Science.gov

Sample records for 6-light double-hung wood-frame

  1. 22. FIRST FLOOR APARTMENT SOUTH BEDROOM INTERIOR SHOWING PAIRED 6LIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. FIRST FLOOR APARTMENT SOUTH BEDROOM INTERIOR SHOWING PAIRED 6-LIGHT OVER 6-LIGHT DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAMED WINDOWS. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  2. 15. INTERIOR OF SOUTH BEDROOM SHOWING 6LIGHT OVER 1LIGHT, DOUBLEHUNG, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. INTERIOR OF SOUTH BEDROOM SHOWING 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAME WINDOWS ON EAST AND SOUTH WALL. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  3. 12. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NO. 1 SHOWING ORIGINAL 6LIGHT OVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NO. 1 SHOWING ORIGINAL 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAMED WINDOWS WITH SIMPLE WOOD SURROUNDS AND PROJECTING SILLS ON NORTHEAST AND NORTHWEST WALLS. VIEW TO NORTH. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  4. 17. INTERIOR OF NORTH BEDROOM SHOWING 6LIGHT OVER 1LIGHT, DOUBLEHUNG, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. INTERIOR OF NORTH BEDROOM SHOWING 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAME WINDOWS IN PAIRED ARRANGEMENT ON NORTH WALL AND SINGLY ON EAST WALL. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  5. 7. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING DISTINCTIVE 6LIGHT THREEPANEL DOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING DISTINCTIVE 6-LIGHT THREE-PANEL DOOR, ONE OF THE NARROW 4-LIGHT OVER 4-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOWS FRAMING THE FRONT DOOR, AND THE PAIRED 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOWS. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  6. Cornice Detail of Rake, Cornice Detail of Eave, Wood DoubleHung ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cornice Detail of Rake, Cornice Detail of Eave, Wood Double-Hung Window Details, Wood Door Details - Boxley Grist Mill, Boxley vicinity on State Route 43, Buffalo National River, Ponca, Newton County, AR

  7. 2. NORTH (FRONT) ELEVATION. ALSO SHOWS THREE WOOD FRAME PROJECTIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. NORTH (FRONT) ELEVATION. ALSO SHOWS THREE WOOD FRAME PROJECTIONS (located on the right-hand side; on the center; and on the left-hand side) - Annesdale, 1325 Lamar Avenue, Memphis, Shelby County, TN

  8. Thermal Impact of Fasteners in High-Performance Wood-Framed Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Dane Christensen

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses high-performance wood-framed walls that use much less than 40% of the energy consumed by similar homes built to minimum code, and evaluates the thermal impact of fasteners used to construct these walls.

  9. 37. SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE APARTMENT EAST BEDROOM INTERIOR SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE APARTMENT EAST BEDROOM INTERIOR SHOWING PAIRED 6-LIGHT OVER 6-LIGHT DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAME WINDOWS ON NORTH WALL. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  10. 20. FIRST FLOOR APARTMENT NORTH BEDROOM INTERIOR LOOKING THROUGH DOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. FIRST FLOOR APARTMENT NORTH BEDROOM INTERIOR LOOKING THROUGH DOOR FROM LIVING ROOM. GROUP OF THREE 6-LIGHT OVER 6-LIGHT DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAME WINDOWS AT PHOTO CENTER THROUGH NORTH (FRONT) WALL OF HOUSE. VIEW TO EAST. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  11. 16. FIRST FLOOR APARTMENT KITCHEN INTERIOR SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. FIRST FLOOR APARTMENT KITCHEN INTERIOR SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO LIVING ROOM AND PAIRED 6-LIGHT OVER 6-LIGHT DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAME WINDOWS OVER SINK. VIEW TO EAST. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  12. 38. SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE APARTMENT WEST BEDROOM INTERIOR SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE APARTMENT WEST BEDROOM INTERIOR SHOWING PAIRED 6-LIGHT OVER 6-LIGHT DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAME WINDOWS ON WEST WALL AND OPEN DOORWAY TO LIVING ROOM. VIEW TO WEST. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  13. 30. SECOND FLOOR EAST SIDE APARTMENT WEST BEDROOM INTERIOR SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. SECOND FLOOR EAST SIDE APARTMENT WEST BEDROOM INTERIOR SHOWING PAIRED 6-LIGHT OVER 6-LIGHT DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAME WINDOWS THROUGH NORTH WALL. ORIGINAL LOUVERED DOORS FRAME CLOSET AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  14. 10. INTERIOR KITCHEN UTILITY AREA SHOWING PARTITION, PANELED AND GLAZED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR KITCHEN UTILITY AREA SHOWING PARTITION, PANELED AND GLAZED REAR DOOR, AND ROW OF 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAMED WINDOWS AROUND EAST CORNER OF HOUSE. VIEW TO EAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  15. Injuries and illnesses from wood framing in residential construction, Washington State, 1993-1999.

    PubMed

    Shah, Syed Mahboob Ali; Bonauto, David; Silverstein, Barbara; Foley, Michael; Kalat, John

    2003-11-01

    The construction industry is associated with high rates of work-related injury. We used workers compensation data to describe the injuries and illnesses, claim rates, and claim costs associated with wood framing activities in construction. From 1993 to 1999, there were 33,021 accepted state fund workers compensation claims with direct costs of over $197 million. The average annual claim rate was 45 per 100 full-time equivalent. Statistically significant downward trends were noted in claim rates for all injuries and illnesses, compensable time loss claims, eye and fall injuries. However, these trends were not statistically significantly different from those observed in all other construction risk classes combined. The information in this report can be used to guide prevention efforts and to evaluate the effectiveness of Washington state initiatives to reduce injury and illness rates in wood frame construction.

  16. Byggmeister Test Home. Analysis and Initial Results of Cold Climate Wood-Framed Home Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, C.

    2013-01-01

    BSC seeks to further the energy efficiency market for New England area retrofit projects by supporting projects that are based on solid building science fundamentals that will benefit the homeowner through a combination of energy savings, improved durability, and occupant comfort. This report describes a deep retrofit project of a two-family wood-framed home in Belmont, Massachusetts, and examines the retrofit measures for the enclosure amd mechanical systems and reviews the decision-making process that took place during planning.

  17. Thermal Impact of Fasteners in High-Performance Wood-Framed Walls: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, D.

    2011-01-01

    Buildings are heavy consumers of energy, and residential building design is rapidly addressing topics to maximize energy conservation en route to net-zero energy consumption. Annual energy analysis of a building informs the choice among disparate energy measures, for cost, durability, occupant comfort, and whole-house energy use. Physics-based and empirical models of elements of a building are used in such analyses. High-performance wood-framed walls enable builders to construct homes that use much less than 40% of the energy consumed by similar homes built to minimum code. Modeling for these walls has considered physical features such as framing factor, insulation and framing properties, roughness and convective effects, and air leakage. The thermal effects of fasteners used to construct these walls have not been fully evaluated, even though their thermal conductivity is orders of magnitudes higher than that of other building materials. Drywall screws and siding nails are considered in this finite element thermal conductivity analysis of wall sections that represent wood-framed walls that are often used in high-performance homes. Nails and screws reduce even the best walls' insulating performance by approximately 3% and become increasingly significant as the framing factor increases.

  18. Transmission factors for the penetration of neutron and photon fluence into wood-frame dwellings, 1990 (TF90)

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoades, W.A.; Lillie, R.A.; Emmett, M.B.

    1992-05-01

    An earlier study at Oak Ridge calculated radiation doses to persons inside reinforced concrete buildings during the exposure at Nagasaki. The DS86'' study conducted at several laboratories in the United States and Japan concentrated on persons inside wood-frame dwellings at both Nagasaki and Hiroshima. The present study is directed toward applying the general technical approach of the DS86. Numerous simplifications were indicated as a result of the earlier research, and the numerical results are represented as transmission factors'' relating radiation outside the dwellings to doses received by individuals within. An advantage of this method is that the transmission factors can be presented in tables that can be reviewed, inspected, and applied in a very tangible and straightforward manner.

  19. Transmission factors for the penetration of neutron and photon fluence into wood-frame dwellings, 1990 (TF90)

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoades, W.A.; Lillie, R.A.; Emmett, M.B.

    1992-05-01

    An earlier study at Oak Ridge calculated radiation doses to persons inside reinforced concrete buildings during the exposure at Nagasaki. The ``DS86`` study conducted at several laboratories in the United States and Japan concentrated on persons inside wood-frame dwellings at both Nagasaki and Hiroshima. The present study is directed toward applying the general technical approach of the DS86. Numerous simplifications were indicated as a result of the earlier research, and the numerical results are represented as ``transmission factors`` relating radiation outside the dwellings to doses received by individuals within. An advantage of this method is that the transmission factors can be presented in tables that can be reviewed, inspected, and applied in a very tangible and straightforward manner.

  20. 19. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN SHOWING 2LIGHT OVER 2LIGHT, DOUBLEHUNG, WOODFRAMED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN SHOWING 2-LIGHT OVER 2-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAMED WINDOW. VIEW TO EAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  1. Effects of topographic position and geology on shaking damage to residential wood-framed structures during the 2003 San Simeon earthquake, western San Luis obispo county, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCrink, T.P.; Wills, C.J.; Real, C.R.; Manson, M.W.

    2010-01-01

    A statistical evaluation of shaking damage to wood-framed houses caused by the 2003 M6.5 San Simeon earthquake indicates that both the rate and severity of damage, independent of structure type, are significantly greater on hilltops compared to hill slopes when underlain by Cretaceous or Tertiary sedimentary rocks. This increase in damage is interpreted to be the result of topographic amplification. An increase in the damage rate is found for all structures built on Plio-Pleistocene rocks independent of topographic position, and this is interpreted to be the result of amplified shaking caused by geologic site response. Damage rate and severity to houses built on Tertiary rocks suggest that amplification due to both topographic position and geologic site response may be occurring in these rocks, but effects from other topographic parameters cannot be ruled out. For all geologic and topographic conditions, houses with raised foundations are more frequently damaged than those with slab foundations. However, the severity of damage to houses on raised foundations is only significantly greater for those on hill slopes underlain by Tertiary rocks. Structures with some damage-resistant characteristics experienced greater damage severity on hilltops, suggesting a spectral response to topographic amplification. ?? 2010, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  2. 6. Light tower and keeper's house, view east southeast, northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Light tower and keeper's house, view east southeast, northwest and southwest sides - Seguin Island Light Station, Summit of Seguin Island, south of mouth of Kennebec River, Popham Beach, Sagadahoc County, ME

  3. 6. Light tower, detail of stairs leading from first landing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Light tower, detail of stairs leading from first landing to cupola, looking east - Baker Island Light, Lightkeeper's House, Just east of Cranberry Isles, at entrance to Frenchman Bay, Bar Harbor, Hancock County, ME

  4. 6. Light tower and corner of keeper's house, view northeast, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Light tower and corner of keeper's house, view northeast, northwest front and southwest side of tower, southwest side of house - Burnt Coat Harbor Light Station, At Hackamock Head on Swan's Island opposite Harbor Island at entrance to Burnt Coat Harbor, Swans Island, Hancock County, ME

  5. 5. INTERIOR SHOWING WOOD STORAGE CABINETS AND 2LIGHT OVER 2LIGHT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR SHOWING WOOD STORAGE CABINETS AND 2-LIGHT OVER 2-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAMED WINDOW THROUGH SOUTHEAST WALL AT PHOTO CENTER. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Lightning Arrestor Vault, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  6. 9. INTERIOR LIVING ROOM DETAIL OF ONE OF TWO NARROW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR LIVING ROOM DETAIL OF ONE OF TWO NARROW 4-LIGHT OVER 4-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAMED WINDOWS ON EITHER SIDE OF FRONT DOOR SHOWING EXPOSED COUNTERBALANCE CABLE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  7. 14. FIRST FLOOR APARTMENT LIVING ROOM INTERIOR. FRONT ENTRY DOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. FIRST FLOOR APARTMENT LIVING ROOM INTERIOR. FRONT ENTRY DOOR IS AT PHOTO CENTER FLANKED BY A PAIRED 4-LIGHT OVER 4-LIGHT DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAME WINDOWS. OPEN DOORWAY TO PHOTO RIGHT OPENS TO NORTH BEDROOM. DOORWAY TO PHOTO LEFT OPENS TO KITCHEN. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  8. 9. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN SHOWING 1950s STYLE CABINETRY AND 3LIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN SHOWING 1950s STYLE CABINETRY AND 3-LIGHT OVER 3-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAMED WINDOW OVER SINK, VIEW TO NORTH. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  9. 21. INTERIOR OF UTILITY ROOM SHOWING OPEN REAR DOOR AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. INTERIOR OF UTILITY ROOM SHOWING OPEN REAR DOOR AT PHOTO CENTER, PAIRED NARROW 1-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAMED WINDOWS AT PHOTO LEFT. OPEN DOOR AT PHOTO RIGHT LEADS TO BATHROOM. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  10. 13. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING 2LIGHT OVER 2LIGHT, DOUBLEHUNG, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING 2-LIGHT OVER 2-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAMED WINDOWS ON SOUTHEAST WALL, AND UNUSUAL 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW WITH TRANSOM AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  11. 23. SECOND FLOOR EAST SIDE APARTMENT LIVING ROOM INTERIOR. PAIRED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. SECOND FLOOR EAST SIDE APARTMENT LIVING ROOM INTERIOR. PAIRED 4-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAME WINDOWS FLANK ENTRY DOOR. DOORWAY AT PHOTO RIGHT OPENS TO KITCHEN. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  12. 31. SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE APARTMENT LIVING ROOM INTERIOR SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE APARTMENT LIVING ROOM INTERIOR SHOWING PAIRED 4-LIGHT OVER 4-LIGHT DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAME WINDOWS FLANKING ENTRY DOOR WITH UNUSUAL 8-LIGHT WINDOW. OPEN DOORWAY TO PHOTO LEFT LEADS TO KITCHEN. VIEW TO WEST. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  13. 11. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN/UTILITY AREA SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO LIVING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN/UTILITY AREA SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO LIVING ROOM, AND BUILT-IN CABINETS AROUND SINK AND 3-LIGHT OVER 3-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAME WINDOW. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  14. 9. EXTERIOR OF ENCLOSED PORTION OF SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. EXTERIOR OF ENCLOSED PORTION OF SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE APARTMENT ENTRYWAY SHOWING STAIR LANDING AND OPEN FRONT DOOR FLANKED BY PAIRED 4-LIGHT OVER 4-LIGHT DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAME WINDOWS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  15. 16. INTERIOR OF BATHROOM NUMBER ONE SHOWING BUILTIN MEDICINE CABINET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INTERIOR OF BATHROOM NUMBER ONE SHOWING BUILT-IN MEDICINE CABINET FLANKED BY SMALL 1-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAMED WINDOWS IN A GROUPED ARRANGEMENT. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Clubhouse Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  16. 8. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING DOORWAY TO KITCHEN, CHANDELIER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING DOORWAY TO KITCHEN, CHANDELIER, AND ORIGINAL PAIRED 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOWS. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  17. 33. SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE APARTMENT KITCHEN INTERIOR. 6LIGHT PANEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE APARTMENT KITCHEN INTERIOR. 6-LIGHT PANEL DOOR AND 6-LIGHT CASEMENT WINDOW AT PHOTO CENTER AND PHOTO RIGHT RESPECTIVELY OPEN TO EXTERIOR STAIRWAY LANDING. VIEW TO WEST. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  18. 7. INTERIOR LIVING ROOM SHOWING 6LIGHT FRONT DOOR FLANKED BY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR LIVING ROOM SHOWING 6-LIGHT FRONT DOOR FLANKED BY ONE OF TWO 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOWS AT PHOTO RIGHT, AND OPEN DOORWAY TO BEDROOM NUMBER ONE (AND BEDROOM NUMBER TWO IN BACKGROUND) AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  19. 9. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN 6LIGHT FRONT ENTRY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN 6-LIGHT FRONT ENTRY DOOR AND TWO 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOWS OVERLOOKING FRONT ENTRY STEPS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Clubhouse Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  20. 9. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN 6LIGHT FRONT ENTRY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN 6-LIGHT FRONT ENTRY DOOR, OPEN PANEL DOOR TO BEDROOM NUMBER ONE, AND 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON REAR WALL AT PHOTO LEFT CENTER. FIREPLACE ORIGINALLY OCCUPIED SPACE UNDER ROUND HEATER VENT HOLE AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO WEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  1. 8. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING 6LIGHT FRONT ENTRY DOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING 6-LIGHT FRONT ENTRY DOOR AND TWO 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOWS TO PHOTO RIGHT OF FRONT DOOR OVERLOOKING PORCH. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  2. 25. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER FOUR SHOWING 6LIGHT OVER 1LIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER FOUR SHOWING 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOWS THROUGH SOUTH (PHOTO LEFT) AND WEST (PHOTO RIGHT) WALLS. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Clubhouse Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  3. 19. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING 6LIGHT OVER 1LIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOWS ON THE NORTH (PHOTO LEFT) AND EAST (PHOTO RIGHT) WALLS. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Clubhouse Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  4. 21. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER THREE SHOWING 6LIGHT OVER 1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER THREE SHOWING 6-LIGHT OVER 1 LIGHT SASH WINDOWS THROUGH WEST (PHOTO LEFT) AND NORTH (PHOTO RIGHT) WALLS. VIEW TO WEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Clubhouse Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  5. 14. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NO. 1 SHOWING ORIGINAL 6LIGHT OVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NO. 1 SHOWING ORIGINAL 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT WINDOWS ON SOUTH AND WEST WALLS. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Control Station, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  6. 13. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER ONE SHOWING 6LIGHT OVER 1LIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER ONE SHOWING 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON EAST (FRONT) WALL. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  7. 10. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN/UTILITY AREA SHOWING 1LIGHT THREE PANEL WOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN/UTILITY AREA SHOWING 1-LIGHT THREE PANEL WOOD OUTSIDE DOOR SOUTH SIDE OF HOUSE, PLUMBING HOOKUPS FOR WASHER BELOW BUILT-IN CABINETS AT PHOTO LEFT, AND PAIRED ARRANGEMENTS OF 4-LIGHT OVER 4-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAMED WINDOWS ON SOUTH AND WEST WALLS. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  8. 13. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER ONE SHOWING 6LIGHT OVER 1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER ONE SHOWING 6-LIGHT OVER 1 LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON EAST WALL AND OPEN PANEL DOOR TO BATHROOM ON NORTH WALL. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Clubhouse Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  9. 18. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING 6LIGHT OVER 1LIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON EAST (FRONT) WALL AT PHOTO LEFT, AND OPEN DOORWAY TO BEDROOM NUMBER ONE AT PHOTO RIGHT. VIEW TO EAST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  10. External Insulation of Masonry Walls and Wood Framed Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of exterior insulation on a building is an accepted and effective means to increase the overall thermal resistance of the assembly that also has other advantages of improved water management and often increased air tightness of building assemblies. For thin layers of insulation (1" to 1 1/2"), the cladding can typically be attached directly through the insulation back to the structure. For thicker insulation layers, furring strips have been added as a cladding attachment location. This approach has been used in the past on numerous Building America test homes and communities (both new and retrofit applications), and has been proven to be an effective and durable means to provide cladding attachment. However, the lack of engineering data has been a problem for many designers, contractors, and code officials. This research project developed baseline engineering analysis to support the installation of thick layers of exterior insulation on existing masonry and frame walls. Furthermore, water management details necessary to integrate windows, doors, decks, balconies and roofs were created to provide guidance on the integration of exterior insulation strategies with other enclosure elements.

  11. External Insulation of Masonry Walls and Wood Framed Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of exterior insulation on a building is an accepted and effective means to increase the overall thermal resistance of the assembly that also has other advantages of improved water management and often increased air tightness of building assemblies. For thin layers of insulation (1” to 1 ½”), the cladding can typically be attached directly through the insulation back to the structure. For thicker insulation layers, furring strips have been added as a cladding attachment location. This approach has been used in the past on numerous Building America test homes and communities (both new and retrofit applications), and has been proven to be an effective and durable means to provide cladding attachment. However, the lack of engineering data has been a problem for many designers, contractors, and code officials. This research project developed baseline engineering analysis to support the installation of thick layers of exterior insulation on existing masonry and frame walls. Furthermore, water management details necessary to integrate windows, doors, decks, balconies and roofs were created to provide guidance on the integration of exterior insulation strategies with other enclosure elements.

  12. 26. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN NO. 2 SHOWING BUILTIN CABINETRY AROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN NO. 2 SHOWING BUILT-IN CABINETRY AROUND SINK AND FLANKING 6-LIGHT OVER 6-LIGHT, DOUBLE HUNG WINDOW. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 6, Cashbaugh-Kilpatrick House, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  13. 14. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM NO. 1 SHOWING DOORWAY TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM NO. 1 SHOWING DOORWAY TO KITCHEN NO. 2 AND 6-LIGHT OVER 6-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOWS ALONG BACK (NORTH) WALL. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 6, Cashbaugh-Kilpatrick House, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  14. 9. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING ALUMINUM SLIDING GLASS WINDOW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING ALUMINUM SLIDING GLASS WINDOW FRONT DOOR, AND ORIGINAL 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOWS IN SINGLE AND DOUBLE ARRANGEMENTS. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  15. Byggmeister Test Home: Analysis and Initial Results of Cold Climate Wood-Framed Home Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, C.

    2013-01-01

    BSC seeks to further the energy efficiency market for New England area retrofit projects by supporting projects that are based on solid building science fundamentals and verified implementation. With the high exposure of energy efficiency and retrofit terminology being used in the general media at this time, it is important to have evidence that measures being proposed will in fact benefit the homeowner through a combination of energy savings, improved durability, and occupant comfort. There are several basic areas of research to which the technical report for these test homes can be expected to contribute. These include the combination of measures that is feasible, affordable and acceptable to homeowners as well as expectations versus results. Two Byggmeister multi-family test homes in Massachusetts are examined with the goal of providing case studies that could be applied to other similar New England homes.

  16. Vibration characteristics of walls and a plate glass window representative of those of a wood-frame house

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, H. D.

    1979-01-01

    Mechanical excitation was used, and measurements of acceleration response, natural frequencies, and nodal patterns were performed. Results indicate that the wall sections and the complete wall did not act as a unit in responding to sinusoidal vibration inputs. Calculated frequencies of the components that account for this independent behavior of the studs and face sheets agreed resonably well with experimental frequencies. Experimental vibrations of the plate glass window agreed with the calculated behavior, and responses of the window exposed to airplane flyover noise were readily correlated with the test results.

