 5c.44F-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE ECONOMIC RECOVERY TAX ACT OF 1981 §...

  12. Dual level inhibition of E2F-1 activity by adeno-associated virus Rep78.

    PubMed

    Batchu, R B; Shammas, M A; Wang, J Y; Munshi, N C

    2001-06-29

    E2F-1, a major cellular transcription factor, plays a pivotal role in regulating the cell cycle. The activity of E2F-1 is negatively regulated by its interaction with retinoblastoma protein (pRB), and disruption of the pRB-E2F-1 complex, a hallmark of cellular transformation by DNA tumor viruses, leads to cell proliferation. Adeno-associated virus-2 (AAV) is known to have onco-suppressive properties against DNA tumor viruses. Here we provide, for the first time, the molecular basis for antioncogenic activity of AAV. Rep78, a major regulatory protein of AAV, interacts at the protein level with E2F-1 and stabilizes the pRB-E2F-1 complex. At the DNA level, Rep78 binds to a putative site on the E2F-1 promoter and down-regulates the adenovirus-induced E2F-1 transcription. This dual level of Rep78 activity leads to decreased cellular levels of free E2F-1, leading to its onco-suppressive properties.

  13. Chemomechanical coupling mechanism of F(1)-ATPase: catalysis and torque generation.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Rikiya; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2013-04-17

    F1-ATPase (F1), a rotary motor protein driven by ATP hydrolysis, is unique with respect to its high efficiency and reversibility in converting chemical energy into mechanical work. Single-molecule studies have improved our understanding about the energy-conversion mechanism of F1 and the chemomechanical-coupling scheme under ATP hydrolysis conditions. A novel single-molecule technique was recently established to estimate the free-energy change of F1 during catalysis at elementary-step resolution, advancing our understanding about the energy-conversion mechanism of ATP hydrolysis and synthesis. The energy conversion mechanism of F1 elucidated from single-molecule studies provides us with important insights into the operating principles underlying molecular motors.

  14. [Medical treatments and practices. What should be done when a prostaglandin proves ineffective?].

    PubMed

    Nordmann, J-P

    2005-06-01

    Prostaglandin analogs are very frequently used as first-line therapy in the treatment of glaucoma. In some cases, they may be ineffective or insufficient or they may induce side effects. The absence of an ocular pressure-lowering effect of a prostaglandin is in general a class effect. Thus a switch to another prostaglandin will probably not be more effective. In such cases, it may be better to use another therapeutic class. On the other hand, the side effects of prostaglandin are more often directly related to the chemical structure of the drug used and may not occur with another prostaglandin. Consequently, considering the dramatic effect of prostaglandin on ocular pressure compared to other drugs, when one prostaglandin causes side effects, it may be useful to try another one before changing the drug family. PMID:16208240

  15. Effects of blood-dialyser interaction on prostaglandins in uraemic patients and in healthy man.

    PubMed

    Mahiout, A; Jörres, A; Hiss, R; Meinhold, H; Kessel, M

    1987-01-01

    The present study examines extracorporeal prostaglandin production during routine and simulated haemodialysis in healthy volunteers. The roles of dialyser membranes and alcohol washing procedures were investigated. The source of extracorporeal prostaglandin E2 was estimated by a specific platelet cyclo-oxygenase antagonist. Extracorporeal thromboxane production, with and without antagonist, was compared in an attempt to substantiate the role of the cyclo-oxygenase pathway by sources other than platelets. Clinical investigations show that prostaglandin liberation in the extracorporeal bloodstream is detectable. Additionally, laboratory results suggest an association between the type of dialyser membrane and extracorporeal prostaglandin release. The amount of prostaglandin E2 was reduced when dialysers were pre-washed with alcohol. Furthermore, it was experimentally possible to determine that a large part of extracorporeal prostaglandin E2 is released by sources other than platelets, suggesting a possible role of monocytes in extracorporeal prostaglandin production.

  16. Prostaglandin ethanolamides (prostamides): in vitro pharmacology and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Matias, I; Chen, J; De Petrocellis, L; Bisogno, T; Ligresti, A; Fezza, F; Krauss, A H-P; Shi, L; Protzman, C E; Li, C; Liang, Y; Nieves, A L; Kedzie, K M; Burk, R M; Di Marzo, V; Woodward, D F

    2004-05-01

    We investigated whether prostaglandin ethanolamides (prostamides) E(2), F(2alpha), and D(2) exert some of their effects by 1) activating prostanoid receptors either per se or after conversion into the corresponding prostaglandins; 2) interacting with proteins for the inactivation of the endocannabinoid N-arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA), for example fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), thereby enhancing AEA endogenous levels; or 3) activating the vanilloid receptor type-1 (TRPV1). Prostamides potently stimulated cat iris contraction with potency approaching that of the corresponding prostaglandins. However, prostamides D(2), E(2), and F(2alpha) exhibited no meaningful interaction with the cat recombinant FP receptor, nor with human recombinant DP, EP(1-4), FP, IP, and TP prostanoid receptors. Prostamide F(2alpha) was also very weak or inactive in a panel of bioassays specific for the various prostanoid receptors. None of the prostamides inhibited AEA enzymatic hydrolysis by FAAH in cell homogenates, or AEA cellular uptake in intact cells. Furthermore, less than 3% of the compounds were hydrolyzed to the corresponding prostaglandins when incubated for 4 h with homogenates of rat brain, lung, or liver, and cat iris or ciliary body. Very little temperature-dependent uptake of prostamides was observed after incubation with rat brain synaptosomes or RBL-2H3 cells. We suggest that prostamides' most prominent pharmacological actions are not due to transformation into prostaglandins, activation of prostanoid receptors, enhancement of AEA levels, or gating of TRPV1 receptors, but possibly to interaction with novel receptors that seem to be functional in the cat iris. PMID:14757851

  17. Multicentric evaluation of a new assay for prothrombin fragment F1+2 determination.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, H D; Conard, J; Mannucci, M; Monteagudo, J; Pelzer, H; Reverter, J C; Samama, M; Tripodi, A; Wagner, C

    1992-10-01

    A multicenter study of a recently developed ELISA for the determination of prothrombin fragment F1+2 was performed in order to evaluate analytical and clinical aspects. Mean intra-assay and inter-assay reproducibility were found to be 11.0 and 12.6%, respectively. The measuring range covered by the calibration curve reaches from 0.04 to 10.0 nM/l F1+2. Testing 133 healthy subjects a reference range of 0.37 to 1.11 nM/l F1+2 (2.5-97.5 percentile) with a median of 0.66 nM/l F1+2 was calculated. Minor difficulties with blood sampling (venous occlusion for 2 min) did not affect F1+2 plasma concentrations. Significantly increased F1+2 levels were measured in patients with leukemia (p < 0.0001), severe liver disease (p < 0.005) and after myocardial infarction (p < 0.01). Elevated F1+2 concentration before the beginning of heparin therapy (1.25 nM/l) decreased to 0.77 nM/l (p < 0.0001) after 1 day of therapy. For patients in the stable phase of oral anticoagulant therapy decreasing F1+2 concentrations were measured with increasing INR. F1+2 levels were already significantly reduced in patients with INR < 2.0 (0.56 nM/l; p = 0.0005). Thus F1+2 determination may be helpful in identifying activation processes as well as in monitoring anticoagulant therapy.

  18. Suppression of F1 Male-Specific Lethality in Caenorhabditis Hybrids by cbr-him-8

    PubMed Central

    Ragavapuram, Vaishnavi; Hill, Emily Elaine; Baird, Scott Everet

    2015-01-01

    Haldane’s Rule and Darwin’s Corollary to Haldane’s Rule are the observations that heterogametic F1 hybrids are frequently less fit than their homogametic siblings, and that asymmetric results are often obtained from reciprocal hybrid crosses. In Caenorhabditis, Haldane’s Rule and Darwin’s Corollary have been observed in several hybrid crosses, including crosses of Caenorhabditis briggsae and C. nigoni. Fertile F1 females are obtained from reciprocal crosses. However, F1 males obtained from C. nigoni mothers are sterile and F1 males obtained from C. briggsae die during embryogenesis. We have identified cbr-him-8 as a recessive maternal-effect suppressor of F1 hybrid male-specific lethality in this combination of species. This result implicates epigenetic meiotic silencing in the suppression of F1 male-specific lethality. It is also shown that F1 males bearing a C. briggsae X chromosome are fertile. When crossed to C. briggsae hermaphrodites or F1 females derived from C. briggsae hermaphrodites, viable F2 and backcross (B2) progeny were obtained. Sibling males that possessed a C. nigoni X chromosome were sterile. Therefore, the sterility of F1 males bearing a C. nigoni X chromosome must result from dysgenic interactions between the X chromosome of C. nigoni and the autosomes of C. briggsae. The fertility of F1 males bearing a C. briggsae X chromosome provides an opportunity to identify C. nigoni loci that prevent spermatogenesis, and hence hermaphroditic reproduction, in diplo-X hybrids. PMID:26721896

  19. Fo-driven Rotation in the ATP Synthase Direction against the Force of F1 ATPase in the FoF1 ATP Synthase.

    PubMed

    Martin, James; Hudson, Jennifer; Hornung, Tassilo; Frasch, Wayne D

    2015-04-24

    Living organisms rely on the FoF1 ATP synthase to maintain the non-equilibrium chemical gradient of ATP to ADP and phosphate that provides the primary energy source for cellular processes. How the Fo motor uses a transmembrane electrochemical ion gradient to create clockwise torque that overcomes F1 ATPase-driven counterclockwise torque at high ATP is a major unresolved question. Using single FoF1 molecules embedded in lipid bilayer nanodiscs, we now report the observation of Fo-dependent rotation of the c10 ring in the ATP synthase (clockwise) direction against the counterclockwise force of ATPase-driven rotation that occurs upon formation of a leash with Fo stator subunit a. Mutational studies indicate that the leash is important for ATP synthase activity and support a mechanism in which residues aGlu-196 and cArg-50 participate in the cytoplasmic proton half-channel to promote leash formation. PMID:25713065

  20. Observation of B(s)(0) → J/ψ f1(1285) decays and measurement of the f1(1285) mixing angle.

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Cheung, S-F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorbounov, P; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Hafkenscheid, T W; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Maratas, J; Marconi, U; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Martynov, A; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, G; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reichert, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Roberts, D A; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rotondo, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szilard, D; Szumlak, T; T'jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Tellarini, G; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2014-03-01

    Decays of B(s)(0) and B(0) mesons into J/ψ π+π-π+π- final states, produced in pp collisions at the LHC, are investigated using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb-1 collected with the LHCb detector. B(s)(0) → J/ψ f1(1285) decays are seen for the first time, and the branching fractions are measured. Using these rates, the f1(1285) mixing angle between strange and nonstrange components of its wave function in the qq structure model is determined to be ±(24.0-2.6-0.8+3.1+0.6)°. Implications on the possible tetraquark nature of the f1(1285) are discussed. PMID:24655242

  1. Observation of B stretchy="false">¯(s)0→J /ψ f1(1285) Decays and Measurement of the f1(1285) Mixing Angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Adrover, C.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Bauer, Th.; Bay, A.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjørnstad, P. M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; van den Brand, J.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brook, N. H.; Brown, H.; Bursche, A.; Busetto, G.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Callot, O.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carranza-Mejia, H.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Ciba, K.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coca, C.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; David, P.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bonis, I.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Dogaru, M.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; van Eijk, D.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farry, S.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garofoli, J.; Garosi, P.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gorbounov, P.; Gordon, H.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Hafkenscheid, T. W.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; Hartmann, T.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hicks, E.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Huse, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Iakovenko, V.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jans, E.; Jaton, P.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Kaballo, M.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Kochebina, O.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanciotti, E.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leo, S.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Li Gioi, L.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Liu, B.; Liu, G.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez-March, N.; Lu, H.; Lucchesi, D.; Luisier, J.; Luo, H.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I. V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Maratas, J.; Marconi, U.; Marino, P.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martens, A.; Martín Sánchez, A.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martins Tostes, D.; Martynov, A.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Maurice, E.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; McSkelly, B.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Moran, D.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Mountain, R.; Mous, I.; Muheim, F.; Müller, K.; Muresan, R.; Muryn, B.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nicol, M.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Nomerotski, A.; Novoselov, A.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Oggero, S.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, G.; Orlandea, M.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pal, B. K.; Palano, A.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Parkes, C.; Parkinson, C. J.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrick, G. N.; Patrignani, C.; Pavel-Nicorescu, C.; Pazos Alvarez, A.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perez Trigo, E.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Perret, P.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Pescatore, L.; Pesen, E.; Pessina, G.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Phan, A.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Polci, F.; Polok, G.; Poluektov, A.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Powell, A.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redford, S.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, A.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Roa Romero, D. A.; Robbe, P.; Roberts, D. A.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Sabatino, G.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sapunov, M.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Savrie, M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Seco, M.; Semennikov, A.; Senderowska, K.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, O.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, N. A.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Sparkes, A.; Spradlin, P.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Subbiah, V. K.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szilard, D.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teodorescu, E.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ubeda Garcia, M.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; Voss, H.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Webber, A. D.; Websdale, D.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Wiedner, D.; Wiggers, L.; Wilkinson, G.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wu, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W. C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zvyagin, A.; (LHCb Collaboration)

    2014-03-01

    Decays of B stretchy="false">¯s0 and B stretchy="false">¯0 mesons into J /ψ π+π-π+π- final states, produced in pp collisions at the LHC, are investigated using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb-1 collected with the LHCb detector. B stretchy="false">¯(s)0→J /ψf1(1285) decays are seen for the first time, and the branching fractions are measured. Using these rates, the f1(1285) mixing angle between strange and nonstrange components of its wave function in the qq stretchy="false">¯ structure model is determined to be ±(24.0-2.6-0.8+3.1+0.6)°. Implications on the possible tetraquark nature of the f1(1285) are discussed.

  2. Observation of B(s)(0) → J/ψ f1(1285) decays and measurement of the f1(1285) mixing angle.

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Cheung, S-F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorbounov, P; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Hafkenscheid, T W; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Maratas, J; Marconi, U; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Martynov, A; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, G; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reichert, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Roberts, D A; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rotondo, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szilard, D; Szumlak, T; T'jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Tellarini, G; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2014-03-01

    Decays of B(s)(0) and B(0) mesons into J/ψ π+π-π+π- final states, produced in pp collisions at the LHC, are investigated using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb-1 collected with the LHCb detector. B(s)(0) → J/ψ f1(1285) decays are seen for the first time, and the branching fractions are measured. Using these rates, the f1(1285) mixing angle between strange and nonstrange components of its wave function in the qq structure model is determined to be ±(24.0-2.6-0.8+3.1+0.6)°. Implications on the possible tetraquark nature of the f1(1285) are discussed.

  3. Long-term assessment of prostaglandin analogs and timolol fixed combinations vs prostaglandin analogs monotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ai-Wei; Gan, Lin-Yang; Yao, Xiang; Zhou, Jian

    2016-01-01

    AIM To draw a Meta-analysis over the comparison of the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering efficacy and safety between the commonly used fixed-combinations of prostaglandin analogs and 0.5% timolol with prostaglandin analogs (PGAs) monotherapy. METHODS After searching the published reports from MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, all randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) comparing the fixed combination of PGAs/timolol therapy (FCs) and PGAs monotherapy with treatment duration at least 6mo were included. The efficacy outcomes were mean diurnal IOP, percentage of participants whose IOP were lower than 18 mm Hg, incidence of visual field change, while the safety outcomes included corneal side effects, hyperemia and eye irritation. The analysis was carried out in RevMan version 5.3 software. RESULTS After six-month medical intervention, the mean diurnal IOP of FCs was lower than PGAs (MD -1.14, 95% CI -1.82 to -0.46, P=0.001); the percentage of target IOP achieving between FCs and PGAs showed no significant difference (RR 1.18, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.43, P=0.10). No statistically significant differences of the incidence of hyperemia (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.01, P=0.06) and eye irritation (RR 1.20, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.51, P=0.12) between the FCs and PGAs monotherapy were detected. Only one research involved in corneal events, result of this trial revealed no difference between two intervention groups regarding corneal effects (central endothelial cell density, MD -0.20, 95% CI -0.72 to 0.32, P=0.45; central corneal thickness, MD -0.01, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.00, P=0.23). The evaluation of visual field change was not performed due to the limited duration of the trials included in this Meta-analysis. CONCLUSION The long-term efficacy of the FCs overweighed the PGAs monotherapy in lowering IOP, but in the incidence of hyperemia and eye irritation syndromes, the differences are not statically significant. More RCTs with detailed and authentic data over the assessments of

  4. The expression of prostaglandin-E2 and its receptor in the oviduct of Chinese brown frog (Rana dybowskii).

    PubMed

    Hu, Ruiqi; Xi, Liqin; Cao, Qing; Yang, Rui; Liu, Yuning; Sheng, Xia; Han, Yingying; Yuan, Zhengrong; Guo, Yan; Weng, Qiang; Xu, Meiyu

    2016-07-01

    The Chinese brown frog (Rana dybowskii) has one special physiological phenomenon, which is that its oviduct expands prior to hibernation rather than in the breeding period. In this study, we investigated the immunolocalization and expression levels of prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2), cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2, as well as one of its receptor subtypes 4 (EP4) in the oviduct of Rana dybowskii during the pre-hibernation and breeding period. PGE2, COX-1, COX-2 and EP4 have been observed in glandular and epithelial cells in the breeding period, whereas only in the epithelial cells during the pre-hibernation. Consistently, the protein levels of COX-2 and EP4 were higher in the pre-hibernation as compared to the breeding period, but the diversity of COX-1 was not obvious. In addition, oviductal PGE2 concentration was also significantly higher in the pre-hibernation. These results suggested that prostaglandin-E2 may play an important autocrine or paracrine role in oviductal cell proliferation and differentiation of Rana dybowskii during pre-hibernation. PMID:27246901

  5. Prostaglandin-E2 is a potent inhibitor of human interleukin 12 production

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    During human immunodeficiency virus infection and allergic diseases, characterized by a dominant T helper (Th) 2 response, overproduction of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is observed. In this paper we studied the effect of PGE2 on interleukin (IL)-12 synthesis, because this cytokine has been described to be essential in induction of Th1 responses. IL-12 synthesis was induced in monocytes that were stimulated with Neisseria meningitidis-derived lipopolysaccharide in whole blood cultures. PGE2 almost completely inhibited lipopolysaccharide induced IL-12 production, whereas IL-6 production was only partially inhibited by PGE2. In contrast, the production of IL-10 was approximately twofold enhanced at these conditions. The effects of PGE2 were due to its cAMP- inducing capacity, since they could be mimicked by other cAMP inducers. Recombinant human IL-10 also inhibited IL-12 and IL-6 production. However, the inhibitory effect of PGE2 on IL-12 production was independent of IL-10 since neutralizing anti-IL-10 antibodies were unable to reverse this inhibition. These results suggest that the capacity of an antigen to induce PGE2 synthesis may play a crucial role in the development of either a Th1 or Th2 response. PMID:7836930

  6. Control of e2f1 and PCNA by Drosophila transcription factor DREF.

    PubMed

    Kawamori, Akihito; Shimaji, Kouhei; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu

    2013-11-01

    DREF (DNA replication-related element-binding factor), a zinc finger type transcription factor required for proper cell cycle progression in both mitotic and endocycling cells, is a positive regulator of E2F1, an important transcription factor which regulates genes related to the S-phase of the cell cycle. DREF and E2F1 regulate similar sets of replication-related genes, including proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and play roles in the G1 to S phase transition. However, the relationships between dref and e2f1 or PCNA during development are poorly understood. Here, we provided evidence for novel control of e2f1 and PCNA involving DREF in endocycling cells. Somatic clone analysis demonstrated that dref knockdown stabilized E2F1 expression at posttranscriptional levels in endocycling salivary gland cells. Similarly, PCNA expression was up-regulated in the endocycling salivary gland cells. Genetic interaction analysis indicated that the endoreplication defects are partly caused via possible enhancement of E2F1 activity. From these results and previous reports, we conclude that regulation of e2f1 and PCNA by DREF in vivo is complex and the regulation mechanism may differ with the tissue and/or positions in the tissue.

  7. Mediators of activation of fushi tarazu gene transcription by BmFTZ-F1.

    PubMed Central

    Li, F Q; Ueda, H; Hirose, S

    1994-01-01

    Transcriptional activation by many eukaryotic sequence-specific regulators appears to be mediated through transcription factors which do not directly bind to DNA. BmFTZ-F1 is a silkworm counterpart of FTZ-F1, a sequence-specific activator of the fushi tarazu gene in Drosophila melanogaster. We report here the isolation of 18- and 22-kDa polypeptides termed MBF1 and MBF2, respectively, that form a heterodimer and mediate activation of in vitro transcription from the fushi tarazu promoter by BmFTZ-F1. Neither MBF1, MBF2, nor a combination of them binds to DNA. MBF1 interacts with BmFTZ-F1 and stabilizes the BmFTZ-F1-DNA complex. MBF1 also makes direct contact with TATA-binding protein (TBP). Both MBF1 and MBF2 are necessary to form a complex between BmFTZ-F1 and TBP. We propose a model in which MBF1 and MBF2 form a bridge between BmFTZ-F1 and TBP and mediate transactivation by stabilizing the protein-DNA interactions. Images PMID:8164657

  8. E4F1-mediated control of pyruvate dehydrogenase activity is essential for skin homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Goguet-Rubio, Perrine; Seyran, Berfin; Gayte, Laurie; Bernex, Florence; Sutter, Anne; Delpech, Hélène; Linares, Laetitia Karine; Riscal, Romain; Repond, Cendrine; Rodier, Geneviève; Kirsh, Olivier; Touhami, Jawida; Noel, Jean; Vincent, Charles; Pirot, Nelly; Pavlovic, Guillaume; Herault, Yann; Sitbon, Marc; Pellerin, Luc; Sardet, Claude; Lacroix, Matthieu; Le Cam, Laurent

    2016-09-27

    The multifunctional protein E4 transcription factor 1 (E4F1) is an essential regulator of epidermal stem cell (ESC) maintenance. Here, we found that E4F1 transcriptionally regulates a metabolic program involved in pyruvate metabolism that is required to maintain skin homeostasis. E4F1 deficiency in basal keratinocytes resulted in deregulated expression of dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (Dlat), a gene encoding the E2 subunit of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex. Accordingly, E4f1 knock-out (KO) keratinocytes exhibited impaired PDH activity and a redirection of the glycolytic flux toward lactate production. The metabolic reprogramming of E4f1 KO keratinocytes associated with remodeling of their microenvironment and alterations of the basement membrane, led to ESC mislocalization and exhaustion of the ESC pool. ShRNA-mediated depletion of Dlat in primary keratinocytes recapitulated defects observed upon E4f1 inactivation, including increased lactate secretion, enhanced activity of extracellular matrix remodeling enzymes, and impaired clonogenic potential. Altogether, our data reveal a central role for Dlat in the metabolic program regulated by E4F1 in basal keratinocytes and illustrate the importance of PDH activity in skin homeostasis. PMID:27621431

  9. Biased Brownian stepping rotation of FoF1-ATP synthase driven by proton motive force.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Rikiya; Tabata, Kazuhito V; Iino, Ryota; Ueno, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Masayuki; Oiki, Shigetoshi; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    FoF1-ATP synthase (FoF1) produces most of the ATP in cells, uniquely, by converting the proton motive force (pmf) into ATP production via mechanical rotation of the inner rotor complex. Technical difficulties have hampered direct investigation of pmf-driven rotation, which are crucial to elucidating the chemomechanical coupling mechanism of FoF1. Here we develop a novel supported membrane system for direct observation of the rotation of FoF1 driven by pmf that was formed by photolysis of caged protons. Upon photolysis, FoF1 initiated rotation in the opposite direction to that of the ATP-driven rotation. The step size of pmf-driven rotation was 120°, suggesting that the kinetic bottleneck is a catalytic event on F1 with threefold symmetry. The reaction equilibrium was slightly biased to ATP synthesis like under physiological conditions, and FoF1 showed highly stochastic behaviour, frequently making a 120° backward step. This new experimental system would be applicable to single-molecule study of other membrane proteins.

  10. Mechanistic Basis for Differential Inhibition of the F1Fo-ATPase by Aurovertin

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kathryn M.; Swenson, Lara; Opipari, Anthony W.; Reuter, Rolf; Zarrabi, Nawid; Fierke, Carol A.; Börsch, Michael; Glick, Gary D.

    2009-01-01

    The mitochondrial F1Fo-ATPase performs the terminal step of oxidative phosphorylation. Small molecules that modulate this enzyme have been invaluable in helping decipher F1Fo-ATPase structure, function, and mechanism. Aurovertin is an antibiotic that binds to the β subunits in the F1 domain and inhibits F1Fo-ATPase-catalyzed ATP synthesis in preference to ATP hydrolysis. Despite extensive study and the existence of crystallographic data, the molecular basis of the differential inhibition and kinetic mechanism of inhibition of ATP synthesis by aurovertin has not been resolved. To address these questions, we conducted a series of experiments in both bovine heart mitochondria and E. coli membrane F1Fo-ATPase. Aurovertin is a mixed, noncompetitive inhibitor of both ATP hydrolysis and synthesis with lower Ki values for synthesis. At low substrate concentrations, inhibition is cooperative suggesting a stoichiometry of two aurovertin per F1F0-ATPase. Furthermore, aurovertin does not completely inhibit the ATP hydrolytic activity at saturating concentrations. Single-molecule experiments provide evidence that the residual rate of ATP hydrolysis seen in the presence of saturating concentrations of aurovertin results from a decrease in the binding change mechanism by hindering catalytic site interactions. The results from these studies should further the understanding of how the F1Fo-ATPase catalyzes ATP synthesis and hydrolysis. PMID:19462418

  11. Further investigations on the inorganic phosphate binding site of beef heart mitochondrial F1-ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    Pougeois, R.; Lauquin, G.J.

    1985-02-12

    The possibility that 4-azido-2-nitrophenyl phosphate (ANPP), a photoreactive derivative of inorganic phosphate (P /sub i/ ), could mimic ATP was investigated. ANPP was hydrolyzed in the dark by sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase in the presence of Ca/sup 2 +/ but not in the presence of ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid. ANPP was not hydrolyzed by purified mitochondrial F1-ATPase; however, ADP and ATP protected F1-ATPase against ANPP photoinactivation. On the other hand, the trinitrophenyl nucleotide analogues (TNP-ADP, TNP-ATP, and TNP-AMP-PNP), which bind specifically at the two catalytic sites of F1-ATPase, abolished P /sub i/ binding on F1-ATPase; they do not protect F1-ATPase against ANPP photoinactivation. Furthermore, ANPP-photoinactivated F1-ATPase binds the TNP analogues in the same way as the native enzyme. The Pi binding site of F1-ATPase, which is shown to be photolabeled by ANPP, does not appear to be at the gamma-phosphate position of the catalytic sites.

  12. Function of the nuclear receptor FTZ-F1 during the pupal stage in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Abdel-Rahman S; Oish, Yasuhiro; Ueda, Hitoshi

    2014-04-01

    The nuclear receptor βFTZ-F1 is expressed in most cells in a temporally specific manner, and its expression is induced immediately after decline in ecdysteroid levels. This factor plays important roles during embryogenesis, larval ecdysis, and early metamorphic stages. However, little is known about the expression pattern, regulation and function of this receptor during the pupal stage. We analyzed the expression pattern and regulation of ftz-f1 during the pupal period, as well as the phenotypes of RNAi knockdown or mutant animals, to elucidate its function during this stage. Western blotting revealed that βFTZ-F1 is expressed at a high level during the late pupal stage, and this expression is dependent on decreasing ecdysteroid levels. By immunohistological analysis of the late pupal stage, FTZ-F1 was detected in the nuclei of most cells, but cytoplasmic localization was observed only in the oogonia and follicle cells of the ovary. Both the ftz-f1 genetic mutant and temporally specific ftz-f1 knockdown using RNAi during the pupal stage showed defects in eclosion and in the eye, the antennal segment, the wing and the leg, including bristle color and sclerosis. These results suggest that βFTZ-F1 is expressed in most cells at the late pupal stage, under the control of ecdysteroids and plays important roles during pupal development. PMID:24611773

  13. Genomic and Genetic Variation in E2F1 in Men with Non-Obstructive Azoospermia

    PubMed Central

    Jorgez, Carolina J.; Wilken, Nathan; Addai, Josephine B.; Newberg, Justin; Vangapandu, Hima V.; Pastuszak, Alexander W.; Mukherjee, Sarmistha; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Lipshultz, Larry I.; Lamb, Dolores J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify gene dosage changes associated with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Design Prospective study. Patients 110 men with NOA and 78 fertile controls. Settings Medical School Interventions None Main Outcome Measure The study has four distinct analytic components: aCGH, a molecular karyotype that detects copy-number-variations (CNV), Taqman-CNV assays to validate CNVs, mutation identification by Sanger sequencing and histologic analyses of testicular tissues. Results A microduplication at 20q11.22 encompassing E2F1 was identified in one of eight men with NOA analyzed using aCGH. CNVs were confirmed and an additional 102 men with NOA screened using Taqman CNV assays for a total of 110 NOA men analyzed for CNVs in E2F1. Eight of 110 (7.3%) NOA men had microduplications or microdeletions of E2F1 that were absent in fertile controls. Conclusions E2F1 microduplications or microdeletions are present in NOA men (7.3%). Duplications or deletions of E2F1 occur very rarely in the general population (0.011%), but E2F1 gene dosage changes, previously reported only in cancers, are present in a subset of NOA men. These results recapitulate the infertility phenotype seen in mice lacking or over-expressing E2f1. PMID:25439843

  14. E2F1 mediates sustained lipogenesis and contributes to hepatic steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Denechaud, Pierre-Damien; Lopez-Mejia, Isabel C.; Giralt, Albert; Lai, Qiuwen; Blanchet, Emilie; Delacuisine, Brigitte; Nicolay, Brandon N.; Dyson, Nicholas J.; Bonner, Caroline; Pattou, François; Annicotte, Jean-Sébastien; Fajas, Lluis

    2015-01-01

    E2F transcription factors are known regulators of the cell cycle, proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. Here, we reveal that E2F1 plays an essential role in liver physiopathology through the regulation of glycolysis and lipogenesis. We demonstrate that E2F1 deficiency leads to a decrease in glycolysis and de novo synthesis of fatty acids in hepatocytes. We further demonstrate that E2F1 directly binds to the promoters of key lipogenic genes, including Fasn, but does not bind directly to genes encoding glycolysis pathway components, suggesting an indirect effect. In murine models, E2F1 expression and activity increased in response to feeding and upon insulin stimulation through canonical activation of the CDK4/pRB pathway. Moreover, E2F1 expression was increased in liver biopsies from obese, glucose-intolerant humans compared with biopsies from lean subjects. Finally, E2f1 deletion completely abrogated hepatic steatosis in different murine models of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In conclusion, our data demonstrate that E2F1 regulates lipid synthesis and glycolysis and thus contributes to the development of liver pathology. PMID:26619117

  15. The oligomycin sensitivity conferring protein (OSCP) of beef heart mitochondria: studies of its binding to F1 and its function.

    PubMed

    Hundal, T; Norling, B; Ernster, L

    1984-12-01

    The binding of "oligomycin sensitivity conferring protein" (OSCP) to soluble beef-heart mitochondrial ATPase (F1) has been investigated. OSCP forms a stable complex with F1, and the F1 X OSCP complex is capable of restoring oligomycin- and DCCD-sensitive ATPase activity to F1- and OSCP-depleted submitochondrial particles. The F1 X OSCP complex retains 50% of its ATPase activity upon cold exposure while free F1 is inactivated by 90% or more. Both free F1 and the F1 X OSCP complex release upon cold exposure a part--probably 1 out of 3--of their beta subunits; whether alpha subunits are also lost is uncertain. The cold-treated F1 X OSCP complex is still capable of restoring oligomycin- and DCCD-sensitive ATPase activity to F1- and OSCP-depleted particles. OSCP also protects F1 against modification of its alpha subunit by mild trypsin treatment. This finding together with the earlier demonstration that trypsin-modified F1 cannot bind OSCP indicates that OSCP binds to the alpha subunit of F1 and that F1 contains three binding sites for OSCP. The results are discussed in relation to the possible role of OSCP in the interaction of F1 with the membrane sector of the mitochondrial ATPase system.

  16. Absence of pRb facilitates E2F1-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Baohua; Wingate, Hannah; Swisher, Stephen G; Keyomarsi, Khandan; Hunt, Kelly K

    2010-03-15

    The transcription factor E2F1 is known for its interaction with pRb, controlling cell proliferation; however, E2F1 also has a pivotal role in regulating apoptosis.  The relationship between pRb and E2F1 balances cell proliferation and apoptosis giving pRb tumor suppressive properties. The intricacies of the pRb/E2F1 relationship and thus the regulation of cell fate is cell context dependent. To explore the role of pRb in the E2F1-induced apoptosis of human breast cancer cells, we examined cell growth and apoptosis induction in isogenic cell systems of immortalized breast epithelial cells lacking either pRb (76NE7) or p53 (76NE6). We found that E2F1 caused accumulation of cells in G2 and S phases of the cell cycle along with apoptosis in 76NE7 but not 76NE6 cells.  Variants of 76NE6 cells with functional p53 did not rescue the apoptotic response in these cells, whereas knocking down pRb resulted in significant E2F1-induced apoptosis. We also determined that the effect of E2F1 overexpression in two breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-436 and MDA-MB-468, which lack pRb and functional p53, was accumulation of cells in G2/S phase and apoptosis. However, E2F did not cause apotosis  in MCF-7 cells which harbor a functional pRb. Therefore, we conclude that in the absence of Rb, E2F1 overexpression results in apoptosis, not proliferation, and that this effect is independent of p53.

  17. NMR Characterization and Membrane Interactions of the Loop Region of Kindlin-3 F1 Subdomain

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Geok-Lin; Tan, Suet-Mien; Bhattacharjya, Surajit

    2016-01-01

    Kindlins-1,2 and 3 are FERM domain-containing cytosolic proteins involved in the activation and regulation of integrin-mediated cell adhesion. Apart from binding to integrin β cytosolic tails, kindlins and the well characterized integrin-activator talin bind membrane phospholipids. The ubiquitin-like F1 sub-domain of the FERM domain of talin contains a short loop that binds to the lipid membrane. By contrast, the F1 sub-domain of kindlins contains a long loop demonstrated binding to the membrane. Here, we report structural characterization and lipid interactions of the 83-residue F1 loop of kindlin-3 using NMR and optical spectroscopy methods. NMR studies demonstrated that the F1 loop of kindlin-3 is globally unfolded but stretches of residues assuming transient helical conformations could be detected in aqueous solution. We mapped membrane binding interactions of the F1 loop with small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) containing either zwitterionic lipids or negatively charged lipids using 15N-1H HSQC titrations. These experiments revealed that the F1 loop of kindlin-3 preferentially interacted with the negatively charged SUVs employing almost all of the residues. By contrast, only fewer residues appeared to be interacted with SUVs containing neutral lipids. Further, CD and NMR data suggested stabilization of helical conformations and predominant resonance perturbations of the F1 loop in detergent containing solutions. Conformations of an isolated N-terminal peptide fragment, or EK21, of the F1 loop, containing a poly-Lys sequence motif, important for membrane interactions, were also investigated in detergent solutions. EK21 adopted a rather extended or β-type conformations in complex with negatively charged SDS micelles. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the conformations and residue-specific interactions of kindlin F1 loop with lipids. These data therefore provide important insights into the interactions of kindlin FERM domain with membrane

  18. NMR Characterization and Membrane Interactions of the Loop Region of Kindlin-3 F1 Subdomain.

    PubMed

    Chua, Geok-Lin; Tan, Suet-Mien; Bhattacharjya, Surajit

    2016-01-01

    Kindlins-1,2 and 3 are FERM domain-containing cytosolic proteins involved in the activation and regulation of integrin-mediated cell adhesion. Apart from binding to integrin β cytosolic tails, kindlins and the well characterized integrin-activator talin bind membrane phospholipids. The ubiquitin-like F1 sub-domain of the FERM domain of talin contains a short loop that binds to the lipid membrane. By contrast, the F1 sub-domain of kindlins contains a long loop demonstrated binding to the membrane. Here, we report structural characterization and lipid interactions of the 83-residue F1 loop of kindlin-3 using NMR and optical spectroscopy methods. NMR studies demonstrated that the F1 loop of kindlin-3 is globally unfolded but stretches of residues assuming transient helical conformations could be detected in aqueous solution. We mapped membrane binding interactions of the F1 loop with small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) containing either zwitterionic lipids or negatively charged lipids using 15N-1H HSQC titrations. These experiments revealed that the F1 loop of kindlin-3 preferentially interacted with the negatively charged SUVs employing almost all of the residues. By contrast, only fewer residues appeared to be interacted with SUVs containing neutral lipids. Further, CD and NMR data suggested stabilization of helical conformations and predominant resonance perturbations of the F1 loop in detergent containing solutions. Conformations of an isolated N-terminal peptide fragment, or EK21, of the F1 loop, containing a poly-Lys sequence motif, important for membrane interactions, were also investigated in detergent solutions. EK21 adopted a rather extended or β-type conformations in complex with negatively charged SDS micelles. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the conformations and residue-specific interactions of kindlin F1 loop with lipids. These data therefore provide important insights into the interactions of kindlin FERM domain with membrane

  19. 17 CFR 270.18f-1 - Exemption from certain requirements of section 18(f)(1) (of the Act) for registered open-end...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements of section 18(f)(1) (of the Act) for registered open-end investment companies which have the right... which have the right to redeem in kind. (a) A registered open-end investment company which has the right... to pay in cash all requests for redemption by any shareholder of record, limited in amount...

  20. Disruption of RB/E2F-1 interaction by single point mutations in E2F-1 enhances S-phase entry and apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Shan, B; Durfee, T; Lee, W H

    1996-01-01

    The retinoblastoma protein (RB) has been proposed to function as a negative regulator of cell proliferation by complexing with cellular proteins such as the transcription factor E2F. To study the biological consequences of the RB/E2F-1 interaction, point mutants of E2F-1 which fail to bind to RB were isolated by using the yeast two-hybrid system. Sequence analysis revealed that within the minimal 18-amino acid peptide of E2F-1 required for RB binding, five residues, Tyr (position 411), Glu (419), and Asp-Leu-Phe (423-425), are critical. These amino acids are conserved among the known E2F family members. While mutation of any of these five amino acids abolished binding to RB, all mutants retained their full transactivation potential. Expression of mutated E2F-1, when compared with that of wild-type, significantly accelerated entry into S phase and subsequent apoptosis. These results provide direct genetic evidence for the biological significance of the RB/E2F interaction and strongly suggest that the interplay between RB and E2F is critical for proper cell cycle progression. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8570615

  1. Plant mitochondrial F1-ATPase. The presence of oligomycin-sensitivity-conferring protein (OSCP).

    PubMed

    Horak, A; Horak, H; Dunbar, B; Fothergill, J E; Wilson, S B

    1989-10-01

    Purified pea (Pisum sativum) cotyledon F1-ATPase contains six subunits rather than the five usually reported for F1-ATPases. The additional 26.5 kDa (delta) subunit is shown by immunoblotting and N-terminal amino acid sequencing to be similar to bovine oligomycin-sensitivity-conferring protein (OSCP). It is concluded that the delta subunit of plant mitochondrial F1-ATPase is the plant OSCP. This OSCP subunit occurs in all mono- and di-cotyledonous species of plants tested (maize, oats, peas, potatoes, sweet potatoes and turnips).

  2. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1) and the 100-F-26:8 (1607-F1) Sanitary Sewer Pipelines Waste Sites, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-130

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-03-14

    The 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1), consisted of a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipelines that received sanitary waste water from the 1701-F Gatehouse, 1709-F Fire Station, and the 1720-F Administrative Office via the 100-F-26:8 pipelines. The septic tank required remedial action based on confirmatory sampling. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  3. Characterization of an F1 deletion mutant of Yersinia pestis CO92, pathogenic role of F1 antigen in bubonic and pneumonic plague, and evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of F1 antigen capture-based dipsticks.

    PubMed

    Sha, Jian; Endsley, Janice J; Kirtley, Michelle L; Foltz, Sheri M; Huante, Matthew B; Erova, Tatiana E; Kozlova, Elena V; Popov, Vsevolod L; Yeager, Linsey A; Zudina, Irina V; Motin, Vladimir L; Peterson, Johnny W; DeBord, Kristin L; Chopra, Ashok K

    2011-05-01

    We evaluated two commercial F1 antigen capture-based immunochromatographic dipsticks, Yersinia Pestis (F1) Smart II and Plague BioThreat Alert test strips, in detecting plague bacilli by using whole-blood samples from mice experimentally infected with Yersinia pestis CO92. To assess the specificities of these dipsticks, an in-frame F1-deficient mutant of CO92 (Δcaf) was generated by homologous recombination and used as a negative control. Based on genetic, antigenic/immunologic, and electron microscopic analyses, the Δcaf mutant was devoid of a capsule. The growth rate of the Δcaf mutant generally was similar to that of the wild-type (WT) bacterium at both 26 and 37 °C, although the mutant's growth dropped slightly during the late phase at 37 °C. The Δcaf mutant was as virulent as WT CO92 in the pneumonic plague mouse model; however, it was attenuated in developing bubonic plague. Both dipsticks had similar sensitivities, requiring a minimum of 0.5 μg/ml of purified F1 antigen or 1 × 10(5) to 5 × 10(5) CFU/ml of WT CO92 for positive results, while the blood samples were negative for up to 1 × 10(8) CFU/ml of the Δcaf mutant. Our studies demonstrated the diagnostic potential of two plague dipsticks in detecting capsular-positive strains of Y. pestis in bubonic and pneumonic plague.

  4. ATP hydrolysis assists phosphate release and promotes reaction ordering in F1-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Biu; Ueno, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Rikiya; Noji, Hiroyuki; Komatsuzaki, Tamiki

    2015-01-01

    F1-ATPase (F1) is a rotary motor protein that can efficiently convert chemical energy to mechanical work of rotation via fine coordination of its conformational motions and reaction sequences. Compared with reactant binding and product release, the ATP hydrolysis has relatively little contributions to the torque and chemical energy generation. To scrutinize possible roles of ATP hydrolysis, we investigate the detailed statistics of the catalytic dwells from high-speed single wild-type F1 observations. Here we report a small rotation during the catalytic dwell triggered by the ATP hydrolysis that is indiscernible in previous studies. Moreover, we find in freely rotating F1 that ATP hydrolysis is followed by the release of inorganic phosphate with low synthesis rates. Finally, we propose functional roles of the ATP hydrolysis as a key to kinetically unlock the subsequent phosphate release and promote the correct reaction ordering.

  5. Recovered Apollo-Era Saturn V F-1 Engines Arrive at Cape Canaveral

    NASA Video Gallery

    Two F-1 engines that powered the first stage of the Saturn V rockets that lifted NASA’s Apollo missions to the moon were recovered from the Atlantic Ocean March 20, 2013 by Jeff Bezos, the founde...

  6. ATP hydrolysis assists phosphate release and promotes reaction ordering in F1-ATPase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chun-Biu; Ueno, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Rikiya; Noji, Hiroyuki; Komatsuzaki, Tamiki

    2015-12-01

    F1-ATPase (F1) is a rotary motor protein that can efficiently convert chemical energy to mechanical work of rotation via fine coordination of its conformational motions and reaction sequences. Compared with reactant binding and product release, the ATP hydrolysis has relatively little contributions to the torque and chemical energy generation. To scrutinize possible roles of ATP hydrolysis, we investigate the detailed statistics of the catalytic dwells from high-speed single wild-type F1 observations. Here we report a small rotation during the catalytic dwell triggered by the ATP hydrolysis that is indiscernible in previous studies. Moreover, we find in freely rotating F1 that ATP hydrolysis is followed by the release of inorganic phosphate with low synthesis rates. Finally, we propose functional roles of the ATP hydrolysis as a key to kinetically unlock the subsequent phosphate release and promote the correct reaction ordering.

