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Sample records for 6-kw mono-si photovoltaic

  1. Technical evaluation of two 6-kW mono-Si photovoltaic systems at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dyk, E.E. van; Strand, T.; Hansen, R.

    1996-05-01

    This paper presents an analysis of performance data on the two 6-kW{sub ac} grid-connected photovoltaic systems at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The performance parameters analyzed include dc and ac power, aperture efficiency, energy, capacity factor and performance index which are compared to plane-of-array irradiance, ambient temperature, and back-of-module temperature as a function of time, either daily or monthly. Power ratings of the systems were also obtained for data corresponding to different test conditions. This study has shown, in addition to expected seasonal trends, that system monitoring is a valuable tool in assessing performance and detecting faulty equipment. In addition, methods applied for this study may be used to evaluate and compare systems employing different cell technologies.

  2. Modelling and Realization of a Water-Gated Field Effect Transistor (WG-FET) Using 16-nm-Thick Mono-Si Film.

    PubMed

    Sonmez, Bedri Gurkan; Ertop, Ozan; Mutlu, Senol

    2017-09-22

    We introduced a novel water-gated field effect transistor (WG-FET) which uses 16-nm-thick mono-Si film as active layer. WG-FET devices use electrical double layer (EDL) as gate insulator and operate under 1 V without causing any electrochemical reactions. Performance parameters based on voltage distribution on EDL are extracted and current-voltage relations are modelled. Both probe- and planar-gate WG-FETs with insulated and uninsulated source-drain electrodes are simulated, fabricated and tested. Best on/off ratios are measured for probe-gate devices as 23,000 A/A and 85,000 A/A with insulated and uninsulated source-drain electrodes, respectively. Planar-gate devices with source-drain insulation had inferior on/off ratio of 1,100 A/A with 600 μm gate distance and it decreased to 45 A/A when gate distance is increased to 3000 μm. Without source-drain electrode insulation, proper transistor operation is not obtained with planar-gate devices. All measurement results were in agreement with theoretical models. WG-FET is a promising device platform for microfluidic applications where sensors and read-out circuits can be integrated at transistor level.

  3. Organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leo, Karl

    2016-08-01

    Organic photovoltaics are on the verge of revolutionizing building-integrated photovoltaics. For other applications, however, several basic open scientific questions need answering to, in particular, further improve energy-conversion efficiency and lifetime.

  4. Photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-06-02

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  5. Photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Reese, Jason A; Keenihan, James R; Gaston, Ryan S; Kauffmann, Keith L; Langmaid, Joseph A; Lopez, Leonardo; Maak, Kevin D; Mills, Michael E; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R

    2017-03-21

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  6. Photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-09-01

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device (10) with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly (100) and a body portion (200) joined at an interface region (410) and including an intermediate layer (500), at least one interconnecting structural member (1500), relieving feature (2500), unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  7. Photovoltaic cell

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Roy G.; Kurtz, Sarah

    1984-11-27

    In a photovoltaic cell structure containing a visibly transparent, electrically conductive first layer of metal oxide, and a light-absorbing semiconductive photovoltaic second layer, the improvement comprising a thin layer of transition metal nitride, carbide or boride interposed between said first and second layers.

  8. Photovoltaic materials.

    PubMed

    Perez-Albuerne, E A; Tyan, Y S

    1980-05-23

    Solid-state photovoltaic cells are feasible devices for converting solar energy directly to electricity. Recent cost reductions have spurred an incipient industry, but further advances in materials science and technology are needed before photovoltaic cells can compete with other sources for the supply of large amounts of energy. In this article energy loss mechanisms in solid-state photovoltaic cells are examined and related to materials properties. Various systems under development are reviewed which illustrate some key concepts, opportunities, and problems of this most promising emerging technology. Areas where contributions from innovative materials research would have a significant effect are also indicated.

  9. Photovoltaic Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The Ohio Aerospace Institute through David Scheiman and Phillip Jenkins provided the Photovoltaics Branch at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) with expertise in photovoltaic (PV) research, flight experiments and solar cell calibration. NASA GRC maintains the only world-class solar cell calibration and measurement facility within NASA. GRC also has a leadership role within the solar cell calibration community, and is leading the effort to develop ISO standards for solar cell calibration. OAI scientists working under this grant provided much of the expertise and leadership in this area.

  10. Photovoltaic energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-01-01

    In 1989, the U.S. photovoltaic industry enjoyed a growth rate of 30 percent in sales for the second year in a row. This sends a message that the way we think about electricity is changing. Instead of big energy projects that perpetuate environmental and economic damage, there is a growing trend toward small renewable technologies that are well matched to end-user needs and operating conditions. As demand grows and markets expand, investment capital will be drawn to the industry and new growth trends will emerge. The photovoltaic industry around the world achieved record shipments also. Worldwide shipments of photovoltaic (PV) modules for 1989 totaled more than 40 megawatts (MW), nearly a 20 percent increase over last year's shipments. The previous two years showed increases in worldwide shipments of 23 and 25 percent, respectively. If this growth rate continues through the 1990s, as industry back orders would indicate, 300 to 1000 MW of PV-supplied power could be on line by 2000. Photovoltaic systems have low environmental impact and they are inexpensive to operate and maintain. Using solid-state technology, PV systems directly convert sunlight to electricity without high-temperature fluids or moving parts that could cause mechanical failure. This makes the technology very reliable.

  11. Photovoltaic concentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boes, E. C.

    1980-01-01

    A status report on photovoltaic (PV) concentrators technology is presented. The major topics covered are as follows: (1) current PV concentrator arrays; designs, performances, and costs; (2) current PV concentrator array components; cells and cell assemblies, optical concentrators, support structures, tracking, and drive; (3) design of PV concentrator arrays; and (4) array manufacturing technology.

  12. Distributed photovoltaic systems - Addressing the utility interface issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firstman, S. I.; Vachtsevanos, G. J.

    This paper reviews work conducted in the United States on the impact of dispersed photovoltaic sources upon utility operations. The photovoltaic (PV) arrays are roof-mounted on residential houses and connected, via appropriate power conditioning equipment, to the utility grid. The presence of such small (4-6 Kw) dispersed generators on the distribution network raises questions of a technical, economic and institutional nature. After a brief identification of utility interface issues, the paper addresses such technical concerns as protection of equipment and personnel safety, power quality and utility operational stability. A combination of experimental and analytical approaches has been adopted to arrive at solutions to these problems. Problem areas, under various PV system penetration scenarios, are identified and conceptual designs of protection and control equipment and operating policies are developed so that system reliability is maintained while minimizing capital costs. It is hoped that the resolution of balance-of-system and grid interface questions will ascertain the economic viability of photovoltaic systems and assist in their widespread utilization in the future.

  13. Photovoltaic Roofs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, R. W., Jr.; Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Solar cells perform two functions: waterproofing roof and generating electricity. Sections through horizontal and slanting joints show overlapping modules sealed by L-section rubber strips and side-by-side modules sealed by P-section strips. Water seeping through seals of slanting joints drains along channels. Rooftop photovoltaic array used watertight south facing roof, replacing shingles, tar, and gravel. Concept reduces cost of residential solar-cell array.

  14. Photovoltaic fabrics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-22

    during wire fabrication. Weaving was demonstrated for both military-type nylon -cotton blend (NYCO) warp fibers and cotton-polyester warp fibers. A...Lowell, MA 01852 14. ABSTRACT This report describes a project to improve photovoltaic fabrics. It had four objectives: 1) Efficiency – make PV wires on...a continuous basis that exhibit 7% efficiency; 2) Automated Welding – demonstrate an automated means of interconnecting the electrodes of one wire

  15. Nanostructured photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Lan; Tan, H. Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2013-01-01

    Energy and the environment are two of the most important global issues that we currently face. The development of clean and sustainable energy resources is essential to reduce greenhouse gas emission and meet our ever-increasing demand for energy. Over the last decade photovoltaics, as one of the leading technologies to meet these challenges, has seen a continuous increase in research, development and investment. Meanwhile, nanotechnology, which is considered to be the technology of the future, is gradually revolutionizing our everyday life through adaptation and incorporation into many traditional technologies, particularly energy-related technologies, such as photovoltaics. While the record for the highest efficiency is firmly held by multijunction III-V solar cells, there has never been a shortage of new research effort put into improving the efficiencies of all types of solar cells and making them more cost effective. In particular, there have been extensive and exciting developments in employing nanostructures; features with different low dimensionalities, such as quantum wells, nanowires, nanotubes, nanoparticles and quantum dots, have been incorporated into existing photovoltaic technologies to enhance their performance and/or reduce their cost. Investigations into light trapping using plasmonic nanostructures to effectively increase light absorption in various solar cells are also being rigorously pursued. In addition, nanotechnology provides researchers with great opportunities to explore the new ideas and physics offered by nanostructures to implement advanced solar cell concepts such as hot carrier, multi-exciton and intermediate band solar cells. This special issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics contains selected papers on nanostructured photovoltaics written by researchers in their respective fields of expertise. These papers capture the current excitement, as well as addressing some open questions in the field, covering topics including the

  16. Basic photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Zweibel, K.

    1984-01-01

    Here is a photovoltaics guide that converts highly technical information into language that can be understood by both scientists and non-scientists. It provides an introduction to solar cell technology, explaining how PV cells work, how they are manufactured, and how they are put together into effective energy-producing systems. The authors investigate a new PV technology based on an altered form of silicon capable of producing conversion efficiencies of 10% to 15%. They explain the PV effect, loss mechanisms, and advances in fabrication methods.

  17. Photovoltaics: New opportunities for utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    This publication presents information on photovoltaics. The following topics are discussed: Residential Photovoltaics: The New England Experience Builds Confidence in PV; Austin's 300-kW Photovoltaic Power Station: Evaluating the Breakeven Costs; Residential Photovoltaics: The Lessons Learned; Photovoltaics for Electric Utility Use; Least-Cost Planning: The Environmental Link; Photovoltaics in the Distribution System; Photovoltaic Systems for the Rural Consumer; The Issues of Utility-Intertied Photovoltaics; and Photovoltaics for Large-Scale Use: Costs Ready to Drop Again.

  18. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    DOEpatents

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Sanchez, Carlos Anthony; Clews, Peggy J.; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2015-09-08

    A process including forming a photovoltaic solar cell on a substrate, the photovoltaic solar cell comprising an anchor positioned between the photovoltaic solar cell and the substrate to suspend the photovoltaic solar cell from the substrate. A surface of the photovoltaic solar cell opposite the substrate is attached to a receiving substrate. The receiving substrate may be bonded to the photovoltaic solar cell using an adhesive force or a metal connecting member. The photovoltaic solar cell is then detached from the substrate by lifting the receiving substrate having the photovoltaic solar cell attached thereto and severing the anchor connecting the photovoltaic solar cell to the substrate. Depending upon the type of receiving substrate used, the photovoltaic solar cell may be removed from the receiving substrate or remain on the receiving substrate for use in the final product.

  19. Organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna; Krebs, Frederik C.; Chen, Hongzheng

    2013-12-01

    Energy inflation, the constant encouragement to economize on energy consumption and the huge investments in developing alternative energy resources might seem to suggest that there is a global shortage of energy. Far from it, the energy the Sun beams on the Earth each hour is equivalent to a year's supply, even at our increasingly ravenous rate of global energy consumption [1]. But it's not what you have got it's what you do with it. Hence the intense focus on photovoltaic research to find more efficient ways to harness energy from the Sun. Recently much of this research has centred on organic solar cells since they offer simple, low-cost, light-weight and large-area flexible photovoltaic structures. This issue with guest editors Frederik C Krebs and Hongzheng Chen focuses on some of the developments at the frontier of organic photovoltaic technology. Improving the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic systems, while maintaining the inherent material, economic and fabrication benefits, has absorbed a great deal of research attention in recent years. Here significant progress has been made with reports now of organic photovoltaic devices with efficiencies of around 10%. Yet operating effectively across the electromagnetic spectrum remains a challenge. 'The trend is towards engineering low bandgap polymers with a wide optical absorption range and efficient hole/electron transport materials, so that light harvesting in the red and infrared region is enhanced and as much light of the solar spectrum as possible can be converted into an electrical current', explains Mukundan Thelakkat and colleagues in Germany, the US and UK. In this special issue they report on how charge carrier mobility and morphology of the active blend layer in thin film organic solar cells correlate with device parameters [2]. The work contributes to a better understanding of the solar-cell characteristics of polymer:fullerene blends, which form the material basis for some of the most

  20. Photovoltaic fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    Pitchford, P.; Jones, J.; Glenn, B.; Cook, G.; Billman, L.; Adcock, R.

    1991-09-01

    This booklet describes how PV devices and systems work. It also describes the specific materials and devices that are most widely used commercially as of 1990 and those that have the brightest prospects. Students, engineers, scientists, and others needing an introduction to basic PV technology, and manufacturers and consumers who want more information about PV systems should find this booklet helpful. We begin with an overview and then explain the rudimentary physical process of the technology, the photovoltaic effect. Next, we consider how scientists and engineers have harnessed this process to generate electricity in silicon solar cells, thin-film devices, and high-efficiency cells. We then look at how these devices are incorporated into modules, arrays, and power-producing systems. We have written and designed this book so that the reader may approach the subject on three different levels. First, for the person who is in a hurry or needs a very cursory overview, in the margins of each page we generalize the important points of that page. Second, for a somewhat deeper understanding, we have provided ample illustrations, photographs, and captions. And third, for a thorough introduction to the subject, the reader can resort to reading the text.

  1. Thermionic photovoltaic energy converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, D. L. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A thermionic photovoltaic energy conversion device comprises a thermionic diode mounted within a hollow tubular photovoltaic converter. The thermionic diode maintains a cesium discharge for producing excited atoms that emit line radiation in the wavelength region of 850 nm to 890 nm. The photovoltaic converter is a silicon or gallium arsenide photovoltaic cell having bandgap energies in this same wavelength region for optimum cell efficiency.

  2. Photovoltaic device and method

    DOEpatents

    Cleereman, Robert; Lesniak, Michael J.; Keenihan, James R.; Langmaid, Joe A.; Gaston, Ryan; Eurich, Gerald K.; Boven, Michelle L.

    2015-11-24

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PVD") and method of use, more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with an integral locator and electrical terminal mechanism for transferring current to or from the improved photovoltaic device and the use as a system.

  3. Photovoltaic device and method

    DOEpatents

    Cleereman, Robert J; Lesniak, Michael J; Keenihan, James R; Langmaid, Joe A; Gaston, Ryan; Eurich, Gerald K; Boven, Michelle L

    2015-01-27

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PVD") and method of use, more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with an integral locator and electrical terminal mechanism for transferring current to or from the improved photovoltaic device and the use as a system.

  4. Amorphous silicon photovoltaic devices

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, David E.; Lin, Guang H.; Ganguly, Gautam

    2004-08-31

    This invention is a photovoltaic device comprising an intrinsic or i-layer of amorphous silicon and where the photovoltaic device is more efficient at converting light energy to electric energy at high operating temperatures than at low operating temperatures. The photovoltaic devices of this invention are suitable for use in high temperature operating environments.

  5. High density photovoltaic

    SciTech Connect

    Haigh, R.E.; Jacobson, G.F.; Wojtczuk, S.

    1997-10-14

    Photovoltaic technology can directly generate high voltages in a solid state material through the series interconnect of many photovoltaic diodes. We are investigating the feasibility of developing an electrically isolated, high-voltage power supply using miniature photovoltaic devices that convert optical energy to electrical energy.

  6. Current topics in photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, T.J. ); Meakin, J.D. . Inst. of Energy Conversion)

    1990-01-01

    This book contains papers on current research in photovoltaics. Areas include: outdoor spectral odor radiation variations and their relationship to photovoltaic device performance, numerical modeling for analysis and design of solar cells, radiation damage mechanisms in GaAs and Si solar cells, and health and safety issues in the manufacturing of photovoltaic cells.

  7. Transparent ultraviolet photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xun; Shan, Chong-Xin; Lu, Ying-Jie; Xie, Xiu-Hua; Li, Bing-Hui; Wang, Shuang-Peng; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Shen, De-Zhen

    2016-02-15

    Photovoltaic cells have been fabricated from p-GaN/MgO/n-ZnO structures. The photovoltaic cells are transparent to visible light and can transform ultraviolet irradiation into electrical signals. The efficiency of the photovoltaic cells is 0.025% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions, while it can reach 0.46% under UV illumination. By connecting several such photovoltaic cells in a series, light-emitting devices can be lighting. The photovoltaic cells reported in this Letter may promise the applications in glass of buildings to prevent UV irradiation and produce power for household appliances in the future.

  8. Indoor Soiling Method and Outdoor Statistical Risk Analysis of Photovoltaic Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajasekar, Vidyashree

    This is a two-part thesis. Part 1 presents an approach for working towards the development of a standardized artificial soiling method for laminated photovoltaic (PV) cells or mini-modules. Construction of an artificial chamber to maintain controlled environmental conditions and components/chemicals used in artificial soil formulation is briefly explained. Both poly-Si mini-modules and a single cell mono-Si coupons were soiled and characterization tests such as I-V, reflectance and quantum efficiency (QE) were carried out on both soiled, and cleaned coupons. From the results obtained, poly-Si mini-modules proved to be a good measure of soil uniformity, as any non-uniformity present would not result in a smooth curve during I-V measurements. The challenges faced while executing reflectance and QE characterization tests on poly-Si due to smaller size cells was eliminated on the mono-Si coupons with large cells to obtain highly repeatable measurements. This study indicates that the reflectance measurements between 600-700 nm wavelengths can be used as a direct measure of soil density on the modules. Part 2 determines the most dominant failure modes of field aged PV modules using experimental data obtained in the field and statistical analysis, FMECA (Failure Mode, Effect, and Criticality Analysis). The failure and degradation modes of about 744 poly-Si glass/polymer frameless modules fielded for 18 years under the cold-dry climate of New York was evaluated. Defect chart, degradation rates (both string and module levels) and safety map were generated using the field measured data. A statistical reliability tool, FMECA that uses Risk Priority Number (RPN) is used to determine the dominant failure or degradation modes in the strings and modules by means of ranking and prioritizing the modes. This study on PV power plants considers all the failure and degradation modes from both safety and performance perspectives. The indoor and outdoor soiling studies were jointly

  9. Photovoltaics: electricity from sunlight

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-01

    The role of photovoltaic power in the world's energy mix is discussed. The role of the US federal government in the research and development of photovoltaic technology is described as one of undertaking long-range, high-risk research and development in areas that industry is not likely to pursue because of the costs and risks involved. The commercial growth of photovoltaic technology is alluded to briefly, and the basic operating theory of photovoltaic conversion is introduced. Numerous applications of photovoltaic technology are described, including uses in communications, rural electrification, waer pumping, corrosion protectio, navigational aids, and railroads, as well as utility network power. The economics of photovoltaic power are discussed, and the products and technology of the US photovoltaic industry are described. (LEW)

  10. Photovoltaic fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudiana, Russell; Eckert, Robert; Cardone, John; Ryan, James; Montello, Alan

    2006-08-01

    It was realized early in the history of Konarka that the ability to produce fibers that generate power from solar energy could be applied to a wide variety of applications where fabrics are utilized currently. These applications include personal items such as jackets, shirts and hats, to architectural uses such as awnings, tents, large covers for cars, trucks and even doomed stadiums, to indoor furnishings such as window blinds, shades and drapes. They may also be used as small fabric patches or fiber bundles for powering or recharging batteries in small sensors. Power generating fabrics for clothing is of particular interest to the military where they would be used in uniforms and body armor where portable power is vital to field operations. In strong sunlight these power generating fabrics could be used as a primary source of energy, or they can be used in either direct sunlight or low light conditions to recharge batteries. Early in 2002, Konarka performed a series of proof-of-concept experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of building a photovoltaic cell using dye-sensitized titania and electrolyte on a metal wire core. The approach taken was based on the sequential coating processes used in making fiber optics, namely, a fiber core, e.g., a metal wire serving as the primary electrode, is passed through a series of vertically aligned coating cups. Each of the cups contains a coating fluid that has a specific function in the photocell. A second wire, used as the counter electrode, is brought into the process prior to entering the final coating cup. The latter contains a photopolymerizable, transparent cladding which hardens when passed through a UV chamber. Upon exiting the UV chamber, the finished PV fiber is spooled. Two hundred of foot lengths of PV fiber have been made using this process. When the fiber is exposed to visible radiation, it generates electrical power. The best efficiency exhibited by these fibers is 6% with an average value in the 4

  11. Photovoltaic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Duty, C.; Angelini, J.; Armstrong, B.; Bennett, C.; Evans, B.; Jellison, G. E.; Joshi, P.; List, F.; Paranthaman, P.; Parish, C.; Wereszczak, A.

    2012-10-15

    The goal of the current project was to help make the US solar industry a world leader in the manufacture of thin film photovoltaics. The overall approach was to leverage ORNL’s unique characterization and processing technologies to gain a better understanding of the fundamental challenges for solar cell processing and apply that knowledge to targeted projects with industry members. ORNL has the capabilities in place and the expertise required to understand how basic material properties including defects, impurities, and grain boundaries affect the solar cell performance. ORNL also has unique processing capabilities to optimize the manufacturing process for fabrication of high efficiency and low cost solar cells. ORNL recently established the Center for Advanced Thin-film Systems (CATS), which contains a suite of optical and electrical characterization equipment specifically focused on solar cell research. Under this project, ORNL made these facilities available to industrial partners who were interested in pursuing collaborative research toward the improvement of their product or manufacturing process. Four specific projects were pursued with industrial partners: Global Solar Energy is a solar industry leader in full scale production manufacturing highly-efficient Copper Indium Gallium diSelenide (CIGS) thin film solar material, cells and products. ORNL worked with GSE to develop a scalable, non-vacuum, solution technique to deposit amorphous or nanocrystalline conducting barrier layers on untextured stainless steel substrates for fabricating high efficiency flexible CIGS PV. Ferro Corporation’s Electronic, Color and Glass Materials (“ECGM”) business unit is currently the world’s largest supplier of metallic contact materials in the crystalline solar cell marketplace. Ferro’s ECGM business unit has been the world's leading supplier of thick film metal pastes to the crystalline silicon PV industry for more than 30 years, and has had operational cells and

  12. Photovoltaics: The endless spring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the developments in the photovoltaic field over the past decade or two is presented. Accomplishments in the terrestrial field are reviewed along with projections and challenges toward meeting cost goals. The contrasts and commonality of space and terrestrial photovoltaics are presented. Finally, a strategic philosophy of photovoltaics research highlighting critical factors, appropriate directions, emerging opportunities, and challenges of the future is given.

  13. Residential photovoltaic system designs

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, M. C.

    1981-01-01

    A project to develop Residential Photovoltaic Systems has begun at Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory with the construction and testing of five Prototype Systems. All of these systems utilize a roof-mounted photovoltaic array and allow excess solar-generated electric energy to be fed back to the local utility grid, eliminating the need for on-site storage. Residential photovoltaic system design issues are discussed and specific features of the five Prototype Systems now under test are presented.

  14. Photovoltaic technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Backus, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    After a brief review of the history of photovoltaic devices and a discussion of the cost goals set for photovoltaic modules, the status of photovoltaic technology is assessed. Included are discussions of: current applications, present industrial production, low-cost silicon production techniques, energy payback periods for solar cells, advanced materials research and development, concentrator systems, balance-of-system components. Also discussed are some nontechnical aspects, including foreign markets, US government program approach, and industry attitudes and approaches. (LEW)

  15. Photovoltaic development in Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrin, E.M.; Duran, J.C.; Frigerio, A.; Moragues, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    A critical assessment of the photovoltaic program in Argentina is presented. Research and development activities on photovoltaic cells as well as industrial and technological development are still in the initial stages. Activities accomplished by the Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) and the Institute of Technology Development for the Chemical industry (INTEC) are briefly described. The evolution of photovoltaic installations in Argentina is analyzed and accumulative data up to 1993 are given. A summary of the potential market for photovoltaic systems in the short and medium term is presented.

  16. Solar Photovoltaic Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenreich, Henry; Martin, John H.

    1979-01-01

    The goals of solar photovoltaic technology in contributing to America's future energy needs are presented in this study conducted by the American Physical Society. Although the time needed for photovoltaics to become popular is several decades away, according to the author, short-range applications are given. (Author/SA)

  17. Photovoltaics for residential applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    Information is given about the parts of a residential photovoltaic system and considerations relevant to photovoltaic power use in homes that are also tied to utility lines. In addition, factors are discussed that influence implementation, including legal and environmental factors such as solar access and building codes, insurance, utility buyback, and system longevity. (LEW)

  18. Solar Photovoltaic Cells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickey, Charles D.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews information on solar radiation as an energy source. Discusses these topics: the key photovoltaic material; the bank theory of solids; conductors, semiconductors, and insulators; impurity semiconductors; solid-state photovoltaic cell operation; limitations on solar cell efficiency; silicon solar cells; cadmium sulfide/copper (I) sulfide…

  19. Solar Photovoltaic Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenreich, Henry; Martin, John H.

    1979-01-01

    The goals of solar photovoltaic technology in contributing to America's future energy needs are presented in this study conducted by the American Physical Society. Although the time needed for photovoltaics to become popular is several decades away, according to the author, short-range applications are given. (Author/SA)

  20. Solar Photovoltaic Cells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickey, Charles D.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews information on solar radiation as an energy source. Discusses these topics: the key photovoltaic material; the bank theory of solids; conductors, semiconductors, and insulators; impurity semiconductors; solid-state photovoltaic cell operation; limitations on solar cell efficiency; silicon solar cells; cadmium sulfide/copper (I) sulfide…

  1. Characterization of Photovoltaic Generators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boitier, V.; Cressault, Y.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses photovoltaic panel systems and reviews their electrical properties and use in several industrial fields. We explain how different photovoltaic panels may be characterized by undergraduate students at university using simple methods to retrieve their electrical properties (power, current and voltage) and compare these values…

  2. Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaics

    ScienceCinema

    Gupta, Vipin; Nielson, Greg; Okandan, Murat, Granata, Jennifer; Nelson, Jeff; Haney, Mike; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luiz

    2016-07-12

    Sandia's microsystems enabled photovoltaic advances combine mature technology and tools currently used in microsystem production with groundbreaking advances in photovoltaics cell design, decreasing production and system costs while improving energy conversion efficiency. The technology has potential applications in buildings, houses, clothing, portable electronics, vehicles, and other contoured structures.

  3. Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Vipin; Nielson, Greg; Okandan, Murat, Granata, Jennifer; Nelson, Jeff; Haney, Mike; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luiz

    2012-07-02

    Sandia's microsystems enabled photovoltaic advances combine mature technology and tools currently used in microsystem production with groundbreaking advances in photovoltaics cell design, decreasing production and system costs while improving energy conversion efficiency. The technology has potential applications in buildings, houses, clothing, portable electronics, vehicles, and other contoured structures.

  4. Photovoltaics industry profile

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    A description of the status of the US photovoltaics industry is given. Principal end-user industries are identified, domestic and foreign market trends are discussed, and industry-organized and US government-organized trade promotion events are listed. Trade associations and trade journals are listed, and a photovoltaic product manufacturers list is included. (WHK)

  5. Characterization of Photovoltaic Generators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boitier, V.; Cressault, Y.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses photovoltaic panel systems and reviews their electrical properties and use in several industrial fields. We explain how different photovoltaic panels may be characterized by undergraduate students at university using simple methods to retrieve their electrical properties (power, current and voltage) and compare these values…

  6. Photovoltaic Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, Elliot

    1986-11-01

    To demonstrate technical viability of photovoltaic modules in central, grid connected energy systems, ARCO Solar, Inc. has designed, installed and is operating two photovoltaic power plants on the megawatt scale. These systems use two-axis tracking. The first generation plant in Lugo (Hesperia), California, with a nominal rating of one MWpk (DC)" was installed in 1982 in the Southern California Edison Company grid. The second system, rated at 6.4 MWDk (DC), is located in the Carrisa Plain in California and connected to the Pacific Gas and Electric Company grid. Based on the cost and performance data from these installations, an assessment of the current status and future needs of large scale photovoltaic energy systems is made. With each new system, improved techniques of design, installation and system integration have been developed. Expectations have been confirmed as to the performance and adaptability of solar cells, especially the ease of incremental increases in capacity when needed. Modular photovoltaic systems have been found to be easy to build and operate, and to be highly reliable. Prologue: Technological advancement usually requires good science and logical engineering. In the main, faith, persistence and feel are also required. Rule: The balance-of-system costs for photovoltaic energy systems equal photovoltaic module costs. Photovoltaic systems have progressed to their current stage of high promise because of faith, persistence, feel and belief in this rule.

  7. Photovoltaic systems perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, P. D.; Jones, G. J.

    1979-01-01

    This paper summarizes the elements of photovoltaic power system and clarifies the terminology currently used. The relationship of system efficiency and cost is described particularly for the Balance of Photovoltaic System (BOPS) area. The current status of the BOPS development activity is described. The photovoltaic systems terminology is found to be on the road to standardization. Power conditioning, energy storage, and support structure are found to be BOPS cost and/or efficiency drivers. Although the current BOPS activity has identified low-cost/high-efficiency components, further development work is necessary.

  8. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    DOEpatents

    Wares, Brian S.

    2014-09-02

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame. A plurality of individual male alignment features and a plurality of individual female alignment features are included on each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by multiple individual male alignment features on a first module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules fitting into and being surrounded by corresponding individual female alignment features on a second module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  9. Photonic Design for Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Kosten, E.; Callahan, D.; Horowitz, K.; Pala, R.; Atwater, H.

    2014-08-28

    We describe photonic design approaches for silicon photovoltaics including i) trapezoidal broadband light trapping structures ii) broadband light trapping with photonic crystal superlattices iii) III-V/Si nanowire arrays designed for broadband light trapping.

  10. Photovoltaic solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J

    2013-11-26

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electicity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  11. Photovoltaic solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Nielson, Gregory N; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J

    2014-05-20

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electricity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  12. Photovoltaic systems and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts are given of presentations given at a project review meeting held at Albuquerque, NM. The proceedings cover the past accomplishments and current activities of the Photovoltaic Systems Research, Balance-of-System Technology Development and System Application Experiments Projects at Sandia National Laboratories. The status of intermediate system application experiments and residential system analysis is emphasized. Some discussion of the future of the Photovoltaic Program in general, and the Sandia projects in particular is also presented.

  13. Solar photovoltaic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forney, R. G.

    1978-01-01

    The Department of Energy's photovoltaic program is outlined. The main objective of the program is the development of low cost reliable terrestrial photovoltaic systems. A second objective is to foster widespread use of the system in residential, industrial and commercial application. The system is reviewed by examining each component; silicon solar cell, silicon solar cell modules, advanced development modules and power systems. Cost and applications of the system are discussed.

  14. Concentrating photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupas, A.

    1982-11-01

    Various configurations for concentrating photovoltaic systems are described and their operating principles are explained. The effects of temperature and series resistance on system efficiency are discussed. As an example, the french family of photovoltaic concentrating systems, SOPHOCLE, is described. The SOPHOCLE family of generators is characterized by the use of a heliostat with altazimuth mounting and by the choice of medium concentration (C=45) by fresnel lenses on silicon cells.

  15. Customized color patterning of photovoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Lentine, Anthony L.; Resnick, Paul J.; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2016-11-15

    Photovoltaic cells and photovoltaic modules, as well as methods of making and using such photovoltaic cells and photovoltaic modules, are disclosed. More particularly, embodiments of the photovoltaic cells selectively reflect visible light to provide the photovoltaic cells with a colorized appearance. Photovoltaic modules combining colorized photovoltaic cells may be used to harvest solar energy while providing a customized appearance, e.g., an image or pattern.

  16. Benchmarking concentrating photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerr, Fabian; Muthirayan, Buvaneshwari; Meuret, Youri; Thienpont, Hugo

    2010-08-01

    Integral to photovoltaics is the need to provide improved economic viability. To achieve this goal, photovoltaic technology has to be able to harness more light at less cost. A large variety of concentrating photovoltaic concepts has provided cause for pursuit. To obtain a detailed profitability analysis, a flexible evaluation is crucial for benchmarking the cost-performance of this variety of concentrating photovoltaic concepts. To save time and capital, a way to estimate the cost-performance of a complete solar energy system is to use computer aided modeling. In this work a benchmark tool is introduced based on a modular programming concept. The overall implementation is done in MATLAB whereas Advanced Systems Analysis Program (ASAP) is used for ray tracing calculations. This allows for a flexible and extendable structuring of all important modules, namely an advanced source modeling including time and local dependence, and an advanced optical system analysis of various optical designs to obtain an evaluation of the figure of merit. An important figure of merit: the energy yield for a given photovoltaic system at a geographical position over a specific period, can be calculated.

  17. Laser generated nanoparticles based photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Petridis, C; Savva, K; Kymakis, E; Stratakis, E

    2017-03-01

    The exploitation of nanoparticles (NP), synthesized via laser ablation in liquids, in photovoltaic devices is reviewed. In particular, the impact of NPs' incorporation into various building blocks within the solar cell architecture on the photovoltaic performance and stability is presented and analysed for the current state of the art photovoltaic technologies.

  18. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program

    SciTech Connect

    Surek, Thomas; Catalano, Anthony

    1993-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1992 progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)-formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Crystalline Materials and Advanced Concepts project, the Polycrystalline Thin Films project, Amorphous Silicon Research project, the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project, PV Module and System Performance and Engineering project, and the PV Analysis and Applications Development project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1992, and future research directions.

  19. Nanowires enabling strained photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Greil, J.; Bertagnolli, E.; Lugstein, A.; Birner, S.

    2014-04-21

    Photovoltaic nano-devices have largely been relying on charge separation in conventional p-n junctions. Junction formation via doping, however, imposes major challenges in process control. Here, we report on a concept for photovoltaic energy conversion at the nano scale without the need for intentional doping. Our approach relies on charge carrier separation in inhomogeneously strained germanium nanowires (Ge NWs). This concept utilizes the strain-induced gradient in bandgap along tapered NWs. Experimental data confirms the feasibility of strain-induced charge separation in individual vapor-liquid-solid grown Ge NW devices with an internal quantum efficiency of ∼5%. The charge separation mechanism, though, is not inherently limited to a distinct material. Our work establishes a class of photovoltaic nano-devices with its opto-electronic properties engineered by size, shape, and applied strain.

  20. Designing future photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    The large scale use of photovoltaic systems to generate our electricity is a dream for the future; but if this dream is to be realized, we must understand these systems today. As a result, there has been extensive research into the design and economic tradeoffs of utility interconnected photovoltaic applications. The understanding gained in this process has shown that photovoltaic system design can be a very simple and straight-forward endeavor. This paper reviews those past studies and shows how we have reached the present state of system design evolution. The concept of the utility interactive PV system with energy value determined by the utility's avoided cost will be explored. This concept simplifies the screening of potential applications for economic viability, and we will present several rules-of-thumb for this purpose.

  1. Photovoltaic roofing tile systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melchior, B.

    The integration of photovoltaic (PV) systems in architecture is discussed. A PV-solar roofing tile system with polymer concrete base; PV-roofing tile with elastomer frame profiles and aluminum profile frames; contact technique; and solar cell modules measuring technique are described. Field tests at several places were conducted on the solar generator, electric current behavior, battery station, electric installation, power conditioner, solar measuring system with magnetic bubble memory technique, data transmission via telephone modems, and data processing system. The very favorable response to the PV-compact system proves the commercial possibilities of photovoltaic integration in architecture.

  2. Asphaltene based photovoltaic devices

    DOEpatents

    Chianelli, Russell R.; Castillo, Karina; Gupta, Vipin; Qudah, Ali M.; Torres, Brenda; Abujnah, Rajib E.

    2016-03-22

    Photovoltaic devices and methods of making the same, are disclosed herein. The cell comprises a photovoltaic device that comprises a first electrically conductive layer comprising a photo-sensitized electrode; at least one photoelectrochemical layer comprising metal-oxide particles, an electrolyte solution comprising at least one asphaltene fraction, wherein the metal-oxide particles are optionally dispersed in a surfactant; and a second electrically conductive layer comprising a counter-electrode, wherein the second electrically conductive layer comprises one or more conductive elements comprising carbon, graphite, soot, carbon allotropes or any combinations thereof.

  3. Concentrating photovoltaic solar panel

    DOEpatents

    Cashion, Steven A; Bowser, Michael R; Farrelly, Mark B; Hines, Braden E; Holmes, Howard C; Johnson, Jr., Richard L; Russell, Richard J; Turk, Michael F

    2014-04-15

    The present invention relates to photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic concentrator modules, and related methods. In particular, the present invention features concentrator modules having interior points of attachment for an articulating mechanism and/or an articulating mechanism that has a unique arrangement of chassis members so as to isolate bending, etc. from being transferred among the chassis members. The present invention also features adjustable solar panel mounting features and/or mounting features with two or more degrees of freedom. The present invention also features a mechanical fastener for secondary optics in a concentrator module.

  4. A photovoltaic array simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vachtsevanos, G. J.; Grimbas, E. J.

    A system simulating the output voltage-current characteristics of a photovoltaic array is described. The simulator may be used to test the performance of PV arrays and associated power conditioning equipment necessary for the autonomous or interconnected operation of photovoltaic energy sources. The simulator's main features include simplicity of construction, wide parametric variability and low cost. It is capable of reproducing the output characteristics of commercially available arrays at varying solar irradiation levels with sufficient accuracy. The design ensures the lowest possible power dissipation and minimal thermal drift. It is estimated that the cost of the simulator is an insignificant fraction of the actual array cost in the kilowatt power range.

  5. Photovoltaic power systems workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killian, H. J.; Given, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Discussions are presented on apparent deficiencies in NASA planning and technology development relating to a standard power module (25-35 kW) and to future photovoltaic power systems in general. Topics of discussion consider the following: (1) adequate studies on power systems; (2) whether a standard power system module should be developed from a standard spacecraft; (3) identification of proper approaches to cost reduction; (4) energy storage avoidance; (5) attitude control; (6) thermal effects of heat rejection on solar array configuration stability; (7) assembly of large power systems in space; and (8) factoring terrestrial photovoltaic work into space power systems for possible payoff.

  6. Photovoltaic array performance model.

    SciTech Connect

    Kratochvil, Jay A.; Boyson, William Earl; King, David L.

    2004-08-01

    This document summarizes the equations and applications associated with the photovoltaic array performance model developed at Sandia National Laboratories over the last twelve years. Electrical, thermal, and optical characteristics for photovoltaic modules are included in the model, and the model is designed to use hourly solar resource and meteorological data. The versatility and accuracy of the model has been validated for flat-plate modules (all technologies) and for concentrator modules, as well as for large arrays of modules. Applications include system design and sizing, 'translation' of field performance measurements to standard reporting conditions, system performance optimization, and real-time comparison of measured versus expected system performance.

  7. Photovoltaic systems overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Selected photovoltaic systems currently under user-environment field test by the U.S. Department of Energy Photovoltaics Program are discussed, and operational results are summarized. There are many systems in the stand-alone sector that are cost effective now. As proven products become available, distributed residential, commercial, institutional and industrial on-site systems should be able to displace significant amounts of centrally-generated electricity throughout most of the United States. Finally, utilities should ultimately be able to augment their generating capacity with larger-scale systems. Field experience and industry interface has led to excellent overall product performance.

  8. Current topics in photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, T.J. ); Meakin, J.O. . Inst. of Energy Conversion)

    1988-01-01

    Steady growth in the commercial application of solar cell systems has been achieved since the last volume of this series was published. In many parts of the world photovoltaics are being used in essential life sustaining or enhancing applications such as communications, water pumping, and vaccine refrigeration. Even in the more industrialized nations a growing number of uses are being found for photovoltaics, some of them far from essential, in areas which are surrounded by grid distribution systems. This book covers the latest advances in research and development, many of them in the amorphous field although progress continues with crystalline silicon and the II-VI and IIIV compounds.

  9. Current topics in photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, J.J. ); Meakin, J.O. . Inst. of Energy Conversion)

    1988-01-01

    The authors discuss the steady growth in the commercial application of solar cell systems. In many parts of the world photovoltaics are being used in essential life sustaining or enhancing applications such as communications, water pumping, and vaccine refrigeration. Even in the more industrialized nations a growing number of uses are being found for photovoltaics, in areas which are surrounded by grid distribution systems. This volume covers advances in research and development, many of them in the amorphous field, although progress continues with crystalline silicon and the II-VI and III-V compounds.