  17. Installing Windows with Foam Sheathing on a Wood-Frame Wall: January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2004

    SciTech Connect

    2005-05-01

    In most wall assemblies, connection details around windows have been the source of problems with water penetration into the building. This report describes how to install a window into a wall with insulating sheathing as an integrated drainage plane.

  18. 25. SECOND FLOOR EAST SIDE APARTMENT KITCHEN INTERIOR SHOWING GROUP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. SECOND FLOOR EAST SIDE APARTMENT KITCHEN INTERIOR SHOWING GROUP OF THREE 6-LIGHT WOOD-FRAME CASEMENT WINDOWS OVER THE SINK, AND OPEN DOORWAY TO TOP OF EXTERIOR STAIR LANDING AND WALKWAY AT REAR OF HOUSE. WALKWAY IS VISIBLE THROUGH KITCHEN WINDOWS. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  19. 34. SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE APARTMENT KITCHEN INTERIOR. DOORWAY AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE APARTMENT KITCHEN INTERIOR. DOORWAY AT PHOTO LEFT LEADS TO PANTRY. GROUP OF THREE 6-LIGHT WOOD-FRAME CASEMENT WINDOWS OPEN TO WALKWAY AT REAR OF BUILDING. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  20. Sound transmission class (STC) is not a good predictor of performance of insulated wood frame gypsum walls used as interior partitions in most North American homes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfrey, Richard D.; Alter, Harry; Berdan, Clarke

    2005-09-01

    Home owners say that insulating interior walls improves the acoustic environment. Based on STC alone, no perceptible difference is expected. To define ``improved,'' ethnographic and laboratory studies were conducted. Ethnographic studies in 33 homes, revealed owners want quieter, less reverberant environments, including rooms where added isolation is desired. Families lives are 24/7, leading to frustration that they cannot use their homes without disturbing others. Laboratory jury studies were conducted where 35 listeners rated the relative isolation of insulated and uninsulated walls. Noise sources included broadband and real home noises. Insulated walls were perceived to perform better than uninsulated walls in all cases. Noise control engineers know that STC is only a quick screening tool (actual sound transmission loss should be used to estimate noise reduction between rooms). This is what the jurors appeared to sense. Jury ratings and the midfrequency average SPL correlated reasonably well. The STC is determined by a structural resonance near 125 Hz. Above this band, insulation has a significant impact on transmission loss (perceptible, 6 dB average). A new rating system is needed that quantifies what actual listeners hear in quiet room environments. A model using some form of room criteria is suggested.

  1. Variability in wood-frame building damage using broad-band synthetic ground motions: a comparative numerical study with recorded motions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pei, Shiling; van de Lindt, John W.; Hartzell, Stephen; Luco, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake damage to light-frame wood buildings is a major concern for North America because of the volume of this construction type. In order to estimate wood building damage using synthetic ground motions, we need to verify the ability of synthetically generated ground motions to simulate realistic damage for this structure type. Through a calibrated damage potential indicator, four different synthetic ground motion models are compared with the historically recorded ground motions at corresponding sites. We conclude that damage for sites farther from the fault (>20 km) is under-predicted on average and damage at closer sites is sometimes over-predicted.

  2. Tertiary structure of human {Lambda}6 light chains.

    SciTech Connect

    Pokkuluri, P. R.; Solomon, A.; Weiss, D. T.; Stevens, F. J.; Schiffer, M.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; Univ. of Tennessee Medical Center /Graduate School of Medicine

    1999-01-01

    AL amyloidosis is a disease process characterized by the pathologic deposition of monoclonal light chains in tissue. To date, only limited information has been obtained on the molecular features that render such light chains amyloidogenic. Although protein products of the major human V kappa and V lambda gene families have been identified in AL deposits, one particular subgroup--lambda 6--has been found to be preferentially associated with this disease. Notably, the variable region of lambda 6 proteins (V lambda 6) has distinctive primary structural features including the presence in the third framework region (FR3) of two additional amino acid residues that distinguish members of this subgroup from other types of light chains. However, the structural consequences of these alterations have not been elucidated. To determine if lambda 6 proteins possess unique tertiary structural features, as compared to light chains of other V lambda subgroups, we have obtained x-ray diffraction data on crystals prepared from two recombinant V lambda 6 molecules. These components, isolated from a bacterial expression system, were generated from lambda 6-related cDNAs cloned from bone marrow-derived plasma cells from a patient (Wil) who had documented AL amyloidosis and another (Jto) with multiple myeloma and tubular cast nephropathy, but no evident fibrillar deposits. The x-ray crystallographic analyses revealed that the two-residue insertion located between positions 68 and 69 (not between 66 and 67 as previously surmised) extended an existing loop region that effectively increased the surface area adjacent to the first complementarity determining region (CDR1). Further, an unusual interaction between the Arg 25 and Phe 2 residues commonly found in lambda 6 molecules was noted. However, the structures of V lambda 6 Wil and Jto also differed from each other, as evidenced by the presence in the latter of certain ionic and hydrophobic interactions that we posit increased protein stability and thus prevented amyloid formation.

  3. Exterior building details of Building A; north façade: fouroverfour doublehung ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building A; north façade: four-over-four double-hung wood sash window with concrete sill; southerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  4. 4. Detail of the south side of the building showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Detail of the south side of the building showing the decorative-brick cornice, typical double-hung window, and chimneys. Credit GADA/MRM. - Stroud Building, 31-33 North Central Avenue, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  5. 2. BARN. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST. THE ROLLING DOOR PROBABLY REPLACES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. BARN. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST. THE ROLLING DOOR PROBABLY REPLACES AN ORIGINAL 4/4 DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOW. - Tonto Ranger Station, Barn, Forest Service Road 65 at Tonto Wash, Skull Valley, Yavapai County, AZ

  6. 13. Interior view, stairwell on third floor showing ornate jewels ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Interior view, stairwell on third floor showing ornate jewels and stained glass, double hung window with symmetrically molded trim and corner blocks - 535 Main Street (House), 535 Main Street, East Hartford, Hartford County, CT

  7. Exterior building details of Building D, west façade: doublehung wood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building D, west façade: double-hung wood window with brick arch lintel and brick sill; easterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  8. 30. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NO. 3 SHOWING SINGLE 1LIGHT OVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NO. 3 SHOWING SINGLE 1-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOW AT NORTHWEST ROOM CORNER. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 6, Cashbaugh-Kilpatrick House, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  9. 22. INTERIOR OR BEDROOM NO. 1 SHOWING 1LIGHT OVER 1LIGHT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. INTERIOR OR BEDROOM NO. 1 SHOWING 1-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOW ON EAST WALL. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 6, Cashbaugh-Kilpatrick House, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  10. 33. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NO. 4 SHOWING 1LIGHT OVER 1LIGHT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NO. 4 SHOWING 1-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOWS. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 6, Cashbaugh-Kilpatrick House, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  11. A Single Mutation at the Sheet Switch Region Results in Conformational Changes Favoring 6 Light-Chain Fibrillogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hernández-Santoyo, A.; Del Pozo Yauner, L; Fuentes-Silva, D; Ortiz, E; Rudiño-Piñera, E; Sánchez-López, R; Horjales, E; Becerril, B; Rodríguez-Romero, A

    2010-01-01

    Systemic amyloid light-chain (LC) amyloidosis is a disease process characterized by the pathological deposition of monoclonal LCs in tissue. All LC subtypes are capable of fibril formation although {lambda} chains, particularly those belonging to the {lambda}6 type, are overrepresented. Here, we report the thermodynamic and in vitro fibrillogenic properties of several mutants of the {lambda}6 protein 6aJL2 in which Pro7 and/or His8 was substituted by Ser or Pro. The H8P and H8S mutants were almost as stable as the wild-type protein and were poorly fibrillogenic. In contrast, the P7S mutation decreased the thermodynamic stability of 6aJL2 and greatly enhanced its capacity to form amyloid-like fibrils in vitro. The crystal structure of the P7S mutant showed that the substitution induced both local and long-distance effects, such as the rearrangement of the VL (variable region of the light chain)-VL interface. This mutant crystallized in two orthorhombic polymorphs, P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and C222{sub 1}. In the latter, a monomer that was not arranged in the typical Bence-Jones dimer was observed for the first time. Crystal-packing analysis of the C222{sub 1} lattice showed the establishment of intermolecular {beta}-{beta} interactions that involved the N-terminus and {beta}-strand B and that these could be relevant in the mechanism of LC fibril formation. Our results strongly suggest that Pro7 is a key residue in the conformation of the N-terminal sheet switch motif and, through long-distance interactions, is also critically involved in the contacts that stabilized the VL interface in {lambda}6 LCs.

  12. Interior building details of Building A, Room 2212: plaster ceiling ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building A, Room 2-212: plaster ceiling and two-over-two double-hung wood sash with a infilled panel below, window, Room A-213 painted plaster finished partition walls; easterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  13. 9. Typical 'furnished rooms' overlook the Washington Street alley. Each ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Typical 'furnished rooms' overlook the Washington Street alley. Each has two double-hung windows that are fitted with roller-shade brackets. The plaster was formulated with lime and is heavily laden with animal hair. Each room is provided with a stove-pipe connection. Credit GADA/MRM. - Stroud Building, 31-33 North Central Avenue, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  14. Interior building details of Building B, Room B101: wood columns ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building B, Room B-101: wood columns and kickers, plywood baton partition wall, painted plaster west brick wall, four-over-four double-hung wood window; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  15. Interior building details of Building A, Room A002: plastered painted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building A, Room A-002: plastered painted west brick wall, four light double-hung wood window with brick arch lintel, east plastered wall (could be granite), wood ceiling; northerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  16. DETAIL OF ORIGINAL SIXOVERSIXLIGHT DOUBLEHUNG SASH WINDOWS WITH GRADUATED SCALE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF ORIGINAL SIX-OVER-SIX-LIGHT DOUBLE-HUNG SASH WINDOWS WITH GRADUATED SCALE IN 1' INCREMENTS. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Gymnasium Building, North Waterfront & Pierce Street near Berth S-13, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. INTERIOR DETAIL OF THE SIXOVERSIXLIGHT DOUBLEHUNG SASH WINDOWS. NOTE THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR DETAIL OF THE SIX-OVER-SIX-LIGHT DOUBLE-HUNG SASH WINDOWS. NOTE THE TOP OF THE UPPER SASH EXTENDS ABOVE THE DROPPED CEILING. VIEW FACING EAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Gymnasium Building, North Waterfront & Pierce Street near Berth S-13, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. Exterior building details of Building B, west façade: road level ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building B, west façade: road level four-over-four double-hung painted-wood windows with brick sill and arch brick lintels; easterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  19. Interior building details of Building A, Room 2212: plaster ceiling ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building A, Room 2-212: plaster ceiling and one-over-one double hung wood sash over a fixed three-light window, Room A-213 painted plaster finished partition walls; easterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  20. Women's Energy Tool Kit: Home Heating, Cooling and Weatherization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byalin, Joan

    This book is the first in a series of Energy Tool Kits designed for women by Consumer Action Now, a non-profit organization devoted to promoting energy efficiency and renewable energy resources. Information is provided in 16 sections: introduction, home energy survey; caulking; weatherstripping (double-hung and sliding windows, and casement,…

  1. 18. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO UTILITY ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO UTILITY ROOM AND BUILT-IN CABINETRY AROUND SINK, ON EITHER SIDE OF 1-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOW, AND ABOVE MAJOR APPLIANCE AREA. VIEW TO WEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  2. 15. INTERIOR OF NORTHWEST BEDROOM SHOWING OPEN DOORS TO ATTIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. INTERIOR OF NORTHWEST BEDROOM SHOWING OPEN DOORS TO ATTIC ACCESS AT PHOTO LEFT AND BATHROOM AT PHOTO CENTER. ORIGINAL 1-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE HUNG WINDOW AT PHOTO RIGHT. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  3. 12. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN/UTILITY AREA SHOWING ORIGINAL 1LIGHT OVER 1LIGHT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN/UTILITY AREA SHOWING ORIGINAL 1-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE HUNG WINDOW OVER SINK, AND BUILT-IN KITCHEN CABINETRY. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  4. 25. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN NO. 2 SHOWING BUILTIN CABINETS, 1LIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN NO. 2 SHOWING BUILT-IN CABINETS, 1-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOW, AND DOORWAY TO UTILITY ROOM. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 6, Cashbaugh-Kilpatrick House, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  5. 10. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING FRONT DOOR FLANKED BY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING FRONT DOOR FLANKED BY SLIDING GLASS WINDOWS AND ELECTRICAL WALL HEATER. ORIGINAL 1-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOW AT PHOTO RIGHT. CEILING VENT TO CHIMNEY AT RIGHT UPPER PHOTO CENTER. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  6. Interior building details of Building C, Room C113: historic painted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building C, Room C-113: historic painted plaster lath partition wall, painted plaster east wall and four light over two light double-hung window; southerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  7. 5. EXTERIOR OF SOUTH END OF HOUSE SHOWING OPEN DOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EXTERIOR OF SOUTH END OF HOUSE SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO BASEMENT BELOW KITCHEN, ORIGINAL PAIRED WOODFRAMED SLIDING-GLASS WINDOWS ON KITCHEN WALL AND 1LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOW ON STORM PORCH ADDITION. VIEW TO WEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Clubhouse Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  8. Measure Guideline: Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Zero Energy Ready House Flat Roofs

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, H.; Pettit, B.

    2015-05-01

    This Measure Guideline provides design and construction information for a deep energy enclosure retrofit (DEER) solution of a flat roof assembly. It describes the strategies and procedures for an exterior retrofit of a flat, wood-framed roof with brick masonry exterior walls, using exterior and interior (framing cavity) insulation. The approach supported in this guide could also be adapted for use with flat, wood-framed roofs with wood-framed exterior walls.

  9. Measure Guideline. Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Zero Energy Ready House Flat Roofs

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, H.; Pettit, B.

    2015-05-29

    This Measure Guideline provides design and construction information for a deep energy enclosure retrofit solution of a flat roof assembly. It describes the strategies and procedures for an exterior retrofit of a flat wood-framed roof with brick masonry exterior walls using exterior and interior (framing cavity) insulation. The approach supported in this guide could also be adapted for use with flat wood-framed roofs with wood-framed exterior walls.

  10. Exterior building details of Building A; west façade: white painted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building A; west façade: white painted brick wall of road and second level, road level: paired four-light casement window and a small single-light wood casement window; second level: four-over-four wood double-hung window and a six-light horizontal pivot over a three-light fixed window; easterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  11. 1. BARN. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST. EACH HORSE STALL HAS A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. BARN. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST. EACH HORSE STALL HAS A SMALL WINDOW. THE 4/4 DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOW IS IN THE STORE ROOM. THE ROLLING DOOR WAS WIDENED, PROBABLY IN 1926, ELIMINATING THE ORIGINAL LOFT LADDER AT THE CORNER OF THE BUILDING. THE PUBLIC RESTROOM NEAR THE LEFT EDGE OF THE VIEW DOES NOT RELATE TO THE RANGER STATION. - Tonto Ranger Station, Barn, Forest Service Road 65 at Tonto Wash, Skull Valley, Yavapai County, AZ

  12. 48. Interior detail, study, doublehung sash in the south wall. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Interior detail, study, double-hung sash in the south wall. Most of the windows in the John Bartram House were replaced sometime in the first decades of the nineteenth century. This window contains a slightly wider muntin profile than the later sash and is probably representative of the windows used in phase III construction (Mid-1750's-1770). - John Bartram House & Garden, House, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. 5. VIEW OF SECOND ELEVATOR WITH WOODFRAME HEADHOUSE AND ASPHALTIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF SECOND ELEVATOR WITH WOOD-FRAME HEADHOUSE AND ASPHALTIC SIDING, LOOKING WEST. - Lockport DuPage Farmer's Elevator Company Grain Elevator, South of Romeoville Road, Lockport, Will County, IL

  14. 17. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN SHOWING UPDATED CABINETS, SINK, AND FAUCET, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN SHOWING UPDATED CABINETS, SINK, AND FAUCET, AND ORIGINAL WOOD-FRAMED SLIDING GLASS WINDOWS ON SOUTH WALL OVER SINK. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  15. 16. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN SHOWING UPDATED CABINETS AND COUNTER TOP, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN SHOWING UPDATED CABINETS AND COUNTER TOP, AND ORIGINAL WOOD-FRAMED SLIDING GLASS WINDOW IN NORTH WALL OVERLOOKING FRONT ENTRY. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  16. 16. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN SHOWING UPDATED CABINETS AND ORIGINAL WOODFRAMED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN SHOWING UPDATED CABINETS AND ORIGINAL WOOD-FRAMED SLIDING-GLASS WINDOWS OVER SINK. VIEW TO EAST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  17. 20. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN SHOWING UPDATED CABINETS AND ORIGINAL WOODFRAMED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN SHOWING UPDATED CABINETS AND ORIGINAL WOOD-FRAMED SLIDING GLASS WINDOWS OVER SINK. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  18. 1. FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR OF BUILDING No. 3 DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR OF BUILDING No. 3 - DETAIL OF WOOD FRAMING TO SHOW WOOD COLUMNS, WOOD GIRDERS AND BEAMS WITH COLUMN CAPS - ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION - Whiting-Plover Paper Mill, Building No. 3, 3243 Whiting Road, Whiting, Portage County, WI

  19. 1. VIEW OF MECHANICAL ROOM CONSTRUCTED OF CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF MECHANICAL ROOM CONSTRUCTED OF CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS AND A WOOD FRAME ENLISTED MEN BARRACKS. - Nike Hercules Missile Battery Summit Site, Battery Control Administration & Barracks Building, Anchorage, Anchorage, AK

  20. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: StreetScape Development, LLC, Libertyville, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-01

    These single-family, HERS 45 homes incorporate 2×6 wood framed walls with R-20 open cell spray insulation and OSB. The builder, StreetScape Development, won a 2013 Housing Innovation Award in the custom builder category.

  1. 8. DETAIL OF QUONSET HUT SHOWING BOARDWALK ON TUNDRA CONNECTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL OF QUONSET HUT SHOWING BOARDWALK ON TUNDRA CONNECTING QUONSET HUTS THAT DID NOT HAVE INTERCONNNECTING WOOD FRAME CORRIDORS - Fort Randall, Neuro-Psychiatric Ward, Northeast of intersection of California Boulevard & Nurse Drive, Cold Bay, Aleutian Islands, AK

  2. 7 CFR 1755.507 - Aerial cable services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Design of Aerial Plant. The same tension as would be used in normal line construction so as not to exceed... masonry or on studs of wood frame buildings. Cable attachment devices may be installed on sheet...

  3. 7 CFR 1755.507 - Aerial cable services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Design of Aerial Plant. The same tension as would be used in normal line construction so as not to exceed... masonry or on studs of wood frame buildings. Cable attachment devices may be installed on sheet...

  4. 7 CFR 1755.507 - Aerial cable services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Design of Aerial Plant. The same tension as would be used in normal line construction so as not to exceed... masonry or on studs of wood frame buildings. Cable attachment devices may be installed on sheet...

  5. 7 CFR 1755.507 - Aerial cable services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Design of Aerial Plant. The same tension as would be used in normal line construction so as not to exceed... masonry or on studs of wood frame buildings. Cable attachment devices may be installed on sheet...

  6. 7 CFR 1755.507 - Aerial cable services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Design of Aerial Plant. The same tension as would be used in normal line construction so as not to exceed... masonry or on studs of wood frame buildings. Cable attachment devices may be installed on sheet...

  7. 15. The second story in the north segment of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. The second story in the north segment of the building was originally constructed as a restaurant. The north wall of the dining room retains the original wood wainscot and double-hung windows. At some undetermined time, a building was constructed on the adjacent property; blocking the windows in the dining room. Several chimneys with stove-pipe connections occur in the room. The members seen on the floor are part of a system recently installed to support the failing roof. Credit GADA/MRM. - Stroud Building, 31-33 North Central Avenue, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  8. Assessment of accuracy of in-situ methods for measuring building-envelope thermal resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, J.B.; Grot, R.A.; Park, H.S.

    1986-03-01

    A series of field and laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate the accuracy of in-situ thermal-resistance-measurement techniques. The results of thermal-performance evaluation of the exterior walls of six thermal mass test houses situated in Gaithersburg, Maryland are presented. The wall construction of these one-room houses includes insulated light-weight wood frame, uninsulated light-weight wood frame, insulated masonry with outside mass, uninsulated masonry, log, and insulated masonry with inside mass. In-situ measurements of heat transfer through building envelopes were made with heat flux transducers and portable calorimeters.

  9. 10. VIEW EAST (93 DEGREES) OF RCA COMMUNICATION RECEIVING STATION. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW EAST (93 DEGREES) OF RCA COMMUNICATION RECEIVING STATION. WOOD FRAMING SUPPORTED STANDOFF INSULATORS AND ANTENNA WIRES COMING FROM THE FIELD INTO THE BUILDING. BOLT ON FOUNDATION POLES SUPPORTED SATELLITE ANTENNAS, METAL CAP AND POSTS AT LEFT PROTECTED CONDUIT SUPPLYING POWER TO SATELLITE ANTENNA MOTORS. - Marconi Radio Sites, Receiving, Point Reyes Station, Marin County, CA

  10. 15. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN SHOWING UPDATED CABINETS, OUNTER TOP, SINK, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN SHOWING UPDATED CABINETS, OUNTER TOP, SINK, AND FAUCET, AND ORIGINAL WOOD FRAMED SLIDING-GLASS WINDOW IN NORTH WALL OVERLOOKING FRONT PORCH. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  11. 10. Photocopy of c. 1912 photograph looking N showing original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of c. 1912 photograph looking N showing original c. 1845 brick mill with c. 1897 3-story, wood-frame addition at end; cane shed extends out to the left. - Laurel Valley Sugar Plantation, Sugar Mill, 2 miles South of Thibodaux on State Route 308, Thibodaux, Lafourche Parish, LA

  12. 10. Front (southwest) elevation: partial view of Cider Mill and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Front (southwest) elevation: partial view of Cider Mill and Woodworking Mill. Steam box for bending wood visible on roof of Cider Mill; wood-framed table saw visible in open doorway; cordwood saw in lower right beneath windows. - Ben Thresher's Mill, State Aid No. 1, Barnet, Caledonia County, VT

  13. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart R of... - Uniform Test Method for the Measurement of Energy Consumption of the Components of Envelopes of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... has passed. 3.2Core region means the part of the panel that is not the edge region. 3.3Edge region means a region of the panel that is wide enough to encompass any framing members and edge effects. If the panel contains framing members (e.g. a wood frame) then the width of the edge region must be...