  7. ATP hydrolysis assists phosphate release and promotes reaction ordering in F1-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun-Biu; Ueno, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Rikiya; Noji, Hiroyuki; Komatsuzaki, Tamiki

    2015-01-01

    F1-ATPase (F1) is a rotary motor protein that can efficiently convert chemical energy to mechanical work of rotation via fine coordination of its conformational motions and reaction sequences. Compared with reactant binding and product release, the ATP hydrolysis has relatively little contributions to the torque and chemical energy generation. To scrutinize possible roles of ATP hydrolysis, we investigate the detailed statistics of the catalytic dwells from high-speed single wild-type F1 observations. Here we report a small rotation during the catalytic dwell triggered by the ATP hydrolysis that is indiscernible in previous studies. Moreover, we find in freely rotating F1 that ATP hydrolysis is followed by the release of inorganic phosphate with low synthesis rates. Finally, we propose functional roles of the ATP hydrolysis as a key to kinetically unlock the subsequent phosphate release and promote the correct reaction ordering. PMID:26678797

  8. 22. STATIC TEST TOWER VIEW OF TEST CELLS AND F1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. STATIC TEST TOWER VIEW OF TEST CELLS AND F-1 TEST LOCK DOWN FOR ENGINE. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  9. 24. CLOSEUP OF MOUNT FOR F1 ENGINE ON STATIC TEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. CLOSE-UP OF MOUNT FOR F-1 ENGINE ON STATIC TEST TOWER WITH STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS TEST STAND IN DISTANCE. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  10. Operation mechanism of rotary molecular motor F1 probed by single-molecule techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iino, Ryota

    2013-03-01

    F1 is a rotary motor protein. Three catalytic β - subunitsinthestator 33ring are torque generators, and rotate the rotor γ-subunit by sequential and cooperative conformational changes coupled with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis reaction. F1 shows remarkable performances such as rotation rate faster than 10,000 rpm, high reversibility and efficiency in chemo-mechanical energy conversion. I will introduce basic characteristics of F1 revealed by single-molecule imaging and manipulation techniques based on optical microscopy and high-speed atomic force microscopy. I will also discuss the possible operation mechanism behind the F1, along with structurally-related hexameric ATPases, also mentioning the possibility of generating hybrid molecular motors.

  11. [Possible significance of prostaglandins in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, E; Bruch, H P; Walter, K

    1977-04-01

    Prostaglandins (E1, E2, F2alpha) produce and intensify peristaltic contractions in the healthy human intestinal muscle system according to dosage (threshold I-10(-4) microng/ml--maximum effective concentration 1 microng/ml). By subsequent introduction of adrenaline, the intestinal muscle system activated by prostaglandines can be completely relaxed again. Intestinal muscles from patients with Crohn's disease show a marked deviation from this behaviour: 1. The intestinal muscle system is extremely sensitive to prostagladins: maximum concentrations are already reached by about a thousand times smaller concentration than in the intestines. 2. The dose of adrenaline does not lead to dialtion, which is usual, but to contraction of the muscle system. These changes in the contractility of the intestine can explain some components of the clinical symptomatology of Crohn's disease.

  12. Monoclonal Antibodies to the [alpha]- and [beta]-Subunits of the Plant Mitochondrial F1-ATPase.

    PubMed Central

    Luethy, M. H.; Horak, A.; Elthon, T. E.

    1993-01-01

    We have generated nine monoclonal antibodies against subunits of the maize (Zea mays L.) mitochondrial F1-ATPase. These monoclonal antibodies were generated by immunizing mice against maize mitochondrial fractions and randomly collecting useful hybridomas. To prove that these monoclonal antibodies were directed against ATPase subunits, we tested their cross-reactivity with purified F1-ATPase from pea cotyledon mitochondria. One of the antibodies ([alpha]-ATPaseD) cross-reacted with the pea F1-ATPase [alpha]-subunit and two ([beta]-ATPaseD and [beta]-ATPaseE) cross-reacted with the pea F1-ATPase [beta]-subunit. This established that, of the nine antibodies, four react with the maize [alpha]-ATPase subunit and the other five react with the maize [beta]-ATPase subunit. Most of the monoclonal antibodies cross-react with the F1-ATPase from a wide range of plant species. Each of the four monoclonal antibodies raised against the [alpha]-subunit recognizes a different epitope. Of the five [beta]-subunit antibodies, at least three different epitopes are recognized. Direct incubation of the monoclonal antibodies with the F1-ATPase failed to inhibit the ATPase activity. The monoclonal antibodies [alpha]-ATPaseD and [beta]-ATPaseD were bound to epoxide-glass QuantAffinity beads and incubated with a purified preparation of pea F1-ATPase. The ATPase activity was not inhibited when the antibodies bound the ATPase. The antibodies were used to help map the pea F1-ATPase subunits on a two-dimensional map of whole pea cotyledon mitochondrial protein. In addition, the antibodies have revealed antigenic similarities between various isoforms observed for the [alpha]- and [beta]-subunits of the purified F1-ATPase. The specificity of these monoclonal antibodies, along with their cross-species recognition and their ability to bind the F1-ATPase without inhibiting enzymic function, makes these antibodies useful and invaluable tools for the further purification and characterization of plant

  13. The mitochondrial F1ATPase alpha-subunit is necessary for efficient import of mitochondrial precursors.

    PubMed

    Yuan, H; Douglas, M G

    1992-07-25

    The mitochondrial import and assembly of the F1ATPase subunits requires, respectively, the participation of the molecular chaperones hsp70SSA1 and hsp70SSC1 and other components operating on opposite sides of the mitochondrial membrane. In previous studies, both the homology and the assembly properties of the F1ATPase alpha-subunit (ATP1p) compared to the groEL homologue, hsp60, have led to the proposal that this subunit could exhibit chaperone-like activity. In this report the extent to which this subunit participates in protein transport has been determined by comparing import into mitochondria that lack the F1ATPase alpha-subunit (delta ATP1) versus mitochondria that lack the other major catalytic subunit, the F1ATPase beta-subunit (delta ATP2). Yeast mutants lacking the alpha-subunit but not the beta-subunit grow much more slowly than expected on fermentable carbon sources and exhibit delayed kinetics of protein import for several mitochondrial precursors such as the F1 beta subunit, hsp60MIF4 and subunits 4 and 5 of the cytochrome oxidase. In vitro and in vivo the F1 beta-subunit precursor accumulates as a translocation intermediate in absence of the F1 alpha-subunit. In the absence of both the ATPase subunits yeast grows at the same rate as a strain lacking only the beta-subunit, and import of mitochondrial precursors is restored to that of wild type. These data indicate that the F1 alpha-subunit likely functions as an "assembly partner" to influence protein import rather than functioning directly as a chaperone. These data are discussed in light of the relationship between the import and assembly of proteins in mitochondria.

  14. S Phase–Coupled E2f1 Destruction Ensures Homeostasis in Proliferating Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Jean M.; Duronio, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Precise control of cell cycle regulators is critical for normal development and tissue homeostasis. E2F transcription factors are activated during G1 to drive the G1-S transition and are then inhibited during S phase by a variety of mechanisms. Here, we genetically manipulate the single Drosophila activator E2F (E2f1) to explore the developmental requirement for S phase–coupled E2F down-regulation. Expression of an E2f1 mutant that is not destroyed during S phase drives cell cycle progression and causes apoptosis. Interestingly, this apoptosis is not exclusively the result of inappropriate cell cycle progression, because a stable E2f1 mutant that cannot function as a transcription factor or drive cell cycle progression also triggers apoptosis. This observation suggests that the inappropriate presence of E2f1 protein during S phase can trigger apoptosis by mechanisms that are independent of E2F acting directly at target genes. The ability of S phase-stabilized E2f1 to trigger apoptosis requires an interaction between E2f1 and the Drosophila pRb homolog, Rbf1, and involves induction of the pro-apoptotic gene, hid. Simultaneously blocking E2f1 destruction during S phase and inhibiting the induction of apoptosis results in tissue overgrowth and lethality. We propose that inappropriate accumulation of E2f1 protein during S phase triggers the elimination of potentially hyperplastic cells via apoptosis in order to ensure normal development of rapidly proliferating tissues. PMID:22916021

  15. Maternal Vitamin D Deficiency Delays Glomerular Maturity in F1 and F2 Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Fernanda A. M.; Ceciliano, Thais C.; Aguila, Marcia B.; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos A.

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in women of reproductive age. Methods This work studied the first two generations of offspring (F1 and F2) of Swiss mice from mothers fed one of two diets: SC (standard chow) or VitD- (vitamin D-deficient). Functional and developmental kidney measurements were taken. Results The first two generations of the VitD- group had higher blood pressure at 6 months of age than the offspring of the SC group as well as an increase in renin and AT1r expression. However, at all ages, both F1 and F2 VitD- mice had shorter glomerular diameters, and diet played a significant role in the total variation. Both the F1 and F2 generations of the VitD- group had more immature glomeruli than offspring from the SC group. Immature glomeruli begin to disappear at 10 days, but at this age, F1-VitD- mice had more immature and mature glomeruli than F1-SC mice. At 6 months of age, F1-VitD- mice exhibited more glomeruli, while F2-VitD- mice exhibited the same number of glomeruli as F2-SC mice, but fewer glomeruli compared to the F1-VitD group. Both diet and generation account for the total variation in the number of glomeruli. Decreases in urine output and podocin expression and increases in urea and creatinine in the urine were observed in F1 offspring. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that maternal vitamin D deficiency accompanies changes in the renal expression of important factors that may retard the maturation of glomeruli by extending the period of nephrogenesis. PMID:22927914

  16. Complete genome sequence of Staphylothermus marinus Stetter and Fiala 1986 type strain F1

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iain; Sun, Hui; Lapidus, Alla L.; Copeland, A; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Tice, Hope; Dalin, Eileen; Lucas, Susan; Barry, Kerrie; Land, Miriam L; Richardson, P M; Huber, Harald; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2009-01-01

    Staphylothermus marinus Fiala and Stetter 1986 belongs to the order Desulfurococcales within the archaeal phylum Crenarchaeota. S. marinus is a hyperthermophilic, sulfur-dependent, anaerobic heterotroph. Strain F1 was isolated from geothermally heated sediments at Vulcano, Italy, but S. marinus has also been isolated from a hydrothermal vent on the East Pacific Rise. We report the complete genome of S. marinus strain F1, the type strain of the species. This is the fifth reported complete genome sequence from the order Desulfurococcales.

  17. 26 CFR 31.3402(f)(1)-1 - Withholding exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Withholding exemptions. 31.3402(f)(1)-1 Section 31.3402(f)(1)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source §...

  18. 26 CFR 31.3121(f)-1 - American vessel and aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false American vessel and aircraft. 31.3121(f)-1... § 31.3121(f)-1 American vessel and aircraft. (a) The term “American vessel” means any vessel which is...”, see § 31.3121 (e)-1.) (b) The term “American aircraft” means any aircraft registered under the laws...

  19. 26 CFR 31.3121(f)-1 - American vessel and aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false American vessel and aircraft. 31.3121(f)-1... § 31.3121(f)-1 American vessel and aircraft. (a) The term “American vessel” means any vessel which is...”, see § 31.3121 (e)-1.) (b) The term “American aircraft” means any aircraft registered under the laws...

  20. 26 CFR 31.3121(f)-1 - American vessel and aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false American vessel and aircraft. 31.3121(f)-1... § 31.3121(f)-1 American vessel and aircraft. (a) The term “American vessel” means any vessel which is...”, see § 31.3121 (e)-1.) (b) The term “American aircraft” means any aircraft registered under the laws...

  1. 26 CFR 31.3121(f)-1 - American vessel and aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false American vessel and aircraft. 31.3121(f)-1... § 31.3121(f)-1 American vessel and aircraft. (a) The term “American vessel” means any vessel which is...”, see § 31.3121 (e)-1.) (b) The term “American aircraft” means any aircraft registered under the laws...

  2. 26 CFR 31.3121(f)-1 - American vessel and aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false American vessel and aircraft. 31.3121(f)-1... § 31.3121(f)-1 American vessel and aircraft. (a) The term “American vessel” means any vessel which is...”, see § 31.3121 (e)-1.) (b) The term “American aircraft” means any aircraft registered under the laws...

  3. [Effect of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors of diabetic cystoid macular edema].

    PubMed

    Kieselbach, G; Juen, S

    1990-01-01

    In most cases, diabetic macular edema is treated successfully with central laser photocoagulation. However, only few studies report such favorable results in cystoid macular edema, which has a poor visual prognosis. In the present prospective study on diabetics with cystoid macular edema, aged less than 40 years, a better visual outcome was obtained in patients treated with prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors than in an untreated group. PMID:2345629

  4. Citrullination-acetylation interplay guides E2F-1 activity during the inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Ghari, Fatemeh; Quirke, Anne-Marie; Munro, Shonagh; Kawalkowska, Joanna; Picaud, Sarah; McGouran, Joanna; Subramanian, Venkataraman; Muth, Aaron; Williams, Richard; Kessler, Benedikt; Thompson, Paul R; Fillipakopoulos, Panagis; Knapp, Stefan; Venables, Patrick J; La Thangue, Nicholas B

    2016-02-01

    Peptidyl arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) is a nuclear enzyme that converts arginine residues to citrulline. Although increasingly implicated in inflammatory disease and cancer, the mechanism of action of PAD4 and its functionally relevant pathways remains unclear. E2F transcription factors are a family of master regulators that coordinate gene expression during cellular proliferation and diverse cell fates. We show that E2F-1 is citrullinated by PAD4 in inflammatory cells. Citrullination of E2F-1 assists its chromatin association, specifically to cytokine genes in granulocyte cells. Mechanistically, citrullination augments binding of the BET (bromodomain and extra-terminal domain) family bromodomain reader BRD4 (bromodomain-containing protein 4) to an acetylated domain in E2F-1, and PAD4 and BRD4 coexist with E2F-1 on cytokine gene promoters. Accordingly, the combined inhibition of PAD4 and BRD4 disrupts the chromatin-bound complex and suppresses cytokine gene expression. In the murine collagen-induced arthritis model, chromatin-bound E2F-1 in inflammatory cells and consequent cytokine expression are diminished upon small-molecule inhibition of PAD4 and BRD4, and the combined treatment is clinically efficacious in preventing disease progression. Our results shed light on a new transcription-based mechanism that mediates the inflammatory effect of PAD4 and establish the interplay between citrullination and acetylation in the control of E2F-1 as a regulatory interface for driving inflammatory gene expression. PMID:26989780

  5. Redox Regulation of Rotation of the Cyanobacterial F1-ATPase Containing Thiol Regulation Switch*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yusung; Konno, Hiroki; Sugano, Yasushi; Hisabori, Toru

    2011-01-01

    F1-ATP synthase (F1-ATPase) is equipped with a special mechanism that prevents the wasteful reverse reaction, ATP hydrolysis, when there is insufficient proton motive force to drive ATP synthesis. Chloroplast F1-ATPase is subject to redox regulation, whereby ATP hydrolysis activity is regulated by formation and reduction of the disulfide bond located on the γ subunit. To understand the molecular mechanism of this redox regulation, we constructed a chimeric F1 complex (α3β3γredox) using cyanobacterial F1, which mimics the regulatory properties of the chloroplast F1-ATPase, allowing the study of its regulation at the single molecule level. The redox state of the γ subunit did not affect the ATP binding rate to the catalytic site(s) and the torque for rotation. However, the long pauses caused by ADP inhibition were frequently observed in the oxidized state. In addition, the duration of continuous rotation was relatively shorter in the oxidized α3β3γredox complex. These findings lead us to conclude that redox regulation of CF1-ATPase is achieved by controlling the probability of ADP inhibition via the γ subunit inserted region, a sequence feature observed in both cyanobacterial and chloroplast ATPase γ subunits, which is important for ADP inhibition (Sunamura, E., Konno, H., Imashimizu-Kobayashi, M., Sugano, Y., and Hisabori, T. (2010) Plant Cell Physiol. 51, 855–865). PMID:21193405

  6. Target genes regulated by transcription factor E2F1 in small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Zun-Ling; Jiao, Fei; Ma, Ying; Yue, Zhen; Kong, Li-Jun

    2016-06-25

    Previously, we have reported that transcription factor E2F1 expression is up-regulated in approximately 95% of small cell lung cancer tissue samples and closely associated with invasion and metastasis, but few studies have investigated specific target genes regulated by E2F1 in this disease. The aim of this study was to clarify the target genes controlled by E2F1 in the small cell lung cancer cell line H1688. The results of chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) showed that total 5 326 potential target genes were identified, in which 4 700 were structural genes and 626 long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Gene Ontology (GO) and enrichment map analysis results indicated that these target genes were associated with three main functions: (1) cell cycle regulation, (2) chromatin and histone modification, and (3) protein transport. MEME4.7.0 software was used to identify the E2F1 binding DNA motif, and six motifs were discovered for coding genes and lncRNAs. These results clarify the target genes of E2F1, and provide the experimental basis for further exploring the roles of E2F1 in tumorigenesis, development, invasion and metastasis, recurrence, and drug resistance in small cell lung cancer.

  7. Transcriptional regulation of human RANK ligand gene expression by E2F1

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Yan; Sun Meng; Nadiminty, Nagalakshmi; Lou Wei; Pinder, Elaine; Gao, Allen C.

    2008-06-06

    Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) is a critical osteoclastogenic factor involved in the regulation of bone resorption, immune function, the development of mammary gland and cardiovascular system. To understand the transcriptional regulation of RANKL, we amplified and characterized a 1890 bp 5'-flanking sequence of human RANKL gene (-1782 bp to +108 bp relative to the transcription start site). Using a series of deletion mutations of the 1890 bp RANKL promoter, we identified a 72 bp region (-172 to -100 bp) mediating RANKL basal transcriptional activity. Sequence analysis revealed a putative E2F binding site within this 72 bp region in the human RANKL promoter. Overexpression of E2F1 increased RANKL promoter activity, while down-regulation of E2F1 expression by small interfering RNA decreased RANKL promoter activity. RT-PCR and enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) further demonstrated that E2F1 induced the expression of RANKL. Electrophoretic gel mobility shift assays (EMSA) and antibody competition assays confirmed that E2F1 proteins bind to the consensus E2F binding site in the RANKL promoter. Mutation of the E2F consensus binding site in the RANKL promoter profoundly reduced the basal promoter activity and abolished the transcriptional modulation of RANKL by E2F1. These results suggest that E2F1 plays an important role in regulating RANKL transcription through binding to the E2F consensus binding site.

  8. Citrullination-acetylation interplay guides E2F-1 activity during the inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Ghari, Fatemeh; Quirke, Anne-Marie; Munro, Shonagh; Kawalkowska, Joanna; Picaud, Sarah; McGouran, Joanna; Subramanian, Venkataraman; Muth, Aaron; Williams, Richard; Kessler, Benedikt; Thompson, Paul R.; Fillipakopoulos, Panagis; Knapp, Stefan; Venables, Patrick J.; La Thangue, Nicholas B.

    2016-01-01

    Peptidyl arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) is a nuclear enzyme that converts arginine residues to citrulline. Although increasingly implicated in inflammatory disease and cancer, the mechanism of action of PAD4 and its functionally relevant pathways remains unclear. E2F transcription factors are a family of master regulators that coordinate gene expression during cellular proliferation and diverse cell fates. We show that E2F-1 is citrullinated by PAD4 in inflammatory cells. Citrullination of E2F-1 assists its chromatin association, specifically to cytokine genes in granulocyte cells. Mechanistically, citrullination augments binding of the BET (bromodomain and extra-terminal domain) family bromodomain reader BRD4 (bromodomain-containing protein 4) to an acetylated domain in E2F-1, and PAD4 and BRD4 coexist with E2F-1 on cytokine gene promoters. Accordingly, the combined inhibition of PAD4 and BRD4 disrupts the chromatin-bound complex and suppresses cytokine gene expression. In the murine collagen-induced arthritis model, chromatin-bound E2F-1 in inflammatory cells and consequent cytokine expression are diminished upon small-molecule inhibition of PAD4 and BRD4, and the combined treatment is clinically efficacious in preventing disease progression. Our results shed light on a new transcription-based mechanism that mediates the inflammatory effect of PAD4 and establish the interplay between citrullination and acetylation in the control of E2F-1 as a regulatory interface for driving inflammatory gene expression. PMID:26989780

  9. Transcriptional regulation of BMCC1 mediated by E2F1 in neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad Sazzadul; Tatsumi, Yasutoshi; Takano, Ryo; Yokochi, Tomoki; Akter, Jesmin; Ozaki, Toshinori; Nakamura, Yohko; Ohira, Miki; Nakagawara, Akira

    2016-09-01

    BCH motif-containing molecule at the carboxyl terminal region 1 (BMCC1)/PRUNE2 is highly expressed in patients with favorable neuroblastoma (NB), encoding a multifunctional scaffold protein that modulates several signaling networks including RhoA and AKT pathways. Accumulating evidence suggests that BMCC1 acts as a tumor-suppressor. In this study, we addressed molecular mechanism underlying transcriptional regulation of BMCC1 in NBs. We found that transcription factor E2F1 was recruited to E2F-binding site in the promoter region of BMCC1 gene. Indeed, overexpression of E2F1 resulted in an increase in the expression level of BMCC1 in NB cell lines. On the other hand, knockdown of E2F1 in NB cells yielded down-regulation of BMCC1. Also, we showed that BMCC1 and E2F1 were simultaneously induced at G1 to S phase transition. Therefore, we conclude that E2F1 directly facilitated BMCC1 transcription. Taking together, these results suggest that BMCC1 induced by E2F1 acts as a tumor suppressor through its pro-apoptotic function, resulted in favorable prognosis of NB.

  10. Transcriptional regulation of BMCC1 mediated by E2F1 in neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad Sazzadul; Tatsumi, Yasutoshi; Takano, Ryo; Yokochi, Tomoki; Akter, Jesmin; Ozaki, Toshinori; Nakamura, Yohko; Ohira, Miki; Nakagawara, Akira

    2016-09-01

    BCH motif-containing molecule at the carboxyl terminal region 1 (BMCC1)/PRUNE2 is highly expressed in patients with favorable neuroblastoma (NB), encoding a multifunctional scaffold protein that modulates several signaling networks including RhoA and AKT pathways. Accumulating evidence suggests that BMCC1 acts as a tumor-suppressor. In this study, we addressed molecular mechanism underlying transcriptional regulation of BMCC1 in NBs. We found that transcription factor E2F1 was recruited to E2F-binding site in the promoter region of BMCC1 gene. Indeed, overexpression of E2F1 resulted in an increase in the expression level of BMCC1 in NB cell lines. On the other hand, knockdown of E2F1 in NB cells yielded down-regulation of BMCC1. Also, we showed that BMCC1 and E2F1 were simultaneously induced at G1 to S phase transition. Therefore, we conclude that E2F1 directly facilitated BMCC1 transcription. Taking together, these results suggest that BMCC1 induced by E2F1 acts as a tumor suppressor through its pro-apoptotic function, resulted in favorable prognosis of NB. PMID:27453342

  11. The missing link between thermodynamics and structure in F1-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Yang, W.; Gao, Y. Q.; Cui, Q.; Ma, J.; Karplus, M.

    2003-01-01

    F1Fo-ATP synthase is the enzyme responsible for most of the ATP synthesis in living systems. The catalytic domain F1 of the F1Fo complex, F1-ATPase, has the ability to hydrolyze ATP. A fundamental problem in the development of a detailed mechanism for this enzyme is that it has not been possible to determine experimentally the relation between the ligand binding affinities measured in solution and the different conformations of the catalytic β subunits (βTP, βDP, βE) observed in the crystal structures of the mitochondrial enzyme, MF1. Using free energy difference simulations for the hydrolysis reaction ATP+H2O → ADP+Pi in the βTP and βDP sites and unisite hydrolysis data, we are able to identify βTP as the “tight” (KD = 10−12 M, MF1) binding site for ATP and βDP as the “loose” site. An energy decomposition analysis demonstrates how certain residues, some of which have been shown to be important in catalysis, modulate the free energy of the hydrolysis reaction in the βTP and βDP sites, even though their structures are very similar. Combined with the recently published simulations of the rotation cycle of F1-ATPase, the present results make possible a consistent description of the binding change mechanism of F1-ATPase at an atomic level of detail. PMID:12552084

  12. NR2F1 controls tumor cell dormancy via SOX9 and RARβ driven quiescence programs

    PubMed Central

    Sosa, Maria Soledad; Parikh, Falguni; Maia, Alexandre Gaspar; Estrada, Yeriel; Bosch, Almudena; Bragado, Paloma; Ekpin, Esther; George, Ajish; Zheng, Yang; Lam, Hung-Ming; Morrissey, Colm; Chung, Chi-Yeh; Farias, Eduardo F.; Bernstein, Emily; Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio A.

    2014-01-01

    Metastases can originate from disseminated tumor cells (DTCs), which may be dormant for years before reactivation. Here we find that the orphan nuclear receptor NR2F1 is epigenetically upregulated in experimental HNSCC dormancy models and in DTCs from prostate cancer patients carrying dormant disease for 7–18 years. NR2F1-dependent dormancy is recapitulated by a co-treatment with the DNA demethylating agent 5-Aza-C and retinoic acid across various cancer types. NR2F1-induced quiescence is dependent on SOX9, RARβ and CDK inhibitors. Intriguingly, NR2F1 induces global chromatin repression and the pluripotency gene NANOG, which contributes to dormancy of DTCs in the bone marrow. When NR2F1 is blocked in vivo, growth arrest or survival of dormant DTCs is interrupted in different organs. We conclude that NR2F1 is a critical node in dormancy induction and maintenance by integrating epigenetic programs of quiescence and survival in DTCs. PMID:25636082

  13. Effects of nonhypotensive endotoxemia in conscious rats: Role of prostaglandins

    SciTech Connect

    Burnier, M.; Waeber, B.; Aubert, J.F.; Nussberger, J.; Brunner, H.R. )

    1988-03-01

    A nonhypotensive dose of endotoxin was administered to normal conscious rats to evaluate the vascular and humoral effects of endotoxemia per se. Mean blood pressure and heart rate remained stable during the 45 min infusion of Escherichia coli endotoxin. However, a marked increase in plasma renin activity plasma epinephrine and plasma norepinephrine was observed during infusion in endotoxin-treated rats when compared with the vehicle-treated animals. In addition, the blood pressure response to exogenous norepinephrine was significantly reduced during nonhypotensive endotoxemia. Significant changes in regional blood flow distribution, as assessed by radiolabeled microspheres, were observed in endotoxemic rats; in particular a decrease in renal blood flow, and an increase in coronary blood flow were found. The role of prostaglandins in the vascular and humoral alterations induced by nonhypotensive endotoxemia was also examined. Pretreatment with indomethacin (5 mg) prevent the increase in plasma renin activity as well as plasma catecholamine levels. On the contrary, the decreased vascular reactivity and the reduction in renal blood flow observed during endotoxemia were not affected by prostaglandin synthesis inhibition. Thus significant vascular and humoral changes have been found during endotoxemia even in absence of hypotension. The humoral but not the vascular effects of endotoxemia were abolished when prostaglandin synthesis was inhibited.

  14. Evaluation of the role of prostaglandins E and F in acalculous gallbladder disease

    SciTech Connect

    Deshpande, Y.G.; Kaminski, D.L.; Thomas, L.

    1986-03-01

    Prostaglandins have been shown to play a role in gallbladder disease. This study was performed to evaluate prostaglandin E and F production by human gallbladder mucosal cells and muscle tissue from patients undergoing cholecystectomy for acalculous gallbladder disease. These results were compared to values produced by gall bladders removed from patients with no known gallbladder disease. Five patient underwent cholecystectomy for acute and five for chronic acalculous cholecystitis. Gallbladder mucosal cells were separated from muscle wall by submucosal injection of EDTA and shaking in tissue culture media. Prostaglandin levels were measured in mucosal cell and muscle tissue homogenate by radioimmunoassay (ng/mg homogenate protein). Homogenate prostaglandin E concentrations were significantly increased in mucosa and muscle tissue in gall bladders from patients with acute acalculous cholecystitis. Chronic acalculous gallbladder disease was not associated with changes in prostaglandin formation when compared to values produced by gall bladders from asymptomatic patients. Acute acalculous cholecystitis may be a prostaglandin mediated disorder.

  15. Attenuation of Ischemic Liver Injury by Prostaglandin E1 Analogue, Misoprostol, and Prostaglandin I2 Analogue, OP-41483

    PubMed Central

    Totsuka, Eishi; Todo, Satoru; Zhu, Yue; Ishizaki, Naoki; Kawashima, Yoshiyuki; Jin, Maeng Bong; Urakami, Atsushi; Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Starzl, Thomas E

    2010-01-01

    Background Prostaglandin has been reported to have protective effects against liver injury. Use of this agent in clinical settings, however, is limited because of drug-related side effects. This study investigated whether misoprostol, prostaglandin E1 analogue, and OP-41483, prostaglandin I2 analogue, which have fewer adverse effects with a longer half-life, attenuate ischemic liver damage. Study Design Thirty beagle dogs underwent 2 hours of hepatic vascular exclusion using venovenous bypass. Misoprostol was administered intravenously for 30 minutes before ischemia and for 3 hours after reperfusion. OP-41483 was administered intraportally for 30 minutes before ischemia (2 μg/kg/min) and for 3 hours after reperfusion (0.5 μg/kg/min). Animals were divided into five groups: untreated control group (n = 10); high-dose misoprostol (total 100 μg/kg) group (MP-H, n = 5); middle-dose misoprostol (50 μg/kg) group (MP-M, n = 5); low-dose misoprostol (25 μg/kg) group (MP-L, n = 5); and OP-41483 group (OP, n = 5). Animal survival, hepatic tissue blood flow (HTBF), liver function, and histology were analyzed. Results Two-week animal survival rates were 30% in control, 60% in MP-H, 100% in MP-M, 80% in MP-L, and 100% in OP. The treatments with prostaglandin analogues improved HTBF, and attenuated liver enzyme release, adenine nucleotrides degradation, and histologic abnormalities. In contrast to the MP-H animals that exhibited unstable cardiovascular systems, the MP-M, MP-L, and OP animals experienced only transient hypotension. Conclusions These results indicate that misoprostol and OP-41483 prevent ischemic liver damage, although careful dose adjustment of misoprostol is required to obtain the best protection with minimal side effects. PMID:9740185

  16. Mechanical stimulation of skeletal muscle cells mitigates glucocorticoid-induced decreases in prostaglandin production and prostaglandin synthase activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chromiak, J. A.; Vandenburgh, H. H.

    1994-01-01

    The glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex) induces a decline in protein synthesis and protein content in tissue cultured, avian skeletal muscle cells, and this atrophy is attenuated by repetitive mechanical stretch. Since the prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor indomethacin mitigated this stretch attenuation of muscle atrophy, the effects of Dex and mechanical stretch on prostaglandin production and prostaglandin H synthase (PGHS) activity were examined. In static cultures, 10(-8) M Dex reduced PGF2 alpha production 55-65% and PGE2 production 84-90% after 24-72 h of incubation. Repetitive 10% stretch-relaxations of non-Dex-treated cultures increased PGF2 alpha efflux 41% at 24 h and 276% at 72 h, and increased PGE2 production 51% at 24 h and 236% at 72 h. Mechanical stimulation of Dex-treated cultures increased PGF2 alpha production 162% after 24 h, returning PGF2 alpha efflux to the level of non-Dex-treated cultures. At 72 h, stretch increased PGF2 alpha efflux 65% in Dex-treated cultures. Mechanical stimulation of Dex-treated cultures also increased PGE2 production at 24 h, but not at 72 h. Dex reduced PGHS activity in the muscle cultures by 70% after 8-24 h of incubation, and mechanical stimulation of the Dex-treated cultures increased PGHS activity by 98% after 24 h. Repetitive mechanical stimulation attenuates the catabolic effects of Dex on cultured skeletal muscle cells in part by mitigating the Dex-induced declines in PGHS activity and prostaglandin production.

  17. Phylodynamics of HIV-1 subtype F1 in Angola, Brazil and Romania.

    PubMed

    Bello, Gonzalo; Afonso, Joana Morais; Morgado, Mariza G

    2012-07-01

    The HIV-1 subtype F1 is exceptionally prevalent in Angola, Brazil and Romania. The epidemiological context in which the spread of HIV occurred was highly variable from one country to another, mainly due to the existence of a long-term civil war in Angola and the contamination of a large number of children in Romania. Here we apply phylogenetic and Bayesian coalescent-based methods to reconstruct the phylodynamic patterns of HIV-1 subtype F1 in such different epidemiological settings. The phylogenetic analyses of HIV-1 subtype F1 pol sequences sampled worldwide confirmed that most sequences from Angola, Brazil and Romania segregated in country-specific monophyletic groups, while most subtype F1 sequences from Romanian children branched as a monophyletic sub-cluster (Romania-CH) nested within sequences from adults. The inferred time of the most recent common ancestor of the different subtype F1 clades were as follow: Angola=1983 (1978-1989), Brazil=1977 (1972-1981), Romania adults=1980 (1973-1987), and Romania-CH=1985 (1978-1989). All subtype F1 clades showed a demographic history best explained by a model of logistic population growth. Although the expansion phase of subtype F1 epidemic in Angola (mid 1980s to early 2000s) overlaps with the civil war period (1975-2002), the mean estimated growth rate of the Angolan F1 clade (0.49 year(-1)) was not exceptionally high, but quite similar to that estimated for the Brazilian (0.69 year(-1)) and Romanian adult (0.36 year(-1)) subtype F1 clades. The Romania-CH subtype F1 lineage, by contrast, displayed a short and explosive dissemination phase, with a median growth rate (2.47 year(-1)) much higher than that estimated for adult populations. This result supports the idea that the AIDS epidemic that affected the Romanian children was mainly caused by the spread of the HIV through highly efficient parenteral transmission networks, unlike adult populations where HIV is predominantly transmitted through sexual route.

  18. A bilateral antidiuresis to renal artery infusion of prostaglandin E1 in dogs treated with phenylbutazone

    PubMed Central

    Hall, W. J.; Hensey, O. J.; O'Neill, P.; Sheehan, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    1. In acute experiments, high levels of endogenous prostaglandins, provoked by operative stress, could obscure or alter the actions of infused prostaglandins on the kidney. For this reason we decided to compare the effects of infusing prostaglandin E1 into the renal artery of the dog before and after the administration of phenylbutazone, a prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor. 2. Infusion of prostaglandin E1 into the left renal artery of the pre-phenylbutazone treated dog undergoing a mannitol diuresis increased renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate and the excretion of salt and water. The findings are in general agreement with those reported by others. 3. Following phenylbutazone administration the vascular and saluretic actions of prostaglandin E1 were unchanged but a reduced diuretic effect was observed. The response to a low dose of prostaglandin E1 (0·05 μg/min) was reduced from 1·46 ± 0·15 to 0·96 ± 0·16 ml./min (P < 0·001) and the response to a high dose (0·5 μg/min) from 1·82 ± 0·19 to 0·99 ± 0·31 ml./min (P < 0·002). 4. A significantly less dilute urine was excreted during prostaglandin infusion in the dog after phenylbutazone treatment than before. The reduction in the diuretic response was of the same order as the decrease in the free water clearance response, while the increase in osmolar clearance was unchanged. 5. In water-loaded dogs treated with phenylbutazone, infusion of prostaglandin E1 into the left renal artery had a biphasic effect on urine output from the left kidney. An initial diuretic response to a low dose of prostaglandin E1 disappeared with the infusion of higher doses, and antidiuresis developed in the immediate post-infusion period. 6. As prostaglandin was infused into the left kidney progressive antidiuresis was seen in the non-infused right kidney. 7. It is concluded that endogenous prostaglandins do not obscure or alter the vascular and saluretic actions of intrarenal prostaglandin E1. The findings question

  19. JAZ mediates G1 cell cycle arrest by interacting with and inhibiting E2F1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mingli; Wu, Song; Jia, Jinghua

    2011-01-01

    We discovered and reported JAZ as a unique dsRNA binding zinc finger protein that functions as a direct, positive regulator of p53 transcriptional activity to mediate G1 cell cycle arrest in a mechanism involving upregulation of the p53 target gene, p21. We now find that JAZ can also negatively regulate the cell cycle in a novel, p53-independent mechanism resulting from the direct interaction with E2F1, a key intermediate in regulating cell proliferation and tumor suppression. JAZ associates with E2F1's central DNA binding/dimerization region and its C-terminal transactivation domain. Functionally, JAZ represses E2F1 transcriptional activity in association with repression of cyclin A expression and inhibition of G1/S transition. This mechanism involves JAZ-mediated inhibition of E2F1's specific DNA binding activity. JAZ directly binds E2F1 in vitro in a dsRNA-independent manner, and JAZ's dsRNA binding ZF domains, which are necessary for localizing JAZ to the nucleus, are required for repression of transcriptional activity in vivo. Importantly for specificity, siRNA-mediated “knockdown” of endogenous JAZ increases E2F transcriptional activity and releases cells from G1 arrest, indicating a necessary role for JAZ in this transition. Although JAZ can directly inhibit E2F1 activity independently of p53, if functional p53 is expressed, JAZ may exert a more potent inhibition of cell cycle following growth factor withdrawal. Therefore, JAZ plays a dual role in cell cycle regulation by both repressing E2F1 transcriptional activity and activating p53 to facilitate efficient growth arrest in response to cellular stress, which may potentially be exploited therapeutically for tumor growth inhibition. PMID:21715977

  20. Cooperative activation of tissue-specific genes by pRB and E2F1.

    PubMed

    Flowers, Stephen; Xu, Fuhua; Moran, Elizabeth

    2013-04-01

    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein pRB is conventionally regarded as an inhibitor of the E2F family of transcription factors. Conversely, pRB is also recognized as an activator of tissue-specific gene expression along various lineages including osteoblastogenesis. During osteoblast differentiation, pRB directly targets Alpl and Bglap, which encode the major markers of osteogenesis alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin. Surprisingly, p130 and repressor E2Fs were recently found to cooccupy and repress Alpl and Bglap in proliferating osteoblast precursors before differentiation. This raises the further question of whether these genes convert to E2F activation targets when differentiation begins, which would constitute a remarkable situation wherein pRB and E2F would be cotargeting genes for activation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis in an osteoblast differentiation model shows that Alpl and Bglap are indeed targeted by an activator E2F, i.e., is E2F1. Promoter occupation of Alpl and Bglap by E2F1 occurs specifically during activation, and depletion of E2F1 severely impairs their induction. Mechanistically, promoter occupation by E2F1 and pRB is mutually dependent, and without this cooperative effect, activation steps previously shown to be dependent on pRB, including recruitment of RNA polymerase II, are impaired. Myocyte- and adipocyte-specific genes are also cotargeted by E2F1 and pRB during differentiation along their respective lineages. The finding that pRB and E2F1 cooperate to activate expression of tissue-specific genes is a paradigm distinct from the classical concept of pRB as an inhibitor of E2F1, but is consistent with the observed roles of these proteins in physiological models.