  10. High efficiency photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Guha, Subhendu; Yang, Chi C.; Xu, Xi Xiang

    1999-11-02

    An N-I-P type photovoltaic device includes a multi-layered body of N-doped semiconductor material which has an amorphous, N doped layer in contact with the amorphous body of intrinsic semiconductor material, and a microcrystalline, N doped layer overlying the amorphous, N doped material. A tandem device comprising stacked N-I-P cells may further include a second amorphous, N doped layer interposed between the microcrystalline, N doped layer and a microcrystalline P doped layer. Photovoltaic devices thus configured manifest improved performance, particularly when configured as tandem devices.

  11. Photovoltaic properties of polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reucroft, P. J.; Ullal, H.

    1980-03-01

    The effect of metal electrode and film thickness on the photovoltaic energy conversion efficiency in (1:1) mole ratio films of poly (N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) and 2,4,7-trinitrofluorenone (TNF) has been investigated. Low work function metals increase the Schottky barrier height which leads to increases in the photovoltaic energy conversion efficiency. A ten-fold decrease in film thickness produces a thousand-fold increase in photovoltaic energy conversion efficiency. A theoretical model which assumes that the photovoltaic current is limited by Child's law predicts photovoltaic efficiencies which are in good agreement with the measured efficiencies.

  12. Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2011-10-13

    DOE works with national labs, academia, and industry to support the domestic photovoltaics (PV) industry and research enterprise. SunShot aims to achieve widespread, unsubsidized cost-competitiveness through an applied research and development (R&D) portfolio spanning PV materials, devices, and manufacturing technologies.

  13. Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    DOE works with national labs, academia, and industry to support the domestic photovoltaics (PV) industry and research enterprise. SunShot aims to achieve widespread, unsubsidized cost-competitiveness through an applied research and development (R&D) portfolio spanning PV materials, devices, and manufacturing technologies.

  14. Photovoltaics technology program summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-05-01

    An adequate supply of energy at reasonable price is discussed. Economic efficiency and the following strategies to obtain it are suggested: (1) minimization of federal regulation in energy pricing; and (2) promote a balanced and mixed energy resource system. The development of photovoltaic energy conversion technology is summarized.

  15. BMDO photovoltaics program overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caveny, Leonard H.; Allen, Douglas M.

    1994-01-01

    This is an overview of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) Photovoltaic Program. Areas discussed are: (1) BMDO advanced Solar Array program; (2) Brilliant Eyes type satellites; (3) Electric propulsion; (4) Contractor Solar arrays; (5) Iofee Concentrator and Cell development; (6) Entech linear mini-dome concentrator; and (7) Flight test update/plans.

  16. Photovoltaics in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimada, K.

    1985-01-01

    Report surveys status of research and development on photovoltaics in Japan. Report based on literature searches, private communications, and visits by author to Japanese facilities. Included in survey are Sunshine Project, national program to develop energy sources; industrial development at private firms; and work at academic institutions.

  17. Multiple gap photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Dalal, Vikram L.

    1981-01-01

    A multiple gap photovoltaic device having a transparent electrical contact adjacent a first cell which in turn is adjacent a second cell on an opaque electrical contact, includes utilizing an amorphous semiconductor as the first cell and a crystalline semiconductor as the second cell.

  18. Thin film photovoltaic cell

    DOEpatents

    Meakin, John D.; Bragagnolo, Julio

    1982-01-01

    A thin film photovoltaic cell having a transparent electrical contact and an opaque electrical contact with a pair of semiconductors therebetween includes utilizing one of the electrical contacts as a substrate and wherein the inner surface thereof is modified by microroughening while being macro-planar.

  19. Solar photovoltaic residential project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-10-01

    Progress with technology transfer and the performance of photovoltaic power supplies in Northeastern and Southwestern residences are reported. Also, systems operation in Florida and Hawaii are discussed briefly. Technology development in the field of power conditioning and flywheel storage is described. Work on some non-residential field tests is also described. Project management data are summarized.

  20. Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) works with industry, academia, national laboratories, and other government agencies to advance solar photovoltaics (PV) domestically. The SunShot Initiative aims to achieve widespread, unsubsidized cost-competitiveness through an applied research and development (R&D) portfolio spanning PV materials, devices, and manufacturing technologies.

  1. Photovoltaic radiation detector element

    DOEpatents

    Agouridis, Dimitrios C.

    1983-01-01

    A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

  2. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrig, L.

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986 to 1990. The reliability photovoltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warrantees available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the U.S., PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  3. Integrated photovoltaic electrolytic cell

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkawa, T.

    1982-10-05

    A photovoltaic-electrolytic unit is provided to produce an electric current from solar energy and utilize the current to produce hydrogen by the electrolysis of water. The unit floats in an aqueous medium so that photoelectric cells are exposed to solar radiation, and electrodes submerged in the medium produce oxygen which is vented and hydrogen which is collected in the unit.

  4. Formed photovoltaic module busbars

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Douglas; Daroczi, Shan; Phu, Thomas

    2015-11-10

    A cell connection piece for a photovoltaic module is disclosed herein. The cell connection piece includes an interconnect bus, a plurality of bus tabs unitarily formed with the interconnect bus, and a terminal bus coupled with the interconnect bus. The plurality of bus tabs extend from the interconnect bus. The terminal bus includes a non-linear portion.

  5. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect

    Wares, Brian S.

    2012-09-04

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame having at least a top member and a bottom member. A plurality of alignment features are included on the top member of each frame, and a plurality of alignment features are included on the bottom member of each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by the alignment features on the top member of a lower module fitting together with the alignment features on the bottom member of an upper module. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  6. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOEpatents

    Mosher, Dan Michael

    1997-11-18

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module (20) comprised of a series of solar cells (22) having a thermally activated switch (24) connected in parallel with several of the cells (22). The photovoltaic module (20) is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient (TC) differing from the temperature coefficient (TC) of the module (20). The calibration temperatures of the switches (24) are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module (20), the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells (22). By shorting some of the solar cells (22) as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module (20) is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module (20) is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive.

  7. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOEpatents

    Mosher, D.M.

    1997-11-18

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module comprises a series of solar cells having a thermally activated switch connected in parallel with several of the cells. The photovoltaic module is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient differing from the temperature coefficient of the module. The calibration temperatures of the switches are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module, the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells. By shorting some of the solar cells as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive. 2 figs.

  8. Superstructure high efficiency photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, M.; So, L. C.; Leburton, J. P.

    1987-01-01

    A novel class of photovoltaic cascade structures is introduced which features multijunction upper subcells. These superstructure high efficiency photovoltaics (SHEP's) exhibit enhanced upper subcell spectral response because of the additional junctions which serve to reduce bulk recombination losses by decreasing the mean collection distance for photogenerated minority carriers. Two possible electrical configurations were studied and compared: a three-terminal scheme that allows both subcells to be operated at their individual maximum power points and a two-terminal configuration with an intercell ohmic contact for series interconnection. The three-terminal devices were found to be superior both in terms of beginning-of-life expectancy and radiation tolerance. Realistic simulations of three-terminal AlGaAs/GaAs SHEP's show that one sun AMO efficiencies in excess of 26 percent are possible.

  9. Inverted organic photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Liu, Chang; Meng, Tianyu; Yi, Chao; Gong, Xiong

    2016-05-21

    The advance in lifestyle, modern industrialization and future technological revolution are always at high expense of energy consumption. Unfortunately, there exist serious issues such as limited storage, high cost and toxic contamination in conventional fossil fuel energy sources. Instead, solar energy represents a renewable, economic and green alternative in the future energy market. Among the photovoltaic technologies, organic photovoltaics (OPVs) demonstrate a cheap, flexible, clean and easy-processing way to convert solar energy into electricity. However, OPVs with a conventional device structure are still far away from industrialization mainly because of their short lifetime and the energy-intensive deposition of top metal electrode. To address the stability and cost issue simultaneously, an inverted device structure has been introduced into OPVs, bridging laboratory research with practical application. In this review, recent progress in device structures, working mechanisms, functions and advances of each component layer as well their correlations with the efficiency and stability of inverted OPVs are reviewed and illustrated.

  10. Photovoltaic prospects in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, M. R.

    The economics of solar cells is reviewed with an eye to potential cost reductions in processing, and potential markets are explored. Current solar cell systems costs are noted to be on the road to achieving the U.S. DoE goals of $0.40/kWp by 1990. Continued progress will depend on technical developments in cheaper materials and processes, scaling up production, and the success of sales programs. Various consumer and professional markets are outlined, with a prediction that a 12 MWp deman will be reached as a steady state by 1995. Photovoltaic panels may conceivably replace conventional roofing materials, resulting in the projection that, if grid-supplied power continues to inflate in price, then all new European homes would be equipped with photovoltaics by the year 2000. Further, accomplishment of the cost goals could generate a 1 GWp/yr industrial market at the same time.

  11. Photovoltaic-thermal collectors

    DOEpatents

    Cox, III, Charles H.

    1984-04-24

    A photovoltaic-thermal solar cell including a semiconductor body having antireflective top and bottom surfaces and coated on each said surface with a patterned electrode covering less than 10% of the surface area. A thermal-absorbing surface is spaced apart from the bottom surface of the semiconductor and a heat-exchange fluid is passed between the bottom surface and the heat-absorbing surface.

  12. Photovoltaic panel support assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, J.M.; Underwood, J.C.; Shingleton, J.

    1993-07-20

    A solar energy electrical power source is described comprising in combination at least two flat photovoltaic panels disposed side-by-side in co-planar relation with one another, a pivot shaft extending transversely across the panels, at least two supports spaced apart lengthwise of the pivot shaft, means for connecting the pivot shaft to the at least two supports, attachment means for connecting the at least two panels to the pivot shaft so that the panels can pivot about the longitudinal axis of the shaft, coupling means mechanically coupling all of the panels together so as to form a unified flat array, and selectively operable drive means for mechanically pivoting the unified flat array about the axis; wherein each of the flat photovoltaic panels comprises at least two modules each comprising a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells, the at least two modules being aligned along a line extending at a right angle to the pivot shaft, and the coupling means comprises (a) an elongate member extending parallel to and spaced from the pivot shaft and (b) means for attaching the elongate member to the panels; and further wherein each flat photovoltaic panel comprises a unitary frame consisting of a pair of end frame members extending parallel to the pivot shaft, a pair of side frame members extending between and connected to the end frame members, and a pair of spaced apart cross frame members, with one of the two modules being embraced by and secured to the side frame members and a first one of each of the end and cross frame members, and the other of the two modules being embraced by and secured to the side frame members and the second one of each of the end and cross frame members, whereby the gap created by the spaced apart cross frame members allow air to pass between them in order to reduce the sail effect when the solar array is subjected to buffeting winds.

  13. Increased voltage photovoltaic cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, B.; Bickler, D. B.; Gallagher, B. D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell, such as a solar cell, is provided which has a higher output voltage than prior cells. The improved cell includes a substrate of doped silicon, a first layer of silicon disposed on the substrate and having opposite doping, and a second layer of silicon carbide disposed on the first layer. The silicon carbide preferably has the same type of doping as the first layer.

  14. Photovoltaics. III - Concentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backus, C. E.

    1980-02-01

    Photovoltaic concentration systems that redirect sunlight falling on a surface to a smaller solar-cell surface concentrating the intensity of sunlight many times are examined. It is noted that solar cells for concentrating systems must be designed for low internal resistance as well as for high sunlight intensities. Two designs of silicon cells are presented that perform well at high concentrations; these are interdigitated back-contact cells and vertical multijunction cells. Attention is given to heat tapping of reemitted light.

  15. Do photovoltaics have a future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, B. F.

    1979-01-01

    There is major concern as to the economic practicality of widespread terrestrial use because of the high cost of the photovoltaic arrays themselves. Based on their high efficiency, photovoltaic collectors should be one of the cheapest forms of energy generators known. Present photovoltaic panels are violating the trend of lower costs with increasing efficiency due to their reliance on expensive materials. A medium technology solution should provide electricity competitive with the existing medium to high technology energy generators such as oil, coal, gas, and nuclear fission thermal plants. Programs to reduce the cost of silicon and develop reliable thin film materials have a realistic chance of producing cost effective photovoltaic panels.

  16. Utility-scale photovoltaic concentrators

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The photovoltaics concentrators section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  17. Solar photovoltaics for development applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shepperd, L.W.; Richards, E.H.

    1993-08-01

    This document introduces photovoltaic technology to individuals and groups specializing in development activities. Examples of actual installations illustrate the many services supplied by photovoltaic systems in development applications, including water pumping, lighting, health care, refrigeration, communications, and a variety of productive uses. The various aspects of the technology are explored to help potential users evaluate whether photovoltaics can assist them in achieving their organizational goals. Basic system design, financing techniques, and the importance of infrastructure are included, along with additional sources of information and major US photovoltaic system suppliers.

  18. Solar photovoltaics for development applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepperd, L. W.; Richards, E. H.

    1993-08-01

    This document introduces photovoltaic technology to individuals and groups specializing in development activities. Examples of actual installations illustrate the many services supplied by photovoltaic systems in development applications including water pumping, lighting, health care, refrigeration, communications, and a variety of productive uses. The various aspects of the technology are explored to help potential users evaluate whether photovoltaics can assist them in achieving their organizational goals. Basic system design, financing techniques, and the importance of infrastructure are included, along with additional sources of information and major U.S. photovoltaic system suppliers.

  19. Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices.

    PubMed

    Atwater, Harry A; Polman, Albert

    2010-03-01

    The emerging field of plasmonics has yielded methods for guiding and localizing light at the nanoscale, well below the scale of the wavelength of light in free space. Now plasmonics researchers are turning their attention to photovoltaics, where design approaches based on plasmonics can be used to improve absorption in photovoltaic devices, permitting a considerable reduction in the physical thickness of solar photovoltaic absorber layers, and yielding new options for solar-cell design. In this review, we survey recent advances at the intersection of plasmonics and photovoltaics and offer an outlook on the future of solar cells based on these principles.

  20. Photovoltaic research needs industry perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravi, K. V.

    1982-01-01

    An industries perspective of photovoltaic research needs is presented. Objectives and features of industry needs are discussed for the materials, devices, processes, and reliability research categories.

  1. Photovoltaics and the automobile

    SciTech Connect

    Young, W.R. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    For years people have been in love with the automobile. Some people just enjoy using the automobile as transportation while others also enjoy the workings and operation of this fascinating machine. The automobile is not without problems of pollution and energy consumption. These problems are changing its design and construction. New clean energy sources are being analyzed and applied to power the modern automobile. A space age energy source now being considered by some and used by others to power the automobile is photovoltaics. Photovoltaics (PV) is the direct conversion of sunlight to electricity. There are a number of devices in the modern car that are electrically powered. PV could provide a clean endless supply of electricity for air conditioning, radios and other electrical components of a car. Most people have never heard of photovoltaics (PV). There has been a great deal of research in PV among energy experts. The automobile is known the world over in both use and operation. The author describes how the merging of these two technologies will benefit mankind and without damaging the environment. 12 refs.

  2. Photovoltaic self-assembly.

    SciTech Connect

    Lavin, Judith; Kemp, Richard Alan; Stewart, Constantine A.

    2010-10-01

    This late-start LDRD was focused on the application of chemical principles of self-assembly on the ordering and placement of photovoltaic cells in a module. The drive for this chemical-based self-assembly stems from the escalating prices in the 'pick-and-place' technology currently used in the MEMS industries as the size of chips decreases. The chemical self-assembly principles are well-known on a molecular scale in other material science systems but to date had not been applied to the assembly of cells in a photovoltaic array or module. We explored several types of chemical-based self-assembly techniques, including gold-thiol interactions, liquid polymer binding, and hydrophobic-hydrophilic interactions designed to array both Si and GaAs PV chips onto a substrate. Additional research was focused on the modification of PV cells in an effort to gain control over the facial directionality of the cells in a solvent-based environment. Despite being a small footprint research project worked on for only a short time, the technical results and scientific accomplishments were significant and could prove to be enabling technology in the disruptive advancement of the microelectronic photovoltaics industry.

  3. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Mrig, L.

    1990-01-01

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986--1990. The reliability Photo Voltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warranties available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  4. Quo Vadis photovoltaics 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäger-Waldau, A.

    2011-10-01

    Since more than 10 years photovoltaics is one of the most dynamic industries with growth rates well beyond 40% per annum. This growth is driven not only by the progress in materials knowledge and processing technology, but also by market introduction programmes in many countries around the world. Despite the negative impacts on the economy by the financial crisis since 2009, photovoltaics is still growing at an extraordinary pace and had in 2010 an extraordinary success, as both production and markets doubled. The open question is what will happen in 2011 and the years after as the situation is dominated by huge manufacturing overcapacities and an increasing unpredictability of policy support. How can the PV industry continue their cost reduction to ensure another 10 to 20 years of sustained and strong growth necessary to make PV to one of the main pillars of a sustainable energy supply in 2030. Despite the fact, that globally the share of electricity from photovoltaic systems is still small, at local level it can be already now above 30% of the demand at certain times of the year. Future research in PV has to provide intelligent solutions not only on the solar cell alone, but also on the module and the system integration level in order to permit a 5 to 10% share of electricity in 2020.

  5. Photocurrent of Photovoltaic Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeler, Seth; McIntyre, Max; Cossel, Raquel; Bowser, Chris; Tzolov, Marian

    Photovoltaic cells can be used to harness clean, renewable energy from light. Examined in this project were photovoltaic cells based on a bulk heterojunction between PCPDTBT and PCBM sandwiched between an ITO anode and an Al cathode. Current-voltage characteristics and impedance spectra for multiple photovoltaic devices were taken under varying DC electrical bias and different level of illumination. This data was interpreted in terms of an equivalent circuit with linear elements, e.g. capacitance, series resistance, and parallel resistance. A physical interpretation of each circuit element will be presented. The spectral response of the devices was characterized by optical transmission and photocurrent spectroscopy using a spectrometer in the spectral range from 300 to 900 nm. The DC measurements confirmed that the devices are electrically rectifying. The AC measurements allowed modeling of the devices as a dielectric between two electrodes with injection current passing through it. The characteristic peaks for both PCBDTBT and PCBM are clearly visible in both the photocurrent and transmission data. The good correlation between the photocurrent and transmission data indicates photocurrent generation due to absorption in both materials constituting the heterojunction.

  6. A theoretical study of photovoltaic converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbockel, John H.

    1987-01-01

    Mathematical models for the photovoltaic conversion of laser power were developed. These models simulate the operation of planar and vertical junction photovoltaic converters and are described in detail.

  7. Graphite-based photovoltaic cells

    DOEpatents

    Lagally, Max; Liu, Feng

    2010-12-28

    The present invention uses lithographically patterned graphite stacks as the basic building elements of an efficient and economical photovoltaic cell. The basic design of the graphite-based photovoltaic cells includes a plurality of spatially separated graphite stacks, each comprising a plurality of vertically stacked, semiconducting graphene sheets (carbon nanoribbons) bridging electrically conductive contacts.

  8. Photovoltaics: solar electric power systems

    SciTech Connect

    1980-02-01

    The operation and uses of solar cells and the National Photovoltaic Program are briefly described. Eleven DOE photovoltaic application projects are described including forest lookout towers; Wilcox Memorial Hospital in Hawaii; WBNO daytime AM radio station; Schuchuli Indian Village; Meade, Nebraska, agricultural experiment; Mt. Laguna Air Force Station; public schools and colleges; residential applications; and Sea World of Florida. (WHK)

  9. Photovoltaics: Solar electric power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-02-01

    The operation and uses of solar cells and the National Photovoltaic Program are briefly described. Eleven DOE photovoltaic application projects are described including forest lookout towers; Wilcox Memorial Hospital in Hawaii; WBNO daytime AM radio station; Schuchuli Indian Village; Meade, Nebraska, agricultural experiment; Mt. Laguna Air Force Station; public schools and colleges; residential applications; and Sea World of Florida.

  10. Solid State Photovoltaics Research Branch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-09-01

    The major areas of in-house photovoltaic research covered include: semiconductor crystal growth and devices; material preparation and purification; solid state theory; amorphous materials; thin film compound semiconductor solar cells; and high efficiency multijunction solar cells. The purpose and major accomplishments of the work is explained in the context of the overall goals of the national photovoltaics program.

  11. Photovoltaic conversion of laser energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stirn, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The Schottky barrier photovoltaic converter is suggested as an alternative to the p/n junction photovoltaic devices for the conversion of laser energy to electrical energy. The structure, current, output, and voltage output of the Schottky device are summarized. The more advanced concepts of the multilayer Schottky barrier cell and the AMOS solar cell are briefly considered.

  12. Maintenance of photovoltaic power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, M. R.

    1984-08-01

    This publication establishes standard practices for inspection, testing, and maintenance of photovoltaic power systems at Dept. of the Navy installations. The practices and procedures are recommended to ensure reliable operation of the power systems. The manual covers photovoltaic-array, battery, voltage-regulator, inverter, and wiring subsystems. In addition, this manual provides a troubleshooting guide and self-study questions and answers.

  13. Photovoltaic tests and applications project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The activities and accomplishments of the Photovoltaic Tests and Applications Project during the period April 1976 through June 1977 are summarized. Results of efforts to identify potential near-term photovoltaic applications and users are discussed, including the outcome of an extensive survey of Federal government agencies. The status of application experiments is presented. Various general engineering efforts are reported, including the design and construction of a photovoltaic Systems Test Facility. Efforts to develop a high efficiency 10 kVA self-commutated inverter and controller specifically designed for photovoltaic systems are also discussed. The results of a wide variety of activities in the area of photovoltaic measurements and standards are related. Documents generated by the Project during the reporting period are listed in an Appendix.

  14. Photovoltaic evaluation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, G.; Heikkilae, M.; Melasuo, T.; Spanner, S.

    Realizing the value and potential of PV-power as well as the growing need for increased cooperation and sharing of knowledge in the field of photovoltaics, FINNIDA and UNICEF decided to undertake a study of selected PV-projects. There were two main objectives for the study: To gather, compile, evaluate and share information on the photovoltaic technology appropriate to developing countries, and to promote the interest and competence of Finnish research institutes, consultants and manufacturers in photovoltaic development. For this purpose a joint evaluation of significant, primarily UN-supported projects providing for the basic needs of rural communities was undertaken. The Gambia and Kenya offered a variety of such projects, and were chosen as target countries for the study. The projects were chosen to be both comparable and complimentary. In the Gambia, the main subject was a partially integrated health and telecommunications project, but a long-operating drinking water pumping system was also studied. In Kenya, a health project in the Turkana area was examined, and also a large scale water pumping installation for fish farming. Field visits were made in order to verify and supplement the data gathered through document research and earlier investigations. Individual data gathering sheets for the project form the core of this study and are intended to give the necessary information in an organized and accessible format. The findings could practically be condensed into one sentence: PV-systems work very well, if properly designed and installed, but the resources and requirements of the recipients must be considered to a higher degree.

  15. Thin film photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Catalano, Anthony W.; Bhushan, Manjul

    1982-01-01

    A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids.

  16. Photovoltaic Degradation Risk: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-04-01

    The ability to accurately predict power delivery over the course of time is of vital importance to the growth of the photovoltaic (PV) industry. Important cost drivers include the efficiency with which sunlight is converted into power, how this relationship changes over time, and the uncertainty in this prediction. An accurate quantification of power decline over time, also known as degradation rate, is essential to all stakeholders - utility companies, integrators, investors, and researchers alike. In this paper we use a statistical approach based on historical data to quantify degradation rates, discern trends and quantify risks related to measurement uncertainties, number of measurements and methodologies.

  17. Bracket for photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect

    Ciasulli, John; Jones, Jason

    2014-06-24

    Brackets for photovoltaic ("PV") modules are described. In one embodiment, a saddle bracket has a mounting surface to support one or more PV modules over a tube, a gusset coupled to the mounting surface, and a mounting feature coupled to the gusset to couple to the tube. The gusset can have a first leg and a second leg extending at an angle relative to the mounting surface. Saddle brackets can be coupled to a torque tube at predetermined locations. PV modules can be coupled to the saddle brackets. The mounting feature can be coupled to the first gusset and configured to stand the one or more PV modules off the tube.

  18. Thin film photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Catalano, A.W.; Bhushan, M.

    1982-08-03

    A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids. 5 figs.

  19. Photovoltaic panel clamp

    SciTech Connect

    Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Miros, Robert H. J.; Brown, Malcolm P; Stancel, Robert

    2012-06-05

    A photovoltaic panel clamp includes an upper and lower section. The interface between the assembled clamp halves and the module edge is filled by a flexible gasket material, such as EPDM rubber. The gasket preferably has small, finger like protrusions that allow for easy insertion onto the module edge while being reversed makes it more difficult to remove them from the module once installed. The clamp includes mounting posts or an integral axle to engage a bracket. The clamp also may include a locking tongue to secure the clamp to a bracket.

  20. Photovoltaic panel clamp

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Malcolm P.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Miros, Robert H. J.; Stancel, Robert

    2013-03-19

    A photovoltaic panel clamp includes an upper and lower section. The interface between the assembled clamp halves and the module edge is filled by a flexible gasket material, such as EPDM rubber. The gasket preferably has small, finger like protrusions that allow for easy insertion onto the module edge while being reversed makes it more difficult to remove them from the module once installed. The clamp includes mounting posts or an integral axle to engage a bracket. The clamp also may include a locking tongue to secure the clamp to a bracket.

  1. Europe's space photovoltaics programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogus, Klaus P.

    1994-01-01

    The current space PV (photovoltaic) technology development program of ESA is described. The program is closely coupled to the European space mission scenario for the next 10 year period and has as its main objective to make the most effective use of the limited resources available for technology in the present economical climate. This requires a well-balanced approach between concentration on very few options and keeping the competition alive if more than one promising technology exists. The paper describes ESA's main activities in the areas of solar array technology, solar cell technology, solar cell assembly technology, and special test and verification activities including the in-orbit demonstration of new technologies.

  2. Photosynthetic Photovoltaic Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-21

    PHOTOSYNTHETIC PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS 5b. GRANT NUMBER F49620-02-1-0399 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER MARC A. BALDO 5e. TASK...building an ’antenna’ on top of a conventional solar cell. Biomimetic organic solar cells operate as follows: The antenna absorbs the light, and acts to...no longer must absorb all the light. Thus, its quantum efficiency can approach 100% potentially doubling the performance of organic solar cells. 15

  3. Nonlinear photovoltaic effect in Sillenite photorefractive crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Ivan; Capovilla, Danilo Augusto; Moura, André L.; Timóteo, Varese S.; Carvalho, Jesiel F.; Frejlich, Jaime

    2017-04-01

    We report on the presence of photovoltaic effect in some Sillenite photorefractive crystals and compare their behavior with that of the well known photovoltaic LiNbO3:Fe crystal. Nonlinear photovoltaic behavior of these Sillenites are also reported here for the first time and explained by the presence of shallow along with deep photovoltaic centers.

  4. Photovoltaic Product Directory and Buyers Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, R.L.; Smith, S.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Mazzucchi, R.P.; Lee, V.E.

    1984-04-01

    The directory guide explains photovoltaic systems briefly and shows what products are available off-the-shelf. Information is given to assist in designing a photovoltaic system and on financial incentives. Help is given for determining if photovoltaic products can meet a particular buyer's needs, and information is provided on actual photovoltaic user's experiences. Detailed information is appended on various financial incentives available from state and federal governments, sources of additional information on photovoltaics, sources of various photovoltaic products, and a listing of addresses of photovoltaic products suppliers. (LEW)

  5. Nanocarbon-based photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Marco; Lohrman, Jessica; Kumar, Priyank V; Kirkeminde, Alec; Ferralis, Nicola; Grossman, Jeffrey C; Ren, Shenqiang

    2012-10-23

    Carbon materials are excellent candidates for photovoltaic solar cells: they are Earth-abundant, possess high optical absorption, and maintain superior thermal and photostability. Here we report on solar cells with active layers made solely of carbon nanomaterials that present the same advantages of conjugated polymer-based solar cells, namely, solution processable, potentially flexible, and chemically tunable, but with increased photostability and the possibility to revert photodegradation. The device active layer composition is optimized using ab initio density functional theory calculations to predict type-II band alignment and Schottky barrier formation. The best device fabricated is composed of PC(70)BM fullerene, semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes, and reduced graphene oxide. This active-layer composition achieves a power conversion efficiency of 1.3%-a record for solar cells based on carbon as the active material-and we calculate efficiency limits of up to 13% for the devices fabricated in this work, comparable to those predicted for polymer solar cells employing PCBM as the acceptor. There is great promise for improving carbon-based solar cells considering the novelty of this type of device, the high photostability, and the availability of a large number of carbon materials with yet untapped potential for photovoltaics. Our results indicate a new strategy for efficient carbon-based, solution-processable, thin film, photostable solar cells.

  6. Integrated organic photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potscavage, William J.; Yoo, Seunghyup; Domercq, Benoit; Kim, Jungbae; Holt, Joe; Kippelen, Bernard

    2007-09-01

    Methods for scalable output voltage and encapsulation of organic photovoltaic cells are addressed in this paper. To obtain scalable output voltages, integrated photovoltaic modules comprised of a bulk heterojunction of poly(3- hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and a soluble C 70 derivative, [6,6]-phenyl C 71 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM-70), were fabricated. Power conversion efficiency of individual P3HT/PCBM-70 cells was estimated to be 4.1 % for AM1.5 G illumination. Modules of one to four cells connected in series produced open-circuit voltages V OC that linearly depend on the number of cells N as V OC = N × 0.621 V with a nearly constant short-circuit current of 1.4 +/- 0.1 mA. Separately, shelf lifetimes of more than one year were achieved for pentacene/C 60 solar cells by encapsulation with a 200-nm-thick layer of Al IIO 3 deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD). In addition, the ALD process improved the open-circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency of the solar cells by thermal annealing that occurs during the process.

  7. NREL Center for Photovoltaics

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Solar cells, also called photovoltaics (PV) by solar cell scientists, convert sunlight directly into electricity. Solar cells are often used to power calculators and watches. The performance of a solar cell is measured in terms of its efficiency at turning sunlight into electricity. Only sunlight of certain energies will work efficiently to create electricity, and much of it is reflected or absorbed by the material that make up the cell. Because of this, a typical commercial solar cell has an efficiency of 15%—about one-sixth of the sunlight striking the cell generates electricity. Low efficiencies mean that larger arrays are needed, and that means higher cost. Improving solar cell efficiencies while holding down the cost per cell is an important goal of the PV industry, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, and they have made significant progress. The first solar cells, built in the 1950s, had efficiencies of less than 4%. For a text version of this video visit http://www.nrel.gov/learning/re_photovoltaics_video_text.html

  8. NREL Center for Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Solar cells, also called photovoltaics (PV) by solar cell scientists, convert sunlight directly into electricity. Solar cells are often used to power calculators and watches. The performance of a solar cell is measured in terms of its efficiency at turning sunlight into electricity. Only sunlight of certain energies will work efficiently to create electricity, and much of it is reflected or absorbed by the material that make up the cell. Because of this, a typical commercial solar cell has an efficiency of 15%—about one-sixth of the sunlight striking the cell generates electricity. Low efficiencies mean that larger arrays are needed, and that means higher cost. Improving solar cell efficiencies while holding down the cost per cell is an important goal of the PV industry, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, and they have made significant progress. The first solar cells, built in the 1950s, had efficiencies of less than 4%. For a text version of this video visit http://www.nrel.gov/learning/re_photovoltaics_video_text.html

  9. Photovoltaics information user study

    SciTech Connect

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marie, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1980-10-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on photovoltaics (PV) are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. It covers these technological areas: photovoltaics, passive solar heating and cooling, active solar heating and cooling, biomass energy, solar thermal electric power, solar industrial and agricultural process heat, wind energy, ocean energy, and advanced energy storage. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from seven PV groups respondents are analyzed in this report: DOE-Funded Researchers, Non-DOE-Funded Researchers, Researchers Working for Manufacturers, Representatives of Other Manufacturers, Representatives of Utilities, Electric Power Engineers, and Educators.

  10. Parametric study of laser photovoltaic energy converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, G. H.; Heinbockel, J. H.

    1987-01-01

    Photovoltaic converters are of interest for converting laser power to electrical power in a space-based laser power system. This paper describes a model for photovoltaic laser converters and the application of this model to a neodymium laser silicon photovoltaic converter system. A parametric study which defines the sensitivity of the photovoltaic parameters is described. An optimized silicon photovoltaic converter has an efficiency greater than 50 percent for 1000 W/sq cm of neodymium laser radiation.

  11. Innovative photovoltaic application for residences experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atmaram, G. H.; Litka, A. H.

    1982-06-01

    Operational results on the performance of the 5 kilowatt peak photovoltaic residential system at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) described. Operational performance results of 1 year on the FSEC photovoltaic residential system are presented. The description of the residence, photovoltaic system, instrumentation and data collection procedure is included. The performance of the photovoltaic array, inverters and total photovoltaic system is detailed. The instrumentation upgrading, system diagnostics, and any failures or system downtime are described.

  12. Photovoltaic Systems Modeling and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Mir Shahed

    2010-11-01

    This thesis deals with the implementation of generalized photovoltaic model and integration of the same with 7-bus electrical utility system to evaluate the impact that the photovoltaic generator have on the utility system. Among all the impacts that the photovoltaic generator have on the utility system, voltage rise of the power distribution line at the position where the Photovoltaic generator is connected due to reverse power flow from the photovoltaic model has been one of the major problem. Therefore, this thesis proposes the steady-state simulations to evaluate the effectiveness of battery-integrated PV system on avoiding the over voltage problem. Further, fault analysis is done to study the effect of the PV model on the utility network during faults and it is deduced that the impact of the PV model on the utility system voltage during faults is nominal. The photovoltaic model/generator and the 7-bus utility system is developed using Matlab/Simulink software package. The developed photovoltaic model can be represented as PV cell, module or an array. The model is developed with icons that are easy to understand. The developed model takes into consideration cell's working temperature, amount of sunlight (irradiance) available, voltage of the circuit when the circuit is open and current of the circuit when it is shorted. The developed Photovoltaic model is then integrated with a Li-ion battery, over here battery serves two purposes first it will store the excess power from the Photovoltaic generator if any, during the day time and in night the battery acts as an generator and deliver the power to the utility or connected load with the help of an invertors.

  13. Photovoltaic module with adhesion promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Xavier, Grace

    2013-10-08

    Photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters and methods for fabricating photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters are described. A photovoltaic module includes a solar cell including a first surface and a second surface, the second surface including a plurality of interspaced back-side contacts. A first glass layer is coupled to the first surface by a first encapsulating layer. A second glass layer is coupled to the second surface by a second encapsulating layer. At least a portion of the second encapsulating layer is bonded directly to the plurality of interspaced back-side contacts by an adhesion promoter.

  14. Plasmonic Backscattering Enhanced Inverted Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Dissanayake, D. M. N. M.; Roberts, B.; Ku, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    A plasmonic nanoparticle incorporated inverted organic photovoltaic structure was demonstrated where a monolayer of Ag nanoparticles acted as a wavelength selective reflector. Enhanced light harvesting via plasmonic backscattering into the photovoltaic absorber was observed, resulting in a two-fold improvement in the photocurrent and increased open-circuit voltage. Further, utilizing an optical spacer, the plasmonic backscattering was spectrally controlled, thereby modulating the external quantum efficiency and the photocurrent. Unlike a regular thin-film metallic back reflector, excellent off-resonance optical transmission in excess of 80% was observed from the Ag nanoparticles, making this structure highly suitable for semi-transparent and multi-junction photovoltaic applications.

  15. Photovoltaic solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Gupta, Vipin P.; Okandan, Murat; Watts, Michael R.

    2015-09-08

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  16. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    DOEpatents

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis

    2012-12-11

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  17. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    DOEpatents

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Gupta, Vipin P.; Okandan, Murat; Watts, Michael R.

    2016-03-15

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  18. Photovoltaics Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2016-02-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Photovoltaics (PV) subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Solar Energy Technologies Office works with industry, academia, national laboratories, and other government agencies to advance solar PV, which is the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity by a semiconductor, in support of the goals of the SunShot Initiative. SunShot supports research and development to aggressively advance PV technology by improving efficiency and reliability and lowering manufacturing costs. SunShot’s PV portfolio spans work from early-stage solar cell research through technology commercialization, including work on materials, processes, and device structure and characterization techniques.

  19. NASA photovoltaic technology program

    SciTech Connect

    Mullin, J.P.; Loria, J.C.; Brandhorst, H.W. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The NASA Office of Aeronautical and Space Technology OAST Program in space photovoltaics is reviewed. From the perspective of national landmark mission requirements and five year and 25-year long range plans, the texture of the program is revealed. Planar silicon and concentrator GaAs array technology advances are discussed. Advances in lightweight (50 micro cell) arrays and radiation tolerance research are presented. Recent progress in cascade cells and ultralightweight GaAs planar cells is noted. Progress in raising silicon cell voltage to its theoretical maximum is detailed. Advanced concepts such as plasmon converters and the Long Duration Exposure Facility LDEF flight experiments pertaining to solar cell and array technology are also shown.

  20. Concentrating photovoltaic technology

    SciTech Connect

    Edenburn, M.W.

    1984-01-01

    This paper will summarize the status and discuss likely future directions of photovoltaic concentrator technology. A current commercial Si cell module has a peak efficiency of 15.5%, and 17% has been reached with an experimental module. Advanced cells and module design improvements offer still higher efficiencies. Concentrator Fresnel lens array fields installed several years ago have all demonstrated very good electrical performance with little performance degradation. Fresnel lens arrays were commercially available and prices of $7/watt for installed one megawatt systems have been quoted. Cost projections predict that current technology concentrating PV arrays can be installed for less than $2/watt if they are manufactured in large, steady quantities. More advanced designs may cost even less.

  1. Recent advances in photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, D.E.

    1995-12-31

    Photovoltaic energy conversion has been widely used for over three decades in the space program to power satellites and in the last two decades has also found widespread use in remote applications such as powering microwave communication repeaters, providing cathodic protection for wells and pipelines, pumping water in remote locations, etc. With continued improvements in performance and ongoing reductions in manufacturing costs, PV systems are expected to become cost effective for grid-connected applications in the next few years. While crystalline silicon technology accounts for the majority of the present PV business, new thin film PV technologies such as multifunction amorphous silicon, copper-indium-diselenide and cadmium telluride have progressed to a point where several companies are building multi-megawatt production facilities. High efficiency concentrator arrays may also prove to be cost effective for grid-connected applications in regions of the world with significant direct sunlight.

  2. On photovoltaic electrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, O.J.; Bockris, J.O.M.

    1983-12-01

    Photoelectrochemical conversion of light to stored energy in a convenient medium--hydrogen--has been researched extensively. There are no cases where, without the use of external power sources, efficiencies of energy conversion of better than 1-2% have been achieved. For this reason, the present research concerns itself with photovoltaic couples and the use of the resultant electrical power to electrolyze water. The novelty is in the arrangement. An arrangement, consisting of the two GaAs couples, separated by aqueous solution, was irradiated, using solar-simulated light. Hydrogen, oxygen and electricity were produced. The current was varied by using the cell as a light-driven fuel cell passing electric current through an external load which could be varied. The maximum efficiency of conversion of solar light to H2 occurred with the external load at zero ohms.

  3. Chalcogenide perovskites for photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi-Yang; Agiorgousis, Michael L; Zhang, Peihong; Zhang, Shengbai

    2015-01-14

    Chalcogenide perovskites are proposed for photovoltaic applications. The predicted band gaps of CaTiS3, BaZrS3, CaZrSe3, and CaHfSe3 with the distorted perovskite structure are within the optimal range for making single-junction solar cells. The predicted optical absorption properties of these materials are superior compared with other high-efficiency solar-cell materials. Possible replacement of the alkaline-earth cations by molecular cations, e.g., (NH3NH3)(2+), as in the organic-inorganic halide perovskites (e.g., CH3NH3PbI3), are also proposed and found to be stable. The chalcogenide perovskites provide promising candidates for addressing the challenging issues regarding halide perovskites such as instability in the presence of moisture and containing the toxic element Pb.

  4. Photovoltaic spectral responsivity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, K.; Dunlavy, D.; Field, H.; Moriarty, T.

    1998-09-01

    This paper discusses the various elemental random and nonrandom error sources in typical spectral responsivity measurement systems. The authors focus specifically on the filter and grating monochrometer-based spectral responsivity measurement systems used by the Photovoltaic (PV) performance characterization team at NREL. A variety of subtle measurement errors can occur that arise from a finite photo-current response time, bandwidth of the monochromatic light, waveform of the monochromatic light, and spatial uniformity of the monochromatic and bias lights; the errors depend on the light source, PV technology, and measurement system. The quantum efficiency can be a function of he voltage bias, light bias level, and, for some structures, the spectral content of the bias light or location on the PV device. This paper compares the advantages and problems associated with semiconductor-detector-based calibrations and pyroelectric-detector-based calibrations. Different current-to-voltage conversion and ac photo-current detection strategies employed at NREL are compared and contrasted.

