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Sample records for 6-light double-hung wood-frame

  1. 22. FIRST FLOOR APARTMENT SOUTH BEDROOM INTERIOR SHOWING PAIRED 6LIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. FIRST FLOOR APARTMENT SOUTH BEDROOM INTERIOR SHOWING PAIRED 6-LIGHT OVER 6-LIGHT DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAMED WINDOWS. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  2. 15. INTERIOR OF SOUTH BEDROOM SHOWING 6LIGHT OVER 1LIGHT, DOUBLEHUNG, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. INTERIOR OF SOUTH BEDROOM SHOWING 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAME WINDOWS ON EAST AND SOUTH WALL. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  3. 17. INTERIOR OF NORTH BEDROOM SHOWING 6LIGHT OVER 1LIGHT, DOUBLEHUNG, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. INTERIOR OF NORTH BEDROOM SHOWING 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAME WINDOWS IN PAIRED ARRANGEMENT ON NORTH WALL AND SINGLY ON EAST WALL. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  4. 12. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NO. 1 SHOWING ORIGINAL 6LIGHT OVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NO. 1 SHOWING ORIGINAL 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAMED WINDOWS WITH SIMPLE WOOD SURROUNDS AND PROJECTING SILLS ON NORTHEAST AND NORTHWEST WALLS. VIEW TO NORTH. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  5. double hung window details, hall window details, entrance door profiles ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    double hung window details, hall window details, entrance door profiles - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Help's Quarters, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  6. 7. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING DISTINCTIVE 6LIGHT THREEPANEL DOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING DISTINCTIVE 6-LIGHT THREE-PANEL DOOR, ONE OF THE NARROW 4-LIGHT OVER 4-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOWS FRAMING THE FRONT DOOR, AND THE PAIRED 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOWS. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  7. Cornice Detail of Rake, Cornice Detail of Eave, Wood DoubleHung ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cornice Detail of Rake, Cornice Detail of Eave, Wood Double-Hung Window Details, Wood Door Details - Boxley Grist Mill, Boxley vicinity on State Route 43, Buffalo National River, Ponca, Newton County, AR

  8. 2. NORTH (FRONT) ELEVATION. ALSO SHOWS THREE WOOD FRAME PROJECTIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. NORTH (FRONT) ELEVATION. ALSO SHOWS THREE WOOD FRAME PROJECTIONS (located on the right-hand side; on the center; and on the left-hand side) - Annesdale, 1325 Lamar Avenue, Memphis, Shelby County, TN

  9. 2. PEAVEY GLOVE ELEVATOR, WORKHOUSE (NO. 1 HOUSE) WOOD FRAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PEAVEY GLOVE ELEVATOR, WORKHOUSE (NO. 1 HOUSE) WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTION, SHIPLOADER SIDE. WEST WALL. MARINE LEG ADDED SOME TIME BETWEEN 1907-1919. METAL PASSENGER ELEVATOR SHAFT ADDED IN EARLY 1970S. - Peavey Globe Elevator, No. 1 House, West Gate Basin & Howard's Bay, east side of slip, Superior, Douglas County, WI

  10. 49. VIEW OF WOOD FRAME STUCCO STRUCTURES ON CONCRETE SLABS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. VIEW OF WOOD FRAME STUCCO STRUCTURES ON CONCRETE SLABS, REPUTED HOUSES FOR PROSTITUTES, LOOKING NORTH. NOTICE SIMILAR RUIN IN BACKGROUND RIGHT. THREE OR FOUR SIMILAR RUINS ALONG RIVER ROAD NORTH OF MINE WORKINGS. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  11. 30. SECOND FLOOR EAST SIDE APARTMENT WEST BEDROOM INTERIOR SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. SECOND FLOOR EAST SIDE APARTMENT WEST BEDROOM INTERIOR SHOWING PAIRED 6-LIGHT OVER 6-LIGHT DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAME WINDOWS THROUGH NORTH WALL. ORIGINAL LOUVERED DOORS FRAME CLOSET AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  12. 38. SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE APARTMENT WEST BEDROOM INTERIOR SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE APARTMENT WEST BEDROOM INTERIOR SHOWING PAIRED 6-LIGHT OVER 6-LIGHT DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAME WINDOWS ON WEST WALL AND OPEN DOORWAY TO LIVING ROOM. VIEW TO WEST. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  13. 16. FIRST FLOOR APARTMENT KITCHEN INTERIOR SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. FIRST FLOOR APARTMENT KITCHEN INTERIOR SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO LIVING ROOM AND PAIRED 6-LIGHT OVER 6-LIGHT DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAME WINDOWS OVER SINK. VIEW TO EAST. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  14. 37. SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE APARTMENT EAST BEDROOM INTERIOR SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE APARTMENT EAST BEDROOM INTERIOR SHOWING PAIRED 6-LIGHT OVER 6-LIGHT DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAME WINDOWS ON NORTH WALL. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  15. 20. FIRST FLOOR APARTMENT NORTH BEDROOM INTERIOR LOOKING THROUGH DOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. FIRST FLOOR APARTMENT NORTH BEDROOM INTERIOR LOOKING THROUGH DOOR FROM LIVING ROOM. GROUP OF THREE 6-LIGHT OVER 6-LIGHT DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAME WINDOWS AT PHOTO CENTER THROUGH NORTH (FRONT) WALL OF HOUSE. VIEW TO EAST. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  16. Thermal Impact of Fasteners in High-Performance Wood-Framed Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Dane Christensen

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses high-performance wood-framed walls that use much less than 40% of the energy consumed by similar homes built to minimum code, and evaluates the thermal impact of fasteners used to construct these walls.