  1. Scavenger Receptors Mediate the Role of SUMO and Ftz-f1 in Drosophila Steroidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Talamillo, Ana; Herboso, Leire; Pirone, Lucia; Pérez, Coralia; González, Monika; Sánchez, Jonatan; Mayor, Ugo; Lopitz-Otsoa, Fernando; Rodriguez, Manuel S.; Sutherland, James D.; Barrio, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    SUMOylation participates in ecdysteroid biosynthesis at the onset of metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster. Silencing the Drosophila SUMO homologue smt3 in the prothoracic gland leads to reduced lipid content, low ecdysone titers, and a block in the larval–pupal transition. Here we show that the SR-BI family of Scavenger Receptors mediates SUMO functions. Reduced levels of Snmp1 compromise lipid uptake in the prothoracic gland. In addition, overexpression of Snmp1 is able to recover lipid droplet levels in the smt3 knockdown prothoracic gland cells. Snmp1 expression depends on Ftz-f1 (an NR5A-type orphan nuclear receptor), the expression of which, in turn, depends on SUMO. Furthermore, we show by in vitro and in vivo experiments that Ftz-f1 is SUMOylated. RNAi–mediated knockdown of ftz-f1 phenocopies that of smt3 at the larval to pupal transition, thus Ftz-f1 is an interesting candidate to mediate some of the functions of SUMO at the onset of metamorphosis. Additionally, we demonstrate that the role of SUMOylation, Ftz-f1, and the Scavenger Receptors in lipid capture and mobilization is conserved in other steroidogenic tissues such as the follicle cells of the ovary. smt3 knockdown, as well as ftz-f1 or Scavenger knockdown, depleted the lipid content of the follicle cells, which could be rescued by Snmp1 overexpression. Therefore, our data provide new insights into the regulation of metamorphosis via lipid homeostasis, showing that Drosophila Smt3, Ftz-f1, and SR-BIs are part of a general mechanism for uptake of lipids such as cholesterol, required during development in steroidogenic tissues. PMID:23637637

  2. Single-Molecule Analysis of the Rotation of F1-ATPase under High Hydrostatic Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Okuno, Daichi; Nishiyama, Masayoshi; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    F1-ATPase is the water-soluble part of ATP synthase and is an ATP-driven rotary molecular motor that rotates the rotary shaft against the surrounding stator ring, hydrolyzing ATP. Although the mechanochemical coupling mechanism of F1-ATPase has been well studied, the molecular details of individual reaction steps remain unclear. In this study, we conducted a single-molecule rotation assay of F1 from thermophilic bacteria under various pressures from 0.1 to 140 MPa. Even at 140 MPa, F1 actively rotated with regular 120° steps in a counterclockwise direction, showing high conformational stability and retention of native properties. Rotational torque was also not affected. However, high hydrostatic pressure induced a distinct intervening pause at the ATP-binding angles during continuous rotation. The pause was observed under both ATP-limiting and ATP-saturating conditions, suggesting that F1 has two pressure-sensitive reactions, one of which is evidently ATP binding. The rotation assay using a mutant F1(βE190D) suggested that the other pressure-sensitive reaction occurs at the same angle at which ATP binding occurs. The activation volumes were determined from the pressure dependence of the rate constants to be +100 Å3 and +88 Å3 for ATP binding and the other pressure-sensitive reaction, respectively. These results are discussed in relation to recent single-molecule studies of F1 and pressure-induced protein unfolding. PMID:24094404

  3. Evaluation of the recombinant protein TpF1 of Treponema pallidum for serodiagnosis of syphilis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chuanhao; Zhao, Feijun; Xiao, Jinhong; Zeng, Tiebing; Yu, Jian; Ma, Xiaohua; Wu, Haiying; Wu, Yimou

    2013-10-01

    Syphilis is a chronic infection caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, and diagnosis with sensitive and specific methods is a challenging process that is important for its prevention and treatment. In the present study, we established a recombinant protein TpF1-based indirect immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a Western blot assay for human and rabbit sera. The 20-kDa recombinant protein TpF1 was detected by Western blotting performed with sera from rabbits immunized with recombinant TpF1 and infected with the T. pallidum Nichols strain and T. pallidum clinical isolates but was not detected by Western blotting with sera from uninfected rabbits. The sensitivity of the recombinant protein was determined by screening sera from individuals with primary, secondary, latent, and congenital syphilis (n = 82). The specificity of the recombinant protein was determined by screening sera from uninfected controls (n = 30) and individuals with potentially cross-reactive infections, including Lyme disease (n = 30) and leptospirosis (n = 5). The sensitivities of TpF1-based ELISAs were 93.3%, 100%, 100%, and 100% for primary, secondary, latent, and congenital syphilis, respectively, and the specificities were all 100% for sera from uninfected controls and individuals with potentially cross-reactive infections. In Western blot assays, the sensitivities and specificities of TpF1 for human sera were all 100%. The reactivities of TpF1 with syphilitic sera were proportional to the titers of the T. pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) assay. These data indicate that the recombinant protein TpF1 is a highly immunogenic protein in human and rabbit infections and a promising marker for the screening of syphilis. PMID:23945159

  4. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1) and the 100-F-26:8 (1607-F1) Sanitary Sewer Pipelines Waste Sites, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-004

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-03-14

    The 100-F-26:8 waste site consisted of the underground pipelines that conveyed sanitary waste water from the 1701-F Gatehouse, 1709-F Fire Station, and the 1720-F Administrative Office to the 1607-F1 septic tank. The site has been remediated and presently exists as an open excavation. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  5. Dietary fish oil increases CD8+ T-cells and decreases autoreactive T-cell activity in autoimmune NZB/W F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, W M; Chiang, B L; Chang, S C; Lin, B F

    2001-03-01

    To further elucidate the effect of different dietary fats on the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, five groups of New Zealand black/white (NZB/W) F1 mice were fed diets containing 200 g of different dietary fats including palm oil, lard-soybean oil (1:1, w/w), soybean oil, canola oil or fish oil. Serum levels of anti-DNA antibodies, proteinuria were followed every month and life span of the mice was determined. After 5 months of the respective diets, mice were killed at the age of 7 months and phenotypic analysis of splenic cells and peritoneal resident cells was performed. The pattern of production of cytokines in splenic T-cells was also investigated. The peritoneal resident cells were isolated for measurement of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels. Significantly lower immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and anti-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibody levels were associated with less severe proteinuria and prolonged life span in mice fed dietary fish oil compared to mice fed other dietary oils. Phenotypic analysis of spleen cells showed increased CD8+ T-cells in the mice fed dietary fish oil compared to mice of the other dietary groups, and the percentage of natural killer (NK) cells in the mice fed dietary fish oil was also higher compared to the other dietary groups. The peritoneal resident cells produced lower PGE2 in mice fed fish oil compared to mice in the other dietary groups. To further investigate the effect of fish oil on autoreactive T-cells, splenic T-cells purified using a nylon wool column were stimulated with non-T-cells of young NZB/W F1 mice. Our data suggest that the anti-DNA antibody augmentation ability of T-cells in mice fed dietary fish oil was significantly decreased compared to mice in the other dietary groups. These data indicate that dietary fish oil might maintain the existence of CD8+ T-cells, decrease autoreactive T-cell activity and alleviate subsequent autoimmune processes in autoimmune prone NZB/W F1 mice. PMID

  6. Hypotensive and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activities of Eisenia fetida Extract in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Shumei; Li, Chengde

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to investigate the antihypertensive effects of an Eisenia fetida extract (EFE) and its possible mechanisms in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR rats). Methods. Sixteen-week-old SHR rats and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY rats) were used in this study. Rats were, respectively, given EFE (EFE group), captopril (captopril group), or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (normal control group and SHR group) for 4 weeks. ACE inhibitory activity of EFE in vitro was determined. The systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured using a Rat Tail-Cuff Blood Pressure System. Levels of angiotensin II (Ang II), aldosterone (Ald), and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha (6-keto-PGF1α) in plasma were determined by radioimmunoassay, and serum nitric oxide (NO) concentration was measured by Griess reagent systems. Results. EFE had marked ACE inhibitory activity in vitro (IC50 = 2.5 mg/mL). After the 4-week drug management, SHR rats in EFE group and in captopril group had lower SBP and DBP, lower levels of Ang II and Ald, and higher levels of 6-keto-PGF1α and NO than the SHR rats in SHR group. Conclusion. These results indicate that EFE has hypotensive effects in SHR rats and its effects might be associated with its ACE inhibitory activity. PMID:26798397

  7. Ureaplasma diversum infection in vitro alters prostaglandin E2 and prostaglandin F2a production by bovine endometrial cells without affecting cell viability.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J J; Quinn, P A; Fortier, M A

    1994-01-01

    Bovine epithelial and stromal cells of the endometrium were inoculated with Ureaplasma diversum, pathogenic strain 2312, at 10(6) or 10(3) color-changing units (ccu)/ml in the presence of 1% fetal bovine serum (depleted of steroids by dextran-charcoal treatment) to assess the effect of infection on prostaglandin biosynthesis. When the inoculum of U. diversum was 10(6) ccu/ml, the concentration of U. diversum in the culture medium decreased with time. U. diversum was found on the epithelial and stromal cell monolayers, increasing in titer 100-fold, indicating that attachment and eventually growth occurred. When the inoculum was 10(3) ccu/ml, the titer of U. diversum remained the same or increased in the supernatant and increased on epithelial and stromal cells. The effect of infection was evaluated by measurement of the primary prostaglandin produced by each cell type, prostaglandin F2a for epithelial cells and prostaglandin E2 for stromal cells. Infection with U. diversum significantly decreased prostaglandin F2a accumulation, by 44.7% +/- 6.0% at 10(6) ccu/ml (P < or = 0.005) and 15.8% +/- 5.3% at 10(3) ccu/ml (P < or = 0.05) in epithelial cells. Prostaglandin E2 accumulation by stromal cells was decreased by 34.0% +/- 4.0% at 10(6) ccu/ml (P < or = 0.001) and by 13.5% +/- 2.7% at 10(3) ccu/ml (P < or = 0.005). Infection with 10(6) ccu/ml did not alter endometrial cell viability, as shown by protein measurement, trypan blue dye exclusion, and cell plating efficiency tests. Thus, alterations in prostaglandin production were not due to cell deterioration. These observations suggest that U. diversum can alter prostaglandin E2 and prostaglandin F2a patterns in primary cultures of bovine endometrial cells without affecting cell viability. PMID:8168914

  8. An E2F1-HOXB9 Transcriptional Circuit Is Associated with Breast Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Zhussupova, Aisulu; Hayashida, Tetsu; Takahashi, Maiko; Miyao, Kazuhiro; Okazaki, Hiroshi; Jinno, Hiromitsu; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    Homeobox B9 (HOXB9), a member of the homeobox gene family, is overexpressed in breast cancer and promotes tumor progression and metastasis by stimulating epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and angiogenesis within the tumor microenvironment. HOXB9 activates the TGFβ-ATM axis, leading to checkpoint activation and DNA repair, which engenders radioresistance in breast cancer cells. Despite detailed reports of the role of HOXB9 in breast cancer, the factors that regulate HOXB9 transcription have not been extensively examined. Here we uncover an underlying mechanism that may suggest novel targeting strategies for breast cancer treatment. To identify a transcription factor binding site (TFBS) in the HOXB9 promoter region, a dual luciferase reporter assay was conducted. Protein candidates that may directly attach to a TFBS of HOXB9 were examined by Q-PCR, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), and mutation analysis. A HOXB9 promoter region from −404 to −392 was identified as TFBS, and E2F1 was a potential binding candidate in this region. The induction of HOXB9 expression by E2F1 was observed by Q-PCR in several breast cancer cell lines overexpressing E2F1. The stimulatory effect of E2F1 on HOXB9 transcription and its ability to bind the TFBS were confirmed by luciferase, EMSA and ChIP assay. Immunohistochemical analysis of 139 breast cancer tissue samples revealed a significant correlation between E2F1 and HOXB9 expression (p<0.001). Furthermore, a CDK4/6 inhibitor suppressed E2F1 expression and also reduced expression of HOXB9 and its downstream target genes. Our in vitro analysis identified the TFBS of the HOXB9 promoter region and suggested that E2F1 is a direct regulator of HOXB9 expression; these data support the strong correlation we found between E2F1 and HOXB9 in clinical breast cancer samples. These results suggest that targeting the E2F1/HOXB9 axis may be a novel strategy for the control or prevention of cancer

  9. Endogenous biosynthesis of thromboxane and prostacyclin in 2 distinct murine models of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Praticò, D; Cyrus, T; Li, H; FitzGerald, G A

    2000-12-01

    Thromboxane A(2) is a potent vasoconstrictor and platelet agonist; prostacyclin is a potent platelet inhibitor and vasodilator. Altered biosynthesis of these eicosanoids is a feature of human hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. This study examined whether in 2 murine models of atherosclerosis their levels are increased and correlated with the evolution of the disease. Urinary 2,3-dinor thromboxane B(2) and 2,3-dinor-6-keto prostaglandin F(1 alpha), metabolites of thromboxane and prostacyclin, respectively, were assayed in apoliprotein E (apoE)-deficient mice on chow and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)-deficient mice on chow and a Western-type diet. Atherosclerosis lesion area was measured by en face method. Both eicosanoids increased in apoE-deficient mice on chow and in LDLR-deficient mice on a high-fat diet, but not in LDLR-deficient mice on chow by the end of the study. Aspirin suppressed ex vivo platelet aggregation, serum thromboxane B(2), and 2,3-dinor thromboxane B(2), and significantly reduced the excretion of 2,3-dinor-6-keto prostaglandin F(1 alpha) in these animals. This study demonstrates that thromboxane as well as prostacyclin biosynthesis is increased in 2 murine models of atherogenesis and is secondary to increased in vivo platelet activation. Assessment of their generation in these models may afford the basis for future studies on the functional role of these eicosanoids in the evolution and progression of atherosclerosis. (Blood. 2000;96:3823-3826)

  10. Identification of E2F1 as a positive transcriptional regulator for {delta}-catenin

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kwonseop; Oh, Minsoo; Ki, Hyunkyoung; Wang Tao; Bareiss, Sonja; Fini, M. Elizabeth.; Li Dawei; Lu Qun

    2008-05-02

    {delta}-Catenin is upregulated in human carcinomas. However, little is known about the potential transcriptional factors that regulate {delta}-catenin expression in cancer. Using a human {delta}-catenin reporter system, we have screened several nuclear signaling modulators to test whether they can affect {delta}-catenin transcription. Among {beta}-catenin/LEF-1, Notch1, and E2F1, E2F1 dramatically increased {delta}-catenin-luciferase activities while {beta}-catenin/LEF-1 induced only a marginal increase. Rb suppressed the upregulation of {delta}-catenin-luciferase activities induced by E2F1 but did not interact with {delta}-catenin. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses in 4 different prostate cancer cell lines revealed that regulation of {delta}-catenin expression is controlled mainly at the transcriptional level. Interestingly, the effects of E2F1 on {delta}-catenin expression were observed only in human cancer cells expressing abundant endogenous {delta}-catenin. These studies identify E2F1 as a positive transcriptional regulator for {delta}-catenin, but further suggest the presence of strong negative regulator(s) for {delta}-catenin in prostate cancer cells with minimal endogenous {delta}-catenin expression.

  11. Spatial reference memory in normal aging Fischer 344 × Brown Norway F1 hybrid rats.

    PubMed

    McQuail, Joseph A; Nicolle, Michelle M

    2015-01-01

    Fischer 344 × Brown Norway F1 (F344 × BN-F1) hybrid rats express greater longevity with improved health relative to aging rodents of other strains; however, few behavioral reports have thoroughly evaluated cognition across the F344 × BN-F1 lifespan. Consequently, this study evaluated spatial reference memory in F344 × BN-F1 rats at 6, 18, 24, or 28 months of age in the Morris water maze. Reference memory decrements were observed between 6 and 18 months and 18 and 24 months. At 28 months, spatial learning was not worse than 24 months, but swim speed was significantly slower. Reliable individual differences revealed that ∼50% of 24- to 28-month-old rats performed similarly to 6 months, whereas others were spatial learning impaired. Aged rats were impaired at learning within daily training sessions but not impaired at retaining information between days of training. Aged rats were also slower to learn to escape onto the platform, regardless of strategy. In summary, these data clarify the trajectory of cognitive decline in aging F344 × BN-F1 rats and elucidate relevant behavioral parameters.

  12. Elasticity, friction, and pathway of γ-subunit rotation in FoF1-ATP synthase

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, Kei-ichi; Hummer, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    We combine molecular simulations and mechanical modeling to explore the mechanism of energy conversion in the coupled rotary motors of FoF1-ATP synthase. A torsional viscoelastic model with frictional dissipation quantitatively reproduces the dynamics and energetics seen in atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of torque-driven γ-subunit rotation in the F1-ATPase rotary motor. The torsional elastic coefficients determined from the simulations agree with results from independent single-molecule experiments probing different segments of the γ-subunit, which resolves a long-lasting controversy. At steady rotational speeds of ∼1 kHz corresponding to experimental turnover, the calculated frictional dissipation of less than kBT per rotation is consistent with the high thermodynamic efficiency of the fully reversible motor. Without load, the maximum rotational speed during transitions between dwells is reached at ∼1 MHz. Energetic constraints dictate a unique pathway for the coupled rotations of the Fo and F1 rotary motors in ATP synthase, and explain the need for the finer stepping of the F1 motor in the mammalian system, as seen in recent experiments. Compensating for incommensurate eightfold and threefold rotational symmetries in Fo and F1, respectively, a significant fraction of the external mechanical work is transiently stored as elastic energy in the γ-subunit. The general framework developed here should be applicable to other molecular machines. PMID:26261344

  13. Constitutive E2F1 Overexpression Delays Endochondral Bone Formation by Inhibiting Chondrocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Scheijen, Blanca; Bronk, Marieke; van der Meer, Tiffany; Bernards, René

    2003-01-01

    Longitudinal bone growth results from endochondral ossification, a process that requires proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes. It has been shown that proper endochondral bone formation is critically dependent on the retinoblastoma family members p107 and p130. However, the precise functional roles played by individual E2F proteins remain poorly understood. Using both constitutive and conditional E2F1 transgenic mice, we show that ubiquitous transgene-driven expression of E2F1 during embryonic development results in a dwarf phenotype and significantly reduced postnatal viability. Overexpression of E2F1 disturbs chondrocyte maturation, resulting in delayed endochondral ossification, which is characterized by reduced hypertrophic zones and disorganized growth plates. Employing the chondrogenic cell line ATDC5, we investigated the effects of enforced E2F expression on the different phases of chondrocyte maturation that are normally required for endochondral ossification. Ectopic E2F1 expression strongly inhibits early- and late-phase differentiation of ATDC5 cells, accompanied by diminished cartilage nodule formation as well as decreased type II collagen, type X collagen, and aggrecan gene expression. In contrast, overexpression of E2F2 or E2F3a results in only a marginal delay of chondrocyte maturation, and increased E2F4 levels have no effect. These data are consistent with the notion that E2F1 is a regulator of chondrocyte differentiation. PMID:12724423

  14. Synergistic cooperation of MDM2 and E2F1 contributes to TAp73 transcriptional activity

    SciTech Connect

    Kasim, Vivi; Huang, Can; Zhang, Jing; Jia, Huizhen; Wang, Yunxia; Yang, Li; Miyagishi, Makoto; Wu, Shourong

    2014-07-04

    Highlights: • MDM2 is a novel positive regulator of TAp73 transcriptional activity. • MDM2 colocalizes together and physically interacts with E2F1. • Synergistic cooperation of MDM2 and E2F1 is crucial for TAp73 transcription. • MDM2 regulates TAp73 transcriptional activity in a p53-independent manner. - Abstract: TAp73, a structural homologue of p53, plays an important role in tumorigenesis. E2F1 had been reported as a transcriptional regulator of TAp73, however, the detailed mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here we reported that MDM2-silencing reduced the activities of the TAp73 promoters and the endogenous TAp73 expression level significantly; while MDM2 overexpression upregulated them. We further revealed that the regulation of TAp73 transcriptional activity occurs as a synergistic effect of MDM2 and E2F1, most probably through their physical interaction in the nuclei. Furthermore, we also suggested that MDM2 might be involved in DNA damage-induced TAp73 transcriptional activity. Finally, we elucidated that MDM2-silencing reduced the proliferation rate of colon carcinoma cells regardless of the p53 status. Our data show a synergistic effect of MDM2 and E2F1 on TAp73 transcriptional activity, suggesting a novel regulation pathway of TAp73.

  15. The CYP51F1 Gene of Leptographium qinlingensis: Sequence Characteristic, Phylogeny and Transcript Levels.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lulu; Li, Zhumei; Yu, Jiamin; Ma, Mingyuan; Zhang, Ranran; Chen, Hui; Pham, Thanh

    2015-05-26

    Leptographium qinlingensis is a fungal associate of the Chinese white pine beetle (Dendroctonus armandi) and a pathogen of the Chinese white pine (Pinus armandi) that must overcome the terpenoid oleoresin defenses of host trees. L. qinlingensis responds to monoterpene flow with abundant mechanisms that include export and the use of these compounds as a carbon source. As one of the fungal cytochrome P450 proteins (CYPs), which play important roles in general metabolism, CYP51 (lanosterol 14-α demethylase) can catalyze the biosynthesis of ergosterol and is a target for antifungal drug. We have identified an L. qinlingensis CYP51F1 gene, and the phylogenetic analysis shows the highest homology with the 14-α-demethylase sequence from Grosmannia clavigera (a fungal associate of Dendroctonus ponderosae). The transcription level of CYP51F1 following treatment with terpenes and pine phloem extracts was upregulated, while using monoterpenes as the only carbon source led to the downregulation of CYP5F1 expression. The homology modeling structure of CYP51F1 is similar to the structure of the lanosterol 14-α demethylase protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae YJM789, which has an N-terminal membrane helix 1 (MH1) and transmembrane helix 1 (TMH1). The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of terpenoid and azole fungicides (itraconazole (ITC)) and the docking of terpenoid molecules, lanosterol and ITC in the protein structure suggested that CYP51F1 may be inhibited by terpenoid molecules by competitive binding with azole fungicides.

  16. E2F1 in renal cancer: Mr Hyde disguised as Dr Jekyll?

    PubMed

    Tian, Weihua; Cui, Fenggong; Esteban, Miguel A

    2013-10-01

    The transcription factor E2F1 has both oncogenic and tumour suppressor properties, depending on the context. Clarifying the function of E2F1 in different types of cancer is relevant because in those situations in which it acts as an oncogene there may be a route for therapeutic interference. Renal cell carcinoma is the most frequent form of kidney cancer in adults and inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene underlies most cases. This malignancy represents a challenge for standard therapies due to drug- and radio-resistance, effects that fit well within the scope of functions of E2F1. A new report by Mans et al postulates that up-regulation of E2F1 in VHL-defective renal cell carcinoma induces cell senescence and can thus be considered a good prognostic factor. Here we discuss these findings in a wider context and propose that E2F1 may actually not play a uniform role in renal cell carcinoma but rather an ambiguous one whose deeper understanding could have practical implications. PMID:23868058

  17. Elasticity, friction, and pathway of γ-subunit rotation in FoF1-ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Kei-ichi; Hummer, Gerhard

    2015-08-25

    We combine molecular simulations and mechanical modeling to explore the mechanism of energy conversion in the coupled rotary motors of FoF1-ATP synthase. A torsional viscoelastic model with frictional dissipation quantitatively reproduces the dynamics and energetics seen in atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of torque-driven γ-subunit rotation in the F1-ATPase rotary motor. The torsional elastic coefficients determined from the simulations agree with results from independent single-molecule experiments probing different segments of the γ-subunit, which resolves a long-lasting controversy. At steady rotational speeds of ∼ 1 kHz corresponding to experimental turnover, the calculated frictional dissipation of less than k(B)T per rotation is consistent with the high thermodynamic efficiency of the fully reversible motor. Without load, the maximum rotational speed during transitions between dwells is reached at ∼ 1 MHz. Energetic constraints dictate a unique pathway for the coupled rotations of the Fo and F1 rotary motors in ATP synthase, and explain the need for the finer stepping of the F1 motor in the mammalian system, as seen in recent experiments. Compensating for incommensurate eightfold and threefold rotational symmetries in Fo and F1, respectively, a significant fraction of the external mechanical work is transiently stored as elastic energy in the γ-subunit. The general framework developed here should be applicable to other molecular machines.

  18. Influence of radiation dose on the level of F1 sterility in the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined inherited sterility effects on the F1 and F2 generations of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg), in order to identify the dose of gamma radiation that would fully sterilize F1-generation moths, which would result in no viable offspring when F1 males were inbred- or out-crossed ...

  19. Prostaglandin E2 levels and platelet function are different in cord blood compared to adults.

    PubMed

    Schlagenhauf, Axel; Haidl, Harald; Leschnik, Bettina; Leis, Hans-Joerg; Heinemann, Akos; Muntean, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal platelets support primary haemostasis and thrombin generation as well as adult platelets, despite observable hypoaggregability in vitro. High prostaglandin E2 levels at accouchement could account for inhibited platelet function via the EP4 receptor. We set out to determine prostaglandin E2 plasma levels in cord blood of healthy neonates and evaluate the impact of prostaglandin E2 on platelet function in adult and cord blood samples. Prostaglandin E2 plasma levels were measured in cord blood and venous adult blood using GC-MS. Impact of prostaglandin E2 on platelet aggregation was measured by spiking cord blood and adult samples. Contributions of EP3 and EP4 receptors were evaluated using respective antagonists. Intracellular cAMP concentrations were measured using a commercial ELISA-kit. Prostaglandin E2 plasma levels were substantially higher in cord blood than in adult samples. Spiking with prostaglandin E2 resulted in a slight but consistent reduction of platelet aggregation in adult blood, but response to PGE2 was blunted in cord blood samples. Aggregation response of spiked adult samples was still higher than with non-spiked cord blood samples. Blockage of EP4 receptors resulted in improved platelet aggregation in adult platelets upon prostaglandin E2 spiking, while aggregation in cord blood samples remained unaltered. Intracellular cAMP concentrations after preincubation with prostaglandin E2 were only increased in adult samples. In conclusion, very high prostaglandin E2 concentrations in cord blood affect platelet function. This effect may partially explain neonatal platelet hypoaggregability. Peak levels of prostaglandin E2 can potentially protect against birth stress-induced platelet activation.

  20. Optical pumping effect in absorption imaging of F =1 atomic gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sooshin; Seo, Sang Won; Noh, Heung-Ryoul; Shin, Y.

    2016-08-01

    We report our study of the optical pumping effect in absorption imaging of 23Na atoms in the F =1 hyperfine spin states. Solving a set of rate equations for the spin populations in the presence of a probe beam, we obtain an analytic expression for the optical signal of the F =1 absorption imaging. Furthermore, we verify the result by measuring the absorption spectra of 23Na Bose-Einstein condensates prepared in various spin states with different probe-beam pulse durations. The analytic result can be used in the quantitative analysis of F =1 spinor condensate imaging and readily applied to other alkali-metal atoms with I =3 /2 nuclear spin such as 87Rb.

  1. Decreased brain infarct following focal ischemia in mice lacking the transcription factor E2F1.

    PubMed

    MacManus, J P; Koch, C J; Jian, M; Walker, T; Zurakowski, B

    1999-09-01

    E2F1+/- mice subjected to 2 h middle cerebral artery occlusion developed an infarct of 77.0 +/- 3.2 mm3 (mean +/- s.e.m., n = 15) in the ischemic hemisphere after 24 h reperfusion. A significantly smaller infarct of 58.8 +/- 4.8 mm3 (n = 15; p < 0.01) was found in E2F1-/- animals. Both deficient and normal mice had similar cerebral angioarchitecture and intra-ischemic decreases in regional blood flow. Similar areas of hypoxia in both groups of ischemic animals were demonstrated directly by immunohistochemical detection of nitroimidazole adducts. It was concluded that all animals received the same ischemic insult, yet the subsequent damage was different in the mutant mice. This is the first indication that the E2F1 gene plays a role in ischemic death of post-mitotic neurons. PMID:10511428

  2. Treatment of vasospastic disease with prostaglandin E1.

    PubMed Central

    Clifford, P C; Martin, M F; Sheddon, E J; Kirby, J D; Baird, R N; Dieppe, P A

    1980-01-01

    Prostaglandin E1, a vasodilator and potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation, was administered to 26 patients with severe vasospastic disease of the hands. Patients tolerated infusions well and reported appreciable symptomatic improvement. Five of eight ischaemic ulcers healed in six weeks. Non-invasive studies of blood flow were used to observe haemodynamic changes during and after infusions. The Doppler-derived radial artery pulsatility index fell from 8.8 +/- 0.6 to 4.6 +/0 0.5 (mean +/- SEM), indicating hand vasodilatation. This fall was maintained 24 hours after infusion (5.9 +/- 0.9), but the index had returned to normal values at two weeks. The amplitude of finger pulse volume recordings increased (5.6 +/- 0.7 mm to 23.8 +/- 3.4 mm) and was raised two and six weeks after infusion (13.5 +/- 2.1 mm). Hand temperature measured by infrared radiometry also increased (27.4 +/- 0.7 degrees C to 31.2 +/- 1.2 degrees C). Intensity of digital vasospasm induced by cold water challenge was not objectively affected by prostaglandin E1 despite an increased finger temperature after infusion. Nevertheless, patients reported less frequent and severe attacks. Prostaglandin E1 given by central venous infusion is a safe new vasoactive agent that can produce appreciable symptomatic improvement by increasing digital perfusion, which may last for several weeks after treatment. Further study will define its mode of action and its place in the management of peripheral vascular disease. PMID:7427564

  3. Effect of parent genetic background on latency and antigenicity of UV-induced tumors originating in F1 hybrids.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, T; Iwashiro, M; Kuribayashi, K; Imamura, S

    1995-02-01

    Wide variations in susceptibility to skin tumor development by chronic ultraviolet light (UV) exposure and antigenicity of induced tumors which is estimated by tumor rejection in syngeneic recipients have been recognized among various murine strains. To examine the effect of parent genetic background on latency and antigenicity of UV-induced tumors originating in F1 hybrids, we induced skin tumors in three mouse strains: BALB/c, C57BL/6, (B6), and C3H/HeMs (C3H/He), and their F1 hybrids: (BALB/c x C3H/He)F1 (CC3F1), (BALB/c x B6)F1 (CB6F1) and (C3H/HexB6)F1 (C3B6F1) by exposing mice to UV radiation (0.44 mW/cm2 for 1 h) three times a week, and analyzed whether the UV-induced tumors originating in F1 hybrids possess the similar property in latency or antigenicity as seen in the UV-induced tumors derived from the parent strains. The latency of tumor induction by chronic UV exposure in C3H/He, BALB/c and their F1 hybrid CC3F1 was relatively short whereas that of B6 was relatively long, and that of F1 hybrids with B6 (CB6F1 and C3B6F1) was intermediate. On the other hand, the low antigenicity as progressive growth behavior of UV-induced tumors in syngeneic recipients was observed not only in tumors derived from C3H/He but also in those from F1 hybrids with C3H/He (C3B6F1 and CC3F1) whereas most tumors derived from B6, BALB/c and their F1 hybrid CB6F1 were highly antigenic as to be rejected in syngeneic recipients. These findings suggest that the parent genetic quality regulating the susceptibility to tumor induction by chronic UV exposure is co-dominantly inherited into F1 hybrids.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7757331

  4. Scalable synthesis of a prostaglandin EP4 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Gauvreau, Danny; Dolman, Sarah J; Hughes, Greg; O'Shea, Paul D; Davies, Ian W

    2010-06-18

    The evolution of scalable, economically viable synthetic approaches to the potent and selective prostaglandin EP4 antagonist 1 is presented. The chromatography-free synthesis of multikilogram quantities of 1 using a seven-step sequence (six in the longest linear sequence) is described. This approach has been further modified in an effort to identify a long-term manufacturing route. Our final synthesis involves no step requiring cryogenic (< -25 degrees C) conditions; comprises a total of four steps, only three of which are in the longest linear synthesis; and features the use of two consecutive iron-catalyzed Friedel-Crafts substitutions.

  5. Blood eicosanoids and immune indices during fasciolosis in water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Daugschies, A; Wang, B; Mao, X

    2000-12-01

    The effects of trickle infections of water buffaloes with Fasciola hepatica (60 metacercariae daily during a period of 20 days) on the blood plasma levels of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE2), 6-keto-prostaglandin F(1alpha) (6-keto-PG F(1alpha)) and thromboxane B(2) (TXB2) were assessed. F. hepatica specific IgG and T- and B-lymphocyte ratios were evaluated as indicators of the immune response. Although the applied mode of infection did not result in clinical disease, changes in the plasma eicosanoid pattern were observed. Plasma PGE2 values were significantly elevated in the infected water buffaloes 11 weeks post-infection (w.p.i.). In contrast, transiently but significantly lower TXB2 values than in the uninfected controls were recorded in the phase of chronic fasciolosis. Plasma 6-keto-PGF(1alpha) values were not considerably altered by the infection throughout the study period. F. hepatica-specific IgG were detected from 4 to 21 w.p.i. The proportion of peripheral T- and B-lymphocytes shifted towards B-cells from 2 to 12 w.p.i., gradually returning to control values afterwards. Although the water buffaloes appeared to be rather resistant to trickle infection with F. hepatica, moderate changes in plasma eicosanoid patterns were observed, indicating tissue damage and/or inflammation. Induction of the immune response could be monitored by an increase of F. hepatica-specific IgG, which was paralleled by a relative increase of the B-lymphocyte population.

  6. Bimatoprost and prostaglandin F(2 alpha) selectively stimulate intracellular calcium signaling in different cat iris sphincter cells.

    PubMed

    Spada, Clayton S; Krauss, Achim H-P; Woodward, David F; Chen, June; Protzman, Charles E; Nieves, Amelia L; Wheeler, Larry A; Scott, David F; Sachs, George

    2005-01-01

    Bimatoprost is a synthetic analog of prostaglandin F(2 alpha) ethanolamide (prostamide F(2 alpha)), and shares a pharmacological profile consistent with that of the prostamides. Like prostaglandin F(2 alpha) carboxylic acid, bimatoprost potently lowers intraocular pressure in dogs, primates and humans. In order to distinguish its mechanism of action from prostaglandin F(2 alpha), fluorescence confocal microscopy was used to examine the effects of bimatoprost, prostaglandin F(2 alpha) and 17-phenyl prostaglandin F(2 alpha) on calcium signaling in resident cells of digested cat iris sphincter, a tissue which exhibits contractile responses to both agonists. Constant superfusion conditions obviated effective conversion of bimatoprost. Serial challenge with 100 nM bimatoprost and prostaglandin F(2 alpha) consistently evoked responses in different cells within the same tissue preparation, whereas prostaglandin F(2 alpha) and 17-phenyl prostaglandin F(2 alpha) elicited signaling responses in the same cells. Bimatoprost-sensitive cells were consistently re-stimulated with bimatoprost only, and prostaglandin F(2 alpha) sensitive cells could only be re-stimulated with prostaglandin F(2 alpha). The selective stimulation of different cells in the same cat iris sphincter preparation by bimatoprost and prostaglandin F(2 alpha), along with the complete absence of observed instances in which the same cells respond to both agonists, strongly suggests the involvement of distinct receptors for prostaglandin F(2 alpha) and bimatoprost. Further, prostaglandin F(2 alpha) but not bimatoprost potently stimulated calcium signaling in isolated human embryonic kidney cells stably transfected with the feline- and human-prostaglandin F(2 alpha) FP-receptor and in human dermal fibroblast cells, and only prostaglandin F(2 alpha) competed with radioligand binding in HEK-feFP cells. These studies provide further evidence for the existence of a bimatoprost-sensitive receptor that is distinct from

  7. E2F1-Mediated Induction of NFYB Attenuates Apoptosis via Joint Regulation of a Pro-Survival Transcriptional Program

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaolei; Nevins, Joseph Roy

    2015-01-01

    The E2F1 transcription factor regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis through the control of a considerable variety of target genes. Previous work has detailed the role of other transcription factors in mediating the specificity of E2F function. Here we identify the NF-YB transcription factor as a novel direct E2F1 target. Genome-wide expression analysis of the effects of NFYB knockdown on E2F1-mediated transcription identified a large group of genes that are co-regulated by E2F1 and NFYB. We also provide evidence that knockdown of NFYB enhances E2F1-induced apoptosis, suggesting a pro-survival function of the NFYB/E2F1 joint transcriptional program. Bioinformatic analysis suggests that deregulation of these NFY-dependent E2F1 target genes might play a role in sarcomagenesis as well as drug resistance. PMID:26039627

  8. E2F1 plays a direct role in Rb stabilization and p53-independent tumor suppression.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Gustavo; Talos, Flaminia; Nemajerova, Alice; Moll, Ute M; Petrenko, Oleksi

    2008-06-15

    To better understand the role of E2F1 in tumor formation, we analyzed spontaneous tumorigenesis in p53(-/-)E2F1(+/+) and p53(-/-)E2F1(-/-) mice. We show that the combined loss of p53 and E2F1 leads to an increased incidence of sarcomas and carcinomas compared to the loss of p53 alone. E2F1-deficient tumors show wide chromosomal variation, indicative of genomic instability. Consistent with this, p53(-/-)E2F1(-/-) primary fibroblasts have a reduced capacity to maintain genomic stability when exposed to S-phase inhibitors or genotoxic drugs. A major mechanism of E2F1's contribution to genomic integrity lies in mediating stabilization and engagement of the Rb protein.

  9. Olfactory receptor for prostaglandin F2α mediates male fish courtship behavior.

    PubMed

    Yabuki, Yoichi; Koide, Tetsuya; Miyasaka, Nobuhiko; Wakisaka, Noriko; Masuda, Miwa; Ohkura, Masamichi; Nakai, Junichi; Tsuge, Kyoshiro; Tsuchiya, Soken; Sugimoto, Yukihiko; Yoshihara, Yoshihiro

    2016-07-01

    Pheromones play vital roles for survival and reproduction in various organisms. In many fishes, prostaglandin F2α acts not only as a female reproductive hormone, facilitating ovulation and spawning, but also as a sex pheromone inducing male reproductive behaviors. Here, we unravel the molecular and neural circuit mechanisms underlying the pheromonal action of prostaglandin F2α in zebrafish. Prostaglandin F2α specifically activates two olfactory receptors with different sensitivities and expression in distinct populations of ciliated olfactory sensory neurons. Pheromone information is then transmitted to two ventromedial glomeruli in the olfactory bulb and further to four regions in higher olfactory centers. Mutant male zebrafish deficient in the high-affinity receptor exhibit loss of attractive response to prostaglandin F2α and impairment of courtship behaviors toward female fish. These findings demonstrate the functional significance and activation of selective neural circuitry for the sex pheromone prostaglandin F2α and its cognate olfactory receptor in fish reproductive behavior. PMID:27239939

  10. M2-F1 in flight over lakebed on tow line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Following the first M2-F1 airtow flight on 16 August 1963, the Flight Research Center used the vehicle for both research flights and to check out new lifting-body pilots. These included Bruce Peterson, Don Mallick, Fred Haise, and Bill Dana from NASA. Air Force pilots who flew the M2-F1 included Chuck Yeager, Jerry Gentry, Joe Engle, Jim Wood, and Don Sorlie, although Wood, Haise, and Engle only flew on car tows. In the three years between the first and last flights of the M2-F1, it made about 400 car tows and 77 air tows. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially concieved as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and

  11. M2-F1 lifting body aircraft on a flatbed truck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    After the grounding of the M2-F1 in 1966, it was kept in outside storage on the Dryden complex. After several years, its fabric and plywood structure was damaged by the sun and weather. Restoration of the vehicle began in February 1994 under the leadership of NASA retiree Dick Fischer, with other retirees who had originally worked on the M2-F1's construction and flight research three decades before also participating. The photo shows the now-restored M2-F1 returning to the site of its flight research, now called the Dryden Flight Research Center, on 22 August 1997. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, NASA Flight Research Center (later Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA) management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available

  12. Chromosomal rearrangements directly cause underdominant F1 pollen sterility in Mimulus lewisii-Mimulus cardinalis hybrids.

    PubMed

    Stathos, Angela; Fishman, Lila

    2014-11-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements can contribute to the evolution of postzygotic reproductive isolation directly, by disrupting meiosis in F1 hybrids, or indirectly, by suppressing recombination among genic incompatibilities. Because direct effects of rearrangements on fertility imply fitness costs during their spread, understanding the mechanism of F1 hybrid sterility is integral to reconstructing the role(s) of rearrangements in speciation. In hybrids between monkeyflowers Mimulus cardinalis and Mimulus lewisii, rearrangements contain all quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for both premating barriers and pollen sterility, suggesting that they may have facilitated speciation in this model system. We used artificial chromosome doubling and comparative mapping to test whether heterozygous rearrangements directly cause underdominant male sterility in M. lewisii-M. cardinalis hybrids. Consistent with a direct chromosomal basis for hybrid sterility, synthetic tetraploid F1 s showed highly restored fertility (83.4% pollen fertility) relative to diploids F1 s (36.0%). Additional mapping with Mimulus parishii-M. cardinalis and M. parishii-M. lewisii hybrids demonstrated that underdominant male sterility is caused by one M. lewisii specific and one M. cardinalis specific reciprocal translocation, but that inversions had no direct effects on fertility. We discuss the importance of translocations as causes of reproductive isolation, and consider models for how underdominant rearrangements spread and fix despite intrinsic fitness costs.

  13. 26 CFR 301.6223(f)-1 - Duplicate copy of final partnership administrative adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001. ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duplicate copy of final partnership... In General § 301.6223(f)-1 Duplicate copy of final partnership administrative adjustment. (a)...

  14. Saturn V F-1 Engine Gas Generator Blazes Back To Life

    NASA Video Gallery

    On Jan. 10, 2013, a resurrected gas generator from a Saturn V F-1 engine completed two hot-fire tests that are part of a series of tests at Test Stand 116 located in the East Test Area at NASA's Ma...

  15. 26 CFR 1.672(f)-1 - Foreign persons not treated as owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Foreign persons not treated as owners. 1.672(f... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.672(f)-1 Foreign persons not treated as owners. (a) General rule—(1) Application of the...

  16. 26 CFR 1.672(f)-1 - Foreign persons not treated as owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Foreign persons not treated as owners. 1.672(f... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.672(f)-1 Foreign persons not treated as owners. (a) General rule—(1) Application of the...

  17. 26 CFR 1.672(f)-1 - Foreign persons not treated as owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Foreign persons not treated as owners. 1.672(f... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.672(f)-1 Foreign persons not treated as owners. (a) General rule—(1) Application of the...

  18. 26 CFR 1.672(f)-1 - Foreign persons not treated as owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foreign persons not treated as owners. 1.672(f... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.672(f)-1 Foreign persons not treated as owners. (a) General rule—(1) Application of the general...

  19. 26 CFR 1.672(f)-1 - Foreign persons not treated as owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Foreign persons not treated as owners. 1.672(f... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.672(f)-1 Foreign persons not treated as owners. (a) General rule—(1) Application of the...

  20. 17 CFR 270.17f-1 - Custody of securities with members of national securities exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... segregation and marking of such securities and investments may be accomplished by putting them in separate... of the examination, shall be attached to a completed Form N-17f-1 (17 CFR 274.219) and transmitted to... a member of a national securities exchange of any obligation under existing law or under the...

  1. Cleanup Verification Package for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit

    SciTech Connect

    S. W. Clark and H. M Sulloway

    2007-10-31

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit. This waste site received coal ash from the 100-F Area coal-fired steam plant. Leakage of process effluent from the 116-F-14 , 107-F Retention Basins flowed south into the ash pit, contaminating the northern portion.

  2. Cleanup Verification Package for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit

    SciTech Connect

    S. W. Clark and H. M. Sulloway

    2007-09-26

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 126-F-1, 184-F Powerhouse Ash Pit. This waste site received coal ash from the 100-F Area coal-fired steam plant. Leakage of process effluent from the 116-F-14 , 107-F Retention Basins flowed south into the ash pit, contaminating the northern portion.

  3. 40 CFR Figure F-1 to Subpart F of... - Designation Testing Checklist

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Application Spec. Corresponding to Sections of 40 CFR Part 53, Subparts E and F Verification Comments... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Designation Testing Checklist F Figure F-1 to Subpart F of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  4. 40 CFR Figure F-1 to Subpart F of... - Designation Testing Checklist

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Application Spec. Corresponding to Sections of 40 CFR Part 53, Subparts E and F Verification Comments... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Designation Testing Checklist F Figure F-1 to Subpart F of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  5. 40 CFR Figure F-1 to Subpart F of... - Designation Testing Checklist

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Application Spec. Corresponding to Sections of 40 CFR Part 53, Subparts E and F Verification Comments... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Designation Testing Checklist F Figure F-1 to Subpart F of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  6. 40 CFR Figure F-1 to Subpart F of... - Designation Testing Checklist

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Application Spec. Corresponding to Sections of 40 CFR Part 53, Subparts E and F Verification Comments... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Designation Testing Checklist F Figure F-1 to Subpart F of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  7. 26 CFR 301.6229(f)-1 - Special rule for partial settlement agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... October 4, 2001, see § 301.6229(f)-1T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001. ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Assessment In General § 301... nonpartnership items under section 6231(b)(1)(C) and will not be subject to any future or pending...

  8. Amplification of the E2F1 transcription factor gene in the HEL erythroleukemia cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, M.; Valentine, M.B.; Look, A.T.

    1995-01-01

    The E2F transcription factor plays an important regulatory role in cell proliferation, mediating the expression of genes whose products are essential for inducing resting cells to enter the cell cycle and synthesize DNA. To investigate the possible involvement of E2F in hematopoietic malignancies, we isolated genomic clones encompassing the human E2F1 gene. We then used fluorescence in situ hybridization to localize E2F1 to human chromosome 20q11, telomeric to the p107 locus, a gene whose product is related to the retinoblastoma gene product (pRb). This finding contrasts with the 1p36 and 6q22 chromosomal locations previously assigned E2F2 and E2F3, two additional members of the E2F family. Although deletions or structural rearrangements of E2F1 were not detected in 14 primary acute leukemia or myelodysplasia samples with structural abnormalities of chromosome 20q11, the gene was amplified and overexpressed in HEL erythroleukemia cells and translocated to other chromosomes in several established human leukemia cell lines. This study provides the first evidence of gene amplification involving a member of the E2F family of transcription factors. We propose that E2F1 overexpression in erythroid progenitors may stimulate abnormal cell proliferation by overriding negative regulatory signals mediated by tumor suppressor proteins such as pRb. 76 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. F1 rotary motor of ATP synthase is driven by the torsionally-asymmetric drive shaft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulish, O.; Wright, A. D.; Terentjev, E. M.

    2016-06-01

    F1F0 ATP synthase (ATPase) either facilitates the synthesis of ATP in a process driven by the proton moving force (pmf), or uses the energy from ATP hydrolysis to pump protons against the concentration gradient across the membrane. ATPase is composed of two rotary motors, F0 and F1, which compete for control of their shared γ -shaft. We present a self-consistent physical model of F1 motor as a simplified two-state Brownian ratchet using the asymmetry of torsional elastic energy of the coiled-coil γ -shaft. This stochastic model unifies the physical concepts of linear and rotary motors, and explains the stepped unidirectional rotary motion. Substituting the model parameters, all independently known from recent experiments, our model quantitatively reproduces the ATPase operation, e.g. the ‘no-load’ angular velocity is ca. 400 rad/s anticlockwise at 4 mM ATP. Increasing the pmf torque exerted by F0 can slow, stop and overcome the torque generated by F1, switching from ATP hydrolysis to synthesis at a very low value of ‘stall torque’. We discuss the motor efficiency, which is very low if calculated from the useful mechanical work it produces - but is quite high when the ‘useful outcome’ is measured in the number of H+ pushed against the chemical gradient.

  10. 26 CFR 301.6511(f)-1 - Special rules for chapter 42 taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special rules for chapter 42 taxes. 301.6511(f... and Collection § 301.6511(f)-1 Special rules for chapter 42 taxes. (a) In general. Claims for credit or refund of an overpayment of any tax imposed by chapter 42 shall be filed by the taxpayer within...