  5. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    DOEpatents

    Miros, Robert H. J. [Fairfax, CA; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham [Oakland, CA; Seery, Martin N [San Rafael, CA; Holland, Rodney H [Novato, CA

    2012-04-17

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

  6. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    DOEpatents

    Miros, Robert H. J.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Seery, Martin N; Holland, Rodney H

    2012-09-18

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

  7. Vacuum lamination of photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    Vacuum lamination of terrestrial photovoltaic modules is a new high volume process requiring new equipment and newly develop materials. Equipment development, materials research, and some research in related fields and testing methods are discussed.

  8. Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loudin, James; Mathieson, Keith; Kamins, Ted; Wang, Lele; Galambos, Ludwig; Huie, Philip; Sher, Alexander; Harris, James; Palanker, Daniel

    2011-03-01

    Electronic retinal prostheses seek to restore sight to patients suffering from retinal degenerative disorders. Implanted electrode arrays apply patterned electrical stimulation to surviving retinal neurons, producing visual sensations. All current designs employ inductively coupled coils to transmit power and/or data to the implant. We present here the design and initial testing of a photovoltaic retinal prosthesis fabricated with a pixel density of up to 177 pixels/mm2. Photodiodes within each pixel of the subretinal array directly convert light to stimulation current, avoiding the use of bulky coil implants, decoding electronics, and wiring, and thereby reducing surgical complexity. A goggles-mounted camera captures the visual scene and transmits the data stream to a pocket processor. The resulting images are projected into the eyes by video goggles using pulsed, near infrared (~900 nm) light. Prostheses with three pixel densities (15, 55, and 177 pix/mm2) are being fabricated, and tests indicate a charge injection limit of 1.62 mC/cm2 at 25Hz. In vitro tests of the photovoltaic retinal stimulation using a 512-element microelectrode array have recorded stimulated spikes from the ganglion cells, with latencies in the 1-100ms range, and with peak irradiance stimulation thresholds varying from 0.1 to 1 mW/mm2. With 1ms pulses at 25Hz the average irradiance is more than 100 times below the IR retinal safety limit. Elicited retinal response disappeared upon the addition of synaptic blockers, indicating that the inner retina is stimulated rather than the ganglion cells directly, and raising hopes that the prosthesis will preserve some of the retina's natural signal processing.

  9. On the plasmonic photovoltaic.

    PubMed

    Mubeen, Syed; Lee, Joun; Lee, Woo-Ram; Singh, Nirala; Stucky, Galen D; Moskovits, Martin

    2014-06-24

    The conversion of sunlight into electricity by photovoltaics is currently a mature science and the foundation of a lucrative industry. In conventional excitonic solar cells, electron-hole pairs are generated by light absorption in a semiconductor and separated by the "built in" potential resulting from charge transfer accompanying Fermi-level equalization either at a p-n or a Schottky junction, followed by carrier collection at appropriate electrodes. Here we report a stable, wholly plasmonic photovoltaic device in which photon absorption and carrier generation take place exclusively in the plasmonic metal. The field established at a metal-semiconductor Schottky junction separates charges. The negative carriers are high-energy (hot) electrons produced immediately following the plasmon's dephasing. Some of the carriers are energetic enough to clear the Schottky barrier or quantum mechanically tunnel through it, thereby producing the output photocurrent. Short circuit photocurrent densities in the range 70-120 μA cm(-2) were obtained for simulated one-sun AM1.5 illumination with devices based on arrays of parallel gold nanorods, conformally coated with 10 nm TiO2 films and fashioned with a Ti metal collector. For the device with short circuit currents of 120 μA cm(-2), the internal quantum efficiency is ∼2.75%, and its wavelength response tracks the absorption spectrum of the transverse plasmon of the gold nanorods indicating that the absorbed photon-to-electron conversion process resulted exclusively in the Au, with the TiO2 playing a negligible role in charge carrier production. Devices fabricated with 50 nm TiO2 layers had open-circuit voltages as high as 210 mV, short circuit current densities of 26 μA cm(-2), and a fill factor of 0.3. For these devices, the TiO2 contributed a very small but measurable fraction of the charge carriers.

  10. Intermediate photovoltaic system/utility interface experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biringer, K. L.; McDowell, J. F.; Rogers, C. B.; Haskins, D. E.

    A description is given of 11 intermediate photovoltaic application projects, including the Arizona Public Service Company project, the E-Systems 27 kW photovoltaic concentrator application experiment, a 110 kW photovoltaic application experiment in Orlando, Florida, the Lea County photovoltaic flat plate photovoltaic experiment in southeastern New Mexico, the Mt. Laguna photovoltaic flat plate installation in California, the San Bernardino 35 kW photovoltaic flat plate project in California, and the Solar Power flat plate photovoltaic experiment in Massachusetts. It is pointed out that the most significant point to be made relative to the interface of photovoltaic systems with the utility grid is that it can be done successfully.

  11. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  12. Photovoltaic sub-cell interconnects

    DOEpatents

    van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Swinger Platt, Heather Anne

    2017-05-09

    Photovoltaic sub-cell interconnect systems and methods are provided. In one embodiment, a photovoltaic device comprises a thin film stack of layers deposited upon a substrate, wherein the thin film stack layers are subdivided into a plurality of sub-cells interconnected in series by a plurality of electrical interconnection structures; and wherein the plurality of electrical interconnection structures each comprise no more than two scribes that penetrate into the thin film stack layers.

  13. Photovoltaic research and development status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feucht, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    The goals of the Photovoltaic R&D Program are to develop thin film semiconductor and novel photovoltaic conversion concepts, and to demonstrate the feasibility of producing these cells for a price of $100 - $300 per peak electric output (in 1975) by FY1985. The approaches that are used to determine which research should be funded are formal solicitations, an innovative concepts program which will be launched in FY79, and the review of unsolicited proposals.

  14. Natural Flow Air Cooled Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanagnostopoulos, Y.; Themelis, P.

    2010-01-01

    Our experimental study aims to investigate the improvement in the electrical performance of a photovoltaic installation on buildings through cooling of the photovoltaic panels with natural air flow. Our experimental study aims to investigate the improvement in the electrical performance of a photovoltaic installation on buildings through cooling of the photovoltaic panels with natural air flow. We performed experiments using a prototype based on three silicon photovoltaic modules placed in series to simulate a typical sloping building roof with photovoltaic installation. In this system the air flows through a channel on the rear side of PV panels. The potential for increasing the heat exchange from the photovoltaic panel to the circulating air by the addition of a thin metal sheet (TMS) in the middle of air channel or metal fins (FIN) along the air duct was examined. The operation of the device was studied with the air duct closed tightly to avoid air circulation (CLOSED) and the air duct open (REF), with the thin metal sheet (TMS) and with metal fins (FIN). In each case the experiments were performed under sunlight and the operating parameters of the experimental device determining the electrical and thermal performance of the system were observed and recorded during a whole day and for several days. We collected the data and form PV panels from the comparative diagrams of the experimental results regarding the temperature of solar cells, the electrical efficiency of the installation, the temperature of the back wall of the air duct and the temperature difference in the entrance and exit of the air duct. The comparative results from the measurements determine the improvement in electrical performance of the photovoltaic cells because of the reduction of their temperature, which is achieved by the naturally circulating air.

  15. Liquid Crystals for Organic Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, Mary; Kelly, Stephen M.

    As discussed in Chaps. 2 (10.1007/978-90-481-2873-0_2), 3 (10.1007/978-90-481-2873-3), 5 (10.1007/978-90-481-2873-5) and 6 (10.1007/978-90-481-2873-6), columnar, smectic and, more recently, nematic liquid crystals are widely recognized as very promising charge-transporting organic semiconductors due to their ability to spontaneously self-assemble into highly ordered domains in uniform thin films over large areas. This and their broad absorption spectra make them suitable as active materials for organic photovoltaic devices. In this chapter, we discuss the use of liquid crystals in such devices. Firstly, we examine the principle of power generation via the photovoltaic effect in organic materials and the various device configurations that can optimise efficiency. Then we discuss photovoltaic devices incorporating columnar liquid crystals combined with electron accepting materials based on either perylene or fullerene. The use of nematic and sanditic liquid crystals in photovoltaics is investigated as well as a novel solar cell concentrator incorporating liquid crystals. Finally, we analyse the benefits and limitations of liquid-crystal-based photovoltaics in the context of the state-of-the-art for organics photovoltaics.

  16. Photovoltaic array mounting apparatus, systems, and methods

    DOEpatents

    West, Jack Raymond; Atchley, Brian; Hudson, Tyrus Hawkes; Johansen, Emil

    2016-01-05

    A photovoltaic array, including: (a) supports laid out on a surface in rows and columns; (b) photovoltaic modules positioned on top of the supports; and (c) fasteners connecting the photovoltaic modules to the supports, wherein the supports have an upper pedestal surface and a lower pedestal surface such that the photovoltaic modules are positioned at a non-horizontal angle when edges of the photovoltaic modules are positioned on top of the upper and lower pedestal surfaces, and wherein a portion of the fasteners rotate to lock the photovoltaic modules onto the supports.

  17. Photovoltaic array mounting apparatus, systems, and methods

    DOEpatents

    West, Jack Raymond; Atchley, Brian; Hudson, Tyrus Hawkes; Johansen, Emil

    2015-04-14

    A photovoltaic array, including: (a) supports laid out on a surface in rows and columns; (b) photovoltaic modules positioned on top of the supports; and (c) fasteners connecting the photovoltaic modules to the supports, wherein the supports have an upper pedestal surface and a lower pedestal surface such that the photovoltaic modules are positioned at a non-horizontal angle when edges of the photovoltaic modules are positioned on top of the upper and lower pedestal surfaces, and wherein a portion of the fasteners rotate to lock the photovoltaic modules onto the supports.

  18. Singlet exciton fission photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiye; Jadhav, Priya; Reusswig, Philip D; Yost, Shane R; Thompson, Nicholas J; Congreve, Daniel N; Hontz, Eric; Van Voorhis, Troy; Baldo, Marc A

    2013-06-18

    Singlet exciton fission, a process that generates two excitons from a single photon, is perhaps the most efficient of the various multiexciton-generation processes studied to date, offering the potential to increase the efficiency of solar devices. But its unique characteristic, splitting a photogenerated singlet exciton into two dark triplet states, means that the empty absorption region between the singlet and triplet excitons must be filled by adding another material that captures low-energy photons. This has required the development of specialized device architectures. In this Account, we review work to develop devices that harness the theoretical benefits of singlet exciton fission. First, we discuss singlet fission in the archetypal material, pentacene. Pentacene-based photovoltaic devices typically show high external and internal quantum efficiencies. They have enabled researchers to characterize fission, including yield and the impact of competing loss processes, within functional devices. We review in situ probes of singlet fission that modulate the photocurrent using a magnetic field. We also summarize studies of the dissociation of triplet excitons into charge at the pentacene-buckyball (C60) donor-acceptor interface. Multiple independent measurements confirm that pentacene triplet excitons can dissociate at the C60 interface despite their relatively low energy. Because triplet excitons produced by singlet fission each have no more than half the energy of the original photoexcitation, they limit the potential open circuit voltage within a solar cell. Thus, if singlet fission is to increase the overall efficiency of a solar cell and not just double the photocurrent at the cost of halving the voltage, it is necessary to also harvest photons in the absorption gap between the singlet and triplet energies of the singlet fission material. We review two device architectures that attempt this using long-wavelength materials: a three-layer structure that uses

  19. Photovoltaic product directory and buyers guide

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, R.L.; Smith, S.A.; Mazzucchi, R.P.

    1981-06-01

    Basic information on photovoltaic conversion technology is provided for those unfamiliar with the field. Various types of photovoltaic products and systems currently available off-the-shelf are described. These include products without batteries, battery chargers, power packages, home electric systems, and partial systems. Procedures are given for designing a photovoltaic system from scratch. A few custom photovoltaic systems are described, and a list is compiled of photovoltaic firms which can provide custom systems. Guidance is offered for deciding whether or not to use photovoltaic products. A variety of installations are described and their performance is appraised by the owners. Information is given on various financial incentives available from state and federal governments. Sources of additional information on photovoltaics are listed. A matrix is provided indicating the sources of various types of photovoltaic products. The addresses of suppliers are listed. (LEW)

  20. Photovoltaic Reliability and Engineering (Revised) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Photovoltaic Reliability and Engineering. One-sided sheet that includes Scope, Core Competencies and Capabilities, and Contact/Web information.

  1. ULTRA BARRIER TOPSHEET (UBT) FOR FLEXIBLE PHOTOVOLTAICS

    SciTech Connect

    DeScioli, Derek

    2013-06-01

    This slide-show presents 3M photovoltaic-related products, particularly flexible components. Emphasis is on the 3M Ultra Barrier Solar Films. Topics covered include reliability and qualification testing and flexible photovoltaic encapsulation costs.

  2. Thin film photovoltaic panel and method

    DOEpatents

    Ackerman, Bruce; Albright, Scot P.; Jordan, John F.

    1991-06-11

    A thin film photovoltaic panel includes a backcap for protecting the active components of the photovoltaic cells from adverse environmental elements. A spacing between the backcap and a top electrode layer is preferably filled with a desiccant to further reduce water vapor contamination of the environment surrounding the photovoltaic cells. The contamination of the spacing between the backcap and the cells may be further reduced by passing a selected gas through the spacing subsequent to sealing the backcap to the base of the photovoltaic panels, and once purged this spacing may be filled with an inert gas. The techniques of the present invention are preferably applied to thin film photovoltaic panels each formed from a plurality of photovoltaic cells arranged on a vitreous substrate. The stability of photovoltaic conversion efficiency remains relatively high during the life of the photovoltaic panel, and the cost of manufacturing highly efficient panels with such improved stability is significantly reduced.

  3. Transparent contacts for stacked compound photovoltaic cells

    DOEpatents

    Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Cederberg, Jeffrey; Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis

    2016-11-29

    A microsystems-enabled multi-junction photovoltaic (MEM-PV) cell includes a first photovoltaic cell having a first junction, the first photovoltaic cell including a first semiconductor material employed to form the first junction, the first semiconductor material having a first bandgap. The MEM-PV cell also includes a second photovoltaic cell comprising a second junction. The second photovoltaic cell comprises a second semiconductor material employed to form the second junction, the second semiconductor material having a second bandgap that is less than the first bandgap, the second photovoltaic cell further comprising a first contact layer disposed between the first junction of the first photovoltaic cell and the second junction of the second photovoltaic cell, the first contact layer composed of a third semiconductor material having a third bandgap, the third bandgap being greater than or equal to the first bandgap.

  4. Mounting support for a photovoltaic module

    DOEpatents

    Brandt, Gregory Michael; Barsun, Stephan K.; Coleman, Nathaniel T.; Zhou, Yin

    2013-03-26

    A mounting support for a photovoltaic module is described. The mounting support includes a foundation having an integrated wire-way ledge portion. A photovoltaic module support mechanism is coupled with the foundation.

  5. Photovoltaic technology development at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    1981-12-31

    This report describes the following investigations being pursued under photovoltaic technology development at Sandia National Laboratories: photovoltaic systems technology; concentrator technology; concentrator arrays and tracking structures; concentrator solar cell development; system engineering; subsystem development; and test and applications.

  6. Nanowire Photovoltaic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, David

    2015-01-01

    Firefly Technologies, in collaboration with the Rochester Institute of Technology and the University of Wisconsin-Madison, developed synthesis methods for highly strained nanowires. Two synthesis routes resulted in successful nanowire epitaxy: direct nucleation and growth on the substrate and a novel selective-epitaxy route based on nanolithography using diblock copolymers. The indium-arsenide (InAs) nanowires are implemented in situ within the epitaxy environment-a significant innovation relative to conventional semiconductor nanowire generation using ex situ gold nanoparticles. The introduction of these nanoscale features may enable an intermediate band solar cell while simultaneously increasing the effective absorption volume that can otherwise limit short-circuit current generated by thin quantized layers. The use of nanowires for photovoltaics decouples the absorption process from the current extraction process by virtue of the high aspect ratio. While no functional solar cells resulted from this effort, considerable fundamental understanding of the nanowire epitaxy kinetics and nanopatterning process was developed. This approach could, in principle, be an enabling technology for heterointegration of dissimilar materials. The technology also is applicable to virtual substrates. Incorporating nanowires onto a recrystallized germanium/metal foil substrate would potentially solve the problem of grain boundary shunting of generated carriers by restricting the cross-sectional area of the nanowire (tens of nanometers in diameter) to sizes smaller than the recrystallized grains (0.5 to 1 micron(exp 2).

  7. Photovoltaic Incentive Design Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, T. E.

    2006-12-01

    Investments in customer-owned grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) energy systems are growing at a steady pace. This is due, in part, to the availability of attractive economic incentives offered by public state agencies and utilities. In the United States, these incentives have largely been upfront lump payments tied to the system capacity rating. While capacity-based ''buydowns'' have stimulated the domestic PV market, they have been criticized for subsidizing systems with potentially poor energy performance. As a result, the industry has been forced to consider alternative incentive structures, particularly ones that pay based on long-term measured performance. The industry, however, lacks consensus in the debate over the tradeoffs between upfront incentive payments versus longer-term payments for energy delivery. This handbook is designed for agencies and utilities that offer or intend to offer incentive programs for customer-owned PV systems. Its purpose is to help select, design, and implement incentive programs that best meet programmatic goals. The handbook begins with a discussion of the various available incentive structures and then provides qualitative and quantitative tools necessary to design the most appropriate incentive structure. It concludes with program administration considerations.

  8. Nanostructures in photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Catchpole, Kylie R

    2006-12-15

    The world has recently been waking up to the urgent need to move away from fossil fuels and towards a low-carbon economy. To achieve this, we need a way of producing electricity that is efficient, widely applicable and cheap. At the same time, there has recently been an appreciation of the tremendous scope for making entirely new types of devices, and even seeing new physics, by structuring matter at the nanoscale. Furthermore, the occurrence of self-assembly in nature suggests that a range of types of nanoscale structures could be made simply and cheaply. The application of nanostructures to photovoltaics combines a field of almost limitless possibilities with a problem of vital urgency. In this paper, some of the newer ideas emerging from this trend are described, along with how they challenge our ideas on what a solar cell looks like. We are at the beginning of a time of radically rethinking the design of the solar cell, which may lead to the exploitation of completely new physical ideas in achieving a sustainable energy future.

  9. Solar photovoltaic power stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chowaniec, C. R.; Pittman, P. F.; Ferber, R. R.; Marshall, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    The subsystems of a solar photovoltaic central power system are identified and the cost of major components are estimated. The central power system, which would have a peak power capability in the range of 50 to 1000 MW, utilizes two types of subsystems - a power conditioner and a solar array. Despite differences in costs of inverters, the overall cost of the total power conditioning subsystem is about the same for all approaches considered. A combination of two inverters operating from balanced dc buses as a pair of 6-pulse groups is recommended. A number of different solar cell modules and tracking array structures were analyzed. It is concluded that when solar cell costs are high (greater than $500/kW), high concentration modules are more cost effective than those with low concentration. Vertical-axis tracking is the most effective of the studied tracking modes. For less expensive solar cells (less than $400/kW), fixed tilt collector/reflector modules are more cost effective than those which track.

  10. Photovoltaic Roof Heat Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

    Solar panels were mounted with different designs onto 1:800 scale building models while temperature and radiation were measured. While there have been other studies aimed at finding the optimal angles for solar panels [9], in this study both the angle and the mounting method were tested. The three PV mounting designs that were considered to provide the most insulation to a building's rooftop were flush, offset (control), and angled. The solar panel offset height became a key component for rooftop insulation as well as the performance of the actual solar panel. Experimental results were given to verify the thermal behavior of the heat loads from the different designs of the photovoltaic panel. From the results, the angled PV design needed 16Z more heat extraction than the offset and flush PV design needed 60% more heat extracted than the offset. In addition to the heat transfer analysis, thermal models were performed to incorporate main atmospheric conditions which were based on the effects of PV mounting structure.

  11. Photovoltaic solar concentrator module

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, C.J.

    1991-05-16

    This invention consists of a planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation which includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor.

  12. The DOE photovoltaics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferber, R. R.

    1980-01-01

    As part of the National Solar Energy program, the US Department of Energy is now engaged in the development of technically feasible, low cost candidate component and system technologies to the point where technical readiness can be demonstrated by 1982. The overall strategy is to pursue parallel options that continue to show promise of meeting the program goals, thus increasing the probability that at least one technology will be successful. Included in technology development are both flat plate solar collectors and concentrator solar collectors, as well as the balance of system components, such as structures, power conditioning, power controls, protection, and storage. Generally, these last items are common to both flat plate and concentrator systems, but otherwise there is considerable disparity in design philosophy, photovoltaic cell requirements, and possible applications between the two systems. Objectives for research activities at NASA Lewis for stand alone applications, and at Sandia Laboratories where intermediate load center applications are addressed, are highlighted as well as college projects directed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and international applications managed by the Solar Energy Research Institute. Joint DOD/DOE effects for military applications are also summarized.

  13. Nanoplasmonics for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammo, Eliyas D.; Marques-Hueso, Jose; Richards, Bryce S.

    2012-06-01

    Plasmonics has become a focus of recent research in photovoltaic applications primarily due to their effects in enhancing the absorption performance of solar cells. In this paper a review of different approaches that have been proposed to integrate plasmonics technologies into solar cells is presented. It has been observed that a range of metallic nanostructures that show plasmon resonance wavelength in the visible and near-infrared regime can be utilized to increase the coupling of light into the solar cell. This is widely used to increase the coupling of light that can be trapped in thin layers of active regions as in thin film technologies. In this review paper, more attention is given to the techniques of fabricating the metallic nanoparticles and the ways to control their plasmon resonance wavelengths. The role of the shape, size, dielectric permittivity of the host and the type of the metallic nanoparticles on tuning the resonance wavelength are analyzed. Furthermore, the cluster of nanoparticles gives different resonance wavelength from the individual nanoparticles due to dipolar coupling among the nanoparticles. In conclusion, we show how the plasmon resonance can be engineered to increase the absorption performance of conventional solar cells.

  14. Photovoltaics for municipal planners

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This booklet is intended for city and county government personnel, as well as community organizations, who deal with supplying, regulating, or recommending electric power resources. Specifically, this document deals with photovoltaic (PV) power, or power from solar cells, which is currently the most cost-effective energy source for electricity requirements that are relatively small, located in isolated areas, or difficult to serve with conventional technology. Recently, PV has been documented to be more cost-effective than conventional alternatives (such as line extensions or engine generators) in dozens of applications within the service territories of electric, gas, and communications utilities. Here, we document numerous cost-effective urban applications, chosen by planners and utilities because they were the most cost-effective option or because they were appropriate for environmental or logistical reasons. These applications occur within various municipal departments, including utility, parks and recreation, traffic engineering, transportation, and planning, and they include lighting applications, communications equipment, corrosion protection, irrigation control equipment, remote monitoring, and even portable power supplies for emergency situations.

  15. Photovoltaic cell with thin CS layer

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, J.F.; Albright, S.P.

    1994-01-18

    An improved photovoltaic panel and method of forming a photovoltaic panel are disclosed for producing a high efficiency CdS/CdTe photovoltaic cell. The photovoltaic panel of the present invention is initially formed with a substantially thick CdS layer, and the effective thickness of the CdS layer is substantially reduced during regrowth to both form larger diameter CdTe crystals and substantially reduce the effective thickness of the CdS layer. 4 figures.

  16. Study on photovoltaic power system on ships

    SciTech Connect

    Katagi, Takeshi; Fujii, Yoshimi; Nishikawa, Eiichi; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    1995-11-01

    This paper presents the application of photovoltaic power systems to ships. Two types of leisure or fishing boats powered by photovoltaics are designed. The boats described are single hull and catamaran type with twin hulls. The design of a new electric power system using a photovoltaic power system in a harbor ship having 20 tons is also proposed. The results of this study show that the photovoltaic power system can apply to small ships.

  17. The new alchemy of photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    The work is a review. The expanding field of use of photovoltaic electric power plants includes single family homes. Solar batteries with a surface area of less than 90 square meters mounted on a roof totally or partially satisfy their daily requirement for electric power. The cost of a single family, approximately 220 square meter home built near Sante Fe and equipped with a passive solar system with a photovoltaic power plant with a power production of 6,500 kilovolthours per year is 190,000 dollars. The cost of a solar battery has been reduced to 7 to 15 dollars per watt of peak power, which is totally insufficient for buy back even over forth years. The threshold of cost, when the solar battery is competitive is 3 dollars per watt. Nevertheless, approximately 6,000 single family dwelling passive solar systems with a photovoltaic power plant are in operation in the United States. The previous opponents of the photovoltaic method, the oil companies, have become suporters of the development and production of solar energy. After the decline in 1982 as a result of the five fold reduction of government financing in works in the field of renewable energy sources, the photovoltaic industry enjoyed a new rise in popularity.

  18. Process Development for Nanostructured Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Elam, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic manufacturing is an emerging industry that promises a carbon-free, nearly limitless source of energy for our nation. However, the high-temperature manufacturing processes used for conventional silicon-based photovoltaics are extremely energy-intensive and expensive. This high cost imposes a critical barrier to the widespread implementation of photovoltaic technology. Argonne National Laboratory and its partners recently invented new methods for manufacturing nanostructured photovoltaic devices that allow dramatic savings in materials, process energy, and cost. These methods are based on atomic layer deposition, a thin film synthesis technique that has been commercialized for the mass production of semiconductor microelectronics. The goal of this project was to develop these low-cost fabrication methods for the high efficiency production of nanostructured photovoltaics, and to demonstrate these methods in solar cell manufacturing. We achieved this goal in two ways: 1) we demonstrated the benefits of these coatings in the laboratory by scaling-up the fabrication of low-cost dye sensitized solar cells; 2) we used our coating technology to reduce the manufacturing cost of solar cells under development by our industrial partners.

  19. International photovoltaic products and manufacturers directory, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Shepperd, L.W.

    1995-11-01

    This international directory of more than 500 photovoltaic-related manufacturers is intended to guide potential users of photovoltaics to sources for systems and their components. Two indexes help the user to locate firms and materials. A glossary describes equipment and terminology commonly used in the photovoltaic industry.

  20. Production and Characterization of Novel Photovoltaic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Marvin

    2016-06-07

    This project has three major objectives: exploring the potential nanostructured materials in photovoltaic applications; providing photovoltaic research experiences to NCCU students, who are largely members of underrepresented minority groups; and enhancing the photovoltaic research infrastructure at NCCU to increase faculty and student competitiveness. Significant progress was achieved in each of these areas during the project period, as summarized in this report.

  1. National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Jimenez Sheri Raborn, CPA; Tom Baker

    2008-03-31

    National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration created a 400KW Photovoltaic self-generation plant at the National Orange Show Events Center (NOS). The NOS owns a 120-acre state fairground where it operates an events center and produces an annual citrus fair known as the Orange Show. The NOS governing board wanted to employ cost-saving programs for annual energy expenses. It is hoped the Photovoltaic program will result in overall savings for the NOS, help reduce the State's energy demands as relating to electrical power consumption, improve quality of life within the affected grid area as well as increase the energy efficiency of buildings at our venue. In addition, the potential to reduce operational expenses would have a tremendous effect on the ability of the NOS to service its community.

  2. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1991 (October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991) progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) -- formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Amorphous Silicon Research Project, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High-Efficiency Concepts, the New Ideas Program, the University Participation Program, and the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1991, and future research directions.

  3. Cadmium telluride photovoltaic radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Agouridis, Dimitrios C.; Fox, Richard J.

    1981-01-01

    A dosimetry-type radiation detector is provided which employs a polycrystalline, chlorine-compensated cadmium telluride wafer fabricated to operate as a photovoltaic current generator used as the basic detecting element. A photovoltaic junction is formed in the wafer by painting one face of the cadmium telluride wafer with an n-type semiconductive material. The opposite face of the wafer is painted with an electrically conductive material to serve as a current collector. The detector is mounted in a hermetically sealed vacuum containment. The detector is operated in a photovoltaic mode (zero bias) while DC coupled to a symmetrical differential current amplifier having a very low input impedance. The amplifier converts the current signal generated by radiation impinging upon the barrier surface face of the wafer to a voltage which is supplied to a voltmeter calibrated to read quantitatively the level of radiation incident upon the detecting wafer.

  4. Photovoltaic effect in Ferroelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katiyar, Rajesh K.; Panwar, Neeraj; Morell, G.; Katiyar, Ram S.

    2010-03-01

    Photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials is of much interest due to the anomalously large open circuit photovoltages when illuminated. It is concluded that this unprecedented high value of photovoltaic effect is due to the presence of non-centrosymmetry in the ferroelectric materials which gives rise to electron excitation, relaxation, and scattering processes. The photovoltaic efficiencies are, however, limited due to small current densities and the large band gap values of the ferroelectric materials. We have synthesized thin films of BiFeO3 (a low band gap material ˜2.67eV) and ferroelectric material SrBi2Ta2O9(SBT) on silicon substrates with ITO as the bottom electrode. The band gap of the SBT has been decreased by incorporating metallic particles Ag, Pt. in the ferroelectric matrix. The results will be presented.

  5. Cadmium telluride photovoltaic radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Agouridis, D.C.; Fox, R.J.

    A dosimetry-type radiation detector is provided which employs a polycrystalline, chlorine-compensated cadmium telluride wafer fabricated to operate as a photovoltaic current generator used as the basic detecting element. A photovoltaic junction is formed in the wafer by painting one face of the cadmium telluride wafer with an n-type semi-conductive material. The opposite face of the wafer is painted with an electrically conductive material to serve as a current collector. The detector is mounted in a hermetically sealed vacuum containment. The detector is operated in a photovoltaic mode (zero bias) while DC coupled to a symmetrical differential current amplifier having a very low input impedance. The amplifier converts the current signal generated by radiation impinging upon the barrier surface face of the wafer to a voltage which is supplied to a voltmeter calibrated to read quantitatively the level of radiation incident upon the detecting wafer.

  6. Photovoltaics, the solar electric solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, C. D.; Litka, A. H.

    Direct conversion of solar energy to electricity by photovoltaic devices (solar cells) may be the most promising solution to the current energy problem. Photovoltaic energy systems provide a clean, simple method of energy conversion, and are reliable, safe, and flexible with respect to size (modular). The federal government is trying to commercialize photovoltaics by funding research on new materials and manufacturing processes. Earliest commercialization will be in residential systems, where the power grid back-up provides for a reliable electrical system without storage costs. The Florida Solar Energy Center has been operating a 5 kW experimental residential facility since 1980. The facility showed an average solar irradiance in the 62.5 sq m panels of 264 kw-hours/day from December 1980 through February 1981. The overall system efficiency was 7%, and the inverter operated with an ac output/dc input efficiency of 85-90%, depending on input levels.

  7. Photovoltaic Current in Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Switkes, M.; Marcus, C. M.; Campman, K.; Gossard, A. C.

    1998-03-01

    We investigate the DC photovoltaic current, I_pv, due to coherent ``pumping'' in open ( g >= e^2/h ) quantum dots with radio-frequency modulation of the confining potential(B. Spivak, F. Zhou, and M. T. Beal Monod, Phys. Rev. B 51), p. 13226 (1995). I_pv is on the order of 20 pA≈ 10ef for a modulation frequency f = 15 MHz. The photovoltaic current exhibits mesoscopic fluctuations with magnetic field and with the static shape of the confining potential which do not appear to be correlated with fluctuations in the conductance of the dot. The photovoltaic current induced by pumping with two independent shape distortion gates depends on their relative phase; the relationship of this phase to time reversal symmetry is investigated with a view toward defining a generalized Landauer-Büttiker relation.

  8. Photovoltaic hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Hiser, H.W.; Memory, S.B.; Veziroglu, T.N.; Padin, J.

    1996-10-01

    This is a new project, which started in June 1995, and involves photovoltaic hydrogen production as a fuel production method for the future. In order to increase the hydrogen yield, it was decided to use hybrid solar collectors to generate D.C. electricity, as well as high temperature steam for input to the electrolyzer. In this way, some of the energy needed to dissociate the water is supplied in the form of heat (or low grade energy), to generate steam, which results in a reduction of electrical energy (or high grade energy) needed. As a result, solar to hydrogen conversion efficiency is increased. In the above stated system, the collector location, the collector tracking sub-system (i.e., orientation/rotation), and the steam temperature have been taken as variables. Five locations selected - in order to consider a variety of latitudes, altitudes, cloud coverage and atmospheric conditions - are Atlanta, Denver, Miami, Phoenix and Salt Lake City. Plain PV and hybrid solar collectors for a stationary south facing system and five different collector rotation systems have been analyzed. Steam temperatures have been varied between 200{degrees}C and 1200{degrees}C. During the first year, solar to hydrogen conversion efficiencies have been considered. The results show that higher steam temperatures, 2 dimensional tracking system, higher elevations and dryer climates causes higher conversion efficiencies. Cost effectiveness of the sub-systems and of the overall system will be analyzed during the second year. Also, initial studies will be made of an advanced high efficiency hybrid solar hydrogen production system.

  9. Interband Cascade Photovoltaic Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Rui Q.; Santos, Michael B.; Johnson, Matthew B.

    2014-09-24

    In this project, we are performing basic and applied research to systematically investigate our newly proposed interband cascade (IC) photovoltaic (PV) cells [1]. These cells follow from the great success of infrared IC lasers [2-3] that pioneered the use of quantum-engineered IC structures. This quantum-engineered approach will enable PV cells to efficiently convert infrared radiation from the sun or other heat source, to electricity. Such cells will have important applications for more efficient use of solar energy, waste-heat recovery, and power beaming in combination with mid-infrared lasers. The objectives of our investigations are to: achieve extensive understanding of the fundamental aspects of the proposed PV structures, develop the necessary knowledge for making such IC PV cells, and demonstrate prototype working PV cells. This research will focus on IC PV structures and their segments for utilizing infrared radiation with wavelengths from 2 to 5 μm, a range well suited for emission by heat sources (1,000-2,000 K) that are widely available from combustion systems. The long-term goal of this project is to push PV technology to longer wavelengths, allowing for relatively low-temperature thermal sources. Our investigations address material quality, electrical and optical properties, and their interplay for the different regions of an IC PV structure. The tasks involve: design, modeling and optimization of IC PV structures, molecular beam epitaxial growth of PV structures and relevant segments, material characterization, prototype device fabrication and testing. At the end of this program, we expect to generate new cutting-edge knowledge in the design and understanding of quantum-engineered semiconductor structures, and demonstrate the concepts for IC PV devices with high conversion efficiencies.

  10. Amorphous carbon for photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risplendi, Francesca; Grossman, Jeffrey C.

    2015-03-01

    All-carbon solar cells have attracted attention as candidates for innovative photovoltaic devices. Carbon-based materials such as graphene, carbon nanotubes (CNT) and amorphous carbon (aC) have the potential to present physical properties comparable to those of silicon-based materials with advantages such as low cost and higher thermal stability.In particular a-C structures are promising systems in which both sp2 and sp3 hybridization coordination are present in different proportions depending on the specific density, providing the possibility of tuning their optoelectronic properties and achieving comparable sunlight absorption to aSi. In this work we employ density functional theory to design suitable device architectures, such as bulk heterojunctions (BHJ) or pn junctions, consisting of a-C as the active layer material.Regarding BHJ, we study interfaces between aC and C nanostructures (such as CNT and fullerene) to relate their optoelectronic properties to the stoichiometry of aC. We demonstrate that the energy alignment between the a-C mobility edges and the occupied and unoccupied states of the CNT or C60 can be widely tuned by varying the aC density to obtain a type II interface.To employ aC in pn junctions we analyze the p- and n-type doping of a-C focusingon an evaluation of the Fermi level and work function dependence on doping.Our results highlight promising features of aC as the active layer material of thin-film solar cells.

  11. MOD silver metallization for photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vest, G. M.; Vest, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    The development of flat plate solar arrays is reported. Photovoltaic cells require back side metallization and a collector grid system on the front surface. Metallo-organic decomposition (MOD) silver films can eliminate most of the present problems with silver conductors. The objectives are to: (1) identify and characterize suitable MO compounds; (2) develop generic synthesis procedures for the MO compounds; (3) develop generic fabrication procedures to screen printable MOD silver inks; (4) optimize processing conditions to produce grid patterns and photovoltaic cells; and (5) develop a model which describes the adhesion between the fired silver film and the silicon surface.

  12. Integrated residential photovoltaic array development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An advanced, universally-mountable, integrated residential photovoltaic array concept was defined based upon an in-depth formulation and evaluation of three candidate approaches which were synthesized from existing or proposed residential array concepts. The impact of module circuitry and process sequence is considered and technology gaps and performance drivers associated with residential photovoltaic array concepts are identified. The actual learning experience gained from the comparison of the problem areas of the hexagonal shingle design with the rectangular module design led to what is considered an advanced array concept. Building the laboratory mockup provided actual experience and the opportunity to uncover additional technology gaps.

  13. Photovoltaic Energy: Electricity from Sunlight

    SciTech Connect

    Cason, D.L.; Pitsenbarger, J.

    1996-03-01

    Photovoltaic Energy: Electricity from Sunlight (PHV) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on all aspects of photovoltaic amorphous technology, polycrystalline thin films, gallium arsenide, crystalline silicon, concentrator technology, and systems research. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past two months. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements.

  14. Photovoltaic cell and production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Narayanan, Srinivasamohan; Kumar, Bikash

    2008-07-22

    An efficient photovoltaic cell, and its process of manufacture, is disclosed wherein the back surface p-n junction is removed from a doped substrate having an oppositely doped emitter layer. A front surface and edges and optionally the back surface periphery are masked and a back surface etch is performed. The mask is not removed and acts as an anti-reflective coating, a passivating agent, or both. The photovoltaic cell retains an untextured back surface whether or not the front is textured and the dopant layer on the back surface is removed to enhance the cell efficiency. Optionally, a back surface field is formed.

  15. Photovoltaic systems sizing for Algeria

    SciTech Connect

    Arab, A.H.; Driss, B.A.; Amimeur, R.; Lorenzo, E.

    1995-02-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop an optimization method applicable to stand-alone photovoltaic systems as a function of its reliability. For a given loss-of-load probability (LLP), there are many combinations of battery capacity and photovoltaic array peak power. The problem consists in determining the couple which corresponds to a minimum total system cost. The method has been applied to various areas all over Algeria taking into account various climatic zones. The parameter used to define the different climatic zones is the clearness index KT for all the considered sites. The period of the simulation system is 10 years. 5 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Recycling Of Cis Photovoltaic Waste

    DOEpatents

    Drinkard, Jr., William F.; Long, Mark O.; Goozner; Robert E.

    1998-07-14

    A method for extracting and reclaiming metals from scrap CIS photovoltaic cells and associated photovoltaic manufacturing waste by leaching the waste with dilute nitric acid, skimming any plastic material from the top of the leaching solution, separating glass substrate from the leachate, electrolyzing the leachate to plate a copper and selenium metal mixture onto a first cathode, replacing the cathode with a second cathode, re-electrolyzing the leachate to plate cadmium onto the second cathode, separating the copper from selenium, and evaporating the depleted leachate to yield a zinc and indium containing solid.

  17. Silicon solar photovoltaic power stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chowaniec, C. R.; Ferber, R. R.; Pittman, P. F.; Marshall, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    Modular design of components and arrays, cost estimates for modules and support structures, and cost/performance analysis of a central solar photovoltaic power plant are discussed. Costs of collector/reflector arrays are judged the dominant element in the total capital investment. High-concentration solar tracking arrays are recommended as the most economic means for producing solar photovoltaic energy when solar cells costs are high ($500 per kW generated). Capital costs for power conditioning subsystem components are itemized and system busbar energy costs are discussed at length.

  18. A Photovoltaic System Payback Calculator

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Daniel M.; Fleming, Jeffrey E.; Gallegos, Gerald R.

    2016-06-01

    The Roof Asset Management Program (RAMP) is a DOE NNSA initiative to manage roof repairs and replacement at NNSA facilities. In some cases, installation of a photovoltaic system on new roofs may be possible and desired for financial reasons and to meet federal renewable energy goals. One method to quantify the financial benefits of PV systems is the payback period, or the length of time required for a PV system to generate energy value equivalent to the system's cost. Sandia Laboratories created a simple spreadsheet-based solar energy valuation tool for use by RAMP personnel to quickly evaluate the estimated payback period of prospective or installed photovoltaic systems.