  14. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart R of... - Uniform Test Method for the Measurement of Energy Consumption of the Components of Envelopes of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... has passed. 3.2 Core region means the part of the panel that is not the edge region. 3.3 Edge region means a region of the panel that is wide enough to encompass any framing members and edge effects. If the panel contains framing members (e.g. a wood frame) then the width of the edge region must be...

  15. Builders Challenge High Performance Builder Spotlight: David Weekley Homes, Houston, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-22

    Building America Builders Challenge fact sheet on David Weekley Homes of Houston, Texas. The builder plans homes as a "system," with features such as wood-framed walls that are air-sealed then insulated with R-13 unfaced fiberglass batts plus an external covering of R-2 polyisocyanurate rigid foam sheathing.

  16. Measure Guideline: Three High Performance Mineral Fiber Insulation Board Retrofit Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, Ken

    2015-01-01

    This Measure Guideline describes a high performance enclosure retrofit package that uses mineral fiber insulation board. The Measure Guideline describes retrofit assembly and details for wood frame roof and walls and for cast concrete foundations. This Measure Guideline is intended to serve contractors and designers seeking guidance for non-foam exterior insulation retrofit.

  17. 5. Log calving barn (center), loafing shed (right of center), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Log calving barn (center), loafing shed (right of center), and wood-frame garage (far right). View to southwest. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  18. Measure Guideline: Three High Performance Mineral Fiber Insulation Board Retrofit Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, K.

    2015-01-01

    This Measure Guideline describes a high performance enclosure retrofit package that uses mineral fiber insulation board, and is intended to serve contractors and designers seeking guidance for non-foam exterior insulation retrofit processes. The guideline describes retrofit assembly and details for wood frame roof and walls and for cast concrete foundations.

  19. 14. INTERIOR OF ROOM 101 LOOKING NORTHWEST. SIX OVER SIX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR OF ROOM 101 LOOKING NORTHWEST. SIX OVER SIX LITE WOOD FRAME WINDOWS ARE CENTERED ON NORTHEAST AND NORTHWEST WALLS. ADDED TREATMENT TO WALLS IS A GYPSUM BOARD FINISH WITH WOOD TRIM, BOTH PAINTED. ADDED FLOOR TREATMENT IS VINYL COMPOSITION TILE. - Presidio of San Francisco, Cavalry Stables, Cowles Street, between Lincoln Boulevard & McDowell Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  20. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF FRONT OF CLUB HOUSE. BOAT HOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF FRONT OF CLUB HOUSE. BOAT HOUSE AND DOCK TO THE RIGHT. PICTURE TAKEN FROM FRONT YARD OF COTTAGE 231, CAMERA FACING SOUTHWEST. SMALL WOOD FRAME SHED IN FRONT OF CLUB HOUSE STORES FIRE HOSE BUILT AFTER 1980. - Swan Falls Village, Clubhouse 011, Snake River, Kuna, Ada County, ID

  1. 4. EXTERIOR OF SOUTH END OF BUILDING 104 SHOWING 1LIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EXTERIOR OF SOUTH END OF BUILDING 104 SHOWING 1-LIGHT SIDE EXIT DOOR AND ORIGINAL WOOD-FRAMED SLIDING GLASS KITCHEN WINDOWS AT PHOTO CENTER, AND TALL RUSTIC STYLE CHIMNEY WITH GABLE FRAME ON BACK WALL OF HOUSE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  2. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHEAST SIDE AND NORTHWEST END, SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHEAST SIDE AND NORTHWEST END, SHOWING THE WOOD-FRAMED WING (IN BACKGROUND) AND THE PROJECTING ENTRY FOYER. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, First Aid & Decontamination Building, Wasp Boulevard near Ranger Loop, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. 72. View of tunnel intake building, looking southwest. The winches ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. View of tunnel intake building, looking southwest. The winches for the trash racks, sheltered by a wood-frame structure with a gable roof, are to the left. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  4. Gabi's World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Gabi Swiatkowska is giving a tour of her studio, a dark basement in a narrow wood-frame house in Greenpoint, an old working-class neighborhood in Brooklyn, NY. Her large worktable sits in a corner, facing exposed pipes and gray cinder-block walls. Apart from a painting propped against a wall and a hanging poster, there's little to suggest an…

  5. Greenbelt Homes Pilot Energy Efficiency Program Phase 1 Summary. Existing Conditions and Baseline Energy Use

    SciTech Connect

    Wiehagen, J.; Del Bianco, M.; Wood, A.

    2013-02-01

    A multi-year pilot energy efficiency retrofit project has been undertaken by Greenbelt Homes, Inc, (GHI) a 1,566 co-operative of circa 1930 and '40 homes. The three predominate construction methods of the townhomes in the community are materials common to the area and climate zone including 8” CMU block, wood frame with brick veneer and wood frame with vinyl siding. GHI has established a pilot project that will serve as a basis for decision making for the roll out of a decade-long community upgrade program that will incorporate energy efficiency to the building envelope and equipment with the modernization of other systems like plumbing, mechanical equipment, and cladding.

  6. Greenbelt Homes Pilot Energy Efficiency Program Phase 1 Summary: Existing Conditions and Baseline Energy Use

    SciTech Connect

    Wiehagen, J.; Del Bianco, M.; Wood, A.

    2013-02-01

    A multi-year pilot energy efficiency retrofit project has been undertaken by Greenbelt Homes, Inc, (GHI) a 1,566 co-operative of circa 1930 and '40 homes. The three predominate construction methods of the townhomes in the community are materials common to the area and climate zone including 8" CMU block, wood frame with brick veneer and wood frame with vinyl siding. GHI has established a pilot project that will serve as a basis for decision making for the roll out of a decade-long community upgrade program that will incorporate energy efficiency to the building envelope and equipment with the modernization of other systems like plumbing, mechanical equipment, and cladding.

  7. 50. The apartment building on the left (164166 West Granite) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. The apartment building on the left (164-166 West Granite) was built about 1885-1886, and was used as a combination of residence and rooming house. It is one of the few remaining wood-frame structures dating from the beginning of Butte's economic and building development. Modifications, both interior and exterior, have been minimal, and the historic integrity of the structure has been retained. The Courthouse Grocery on the right (ca. 1887), is another early wood-frame building, and was also originally used as a residence and rooming house. It was modified in the early 20th century to accomodate commercial use on the ground floor, but the historic fabric of the structure is largely intact. - Butte Historic District, Bounded by Copper, Arizona, Mercury & Continental Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  8. 4. EXTERIOR OF SOUTH END OF BUILDING 103 SHOWING 1LIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EXTERIOR OF SOUTH END OF BUILDING 103 SHOWING 1-LIGHT SIDE EXIT DOOR AND ORIGINAL WOOD-FRAMED SLIDING GLASS KITCHEN WINDOWS AT PHOTO LEFT, CRISS-CROSS WOOD BALUSTRADE AROUND FRONT PORCH WITH OPEN DOOWAY TO BASEMENT BENEATH, AND STONE FACING ALONG ORIGINAL PORTION OF HOUSE FRONT AT PHOTO RIGHT. VIEW TO WEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  9. 16. View, looking west, of fish ladder and steel frame ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. View, looking west, of fish ladder and steel frame supporting fish trap, both constructed by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1949. One-story wood-frame building with hip roof is a utility shed used for fish-trap operation. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  10. 5. (Credit LSU) The NcNeil Street Station from Douglas Island, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. (Credit LSU) The NcNeil Street Station from Douglas Island, across Cross Bayou, c1907. Note the enlarged wood-framed filter wing on the left; the coal shed on the right; and the low service auxiliary pump house on tracks on the incline on the bank leading down to Cross Bayou. From: Louisiana State University, Shreveport Archives post card collection) - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  11. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph located in National Park Service, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original photograph located in National Park Service, U.S.S. Arizona Memorial, 14th Naval District Photograph Collection), 14th ND PHOG No. N.H. 82807. U.S. Navy photograph, September 1942. FACILITY 250 UNDER CONSTRUCTION, BEFORE TWO ADDITIONAL WOOD-FRAMED STORIES WERE ADDED TO THE ROOF. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Headquarters, Commander-in-Chief of the Pacific Fleet, Intersection of Halawa & Makalapa Drives, Makalapa Administration Area, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. 1. General view, looking northeast, of the headworks showing crib ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view, looking northeast, of the headworks showing crib dam, stoney gates, one-story concrete-constructed headgate house, wood-frame gable-roofed utility building, tramway crossing the river to service the dam, and the headgate operator's cottage on the hill above the headworks. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  13. 1. HAWKSWORTH (BELLE EAST) MINEYARD. HAWKSWORTH IS THE LARGE BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. HAWKSWORTH (BELLE EAST) MINEYARD. HAWKSWORTH IS THE LARGE BUILDING AND WAS ORIGIANALLY A MACHINE SHOP; IT IS NOW (1979) THE ANACONDA MINING COMPANY'S SALVAGE OUTLET. THE TALL WOOD FRAME BUILDING TO THE RIGHT IS A SAND STORAGE BUILDING, THE SMALL CORREGATED BUILDING IS THE DRY FOR THE HAWKSWORTH. THE TWO-STORY CORREGATED BUILDING IS USED TO STORE BITS FRON THE HAWKSWORTH - Butte Mineyards, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  14. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph located in National Park Service, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original photograph located in National Park Service, U.S.S. Arizona Memorial, 14th Naval District Photograph Collection), 14th ND PHOG no. PH 00-46. U.S. Navy photograph, 1946. FACILITY 250 AT MAKALAPA WITH ADDED WOOD-FRAMED STORIES. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Headquarters, Commander-in-Chief of the Pacific Fleet, Intersection of Halawa & Makalapa Drives, Makalapa Administration Area, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. Closeup view, looking toward project south at the north elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view, looking toward project south at the north elevation of the tower, and featuring the single-story, wood-frame addition to the east side of the tower. The addition covered the stone-lined, gravity-fed water cistern, and contained a pump (now removed) that lifted water from the cistern into the water tank for use by trains. - East Broad Top Railroad & Company, Water Tank at Coles Station, East Broad Top Railroad & Company (at Milepost 24.3), 0.5 miles east of Coles Valley Road, Saltillo, Huntingdon County, PA

  16. Closeup view, looking toward project north at the south elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view, looking toward project north at the south elevation of the tower, and featuring the single-story, wood-frame addition to the east side of the tower. The addition covered the stone-lined, gravity-fed water cistern, and contained a pump (now removed) that lifted water from the cistern into the water tank for use by trains. - East Broad Top Railroad & Company, Water Tank at Coles Station, East Broad Top Railroad & Company (at Milepost 24.3), 0.5 miles east of Coles Valley Road, Saltillo, Huntingdon County, PA

  17. 10. LIVING ROOM INTERIOR SHOWING 1 OVER 1 LIGHT, DOUBLEHUNG, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. LIVING ROOM INTERIOR SHOWING 1 OVER 1 LIGHT, DOUBLEHUNG, WOOD-FRAME WINDOWS FLANKING FRONT ENTRANCE DOOR AND SOUTH END DOOR TO ENCLOSED SLEEPING PORCH/STAIR ACCESS TO ATTIC. CEILING AND WALLS IN THIS ROOM AND THROUGHOUT THE HOUSE ARE COVERED WITH ORIGINAL FIBERBOARD. THE FLOOR IN THIS ROOM AND ALL OTHERS EXCEPT THE BATHROOM, KITCHEN AND DINING ROOM ARE HARDWOOD. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Big Creek Town, Operator House, Orchard Avenue south of Huntington Lake Road, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  18. Structures and stochastic methods

    SciTech Connect

    Cakmak, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    Studies and research on structures and stochastic methods in the soil dynamics and earthquake engineering filed are covered in this book. The first section is on structures and includes studies on bridges, loaded tanks, sliding structures and wood-framed houses. The second section covers dams, retaining walls and slopes. The third section on underground structures covers pipelines, water supply, fire loss, buried lifeline, and underground transmission lines. The final section is on stochastic methods and includes applications in earthquake response spectra, lifeline aqueduct systems, and various other areas.

  19. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF MILL WORKER HOUSE AT 107 GREEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF MILL WORKER HOUSE AT 107 GREEN STREET HOUSE IS A WOOD-FRAME DUPLEX WITH A PYRAMIDAL ROOF, KITCHEN ELL IN REAR, AND A PORCH EXTENDING FROM THE FRONT. NOTE 105 GREEN STREET TO RIGHT. THESE DWELLINGS WERE CONSTRUCTED BY HOGANSVILLE MANUFACTURING COMPANY c. 1900. THE MILL WAS LOCATED ON THE OTHER SIDE OF GREEN STREET UNTIL IT WAS DEMOLISHED IN THE 1970S. CURRENTLY THE SITE IS AN EMPTY LOT SURROUNDED BY A FENCE. - 107 Green Street (House), 107 Green Street, Hogansville, Troup County, GA

  20. Seasonal variation in effective leakage area

    SciTech Connect

    Dickinson, J.B.; Feustel, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    Previous research on the seasonal changes in airtightness has been conducted by other researchers on one or two houses in one location. This paper describes air leakage rate measurements using the fan pressurization technique performed monthly over a period of one year in ten occupied houses in three different climates. The purpose of this study is to determine the seasonal variation in effective leakage area in houses in different climates. The three sets of houses included in this study are located in Reno, Nevada (semi-arid, high desert), Truckee, California (alpine, mountainous), and the San Francisco Bay Area (temperate, coastal). The houses are all wood-frame construction and range from one year to seventy years in age. Indoor and outdoor air temperatures, wind speed, and the moisture content of wood framing and other building components were measured at the time of each fan pressurization test. Indoor moisture levels were monitored by measuring the moisture content of a reference block of wood that was located indoors at each site. The results indicate a seasonal variation in effective leakage area in some but not all of the houses; the largest variations are seen in the Truckee houses with effective leakage areas up to 45% higher in the summer as compared to those measured in midwinter.

  1. Stack-driven moisture problems in a multi-family residential building

    SciTech Connect

    Clarkin, M.E.; Brennan, T.M.

    1998-12-31

    Wintertime window condensation problems were reported on the top two floors of a five-story, multi-unit residential building in central New York (7200, base 65 F heating degree-days). Initially built as a five-story brick hotel at the turn of the century, the building was rehabbed into low-income apartments in the early 1990s. Ventilation in each unit consisted of operable windows and a single bath exhaust. Condensation on windows was severe enough to support fungal contamination in the first winter of occupancy. During the renovation, vinyl-clad aluminum sash, double-hung, double-pane windows were installed to replace the original wood sash round-tops. Initial efforts to solve the problem included improving sealing and insulation details around the retrofitted windows on the fourth and fifth floors. The amount and duration of condensation was reduced, but condensation and new fungal growth occurred during the next winter. A more detailed investigation of the problems was then made. It was determined that the neutral pressure plane was in the center of the third floor of the building. A large fraction of the ventilation air for the upper three floors came from the floors below. This resulted in progressively higher relative humidity as air ascended through the building. Tested bath fans were moving less than 10 cfm (5 L/s). Surface temperature maps were made of windows and sheetrock. Poor ventilation, deep window returns, and windows with insulating details inappropriate for this climate resulted in condensation and fungal growth. Pressurization tests were conducted on a design day to determine how much exhaust it would take to raise the neutral pressure plane above the roof of the building.

  2. Geographic information system (GIS) simulation of emergency power production from disaster debris in a combined heat and power (CHP) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryals, Christopher Shannon

    The objective of this study is to determine a predicted energy capacity of disaster debris for the production of emergency power using a combined heat and power (CHP) unit. A prediction simulation using geographic information systems (GIS) will use data from past storms to calculate an estimated amount of debris along with an estimated energy potential of said debris. Rather than the expense and burden of transporting woody debris such as downed trees and wood framing materials offsite, they can be processed (sorting and chipping) to provide an onsite energy source to provide power to emergency management facilities such as shelters in schools and hospitals. A CHP unit can simultaneously produce heat, cooling effects and electrical power using various biomass sources. This study surveys the quantity and composition of debris produced for a given classification of disaster and location. A comparison of power efficiency estimates for various disasters is conducted.

  3. Solar heating system at Quitman County Bank, Marks, Mississippi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Information on the Solar Energy Heating System installed in a single story wood frame, cedar exterior, sloped roof building is presented. The system has on-site temperature and power measurements readouts. The 468 square feet of Solaron air flat plate collectors provide for 2,000 square feet of space heating, an estimated 60 percent of the heating load. Solar heated air is distributed to the 235 cubic foot rock storage box or to the load (space heating) by a 960 cubic feet per minute air handler unit. A 7.5 ton Carrier air-to-air heat pump with 15 kilowatts of electric booster strips serve as a back-up (auxiliary) to the solar system. Motorized dampers control the direction of airflow and back draft dampers prevent thermal siphoning of conditioned air.

  4. Thermal Performance of Uninsulated and Partially Filled Wall Cavities: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ridouane, E. H.; Bianchi, M.

    2011-08-01

    Low-rise, wood-framed homes are the most common type of residential structures in the United States. Wood wall construction supports roofs efficiently and provides a stable frame for attaching interior and exterior wall coverings. Wall cavities are prevalent and increase thermal resistance, particularly when they are filled with insulating material. This paper describes detailed computational fluid dynamics modeling to evaluate the thermal performance of uninsulated or partially filled wall cavities and accounts for conduction through framing, convection, and radiation. Parameters are ambient outdoor temperature, cavity surface emissivity, cavity aspect ratio, and insulation height. Understanding the thermal performance of uninsulated or partially insulated wall cavities is essential for conserving energy in residential buildings. The results can serve as input for building energy simulation tools such as DOE2 and EnergyPlus for modeling the temperature dependent energy performance of new and older homes with uninsulated or partially insulated walls.

  5. Finger Tendon Travel Associated with Sequential Trigger Nail Gun Use

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Brian; Albers, James; Hudock, Stephen; Krieg, Edward

    2015-01-01

    TECHNICAL ABSTRACT Background Pneumatic nail guns used in wood framing are equipped with one of two triggering mechanisms. Sequential actuation triggers have been shown to be a safer alternative to contact actuation triggers because they reduce traumatic injury risk. However, the sequential actuation trigger must be depressed for each individual nail fired as opposed to the contact actuation trigger, which allows the trigger to be held depressed as nails are fired repeatedly by bumping the safety tip against the workpiece. As such, concerns have been raised about risks for cumulative trauma injury, and reduced productivity, due to repetitive finger motion with the sequential actuation trigger. Purpose This study developed a method to predict cumulative finger flexor tendon travel associated with the sequential actuation trigger nail gun from finger joint kinematics measured in the trigger actuation and productivity standards for wood-frame construction tasks. Methods Finger motions were measured from six users wearing an instrumented electrogoniometer glove in a simulation of two common framing tasks–wall building and flat nailing of material. Flexor tendon travel was calculated from the ensemble average kinematics for an individual nail fired. Results Finger flexor tendon travel was attributable mostly to proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal joint motion. Tendon travel per nail fired appeared to be slightly greater for a wall-building task than a flat nailing task. The present study data, in combination with construction industry productivity standards, suggest that a high-production workday would be associated with less than 60 m/day cumulative tendon travel per worker (based on 1700 trigger presses/day). Conclusion and Applications These results suggest that exposure to finger tendon travel from sequential actuation trigger nail gun use may be below levels that have been previously associated with high musculoskeletal disorder risk. PMID

  6. Using safety inspection data to estimate shaking intensity for the 1994 Northridge earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thywissen, K.; Boatwright, J.

    1998-01-01

    We map the shaking intensity suffered in Los Angeles County during the 17 January 1994, Northridge earthquake using municipal safety inspection data. The intensity is estimated from the number of buildings given red, yellow, or green tags, aggregated by census tract. Census tracts contain from 200 to 4000 residential buildings and have an average area of 6 km2 but are as small as 2 and 1 km2 in the most densely populated areas of the San Fernando Valley and downtown Los Angeles, respectively. In comparison, the zip code areas on which standard MMI intensity estimates are based are six times larger, on average, than the census tracts. We group the buildings by age (before and after 1940 and 1976), by number of housing units (one, two to four, and five or more), and by construction type, and we normalize the tags by the total number of similar buildings in each census tract. We analyze the seven most abundant building categories. The fragilities (the fraction of buildings in each category tagged within each intensity level) for these seven building categories are adjusted so that the intensity estimates agree. We calibrate the shaking intensity to correspond with the modified Mercalli intensities (MMI) estimated and compiled by Dewey et al. (1995); the shapes of the resulting isoseismals are similar, although we underestimate the extent of the MMI = 6 and 7 areas. The fragility varies significantly between different building categories (by factors of 10 to 20) and building ages (by factors of 2 to 6). The post-1940 wood-frame multi-family (???5 units) dwellings make up the most fragile building category, and the post-1940 wood-frame single-family dwellings make up the most resistant building category.

  7. Hygrothermal Properties of Cross Laminated Timber and Moisture Response of Wood at High Relative Humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlSayegh, George

    Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) is a new wood-based material composed of cross laminated wood boards that form a structural panel. This study focuses on identifying the appropriate methods to determine the hygrothermal properties of CLTs fabricated with Canadian and European Lumber. The laboratory tests carried out in this study will help establish heat, air and moisture response properties to be used for hygrothermal simulation to assess the durability of CLTs in building envelope construction. Measurement of water vapour permeability, liquid water absorption, sorption isotherms, thermal conductivity, and air permeability were performed on three Canadian CLT specimens composed of Hem-Fir, Eastern Spruce-Pine-Fir, and Western Spruce-Pine-Fir and one European specimen composed of Spruce. The hygrothermal properties of CLT, considered in this study, appear to be similar to commonly used wood specimens reported in the literature. However, liquid water absorption coefficients of CLT were found to be generally lower than common wood species, possibly due to the presence of glue between the wood layers which limits the moisture movement across the specimen. On the other hand, the air permeability across the CLT specimens varied due to the glue discontinuity within the specimen which led some CLTs to be permeable, however all the European specimens were found to be impermeable. This study also critically analyzed the significance of equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of wood at high relative humidity, measured by means of a pressure plate apparatus and humidity chambers, on the moisture management performance of a wood-frame stucco wall, using the hygrothermal simulation tool hygIRC-2D. The simulation results indicate that the prediction of the moisture response of a wood-frame stucco wall assembly depends significantly on the method adopted to derive the EMC of wood at high RH.