  11. Rocketdyne - F-1 Saturn V First Stage Engine. Chapter 1, Appendix C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biggs, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Before I go into the history of F-1, I want to discuss the F-1 engine s role in putting man on the moon. The F-1 engine was used in a cluster of five on the first stage, and that was the only power during the first stage. It took the Apollo launch vehicle, which was 363 feet tall and weighed six million pounds, and threw it downrange fifty miles, threw it up to forty miles of altitude, at Mach 7. It took two and one-half minutes to do that and, in the process, burned four and one-half million pounds of propellant, a pretty sizable task. (See Slide 2, Appendix C) My history goes back to the same year I started working at Rocketdyne. That s where the F-1 had its beginning, back early in 1957. In 1957, there was no space program. Rocketdyne was busy working overtime and extra days designing, developing, and producing rocket engines for weapons of mass destruction, not for scientific reasons. The Air Force contracted Rocketdyne to study how to make a rocket engine that had a million pounds of thrust. The highest thing going at the time had 150,000 pounds of thrust. Rocketdyne s thought was the new engine might be needed for a ballistic missile, not that it was going to go on a moon shot.

  12. In Utero Nutritional Manipulation Provokes Dysregulated Adipocytokines Production in F1 Offspring in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hanafi, Mervat Y.; Saleh, Moustafa M.; Kamel, Maher A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Intrauterine environment plays a pivotal role in the origin of fatal diseases such as diabetes. Diabetes and obesity are associated with low-grade inflammatory state and dysregulated adipokines production. This study aims to investigate the effect of maternal obesity and malnutrition on adipokines production (adiponectin, leptin, and TNF-α) in F1 offspring in rats. Materials and Methods. Wistar rats were allocated in groups: F1 offspring of control mothers under control diet (CF1-CD) and under high-fat diet (CF1-HCD), F1 offspring of obese mothers under CD (OF1-CD) and under HCD (OF1-HCD), and F1 offspring of malnourished mothers under CD (MF1-CD) and under HCD (MF1-HCD). Every 5 weeks postnatally, blood samples were obtained for biochemical analysis. Results. At the end of the 30-week follow-up, OF1-HCD and MF1-HCD exhibited hyperinsulinemia, moderate dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and impaired glucose homeostasis compared to CF1-CD and CF1-HCD. OF1-HCD and MF1-HCD demonstrated low serum levels of adiponectin and high levels of leptin compared to CF1-CD and CF1-HCD. OF1-CD, OF1-HCD, and MF1-HCD had elevated serum levels of TNF-α compared to CF1-CD and CF1-HCD (p < 0.05). Conclusion. Maternal nutritional manipulation predisposes the offspring to development of insulin resistance in their adult life, probably via instigating dysregulated adipokines production. PMID:27200209

  13. 78 FR 36211 - Extension of Employment Authorization for Syrian F-1 Nonimmigrant Students Experiencing Severe...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... in Syria since March 2011. See 77 FR 20038 (Apr. 3, 2012). The original notice was effective from... the civil unrest in Syria since March 2011. See 77 FR 20038. It enabled these F-1 students to obtain... load requirement described in 77 FR 20038. See 8 CFR 214.2(f)(6)(i)(F). Who is covered under...

  14. F1 rotary motor of ATP synthase is driven by the torsionally-asymmetric drive shaft

    PubMed Central

    Kulish, O.; Wright, A. D.; Terentjev, E. M.

    2016-01-01

    F1F0 ATP synthase (ATPase) either facilitates the synthesis of ATP in a process driven by the proton moving force (pmf), or uses the energy from ATP hydrolysis to pump protons against the concentration gradient across the membrane. ATPase is composed of two rotary motors, F0 and F1, which compete for control of their shared γ -shaft. We present a self-consistent physical model of F1 motor as a simplified two-state Brownian ratchet using the asymmetry of torsional elastic energy of the coiled-coil γ -shaft. This stochastic model unifies the physical concepts of linear and rotary motors, and explains the stepped unidirectional rotary motion. Substituting the model parameters, all independently known from recent experiments, our model quantitatively reproduces the ATPase operation, e.g. the ‘no-load’ angular velocity is ca. 400 rad/s anticlockwise at 4 mM ATP. Increasing the pmf torque exerted by F0 can slow, stop and overcome the torque generated by F1, switching from ATP hydrolysis to synthesis at a very low value of ‘stall torque’. We discuss the motor efficiency, which is very low if calculated from the useful mechanical work it produces - but is quite high when the ‘useful outcome’ is measured in the number of H+ pushed against the chemical gradient. PMID:27321713

  15. Soluble human CD83 ameliorates lupus in NZB/W F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Starke, Charlotte; Steinkasserer, Alexander; Voll, Reinhard E; Zinser, Elisabeth

    2013-11-01

    In the present study we explored the immunomodulatory potential of prokaryotically expressed soluble CD83 in the treatment of murine lupus using the NZB/W F1 mouse model. Therefore female NZB/W F1 lupus mice were treated either with sCD83 or PBS for 4 weeks. sCD83 treated mice showed a significantly delayed onset of anti-dsDNA autoantibody production when compared with the control group. Importantly, during the treatment period with sCD83 none of the mice showed elevated levels of anti-dsDNA autoantibodies. In addition, NZB/W F1 mice which received sCD83 displayed lower concentrations of anti-histone IgG autoantibodies. Furthermore, there was no difference in total IgG antibodies, indicating a modulatory role for sCD83 in the production of self-reactive antibodies without decreasing total IgG. These results indicate that administration of sCD83 has profound immune-modulatory effects on the induction of autoantibodies in NZB/W F1 lupus mice and may thus be a promising approach to interfere with autoimmunity in SLE and other autoantibody-driven diseases.

  16. 26 CFR 301.6231(f)-1 - Disallowance of losses and credits in certain cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... section 6031 for a taxable year fails to file the return within the time prescribed; and (2) At any time... mailed establishes to the satisfaction of the Internal Revenue Service— (1) That the losses and credits... § 301.6231(f)-1T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001....

  17. 77 FR 59942 - Extension of Employment Authorization for Haitian F-1 Nonimmigrant Students Experiencing Severe...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... direct result of the January 12, 2010 earthquake in Haiti. See 75 FR 56120, September 15, 2010. The... economic hardship as a result of the January 12, 2010 earthquake. See 75 FR 56120. It enabled these F-1... earthquake may apply for employment authorization under the guidelines described in 75 FR 56120. This...

  18. 26 CFR 1.669(f)-1A - Character of capital gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....669(f)-1A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Treatment of Excess Distributions of Trusts Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning... distribution and the taxes attributable thereto (determined under § 1.665(d)-1A(c)) retain the character...

  19. 26 CFR 1.665(f)-1A - Undistributed capital gain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 1.665(f)-1A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Treatment of Excess Distributions of Trusts Applicable to Taxable Years... of such gains that are included in distributable net income under section 643(a)(3) and §...

  20. GACD: Integrated Software for Genetic Analysis in Clonal F1 and Double Cross Populations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luyan; Meng, Lei; Wu, Wencheng; Wang, Jiankang

    2015-01-01

    Clonal species are common among plants. Clonal F1 progenies are derived from the hybridization between 2 heterozygous clones. In self- and cross-pollinated species, double crosses can be made from 4 inbred lines. A clonal F1 population can be viewed as a double cross population when the linkage phase is determined. The software package GACD (Genetic Analysis of Clonal F1 and Double cross) is freely available public software, capable of building high-density linkage maps and mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) in clonal F1 and double cross populations. Three functionalities are integrated in GACD version 1.0: binning of redundant markers (BIN); linkage map construction (CDM); and QTL mapping (CDQ). Output of BIN can be directly used as input of CDM. After adding the phenotypic data, the output of CDM can be used as input of CDQ. Thus, GACD acts as a pipeline for genetic analysis. GACD and example datasets are freely available from www.isbreeding.net. PMID:26503825

  1. Initial Report for the Radiation Effects Research Foundation F1 Mail Survey.

    PubMed

    Milder, Cm; Sakata, R; Sugiyama, H; Sadakane, A; Utada, M; Cordova, Ka; Hida, A; Ohishi, W; Ozasa, K; Grant, Ej

    2016-01-01

    To study the full health effects of parental radiation exposure on the children of the atomic bomb survivors, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation developed a cohort of 76,814 children born to atomic bomb survivors (F1 generation) to assess cancer incidence and mortality from common adult diseases. In analyzing radiationassociated health information, it is important to be able to adjust for sociodemographic and lifestyle variations that may affect health. In order to gain this and other background information on the F1 cohort and to determine willingness to participate in a related clinical study, the F1 Mail Survey Questionnaire was designed with questions corresponding to relevant health, sociodemographic, and lifestyle indicators. Between the years 2000 and 2006, the survey was sent to a subset of the F1 Mortality Cohort. A total of 16,183 surveys were completed and returned: 10,980 surveys from Hiroshima residents and 5,203 from Nagasaki residents. The response rate was 65.6%, varying somewhat across parental exposure category, city, gender, and year of birth. Differences in health and lifestyle were noted in several variables on comparison across city and gender. No major differences in health, lifestyle, sociodemographics, or disease were seen across parental exposure categories, though statistically significant tests for heterogeneity and linear trend revealed some possible changes with dose. The data described herein provide a foundation for studies in the future. PMID:27039765

  2. F1 rotary motor of ATP synthase is driven by the torsionally-asymmetric drive shaft.

    PubMed

    Kulish, O; Wright, A D; Terentjev, E M

    2016-01-01

    F1F0 ATP synthase (ATPase) either facilitates the synthesis of ATP in a process driven by the proton moving force (pmf), or uses the energy from ATP hydrolysis to pump protons against the concentration gradient across the membrane. ATPase is composed of two rotary motors, F0 and F1, which compete for control of their shared γ -shaft. We present a self-consistent physical model of F1 motor as a simplified two-state Brownian ratchet using the asymmetry of torsional elastic energy of the coiled-coil γ -shaft. This stochastic model unifies the physical concepts of linear and rotary motors, and explains the stepped unidirectional rotary motion. Substituting the model parameters, all independently known from recent experiments, our model quantitatively reproduces the ATPase operation, e.g. the 'no-load' angular velocity is ca. 400 rad/s anticlockwise at 4 mM ATP. Increasing the pmf torque exerted by F0 can slow, stop and overcome the torque generated by F1, switching from ATP hydrolysis to synthesis at a very low value of 'stall torque'. We discuss the motor efficiency, which is very low if calculated from the useful mechanical work it produces - but is quite high when the 'useful outcome' is measured in the number of H(+) pushed against the chemical gradient. PMID:27321713

  3. 40 CFR Figure F-1 to Subpart F of... - Designation Testing Checklist

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Testing Performance Characteristics of Class II Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 Pt. 53, Subpt. F, Fig. F-1... Verification Y N NA Verified by Direct Observation of Process or of Documented Evidence: Performance, Design or Application Spec. Corresponding to Sections of 40 CFR Part 53, Subparts E and F Verification...

  4. The transcription factor E4F1 coordinates CHK1-dependent checkpoint and mitochondrial functions.

    PubMed

    Rodier, Geneviève; Kirsh, Olivier; Baraibar, Martín; Houlès, Thibault; Lacroix, Matthieu; Delpech, Hélène; Hatchi, Elodie; Arnould, Stéphanie; Severac, Dany; Dubois, Emeric; Caramel, Julie; Julien, Eric; Friguet, Bertrand; Le Cam, Laurent; Sardet, Claude

    2015-04-14

    Recent data support the notion that a group of key transcriptional regulators involved in tumorigenesis, including MYC, p53, E2F1, and BMI1, share an intriguing capacity to simultaneously regulate metabolism and cell cycle. Here, we show that another factor, the multifunctional protein E4F1, directly controls genes involved in mitochondria functions and cell-cycle checkpoints, including Chek1, a major component of the DNA damage response. Coordination of these cellular functions by E4F1 appears essential for the survival of p53-deficient transformed cells. Acute inactivation of E4F1 in these cells results in CHK1-dependent checkpoint deficiency and multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions that lead to increased ROS production, energy stress, and inhibition of de novo pyrimidine synthesis. This deadly cocktail leads to the accumulation of uncompensated oxidative damage to proteins and extensive DNA damage, ending in cell death. This supports the rationale of therapeutic strategies simultaneously targeting mitochondria and CHK1 for selective killing of p53-deficient cancer cells.

  5. Analysis of POU1F1 gene DdeI polymorphism in Chinese goats.

    PubMed

    Li, M J; Zhang, C M; Lan, X Y; Fang, X T; Lei, C Z; Chen, H

    2016-01-01

    As a member of the POU-domain family, the POU1F1 is a positive regulator for growth hormone, prolactin and thyroid-stimulating hormone b, by binding to target DNA promoters as a dimer in mammals. This study described the polymorphisms at the goat POU1F1-DdeI locus and analyzed the distribution of alleles in 15 indigenous Chinese goat breeds. The PCR-RFLP analysis showed a predominance of the D1D1 genotype and the D1 allele, with average frequencies of 0.550 and 0.790, respectively, irrespective of goat utility type. The D1D2 genotype was the second most frequent, with a mean frequency of 0.371. The distributions of genotypic and allelic frequencies at this locus were found to be significantly different among populations based on a Chi square test (P < 0.001), suggesting that the breed factor significantly affected the molecular genetic character of the POU1F1 gene. The genetic diversity analysis revealed that Chinese indigenous populations had a wide spectrum of genetic diversity at the goat POU1F1-DdeI locus. However, an ANOVA analysis revealed no significant differences in gene homozygosity, gene heterozygosity, effective allele numbers, or polymorphism information content among meat, dairy, and cashmere utility types (P > 0.05). This suggests that the goat utility types had no significant effect on the spectrum of genetic diversity. PMID:26985963

  6. Auto-Antibodies to β-F1-ATPase and Vimentin in Malignant Mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Creaney, Jenette; Dick, Ian M.; Yeoman, Deborah; Wong, Sarah; Robinson, Bruce W. S.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with Malignant Mesothelioma (MM) develop unidentified auto-antibodies to MM tumour antigens. This study was conducted to identify the targets of MM patient auto-antibodies in order to try to understand more of the anti-tumour response and to determine if these antibodies might be helpful for diagnosis or prognostication. Using MM patient sera in a Western immunoblott screening strategy, no common immunoreactive proteins were identified. The sera from one long-term survivor recognised a protein band of 50–60 kDa present in cell lysates from four of five MM cell lines tested. The immunoreactive proteins in this band were identified by 2D electrophoretic separation of a MM cell line protein lysate, followed by analysis of excised immunoreactive proteins on a MALDI TOF mass spectrometer and peptide mass fingerprinting. The immunoreactive proteins identified were vimentin (accession gi55977767) and the ATP synthase (F1-ATPase) beta chain (accession gi114549 and gi47606749). ELISA assays were developed for antibodies to these proteins. Neither vimentin (median and 95% CI 0.346; 0.32–0.468 for MM patients, 0.327; 0.308–0.428 for controls) nor ß-F1-ATPase (0.257; 0.221–0.453 for MM patients, 0.263; 0.22–0.35 for controls) showed significant differences in autoantibody levels between a group of MM patients and controls. Using a dichotomized antibody level (high, low) for these targets we demonstrated that vimentin antibody levels were not associated with survival. In contrast, high ß-F1-ATPase antibody levels were significantly associated with increased median survival (18 months) compared to low ß F1 ATPase antibody levels (9 months; p = 0.049). Immunohistochemical analysis on a MM tissue microarray showed cytoplasmic staining in 28 of 33 samples for vimentin and strong cytoplasmic staining in14 and weak in 16 samples for ß-F1-ATPase. Therefore antibodies to neither vimentin nor ß-F1-ATPase are useful for differential diagnosis of MM, however

  7. Canine gastric mucosal vasodilation with prostaglandins and histamine analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, J.G.; Nies, A.S.

    1982-10-01

    The effect of direct intragastric artery infusion of prostaglandins E2 and I2, arachidonic acid, dimaprit (histamine H2 agonist), and 2',2'-pyridylethylamine (histamine H1 agonist) on gastric mucosal blood flow was examined in dogs to elucidate the relationship between gastric secretory state and mucosal blood flow in dogs. These compounds were chosen because of their diverse effect on gastric acid secretion. Gastric fundus blood flow was measured both electromagnetically with a flow probe around the left gastric artery which supplies the fundus almost exclusively, and by the radioactive microsphere technique. Intraarterial infusion of all the compounds resulted in gastric mucosal vasodilation even though PGE2, PGI2, and arachidonic acid inhibit gastric acid secretion, dimaprit stimulated gastric acid secretion, and 2',2'-pyridylethylamine does not affect gastric acid secretion. There was total agreement in the blood flow measurements by the two different techniques. Our data suggest that gastric acid secretion and gastric vasodilation are independently regulated. In addition, the validity of the studies in which the aminopyrine clearance indicates that prostaglandins are mucosal vasoconstrictors needs to be questioned because of the reliance of those measurements on the secretory state of the stomach.

  8. Prostaglandins inhibit lipoprotein lipase gene expression in macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Desanctis, J B; Varesio, L; Radzioch, D

    1994-01-01

    In the present investigation of the effects of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene expression in macrophages, we observed that treatment of macrophages with PGE2 increased the levels of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP), while the addition of exogenous 5-bromo-cAMP to macrophage cultures resulted in down-regulation of LPL expression. Using indomethacin (INDO), an inhibitor of cyclo-oxygenase and prostaglandins production, we determined that PGE2 acts as a feedback inhibitor of LPL expression. We found that inhibited secretion of LPL protein in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated macrophages could be restored to control levels by the addition of INDO to the medium. In contrast, INDO did not reverse the inhibition of LPL mRNA induced by LPS. Overall, our results have demonstrated that PGE2 is a potent inhibitor of LPL gene expression and indicated that its action may play an important physiological role in the regulation of LPL gene expression during bacterial infections. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 Figure 7 PMID:8039811

  9. M2-F1 on lakebed with Pontiac convertible tow vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    The M2-F1 lifting body, dubbed the 'flying bathtub' by the media, was the precursor of a remarkable series of wingless flying vehicles that contributed data used in the space shuttle and the X-38 Technology Demonstrator for crew return from the International Space Station. The early tow tests were done using the 1963 Pontiac Catalina convertible modified for the purpose. The first flight attempt occurred on 1 March 1963 but was unsuccessful due to control-system problems. It was not until 5 April 1963, after tests in the Ames Research Center wind tunnel, that Milt Thompson made the first M2-F1 tow flight. Based on the ideas and basic design of Alfred J. Eggers and others at the Ames Aeronautical Laboratory (now the Ames Research Center), Mountain View, Calif., in the mid-1950s, the M2-F1 came to be built over a four-month period in 1962-63 for a cost of only about $30,000 plus perhaps an additional $8,000-$10,000 for an ejection seat and $10,000 for solid-propellant rockets to add time to the landing flare. Engineers and technicians at the NASA Flight Research Center (now NASA Dryden) kept costs low by designing and fabricating it partly in-house, with the plywood shell constructed by a local sailplane builder. Someone at the time estimated that it would have cost a major aircraft company $150,000 to build the same vehicle. Unlike the later lifting bodies, the M2-F1 was unpowered and was initially towed until it was airborne by a souped-up Pontiac convertible. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina

  10. Cervical dilatation by Lamicel--studies on the mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Nicolaides, K H; Welch, C C; Koullapis, E N; Filshie, G M

    1983-11-01

    Lamicel is a synthetic hydrophilic polymer tent which produces cervical softening and dilatation when inserted into the endocervical canal. To investigate the mechanism of action of Lamicel, the intrauterine pressure and levels of 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha, 13-14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F2 alpha, oestradiol and progesterone in plasma and amniotic fluid were measured in patients undergoing second trimester abortion. There was no significant change in any of the measured hormones during a 2-h treatment with Lamicel, but uterine activity increased significantly for 10 min after insertion, then settled spontaneously to below pre-treatment levels. Peripheral plasma levels of magnesium sulphate measured in patients undergoing first trimester abortion were not significantly raised after insertion of Lamicel. Light microscopic examination of cervical specimens, obtained at hysterectomy from patients pre-treated with Lamicel for 24 h, revealed minimum increase in vascularity, mast cell population and ground substance mucopolysaccharides. PMID:6688953

  11. Thermodynamic analysis of F1-ATPase rotary catalysis using high-speed imaging

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Rikiya; Minagawa, Yoshihiro; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    F1-ATPase (F1) is a rotary motor protein fueled by ATP hydrolysis. Although the mechanism for coupling rotation and catalysis has been well studied, the molecular details of individual reaction steps remain elusive. In this study, we performed high-speed imaging of F1 rotation at various temperatures using the total internal reflection dark-field (TIRDF) illumination system, which allows resolution of the F1 catalytic reaction into elementary reaction steps with a high temporal resolution of 72 µs. At a high concentration of ATP, F1 rotation comprised distinct 80° and 40° substeps. The 80° substep, which exhibited significant temperature dependence, is triggered by the temperature-sensitive reaction, whereas the 40° substep is triggered by ATP hydrolysis and the release of inorganic phosphate (Pi). Then, we conducted Arrhenius analysis of the reaction rates to obtain the thermodynamic parameters for individual reaction steps, that is, ATP binding, ATP hydrolysis, Pi release, and TS reaction. Although all reaction steps exhibited similar activation free energy values, ΔG‡ = 53–56 kJ mol−1, the contributions of the enthalpy (ΔH‡), and entropy (ΔS‡) terms were significantly different; the reaction steps that induce tight subunit packing, for example, ATP binding and TS reaction, showed high positive values of both ΔH‡ and ΔS‡. The results may reflect modulation of the excluded volume as a function of subunit packing tightness at individual reaction steps, leading to a gain or loss in water entropy. PMID:25262814

  12. Efficacies of immunotherapy with polypeptide vaccine from ProDer f 1 in asthmatic mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chaopin; Li, Qiuyu; Jiang, Yuxin

    2015-01-01

    Allergic asthma is associated with the major house dust mite group 1 allergens Der p 1 and Der f 1, which belongs to the papin-like protease family and is the most potent of indoor allergens and allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), is seen as effective intervention for the entity. The current study was designed to verify the SIT efficacies of the enzymatic hydrolysates (papain and trypsin) in mice with asthma. We initially developed the asthmatic mouse models with ProDer f 1, and respectively applied recombinant ProDer f 1 protein and the two kinds of enzymatic hydrolysates for SIT. The results were verified by measuring the contents of IL-4, IL-10, IL-17 and IFN-γ changed in both bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and supernatant of splenocyte culture as well as level changes of specific IgE and IgG2a in the serum. After SIT intervention, the symptoms of allergic inflammation was alleviated significantly in mice treated with ProDer f 1 protein and the two enzymatic hydrolysates via detection of the lung tissue sections, and infiltration of inflammatory cells was also notably depressed as compared with the models, though the epithelial structure in airways remained similar with the PBS group. In addition, we observed lower serum contents of the specific IgE antibody and lower levels of IL-4, IL-17 in BALF and splenic cells in mice undergone SIT, whereas specific IgG2a, IFN-γ and IL-10 in BALF and supernatant of splenocyte culture were higher as compared to the asthma group. The findings suggest the SIT using the above two kinds of hydrolysates may effectively inhibit the allergic inflammation in the airways of mouse models sensitized with ProDer f 1 protein. PMID:25932130

  13. Thermodynamic analysis of F1-ATPase rotary catalysis using high-speed imaging.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Rikiya; Minagawa, Yoshihiro; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2014-12-01

    F1-ATPase (F1) is a rotary motor protein fueled by ATP hydrolysis. Although the mechanism for coupling rotation and catalysis has been well studied, the molecular details of individual reaction steps remain elusive. In this study, we performed high-speed imaging of F1 rotation at various temperatures using the total internal reflection dark-field (TIRDF) illumination system, which allows resolution of the F1 catalytic reaction into elementary reaction steps with a high temporal resolution of 72 µs. At a high concentration of ATP, F1 rotation comprised distinct 80° and 40° substeps. The 80° substep, which exhibited significant temperature dependence, is triggered by the temperature-sensitive reaction, whereas the 40° substep is triggered by ATP hydrolysis and the release of inorganic phosphate (Pi). Then, we conducted Arrhenius analysis of the reaction rates to obtain the thermodynamic parameters for individual reaction steps, that is, ATP binding, ATP hydrolysis, Pi release, and TS reaction. Although all reaction steps exhibited similar activation free energy values, ΔG(‡) = 53-56 kJ mol(-1), the contributions of the enthalpy (ΔH(‡)), and entropy (ΔS(‡)) terms were significantly different; the reaction steps that induce tight subunit packing, for example, ATP binding and TS reaction, showed high positive values of both ΔH(‡) and ΔS(‡). The results may reflect modulation of the excluded volume as a function of subunit packing tightness at individual reaction steps, leading to a gain or loss in water entropy.

  14. E2F1 promote the aggressiveness of human colorectal cancer by activating the ribonucleotide reductase small subunit M2

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Zejun; Gong, Chaoju; Liu, Hong; Zhang, Xiaomin; Mei, Lingming; Song, Mintao; Qiu, Lanlan; Luo, Shuchai; Zhu, Zhihua; Zhang, Ronghui; Gu, Hongqian; Chen, Xiang

    2015-08-21

    As the ribonucleotide reductase small subunit, the high expression of ribonucleotide reductase small subunit M2 (RRM2) induces cancer and contributes to tumor growth and invasion. In several colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines, we found that the expression levels of RRM2 were closely related to the transcription factor E2F1. Mechanistic studies were conducted to determine the molecular basis. Ectopic overexpression of E2F1 promoted RRM2 transactivation while knockdown of E2F1 reduced the levels of RRM2 mRNA and protein. To further investigate the roles of RRM2 which was activated by E2F1 in CRC, CCK-8 assay and EdU incorporation assay were performed. Overexpression of E2F1 promoted cell proliferation in CRC cells, which was blocked by RRM2 knockdown attenuation. In the migration and invasion tests, overexpression of E2F1 enhanced the migration and invasion of CRC cells which was abrogated by silencing RRM2. Besides, overexpression of RRM2 reversed the effects of E2F1 knockdown partially in CRC cells. Examination of clinical CRC specimens demonstrated that both RRM2 and E2F1 were elevated in most cancer tissues compared to the paired normal tissues. Further analysis showed that the protein expression levels of E2F1 and RRM2 were parallel with each other and positively correlated with lymph node metastasis (LNM), TNM stage and distant metastasis. Consistently, the patients with low E2F1 and RRM2 levels have a better prognosis than those with high levels. Therefore, we suggest that E2F1 can promote CRC proliferation, migration, invasion and metastasis by regulating RRM2 transactivation. Understanding the role of E2F1 in activating RRM2 transcription will help to explain the relationship between E2F1 and RRM2 in CRC and provide a novel predictive marker for diagnosis and prognosis of the disease. - Highlights: • E2F1 promotes RRM2 transactivation in CRC cells. • E2F1 promotes the proliferation of CRC cells by activating RRM2. • E2F1 promotes the migration and

  15. Proposed Ames M2-F1, M1-L half-cone, and Langley lenticular bodies.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Dale Reed, who inaugurated the lifting-body flight research at NASA's Flight Research Center (later, Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA), originally proposed that three wooden outer shells be built. These would then be attached to the single internal steel structure. The three shapes were (viewer's left to right) the M2-F1, the M1-L, and a lenticular shape. Milt Thompson, who supported Reed's advocacy for a lifting-body research project, recommended that only the M2-F1 shell be built, believing that the M1-L shape was 'too radical,' while the lenticular one was 'too exotic.' Although the lenticular shape was often likened to that of a flying saucer, Reed's wife Donna called it the 'powder puff.' The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey

  16. M2-F1 mounted in NASA Ames Research Center 40x80 foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    After the first attempted ground-tow tests of the M2-F1 in March 1963, the vehicle was taken to the Ames Research Center, Mountain View, CA, for wind-tunnel testing. During these tests, Milt Thompson and others were in the M2-F1 to position the control surfaces for each test. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved adequate for the roughly 400 car tows that got the M2-F1 airborne to prove it could fly safely and to train pilots before they were towed behind a C

  17. M2-F1 in flight over lakebed on tow line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    After initial ground-tow flights of the M2-F1 using the Pontiac as a tow vehicle, the way was clear to make air tows behind a C-47. The first air tow took place on 16 August 1963. Pilot Milt Thompson found that the M2-F1 flew well, with good control. This first flight lasted less than two minutes from tow-line release to touchdown. The descent rate was 4,000 feet per minute. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially concieved as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved adequate for the roughly 400 car tows that got

  18. Wooden shell of M2-F1 being assembled at El Mirage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Wooden shell of the M2-F1 being assembled at El Mirage, CA. While Flight Research Center technicians built the internal steel structure of the M2-F1, sailplane builder Gus Briegleb built the vehicle's outer wooden shell. Its skin was 3/32-inch mahogany plywood, with 1/8-inch mahogany rib sections reinforced with spruce. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved adequate for the roughly 400 car tows that got the M2-F1 airborne to prove it could fly safely and to

  19. M2-F1 lifting body and Paresev 1B on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    In this photo of the M2-F1 lifting body and the Paresev 1B on the ramp, the viewer sees two vehicles representing different approaches to building a research craft to simulate a spacecraft able to land on the ground instead of splashing down in the ocean as the Mercury capsules did. The M2-F1 was a lifting body, a shape able to re-enter from orbit and land. The Paresev (Paraglider Research Vehicle) used a Rogallo wing that could be (but never was) used to replace a conventional parachute for landing a capsule-type spacecraft, allowing it to make a controlled landing on the ground. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop

  20. Loss of E2F1 Extends Survival and Accelerates Oral Tumor Growth in HPV-Positive Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Rong; Bechill, John; Spiotto, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with several human cancers, including head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). HPV expresses the viral oncogene E7 that binds to the retinoblastoma protein (RB1) in order to activate the E2F pathway. RB1 can mediate contradictory pathways-cell growth and cell death via E2F family members. Here, we assessed the extent to which E2F1 mediates lethality of HPV oncogenes. Ubiquitous expression of the HPV oncogenes E6 and E7 caused lethality in mice that was associated with focal necrosis in hepatocytes and pancreatic tissues. Furthermore, all organs expressing HPV oncogenes displayed up-regulation of several E2F1 target genes. The E2F1 pathway mediated lethality in HPV-positive mice because deletion of E2F1 increased survival of mice ubiquitously expressing HPV oncogenes. E2F1 similarly functioned as a tumor suppressor in HPV-positive oral tumors as tumors grew faster with homozygous loss of E2F1 compared to tumors with heterozygous loss of E2F1. Re-expression of E2F1 caused decreased clonogenicity in HPV-positive cancer cells. Our results indicate that HPV oncogenes activated the E2F1 pathway to cause lethality in normal mice and to suppress oral tumor growth. These results suggest that selective modulation of the E2F1 pathway, which is activated in HPV tumors, may facilitate tumor regression.

  1. The regulatory switch of F1-ATPase studied by single-molecule FRET in the ABEL trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bockenhauer, Samuel D.; Duncan, Thomas M.; Moerner, W. E.; Börsch, Michael

    2014-03-01

    F1-ATPase is the soluble portion of the membrane-embedded enzyme FoF1-ATP synthase that catalyzes the production of adenosine triphosphate in eukaryotic and eubacterial cells. In reverse, the F1 part can also hydrolyze ATP quickly at three catalytic binding sites. Therefore, catalysis of 'non-productive' ATP hydrolysis by F1 (or FoF1) must be minimized in the cell. In bacteria, the ɛ subunit is thought to control and block ATP hydrolysis by mechanically inserting its C-terminus into the rotary motor region of F1. We investigate this proposed mechanism by labeling F1 specifically with two fluorophores to monitor the C-terminus of the ɛ subunit by Förster resonance energy transfer. Single F1 molecules are trapped in solution by an Anti-Brownian electrokinetic trap which keeps the FRET-labeled F1 in place for extended observation times of several hundreds of milliseconds, limited by photobleaching. FRET changes in single F1 and FRET histograms for different biochemical conditions are compared to evaluate the proposed regulatory mechanism.

  2. Sequence Conservation and Sexually Dimorphic Expression of the Ftz-F1 Gene in the Crustacean Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Mohamad Ishak, Nur Syafiqah; Kato, Yasuhiko; Matsuura, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the genes required for environmental sex determination is important for understanding the evolution of diverse sex determination mechanisms in animals. Orthologs of Drosophila orphan receptor Fushi tarazu factor-1 (Ftz-F1) are known to function in genetic sex determination. In contrast, their roles in environmental sex determination remain unknown. In this study, we have cloned and characterized the Ftz-F1 ortholog in the branchiopod crustacean Daphnia magna, which produces males in response to environmental stimuli. Similar to that observed in Drosophila, D. magna Ftz-F1 (DapmaFtz-F1) produces two splicing variants, αFtz-F1 and βFtz-F1, which encode 699 and 777 amino acids, respectively. Both isoforms share a DNA-binding domain, a ligand-binding domain, and an AF-2 activation domain and differ only at the A/B domain. The phylogenetic position and genomic structure of DapmaFtz-F1 suggested that this gene has diverged from an ancestral gene common to branchiopod crustacean and insect Ftz-F1 genes. qRT-PCR showed that at the one cell and gastrulation stages, both DapmaFtz-F1 isoforms are two-fold more abundant in males than in females. In addition, in later stages, their sexual dimorphic expressions were maintained in spite of reduced expression. Time-lapse imaging of DapmaFtz-F1 RNAi embryos was performed in H2B-GFP expressing transgenic Daphnia, demonstrating that development of the RNAi embryos slowed down after the gastrulation stage and stopped at 30-48 h after ovulation. DapmaFtz-F1 shows high homology to insect Ftz-F1 orthologs based on its amino acid sequence and exon-intron organization. The sexually dimorphic expression of DapmaFtz-F1 suggests that it plays a role in environmental sex determination of D. magna. PMID:27138373

  3. Sequence Conservation and Sexually Dimorphic Expression of the Ftz-F1 Gene in the Crustacean Daphnia magna

    PubMed Central

    Mohamad Ishak, Nur Syafiqah; Kato, Yasuhiko; Matsuura, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the genes required for environmental sex determination is important for understanding the evolution of diverse sex determination mechanisms in animals. Orthologs of Drosophila orphan receptor Fushi tarazu factor-1 (Ftz-F1) are known to function in genetic sex determination. In contrast, their roles in environmental sex determination remain unknown. In this study, we have cloned and characterized the Ftz-F1 ortholog in the branchiopod crustacean Daphnia magna, which produces males in response to environmental stimuli. Similar to that observed in Drosophila, D. magna Ftz-F1 (DapmaFtz-F1) produces two splicing variants, αFtz-F1 and βFtz-F1, which encode 699 and 777 amino acids, respectively. Both isoforms share a DNA-binding domain, a ligand-binding domain, and an AF-2 activation domain and differ only at the A/B domain. The phylogenetic position and genomic structure of DapmaFtz-F1 suggested that this gene has diverged from an ancestral gene common to branchiopod crustacean and insect Ftz-F1 genes. qRT-PCR showed that at the one cell and gastrulation stages, both DapmaFtz-F1 isoforms are two-fold more abundant in males than in females. In addition, in later stages, their sexual dimorphic expressions were maintained in spite of reduced expression. Time-lapse imaging of DapmaFtz-F1 RNAi embryos was performed in H2B-GFP expressing transgenic Daphnia, demonstrating that development of the RNAi embryos slowed down after the gastrulation stage and stopped at 30–48 h after ovulation. DapmaFtz-F1 shows high homology to insect Ftz-F1 orthologs based on its amino acid sequence and exon-intron organization. The sexually dimorphic expression of DapmaFtz-F1 suggests that it plays a role in environmental sex determination of D. magna. PMID:27138373

  4. Prostaglandin E2-prostaglandin E receptor subtype 4 (EP4) signaling mediates UV irradiation-induced systemic immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Soontrapa, Kitipong; Honda, Tetsuya; Sakata, Daiji; Yao, Chengcan; Hirata, Takako; Hori, Shohei; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Kita, Yoshihiro; Shimizu, Takao; Kabashima, Kenji; Narumiya, Shuh

    2011-04-19

    UV radiation induces systemic immunosuppression. Because nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs suppress UV-induced immunosuppression, prostanoids have been suspected as a crucial mediator of this UV effect. However, the identity of the prostanoid involved and its mechanism of action remain unclear. Here, we addressed this issue by subjecting mice deficient in each prostanoid receptor individually or mice treated with a subtype-specific antagonist to UV irradiation. Mice treated with an antagonist for prostaglandin E receptor subtype 4 (EP4), but not those deficient in other prostanoid receptors, show impaired UV-induced immunosuppression, whereas administration of an EP4 agonist rescues the impairment of the UV-induced immunosuppression in indomethacin-treated mice. The EP4 antagonist treatment suppresses an increase in the number of CD4(+)/forkhead box P3-positive (Foxp3(+)) regulatory T cells (Treg cells) in the peripheral lymph nodes (LNs) and dendritic cells expressing DEC205 in the LNs and the skin after UV irradiation. Furthermore, the EP4 antagonist treatment down-regulates UV-induced expression of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) in skin keratinocytes. Finally, administration of anti-RANKL antibody abolishes the restoration of UV-induced immunosuppression by EP4 agonism in indomethacin-treated mice. Thus, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2))-EP4 signaling mediates UV-induced immunosuppression by elevating the number of Treg cells through regulation of RANKL expression in the epidermis.

  5. M2-F1 in flight during low-speed car tow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    The M2-F1 shown in flight during a low-speed car tow runs across the lakebed. Such tests allowed about two minutes to test the vehicle's handling in flight. NASA Flight Research Center (later redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center) personnel conducted as many as 8 to 14 ground-tow flights in a single day either to test the vehicle in preparation for air tows or to train pilots to fly the vehicle before they undertook air tows. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially concieved as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30

  6. M2-F1 fabrication by Grierson Hamilton, Bob Green, and Ed Browne

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Flight Research Center discretionary funds paid for the M2-F-1's construction. NASA mechanics, sheet-metal smiths, and technicians did much of the work in a curtained-off area of a hangar called the 'Wright Bicycle Shop.' The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved adequate for the roughly 400 car tows that got the M2-F1 airborne to prove it could fly safely and to train pilots before they were towed behind a C-47 aircraft and released. These initial car-tow tests

  7. Prostaglandin I2 and prostaglandin E2 modulate human intrarenal artery contractility through prostaglandin E2-EP4, prostacyclin-IP, and thromboxane A2-TP receptors.

    PubMed

    Eskildsen, Morten P; Hansen, Pernille B L; Stubbe, Jane; Toft, Anja; Walter, Steen; Marcussen, Niels; Rasmussen, Lars M; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Jensen, Boye L

    2014-09-01

    Cyclooxygenase inhibitors decrease renal blood flow in settings with decreased effective circulating volume. The present study examined the hypothesis that prostaglandins, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostacyclin (PGI2), induce relaxation of human intrarenal arteries through PGE2-EP and PGI2-IP receptors. Intrarenal arteries were microdissected from human nephrectomy samples (n=53, median diameter ≈362 μm, 88% viable, 76% relaxed in response to acetylcholine). Rings were suspended in myographs to record force development. In vessels with K(+)-induced tension (EC70: -log [mol/L]=1.36±0.03), PGE2 and PGI2 induced concentration-dependent relaxation (-log EC50: PGE2=7.1±0.3 and PGI2=7.7). The response to PGE2 displayed endothelium dependence and desensitization. Relaxation by PGE2 was mimicked by an EP4 receptor agonist (CAY10598, EC50=6.7±0.2). The relaxation after PGI2 was abolished by an IP receptor antagonist (BR5064, 10(-8) mol/L). Pretreatment of quiescent arteries with PGE2 for 5 minutes (10(-6) mol/L) led to a significant right shift of the concentration-response to norepinephrine (EC50 from 6.6±0.1-5.9±0.1). In intrarenal arteries with K(+)-induced tone, PGE2 and PGI2 at 10(-5) mol/L elicited increased tension. This was abolished by thromboxane receptor (TP) antagonist (S18886, 10(-6) mol/L). A TP agonist (U46619, n=6) evoked tension (EC50=8.1±0.2) that was inhibited by S18886. Polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting showed EP4, IP, and TP receptors in intrarenal arteries. In conclusion, PGE2 and PGI2 may protect renal perfusion by activating cognate IP and EP4 receptors associated with smooth muscle cells and endothelium in human intrarenal arteries and contribute to increased renal vascular resistance at high pathological concentrations mediated by noncognate TP receptor.

  8. Effects of Prostaglandin F2α on Corpora Lutea Formation and Function in Mated Bitches

    PubMed Central

    Paradis, M.; Post, K.; Mapletoft, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    Fifteen mated bitches were used to study the effects of prostaglandin F2α on ovarian endocrine function during the early and midluteal phase. Five dogs were kept as controls, five were given 250 μg/kg prostaglandin F2α twice daily between the first and fifth day of metestrus, and five were similarly treated with prostaglandin F2α between 31 and 35 days of metestrus. Function of corpora lutea was monitored by measuring serum progesterone concentrations during the first 45 days of gestation. Dogs treated with prostaglandin F2α during the early luteal phase had progesterone concentrations similar to controls and pregnancies were undisturbed in both groups. A dramatic decrease in serum progesterone concentration and abortion resulted after prostaglandin F2α administration at midpregnancy. These results indicate that prostaglandin F2α was not luteolytic during the early luteal phase and was therefore ineffective for preventing pregnancy at that time. However, at the dosage and frequency used in this study, prostaglandin F2α was luteolytic and abortifacient at midgestation. PMID:17422289

  9. Piglet mortality: the impact of induction of farrowing using prostaglandins and oxytocin.

    PubMed

    Kirkden, R D; Broom, D M; Andersen, I L

    2013-04-01

    Induction is usually carried out by administering prostaglandins (prostaglandin F2α or a synthetic analogue). Other hormones, most commonly oxytocin, may also be given. The primary objective is to increase the synchrony of farrowing. This facilitates farrowing supervision, early fostering and 'all in, all out' management of the farrowing house, all of which have the potential to decrease piglet mortality. However, there are also risks, including decreased piglet viability when farrowing is induced too early and an increased probability of dystocia associated with oxytocin use. What are the effects of induction procedures on mortality in pigs? With respect to prostaglandins, studies show that the date of induction and the level of supervision provided are important factors affecting piglet mortality. We recommend administering prostaglandins no earlier than 2d before the expected farrowing date for the herd. Some studies have reported that prostaglandin induction decreases stillbirth and live-born mortality and this is probably due to increased farrowing supervision. The incidence of postpartum dysgalactia syndrome is also decreased in herds with a high prevalence of this condition. Inconsistent effects on the progress of farrowing are reported following the routine administration of oxytocin 20-24h after prostaglandin. Although there is generally no effect on stillbirth rate, dystocia may increase. Earlier administration of low doses may decrease stillbirths, but this requires further research. Carbetocin, a long-acting analogue of oxytocin, is a possible alternative. We recommend that prostaglandin induction be used in conjunction with skilled farrowing supervision to decrease piglet mortality.

  10. Acute prostaglandin reduction with indomethacin and chronic prostaglandin reduction with an essential fatty acid deficient diet both decrease plasma flow to the renal papilla in the rat.