  19. Voltage Regulators for Photovoltaic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delombard, R.

    1986-01-01

    Two simple circuits developed to provide voltage regulation for highvoltage (i.e., is greater than 75 volts) and low-voltage (i.e., is less than 36 volts) photovoltaic/battery power systems. Use of these circuits results in voltage regulator small, low-cost, and reliable, with very low power dissipation. Simple oscillator circuit controls photovoltaic-array current to regulate system voltage and control battery charging. Circuit senses battery (and system) voltage and adjusts array current to keep battery voltage from exceeding maximum voltage.

  20. Battery testing for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hund, T.

    1996-11-01

    Battery testing for photovoltaic (PV) applications is funded at Sandia under the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Photovoltaic Balance of Systems (BOS) Program. The goal of the PV BOS program is to improve PV system component design, operation, reliability, and to reduce overall life-cycle costs. The Sandia battery testing program consists of: (1) PV battery and charge controller market survey, (2) battery performance and life-cycle testing, (3) PV charge controller development, and (4) system field testing. Test results from this work have identified market size and trends, PV battery test procedures, application guidelines, and needed hardware improvements.

  1. The Harvard organic photovoltaic dataset

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Steven A.; Pyzer-Knapp, Edward O.; Simm, Gregor N.; Lutzow, Trevor; Li, Kewei; Seress, Laszlo R.; Hachmann, Johannes; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2016-01-01

    The Harvard Organic Photovoltaic Dataset (HOPV15) presented in this work is a collation of experimental photovoltaic data from the literature, and corresponding quantum-chemical calculations performed over a range of conformers, each with quantum chemical results using a variety of density functionals and basis sets. It is anticipated that this dataset will be of use in both relating electronic structure calculations to experimental observations through the generation of calibration schemes, as well as for the creation of new semi-empirical methods and the benchmarking of current and future model chemistries for organic electronic applications. PMID:27676312

  2. Silicon solar photovoltaic power stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chowaniec, C. R.; Ferber, R. R.; Pittman, P. F.; Marshall, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    Modular design of components and arrays, cost estimates for modules and support structures, and cost/performance analysis of a central solar photovoltaic power plant are discussed. Costs of collector/reflector arrays are judged the dominant element in the total capital investment. High-concentration solar tracking arrays are recommended as the most economic means for producing solar photovoltaic energy when solar cells costs are high ($500 per kW generated). Capital costs for power conditioning subsystem components are itemized and system busbar energy costs are discussed at length.

  3. The Harvard organic photovoltaic dataset.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Steven A; Pyzer-Knapp, Edward O; Simm, Gregor N; Lutzow, Trevor; Li, Kewei; Seress, Laszlo R; Hachmann, Johannes; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2016-09-27

    The Harvard Organic Photovoltaic Dataset (HOPV15) presented in this work is a collation of experimental photovoltaic data from the literature, and corresponding quantum-chemical calculations performed over a range of conformers, each with quantum chemical results using a variety of density functionals and basis sets. It is anticipated that this dataset will be of use in both relating electronic structure calculations to experimental observations through the generation of calibration schemes, as well as for the creation of new semi-empirical methods and the benchmarking of current and future model chemistries for organic electronic applications.

  4. The Harvard organic photovoltaic dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Steven A.; Pyzer-Knapp, Edward O.; Simm, Gregor N.; Lutzow, Trevor; Li, Kewei; Seress, Laszlo R.; Hachmann, Johannes; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2016-09-01

    The Harvard Organic Photovoltaic Dataset (HOPV15) presented in this work is a collation of experimental photovoltaic data from the literature, and corresponding quantum-chemical calculations performed over a range of conformers, each with quantum chemical results using a variety of density functionals and basis sets. It is anticipated that this dataset will be of use in both relating electronic structure calculations to experimental observations through the generation of calibration schemes, as well as for the creation of new semi-empirical methods and the benchmarking of current and future model chemistries for organic electronic applications.

  5. Aternating current photovoltaic building block

    DOEpatents

    Bower, Ward Issac; Thomas, Michael G.; Ruby, Douglas S.

    2004-06-15

    A modular apparatus for and method of alternating current photovoltaic power generation comprising via a photovoltaic module, generating power in the form of direct current; and converting direct current to alternating current and exporting power via one or more power conversion and transfer units attached to the module, each unit comprising a unitary housing extending a length or width of the module, which housing comprises: contact means for receiving direct current from the module; one or more direct current-to-alternating current inverters; an alternating current bus; and contact means for receiving alternating current from the one or more inverters.

  6. Basic photovoltaic principles and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Hersch, P.; Zweibel, K.

    1982-02-01

    This book presents a nonmathematical explanation of the theory and design of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells and systems. The basic elements of PV are introduced: the photovoltaic effect, physical aspects of solar cell efficiency, the typical single-crystal silicon solar cell, advances in single-crystal silicon solar cells. This is followed by the designs of systems constructed from individual cells, including possible constructions for putting cells together and the equipment needed for a practical producer of electrical energy. The future of PV is then discussed. (LEW)

  7. Rapid screening buffer layers in photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    List, III, Frederick Alyious; Tuncer, Enis

    2014-09-09

    An apparatus and method of testing electrical impedance of a multiplicity of regions of a photovoltaic surface includes providing a multi-tipped impedance sensor with a multiplicity of spaced apart impedance probes separated by an insulating material, wherein each impedance probe includes a first end adapted for contact with a photovoltaic surface and a second end in operable communication with an impedance measuring device. The multi-tipped impedance sensor is used to contact the photovoltaic surface and electrical impedance of the photovoltaic material is measured between individual first ends of the probes to characterize the quality of the photovoltaic surface.

  8. Combination solar photovoltaic heat engine energy converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A combination solar photovoltaic heat engine converter is proposed. Such a system is suitable for either terrestrial or space power applications. The combination system has a higher efficiency than either the photovoltaic array or the heat engine alone can attain. Advantages in concentrator and radiator area and receiver mass of the photovoltaic heat engine system over a heat-engine-only system are estimated. A mass and area comparison between the proposed space station organic Rankine power system and a combination PV-heat engine system is made. The critical problem for the proposed converter is the necessity for high temperature photovoltaic array operation. Estimates of the required photovoltaic temperature are presented.

  9. Combination solar photovoltaic heat engine energy converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A combination solar photovoltaic heat engine converter is proposed. Such a system is suitable for either terrestrial or space power applications. The combination system has a higher efficiency than either the photovoltaic array or the heat engine alone can attain. Advantages in concentrator and radiator area and receiver mass of the photovoltaic heat engine system over a heat-engine-only system are estimated. A mass and area comparison between the proposed space station organic Rankine power system and a combination PV-heat engine system is made. The critical problem for the proposed converter is the necessity for high temperature photovoltaic array operation. Estimates of the required photovoltaic temperature are presented.

  10. Photovoltaic Power Station with Ultracapacitors for Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Kolacz, John S.; Soltis, Richard F.; Tavernelli, Paul F.

    2003-01-01

    A solar photovoltaic power station in which ultracapacitors, rather than batteries, are used to store energy is discussed. Developments in the semiconductor industry have reduced the cost and increased the attainable efficiency of commercially available photovoltaic panels; as a result, photovoltaic generation of power for diverse applications has become practical. Photovoltaic generation can provide electric power in remote locations where electric power would otherwise not be available. Photovoltaic generation can also afford independence from utility systems. Applications include supplying power to scientific instruments and medical equipment in isolated geographical regions.

  11. Photovoltaic Systems Test Facilities: Existing capabilities compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volkmer, K.

    1982-01-01

    A general description of photovoltaic systems test facilities (PV-STFs) operated under the U.S. Department of Energy's photovoltaics program is given. Descriptions of a number of privately operated facilities having test capabilities appropriate to photovoltaic hardware development are given. A summary of specific, representative test capabilities at the system and subsystem level is presented for each listed facility. The range of system and subsystem test capabilities available to serve the needs of both the photovoltaics program and the private sector photovoltaics industry is given.

  12. Photovoltaic cells employing zinc phosphide

    DOEpatents

    Barnett, Allen M.; Catalano, Anthony W.; Dalal, Vikram L.; Masi, James V.; Meakin, John D.; Hall, Robert B.

    1984-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell having a zinc phosphide absorber. The zinc phosphide can be a single or multiple crystal slice or a thin polycrystalline film. The cell can be a Schottky barrier, heterojunction or homojunction device. Methods for synthesizing and crystallizing zinc phosphide are disclosed as well as a method for forming thin films.

  13. MOD silver metallization for photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vest, G. M.; Vest, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    Photovoltaic cells require back side metallization and a collector grid system on the front surface. Both front and back surface metallizations should have good adhesion, low contact resistance, low sheet resistance, long term stability, and their deposition methods should not degrade the n-p junction. Advantages and disadvantages of different deposition methods are discussed.

  14. Breakthrough: micro-electronic photovoltaics

    ScienceCinema

    Okandan, Murat; Gupta, Vipin

    2016-07-12

    Sandia developed tiny glitter-sized photovoltaic (PV) cells that could revolutionize solar energy collection. The crystalline silicon micro-PV cells will be cheaper and have greater efficiencies than current PV collectors. Micro-PV cells require relatively little material to form well-controlled, highly efficient devices. Cell fabrication uses common microelectric and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) techniques.

  15. Electrochemical photovoltaic cells and electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, Terje A.

    1984-01-01

    Improved electrochemical photovoltaic cells and electrodes for use therein, particularly electrodes employing amorphous silicon or polyacetylene coating are produced by a process which includes filling pinholes or porous openings in the coatings by electrochemical oxidation of selected monomers to deposit insulating polymer in the openings.

  16. Photovoltaics radiometric issues and needs

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.R.

    1995-11-01

    This paper presents a summary of issues discussed at the photovoltaic radiometric measurements workshop. Topics included radiometric measurements guides, the need for well-defined goals, documentation, calibration checks, accreditation of testing laboratories and methods, the need for less expensive radiometric instrumentation, data correlations, and quality assurance.

  17. Photovoltaic Systems for Government Agencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    i -- • • ;__ S• .... S,<, - Loca ted in the Adirondacks this photovoltaic system powers a facility offering visitors a clean, odorless, and...current depends on type of metal, composition of the soil, salinity of water, and surface area of metal to be protected. Historically, cathodic

  18. SAM Photovoltaic Model Technical Reference

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, P.

    2015-05-27

    This manual describes the photovoltaic performance model in the System Advisor Model (SAM). The U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory maintains and distributes SAM, which is available as a free download from https://sam.nrel.gov. These descriptions are based on SAM 2015.1.30 (SSC 41).

  19. Sunlight Simulator for Photovoltaic Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    Light with normalized spectral irradiance resembling that of airmass 1.5 sunlight striking surface of Earth produced by use of ultraviolet filter to modify output of set of flashlamps used as large-area pulsed solar simulator (LAPSS). Filtered LAPSS light allows more realistic measurements of output of photovoltaic devices when using silicon reference cell having different spectral response characteristic.

  20. NREL Photovoltaic Program FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This report reviews the in-house and subcontracted research and development (R&D) activities under the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Photovoltaic (PV) Program from October 1, 1992, through September 30, 1993 (fiscal year [FY] 1993). The NREL PV Program is part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) National Photovoltaics Program, as described in the DOE Photovoltaics Program Plan, FY 1991 - FY 1995. The FY 1993 budget authority (BA) for carrying out the NREL PV Program was $40.1 million in operating funds and $0.9 million in capital equipment funds. An additional $4.8 million in capital equipment funds were made available for the new Solar Energy Research Facility (SERF) that will house the in-house PV laboratories beginning in FY 1994. Subcontract activities represent a major part of the NREL PV Program, with more than $23.7 million (nearly 59%) of the FY 1993 operating funds going to 70 subcontractors. In FY 1993, DOE assigned certain other PV subcontracting efforts to the DOE Golden Field Office (DOE/GO), and assigned responsibility for their technical support to the NREL PV Program. An example is the PV:BONUS (Building Opportunities in the U.S. for Photovoltaics) Project. These DOE/GO efforts are also reported in this document.

  1. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program, FY 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, K.A.

    1991-03-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R D) performed under the Photovoltaics Program at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The SERI subcontracted PV research and development represents most of the subcontracted R D that is funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) National Photovoltaics Program. This report covers fiscal year (FY) 1990: October 1, 1989 through September 30, 1990. During FY 1990, the SERI PV program started to implement a new DOE subcontract initiative, entitled the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) Project.'' Excluding (PVMaT) because it was in a start-up phase, in FY 1990 there were 54 subcontracts with a total annualized funding of approximately $11.9 million. Approximately two-thirds of those subcontracts were with universities, at a total funding of over $3.3 million. Cost sharing by industry added another $4.3 million to that $11.9 million of SERI PV subcontracted R D. The six technical sections of this report cover the previously ongoing areas of the subcontracted program: the Amorphous Silicon Research Project, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High-Efficiency Concepts, the New Ideas Program, and the University Participation Program. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs discuss approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1990, and future research directions. Another section introduces the PVMaT project and reports the progress since its inception in FY 1990. Highlights of technology transfer activities are also reported.

  2. Photovoltaic power generation system free of bypass diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2015-07-28

    A photovoltaic power generation system that includes a solar panel that is free of bypass diodes is described herein. The solar panel includes a plurality of photovoltaic sub-modules, wherein at least two of photovoltaic sub-modules in the plurality of photovoltaic sub-modules are electrically connected in parallel. A photovoltaic sub-module includes a plurality of groups of electrically connected photovoltaic cells, wherein at least two of the groups are electrically connected in series. A photovoltaic group includes a plurality of strings of photovoltaic cells, wherein a string of photovoltaic cells comprises a plurality of photovoltaic cells electrically connected in series. The strings of photovoltaic cells are electrically connected in parallel, and the photovoltaic cells are microsystem-enabled photovoltaic cells.

  3. Advanced Rainbow Solar Photovoltaic Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardesich, Nick; Shields, Virgil

    2003-01-01

    Photovoltaic arrays of the rainbow type, equipped with light-concentrator and spectral-beam-splitter optics, have been investigated in a continuing effort to develop lightweight, high-efficiency solar electric power sources. This investigation has contributed to a revival of the concept of the rainbow photovoltaic array, which originated in the 1950s but proved unrealistic at that time because the selection of solar photovoltaic cells was too limited. Advances in the art of photovoltaic cells since that time have rendered the concept more realistic, thereby prompting the present development effort. A rainbow photovoltaic array comprises side-by-side strings of series-connected photovoltaic cells. The cells in each string have the same bandgap, which differs from the bandgaps of the other strings. Hence, each string operates most efficiently in a unique wavelength band determined by its bandgap. To obtain maximum energy-conversion efficiency and to minimize the size and weight of the array for a given sunlight input aperture, the sunlight incident on the aperture is concentrated, then spectrally dispersed onto the photovoltaic array plane, whereon each string of cells is positioned to intercept the light in its wavelength band of most efficient operation. The number of cells in each string is chosen so that the output potentials of all the strings are the same; this makes it possible to connect the strings together in parallel to maximize the output current of the array. According to the original rainbow photovoltaic concept, the concentrated sunlight was to be split into multiple beams by use of an array of dichroic filters designed so that each beam would contain light in one of the desired wavelength bands. The concept has since been modified to provide for dispersion of the spectrum by use of adjacent prisms. A proposal for an advanced version calls for a unitary concentrator/ spectral-beam-splitter optic in the form of a parabolic curved Fresnel-like prism

  4. Photovoltaic Engineering Testbed Designed for Calibrating Photovoltaic Devices in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2002-01-01

    Accurate prediction of the performance of solar arrays in space requires that the cells be tested in comparison with a space-flown standard. Recognizing that improvements in future solar cell technology will require an ever-increasing fidelity of standards, the Photovoltaics and Space Environment Branch at the NASA Glenn Research Center, in collaboration with the Ohio Aerospace Institute, designed a prototype facility to allow routine calibration, measurement, and qualification of solar cells on the International Space Station, and then the return of the cells to Earth for laboratory use. For solar cell testing, the Photovoltaic Engineering Testbed (PET) site provides a true air-mass-zero (AM0) solar spectrum. This allows solar cells to be accurately calibrated using the full spectrum of the Sun.

  5. Environmental Impacts from Photovoltaic Solar Cells Made with Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Celik, Ilke; Mason, Brooke E; Phillips, Adam B; Heben, Michael J; Apul, Defne

    2017-04-18

    An ex-ante life cycle inventory was developed for single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) PV cells, including a laboratory-made 1% efficient device and an aspirational 28% efficient four-cell tandem device. The environmental impact of unit energy generation from the mono-Si PV technology was used as a reference point. Compared to monocrystalline Si (mono-Si), the environmental impacts from 1% SWCNT was ∼18 times higher due mainly to the short lifetime of three years. However, even with the same short lifetime, the 28% cell had lower environmental impacts than mono-Si. The effects of lifetime and efficiency on the environmental impacts were further examined. This analysis showed that if the SWCNT device efficiency had the same value as the best efficiency of the material under comparison, to match the total normalized impacts of the mono- and poly-Si, CIGS, CdTe, and a-Si devices, the SWCNT devices would need a lifetime of 2.8, 3.5, 5.3, 5.1, and 10.8 years, respectively. It was also found that if the SWCNT PV has an efficiency of 4.5% or higher, its energy payback time would be lower than other existing and emerging PV technologies. The major impacts of SWCNT PV came from the cell's materials synthesis.

  6. US photovoltaic patents: 1991--1993

    SciTech Connect

    Pohle, L

    1995-03-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1991 to 1993. The entries were located by searching USPA, the database of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class ``Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric`` and the subclasses ``Photoelectric,`` ``Testing,`` and ``Applications.`` The search also located patents that contained the words ``photovoltaic(s)`` or ``solar cell(s)`` and their derivatives. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors, and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaic. Some patents on these three subjects were included when ft appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  7. Photovoltaic system criteria documents. Volume 5: Safety criteria for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, John C.; Billitti, Joseph W.; Tallon, John M.

    1979-01-01

    Methodology is described for determining potential safety hazards involved in the construction and operation of photovoltaic power systems and provides guidelines for the implementation of safety considerations in the specification, design and operation of photovoltaic systems. Safety verification procedures for use in solar photovoltaic systems are established.

  8. Photovoltaic Energy Program Overview Fiscal Year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    Significant activities in the National Photovoltaic Program are reported for each of the three main program elements. In Research and Development, advances in thin-film materials and crystalline silicon materials are described. The Technology Development report describes activities in photovoltaic manufacturing technology, industrial expansion, module and array development, and testing photovoltaic system components. Systems Engineering and Applications projects described include projects with government agencies, projects with utilities, documentation of performance for international applications, and product certification.

  9. Recent progress in space photovoltaic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.; Flood, Dennis J.; Weinberg, Irving

    1987-01-01

    Key issues and opportunities in space photovoltaic research and technology relative to future NASA mission requirements and drivers are addressed. Examples are given of space missions and/or operational capabilities on NASA's planning horizon presenting major technology challenges to the use of photovoltaic power generation in space. The status of cell R and D and the performance goals to be met by space photovoltaic power systems to remain competitive are described.

  10. Photovoltaics: Program overview, fiscal year 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The US DOE`s Photovoltaics program has helped photovoltaic technologies evolve from materials and concepts in the laboratories to competitive products rolling off automated assembly lines. This document is divided into the following sections: 1992 PV program accomplishments, expanding markets for photovoltaic systems, developing today`s systems with utilities and industry, working with industry to advance the technology, cooperative research to improve materials and devices, selected achievements in cooperative R and D, and PV program services. Figs, tabs.

  11. Flexible Photovoltaics: Mission Power from the Sun

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Flexible Photovoltaics : Mission Power from the Sun NSRDEC Project Officer: Steven Tucker Senior Engineer, EE COMM 508-233-6962 DSN 256...NOV 2009 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Flexible Photovoltaics : Mission Power from the Sun...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 UNCLASSIFIED Flexible Photovoltaics – Why? Travel Lighter, Stay Longer! Known

  12. Photovoltaic rural electrification in France

    SciTech Connect

    Claverie, A.; Courtiade, P.; Vezin, P.

    1994-12-31

    The promotional programs sponsored by ADEME to encourage the use of off-grid photovoltaic power systems have evolved over the last ten years. From the first year-round residences that were equipped in the early 1980s, to those that are now participating in the program set up jointly by ADEME and the electricity utility Electricite de France (EDF), the notions of service quality and longevity are now better adapted to users` needs. This article outlines the evolution of ADEME`s approach in mainland France, describes the program undertaken in the French territory of New Caledonia, and lastly summarizes the results of a field survey of users of stand-alone photovoltaic systems in the French overseas department of Guadeloupe.

  13. Light Harvesting for Organic Photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Hedley, Gordon J; Ruseckas, Arvydas; Samuel, Ifor D W

    2017-01-25

    The field of organic photovoltaics has developed rapidly over the last 2 decades, and small solar cells with power conversion efficiencies of 13% have been demonstrated. Light absorbed in the organic layers forms tightly bound excitons that are split into free electrons and holes using heterojunctions of electron donor and acceptor materials, which are then extracted at electrodes to give useful electrical power. This review gives a concise description of the fundamental processes in photovoltaic devices, with the main emphasis on the characterization of energy transfer and its role in dictating device architecture, including multilayer planar heterojunctions, and on the factors that impact free carrier generation from dissociated excitons. We briefly discuss harvesting of triplet excitons, which now attracts substantial interest when used in conjunction with singlet fission. Finally, we introduce the techniques used by researchers for characterization and engineering of bulk heterojunctions to realize large photocurrents, and examine the formed morphology in three prototypical blends.

  14. The future of organic photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Mazzio, Katherine A; Luscombe, Christine K

    2015-01-07

    Increasing global demand for energy, along with dwindling fossil fuel resources and a better understanding of the hidden costs associated with these energy sources, have spurred substantial political, academic, and industrial interest in alternative energy resources. Photovoltaics based on organic semiconductors have emerged as promising low-cost alternatives for electricity generation that relies on sunlight. In this tutorial review we discuss the relevance of these organic photovoltaics beginning with some of the economic drivers for these technologies. We then examine the basic properties of these devices, including operation and materials requirements, in addition to presenting the development of the field from a historical perspective. Potential future directions are also briefly discussed. This tutorial review is intended to be an essential overview of the progress of the field, in addition to aiding in the discussion of the future of OPV technologies.

  15. High voltage photovoltaic power converter

    DOEpatents

    Haigh, Ronald E.; Wojtczuk, Steve; Jacobson, Gerard F.; Hagans, Karla G.

    2001-01-01

    An array of independently connected photovoltaic cells on a semi-insulating substrate contains reflective coatings between the cells to enhance efficiency. A uniform, flat top laser beam profile is illuminated upon the array to produce electrical current having high voltage. An essentially wireless system includes a laser energy source being fed through optic fiber and cast upon the photovoltaic cell array to prevent stray electrical signals prior to use of the current from the array. Direct bandgap, single crystal semiconductor materials, such as GaAs, are commonly used in the array. Useful applications of the system include locations where high voltages are provided to confined spaces such as in explosive detonation, accelerators, photo cathodes and medical appliances.

  16. Light Harvesting for Organic Photovoltaics

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The field of organic photovoltaics has developed rapidly over the last 2 decades, and small solar cells with power conversion efficiencies of 13% have been demonstrated. Light absorbed in the organic layers forms tightly bound excitons that are split into free electrons and holes using heterojunctions of electron donor and acceptor materials, which are then extracted at electrodes to give useful electrical power. This review gives a concise description of the fundamental processes in photovoltaic devices, with the main emphasis on the characterization of energy transfer and its role in dictating device architecture, including multilayer planar heterojunctions, and on the factors that impact free carrier generation from dissociated excitons. We briefly discuss harvesting of triplet excitons, which now attracts substantial interest when used in conjunction with singlet fission. Finally, we introduce the techniques used by researchers for characterization and engineering of bulk heterojunctions to realize large photocurrents, and examine the formed morphology in three prototypical blends. PMID:27951633

  17. Photovoltaic materials and devices 2016

    DOE PAGES

    Sopori, Bhushan; Basnyat, Prakash; Mehta, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    Photovoltaic energy continues to grow with about 59 GW of solar PV installed in 2015. While most of the PV production (about 93%) was Si wafer based, both CdTe and CI(G)S are growing in their shares. There is also continued progress at the laboratory scale in OPV and dye sensitized solar cells. As the market grows, emphasis on reducing the cost of modules and systems continues to grow. This is the fourth special issue of this journal that is dedicated to gathering selected papers on recent advances in materials, devices, and modules/PV systems. This issue contains sixteen papers on variousmore » aspects of photovoltaics. As a result, these fall in four broad categories of novel materials, device design and fabrication, modules, and systems.« less

  18. Photovoltaic/thermal hybrid projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kush, E. A.

    1980-03-01

    Systems which utilize a combination of photovoltaic and thermal collection in the same solar collectors (PV/T Systems) can have advantages over PV or thermal only systems in that the cost effectiveness of the collectors and their support structure may be improved, active cooling may allow the cells to run at lower temperatures-hence higher conversion efficiency, and space limitations on side by side collectors can be avoided. Evaluation of such systems requires formulation and assessment of collector concepts, power conditioning, storage, and control strategies, and their interactions when combined into a total system. Systems with flat plate PV/T collectors and vapor compression heat pump driven by the photovoltaic electric output are considered along with PV/T concentrating collectors and their potential applications, particularly to solar driven absorption chillers.

  19. Performance of photovoltaic electrolysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteve, D.; Ganibal, C.; Steinmetz, D.; Vialaron, A.

    A photovoltaic generator with concentrated light is combined with a water electrolysis cell in an effort to further the development of solar energy utilization. SOPHOCLE, a photovoltaic generator with limited concentration of energy, is a heliostat of the altazimuth type, consisting of an optical device to focus the sunlight on the photocells, a tracking device to follow the position of the sun, and a cooling device to allow dissipation of thermal energy. The combined cost and performance of SOPHOCLE gives an overall efficiency of 9 percent (for direct solar radiation). A power conditioning device matches the generator photocell characteristics with the electrolysis cell to give maximum hydrogen production. Hydrogen can be produced by this method with an overall efficiency of 7 percent.

  20. Photovoltaic research opportunities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Macaleer, B.; Bowers, J.; Hurlburt, B.

    1985-11-19

    The purpose of this study is to identify opportunities for photovoltaic (PV) research projects to capitalize on related but non-PV research. The study is performed under the assumption that a considerable body of ongoing semiconductor research in non-PV areas could be of value to its PV Program and the PV community in general. Research related to III-V compounds, thin films, and crystalline silicon materials is included. Research that is known to be PV-related or sponsored by DOE was excluded from consideration. The study resulted in 11 recommendations (research areas) and a subset of 58 specific research projects. In addition, over 75 non-PV research managers in the semiconductor field are identified as potential sources of ideas which could benefit photovoltaics.

  1. Photovoltaic materials and devices 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, Bhushan; Basnyat, Prakash; Mehta, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    Photovoltaic energy continues to grow with about 59 GW of solar PV installed in 2015. While most of the PV production (about 93%) was Si wafer based, both CdTe and CI(G)S are growing in their shares. There is also continued progress at the laboratory scale in OPV and dye sensitized solar cells. As the market grows, emphasis on reducing the cost of modules and systems continues to grow. This is the fourth special issue of this journal that is dedicated to gathering selected papers on recent advances in materials, devices, and modules/PV systems. This issue contains sixteen papers on various aspects of photovoltaics. As a result, these fall in four broad categories of novel materials, device design and fabrication, modules, and systems.

  2. Semiconductor electrolyte photovoltaic energy converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. W.; Anderson, L. B.

    1975-01-01

    Feasibility and practicality of a solar cell consisting of a semiconductor surface in contact with an electrolyte are evaluated. Basic components and processes are detailed for photovoltaic energy conversion at the surface of an n-type semiconductor in contact with an electrolyte which is oxidizing to conduction band electrons. Characteristics of single crystal CdS, GaAs, CdSe, CdTe and thin film CdS in contact with aqueous and methanol based electrolytes are studied and open circuit voltages are measured from Mott-Schottky plots and open circuit photo voltages. Quantum efficiencies for short circuit photo currents of a CdS crystal and a 20 micrometer film are shown together with electrical and photovoltaic properties. Highest photon irradiances are observed with the GaAs cell.

  3. Linearity Testing of Photovoltaic Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pinegar, S.; Nalley, D.; Emery, K.

    2006-01-01

    Photovoltaic devices are rated in terms of their power output or efficiency with respect to a specific spectrum, total irradiance, and temperature. In order to rate photovoltaic devices, a reference detector whose response is linear with total irradiance is needed. This procedure documents a procedure to determine if a detector is linear over the irradiance range of interest. Testing the short circuit current versus the total irradiance is done by illuminating a reference cell candidate with two lamps that are fitted with programmable filter wheels. The purpose is to reject nonlinear samples as determined by national and international standards from being used as primary reference cells. A calibrated linear reference cell tested by the two lamp method yields a linear result.

  4. Space Station Photovoltaic power modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatro, Charles A.

    1988-01-01

    Silicon cell Photovoltaic (PV) power modules are key components of the Space Station Electrical Power System (EPS) scheduled to begin deployment in 1994. Four PV power modules, providing 75 KWe of user ac power, form the cornerstone of the EPS; which is comprised of Photovoltaic (PV) power modules, Solar Dynamic (SD) power modules, and the Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) system. The PV modules are located on rotating outboard sections of the Space Station (SS) structure and each module incorporates its own nickel-hydrogen energy storage batteries, its own thermal control system, and some autonomous control features. The PV modules are a cost-effective and technologically mature approach for providing reliable SS electrical power and are a solid base for EPS growth, which is expected to reach 300 KWe by the end of the Space Station's 30-year design lifetime.

  5. Bimolecular Recombination in Organic Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakhwani, Girish; Rao, Akshay; Friend, Richard H.

    2014-04-01

    The recombination of electrons and holes is a major loss mechanism in photovoltaic devices that controls their performance. We review scientific literature on bimolecular recombination (BR) in bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic devices to bring forward existing ideas on the origin and nature of BR and highlight both experimental and theoretical work done to quantify its extent. For these systems, Langevin theory fails to explain BR, and recombination dynamics turns out to be dependent on mobility, temperature, electric field, charge carrier concentration, and trapped charges. Relationships among the photocurrent, open-circuit voltage, fill factor, and morphology are discussed. Finally, we highlight the recent emergence of a molecular-level picture of recombination, taking into account the spin and delocalization of charges. Together with the macroscopic picture of recombination, these new insights allow for a comprehensive understanding of BR and provide design principles for future materials and devices.

  6. Photovoltaic performance and reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Mrig, L.

    1993-12-01

    This workshop was the sixth in a series of workshops sponsored by NREL/DOE under the general subject of photovoltaic testing and reliability during the period 1986--1993. PV performance and PV reliability are at least as important as PV cost, if not more. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities, and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in the field were brought together to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this evolving field of PV reliability. The papers presented here reflect this effort since the last workshop held in September, 1992. The topics covered include: cell and module characterization, module and system testing, durability and reliability, system field experience, and standards and codes.

  7. Remote applications of photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Post, H.N.; Jones, G.J.; Thomas, M.G.; Casbarro, J.J.; Firor, K.

    1989-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems can meet the energy needs of small and remote grid-independent applications. These applications are characterized by the need for a highly reliable source of electrical energy to meet relatively small loads in areas where conventional sources are too costly to install and/or cannot be maintained. A major application for PV is for use in rural electrification both in the US and in the developing countries. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Reliability Research for Photovoltaic Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Ronald J., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Report describes research approach used to improve reliability of photovoltaic modules. Aimed at raising useful module lifetime to 20 to 30 years. Development of cost-effective solutions to module-lifetime problem requires compromises between degradation rates, failure rates, and lifetimes, on one hand, and costs of initial manufacture, maintenance, and lost energy, on other hand. Life-cycle costing integrates disparate economic terms, allowing cost effectiveness to be quantified, allowing comparison of different design alternatives.

  9. Advanced photovoltaic solar array development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurland, Richard M.; Stella, Paul

    1989-01-01

    Phase 2 of the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array (APSA) program, started in mid-1987, is currently in progress to fabricate prototype wing hardware that will lead to wing integration and testing in 1989. The design configuration and key details are reviewed. A status of prototype hardware fabricated to date is provided. Results from key component-level tests are discussed. Revised estimates of array-level performance as a function of solar cell device technology for geosynchronous missions are given.

  10. Polycrystalline thin film photovoltaic technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ullal, H.S.; Zweibel, K.; Mitchell, R.L.; Noufi, R.

    1991-03-01

    Low-cost, high-efficiency thin-film modules are an exciting photovoltaic technology option for generating cost-effective electricity in 1995 and beyond. In this paper we review the significant technical progress made in the following thin films: copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, and polycrystalline thin silicon films. Also, the recent US DOE/SERI initiative to commercialize these emerging technologies is discussed. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  11. Decentalized solar photovoltaic energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Krupka, M. C.

    1980-09-01

    Environmental data for decentralized solar photovoltaic systems have been generated in support of the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy Systems program (TASE). Emphasis has been placed upon the selection and use of a model residential photovoltaic system to develop and quantify the necessary data. The model consists of a reference home located in Phoenix, AZ, utilizing a unique solar cell array-roof shingle combination. Silicon solar cells, rated at 13.5% efficiency at 28/sup 0/C and 100 mW/cm/sup 2/ (AMI) insolation are used to generate approx. 10 kW (peak). An all-electric home is considered with lead-acid battery storage, dc-ac inversion and utility backup. The reference home is compared to others in regions of different insolation. Major material requirements, scaled to quad levels of end-use energy include significant quantities of silicon, copper, lead, antimony, sulfuric acid and plastics. Operating residuals generated are negligible with the exception of those from the storage battery due to a short (10-year) lifetime. A brief general discussion of other environmental, health, and safety and resource availability impacts is presented. It is suggested that solar cell materials production and fabrication may have the major environmental impact when comparing all facets of photovoltaic system usage. Fabrication of the various types of solar cell systems involves the need, handling, and transportation of many toxic and hazardous chemicals with attendant health and safety impacts. Increases in production of such materials as lead, antimony, sulfuric acid, copper, plastics, cadmium and gallium will be required should large scale usage of photovoltaic systems be implemented.

  12. Reliability Research for Photovoltaic Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Ronald J., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Report describes research approach used to improve reliability of photovoltaic modules. Aimed at raising useful module lifetime to 20 to 30 years. Development of cost-effective solutions to module-lifetime problem requires compromises between degradation rates, failure rates, and lifetimes, on one hand, and costs of initial manufacture, maintenance, and lost energy, on other hand. Life-cycle costing integrates disparate economic terms, allowing cost effectiveness to be quantified, allowing comparison of different design alternatives.

  13. Solar photovoltaic reflective trough collection structure

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Benjamin J.; Sweatt, William C.; Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2015-11-19

    A photovoltaic (PV) solar concentration structure having at least two troughs encapsulated in a rectangular parallelepiped optical plastic structure, with the troughs filled with an optical plastic material, the troughs each having a reflective internal surface and approximately parabolic geometry, and the troughs each including photovoltaic cells situated so that light impinging on the optical plastic material will be concentrated onto the photovoltaic cells. Multiple structures can be connected to provide a solar photovoltaic collection system that provides portable, efficient, low-cost electrical power.

  14. International photovoltaic program. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costello, D.; Koontz, R.; Posner, D.; Heiferling, P.; Carpenter, P.; Forman, S.; Perelman, L.

    1979-01-01

    The results of analyses conducted in preparation of an international photovoltaic marketing plan are summarized. Included are compilations of relevant statutes and existing Federal programs; strategies designed to expand the use of photovoltaics abroad; information on the domestic photovoltaic plan and its impact on the proposed international plan; perspectives on foreign competition; industry views on the international photovoltaic market and ideas about the how US government actions could affect this market;international financing issues; and information on issues affecting foreign policy and developing countries.

  15. Photovoltaic cell with thin CS layer

    DOEpatents

    Jordan, John F.; Albright, Scot P.

    1994-01-18

    An improved photovoltaic panel and method of forming a photovoltaic panel are disclosed for producing a high efficiency CdS/CdTe photovoltaic cell. The photovoltaic panel of the present invention is initially formed with a substantially thick Cds layer, and the effective thickness of the CdS layer is substantially reduced during regrowth to both form larger diameter CdTe crystals and substantially reduce the effective thickness of the C This invention was made with Government support under Subcontract No. ZL-7-06031-3 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in this invention.

  16. Molecular Photovoltaics in Nanoscale Dimension

    PubMed Central

    Burtman, Vladimir; Zelichonok, Alexander; Pakoulev, Andrei V.

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on the intrinsic charge transport in organic photovoltaic (PVC) devices and field-effect transistors (SAM-OFETs) fabricated by vapor phase molecular self-assembly (VP-SAM) method. The dynamics of charge transport are determined and used to clarify a transport mechanism. The 1,4,5,8-naphthalene-tetracarboxylic diphenylimide (NTCDI) SAM devices provide a useful tool to study the fundamentals of polaronic transport at organic surfaces and to discuss the performance of organic photovoltaic devices in nanoscale. Time-resolved photovoltaic studies allow us to separate the charge annihilation kinetics in the conductive NTCDI channel from the overall charge kinetic in a SAM-OFET device. It has been demonstrated that tuning of the type of conductivity in NTCDI SAM-OFET devices is possible by changing Si substrate doping. Our study of the polaron charge transfer in organic materials proposes that a cation-radical exchange (redox) mechanism is the major transport mechanism in the studied SAM-PVC devices. The role and contribution of the transport through delocalized states of redox active surface molecular aggregates of NTCDI are exposed and investigated. This example of technological development is used to highlight the significance of future technological development of nanotechnologies and to appreciate a structure-property paradigm in organic nanostructures. PMID:21339983

  17. Space power technology 21: Photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    The Space Power needs for the 21st Century and the program in photovoltaics needed to achieve it are discussed. Workshops were conducted in eight different power disciplines involving industry and other government agencies. The Photovoltaics Workshop was conducted at Aerospace Corporation in June 1987. The major findings and recommended program from this workshop are discussed. The major finding is that a survivable solar power capability is needed in photovoltaics for critical Department of Defense missions including Air Force and Strategic Defense Initiative. The tasks needed to realize this capability are described in technical, not financial, terms. The second finding is the need for lightweight, moderately survivable planar solar arrays. High efficiency thin III-V solar cells can meet some of these requirements. Higher efficiency, longer life solar cells are needed for application to both future planar and concentrator arrays with usable life up to 10 years. Increasing threats are also anticipated and means for avoiding prolonged exposure, retraction, maneuvering and autonomous operation are discussed.

  18. Photovoltaic manufacturing technology, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This report describes subcontracted research by the Chronar Corporation, prepared by Advanced Photovoltaic Systems, Inc. (APS) for Phase 1 of the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology Development project. Amorphous silicon is chosen as the PV technology that Chronar Corporation and APS believe offers the greatest potential for manufacturing improvements, which, in turn, will result in significant cost reductions and performance improvements in photovoltaic products. The APS Eureka'' facility was chosen as the manufacturing system that can offer the possibility of achieving these production enhancements. The relationship of the Eureka'' facility to Chronar's batch'' plants is discussed. Five key areas are also identified that could meet the objectives of manufacturing potential that could lead to improved performance, reduced manufacturing costs, and significantly increased production. The projected long-term potential benefits of these areas are discussed, as well as problems that may impede the achievement of the hoped-for developments. A significant number of the problems discussed are of a generic nature and could be of general interest to the industry. The final section of this document addresses the cost and time estimates for achieving the solutions to the problems discussed earlier. Emphasis is placed on the number, type, and cost of the human resources required for the project.

  19. Nanochemistry and nanomaterials for photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guanying; Seo, Jangwon; Yang, Chunhui; Prasad, Paras N

    2013-11-07

    Nanochemistry and nanomaterials provide numerous opportunities for a new generation of photovoltaics with high solar energy conversion efficiencies at low fabrication cost. Quantum-confined nanomaterials and polymer-inorganic nanocomposites can be tailored to harvest sun light over a broad range of the spectrum, while plasmonic structures offer effective ways to reduce the thickness of light-absorbing layers. Multiple exciton generation, singlet exciton fission, photon down-conversion, and photon up-conversion realized in nanostructures, create significant interest for harvesting underutilized ultraviolet and currently unutilized infrared photons. Nanochemical interface engineering of nanoparticle surfaces and junction-interfaces enable enhanced charge separation and collection. In this review, we survey these recent advances employed to introduce new concepts for improving the solar energy conversion efficiency, and reduce the device fabrication cost in photovoltaic technologies. The review concludes with a summary of contributions already made by nanochemistry. It then describes the challenges and opportunities in photovoltaics where the chemical community can play a vital role.