  17. 10. INTERIOR KITCHEN UTILITY AREA SHOWING PARTITION, PANELED AND GLAZED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR KITCHEN UTILITY AREA SHOWING PARTITION, PANELED AND GLAZED REAR DOOR, AND ROW OF 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAMED WINDOWS AROUND EAST CORNER OF HOUSE. VIEW TO EAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  18. Byggmeister Test Home. Analysis and Initial Results of Cold Climate Wood-Framed Home Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, C.

    2013-01-01

    BSC seeks to further the energy efficiency market for New England area retrofit projects by supporting projects that are based on solid building science fundamentals that will benefit the homeowner through a combination of energy savings, improved durability, and occupant comfort. This report describes a deep retrofit project of a two-family wood-framed home in Belmont, Massachusetts, and examines the retrofit measures for the enclosure amd mechanical systems and reviews the decision-making process that took place during planning.

  19. Thermal Impact of Fasteners in High-Performance Wood-Framed Walls: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, D.

    2011-01-01

    Buildings are heavy consumers of energy, and residential building design is rapidly addressing topics to maximize energy conservation en route to net-zero energy consumption. Annual energy analysis of a building informs the choice among disparate energy measures, for cost, durability, occupant comfort, and whole-house energy use. Physics-based and empirical models of elements of a building are used in such analyses. High-performance wood-framed walls enable builders to construct homes that use much less than 40% of the energy consumed by similar homes built to minimum code. Modeling for these walls has considered physical features such as framing factor, insulation and framing properties, roughness and convective effects, and air leakage. The thermal effects of fasteners used to construct these walls have not been fully evaluated, even though their thermal conductivity is orders of magnitudes higher than that of other building materials. Drywall screws and siding nails are considered in this finite element thermal conductivity analysis of wall sections that represent wood-framed walls that are often used in high-performance homes. Nails and screws reduce even the best walls' insulating performance by approximately 3% and become increasingly significant as the framing factor increases.

  20. Progress On American Society For Testing And Materials (ASTM) Practice On Thermographic Inspections Of Wood Frame Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantsios, Andronicos G.

    1982-03-01

    Methods to measure the heat loss are needed in order to evaluate the energy efficiency or the results of retrofitting wood frame buildings. Theoretical analysis with assumed building construction will give a measure of efficiency. Specific heat transfer measurements allow a more definitive analysis but only at preselected points. On the other hand, an infrared imaging instrument's data are global in nature and can verify the quality of the insulated areas through proper inspection. Such inspection requires a standard method which defines the requirements of training, gives definitions of anomalies, and lists the required procedures. This paper will discuss the status of such a thermographic standard which is currently being produced by a task force in ASTM C-16.30 for wood frame buildings. Voting on this Practice should begin this fall with passage expected in 1982.

  1. Energy budgets and masonry houses: a preliminary analysis of the comparative energy performance of masonry and wood-frame houses

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, D.B.; Levine, M.D.; Mass, J.

    1980-09-01

    Energy Performance Standards require the establishment of energy budgets - maximum values of predicted building energy consumption assuming standard building operating conditions. Energy budgets based on minimizing life-cycle-costs to consumers have been computed in earlier reports. The prototype buildings for those studies used wood-frame construction. The energy performance of masonry houses is explored. Theoretical aspects of the modelling of masonry buildings on the DOE-2 program are discussed. Results of DOE-2 simulations are presented. Energy budgets which correspond to cost-minimizing masonry houses are found to be approximately equal to those for frame houses. The same energy performance requires only slightly less insulation in masonry walls than in frame walls for the climates studied. It is concluded that separate energy budgets for frame and masonry houses do not appear to be warranted.

  2. Transmission factors for the penetration of neutron and photon fluence into wood-frame dwellings, 1990 (TF90)

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoades, W.A.; Lillie, R.A.; Emmett, M.B.

    1992-05-01

    An earlier study at Oak Ridge calculated radiation doses to persons inside reinforced concrete buildings during the exposure at Nagasaki. The ``DS86`` study conducted at several laboratories in the United States and Japan concentrated on persons inside wood-frame dwellings at both Nagasaki and Hiroshima. The present study is directed toward applying the general technical approach of the DS86. Numerous simplifications were indicated as a result of the earlier research, and the numerical results are represented as ``transmission factors`` relating radiation outside the dwellings to doses received by individuals within. An advantage of this method is that the transmission factors can be presented in tables that can be reviewed, inspected, and applied in a very tangible and straightforward manner.

  3. Transmission factors for the penetration of neutron and photon fluence into wood-frame dwellings, 1990 (TF90)

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoades, W.A.; Lillie, R.A.; Emmett, M.B.