  8. Damage and Shaking Intensity in the M5.7 Canyondam Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boatwright, J.; Chapman, K.; Gold, M. B.; Hardebeck, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    An M5.7 earthquake occurred southeast of Lake Almanor, CA, at 8:47 PM on May 23, 2013. Double-difference relocations of the main shock and aftershocks indicate that the earthquake nucleated at 11 km depth and ruptured up dip on a fault striking 292° and dipping 70° to the northeast. The earthquake cracked foundations, broke chimneys, and ruptured plumbing around Lake Almanor. We canvassed communities around the lake and to the south and east for earthquake damage, adding reports from our interviews to the geocoded 'Did You Feel It?' reports and to a set of damage reports collected by the Plumas County Office of Emergency Services. Three communities suffered significant damage. In Lake Almanor West, 14 km and 290° from the hypocenter, one wood-frame house was shifted on its foundation, the cripple wall of another house was racked, and water and gas pipes in five houses were ruptured. This damage indicates the shaking approached MMI 8. In Lake Almanor Country Club, 10 km and 310° from the hypocenter, more than 40 chimneys were cracked, broken, or collapsed, a coupling for the municipal water tank was ruptured, and a 200-foot long fissure opened on a slope facing the lake. This damage indicates shaking between MMI 7 and MMI 8, consistent with the accelerograph recording of PGA = 38% g and PGV = 30 cm/s at the Fire Station in Lake Almanor Country Club. This CSMIP station and a PG&E station on the crest of the Butt Valley Dam obtained the only recordings within 50 km of the epicenter. In Hamilton Branch, 10 km and 345° from the hypocenter, a foundation of a wood-frame house was damaged, and 14 chimneys and a water pipe were broken, indicative of MMI 7 shaking. All three communities are underlain by Tertiary and Quaternary basalts. The communities of Chester, Westwood, and Greenville were less damaged, suffering cracked drywall, broken windows, and objects thrown from shelves. The intensities in the three most strongly damaged communities increase as the azimuth

  9. 8. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO KITCHEN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO KITCHEN, 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOWS ON FRONT WALL AT PHOTO LEFT, AND 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON BACK WALL AT EXTREME PHOTO RIGHT. VIEW TO EAST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  10. Remedial investigation/feasibility study analysis asphalt storage area, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.S.

    1993-01-01

    This report is focused on an abandoned material storage area located on Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB), Alaska. The site is located approximately 2000 feet from the east end of the east/west runway and includes approximately 25 acres. The site was used for asphalt storage and preparation activities during the 1940s and 1950s. Approximately 4,500 drums of asphalt and 29 drums of unknown materials have been abandoned at the site. The drums are located in 32 areas throughout the 25-acre site. Following several decades of exposure to the elements, many of the drums have corroded and leaked to the ground surface. Several acres of soil are inundated with liquid asphalt that has leaked from the drums. Depths of the asphalt range from 6 to 10 inches in areas where surface anomalies have created depressions, and thus a collection point for the asphalt. A 14-x 18-x 4 foot wood frame pit used to support previous asphalt operations is located at the north end of the site. The pit contains approximately 2300 gallons of asphalt. There are also locations where the soil appears to be contaminated by petroleum products other than asphalt.

  11. Instrumentation for a radon research house

    SciTech Connect

    Nazaroff, W.W.; Revzan, K.L.; Robb, A.W.

    1981-07-01

    A highly automated monitoring and control system for studying radon and radon-daughter behavior in residences has been designed and built. The system has been installed in a research house, a test space contained in a two-story wood-framed building, which allows us to conduct controlled studies of (1) pollutant transport within and between rooms, (2) the dynamics of radon daughter behavior, and (3) techniques for controlling radon and radon daughters. The system's instrumentation is capable of measuring air-exchange rate, four-point radon concentration, individual radon daughter concentrations, indoor temerature and humidity, and outdoor weather parameters (temperature, humidity, modules, wind speed, and wind direction). It is also equipped with modules that control the injection of radon and tracer gas into the test space, the operation of the forced-air furnace, the mechanical ventilation system, and the mixing fans located in each room. A microcomputer controls the experiments and records the data on magnetic tape and on a printing terminal. The data on tape is transferred to a larger computer system for reduction and analysis. In this paper we describe the essential design and function of the instrumentation system, as a whole, singling out those components that measure ventilation rate, radon concentration, and radon daughter concentrations.

  12. Double Wall Framing Technique An Example of High Performance, Sustainable Building Envelope Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kosny, Dr. Jan; Asiz, Andi; Shrestha, Som S; Biswas, Kaushik; Nitin, Shukla

    2015-01-01

    Double wall technologies utilizing wood framing have been well-known and used in North American buildings for decades. Most of double wall designs use only natural materials such as wood products, gypsum, and cellulose fiber insulation, being one of few building envelope technologies achieving high thermal performance without use of plastic foams or fiberglass. Today, after several material and structural design modifications, these technologies are considered as highly thermally efficient, sustainable option for new constructions and sometimes, for retrofit projects. Following earlier analysis performed for U.S. Department of Energy by Fraunhofer CSE, this paper discusses different ways to build double walls and to optimize their thermal performance to minimize the space conditioning energy consumption. Description of structural configuration alternatives and thermal performance analysis are presented as well. Laboratory tests to evaluate thermal properties of used insulation and whole wall system thermal performance are also discussed in this paper. Finally, the thermal loads generated in field conditions by double walls are discussed utilizing results from a joined project performed by Zero Energy Building Research Alliance and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), which made possible evaluation of the market viability of low-energy homes built in the Tennessee Valley. Experimental data recorded in two of the test houses built during this field study is presented in this work.

  13. Detonation interaction with an interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieberman, D. H.; Shepherd, J. E.

    2007-09-01

    Detonation interaction with an interface was investigated, where the interface separated a combustible from an oxidizing or inert mixture. The ethylene-oxygen combustible mixture had a fuel-rich composition to promote secondary combustion with the oxidizer in the turbulent mixing zone (TMZ) that resulted from the interaction. Sharp interfaces were created by using a nitro-cellulose membrane to separate the two mixtures. The membrane was mounted on a wood frame and inserted in the experimental test section at a 45° angle to the bulk flow direction. The membrane was destroyed by the detonation wave. The interaction resulted in a transmitted and reflected wave at a node point similar to regular shock refraction. A detonation refraction analysis was carried out to compare with the measured shock angles. It was observed that the measured angle is consistently lower than the predicted value. An uncertainty analysis revealed possible explanations for this systematic variation pointing to factors such as the incident wave curvature and the role of the nitro-cellulose diaphragm. Analysis of the TMZ and Mach stem formed from the reflection of the transmitted shock wave off the solid boundary were carried out and found to justify the size and strength of these features as a function of the test gas composition. The role of secondary combustion in the TMZ was also investigated and found to have a small influence on the wave structure.

  14. The history of aggregate development in the denver, Co area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    At the start of the 20th century Denver's population was 203,795. Most streets were unpaved. Buildings were constructed of wood frame or masonry. Transport was by horse-drawn-wagon or rail. Statewide, aggregate consumption was less than 0.25 metric tons per person per year. One hundred years later Denver had a population of 2,365,345. Today Denver is a major metropolitan area at the crossroads of two interstates, home to a new international airport, and in the process of expanding its light rail transit system. The skyline is punctuated with skyscrapers. The urban center is surrounded with edge cities. These changes required huge amounts of aggregate. Statewide, aggregate consumption increased 50 fold to over 13 metric tons per person per year. Denver has a large potential supply of aggregate, but sand and gravel quality decreases downstream from the mountain front and potential sources of crushed stone occur in areas prized for their scenic beauty. These issues, along with urban encroachment and citizen opposition, have complicated aggregate development and have paved a new path for future aggregate development including sustainable resource management and reclamation techniques.

  15. An Engineer's Physics Lab -- using a Large Force Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heid, Christy; Rampolla, Donald

    2009-03-01

    We have constructed very economical, easy to assemble force frames that are used by students in our general physics laboratory at Chatham University. The force frame is used at the beginning of the semester to study vector properties of forces. The force frame can be used as a horizontal or vertical force table. Angles of forces are measured using a large movable (rotation and translation) Cartesian coordinate board attached to the frame with large binder clips. The force frame is a versatile device which is used for a number of other experiments, including beam bending and torsion, mechanical resonance, projectile trajectories, torque, mechanical equilibrium, an isolated non-magnetic support for magnetic field experiments, easily adjustable support for inclined plane experiments, support for traveling wave experiments with heavy rope, and support for large scale fluid flow experiments. One advantage to a wood frame is that things can be easily stapled, nailed, screwed or glued just about anywhere on the frame, and damaged frame members can be replaced easily. As one of the few remaining women's undergraduate institutions, we have found the use of these frames to provide an additional advantage in helping women overcome their fear of simple power tools and assembly of mechanical parts as they become comfortable with these through working with the force frames throughout the semester. We intend to describe and model these applications during the session.

  16. Technology Solutions Case Study: Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of wood-framed walls and mass masonry wall assemblies. Insulation on the exterior of the structure has many direct benefits, including better effective R-value from reduced thermal bridging, better condensation resistance, reduced thermal stress on the structure, as well as other commonly associated improvements such as increased airtightness and improved water management. Although the approach has proven effective, there is resistance to its widespread implementation due to a lack of research and understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of the vertical displacement resistance capacity. In addition, the long-term in-service performance of the system has been questioned due to potential creep effects of the assembly under the sustained dead load of the cladding and effects of varying environmental conditions. In addition, the current International Building Code (IBC) and International Residential Code (IRC) do not have a provision that specifically allows this assembly. In this project, researchers from Building Science Corporation, a Building America team, investigated these issues to better understand the mechanics behind this method of cladding attachment

  17. Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of wood-framed walls and mass masonry wall assemblies. The location of the insulation on the exterior of the structure has many direct benefits, including better effective R-value from reduced thermal bridging, better condensation resistance, reduced thermal stress on the structure, as well as other commonly associated improvements such as increased airtightness and improved water management. For thick layers of exterior insulation (more than 1.5 in.), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location. Although the approach has proven effective, there is significant resistance to its widespread implementation due to a lack of research and understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of the vertical displacement resistance capacity. In addition, the long-term in-service performance of the system has been questioned due to potential creep effects of the assembly under the sustained dead load of the cladding and effects of varying environmental conditions. In addition, the current International Building Code (IBC) and International Residential Code (IRC) do not have a provision that specifically allows this assembly.

  18. Effect of radiator position and mass flux on the dryer room heat transfer rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirmanto, M.; Sulistyowati, E. D.; Okariawan, I. D. K.

    A room radiator as usually used in cold countries, is actually able to be used as a heat source to dry goods, especially in the rainy season where the sun seldom shines due to much rain and cloud. Experiments to investigate effects of radiator position and mass flux on heat transfer rate were performed. This study is to determine the best position of the radiator and the optimum mass flux. The radiator used was a finned radiator made of copper pipes and aluminum fins with an overall dimension of 220 mm × 50 mm × 310 mm. The prototype room was constructed using plywood and wood frame with an overall size of 1000 mm × 1000 mm × 1000 mm. The working fluid was heated water flowing inside the radiator and air circulating naturally inside the prototype room. The nominal mass fluxes employed were 800, 900 and 1000 kg/m2 s. The water was kept at 80 °C at the radiator entrance, while the initial air temperature inside the prototype room was 30 °C. Three positions of the radiator were examined. The results show that the effect of the mass flux on the forced and free convection heat transfer rate is insignificant but the radiator position strongly affects the heat transfer rate for both forced and free convection.

  19. Expert Meeting Report: Cladding Attachment Over Exterior Insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, P.

    2013-10-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. The location of the insulation to the exterior of the structure has many direct benefits including better effective R-value from reduced thermal bridging, better condensation resistance, reduced thermal stress on thestructure, as well as other commonly associated improvements such as increased air tightness and improved water management (Hutcheon 1964, Lstiburek 2007). The intent of the meeting was to review the current state of industry knowledge regarding cladding attachment over exterior insulation with a specific focus on: 1. Gravity load resistance, 2. Wind load resistance. The presentations explorethese topics from an engineering design, laboratory testing, field monitoring, as well as practical construction perspective. By bringing various groups together (who have been conduction research or have experience in this area), a more holistic review of the design limits and current code language proposals can be completed and additional gaps identified. The results of which will help informdesign standards and criteria.

  20. Outdoor infiltration and indoor contribution of UFP and BC, OC, secondary inorganic ions and metals in PM2.5 in schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivas, I.; Viana, M.; Moreno, T.; Bouso, L.; Pandolfi, M.; Alvarez-Pedrerol, M.; Forns, J.; Alastuey, A.; Sunyer, J.; Querol, X.

    2015-04-01

    Infiltration of outdoor-sourced particles into indoor environments in 39 schools in Barcelona was assessed during school hours. Tracers of road traffic emissions (NO2, Equivalent Black Carbon (EBC), Ultrafine Particles (UFP), Sb), secondary inorganic aerosols (SO42-, NO3-, NH4+) and a number of PM2.5 trace elements showed median indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios ≤ 1, indicating that outdoor sources importantly contributed to indoor concentrations. Conversely, OC and mineral components had I/O ratios>1. Different infiltration factors were found for traffic and secondary components (0.31-0.75 and 0.50-0.92, cold and warm season respectively), with maxima corresponding to EBC and Cd. Higher concentrations of indoor-generated particles were observed when closed windows hindered dispersion (cold season). Building age was not a major determinant of indoor levels. Neither were the window's material, except for NO2 (with an increase of 8 μg m-3 for wood framed windows) and the mineral components (also dependent on the presence of sand in a distance <20 m) that reach the indoor environment via soil adhering to footwear with their dispersion being more barred by Aluminium/PVC framed windows than the wooden ones. Enlarged indoor concentrations of some trace elements suggest the presence of indoor sources that should be further investigated in order to achieve a healthier school indoor environment.

  1. Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, P.; Eng, P.; Lepage, R.

    2014-01-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location (Straube and Smegal 2009, Pettit 2009, Joyce 2009, Ueno 2010). The research presented in this report is intended to help develop a better understanding of the system mechanics involved and the potential for environmental exposure induced movement between the furring strip and the framing. BSC sought to address the following research questions: 1.What are the relative roles of the mechanisms and the magnitudes of the force that influence the vertical displacement resistance of the system? 2.Can the capacity at a specified deflection be reliably calculated using mechanics based equations? 3.What are the impacts of environmental exposure on the vertical displacement of furring strips attached directly through insulation back to a wood structure?

  2. Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, P.; Eng, P.; Lepage, R.

    2014-01-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location (Straube and Smegal 2009, Pettit 2009, Joyce 2009, Ueno 2010). The research presented in this report is intended to help develop a better understanding of the system mechanics involved and the potential for environmental exposure induced movement between the furring strip and the framing. BSC sought to address the following research questions: 1. What are the relative roles of the mechanisms and the magnitudes of the force that influence the vertical displacement resistance of the system? 2. Can the capacity at a specified deflection be reliably calculated using mechanics based equations? 3. What are the impacts of environmental exposure on the vertical displacement of furring strips attached directly through insulation back to a wood structure?

  3. Expert Meeting Report: Cladding Attachment Over Exterior Insulation (BSC Report)

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. The location of the insulation to the exterior of the structure has many direct benefits including better effective R-value from reduced thermal bridging, better condensation resistance, reduced thermal stress on the structure, as well as other commonly associated improvements such as increased air tightness and improved water management (Hutcheon 1964, Lstiburek 2007). The intent of the meeting was to review the current state of industry knowledge regarding cladding attachment over exterior insulation with a specific focus on: 1. Gravity load resistance, 2. Wind load resistance. The presentations explore these topics from an engineering design, laboratory testing, field monitoring, as well as practical construction perspective. By bringing various groups together (who have been conduction research or have experience in this area), a more holistic review of the design limits and current code language proposals can be completed and additional gaps identified. The results of which will help inform design standards and criteria.

  4. Some real-world applications of wireless sensor nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, Steven D.

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents two case histories of the use of wireless sensor Mote technologies. These are devices that incorporate communications, processing, sensors, sensor fusion, and power source into a package currently about two cubic inches in size -- networked autonomous sensor nodes. The first case discussed is the November, 2001, instrumentation of a blast-induced liquefaction test in Tokachi Port, Japan. The second case discussed is the dense-pak instrumentation of the seismic shaking test of a full-scale wood-frame building on the UCB Richmond shake table. The utility of dense instumentation is shown, and how it allows location of damage globally unseen. A methodology of interpreting structural seismic respose by Bayesian updating and extended Kalman filtering is presented. It is shown that dense, inexpensive instrumentation is needed to identify structural damage and prognosticate future behavior. The case studies show that the current families of Motes are very useful, but the hardware still has difficulties in terms of reliability and consistancy. It is apparent that the TinyOS is a wonderful tool for computer science education but is not an industrual quality instrumentation system. These are, of course, growing pains of the first incarnations of the Berkeley Smart Dust ideal. We expect the dream of easy to use, inexpensive, smart, wireless, sensor networks to become a reality in the next couple of years.

  5. Solar heating system at Quitman County Bank, Marks, Mississippi. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    Information is provided on the solar heating system installed in a single story wood frame, cedar exterior, sloped roof building, the Quitman County Bank, a branch of the First National Bank of Clarksdale, Mississippi. It is the first solar system in the geographical area and has promoted much interest. The system has on-site temperature and power measurements readouts. The 468 square feet of Solaron air flat plate collectors provide for 2000 square feet of space heating, an estimated 60% of the heating load. Solar heated air is distributed to the 235 cubic foot rock storage box or to the load (space heating) by a 960 cubic feet per minute air handler unit. A 7.5 ton Carrier air-to-air heat pump with 15 kilowatts of electric booster strips serve as a back-up (auxiliary) to the solar system. Motorized dampers control the direction of airflow and back draft dampers prevent thermal siphoning of conditioned air. The system was turned on in September 1979, and acceptance testing completed in February 1980. This is a Pon Cycle 3 Project with the Government sharing $13,445.00 of the $24,921 Solar Energy System installation cost.

  6. Lightning dock geothermal space heating project, Lightning Dock KGRA, New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McCants, T.W.

    1980-12-01

    The proposed project was to take the existing geothermal greenhouse and home heating systems, which consisted of pumping geothermal water and steam through passive steam heaters, and convert the systems to one using modern heat exchange units. It was proposed to complete the existing unfinished, re-inforced glass side wall, wood framed structure, as a nursery lath house, the purpose of which would be to use geothermal water in implementing university concepts on the advantages of bottom heat to establish hardy root systems in nursery and bedding plants. The use of this framework was abandoned in favor of erecting new structures for the proposed purpose. The final project of the proposal was the establishment of a drip irrigation system, to an area just west of the existing greenhouse and within feet of the geothermal well. Through this drip irrigation system geothermal water would be pumped, to prevent killing spring frosts. The purpose of this area of the proposal is to increase the potential use of existing geothermal waters of the Lightning Dock KGRA, in opening a new geothermal agri-industry which is economically feasible for the area and would be extremely energy efficient.

  7. Satellite sound broadcast propagation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, Wolfhard J.; Torrence, Geoffrey W.

    1991-01-01

    Power transmitted from atop a 17.9 m tower in simulation of a satellite signal, emitted by a tone generator sweeping from 700 to 1800 MHz, was received using a 90 deg beamwidth linearly scanning antenna at many locations inside six buildings of solid brick, corrugated sheet-metal, wood-frame, mobile home, and concrete wall construction. The signal levels are found to have much structure in the spatial and frequency domain but were relatively stable in time. Typically, people moving nearby produced less than 0.5 dB variations, whereas a person blocking the transmission path produces 6 to 10 dB fades. Losses, which at an average position in a room increased from 6 to 12 dB over 750 to 1750 MHz, could be mitigated to 2 to 6 dB by moving the antenna typically less than 30 cm. Severe losses (17.5 dB, mitigated to 12.5 dB) were observed in a concrete wall building, which also exhibited the longest multipath delays (greater than 100 ns). Losses inside a mobile home were even larger (greater than 20 dB) and independent of antenna orientation. The losses showed a clear frequency dependence.

  8. Assessment of seismic loss dependence using copula.

    PubMed

    Goda, Katsuichiro; Ren, Jiandong

    2010-07-01

    The catastrophic nature of seismic risk is attributed to spatiotemporal correlation of seismic losses of buildings and infrastructure. For seismic risk management, such correlated seismic effects must be adequately taken into account, since they affect the probability distribution of aggregate seismic losses of spatially distributed structures significantly, and its upper tail behavior can be of particular importance. To investigate seismic loss dependence for two closely located portfolios of buildings, simulated seismic loss samples, which are obtained from a seismic risk model of spatially distributed buildings by taking spatiotemporally correlated ground motions into account, are employed. The characterization considers a loss frequency model that incorporates one dependent random component acting as a common shock to all buildings, and a copula-based loss severity model, which facilitates the separate construction of marginal loss distribution functions and nonlinear copula function with upper tail dependence. The proposed method is applied to groups of wood-frame buildings located in southwestern British Columbia. Analysis results indicate that the dependence structure of aggregate seismic losses can be adequately modeled by the right heavy tail copula or Gumbel copula, and that for the considered example, overall accuracy of the proposed method is satisfactory at probability levels of practical interest (at most 10% estimation error of fractiles of aggregate seismic loss). The developed statistical seismic loss model may be adopted in dynamic financial analysis for achieving faster evaluation with reasonable accuracy.