  20. NASA photovoltaic research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, Dennis J.

    1988-01-01

    NASA photovoltaic R and D efforts address future Agency space mission needs through a comprehensive, integrated program. Activities range from fundamental studies of materials and devices to technology demonstrations of prototype hardware. The program aims to develop and apply an improved understanding of photovoltaic energy conversion devices and systems that will increase the performance, reduce the mass, and extend the lifetime of photovoltaic arrays for use in space. To that end, there are efforts aimed at improving cell efficiency, reducing the effects of space particulate radiation damage (primarily electrons and protons), developing ultralightweight cells, and developing advanced ray component technology for high efficiency concentrator arrays and high performance, ultralightweight arrays. Current goals that have been quantified for the program are to develop cell and array technology capable of achieving 300 watts/kg for future missions for which mass is a critical factor, or 300 watts/sq m for future missions for which array size is a major driver (i.e., Space Station). A third important goal is to develop cell and array technology which will survive the GEO space radiation environment for at least 10 years.

  1. Space power technology 21: Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, Joseph

    1989-04-01

    The Space Power needs for the 21st Century and the program in photovoltaics needed to achieve it are discussed. Workshops were conducted in eight different power disciplines involving industry and other government agencies. The Photovoltaics Workshop was conducted at Aerospace Corporation in June 1987. The major findings and recommended program from this workshop are discussed. The major finding is that a survivable solar power capability is needed in photovoltaics for critical Department of Defense missions including Air Force and Strategic Defense Initiative. The tasks needed to realize this capability are described in technical, not financial, terms. The second finding is the need for lightweight, moderately survivable planar solar arrays. High efficiency thin III-V solar cells can meet some of these requirements. Higher efficiency, longer life solar cells are needed for application to both future planar and concentrator arrays with usable life up to 10 years. Increasing threats are also anticipated and means for avoiding prolonged exposure, retraction, maneuvering and autonomous operation are discussed.

  2. Resolution in Photovoltaic Potential Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, N.; Coors, V.; Zlatanova, S.; Oosterom, P. J. M.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, an analysis of the effect of the various types of resolution involved in photovoltaic potential computation is presented. To calculate solar energy incident on a surface, shadow from surrounding buildings has been considered. The incident energy on a surface has been calculated taking the orientation, tilt and position into consideration. Different sky visibility map has been created for direct and diffuse radiation and only the effect of resolution of the factors has been explored here. The following four resolutions are considered: 1. temporal resolution (1, 10, 60 minutes time interval for calculating visibility of sun), 2. object surface resolution (0.01, 0.1, 0.375, 0.75, 1.25, 2.5 and 5 m2 as maximum triangle size of a surface to be considered), 3. blocking obstacle resolution (number of triangles from LoD1, LoD2, or LoD3 CityGML building models), and 4. sky resolution (ranging from 150 to 600 sky-patches used to divide the sky-dome). Higher resolutions result in general in more precise estimation of the photovoltaic potential, but also the computation time is increasing, especially as realizes that this computation has to be done for every building with its object surface (both roofs and façades). This paper is the first in depth analysis ever of the effect of resolution and will help to configure the proper settings for effective photovoltaic potential computations.

  3. Photovoltaic application for disaster relief

    SciTech Connect

    Young, W.R. Jr.

    1995-11-01

    Hurricanes, floods, tornados, and earthquakes are natural disasters that can happen at any time destroying homes, businesses, and natural surroundings. One such disaster, Hurricane Andrew, devastated South Florida leaving several hundred-thousand people homeless. Many people were without electrical service, functioning water and sewage systems, communications, and medical services for days, even weeks in the aftermath of the storm. Emergency management teams, the military, and countless public and private organizations staged a massive relief effort. Dependency on electrical utility power became a pronounced problem as emergency services were rendered to survivors and the rebuilding process started. Many of the energy needs of emergency management organizations, relief workers, and the general public can be satisfied with solar electric energy systems. Photovoltaic (PV) power generated from solar energy is quiet, safe, inexhaustible and pollution-free. Previously, photovoltaics have supplied emergency power for Hurricanes Hugo and Andrew, and the earthquake at Northridge in Southern California. This document focuses on photovoltaic technology and its application to disaster relief efforts.

  4. A challenging future for improved photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Douglas M.

    The expansion of space requirements creates opportunities and priorities for power production, thus driving the development of innovative technologies. Key requirements for improving photovoltaics are outlined including cell efficiency, specific power, packaging, reliability, and affordability issues. The competition faced by photovoltaic cells is discussed with specific reference to solar dynamics and nuclear radioisotope thermal generator systems.

  5. Photovoltaics: A Solar Technology for Powering Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavin, Christopher

    1983-01-01

    Photovoltaics, the technology that converts sunlight directly into electricity, may soon be a reliable power source for the world's poor. The one major challenge is cost reduction. Many topics are discussed, including solar powering the Third World, designing the solar building, investing in the sun, and the future of photovoltaics. (NW)

  6. A Wearable All-Solid Photovoltaic Textile.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nannan; Chen, Jun; Huang, Yi; Guo, Wanwan; Yang, Jin; Du, Jun; Fan, Xing; Tao, Changyuan

    2016-01-13

    A solution is developed to power portable electronics in a wearable manner by fabricating an all-solid photovoltaic textile. In a similar way to plants absorbing solar energy for photosynthesis, humans can wear the as-fabricated photovoltaic textile to harness solar energy for powering small electronic devices.

  7. Semiconductors: In Situ Processing of Photovoltaic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, Peter A.

    1998-01-01

    The possible processing of semiconductor photovoltaic devices is discussed. The requirements for lunar PV cells is reviewed, and the key challenges involved in their manufacturing are investigated. A schematic diagram of a passivated emitter and rear cell (PERC) is presented. The possible fabrication of large photovoltaic arrays in space from lunar materials is also discussed.

  8. Electrical aspects of photovoltaic-system simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, G. W.; Raghuraman, P.

    1982-06-01

    A TRNSYS simulation was developed to simulate the performance of utility interactive residential photovoltaic energy systems. The PV system is divided into major functional components, which are individually described with computer models. The results of simulation and actual measured data are compared. The electrical influences on the design of such photovoltaic energy systems are given particular attention.

  9. Photovoltaic Energy Program overview, fiscal year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Photovoltaic Energy Program fosters the widespread acceptance of photovoltaic (PV) technology and accelerates commercial use of US PV products. The Program is founded on a collaborative strategy involving industry, the research and development community, potential users, utilities, and state and federal agencies. There are three main Program elements: Systems Engineering and Applications, Technology Development, and Research and Development.

  10. Cost and Performance Model for Photovoltaic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borden, C. S.; Smith, J. H.; Davisson, M. C.; Reiter, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    Lifetime cost and performance (LCP) model assists in assessment of design options for photovoltaic systems. LCP is simulation of performance, cost, and revenue streams associated with photovoltaic power systems connected to electric-utility grid. LCP provides user with substantial flexibility in specifying technical and economic environment of application.

  11. Photovoltaics: A Solar Technology for Powering Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavin, Christopher

    1983-01-01

    Photovoltaics, the technology that converts sunlight directly into electricity, may soon be a reliable power source for the world's poor. The one major challenge is cost reduction. Many topics are discussed, including solar powering the Third World, designing the solar building, investing in the sun, and the future of photovoltaics. (NW)

  12. Ten years of commercial photovoltaic experience

    SciTech Connect

    Yerkes, J.W.

    1983-08-01

    This paper reviews the author's experience during the ten year period 1972 to 1982. Examples of type and size of photovoltaic systems deployed each year year during this period are given. A table of average photovoltaic module prices and volume is summarized at the end of the paper.

  13. Charging a Capacitor with a Photovoltaic Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Horacio Munguía; Maldonado, Rigoberto Franco; Navarro, Luis Barba

    2017-01-01

    Charging a capacitor with a photovoltaic module is an experiment which reveals a lot about the modules characteristics. It is customary to represent these characteristics with an equivalent circuit whose elements represent its physical parameters. The behavior of a photovoltaic module is very similar to that of a single cell but the electric…

  14. National Center for Photovoltaics at NREL

    ScienceCinema

    VanSant, Kaitlyn; Wilson, Greg; Berry, Joseph; Al-Jassim, Mowafak; Kurtz, Sarah

    2016-07-12

    The National Center for Photovoltaics at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) focuses on technology innovations that drive industry growth in U.S. photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing. The NCPV is a central resource for our nation's capabilities in PV research, development, deployment, and outreach.

  15. AC photovoltaic module magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, C.; Chang, G.J.; Reyes, A.B.; Whitaker, C.M.

    1997-12-31

    Implementation of alternating current (AC) photovoltaic (PV) modules, particularly for distributed applications such as PV rooftops and facades, may be slowed by public concern about electric and magnetic fields (EMF). This paper documents magnetic field measurements on an AC PV module, complementing EMF research on direct-current PV modules conducted by PG and E in 1993. Although not comprehensive, the PV EMF data indicate that 60 Hz magnetic fields (the EMF type of greatest public concern) from PV modules are comparable to, or significantly less than, those from household appliances. Given the present EMF research knowledge, AC PV module EMF may not merit considerable concern.

  16. Photovoltaic Cell And Manufacturing Process

    DOEpatents

    Albright, Scot P.; Chamberlin, Rhodes R.

    1996-11-26

    Provided is a method for controlling electrical properties and morphology of a p-type material of a photovoltaic device. The p-type material, such as p-type cadmium telluride, is first subjected to heat treatment in an oxidizing environment, followed by recrystallization in an environment substantially free of oxidants. In one embodiment, the heat treatment step comprises first subjecting the p-type material to an oxidizing atmosphere at a first temperature to getter impurities, followed by second subjecting the p-type material to an oxidizing atmosphere at a second temperature, higher than the first temperature, to develop a desired oxidation gradient through the p-type material.

  17. Method of making photovoltaic cell

    DOEpatents

    Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Zhou, Xiaowang; Zubia, David

    2017-06-20

    A photovoltaic solar cell comprises a nano-patterned substrate layer. A plurality of nano-windows are etched into an intermediate substrate layer to form the nano-patterned substrate layer. The nano-patterned substrate layer is positioned between an n-type semiconductor layer composed of an n-type semiconductor material and a p-type semiconductor layer composed of a p-type semiconductor material. Semiconductor material accumulates in the plurality of nano-windows, causing a plurality of heterojunctions to form between the n-type semiconductor layer and the p-type semiconductor layer.

  18. Photovoltaic power system reliability considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, V. R.

    1980-01-01

    An example of how modern engineering and safety techniques can be used to assure the reliable and safe operation of photovoltaic power systems is presented. This particular application is for a solar cell power system demonstration project designed to provide electric power requirements for remote villages. The techniques utilized involve a definition of the power system natural and operating environment, use of design criteria and analysis techniques, an awareness of potential problems via the inherent reliability and FMEA methods, and use of fail-safe and planned spare parts engineering philosophy.

  19. Photovoltaic Power for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1997-01-01

    Mars is a challenging environment for the use of solar power. The implications of the low temperatures and low light intensity, solar spectrum modified by dust and changing with time of day and year, indirect sunlight, dust storms, deposited dust, wind, and corrosive peroxide-rich soil are discussed with respect to potential photovoltaic power systems. The power systems addressed include a solar-powered rover vehicle and a human base. High transportation costs dictate high efficiency solar cells or alternatively, a 'thin film' solar cell deposited on a lightweight plastic or thin metal foil.

  20. Photovoltaic driven vapor compression cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, D. K.

    Since the vast majority of heat pumps, air conditioning and refrigeration equipment employs the vapor compression cycle (VCC), the use of renewable energy represents a significant opportunity. As discussed in this report, it is clear that the use of photovoltaics (PV) to drive the VCC has more potential than any other active solar cooling approach. This potential exists due to improvements in not only the PV cells but VCC machinery and control algorithms. It is estimated that the combined improvements will result in reducing the PV cell requirements by as much as one half.

  1. Integrated residential photovoltaic array development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The design details of an optimized integrated residential photovoltaic module/array are presented. This selected design features a waterproofing and mounting scheme which was devised to simplify the installation procedures by the avoidance of complex gasketed or caulked joints, while still maintaining a high confidence that the watertight integrity of the integral roofing surface will be achieved for the design lifetime of the system. The production and installation costs for the selected module/array design are reported for a range of annual production rates as a function of the cost of solar cells.

  2. Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, M.J. )

    1991-11-01

    This report documents Utility Power Group's (UPG) contract under Phase 1 of the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project. Specifically, the report contains the results of a manufacturing technology cost analysis based on an existing PV module production facility. It also projects the cost analysis of a future production facility based on a larger module area, a larger production rate, and the elimination of several technical obstacles. With a coordinated 18-month engineering effort, the technical obstacles could be overcome. Therefore, if solutions to the financial obstacles concerning production expansion were found, UPG would be able to manufacture PV modules at a cost of under $1.25 per watt by 1994.

  3. Photovoltaic Cz Silicon Module Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Jester, T. L.

    1998-09-01

    Work focused on reducing the cost per watt of Cz silicon photovoltaic modules under Phase II of Siemens Solar Industries' DOE/NREL PVMaT 4A subcontract is described in this report. New module designs were deployed in this phase of the contract, improvements in yield of over 10% were realized, and further implementation of Statistical Process Control was achieved during this phase. Module configurations representing a 12% cost reduction per watt were implemented in small scale production under Phase II of this contract. Yield improvements are described in detail, yield sensitivity to wafer thickness is quantified, and the deployment of SPC in critical process steps is reported here.

  4. Photovoltaics - Where are we going?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callaghan, W. T.

    1984-01-01

    The directions that will be followed for solar cell development, production and marketing are projected on the basis of experiences gained during the JPL's Flat-Plate Solar Array project. It is thought that a billion dollar market for Si ribbons can be established by 1990. Thin film technology will yield a product at $2 U.S./W at the end of the 1980s. R&D is growing more focused on central station photovoltaic generators, although the residential market may be the more suitable goal. The intermediate markets, e.g., schools, hospitals and shopping centers may be developed before the central stations.

  5. Photovoltaics - Where are we going?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callaghan, W. T.

    1984-01-01

    The directions that will be followed for solar cell development, production and marketing are projected on the basis of experiences gained during the JPL's Flat-Plate Solar Array project. It is thought that a billion dollar market for Si ribbons can be established by 1990. Thin film technology will yield a product at $2 U.S./W at the end of the 1980s. R&D is growing more focused on central station photovoltaic generators, although the residential market may be the more suitable goal. The intermediate markets, e.g., schools, hospitals and shopping centers may be developed before the central stations.

  6. Optimized microsystems-enabled photovoltaics

    DOEpatents

    Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Nielson, Gregory N.; Young, Ralph W.; Resnick, Paul J.; Okandan, Murat; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2015-09-22

    Technologies pertaining to designing microsystems-enabled photovoltaic (MEPV) cells are described herein. A first restriction for a first parameter of an MEPV cell is received. Subsequently, a selection of a second parameter of the MEPV cell is received. Values for a plurality of parameters of the MEPV cell are computed such that the MEPV cell is optimized with respect to the second parameter, wherein the values for the plurality of parameters are computed based at least in part upon the restriction for the first parameter.

  7. Light Manipulation in Organic Photovoltaics

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Qing‐Dong

    2016-01-01

    Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) hold great promise for next‐generation photovoltaics in renewable energy because of the potential to realize low‐cost mass production via large‐area roll‐to‐roll printing technologies on flexible substrates. To achieve high‐efficiency OPVs, one key issue is to overcome the insufficient photon absorption in organic photoactive layers, since their low carrier mobility limits the film thickness for minimized charge recombination loss. To solve the inherent trade‐off between photon absorption and charge transport in OPVs, the optical manipulation of light with novel micro/nano‐structures has become an increasingly popular strategy to boost the light harvesting efficiency. In this Review, we make an attempt to capture the recent advances in this area. A survey of light trapping schemes implemented to various functional components and interfaces in OPVs is given and discussed from the viewpoint of plasmonic and photonic resonances, addressing the external antireflection coatings, substrate geometry‐induced trapping, the role of electrode design in optical enhancement, as well as optically modifying charge extraction and photoactive layers. PMID:27840805

  8. Editorial: Photovoltaic Materials and Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, B.; Tan, T.; Rupnowski, P.

    2012-01-01

    As the global energy needs grow, there is increasing interest in the generation of electricity by photovoltaics (PVs) devices or solar cells - devices that convert sunlight to electricity. Solar industry has seen an enormous growth during the last decade. The sale of PV modules has exceeded 27 GW in 2011, with significant contributions to the market share from all technologies. While the silicon technology continues to have the dominant share, the other thin film technologies (CdTe, CIGS, a-Si, and organic PV) are experiencing fast growth. Increased production of silicon modules has led to a very rapid reduction in their price and remains as benchmark for other technologies. The PV industry is in full gear to commercialize new automated equipment for solar cell and module production, instrumentation for process monitoring technologies, and for implementation of other cost-reduction approaches, and extensive research continues to be carried out in many laboratories to improve the efficiency of solar cells and modules without increasing the production costs. A large variety of solar cells, which differ in the material systems used, design, PV structure, and even the principle of PV conversion, are designed to date. This special issue contains peer-reviewed papers in the recent developments in research related to broad spectrum of photovoltaic materials and devices. It contains papers on many aspects of solar cells-the growth and deposition, characterization, and new material development.

  9. Photovoltaic failure and degradation modes

    DOE PAGES

    Jordan, Dirk C.; Silverman, Timothy J.; Wohlgemuth, John H.; ...

    2017-01-30

    The extensive photovoltaic field reliability literature was analyzed and reviewed. Future work is prioritized based upon information assembled from recent installations, and inconsistencies in degradation mode identification are discussed to help guide future publication on this subject. Reported failure rates of photovoltaic modules fall mostly in the range of other consumer products; however, the long expected useful life of modules may not allow for direct comparison. In general, degradation percentages are reported to decrease appreciably in newer installations that are deployed after the year 2000. However, these trends may be convoluted with varying manufacturing and installation quality world-wide. Modules inmore » hot and humid climates show considerably higher degradation modes than those in desert and moderate climates, which warrants further investigation. Delamination and diode/j-box issues are also more frequent in hot and humid climates than in other climates. The highest concerns of systems installed in the last 10 years appear to be hot spots followed by internal circuitry discoloration. Encapsulant discoloration was the most common degradation mode, particularly in older systems. In newer systems, encapsulant discoloration appears in hotter climates, but to a lesser degree. Lastly, thin-film degradation modes are dominated by glass breakage and absorber corrosion, although the breadth of information for thin-film modules is much smaller than for x-Si.« less

  10. Light Manipulation in Organic Photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Ou, Qing-Dong; Li, Yan-Qing; Tang, Jian-Xin

    2016-07-01

    Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) hold great promise for next-generation photovoltaics in renewable energy because of the potential to realize low-cost mass production via large-area roll-to-roll printing technologies on flexible substrates. To achieve high-efficiency OPVs, one key issue is to overcome the insufficient photon absorption in organic photoactive layers, since their low carrier mobility limits the film thickness for minimized charge recombination loss. To solve the inherent trade-off between photon absorption and charge transport in OPVs, the optical manipulation of light with novel micro/nano-structures has become an increasingly popular strategy to boost the light harvesting efficiency. In this Review, we make an attempt to capture the recent advances in this area. A survey of light trapping schemes implemented to various functional components and interfaces in OPVs is given and discussed from the viewpoint of plasmonic and photonic resonances, addressing the external antireflection coatings, substrate geometry-induced trapping, the role of electrode design in optical enhancement, as well as optically modifying charge extraction and photoactive layers.

  11. Carbon Nanotubes for Polymer Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anctil, Annick; Dileo, Roberta; Schauerman, Chris; Landi, Brian; Raffaelle, Ryne

    2007-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes are being investigated for optical absorption, exciton dissociation, and carrier transport in polymer photovoltaic devices. In the present work, single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were synthesized by an Alexandrite pulsed laser vaporization reactor at standard conditions and purified based upon our previously reported TOP procedure. The SWNTs were dispersed in polymer composites for pure MEH-PPV, pure P3HT, and [C60]-PCBM-P3HT (1:1 by weight) as a function of nanotube weight loading (0.1 -- 5% w/w). The AM0 current-voltage measurements for structures sandwiched between PEDOT/PSS coated ITO substrates and an evaporated aluminum contact demonstrate the dramatic effect of SWNT content on the short circuit current density, with conversions efficiencies consistently greater than 1%. The temperature coefficient for nanotube-containing polymer photovoltaics has been compared to conventional PCBM-P3HT devices, and the general relationship of increasing efficiency with increasing temperature is observed. However, the necessity to control nanotube percolation to prevent device shunting has led to recent developments which focus on controlling nanotube length through oxidative cutting, the deposition of intrinsic polymer layers, and the use of aligned carbon nanotube arrays for preferential charge transport.

  12. Molecular Photovoltaics and Artificial Sight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenbaum, Elias

    2005-03-01

    The goal of this project is insertion of purified Photosystem I (PSI) reaction centers or other photoactive agents into retinal cells where they will restore photoreceptor function to people who suffer from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) or retinitis pigmentosa (RP), diseases that are the leading causes of blindness world-wide. Although the neural ``wiring'' from eye to brain is intact, these patients lack photoreceptor activity. It is the ultimate goal of this project to restore photoreceptor activity to these patients using PSI as the optical trigger. In principle, the approach should work. PSI is a robust integral membrane molecular photovoltaic device. Depending on orientation, it can depolarize or hyperpolarize the cell membrane with sufficient voltage to trigger an action potential. The first objective of this work, reported here, is to impart photoreceptor activity to mammalian cells using the previously determined molecular photovoltaic properties of isolated Photosystem I reaction centers. Incubation of WERI-Rb-1 retinoblastoma cells with functional PSI reaction centers that were isolated from spinach leaves and reconstituted into proteoliposomes resulted in a light-induced PSI-dependent increase in intracellular Ca^2+. The increase, due to Ca^2+ uptake, was dependent on the presence of extracellular Ca^2+ ions.

  13. Biomolecular Photovoltaics and Artificial Sight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenbaum, Elias; Kuritz, Tanya; Lee, Ida; Owens, Elizabeth T.; Humayun, Mark

    2004-11-01

    The goal of this project is insertion of purified Photosystem I (PSI) reaction centers or other photoactive agents into retinal cells where they will restore photoreceptor function to people who suffer from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) or retinitis pigmentosa (RP), diseases that are the leading causes of blindness world-wide. Although the neural ``wiring'' from eye to brain is intact, these patients lack photoreceptor activity. It is the ultimate goal of this project to restore photoreceptor activity to these patients using PSI as the optical trigger. In principle, the approach should work. PSI is a robust integral membrane molecular photovoltaic device. Depending on orientation, it can depolarize or hyperpolarize the cell membrane with sufficient voltage to trigger an action potential. The first objective of this work, reported here, is to impart photoreceptor activity to mammalian cells using the previously determined molecular photovoltaic properties of isolated Photosystem I reaction centers. Incubation of WERI-Rb-1 retinoblastoma cells with functional PSI reaction centers that were isolated from spinach leaves and reconstituted into proteoliposomes resulted in a light-induced PSI-dependent increase in intracellular Ca^2+. The increase, due to Ca^2+ uptake, was dependent on the presence of extracellular Ca^2+ ions.

  14. Applying photovoltaics to disaster relief

    SciTech Connect

    Young, W. Jr.

    1996-11-01

    Hurricanes, floods, tornados, earthquakes and other disasters can happen at any time, often with little or no advance warning. They can be as destructive as Hurricane Andrew leaving several hundred-thousand people homeless or as minor as an afternoon thunderstorm knocking down local power lines to your home. Major disasters leave many people without adequate medical services, potable water, electrical service and communications. In response to a natural disaster, photovoltaic (solar electric) modules offer a source of quiet, safe, pollution-free electrical power. Photovoltaic (PV) power systems are capable of providing the electrical needs for vaccine refrigerators, microscopes, medical equipment, lighting, radios, fans, communications, traffic devices and other general electrical needs. Stand alone PV systems do not require refueling and operate for long period of time from the endless energy supplied by the sun, making them beneficial during recovery efforts. This report discusses the need for electrical power during a disaster, and the capability of PV to fill that need. Applications of PV power used during previous disaster relief efforts are also presented.

  15. Real options analysis for photovoltaic project under climate uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyeongseok; Kim, Sejong; Kim, Hyoungkwan

    2016-08-01

    The decision on photovoltaic project depends on the level of climate environments. Changes in temperature and insolation affect photovoltaic output. It is important for investors to consider future climate conditions for determining investments on photovoltaic projects. We propose a real options-based framework to assess economic feasibility of photovoltaic project under climate change. The framework supports investors to evaluate climate change impact on photovoltaic projects under future climate uncertainty.

  16. Spatially Resolved Photocurrent Mapping of Operating Organic Photovoltaic Devices Using Atomic Force Photovoltaic Microscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    106, 191 2006. 14H. R. Moutinho, R. G. Dhere, C. S. Jiang, M. M. Al-Jassim, and L. L. Kazmerski, Thin Solid Films 514, 150 2006. 15D. C. Coffey...characterize spatially localized inhomogeneities in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. In AFPM, a biased cAFM probe is raster scanned over an array...technique, atomic force photovoltaic microscopy (AFPM), has been developed to characterize spatially localized inhomogeneities in organic photovoltaic

  17. Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Eleventh Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology conference was held at NASA Lewis Research Center from May 7 to 9, 1991. The papers and workshop summaries presented here report remarkable progress on a wide variety of approaches in space photovoltaics, both near and far term applications. Papers were presented in a variety of technical areas, including multijunction cell technology, GaAs and InP cells, system studies, cell and array development, and photovoltaics for conversion of laser radiation. Three workshops were held to discuss thin film cell development, III-V cell development, and space environmental effects.

  18. Making the most of residential photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, S.; Parker, D.; Hayter, S.

    1999-10-18

    Making the Most of Residential Photovoltaic Systems, was recently produced by NREL Communications and Public Affairs. It showcases a demonstration project in Florida that produced some remarkable results by incorporating both energy efficiency and photovoltaic systems into newly built housing. The brochure points up the benefits of making wise personal choices about energy use, and how large-scale use of advanced energy technologies can benefit the nation. This is one of a series of brochures that presents stimulating information about photovoltaics, with a goal of helping to push this technology into the power-generation mix in different utilities, communities, and states.

  19. Photovoltaics: Contract lists, fiscal year 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    US DOE's Photovoltaics Program has helped photovoltaic technologies evolve from materials and concepts in laboratories to competitive products rolling off automated assembly lines. The program is working to expand industrial capacity while continuing basic and applied technology R and D. This document is a tabulation of photovoltaics R and D that were begun, continued, or completed during this period. National laboratories or industrial, academic, and nonprofit research institutions perform the RR and D activities. The document is organized first by directing organization, then by project title and individual task. Each listing provides the name of contractor, period of performance, funding, objectives, accoplishments, and FY 1993 milestones. An index of contractors is included. (DLC)

  20. A molecular spin-photovoltaic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiangnan; Vélez, Saül; Atxabal, Ainhoa; Bedoya-Pinto, Amilcar; Parui, Subir; Zhu, Xiangwei; Llopis, Roger; Casanova, Fèlix; Hueso, Luis E.

    2017-08-01

    We fabricated a C60 fullerene–based molecular spin-photovoltaic device that integrates a photovoltaic response with the spin transport across the molecular layer. The photovoltaic response can be modified under the application of a small magnetic field, with a magnetophotovoltage of up to 5% at room temperature. Device functionalities include a magnetic current inverter and the presence of diverging magnetocurrent at certain illumination levels that could be useful for sensing. Completely spin-polarized currents can be created by balancing the external partially spin-polarized injection with the photogenerated carriers.

  1. Hybrid Photovoltaic-Thermal Collectors: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Figueiredo; Cardoso, António; Alcaso, Adérito

    Solar energy can be converted directly into electric and thermal energy through photovoltaic cells and thermal collectors, respectively. However this conversion, in particular the photovoltaic, has a reduced efficiency. A solution proposed to increase this efficiency is with the hybrid solar structure, which consists in the junction of the photovoltaic panel and the thermal collector in a single module. The interest on these solar systems led the International Energy Agency to create a "Task" on this subject. This paper presents a review of the research in this area, presenting the definitions of the related collectors and results of their characteristics, as well as some ideas for future studies.

  2. Air Force Federal Photovoltaic Utilization Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, J. F.

    1985-03-01

    The technical and financial history of the Federal Photovoltaic Utilization Program within the US Air Force is briefly reported. The projects included microwave sites at Edwards Air Force Base, communication vans at Nellis Air Force Base Tactical Range, photovoltaic homes at Tyndal and Kirtland Air Force Bases, a community energy system at McClellan Air Force Base, and an aircraft arresting system that employs a photovoltaic power supply to drive engines that erect and remove barriers for keeping aircraft from travelling off the end of a runway.

  3. Issues in space photovoltaic research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, Dennis J.

    1987-01-01

    Key issues and opportunities in space photovoltaic research and technology are addressed relative to future NASA mission requirements and drivers. Examples are given of future space missions and/or operational capabilities that are on NASA's planning horizon, presenting major technology challenges to the use of photovoltaic power generation in space. A brief description of the capabilities ascribed to the competing technologies of nuclear and solar thermal power systems are discussed. The performance goals that space photovoltaic power systems must meet to remain competitive are described.

  4. Potential and Innovations in Rooftop Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierman, Ben

    2011-11-01

    Photovoltaic technology has reached a point where its cost and capability make it one of a handful of carbon-free sources of electrical energy that could meet a meaningful fraction of US energy demand. In this paper we will first compare Photovoltaics with several other carbon free energy technologies, then look at the economics of Solyndra's rooftop photovoltaic solution as an example of the current state of the art, as well as the market dynamics that have resulted in dramatically faster adoption in Germany vs. the United States.

  5. Issues in space photovoltaic research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, Dennis J.

    1987-01-01

    Key issues and opportunities in space photovoltaic research and technology are addressed relative to future NASA mission requirements and drivers. Examples are given of future space missions and/or operational capabilities that are on NASA's planning horizon presenting major tachnology challenges to the use of photovoltaic power generation in space. A brief description of the capabilities ascribed to the competing technologies of nuclear and solar thermal power systems are given. The performance goals that space photovoltaic power systems must meet to remain competitive are described.

  6. A photovoltaic industry overview - The results of a survey on photovoltaic technology industrialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferber, R. R.; Costogue, E. N.; Thornhill, J. W.; Shimada, K.

    1981-01-01

    The National Photovoltaics Program of the United States Department of Energy has the objective of bringing photovoltaic power systems to a point where they can supply a significant portion of the United States energy requirements by the year 2000. This is planned to be accomplished through substantial research and technology development activities aimed at achieving major cost reductions and market penetration. This paper presents information derived from a limited survey performed to obtain photovoltaic industry attitudes concerning industrialization, and to determine current industry plans to meet the DOE program goals. Silicon material production, a key photovoltaic manufacturing industry, is highlighted with regards to implementation of technology improvement and silicon material supply outlook.

  7. A photovoltaic industry overview - The results of a survey on photovoltaic technology industrialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferber, R. R.; Costogue, E. N.; Thornhill, J. W.; Shimada, K.

    1981-01-01

    The National Photovoltaics Program of the United States Department of Energy has the objective of bringing photovoltaic power systems to a point where they can supply a significant portion of the United States energy requirements by the year 2000. This is planned to be accomplished through substantial research and technology development activities aimed at achieving major cost reductions and market penetration. This paper presents information derived from a limited survey performed to obtain photovoltaic industry attitudes concerning industrialization, and to determine current industry plans to meet the DOE program goals. Silicon material production, a key photovoltaic manufacturing industry, is highlighted with regards to implementation of technology improvement and silicon material supply outlook.

  8. Photovoltaic module and module arrays

    DOEpatents

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Lenox, Carl J. S.; Culligan, Matthew; Danning, Matt

    2013-08-27

    A photovoltaic (PV) module including a PV device and a frame, The PV device has a PV laminate defining a perimeter and a major plane. The frame is assembled to and encases the laminate perimeter, and includes leading, trailing, and side frame members, and an arm that forms a support face opposite the laminate. The support face is adapted for placement against a horizontal installation surface, to support and orient the laminate in a non-parallel or tilted arrangement. Upon final assembly, the laminate and the frame combine to define a unitary structure. The frame can orient the laminate at an angle in the range of 3.degree.-7.degree. from horizontal, and can be entirely formed of a polymeric material. Optionally, the arm incorporates integral feature(s) that facilitate interconnection with corresponding features of a second, identically formed PV module.

  9. A Space Testbed for Photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Bailey, Sheila G.

    1998-01-01

    The Ohio Aerospace Institute and the NASA Lewis Research Center are designing and building a solar-cell calibration facility, the Photovoltaic Engineering Testbed (PET) to fly on the International Space Station to test advanced solar cell types in the space environment. A wide variety of advanced solar cell types have become available in the last decade. Some of these solar cells offer more than twice the power per unit area of the silicon cells used for the space station power system. They also offer the possibilities of lower cost, lighter weight, and longer lifetime. The purpose of the PET facility is to reduce the cost of validating new technologies and bringing them to spaceflight readiness. The facility will be used for three primary functions: calibration, measurement, and qualification. It is scheduled to be launched in June of 2002.

  10. A Space Testbed for Photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Bailey, Sheila G.

    1998-01-01

    The Ohio Aerospace Institute and the NASA Lewis Research Center are designing and building a solar-cell calibration facility, the Photovoltaic Engineering Testbed (PET) to fly on the International Space Station to test advanced solar cell types in the space environment. A wide variety of advanced solar cell types have become available in the last decade. Some of these solar cells offer more than twice the power per unit area of the silicon cells used for the space station power system. They also offer the possibilities of lower cost, lighter weight, and longer lifetime. The purpose of the PET facility is to reduce the cost of validating new technologies and bringing them to spaceflight readiness. The facility will be used for three primary functions: calibration, measurement, and qualification. It is scheduled to be launched in June of 2002.

  11. Photovoltaic Plasma Interaction Test 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Bradford A.; Chrulski, Daniel; Myers, Roger M.

    1996-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) program is developing a plasma contactor to mitigate the harmful effects of charge collection on the station's large photovoltaic arrays. The purpose of the present test was to examine the effects of charge collection on the solar array electrical circuit and to verify the effectiveness of the plasma contactor. The results showed that the plasma contactor was able to eliminate structure arcing for any array output voltage. However, the current requirements of the plasma contactor were higher than those for prior testing and predicted by analysis. Three possible causes for this excess current demand are discussed. The most likely appeared to be a high local pressure on or very near the surface of the array as a result of vacuum tank conditions. Therefore, in actual space conditions, the plasma contactor should work as predicted.

  12. Integrated residential photovoltaic array development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An optimum integrated residential photovoltaic array/module is addressed. Nineteen existing or proposed systems intended for residential applications are described. Each of these systems is rated against a comprehensive set of evaluation criteria in an effort to formulate three module design concepts for further study and analysis. This evaluation led to a number of observations which are enumerated and should be considered in future module and array designs. Three module concepts are presented as baseline design approaches to be further analyzed and optimized. These options include: (1) a rectangular, direct mounted, shingle type module; (2) an integrally mounted module with nonconductive exposed elements; and (3) an aluminum framed, stand off module. Preliminary design drawings are presented for each of these module configurations.

  13. Computational Spectroscopy for Nanoscale Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardi, Marco

    2013-03-01

    Nanoscale photovoltaic (PV) systems employ nanomaterial interfaces to dissociate bound excitons formed upon sunlight absorption. This mechanism results in a correlated electron, hole, and exciton interface dynamics whose accurate determination is challenging both theoretically and experimentally. In this talk, I will discuss approaches available to compute and combine relevant spectroscopic quantities to predict efficient nanoscale PV systems. Further, I will present our recent work on two novel families of nanoscale PV devices based on: 1) Nanocarbon materials, achieving 1.3% efficiency, tunable infra-red optical absorption, and superior photostability compared to organic solar cells 2) Two-dimensional monolayer semiconductors such as Graphene-BN and MoS2, capable of absorbing a significant fraction of sunlight within just ~ 10 nm, and showing tunable absorption, band offsets, and power conversion efficiency (PCE).

  14. Photovoltaic manufacturing technology, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Izu, M. )

    1992-03-01

    This report examines manufacturing multiple-band-gap, multiple- junction solar cells and photovoltaic modules. Amorphous silicon alloy material is deposited (using microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition) on a stainless-steel substrate using a roll-to-roll process that is continuous and automated. Rapid thermal equilibration of the metal substrate allows rapid throughput of large-area devices in smaller production machines. Potential improvements in the design, deposition, and module fabrication process are described. Problems are also discussed that could impede using these potential improvements. Energy Conversion Devices, Inc. (ECD) proposes cost and time estimates for investigating and solving these problems. Manufacturing modules for less than $1.00 per peak watt and stable module efficiencies of greater than 10% are near-term goals proposed by ECD. 18 refs.

  15. Photovoltaic module parameters acquisition model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibira, Gabriel; Koščová, Marcela

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents basic procedures for photovoltaic (PV) module parameters acquisition using MATLAB and Simulink modelling. In first step, MATLAB and Simulink theoretical model are set to calculate I-V and P-V characteristics for PV module based on equivalent electrical circuit. Then, limited I-V data string is obtained from examined PV module using standard measurement equipment at standard irradiation and temperature conditions and stated into MATLAB data matrix as a reference model. Next, the theoretical model is optimized to keep-up with the reference model and to learn its basic parameters relations, over sparse data matrix. Finally, PV module parameters are deliverable for acquisition at different realistic irradiation, temperature conditions as well as series resistance. Besides of output power characteristics and efficiency calculation for PV module or system, proposed model validates computing statistical deviation compared to reference model.

  16. Photovoltaics: The next ten years

    SciTech Connect

    Yerkes, J.W.

    1984-08-01

    By 1984 companies manufacturing photovoltaics had been doing serious business making low cost solar arrays for twelve years. Grid connected systems of megawatt size are operating in California, and more are on the drawing board. At least six companies in the USA have produced thin film cells of over ten percent and more are working in the field. New short term goals for thin film efficiency in the twelve to fifteen percent range promise to challenge the single crystal silicon cell which has dominated the business since 1972. ARCO Solar believes that a new class of ULTRA GENERATORS twenty percent efficient and selling for two dollars per peak watt can be deployed by utilities in the 1990's.

  17. Photovoltaic module and module arrays

    DOEpatents

    Botkin, Jonathan [El Cerrito, CA; Graves, Simon [Berkeley, CA; Lenox, Carl J. S. [Oakland, CA; Culligan, Matthew [Berkeley, CA; Danning, Matt [Oakland, CA

    2012-07-17

    A photovoltaic (PV) module including a PV device and a frame. The PV device has a PV laminate defining a perimeter and a major plane. The frame is assembled to and encases the laminate perimeter, and includes leading, trailing, and side frame members, and an arm that forms a support face opposite the laminate. The support face is adapted for placement against a horizontal installation surface, to support and orient the laminate in a non-parallel or tilted arrangement. Upon final assembly, the laminate and the frame combine to define a unitary structure. The frame can orient the laminate at an angle in the range of 3.degree.-7.degree. from horizontal, and can be entirely formed of a polymeric material. Optionally, the arm incorporates integral feature(s) that facilitate interconnection with corresponding features of a second, identically formed PV module.

  18. FSEC experimental photovoltaic house simulation and operation

    SciTech Connect

    Khattar, M.K.; Atmaram, G.H.

    1982-01-01

    Presented is an analysis of the electrical performance of the 5kW peak photovoltaic array on the roof of the Florida Solar Energy Center experimental photovoltaic house. The system was modeled and simulated using SOLCEL II and TRNSYS Version 11.1 computer codes. Measured hourly radiation on the tilted collector plane, ambient temperature and wind speed data were used as weather input in the modeling. Predicted dc power and energy output, assuming maximum power tracking in simulation models, has been compared with measured output data from the photovoltaic array on four days with varying degree of solar radiation - from bright to cloudy days. In addition, the predicted cell temperature from these models has been compared with measured data. Presented are a description of the photovoltaic system and its data acquisition system, the characteristics of the days selected for hourly simulations, and a comparison of the measured performance versus the model predictions.