    1992-05-01

    An earlier study at Oak Ridge calculated radiation doses to persons inside reinforced concrete buildings during the exposure at Nagasaki. The DS86'' study conducted at several laboratories in the United States and Japan concentrated on persons inside wood-frame dwellings at both Nagasaki and Hiroshima. The present study is directed toward applying the general technical approach of the DS86. Numerous simplifications were indicated as a result of the earlier research, and the numerical results are represented as transmission factors'' relating radiation outside the dwellings to doses received by individuals within. An advantage of this method is that the transmission factors can be presented in tables that can be reviewed, inspected, and applied in a very tangible and straightforward manner.

  4. 19. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN SHOWING 2LIGHT OVER 2LIGHT, DOUBLEHUNG, WOODFRAMED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN SHOWING 2-LIGHT OVER 2-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAMED WINDOW. VIEW TO EAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  5. Energy consumption in the use phase of residential housing: A case study of rammed earth and wood framed construction in the northern Colorado Front Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Kirk E.

    This study investigated rammed earth (RE) housing energy consumption compared to the traditional wood frame structure (SB) typically used in residential construction in the northern Colorado Front Range (NoCOFR). There has not been a great deal of study of rammed earth and the relationship of energy consumption. Therefore, similar studies using direct observations and others using artificial neural networks (ANN) and computer statistical simulations have been used for comparing the results of this study as a validation. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the energy consumption used by both RE & SB during the use phase of the structure. While total energy use is important, this study focused on heating and cooling measured by data gathered from participant utility records. The claims, by proponents of rammed earth housing are that the inhabitants can save between 30-50% on energy consumption. The results of this focused study indicate that the energy consumption comparison is inconclusive given the limited number of rammed earth homes in the study due to the regional focus. However, as a result of this study and the communications between the researcher and the participants, it is clear that most people do not understand how their home functions. This highlights a need for further studies into how to continually educate homeowners about home system construction and the impacts construction type has on efficient operation of heating and cooling systems.

  6. Effects of topographic position and geology on shaking damage to residential wood-framed structures during the 2003 San Simeon earthquake, western San Luis obispo county, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCrink, T.P.; Wills, C.J.; Real, C.R.; Manson, M.W.

    2010-01-01

    A statistical evaluation of shaking damage to wood-framed houses caused by the 2003 M6.5 San Simeon earthquake indicates that both the rate and severity of damage, independent of structure type, are significantly greater on hilltops compared to hill slopes when underlain by Cretaceous or Tertiary sedimentary rocks. This increase in damage is interpreted to be the result of topographic amplification. An increase in the damage rate is found for all structures built on Plio-Pleistocene rocks independent of topographic position, and this is interpreted to be the result of amplified shaking caused by geologic site response. Damage rate and severity to houses built on Tertiary rocks suggest that amplification due to both topographic position and geologic site response may be occurring in these rocks, but effects from other topographic parameters cannot be ruled out. For all geologic and topographic conditions, houses with raised foundations are more frequently damaged than those with slab foundations. However, the severity of damage to houses on raised foundations is only significantly greater for those on hill slopes underlain by Tertiary rocks. Structures with some damage-resistant characteristics experienced greater damage severity on hilltops, suggesting a spectral response to topographic amplification. ?? 2010, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  7. Effects of Topography and Geology on Shaking Damage to Wood Frame Residential Structures During the 2003 San Simeon Earthquake, Western San Luis Obispo County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrink, T. P.; Wills, C. J.; Real, C. R.; Manson, M. W.

    2009-12-01

    A statistical evaluation of shake damage to wood-frame houses caused by the 2003 M6.5 San Simeon earthquake indicates that both the rate and severity of damage, independent of structure type, is significantly greater on hilltops compared to hill slopes when underlain by Cretaceous or Tertiary sedimentary rocks. This increase in damage is interpreted to be the result of topographic amplification. An increase in the damage rate is found for all structures built on Plio-Pleistocene rocks independent of topographic position, and this is interpreted as the result of amplified shaking caused by geologic site response. Damage rate and severity to houses built on Tertiary rocks suggest that amplification due to both topographic position and geologic site response may be occurring in these rocks, but effects from other topographic parameters cannot be ruled out. In particular, higher slope curvature on hilltops, a characteristic feature of hills and ridges underlain by Tertiary rocks, also correlates with higher damage frequency. For all geologic and topographic conditions, houses with raised foundations are more frequently damaged than those with slab foundations. However, the severity of damage to houses on raised foundations is only significantly greater for those on hill slopes underlain by Tertiary rocks. Structures with some damage-resistant characteristics experienced greater damage severity on hilltops, suggesting a spectral response to topographic amplification.