    PubMed

    Ganguli, M; Tobian, L; Ferris, T; Johnson, M A

    1989-07-01

    Renal distribution of prostaglandin synthetase is mainly medullary, whereas the major degrading enzyme, prostaglandin dehydrogenase is primarily cortical. This suggests that prostaglandins (PG) released from the renal medulla could affect the medullary blood vessels. In two different experiments we studied the role of PG in the regulation of renal papillary plasma flow in the rat. First study: PG synthesis were stimulated in 34 adult Sprague-Dawley rats by bleeding from the femoral artery 1% of the body weight over a period of 10 minutes. Following this, indomethacin (a PG inhibitor, 10 mg/kg i.v.) was given slowly and then renal papillary plasma flow was measured 25 minutes after the end of infusion. In 17 indomethacin rats the renal papillary plasma flow averaged 18.8 ml/100 g/minute, whereas it averaged 23.0 in 17 non-indomethacin rats given diluent, an 18% reduction (p less than .025). Second study: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were made prostaglandin deficient by fasting rats for one week, followed by 10% dextrose fluid for one week and subsequent institution of an essential fatty acid (EFA) deficient diet for two weeks. With urinary PG excretion in prostaglandin deficient rats 28 ng/24 hours compared to 149 ng in control rats, they could be considered as prostaglandin deficient. When renal papillary plasma flow was measured, the 16 prostaglandin deficient rats had a 16% lower papillary plasma flow than 16 control rats, 21.6 vs 25.6 (p less than .005). These results clearly demonstrate that PG inhibition in rats decreases plasma flow to the papilla, strongly suggesting that PG are vasodilators for the vessels supplying the renal papilla.

  11. Direct analysis of airborne mite allergen (Der f1) in the residential atmosphere by chemifluorescent immunoassay using bioaerosol sampler.

    PubMed

    Miyajima, Kumiko; Suzuki, Yurika; Miki, Daisuke; Arai, Moeka; Arakawa, Takahiro; Shimomura, Hiroji; Shiba, Kiyoko; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2014-06-01

    Dermatophagoides farinae allergen (Der f1) is one of the most important indoor allergens associated with allergic diseases in humans. Mite allergen Der f1 is usually associated with particles of high molecular weight; thus, Der f1 is generally present in settled dust. However, a small quantity of Der f1 can be aerosolized and become an airborne component. Until now, a reliable method of detecting airborne Der f1 has not been developed. The aim of this study was to develop a fiber-optic chemifluorescent immunoassay for the detection of airborne Der f1. In this method, the Der f1 concentration measured on the basis of the intensity of fluorescence amplified by an enzymatic reaction between the labeled enzyme by a detection antibody and a fluorescent substrate. The measured Der f1 concentration was in the range from 0.49 to 250 ng/ml and a similar range was found by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This method was proved to be highly sensitive to Der f1 compared with other airborne allergens. For the implementation of airborne allergen measurement in a residential environment, a bioaerosol sampler was constructed. The airborne allergen generated by a nebulizer was conveyed to a newly sampler we developed for collecting airborne Der f1. The sampler was composed of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) cells for gas/liquid phases and some porous membranes which were sandwiched in between the two phases. Der f1 in air was collected by the sampler and measured using the fiber-optic immunoassay system. The concentration of Der f1 in aerosolized standards was in the range from 0.125 to 2.0 mg/m(3) and the collection rate of the device was approximately 0.2%.

  12. Interactive effect of histamine and prostaglandin D2 on nasal allergic symptoms in rats.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Ashequr; Inoue, Toshio; Ago, Jun; Ishikawa, Takashi; Kamei, Chiaki

    2007-01-12

    This study was undertaken to investigate the interactive effect of histamine and prostaglandin D(2) in nasal allergic symptoms in rats. The intranasal application of histamine at doses lower than 10 mumol/site caused no sneezing or nasal rubbing. In addition, prostaglandin D(2) also showed no significant increase in these responses, even at a dose of 10 nmol/site. On the other hand, the simultaneous instillation of histamine and prostaglandin D(2) resulted in a 1000 times more potent effect in inducing nasal symptoms than the administration of histamine alone. Thus, prostaglandin D(2) enhanced the actions of histamine in inducing sneezing and nasal rubbing in a dose-dependent manner, and significant effects were observed at doses higher than 1 nmol/site. The responses induced by the simultaneous application of histamine and prostaglandin D(2) were inhibited by chlorpheniramine, cyproheptadine, BW A868C and ramatroban. Chlorpheniramine and cyproheptadine showed the dose-related inhibition of nasal symptoms induced by the combined administration of histamine (10 nmol) and prostaglandin D(2) (10 nmol), but the effect of cyproheptadine was relatively weak compared with chlorpheniramine. Moreover, BW A868C and ramatroban also showed the inhibition of nasal symptoms induced by the simultaneous administration of histamine and prostaglandin D(2) in a dose-dependent manner. BW A868C was more potent in inhibiting the nasal symptoms than ramatroban. These results clearly indicate that prostaglandin D(2) showed a synergistic effect on sneezing and nasal rubbing induced by histamine in rats, and its effect occurred through both prostaglandin D(2) and CRTH2 (chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on TH2 cells) receptors.

  13. The alpha-subunit of the maize F(1)-ATPase is synthesised in the mitochondrion.

    PubMed

    Hack, E; Leaver, C J

    1983-01-01

    The F(1)-ATPase complex has been purified from maize (Zea mays L.) mitochondria and shown to consist of five subunits with mol. wts. of 58 000 (alpha), 56 000 (beta), 35 000 (gamma), 22 000 (delta) and 8000 (epsilon). The alpha-subunit co-migrates on one- and two- dimensional isoelectric focussing-SDS polyacrylamide gels with the major polypeptide synthesised by isolated mitochondria. One-dimensional proteolytic peptide mapping and immunoprecipitation confirms that the alpha-subunit is a mitochondrial translation product and therefore presumably encoded in mitochondrial DNA. This contrasts with the situation in animal and fungal cells where all five subunits of the F(1)-ATPase are encoded by the nuclear genome and synthesised on cytosolic ribosomes.

  14. E2F1 and p53 Transcription Factors as Accessory Factors for Nucleotide Excision Repair

    PubMed Central

    Vélez-Cruz, Renier; Johnson, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Many of the biochemical details of nucleotide excision repair (NER) have been established using purified proteins and DNA substrates. In cells however, DNA is tightly packaged around histones and other chromatin-associated proteins, which can be an obstacle to efficient repair. Several cooperating mechanisms enhance the efficiency of NER by altering chromatin structure. Interestingly, many of the players involved in modifying chromatin at sites of DNA damage were originally identified as regulators of transcription. These include ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers, histone modifying enzymes and several transcription factors. The p53 and E2F1 transcription factors are well known for their abilities to regulate gene expression in response to DNA damage. This review will highlight the underappreciated, transcription-independent functions of p53 and E2F1 in modifying chromatin structure in response to DNA damage to promote global NER. PMID:23202967

  15. Development of High Speed Digital Camera: EXILIM EX-F1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nojima, Osamu

    The EX-F1 is a high speed digital camera featuring a revolutionary improvement in burst shooting speed that is expected to create entirely new markets. This model incorporates a high speed CMOS sensor and a high speed LSI processor. With this model, CASIO has achieved an ultra-high speed 60 frames per second (fps) burst rate for still images, together with 1,200 fps high speed movie that captures movements which cannot even be seen by human eyes. Moreover, this model can record movies at full High-Definition. After launching it into the market, it was able to get a lot of high appraisals as an innovation camera. We will introduce the concept, features and technologies about the EX-F1.

  16. Lack of carcinogenicity of tragacanth gum in B6C3F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, A; Boonyaphiphat, P; Kawabe, M; Naito, H; Shirai, T; Ito, N

    1992-08-01

    Tragacanth gum was administered at dietary levels of 0 (control), 1.25 and 5.0% to groups of 50 male and 50 female B6C3F1 mice for 96 wk after which all animals were maintained on a basal diet without tragacanth gum for a further 10 wk. Mean body weights of females in the 5.0% and 1.25% groups were lower than those of the controls after 11 and 16 wk, respectively. However, there were no treatment-related clinical signs or adverse effects on survival rate, urinalysis, haematology, blood biochemistry and organ weight. While detailed histopathology revealed the development of squamous cell hyperplasias, papillomas and one carcinoma in the forestomach, there was no significant treatment-related increase in the incidence of any preneoplastic or neoplastic lesion. Thus, under the experimental conditions used, tragacanth gum was not carcinogenic in B6C3F1 mice of either sex.

  17. On the structural possibility of pore-forming mitochondrial FoF1 ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Gerle, Christoph

    2016-08-01

    The mitochondrial permeability transition is an inner mitochondrial membrane event involving the opening of the permeability transition pore concomitant with a sudden efflux of matrix solutes and breakdown of membrane potential. The mitochondrial F(o)F(1) ATP synthase has been proposed as the molecular identity of the permeability transition pore. The likeliness of potential pore-forming sites in the mitochondrial F(o)F(1) ATP synthase is discussed and a new model, the death finger model, is described. In this model, movement of a p-side density that connects the lipid-plug of the c-ring with the distal membrane bending Fo domain allows reversible opening of the c-ring and structural cross-talk with OSCP and the catalytic (αβ)(3) hexamer. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2-6, 2016', edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi.

  18. Axle-less F1-ATPase rotates in the correct direction.

    PubMed

    Furuike, Shou; Hossain, Mohammad Delawar; Maki, Yasushi; Adachi, Kengo; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Kohori, Ayako; Itoh, Hiroyasu; Yoshida, Masasuke; Kinosita, Kazuhiko

    2008-02-15

    F1-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) is an ATP-driven rotary molecular motor in which the central gamma subunit rotates inside a cylinder made of three alpha and three beta subunits alternately arranged. The rotor shaft, an antiparallel alpha-helical coiled coil of the amino and carboxyl termini of the gamma subunit, deeply penetrates the central cavity of the stator cylinder. We truncated the shaft step by step until the remaining rotor head would be outside the cavity and simply sat on the concave entrance of the stator orifice. All truncation mutants rotated in the correct direction, implying torque generation, although the average rotary speeds were low and short mutants exhibited moments of irregular motion. Neither a fixed pivot nor a rigid axle was needed for rotation of F1-ATPase. PMID:18276891

  19. Kinetics and chemomechanical properties of the F1-ATPase molecular motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming S.; Todd, B. D.; Sadus, Richard J.

    2003-06-01

    F1-ATPase hydrolyzes ATP into ADP and Pi and converts chemical energy into mechanical rotation with exceptionally high efficiency. This energy-transducing molecular motor increasingly attracts interest for its unique cellular functions and promising application in nanobiotechnology. To better understand the chemomechanics of rotation and loading dynamics of F1-ATPase, we propose a computational model based on enzyme kinetics and Langevin dynamics. We show that the torsional energy and stepwise rotation can be regulated by a series of near-equilibrium reactions when nucleotides bind or unbind, as well as characterized by an effective "ratchet" drag coefficient and a fitting chemomechanic coefficient. For the case of driving an actin filament, the theoretical load-rotation profile is analyzed and comparison with experimental data indicates reasonable agreement. The chemomechanics described in this work is of fundamental importance to all ATP-fueled motor proteins.

  20. Reproductive isolation on interspecific backcross of F1 pollen to parental species, Hemerocallis fulva and H. citrina (Hemerocallidaceae).

    PubMed

    Yasumoto, Akiko A; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2008-05-01

    Reproductive failure of backcross could play important roles in determining the evolutionary outcome of hybridization. However, such studies have been somewhat fewer than those of the F1-producing cross and F1 x F1 cross. We conducted hand-pollination backcross experiments using Hemerocallis fulva, H. citrina, and their F1 hybrids. Seed set per flower of the backcrosses reduced to about 50% of the control cross, irrespective of ovule parent species. This symmetrical seed set reduction on the backcross might be caused by the death of backcross embryo as a result of Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibility by recessive alleles. PMID:18301862

  1. E2F1 Hinders Skin Wound Healing by Repressing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Expression, Neovascularization, and Macrophage Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ning; Wang, Haiping; Deng, Pei; Xu, Yi; Feng, Youping; Zeng, Hong; Yang, Hongxia; Hou, Kai; Wang, Andrew; Parthasarathy, Keshav; Goyal, Samaksh; Qin, Gangjian; Wu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Background Refractory surface of wound and dermal chronic ulcer are largely attributed to poor neovascularization. We have previously shown that E2F1 suppresses VEGF expression in the ischemic heart, and that genetic deletion of E2F1 leads to better cardiac recovery. However, whether E2F1 has a role in dermal wound healing is currently not known. Methods and Results Skin wounds were surgically induced in E2F1-null (E2F1–/–) mice and WT littermates. E2F1–/– displayed an accelerated wound healing including wound closure, dermal thickening and collagen deposition, which was associated with an increased endothelial cell proliferation and greater vessel density in the border zone of the wound. Furthermore, more macrophages were recruited to the skin lesions and the level of VEGF expression was markedly higher in E2F1–/– than in WT mice. Conclusions E2F1 hinders skin wound healing by suppressing VEGF expression, neovascularization, and macrophage recruitment. Strategies that target E2F1 may enhance wound healing. PMID:27490344

  2. Involvement of the CDK2-E2F1 pathway in cisplatin cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fang; Megyesi, Judit; Safirstein, Robert L; Price, Peter M

    2007-07-01

    E2F1 is a key regulator that links cell cycle progression and cell death. E2F1 activity is controlled by Cdk2-cyclin complexes via several mechanisms, such as phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (pRb) to release E2F1, direct phosphorylation, and stable physical interaction. We have demonstrated that cisplatin cytotoxicity depends on Cdk2 activity, and Cdk2 inhibition protects kidney cells from cisplatin-induced cell death in vitro and in vivo. Now we show that E2F1 is an important downstream effector of Cdk2 that accumulates in mouse kidneys and in cultured mouse proximal tubular cells (TKPTS) after cisplatin exposure by a Cdk2-dependent mechanism. Direct inhibition of E2F1 by transduction with adenoviruses expressing an E2F1-binding protein (TopBP1) protected TKPTS cells from cisplatin-induced apoptosis, whereas overexpression of E2F1 caused cell death. Moreover, E2F1 knockout mice were markedly protected against cisplatin nephrotoxicity by both functional and histological criteria. Collectively, cisplatin-induced cell death is dependent on Cdk2 activity, which is at least partly through the Cdk2-E2F1 pathway both in vitro and in vivo.

  3. Human Herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) and HHV-6B Alter E2F1/Rb Pathways and E2F1 Localization and Cause Cell Cycle Arrest in Infected T Cells▿

    PubMed Central

    Mlechkovich, Guy; Frenkel, Niza

    2007-01-01

    E2F transcription factors play pivotal roles in controlling the expression of genes involved in cell viability as well as genes involved in cell death. E2F1 is an important constituent of this protein family, which thus far contains eight members. The interaction of E2F1 with its major regulator, retinoblastoma protein (Rb), has been studied extensively in the past two decades, concentrating on the role of E2F1 in transcriptional regulation and the role of Rb in cell replication and cancer formation. Additionally, the effect of viral infections on E2F1/Rb interactions has been analyzed for different viruses, concentrating on cell division, which is essential for viral replication. In the present study, we monitored E2F1-Rb interactions during human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) and HHV-6B infections of SupT1 T cells. The results have shown the following dramatic alterations in E2F1-Rb pathways compared to the pathways of parallel mock-infected control cultures. (i) The E2F1 levels were elevated during viral infections. (ii) The cellular localization of E2F1 was dramatically altered, and it was found to accumulate both in the cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions, as opposed to the strict nuclear localization seen in the mock-infected cells. (iii) Although E2F1 expression was elevated, two exemplary target genes, cyclin E and MCM5, were not upregulated. (iv) The Rb protein was dephosphorylated early postinfection, a trait that also occurred with UV-inactivated virus. (v) Infection was associated with significant reduction of E2F1/Rb complexing. (vi) HHV-6 infections were accompanied by cell cycle arrest. The altered E2F1-Rb interactions and functions might contribute to the observed cell cycle arrest. PMID:17913805

  4. VIIRS F1 "best" relative spectral response characterization by the government team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeller, Chris; McIntire, Jeff; Schwarting, Tom; Moyer, Dave

    2011-10-01

    The VIIRS Flight 1 (F1) instrument completed sensor level testing, including relative spectral response (RSR) characterization in 2009 and is moving forward towards a launch on the NPP platform late in 2011. As part of its mandate to produce analyses of F1 performance essentials, the VIIRS Government Team, consisting of NASA, Aerospace Corp., and MIT/Lincoln Lab elements, has produced an independent (from that of industry) analysis of F1 RSR. The test data used to derive RSR for all VIIRS spectral bands was collected in the TVAC environment using the Spectral Measurement Assembly (SpMA), a dual monochromator system with tungsten and ceramic glow bar sources. These spectrally contiguous measurements were analyzed by the Government Team to produce a complete in-band + out-of-band RSR for 21 of the 22 VIIRS bands (exception of the Day-Night Band). The analysis shows that VIIRS RSR was well measured in the pre-launch test program for all bands, although the measurement noise floor is high on the thermal imager band I5. The RSR contain expected detector to detector variation resulting from the VIIRS non-telecentric optical design, and out-of-band features are present in some bands; non-compliances on the integrated out-of-band spectral performance metric are noted in M15 and M16A,B bands and also for several VisNIR bands, though the VisNIR non-compliances were expected due to known scattering in the VisNIR integrated filter assembly. The Government Team "best" RSR have been released into the public domain for use by the science community in preparation for the post-launch era of VIIRS F1.

  5. Manipulations in the Peripheral Stalk of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae F1F0-ATP Synthase*

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Amanda K.; Bostwick, Caleb J.; Cain, Brian D.

    2011-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae F1F0-ATP synthase peripheral stalk is composed of the OSCP, h, d, and b subunits. The b subunit has two membrane-spanning domains and a large hydrophilic domain that extends along one side of the enzyme to the top of F1. In contrast, the Escherichia coli peripheral stalk has two identical b subunits, and subunits with substantially altered lengths can be incorporated into a functional F1F0-ATP synthase. The differences in subunit structure between the eukaryotic and prokaryotic peripheral stalks raised a question about whether the two stalks have similar physical and functional properties. In the present work, the length of the S. cerevisiae b subunit has been manipulated to determine whether the F1F0-ATP synthase exhibited the same tolerances as in the bacterial enzyme. Plasmid shuffling was used for ectopic expression of altered b subunits in a strain carrying a chromosomal disruption of the ATP4 gene. Wild type growth phenotypes were observed for insertions of up to 11 and a deletion of four amino acids on a nonfermentable carbon source. In mitochondria-enriched fractions, abundant ATP hydrolysis activity was seen for the insertion mutants. ATPase activity was largely oligomycin-insensitive in these mitochondrial fractions. In addition, very poor complementation was seen in a mutant with an insertion of 14 amino acids. Lengthier deletions yielded a defective enzyme. The results suggest that although the eukaryotic peripheral stalk is near its minimum length, the b subunit can be extended a considerable distance. PMID:21257750

  6. Manipulations in the peripheral stalk of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae F1F0-ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Welch, Amanda K; Bostwick, Caleb J; Cain, Brian D

    2011-03-25

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae F(1)F(0)-ATP synthase peripheral stalk is composed of the OSCP, h, d, and b subunits. The b subunit has two membrane-spanning domains and a large hydrophilic domain that extends along one side of the enzyme to the top of F(1). In contrast, the Escherichia coli peripheral stalk has two identical b subunits, and subunits with substantially altered lengths can be incorporated into a functional F(1)F(0)-ATP synthase. The differences in subunit structure between the eukaryotic and prokaryotic peripheral stalks raised a question about whether the two stalks have similar physical and functional properties. In the present work, the length of the S. cerevisiae b subunit has been manipulated to determine whether the F(1)F(0)-ATP synthase exhibited the same tolerances as in the bacterial enzyme. Plasmid shuffling was used for ectopic expression of altered b subunits in a strain carrying a chromosomal disruption of the ATP4 gene. Wild type growth phenotypes were observed for insertions of up to 11 and a deletion of four amino acids on a nonfermentable carbon source. In mitochondria-enriched fractions, abundant ATP hydrolysis activity was seen for the insertion mutants. ATPase activity was largely oligomycin-insensitive in these mitochondrial fractions. In addition, very poor complementation was seen in a mutant with an insertion of 14 amino acids. Lengthier deletions yielded a defective enzyme. The results suggest that although the eukaryotic peripheral stalk is near its minimum length, the b subunit can be extended a considerable distance. PMID:21257750

  7. Effects of methylxanthines on urinary prostaglandin E excretion in rats.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, K; Kogo, H; Aizawa, Y

    1981-04-01

    Effect of methylxanthines (theophylline, theobromine and caffeine) on urinary prostaglandin E (PGE) excretion in male rats was studied. Oral administration of xanthines significantly increased the urinary excretion of PGE. Dose-response studies showed that the maximal excretion of urinary PGE and water was obtained by administration of theophylline (50 mg/kg), where the increase in PGE was about 20 times that of the control. The excretion of urinary sodium, potassium and chloride was also markedly increased by xanthines, particularly, theophylline. Increases in urinary PGE excretion, urine volume and electrolytes excretion were inhibited by 10 mg/kg of indomethacin administered prior to theophylline. The increase of urinary PGE excretion after theophylline administration (50 mg/kg) preceded increases in water and sodium excretion. These results suggest that renal PGE mediates, at least in part, the diuretic effect of theophylline. PMID:7311144

  8. Metabolism of prostaglandin E1 in dog kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, J.

    1970-01-01

    1. The biotransformation of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) was studied in the isolated, perfused dog kidneys. 2. An average 43% of PGE1 was converted into the less polar metabolite I by a single passage through the kidney. As the re-circulation of the perfusate continued, PGE1 was converted not only into metabolite I but also the least polar metabolite II. The velocity of the conversion of PGE1 into metabolite I was significantly greater than that into metabolite II. Usually, six passages elapsed before maximum degradation of PGE1 occurred. 3. Further separation with silicic acid column chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography showed that metabolite II consists of two individual metabolites, metabolite IIa and metabolite IIb. 4. The present study indicates that the kidney biotransforms PGE1 rather rapidly into three metabolites which are less polar than PGE1. PMID:5492900

  9. Prostaglandin ethanolamides attenuate damage in a human explant colitis model.

    PubMed

    Nicotra, Lauren L; Vu, Megan; Harvey, Benjamin S; Smid, Scott D

    2013-01-01

    Endocannabinoids are protective in animal colitis models. As endocannabinoids also form novel prostaglandin ethanolamides (prostamides) via COX-2, we investigated the effects of prostamides and other COX-2 mediators on tissue damage in an ex vivo human mucosal explant colitis model. Healthy human colonic mucosae were incubated with pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β to elicit colitis-like tissue damage. The PGF-ethanolamide analogue, bimatoprost decreased colitis scores which were reversed by a prostamide-specific antagonist AGN 211334, but not the FP receptor antagonist AL-8810. PGF-ethanolamide and PGE-ethanolamide also reduced cytokine-evoked epithelial damage. Anandamide was protective in the explant colitis model; however COX-2 inhibition did not alter its effects, associated with a lack of COX-2 induction in explant mucosal tissue. These findings support an anti-inflammatory role for prostamides and endocannabinoids in the human colon. PMID:23380599

  10. [Tafluprost--a novel prostaglandin F2alpha analogue].

    PubMed

    Petrov, S Iu

    2014-01-01

    The review provides a brief history of the evolution of ophthalmic containers: from glass vials to plastic bottles with obligatory preservatives and, finally, to preservative-free polypropylene single-use single-dose tubes. A brief characteristic of benzalkonium chloride, the most commonly used preservative, including mechanisms of its antiseptic activity and ocular toxicity is given. The problem of ocular surface damage, especially in glaucoma patients, due to the long-term use of preserved eye drops, is discussed. Pharmacodynamics of tafluprost, the first commercially available preservative-free single-dose prostaglandin analogue, is described. Operating characteristics of experimental preclinical studies and the first three phases of clinical trials of tafluprost are provided. Post-approval studies of the comparative efficacy and tolerability of the new drug are analyzed and its prospects for clinical use are assessed.

  11. Prostaglandin inhibitor and radiotherapy in advanced head and neck cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Pillsbury, H.C. III; Webster, W.P.; Rosenman, J.

    1986-05-01

    Radiotherapy is the usual mode of treatment for unresectable head and neck cancer. To improve cure rates, extend survival, and reduce morbidity, we use accelerated hyperfractionation radiotherapy and an adjuvant drug to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis. In this study, 19 patients received 300 rad/day of radiotherapy in two equally divided doses to a total dose averaging 6,200 rad. Either indomethacin, 25 mg, or placebo was given four times a day in a double-blind fashion during therapy. Radiation mucositis was graded as 0 to 4+; pain, nutritional status, and tumor status were monitored daily and recorded biweekly. Evaluation of the data showed delayed mucositis in the experimental group for grades 1 to 3, with a significant difference at grade 3 compared with controls. The significance of a long-term comparison of cure rates would be doubtful considering the heterogeneity of the primary sites and regional disease in this group coupled with the small size of our study.

  12. DNA-damage-responsive acetylation of pRb regulates binding to E2F-1

    PubMed Central

    Markham, Douglas; Munro, Shonagh; Soloway, Judith; O'Connor, Darran P; La Thangue, Nicholas B

    2006-01-01

    The pRb (retinoblastoma protein) tumour suppressor protein has a crucial role in regulating the G1- to S-phase transition, and its phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinases is an established and important mechanism in controlling pRb activity. In addition, the targeted acetylation of lysine (K) residues 873/874 in the carboxy-terminal region of pRb located within a cyclin-dependent kinase-docking site hinders pRb phosphorylation and thereby retains pRb in an active state of growth suppression. Here, we report that the acetylation of pRb K873/874 occurs in response to DNA damage and that acetylation regulates the interaction between the C-terminal E2F-1-specific domain of pRb and E2F-1. These results define a new role for pRb acetylation in the DNA damage signalling pathway, and suggest that the interaction between pRb and E2F-1 is controlled by DNA-damage-dependent acetylation of pRb. PMID:16374512

  13. Bovine F1Fo ATP synthase monomers bend the lipid bilayer in 2D membrane crystals

    PubMed Central

    Jiko, Chimari; Davies, Karen M; Shinzawa-Itoh, Kyoko; Tani, Kazutoshi; Maeda, Shintaro; Mills, Deryck J; Tsukihara, Tomitake; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Gerle, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    We have used a combination of electron cryo-tomography, subtomogram averaging, and electron crystallographic image processing to analyse the structure of intact bovine F1Fo ATP synthase in 2D membrane crystals. ATPase assays and mass spectrometry analysis of the 2D crystals confirmed that the enzyme complex was complete and active. The structure of the matrix-exposed region was determined at 24 Å resolution by subtomogram averaging and repositioned into the tomographic volume to reveal the crystal packing. F1Fo ATP synthase complexes are inclined by 16° relative to the crystal plane, resulting in a zigzag topology of the membrane and indicating that monomeric bovine heart F1Fo ATP synthase by itself is sufficient to deform lipid bilayers. This local membrane curvature is likely to be instrumental in the formation of ATP synthase dimers and dimer rows, and thus for the shaping of mitochondrial cristae. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06119.001 PMID:25815585

  14. Properties of kojic acid and curcumin: Assay on cell B16-F1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiharto, Ariff, Arbakariya; Ahmad, Syahida; Hamid, Muhajir

    2016-03-01

    Ultra violet (UV) exposure and oxidative stress are casually linked to skin disorders. They can increase melanin synthesis, proliferation of melanocytes, and hyperpigmentation. It is possible that antioxidants or inhibitors may have a beneficial effect on skin health to reduce hyperpigmentation. In the last few years, a huge number of natural herbal extracts have been tested to reduce hyperpigmentation. The objective of this study was to determine and to compare of kojic acid and curcumin properties to viability cell B16-F1. In this study, our data showed that the viability of cell B16-F1 was 63.91% for kojic acid and 64.12% for curcumin at concentration 100 µg/ml. Further investigation assay of antioxidant activities, indicated that IC50 for kojic acid is 63.8 µg/ml and curcumin is 16.05 µg/ml. Based on the data, kojic acid and curcumin have potential antioxidant properties to reduce hyperpigmentation with low toxicity effect in cell B16-F1.

  15. Photoproduction of the f1(1285)/eta(1295) Mesons using CLAS at Jefferson Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, Ryan

    This work presents the results of analysis of a meson of mass mx = 1281.0 +/- 0.8 MeV/c² and a FWHM of Gammax = 18.4 +/- 1.4 MeV/ c² seen in CLAS at Jefferson Lab in photoproduction off the proton, gammap → xp. The f1(1285), eta(1295) or both are candidates for this observed state. Neither of these states has previously been observed in photoproduction. The meson was measured in the decay modes x → etapi +pi-, K+ K¯0pi-, K -K0pi+, and rho 0gamma through detection of its charged decay products and the recoil proton. Differential cross sections were obtained via the x → etapi +pi-, K+ K¯0pi-, and K -K0pi + decay channels from threshold up to a center-of-mass energy of 2.8 GeV, and compared to recent Regge model predictions. Dalitz analysis showed strong evidence for the f1(1285) identity, with the dominance of etapi+pi- decays via a+/-0 (980)pi∓ intermediate state and with interference consistent with a spin one particle. The relative branching fractions Gamma( KK¯pi)/Gamma(etapipi) and Gamma(rho0gamma)/Gamma(etapipi) were measured, with agreement to world data for the f 1(1285) in the former and lower than the world average for the latter.

  16. Mitochondrial stress engages E2F1 apoptotic signaling to cause deafness

    PubMed Central

    Raimundo, Nuno; Song, Lei; Shutt, Timothy E.; McKay, Sharen E.; Cotney, Justin; Guan, Min-Xin; Gilliland, Thomas C.; Hohuan, David; Santos-Sacchi, Joseph; Shadel, Gerald S.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Mitochondrial dysfunction causes poorly understood tissue-specific pathology stemming from primary defects in respiration, coupled with altered reactive oxygen species (ROS), metabolic signaling and apoptosis. The A1555G mtDNA mutation that causes maternally inherited deafness disrupts mitochondrial ribosome function, in part, via increased methylation of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA by the methyltransferase mtTFB1. In patient-derived A1555G cells, we show that 12S rRNA hyper-methylation causes ROS-dependent activation of AMP kinase and the pro-apoptotic nuclear transcription factor E2F1. This retrograde mitochondrial-stress relay is operative in vivo as transgenic-mtTFB1 mice exhibit enhanced 12S rRNA methylation in multiple tissues, increased E2F1 and apoptosis in the stria vascularis and spiral ganglion neurons of the inner ear, and progressive E2F1-dependent hearing loss. This transgenic-mtTFB1 mouse mitochondrial disease model provides a robust platform for deciphering the complex tissue-specificity of human mitochondrial-based disorders, as well as the precise pathogenic mechanism of maternally inherited deafness and its exacerbation by environmental factors. PMID:22341444

  17. Transcriptome shock in an interspecific F1 triploid hybrid of Oryza revealed by RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ying; Sun, Yue; Wang, Xutong; Lin, Xiuyun; Sun, Shuai; Shen, Kun; Wang, Jie; Jiang, Tingting; Zhong, Silin; Xu, Chunming; Liu, Bao

    2016-02-01

    Interspecific hybridization is a driving force in evolution and speciation of higher plants. Interspecific hybridization often induces immediate and saltational changes in gene expression, a phenomenon collectively termed "transcriptome shock". Although transcriptome shock has been reported in various plant and animal taxa, the extent and pattern of shock-induced expression changes are often highly idiosyncratic, and hence entails additional investigations. Here, we produced a set of interspecific F1 triploid hybrid plants between Oryza sativa, ssp. japonica (2n = 2x = 24, genome AA) and the tetraploid form of O. punctata (2n = 4x = 48, genome, BBCC), and conducted RNA-seq transcriptome profiling of the hybrids and their exact parental plants. We analyzed both homeolog expression bias and overall gene expression level difference in the hybrids relative to the in silico "hybrids" (parental mixtures). We found that approximately 16% (2,541) of the 16,112 expressed genes in leaf tissue of the F1 hybrids showed nonadditive expression, which were specifically enriched in photosynthesis-related pathways. Interestingly, changes in the maternal homeolog expression, including non-stochastic silencing, were the major causes for altered homeolog expression partitioning in the F1 hybrids. Our findings have provided further insights into the transcriptome response to interspecific hybridization and heterosis.

  18. CHRONIC ZEBRAFISH PFOS EXPOSURE ALTERS SEX RATIO AND MATERNAL RELATED EFFECTS IN F1 OFFSPRING

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mingyong; Chen, Jiangfei; Lin, Kuanfei; Chen, Yuanhong; Hu, Wei; Tanguay, Robert L.; Huang, Changjiang; Dong, Qiaoxiang

    2012-01-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) is an organic contaminant ubiquitous in the environment, wildlife, and humans. Few studies have assessed its chronic toxicity on aquatic organisms. The present study defined the effects of long-term exposure to PFOS on zebrafish development and reproduction. Specifically, zebrafish at 8 h postfertilization (hpf) were exposed to PFOS at 0, 5, 50, and 250 μg/L for five months. Growth suppression was observed in the 250 μg/L PFOS-treated group. The sex ratio was altered, with a significant female dominance in the high-dose PFOS group. Male gonad development was also impaired in a dose-dependent manner by PFOS exposure. Although female fecundity was not impacted, the F1 embryos derived from high-dose exposed females paired with males without PFOS exposure developed severe deformity at early development stages and resulted in 100% larval mortality at 7 d postfertilization (dpf). Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid quantification in embryos indicated that decreased larval survival in F1 offspring was directly correlated to the PFOS body burden, and larval lethality was attributable to maternal transfer of PFOS to the eggs. Lower-dose parental PFOS exposure did not result in decreased F1 survival; however, the offspring displayed hyperactivity of basal swimming speed in a light-to-dark behavior assessment test. These findings demonstrate that chronic exposure to PFOS adversely impacts embryonic growth, reproduction, and subsequent offspring development. Environ. PMID:21671259

  19. Psychoacoustical and ear canal cancellation of (2f1-f2)-distortion products.

    PubMed

    Zwicker, E; Harris, F P

    1990-06-01

    Level and phase of the (2f1-f2)-difference tone were measured as a function of primary-tone level using the psychoacoustical method of cancellation and the objective method of emission cancellation for four frequency separations of f1 = 1620 Hz and f2 in four subjects. Differences between hearing- and emission-cancellation levels ranged from 60-33 dB as delta f = f2-f1 increased from 180 to 432 Hz. For smaller separations of the primaries, phase changes for emission cancellation covered a wide range and had sharp "steps," whereas for hearing cancellation, the phase varied only slightly. With wider separations of the primaries, the phase became more varied for hearing cancellation and more homogeneous for emission cancellation. Both emission- and hearing-cancellation level functions were nonmonotonic as a function of constant SL1 and varied SL2. Remarkable phase shifts always appeared near minima in level at all separations of the primaries for emission cancellation. Four sources may be contributing to the differences in results: (a) the frequency-dependent attenuation of the middle-ear transfer function, (b) the frequency-dependent mismatch of the acoustical impedances at the eardrum, (c) the frequency dependence of the microphone's sensitivity mounted within the probe, and (d) the different reaction of active nonlinear cochlear processes on the hearing- and emission-cancellation tones.

  20. Toluene dioxygenase expression correlates with trichloroethylene degradation capacity in Pseudomonas putida F1 cultures.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianbo; Amemiya, Takashi; Chang, Qing; Qian, Yi; Itoh, Kiminori

    2012-09-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is extensively used in commercial applications, despite its risk to human health via soil and groundwater contamination. The stability of TCE, which is a useful characteristic for commercial application, makes it difficult to remove it from the environment. Numerous studies have demonstrated that TCE can be effectively removed from the environment using bioremediation. Pseudomonas putida F1 is capable of degrading TCE into less hazardous byproducts via the toluene dioxygenase pathway (TOD). Unfortunately, these bioremediation systems are not self-sustaining, as the degradation capacity declines over time. Fortunately, the replacement of metabolic co-factors is sufficient in many cases to maintain effective TCE degradation. Thus, monitoring systems must be developed to predict when TCE degradation rates are likely to decline. Herein, we show evidence that tod expression levels correlate with the ability of P. putida F1 to metabolize TCE in the presence of toluene. Furthermore, the presence of toluene improves the replication of P. putida F1, even when TCE is present at high concentration. These findings may be applied to real world applications to decide when the bioremediation system requires supplementation with aromatic substrates, in order to maintain maximum TCE removal capacity.

  1. Depigmenting Effect of Kojic Acid Esters in Hyperpigmented B16F1 Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lajis, Ahmad Firdaus B.; Hamid, Muhajir; Ariff, Arbakariya B.

    2012-01-01

    The depigmenting effect of kojic acid esters synthesized by the esterification of kojic acid using Rhizomucor miehei immobilized lipase was investigated in B16F1 melanoma cells. The depigmenting effect of kojic acid and kojic acid esters was evaluated by the inhibitory effect of melanin formation and tyrosinase activity on alpha-stimulating hormone- (α-MSH-) induced melanin synthesis in B16F1 melanoma cells. The cellular tyrosinase inhibitory effect of kojic acid monooleate, kojic acid monolaurate, and kojic acid monopalmitate was found similar to kojic acid at nontoxic doses ranging from 1.95 to 62.5 μg/mL. However, kojic acid monopalmitate gave slightly higher inhibition to melanin formation compared to other inhibitors at doses ranging from 15.63 to 62.5 μg/mL. Kojic acid and kojic acid esters also show antioxidant activity that will enhance the depigmenting effect. The cytotoxicity of kojic acid esters in B16F1 melanoma cells was significantly lower than kojic acid at high doses, ranging from 125 and 500 μg/mL. Since kojic acid esters have lower cytotoxic effect than kojic acid, it is suggested that kojic acid esters can be used as alternatives for a safe skin whitening agent and potential depigmenting agents to treat hyperpigmentation. PMID:23091364

  2. [Life Span of F1 Progeny of Female Drosophila Exposed to Low Intensity Terahertz Irradiation].

    PubMed

    Fedorov, V I; Weisman, N Ya

    2015-01-01

    Virgin female fruit flies were stressed by placement into a confined space without food for 3 hours. Some flies were subjected to terahertz irradiation (0,1-2,2 THz) for the last 30 min. Irradiated and nonirradiated females were then copulated with males. We investigated the F1 progeny of fruit flies with mature and immature oocytes at the moment of irradiation (days of oviposition: 1-2 and 9-10 after irradiation). Life span of individual flies was evaluated. It was demonstrated that terahertz radiation does not influence the absolute and average lifespan of the F1 progeny in both sexes. In response to terahertz irradiation the sexual dimorphism was detected. Survival curves of males, developed from mature and immature oocytes at the time of irradiation, differ significantly from the appropriate control, whereas in the case of females the survival curves are similar to the control. It is concluded that terahertz radiation has a remote effect on a survival of the F1 male progeny.

  3. A bacterial virulence protein promotes pathogenicity by inhibiting the bacterium's own F1Fo ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Jin; Pontes, Mauricio H; Groisman, Eduardo A

    2013-07-01

    Several intracellular pathogens, including Salmonella enterica and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, require the virulence protein MgtC to survive within macrophages and to cause a lethal infection in mice. We now report that, unlike secreted virulence factors that target the host vacuolar ATPase to withstand phagosomal acidity, the MgtC protein acts on Salmonella's own F1Fo ATP synthase. This complex couples proton translocation to ATP synthesis/hydrolysis and is required for virulence. We establish that MgtC interacts with the a subunit of the F1Fo ATP synthase, hindering ATP-driven proton translocation and NADH-driven ATP synthesis in inverted vesicles. An mgtC null mutant displays heightened ATP levels and an acidic cytoplasm, whereas mgtC overexpression decreases ATP levels. A single amino acid substitution in MgtC that prevents binding to the F1Fo ATP synthase abolishes control of ATP levels and attenuates pathogenicity. MgtC provides a singular example of a virulence protein that promotes pathogenicity by interfering with another virulence protein.

  4. Prevention of murine lupus disease in (NZBxNZW)F1 mice by sirolimus treatment.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Barrón, A; Piñera-Haces, C; Gómez-Alamillo, C; Santiuste-Torcida, I; Ruiz, J C; Buelta-Carrillo, L; Merino, R; de Francisco, A L M; Arias, M

    2007-01-01

    Sirolimus is a new immunosuppressive drug used to avoid allograft rejection. The immunosuppressive effect of sirolimus is due to inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin, necessary for the proliferation and clonal expansion of activated T-cells. Because T-cells play a central role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease developed in (NZBxNZW)F1 mice, we evaluated the therapeutic use of sirolimus in such mice. (NZBxNZW)F1 female mice received 1mg/kg/day of sirolimus from 12 to 37 weeks of age. The development of autoimmune disease was evaluated by measuring the serum levels of auto-antibodies (autoAbs) and their immunoglobulin isotypes, prevalence of glomerulonephritis and mortality rates. Sirolimus directly inhibited production of autoAbs, glomerular deposits of immunoglobulins and development of proteinuria; also the survival of these mice was prolonged. Our results demonstrate the beneficial effects of sirolimus in preventing the development of lupus disease in (NZBxNZW)F1 female mice.

  5. Simultaneous F 0-F 1 modifications of Arabic for the improvement of natural-sounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ykhlef, F.; Bensebti, M.

    2013-03-01

    Pitch (F 0) modification is one of the most important problems in the area of speech synthesis. Several techniques have been developed in the literature to achieve this goal. The main restrictions of these techniques are in the modification range and the synthesised speech quality, intelligibility and naturalness. The control of formants in a spoken language can significantly improve the naturalness of the synthesised speech. This improvement is mainly dependent on the control of the first formant (F 1). Inspired by this observation, this article proposes a new approach that modifies both F 0 and F 1 of Arabic voiced sounds in order to improve the naturalness of the pitch shifted speech. The developed strategy takes a parallel processing approach, in which the analysis segments are decomposed into sub-bands in the wavelet domain, modified in the desired sub-band by using a resampling technique and reconstructed without affecting the remained sub-bands. Pitch marking and voicing detection are performed in the frequency decomposition step based on the comparison of the multi-level approximation and detail signals. The performance of the proposed technique is evaluated by listening tests and compared to the pitch synchronous overlap and add (PSOLA) technique in the third approximation level. Experimental results have shown that the manipulation in the wavelet domain of F 0 in conjunction with F 1 guarantees natural-sounding of the synthesised speech compared to the classical pitch modification technique. This improvement was appropriate for high pitch modifications.

  6. Acceleration of autoimmunity by organochlorine pesticides in (NZB x NZW)F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Sobel, Eric S; Gianini, John; Butfiloski, Edward J; Croker, Byron P; Schiffenbauer, Joel; Roberts, Stephen M

    2005-03-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder that affects women more frequently than men. In the (NZB times NZW)F1 mouse, a murine SLE model, the presence or absence of estrogen markedly influences the rate of progression of disease. Three organochlorine pesticides with estrogenic effects were administered chronically to ovariectomized female (NZB times NZW)F1 mice, and we measured the time to development of renal disease, the principal clinical manifestation of lupus in this model. Treatment with chlordecone, methoxychlor, or o,p -dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (o,p -DDT) significantly decreased the time to onset of renal impairment, as did treatment with 17ss-estradiol used as a positive control. In an expanded study of chlordecone, we found a dose-related early appearance of elevated anti-double-strand DNA autoantibody titers that corresponded with subsequent development of glomerulonephritis. Immunohistofluorescence confirmed early deposition of immune complexes in kidneys of mice treated with chlordecone. These observations are consistent with an effect of these organochlorine pesticides to accelerate the natural course of SLE in the (NZB times NZW)F1 mouse. Although we originally hypothesized that the effect on progression of autoimmunity was due to estrogenic properties of the pesticides, autoimmune effects and estrogenicity, assessed through measurement of uterine hypertrophy, were not well correlated. This may indicate that uterine hypertrophy is a poor indicator of comparative estrogenic effects of organochlorine pesticides on the immune system, or that the pesticides are influencing autoimmunity through a mode of action unrelated to their estrogenicity.

  7. 16Oxygen irradiation enhances cued fear memory in B6D2F1 mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raber, Jacob; Marzulla, Tessa; Kronenberg, Amy; Turker, Mitchell S.