  19. Photon management modeling and beyond for photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermel, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Improving the performance of photovoltaics is important for increased deployment in a broad range of applications. In this article, it is shown that combining detailed models for full-wave optics with one or more other physics models represents an emerging field of research. In particular, connections are made with geometric optics, electronic transport, and thermal transport. First, structures combining random texturing and periodic gratings offer the promise of higher light-trapping performance for a broad range of thin-film photovoltaic systems. Second, combining full-wave optics with electronic transport creates an opportunity to accurately model the limits of performance for devices approaching the Shockley-Queisser limit. Finally, combining optical with thermal modeling creates the potential for a physics-based understanding of intrinsic photovoltaic module failures, necessary to ensure a long life for photovoltaic cells.

  20. Basic research challenges in crystalline silicon photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, J.H.

    1995-08-01

    Silicon is abundant, non-toxic and has an ideal band gap for photovoltaic energy conversion. Experimental world record cells of 24 % conversion efficiency with around 300 {mu}m thickness are only 4 % (absolute) efficiency points below the theoretical Auger recombination-limit of around 28 %. Compared with other photovoltaic materials, crystalline silicon has only very few disadvantages. The handicap of weak light absorbance may be mastered by clever optical designs. Single crystalline cells of only 48 {mu}m thickness showed 17.3 % efficiency even without backside reflectors. A technology of solar cells from polycrystalline Si films on foreign substrates arises at the horizon. However, the disadvantageous, strong activity of grain boundaries in Si could be an insurmountable hurdle for a cost-effective, terrestrial photovoltaics based on polycrystalline Si on foreign substrates. This talk discusses some basic research challenges related to a Si based photovoltaics.

  1. Time-Resolved Photoluminescence and Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, W. K.; Ahrenkiel, R. K.; Dippo, P.; Geisz, J.; Wanlass, M. W.; Kurtz, S.

    2005-01-01

    The time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) technique and its ability to characterize recombination in bulk photovoltaic semiconductor materials are reviewed. Results from a variety of materials and a few recent studies are summarized and compared.

  2. Photovoltaic Residential Applications Program Implementation Workshop Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbieri, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    Two major aspects of the workshop are presented: (1) presentations on the Photovoltaic program and the National Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration program, and (2) discussions on the issues pertinent to the Residential Application program.

  3. Residential photovoltaic module and array requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nearhoof, S. L.; Oster, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Design requirements for photovoltaic modules and arrays used in residential applications were identified. Building codes and referenced standards were reviewed for their applicability to residential photovoltaic array installations. Four installation types were identified - integral (replaces roofing), direct (mounted on top of roofing), stand-off (mounted away from roofing), and rack (for flat or low slope roofs, or ground mounted). Installation costs were developed for these mounting types as a function of panel/module size. Studies were performed to identify optimum module shapes and sizes and operating voltage cost drivers. It is concluded that there are no perceived major obstacles to the use of photovoltaic modules in residential arrays. However, there is no applicable building code category for residential photovoltaic modules and arrays and additional work with standards writing organizations is needed to develop residential module and array requirements.

  4. Battery compatibility with photovoltaic charge controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, S. R.; Bower, W. I.

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems offer a cost-effective solution to provide electrical power for a wide variety of applications, with battery performance playing a major role in their success. Some of the results of an industry meeting regarding battery specifications and ratings that photovoltaic system designers require, but do not typically have available to them are presented. Communications between the PV industry and the battery industry regarding appropriate specifications were uncoordinated and poor in the past. The effort under way involving the PV industry and battery manufacturers is discussed and a working draft of specifications to develop and outline the information sorely needed on batteries is provided. The development of this information is referred to as 'Application Notes for Batteries in Photovoltaic Systems.' The content of these 'notes' was compiled from various sources, including the input from the results of a survey on battery use in the photovoltaic industry. Only lead-acid batteries are discussed.

  5. Central station market development strategies for photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Federal market development strategies designed to accelerate the market penetration of central station applications of photovoltaic energy system are analyzed. Since no specific goals were set for the commercialization of central station applications, strategic principles are explored which, when coupled with specific objectives for central stations, can produce a market development implementation plan. The study includes (1) background information on the National Photovoltaic Program, photovoltaic technology, and central stations; (2) a brief market assessment; (3) a discussion of the viewpoints of the electric utility industry with respect to solar energy; (4) a discussion of commercialization issues; and (5) strategy principles. It is recommended that a set of specific goals and objectives be defined for the photovoltaic central station program, and that these goals and objectives evolve into an implementation plan that identifies the appropriate federal role.

  6. NASA-OAST photovoltaic energy conversion program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullin, J. P.; Loria, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    The NASA program in photovoltaic energy conversion research is discussed. Solar cells, solar arrays, gallium arsenides, space station and spacecraft power supplies, and state of the art devices are discussed.

  7. High-performance Si microwire photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Kelzenberg, Michael D.; Turner-Evans, Daniel B.; Putnam, Morgan C.; Boettcher, Shannon W.; Briggs, Ryan M.; Baek, Jae Y.; Lewis, Nathan S.; Atwater, Harry A.

    2011-01-07

    Crystalline Si wires, grown by the vapor–liquid–solid (VLS) process, have emerged as promising candidate materials for low-cost, thin-film photovoltaics. Here, we demonstrate VLS-grown Si microwires that have suitable electrical properties for high-performance photovoltaic applications, including long minority-carrier diffusion lengths (Ln>> 30 µm) and low surface recombination velocities (S << 70 cm·s-1). Single-wire radial p–n junction solar cells were fabricated with amorphous silicon and silicon nitride surface coatings, achieving up to 9.0% apparent photovoltaic efficiency, and exhibiting up to ~600 mV open-circuit voltage with over 80% fill factor. Projective single-wire measurements and optoelectronic simulations suggest that large-area Si wire-array solar cells have the potential to exceed 17% energy-conversion efficiency, offering a promising route toward cost-effective crystalline Si photovoltaics.

  8. University Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Ajeet Rohatgi; Vijay Yelundur; Abasifreke Ebong; Dong Seop Kim

    2008-08-18

    The overall goal of the program is to advance the current state of crystalline silicon solar cell technology to make photovoltaics more competitive with conventional energy sources. This program emphasizes fundamental and applied research that results in low-cost, high-efficiency cells on commercial silicon substrates with strong involvement of the PV industry, and support a very strong photovoltaics education program in the US based on classroom education and hands-on training in the laboratory.

  9. Extended use of photovoltaic solar panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guazzoni, Guido E.; Rose, M. Frank

    1996-02-01

    The use of photovoltaic solar panels (and related generation of electric power) can be extended to a 24 hours per day under any environmental condition by equipping them with an artificial source of light, with emitting wavelengths matched to the photovoltaic solar panels, to be turned on in the absence of sunlight. This source of light can be obtained by heating a mantle to an incandescent temperature via the efficient, low polluting combustion of Natural Gas, Butane, Propane, or other gaseous Hydrocarbon fuel.

  10. Solar radiation on Mars: Stationary photovoltaic array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appelbaum, J.; Sherman, I.; Landis, G. A.

    1993-01-01

    Solar energy is likely to be an important power source for surface-based operation on Mars. Photovoltaic cells offer many advantages. In this article we have presented analytical expressions and solar radiation data for stationary flat surfaces (horizontal and inclined) as a function of latitude, season and atmospheric dust load (optical depth). The diffuse component of the solar radiation on Mars can be significant, thus greatly affecting the optimal inclination angle of the photovoltaic surface.

  11. Residential photovoltaic system simulation: Thermal aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, G. W.; Raghuraman, P.

    1982-04-01

    A TRNSYS simulation was developed to simulate the performance of utility interactive residential photovoltaic energy systems. The PV system is divided into its major functional components, which are individually described with computer models. These models are described in detail. The results of simulation and actual measured data obtained a MIT Lincoln Laboratory's Northeast Residential Station are compared. The thermal influences on the design of such photovoltaic energy systems are given particular attention.

  12. Residential photovoltaic power systems for the northeast

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, M. C.

    1981-01-01

    A project to develop Residential Photovoltaic Systems has begun at Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory with the construction and testing of five Prototype Systems. Each of these systems utilizes a roof-mounted photovoltaic array and allows excess solar-generated electric energy to be fed back to the local utility grid, eliminating the need for on-site storage. Specific features of the five Prototype Systems now under test are presented, and performance results to date are discussed.

  13. Maintenance of Photovoltaic Power Systems. Revision 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    superstrate (usually tempered glass), an encapsulant, photovoltaic cells, and a substrate laminated together under pressure and temperature. The lamination...STRUCTURAL SURSTRATE METAL SEALING GASKET INTrRCONNECTS CELL FRAME TAPE T A P ET R A N P A R E N T S T R U C T U R A L SUPERSTRATE _,, TRANSPARENT...ENCAPSULANT SUPERSTRATE X - MODULE - OPAQUE ENCAPSULANT 1 17- B SACK COVER FIGURE 2-7. Typical Photovoltaic Module Construction. 2.4.3 Electrical

  14. Photovoltaic concentrator assembly with optically active cover

    DOEpatents

    Plesniak, Adam P

    2014-01-21

    A photovoltaic concentrator assembly that includes a housing that defines an internal volume and includes a rim, wherein the rim defines an opening into the internal volume, a photovoltaic cell positioned in the internal volume, and an optical element that includes an optically active body and a flange extending outward from the body, wherein the flange is sealingly engaged with the rim of the housing to enclose the internal volume.

  15. NREL Photovoltaic Program FY 1996 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1997-08-01

    This report summarizes the in-house and subcontract research and development (R&D) activities under the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Photovoltaics (PV) Program from October 1, 1995 through September 30, 1996 (fiscal year [FY] 1996). The NREL PV Program is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Photovoltaics Program, as described in the DOE Photovoltaics Program Plan, FY 1991 - FY 1995. The mission of the DOE National Photovoltaics Program is to: "Work in partnership with U.S. industry to develop and deploy photovoltaic technology for generating economically competitive electric power, making photovoltaics an important contributor to the nation's and the world's energy use and environmental improvement. The two primary goals of the national program are to (1) maintain the U.S. PV industry's world leadership in research and technology development and (2) help the U.S. industry remain a major, profitable force in the world market. The NREL PV Program provides leadership and support to the national program toward achieving its mission and goals.

  16. US photovoltaic patents, 1951--1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    This document contains 2195 US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1951 through 1987; no patents were found in 1950. The entries were located by searching USPA, the data base of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class ''Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric,'' and the subclasses ''Photoelectric,'' ''Testing,'' and ''Applications.'' The search also located patents that contained the words ''photovoltaic(s)'' or ''solar cell(s)'' and their derivatives. A manual search of the patents in the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) patent file augmented the data base search. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors, and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaics. Some patents on these three subjects were included when it appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  17. Photovoltaics program plan, FY 1991--FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This program plan describes the goals and philosophy of DOE National Photovoltaics Program and its major research and development activities for fiscal years (FY) 1991 through 1995. The plan represents a consensus among researchers and manufacturers, as well as current and potential users of photovoltaics (PV). It defines the activites that we believe are necessary to continue the rapid progress toward acceptance of photovoltaics as a serious candidate for cost-competitive electric power generation by the utility, transportation, buildings, and industrial sectors. A succesful National Photovoltaics Program will help achieve many of our national priorities. The mission of the National Photovoltaics Program is to help US industry to develop photovoltaic technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States, making PV a significant part of our national energy mix. To fully achieve this, we must continue to work toward the long-term goals established in our previous program plan: reducing the price of delivered electricity to 5 to 6 cents per kilowatt-hour (kWh), increasing lifetimes to 30 years, and increasing module efficiencies to 15% for flat-plate and 25% for concentrator technologies. If progress continues at its current pace, we expect that the PV industry will have installed at least 1000 megawatts (MW) of capacity in the United States and 500 MW internationally by the year 2000.

  18. US Photovoltaic Patents, 1988--1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials, as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1988 through 1990. The entries were located by searching USPA, the data base of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class ``Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric`` and the subclasses ``Photoelectric,`` ``Testing,`` and ``Applications.`` The search also located patents that contained the words ``photovoltaic(s)`` or ``solar cell(s)`` and their derivatives. A manual search of the patents in the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) patent file augmented the data base search. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaics. Some patents on these three subjects were included when it appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  19. US Photovoltaic Patents, 1988--1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials, as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1988 through 1990. The entries were located by searching USPA, the data base of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric'' and the subclasses Photoelectric,'' Testing,'' and Applications.'' The search also located patents that contained the words photovoltaic(s)'' or solar cell(s)'' and their derivatives. A manual search of the patents in the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) patent file augmented the data base search. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaics. Some patents on these three subjects were included when it appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  20. Photovoltaics Program: utility interface southwest regional workshop proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1981-04-01

    This was the first of a series of regional workshops that will focus on the photovoltaic and utility interface, and the use of photovoltaics as a cogeneration option by utilities. The needs and constraints of the utilities are defined and an understanding is established of the capabilities and limitations of photovoltaic systems as an alternative electricity generation option by utilities. Utilities' viewpoints regarding large-scale central systems and small-scale, interconnected, distributed systems are given. The Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act and other economic, legislative, and regulatory factors affecting photovoltaic systems are discussed. Current status of photovoltaic systems with respect to the Department of Energy Photovoltaic Program is given. (LEW)

  1. 48 CFR 225.7017 - Utilization of domestic photovoltaic devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Utilization of domestic photovoltaic devices. 225.7017 Section 225.7017 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... photovoltaic devices....

  2. 48 CFR 225.7017 - Utilization of domestic photovoltaic devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Utilization of domestic photovoltaic devices. 225.7017 Section 225.7017 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... photovoltaic devices....

  3. 48 CFR 225.7017 - Utilization of domestic photovoltaic devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Utilization of domestic photovoltaic devices. 225.7017 Section 225.7017 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... photovoltaic devices....

  4. III-V High-Efficiency Multijunction Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information for III-V High-Efficiency Multijunction Photovoltaics at the National Center for Photovoltaics.

  5. Challenges to Scaling CIGS Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanbery, B. J.

    2011-03-01

    The challenges of scaling any photovoltaic technology to terawatts of global capacity are arguably more economic than technological or resource constraints. All commercial thin-film PV technologies are based on direct bandgap semiconductors whose absorption coefficient and bandgap alignment with the solar spectrum enable micron-thick coatings in lieu to hundreds of microns required using indirect-bandgap c-Si. Although thin-film PV reduces semiconductor materials cost, its manufacture is more capital intensive than c-Si production, and proportional to deposition rate. Only when combined with sufficient efficiency and cost of capital does this tradeoff yield lower manufacturing cost. CIGS has the potential to become the first thin film technology to achieve the terawatt benchmark because of its superior conversion efficiency, making it the only commercial thin film technology which demonstrably delivers performance comparable to the dominant incumbent, c-Si. Since module performance leverages total systems cost, this competitive advantage bears directly on CIGS' potential to displace c-Si and attract the requisite capital to finance the tens of gigawatts of annual production capacity needed to manufacture terawatts of PV modules apace with global demand growth.

  6. Photovoltaic measurements and performance branch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asher, S. E.; Dippo, P.

    1990-05-01

    The Photovoltaic (PV) Measurements and Performance Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) provides comprehensive PV materials, device and component characterization, measurement, fabrication, and modeling research and support for the international PV research community in the context of the U.S. Department of Energy's PV m goals. The progress of the Branch is summarized. The seven technical sections present a succinct overview of the capabilities and accomplishments of each group in the Branch. The Branch is comprised of the following groups; Surface and Interface Analysis, Materials Characterization, Device Development, Electro-Optical Characterization, Cell Performance, Advanced Module Testing and Performance, and Surface and Interface Modification and Stability. The main research projects completed in FY 1989 are highlighted including measurements and tests of PV materials, cells, submodules and modules. The report contains a comprehensive bibliography of the more than 80 branch-originated journal and conference publications which were authored in collaboration with, or in support of, approximately 130 university, industrial, government, and in-house research groups.

  7. Biomonitoring for the photovoltaics industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bernholc, N.M.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1995-07-01

    Biomonitoring often is used as a method for estimating the dose to an individual. Therefore, a parameter of measurement, or biomarkers must be identified. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of biomonitoring protocols for metals used in the photovoltaics industry. Special attention is given to areas that often are skimmed over, to gain insights into some of the problems that may arise when these tasks are carried out. Biological monitoring can be used to determine current human exposures to chemicals, as well as to detect past exposures, and the effects that these exposures may have on human health. It is used in conjunction with environmental monitoring to describe more completely worker`s exposures to, and absorption of, chemicals in the workplace. Biological specimens (e.g., blood, hair or urine) are analyzed for chemical agents, metabolites, or for some specific effect on the person (Lowry 1994). Biomonitoring can assess a workers exposure to industrial chemicals by all routes including skin absorption and ingestion. Although the methodology still is in its infancy, in cases where the procedures have been developed, it can be an invaluable component of an ongoing program of industrial hygiene monitoring. Like any technology, there are limitations to its effectiveness because of a lack of knowledge, contamination of specimens, and the introduction of errors.

  8. Integrated residential photovoltaic array development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Royal, G. C., III

    1981-01-01

    Sixteen conceptual designs of residential photovoltaic arrays are described. Each design concept was evaluated by an industry advisory panel using a comprehensive set of technical, economic and institutional criteria. Key electrical and mechanical concerns that effect further array subsystem development are also discussed. Three integrated array design concepts were selected by the advisory panel for further optimization and development. From these concepts a single one will be selected for detailed analysis and prototype fabrication. The three concepts selected are: (1) An array of frameless panels/modules sealed in a T shaped zipper locking neoprene gasket grid pressure fitted into an extruded aluminum channel grid fastened across the rafters. (2) An array of frameless modules pressure fitted in a series of zipper locking EPDM rubber extrusions adhesively bonded to the roof. Series string voltage is developed using a set of integral tongue connectors and positioning blocks. (3) An array of frameless modules sealed by a silicone adhesive in a prefabricated grid of rigid tape and sheet metal attached to the roof.

  9. Apparatus for making photovoltaic devices

    DOEpatents

    Foote, James B.; Kaake, Steven A. F.; Meyers, Peter V.; Nolan, James F.

    1994-12-13

    A process and apparatus (70) for making a large area photovoltaic device (22) that is capable of generating low cost electrical power. The apparatus (70) for performing the process includes an enclosure (126) providing a controlled environment in which an oven (156) is located. At least one and preferably a plurality of deposition stations (74,76,78) provide heated vapors of semiconductor material within the oven (156) for continuous elevated temperature deposition of semiconductor material on a sheet substrate (24) including a glass sheet (26) conveyed within the oven. The sheet substrate (24) is conveyed on a roller conveyor (184) within the oven (156) and the semiconductor material whose main layer (82) is cadmium telluride is deposited on an upwardly facing surface (28) of the substrate by each deposition station from a location within the oven above the roller conveyor. A cooling station (86) rapidly cools the substrate (24) after deposition of the semiconductor material thereon to strengthen the glass sheet of the substrate.

  10. Designer Nanocrystal Materials for Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagan, Cherie

    Advances in synthetic methods allow a wide range of semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) to be tailored in size and shape and to be used as building blocks in the design of NC solids. However, the long, insulating ligands commonly employed in the synthesis of colloidal NCs inhibit strong interparticle coupling and charge transport once NCs are assembled into the solids state as NC arrays. We will describe the range of short, compact ligand chemistries we employ to exchange the long, insulating ligands used in synthesis and to increase interparticle coupling. These ligand exchange processes can have a dramatic influence on NC surface chemistry as well as NC organization in the solids, showing examples of short-range order. Synergistically, we use 1) thermal evaporation and diffusion and 2) wet-chemical methods to introduce extrinsic impurities and non-stoichiometry to passivate surface traps and dope NC solids. NC coupling and doping provide control over the density of states and the carrier type, concentration, mobility, and lifetime, which we characterize by a range of electronic and spectroscopic techniques. We will describe the importance of engineering device interfaces to design NC materials for solar photovoltaics.

  11. Printed interconnects for photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, J. D.; Pach, G.; Horowitz, K. A. W.; Stockert, T. R.; Woodhouse, M.; van Hest, M. F. A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Film-based photovoltaic modules employ monolithic interconnects to minimize resistance loss and enhance module voltage via series connection. Conventional interconnect construction occurs sequentially, with a scribing step following deposition of the bottom electrode, a second scribe after deposition of absorber and intermediate layers, and a third following deposition of the top electrode. This method produces interconnect widths of about 300 um, and the area comprised by interconnects within a module (generally about 3%) does not contribute to power generation. The present work reports on an increasingly popular strategy capable of reducing the interconnect width to less than 100 um: printing interconnects. Cost modeling projects a savings of about $0.02/watt for CdTe module production through the use of printed interconnects, with savings coming from both reduced capital expense and increased module power output. Printed interconnect demonstrations with copper-indium-gallium-diselenide and cadmium-telluride solar cells show successful voltage addition and miniaturization down to 250 um. Material selection guidelines and considerations for commercialization are discussed.

  12. Photovoltaic concentrator module improvements study

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S.L.; Kerschen, K.A. ); Hutchison, G. ); Nowlan, M.J. )

    1991-08-01

    This report presents results of a project to design and fabricate an improved photovoltaic concentrator module. Using previous work as a baseline, this study conducted analyses and testing to select major module components and design features. The lens parquet and concentrator solar cell were selected from the highest performing, available components. A single 185X point-focus module was fabricated by the project team and tested at Sandia. Major module characteristics include a 6 by 4 compression-molded acrylic lens parquet (0.737 m{sup 2} area), twenty-four 0.2 ohms-cm, FZ, p-Si solar cells (1.56 cm{sup 2} area) soldered to ceramic substrates and copper heat spreaders, and an aluminized steel housing with corrugated bottom. This project marked the first attempt to use prismatic covers on solar cells in a high-concentration, point-focus application. Cells with 15 percent metallization were obtained, but problems with the fabrication and placement of prismatic covers on these cells lead to the decision not to use covers in the prototype module. Cell assembly fabrication, module fabrication, and module optical design activities are presented here. Test results are also presented for bare cells, cell assemblies, and module. At operating conditions of 981 watts/m{sup 2} DNI and an estimated cell temperature of 65{degrees}C, the module demonstrated an efficiency of 13.9 percent prior to stressed environmental exposure. 12 refs., 56 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Photovoltaic industry progress through 1984

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, R. L.; Smith, S. A.; Dirks, J. A.

    1985-04-01

    The growth of the US photovoltaics (PV) industry over the past decade has been impressive. First designed to provide power for satellites using high-cost production techniques, PV is now the economical choice in many remote terrestrial applications. The remarkable growth of PV in terms of quality of cells and modules, production techniques, and system design, was initiated by a cooperative effort of the US Government and the domestic PV manufacturers. European and Japanese firms entered the PV industry later, but are also growing rapidly. The Europeans continue to supply PV systems for village electrification and water pumping to many Third World countries. The Japanese have been developing the amorphous silicon (A-Si) technology by expanding its use in consumer goods. The objective of this report is to present information on the developments of the world PV industry and focuses on developments occurring in 1984. Information is presented on a regional basis (US, Europe, Japan, other) to avoid disclosing company-confidential data. All information was gleaned from several sources, including a review of the technical literature and direct contacts with PV manufacturers. Prior to publishing the regional totals, all numbers were compared with those of other sources.

  14. Printed interconnects for photovoltaic modules

    DOE PAGES

    Fields, J. D.; Pach, G.; Horowitz, K. A. W.; ...

    2016-10-21

    Film-based photovoltaic modules employ monolithic interconnects to minimize resistance loss and enhance module voltage via series connection. Conventional interconnect construction occurs sequentially, with a scribing step following deposition of the bottom electrode, a second scribe after deposition of absorber and intermediate layers, and a third following deposition of the top electrode. This method produces interconnect widths of about 300 µm, and the area comprised by interconnects within a module (generally about 3%) does not contribute to power generation. The present work reports on an increasingly popular strategy capable of reducing the interconnect width to less than 100 µm: printing interconnects.more » Cost modeling projects a savings of about $0.02/watt for CdTe module production through the use of printed interconnects, with savings coming from both reduced capital expense and increased module power output. Printed interconnect demonstrations with copper-indium-gallium-diselenide and cadmium-telluride solar cells show successful voltage addition and miniaturization down to 250 µm. As a result, material selection guidelines and considerations for commercialization are discussed.« less

  15. Energy losses in photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anis, Wagdy R.; Nour, M. Abdulsadek

    1994-10-01

    The maximum power generated by photovoltaic (PV) arrays is not fully used. During summer, the main cause for the energy loss is the system design that necessitates an oversizing of the PV array to supply the load during the winter season when the solar energy is limited. Other reasons that cause energy loss are: the mismatch between the array and the load or battery, the loss in the batteries, and the loss due to the PV array disconnect. The array disconnect loss takes place during summer season when the battery is fully charged. To avoid the disconnect loss, a novel battery voltage regulator (BVR) is used. This supplies the load directly from the array when the battery is fully charged. Energy losses have been analyzed and divided into fundamental (unavoidable) and non-fundamental losses. Both conventional (using a conventional BVR) and new (using a novel BVR) PV systems are studied. A load that consumes constant power for 24 h a day through the year is considered. The climatic condition of Cairo city is taken as the test case.

  16. Photovoltaic energy gas generating apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Ahuja, O.

    1986-01-21

    This patent describes an apparatus for the recovery and storage of hydrogen, cathode gas, from water. The apparatus consists of: (A) and aquatic float, the float defining: (I) a cathode gas collection chamber, (II) at least one outlet to the collection chamber for withdrawing the collected gas, (III) elongate tubes extending downwardly from the collection chamber and in open communication, (IV) the displacement of the float creating a column of water within each elongate tube, (B) at least one cathode within each elongate tube, the cathodes extending downwardly from the upper ends of the elongate tube to a predetermined level, (C) at least one anode outside the elongate tubes extending downwardly from the float into the water, (D) a photovoltaic panel mounted on the collection chamber and in electrical communication with the cathodes and anodes to electrolyze the water and collect the electrolyzed cathode gas about the cathode within the elongate tubes. The electrolyzed cathode gas rises within the elongate tubes to collect within the collection chamber until the float rises above the predetermined level whereupon the electrolysis is automatically terminated as the cathodes and/or anodes rise above the water.

  17. Hybrid thermionic-photovoltaic converter

    SciTech Connect

    Datas, A.

    2016-04-04

    A conceptual device for the direct conversion of heat into electricity is presented. This concept hybridizes thermionic (TI) and thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion in a single thermionic-photovoltaic (TIPV) solid-state device. This device transforms into electricity both the electron and photon fluxes emitted by an incandescent surface. This letter presents an idealized analysis of this device in order to determine its theoretical potential. According to this analysis, the key advantage of this converter, with respect to either TPV or TI, is the higher power density in an extended temperature range. For low temperatures, TIPV performs like TPV due to the negligible electron flux. On the contrary, for high temperatures, TIPV performs like TI due to the great enhancement of the electron flux, which overshadows the photon flux contribution. At the intermediate temperatures, ∼1650 K in the case of this particular study, I show that the power density potential of TIPV converter is twice as great as that of TPV and TI. The greatest impact concerns applications in which the temperature varies in a relatively wide range, for which averaged power density enhancement above 500% is attainable.

  18. Integrated residential photovoltaic array development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royal, G. C., III

    1981-04-01

    Sixteen conceptual designs of residential photovoltaic arrays are described. Each design concept was evaluated by an industry advisory panel using a comprehensive set of technical, economic and institutional criteria. Key electrical and mechanical concerns that effect further array subsystem development are also discussed. Three integrated array design concepts were selected by the advisory panel for further optimization and development. From these concepts a single one will be selected for detailed analysis and prototype fabrication. The three concepts selected are: (1) An array of frameless panels/modules sealed in a T shaped zipper locking neoprene gasket grid pressure fitted into an extruded aluminum channel grid fastened across the rafters. (2) An array of frameless modules pressure fitted in a series of zipper locking EPDM rubber extrusions adhesively bonded to the roof. Series string voltage is developed using a set of integral tongue connectors and positioning blocks. (3) An array of frameless modules sealed by a silicone adhesive in a prefabricated grid of rigid tape and sheet metal attached to the roof.

  19. Interdigitated photovoltaic power conversion device

    DOEpatents

    Ward, James Scott; Wanlass, Mark Woodbury; Gessert, Timothy Arthur

    1999-01-01

    A photovoltaic power conversion device has a top surface adapted to receive impinging radiation. The device includes at least two adjacent, serially connected cells. Each cell includes a semi-insulating substrate and a lateral conductivity layer of a first doped electrical conductivity disposed on the substrate. A base layer is disposed on the lateral conductivity layer and has the same electrical charge conductivity thereof. An emitter layer of a second doped electrical conductivity of opposite electrical charge is disposed on the base layer and forms a p-n junction therebetween. A plurality of spaced channels are formed in the emitter and base layers to expose the lateral conductivity layer at the bottoms thereof. A front contact grid is positioned on the top surface of the emitter layer of each cell. A first current collector is positioned along one outside edge of at least one first cell. A back contact grid is positioned in the channels at the top surface of the device for engagement with the lateral conductivity layer. A second current collector is positioned along at least one outside edge of at least one oppositely disposed second cell. Finally, an interdigitation mechanism is provided for serially connecting the front contact grid of one cell to the back contact grid of an adjacent cell at the top surface of the device.

  20. Interdigitated photovoltaic power conversion device

    DOEpatents

    Ward, J.S.; Wanlass, M.W.; Gessert, T.A.

    1999-04-27

    A photovoltaic power conversion device has a top surface adapted to receive impinging radiation. The device includes at least two adjacent, serially connected cells. Each cell includes a semi-insulating substrate and a lateral conductivity layer of a first doped electrical conductivity disposed on the substrate. A base layer is disposed on the lateral conductivity layer and has the same electrical charge conductivity thereof. An emitter layer of a second doped electrical conductivity of opposite electrical charge is disposed on the base layer and forms a p-n junction therebetween. A plurality of spaced channels are formed in the emitter and base layers to expose the lateral conductivity layer at the bottoms thereof. A front contact grid is positioned on the top surface of the emitter layer of each cell. A first current collector is positioned along one outside edge of at least one first cell. A back contact grid is positioned in the channels at the top surface of the device for engagement with the lateral conductivity layer. A second current collector is positioned along at least one outside edge of at least one oppositely disposed second cell. Finally, an interdigitation mechanism is provided for serially connecting the front contact grid of one cell to the back contact grid of an adjacent cell at the top surface of the device. 15 figs.

  1. Planar photovoltaic solar concentrator module

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, C.J.

    1992-12-01

    A planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor. 5 figs.

  2. Planar photovoltaic solar concentrator module

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, Clement J.

    1992-01-01

    A planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor.

  3. Planar photovoltaic solar concentrator module

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, C.J.

    1992-12-01

    A planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor. 5 figs.

  4. Photovoltaic Prospection in South Tamaulipas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleme Vila, S.; Rivas, D.; Ortega Izaguirre, R.

    2015-12-01

    Commercial monocrystalline silicon (c-Si), polycrystalline silicon (p-Si) and amorphous silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic (PV) panels are tested on real conditions in order to identify which of the aforementioned PV panels present the best performance in the city of Altamira, Tamaulipas (northeastern Mexico) and to evaluate the impact of the city's climatic conditions over the electrical characteristics and power generation of the aforementioned PV panels. In situ direct solar irradiance and current-voltage characteristics (I-V) of each PV panel were taken from Monday to Friday at 11:00, 13:00 and 15:00 hours (GMT-6) with 3 repeats from 08/04/2014 to 07/31/2015. Also, daylong in situ direct solar irradiance, panel temperature, and I-V characteristics were taken from 8:00 to 20:30 hours with a 30-minute interval in synchrony with National Polytechnic Institute-owned CICATA-I meteorological station in order to cross-reference the experimental data with the station's air temperature, specific humidity and global solar irradiance data. Up to June 2015, c-Si panel presented the best performance on real conditions with mean max power loss of 49% compared to the reference max power value followed by the p-Si with 54% mean max power loss and the a-Si panel with a 73% mean max power loss. The number of cloudy days, electrical resistance due to panel materials nature and meteorological impact are further discussed.

  5. Quantum well multijunction photovoltaic cell

    DOEpatents

    Chaffin, R.J.; Osbourn, G.C.

    1983-07-08

    A monolithic, quantum well, multilayer photovoltaic cell comprises a p-n junction comprising a p-region on one side and an n-region on the other side, each of which regions comprises a series of at least three semiconductor layers, all p-type in the p-region and all n-type in the n-region; each of said series of layers comprising alternating barrier and quantum well layers, each barrier layer comprising a semiconductor material having a first bandgap and each quantum well layer comprising a semiconductor material having a second bandgap when in bulk thickness which is narrower than said first bandgap, the barrier layers sandwiching each quantum well layer and each quantum well layer being sufficiently thin that the width of its bandgap is between said first and second bandgaps, such that radiation incident on said cell and above an energy determined by the bandgap of the quantum well layers will be absorbed and will produce an electrical potential across said junction.

  6. Quantum well multijunction photovoltaic cell

    DOEpatents

    Chaffin, Roger J.; Osbourn, Gordon C.

    1987-01-01

    A monolithic, quantum well, multilayer photovoltaic cell comprises a p-n junction comprising a p-region on one side and an n-region on the other side, each of which regions comprises a series of at least three semiconductor layers, all p-type in the p-region and all n-type in the n-region; each of said series of layers comprising alternating barrier and quantum well layers, each barrier layer comprising a semiconductor material having a first bandgap and each quantum well layer comprising a semiconductor material having a second bandgap when in bulk thickness which is narrower than said first bandgap, the barrier layers sandwiching each quantum well layer and each quantum well layer being sufficiently thin that the width of its bandgap is between said first and second bandgaps, such that radiation incident on said cell and above an energy determined by the bandgap of the quantum well layers will be absorbed and will produce an electrical potential across said junction.

  7. Photovoltaic power systems for rural areas of developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenblum, L.; Bifano, W. J.; Hein, G. F.; Ratajczak, A. F.

    1979-01-01

    Systems technology, reliability, and present and projected costs of photovoltaic systems are discussed using data derived from NASA, Lewis Research Center experience with photovoltaic systems deployed with a variety of users. Operating systems in two villages, one in Upper Volta and the other in southwestern Arizona are described. Energy cost comparisons are presented for photovoltaic systems versus alternative energy sources. Based on present system technology, reliability, and costs, photovoltaics provides a realistic energy option for developing nations.

  8. Microinverters for employment in connection with photovoltaic modules

    DOEpatents

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Johnson, Brian Benjamin; Krein, Philip T.

    2015-09-22

    Microinverters useable in association with photovoltaic modules are described. A three phase-microinverter receives direct current output generated by a microsystems-enabled photovoltaic cell and converts such direct current output into three-phase alternating current out. The three-phase microinverter is interleaved with other three-phase-microinverters, wherein such microinverters are integrated in a photovoltaic module with the microsystems-enabled photovoltaic cell.

  9. Photovoltaic cost reduction powered by nuclear spending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Timothy; Deinert, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Between 1975 to 2010, Japan has spent an average of 2700 Million per year on nuclear R&D and 74 Million per year on solar energy R&D (2010 dollars). While the cost of photovoltaics dropped by a factor of 30 during that time, the overnight cost to build a nuclear power plant has doubled between 2003 and 2009. The price of commercially available photovoltaics has been shown to follow a power law reduction with the number of units produced. This begs the question as to what the current price of these systems would be had some of the available funds used for nuclear R&D been spent on the acquisition of photovoltaics. Here we show the reduction in price for single crystal photovoltaic panels if the Japanese government spent some of their nuclear R&D funds on the installation of these systems. We use historical cost and cumulative production for the world and Japan to build a learning curve model for PV. If the government had spent only 0.07% of its nuclear R&D budget toward PV technology since 1975, photovoltaics would now have reached 1/Watt, the point at which they are cost competitive with conventional resources.

  10. Photovoltaic power system for a lunar base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karia, Kris

    An assessment is provided of the viability of using photovoltaic power technology for lunar base application during the initial phase of the mission. The initial user power demands were assumed to be 25 kW (daytime) and 12.5 kW (night time). The effect of lunar adverse environmental conditions were also considered in deriving the photovoltaic power system concept. The solar cell array was found to impose no more design constraints than those solar arrays currently being designed for spacecraft and the Space Station Freedom. The long lunar night and the need to store sufficient energy to sustain a lunar facility during this period was found to be a major design driver. A photovoltaic power system concept was derived using high efficiency thin GaAs solar cells on a deployable flexible Kapton blanket. The solar array design was sized to generate sufficient power for daytime use and for a regenerative fuel cell (RFC) energy storage system to provide power during the night. Solar array sun-tracking is also proposed to maximize the array power output capability. The system launch mass was estimated to be approximately 10 metric tons. For mission application of photovoltaic technology other issues have to be addressed including the constraints imposed by launch vehicle, safety, and cost. For the initial phase of the mission a photovoltaic power system offers a safe option.

  11. Socioeconomic impact of photovoltaic power at Schuchuli, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahr, D.; Garrett, B. G.; Chrisman, C.

    1980-01-01

    The social and economic impact of photovoltaic power on a small, remote native American village is studied. Village history, group life, energy use in general, and the use of photovoltaic-powered appliances are discussed. No significant impacts due to the photovoltaic power system were observed.

  12. 48 CFR 252.225-7018 - Photovoltaic Devices-Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Photovoltaic Devices... of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7018 Photovoltaic Devices—Certificate. As prescribed in 225.7017-4(b), use the following provision: Photovoltaic Devices—Certificate (DEC 2013) (a)...

  13. Direct mounted photovoltaic device with improved front clip

    SciTech Connect

    Keenihan, James R; Boven, Michelle; Brown, Jr., Claude; Gaston, Ryan S; Hus, Michael; Langmaid, Joe A; Lesniak, Mike

    2013-11-05

    The present invention is premised upon a photovoltaic assembly system for securing and/or aligning at least a plurality of vertically adjacent (overlapping) photovoltaic device assemblies to one another. The securing function being accomplished by a clip member that may be a separate component or integral to one or more of the photovoltaic device assemblies.

  14. Hole-thru-laminate mounting supports for photovoltaic modules

    DOEpatents

    Wexler, Jason; Botkin, Jonathan; Culligan, Matthew; Detrick, Adam

    2015-02-17

    A mounting support for a photovoltaic module is described. The mounting support includes a pedestal having a surface adaptable to receive a flat side of a photovoltaic module laminate. A hole is disposed in the pedestal, the hole adaptable to receive a bolt or a pin used to couple the pedestal to the flat side of the photovoltaic module laminate.

  15. 48 CFR 252.225-7018 - Photovoltaic Devices-Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Photovoltaic Devices... of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7018 Photovoltaic Devices—Certificate. As prescribed in 225.7017-4(b), use the following provision: Photovoltaic Devices—Certificate (MAY 2012) (a)...

  16. Direct mounted photovoltaic device with improved side clip

    DOEpatents

    Keenihan, James R; Boven, Michelle L; Brown, Jr., Claude; Eurich, Gerald K; Gaston, Ryan S; Hus, Michael

    2013-11-19

    The present invention is premised upon a photovoltaic assembly system for securing and/or aligning at least a plurality of vertically adjacent photovoltaic device assemblies to one another. The securing function being accomplished by a clip member that may be a separate component or integral to one or more of the photovoltaic device assemblies.

  17. 48 CFR 252.225-7017 - Photovoltaic Devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Photovoltaic Devices. 252... Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7017 Photovoltaic Devices. As prescribed in 225.7017-4(a), use the following clause: Photovoltaic Devices (AUG 2013) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— Bahrainian...

  18. Photovoltaic utility/customer interface study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichler, C. H.; Hayes, T. P.; Matthews, M. M.; Wilraker, V. F.

    1980-12-01

    The technical, economic, and legal and regulatory issues of interconnecting small, privately-owned, on-site photovoltaic generating systems to an electric utility are addressed. Baseline residential, commercial and industrial class photovoltaic systems were developed. Technical issues of concern affecting this interconnection were identified and included fault protection, undervoltage protection, lamp flicker, revenue metering, loss of synchromism, electrical safety, prevention of backfeeding a de-energized utility feeder, effects of on-site generation on utility relaying schemes, effects of power conditioner harmonic distortion on the electric utility, system isolation, electromagnetic interference and site power factor as seen by the utility. Typical interconnection wiring diagrams were developed for interconnecting each class of baseline photovoltaic generating system.

  19. Design principles for shift current photovoltaics

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Ashley M.; M. Fregoso, Benjamin; de Juan, Fernando; Coh, Sinisa; Moore, Joel E.