  8. 6. Light tower, detail of stairs leading from first landing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Light tower, detail of stairs leading from first landing to cupola, looking east - Baker Island Light, Lightkeeper's House, Just east of Cranberry Isles, at entrance to Frenchman Bay, Bar Harbor, Hancock County, ME

  9. 6. Light tower and keeper's house, view east southeast, northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Light tower and keeper's house, view east southeast, northwest and southwest sides - Seguin Island Light Station, Summit of Seguin Island, south of mouth of Kennebec River, Popham Beach, Sagadahoc County, ME

  10. 6. Light tower and corner of keeper's house, view northeast, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Light tower and corner of keeper's house, view northeast, northwest front and southwest side of tower, southwest side of house - Burnt Coat Harbor Light Station, At Hackamock Head on Swan's Island opposite Harbor Island at entrance to Burnt Coat Harbor, Swans Island, Hancock County, ME

  11. 5. INTERIOR SHOWING WOOD STORAGE CABINETS AND 2LIGHT OVER 2LIGHT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR SHOWING WOOD STORAGE CABINETS AND 2-LIGHT OVER 2-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAMED WINDOW THROUGH SOUTHEAST WALL AT PHOTO CENTER. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Lightning Arrestor Vault, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  12. 13. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING 2LIGHT OVER 2LIGHT, DOUBLEHUNG, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING 2-LIGHT OVER 2-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAMED WINDOWS ON SOUTHEAST WALL, AND UNUSUAL 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW WITH TRANSOM AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  13. 21. INTERIOR OF UTILITY ROOM SHOWING OPEN REAR DOOR AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. INTERIOR OF UTILITY ROOM SHOWING OPEN REAR DOOR AT PHOTO CENTER, PAIRED NARROW 1-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAMED WINDOWS AT PHOTO LEFT. OPEN DOOR AT PHOTO RIGHT LEADS TO BATHROOM. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  14. 9. EXTERIOR OF ENCLOSED PORTION OF SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. EXTERIOR OF ENCLOSED PORTION OF SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE APARTMENT ENTRYWAY SHOWING STAIR LANDING AND OPEN FRONT DOOR FLANKED BY PAIRED 4-LIGHT OVER 4-LIGHT DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAME WINDOWS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  15. 11. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN/UTILITY AREA SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO LIVING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN/UTILITY AREA SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO LIVING ROOM, AND BUILT-IN CABINETS AROUND SINK AND 3-LIGHT OVER 3-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAME WINDOW. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  16. 9. INTERIOR LIVING ROOM DETAIL OF ONE OF TWO NARROW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR LIVING ROOM DETAIL OF ONE OF TWO NARROW 4-LIGHT OVER 4-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAMED WINDOWS ON EITHER SIDE OF FRONT DOOR SHOWING EXPOSED COUNTERBALANCE CABLE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  17. 14. FIRST FLOOR APARTMENT LIVING ROOM INTERIOR. FRONT ENTRY DOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. FIRST FLOOR APARTMENT LIVING ROOM INTERIOR. FRONT ENTRY DOOR IS AT PHOTO CENTER FLANKED BY A PAIRED 4-LIGHT OVER 4-LIGHT DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAME WINDOWS. OPEN DOORWAY TO PHOTO RIGHT OPENS TO NORTH BEDROOM. DOORWAY TO PHOTO LEFT OPENS TO KITCHEN. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  18. 23. SECOND FLOOR EAST SIDE APARTMENT LIVING ROOM INTERIOR. PAIRED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. SECOND FLOOR EAST SIDE APARTMENT LIVING ROOM INTERIOR. PAIRED 4-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAME WINDOWS FLANK ENTRY DOOR. DOORWAY AT PHOTO RIGHT OPENS TO KITCHEN. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  19. 31. SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE APARTMENT LIVING ROOM INTERIOR SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE APARTMENT LIVING ROOM INTERIOR SHOWING PAIRED 4-LIGHT OVER 4-LIGHT DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAME WINDOWS FLANKING ENTRY DOOR WITH UNUSUAL 8-LIGHT WINDOW. OPEN DOORWAY TO PHOTO LEFT LEADS TO KITCHEN. VIEW TO WEST. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  20. 9. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN SHOWING 1950s STYLE CABINETRY AND 3LIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN SHOWING 1950s STYLE CABINETRY AND 3-LIGHT OVER 3-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAMED WINDOW OVER SINK, VIEW TO NORTH. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  1. 16. INTERIOR OF BATHROOM NUMBER ONE SHOWING BUILTIN MEDICINE CABINET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INTERIOR OF BATHROOM NUMBER ONE SHOWING BUILT-IN MEDICINE CABINET FLANKED BY SMALL 1-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAMED WINDOWS IN A GROUPED ARRANGEMENT. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Clubhouse Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  2. 8. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING DOORWAY TO KITCHEN, CHANDELIER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING DOORWAY TO KITCHEN, CHANDELIER, AND ORIGINAL PAIRED 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOWS. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  3. 8. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING 6LIGHT FRONT ENTRY DOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING 6-LIGHT FRONT ENTRY DOOR AND TWO 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOWS TO PHOTO RIGHT OF FRONT DOOR OVERLOOKING PORCH. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  4. 33. SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE APARTMENT KITCHEN INTERIOR. 