    2015-11-01

    The space radiation environment includes energetic charged particles that may impact cognitive performance. We assessed the effects of 16O ion irradiation on cognitive performance of C57BL/6J × DBA/2J F1 (B6D2F1) mice at OHSU (Portland, OR) one month following irradiation at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL, Upton, NY). Hippocampus-dependent contextual fear memory and hippocampus-independent cued fear memory of B6D2F1 mice were tested. 16O ion exposure enhanced cued fear memory. This effect showed a bell-shaped dose response curve. Cued fear memory was significantly stronger in mice irradiated with 16O ions at a dose of 0.4 or 0.8 Gy than in sham-irradiated mice or following irradiation at 1.6 Gy. In contrast to cued fear memory, contextual fear memory was not affected following 16O ion irradiation at the doses used in this study. These data indicate that the amygdala might be particularly susceptible to effects of 16O ion exposure.

  8. Prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthases: peroxidase hydroperoxide specificity and cyclooxygenase activation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiayan; Seibold, Steve A; Rieke, Caroline J; Song, Inseok; Cukier, Robert I; Smith, William L

    2007-06-22

    The cyclooxygenase (COX) activity of prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthases (PGHSs) converts arachidonic acid and O2 to prostaglandin G2 (PGG2). PGHS peroxidase (POX) activity reduces PGG2 to PGH2. The first step in POX catalysis is formation of an oxyferryl heme radical cation (Compound I), which undergoes intramolecular electron transfer forming Intermediate II having an oxyferryl heme and a Tyr-385 radical required for COX catalysis. PGHS POX catalyzes heterolytic cleavage of primary and secondary hydroperoxides much more readily than H2O2, but the basis for this specificity has been unresolved. Several large amino acids form a hydrophobic "dome" over part of the heme, but when these residues were mutated to alanines there was little effect on Compound I formation from H2O2 or 15-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid, a surrogate substrate for PGG2. Ab initio calculations of heterolytic bond dissociation energies of the peroxyl groups of small peroxides indicated that they are almost the same. Molecular Dynamics simulations suggest that PGG2 binds the POX site through a peroxyl-iron bond, a hydrogen bond with His-207 and van der Waals interactions involving methylene groups adjoining the carbon bearing the peroxyl group and the protoporphyrin IX. We speculate that these latter interactions, which are not possible with H2O2, are major contributors to PGHS POX specificity. The distal Gln-203 four residues removed from His-207 have been thought to be essential for Compound I formation. However, Q203V PGHS-1 and PGHS-2 mutants catalyzed heterolytic cleavage of peroxides and exhibited native COX activity. PGHSs are homodimers with each monomer having a POX site and COX site. Cross-talk occurs between the COX sites of adjoining monomers. However, no cross-talk between the POX and COX sites of monomers was detected in a PGHS-2 heterodimer comprised of a Q203R monomer having an inactive POX site and a G533A monomer with an inactive COX site.

  9. The source of thromboxane and prostaglandins in experimental inflammation.

    PubMed Central

    Higgs, G. A.; Moncada, S.; Salmon, J. A.; Seager, K.

    1983-01-01

    Although cyclo-oxygenase products have been detected at inflammatory sites the tissue of origin remains uncertain. Inflammatory exudates were collected from rats 4, 6, 8, 12 or 24 h after subcutaneous implantation of carrageenin-impregnated sponges. Concentrations of the cyclo-oxygenase products prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), 6-oxo-PGF1 alpha and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) in inflammatory exudates and serum (obtained from blood clotted at 37 degrees C) were measured by specific radioimmunoassays. TXB2 concentrations in exudates increased to about 100 ng ml-1 at 8 h but decreased to less than 20 ng ml-1 after 24 h. PGE2 concentrations increased from 4-12 h and remained between 80 and 120 ng ml-1 from 12-24 h. 6-oxo-PGF1 alpha had the same time course as that of PGE2 but concentrations were approximately one third of PGE2 values. TXB2 concentrations in serum from thrombocytopaenic rats were less than 5% of control values. Thrombocytopaenia did not affect TXB2, PGE2 or 6-oxo-PGF1 alpha concentrations or total leukocyte numbers in inflammatory exudates. Methotrexate-induced neutropaenia did not affect serum TXB2 concentrations but cyclo-oxygenase products (including TXB2) in 6 h inflammatory exudates were reduced by 60-95%. Colchicine (1.0 mg kg-1 s.c.) prevented leukocyte accumulation in sponge exudates and this was accompanied by a reduction in TXB2, PGE2 and 6-oxo-PGF1 alpha concentrations at 6 h. These results indicate that platelets are the source of TXB2 in clotting blood but do not contribute to cyclo-oxygenase activity in experimental inflammation. The results also suggest that migrating leukocytes are the major source of thromboxane and to a lesser degree prostaglandins in acute 6 h inflammatory exudates. PMID:6652359

  10. Downregulation of thymidylate synthase and E2F1 by arsenic trioxide in mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Lam, Sze-Kwan; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Zheng, Chun-Yan; Ho, James Chung-Man

    2015-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a global health issue. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been shown to suppress thymidylate synthase (TYMS) in lung adenocarcinoma and colorectal cancer, and induce apoptosis in acute promyelocytic leukemia. With TYMS as a putative therapeutic target, the effect of ATO in mesothelioma was therefore studied. A panel of 5 mesothelioma cell lines was used to study the effect of ATO on cell viability, protein expression, mRNA expression and TYMS activity by MTT assay, western blot, qPCR and tritium-release assay, respectively. The knockdown of TYMS and E2F1 was performed with a specific siRNA. Phosphatidylserine externalization and mitochondrial membrane depolarization were measured by Annexin V and JC-1 staining respectively. The in vivo effect of ATO was studied using a nude mouse xenograft model. Application of ATO demonstrated anticancer effects in the cell line model with clinically achievable concentrations. Downregulation of TYMS protein (except H226 cells and 1.25 µM ATO in H2052 cells) and mRNA expression (H28 cells), pRB1 (H28 cells) and E2F1 and TYMS activity (except H226 cells) were also evident. E2F1 knockdown decreased cell viability more significantly than TYMS knockdown. In general, thymidine kinase 1, ribonucleotide reductase M1, c-myc and skp2 were downregulated by ATO. p-c-Jun was downregulated in H28 cells while upregulated in 211H cells. Phosphatidylserine externalization, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, downregulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, and upregulation of Bak and cleaved caspase-3 were observed. In the H226 xenograft model, the relative tumor growth was aborted, and E2F1 was downregulated while cleaved caspase-3 was elevated and localized to the nucleus in the ATO treatment group. ATO has potent antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects in mesothelioma in vitro and in vivo, partially mediated through E2F1 targeting (less effect through TYMS targeting). There is sound scientific evidence to support the

  11. Role of Compartmentalization on HiF-1α Degradation Dynamics during Changing Oxygen Conditions: A Computational Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bedessem, Baptiste; Stéphanou, Angélique

    2014-01-01

    HiF-1α is the central protein driving the cellular response to hypoxia. Its accumulation in cancer cells is linked to the appearance of chemoresistant and aggressive tumor phenotypes. As a consequence, understanding the regulation of HiF-1α dynamics is a major issue to design new anti-cancer therapies. In this paper, we propose a model of the hypoxia pathway, involving HiF-1α and its inhibitor pVHL. Based on data from the literature, we made the hypothesis that the regulation of HiF-1α involves two compartments (nucleus and cytoplasm) and a constitutive shuttle of the pVHL protein between them. We first show that this model captures correctly the main features of HiF-1α dynamics, including the bi-exponential degradation profile in normoxia, the kinetics of induction in hypoxia, and the switch-like accumulation. Second, we simulated the effects of a hypoxia/reoxygenation event, and show that it generates a strong instability of HiF-1α. The protein concentration rapidly increases 3 hours after the reoxygenation, and exhibits an oscillating pattern. This effect vanishes if we do not consider compartmentalization of HiF-1α. This result can explain various counter-intuitive observations about the specific molecular and cellular response to the reoxygenation process. Third, we simulated the HiF-1α dynamics in the tumor case. We considered different types of mutations associated with tumorigenesis, and we compared their consequences on HiF-1α dynamics. Then, we tested different therapeutics strategies. We show that a therapeutic decrease of HiF-1α nuclear level is not always correlated with an attenuation of reoxygenation-induced instabilities. Thus, it appears that the design of anti-HiF-1α therapies have to take into account these two aspects to maximize their efficiency. PMID:25338163

  12. Single-molecule analysis of F0F1-ATP synthase inhibited by N,N-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide.

    PubMed

    Toei, Masashi; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2013-09-01

    N,N-Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) is a classical inhibitor of the F0F1-ATP synthase (F0F1), which covalently binds to the highly conserved carboxylic acid of the proteolipid subunit (c subunit) in F0. Although it is well known that DCCD modification of the c subunit blocks proton translocation in F0 and the coupled ATP hydrolysis activity of F1, how DCCD inhibits the rotary dynamics of F0F1 remains elusive. Here, we carried out single-molecule rotation assays to characterize the DCCD inhibition of Escherichia coli F0F1. Upon the injection of DCCD, rotations irreversibly terminated with first order reaction kinetics, suggesting that the incorporation of a single DCCD moiety is sufficient to block the rotary catalysis of the F0F1. Individual molecules terminated at different angles relative to the three catalytic angles of F1, suggesting that DCCD randomly reacts with one of the 10 c subunits. DCCD-inhibited F0F1 sometimes showed transient activation; molecules abruptly rotated and stopped after one revolution at the original termination angle, suggesting that hindrance by the DCCD moiety is released due to thermal fluctuation. To explore the mechanical activation of DCCD-inhibited molecules, we perturbed inhibited molecules using magnetic tweezers. The probability of transient activation increased upon a forward forcible rotation. Interestingly, during the termination F0F1, showed multiple positional shifts, which implies that F1 stochastically changes the angular position of its rotor upon a catalytic reaction. This effect could be caused by balancing the angular positions of the F1 and the F0 rotors, which are connected via elastic elements.

  13. Single-molecule Analysis of F0F1-ATP Synthase Inhibited by N,N-Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide*

    PubMed Central

    Toei, Masashi; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    N,N-Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) is a classical inhibitor of the F0F1-ATP synthase (F0F1), which covalently binds to the highly conserved carboxylic acid of the proteolipid subunit (c subunit) in F0. Although it is well known that DCCD modification of the c subunit blocks proton translocation in F0 and the coupled ATP hydrolysis activity of F1, how DCCD inhibits the rotary dynamics of F0F1 remains elusive. Here, we carried out single-molecule rotation assays to characterize the DCCD inhibition of Escherichia coli F0F1. Upon the injection of DCCD, rotations irreversibly terminated with first order reaction kinetics, suggesting that the incorporation of a single DCCD moiety is sufficient to block the rotary catalysis of the F0F1. Individual molecules terminated at different angles relative to the three catalytic angles of F1, suggesting that DCCD randomly reacts with one of the 10 c subunits. DCCD-inhibited F0F1 sometimes showed transient activation; molecules abruptly rotated and stopped after one revolution at the original termination angle, suggesting that hindrance by the DCCD moiety is released due to thermal fluctuation. To explore the mechanical activation of DCCD-inhibited molecules, we perturbed inhibited molecules using magnetic tweezers. The probability of transient activation increased upon a forward forcible rotation. Interestingly, during the termination F0F1, showed multiple positional shifts, which implies that F1 stochastically changes the angular position of its rotor upon a catalytic reaction. This effect could be caused by balancing the angular positions of the F1 and the F0 rotors, which are connected via elastic elements. PMID:23893417

  14. Synthesis and properties of azidonitrophenyl pyrophosphate, a photoaffinity probe of the nucleotide binding sites of mitochondrial F1-ATPase

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, L.; Garin, J.; Issartel, J.P.; Vignais, P.V. )

    1989-12-26

    4-Azido-2-nitrophenyl pyrophosphate (azido-PPi) labeled with 32P in the alpha position was prepared and used to photolabel beef heart mitochondrial F1. Azido-PPi was hydrolyzed by yeast inorganic pyrophosphatase, but not by mitochondrial F1-ATPase. Incubation of F1 with (alpha-32P)azido-PPi in the dark under conditions of saturation resulted in the binding of the photoprobe to three sites, two of which exhibited a high affinity (Kd = 2 microM), the third one having a lower affinity (Kd = 300 microM). Mg2+ was required for binding. As with PPi, the binding of 3 mol of azido-PPi/mol of F1 resulted in the release of one tightly bound nucleotide. ADP, AMP-PNP, and PPi competed with azido-PPi for binding to F1, but Pi and the phosphate analogue azidonitrophenyl phosphate did not. The binding of (32P)Pi to F1 was enhanced at low concentrations of azido-PPi, as it was in the presence of low concentrations of PPi. Sulfite, which is thought to bind to an anion-binding site on F1, inhibited competitively the binding of both ADP and azido-PPi, suggesting that the postulated anion-binding site of F1 is related to the exchangeable nucleotide-binding sites. Upon photoirradiation of F1 in the presence of (alpha-32P)azido-PPi, the photoprobe became covalently bound with concomitant inactivation of F1. The plots relating the inactivation of F1 to the covalent binding of the probe were rectilinear up to 50% inactivation.

  15. [Image and quantity analysis of prostaglandin in rats' blood plasma and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in their cerebellum during the prevention of motion sickness by cinnarizine].

    PubMed

    Dong, W; Tian, D; Zhang, M

    1998-06-01

    To study the mechanism of cinnarizine in preventing motion sickness, TXB2, 6-Keto-PGF1 alpha in rats' blood plasma and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in the endothelial cells of their cerebellar capillary were measured and analysed by a radioactive immunity analyser and a computer image system. The results showed that TXB2 and 6-Keto-PGF1 alpha in rats' blood plasma in the cinnarizine preventing group (CPG) decreased remarkably, compared with those in the motion sickness group(MSG) (p < 0.05). The activity of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in the endothelial cells of rats' cerebellar capillary in CPG was higher than that in MSG (p < 0.01). The authors suggest that the lower concentration of TXB2 and 6-Keto-PGF1 alpha in rats' blood plasma in CPG is closely related to cinnarizine which prevents Ca2+ from entering into the platelets and into the endothelial cells of blood vessels. The higher activity of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in the cerebellum may be caused by cinnarizene which dilates the blood vessels in the brain, increases the blood flow therein, and hinders Ca2+ from getting into the cerebellum cells. These change are believed to be the important mechanism of how cinnarizine prevents motion sickness. PMID:12548903

  16. Role of EP4 receptor and prostaglandin transporter in prostaglandin E2-induced alteration in colonic epithelial barrier integrity.

    PubMed

    Lejeune, Manigandan; Leung, Pearl; Beck, Paul L; Chadee, Kris

    2010-11-01

    Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) is a proinflammatory lipid mediator produced in excess in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). PGE(2) couples to and signals via four different E-prostanoid (EP) receptors, namely EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4. In this study, we determined a role for PGE(2) and EP4 receptors in altering colonic epithelial barrier integrity. In healthy colonic mucosa, EP4 receptors were localized on apical plasma membrane of epithelial cells at the tip of mucosal folds, whereas, in patients with IBD and in rats with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis, they were diffusely overexpressed throughout the mucosa. Similarly, expression of EP4 receptor was polarized in T84 colonic epithelial monolayer and mimics the normal epithelium. Apical exposure of T84 monolayer with high levels of PGE(2) decreased barrier integrity, which was abrogated by an EP4 receptor antagonist. To reveal the mechanism of vectorial transport of basally produced PGE(2) toward apical EP4 receptors, we identified prostaglandin transporters (PGT) in human colonic epithelia. PGT were least expressed on epithelial cells at the colonic mucosal folds of control subjects but overexpressed in epithelial cells of patients with IBD or animals with DSS-induced colitis. T84 monolayer also expressed PGT, which increased twofold following stimulation with TNF-α. Importantly, in T84 monolayer stimulated with TNF-α, there was a corresponding increase in the uptake and vectorial transport of (3)H-PGE(2) to the apical surface. Knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of PGT significantly decreased vectorial transport of (3)H-PGE(2). These studies unravel a mechanism whereby EP4 receptor and PGT play a role in PGE(2)-induced alteration of epithelial barrier integrity in colitis.

  17. Tilmicosin and tylosin have anti-inflammatory properties via modulation of COX-2 and iNOS gene expression and production of cytokines in LPS-induced macrophages and monocytes.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xing-Yuan; Dong, Mei; Shen, Jian-Zhong; Wu, Bei-Bei; Wu, Cong-Ming; Du, Xiang-Dang; Wang, Zhuo; Qi, Yi-Tao; Li, Bing-Yu

    2006-05-01

    Macrolides have been reported to modify the host immune and inflammatory responses both in vivo and in vitro. We examined the in vitro effect of the macrolides tilmicosin and tylosin, which are only used in the veterinary clinic, on the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and cytokines by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and mouse peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Compared with 5 microg/mL, tilmicosin and tylosin concentrations of 10 microg/mL and 20 microg/mL significantly decreased the production of 6-keto-prostaglandin F(1alpha) (6-keto-PGF(1alpha)), PGE(2), NO, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6, and increased IL-10 production. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression were also significantly reduced. These results support the opinion that macrolides may exert an anti-inflammatory effect through modulating the synthesis of several mediators and cytokines involved in the inflammatory process.

  18. The release of prostaglandin E2 from the skin of the plaice, Pleuronectes platessa L.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, A. A.; Fletcher, T. C.; Smith, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    1 A fungal extract which produces a cutaneous hypersensitivity reaction in the plaice, Pleuronectes platessa L., was incubated in vitro with the skin of this teleost fish. Samples of incubation media were assayed for smooth muscle stimulating activity. 2 Prostaglandin E2 was identified by bioassay, thin-layer chromatography, ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy and gas chromatography--mass spectrometry. Release from challenged skin was maximum after 60 min incubation. 3 Analysis of the fatty acid composition of plaice skin showed that although arachidonic acid was present (3% of total fatty acids), the precursor of prostaglandin E3, eicosapentaenoic acid contributed 9% of total. 4 Indomethacin (50 mg/kg i.p) did not inhibit the erythema induced by the fungal extract, whilst a dose of 1 mg/kg maximally inhibited prostaglandin release from skin on incubation in vitro. 5 It is concluded that prostaglandins do not have an exclusive role in the mediation of the hypersensitivity reaction. PMID:465893

  19. Aspirin-like drugs may block pain independently of prostaglandin synthesis inhibition.

    PubMed

    Brune, K; Beck, W S; Geisslinger, G; Menzel-Soglowek, S; Peskar, B M; Peskar, B A

    1991-03-15

    Using flurbiprofen, a chiral anti-inflammatory and analgesic 2-arylpropionic acid derivative, the enantiomers of which are not converted to each other (less than 5%) in rats or man, we obtained evidence that prostaglandin synthesis inhibition is primarily mediating the anti-inflammatory activity but prostaglandin synthesis independent mechanisms contribute to the analgesic effects. Thus, the S-form inhibited prostaglandin synthesis, inflammation and nociception in rats. The R-form had much less effect on prostaglandin synthesis and did not affect inflammation. It did, however, block nociception in rats almost as potently as the S-form. S-flurbiprofen, in contrast to the R-form, was clearly ulcerogenic in the gastrointestinal mucosa. These results indicate additional molecular mechanisms of analgesia and suggest the use of R-arylpropionic acids as analgesics.

  20. Celecoxib Improves Host Defense through Prostaglandin Inhibition during Histoplasma capsulatum Infection

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Priscilla Aparecida Tartari; Trindade, Bruno Caetano; Secatto, Adriana; Nicolete, Roberto; Peres-Buzalaf, Camila; Ramos, Simone Gusmão; Sadikot, Ruxana; Bitencourt, Claudia da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Prostaglandins act as mediators of inflammation and, similar to cytokines, function as immune modulators during innate and adaptive immune responses. Therefore, using a pharmacological inhibitor, celecoxib, we investigated the role of prostaglandins in host defense against Histoplasma capsulatum infection in C57BL/6 mice. Our results showed that treatment with celecoxib inhibited cyclooxygenase 2, reduced the total fungal burden, and reduced the concentration of PGE2, cytokines, lymphocytes, neutrophils, and mononuclear cells in the bronchoalveolar space and lung parenchyma. In addition, celecoxib treatment increased the synthesis of nitric oxide, IFN-γ, LTB4, and the phagocytic capacity of alveolar macrophages. Moreover, celecoxib treatment increased the survival of mice after infection with a lethal inoculum of H. capsulatum. These results suggest that prostaglandins alter the host immune response and play an important role in the pathogenesis of histoplasmosis. Thus, the inhibition of prostaglandins could be a valuable immunomodulatory strategy and antifungal therapy for histoplasmosis treatment. PMID:23818746

  1. 17 CFR 249.1200 - Form X-17F-1A-Report for missing, lost, stolen or counterfeit securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Register citations affecting Form X-17F-1A, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Form X-17F-1A-Report for... Reporting and Inquiry With Respect to Missing, Lost, Stolen, or Counterfeit Securities § 249.1200 Form...

  2. 17 CFR 249.1200 - Form X-17F-1A-Report for missing, lost, stolen or counterfeit securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Register citations affecting Form X-17F-1A, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Form X-17F-1A-Report for... Reporting and Inquiry With Respect to Missing, Lost, Stolen, or Counterfeit Securities § 249.1200 Form...

  3. 17 CFR 249.1200 - Form X-17F-1A-Report for missing, lost, stolen or counterfeit securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Register citations affecting Form X-17F-1A, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Form X-17F-1A-Report for... Reporting and Inquiry With Respect to Missing, Lost, Stolen, or Counterfeit Securities § 249.1200 Form...

  4. 17 CFR 249.1200 - Form X-17F-1A-Report for missing, lost, stolen or counterfeit securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Register citations affecting Form X-17F-1A, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Form X-17F-1A-Report for... Reporting and Inquiry With Respect to Missing, Lost, Stolen, or Counterfeit Securities § 249.1200 Form...

  5. Expression and refolding of mite allergen pro-Der f1 from inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ling, Chunfang; Zhang, Junyan; Chen, Huifang; Zou, Zehong; Lai, He; Zhang, Jianguo; Lin, Deqiu; Tao, Ailin

    2015-05-01

    House dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae) allergen Der f1 is one of the most important indoor allergens associated with asthma, eczema and allergic rhinitis in humans. Therefore, sufficient quantities of Der f1 cysteine protease to be used for both experimental and therapeutic purposes are very much needed. Using recombinant DNA technology, high expression rates of cysteine proteases were obtained. The cDNA sequence encoding pro-Der f1 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli using the T7 based expression vector pET-44a and induced by isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactoside at a final concentration of 0.2mM. Recombinant pro-Der f1 (pro-rDer f1) was expressed as an inclusion body and the isolated protease was solubilized, refolded and purified. The protease activities and IgE reactivities of pro-rDer f1 that were refolded by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) were higher than those obtained by dilution. The pair of pro-rDer f1 polypeptides produced by this method could be used for more effective and safer allergen-specific immunotherapy or to produce enzymatically and immunologically active Der f1 for diagnostic testing and deciphering of immunotherapy mechanisms.

  6. 17 CFR 240.17f-1 - Requirements for reporting and inquiry with respect to missing, lost, counterfeit or stolen...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Requirements for reporting and inquiry with respect to missing, lost, counterfeit or stolen securities. 240.17f-1 Section 240.17f-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF...

  7. 26 CFR 54.4980F-1 - Notice requirements for certain pension plan amendments significantly reducing the rate of future...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... amendments significantly reducing the rate of future benefit accrual. 54.4980F-1 Section 54.4980F-1 Internal... significantly reducing the rate of future benefit accrual. The following questions and answers concern the... a plan amendment of an applicable pension plan that significantly reduces the rate of future...

  8. 17 CFR 249.1200 - Form X-17F-1A-Report for missing, lost, stolen or counterfeit securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Register citations affecting Form X-17F-1A, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form X-17F-1A-Report for... Reporting and Inquiry With Respect to Missing, Lost, Stolen, or Counterfeit Securities § 249.1200 Form...

  9. 26 CFR 54.4980F-1 - Notice requirements for certain pension plan amendments significantly reducing the rate of future...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... amendments significantly reducing the rate of future benefit accrual. 54.4980F-1 Section 54.4980F-1 Internal... significantly reducing the rate of future benefit accrual. The following questions and answers concern the... a plan amendment of an applicable pension plan that significantly reduces the rate of future...

  10. 26 CFR 25.2523(f)-1A - Special rule applicable to community property transferred prior to January 1, 1982.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Special rule applicable to community property transferred prior to January 1, 1982. 25.2523(f)-1A Section 25.2523(f)-1A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 Deductions Prior to 1982...

  11. ‘Caro-Tex 312’, a high yielding, orange-fruited, Habanero-type, F1 hybrid pepper

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service of the U. S. Department of Agriculture and the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences of Texas A&M University have released the high yielding, orange-fruited, Habanero-type, F1 hybrid pepper cultivar CaroTex-312. CaroTex-312 is the result of an F1 cross made at C...

  12. 40 CFR Table F-1 to Subpart F of... - Performance Specifications for PM2.5 Class II Equivalent Samplers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance Specifications for PM2.5..., Subpt. F, Table F-1 Table F-1 to Subpart F of Part 53—Performance Specifications for PM2.5 Class II Equivalent Samplers Performance test Specifications Acceptance criteria § 53.62 Full Wind Tunnel...

  13. Beef-heart mitochondrial F1-ATPase can use endogenous bound phosphate to synthesize ATP in dimethyl sulfoxide.

    PubMed

    Beharry, S; Bragg, P D

    1991-10-21

    Beef-heart mitochondrial F1-ATPase contained 5 mol of inorganic phosphate bound per mol of F1, following pretreatment with ATP. A portion of the phosphate, bound most likely at a catalytic site, reacted in dimethylsulfoxide with endogenous adenine nucleotide to form ATP.

  14. Inhibition of rabbit erythroid 15-lipoxygenase and sheep vesicular gland prostaglandin H synthase by gallic esters.

    PubMed

    Luther, H; Jordanov, D; Ludwig, P; Schewe, T

    1991-02-01

    Gallic acid esters possessing a varying chain length of their alcohol moiety were tested for their inhibitory potencies on 15-lipoxygenase from rabbit reticulocytes and prostaglandin H synthase from sheep vesicular glands. Octyl gallate and decyl gallate proved to be the most powerful inhibitors of both enzymes showing concentrations of half-inhibition of about 0.25 mumol/l for the reticulocyte lipoxygenase and of about 25 mumol/l for the prostaglandin H synthase.

  15. [Do prostaglandins protect other cells besides those of the gastrointestinal epithelium?].

    PubMed

    Müller, P; Dammann, H G; Simon, B

    1982-08-01

    Prostaglandins in very low concentrations, which do not inhibit acid secretion, do protect the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract against a great number of noxious agents. Similar effects could be shown recently in hepatic, pancreatic, renal, and myocardial tissue. The mechanism of cytoprotective action remains unclear. Since cytoprotection is quite ubiquitous, a common mechanism as for instance stabilisation of membranes seems to be effective. It remains to be seen, if this protective action of prostaglandins can be used in therapy.

  16. Nutritional modulation of mineralocorticoid and prostaglandin production: potential role in prevention and treatment of gastric pathology.

    PubMed

    McCarty, M F

    1983-08-01

    Various lines of evidence indicate that aldosterone and prostaglandins may play physiological roles in protecting the gastric mucosa. This would suggest that low-sodium, high-potassium diets, and supplementation with essential fatty acids that are efficient prostaglandin precursors (as in evening primrose oil), may have value in the prevention and treatment of gastric ulcer and gastritis. A low-sodium, high-potassium diet may also reduce the risk of gastric cancer.

  17. pRB-E2F1 complexes are resistant to adenovirus E1A-mediated disruption.

    PubMed

    Seifried, L A; Talluri, S; Cecchini, M; Julian, L M; Mymryk, J S; Dick, F A

    2008-05-01

    Disruption of pRB-E2F interactions by E1A is a key event in the adenoviral life cycle that drives expression of early viral transcription and induces cell cycle progression. This function of E1A is complicated by E2F1, an E2F family member that controls multiple processes besides proliferation, including apoptosis and DNA repair. Recently, a second interaction site in pRB that only contacts E2F1 has been discovered, allowing pRB to control proliferation separately from other E2F1-dependent activities. Based on this new insight into pRB-E2F1 regulation, we investigated how E1A affects control of E2F1 by pRB. Our data reveal that pRB-E2F1 interactions are resistant to E1A-mediated disruption. Using mutant forms of pRB that selectively force E2F1 to bind through only one of the two binding sites on pRB, we determined that E1A is unable to disrupt E2F1's unique interaction with pRB. Furthermore, analysis of pRB-E2F complexes during adenoviral infection reveals the selective maintenance of pRB-E2F1 interactions despite the presence of E1A. Our experiments also demonstrate that E2F1 functions to maintain cell viability in response to E1A expression. This suggests that adenovirus E1A's seemingly complex mechanism of disrupting pRB-E2F interactions provides selectivity in promoting viral transcription and cell cycle advancement, while maintaining cell viability.

  18. Fluoroaluminum and fluoroberyllium nucleoside diphosphate complexes as probes of the enzymatic mechanism of the mitochondrial F1-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Issartel, J P; Dupuis, A; Lunardi, J; Vignais, P V

    1991-05-14

    The mechanism by which fluoride and aluminum or beryllium in combination with ADP inhibit beef heart mitochondrial F1-ATPase was investigated. The kinetics of inhibition depended on the nature of the anion present in the F1-ATPase assay medium. Inhibition required the presence of Mg2+ and developed more rapidly with sulfite and sulfate than with chloride, i.e., with anions which activate F1-ATPase activity. The ADP-fluorometal complexes were bound quasi-irreversibly to F1, and each mole of the inhibitory nucleotide-fluorometal complex was tightly associated with 1 mol of Mg2+. One mole of nucleotide-fluorometal complex was able to inhibit the activity of 1 mol of catalytic site in F1. Direct measurements of bound fluoride, aluminum, beryllium, and ADP indicated that the F1-bound ADP-fluorometal complexes are of the following types: ADP1A11F4, ADP1Be1F1, ADP1Be1F2, or ADP1Be1F3. Fluoroaluminates or fluoroberyllates are isomorphous to Pi, and the inhibitory nucleotide-fluorometal complexes mimicked transient intermediates of nucleotides that appeared in the course of ATP hydrolysis. On the other hand, each mole of fully inhibited F1, retained 2 mol of inhibitory complexes. The same stoichiometry was observed when ADP was replaced by GDP, a nucleotide which, unlike ADP, binds only to the catalytic sites of F1. These results are discussed in terms of a stochastic model in which the three cooperative catalytic sites of F1 function in interactive pairs.

  19. Circadian variations of prostaglandin E2 and F2 alpha release in the golden hamster retina.

    PubMed

    de Zavalía, Nuria; Fernandez, Diego C; Sande, Pablo H; Keller Sarmiento, María I; Golombek, Diego A; Rosenstein, Ruth E; Silberman, Dafne M

    2010-02-01

    Circadian variations of prostaglandin E2 and F2alpha release were examined in the golden hamster retina. Both parameters showed significant diurnal variations with maximal values at midnight. When hamsters were placed under constant darkness for 48 h, the differences in prostaglandin release between subjective mid-day and subjective midnight persisted. Western blot analysis showed that cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 levels were significantly higher at midnight than at mid-day, and at subjective midnight than at subjective mid-day, whereas no changes in COX-2 levels were observed among these time points. Immunohistochemical studies indicated the presence of COX-1 and COX-2 in the inner (but not outer) retina. Circadian variations of retinal prostaglandin release were also assessed in suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN)-lesioned animals. Significant differences in retinal prostaglandin release between subjective mid-day and subjective midnight were observed in SCN-lesioned animals. These results indicate that hamster retinal prostaglandin release is regulated by a retinal circadian clock independent from the SCN. Thus, the present results suggest that the prostaglandin/COX-1 system could be a retinal clock output or part of the retinal clock mechanism.

  20. Surface Plasmon Resonance Analysis of Histidine-Tagged F1-ATPase Surface Adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Jenifer K.; Richter, Mark L.; Berrie, Cindy L.

    2015-11-01

    Studies of the rotational activity of the enzymatic core (α3β3γ) of the F1-ATPase motor protein have relied on binding the enzyme to NTA-coated glass surfaces via polyhistidine tags engineered into the C-termini of each of the three α or β subunits. Those studies revealed the rotational motion of the central γ subunit by monitoring the motion of attached micron-long actin filaments or spherical nanoparticles. However, only a small percentage of the attached filaments or particles were observed to rotate, likely due, at least in part, to non-uniform surface attachment of the motor proteins. In this study, we have applied surface plasmon resonance to monitor the kinetics and affinity of binding of the His-tagged motor protein to NTA-coated gold sensor surfaces. The binding data, when fit to a heterogeneous binding model, exhibit two sets of adsorption-desorption rate constants with two dissociation constants of 4.0 × 10-9 M and 8.6 × 10-11 M for 6His-α3β3γ binding to the nickel ion-activated NTA surface. The data are consistent with mixed attachment of the protein via two (bimodal) and three (trimodal) NTA/Ni2+-His-tag interactions, respectively, with the less stable bimodal interaction dominating. The results provide a partial explanation for the low number of surface-attached F1 motors previously observed in rotation studies and suggest alternative approaches to uniform F1 motor surface attachment for future fabrication of motor-based nanobiodevices and materials.

  1. Dale Reed with model in front of M2-F1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    Dale Reed with a model of the M2-F1 in front of the actual lifting body. Reed used the model to show the potential of the lifting bodies. He first flew it into tall grass to test stability and trim, then hand-launched it from buildings for longer flights. Finally, he towed the lifting-body model aloft using a powered model airplane known as the 'Mothership.' A timer released the model and it glided to a landing. Dale's wife Donna used a 9 mm. camera to film the flights of the model. Its stability as it glided--despite its lack of wings--convinced Milt Thompson and some Flight Research Center engineers including the center director, Paul Bikle, that a piloted lifting body was possible. The lifting body concept evolved in the mid-1950s as researchers considered alternatives to ballistic reentries of piloted space capsules. The designs for hypersonic, wingless vehicles were on the boards at NASA Ames and NASA Langley facilities, while the US Air Force was gearing up for its Dyna-Soar program, which defined the need for a spacecraft that would land like an airplane. Despite favorable research on lifting bodies, there was little support for a flight program. Dryden engineer R. Dale Reed was intrigued with the lifting body concept, and reasoned that some sort of flight demonstration was needed before wingless aircraft could be taken seriously. In February 1962, he built a model lifting body based upon the Ames M2 design, and air-launched it from a radio controlled 'mothership.' Home movies of these flights, plus the support of research pilot Milt Thompson, helped pursuade the facilities director, Paul Bikle, to give the go-ahead for the construction of a full-scale version, to be used as a wind-tunnel model and possibly flown as a glider. Comparing lifting bodies to space capsules, an unofficial motto of the project was, 'Don't be Rescued from Outer Space--Fly Back in Style.' The construction of the M2-F1 was a joint effort by Dryden and a local glider manufacturer, the

  2. None of the Rotor Residues of F1-ATPase Are Essential for Torque Generation

    PubMed Central

    Chiwata, Ryohei; Kohori, Ayako; Kawakami, Tomonari; Shiroguchi, Katsuyuki; Furuike, Shou; Adachi, Kengo; Sutoh, Kazuo; Yoshida, Masasuke; Kinosita, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    F1-ATPase is a powerful rotary molecular motor that can rotate an object several hundred times as large as the motor itself against the viscous friction of water. Forced reverse rotation has been shown to lead to ATP synthesis, implying that the mechanical work against the motor’s high torque can be converted into the chemical energy of ATP. The minimal composition of the motor protein is α3β3γ subunits, where the central rotor subunit γ turns inside a stator cylinder made of alternately arranged α3β3 subunits using the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis. The rotor consists of an axle, a coiled coil of the amino- and carboxyl-terminal α-helices of γ, which deeply penetrates the stator cylinder, and a globular protrusion that juts out from the stator. Previous work has shown that, for a thermophilic F1, significant portions of the axle can be truncated and the motor still rotates a submicron sized bead duplex, indicating generation of up to half the wild-type (WT) torque. Here, we inquire if any specific interactions between the stator and the rest of the rotor are needed for the generation of a sizable torque. We truncated the protruding portion of the rotor and replaced part of the remaining axle residues such that every residue of the rotor has been deleted or replaced in this or previous truncation mutants. This protrusionless construct showed an unloaded rotary speed about a quarter of the WT, and generated one-third to one-half of the WT torque. No residue-specific interactions are needed for this much performance. F1 is so designed that the basic rotor-stator interactions for torque generation and control of catalysis rely solely upon the shape and size of the rotor at very low resolution. Additional tailored interactions augment the torque to allow ATP synthesis under physiological conditions. PMID:24853745

  3. New orbit recalculations of comet C/1890 F1 Brooks and its dynamical evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Królikowska, Małgorzata; Dybczyński, Piotr A.

    2016-08-01

    C/1890 F1 Brooks belongs to a group of 19 comets used by Jan Oort to support his famous hypothesis on the existence of a spherical cloud containing hundreds of billions of comets with orbits of semi-major axes between 50 000 and 150 000 au. Comet Brooks stands out from this group because of a long series of astrometric observations as well as a nearly 2-yr-long observational arc. Rich observational material makes this comet an ideal target for testing the rationality of an effort to recalculate astrometric positions on the basis of original (comet-star) measurements using modern star catalogues. This paper presents the results of such a new analysis based on two different methods: (i) automatic re-reduction based on cometary positions and the (comet-star) measurements and (ii) partially automatic re-reduction based on the contemporary data for the reference stars originally used. We show that both methods offer a significant reduction in the uncertainty of orbital elements. Based on the most preferred orbital solution, the dynamical evolution of comet Brooks during three consecutive perihelion passages is discussed. We conclude that C/1890 F1 is a dynamically old comet that passed the Sun at a distance below 5 au during its previous perihelion passage. Furthermore, its next perihelion passage will be a little closer than during the 1890-1892 apparition. C/1890 F1 is interesting also because it suffered extremely small planetary perturbations when it travelled through the planetary zone. Therefore, in the next passage through perihelion, it will once again be a comet from the Oort spike.

  4. The F0F1 ATP Synthase Complex Localizes to Membrane Rafts in Gonadotrope Cells.

    PubMed

    Allen-Worthington, Krystal; Xie, Jianjun; Brown, Jessica L; Edmunson, Alexa M; Dowling, Abigail; Navratil, Amy M; Scavelli, Kurt; Yoon, Hojean; Kim, Do-Geun; Bynoe, Margaret S; Clarke, Iain; Roberson, Mark S

    2016-09-01

    Fertility in mammals requires appropriate communication within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and the GnRH receptor (GnRHR) is a central conduit for this communication. The GnRHR resides in discrete membrane rafts and raft occupancy is required for signaling by GnRH. The present studies use immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry to define peptides present within the raft associated with the GnRHR and flotillin-1, a key raft marker. These studies revealed peptides from the F0F1 ATP synthase complex. The catalytic subunits of the F1 domain were validated by immunoprecipitation, flow cytometry, and cell surface biotinylation studies demonstrating that this complex was present at the plasma membrane associated with the GnRHR. The F1 catalytic domain faces the extracellular space and catalyzes ATP synthesis when presented with ADP in normal mouse pituitary explants and a gonadotrope cell line. Steady-state extracellular ATP accumulation was blunted by coadministration of inhibitory factor 1, limiting inorganic phosphate in the media, and by chronic stimulation of the GnRHR. Steady-state extracellular ATP accumulation was enhanced by pharmacological inhibition of ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases. Kisspeptin administration induced coincident GnRH and ATP release from the median eminence into the hypophyseal-portal vasculature in ovariectomized sheep. Elevated levels of extracellular ATP augmented GnRH-induced secretion of LH from pituitary cells in primary culture, which was blocked in media containing low inorganic phosphate supporting the importance of extracellular ATP levels to gonadotrope cell function. These studies indicate that gonadotropes have intrinsic ability to metabolize ATP in the extracellular space and extracellular ATP may serve as a modulator of GnRH-induced LH secretion. PMID:27482602

  5. Single Molecule Behavior of Inhibited and Active States of Escherichia coli ATP Synthase F1 Rotation*

    PubMed Central

    Sekiya, Mizuki; Hosokawa, Hiroyuki; Nakanishi-Matsui, Mayumi; Al-Shawi, Marwan K.; Nakamoto, Robert K.; Futai, Masamitsu

    2010-01-01

    ATP hydrolysis-dependent rotation of the F1 sector of the ATP synthase is a successive cycle of catalytic dwells (∼0.2 ms at 24 °C) and 120° rotation steps (∼0.6 ms) when observed under Vmax conditions using a low viscous drag 60-nm bead attached to the γ subunit (Sekiya, M., Nakamoto, R. K., Al-Shawi, M. K., Nakanishi-Matsui, M., and Futai, M. (2009) J. Biol. Chem. 284, 22401–22410). During the normal course of observation, the γ subunit pauses in a stochastic manner to a catalytically inhibited state that averages ∼1 s in duration. The rotation behavior with adenosine 5′-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) as the substrate or at a low ATP concentration (4 μm) indicates that the rotation is inhibited at the catalytic dwell when the bound ATP undergoes reversible hydrolysis/synthesis. The temperature dependence of rotation shows that F1 requires ∼2-fold higher activation energy for the transition from the active to the inhibited state compared with that for normal steady-state rotation during the active state. Addition of superstoichiometric ϵ subunit, the inhibitor of F1-ATPase, decreases the rotation rate and at the same time increases the duration time of the inhibited state. Arrhenius analysis shows that the ϵ subunit has little effect on the transition between active and inhibited states. Rather, the ϵ subunit confers lower activation energy of steady-state rotation. These results suggest that the ϵ subunit plays a role in guiding the enzyme through the proper and efficient catalytic and transport rotational pathway but does not influence the transition to the inhibited state. PMID:20974856

  6. Novel Drugs Targeting the c-Ring of the F1FO-ATP Synthase.

    PubMed

    Pagliarani, Alessandra; Nesci, S; Ventrella, V

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence highlights the role of the ATP synthase/hydrolase, also known as F1FO-complex, as key molecular and enzymatic switch between cell life and death, thus increasing the enzyme attractiveness as drug target in pharmacology. Being inhibition of ATP production usually linked to antiproliferative properties, drugs targeting the enzyme complex have been mainly considered to fight pathogen parasites and cancer. In recent years, a number of natural macrolides, produced by bacterial fermentation and structurally related to the classical enzyme inhibitor oligomycin, have been shown to bind to the membrane-embedded FO sector and to inhibit the enzyme complex by an oligomycin-like mechanism, namely by interacting with the c-ring. Other than natural macrolide antibiotics, which display variegated inhibition power on different F1FO-complexes, synthetic compounds from the diarylquinoline and organotin families also target the c-ring and strongly inhibit the enzyme. Bioinformatic insights address drug design to target FO subunits. Additionally, the possible modulation of the drug inhibition power, by amino acid substitutions or post-translational modifications of c-subunits, adds further interest to the target. The present survey on compounds targeting the c-ring and bi-directionally blocking the transmembrane proton flux which drives ATP synthesis/hydrolysis, discloses new therapeutic options to fight cancer and infections sustained by therapeutically recalcitrant microorganisms. Additionally, c-ring targeting compounds may constitute new tools to eradicate undesired biofilms and to address at the molecular level the therapy of mammalian diseases linked to mitochondrial dysfunctions. In summary, studies on the only partially known molecular interactions within the c-ring of the F1FO-complex may renew hope to counteract mammalian diseases. PMID:26864551

  7. The F0F1 ATP Synthase Complex Localizes to Membrane Rafts in Gonadotrope Cells.

    PubMed

    Allen-Worthington, Krystal; Xie, Jianjun; Brown, Jessica L; Edmunson, Alexa M; Dowling, Abigail; Navratil, Amy M; Scavelli, Kurt; Yoon, Hojean; Kim, Do-Geun; Bynoe, Margaret S; Clarke, Iain; Roberson, Mark S

    2016-09-01

    Fertility in mammals requires appropriate communication within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and the GnRH receptor (GnRHR) is a central conduit for this communication. The GnRHR resides in discrete membrane rafts and raft occupancy is required for signaling by GnRH. The present studies use immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry to define peptides present within the raft associated with the GnRHR and flotillin-1, a key raft marker. These studies revealed peptides from the F0F1 ATP synthase complex. The catalytic subunits of the F1 domain were validated by immunoprecipitation, flow cytometry, and cell surface biotinylation studies demonstrating that this complex was present at the plasma membrane associated with the GnRHR. The F1 catalytic domain faces the extracellular space and catalyzes ATP synthesis when presented with ADP in normal mouse pituitary explants and a gonadotrope cell line. Steady-state extracellular ATP accumulation was blunted by coadministration of inhibitory factor 1, limiting inorganic phosphate in the media, and by chronic stimulation of the GnRHR. Steady-state extracellular ATP accumulation was enhanced by pharmacological inhibition of ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases. Kisspeptin administration induced coincident GnRH and ATP release from the median eminence into the hypophyseal-portal vasculature in ovariectomized sheep. Elevated levels of extracellular ATP augmented GnRH-induced secretion of LH from pituitary cells in primary culture, which was blocked in media containing low inorganic phosphate supporting the importance of extracellular ATP levels to gonadotrope cell function. These studies indicate that gonadotropes have intrinsic ability to metabolize ATP in the extracellular space and extracellular ATP may serve as a modulator of GnRH-induced LH secretion.