  9. Cosmic airburst debris, climate anomalies and societal reactions at 4.2kyr BP: from North Syria to Adelie Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coqueugniot, E.; Courty, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    The linkages established between dust spikes, unprecedented drought and societal disruption at 4.2 kyr BP have yet failed elucidating the marked increase in aerosol. The volcanic dust component or the erratic spatial pattern are among other puzzling anomalies for a global climate event. We examine here the 4.2 kyr BP debris records from high quality sedimentary archives across the two hemispheres: (1) at Tell Dja'de (Syria), a carbonaceous surface sealed by a EB III/IV Bronze age cemetery; (2) at Tell Ahmar (Syria), the nearly intact collapsed wood frame of the Akkad palace sandwiched between the last 3rd millennium BC plastered floors and massive destruction layers of the monumental buildings; (3) debris accumulation from human processed slags in late Akkaddian contexts at Tell Leilan, Tell Chuera, Tell Beydar, Tell Brak (North Syria) and in an EB III/IV one at Umbaschi (South Syria); (4) a tsunami layer at Banda Aceh (Sumatra); (5) deep sea cores from the Mediterranean and Caspian seas, the Indian and Austral oceans. Using an in situ multi-analytical protocol, we focus on the carbonaceous polymorphs and the composite elements that we formerly defined to tracing hypervelocity cosmic airbursts. A meticulous control of their spatial pattern and structural characteristics at meso to nano-scales has helped to distinguishing the intact debris fall of airburst origin from their human processed-byproducts. The later trace the occurrence in the debris airbursts of highly valuable resources, i.e. fossil combustible with singular properties, that have been exploited since the prehistoric time. Evidence for an oceanic impact at 4.2 kyr BP in the Austral ocean are provided by the 3 m record in the Adelie land high resolution marine core (MD03-2601) showing sudden discharge of ice rafted fine debris with impact features. Their fresh fingerprints in the high to low latitude records from the southern hemisphere indicate massive dispersion of impact debris by air and surface

  10. Shredder and incinerator technology for treatment of commercial transuranic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Oma, K.H.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.; Ross, W.A.

    1985-10-01

    This report describes the selection and evaluation of process equipment to accomplish the shredding and incineration of commercial TRU wastes. The primary conclusions derived from this study are: Shredding and incineration technology appears effective for converting simulated commercial TRU wastes to a noncombustible form. The gas-heated controlled-air incinerator received the highest technical ranking. On a scale of 1 to 10, the incinerator had a Figure-of-Merit (FOM) number of 7.0. This compares to an FOM of 6.1 for the electrically heated controlled-air incinerator and an FOM of 5.8 for the rotary kiln incienrator. The present worth costs of the incineration processes for a postulated commercial reprocessing plant were lowest for the electrically heated and gas-heated controlled-air incinerators with costs of $16.3 M and $16.9 M, respectively (1985 dollars). Due to higher capital and operating costs, the rotary kiln process had a present worth cost of $20.8 M. The recommended process from the three evaluated for the commercial TRU waste application is the gas-heated controlled-air incinerator with a single stage of shredding for feed pretreatment. This process had the best cost-effectiveness ratio of 1.0 (normalized). The electrically heated controller-air incinerator had a rating of 1.2 and the rotary kiln rated a 1.5. Most of the simulated wastes were easily processed by the low-speed shredders evaluated. The HEPA filters proved difficult to process, however. Wood-framed HEPA filters tended to ride on the cutter wheels and spacers without being gripped and shredded. The metal-framed HEPA filters and other difficult to shred items caused the shredders to periodically reach the torque limit and go into an automatic reversal cycle; however, the filters were eventually processed by the units. All three incinerators were ineffective for oxidizing the aluminum metal used as spacers in HEPA filters.

  11. Using High-Resolution Hand-Held Radiometers To Measure In-Situ Thermal Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burch, Douglas M.; Krintz, Donald F.

    1984-03-01

    A field study was carried out to investigate the accuracy of using high-resolution radiometers to determine the in situ thermal resistance of building components having conventional residential construction. Two different types of radiometers were used to determine the thermal resistances of the walls of six test buildings located at the National Bureau of Standards. These radiometer thermal resistance measurements were compared to reference thermal resistance values determined from steady-state series resistance predictions, time-averaged heat-flow-sensor measurements, and guarded-hot-box measurements. When measurements were carried out 5 hours after sunset when the outdoor temperature was relatively steady and the heating plant was operated in a typical cyclic fashion, the following results were obtained: for lightweight wood-frame cavity walls, the radiometer procedures were found to distinguish wall thermal resistance 4.4 h.ft2- °F/Btu (0.77 m2•K/W) systematically higher than corresponding reference values. Such a discrimination will per-mit insulated and uninsulated walls to be distinguished. However, in the case of walls having large heat capacity (e.g., masonry and log), thermal storage effects produced large time lags between the outdoor diurnal temperature variation and the heat-flow response at the inside surface. This phenomenon caused radiometer thermal resistances to deviate substantially from corresponding reference values. This study recommends that the ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 101-1981 be modified requiring the heating plant to be operated in a typical cyclic fashion instead of being turned off prior to and during radiometer measurements.

  12. Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Facilities and Safety Information Document [NOTE: Volume I, Chapter 1

    SciTech Connect

    March, F.; Guerrero, J.V.; Johns, W.H.; Schetnan, R.; Bayliss, L.S.; Kuzio, K.A.; White, B.B.

    1999-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) began in 1945 as the ''Z'' Division of what was then Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on Oxnard Field, which was owned by the Air Technical Service Command, as a base of operations to store materials and house personnel. Oxnard Field was transferred to the U.S. Engineers, Manhattan District, on July 21, 1945, who converted several wood frame structures to serve functions that were transferred from Los Alamos. Development of the SNL/New Mexico (SNL/NM) site began in 1946 and 1947 with construction of the first four buildings in what is now Tech Area I. Construction of another 14 permanent buildings in Tech Area I began in 1948. SNL constructed a high-explosive assembly area in Tech Area II, a half mile south of Tech Area I, and started plans for several outdoor testing facilities for Tech Area III, about seven miles to the south of Tech Area I, in 1952. By 1953, SNL completed and put into operation the first group of Tech Area III facilities, which included a rocket sled track, a large centrifuge, a vibration facility, and an instrument control center. Tech Area IV and Tech Area V were developed later to provide facilities for pulsed power and high-energy experiments. As the need developed for outdoor testing facilities remote from the public and other work areas, SNL added many facilities on U.S. Air Force and other federal property in the area known as Coyote Test Field (Sandia National Laboratories, 1997b). Most recently, DOE leased U.S. Air Force facilities in the Manzano Area for SNL to use for storage of low-level radioactive waste, mixed waste (a combination of radioactive and hazardous waste), and transuranic waste (Sandia National Laboratories, 1997a).

  13. Uncertainty of earthquake losses due to model uncertainty of input ground motions in the Los Angeles area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cao, T.; Petersen, M.D.

    2006-01-01

    In a recent study we used the Monte Carlo simulation method to evaluate the ground-motion uncertainty of the 2002 update of the California probabilistic seismic hazard model. The resulting ground-motion distribution is used in this article to evaluate the contribution of the hazard model to the uncertainty in earthquake loss ratio, the ratio of the expected loss to the total value of a structure. We use the Hazards U.S. (HAZUS) methodology for loss estimation because it is a widely used and publicly available risk model and intended for regional studies by public agencies and for use by governmental decision makers. We found that the loss ratio uncertainty depends not only on the ground-motion uncertainty but also on the mean ground-motion level. The ground-motion uncertainty, as measured by the coefficient of variation (COV), is amplified when converting to the loss ratio uncertainty because loss increases concavely with ground motion. By comparing the ground-motion uncertainty with the corresponding loss ratio uncertainty for the structural damage of light wood-frame buildings in Los Angeles area, we show that the COV of loss ratio is almost twice the COV of ground motion with a return period of 475 years around the San Andreas fault and other major faults in the area. The loss ratio for the 2475-year ground-motion maps is about a factor of three higher than for the 475-year maps. However, the uncertainties in ground motion and loss ratio for the longer return periods are lower than for the shorter return periods because the uncertainty parameters in the hazard logic tree are independent of the return period, but the mean ground motion increases with return period.

  14. Integrating affordability, energy and environmental efficiency, air quality and disaster resistance into residential design and construction

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, G.D.

    1995-12-31

    Much has been researched and written about the individual qualities of good home design and construction in terms of: energy efficiency; affordability; indoor air quality; sustainability; and wind, fire, and flood resistance. The real challenge is to integrate all these characteristics into the ideal house. The purpose of this paper is to review the characteristics of each of the above features and explore the integration of them into the ideal residential structure. The house would take the shape of a compact two story structure. A geometrically compact structure uses less construction materials per floor area, presents less area for improved thermal efficiency, and less profile for wind and flood resistance. The first floor would be constructed using insulated strong high thermal mass masonry system resistant to flood, wind, fire, and termite damage. The second story would be constructed using a lighter reinforced wood frame system with between stud insulation coupled with exterior insulated sheathing to minimize thermal bridging across studs. Optimizing floor plan such as separating living and sleeping areas present opportunities for efficient split HVAC zoning, natural ventilation, and solar passive adaptation. The design would emphasize the 4, 8, and 12 foot dimensioning for waste reduction; selection of environmentally friendly building materials, such as cellulose insulation; and efficient lighting and appliances. Features providing improved indoor air quality such as prudent duct selection, design and location, use of radon barriers, omission of carpeting, and control of moisture would be addressed. The design philosophy, concepts and rationale for the integration of these and many other features of the ideal residence will be addressed and illustrated.

  15. Predicted thermal performance of triple vacuum glazing

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Yueping; Hyde, Trevor J.; Hewitt, Neil

    2010-12-15

    The simulated triple vacuum glazing (TVG) consists of three 4 mm thick glass panes with two vacuum gaps, with each internal glass surface coated with a low-emittance coating with an emittance of 0.03. The two vacuum gaps are sealed by an indium based sealant and separated by a stainless steel pillar array with a height of 0.12 mm and a pillar diameter of 0.3 mm spaced at 25 mm. The thermal transmission at the centre-of-glazing area of the TVG was predicted to be 0.26 W m{sup -2} K{sup -1}. The simulation results show that although the thermal conductivity of solder glass (1 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1}) and indium (83.7 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1}) are very different, the difference in thermal transmission of TVGs resulting from the use of an indium and a solder glass edge seal was 0.01 W m{sup -2} K{sup -1}. This is because the edge seal is so thin (0.12 mm), consequently there is a negligible temperature drop across it irrespective of the material that the seal is made from relative to the total temperature difference across the glazing. The results also show that there is a relatively large increase in the overall thermal conductance of glazings without a frame when the width of the indium edge seal is increased. Increasing the rebate depth in a solid wood frame decreased the heat transmission of the TVG. The overall heat transmission of the simulated 0.5 m by 0.5 m TVG was 32.6% greater than that of the 1 m by 1 m TVG, since heat conduction through the edge seal of the small glazing has a larger contribution to the total glazing heat transfer than that of the larger glazing system. (author)

  16. Performance of Thermal Insulation Containing Microencapsulated Phase Change Material

    SciTech Connect

    Kosny, Jan; Yarbrough, David; Syed, Azam M

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is dynamic thermal performance microencapsulated phase change material (PCM) blended with loose-fill cellulose insulation. Dynamic hot-box testing and heat-flux measurements have been made for loose-fill cellulose insulation with and without uniformly distributed microencapsulated PCM. The heat flux measurements were made with a heat-flow-meter (HFM) apparatus built in accordance with ASTM C 518. Data were obtained for 1.6 lb{sub m}/ft{sup 3} cellulose insulation containing 0 to 40 wt% PCM. Heat-flux data resulting from a rapid increase in the temperature on one side of a test specimen initially at uniform temperature were analyzed to access the effect of PCM on total heat flow. The heat flux was affected by the PCM for about 100 minutes after the temperature increase. The total heat flow during this initial period decreased linearly with PCM content from 6.5 Btu/ft{sup 2} at 0% PCM to 0.89 Btu/ft{sup 2} for 40 wt% PCM. The cellulose insulation with PCM discharged heat faster than the untreated cellulose when the hot-side temperature of the test specimen was reduced. In addition, hot-box apparatus built in accordance with ASTM C 1363 was utilized for dynamic hot-box testing of a wood stud wall assembly containing PCM-enhanced cellulose insulation. Experimental data obtained for wood-frame wall cavities containing cellulose insulation with PCM was compared with results obtained from cavities containing only cellulose insulation.

  17. Observations of Debris Impact on Buildings and Infrastructure after the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, D.; Naito, C.; Yu, K.; Mizutani, N.; Tsujio, D.

    2011-12-01

    We present observations of the performance of structural systems (buildings, bridges, port infrastructure) after the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami. In particular, our observations focused on the hydraulic, hydrodynamic and impact demands. While it is likely that hydraulic and hydrodynamic demands resulted in considerable destruction, debris impact events provided significant contribution to some of the losses observed. Current knowledge on how to quantify the effects of impact demands from tsunami generated debris is limited. Methods provided by code sources including ASCE 7, AASHTO LRFD, and the Coastal Construction Manual result in order of magnitude differences in expected demands. This RAPID investigation examined the demands generated by debris in different coastal communities including the Sendai plain (Natori, Sendai Port) and the ria coast (Onagawa, Rikuzentakata, Kesennuma, Minamisanriku). Our investigation quantifies debris type, damage type, and debris flow characteristics. Observations indicate that the Tohoku event generated a spectrum of debris ranging from wood, vehicles, and shipping containers, to entire houses and ships. The structural system types observed included reinforced concrete buildings, steel moment frame buildings, wood frame houses. Damages to fuel storage containers were also a focus of this investigation. In general, our observations show that debris loads can add significantly to the overall loads, particularly when the debris size is large relative to the impacted structure. In addition. the occurrence of impact events was not necessarily associated with all types of debris, and some structural systems were more sensitive to a type of impact demand. For example, open systems such as pile supported buildings which offered little flow resistance were more susceptible to debris strikes than bluff sided buildings. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CMMI-1138668. Any opinions, findings

  18. Contamination source review for Building E3613, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Billmark, K.A.; Emken, M.E.; Muir-Ploense, K.L.

    1995-09-01

    This report was prepared by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to document the results of a contamination source review of Building E3613 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) in Maryland. The report may be used to assist the U.S. Army in planning for the future use or disposition of this building, The review included a historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, and collection of air samples. The field investigations were performed by ANL during 1994 and 1995. Building E3613 (APG designation) is located in the Canal Creek Area of APG. The building was constructed in 1954 for use as a change house, office, and storage building in support of the white phosphorus smoke program. The building has not been used since 1988. During an inspection in 1988, asbestos was listed as the only potential contaminant. The physical inspection and photographic documentation of Building E3613 were completed in November 1994. At the time of the inspection, Building E3613 was inactive and in disrepair. The single-story, rectangular structure contains five rooms and measures 16 ft 2 in. by 32 ft. The building is wood frame construction with a gabled roof. The exterior walls and roof are constructed of wood covered with asphalt sheeting. The building rests on a concrete foundation. The interior walls are 6-in.-thick wood, and the ceiling is assumed to be white drywall nailed to a wooden frame. Overhead steam pipes supported by vertical pipes traverse the area. Two concrete footings for guy wires that support the overhead steam pipes are located north and west of the building. Four additional vertical pipes exit the ground east of the building.

  19. Is There a Linear Building Transfer Function for Small Excitation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clinton, J. F.; Heaton, T. H.

    2003-12-01

    In the absence of actual building accelerometer data, the linear response of a structure to strong ground motion is estimated by the convolution of the dynamic response of the structure with an input ground motion. The input motion is usually provided by a local `reference' station record. In this study, we look at whether actual recorded ground motion at two instrumented buildings with well studied dynamic properties can be satisfactorily modeled using a local ground station. All stations record continuous 24-bit data streams on the CISN network, so analysis of a variety of weak earthquake motions, as well as ambient noise, is possible. Our buildings are the 9-story reinforced concrete Millikan Library (CISN Station MIK) and the 3-story braced steel frame Broad Center (CBC), both on the Caltech Campus. Motions recorded on their upper floors are compared with motions from ground stations located in the basement of a lightweight wood-frame house (GSA), and in a subsurface vault (CRP). All stations are within 200m of each other. Recent work using the new continuous datastream indicates that the natural frequencies of these structures can vary by up to 5% during normal ambient conditions, due to such factors as changing building usage, diurnal temperature variation, and wind/rainfall events. These shifts can be sudden, and models of building motions are sensitive to these previously un-documented changes. Further, during stronger motions, such as forced vibration testing, and minor earthquake shaking, natural frequencies are shown to drop by up to 10% (2003 M5.4 Big Bear Earthquake, Δ = 119km), with near-instantaneous recovery once the excitation is over. Moderate earthquakes can temporarily reduce frequencies by up to 30% with no apparent structural damage (1971 M6.6 San Fernando Earthquake, Δ = 31km). Post-event permanent reductions of about 10% have been observed. The ability to monitor these evolving dynamic characteristics makes a re-evaluation of the

  20. Gas-Filled Panels: An update on applications in the building thermal envelope

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, B.T.; Arasteh, D.; Tuerler, D.

    1995-10-01

    This paper discusses the application of Gas-Filled Panels to the building thermal envelope. Gas-Filled Panels, or GFPs, are thermal insulating devices that retain a high concentration of a low- conductivity gas, at atmospheric pressure, within a multilayer infrared reflective baffle. The thermal performance of the panel depends on the type of gas fill and the baffle configuration. Heat- flow meter apparatus measurements have shown effective apparent thermal conductivities of 0.194 Btu{center_dot}in/h{center_dot}ft{sup 2}{center_dot}{degree}F with air as the gas fill, 0.138 Btu{center_dot}in/h{center_dot}ft{sup 2}{center_dot}{degree}F with argon, and 0.081 Btu{center_dot}in/h{center_dot}ft{sup 2}{center_dot}{degree}F with krypton. Calorimetric measurements have also shown total resistance levels of about R-12.6 h{center_dot}ft{sup 2}{center_dot}{degree}F/Btu for a 1.0-inch thick krypton panel, R-25.7 h{center_dot}ft{sup 2}{center_dot}{degree}F/Btu for a 2.0-inch krypton panel, and R-18.4 f{center_dot}ft{sup 2}{center_dot}{degree}F/Btu for a 10-inch xenon panel. GFPs are flexible, self-supporting and can be made in a variety of shapes and sizes to thoroughly fill most types of cavities in building walls and roofs, although the modular nature of the panels can lead to complications in installing them, especially for irregularly shaped cavities. We present computer simulation results showing the improvement in thermal resistance resulting from using an argon-GFP in place of glass fiber batt insulation in wood-frame construction. This report also presents estimates of the quantity and cost of material components needed to manufacture GFPs using current prototype designs.

  1. Energy performance evaluation of AAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aybek, Hulya

    was accomplished by using conducting several simulation models to determine the relative energy efficiency of wood-framed, metal-framed, and Aerated Autoclaved Concrete (AAC) wall structures for both commercial and residential buildings.

  2. Two-Dimensional Low-Turbulence Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1938-01-01

    Construction of the wood frame for the Two-Dimensional Low-Turbulence Tunnel. The Two-Dimensional Low-Turbulence Tunnel was originally called the Refrigeration or 'Ice' tunnel because it was intended to support research on aircraft icing. The tunnel was built of wood, lined with sheet steel, and heavily insulated on the outside. Refrigeration equipment was installed to generate icing conditions inside the test section. The NACA sent out a questionnaire to airline operators, asking them to detail the specific kinds of icing problems they encountered in flight. The replies became the basis for a comprehensive research program begun in 1938 when the tunnel commenced operation. Research quickly focused on the concept of using exhaust heat to prevent ice from forming on the wing's leading edge. This project was led by Lewis Rodert, who later would win the Collier Trophy for his work on deicing. By 1940, aircraft icing research had shifted to the new Ames Research Laboratory, and the Ice tunnel was refitted with screens and honeycomb. Researchers were trying to eliminate all turbulence in the test section. From TN 1283: 'The Langley two-dimensional low-turbulence pressure tunnel is a single-return closed-throat tunnel.... The tunnel is constructed of heavy steel plate so that the pressure of the air may be varied from approximately full vacuum to 10 atmospheres absolute, thereby giving a wide range of air densities. Reciprocating compressors with a capacity of 1200 cubic feet of free air per minute provide compressed air. Since the tunnel shell has a volume of about 83,000 cubic feet, a compression rate of approximately one atmosphere per hour is obtained. ... The test section is rectangular in shape, 3 feet wide, 7 1/2 feet high, and 7 1/2 feet long. ... The over-all size of the wind-tunnel shell is about 146 feet long and 58 feet wide with a maximum diameter of 26 feet. The test section and entrance and exit cones are surrounded by a 22-foot diameter section of the

  3. Contributing to Net Zero Building: High Energy Efficient EIFS Wall Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Carbary, Lawrence D.; Perkins, Laura L.; Serino, Roland; Preston, Bill; Kosny, Jan

    2014-01-29

    The team led by Dow Corning collaborated to increase the thermal performance of exterior insulation and finishing systems (EIFS) to reach R-40 performance meeting the needs for high efficiency insulated walls. Additionally, the project helped remove barriers to using EIFS on retrofit commercial buildings desiring high insulated walls. The three wall systems developed within the scope of this project provide the thermal performance of R-24 to R-40 by incorporating vacuum insulation panels (VIPs) into an expanded polystyrene (EPS) encapsulated vacuum insulated sandwich element (VISE). The VISE was incorporated into an EIFS as pre-engineered insulation boards. The VISE is installed using typical EIFS details and network of trained installers. These three wall systems were tested and engineered to be fully code compliant as an EIFS and meet all of the International Building Code structural, durability and fire test requirements for a code compliant exterior wall cladding system. This system is being commercialized under the trade name Dryvit® Outsulation® HE system. Full details, specifications, and application guidelines have been developed for the system. The system has been modeled both thermally and hygrothermally to predict condensation potential. Based on weather models for Baltimore, MD; Boston, MA; Miami, FL; Minneapolis, MN; Phoenix, AZ; and Seattle, WA; condensation and water build up in the wall system is not a concern. Finally, the team conducted a field trial of the system on a building at the former Brunswick Naval Air Station which is being redeveloped by the Midcoast Regional Redevelopment Authority (Brunswick, Maine). The field trial provided a retrofit R-30 wall onto a wood frame construction, slab on grade, 1800 ft2 building, that was monitored over the course of a year. Simultaneous with the façade retrofit, the building’s windows were upgraded at no charge to this program. The retrofit building used 49% less natural gas during the winter of

  4. A Primer for In-School Productions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Dorothy L.

    This introductory guide for planning television and radio productions in schools covers the following topics: (1) guidelines for preparing a television script; (2) grooming for television; (3) delivering the message; (4) the production studio; (5) points on camera operation; (6) lighting the studio; (7) guidelines for making graphics; (8)…

  5. How to Save Money by Saving Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet presents energy conservation tips to help consumers save money. Conservation measures suggested here cover topics such as: (1) insulation; (2) space heating and cooling; (3) hot water heating; (4) cooking; (5) laundry; (6) lighting; (7) electrical appliances; (8) buying or building a home; and (9) buying, maintaining and driving a…

  6. 8. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO KITCHEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO KITCHEN AT PHOTO RIGHT, 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOWS ON FRONT (EAST) WALL AT PHOTO CENTER. ENTRY ROOM AND OPEN 1-LIGHT FRONT DOOR AT EXTREME PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  7. 10. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN PANEL DOOR TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN PANEL DOOR TO BEDROOM NUMBER ONE AT PHOTO CENTER, AND SECOND 6 LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON REAR WALL AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  8. 15. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO VESTIBULE AT PHOTO RIGHT, AND 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW THROUGH SOUTH WALL AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  9. 16. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING OPEN PANEL DOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING OPEN PANEL DOOR TO WALK-IN CLOSET AT PHOTO CENTER, OPEN PANEL DOOR FROM BEDROOM NUMBER ONE AT EXTREME PHOTO LEFT, AND 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON NORTH WALL AT PHOTO RIGHT. VIEW TO WEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  10. 14. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING FLOOR TO CEILING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING FLOOR TO CEILING BUILT-IN CLOSET OCCUPING ENTIRE NORTH END OF ROOM, AND 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON EAST WALL. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  11. 9. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN PANEL DOOR TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN PANEL DOOR TO BEDROOM NUMBER ONE AT PHOTO RIGHT, 6-LIGHT OVER 1 LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON REAR WALL AT PHOTO LEFT CENTER. FIREPLACE ORIGINALLY OCCUPIED SPACE UNDER ROUND HEATER VENT HOLE AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  12. 7. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING FLUSH FRONT DOOR AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING FLUSH FRONT DOOR AT PHOTO CENTER, MODERN SIDING WINDOW ON EAST WALL (FORMER PORCH) AT PHOTO CENTER RIGHT, AND ORIGINAL PAIRED 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT WINDOWS ON NORTH WALL (PHOTO LEFT). VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Control Station, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  13. 9. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO KITCHEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO KITCHEN AT PHOTO LEFT CENTER, AND 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON REAR WALL AT PHOTO RIGHT. FIREPLACE ORIGINALLY OCCUPIED SPACE TO THE EXTREME PHOTO RIGHT OF SASH WINDOW ON THE REAR WALL. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  14. 17. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO BATHROOM NUMBER ONE AT EXTREME PHOTO LEFT, OPEN PANEL DOOR TO THE WALK-IN CLOSET AT PHOTO CENTER LEFT, OPEN PANEL DOOR TO HALL AT PHOTO CENTER RIGHT, AND A 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON THE WEST WALL AT PHOTO RIGHT. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Clubhouse Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  15. Tripodal exTTF-CTV hosts for fullerenes.