6LIGHT PANEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE APARTMENT KITCHEN INTERIOR. 6-LIGHT PANEL DOOR AND 6-LIGHT CASEMENT WINDOW AT PHOTO CENTER AND PHOTO RIGHT RESPECTIVELY OPEN TO EXTERIOR STAIRWAY LANDING. VIEW TO WEST. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  5. 9. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN 6LIGHT FRONT ENTRY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN 6-LIGHT FRONT ENTRY DOOR, OPEN PANEL DOOR TO BEDROOM NUMBER ONE, AND 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON REAR WALL AT PHOTO LEFT CENTER. FIREPLACE ORIGINALLY OCCUPIED SPACE UNDER ROUND HEATER VENT HOLE AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO WEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  6. 9. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN 6LIGHT FRONT ENTRY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN 6-LIGHT FRONT ENTRY DOOR AND TWO 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOWS OVERLOOKING FRONT ENTRY STEPS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Clubhouse Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  7. 7. INTERIOR LIVING ROOM SHOWING 6LIGHT FRONT DOOR FLANKED BY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR LIVING ROOM SHOWING 6-LIGHT FRONT DOOR FLANKED BY ONE OF TWO 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOWS AT PHOTO RIGHT, AND OPEN DOORWAY TO BEDROOM NUMBER ONE (AND BEDROOM NUMBER TWO IN BACKGROUND) AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  8. 14. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NO. 1 SHOWING ORIGINAL 6LIGHT OVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NO. 1 SHOWING ORIGINAL 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT WINDOWS ON SOUTH AND WEST WALLS. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Control Station, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  9. 13. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER ONE SHOWING 6LIGHT OVER 1LIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER ONE SHOWING 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON EAST (FRONT) WALL. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  10. 10. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN/UTILITY AREA SHOWING 1LIGHT THREE PANEL WOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN/UTILITY AREA SHOWING 1-LIGHT THREE PANEL WOOD OUTSIDE DOOR SOUTH SIDE OF HOUSE, PLUMBING HOOKUPS FOR WASHER BELOW BUILT-IN CABINETS AT PHOTO LEFT, AND PAIRED ARRANGEMENTS OF 4-LIGHT OVER 4-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAMED WINDOWS ON SOUTH AND WEST WALLS. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  11. 18. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING 6LIGHT OVER 1LIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON EAST (FRONT) WALL AT PHOTO LEFT, AND OPEN DOORWAY TO BEDROOM NUMBER ONE AT PHOTO RIGHT. VIEW TO EAST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  12. 13. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER ONE SHOWING 6LIGHT OVER 1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER ONE SHOWING 6-LIGHT OVER 1 LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON EAST WALL AND OPEN PANEL DOOR TO BATHROOM ON NORTH WALL. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Clubhouse Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  13. 17. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN SHOWING OPEN 6LIGHT DOOR TO SIDEENTRY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN SHOWING OPEN 6-LIGHT DOOR TO SIDE-ENTRY UTILITY ROOM AT PHOTO LEFT, AND OPEN DOORWAY TO WALK-IN PANTRY AT PHOTO RIGHT. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  14. 18. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN SHOWING OPEN 6LIGHT DOOR TO SIDEENTRY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN SHOWING OPEN 6-LIGHT DOOR TO SIDE-ENTRY UTILITY ROOM AT PHOTO LEFT, AND OPEN DOOR TO WALK-IN PANTRY AT PHOTO RIGHT. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  15. 26. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN NO. 2 SHOWING BUILTIN CABINETRY AROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN NO. 2 SHOWING BUILT-IN CABINETRY AROUND SINK AND FLANKING 6-LIGHT OVER 6-LIGHT, DOUBLE HUNG WINDOW. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 6, Cashbaugh-Kilpatrick House, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  16. 14. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM NO. 1 SHOWING DOORWAY TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM NO. 1 SHOWING DOORWAY TO KITCHEN NO. 2 AND 6-LIGHT OVER 6-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOWS ALONG BACK (NORTH) WALL. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 6, Cashbaugh-Kilpatrick House, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  17. External Insulation of Masonry Walls and Wood Framed Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of exterior insulation on a building is an accepted and effective means to increase the overall thermal resistance of the assembly that also has other advantages of improved water management and often increased air tightness of building assemblies. For thin layers of insulation (1" to 1 1/2"), the cladding can typically be attached directly through the insulation back to the structure. For thicker insulation layers, furring strips have been added as a cladding attachment location. This approach has been used in the past on numerous Building America test homes and communities (both new and retrofit applications), and has been proven to be an effective and durable means to provide cladding attachment. However, the lack of engineering data has been a problem for many designers, contractors, and code officials. This research project developed baseline engineering analysis to support the installation of thick layers of exterior insulation on existing masonry and frame walls. Furthermore, water management details necessary to integrate windows, doors, decks, balconies and roofs were created to provide guidance on the integration of exterior insulation strategies with other enclosure elements.