    2017-01-01

    While the basic principles of conventional solar cells are well understood, little attention has gone towards maximizing the efficiency of photovoltaic devices based on shift currents. By analysing effective models, here we outline simple design principles for the optimization of shift currents for frequencies near the band gap. Our method allows us to express the band edge shift current in terms of a few model parameters and to show it depends explicitly on wavefunctions in addition to standard band structure. We use our approach to identify two classes of shift current photovoltaics, ferroelectric polymer films and single-layer orthorhombic monochalcogenides such as GeS, which display the largest band edge responsivities reported so far. Moreover, exploring the parameter space of the tight-binding models that describe them we find photoresponsivities that can exceed 100 mA W−1. Our results illustrate the great potential of shift current photovoltaics to compete with conventional solar cells. PMID:28120823

  20. Photovoltaics: Contract lists, fiscal year 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    US DOE`s Photovoltaics Program has helped photovoltaic technologies evolve from materials and concepts in laboratories to competitive products rolling off automated assembly lines. The program is working to expand industrial capacity while continuing basic and applied technology R and D. This document is a tabulation of photovoltaics R and D that were begun, continued, or completed during this period. National laboratories or industrial, academic, and nonprofit research institutions perform the RR and D activities. The document is organized first by directing organization, then by project title and individual task. Each listing provides the name of contractor, period of performance, funding, objectives, accoplishments, and FY 1993 milestones. An index of contractors is included. (DLC)

  1. Design considerations for Mars photovoltaic power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Appelbaum, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    Considerations for operation of a photovoltaic power system on Mars are discussed with reference to Viking Lander data. The average solar insolation at Mars is 590 W/sq m, which is reduced yet further by atmospheric dust. Of major concern are dust storms, which have been observed to occur on local as well as on global scales, and their effect on solar array output. While atmospheric opacity may rise to values ranging from 3 to 9, depending on storm severity, there is still an appreciable large diffuse illumination, even at high opacities, so that photovoltaic operation is still possible. If the power system is to continue to generate power even on high-optical-opacity (i.e., dusty atmosphere) days, it is important that the photovoltaic system be designed to collect diffuse irradiance as well as direct. Energy storage will be required for operation during the night. Temperature and wind provide additional considerations for array design.

  2. Use of photovoltaics for waste heat recovery

    DOEpatents

    Polcyn, Adam D

    2013-04-16

    A device for recovering waste heat in the form of radiated light, e.g. red visible light and/or infrared light includes a housing having a viewing window, and a photovoltaic cell mounted in the housing in a relationship to the viewing window, wherein rays of radiated light pass through the viewing window and impinge on surface of the photovoltaic cell. The housing and/or the cell are cooled so that the device can be used with a furnace for an industrial process, e.g. mounting the device with a view of the interior of the heating chamber of a glass making furnace. In this manner, the rays of the radiated light generated during the melting of glass batch materials in the heating chamber pass through the viewing window and impinge on the surface of the photovoltaic cells to generate electric current which is passed onto an electric load.

  3. Annual Report: Photovoltaic Subcontract Program FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, K. A.

    1992-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1991 (October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991) progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R&D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)-formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Amorphous Silicon Research Project, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High Efficiency Concepts, the New Ideas Program, the University Participation Program, and the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1991, and future research directions.

  4. Photovoltaic module with light reflecting backskin

    DOEpatents

    Gonsiorawski, Ronald C.

    2007-07-03

    A photovoltaic module comprises electrically interconnected and mutually spaced photovoltaic cells that are encapsulated by a light-transmitting encapsulant between a light-transparent front cover and a back cover, with the back cover sheet being an ionomer/nylon alloy embossed with V-shaped grooves running in at least two directions and coated with a light reflecting medium so as to provide light-reflecting facets that are aligned with the spaces between adjacent cells and oriented so as to reflect light falling in those spaces back toward said transparent front cover for further internal reflection onto the solar cells, whereby substantially all of the reflected light will be internally reflected from said cover sheet back to the photovoltaic cells, thereby increasing the current output of the module. The internal reflector improves power output by as much as 67%.

  5. Design principles for shift current photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Cook, Ashley M; M Fregoso, Benjamin; de Juan, Fernando; Coh, Sinisa; Moore, Joel E

    2017-01-25

    While the basic principles of conventional solar cells are well understood, little attention has gone towards maximizing the efficiency of photovoltaic devices based on shift currents. By analysing effective models, here we outline simple design principles for the optimization of shift currents for frequencies near the band gap. Our method allows us to express the band edge shift current in terms of a few model parameters and to show it depends explicitly on wavefunctions in addition to standard band structure. We use our approach to identify two classes of shift current photovoltaics, ferroelectric polymer films and single-layer orthorhombic monochalcogenides such as GeS, which display the largest band edge responsivities reported so far. Moreover, exploring the parameter space of the tight-binding models that describe them we find photoresponsivities that can exceed 100 mA W(-1). Our results illustrate the great potential of shift current photovoltaics to compete with conventional solar cells.

  6. Photovoltaic Power for the Nanosat Project

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, B.H.

    1999-06-01

    This report describes the characteristics of photovoltaic arrays that maybe suitable for use with nanosatellite electronic systems. It includes a thorough literature search on power management and distribution systems for satellites as small as microsatellites. The major conclusion to be drawn is that it is the total system, including satellite electronic system, photovoltaic systems, peak power tracker and the power management and distribution systems which need to be optimized. An example of a peak power tracker is given, and a novel series connected boost unit is described which might allow the system voltage to be increased if enough photovoltaic panels to operate the systems in real time is impractical. Finally, it is recommended that the development effort be oriented and expanded to include a peak power tracker and other power management and distribution systems.

  7. Quantum-Mechanical Prediction of Nanoscale Photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Meng, LingYi; Yam, ChiYung; Chen, GuanHua

    2014-04-03

    Previous simulations of photovoltaic devices are based on classical models, which neglect the atomistic details and quantum-mechanical effects besides the dependence on many empirical parameters. Here, within the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism, we present a quantum-mechanical study of the performance of inorganic nanowire-based photovoltaic devices. On the basis of density-functional tight-binding theory, the method allows simulation of current-voltage characteristics and optical properties of photovoltaic devices without relying on empirical parameters. Numerical studies of silicon nanowire-based devices of realistic sizes with 10 000 atoms are performed, and the results indicate that atomistic details and nonequilibrium conditions have a clear impact on the photoresponse of the devices.

  8. Apparatus for encapsulating a photovoltaic module

    DOEpatents

    Albright, Scot P.; Dugan, Larry M.

    1995-10-24

    The subject inventions concern various photovoltaic module designs to protect the module from horizontal and vertical impacts and degradation of solar cell efficiency caused by moisture. In one design, a plurality of panel supports that are positioned adjacent to the upper panel in a photovoltaic module absorb vertical forces exerted along an axis perpendicular to the upper panel. Other designs employ layers of glass and tempered glass, respectively, to protect the module from vertical impacts. A plurality of button-shaped channels is used around the edges of the photovoltaic module to absorb forces applied to the module along an axis parallel to the module and direct moisture away from the module that could otherwise penetrate the module and adversely affect the cells within the module. A spacer is employed between the upper and lower panels that has a coefficient of thermal expansion substantially equivalent to the coefficient of thermal expansion of at least one of the panels.

  9. Brief review of emerging photovoltaic absorbers

    DOE PAGES

    Zakutayev, Andriy

    2017-02-08

    Photovoltaic solar cells have recently made significant commercial progress and are on track toward meeting more than 1% of global energy demand. However, further research is needed on photovoltaic technologies that face no scalability constraints in generating more than 10% of the world's electricity. This 2017 article briefly reviews emerging photovoltaic absorber materials, focusing on research progress over the past 2-3 years. Particular emphasis is given to emerging solar cell absorbers -- for example, SnS, Sb2Se3, Cu2SnS3, and CuSbSe2 -- related to established solar cell technologies such as CdTe, Cu(In,Ga)Se2, and CH3NH3PbI3. Lastly, the general publication and performance trends aremore » discussed, and the promising future research directions are pointed out.« less

  10. Apparatus for encapsulating a photovoltaic module

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, S.P.; Dugan, L.M.

    1995-10-24

    The subject inventions concern various photovoltaic module designs to protect the module from horizontal and vertical impacts and degradation of solar cell efficiency caused by moisture. In one design, a plurality of panel supports that are positioned adjacent to the upper panel in a photovoltaic module absorb vertical forces exerted along an axis perpendicular to the upper panel. Other designs employ layers of glass and tempered glass, respectively, to protect the module from vertical impacts. A plurality of button-shaped channels is used around the edges of the photovoltaic module to absorb forces applied to the module along an axis parallel to the module and direct moisture away from the module that could otherwise penetrate the module and adversely affect the cells within the module. A spacer is employed between the upper and lower panels that has a coefficient of thermal expansion substantially equivalent to the coefficient of thermal expansion of at least one of the panels. 6 figs.

  11. Photovoltaic subsystem production cost model (SAMIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-07-01

    A complete introduction to the SAMIS model is provided. The purpose of the model is to estimate the costs of manufacturing photovoltaic solar energy products. The model procedure for estimating the long run or steady-state manufacturing cost is divided into four submodels: manufacturing process submodel, factory construction and staffing algorithm, capital requirements submodel, and the financial model of the firm. The model has been applied by Sandia National Laboratories for DOE's National Photovoltaics Program to assess the commercial viability of new solar energy manufacturing processes. However, given the proper input data, the model structure is flexible enough to support the design and analysis of any manufacturing industry. This document explains what the model can and cannot do, and what data is required. An example for a photovoltaic power conditioning unit demonstrates the application of the model.

  12. Optimal building-integrated photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kiss, G.; Kinkead, J.

    1996-11-01

    The integration of photovoltaics (PVs) into buildings can provide significant economic benefits. In the best cases, installation on buildings is the most economical way to install a PV system. Earlier studies by the above authors have determined that infrastructure costs for PV systems are significantly reduced with building integration. In addition, these studies verified that PV modules are a viable replacement for conventional building materials in both economic and architectural terms. This report seeks to identify the highest-value applications for building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV). By considering a range of variables--construction methods and materials, photovoltaic technology, insolation levels and orientation, electrical costs and financial incentives--a payback analysis highlights those BIPV applications which are most economical in the near term.

  13. Design principles for shift current photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Ashley M.; M. Fregoso, Benjamin; de Juan, Fernando; Coh, Sinisa; Moore, Joel E.

    2017-01-01

    While the basic principles of conventional solar cells are well understood, little attention has gone towards maximizing the efficiency of photovoltaic devices based on shift currents. By analysing effective models, here we outline simple design principles for the optimization of shift currents for frequencies near the band gap. Our method allows us to express the band edge shift current in terms of a few model parameters and to show it depends explicitly on wavefunctions in addition to standard band structure. We use our approach to identify two classes of shift current photovoltaics, ferroelectric polymer films and single-layer orthorhombic monochalcogenides such as GeS, which display the largest band edge responsivities reported so far. Moreover, exploring the parameter space of the tight-binding models that describe them we find photoresponsivities that can exceed 100 mA W-1. Our results illustrate the great potential of shift current photovoltaics to compete with conventional solar cells.

  14. Economical photovoltaic power generation with heat recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ascher, G.

    1977-01-01

    Three designs for conversion of solar radiation to electricity and thermal energy are analyzed. The objective of these converters is to increase the electric and thermal output for each photovoltaic array so as to lower the cell cost relative to the amount of energy delivered. An analysis of the economical aspects of conversion by photovoltaic cells with heat recovery is carried out in terms of hypothetical examples. Thus, it is shown that the original cost of say $40,000 per generated kilowat can be reduced to $572.00 per kilowatt by increasing the original electric output of 1 kW to 10 kW in electricity and 60 kW in thermal energy. The newly derived specific cost is only 1.4 percent of the original one. It is expected that a cost reduction of roughly 2% of the present specific cost per kilowatt will greatly stimulate public acceptance of photovoltaic terrestrial conversion to electricity.

  15. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program. Annual report, FY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1992 progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R&D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)-formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Crystalline Materials and Advanced Concepts project, the Polycrystalline Thin Films project, Amorphous Silicon Research project, the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project, PV Module and System Performance and Engineering project, and the PV Analysis and Applications Development project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1992, and future research directions.

  16. Modelling of Photovoltaic Module Using Matlab Simulink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afiqah Zainal, Nurul; Ajisman; Razlan Yusoff, Ahmad

    2016-02-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) module consists of numbers of photovoltaic cells that are connected in series and parallel used to generate electricity from solar energy. The characteristics of PV module are different based on the model and environment factors. In this paper, simulation of photovoltaic module using Matlab Simulink approach is presented. The method is used to determine the characteristics of PV module in various conditions especially in different level of irradiations and temperature. By having different values of irradiations and temperature, the results showed the output power, voltage and current of PV module can be determined. In addition, all results from Matlab Simulink are verified with theoretical calculation. This proposed model helps in better understanding of PV module characteristics in various environment conditions.

  17. A molecular spin-photovoltaic device.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiangnan; Vélez, Saül; Atxabal, Ainhoa; Bedoya-Pinto, Amilcar; Parui, Subir; Zhu, Xiangwei; Llopis, Roger; Casanova, Fèlix; Hueso, Luis E

    2017-08-18

    We fabricated a C60 fullerene-based molecular spin-photovoltaic device that integrates a photovoltaic response with the spin transport across the molecular layer. The photovoltaic response can be modified under the application of a small magnetic field, with a magnetophotovoltage of up to 5% at room temperature. Device functionalities include a magnetic current inverter and the presence of diverging magnetocurrent at certain illumination levels that could be useful for sensing. Completely spin-polarized currents can be created by balancing the external partially spin-polarized injection with the photogenerated carriers. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  18. Long-term leaching of photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nover, Jessica; Zapf-Gottwick, Renate; Feifel, Carolin; Koch, Michael; Metzger, Jörg W.; Werner, Jürgen H.

    2017-08-01

    Some photovoltaic module technologies use toxic materials. We report long-term leaching on photovoltaic module pieces of 5 × 5 cm2 size. The pieces are cut out from modules of the four major commercial photovoltaic technologies: crystalline and amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride as well as from copper indium gallium diselenide. To simulate different environmental conditions, leaching occurs at room temperature in three different water-based solutions with pH 3, 7, and 11. No agitation is performed to simulate more representative field conditions. After 360 days, about 1.4% of lead from crystalline silicon module pieces and 62% of cadmium from cadmium telluride module pieces are leached out in acidic solutions. The leaching depends heavily on the pH and the redox potential of the aqueous solutions and it increases with time. The leaching behavior is predictable by thermodynamic stability considerations. These predictions are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  19. Implantation of Modular Photovoltaic Subretinal Prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae Yeong; Lorach, Henri; Huie, Phil; Palanker, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Establish the surgical procedure for subretinal implantation of multiple photovoltaic arrays for the restoration of sight. Multiple silicon photovoltaic arrays of 1 mm in diameter and 30 µm in thickness were implanted subretinally via single retinotomy in rabbits. Ophthalmoscopic imaging and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were used to validate the implants' placement. Vitrectomy, followed by subretinal fluid injection for retinal detachment and retinotomy, allowed accurate placement of seven modules in the bleb, covering approximately a 3.5-mm diameter area on the retina via a single 1.5-mm retinotomy. OCT confirmed complete reattachment of the retina over the implants. Subretinal implantation of multiple photovoltaic arrays via a single retinotomy, followed by their tiling, minimizes the scleral and retinal incisions and provides better fit to the spherical shape of the eye ball, compared to a single, larger module. Such minimally traumatic procedure can be performed with 20-gauge intraocular instruments. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Photovoltaic efficiency of an indirect bandgap material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasik, Michelle; Mangan, Niall; Grossman, Jeffrey

    2015-03-01

    Photovoltaic materials with direct band gap transitions absorb light more readily than those with indirect gaps, allowing for thinner devices. However, direct bands also suffer faster rates of radiative recombination than indirect bandgap materials. Some novel photovoltaic absorber materials, such as tin sulfide, have both direct and indirect gaps. Such materials raise the question of whether the multiple energy states benefit or harm device efficiency. We develop a model for current in a device with direct and indirect band gaps using detailed balance, similar to the Shockley-Quiesser model for direct band photovoltaics. We explore the effects of the following on device performance: transition probability of carriers between the direct and indirect state, and relative transport rate in each band.

  1. Photovoltaic industry progress through 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, R.L.; Smith, S.A.; Dirks, J.A.

    1985-04-01

    The growth of the US photovoltaics (PV) industry over the past decade has been impressive. First designed to provide power for satellites using high-cost production techniques, PV is now the economical choice in many remote terrestrial applications. The remarkable growth of PV in terms of quality of cells and modules, production techniques, and system design, was initiated by a cooperative effort of the US Government and the domestic PV manufacturers. European and Japanese firms entered the PV industry later, but are also growing rapidy. The Europeans continue to supply PV systems for village electrification and water pumping to many Third World countries. The Japanese have been developing the amorphous silicon (A-Si) technology by expanding its use in consumer goods. The world PV industry saw dramatic changes in industry ownership and in the emphasis on developing new and improved technology during 1984. The objective of this report is to present information on the developments of the world PV industry and focuses on developments occurring in 1984. Information is presented on a regional basis (US, Europe, Japan, other) to avoid disclosing company-confidential data. All information was gleaned from several sources, including a review of the technical literature and direct contacts with PV manufacturers. Prior to publishing the regional totals, all numbers were compared with those of other sources. The information contained in this report is prepared for use by the Department of Energy for their use in long-term R and D planning. However, this information should also be of interest by PV manufacturers and to those who may be contemplating entering the PV market. PV shipments for 1984, government supports for PV, and various PV market sectors are discussed.

  2. Large and small photovoltaic powerplants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormode, Daniel

    The installed base of photovoltaic power plants in the United States has roughly doubled every 1 to 2 years between 2008 and 2015. The primary economic drivers of this are government mandates for renewable power, falling prices for all PV system components, 3rd party ownership models, and a generous tariff scheme known as net-metering. Other drivers include a desire for decreasing the environmental impact of electricity generation and a desire for some degree of independence from the local electric utility. The result is that in coming years, PV power will move from being a minor niche to a mainstream source of energy. As additional PV power comes online this will create challenges for the electric grid operators. We examine some problems related to large scale adoption of PV power in the United States. We do this by first discussing questions of reliability and efficiency at the PV system level. We measure the output of a fleet of small PV systems installed at Tucson Electric Power, and we characterize the degradation of those PV systems over several years. We develop methods to predict energy output from PV systems and quantify the impact of negatives such as partial shading, inverter inefficiency and malfunction of bypass diodes. Later we characterize the variability from large PV systems, including fleets of geographically diverse utility scale power plants. We also consider the power and energy requirements needed to smooth those systems, both from the perspective of an individual system and as a fleet. Finally we report on experiments from a utility scale PV plus battery hybrid system deployed near Tucson, Arizona where we characterize the ability of this system to produce smoothly ramping power as well as production of ancillary energy services such as frequency response.

  3. Solar Glitter -- Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielson, Gregory N.

    2012-02-01

    Many products have significantly benefitted from, or been enabled by, the ability to manufacture structures at an ever decreasing length scale. Obvious examples of this include integrated circuits, flat panel displays, micro-scale sensors, and LED lighting. These industries have benefited from length scale effects in terms of improved performance, reduced cost, or new functionality (or a combination of these). In a similar manner, we are working to take advantage of length scale effects that exist within solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. While this is a significant step away from traditional approaches to solar power systems, the benefits in terms of new functionality, improved performance, and reduced cost for solar power are compelling. We are exploring scale effects that result from the size of the solar cells within the system. We have developed unique cells of both crystalline silicon and III-V materials that are very thin (5-20 microns thick) and have very small lateral dimensions (on the order of hundreds of microns across). These cells minimize the amount of expensive semiconductor material required for the system, allow improved cell performance, and provide an expanded design space for both module and system concepts allowing optimized power output and reduced module and balance of system costs. Furthermore, the small size of the cells allows for unique high-efficiency, high-flexibility PV panels and new building-integrated PV options that are currently unavailable. These benefits provide a pathway for PV power to become cost competitive with grid power and allow unique power solutions independent of grid power.

  4. Switching model photovoltaic pumping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anis, Wagdy R.; Abdul-Sadek Nour, M.

    Photovoltaic (PV) pumping systems are widely used due to their simplicity, high reliability and low cost. A directly-coupled PV pumping system is the most reliable and least-cost PV system. The d.c. motor-pump group is not, however, working at its optimum operating point. A battery buffered PV pumping system introduces a battery between the PV array and the d.c. motor-pump group to ensure that the motor-pump group is operating at its optimum point. The size of the battery storage depends on system economics. If the battery is fully charged while solar radiation is available, the battery will discharge through the load while the PV array is disconnected. Hence, a power loss takes place. To overcome the above mentioned difficulty, a switched mode PV pumping is proposed. When solar radiation is available and the battery is fully charged, the battery is disconnected and the d.c. motor-pump group is directly coupled to the PV array. To avoid excessive operating voltage for the motor, a part of the PV array is switched off to reduce the voltage. As a result, the energy loss is significantly eliminated. Detailed analysis of the proposed system shows that the discharged water increases by about 10% when compared with a conventional battery-buffered system. The system transient performance just after the switching moment shows that the system returns to a steady state in short period. The variations in the system parameters lie within 1% of the rated values.

  5. Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    The Fourteenth Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology conference was held at the NASA Lewis Research Center from October 24-26, 1995. The abstracts presented in this volume report substantial progress in a variety of areas in space photovoltaics. Technical and review papers were presented in many areas, including high efficiency GaAs and InP solar cells, GaAs/Ge cells as commercial items, high efficiency multiple bandgap cells, solar cell and array technology, heteroepitaxial cells, thermophotovoltaic energy conversion, and space radiation effects. Space flight data on a variety of cells were also presented.

  6. Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    The Fourteenth Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology conference was held at the NASA Lewis Research Center from October 24-26, 1995. The abstracts presented in this volume report substantial progress in a variety of areas in space photovoltaics. Technical and review papers were presented in many areas, including high efficiency GaAs and InP solar cells, GaAs/Ge cells as commercial items, high efficiency multiple bandgap cells, solar cell and array technology, heteroepitaxial cells, thermophotovoltaic energy conversion, and space radiation effects. Space flight data on a variety of cells were also presented.

  7. Study of Photovoltaic Cells Engineering Mathematical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jun; Yu, Zhengping; Lu, Zhengyi; Li, Chenhui; Zhang, Ruilan

    2016-11-01

    The characteristic curve of photovoltaic cells is the theoretical basis of PV Power, which simplifies the existing mathematical model, eventually, obtains a mathematical model used in engineering. The characteristic curve of photovoltaic cells contains both exponential and logarithmic calculation. The exponential and logarithmic spread out through Taylor series, which includes only four arithmetic and use single chip microcontroller as the control center. The result shows that: the use of single chip microcontroller for calculating exponential and logarithmic functions, simplifies mathematical model of PV curve, also can meet the specific conditions’ requirement for engineering applications.

  8. Photovoltaic materials: Present efficiencies and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Polman, Albert; Knight, Mark; Garnett, Erik C; Ehrler, Bruno; Sinke, Wim C

    2016-04-15

    Recent developments in photovoltaic materials have led to continual improvements in their efficiency. We review the electrical characteristics of 16 widely studied geometries of photovoltaic materials with efficiencies of 10 to 29%. Comparison of these characteristics to the fundamental limits based on the Shockley-Queisser detailed-balance model provides a basis for identifying the key limiting factors, related to efficient light management and charge carrier collection, for these materials. Prospects for practical application and large-area fabrication are discussed for each material.

  9. Multijunction photovoltaic device and fabrication method

    DOEpatents

    Arya, Rajeewa R.; Catalano, Anthony W.

    1993-09-21

    A multijunction photovoltaic device includes first and second amorphous silicon PIN photovoltaic cells in a stacked arrangement. An interface layer, composed of a doped silicon compound, is disposed between the two cells and has a lower bandgap than the respective n- and p-type adjacent layers of the first and second cells. The interface layer forms an ohmic contact with the one or the adjacent cell layers of the same conductivity type, and a tunnel junction with the other of the adjacent cell layers. The disclosed device is fabricated by a glow discharge process.

  10. Photovoltaic systems for export application. Informal report

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, J.; Campbell, H.; Sajo, A.; Sanz, E.

    1988-01-31

    One approach to improving the competitiveness of photovoltaic systems is the development of designs specifically for export applications. In other words, where is it appropriate in a system design to incorporate components manufactured and/or assembled in the receiving country in order to improve the photovoltaic exports from the US? What appears to be needed is a systematic method of evaluating the potential for export from the US of PV systems for various application in different countries. Development of such a method was the goal of this project.

  11. Electrical isolation design of photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallis, J. M.; Trucker, D. C.; Szeto, R. K.; Cuddihy, E. F.; Garcia, A., III

    A method was developed for calculating the magnitude and location of the maximum electric field for a family of solar-cell-like shapes. Simple formulas for use by photovoltaic module designers were developed. They provide quantitative information on the effects of the cell shape, cell thickness, and pottant thickness on the electrical stress intensification at the cell edge. A method for calculating the lines of force for three-dimensional electric fields was developed and applied to a geometry of interest to the photovoltaic program.

  12. Electrical isolation design of photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kallis, J. M.; Trucker, D. C.; Szeto, R. K.; Cuddihy, E. F.; Garcia, A., III

    1984-01-01

    A method was developed for calculating the magnitude and location of the maximum electric field for a family of solar-cell-like shapes. Simple formulas for use by photovoltaic module designers were developed. They provide quantitative information on the effects of the cell shape, cell thickness, and pottant thickness on the electrical stress intensification at the cell edge. A method for calculating the lines of force for three-dimensional electric fields was developed and applied to a geometry of interest to the photovoltaic program.

  13. Intermediate load-center photovoltaic application experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    A total of nine intermediate load-center photovoltaic systems were carried into the construction phase this year. These nine systems range in size from 20 to 225 kW/sub p/ electrical output and total almost 1 MW/sub p/. They are being installed in a diverse set of applications and locations and represent the bulk of the photovoltaic initial system evaluation experiments (ISEE) for the intermediate load-center sector. Each of these experiments are briefly described and the status of the construction phase is given for each project.

  14. Photovoltaics - 10 years after Cherry Hill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralph, E. L.

    The status of R&D programs connected with photovoltaic (PV) systems 10 years after the Cherry Hill workshop on 'Photovoltaic Conversion of Solar Energy for Terrestrial Applications' is assessed. The five categories of research recommended by the Cherry Hill Workshop are listed in a table together with their recommended research budget allocations. The workshop categories include: single-crystal Si cells; poly-Si cells; systems and diagnostics. Categories for thin film CdS/Cu2S and CuInSe2 cells are also included. The roles of government and private utility companies in providing adequate financial support for PV research programs is emphasized.

  15. Two building-integrated photovoltaic prototypes

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, W.; Nicklas, M.

    1996-11-01

    Two building-integrated photovoltaic design prototypes are presented in this paper, one for the restaurant chain Applebee`s Neighborhood Grill and Bar and one for a branch office of Central Carolina Bank. Both are being developed as integrated components for construction and each uses strategies for the recovery and use of waste heat from the photovoltaic panels. The combination of the avoided costs of the materials replaced by the panels and the value of the thermal energy produced significantly helps the economics of the systems.

  16. Charging a capacitor with a photovoltaic module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munguía Aguilar, Horacio; Maldonado, Rigoberto Franco; Barba Navarro, Luis

    2017-07-01

    Charging a capacitor with a photovoltaic module is an experiment which reveals a lot about the modules characteristics. It is customary to represent these characteristics with an equivalent circuit whose elements represent its physical parameters. The behavior of a photovoltaic module is very similar to that of a single cell but the electric energy involved is much higher, which represents a major challenge for their characterization. In this work, an experiment is conducted to test out this behavior and in addition to obtain the module I-V characteristic curve. The experiment is simple and only common instrumentation is required.

  17. Photovoltaic power for a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Curtis, Henry B.; Brinker, David J.; Flood, Dennis J.

    1989-01-01

    A lunar base is an attractive option for space exploration plans early in the next century. The primary options for a lunar base power system are solar and nuclear. This paper details the requirements for a photovoltaic powered lunar base. Topics covered are (1) requirements for power during the lunar day and during the night, (2) solar cells, present and future availability, efficiency, specific power, and temperature sensitivity, (3) storage options for the lunar night, (4) arrays and system integration, and (5) the potential for production of photovoltaic arrays and storage capability from locally available materials.

  18. Photovoltaic applications for remote-island needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaller, D. A.; Larson, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    Electric power supply options available to many of the central and south Pacific island governments are severely constrained by remoteness, limited infrastructures, a corrosive natural environment, and the high delivered costs of many conventional energy sources. Photovoltaic energy systems offer a currently available, practical, and cost-effective source of electricity for many stand-alone applications in remote areas of the Pacific. Photovoltaic system definitions and cost analyses are provided for selected applications in the Republic of Palau, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Territory of American Samoa.

  19. Photovoltaics as a worldwide energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.J.

    1991-12-31

    Photovoltaic energy systems have historically been treated as a bulk power generation source for the future. However, utilities and other agencies involved with electrification throughout the world are beginning to find photovoltaics a least-cost option to meet specific loads both for themselves and their customers, in both off-grid and grid-connected applications. These expanding markets offer the potential of hundreds of megawatts of sales in the coming decade, but a strategy addressing both industrial growth and user acceptance is necessary to capitalize on this opportunity. 11 refs.

  20. FEMP Renewable Energy Fact Sheet: Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    1999-10-01

    Photovoltaic energy systems, which convert sunlight to electricity, can meet many different needs in Federal facilities. This fact sheet describes how photovoltaic (PV) energy systems can be used to provide electricity for lighting, communications, refrigeration, fans, signs, pumps, drilling equipment, emergency power packs, and cathodic (corrosion) protection, among others. Applications for PV power in Federal facilities include staff housing, parking areas, campgrounds, marinas, visitor centers, roadside communications equipment, ranger stations, underground pipelines, irrigation and disinfecting systems, and disaster response units. PV systems are particularly suitable and cost-effective for facilities that now use diesel power or that are in remote areas far from electric power lines.

  1. Classification of additives for organic photovoltaic devices.

    PubMed

    Machui, Florian; Maisch, Philipp; Burgués-Ceballos, Ignasi; Langner, Stefan; Krantz, Johannes; Ameri, Tayebeh; Brabec, Christoph J

    2015-04-27

    The use of additives to improve the performance of organic photovoltaic cells has been intensely researched in recent years. However, so far, no system has been reported for the classification of additives and their functions. In this report, a system for classifying additives according to the fundamental mechanism by which they influence microstructure formation for P3HT:PCBM is suggested. The major parameters used for their classification are solubility and drying kinetics. Both are discussed in detail and their consequences on processing are analyzed. Furthermore, a general mechanism to classify the impact of additives on structure formation is suggested and discussed for different materials relevant to organic photovoltaic devices.

  2. Photovoltaics as a worldwide energy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, G. J.

    Photovoltaic energy systems have historically been treated as a bulk power generation source for the future. However, utilities and other agencies involved with electrification throughout the world are beginning to find photovoltaics a least-cost option to meet specific loads both for themselves and their customers, in both off-grid and grid-connected applications. These expanding markets offer the potential of hundreds of megawatts of sales in the coming decade, but a strategy addressing both industrial growth and user acceptance is necessary to capitalize on this opportunity.

  3. Flate-plate photovoltaic power systems handbook for Federal agencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochrane, E. H.; Lawson, A. C.; Savage, C. H.

    1984-01-01

    The primary purpose is to provide a tool for personnel in Federal agencies to evaluate the viability of potential photovoltaic applications. A second objective is to provide descriptions of various photovoltaic systems installed by different Federal agencies under the Federal Photovoltaic Utilization Program so that other agencies may consider similar applications. A third objective is to share lessons learned to enable more effective procurement, design, installation, and operation of future photovoltaic systems. The intent is not to provide a complete handbook, but rather to provide a guide for Federal agency personnel with additional information incorporated by references. The steps to be followed in selecting, procuring, and installing a photovoltaic application are given.

  4. Photovoltaics as a terrestrial energy source. Volume 1: An introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems were examined their potential for terrestrial application and future development. Photovoltaic technology, existing and potential photovoltaic applications, and the National Photovoltaics Program are reviewed. The competitive environment for this electrical source, affected by the presence or absence of utility supplied power is evaluated in term of systems prices. The roles of technological breakthroughs, directed research and technology development, learning curves, and commercial demonstrations in the National Program are discussed. The potential for photovoltaics to displace oil consumption is examined, as are the potential benefits of employing PV in either central-station or non-utility owned, small, distributed systems.

  5. Photovoltaic building sheathing element with anti-slide features

    DOEpatents

    Keenihan, James R.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.

    2015-09-08

    The present invention is premised` upon an assembly that includes at least a photovoltaic building sheathing element capable of being affixed on a building structure, the photovoltaic building sheathing element. The element including a photovoltaic cell assembly, a body portion attached to one or more portions of the photovoltaic cell assembly; and at feast a first and a second connector assembly capable of directly or indirectly electrically connecting the photovoltaic cell assembly to one or more adjoining devices; wherein the body portion includes one or more geometric features adapted to engage a vertically adjoining device before installation.

  6. Superior Valley photovoltaic power processing and system controller evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Bonn, R.; Ginn, J.; Zirzow, J.; Sittler, G.

    1995-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management, conducts the photovoltaic balance-of-system program. Under this program, Sandia supports the Department of Defense Strategic Environmental Research Development Plan, SERDP, which is advancing the use of photovoltaics in operational DoD facilities. This report details the acceptance testing of the first of these photovoltaic hybrid systems: the Superior Valley photovoltaic-diesel hybrid system. This is the first of several photovoltaic installations for the Department of Defense. The system hardware tested at Sandia included an inverter, maximum power trackers, and a system controller.

  7. Compendium of photovoltaic degradation rates: Photovoltaic degradation rates

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Dirk C.; Kurtz, Sarah R.; VanSant, Kaitlyn; Newmiller, Jeff

    2016-02-07

    Published data on photovoltaic (PV) degradation measurements were aggregated and re-examined. The subject has seen an increased interest in recent years resulting in more than 11 000 degradation rates in almost 200 studies from 40 different countries. As studies have grown in number and size, we found an impact from sampling bias attributable to size and accuracy. Because of the correlational nature of this study we examined the data in several ways to minimize this bias. We found median degradation for x-Si technologies in the 0.5-0.6%/year range with the mean in the 0.8-0.9%/year range. Hetero-interface technology (HIT) and microcrystalline silicon (..mu..c-Si) technologies, although not as plentiful, exhibit degradation around 1%/year and resemble thin-film products more closely than x-Si. Several studies showing low degradation for copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) have emerged. Higher degradation for cadmium telluride (CdTe) has been reported, but these findings could reflect a convolution of less accurate studies and longer stabilization periods for some products. Significant deviations for beginning-of-life measurements with respect to nameplate rating have been documented over the last 35 years. Therefore, degradation rates that use nameplate rating as reference may be significantly impacted. Studies that used nameplate rating as reference but used solar simulators showed less variation than similar studies using outdoor measurements, even when accounting for different climates. This could be associated with confounding effects of measurement uncertainty and soiling that take place outdoors. Hotter climates and mounting configurations that lead to sustained higher temperatures may lead to higher degradation in some, but not all, products. Wear-out non-linearities for the worst performing modules have been documented in a few select studies that took multiple measurements of an ensemble of modules during the lifetime of the system. However, the majority

  8. PHOTOVOLTAICS AND THE ENVIRONMENT 1998. REPORT ON THE WORKSHOP PHOTOVOLTAICS AND THE ENVIRONMENT 1999

    SciTech Connect

    FTHENAKIS,V.; ZWEIBEL,K.; MOSKOWITZ,P.

    1999-02-01

    The objective of the workshop ``Photovoltaics and the Environment'' was to bring together PV manufacturers and industry analysts to define EH and S issues related to the large-scale commercialization of PV technologies.

  9. A novel application for concentrator photovoltaic in the field of agriculture photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Luqing; Guan, Chenggang; Zhang, Fangxin; Li, Ming; Lv, Hui; Liu, Yang; Yao, Peijun; Ingenhoff, Jan; Liu, Wen

    2017-09-01

    Agriculture photovoltaics is a trend setting area which has already led to a new industrial revolution. Shortage of land in some countries and desertification of land where regular solar panels are deployed are some of the major problems in the photovoltaic industry. Concentrator photovoltaics experienced a decline in applicability after the cost erosion of regular solar panels at the end of the last decade. We demonstrate a novel and unique application for concentrator photovoltaics tackling at a same time the issue of conventional photovoltaics preventing the land being used for agricultural purpose where ever solar panels are installed. We leverage the principle of diffractive and interference technology to split the sun light into transmitted wavelengths necessary for plant growth and reflected wavelengths useful for solar energy generation. The technology has been successfully implemented in field trials and sophisticated scientific studies have been undertaken to evaluate the suitability of this technology for competitive solar power generation and simultaneous high-quality plant growth. The average efficiency of the agriculture photovoltaic system has reached more than 8% and the average efficiency of the CPV system is 6.80%.

  10. Nanoparticle-polymer photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Brian R; Turner, Michael L

    2008-04-21

    The need to develop and deploy large-scale, cost-effective, renewable energy is becoming increasingly important. In recent years photovoltaic (PV) cells based on nanoparticles blended with semiconducting polymers have achieved good power conversion efficiencies (PCE). All the nanoparticle types used in these PV cells can be considered as colloids. These include spherical, rod-like or branched organic or inorganic nanoparticles. Nanoparticle-polymer PV cells have the long-term potential to provide low cost, high-efficiency renewable energy. The maximum PCE achieved to date is about 5.5%. This value should rise as recently reported theoretical predictions suggest 10% is achievable. However, there are a number of challenges that remain to be overcome. In this review two general types of nanoparticle-polymer PV cells are considered and compared in detail. The organic nanoparticle-polymer PV cells contain fullerene derivatives (e.g., phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester, PCBM) or single-walled nanotubes as the nanoparticle phase. The second type is hybrid inorganic nanoparticle-polymer PV cells. These contain semiconducting nanoparticles that include CdSe, ZnO or PbS. The structure-property relationships that apply to both the polymer and nanoparticle phases are considered. The principles underlying nanoparticle-polymer PV cell operation are also discussed. An outcome of consideration of the literature in both areas are two sets of assembly conditions that are suggested for constructing PCBM-P3HT (P3HT is poly(3-hexylthiophene)) or CdSe-P3HT PV cells with reasonable power conversion efficiency. The maximum PCE reported for organic nanoparticle PV cells is about twice that for inorganic nanoparticle-polymer PV cells. This appears to be related to morphological differences between the respective photoactive layers. The morphological differences are attributed to differences in the colloidal stability of the nanoparticle/polymer/solvent mixtures used to prepare the

  11. Photovoltaic research and development in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimada, K.

    1983-01-01

    The status of the Japanese photovoltaic (PV) R&D activities was surveyed through literature searches, private communications, and site visits in 1982. The results show that the Japanese photovoltaic technology is maturing rapidly, consistent with the steady government funding under the Sunshine Project. Two main thrusts of the Project are: (1) completion of the solar panel production pilot plants using cast ingot and sheet silicon materials, and (2) development of large area amorphous silicon solar cells with acceptable efficiency (10 to 12%). An experimental automated solar panel production plant rated at 500 kW/yr is currently under construction for the Sunshine Project for completion in March 1983. Efficiencies demonstrated by experimental large are amorphous silicon solar cells are approaching 8%. Small area amorphous silicon solar cells are, however, currently being mass produced and marketed by several companies at an equivalent annual rate of 2 MW/yr for consumer electronic applications. There is no evidence of an immediate move by the Japanese PV industry to enter extensively into the photovoltaic power market, domestic or otherwise. However, the photovoltaic technology itself could become ready for such an entry in the very near future, especially by making use of advanced process automation technologies.

  12. Ultrafast Photovoltaic Response in Ferroelectric Nanolayers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-19

    ferroelectric PbTiO3 via direct coupling to its intrinsic photovoltaic response. Using time-resolved x-ray scattering to visualize atomic displacements on...addressing a key obstruction towards the goal of memory devices both written to and read out by light. Page 13 of 21   Acknowledgements Portions

  13. Photovoltaic module mounting clip with integral grounding

    DOEpatents

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2010-08-24

    An electrically conductive mounting/grounding clip, usable with a photovoltaic (PV) assembly of the type having an electrically conductive frame, comprises an electrically conductive body. The body has a central portion and first and second spaced-apart arms extending from the central portion. Each arm has first and second outer portions with frame surface-disrupting element at the outer portions.