    PubMed

    Huerta, Elisa; Isla, Helena; Pérez, Emilio M; Bo, Carles; Martín, Nazario; de Mendoza, Javier

    2010-04-21

    A receptor for fullerenes featuring three exTTF units linked to a CTV scaffold is described. The exTTF-CTV host forms remarkably stable complexes with both C(60) (log K(a) = 5.3 +/- 0.2) and C(70) (log K(a) = 6.3 +/- 0.6). Light-induced ESR spectra demonstrate that intracomplex PET processes take place in solution. PMID:20350004

  16. Ofu and Ologesa survey of the 29 September 2009 tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foteinis, S.; Synolakis, C.; Titov, V. V.

    2009-12-01

    On 29 September 2009 an Mw~8.0 earthquake struck the Samoan Islands generating a tsunami at least 189 deaths and substantial damage to many coastal infrastructure. An incarnation of the ITST surveyed the impacted region between 4 Oct and 11 Oct measuring inundation per the protocol discussed in Synolakis and Okal (2005). We report here survey results from Ofu and Ologesa, two sparsely populated adjacent islands connected with a bridge. No human casualties were reported. Buildings did not sustain substantial damage, due to light construction materials and open wood frame construction. The strongest effects of the tsunami were recorded in the northern part of Ofu, with runup ranging to 6.1m, with 50m inundation. The longest inundation distance was 74 m (3m runup), in Ofu village. The runup at the airport was 3.9m and inundation 27m. Near the bridge there is motel where runup reached 5.1m with 50m inundation. On the north of Ologessa at Sili village, runup ranged up to 4m with inundation less than 25m. Iin Ologessa village, runup ranged from 2.7m to 4.4m and inundation from 5 to 55m. By serendipity, the team of surveyors experienced a tsunami warning while working in a fairly vulnerable locale. The warning resulted from the 7 October 2009 Mw ~7.6, off Vanuatu . The evacuation message was broadcast by a passing police vehicle in the sole road connecting Ofu and the Ologesa. There was no information where to evacuate to. With the exception of a school bus that drove children from the sole school of the island, evacuations were orderly with care for the elderly and special needs neighbors, although the latter were delayed for tens of minutes on some neighborhoods. In this regard, had there been a real local tsunami, the school bus would had been swept away as allegedly happened in Poloa. For over three hours, there was no further information provided, and residents relied on unofficial reports from radio stations in Samoa relating that there had been no tsunami generated

  17. Advanced Energy Efficient Roof System

    SciTech Connect

    Jane Davidson

    2008-09-30

    Energy consumption in buildings represents 40 percent of primary U.S. energy consumption, split almost equally between residential (22%) and commercial (18%) buildings.1 Space heating (31%) and cooling (12%) account for approximately 9 quadrillion Btu. Improvements in the building envelope can have a significant impact on reducing energy consumption. Thermal losses (or gains) from the roof make up 14 percent of the building component energy load. Infiltration through the building envelope, including the roof, accounts for an additional 28 percent of the heating loads and 16 percent of the cooling loads. These figures provide a strong incentive to develop and implement more energy efficient roof systems. The roof is perhaps the most challenging component of the building envelope to change for many reasons. The engineered roof truss, which has been around since 1956, is relatively low cost and is the industry standard. The roof has multiple functions. A typical wood frame home lasts a long time. Building codes vary across the country. Customer and trade acceptance of new building products and materials may impede market penetration. The energy savings of a new roof system must be balanced with other requirements such as first and life-cycle costs, durability, appearance, and ease of construction. Conventional residential roof construction utilizes closely spaced roof trusses supporting a layer of sheathing and roofing materials. Gypsum board is typically attached to the lower chord of the trusses forming the finished ceiling for the occupied space. Often in warmer climates, the HVAC system and ducts are placed in the unconditioned and otherwise unusable attic. High temperature differentials and leaky ducts result in thermal losses. Penetrations through the ceilings are notoriously difficult to seal and lead to moisture and air infiltration. These issues all contribute to greater energy use and have led builders to consider construction of a conditioned attic. The

  18. UV/visible camera for the Clementine mission

    SciTech Connect

    Kordas, J.F.; Lewis, I.T.; Priest, R.E.

    1995-04-01

    This article describes the Clementine UV/Visible (UV/Vis) multispectral camera, discusses design goals and preliminary estimates of on-orbit performance, and summarizes lessons learned in building and using the sensor. While the primary objective of the Clementine Program was to qualify a suite of 6 light-weight, low power imagers for future Department of Defense flights, the mission also has provided the first systematic mapping of the complete lunar surface in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions. The 410 g, 4.65 W UV/Vis camera uses a 384 x 288 frame-transfer silicon CCD FPA and operates at 6 user-selectable wavelength bands between 0.4 and 1.1 {micro}m. It has yielded lunar imagery and mineralogy data with up to 120 in spatial resolution (band dependent) at 400 km periselene along a 39 km cross-track swath.

  19. Transportation Energy Data Book, Edition 18

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Stacy C.

    1998-09-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 18 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. This edition of the Data Book has 11 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 - energy Chapter 3 - emissions; Chapter 4 - transportation and the economy; Chapter 5 - highway vehicles; Chapter 6 - Light vehicles; Chapter 7 - heavy vehicles; Chapter 8 - alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 9 - fleet vehicles; Chapter 10 - household vehicles; and Chapter 11 - nonhighway modes. The sources used represent the latest available data.

  20. Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project; Strobe Light Deterrent Efficacy Test and Fish Behavior Determination at the Grand Coulee Dam Third Powerplant Forebay, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.; McKinstry, C.; Simmons, C.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1995, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville Confederated Tribes) have managed the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program. Project objectives have focused on understanding natural production of kokanee (a land-locked sockeye salmon) and other fish stocks in the area above Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams on the Columbia River. A 42-month investigation concluded that entrainment at Grand Coulee Dam ranged from 211,685 to 576,676 fish annually. Further analysis revealed that 85% of the total entrainment occurred at the dam's third powerplant. These numbers represent a significant loss to the tribal fisheries upstream of the dam. In response to a suggestion by the NWPPC Independent Scientific Review Panel, the scope of work for the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project was expanded to include a multiyear pilot test of a strobe light system to help mitigate fish entrainment. This report details the work conducted during the second year of the study by researchers of the Colville Confederated Tribes in collaboration with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The 2002 study period extended from May 18 through July 30. The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of a prototype strobe light system to elicit a negative phototactic response in kokanee and rainbow trout. The prototype system consisted of six strobe lights affixed to an aluminum frame suspended vertically underwater from a barge secured in the center of the entrance to the third powerplant forebay. The lights, controlled by a computer, were aimed to illuminate a specific region directly upstream of the barge. Three light level treatments were used: 6 of 6 lights on, 3 of 6 lights on, and all lights off. These three treatment conditions were applied for an entire 24-hr day and were randomly assigned within a 3-day block throughout the study period. A seven-transducer splitbeam

  1. Evaluation of the particle measurement programme (PMP) protocol to remove the vehicles' exhaust aerosol volatile phase.

    PubMed

    Giechaskiel, B; Chirico, R; Decarlo, P F; Clairotte, M; Adam, T; Martini, G; Heringa, M F; Richter, R; Prevot, A S H; Baltensperger, U; Astorga, C

    2010-10-01

    European regulation for Euro 5/6 light duty emissions introduced the measurement of non-volatile particles with diameter >23 nm. The volatile phase is removed by using a heated dilution stage (150 degrees C) and a heated tube (at 300-400 degrees C). We investigated experimentally the removal efficiency for volatile species of the specific protocol by conducting measurements with two Euro 3 diesel light duty vehicles, a Euro 2 moped, and a Euro III heavy duty vehicle with the system's heaters on and off. The particle number distributions were measured with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and a Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS). An Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) was used to identify the non-refractory chemical composition of the particles. A Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP) was used to measure the black carbon concentration. The results showed that the condensed material in the accumulation mode (defined here as particles in the diameter range of approximately 50-500 nm) was removed with an efficiency of 50-90%. The (volatile) nucleation mode was also completely evaporated or was decreased to sizes <23 nm; thus these particles wouldn't be counted from the particle counter, indicating the robustness of the protocol.

  2. Coupling of cytochrome and quinone turnovers in the photocycle of reaction centers from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    PubMed

    Osváth, S; Maróti, P

    1997-08-01

    A minimal kinetic model of the photocycle, including both quinone (Q-6) reduction at the secondary quinone-binding site and (mammalian) cytochrome c oxidation at the cytochrome docking site of isolated reaction centers from photosynthetic purple bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides, was elaborated and tested by cytochrome photooxidation under strong continuous illumination. The typical rate of photochemical excitation by a laser diode at 810 nm was 2.200 s-1, and the rates of stationary turnover of the reaction center (one-half of that of cytochrome photooxidation) were 600 +/- 70 s-1 at pH 6 and 400 +/- 50 s-1 at pH 8. The rate of turnover showed strong pH dependence, indicating the contribution of different rate-limiting processes. The kinetic limitation of the photocycle was attributed to the turnover of the cytochrome c binding site (pH < 6), light intensity and quinone/quinol exchange (6 < pH < 8), and proton-coupled second electron transfer in the quinone acceptor complex (pH > 8). The analysis of the double-reciprocal plot of the rate of turnover versus light intensity has proved useful in determining the light-independent (maximum) turnover rate of the reaction center (445 +/- 50 s-1 at pH 7.8).

  3. Environmental research on a modified in situ oil shale task process. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the US Department of Energy's Oil Shale Task Force in its research program at the Occidental Oil Shale, Inc. facility at Logan Wash, Colorado. More specifically, the Task Force obtained samples from Retort 3E and Retort 6 and submitted these samples to a variety of analyses. The samples collected included: crude oil (Retort 6); light oil (Retort 6); product water (Retort 6); boiler blowdown (Retort 6); makeup water (Retort 6); mine sump water; groundwater; water from Retorts 1 through 5; retort gas (Retort 6); mine air; mine dust; and spent shale core (Retort 3E). The locations of the sampling points and methods used for collection and storage are discussed in Chapter 2 (Characterization). These samples were then distributed to the various laboratories and universities participating in the Task Force. For convenience in organizing the data, it is useful to group the work into three categories: Characterization, Leaching, and Health Effects. While many samples still have not been analyzed and much of the data remains to be interpreted, there are some preliminary conclusions the Task Force feels will be helpful in defining future needs and establishing priorities. It is important to note that drilling agents other than water were used in the recovery of the core from Retort 3E. These agents have been analyzed (see Table 12 in Chapter 2) for several constituents of interest. As a result some of the analyses of this core sample and leachates must be considered tentative.

  4. Evaluation of the particle measurement programme (PMP) protocol to remove the vehicles' exhaust aerosol volatile phase.

    PubMed

    Giechaskiel, B; Chirico, R; Decarlo, P F; Clairotte, M; Adam, T; Martini, G; Heringa, M F; Richter, R; Prevot, A S H; Baltensperger, U; Astorga, C

    2010-10-01

    European regulation for Euro 5/6 light duty emissions introduced the measurement of non-volatile particles with diameter >23 nm. The volatile phase is removed by using a heated dilution stage (150 degrees C) and a heated tube (at 300-400 degrees C). We investigated experimentally the removal efficiency for volatile species of the specific protocol by conducting measurements with two Euro 3 diesel light duty vehicles, a Euro 2 moped, and a Euro III heavy duty vehicle with the system's heaters on and off. The particle number distributions were measured with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and a Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS). An Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) was used to identify the non-refractory chemical composition of the particles. A Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP) was used to measure the black carbon concentration. The results showed that the condensed material in the accumulation mode (defined here as particles in the diameter range of approximately 50-500 nm) was removed with an efficiency of 50-90%. The (volatile) nucleation mode was also completely evaporated or was decreased to sizes <23 nm; thus these particles wouldn't be counted from the particle counter, indicating the robustness of the protocol. PMID:20692024

  5. Solidification and loss of hydrostaticity in liquid media used for pressure measurements.

    PubMed

    Torikachvili, M S; Kim, S K; Colombier, E; Bud'ko, S L; Canfield, P C

    2015-12-01

    We carried out a study of the pressure dependence of the solidification temperature in nine pressure transmitting media that are liquid at ambient temperature, under pressures up to 2.3 GPa. These fluids are 1:1 isopentane/n-pentane, 4:6 light mineral oil/n-pentane, 1:1 isoamyl alcohol/n-pentane, 4:1 methanol/ethanol, 1:1 FC72/FC84 (Fluorinert), Daphne 7373, isopentane, and Dow Corning PMX silicone oils 200 and 60,000 cS. We relied on the high sensitivity of the electrical resistivity of Ba(Fe(1-x)Ru(x))2As2 single crystals to the freezing of the pressure media and cross-checked with corresponding anomalies observed in the resistance of the manganin coil that served as the ambient temperature resistive manometer. In addition to establishing the temperature-pressure line separating the liquid (hydrostatic) and frozen (non-hydrostatic) phases, these data permit rough estimates of the freezing pressure of these media at ambient temperature. This pressure establishes the extreme limit for the medium to be considered hydrostatic. For higher applied pressures, the medium has to be treated as non-hydrostatic. PMID:26724044

  6. Light Chain Amyloid Fibrils Cause Metabolic Dysfunction in Human Cardiomyocytes

    SciTech Connect

    McWilliams-Koeppen, Helen P.; Foster, James S.; Hackenbrack, Nicole; Ramirez-Alvarado, Marina; Donohoe, Dallas; Williams, Angela; Macy, Sallie; Wooliver, Craig; Wortham, Dale; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer; Foster, Carmen M.; Kennel, Stephen J.; Wall, Jonathan S.

    2015-09-22

    Light chain (AL) amyloidosis is the most common form of systemic amyloid disease, and cardiomyopathy is a dire consequence, resulting in an extremely poor prognosis. AL is characterized by the production of monoclonal free light chains that deposit as amyloid fibrils principally in the heart, liver, and kidneys causing organ dysfunction. We have studied the effects of amyloid fibrils, produced from recombinant λ6 light chain variable domains, on metabolic activity of human cardiomyocytes. The data indicate that fibrils at 0.1 μM, but not monomer, significantly decrease the enzymatic activity of cellular NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductase, without causing significant cell death. The presence of amyloid fibrils did not affect ATP levels; however, oxygen consumption was increased and reactive oxygen species were detected. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that fibrils bound to and remained at the cell surface with little fibril internalization. Ultimately, these data indicate that AL amyloid fibrils severely impair cardiomyocyte metabolism in a dose dependent manner. These data suggest that effective therapeutic intervention for these patients should include methods for removing potentially toxic amyloid fibrils.

  7. Flexible transparent conductive films combining flexographic printed silver grids with CNT coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Lixin; Ran, Jun; Yang, Li; Fang, Yi; Zhai, Qingbin; Li, Luhai

    2016-02-01

    A high-performance ITO-free transparent conductive film (TCF) has been made by combining high resolution Ag grids with a carbon nanotube (CNT) coating. Ag grids printed with flexography have a 20 μm line width at a grid interval of 400 μm. The Ag grid/CNT hybrid film exhibits excellent overall performance, with a typical sheet resistance of 14.8 Ω/□ and 82.6% light transmittance at room temperature. This means a 23.98% reduction in sheet resistance and only 2.52% loss in transmittance compared to a pure Ag grid film. Analysis indicates that filling areas between the Ag grids and interconnecting the silver nanoparticles with the CNT coating are the primary reasons for the significantly improved conductivity of the hybrid film that also exhibits excellent flexibility and mechanical strength compared to an ITO film. The hybrid film may fully satisfy the requirements of different applications, e.g. use as the anode of polymer solar cells (PSCs). The J-V curve shows that the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the PSCs using the Ag grid/CNT hybrid anode is 0.61%, which is 24.5% higher than that of the pure Ag grids with a PCE of 0.49%. Further investigations to improve the performance of the solar cells based on the printed hybrid TCFs are ongoing.

  8. Flexible transparent conductive films combining flexographic printed silver grids with CNT coating.

    PubMed

    Mo, Lixin; Ran, Jun; Yang, Li; Fang, Yi; Zhai, Qingbin; Li, Luhai

    2016-02-12

    A high-performance ITO-free transparent conductive film (TCF) has been made by combining high resolution Ag grids with a carbon nanotube (CNT) coating. Ag grids printed with flexography have a 20 μm line width at a grid interval of 400 μm. The Ag grid/CNT hybrid film exhibits excellent overall performance, with a typical sheet resistance of 14.8 Ω/□ and 82.6% light transmittance at room temperature. This means a 23.98% reduction in sheet resistance and only 2.52% loss in transmittance compared to a pure Ag grid film. Analysis indicates that filling areas between the Ag grids and interconnecting the silver nanoparticles with the CNT coating are the primary reasons for the significantly improved conductivity of the hybrid film that also exhibits excellent flexibility and mechanical strength compared to an ITO film. The hybrid film may fully satisfy the requirements of different applications, e.g. use as the anode of polymer solar cells (PSCs). The J-V curve shows that the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the PSCs using the Ag grid/CNT hybrid anode is 0.61%, which is 24.5% higher than that of the pure Ag grids with a PCE of 0.49%. Further investigations to improve the performance of the solar cells based on the printed hybrid TCFs are ongoing. PMID:26758939

  9. Identifying opportune landing sites in degraded visual environments with terrain and cultural databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, Marc; Fisher, Robert; Little, J. Kristin

    2014-06-01

    Boeing has developed a degraded visual environment navigational aid that is flying on the Boeing AH-6 light attack helicopter. The navigational aid is a two dimensional software digital map underlay generated by the Boeing™ Geospatial Embedded Mapping Software (GEMS) and fully integrated with the operational flight program. The page format on the aircraft's multi function displays (MFD) is termed the Approach page. The existing work utilizes Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) and OpenGL ES 2.0 graphics capabilities to compute the pertinent graphics underlay entirely on the graphics processor unit (GPU) within the AH-6 mission computer. The next release will incorporate cultural databases containing Digital Vertical Obstructions (DVO) to warn the crew of towers, buildings, and power lines when choosing an opportune landing site. Future IRAD will include Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) point cloud generating sensors to provide 2D and 3D synthetic vision on the final approach to the landing zone. Collision detection with respect to terrain, cultural, and point cloud datasets may be used to further augment the crew warning system. The techniques for creating the digital map underlay leverage the GPU almost entirely, making this solution viable on most embedded mission computing systems with an OpenGL ES 2.0 capable GPU. This paper focuses on the AH-6 crew interface process for determining a landing zone and flying the aircraft to it.

  10. Algal productivity modeling: a step toward accurate assessments of full-scale algal cultivation.

    PubMed

    Béchet, Quentin; Chambonnière, Paul; Shilton, Andy; Guizard, Guillaume; Guieysse, Benoit

    2015-05-01

    A new biomass productivity model was parameterized for Chlorella vulgaris using short-term (<30 min) oxygen productivities from algal microcosms exposed to 6 light intensities (20-420 W/m(2)) and 6 temperatures (5-42 °C). The model was then validated against experimental biomass productivities recorded in bench-scale photobioreactors operated under 4 light intensities (30.6-74.3 W/m(2)) and 4 temperatures (10-30 °C), yielding an accuracy of ± 15% over 163 days of cultivation. This modeling approach addresses major challenges associated with the accurate prediction of algal productivity at full-scale. Firstly, while most prior modeling approaches have only considered the impact of light intensity on algal productivity, the model herein validated also accounts for the critical impact of temperature. Secondly, this study validates a theoretical approach to convert short-term oxygen productivities into long-term biomass productivities. Thirdly, the experimental methodology used has the practical advantage of only requiring one day of experimental work for complete model parameterization. The validation of this new modeling approach is therefore an important step for refining feasibility assessments of algae biotechnologies.