  18. External Insulation of Masonry Walls and Wood Framed Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of exterior insulation on a building is an accepted and effective means to increase the overall thermal resistance of the assembly that also has other advantages of improved water management and often increased air tightness of building assemblies. For thin layers of insulation (1” to 1 ½”), the cladding can typically be attached directly through the insulation back to the structure. For thicker insulation layers, furring strips have been added as a cladding attachment location. This approach has been used in the past on numerous Building America test homes and communities (both new and retrofit applications), and has been proven to be an effective and durable means to provide cladding attachment. However, the lack of engineering data has been a problem for many designers, contractors, and code officials. This research project developed baseline engineering analysis to support the installation of thick layers of exterior insulation on existing masonry and frame walls. Furthermore, water management details necessary to integrate windows, doors, decks, balconies and roofs were created to provide guidance on the integration of exterior insulation strategies with other enclosure elements.

  19. 9. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING ALUMINUM SLIDING GLASS WINDOW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING ALUMINUM SLIDING GLASS WINDOW FRONT DOOR, AND ORIGINAL 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOWS IN SINGLE AND DOUBLE ARRANGEMENTS. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  20. Influence of the germline sequence on the thermodynamic stability and fibrillogenicity of human lambda 6 light chains.

    PubMed

    del Pozo Yauner, Luis; Ortiz, Ernesto; Sánchez, Rosalba; Sánchez-López, Rosana; Güereca, Leopoldo; Murphy, Charles L; Allen, Amy; Wall, Jonathan S; Fernández-Velasco, D Alejandro; Solomon, Alan; Becerril, Baltazar

    2008-08-01

    Light chain-associated amyloidosis is a fatal disease characterized by the aggregation and pathologic deposition of monoclonal light chain-related fragments as amyloid fibrils in organs or tissues throughout the body. Notably, it has been observed that proteins encoded by the lambda variable light chain (V(L)) gene segment 6a are invariably associated with amyloid deposition; however, the contribution of the gene to this phenomenon has not been established. In this regard, we have determined the thermodynamic stability and kinetics of in vitro fibrillogenesis of a recombinant (r) V(L) protein, designated 6aJL2, which contains the predicted sequences encoded by the 6a and JL2 germline genes. Additionally, we studied a 6a mutant (6aJL2-Arg25Gly), that is present in approximately 25% of all amyloid-associated lambda6 light chains. Remarkably, the wild-type 6aJL2 protein was more stable than were all known amyloidogenic kappa and lambda light chains for which stability parameters are available; more importantly, it was even more so (and less fibrillogenic) than the only clinically proven nonamyloidogenic lambda6 protein, Jto. Conversely, the mutated 6aJL2-R25G molecule was considerably less stable and more fibrillogenic than was the native 6aJL2. Our data indicate that the propensity of lambda6 light chains to form amyloid can not be attributed to thermodynamic instability of the germline-encoded Vlambda6 domain, but rather, is dependent on sequence alterations that render such proteins amyloidogenic.

  1. Byggmeister Test Home: Analysis and Initial Results of Cold Climate Wood-Framed Home Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, C.

    2013-01-01

    BSC seeks to further the energy efficiency market for New England area retrofit projects by supporting projects that are based on solid building science fundamentals and verified implementation. With the high exposure of energy efficiency and retrofit terminology being used in the general media at this time, it is important to have evidence that measures being proposed will in fact benefit the homeowner through a combination of energy savings, improved durability, and occupant comfort. There are several basic areas of research to which the technical report for these test homes can be expected to contribute. These include the combination of measures that is feasible, affordable and acceptable to homeowners as well as expectations versus results. Two Byggmeister multi-family test homes in Massachusetts are examined with the goal of providing case studies that could be applied to other similar New England homes.

  2. Characteristics of on-road NOx emissions from Euro 6 light-duty diesel vehicles using a portable emissions measurement system.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sangil; Park, Yonghee; Park, Junhong; Kim, Jeongsoo; Choi, Kwang-Ho; Cha, Jun-Seok

    2017-01-15

    This paper presents the on-road nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions measurements from Euro 6 light-duty diesel vehicles using a portable emissions measurement system on the predesigned test routes in the metropolitan area of Seoul, Korea. Six diesel vehicles were tested and the NOx emissions results were analyzed according to the driving routes, driving conditions, data analysis methods, and ambient temperatures. Total NOx emissions for route 1, which has higher driving severity than route 2, differed by -4-60% from those for route 2. The NOx emissions when the air conditioner (AC) was used were higher by 68% and 85%, on average, for routes 1 and 2, respectively, compared to when the AC was not used. The analytical results for NOx emissions by the moving averaging window method were higher by 2-31% compared to the power binning method. NOx emissions at lower ambient temperatures (0-5°C) were higher by 82-192% compared to those at higher ambient temperatures (15-20°C). This result shows that performance improvements of exhaust gas recirculation and the NOx after-treatment system will be needed at lower ambient temperatures.

  3. Sound Insulation Evaluation of High-Performance Wood-Frame Party Partitions under Laboratory and Field Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-01

    effectiveness 3All sound pressure measurements In decibels are ot the scund Insulator can be quantified by oh- roterenced to 2 x 10’ Nim’. 3 useful...Idea of the acoustical 40 efficiencies of single- and double-panel par- 4r0g3- X 0 titons, ,TC has been p~otted against surface weight (fig. 3). The...noise asbestos tile has an STC •" 37 and IIC - X 34. characterization of a floor Is complex in com- The addition of carpet and pad gives STC ; 37

  4. Vibration characteristics of walls and a plate glass window representative of those of a wood-frame house

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, H. D.