  8. The Analysis of Quantitative Traits for Simple Genetic Models from Parental, F1 and Backcross Data

    PubMed Central

    Elston, R. C.; Stewart, John

    1973-01-01

    The following models are considered for the genetic determination of quantitative traits: segregation at one locus, at two linked loci, at any number of equal and additive unlinked loci, and at one major locus and an indefinite number of equal and additive loci. In each case an appropriate likelihood is given for data on parental, F1 and backcross individuals, assuming that the environmental variation is normally distributed. Methods of testing and comparing the various models are presented, and methods are suggested for the simultaneous analysis of two or more traits. PMID:4711900

  9. Mineral requirements for growth and maintenance of F1 Boer × Saanen male kids.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, I A M A; Härter, C J; Pereira Filho, J M; Sobrinho, A G da Silva; Resende, K T

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the net requirements of minerals for the growth and maintenance of intact male F1 Boer × Saanen goat kids in the initial phase of growth. The following 2 experiments were performed: Exp. 1 was performed to determine the net growth requirements for Ca, P, Mg, Na, and K by F1 Boer × Saanen goat kids from 5 to 25 kg of BW and Exp. 2 was performed to determine the maintenance requirements of F1 Boer × Saanen goats from 15 to 25 kg BW. In Exp. 1, 32 intact male goat kids were distributed in a completely randomized design and mineral body composition was fit to an allometric equation in the form of a nonlinear model. To determine the mineral requirements for maintenance in Exp. 2, 21 intact male goat kids were distributed in a randomized block design, where the goat kids were subjected to 3 levels of feed restriction (0, 30, and 60% feed restriction). At the onset of Exp. 2, 7 goat kids were harvested and used to estimate the initial body composition (15 kg BW). Initial body composition was used to calculate the retention of minerals. The maintenance requirements were estimated by regressions obtained from the retention of minerals in the empty body and the intake of the mineral. The concentration of Ca, P, Na, and K in the empty BW decreased by 11, 13, 26, and 23% with the increase in BW from 5 to 25 kg (P < 0.01). As a consequence, our results showed that net requirements of Ca, P, Mg, Na, and K for weight gain decreased by 27.5, 27.8, 4.25, 43.2, and 39.7%, respectively, with the increase in BW from 5 to 25 kg (P < 0.01). The net requirements (g/kg of ADG) decreased from 9.7 to 7.0 for Ca, 6.5 to 4.7 for P, 0.38 to 0.36 for Mg, 0.88 to 0.50 for Na, and 1.9 to 1.2 for K when BW increased from 5 to 25 kg. The daily net requirements for maintenance per kilogram of BW were 38 mg of Ca, 42 mg of P, 1.6 mg of Mg, 5.0 mg of Na, and 19 mg of K. These results for the nutritional requirements of minerals may help to formulate more

  10. Modeling of TCE and Toluene Toxicity to Pseudomonas putida F1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R.; Olson, M. S.

    2009-12-01

    Prediction of viable bacterial distribution with respect to contaminants is important for efficient bioremediation of contaminated ground-water aquifers, particularly those contaminated with residual NAPLs. While bacterial motility and chemotaxis may help situate bacteria close to high concentrations of contaminant thereby enhancing bioremediation, prolonged exposure to high concentrations of contaminates is toxic to contaminant-degrading bacteria. The purpose of this work is to model the toxicity of trichloroethylene and toluene to Pseudomonas putida F1. The Live/Dead® bacterial viability assay was used to determine the toxic effect of chemical contaminants on the viability of P. putida F1 in a sealed zero head-space experimental environment. Samples of bacterial suspensions were exposed to common ground-water pollutants, TCE and toluene, for different durations. Changes in live and dead cell populations were monitored over the course of experiments using fluorescence microscopy. Data obtained from these toxicity experiments were fit to simple linear and exponential bacterial decay models using non-linear regression to describe loss of bacterial viability. TCE toxicity to P. putida F1 was best described with an exponential decay model (Figure 1a), with a decay constant kTCE = 0.025 h-4.95 (r2 = 0.956). Toluene toxicity showed a marginally better fit to the linear decay model (Figure 1b) (r2 = 0.971), with a decay constant ktoluene = 0.204 h-1. Best-fit model parameters obtained for both TCE and toluene were used to predict bacterial viability in toxicity experiments with higher contaminant concentrations and matched well with experimental data. Results from this study can be used to predict bacterial accumulation and viability near NAPL sources, and thus may be helpful in improving bioremediation performance assessment of contaminated sites. Figure 1: Survival ratios (S = N/No) of P. putida F1 in TCE- (a) and toluene- (b) stressed samples (observed (

  11. Directed evolution reveals requisite sequence elements in the functional expression of P450 2F1 in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Behrendorff, James B Y H; Moore, Chad D; Kim, Keon-Hee; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Smith, Christopher A; Johnston, Wayne A; Yun, Chul-Ho; Yost, Garold S; Gillam, Elizabeth M J

    2012-09-17

    Cytochrome P450 2F1 (P450 2F1) is expressed exclusively in the human respiratory tract and is implicated in 3-methylindole (3MI)-induced pneumotoxicity via dehydrogenation of 3MI to a reactive electrophilic intermediate, 3-methyleneindolenine (3-MEI). Studies of P450 2F1 to date have been limited by the failure to express this enzyme in Escherichia coli. By contrast, P450 2F3, a caprine homologue that shares 84% sequence identity with P450 2F1 (86 amino acid differences), has been expressed in E. coli at yields greater than 250 nmol/L culture. We hypothesized that a limited number of sequence differences between P450s 2F1 and 2F3 could limit P450 2F1 expression in E. coli and that problematic P450 2F1 sequence elements could be identified by directed evolution. A library of P450 2F1/2F3 mutants was created by DNA family shuffling and screened for expression in E. coli. Three generations of DNA shuffling revealed a mutant (named JH_2F_F3_1_007) with 96.5% nucleotide sequence identity to P450 2F1 and which expressed 119 ± 40 pmol (n = 3, mean ± SD) hemoprotein in 1 mL microaerobic cultures. Across all three generations, two regions were observed where P450 2F3-derived sequence was consistently substituted for P450 2F1 sequence in expressing mutants, encoding nine amino acid differences between P450s 2F1 and 2F3: nucleotides 191-278 (amino acids 65-92) and 794-924 (amino acids 265-305). Chimeras constructed to specifically test the importance of these two regions confirmed that P450 2F3 sequence is essential in both regions for expression in E. coli but that other non-P450 2F1 sequence elements outside of these regions also improved the expression of mutant JH_2F_F3_1_007. Mutant JH_2F_F3_1_007 catalyzed the dehydrogenation of 3MI to 3-MEI as indicated by the observation of glutathione adducts after incubation in the presence of glutathione. The JH_2F_F3_1_007 protein differs from P450 2F1 at only 20 amino acids and should facilitate further studies of the structure

  12. Targeted gene mutation of E2F1 evokes age-dependent synaptic disruption and behavioral deficits.

    PubMed

    Ting, Jenhao H; Marks, David R; Schleidt, Stephanie S; Wu, Joanna N; Zyskind, Jacob W; Lindl, Kathryn A; Blendy, Julie A; Pierce, R Christopher; Jordan-Sciutto, Kelly L

    2014-06-01

    Aberrant expression and activation of the cell cycle protein E2F1 in neurons has been implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases. As a transcription factor regulating G1 to S phase progression in proliferative cells, E2F1 is often up-regulated and activated in models of neuronal death. However, despite its well-studied functions in neuronal death, little is known regarding the role of E2F1 in the mature brain. In this study, we used a combined approach to study the effect of E2F1 gene disruption on mouse behavior and brain biochemistry. We identified significant age-dependent olfactory and memory-related deficits in E2f1 mutant mice. In addition, we found that E2F1 exhibits punctated staining and localizes closely to the synapse. Furthermore, we found a mirroring age-dependent loss of post-synaptic protein-95 in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb as well as a global loss of several other synaptic proteins. Coincidently, E2F1 expression is significantly elevated at the ages, in which behavioral and synaptic perturbations were observed. Finally, we show that deficits in adult neurogenesis persist late in aged E2f1 mutant mice which may partially contribute to the behavior phenotypes. Taken together, our data suggest that the disruption of E2F1 function leads to specific age-dependent behavioral deficits and synaptic perturbations. E2F1 is a transcription factor regulating cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Although E2F1 dysregulation under toxic conditions can lead to neuronal death, little is known about its physiologic activity in the healthy brain. Here, we report significant age-dependent olfactory and memory deficits in mice with dysfunctional E2F1. Coincident with these behavioral changes, we also found age-matched synaptic disruption and persisting reduction in adult neurogenesis. Our study demonstrates that E2F1 contributes to physiologic brain structure and function. PMID:24460902

  13. Replication of a chronic hepatitis B virus genotype F1b construct.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Sergio; Jiménez, Gustavo; Alarcón, Valentina; Prieto, Cristian; Muñoz, Francisca; Riquelme, Constanza; Venegas, Mauricio; Brahm, Javier; Loyola, Alejandra; Villanueva, Rodrigo A

    2016-03-01

    Genotype F is one of the less-studied genotypes of human hepatitis B virus, although it is widely distributed in regions of Central and South American. Our previous studies have shown that HBV genotype F is prevalent in Chile, and phylogenetic analysis of its full-length sequence amplified from the sera of chronically infected patients identified it as HBV subgenotype F1b. We have previously reported the full-length sequence of a HBV molecular clone obtained from a patient chronically infected with genotype F1b. In this report, we established a system to study HBV replication based on hepatoma cell lines transfected with full-length monomers of the HBV genome. Culture supernatants were analyzed after transfection and found to contain both HBsAg and HBeAg viral antigens. Consistently, fractionated cell extracts revealed the presence of viral replication, with both cytoplasmic and nuclear DNA intermediates. Analysis of HBV-transfected cells by indirect immunofluorescence or immunoelectron microscopy revealed the expression of viral antigens and cytoplasmic viral particles, respectively. To test the functionality of the ongoing viral replication further at the level of chromatinized cccDNA, transfected cells were treated with a histone deacetylase inhibitor, and this resulted in increased viral replication. This correlated with changes posttranslational modifications of histones at viral promoters. Thus, the development of this viral replication system for HBV genotype F will facilitate studies on the regulation of viral replication and the identification of new antiviral drugs.

  14. The self-compatibility mechanism in Brassica napus L. is applicable to F1 hybrid breeding.

    PubMed

    Tochigi, Takahiro; Udagawa, Hisashi; Li, Feng; Kitashiba, Hiroyasu; Nishio, Takeshi

    2011-08-01

    Brassica napus, an allopolyploid species having the A genome of B. rapa and the C genome of B. oleracea, is self-compatible, although both B. rapa and B. oleracea are self-incompatible. We have previously reported that SP11/SCR alleles are not expressed in anthers, while SRK alleles are functional in the stigma in B. napus cv. 'Westar', which has BnS-1 similar to B. rapa S-47 and BnS-6 similar to B. oleracea S-15. This genotype is the most frequent S genotype in B. napus, and we hypothesized that the loss of the function of SP11 is the primary cause of the self-compatibility of 'Westar'. To verify this hypothesis, we transformed 'Westar' plants with the SP11 allele of B. rapa S-47. All the transgenic plants and their progeny were completely self-incompatible, demonstrating self-compatibility to be due to the S haplotype having the non-functional SP11 allele in the A genome, which suppresses a functional recessive SP11 allele in the C genome. An artificially synthesized B. napus line having two recessive SP11 alleles was developed by interspecific hybridization between B. rapa and B. oleracea. This line was self-incompatible, but F(1) hybrids between this line and 'Westar' were self-compatible. These results suggest that the self-compatibility mechanism of 'Westar' is applicable to F(1) seed production in B. napus.

  15. Dissecting the genetic architecture of F1 hybrid sterility in house mice.

    PubMed

    Dzur-Gejdosova, Maria; Simecek, Petr; Gregorova, Sona; Bhattacharyya, Tanmoy; Forejt, Jiri

    2012-11-01

    Hybrid sterility as a postzygotic reproductive isolation mechanism has been studied for over 80 years, yet the first identifications of hybrid sterility genes in Drosophila and mouse are quite recent. To study the genetic architecture of F(1) hybrid sterility between young subspecies of house mouse Mus m. domesticus and M. m. musculus, we conducted QTL analysis of a backcross between inbred strains representing these two subspecies and probed the role of individual chromosomes in hybrid sterility using the intersubspecific chromosome substitution strains. We provide direct evidence that the asymmetry in male infertility between reciprocal crosses is conferred by the middle region of M. m. musculus Chr X, thus excluding other potential candidates such as Y, imprinted genes, and mitochondrial DNA. QTL analysis identified strong hybrid sterility loci on Chr 17 and Chr X and predicted a set of interchangeable autosomal loci, a subset of which is sufficient to activate the Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibility of the strong loci. Overall, our results indicate the oligogenic nature of F(1) hybrid sterility, which should be amenable to reconstruction by proper combination of chromosome substitution strains. Such a prefabricated model system should help to uncover the gene networks and molecular mechanisms underlying hybrid sterility.

  16. A construction of F1 as automorphisms of a 196,883-dimensional algebra

    PubMed Central

    Griess, Robert L.

    1981-01-01

    In this note, I announce the construction of the finite simple group F1, whose existence was predicted independently in 1973 by Bernd Fischer and by me. The group has order 246320597611213317.19.23.29.31.41. 47.59.71 = 808,017,424,794,512,875,886,459,904,961,710,757,005,754,368,000,000,000 and is realized as a group of automorphisms of a 196,883-dimensional commutative nonassociative algebra over the rational numbers, which has an associative form. Equivalently, it is a group of automorphisms of a cubic form in 196,883 variables. It turns out that all the relevant arguments and calculations may be done by hand. Furthermore, existence of the group F1 implies the existence of a number of other sporadic simple groups for which existence proofs formerly depended on work with computers. We are beginning to look upon this group as a “friendly giant.” PMID:16592973

  17. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in diploid Allium fistulosum × A. cepa F1 hybrid onions.

    PubMed

    Lu, C C; Currah, L; Peffley, E B

    1989-03-01

    Procedures were developed for disinfestation of non-dormant basal plate tissue excised from field grown basal plate tissue of diploid Allium fistulosum × A. cepa F1 hybrid onions. Contamination levels varied with the season and vegetative development of plant material. Callus initiated from basal plate tissue and immature inflorescences of the F1 hybrids was maintained on a BDS-based medium containing 0.75 mg/l picloram and 2.0 mg/l BA. When this medium was supplemented with vitamins and glycine, and with proline at 2.5 gm/1, somatic embryos began to form. Their development continued on a BDS-based shoot promotion medium containing 0.03 mg/l picloram and 0.32 mg/l 2iP supplemented with vitamins, glycine and proline. Genotypes differed significantly in the numbers of structures regenerated. Plantlets from somatic embryos were rooted into BDS or half-strength BDS medium without growth substances and were successfully transferred to sterilized potting mix in plastic commercial corsage boxes. PMID:24240465

  18. Risk reduction activities for an F-1-based advanced booster for NASA's Space Launch System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crocker, A. M.; Doering, K. B.; Cook, S. A.; Meadows, R. G.; Lariviere, B. W.; Bachtel, F. D.

    For NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction (ABEDRR) procurement, Dynetics, Inc. and Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) formed a team to offer a wide-ranging set of risk reduction activities and full-scale, system-level demonstrations that support NASA's goal of enabling competition on an affordable booster that meets the evolved capabilities of the SLS. During the ABEDRR effort, the Dynetics Team will apply state-of-the-art manufacturing and processing techniques to the heritage F-1, resulting in a low recurring cost engine while retaining the benefits of Apollo-era experience. ABEDRR will use NASA test facilities to perform full-scale F-1 gas generator and powerpack hot-fire test campaigns for engine risk reduction. Dynetics will also fabricate and test a tank assembly to verify the structural design. The Dynetics Team is partnered with NASA through Space Act Agreements (SAAs) to maximize the expertise and capabilities applied to ABEDRR.

  19. 28Silicon Irradiation Impairs Contextual Fear Memory in B6D2F1 Mice.

    PubMed

    Raber, Jacob; Marzulla, Tessa; Stewart, Blair; Kronenberg, Amy; Turker, Mitchell S

    2015-06-01

    The space radiation environment consists of multiple species of charged particles, including (28)Si, (48)Ti and protons that may impact cognition, but their damaging effects have been poorly defined. In mouse studies, C57Bl6/J homozygous wild-type mice and genetic mutant mice on a C57Bl6/J background have typically been used for assessing effects of space radiation on cognition. In contrast, little is known about the radiation response of mice on a heterozygous background. Therefore, in the current study we tested the effects of (28)Si, (48)Ti and proton radiation on hippocampus-dependent contextual fear memory and hippocampus-independent cued fear memory in C57Bl6/J × DBA2/J F1 (B6D2F1) mice three months after irradiation. Contextual fear memory was impaired at a 1.6 Gy dose of (28)Si radiation, but not cued fear memory. (48)Ti or proton irradiation did not affect either type of memory. Based on earlier space radiation cognitive data in C57Bl6/J mice, these data highlight the importance of including different genetic backgrounds in studies aimed at assessing cognitive changes after exposure to space radiation.

  20. On the structural possibility of pore-forming mitochondrial FoF1 ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Gerle, Christoph

    2016-08-01

    The mitochondrial permeability transition is an inner mitochondrial membrane event involving the opening of the permeability transition pore concomitant with a sudden efflux of matrix solutes and breakdown of membrane potential. The mitochondrial F(o)F(1) ATP synthase has been proposed as the molecular identity of the permeability transition pore. The likeliness of potential pore-forming sites in the mitochondrial F(o)F(1) ATP synthase is discussed and a new model, the death finger model, is described. In this model, movement of a p-side density that connects the lipid-plug of the c-ring with the distal membrane bending Fo domain allows reversible opening of the c-ring and structural cross-talk with OSCP and the catalytic (αβ)(3) hexamer. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2-6, 2016', edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi. PMID:26968896

  1. Engineering a light-controlled F1 ATPase using structure-based protein design

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The F1 sub-complex of ATP synthase is a biological nanomotor that converts the free energy of ATP hydrolysis into mechanical work with an astonishing efficiency of up to 100% (Kinosita et al., 2000). To probe the principal mechanics of the machine, I re-engineered the active site of E.coli F1 ATPase with a structure-based protein design approach: by incorporation of a site-specific, photoswitchable crosslinker, whose end-to-end distance can be modulated by illumination with light of two different wavelengths, a dynamic constraint was imposed on the inter-atomic distances of the α and β subunits. Crosslinking reduced the ATP hydrolysis activity of four designs tested in vitro and in one case created a synthetic ATPase whose activity can be reversibly modulated by subsequent illumination with near UV and blue light. The work is a first step into the direction of the long-term goal to design nanoscaled machines based on biological parts that can be precisely controlled by light. PMID:27547581

  2. Maternal obesity and malnourishment exacerbate perinatal oxidative stress resulting in diabetogenic programming in F1 offspring.

    PubMed

    Saad, M I; Abdelkhalek, T M; Haiba, M M; Saleh, M M; Hanafi, M Y; Tawfik, S H; Kamel, M A

    2016-06-01

    The effect of in-utero environment on fetal health and survival is long-lasting, and this is known as the fetal origin hypothesis. The oxidative stress state during gestation could play a pivotal role in fetal programming and development of diseases such as diabetes. In this study, we investigated the effect of intra-uterine obesity and malnutrition on oxidative stress markers in pancreatic and peripheral tissues of F1 offspring both prenatally and postnatally. Furthermore, the effect of postnatal diet on oxidative stress profile was evaluated. The results indicated that intra-uterine obesity and malnourishment significantly increased oxidative stress in F1 offspring. Moreover, the programming effect of obesity was more pronounced and protracted than malnutrition. The obesity-induced programming of offspring tissues was independent of high-caloric environment that the offspring endured; however, high-caloric diet potentiated its effect. In addition, pancreas and liver were the most affected tissues by fetal reprogramming both prenatally and postnatally. In conclusion, maternal obesity and malnutrition-induced oxidative stress could predispose offspring to insulin resistance and diabetes.

  3. Toluene degradation by Pseudomonas putida F1: genetic organization of the tod operon

    SciTech Connect

    Zylstra, G.J.; McCombie, W.R.; Gibson, D.T.; Finette, B.A.

    1988-06-01

    Pseudomonas putida PpF1 degrades toluene through cis-toluene dihydrodiol to 3-methylcatechol. The latter compound is metabolized through the well-established meta pathway for catechol degradation. The first four steps in the pathway involve the sequential action of toluene dioxygenase (todABC1C2), cis-toluene, dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (todD), 3-methylcatechol 2,3-dioxygenase (todE), and 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-2,4-heptadienoate hydrolase (todF). The genes for these enzymes form part of the tod operon which is responsible for the degradation of toluene by this organism. A combination of transposon mutagenesis of the PpF1 chromosome, was well as the analysis of cloned chromosomal fragments, was used to determine the physical order of the genes in the tod operon. The genes were determined to be transcribed in the order todF, todC1, todC2, todB, todA, todD, todE.

  4. Variability in the amount of homoeologous pairing among F1 hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Poggio, Lidia; Greizerstein, Eduardo; Ferrari, María

    2016-01-01

    Genes involved in the exclusive pairing of homologous chromosomes have been described in several polyploid species but little is known about the activity of these genes in diploids (which have only one dose of each homoeologous genome). Analysis of the meiotic behaviour of species, natural and artificial hybrids and polyploids of Glandularia suggests that, in allopolyploids where homoeologous genomes are in two doses, regulator genes prevent homoeologous pairing. The different meiotic phenotypes in diploid F1 hybrids between Glandularia pulchella and Glandularia incisa strongly suggest that these pairing regulator genes possess an incomplete penetrance when homoeologous genomes are in only one dose. Moreover, the meiotic analysis of natural and artificial F1 hybrids suggests that the genetic constitution of parental species influences the activity of pairing regulator genes and is mainly responsible for variability in the amount of homoeologous pairing observed in diploid hybrids. In Glandularia, the pairing regulator genes originated in South American diploid species. The cytogenetic characteristics of this genus make it a good model to analyse and explore in greater depth the activity of pairing regulator genes at different ploidy levels. PMID:27255515

  5. Engineering a light-controlled F1 ATPase using structure-based protein design.

    PubMed

    Hoersch, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The F1 sub-complex of ATP synthase is a biological nanomotor that converts the free energy of ATP hydrolysis into mechanical work with an astonishing efficiency of up to 100% (Kinosita et al., 2000). To probe the principal mechanics of the machine, I re-engineered the active site of E.coli F1 ATPase with a structure-based protein design approach: by incorporation of a site-specific, photoswitchable crosslinker, whose end-to-end distance can be modulated by illumination with light of two different wavelengths, a dynamic constraint was imposed on the inter-atomic distances of the α and β subunits. Crosslinking reduced the ATP hydrolysis activity of four designs tested in vitro and in one case created a synthetic ATPase whose activity can be reversibly modulated by subsequent illumination with near UV and blue light. The work is a first step into the direction of the long-term goal to design nanoscaled machines based on biological parts that can be precisely controlled by light. PMID:27547581

  6. Simple mechanism whereby the F1-ATPase motor rotates with near-perfect chemomechanical energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Saita, Ei-ichiro; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Kinosita, Kazuhiko; Yoshida, Masasuke

    2015-08-01

    F1-ATPase is a motor enzyme in which a central shaft γ subunit rotates 120° per ATP in the cylinder made of α3β3 subunits. During rotation, the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis (ΔGATP) is converted almost entirely into mechanical work by an elusive mechanism. We measured the force for rotation (torque) under various ΔGATP conditions as a function of rotation angles of the γ subunit with quasi-static, single-molecule manipulation and estimated mechanical work (torque × traveled angle) from the area of the function. The torque functions show three sawtooth-like repeats of a steep jump and linear descent in one catalytic turnover, indicating a simple physical model in which the motor is driven by three springs aligned along a 120° rotation angle. Although the second spring is unaffected by ΔGATP, activation of the first spring (timing of the torque jump) delays at low [ATP] (or high [ADP]) and activation of the third spring delays at high [Pi]. These shifts decrease the size and area of the sawtooth (magnitude of the work). Thus, F1-ATPase responds to the change of ΔGATP by shifting the torque jump timing and uses ΔGATP for the mechanical work with near-perfect efficiency.

  7. Spawning and fertility of F1 hybrids of the coral genus Acropora in the Indo-Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isomura, Naoko; Iwao, Kenji; Morita, Masaya; Fukami, Hironobu

    2016-09-01

    The role of hybridization through multi-specific synchronous spawning in the evolution of reef-building corals has been discussed since the 1990s, particularly for the genus Acropora. However, F1 hybrids have been reported as common in only one case in the Caribbean, with no evidence of mechanisms that would allow continuous reproduction of the hybrids. In this study, we report for the first time the fecundity of two F1 hybrid colonies produced experimentally from two Indo-Pacific species, A. intermedia and A. florida. These F1 hybrids spawned at the same time as the parental corals. Backcrossing and F1 hybrid crossing were successful in both directions. Furthermore, more than 90% self-fertilization was achieved in an F1 hybrid, although it was negligible in the parental corals. While it is possible that the F1 hybrid was a chimera, these results suggest that some products of interspecific hybridization may persist as the offspring of self-fertilizing F1 hybrids.

  8. The INA complex facilitates assembly of the peripheral stalk of the mitochondrial F1Fo-ATP synthase

    PubMed Central

    Lytovchenko, Oleksandr; Naumenko, Nataliia; Oeljeklaus, Silke; Schmidt, Bernhard; von der Malsburg, Karina; Deckers, Markus; Warscheid, Bettina; van der Laan, Martin; Rehling, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial F1Fo-ATP synthase generates the bulk of cellular ATP. This molecular machine assembles from nuclear- and mitochondria-encoded subunits. Whereas chaperones for formation of the matrix-exposed hexameric F1-ATPase core domain have been identified, insight into how the nuclear-encoded F1-domain assembles with the membrane-embedded Fo-region is lacking. Here we identified the INA complex (INAC) in the inner membrane of mitochondria as an assembly factor involved in this process. Ina22 and Ina17 are INAC constituents that physically associate with the F1-module and peripheral stalk, but not with the assembled F1Fo-ATP synthase. Our analyses show that loss of Ina22 and Ina17 specifically impairs formation of the peripheral stalk that connects the catalytic F1-module to the membrane embedded Fo-domain. We conclude that INAC represents a matrix-exposed inner membrane protein complex that facilitates peripheral stalk assembly and thus promotes a key step in the biogenesis of mitochondrial F1Fo-ATP synthase. PMID:24942160

  9. The cat lipocalin Fel d 7 and its cross-reactivity with the dog lipocalin Can f 1.

    PubMed

    Apostolovic, D; Sánchez-Vidaurre, S; Waden, K; Curin, M; Grundström, J; Gafvelin, G; Cirkovic Velickovic, T; Grönlund, H; Thomas, W R; Valenta, R; Hamsten, C; van Hage, M

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the prevalence of sensitization to the cat lipocalin Fel d 7 among 140 cat-sensitized Swedish patients and elucidated its allergenic activity and cross-reactivity with the dog lipocalin Can f 1. Sixty-five of 140 patients had IgE to rFel d 7 whereof 60 also had IgE to rCan f 1. A moderate correlation between IgE levels to rFel d 7 and rCan f 1 was found. rFel d 7 activated basophils in vitro and inhibited IgE binding to rCan f 1 in 4 of 13 patients, whereas rCan f 1 inhibited IgE binding to rFel d 7 in 7 of 13 patients. Fel d 7 and Can f 1 showed high similarities in protein structure and epitopes in common were found using cross-reactive antisera. Fel d 7 is a common allergen in a Swedish cat-sensitized population that cross-reacts with Can f 1, and may contribute to symptoms in cat- but also in dog-allergic patients.

  10. E2F1 interactions with hHR23A inhibit its degradation and promote DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Singh, Randeep K; Dagnino, Lina

    2016-05-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a major mechanism for removal of DNA lesions induced by exposure to UV radiation in the epidermis. Recognition of damaged DNA sites is the initial step in their repair, and requires multiprotein complexes that contain XPC and hHR23 proteins, or their orthologues. A variety of transcription factors are also involved in NER, including E2F1. In epidermal keratinocytes, UV exposure induces E2F1 phosphorylation, which allows it to recruit various NER factors to sites of DNA damage. However, the relationship between E2F1 and hHR23 proteins vis-à-vis NER has remained unexplored. We now show that E2F1 and hHR23 proteins can interact, and this interaction stabilizes E2F1, inhibiting its proteasomal degradation. Reciprocally, E2F1 regulates hHR23A subcellular localization, recruiting it to sites of DNA photodamage. As a result, E2F1 and hHR23A enhance DNA repair following exposure to UV radiation, contributing to genomic stability in the epidermis.

  11. E2F1 modulates p38 MAPK phosphorylation via transcriptional regulation of ASK1 and Wip1.

    PubMed

    Hershko, Tzippi; Korotayev, Katya; Polager, Shirley; Ginsberg, Doron

    2006-10-20

    The E2F family of transcription factors regulates a diverse array of cellular functions, including cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and apoptosis. Recent studies indicate that E2F can also regulate transcription of upstream components of signal transduction pathways. We show here that E2F1 modulates the activity of the p38 MAPK pathway via E2F1-induced transient up-regulation of p38 MAPK phosphorylation. The mechanism by which E2F1 modulates p38 MAPK phosphorylation involves transcriptional induction of the kinase ASK1, a member of the MAPKKK family that phosphorylates p38 MKKs. Subsequent E2F-dependent down-regulation of the p38 signaling pathway is achieved through E2F-induced up-regulation of Wip1, a phosphatase that dephosphorylates and inactivates p38. Both ASK1 and Wip1 are essential mediators of the E2F-p38 connection: knock down of ASK1 inhibits E2F1-induced phosphorylation of p38, whereas knock down of Wip1 prolongs E2F1-induced p38 phosphorylation. Furthermore, Wip1 knock down enhances E2F1-induced apoptosis. Therefore, our data reveal a novel link between a central signaling pathway and the transcription factor E2F and identify Wip1 as a modulator of E2F1-induced apoptosis. PMID:16912047

  12. E2F1 interactions with hHR23A inhibit its degradation and promote DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Randeep K.; Dagnino, Lina

    2016-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a major mechanism for removal of DNA lesions induced by exposure to UV radiation in the epidermis. Recognition of damaged DNA sites is the initial step in their repair, and requires multiprotein complexes that contain XPC and hHR23 proteins, or their orthologues. A variety of transcription factors are also involved in NER, including E2F1. In epidermal keratinocytes, UV exposure induces E2F1 phosphorylation, which allows it to recruit various NER factors to sites of DNA damage. However, the relationship between E2F1 and hHR23 proteins vis-à-vis NER has remained unexplored. We now show that E2F1 and hHR23 proteins can interact, and this interaction stabilizes E2F1, inhibiting its proteasomal degradation. Reciprocally, E2F1 regulates hHR23A subcellular localization, recruiting it to sites of DNA photodamage. As a result, E2F1 and hHR23A enhance DNA repair following exposure to UV radiation, contributing to genomic stability in the epidermis. PMID:27028861

  13. [Effect of thrombin and prostaglandins E and F on various indices of carbohydrate metabolism in human platelets].

    PubMed

    Makarov, S A; Kudriavtseva, G V; Kolotilova, A I

    1985-01-01

    After incubation of intact thrombocytes with prostaglandins E2 and F2 alpha stimulation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase activities as well as an increase in the rate of sedoheptulose-7-phosphate accumulation were found. Thrombin inhibited the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity by 30% in these thrombocytes. Addition of thrombin, following the incubation of thrombocytes with prostaglandins, removed the activating effect of the prostaglandins on the pentosephosphate pathway reactions, inhibited glutathione reductase and lactate dehydrogenase.

  14. Isolation and expression analysis of FTZ-F1 encoding gene of black rock fish ( Sebastes schlegelii)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafi, Muhammad; Wang, Yanan; Zhou, Xiaosu; Ma, Liman; Muhammad, Faiz; Qi, Jie; Zhang, Quanqi

    2013-03-01

    Sex related FTZ-F1 is a transcriptional factor regulating the expression of fushi tarazu (a member of the orphan nuclear receptors) gene. In this study, FTZ-F1 gene ( FTZ-F1) was isolated from the testis of black rockfish ( Sebastes schlegeli) by homology cloning. The full-length cDNA of S. schlegeli FTZ-F1 ( ssFTZ-F1) contained a 232bp 5' UTR, a 1449bp ORF encoding FTZ-F1 (482 amino acid residules in length) with an estimated molecular weight of 5.4kD and a 105bp 3' UTR. Sequence, tissue distribution and phylogenic analysis showed that ssFTZ-F1 belonged to FTZ group, holding highly conserved regions including I, II and III FTZ-F1 boxes and an AF-2 hexamer. Relatively high expression was observed at different larva stages. In juveniles (105 days old), the transcript of ssFTZ-F1 can be detected in all tissues and the abuncance of the gene transcript in testis, ovary, spleen and brain was higher than that in other tissues. In mature fish, the abundance of gene transcript was higher in testis, ovary, spleen and brain than that in liver (trace amount), and the gene was not transcribed in other tissues. The highest abundance of gene transcript was always observed in gonads of both juvenile and mature fish. In addition, the abundance of gene transcript in male tissues were higher than that in female tissue counterparts ( P<0.05).

  15. HEDGEHOG/GLI-E2F1 axis modulates iASPP expression and function and regulates melanoma cell growth.

    PubMed

    Pandolfi, S; Montagnani, V; Lapucci, A; Stecca, B

    2015-12-01

    HEDGEHOG (HH) signaling is a key regulator of tissue development and its aberrant activation is involved in several cancer types, including melanoma. We and others have shown a reciprocal cross talk between HH signaling and p53, whose function is often impaired in melanoma. Here we present evidence that both GLI1 and GLI2, the final effectors of HH signaling, regulate the transcription factor E2F1 in melanoma cells, by binding to a functional non-canonical GLI consensus sequence. Consistently, we find a significant correlation between E2F1 and PATCHED1 (PTCH1), GLI1 and GLI2 expression in human melanomas. Functionally, we find that E2F1 is a crucial mediator of HH signaling and it is required for melanoma cell proliferation and xenograft growth induced by activation of the HH pathway. Interestingly, we present evidence that the HH/GLI-E2F1 axis positively modulates the inhibitor of apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53 (iASPP) at multiple levels. HH activation induces iASPP expression through E2F1, which directly binds to iASPP promoter. HH pathway also contributes to iASPP function, by the induction of Cyclin B1 and by the E2F1-dependent regulation of CDK1, which are both involved in iASPP activation. Our data show that activation of HH signaling enhances proliferation in presence of E2F1 and promotes apoptosis in its absence or upon CDK1 inhibition, suggesting that E2F1/iASPP dictates the outcome of HH signaling in melanoma. Together, these findings identify a novel HH/GLI-E2F1-iASPP axis that regulates melanoma cell growth and survival, providing an additional mechanism through which HH signaling restrains p53 proapoptotic function. PMID:26024388

  16. The prostaglandin transporter (PGT) as a potential mediator of ovulation.

    PubMed

    Yerushalmi, Gil M; Markman, Svetlana; Yung, Yuval; Maman, Ettie; Aviel-Ronen, Sarit; Orvieto, Raoul; Adashi, Eli Y; Hourvitz, Ariel

    2016-05-11

    Prostaglandins (PGs) play an important role in the ovulatory process. However, the role of the PG transporter (PGT) in this context remains unknown. We report that the expression of PGT, a transmembrane PG carrier protein, is markedly up-regulated in preovulatory human granulosa cells (GCs). Treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), an ovulatory trigger, significantly increases the expression of PGT mRNA and protein in human GCs both in vivo and in vitro. The hCG-induced increase in the expression of PGT in cultured human GCs is mediated via protein kinase A and protein kinase C by way of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway. PGT in cultured human GCs mediates the uptake of PGE2, thereby regulating its extracellular concentration. In vivo treatment of mice with PGT inhibitors effectively blocks ovulation and markedly attenuates the expression of key ovulatory genes. We hypothesize that the inhibition of PGT activity in GCs increases the extracellular concentration of PGE2, the ability of which to exert its ovulatory effect is compromised by desensitization of its cognate receptors. Together, these findings support the idea that PGT is an important mediator of ovulation and that its inhibitors may be viewed as potential candidates for nonhormonal contraception. These findings may also fill the gap in the understanding of PGT signaling, enhance the understanding of ovulatory disorders, and facilitate the treatment of infertility or subfertility in women by using nonsteroidal PG-based therapeutic approaches. PMID:27169804

  17. Prostaglandin-modulated umbilical cord blood hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cutler, Corey; Multani, Pratik; Robbins, David; Kim, Haesook T; Le, Thuy; Hoggatt, Jonathan; Pelus, Louis M; Desponts, Caroline; Chen, Yi-Bin; Rezner, Betsy; Armand, Philippe; Koreth, John; Glotzbecker, Brett; Ho, Vincent T; Alyea, Edwin; Isom, Marlisa; Kao, Grace; Armant, Myriam; Silberstein, Leslie; Hu, Peirong; Soiffer, Robert J; Scadden, David T; Ritz, Jerome; Goessling, Wolfram; North, Trista E; Mendlein, John; Ballen, Karen; Zon, Leonard I; Antin, Joseph H; Shoemaker, Daniel D

    2013-10-24

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a valuable source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) for use in allogeneic transplantation. Key advantages of UCB are rapid availability and less stringent requirements for HLA matching. However, UCB contains an inherently limited HSC count, which is associated with delayed time to engraftment, high graft failure rates, and early mortality. 16,16-Dimethyl prostaglandin E2 (dmPGE2) was previously identified to be a critical regulator of HSC homeostasis, and we hypothesized that brief ex vivo modulation with dmPGE2 could improve patient outcomes by increasing the "effective dose" of HSCs. Molecular profiling approaches were used to determine the optimal ex vivo modulation conditions (temperature, time, concentration, and media) for use in the clinical setting. A phase 1 trial was performed to evaluate the safety and therapeutic potential of ex vivo modulation of a single UCB unit using dmPGE2 before reduced-intensity, double UCB transplantation. Results from this study demonstrated clear safety with durable, multilineage engraftment of dmPGE2-treated UCB units. We observed encouraging trends in efficacy, with accelerated neutrophil recovery (17.5 vs 21 days, P = .045), coupled with preferential, long-term engraftment of the dmPGE2-treated UCB unit in 10 of 12 treated participants.

  18. Differential Stem and Progenitor Cell Trafficking by Prostaglandin E2

    PubMed Central

    Hoggatt, Jonathan; Mohammad, Khalid S.; Singh, Pratibha; Hoggatt, Amber F.; Chitteti, Brahmananda Reddy; Speth, Jennifer M.; Hu, Peirong; Poteat, Bradley A.; Stilger, Kayla N.; Ferraro, Francesca; Silberstein, Lev; Wong, Frankie K.; Farag, Sherif S.; Czader, Magdalena; Milne, Ginger L.; Breyer, Richard M.; Serezani, Carlos H.; Scadden, David T.; Guise, Theresa; Srour, Edward F.; Pelus, Louis M.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY To maintain lifelong production of blood cells, hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are tightly regulated by inherent programs and extrinsic regulatory signals received from their microenvironmental niche. Long-term repopulating HSC (LT-HSC) reside in several, perhaps overlapping, niches that produce regulatory molecules/signals necessary for homeostasis and increased output following stress/injury 1–5. Despite significant advances in specific cellular or molecular mechanisms governing HSC/niche interactions, little is understood about regulatory function within the intact mammalian hematopoietic niche. Recently, we and others described a positive regulatory role for Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on HSC function ex vivo 6,7. While exploring the role of endogenous PGE2 we unexpectedly observed hematopoietic egress after nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) treatment. Surprisingly, this was independent of the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis. Stem and progenitor cells were found to have differing mechanisms of egress, with HSC transit to the periphery dependent on niche attenuation and reduction in the retentive molecule osteopontin (OPN). Hematopoietic grafts mobilized with NSAIDs had superior repopulating ability and long-term engraftment. Treatment of non-human primates and healthy human volunteers confirmed NSAID-mediated egress in higher species. PGE2 receptor knockout mice demonstrated that progenitor expansion and stem/progenitor egress resulted from reduced EP4 receptor signaling. These results not only uncover unique regulatory roles for EP4 signaling in HSC retention in the niche but also define a rapidly translatable strategy to therapeutically enhance transplantation. PMID:23485965

  19. Therapeutic targets in prostaglandin E2 signaling for neurologic disease

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, P.J.; Keene, C. Dirk; Breyer, Richard M.; Montine, Kathleen S.; Montine, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) are potent autocrine and paracrine oxygenated lipid molecules that contribute appreciably to physiologic and pathophysiologic responses in almost all organs, including brain. Emerging data indicate that the PGs, and more specifically PGE2, play a central role in brain diseases including ischemic injury and several neurodegenerative diseases. Given concerns over the potential toxicity from protracted use of cyclooxygenase inhibitors in the elderly, attention is now focused on blocking PGE2 signaling that is mediated by interactions with four distinct G protein-coupled receptors, EP1-4, which are differentially expressed on neuronal and glial cells throughout the central nervous system. EP1 activation has been shown to mediate Ca2+-dependent neurotoxicity in ischemic injury. EP2 activation has been shown to mediate microglial-induced paracrine neurotoxicity as well as suppress microglia internalization of aggregated neurotoxic peptides. Animal models support the potential efficacy of targeting specific EP receptor subtypes in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and ischemic stroke. However promising these preclinical studies are, they have yet to be followed by clinical trials targeting any EP receptor in neurologic diseases. PMID:18691044

  20. Prostaglandin E2 Prevents Disuse-Induced Cortical Bone Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jee, Webster S. S.; Akamine, T.; Ke, Hua Zhu; Li, Xiao Jian; Tang, L. Y.; Zeng, Q. Q.