  14. Photovoltaic system testing techniques and results

    SciTech Connect

    Lashway, C. )

    1988-09-01

    For the past three years, the New Mexico Solar Energy Institute (NMSEI) has been testing and collecting data on eight intermediate size flat-plate PV systems. These data now provide a valuable data base for determining component reliability and system degradation trends. This paper discusses: the specific test techniques used by NMSEI and the reliability of photovoltaic modules revealed by this testing.

  15. Photovoltaic energy program overview, fiscal year 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The Photovoltaics Program Plan, FY 1991--FY 1995 builds on the accomplishments of the past 5 years and broadens the scope of program activities for the future. The previous plan emphasized materials and PV cell research. Under the balanced new plan, the PV Program continues its commitment to strategic research and development (R D) into PV materials and processes, while also beginning work on PV systems and helping the PV industry encourage new markets for photovoltaics. A major challenge for the program is to assist the US PV industry in laying the foundation for at least 1000 MW of installed PV capacity in the United States and 500 MW internationally by 2000. As part of the new plan, the program expanded the scope of its activities in 1991. The PV Program is now addressing many new aspects of developing and commercializing photovoltaics. It is expanding activities with the US PV industry through the PV Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project, designed to address US manufacturers' immediate problems; providing technical assistance to potential end users such as electric utilities; and the program is turning its attention to encouraging new markets for PV. In 1991, for example, the PV Program initiated a new project with the PV industry to encourage a domestic market for PV applications in buildings and began cooperative ventures to support other countries such as Mexico to use PV in their rural electrification programs. This report reviews some of the development, fabrication and manufacturing advances in photovoltaics this year.

  16. Tandem junction amorphous semiconductor photovoltaic cell

    DOEpatents

    Dalal, V.L.

    1983-06-07

    A photovoltaic stack comprising at least two p[sup +]i n[sup +] cells in optical series, said cells separated by a transparent ohmic contact layer(s), provides a long optical path for the absorption of photons while preserving the advantageous field-enhanced minority carrier collection arrangement characteristic of p[sup +]i n[sup +] cells. 3 figs.

  17. Tandem junction amorphous semiconductor photovoltaic cell

    DOEpatents

    Dalal, Vikram L.

    1983-01-01

    A photovoltaic stack comprising at least two p.sup.+ i n.sup.+ cells in optical series, said cells separated by a transparent ohmic contact layer(s), provides a long optical path for the absorption of photons while preserving the advantageous field-enhanced minority carrier collection arrangement characteristic of p.sup.+ i n.sup.+ cells.

  18. Overview of photovoltaic and battery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murrell, J. D.; Hellman, Karl H.

    1989-10-01

    The use of solar cells and batteries for power generation and vehicle propulsion is examined. Issues such as energy uses and fuel sources, solar electric power, energy storage for solar photovoltaic systems, batteries for electric cars and applications for other mobile sources are also discussed.

  19. Measuring The Contact Resistances Of Photovoltaic Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    Simple method devised to measure contact resistances of photovoltaic solar cells. Method uses readily available equipment and applicable at any time during life of cell. Enables evaluation of cell contact resistance, contact-end resistance, contact resistivity, sheet resistivity, and sheet resistivity under contact.

  20. Detailed Performance Model for Photovoltaic Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, H.; Mancilla-David, F.; Ellis, K.; Muljadi, E.; Jenkins, P.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents a modified current-voltage relationship for the single diode model. The single-diode model has been derived from the well-known equivalent circuit for a single photovoltaic cell. The modification presented in this paper accounts for both parallel and series connections in an array.

  1. Monitoring the battery status for photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Myungsoo; Hwang, Euijin

    Photovoltaic power systems in Korea have been installed in remote islands where it is difficult to connect the utilities. Lead/acid batteries are used as an energy storage device for the stand-alone photovoltaic system. Hence, monitoring the battery status of photovoltaic systems is quite important to extend the total system service life. To monitor the state-of-charge of batteries, we adopted a current interrupt technique to measure the internal resistance of the battery. The internal resistance increases at the end of charge/discharge steps and also with cycles. The specific gravity of the electrolyte was measured in relation to the state-of-charge. A home-made optical hydrometer was utilized for automatic monitoring of the specific gravity. It is shown that the specific gravity and stratification increase with cycle number. One of the photovoltaic systems in a remote island, Ho-do, which has 90 kW peak power was checked for actual operational conditions such as solar generation, load, and battery status.

  2. The World's Largest Photovoltaic Concentrator System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Harry V.

    1982-01-01

    The Mississippi County Community College large-scale energy experiment, featuring the emerging high technology of solar electricity, is described. The project includes a building designed for solar electricity and a power plant consisting of a total energy photovoltaic system, and features two experimental developments. (MLW)

  3. Space Environment Testing of Photovoltaic Array Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Brandon; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Wright, Kenneth H.

    2015-01-01

    To successfully operate a photovoltaic (PV) array system in space requires planning and testing to account for the effects of the space environment. It is critical to understand space environment interactions not only on the PV components, but also the array substrate materials, wiring harnesses, connectors, and protection circuitry.

  4. Photovoltaic energy program overview, fiscal year 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-02-01

    The Photovoltaics Program Plan, FY 1991 to FY 1995 builds on the accomplishments of the past 5 years and broadens the scope of program activities for the future. The previous plan emphasized materials and PV cell research. Under the balanced new plan, the PV Program continues its commitment to strategic research and development (R&D) into PV materials and processes, while also beginning work on PV systems and helping the PV industry encourage new markets for photovoltaics. A major challenge for the program is to assist the US PV industry in laying the foundation for at least 1000 MW of installed PV capacity in the United States and 500 MW internationally by 2000. As part of the new plan, the program expanded the scope of its activities in 1991. The PV Program is now addressing many new aspects of developing and commercializing photovoltaics. It is expanding activities with the US PV industry through the PV Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project, designed to address US manufacturers' immediate problems; providing technical assistance to potential end users such as electric utilities; and the program is turning its attention to encouraging new markets for PV. In 1991, for example, the PV Program initiated a new project with the PV industry to encourage a domestic market for PV applications in buildings and began cooperative ventures to support other countries such as Mexico to use PV in their rural electrification programs. This report reviews some of the development, fabrication and manufacturing advances in photovoltaics this year.

  5. Issues and opportunities in space photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, Robert W.; Somerville, W. A.; Flood, Dennis J.

    1988-01-01

    Space power sources are becoming a central focus for determining man's potential and schedule for exploring and utilizing the benefits of space. The ability to search, probe, survey, and communicate throughout the universe will depend on providing adequate power to the instruments to do these jobs. Power requirements for space platforms are increasing and will continue to increase into the 21st century. Photovoltaics have been a dependable power source for space for the last 30 years and have served as the primary source of power on virtually all DOD and NASA satellites. The performance of silicon (Si) solar cells has increased from 10 percent air mass zero (AM0) solar energy conversion efficiency in the early 60's to almost 15 percent on today's spacecraft. Some technologists even think that the potential for solar photovoltaics has reached a plateau. However, present and near-future Air Force and NASA requirements show needs that, if the problems are looked upon as opportunities, can elevate the photovoltaic power source scientist and array structure engineer into the next technological photovoltaic growth curve.

  6. Photovoltaic energy program overview: Fiscal year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This is the 1994 overview for the Photovoltaic Energy Program. The topics of this overview include cooperative research projects to improve PV systems and develop pre-commercial prototypes of new PV products, expanding understanding of the fundamental mechanisms governing the formation and performance of PV materials, and helping US industry enhance its leadership position in the PV market.

  7. Semiconductor nanostructure-based photovoltaic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Genqiang; Finefrock, Scott; Liang, Daxin; Yadav, Gautam G.; Yang, Haoran; Fang, Haiyu; Wu, Yue

    2011-06-01

    Substantial efforts have been devoted to design, synthesize, and integrate various semiconductor nanostructures for photovoltaic (PV) solar cells. In this article, we will review the recent progress in this exciting area and cover the material chemistry and physics related to all-inorganic nanostructure solar cells, hybrid inorganic nanostructure-conductive polymer composite solar cells, and dye-sensitized solar cells.

  8. Photovoltaic Generation Of Power By Utilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugimura, Russell S.; Wood, Joan M.

    1989-01-01

    Bibliography of recent documents on photovoltaic generation of electric power divided into two subject areas: (1) central-station systems and (2) residential and intermediate systems. Further divided into design options, performance modeling, construction experience, operating experience, economics and costs, and integration with utilities. Reports, papers, and books included. Bibliography lists 79 references.

  9. NASA space photovoltaic research and technology programs

    SciTech Connect

    Mullin, J.P.; Flood, D.J.

    1982-06-01

    The NASA programs for increasing conversion efficiency, reduced mass and cost, and extending operating life of photovoltaic converters and arrays and for evaluating advanced solar array concepts are outlined. Research into radiation resistance and annealing, development of thin blankets, high-power low-cost arrays, and lightweight structures for near-Earth and planetary applications are discussed.

  10. Self-deploying photovoltaic power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A lightweight flexible photovoltaic (PV) blanket is attached to a support structure of initially stowed telescoping members. The deployment mechanism comprises a series of extendable and rotatable columns. As these columns are extended the PV blanket is deployed to its proper configuration.

  11. New Feedstock for c-Si Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravtsov, Alexey; Shagun, Alexander; Kravtsov, Anatoly

    2015-03-01

    Results from functional tests of highly doped silicon purified with electron beam melting, a new feedstock for photovoltaics are presented. Possibility of obtaining dislocation free single crystals from such feedstock in typical industrial processes (CZ and FZ) is shown, crystals' parameters are tested for coherence with requirements for PV silicon.

  12. Thin-film photovoltaics: Buffer against degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, Supratik

    2017-03-01

    Cheap, efficient, and stable thin photovoltaics that use abundant and non-toxic materials can deliver widespread renewable energy. New results using Earth-abundant and potentially cheap ZnO/Sb2Se3 solar cells indicate promising levels of stability.

  13. Integrating Residential Photovoltaics With Power Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borden, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    Report finds rooftop solar-cell arrays feed excess power to electric-utility grid for fee are potentially attractive large-scale application of photovoltaic technology. Presents assessment of breakeven costs of these arrays under variety of technological and economic assumptions.

  14. Solar Photovoltaic Cell/Module Shipments Report

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Summary data for the photovoltaic industry in the United States. Data includes manufacturing, imports, and exports of modules in the United States and its territories. Summary data include volumes in peak kilowatts and average prices. Where possible, imports and exports are listed by country, and shipments to the United States are listed by state.

  15. Solar Photovoltaic Cell/Module Shipments Report

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    Summary data for the photovoltaic industry in the United States. Data includes manufacturing, imports, and exports of modules in the United States and its territories. Summary data include volumes in peak kilowatts and average prices. Where possible, imports and exports are listed by country, and shipments to the United States are listed by state.

  16. The World's Largest Photovoltaic Concentrator System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Harry V.

    1982-01-01

    The Mississippi County Community College large-scale energy experiment, featuring the emerging high technology of solar electricity, is described. The project includes a building designed for solar electricity and a power plant consisting of a total energy photovoltaic system, and features two experimental developments. (MLW)

  17. Semiconductor nanostructure-based photovoltaic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Genqiang; Finefrock, Scott; Liang, Daxin; Yadav, Gautam G; Yang, Haoran; Fang, Haiyu; Wu, Yue

    2011-06-01

    Substantial efforts have been devoted to design, synthesize, and integrate various semiconductor nanostructures for photovoltaic (PV) solar cells. In this article, we will review the recent progress in this exciting area and cover the material chemistry and physics related to all-inorganic nanostructure solar cells, hybrid inorganic nanostructure-conductive polymer composite solar cells, and dye-sensitized solar cells.

  18. Integrating Residential Photovoltaics With Power Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borden, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    Report finds rooftop solar-cell arrays feed excess power to electric-utility grid for fee are potentially attractive large-scale application of photovoltaic technology. Presents assessment of breakeven costs of these arrays under variety of technological and economic assumptions.

  19. Photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical conversion of solar energy.

    PubMed

    Grätzel, Michael

    2007-04-15

    The Sun provides approximately 100,000 terawatts to the Earth which is about 10000 times more than the present rate of the world's present energy consumption. Photovoltaic cells are being increasingly used to tap into this huge resource and will play a key role in future sustainable energy systems. So far, solid-state junction devices, usually made of silicon, crystalline or amorphous, and profiting from the experience and material availability resulting from the semiconductor industry, have dominated photovoltaic solar energy converters. These systems have by now attained a mature state serving a rapidly growing market, expected to rise to 300 GW by 2030. However, the cost of photovoltaic electricity production is still too high to be competitive with nuclear or fossil energy. Thin film photovoltaic cells made of CuInSe or CdTe are being increasingly employed along with amorphous silicon. The recently discovered cells based on mesoscopic inorganic or organic semiconductors commonly referred to as 'bulk' junctions due to their three-dimensional structure are very attractive alternatives which offer the prospect of very low cost fabrication. The prototype of this family of devices is the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC), which accomplishes the optical absorption and the charge separation processes by the association of a sensitizer as light-absorbing material with a wide band gap semiconductor of mesoporous or nanocrystalline morphology. Research is booming also in the area of third generation photovoltaic cells where multi-junction devices and a recent breakthrough concerning multiple carrier generation in quantum dot absorbers offer promising perspectives.

  20. 77 FR 14732 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... International Trade Administration Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules... of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells, whether or not assembled into modules, from the People's.... \\1\\ See Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From...

  1. Proceedings of the 15th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila (Compiler)

    2004-01-01

    Reports from the 15th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference included topics on space solar cell research, space photovoltaics, multibandgap cells,thermophotovoltaics,flight experiments, environmental effects; calibration and characterization; and photovoltaics for planetary surfaces.

  2. Non-destructive evaluation of water ingress in photovoltaic modules

    DOEpatents

    Bora, Mihail; Kotovsky, Jack

    2017-03-07

    Systems and techniques for non-destructive evaluation of water ingress in photovoltaic modules include and/or are configured to illuminate a photovoltaic module comprising a photovoltaic cell and an encapsulant with at least one beam of light having a wavelength in a range from about 1400 nm to about 2700 nm; capture one or more images of the illuminated photovoltaic module, each image relating to a water content of the photovoltaic module; and determine a water content of the photovoltaic module based on the one or more images. Systems preferably include one or more of a light source, a moving mirror, a focusing lens, a beam splitter, a stationary mirror, an objective lens and an imaging module.

  3. Photovoltaic sheathing element with one or more tabs

    DOEpatents

    Keenihan, James R; Langmaid, Joseph A; Lopez, Leonardo C.

    2017-02-07

    The present invention is premised upon an assembly that includes at least a photovoltaic sheathing element capable of being affixed on a building structure. The shingle including at least a photovoltaic cell assembly, a body portion attached to one or more portions of the photovoltaic cell assembly. Wherein the body portion includes one or more top peripheral tabs each capable of fitting under one or more vertically adjoining devices.

  4. Photovoltaic energy program summary. Volume 1: Overview, fiscal year 1988

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-01-01

    1988 has been a year for major advances in photovoltaic (PV) technology. There has been unprecedented progress, both in the laboratory and in the industry along with more technical advances and worldwide market acceptance in new applications. If this year has been any barometer, photovoltaic energy products are rapidly moving toward the goal of supplying a part of U.S. utility power in the 1990s. This report reviews some of the technology achievements in photovoltaics this year.

  5. Photovoltaic energy program summary: Volume 1, Overview: Fiscal year 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    1988 has been a year for major advances in photovoltaic (PV) technology. There has been unprecedented progress, both in the laboratory and in the industry. More technical advances. Worldwide market acceptance in new applications. If this year has been any barometer, photovoltaic energy products are rapidly moving toward the goal of supplying a part of US utility power in the 1990s. This report reviews some of the technology achievements in photovoltaics this year.

  6. Toward High Performance Photovoltaic Cells based on Conjugated Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-26

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0103 Toward High Performance Photovoltaic Cells based on Conjugated Polymers Kung-Hwa Wei National Chiao Tung University Final...REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 16 Sep 2015 to 15 Sep 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Toward High Performance Photovoltaic Cells based on...Grant 15IOA0113 “Toward High Performance Photovoltaic Cells Based on Conjugated Polymers (Taiwan side)” Dec. 16, 2016 PI information: Kung-Hwa Wei

  7. 1990 DOE/SANDIA crystalline photovoltaic technology project review meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Ruby, D.S.

    1990-07-01

    This document serves as the proceedings for the annual project review meeting held by Sandia's Photovoltaic Cell Research Division and Photovoltaic Technology Division. It contains information supplied by each organization making a presentation at the meeting, which was held August 7 through 9, 1990 at the Sheraton Hotel in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Sessions were held to discuss national photovoltaic programs, one-sun crystalline silicon cell research, concentrator silicon cell research, concentrator 3-5 cell research, and concentrating collector development.

  8. Design and fabrication of air- and liquid-cooled photovoltaic/thermal collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowlan, M. J.

    1981-09-01

    A liquid type photovoltaic/thermal collector and a photovoltaic cell panel for an air type photovoltaic/thermal collector were constructed. The evelopment of residential photovoltaic/thermal collectors was pursued as an alternative to side by side photovoltaic module and thermal collector systems for applications with high heating loads and limited roof area. The units were designed to demonstrate the feasibility of high performance photovoltaic/thermal units.

  9. Photovoltaic stand-alone applications reading list

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-08-01

    This list of general publications on photovoltaic stand-alone applications was prepared by the Technical Information Branch at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Solar Technical Information Program. The list provides an introduction to this literature and is not intended to be comprehensive. Although some of the citations refer to grid-connected photovoltaic systems, they contain basic information applicable to stand-alone applications. Many of the technical reports in this reading list result from government contracts with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque, and the Solar Energy Research Institute, or subcontracts from these laboratories to universities and researchers in private industry.

  10. Solar Radiation on Mars: Tracking Photovoltaic Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appelbaum, Joseph; Flood, Dennis J.; Crutchik, Marcos

    1994-01-01

    A photovoltaic power source for surface-based operation on Mars can offer many advantages. Detailed information on solar radiation characteristics on Mars and the insolation on various types of collector surfaces are necessary for effective design of future planned photovoltaic systems. In this article we have presented analytical expressions for solar radiation calculation and solar radiation data for single axis (of various types) and two axis tracking surfaces and compared the insulation to horizontal and inclined surfaces. For clear skies (low atmospheric dust load) tracking surfaces resulted in higher insolation than stationary surfaces, whereas for highly dusty atmospheres, the difference is small. The insolation on the different types of stationary and tracking surfaces depend on latitude, season and optical depth of the atmosphere, and the duration of system operation. These insolations have to be compared for each mission.

  11. Photovoltaic power - An important new energy option

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferber, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    A review of photovoltaic (PV) power technology is presented with an emphasis of PV as an economical and technically feasible alternative source of energy. The successful completion of the development and transfer of emerging low-cost technologies into a fully commercialized status are identified as the means to the realization of this option's full potential. The DOE National Photovoltaics Program, a significant sponsor of PV R&D, expects both flat-plate and concentrator collectors to meet established cost targets. Citing the DOE large flat-plate grid-connected system project of the Sacramento Municipal Utility District, current technology modules priced at near $5/Wp (1983 dollars) are steadily reducing costs. A recent DOE study suggests that PV-generated electricity produced at a 30-year levelized cost of 15 cents per kWh would represent a viable energy supply alternative for the nation.

  12. Photovoltaics as an operating energy system

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.J.; Post, H.N.; Thomas, M.G.

    1988-01-01

    In the short time since the discovery of the modern solar cell in 1954, terrestrial photovoltaic power system technology has matured in all areas, from collector reliability to system and subsystem design and operations. Today's PV systems are finding widespread use in powering loads where conventional sources are either unavailable, unreliable, or too costly. A broad range of applications is possible because of the modularity of the technology---it can be used to power loads ranging from less than a watt to several megawatts. This inherent modularity makes PV an excellent choice to play a major role in rural electrification in the developing world. The future for grid-connected photovoltaic systems is also very promising. Indications are that several of today's technologies, at higher production rates and in megawatt-sized installations, will generate electricity in the vicinity of $0.12/kWh in the near future. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Summary of photovoltaic system performance models

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J. H.; Reiter, L. J.

    1984-01-15

    The purpose of this study is to provide a detailed overview of photovoltaics (PV) performance modeling capabilities that have been developed during recent years for analyzing PV system and component design and policy issues. A set of 10 performance models have been selected which span a representative range of capabilities from generalized first-order calculations to highly specialized electrical network simulations. A set of performance modeling topics and characteristics is defined and used to examine some of the major issues associated with photovoltaic performance modeling. Next, each of the models is described in the context of these topics and characteristics to assess its purpose, approach, and level of detail. Then each of the issues is discussed in terms of the range of model capabilities available and summarized in tabular form for quick reference. Finally, the models are grouped into categories to illustrate their purposes and perspectives.

  14. Photovoltaic power - An important new energy option

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferber, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    A review of photovoltaic (PV) power technology is presented with an emphasis of PV as an economical and technically feasible alternative source of energy. The successful completion of the development and transfer of emerging low-cost technologies into a fully commercialized status are identified as the means to the realization of this option's full potential. The DOE National Photovoltaics Program, a significant sponsor of PV R&D, expects both flat-plate and concentrator collectors to meet established cost targets. Citing the DOE large flat-plate grid-connected system project of the Sacramento Municipal Utility District, current technology modules priced at near $5/Wp (1983 dollars) are steadily reducing costs. A recent DOE study suggests that PV-generated electricity produced at a 30-year levelized cost of 15 cents per kWh would represent a viable energy supply alternative for the nation.

  15. Strained quantum well photovoltaic energy converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freundlich, Alexandre (Inventor); Renaud, Philippe (Inventor); Vilela, Mauro Francisco (Inventor); Bensaoula, Abdelhak (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An indium phosphide photovoltaic cell is provided where one or more quantum wells are introduced between the conventional p-conductivity and n-conductivity indium phosphide layer. The approach allows the cell to convert the light over a wider range of wavelengths than a conventional single junction cell and in particular convert efficiently transparency losses of the indium phosphide conventional cell. The approach hence may be used to increase the cell current output. A method of fabrication of photovoltaic devices is provided where ternary InAsP and InGaAs alloys are used as well material in the quantum well region and results in an increase of the cell current output.

  16. Microsystem enabled photovoltaic modules and systems

    DOEpatents

    Nielson, Gregory N; Sweatt, William C; Okandan, Murat

    2015-05-12

    A microsystem enabled photovoltaic (MEPV) module including: an absorber layer; a fixed optic layer coupled to the absorber layer; a translatable optic layer; a translation stage coupled between the fixed and translatable optic layers; and a motion processor electrically coupled to the translation stage to controls motion of the translatable optic layer relative to the fixed optic layer. The absorber layer includes an array of photovoltaic (PV) elements. The fixed optic layer includes an array of quasi-collimating (QC) micro-optical elements designed and arranged to couple incident radiation from an intermediate image formed by the translatable optic layer into one of the PV elements such that it is quasi-collimated. The translatable optic layer includes an array of focusing micro-optical elements corresponding to the QC micro-optical element array. Each focusing micro-optical element is designed to produce a quasi-telecentric intermediate image from substantially collimated radiation incident within a predetermined field of view.

  17. Photovoltaic array space power plus diagnostics experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guidice, Donald A.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostics (PASP Plus) experiment is to measure the effects of the interaction of the low- to mid-altitude space environment on the performance of a diverse set of small solar-cell arrays (planar and concentrator, representative of present and future military technologies) under differing conditions of velocity-vector orientation and simulated (by biasing) high-voltage operation. Solar arrays to be tested include Si and GaAs planar arrays and several types of GaAs concentrator arrays. Diagnostics (a Langmuir probe and a pressure gauge) and a transient pulse monitor (to measure radiated and conducted EMI during arcing) will be used to determine the impact of the environment on array operation to help verify various interactions models. Results from a successful PASP Plus flight will furnish answers to important interactions questions and provide inputs for design and test standards for photovoltaic space-power subsystems.

  18. NREL photovoltaic program FY 1997 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, R.D.; Hansen, A.; Smoller, S.

    1998-06-01

    This report summarizes the in-house and subcontracted research and development (R and D) activities under the NREL PV Program from October 1, 1996, through September 30, 1997 (FY 1997). The NREL PV Program is part of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) National Photovoltaics Program, as described in the DOE National Photovoltaics Program Plan for 1996--2000. The FY 1997 budget authority for carrying out the NREL PV Program was $39.3 million in operating funds and $0.4 million in capital equipment funds. Subcontract activities represent a major part of the NREL PV Program, with $21.8 million (55% of PV funds) going to some 84 subcontractors. Cost sharing by industry added almost $8.8 million to the subcontract R and D activities with industry.

  19. Multijunction photovoltaic device and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Arya, Rejeewa R.; Catalano, Anthony W.; Bennett, Murray

    1995-04-04

    A multijunction photovoltaic device includes first, second, and third amorphous silicon p-i-n photovoltaic cells in a stacked arrangement. The intrinsic layers of the second and third cells are formed of a-SiGe alloys with differing ratios of Ge such that the bandgap of the intrinsic layers respectively decrease from the first uppermost cell to the third lowermost cell. An interface layer, composed of a doped silicon compound, is disposed between the two cells and has a lower bandgap than the respective n- and p-type adjacent layers of the first and second cells. The interface layer forms an ohmic contact with the one of the adjacent cell layers of the same conductivity type, and a tunnel junction with the other of the adjacent cell layers.

  20. High-Performance Flexible Waveguiding Photovoltaics

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chun-Hsien; Chuang, Jui-Kang; Chen, Fang-Chung

    2013-01-01

    The use of flat-plane solar concentrators is an effective approach toward collecting sunlight economically and without sun trackers. The optical concentrators are, however, usually made of rigid glass or plastics having limited flexibility, potentially restricting their applicability. In this communication, we describe flexible waveguiding photovoltaics (FWPVs) that exhibit high optical efficiencies and great mechanical flexibility. We constructed these FWPVs by integrating poly-Si solar cells, a soft polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) waveguide, and a TiO2-doped backside reflector. Optical microstructures that increase the light harvesting ability of the FWPVs can be fabricated readily, through soft lithography, on the top surface of the PDMS waveguide. Our optimized structure displayed an optical efficiency of greater than 42% and a certified power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.57%, with a projected PCE as high as approximately 18%. This approach might open new avenues for the harvesting of solar energy at low cost with efficient, mechanically flexible photovoltaics. PMID:23873225

  1. Commercial applications of new photovoltaic technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcconnell, R.

    1991-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has directed and managed photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R&D) activities for the Department of Energy for more than 13 years. The NREL budget for these activities is almost $33 million for FY 1991. With the world's increasing concern for the environment and the United States' renewed apprehension over secure and adequate energy supplies, the use of semiconducting materials for the direct conversion of sunlight to electricity - photovoltaics - is an excellent example of government-supported high technology ready for further development by U.S. companies. Some new PV technologies and their research progress, some commercial applications of PV, and NREL's technology transfer activities for helping U.S. industry in its efforts to bring new products or services to the marketplace are described.

  2. High-Performance Flexible Waveguiding Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Chun-Hsien; Chuang, Jui-Kang; Chen, Fang-Chung

    2013-07-01

    The use of flat-plane solar concentrators is an effective approach toward collecting sunlight economically and without sun trackers. The optical concentrators are, however, usually made of rigid glass or plastics having limited flexibility, potentially restricting their applicability. In this communication, we describe flexible waveguiding photovoltaics (FWPVs) that exhibit high optical efficiencies and great mechanical flexibility. We constructed these FWPVs by integrating poly-Si solar cells, a soft polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) waveguide, and a TiO2-doped backside reflector. Optical microstructures that increase the light harvesting ability of the FWPVs can be fabricated readily, through soft lithography, on the top surface of the PDMS waveguide. Our optimized structure displayed an optical efficiency of greater than 42% and a certified power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.57%, with a projected PCE as high as approximately 18%. This approach might open new avenues for the harvesting of solar energy at low cost with efficient, mechanically flexible photovoltaics.

  3. Pulsed laser illumination of photovoltaic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yater, Jane A.; Lowe, Roland A.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1994-01-01

    In future space missions, free electron lasers (FEL) may be used to illuminate photovoltaic array receivers to provide remote power. Both the radio-frequency (RF) and induction FEL provide FEL produce pulsed rather than continuous output. In this work we investigate cell response to pulsed laser light which simulates the RF FEL format. The results indicate that if the pulse repetition is high, cell efficiencies are only slightly reduced compared to constant illumination at the same wavelength. The frequency response of the cells is weak, with both voltage and current outputs essentially dc in nature. Comparison with previous experiments indicates that the RF FEL pulse format yields more efficient photovoltaic conversion than does an induction FEL pulse format.

  4. Pulsed laser illumination of photovoltaic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yater, Jane A.; Lowe, Roland A.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1995-01-01

    In future space missions, free electron lasers (FEL) may be used to illuminate photovoltaic receivers to provide remote power. Both the radio-frequency (RF) and induction FEL produce pulsed rather than continuous output. In this work we investigate cell response to pulsed laser light which simulates the RF FEL format. The results indicate that if the pulse repetition is high, cell efficiencies are only slightly reduced compared to constant illumination at the same wavelength. The frequency response of the cells is weak, with both voltage and current outputs essentially dc in nature. Comparison with previous experiments indicates that the RF FEL pulse format yields more efficient photovoltaic conversion than does an induction FEL format.

  5. Hybrid Photovoltaic-Hydrogen Power Conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrigos, A.; Blanes, J. M.; Carrasco, J. A.; Maset, E.; Ejea, J. B.; Ferreres, A.; Sanchis, E.

    2011-10-01

    This paper explores a power conditioning unit for photovoltaic/hydrogen based energy systems. Similar power conversion techniques, compared to traditional space power systems, are applied. An S4R regulator is devised with an unregulated battery bus as primary output and a secondary path to feed and electrolyser. A modular fuel cell converter completes the system and it operates when photovoltaic energy is not available or load demand exceeds solar power, i. e. like a traditional BDR. An ancillary battery keeps the unregulated bus voltage distributed in the system and it also aids the fuel cell during transients or start-up due to its limited speed. A 1kW breadboard has been designed and implemented to corroborate the proposed system.

  6. Design and Optimization of Photovoltaics Recycling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, J.K.; Fthenakis, V.

    2010-10-01

    With the growing production and installation of photovoltaics (PV) around the world constrained by the limited availability of resources, end-of-life management of PV is becoming very important. A few major PV manufacturers currently are operating several PV recycling technologies at the process level. The management of the total recycling infrastructure, including reverse-logistics planning, is being started in Europe. In this paper, we overview the current status of photovoltaics recycling planning and discuss our mathematic modeling of the economic feasibility and the environmental viability of several PV recycling infrastructure scenarios in Germany; our findings suggest the optimum locations of the anticipated PV take-back centers. Short-term 5-10 year planning for PV manufacturing scraps is the focus of this article. Although we discuss the German situation, we expect the generic model will be applicable to any region, such as the whole of Europe and the United States.

  7. on the performance of organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyeong Pil; Yusoff, Abd Rashid bin Mohd; Lee, Hee Jae; Lee, Seung Joo; Kim, Hyo Min; Seo, Gi Jun; Youn, Jun Ho; Jang, Jin

    2014-06-01

    We demonstrate a new solution-processed electron transport layer (ETL), zinc oxide doped with cesium carbonate (ZnO:Cs2CO3), for achieving organic photovoltaics (OPVs) with good operational stability at ambient air. An OPV employing the ZnO:Cs2CO3 ETL exhibits a fill factor of 62%, an open circuit voltage of 0.90 V, and a short circuit current density of -6.14 mA/cm2 along with 3.43% power conversion efficiency. The device demonstrated air stability for a period over 4 weeks. In addition, we also studied the device structure dependence on the performance of organic photovoltaics. Thus, we conclude that ZnO:Cs2CO3 ETL could be employed in a suitable architecture to achieve high-performance OPV.

  8. Application and design of solar photovoltaic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tianze, Li; Hengwei, Lu; Chuan, Jiang; Luan, Hou; Xia, Zhang

    2011-02-01

    Solar modules, power electronic equipments which include the charge-discharge controller, the inverter, the test instrumentation and the computer monitoring, and the storage battery or the other energy storage and auxiliary generating plant make up of the photovoltaic system which is shown in the thesis. PV system design should follow to meet the load supply requirements, make system low cost, seriously consider the design of software and hardware, and make general software design prior to hardware design in the paper. To take the design of PV system for an example, the paper gives the analysis of the design of system software and system hardware, economic benefit, and basic ideas and steps of the installation and the connection of the system. It elaborates on the information acquisition, the software and hardware design of the system, the evaluation and optimization of the system. Finally, it shows the analysis and prospect of the application of photovoltaic technology in outer space, solar lamps, freeways and communications.

  9. Natural sunlight accelerated weathering of photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zerlaut, G. A.; Anderson, T. B.; Arnett, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    Photovoltaic modules are exposed to the equivalent of ten years of sunlight aging in an accelerated exposure testing and evaluation program, the objective being to determine the long-term durability characteristics of flat plate modules in comparatively short periods of time. The modules are illuminated with concentrated sunlight in a large, sun-tracking, Fresnel-reflecting solar concentrator. The effects of the accelerated exposure are assessed by performing periodic visual inspections and electrical measurements. It is found that field-experienced failure modes are duplicated, that acceleration factors of 6x to 8x are readily attainable, and that the test method is feasible as a predictive tool for photovoltaic module lifetime durability.

  10. Design and optimization of photovoltaics recycling infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jun-Ki; Fthenakis, Vasilis

    2010-11-15

    With the growing production and installation of photovoltaics (PV) around the world constrained by the limited availability of resources, end-of-life management of PV is becoming very important. A few major PV manufacturers currently are operating several PV recycling technologies at the process level. The management of the total recycling infrastructure, including reverse-logistics planning, is being started in Europe. In this paper, we overview the current status of photovoltaics recycling planning and discuss our mathematic modeling of the economic feasibility and the environmental viability of several PV recycling infrastructure scenarios in Germany; our findings suggest the optimum locations of the anticipated PV take-back centers. Short-term 5-10 year planning for PV manufacturing scraps is the focus of this article. Although we discuss the German situation, we expect the generic model will be applicable to any region, such as the whole of Europe and the United States.

  11. Photovoltaic concentrator test results and interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerwin, H. J.

    A series of actively- and passively-cooled photovoltaic modules and arrays have been tested at the Sandia Photovoltaic Advanced Systems Test Facility. Four actively-cooled collectors were studied: (1) the Acurex parabolic trough module efficiency is 7.9%, (2) the E-systems module demonstrates a 9.9% efficiency, (3) the General Electric module has an 8.2% efficiency, and (4) the Varian module measures a 14% efficiency. Among the passively-cooled collectors tested is the Martin-Marietta Array, and it is shown that a 10 C difference in cell temperature changes the conversion efficiency from 9.0 to about 9.4%. In addition, the Spectrolab array has been 99.2% reliable and has a measured efficiency of 7.4%. Finally, the Motorola module demonstrates efficiencies of 7.8% and 10.7%. In order to compare collector performances, each design must be optimized.

  12. Editorial: Photovoltaic Materials and Devices 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, Bhushan; Rupnowski, Peter; Shet, Sudhakar; Basnyat, Prakash

    2014-12-22

    An ever increasing demand on energy has fostered many new generation technologies, which include photovoltaics. In recent years, photovoltaic industry has grown very rapidly. The installed capacity of PV for 2013 was about 37 GW and 2014 sales are expected to be around 45 GW. However, there has been excess production for last several years, which is responsible in part for the low prices (about 60 c/W). To lower the PV energy costs further, a major strategy appears to be going to high efficiency solar cells. This approach is favored (over lower cost/lower efficiency) because cell efficiency has a very large influence on the acceptable manufacturing cost of a PV module. Hence, the PV industry is moving toward developing processes and equipment to manufacture solar cells that can yield efficiencies >20%. Therefore, further research is needed within existing technologies to accomplish these objectives. Likewise, research will continue to seek new materials and devices.

  13. Summary of photovoltaic system performance models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. H.; Reiter, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed overview of photovoltaics (PV) performance modeling capabilities developed for analyzing PV system and component design and policy issues is provided. A set of 10 performance models are selected which span a representative range of capabilities from generalized first order calculations to highly specialized electrical network simulations. A set of performance modeling topics and characteristics is defined and used to examine some of the major issues associated with photovoltaic performance modeling. Each of the models is described in the context of these topics and characteristics to assess its purpose, approach, and level of detail. The issues are discussed in terms of the range of model capabilities available and summarized in tabular form for quick reference. The models are grouped into categories to illustrate their purposes and perspectives.

  14. Theoretical limits for visibly transparent photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunt, Richard R.

    2012-07-01

    Transparent photovoltaics (PVs) provide a potentially facile route to building-integrated PVs and seamless energy-harvesting within non-window surfaces such as electronic displays, autonomously powered electronic-glazings, and mobile-electronic accessories. Such devices have been enabled by manipulation of excitons in organic and molecular semiconductors that allow for selective ultraviolet and near-infrared solar conversion. Here, the theoretical efficiency limits of transparent photovoltaics are determined as a function of transparency. Power-production from ultraviolet and near-infrared photons alone leads to a theoretical single-junction efficiency of 21% in transparent structures, compared to 33% for opaque-junctions. Reducing thermal losses via transparent multi-junction stacking these limits increase to 37%.

  15. Polymer Nanoparticle Superlattices for Organic Photovoltaic Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sumpter, Bobby G; Barnes, Mike D.; Venkataraman, Dhandapani; Dinsmore, Anthony D; Labastide, Joelle; Baghgar, Mina; Yang, Yipeng

    2011-01-01

    In this Perspective, we discuss the possibility of constructing binary nanoparticle superlattices for organic photovoltaic applications and some of the interesting new photophysics emerging from preliminary studies. We summarize recent advances in nanoparticle preparation and photophysical characterization and some of the very interesting observed departures from thin-film photoluminescence dynamics. We conclude by discussing some of the challenges ahead and the possibility of new emergent physics in the assembly of polymer nanoparticles into functional devices.

  16. Recycling of CdTe photovoltaic waste

    DOEpatents

    Goozner, Robert E.; Long, Mark O.; Drinkard, Jr., William F.

    1999-01-01

    A method for extracting and reclaiming metals from scrap CdTe photovoltaic cells and manufacturing waste by leaching the waste with a leaching solution comprising nitric acid and water, skimming any plastic material from the top of the leaching solution, separating the glass substrate from the liquid leachate and electrolyzing the leachate to separate Cd from Te, wherein the Te is deposits onto a cathode while the Cd remains in solution.

  17. Calibration and Rating of Photovoltaics: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, K.

    2012-06-01

    Rating the performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules is critical to determining the cost per watt, and efficiency is useful to assess the relative progress among PV concepts. Procedures for determining the efficiency for PV technologies from 1-sun to low concentration to high concentration are discussed. We also discuss the state of the art in primary and secondary calibration of PV reference cells used by calibration laboratories around the world. Finally, we consider challenges to rating PV technologies and areas for improvement.

  18. Tests Of Amorphous-Silicon Photovoltaic Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Ronald G., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Progress in identification of strengths and weaknesses of amorphous-silicon technology detailed. Report describes achievements in testing reliability of solar-power modules made of amorphous-silicon photovoltaic cells. Based on investigation of modules made by U.S. manufacturers. Modules subjected to field tests, to accelerated-aging tests in laboratory, and to standard sequence of qualification tests developed for modules of crystalline-silicon cells.

  19. Aluminum doped zinc oxide for organic photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Murdoch, G. B.; Hinds, S.; Sargent, E. H.; Tsang, S. W.; Mordoukhovski, L.; Lu, Z. H.

    2009-05-25

    Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) was grown via magnetron sputtering as a low-cost alternative to indium tin oxide (ITO) for organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Postdeposition ozone treatment resulted in devices with lower series resistance, increased open-circuit voltage, and power conversion efficiency double that of devices fabricated on untreated AZO. Furthermore, cells fabricated using ozone treated AZO and standard ITO displayed comparable performance.

  20. Terawatt-scale photovoltaics: Trajectories and challenges

    DOE PAGES

    Haegel, Nancy M.; Margolis, Robert; Buonassisi, Tonio; ...

    2017-04-13

    The annual potential of solar energy far exceeds the world's total energy consumption. However, the vision of photovoltaics (PVs) providing a substantial fraction of global electricity generation and total energy demand is far from being realized. What technical, infrastructure, economic, and policy barriers need to be overcome for PVs to grow to the multiple terawatt (TW) scale? Here, we assess realistic future scenarios and make suggestions for a global agenda to move toward PVs at a multi-TW scale.