    1979-01-01

    Mechanical excitation was used, and measurements of acceleration response, natural frequencies, and nodal patterns were performed. Results indicate that the wall sections and the complete wall did not act as a unit in responding to sinusoidal vibration inputs. Calculated frequencies of the components that account for this independent behavior of the studs and face sheets agreed resonably well with experimental frequencies. Experimental vibrations of the plate glass window agreed with the calculated behavior, and responses of the window exposed to airplane flyover noise were readily correlated with the test results.

  5. Installing Windows with Foam Sheathing on a Wood-Frame Wall: January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2004

    SciTech Connect

    2005-05-01

    In most wall assemblies, connection details around windows have been the source of problems with water penetration into the building. This report describes how to install a window into a wall with insulating sheathing as an integrated drainage plane.

  6. 34. SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE APARTMENT KITCHEN INTERIOR. DOORWAY AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE APARTMENT KITCHEN INTERIOR. DOORWAY AT PHOTO LEFT LEADS TO PANTRY. GROUP OF THREE 6-LIGHT WOOD-FRAME CASEMENT WINDOWS OPEN TO WALKWAY AT REAR OF BUILDING. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  7. 25. SECOND FLOOR EAST SIDE APARTMENT KITCHEN INTERIOR SHOWING GROUP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. SECOND FLOOR EAST SIDE APARTMENT KITCHEN INTERIOR SHOWING GROUP OF THREE 6-LIGHT WOOD-FRAME CASEMENT WINDOWS OVER THE SINK, AND OPEN DOORWAY TO TOP OF EXTERIOR STAIR LANDING AND WALKWAY AT REAR OF HOUSE. WALKWAY IS VISIBLE THROUGH KITCHEN WINDOWS. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  8. Sound transmission class (STC) is not a good predictor of performance of insulated wood frame gypsum walls used as interior partitions in most North American homes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfrey, Richard D.; Alter, Harry; Berdan, Clarke

    2005-09-01

    Home owners say that insulating interior walls improves the acoustic environment. Based on STC alone, no perceptible difference is expected. To define ``improved,'' ethnographic and laboratory studies were conducted. Ethnographic studies in 33 homes, revealed owners want quieter, less reverberant environments, including rooms where added isolation is desired. Families lives are 24/7, leading to frustration that they cannot use their homes without disturbing others. Laboratory jury studies were conducted where 35 listeners rated the relative isolation of insulated and uninsulated walls. Noise sources included broadband and real home noises. Insulated walls were perceived to perform better than uninsulated walls in all cases. Noise control engineers know that STC is only a quick screening tool (actual sound transmission loss should be used to estimate noise reduction between rooms). This is what the jurors appeared to sense. Jury ratings and the midfrequency average SPL correlated reasonably well. The STC is determined by a structural resonance near 125 Hz. Above this band, insulation has a significant impact on transmission loss (perceptible, 6 dB average). A new rating system is needed that quantifies what actual listeners hear in quiet room environments. A model using some form of room criteria is suggested.

  9. Variability in wood-frame building damage using broad-band synthetic ground motions: a comparative numerical study with recorded motions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pei, Shiling; van de Lindt, John W.; Hartzell, Stephen; Luco, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake damage to light-frame wood buildings is a major concern for North America because of the volume of this construction type. In order to estimate wood building damage using synthetic ground motions, we need to verify the ability of synthetically generated ground motions to simulate realistic damage for this structure type. Through a calibrated damage potential indicator, four different synthetic ground motion models are compared with the historically recorded ground motions at corresponding sites. We conclude that damage for sites farther from the fault (>20 km) is under-predicted on average and damage at closer sites is sometimes over-predicted.

  10. Tertiary structure of human {Lambda}6 light chains.

    SciTech Connect

    Pokkuluri, P. R.; Solomon, A.; Weiss, D. T.; Stevens, F. J.; Schiffer, M.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; Univ. of Tennessee Medical Center /Graduate School of Medicine

    1999-01-01

    AL amyloidosis is a disease process characterized by the pathologic deposition of monoclonal light chains in tissue. To date, only limited information has been obtained on the molecular features that render such light chains amyloidogenic. Although protein products of the major human V kappa and V lambda gene families have been identified in AL deposits, one particular subgroup--lambda 6--has been found to be preferentially associated with this disease. Notably, the variable region of lambda 6 proteins (V lambda 6) has distinctive primary structural features including the presence in the third framework region (FR3) of two additional amino acid residues that distinguish members of this subgroup from other types of light chains. However, the structural consequences of these alterations have not been elucidated. To determine if lambda 6 proteins possess unique tertiary structural features, as compared to light chains of other V lambda subgroups, we have obtained x-ray diffraction data on crystals prepared from two recombinant V lambda 6 molecules. These components, isolated from a bacterial expression system, were generated from lambda 6-related cDNAs cloned from bone marrow-derived plasma cells from a patient (Wil) who had documented AL amyloidosis and another (Jto) with multiple myeloma and tubular cast nephropathy, but no evident fibrillar deposits. The x-ray crystallographic analyses revealed that the two-residue insertion located between positions 68 and 69 (not between 66 and 67 as previously surmised) extended an existing loop region that effectively increased the surface area adjacent to the first complementarity determining region (CDR1). Further, an unusual interaction between the Arg 25 and Phe 2 residues commonly found in lambda 6 molecules was noted. However, the structures of V lambda 6 Wil and Jto also differed from each other, as evidenced by the presence in the latter of certain ionic and hydrophobic interactions that we posit increased protein stability and thus prevented amyloid formation.