    1992-01-01

    The object of this study was to determine whether prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) can prevent disuse (underloaded)-induced cortical bone loss as well as add extra bone to underloaded bones. Thirteen-month-old retired female Sprague-Dawley breeders served as controls or were subjected to simultaneous right hindlimb immobilization by bandaging and daily subcutaneous doses of 0, 1, 3, or 6 mg PGE2/kg/d for two and six weeks. Histomorphometric analyses were performed on double-fluorescent labeled undecalcified tibial shaft sections (proximal to the tibiofibular junction). Disuse-induced cortical bone loss occurred by enlarging the marrow cavity and increasing intracortical porosity. PGE2 treatment of disuse shafts further increased intracortical porosity above that in disuse alone controls. This bone loss was counteracted by enhancement of periosteal and corticoendosteal bone formation. Stimulation of periosteal and corticoendosteal bone formation slightly enlarged the total tissue (cross-sectional) area and inhibited marrow cavity enlargement. These PGE2-induced activities netted the same percentage of cortical bone with a different distribution than the beginning and age related controls. These findings indicate the PGE2-induced increase in bone formation compensated for the disuse and PGE2-induced bone loss, and thus prevented immobilization induced bone loss.

  1. Prostaglandin F receptor expression in intrauterine tissues of pregnant rats

    PubMed Central

    Kanca, Halit; Yar, Atiye Seda; Helvacioğlu, Fatma; Menevşe, Sevda; Çalgüner, Engin; Erdoğan, Deniz

    2014-01-01

    In this investigation, we studied the expression and localization of rat prostaglandin F (FP) receptor in uterine tissues of rats on gestational Days 10, 15, 18, 20, 21, 21.5 and postpartal Days 1 and 3 using Western blotting analysis, real-time PCR, and immunohistochemistry. A high level of immunoreactivity was observed on gestational Days 20, 21, and 21.5 with the most significant signals found on Day 20. FP receptor protein was expressed starting on gestational Day 15, and a fluctuating unsteady increase was observed until delivery. Uterine FP receptor mRNA levels were low between Days 10 and 18 of gestation (p < 0.05). The transcript level increased significantly on Day 20 and peaked on Day 21.5 just before labor (p < 0.05). There was a positive correlation between FP receptor mRNA expression and serum estradiol levels (rs = 0.78; p < 0.01) along with serum estradiol/progesterone ratios (rs = 0.79; p < 0.01). In summary, we observed an increase FP receptor expression in rat uterus with advancing gestation, a marked elevation of expression at term, and a concominant decrease during the postpartum period. These findings indicate a role for uterine FP receptors in the mediation of uterine contractility at term. PMID:24136214

  2. Prostaglandins temporally regulate cytoplasmic actin bundle formation during Drosophila oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Spracklen, Andrew J; Kelpsch, Daniel J; Chen, Xiang; Spracklen, Cassandra N; Tootle, Tina L

    2014-02-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs)--lipid signals produced downstream of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes--regulate actin dynamics in cell culture and platelets, but their roles during development are largely unknown. Here we define a new role for Pxt, the Drosophila COX-like enzyme, in regulating the actin cytoskeleton--temporal restriction of actin remodeling during oogenesis. PGs are required for actin filament bundle formation during stage 10B (S10B). In addition, loss of Pxt results in extensive early actin remodeling, including actin filaments and aggregates, within the posterior nurse cells of S9 follicles; wild-type follicles exhibit similar structures at a low frequency. Hu li tai shao (Hts-RC) and Villin (Quail), an actin bundler, localize to all early actin structures, whereas Enabled (Ena), an actin elongation factor, preferentially localizes to those in pxt mutants. Reduced Ena levels strongly suppress early actin remodeling in pxt mutants. Furthermore, loss of Pxt results in reduced Ena localization to the sites of bundle formation during S10B. Together these data lead to a model in which PGs temporally regulate actin remodeling during Drosophila oogenesis by controlling Ena localization/activity, such that in S9, PG signaling inhibits, whereas at S10B, it promotes Ena-dependent actin remodeling.

  3. Sequential induction of prostaglandin E and D synthases in inflammation

    SciTech Connect

    Schuligoi, Rufina . E-mail: rufina.schuligoi@meduni-graz.at; Grill, Magdalena; Heinemann, Akos; Peskar, Bernhard A.; Amann, Rainer

    2005-09-30

    Enhanced biosynthesis of prostaglandin (PG)D{sub 2} and subsequent formation of 15-deoxy-{delta}{sup 12,14}-PGJ{sub 2} has been suggested to contribute to resolution of inflammation. The primary aim of the present study in mouse heart was, therefore, to determine at the transcriptional level if there is sequential induction of PGE and PGD synthases (S) during inflammation. Expression of interleukin (IL)-1{beta} in heart was enhanced 4 h after systemic inflammation and declined thereafter within 3-5 days to basal levels. In contrast to cyclooxygenase-2 and membrane-bound (m)-PGES-1, which both peaked 4 h after endotoxin administration, hematopoietic (H)-PGDS expression was enhanced only 48 h after endotoxin. The expression of lipocalin-type (L)-PGDS was not significantly influenced. mRNA encoding the putative target of 15-deoxy-{delta}{sup 12,14}-PGJ{sub 2}, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma}, was enhanced between 4 and 24 h after induction of inflammation. Treatment of mice with acetylsalicylic acid or indomethacin at doses effective to cause near-complete inhibition of PGE{sub 2} and PGD{sub 2} biosynthesis in heart ex vivo resulted in enhanced expression of IL-1{beta} 24 h after endotoxin administration. These results provide additional support for the hypothesis of a shift towards PGD{sub 2} biosynthesis during resolution of inflammation.

  4. Prostaglandin E2 signals white-to-brown adipogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    García-Alonso, Verónica; Clària, Joan

    2014-01-01

    The formation of new adipocytes from precursor cells is a crucial aspect of normal adipose tissue function. During the adipogenic process, adipocytes differentiated from mesenchymal stem cells give rise to two main types of fat: white adipose tissue (WAT) characterized by the presence of adipocytes containing large unilocular lipid droplets, and brown adipose tissue (BAT) composed by multilocular brown adipocytes packed with mitochondria. WAT is not only important for energy storage but also as an endocrine organ regulating whole body homeostasis by secreting adipokines and other mediators, which directly impact metabolic functions in obesity. By contrast, BAT is specialized in dissipating energy in form of heat and has salutary effects in combating obesity and associated disorders. Unfortunately, WAT is the predominant fat type, whereas BAT is scarce and located in discrete pockets in adult humans. Luckily, another type of brown adipocytes, called beige or brite (brown-in-white) adipocytes, with similar functions to those of "classical" brown adipocytes has recently been identified in WAT. In this review, a close look is given into the role of bioactive lipid mediators in the regulation of adipogenesis, with a special emphasis on the role of the microsomal prostaglandin E (PGE) synthase-1, a terminal enzyme in PGE2 biosynthesis, as a key regulator of white-to-brown adipogenesis in WAT. PMID:26317053

  5. Prostaglandin E2 protects lower airways against bronchoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Hartney, John M; Coggins, Kenneth G; Tilley, Stephen L; Jania, Leigh A; Lovgren, Alysia Kern; Audoly, Laurent P; Koller, Beverly H

    2006-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), similar to beta-adrenergic receptor agonists, can protect airways from bronchoconstriction and resulting increase in airway resistance induced by a number of agents, including cholinergic receptor agonists and antigen. We examined the impact of sustained alterations in PGE2 pathways on changes in airway resistance. Genetic methods were utilized to alter PGE2 metabolism and signal transduction in the murine lung. PGE2 levels were elevated by generating mice lacking 15-hydroxyprostaglandin (Hpgd-/-), the major catabolic enzyme of PGE2, and by generating a transgenic line in which mouse PGE2 synthase (Ptges) expression is driven by a human lung-specific promoter, hSP-C. Conversely, to determine the impact of loss of PGE2 on airway reactivity, we examined mice lacking this synthase (Ptges-/-) and receptors that mediate the actions of PGE2, particularly the PGE2 EP2 receptor (Ptger2). Diminished capacity to produce and respond to PGE2 did not alter the response of mice to cholinergic stimuli. In contrast, the responsiveness to cholinergic stimulation was dramatically altered in animals with elevated PGE2 levels. The Hpgd-/- and hSP-C-Ptges transgenic lines both showed attenuated airway responsiveness to methacholine as measured by lung resistance. Thus, whereas compromise of the Ptges/PGE2/Ptger2 pathway does not alter airway responsiveness, genetic modulation that elevates PGE2 levels in the lung attenuates airway responsiveness. PMID:16113047

  6. Prostaglandin-E2 Mediated Increase in Calcium and Phosphate Excretion in a Mouse Model of Distal Nephron Salt Wasting

    PubMed Central

    Soleimani, Manoocher; Barone, Sharon; Xu, Jie; Alshahrani, Saeed; Brooks, Marybeth; McCormack, Francis X.; Smith, Roger D.; Zahedi, Kamyar

    2016-01-01

    Contribution of salt wasting and volume depletion to the pathogenesis of hypercalciuria and hyperphosphaturia is poorly understood. Pendrin/NCC double KO (pendrin/NCC-dKO) mice display severe salt wasting under basal conditions and develop profound volume depletion, prerenal renal failure, and metabolic alkalosis and are growth retarded. Microscopic examination of the kidneys of pendrin/NCC-dKO mice revealed the presence of calcium phosphate deposits in the medullary collecting ducts, along with increased urinary calcium and phosphate excretion. Confirmatory studies revealed decreases in the expression levels of sodium phosphate transporter-2 isoforms a and c, increases in the expression of cytochrome p450 family 4a isotypes 12 a and b, as well as prostaglandin E synthase 1, and cyclooxygenases 1 and 2. Pendrin/NCC-dKO animals also had a significant increase in urinary prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2) and renal content of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) levels. Pendrin/NCC-dKO animals exhibit reduced expression levels of the sodium/potassium/2chloride co-transporter 2 (NKCC2) in their medullary thick ascending limb. Further assessment of the renal expression of NKCC2 isoforms by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) reveled that compared to WT mice, the expression of NKCC2 isotype F was significantly reduced in pendrin/NCC-dKO mice. Provision of a high salt diet to rectify volume depletion or inhibition of PGE-2 synthesis by indomethacin, but not inhibition of 20-HETE generation by HET0016, significantly improved hypercalciuria and salt wasting in pendrin/NCC dKO mice. Both high salt diet and indomethacin treatment also corrected the alterations in NKCC2 isotype expression in pendrin/NCC-dKO mice. We propose that severe salt wasting and volume depletion, irrespective of the primary originating nephron segment, can secondarily impair the reabsorption of salt and calcium in the thick ascending limb of Henle and/or proximal tubule, and reabsorption of sodium and

  7. Monoclonal antibody F1 binds to the kringle domain of factor XII and induces enhanced susceptibility for cleavage by kallikrein.

    PubMed

    Ravon, D M; Citarella, F; Lubbers, Y T; Pascucci, B; Hack, C E

    1995-12-01

    In a previous study we have shown that monoclonal antibody F1 (MoAb F1), directed against an epitope on the heavy chain of factor XII distinct from the binding site for anionic surfaces, is able to activate factor XII in plasma (Nuijens JH, et al: J Biol Chem 264; 12941, 1989). Here, we studied in detail the mechanism underlying the activation of factor XII by MoAb F1 using purified proteins. Formation of factor XIIa was assessed by measuring its amidolytic activity towards the chromogenic substrate H-D-Pro-Phe-Arg-pNA (S-2302) in the presence of soybean trypsin inhibitor and by assessing cleavage on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Upon incubation with MoAb F1 alone, factor XII was auto-activated in a time-dependent fashion, activation being maximal after 30 hours. Factor XII incubated in the absence of MoAb F1 was hardly activated by kallikrein, whereas in the presence of MoAb F1, but not in that of a control MoAb, the rate of factor XII activation by kallikrein was promoted at least 60-fold. Maximal activation of factor XII with kallikrein in the presence of MoAb F1 was reached within 1 hour. This effect of kallikrein on the cleavage of factor XII bound to MoAb F1 was specific because the fibrinolytic enzymes plasmin, urokinase, and tissue-type plasminogen activator could not substitute for kallikrein. Also, trypsin could easily activate factor XII, but in contrast to kallikrein, this activation was independent of MoAb F1. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the appearance of amidolytic activity correlated well with cleavage of factor XII. MoAb F1-induced activation of factor XII in this purified system was not dependent on the presence of high-molecular-weight kininogen (HK), in contrast to the activation of the contact system in plasma by MoAb F1. Experiments with deletion mutants revealed that the epitopic region for MoAb F1 on factor XII is located on the kringle domain. Thus, this study shows that binding of ligands to the

  8. A facile reproducible radioimmunoassay of the mixed metabolites of prostaglandins E, suitable for measurement of relative differences of phospholipase/prostaglandin synthetase activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fretland, D J; Cammarata, P S

    1984-04-01

    A relatively simple, reproducible, radioimmunoassay for the mixed metabolites of prostaglandins E (U-PGE-M) in rat and human urine is described. Results of the assay of treated versus control urine extracts correlate well with differences expected from treatments known to alter in vivo phospholipase/prostaglandin synthetase activity. Cross-reactivity of heterogeneous metabolite antiserum with 5 available endogenous prostaglandins and a single metabolite was determined and showed little or no cross reaction. Sensitivity, within-assay precision, interassay reproducibility, and parallelism were also determined and found acceptable. Excretion rates of U-PGE-M by rats and humans were determined, and statistically significant differences could be shown, although absolute values were smaller than estimated absolute values obtained from mass-spectrometric measurements of single, purified metabolites. Normal human male excretion rates differed significantly from those of females. Injection of prostaglandin E1 caused a significant rise in U-PGE-M excretion in rats whereas aspirin and indomethacin caused it to fall. U-PGE-M excretion rates of spontaneous hypertensive rats were significantly less than rates of normotensive controls. Adrenalectomy resulted in excretion of significantly larger amounts of U-PGE-M than in normal or sham-operated controls. A screen of clinically active pharmacological agents and hormones gave results consistent with previously published reports. PMID:6427792

  9. Stage-dependent reduction in T colony formation in Hodgkin's disease. Coincidence with monocyte synthesis of prostaglandins.

    PubMed Central

    Bockman, R S

    1980-01-01

    Prostaglandin synthesis and T lymphocyte colony formation have been examined in previously untreated patients with Hodgkin's disease. Mononuclear cells have been isolated from peripheral blood and spleens of these patients. Significant augmentation in prostaglandin E levels were noted in the mononuclear cell cutures from Hodgkin's disease patients compared with controls (1.64 +/- 0.29 vs. 0.39 +/- 0.09 ng/10(6) cells, P < 0.005). Measured prostaglandin E levels increased with advancing stage of disease. Virtually all of the prostaglandins were synthesized by the adherent monocyte cell population. Prostaglandin E was the major product. Clonal expansion of a T lymphocyte precursor cell, which gives rise to colonies > 50 cells, was determined by a layered soft agar method. T colony formation was significantly reduced in patients with stage II, III, and IV disease. There were progressively reduced colony numbers seen with advancing stage of disease (609 +/- 209, 416 +/- 158, 207 +/- 58 compared with normals 2,274 +/- 360 colonies/10(6) cells plated; P < 0.005). The addition of inhibitors of endogenous prostaglandin synthesis resulted in significant augmentation of T colony number. However, a consistent relative decrease in T colony number was seen even when endogenous prostaglandin E synthesis was blocked. It would appear that both the prostaglandin-dependent and independent T colony precursor cells are lost with progressive stage of disease. A causative role of augmented prostaglandin synthesis in this stage-dependent reduction of T colony formation could not be established. PMID:6967491

  10. PGI2 synthesis and excretion in dog kidney: evidence for renal PG compartmentalization

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, R.M.; Nasjletti, A.; Heerdt, P.M.; Baer, P.G.

    1986-01-01

    To assess the concept of compartmentalization of renal prostaglandins (PG), we compared entry of PGE2 and the PGI2 metabolite 6-keto-PGF1 alpha into the renal vascular and tubular compartments, in sodium pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs. Renal arterial 6-keto-PGF1 alpha infusion increased both renal venous and urinary 6-keto-PGF1 alpha outflow. In contrast, renal arterial infusion of arachidonic acid (AA) or bradykinin (BK) increased renal venous 6-keto-PGF1 alpha outflow but had no effect on its urinary outflow. Both urinary and renal venous PGE2 outflows increased during AA or BK infusion. Ureteral stopped-flow studies revealed no postglomerular 6-keto-PGF1 alpha entry into tubular fluid. During renal arterial infusion of (3H)PGI2 and inulin, first-pass 3H clearance was 40% of inulin clearance; 35% of urinary 3H was 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, and two other urinary metabolites were found. During renal arterial infusion of (3H)6-keto-PGF1 alpha and inulin, first-pass 3H clearance was 150% of inulin clearance; 75% of urinary 3H was 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, and only one other metabolite was found. We conclude that in the dog PGE2 synthesized in the kidney enters directly into both the renal vascular and tubular compartments, but 6-keto-PGF1 alpha of renal origin enters directly into only the renal vascular compartment.

  11. Increased serum and testicular androgen levels in F1 rats with lifetime exposure to soy isoflavones.

    PubMed

    McVey, Mark J; Cooke, Gerard M; Curran, Ivan H A

    2004-07-01

    The consequences of dietary soy isoflavones on serum and testicular androgen levels were examined in F1 male rats from a multigeneration study investigating the effects of diets varying in isoflavone content. Rats were fed either a soy-free casein based diet (AIN93G) or a diet in which alcohol-washed soy protein replaced casein as the protein source and to which increasing amounts of Novasoy, a commercially available isoflavone supplement were added. Analysis of these diets showed that the isoflavone content in each diet was 0 (diet 1; casein based control), 31.7 (diet 2; alcohol-washed soy-based diet control), 36.1 (diet 3), 74.5 (diet 4), 235.6 (diet 5) and 1046.6 (diet 6) mg total isoflavones/kg pelleted diet. The levels of isoflavones in diet 1 would represent a daily intake level of 0 mg isoflavones, diets 2 and 3 estimate a low soy-containing human diet (e.g. North American), diet 4 would correspond to Asian diets (e.g. Japanese) or adult humans taking isoflavone supplements, diet 5 approximates the isoflavone intake by babies fed soy based infant formula and diet 6 approximates fivefold the intake levels by babies or 10-fold the intake levels of adults consuming high isoflavone containing diets. Serum testosterone (T) from F1 male rats sacrificed on postnatal days (PND) 28, 70, 120, 240 and 360 were low at PND 28 (0.4 ng/ml), increased approximately five to sixfold at PND 70 (2.5-3.0 ng/ml) and thereafter declined to a steady state level of approximately 1 ng/ml by PND 120. However, rats on diets 5 and 6 demonstrated altered serum testosterone profiles such that at days 120, testosterone levels remained significantly elevated at approximately 3 ng/ml (P < 0.05). Serum dihydrotestosterone levels exhibited similar profiles and the levels in PND 120 rats on diet 5 or 6 were also significantly elevated (two to threefold, P < 0.05). The intra-testicular testosterone concentration in rats on diet 5 was also elevated at PND 120 compared with diet 1 (P < 0

  12. Long-term anabolic effects of prostaglandin-E2 on tibial diaphyseal bone in male rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jee, Webster S. S.; Ke, Hua Zhu; Li, Xiao Jian

    1991-01-01

    The effects of long-term prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on tibial diaphyseal bone were studied in 7-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats given daily subcutaneous injections of 0, 1, 3 and 6 mg PGE2/kg/day for 60, 120 and 180 days. The tibial shaft was measured by single photon absorptiometry and dynamic histomorphometric analyses were performed on double-fluorescent labeled undecalcified tibial diaphyseal bone samples. Exogenous PGE2 administration produced the following transient changes in a dose-response manner between zero and 60 days: (1) increased bone width and mineral density; (2) increased total tissue and total bone areas; (3) decreased marrow area; (4) increased periosteal and corticoendosteal lamellar bone formation; (5) activated corticoendosteal lamellar and woven trabecular bone formation; and (6) activated intracortical bone remodeling. A new steady-state of increased tibial diaphyseal bone mass and elevated bone activities were observed from day 60 onward. The elevated bone mass level attained after 60 days of PGE2 treatment was maintained at 120 and 180 days. These observations indicate that the powerful anabolic effects of PGE2 will increase both periosteal and corticoendosteal bone mass and sustain the transient increase in bone mass with continuous daily administration of PGE2.

  13. Abundance of Escherichia coli F1-ATPase molecules observed to rotate via single-molecule microscopy with gold nanorod probes.

    PubMed

    York, Justin; Spetzler, David; Hornung, Tassilo; Ishmukhametov, Robert; Martin, James; Frasch, Wayne D

    2007-12-01

    The abundance of E. coli F1-ATPase molecules observed to rotate using gold nanorods attached to the gamma-subunit was quantitated. Individual F1 molecules were determined to be rotating based upon time dependent fluctuations of red and green light scattered from the nanorods when viewed through a polarizing filter. The average number of F1 molecules observed to rotate in the presence of GTP, ATP, and without nucleotide was approximately 50, approximately 25, and approximately 4% respectively. In some experiments, the fraction of molecules observed to rotate in the presence of GTP was as high as 65%. These data indicate that rotational measurements made using gold nanorods provide information of the F1-ATPase mechanism that is representative of the characteristics of the enzyme population as a whole.

  14. D → a1, f1 transition form factors and semileptonic decays via 3-point QCD sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Yabing; Hu, Yue; He, Linlin; Yang, Wei; Chen, Yan; Hao, Yannan

    2016-07-01

    By using the 3-point QCD sum rules, we calculate the transition form factors of D decays into the spin triplet axial vector mesons a1(1260), f1(1285), f1(1420). In the calculations, we consider the quark contents of each meson in detail. In view of the fact that the isospin of a1(1260) is one, we calculate the D+ → a 10(1260) and D0 → a 1‑(1260) transition form factors separately. In the case of f1(1285), f1(1420), the mixing between light flavor SU(3) singlet and octet is taken into account. Based on the form factors obtained here, we give predictions for the branching ratios of relevant semileptonic decays, which can be tested in the future experiments.

  15. The Application of Restriction Landmark Genome Scanning Method for Surveillance of Non-Mendelian Inheritance in F1 Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Takamiya, Tomoko; Hosobuchi, Saeko; Noguchi, Tomotsugu; Paterson, Andrew H.; Iijima, Hiroshi; Murakami, Yasufumi; Okuizumi, Hisato

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed inheritance of DNA methylation in reciprocal F1 hybrids (subsp. japonica cv. Nipponbare × subsp. indica cv. Kasalath) of rice (Oryza sativa L.) using restriction landmark genome scanning (RLGS), and detected differing RLGS spots between the parents and reciprocal F1 hybrids. MspI/HpaII restriction sites in the DNA from these different spots were suspected to be heterozygously methylated in the Nipponbare parent. These spots segregated in F1 plants, but did not segregate in selfed progeny of Nipponbare, showing non-Mendelian inheritance of the methylation status. As a result of RT-PCR and sequencing, a specific allele of the gene nearest to the methylated sites was expressed in reciprocal F1 plants, showing evidence of biased allelic expression. These results show the applicability of RLGS for scanning of non-Mendelian inheritance of DNA methylation and biased allelic expression. PMID:20148066

  16. Carcinogenicity study of cochineal in B6C3F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Mori, H; Iwata, H; Tanaka, T; Morishita, Y; Mori, Y; Kojima, T; Okumura, A

    1991-09-01

    The carcinogenicity of cochineal, a red colouring used in food and other products, was studied in a 2-yr bioassay in B6C3F1 mice. Groups of 50-55 mice of each sex were given 0, 3 or 6% cochineal in the diet for 2 yr. Mice of all groups developed tumours including hepatocellular adenomas or carcinomas, pulmonary adenomas or adenocarcinomas and lymphomas or lymphatic leukaemias, and the incidences of these tumours were not significantly different in treated and control groups. The results indicate that cochineal lacks carcinogenicity in mice and are consistent with those of in vitro short-term assays of cochineal and of carminic acid, an active principle of cochineal. PMID:1937288

  17. Measurement of the Microwave Lensing shift in NIST-F1 and NIST-F2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jefferts, S. R.; Heavner, T. P.; Barlow, S. E.; Ashby, N.

    2016-06-01

    With several Primary Frequency Standards (PFS) across the world demonstrating systematic fractional frequency uncertainties on order of 1 x 10-16, it is crucial to accurately measure or model even small frequency shifts that could affect the ultimate PFS uncertainty, and thus ultimately impact the rate of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) which relies on precision PFS measurements. Recently there has been controversy about the physical causes and size of PFS frequency shifts due to microwave lensing effects. We present here the first measurements of microwave lensing frequency shifts in the PFS NIST-F1 and NIST-F2. The measured frequency shifts agree well with the recent theory of Ashby et al [1].

  18. Asymmetry in the F1-ATPase and Its Implications for the Rotational Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Sean X.; Wang, Hongyun; Oster, George

    2004-01-01

    ATP synthase uses a rotary mechanism to carry out its cellular function of manufacturing ATP. The centralγ-shaft rotates inside a hexameric cylinder composed of alternating α- and β-subunits. When operating in the hydrolysis direction under high frictional loads and low ATP concentrations, a coordinated mechanochemical cycle in the three catalytic sites of the β-subunits rotates the γ-shaft in three 120° steps. At low frictional loads, the 120° steps alternate with three ATP-independent substeps separated by ∼30°. We present a quantitative model that accounts for these substeps and show that the observed pauses are due to 1), the asymmetry of the F1 hexamer that produces a propeller-like motion of the power-stroke and 2), the relatively tight binding of ADP to the catalytic sites. PMID:14990467

  19. Tumor induction by monoenergetic neutrons in B6C3F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Kashimoto, Naoki; Kajimura, Junko; Ishikawa, Masayori; Kamiya, Kenji

    2007-05-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate induction of tumors by monoenergetic neutrons in B6C3F1 mice. Individual groups of 6 week-old animals of both sexes (about 30 mice/group) were exposed to 0.5 Gy of various monoenergetic neutrons (dose rate 0.5 cGy/min) and then observed for 13 months. The incidences of tumors (mainly liver neoplasms) in non-irradiated male and female controls were 11% and 0%, respectively. In the irradiated animals, the incidences were 53%, 50%, 60% and 43% in males, and 75%, 81%, 71%, and 85% in females, after 0.18, 0.32, 0.6 and 1.0 MeV neutron exposure, respectively. There were no significant differences in the tumor induction rate among the different energy groups.

  20. Cytosine chemoreceptor McpC in Pseudomonas putida F1 also detects nicotinic acid.

    PubMed

    Parales, Rebecca E; Nesteryuk, Vasyl; Hughes, Jonathan G; Luu, Rita A; Ditty, Jayna L

    2014-12-01

    Soil bacteria are generally capable of growth on a wide range of organic chemicals, and pseudomonads are particularly adept at utilizing aromatic compounds. Pseudomonads are motile bacteria that are capable of sensing a wide range of chemicals, using both energy taxis and chemotaxis. Whilst the identification of specific chemicals detected by the ≥26 chemoreceptors encoded in Pseudomonas genomes is ongoing, the functions of only a limited number of Pseudomonas chemoreceptors have been revealed to date. We report here that McpC, a methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein in Pseudomonas putida F1 that was previously shown to function as a receptor for cytosine, was also responsible for the chemotactic response to the carboxylated pyridine nicotinic acid.

  1. Bis(imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline)dinitratolead(II)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun-Xiang; Zha, Xiao-Lin; Liu, Chun-Bo; Li, Xiu-Ying; Che, Guang-Bo

    2009-01-01

    In the title compound, [Pb(NO3)2(C13H8N4)2], the PbII atom (site symmetry 2) is hexa­coordinated by four N atoms from two N,N′-bidentate imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline (L) ligands and two O atoms from two weakly coordinated nitrate ions [Pb—O = 2.872 (5) Å] in an irregular arrangement, which may be ascribed to the stereochemically active lone pair of electrons on the metal ion. In the crystal, inter­molecular bifurcated N—H⋯(O,O) hydrogen bonds connect the mol­ecules into chains propagating along [100]. Adjacent chains inter­act by strong aromatic π–π stacking inter­actions, with a centroid–centroid distance of 3.483 (2) Å. PMID:21581524

  2. Supporting And Figuring Of SOFIA F/1.0 Thin Zerodur Meniscus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knohl, E.-D.

    1988-04-01

    The SOFIA telescope concept was discussed with respect to the ambitious NASA specification. Comparisons were drawn between SOFIA and other Zeiss optics like 3.5 m Telescope MPIA and ESO NTT. Recently developed technologies in producing ZERODUR blanks were presented. A distribution of tolerances for the optical system SOFIA was made. The axial mirror support in the telescope was optimized and the lateral support was calculated accordingly. Results for a radial backface support with correcting moment were given. For the SOFIA primary the deformation modes with lowest plate stiffness were calculated and load tolerances were derived. Fast flexible tools for figuring a F/1.0 asphere were discussed - developed in the ROFT program - that could be adapted to the SOFIA thin meniscus. Also a fast interferometric metrology was presented.

  3. Binding of ADP to beef-heart mitochondrial ATPase (F1).

    PubMed

    Wielders, J P; Slater, E C; Muller, J L

    1980-02-01

    1. ADP binding to beef-heart mitochondrial ATPase (F1), in the absence of Mg2+, has been determined by separating the free ligand by ultrafiltration and determining it in the filtrate by a specially modified isotachophoretic procedure. 2. Since during the binding experiments the 'tightly' bound ADP (but not the ATP) dissociates, it is necessary to take this into account in calculating the binding parameters. 3. The binding data show that only one tight binding site (Kd about 0.5 microM) for ADP is present. 4. It is not possible to calculate from the binding data alone the number of or the dissociation constants for the weak binding sites. It can be concluded, however, that the latter is not less than about 50 microM.

  4. Immune resistance of semisyngeneic F1 hybrid mice to lymphoma grafts differs from natural hybrid resistance in its genetic pattern

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, G.O.; Klein, G.

    1984-07-01

    Resistance of semisyngeneic F1 hybrid mice immunized three times with irradiated tumor cells was compared to the genetic pattern of natural hybrid resistance to challenge with live tumor cells. Syngeneic mice responded equally well to immunization with all five hemopoietic tumor lines tested as the naturally much more highly resistant F1 hybrids. Natural hybrid resistance was found to be severely reduced by sublethal irradiation with 4 Gy, in contrast to hybrid resistance to parental bone marrow.

  5. The SOD1 transgene expressed in erythroid cells alleviates fatal phenotype in congenic NZB/NZW-F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Noriyuki; Konno, Tasuku; Kurahashi, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Saori; Lee, Jaeyong; Okada, Futoshi; Iuchi, Yoshihito; Homma, Takujiro; Fujii, Junichi

    2016-07-01

    Oxidative stress due to a superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) deficiency causes anemia and autoimmune responses, which are phenotypically similar to autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in C57BL/6 mice and aggravates AIHA pathogenesis in New Zealand black (NZB) mice. We report herein on an evaluation of the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a model mouse with inherited SLE, that is, F1 mice of the NZB × New Zealand white (NZW) strain. The ROS levels within red blood cells (RBCs) of the F1 mice were similar to the NZW mice but lower compared to the NZB mice throughout adult period. Regarding SLE pathogenesis, we examined the effects of an SOD1 deficiency or the overexpression of human SOD1 in erythroid cells by establishing corresponding congenic F1 mice. A SOD1 deficiency caused an elevation in ROS production, methemoglobin content, and hyperoxidation of peroxiredoxin in RBC of the F1 mice, which were all consistent with elevated oxidative stress. However, while the overexpression of human SOD1 in erythroid cells extended the life span of the congenic F1 mice, the SOD1 deficiency had no effect on life span compared to wild-type F1 mice. It is generally recognized that NZW mice possess a larval defect in the immune system and that NZB mice trigger an autoimmune reaction in the F1 mice. Our results suggest that the oxidative insult originated from the NZB mouse background has a functional role in triggering an aberrant immune reaction, leading to fatal responses in F1 mice. PMID:27080108

  6. Glycidol modulation of the immune responses in female B6C3F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, T L; McCay, J A; Brown, R D; Musgrove, D L; Butterworth, L; Munson, A E; Germolec, D R; White, K L

    2000-08-01

    The immunotoxic potential of glycidol was evaluated in female B6C3F1 mice using a battery of functional assays and three host resistance models. Glycidol was administered to the animals by oral gavage as a solution in sterile distilled water daily for 14 days at doses of 25, 125 and 250 mg/kg. In tier I, we observed that glycidol exposure produced a dose-related decrease in splenocyte IgM antibody-forming cell response to sheep red blood cells (sRBC); the spleen natural killer (NK) cell activity was also decreased. A decrease in B cell proliferative responses to anti-IgM F(ab')2 and/or interleukin-4 (IL-4) was observed while the splenocyte proliferative responses to T cell mitogen ConA and B cell mitogen LPS were not affected. The splenocyte proliferative response to allogeneic cells as evaluated in the mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR) to DBA/2 spleen cells was not affected. In tier II, we found that exposure to glycidol decreased the number and percentage of B cells and the absolute number of CD4+ T cells in the spleen while the number of total T cells, CD8+ T cells and CD4+CD8+ T cells was not affected. The cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response to mitomycin C-treated P815 mastocytoma was not affected; the cytotoxic activity of peritoneal macrophages was not suppressed. Moreover, the host resistance to Listeria monocytogenes was not affected although a slight increase in host resistance to Streptococcus pneumoniae was observed. However, exposure to glycidol decreased host resistance to the B16F10 melanoma tumor model with the maximal tumor formation in lung observed in the high dose group. Overall, these dada support the finding that glycidol is an immunosuppressive agent in female B6C3F1 mice.

  7. The repression of E2F-1 is critical for the activity of Minerval against cancer.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Jordi; Gutiérrez, Antonio; Casas, Jesús; Lladó, Victoria; López-Bellan, Alicia; Besalduch, Joan; Dopazo, Ana; Escribá, Pablo V

    2005-10-01

    The recently discovered anticancer drug Minerval (2-hydroxy-9-cis-octadecenoic acid) is a synthetic fatty acid that modifies the structure of the membrane. This restructuring facilitates the recruitment of protein kinase C (PKC) alpha to membranes and is associated with the antineoplastic activity of Minerval in cellular and animal models of cancer. Minerval is a derivative of oleic acid (OA) with an enhanced antiproliferative activity in human cancer cells and animal models of cancer, which is associated with PKCalpha activation and p21(CIP) overexpression. However, the signaling cascades involved in its pharmacological activity remain largely unknown. Here, we showed that this drug induced cell cycle arrest before entry into S phase, human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells accumulating in the G0/G1 phase. This cell cycle arrest was associated with a marked decrease in the expression of E2F-1. This transcription factor activates several cell cycle-related genes, and, accordingly, the expression of certain cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) was markedly lower upon exposure to Minerval. The reduced availability of these kinase heterodimers was associated with reduced phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) observed after drug treatment. Significantly, hypophosphorylated pRb remains bound to E2F-1 and maintains this transcription factor inactive. The modulation of these antiproliferative mechanisms by Minerval explains its anticancer potency, through a new therapeutic strategy that can be used to develop new antitumor drugs. On the other hand, apoptosis did not seem to be involved in its pharmacological mechanism. Interestingly, whereas the changes induced by OA were only modest, they may reflect the beneficial effects of high olive oil intake against cancer.

  8. Effects of Maternal Exposure to Piperonyl Butoxide (PBO) on Behavioral Development in F1-Generation Mice.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toyohito; Inomata, Akiko

    2015-12-01

    Female mice were exposed maternally to piperonyl butoxide (PBO) through diet to provide dietary levels of 0% (control), 0.01%, 0.03%, and 0.09% during gestation and lactation periods, and selected reproductive and neurobehavioral parameters were measured in the F1 generation. There was no adverse effect of PBO on litter size, litter weight, or sex ratio at birth. The average body weights of male offspring decreased significantly in dose-related manners on postnatal days (PNDs) 0, 4, 7, and 14 (p = 0.0019, 0.0096, 0.033, and 0.038, respectively) during the lactation period. In female offspring, the average body weights decreased in dose-related manners on PNDs 0, 4, 7, and 14 (p = 0.0027, 0.0104, 0.0193, and 0.0062, respectively). The survival of dams slightly decreased (p = 0.0209) in the high-dose group during the lactation period. With respect to behavioral developmental parameters, surface righting on PND 7 of male and female offspring was delayed significantly in a dose-related manner (p < 0.001 in each). Swimming direction on PND 7 of male offspring was delayed significantly in a dose-related manner (p < 0.01), and for female offspring it was delayed significantly in the high-dose group (p < 0.05). Swimming head angle on PND 7 of male offspring was delayed significantly in a dose-related manner (p < 0.05). Spontaneous behavior examination in males indicated that rearing increased in the high-dose group in the F1 generation. The dose levels of PBO in the present study produced some adverse effects in neurobehavioral parameters in mice.

  9. Little or no gene flow despite F1 hybrids at two interspecific contact zones.

    PubMed

    Mckean, Natasha E; Trewick, Steven A; Morgan-Richards, Mary

    2016-04-01

    Hybridization can create the selective force that promotes assortative mating but hybridization can also select for increased hybrid fitness. Gene flow resulting from hybridization can increase genetic diversity but also reduce distinctiveness. Thus the formation of hybrids has important implications for long-term species coexistence. This study compares the interaction between the tree wētā Hemideina thoracica and its two neighboring species; H. crassidens and H. trewicki. We examined the ratio of parent and hybrid forms in natural areas of sympatry. Individuals with intermediate phenotype were confirmed as first generation hybrids using nine independent genetic markers. Evidence of gene flow from successful hybridization was sought from the distribution of morphological and genetic characters. Both species pairs appear to be largely retaining their own identity where they live in sympatry, each with a distinct karyotype. Hemideina thoracica and H. trewicki are probably reproductively isolated, with sterile F1 hybrids. This species pair shows evidence of niche differences with adult size and timing of maturity differing where Hemideina thoracica is sympatric with H. trewicki. In contrast, evidence of a low level of introgression was detected in phenotypes and genotypes where H. thoracica and H. crassidens are sympatric. We found no evidence of size divergence although color traits in combination with hind tibia spines reliably distinguish the two species. This species pair show a bimodal hybrid zone in the absence of assortative mating and possible sexual exclusion by H. thoracica males in the formation of F1 hybrids. PMID:27066230

  10. The meteor-shower complex of comet C/1917 F1 (Mellish)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neslušan, L.; Hajduková, M.

    2014-06-01

    Aims: In our overall work, we attempt to predict some new meteor showers associated with as many as possible known periodic comets and to find the generic relationship of some already known showers with these comets. In this paper, we focus our attention on the meteor-shower complex of the long-period comet C/1917 F1 (Mellish), which is the known parent body of the December Monocerotids. Some other showers have also been suggested to be associated with this comet. We map its whole complex here. Methods: For five perihelion passages of the parent comet in the past, we model associated theoretical streams, with each consisting of 10 000 test particles and follow their dynamical evolution until the present. Subsequently, we analyze the orbital characteristics of the parts of found streams that approach the Earth's orbit. Results: We confirm the generic relationship between the studied parent comet and December Monocerotids. The comet is probably also the parent body of the April ρ-Cygnids. The evolution of meteoroids to the orbits of April ρ-Cygnids is very long at about 20 millennia. If we follow even a longer evolutionary period, which is up to 50 millennia, then two diffuse showers with the radiant situated symmetrically to both the December Monocerotids and April ρ-Cygnids showers with respect to the apex of the Earth's motion occur. Our simulation does not confirm any relationship between C/1917 F1 and the November Orionids, although this shower was found in all three databases of observed orbits.

  11. Sensitivity of lymphocytes to prostaglandin E2 increases in subjects over age 70.

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, J S; Messner, R P

    1979-01-01

    We examined the sensitivity of lymphocytes from different age groups to inhibition by prostaglandin E2. Phytohemagglutinin-stimulated cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 12 healthy subjects over the age of 70 were much more sensitive to inhibition by exogenously added prostaglandin E2 than were cells from 17 young controls (ID50 congruent to 10 nM for the subjects over 70 vs. greater than 3 micronM for the young controls). The more senstivie lymphocytes from a subject over 70 were to prostaglandin E2, the lower was his or her response to phytohemagglutinin (r = 0.75, P less than 0.01). The mean responses to phytohemagglutinin of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the subjects over 70 were significantly depressed compared to the young controls. Addition of indomethacin, a prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor, to the cultures resulted in an increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation of 140 +/- 16% in the cells of the subjects over 70 vs. a 36 +/- 3% increase in the young controls (mean +/- SEM, P less than 0.001). The mean phytohemagglutinin response of the subjects over 70 was 40% of the control response without indomethacin. With addition of indomethacin the response of subjects over 70 rose to 72% of control. Thus, increased sinsitivity to prostaglandin E2 appears to be responsible in part for the depressed mitogen response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy subjects over 70. PMID:457862

  12. Conceptus-derived prostaglandins regulate gene expression in the endometrium prior to pregnancy recognition in ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Thomas E.; Forde, Niamh; Dorniak, Piotr; Hansen, Thomas R.; Romero, Jared J.; Lonergan, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    In cattle, the blastocyst hatches from the zona pellucida on days 8 to 9 and then forms a conceptus that grows and elongates into an ovoid and then filamentous shape between days 9 and 16. The growing conceptus synthesizes and secretes prostaglandins and interferon tau. Our hypothesis was that the ovoid conceptus exerts a local effect on the endometrium prior to maternal recognition of pregnancy on day 16 in cattle. In Study One, synchronized cyclic heifers received nothing or 20 in vitro produced blastocysts on day 7, and uteri were collected on day 13. Interferon tau was not detected by radioimmunoassay in the uterine flush of pregnant heifers containing multiple ovoid conceptuses; however, total prostaglandin levels were higher in the uterine lumen of pregnant as compared to cyclic heifers. Microarray analysis revealed that 44 genes were increased in the endometrium of day 13 pregnant as compared to cyclic heifers, and many of those genes were classical Type I IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). Studies Two and Three determined effects of infusing prostaglandins at the levels produced by the elongating day 14 conceptus into the uterine lumen of cyclic ewes on ISG expression in the endometrium. Results indicated that prostaglandin infusion increased the abundance of several ISGs in the endometrium. These studies support the hypothesis that the day 13 conceptus secretes prostaglandins that act locally in a paracrine manner to alter gene expression in the endometrium prior to pregnancy recognition in cattle. PMID:23966582

  13. Radiation-induced increases in sensitivity of cataleptic behavior to haloperidol: possible involvement of prostaglandins

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, J.A.; Kandasamy, S.B.; Hunt, W.A.; Dalton, T.K.; Stevens, S.

    1988-02-01

    The effects of radiation exposure on haloperidol-induced catalepsy were examined in order to determine whether elevated prostaglandins, through an action on dopaminergic autoreceptors, could be involved in the radiation-induced increase in the potency of this neuroleptic. Cataleptic behavior was examined in animals irradiated with various doses of gamma photons (1-150 Gy) and pretreated with a subthreshold dose of haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg). This approach was chosen to maximize any synergistic effects of radiation and haloperidol. After irradiation with doses less than or equal to 30 Gy, the combined treatment of haloperidol and radiation produced catalepsy, whereas neither treatment alone had an effect. This observed catalepsy could be blocked with prior administration of indomethacin, a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor. Animals exposed to doses of radiation less than or equal to 50 Gy and no haloperidol, however, displayed apparent catalepsy. This effect was also antagonized by indomethacin. Prostaglandins can induce catalepsy and when administered in subthreshold doses along with subthreshold doses of haloperidol, catalepsy was observed. In order to assess a possible action of prostaglandins and radiation on dopaminergic activity, the functioning of striatal dopaminergic autoreceptors was examined by determining the effects of varying concentrations of haloperidol on the K+-evoked release of dopamine from striatal slices obtained from parallel groups of animals treated as above. Results indicated that sensitivity to haloperidol increased (higher K+-evoked dopamine release) in slices from irradiated or prostaglandin-treated animals and that this increase in sensitivity was blocked by indomethacin.<