  11. Algal productivity modeling: a step toward accurate assessments of full-scale algal cultivation.

    PubMed

    Béchet, Quentin; Chambonnière, Paul; Shilton, Andy; Guizard, Guillaume; Guieysse, Benoit

    2015-05-01

    A new biomass productivity model was parameterized for Chlorella vulgaris using short-term (<30 min) oxygen productivities from algal microcosms exposed to 6 light intensities (20-420 W/m(2)) and 6 temperatures (5-42 °C). The model was then validated against experimental biomass productivities recorded in bench-scale photobioreactors operated under 4 light intensities (30.6-74.3 W/m(2)) and 4 temperatures (10-30 °C), yielding an accuracy of ± 15% over 163 days of cultivation. This modeling approach addresses major challenges associated with the accurate prediction of algal productivity at full-scale. Firstly, while most prior modeling approaches have only considered the impact of light intensity on algal productivity, the model herein validated also accounts for the critical impact of temperature. Secondly, this study validates a theoretical approach to convert short-term oxygen productivities into long-term biomass productivities. Thirdly, the experimental methodology used has the practical advantage of only requiring one day of experimental work for complete model parameterization. The validation of this new modeling approach is therefore an important step for refining feasibility assessments of algae biotechnologies. PMID:25502920

  12. Solidification and loss of hydrostaticity in liquid media used for pressure measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Torikachvili, M. S.; Kim, S. K.; Colombier, E.; Bud’ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.

    2015-12-16

    We carried out a study of the pressure dependence of the solidification temperature in nine pressure transmitting media that are liquid at ambient temperature, under pressures up to 2.3 GPa. These fluids are 1:1 isopentane/n-pentane, 4:6 light mineral oil/n-pentane, 1:1 isoamyl alcohol/n-pentane, 4:1 methanol/ethanol, 1:1 FC72/FC84 (Fluorinert), Daphne 7373, isopentane, and Dow Corning PMX silicone oils 200 and 60,000 cS. We relied on the high sensitivity of the electrical resistivity of Ba(Fe1–xRux)2As2 single crystals to the freezing of the pressure media and cross-checked with corresponding anomalies observed in the resistance of the manganin coil that served as the ambient temperature resistive manometer. In addition to establishing the temperature-pressure line separating the liquid (hydrostatic) and frozen (non-hydrostatic) phases, these data permit rough estimates of the freezing pressure of these media at ambient temperature. As a result, this pressure establishes the extreme limit for the medium to be considered hydrostatic. For higher applied pressures, the medium has to be treated as non-hydrostatic.

  13. Solidification and loss of hydrostaticity in liquid media used for pressure measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Torikachvili, M. S.; Kim, S. K.; Colombier, E.; Bud’ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.

    2015-12-16

    We carried out a study of the pressure dependence of the solidification temperature in nine pressure transmitting media that are liquid at ambient temperature, under pressures up to 2.3 GPa. These fluids are 1:1 isopentane/n-pentane, 4:6 light mineral oil/n-pentane, 1:1 isoamyl alcohol/n-pentane, 4:1 methanol/ethanol, 1:1 FC72/FC84 (Fluorinert), Daphne 7373, isopentane, and Dow Corning PMX silicone oils 200 and 60,000 cS. We relied on the high sensitivity of the electrical resistivity of Ba(Fe1–xRux)2As2 single crystals to the freezing of the pressure media and cross-checked with corresponding anomalies observed in the resistance of the manganin coil that served as the ambient temperaturemore » resistive manometer. In addition to establishing the temperature-pressure line separating the liquid (hydrostatic) and frozen (non-hydrostatic) phases, these data permit rough estimates of the freezing pressure of these media at ambient temperature. As a result, this pressure establishes the extreme limit for the medium to be considered hydrostatic. For higher applied pressures, the medium has to be treated as non-hydrostatic.« less

  14. Solidification and loss of hydrostaticity in liquid media used for pressure measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torikachvili, M. S.; Kim, S. K.; Colombier, E.; Bud'ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.

    2015-12-01

    We carried out a study of the pressure dependence of the solidification temperature in nine pressure transmitting media that are liquid at ambient temperature, under pressures up to 2.3 GPa. These fluids are 1:1 isopentane/n-pentane, 4:6 light mineral oil/n-pentane, 1:1 isoamyl alcohol/n-pentane, 4:1 methanol/ethanol, 1:1 FC72/FC84 (Fluorinert), Daphne 7373, isopentane, and Dow Corning PMX silicone oils 200 and 60 000 cS. We relied on the high sensitivity of the electrical resistivity of Ba(Fe1-xRux)2As2 single crystals to the freezing of the pressure media and cross-checked with corresponding anomalies observed in the resistance of the manganin coil that served as the ambient temperature resistive manometer. In addition to establishing the temperature-pressure line separating the liquid (hydrostatic) and frozen (non-hydrostatic) phases, these data permit rough estimates of the freezing pressure of these media at ambient temperature. This pressure establishes the extreme limit for the medium to be considered hydrostatic. For higher applied pressures, the medium has to be treated as non-hydrostatic.

  15. Light Chain Amyloid Fibrils Cause Metabolic Dysfunction in Human Cardiomyocytes

    DOE PAGES

    McWilliams-Koeppen, Helen P.; Foster, James S.; Hackenbrack, Nicole; Ramirez-Alvarado, Marina; Donohoe, Dallas; Williams, Angela; Macy, Sallie; Wooliver, Craig; Wortham, Dale; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer; et al

    2015-09-22

    Light chain (AL) amyloidosis is the most common form of systemic amyloid disease, and cardiomyopathy is a dire consequence, resulting in an extremely poor prognosis. AL is characterized by the production of monoclonal free light chains that deposit as amyloid fibrils principally in the heart, liver, and kidneys causing organ dysfunction. We have studied the effects of amyloid fibrils, produced from recombinant λ6 light chain variable domains, on metabolic activity of human cardiomyocytes. The data indicate that fibrils at 0.1 μM, but not monomer, significantly decrease the enzymatic activity of cellular NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductase, without causing significant cell death. The presencemore » of amyloid fibrils did not affect ATP levels; however, oxygen consumption was increased and reactive oxygen species were detected. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that fibrils bound to and remained at the cell surface with little fibril internalization. Ultimately, these data indicate that AL amyloid fibrils severely impair cardiomyocyte metabolism in a dose dependent manner. These data suggest that effective therapeutic intervention for these patients should include methods for removing potentially toxic amyloid fibrils.« less

  16. REVERBERATION MAPPING OF THE INTERMEDIATE-MASS NUCLEAR BLACK HOLE IN SDSS J114008.71+030711.4

    SciTech Connect

    Rafter, Stephen E.; Kaspi, Shai; Behar, Ehud; Kollatschny, Wolfram; Zetzl, Matthias E-mail: shai@physics.technion.ac.il E-mail: wkollat@astro.physik.uni-goettingen.de

    2011-11-01

    We present the results of a reverberation mapping (RM) campaign on the black hole (BH) associated with the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in SDSS J114008.71+030711.4 (hereafter GH08). This object is selected from a sample of 19 candidate intermediate-mass BHs (M{sub BH} < 10{sup 6} M{sub sun}) found by Greene and Ho in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We used the Hobby-Eberly Telescope to obtain 30 spectra over a period of 178 days in an attempt to resolve the reverberation time lag ({tau}) between the continuum source and the broad-line region (BLR) in order to determine the radius of the BLR (R{sub BLR}) in GH08. We measure {tau} to be two days with an upper limit of six days. We estimate the AGN luminosity at 5100 A to be {lambda}L{sub 5100} Almost-Equal-To 1.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1} after deconvolution from the host galaxy. The most well-calibrated R{sub BLR}-L relation predicts a time lag that is four times larger than what we measure. Using the measured H{beta} full width at half-maximum of 703 {+-} 110 km s{sup -1} and an upper limit for R{sub BLR} =6 light days, we find M{sub BH} {approx}< 5.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sub sun} as an upper limit to the BH virial mass in GH08, which implies super-Eddington accretion. Based on our measured M{sub BH} we propose that GH08 may be another candidate to add to the very short list of AGNs with M{sub BH} < 10{sup 6} M{sub sun} determined using RM.

  17. Establishing and Evaluating Wrist Cutpoints for the GENEActiv Accelerometer in Youth

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Christine A.; Nigg, Claudio R.; Hill, James O.; Brink, Lois A.; Browning, Raymond C.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE To establish physical activity (PA) intensity cutpoints for a wrist-mounted GeneActiv accelerometer (ACC) in elementary school-aged children. A second purpose was to apply cutpoints to a free-living sample and examine duration of PA based on continuous 1s epochs. METHODS Metabolic and ACC data were collected during nine typical activities in 24 children ages 6–11. Measured VO2 values were divided by Schofield-estimated resting values to determine METs. ACC data were collected at 75 Hz, band pass filtered and averaged over each one-second interval. Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves were used to establish cutpoints at <1.5, 1.5–3, 3–6 and ≥6 METs for sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous activity, respectively. These cutpoints were applied to a free-living independent data set to quantify the amount of moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) and to examine how bout length (1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 60 seconds) affected the accumulation of MVPA. RESULTS ROC yielded areas under the curve of 0.956, 0.946 and 0.940 for sedentary, moderate and vigorous intensities, respectively. Cutpoints for sedentary, moderate and vigorous intensities were 0.190, 0.314 and 0.998 g, respectively. Intensity classification accuracies ranged from 27.6% (light) to 88.7% (vigorous) when cutpoints were applied to the calibration data. When applied to free-living data (n=47 children ages 6–11), estimated daily MVPA was 308 minutes and decreased to 14.3 minutes when only including 1 min periods of continuous MVPA. CONCLUSION Cutpoints that quantify movements associated with moderate-vigorous intensity, when applied to a laboratory protocol, result in large amounts of accumulated MVPA using the 1s epoch compared to prior studies, highlighting the need for representative calibration activities and free-living validation of cutpoints and epoch length selection. PMID:24121241

  18. First 844.6-nm observations of neutral oxygen using the Bowen fluorescence Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer at Millstone Hill Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watchorn, S.; Noto, J.; Waldrop, L.; Migliozzi, M.

    2007-12-01

    A Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer (SHS) has been installed at Millstone Hill Observatory to detect mid-latitude 844.6-nm emissions from nightglow due to Bowen fluorescence, as a way of measuring thermospheric neutral oxygen density. Neutral oxygen is a dominant species in the F-region of the thermosphere, and new measurements of its density are needed to make more accurate models of that region, models which better describe responses to impulsive events such as storms and coronal mass ejections. The SHS will take readings with a time resolution of 12 minutes. It has been aligned an calibrated at 589 nm in association with a concurrent project at Scientific Solutions to perform Fraunhofer Line Discrimination spectroscopy at the sodium doublet wavelength. The SHS will presently be reset to look at 844.6 nm, which involves only a rotation of the SHS gratings to a new Littrow angle. The challenge of the mesaurement will be to separate the Bowen fluorescence 844.6-nm light from 844.6 light from other sources, most prominently photoelectron (PE) impact. It is expected that there will be characteristics of Bowen fluorescence 844.6 emissions which allow it to be distinguished from PE and other sources of 844.6. The most promising of these hallmarks is a specific intensity ratio theorized to exist between two of the three lines in the 844.6 triplet for Bowen fluorescence. It is also expected that Bowen fluorescence emissions at Millstone Hill will become more significant later at night, as the sun sets in the opposite hemisphere. First light 844.6 results and analysis will be presented.

  19. In-vivo reflection spectroscopy measurements in pig brain during stereotactic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonsson, Johan; Eriksson, Ola; Wardell, Karin

    2003-07-01

    Radio frequency (RF) lesioning in the human brain is a common surgical therapy for relieving severe pain as well as for movement disorders such as Parkinsonia. During the procedure a small electrode is introduced by stereotactic means towards a target area localized by CT or MRI. An RF-current is applied through the electrode tip when positioned in the target area. The tissue in the proximity of the tip is heated by the current and finally coagulated. The overall aim of this study was to improve the RF-technique and its ability to estimate lesion size by means of optical methods. Therefore, the optical differences between white and gray matter, as well as lesioned and unlesioned tissue were investigated. Reflection spectroscopy measurements in the range of 450-800 nm were conducted on fully anesthetized pigs during stereotactic RF-lesioning (n=6). Light from a tungsten lamp was guided to the electrode tip through optical fibers, inserted along a 2 mm in diameter monopolar RF-electrode. Measurements were performed in steps of 0-10 mm from the target in each hemisphere towards the entry point of the skull. In the central gray of the porcine brain measurements were performed both before and after the creation of a lesion. A total of 55 spectra were collected during this study. Correlation to tissue type was done using post-operative MR-images. The spectral signature for white and gray matter differs significantly for the entire spectral range of 450-800 nm. Pre- and post-lesioning reflection spectroscopy showed the largest differences below 600 and above 620 nm, which implies that lasers within this wavelength range may be useful for in-vivo measurements of tissue optical changes during RF-lesioning.

  20. Erosion control on a steeply sloped pipeline right-of-way in southwestern Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Zellmer, S.D.; Edgar, D.E. ); Isaacson, H.R. )

    1991-01-01

    The results of precipitation on steeply sloped pipeline rights-of-way (ROWs) during the time between ROW rehabilitation and the establishment of a dense, self-sustaining vegetative ground cover can cause locally severe soil erosion. This erosion results in elevated sediment loads in receiving streams and increases the difficulty and costs of ROW maintenance. A field study was completed that compared the environmental effectiveness of nine treatments on a 28% ROW slope in southwestern Pennsylvania. The six erosion-control methods investigated in the study, selected to represent a wide range in material type and installation cost, were (1) heavy application of straw mulch, (2) light application of straw mulch, (3) processed wood fiber, (4) chemical soil binder, (5) paper strips in netting, and (6) light straw mulch with a tacking agent. Each of the test plots also received the basic treatment of limestone, fertilizer, and a seed mixture commonly used to rehabilitate ROWs in the region. Precipitation, runoff volumes, and sediment yields were measured on each of 51 plots for 45 precipitation events during the 18-month study. Vegetation data were collected by the point-intercept method four times during the study to determine the amount of plant cover and species composition. Differences in sediment yield were observed among methods and between ROW location, but plant cover development was not influenced by erosion-control method or location. The relationship between environmental and cost data indicated that, of the six erosion-control methods tested, a light application of straw mulch was the most effective erosion-control treatment. 19 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Energy drink use is associated with alcohol and substance use in eighth, tenth, and twelfth graders.

    PubMed

    Polak, Kathryn; Dillon, Pamela; Koch, J Randy; Miller, Willis G; Thacker, Leroy; Svikis, Dace

    2016-12-01

    The increasing prevalence of energy drink (ED) use and its link with negative behaviors and adverse health outcomes has garnered much attention. Use of EDs combined with alcohol among college students has been of particular interest. It is unclear if these relationships develop in the context of college, or if similar associations exist in younger individuals. The present study examined associations between ED consumption patterns and other substance use in an adolescent, school-based sample. Participants were N = 3743 students attending 8th, 10th or 12th grade in a suburban central Virginia public school system who completed a prevention needs assessment survey in 2012. Chi-square analyses and logistic regressions were used to compare rates of alcohol, tobacco and other drug use across three ED use groups: moderate/heavy (12.6%), light (30.5%), and non-users (57%). Over 40% of the sample reported recent (past month) ED use, with males more likely to report moderate/heavy ED use than females (14.0% and 11.1%, respectively; p = 0.02). After adjusting for gender and grade, ED use group predicted lifetime alcohol, tobacco and other drug use (all p < 0.001). Moderate/heavy ED users were most likely and ED non-users were least likely to report using each of the 13 substances in the survey, with light ED users intermediate to the other two groups. Moderate/heavy ED users were consistently most likely to report licit and illicit substance use. Additional research is needed to better understand which adolescents are at greatest risk for adverse health behaviors associated with ED use. PMID:27547720

  2. PRELIMINARY CROSS SECTION AND NU-BAR COVARIANCES FOR WPEC SUBGROUP 26

    SciTech Connect

    ROCHMAN,D.

    2007-01-31

    We report preliminary cross section covariances developed for the WPEC Subgroup 26 for 45 out of 52 requested materials. The covariances were produced in 15- and 187-group representations as follows: (1) 36 isotopes ({sup 16}O, {sup 19}F, {sup 23}Na, {sup 27}Al, {sup 28}Si, {sup 52}Cr, {sup 56,56}Fe, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 90,91,92,94}Zr, {sup 166,167,168,170}Er, {sup 206,207,208}Pb, {sup 209}Bi, {sup 233,234,236}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 238,240,241,242}Pu, {sup 241,242m,243}Am, {sup 242,243,244,245}Cm) were evaluated using the BNL-LANL methodology. For the thermal region and the resolved and unresolved resonance regions, the methodology has been based on the Atlas-Kalman approach, in the fast neutron region the Empire-Kalman method has been used; (2) 6 isotopes ({sup 155,156,157,158,160}Gd and {sup 232}Th) were taken from ENDF/B-VII.0; and (3) 3 isotopes ({sup 1}H, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu) were taken from JENDL-3.3. For 6 light nuclei ({sup 4}He, {sup 6,7}Li, {sup 9}Be, {sup 10}B, {sup 12}C), only partial cross section covariance results were obtained, additional work is needed and they do not report the results here. Likewise, the cross section covariances for {sup 235}U, which they recommend to take from JENDL-3.3, will be included once the multigroup processing is successfully completed. Covariances for the average number of neutrons per fission, total {nu}-bar, are provided for 10 actinides identified as priority by SG26. Further work is needed to resolve some of the issues and to produce covariances for the full set of 52 materials.

  3. Peak of spectral energy distribution plays an important role in intra-day variability of blazars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Alok C.; Kalita, Nibedita; Gaur, Haritma; Duorah, Kalpana

    2016-10-01

    Blazars can be divided into two sub-classes namely high energy and low energy peaked blazars. In spectral energy distribution, the first synchrotron hump of the former class peaks in UV/X-rays and in IR/optical bands for the latter class. The peak of the spectral energy distribution seems to be responsible for variability properties of these classes of blazars in X-ray and optical bands. Since, in low energy peaked blazars, the X-ray bands lies well below the synchrotron hump, one expects that the highest energy electrons available for the synchrotron emission would have slower effect of variability on X-ray intra-day time-scale. In this paper, by taking the advantage of a sample of 12 low energy peaked blazars with total 50 observations from XMM-Newton since its launch, we confirm that this class is less variable in X-ray bands. We found that out of 50 observational light curves, genuine intra-day variability is present in only two of light curves i.e 4 per cent. Similar results we obtained from our earlier optical intra-day variability studies of high energy peaked blazars where out of 144 light curves, only genuine intra-day variability was detected in 6 light curves i.e ˜4 per cent. Since, X-ray bands lie below the peak of the spectral energy distribution of LSPs where inverse Compton mechanism is dominating rather than synchrotron radiation at the peak of the optical band, leads to slower variability in the X-ray bands. Hence, reducing their intra-day variability in X-ray bands as compared to the variability in optical bands.

  4. First nightglow 844.6-nm observations with the Millstone Hill Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watchorn, S.; Noto, J.; Waldrop, L.

    2008-05-01

    A Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer (SHS) has been installed at Millstone Hill Observatory to detect mid-latitude 844.6-nm emissions from nightglow due to Bowen fluorescence, as a way of measuring thermospheric neutral oxygen density. Neutral oxygen is a dominant species in the F-region of the thermosphere, and new measurements are needed to make more accurate models of that region, models which better describe responses to impulsive events such as storms and coronal mass ejections. The SHS instrument at Millstone was originally designed with a field of view of one degree, taking observations with a time resolution of twelve minutes. While this provides an adequate signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for line detection in spectrum obtained through the Fourier transform, it was found insufficient to detect the O I emission in nightglow above detector noise. Because of this, the SHS needed to be field-widened, to look at a field of view of 4.65 degrees. The field-widened SHS defeats detector dark noise, and reduces the exposure time to create the same SNR as the original instrument to two minutes. Field-widening the SHS requires inserting wedge prisms in each arm, and those prisms will arrive in early March 2008. Meanwhile, the SHS is being calibrated at 844.6 nm, using an oxygen spectrum tube (collimated through the SHS's five-angstrom line filter). The SHS prisms, once they arrive, will be inserted in the instrument between the gratings and beamsplitter at the proper angle, approximately 34 degrees from the system's optical axis. Once this is done, sky observations will commence in March 2007. It is expected that a significant fraction of the detected 844.6 light will be due to photoelectron (PE) impact excitation, though, as observations proceed into summer, Bowen fluorescence will come to dominate the 844.6 nightglow emissions. The two will be distinguished by characteristic line ratios between two of the three lines of the 844.6 triplet. Initial sky observations will be

  5. [Effects of simulating acid rain on photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of Quercus glauca Quercus glauca].

    PubMed

    Wang, Sai; Yi, Li-Ta; Yu, Shu-Quan; Zhang, Chao; Shi, Jing-Jing

    2014-08-01

    At three levels of simulated acid rainfall intensities with pH values of 2.5 (severe), 40 (medium) and 5.6 (light) respectively, the responses of chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic parameters of Quercus glauca seedlings were studied in three acid rainfall treatments, i. e. only the aboveground of seedlings exposed to acid rain (T1), both of the seedlings and soil exposed to acid rain (T2), only the soil exposed to acid rain (T3) compared with blank control (CK). Under the severe acid rainfall, T1 significantly inhibited chlorophyll synthesis, and thus reduced the primary photochemical efficiency of PS II ( F(v)/F(m)), potential activity of PS II (F(v)/F(o)) , apparent quantum (Y), net photosynthetic rate (P(n)), and transpiration rate (T(r)), but increased the light compensation point (LCP) and dark respiration rate (R(d)) of Q. glauca seedlings. T2 inhibited, but T3 played a little enhancement on the aforementioned parameters of Q. glauca seedlings. Under the conditions of medium and light acid rainfall intensities, the above parameters in the three treatments were higher than that of CK, except with lower R(d). The chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic parameters showed a similar tendency in the three treatments, i. e. T2>T3 >T1. It indicated that T1 had the strongest inhibition on seedlings in condition of the severe acid rainfall, while T2 had the most dramatic facilitating effect on seedlings under the medium and light acid rainfall. Intensity of acid rainfall had significant influences on SPAD, F(v)/F(m), F(v)/F(o), Y, P(n), T(r), and maximum photosynthetic rate (A(max)), whereas treatments of acid rainfall affected SPAD, F(v)/F(m), Y, P(n), T(r), A(max) and light saturation point (LSP). The interaction of acid rainfall intensities and treatments played significant effects on SPAD, F(v)/F(m), Y, P(n) and A(max).

  6. EMODnet Physical Parameters (EMODNet PP) Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novellino, A.; Schaap, D.; Manzella, G. M. R.; Pouliquen, S.; Gorringe, P.

    2012-04-01

    basin. 2. monitoring and reporting on the effectiveness of the portal in meeting the needs of users in terms of ease of use, quality of information and fitness for purpose of the products delivered. 3. analysing what lessons have been learned for a future operational EMODnet. 4. keeping the portal operational afterwards The EMODNet PP project asks for the following types of measurements: Measurements from fixed stations that should cover at least: 1. wave height and period; 2. temperature of the water column; 3. wind speed and direction; 4. salinity of the water column; 5. horizontal velocity of the water column ; 6. light attenuation; 7. sea level. Measurements from ferryboxes that should cover at least: - temperature of the water column; - salinity of the water column. A portal accessing distributed data bases has been developed.

  7. Caffeine, but not bicarbonate, improves 6 min maximal performance in elite rowers.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Peter M; Petersen, Mads H; Friis, Signe N; Bangsbo, Jens

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the ergogenic effects in a 6 min maximal performance test (PT) on 12 elite rowers: 6 open-weight (mean ± SD; 25 ± 1 years, and 92 ± 3 kg) and 6 light-weight (25 ± 3 years, and 73 ± 6 kg), following supplementation with caffeine (CAF), sodium bicarbonate (SB), and the combination of both, in a double-blind randomized placebo (PLA) controlled design. PT was executed on 4 occasions, on separate days within a week, and in a non-fasted state, with standardized training being performed the day before PT. Protocols were as follows: (i) CAF, 3 mg/kg, 45 min prior to PT + calcium as SB-PLA; (ii) SB, 0.3 g/kg, 75 min prior to PT + dextrose as CAF-PLA; (iii) CAF + SB; and (iv) PLA; CAF-PLA + SB-PLA. The total distance in the CAF (1878 ± 97 m) and CAF + SB (1877 ± 97 m) was longer than in the PLA (1865 ± 104 m; P < 0.05) and SB (1860 ± 96 m; P < 0.01). The mean power in CAF (400 ± 58 W) and CAF + SB (400 ± 58 W) was higher than the PLA (393 ± 61 W; P < 0.05) and SB (389 ± 57 W; P < 0.01). In CAF and CAF + SB, power was higher (P < 0.05) relative to PLA in the last half (4-6 min) of PT. Trials with CAF were more effective in light-weight rowers (1.0% ± 0.8% improvement in distance; P < 0.05) than in open-weight rowers (0.3% ± 0.8%; P > 0.05). No difference between interventions was observed for readiness and stomach comfort before PT and perceived exertion during PT. This study demonstrates that caffeine ingestion does improve performance in elite rowing. In contrast sodium bicarbonate does not appear to be ergogenic, but it does not abolish the ergogenic effect of caffeine. PMID:24999004

  8. [Effects of simulating acid rain on photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of Quercus glauca Quercus glauca].

    PubMed

    Wang, Sai; Yi, Li-Ta; Yu, Shu-Quan; Zhang, Chao; Shi, Jing-Jing

    2014-08-01

    At three levels of simulated acid rainfall intensities with pH values of 2.5 (severe), 40 (medium) and 5.6 (light) respectively, the responses of chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic parameters of Quercus glauca seedlings were studied in three acid rainfall treatments, i. e. only the aboveground of seedlings exposed to acid rain (T1), both of the seedlings and soil exposed to acid rain (T2), only the soil exposed to acid rain (T3) compared with blank control (CK). Under the severe acid rainfall, T1 significantly inhibited chlorophyll synthesis, and thus reduced the primary photochemical efficiency of PS II ( F(v)/F(m)), potential activity of PS II (F(v)/F(o)) , apparent quantum (Y), net photosynthetic rate (P(n)), and transpiration rate (T(r)), but increased the light compensation point (LCP) and dark respiration rate (R(d)) of Q. glauca seedlings. T2 inhibited, but T3 played a little enhancement on the aforementioned parameters of Q. glauca seedlings. Under the conditions of medium and light acid rainfall intensities, the above parameters in the three treatments were higher than that of CK, except with lower R(d). The chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic parameters showed a similar tendency in the three treatments, i. e. T2>T3 >T1. It indicated that T1 had the strongest inhibition on seedlings in condition of the severe acid rainfall, while T2 had the most dramatic facilitating effect on seedlings under the medium and light acid rainfall. Intensity of acid rainfall had significant influences on SPAD, F(v)/F(m), F(v)/F(o), Y, P(n), T(r), and maximum photosynthetic rate (A(max)), whereas treatments of acid rainfall affected SPAD, F(v)/F(m), Y, P(n), T(r), A(max) and light saturation point (LSP). The interaction of acid rainfall intensities and treatments played significant effects on SPAD, F(v)/F(m), Y, P(n) and A(max). PMID:25509066

  9. Geochemical anomalies in carbonate lacustrine sediments as seasonal and centennial environmental proxy for continental climate conditions in South Siberia during the last 2450 yrs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalugin, I.; Darin, A.; Tretyakov, G.; Rogozin, D.; Khromykh, S.; Kholodova, L.; Maksimova, N.

    2012-04-01

    Sedimentation history of saline lakes efficiently reflects environmental change in catchment area especially for wet-arid conditions. Different sediment carbonates allows quantitative assessment of physicochemical conditions and bioproduction. Shira lake in South Siberia is a good representative object for detail weather-climate modeling due to it`s local hydroclimatic information and annually laminated bottom sediments. Thermodynamic estimation of rock-water multisystem in conformity with local conditions and source matter gives grounds for interpretation of measured geochemical parameters in sediments as environmental indicators like temperature, salinity, pH etc. At the same time using a modern scanning X-ray fluorescence technique for sub-millimeter microstratigraphic study of varves results quantitative environmental reconstruction year by year. Meromictic Shira Lake is closed shallow (25 m) basin 9,4x5,3 km2 of brackish water (total salinity up to 19 g/l) inflowed by small Son river. Continental climate provides mean July temperature 18o and January -20oC. A long-term waterbody stratification with intra-annual chemocline depth 11-16,2 m is observed as well as level oscillations up to 7 m Sediment has thin laminated structure, where black clay-carbonate organic bearing layers are coupled with white organic free ones. Thickness of rhythms varied from 2 mm in the uppermost 20 cm of core to 0.4 mm close to the bottom. Clastic components quartz, feldspar, micas, chlorite are distributed under dust and flood events but not regularly. Visible 6 light intervals depleted of organics are revealed along the core. They have 45-120 mm in thickness and are repeated every 200-250 mm. Dark and light sediments are different in water content as well as rock-forming element composition. LOI<500oC is rather lower in light components, that confirms lack organic matter. Correspondingly, calcite (18-30%) and monohydrocalcite (13-14%) predominate in black muds coloured by organics

  10. European Marine Observation and DataNetwork (EMODNET)- physical parameters: A support to marine science and operational oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlin, Hans; Gies, Tobias; Giordano, Marco; Gorringe, Patrick; Manzella, Giuseppe; Maudire, Gilbert; Novellino, Antonio; Pagnani, Maureen; Petersson, Sian; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Rickards, Lesley; Schaap, Dick; Tijsse, Peter; van der Horste, Serge

    2013-04-01

    The overall objectives of EMODNET - physical parameters is to provide access to archived and real-time data on physical conditions in Europe's seas and oceans and to determine how well the data meet the needs of users. In particular it will contribute towards the definition of an operational European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) and contribute to developing the definition of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) marine core service. Access to data and metadata will consider measurements from fixed stations that will cover at least: 1. wave height and period; 2. temperature of the water column; 3. wind speed and direction; 4. salinity of the water column; 5. horizontal velocity of the water column ; 6. light attenuation; 7. sea level. A first running prototype of the portal active from the end of 2011, the final release of the EMODnet PP is due by half June 2012. Then there are 6 months for testing and users' feedback acquisition and management. The project finishes 16th December 2013 after one year of maintenance. Compliance with INSPIRE framework and temporal and geographical data coverage are ensured under the requirements contained in the several Commission Regulations issued from 2008 until 2010. The metadata are based upon the ISO 19115 standard and are compliant with the INSPIRE directive and regulations. This assures also a minimum metadata content in both systems that will facilitate the setting up of a portal that can provide information on data and access to them, depending on the internal data policy of potential contributors. Data coverage: There are three pillars sustaining EMODnet PP: EuroGOOS ROOSs (the EuroGOOS regional Operational Systems), MyOcean and SeaDataNet. MyOcean and EuroGOOS have agreed in EuroGOOS general assemblies (2008-2009-2010) to share their efforts to set up a common infrastructure for real-time data integration for operational oceanography needs extending the global and regional portals set up

  11. Energetic Ring Shows Way To Discovery Of Pulsar "Bulls-Eye"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-06-01

    particles to form jets blasting away from the poles and a disk of matter and anti-matter flowing away from the equator at high speeds. As the equatorial flow rams into particles and magnetic fields in the nebula, a shock wave forms. The shock wave then boosts the particles to extremely high energies causing them to glow in X-rays and produce the bright ring. The particles continue to stream outward from the ring and the jets to supply the extended nebula, which spans approximately 6 light years. The features observed in SNR G54.1+0.3 are very similar to other "pulsar wind nebulas" found by Chandra in the Crab Nebula, the Vela supernova remnant, and B1509-58. By analyzing the similarities and differences between these objects, scientists hope to better understand the fascinating process of transforming the rotational energy of the neutron star into extremely high-energy particles with very little frictional heat loss. Chandra observed SNR G54.1+0.3 on June 6-7, 2001, using the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer instrument. The radio data on the central pulsar, known as PSR J1930+1852, were gathered at Arecibo on April 29, 2002. The results from this work appear in two separate papers in the March 20 and July 20, 2002 issues of the Astrophysical Journal Letters. The Arecibo Observatory is part of the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center (NAIC), operated by Cornell University under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for the Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, Calif., is the prime contractor for the spacecraft. The Smithsonian's Chandra X-ray Center controls science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass.

  12. HUBBLE'S PLANETARY NEBULA GALLERY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    each of the lobes to expand, much like a pair of balloons with internal heaters. This observation was taken Sept. 9, 1997 by the Hubble telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. Hubble 5 is 2,200 light-years away in the constellation Sagittarius. Credits: Bruce Balick (University of Washington), Vincent Icke (Leiden University, The Netherlands), Garrelt Mellema (Stockholm University), and NASA [Bottom center ] - Like NGC 6826, NGC 7009 has a bright central star at the center of a dark cavity bounded by a football-shaped rim of dense, blue and red gas. The cavity and its rim are trapped inside smoothly-distributed greenish material in the shape of a barrel and comprised of the star's former outer layers. At larger distances, and lying along the long axis of the nebula, a pair of red 'ansae', or 'handles' appears. Each ansa is joined to the tips of the cavity by a long greenish jet of material. The handles are clouds of low-density gas. NGC 7009 is 1,400 light-years away in the constellation Aquarius. The Hubble telescope observation was taken April 28, 1996 by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. Credits: Bruce Balick (University of Washington), Jason Alexander (University of Washington), Arsen Hajian (U.S. Naval Observatory), Yervant Terzian (Cornell University), Mario Perinotto (University of Florence, Italy), Patrizio Patriarchi (Arcetri Observatory, Italy), NASA [Bottom right ] - NGC 5307 also lies in Centaurus but is about 10,000 light-years away and has a diameter of approximately 0.6 light-year. It is an example of a planetary nebula with a pinwheel or spiral structure; each blob of gas ejected from the central star has a counterpart on the opposite side of the star. Credits: Howard Bond (Space Telescope Science Institute), Robin Ciardullo (Pennsylvania State University) and NASA

  13. TURTLE IN SPACE DESCRIBES NEW HUBBLE IMAGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    ionized gas.) NGC 6210 is about 6,600 light-years away in the constellation Hercules. The nebula measures 1.6 light-years from the very top of the turtle-shaped form to the tip of the bottom. The inner nautilus shell is about 0.5 light-years in diameter. Credits: Robert Rubin and Christopher Ortiz (NASA Ames Research Center), Patrick Harrington and Nancy Jo Lame (University of Maryland), Reginald Dufour (Rice University), and NASA

  14. Ages of Lunar Light Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiesinger, Harald; Howes van der Bogert, Carolyn; Thiessen, Fiona; Robinson, Mark

    2013-04-01

    light plains are necessary to corroborate this preliminary observation. In general, our new absolute model ages are similar to model ages derived for light plains north of Mare Frigoris (3.65-4.0 Ga) [6], light plains within the SPA basin (3.43-3.81 Ga) [7], and light plains in the surroundings of the Orientale and Imbrium basins (3.8-4.3 Ga) [8]. The ages are not only similar, but also show similar ranges. While our model ages vary by about 300 Ma, model ages of [6,7] exhibit ranges of ~350 Ma and ~380 Ma, respectively. Ages of [8] show a somewhat wider range of ~500 Ma. From this wide range in ages it has been concluded that a formation of the light plains by a single event (i.e., Orientale or Imbrium) is unlikely [6-8]. References: [1] Wilhelms and McCauley (1971), USGS I-703; [2] Stuart-Alexander (1978), USGS I-1047; [3] Wilhelms et al. (1979), USGS I-1162; [4] Scott et al. (1977), USGS I-1034; [5] Wilhelms and El-Baz (1977), USGS I-948; [6] Köhler et al. (2000), LPSC 31, #1822; [7] Thiessen et al. (2012), LPSC 43, #2060; [8] Neukum (1977b), Moon 17, 383-393.

  15. Young and Exotic Stellar Zoo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-03-01

    Summary Super star clusters are groups of hundreds of thousands of very young stars packed into an unbelievably small volume. They represent the most extreme environments in which stars and planets can form. Until now, super star clusters were only known to exist very far away, mostly in pairs or groups of interacting galaxies. Now, however, a team of European astronomers [1] have used ESO's telescopes to uncover such a monster object within our own Galaxy, the Milky Way, almost, but not quite, in our own backyard! The newly found massive structure is hidden behind a large cloud of dust and gas and this is why it took so long to unveil its true nature. It is known as "Westerlund 1" and is a thousand times closer than any other super star cluster known so far. It is close enough that astronomers may now probe its structure in some detail. Westerlund 1 contains hundreds of very massive stars, some shining with a brilliance of almost one million suns and some two-thousand times larger than the Sun (as large as the orbit of Saturn)! Indeed, if the Sun were located at the heart of this remarkable cluster, our sky would be full of hundreds of stars as bright as the full Moon. Westerlund 1 is a most unique natural laboratory for the study of extreme stellar physics, helping astronomers to find out how the most massive stars in our Galaxy live and die. From their observations, the astronomers conclude that this extreme cluster most probably contains no less than 100,000 times the mass of the Sun, and all of its stars are located within a region less than 6 light-years across. Westerlund 1 thus appears to be the most massive compact young cluster yet identified in the Milky Way Galaxy. PR Photo 09a/05: The Super Star Cluster Westerlund 1 (2.2m MPG/ESO + WFI) PR Photo 09b/05: Properties of Young Massive Clusters Super Star Clusters Stars are generally born in small groups, mostly in so-called "open clusters" that typically contain a few hundred stars. From a wide range of

  16. How Much Mass Makes a Black Hole? - Astronomers Challenge Current Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-08-01

    huge quantities of mass from the progenitor star. While no such companion is currently visible at the site of the magnetar, this could be because the supernova that formed the magnetar caused the binary to break apart, ejecting both stars at high velocity from the cluster. "If this is the case it suggests that binary systems may play a key role in stellar evolution by driving mass loss - the ultimate cosmic 'diet plan' for heavyweight stars, which shifts over 95% of their initial mass," concludes Clark. Notes [1] The open cluster Westerlund 1 was discovered in 1961 from Australia by Swedish astronomer Bengt Westerlund, who later moved from there to become ESO Director in Chile (1970-74). This cluster is behind a huge interstellar cloud of gas and dust, which blocks most of its visible light. The dimming factor is more than 100 000, and this is why it has taken so long to uncover the true nature of this particular cluster. Westerlund 1 is a unique natural laboratory for the study of extreme stellar physics, helping astronomers to find out how the most massive stars in our Milky Way live and die. From their observations, the astronomers conclude that this extreme cluster most probably contains no less than 100 000 times the mass of the Sun, and all of its stars are located within a region less than 6 light-years across. Westerlund 1 thus appears to be the most massive compact young cluster yet identified in the Milky Way galaxy. All stars so far analysed in Westerlund 1 have masses at least 30-40 times that of the Sun. Because such stars have a rather short life - astronomically speaking - Westerlund 1 must be very young. The astronomers determine an age somewhere between 3.5 and 5 million years. So, Westerlund 1 is clearly a "newborn" cluster in our galaxy. More information The research presented in this ESO Press Release will soon appear in the research journal Astronomy and Astrophysics ("A VLT/FLAMES survey for massive binaries in Westerlund 1: II. Dynamical

  17. a Faint and Lonely Brown Dwarf in the Solar Vicinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-04-01

    cubic light-years). A further consideration of the search statistics indicates that less than 10 percent of the Brown Dwarfs present in the surveyed volume would have been found. This translates into a local density of about 0.4 such objects per cubic parsec. Although the mass density of Brown Dwarfs derived from this estimate is insufficient to constitute all the `dark matter' in the Milky Way Galaxy, it is consistent with the most recent estimates of the local mass density, both observed and as infered from dynamical considerations of the motions of stars in the solar neighborhood. Notes: [1] This is done by means of a so-called blink-comparator , an optical device in which the two plates are placed. A tilting mirror allows to view the same sky field alternately on the two plates. Any celestial object that has changed its position will appear to `jump' back and forth and can thus be identified. [2] A proper motion in the sky of 0.25 arcsec/year corresponds to a transversal speed of about 12 km/sec if the object is located at a distance of 10 parsec, or 32.6 light-years. The largest known proper motion of an object outside the solar system is that of Barnard's Star at about 10 arcsec/year. [3] For instance, as the mineral perovskite . How to obtain ESO Press Information ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http://www.eso.org../). ESO Press Photos may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory.

  18. The Orion Nebula: The Jewel in the Sword

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-01-01

    series of images were taken in each of the near-infrared J s - (centred at 1.24 µm wavelength), H- (1.65 µm), and K s - (2.16 µm) bands. North is up and East left. The total integration time for each pixel in the mosaic was 4.5 min in each band. The seeing FWHM (full width at half maximum) was excellent, between 0.35 and 0.50 arcsec throughout. Point sources are detected at the 3-sigma level (central pixel above background noise) of 20.5, 19.2, and 18.8 magnitude in the J s -, H-, and K s -bands, respectively, mainly limited by the bright background emission of the nebula. After removal of instrumental signatures and the bright infrared sky background, all frames in a given band were carefully aligned and adjusted to form a seamless mosaic. The three monochromatic mosaics were then unsharp-masked and scaled logarithmically to reduce the enormous dynamic range and enhance the faint features of the outer nebula. The mosaics were then combined to create this colour-coded image, with the J s -band being rendered as blue, the H-band as green, and the K s -band as red. A total of 81 individual ISAAC images were merged to form this mosaic. PR Photos 03b-c/01 show smaller sections of the large image; the areas are 2.6 x 3.2 and 4.2 x 3.8 arcmin (1.1 x 1.4 and 1.8 x 1.6 light-years), respectively. PR Photo 03d/01 is based on J s band data only, to ensure good visibility (maximum contrast) of the Orion 114-426 silhouette disk against the background nebula. The three highest spatial resolution images covering this region were accurately aligned to form a mosaic with a resolution of 0.4 arcsec FWHM (180 Astronomical Units [AU]) in the vicinity of the disk. A 29 x 29 arcsec (0.2 x 0.2 light-year) section of this smaller mosaic was cut out and the square root of the intensity taken to enhance the disk. The disk is roughly 2 arcsec or 900 AU in diameter. North is up, East left.

  19. Discovery of Nearest Known Brown Dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    perfectly suited to the search for objects with large proper motions and extreme colours, such as brown dwarfs in the Solar vicinity. Everything is moving - a question of perspective In astronomy, the `proper motion' of a star signifies its apparent motion on the celestial sphere; it is usually expressed in arcseconds per year [4]. The corresponding, real velocity of a star (in kilometres per second) can only be estimated if the distance is known. A star with a large proper motion may indicate a real large velocity or simply that the star is close to us. By analogy, an airplane just after takeoff has a much lower true speed than when it's cruising at high altitude, but to an observer watching near an airport, the departing airplane seems to be moving much more quickly across the sky. Proxima Centauri, our nearest stellar neighbour, is just 4.2 light-years away (cf. ESO PR 22/02) and has a proper motion of 3.8 arcsec/year (corresponding to 23 km/sec relative to the Sun, in the direction perpendicular to the line-of-sight). The highest known proper motion star is Barnard's Star at 6 light-years distance and moving 10 arcsec/year (87 km/sec relative to the Sun). All known stars within 30 light-years are high-proper-motion objects and move at least 0.2 arcsec/year. Trawling for fast moving objects For some time, astronomers at the Astrophysical Institute in Potsdam have been making a systematic computerised search for high-proper-motion objects which appear on red photographic sky plates, but not on the equivalent blue plates. Their goal is to identify hitherto unknown cool objects in the Solar neighbourhood. They had previously found a handful of new objects within 30 light-years in this way, but nothing as red or moving remotely as fast as the one they have now snared in the constellation of Indus in the southern sky. This object was only seen on the very longest-wavelength plates in the SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey database. It was moving so quickly that on plates taken just two