  11. 30. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NO. 3 SHOWING SINGLE 1LIGHT OVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NO. 3 SHOWING SINGLE 1-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOW AT NORTHWEST ROOM CORNER. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 6, Cashbaugh-Kilpatrick House, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  12. 33. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NO. 4 SHOWING 1LIGHT OVER 1LIGHT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NO. 4 SHOWING 1-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOWS. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 6, Cashbaugh-Kilpatrick House, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  13. 22. INTERIOR OR BEDROOM NO. 1 SHOWING 1LIGHT OVER 1LIGHT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. INTERIOR OR BEDROOM NO. 1 SHOWING 1-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOW ON EAST WALL. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 6, Cashbaugh-Kilpatrick House, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  14. 2. BARN. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST. THE ROLLING DOOR PROBABLY REPLACES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. BARN. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST. THE ROLLING DOOR PROBABLY REPLACES AN ORIGINAL 4/4 DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOW. - Tonto Ranger Station, Barn, Forest Service Road 65 at Tonto Wash, Skull Valley, Yavapai County, AZ

  15. 13. Interior view, stairwell on third floor showing ornate jewels ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Interior view, stairwell on third floor showing ornate jewels and stained glass, double hung window with symmetrically molded trim and corner blocks - 535 Main Street (House), 535 Main Street, East Hartford, Hartford County, CT

  16. 4. Detail of the south side of the building showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Detail of the south side of the building showing the decorative-brick cornice, typical double-hung window, and chimneys. Credit GADA/MRM. - Stroud Building, 31-33 North Central Avenue, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  17. A Single Mutation at the Sheet Switch Region Results in Conformational Changes Favoring 6 Light-Chain Fibrillogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hernández-Santoyo, A.; Del Pozo Yauner, L; Fuentes-Silva, D; Ortiz, E; Rudiño-Piñera, E; Sánchez-López, R; Horjales, E; Becerril, B; Rodríguez-Romero, A

    2010-01-01

    Systemic amyloid light-chain (LC) amyloidosis is a disease process characterized by the pathological deposition of monoclonal LCs in tissue. All LC subtypes are capable of fibril formation although {lambda} chains, particularly those belonging to the {lambda}6 type, are overrepresented. Here, we report the thermodynamic and in vitro fibrillogenic properties of several mutants of the {lambda}6 protein 6aJL2 in which Pro7 and/or His8 was substituted by Ser or Pro. The H8P and H8S mutants were almost as stable as the wild-type protein and were poorly fibrillogenic. In contrast, the P7S mutation decreased the thermodynamic stability of 6aJL2 and greatly enhanced its capacity to form amyloid-like fibrils in vitro. The crystal structure of the P7S mutant showed that the substitution induced both local and long-distance effects, such as the rearrangement of the VL (variable region of the light chain)-VL interface. This mutant crystallized in two orthorhombic polymorphs, P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and C222{sub 1}. In the latter, a monomer that was not arranged in the typical Bence-Jones dimer was observed for the first time. Crystal-packing analysis of the C222{sub 1} lattice showed the establishment of intermolecular {beta}-{beta} interactions that involved the N-terminus and {beta}-strand B and that these could be relevant in the mechanism of LC fibril formation. Our results strongly suggest that Pro7 is a key residue in the conformation of the N-terminal sheet switch motif and, through long-distance interactions, is also critically involved in the contacts that stabilized the VL interface in {lambda}6 LCs.

  18. 15. INTERIOR OF NORTHWEST BEDROOM SHOWING OPEN DOORS TO ATTIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. INTERIOR OF NORTHWEST BEDROOM SHOWING OPEN DOORS TO ATTIC ACCESS AT PHOTO LEFT AND BATHROOM AT PHOTO CENTER. ORIGINAL 1-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE HUNG WINDOW AT PHOTO RIGHT. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  19. 12. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN/UTILITY AREA SHOWING ORIGINAL 1LIGHT OVER 1LIGHT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN/UTILITY AREA SHOWING ORIGINAL 1-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE HUNG WINDOW OVER SINK, AND BUILT-IN KITCHEN CABINETRY. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  20. 25. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN NO. 2 SHOWING BUILTIN CABINETS, 1LIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN NO. 2 SHOWING BUILT-IN CABINETS, 1-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOW, AND DOORWAY TO UTILITY ROOM. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 6, Cashbaugh-Kilpatrick House, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  1. 10. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING FRONT DOOR FLANKED BY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING FRONT DOOR FLANKED BY SLIDING GLASS WINDOWS AND ELECTRICAL WALL HEATER. ORIGINAL 1-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOW AT PHOTO RIGHT. CEILING VENT TO CHIMNEY AT RIGHT UPPER PHOTO CENTER. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  2. 18. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO UTILITY ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO UTILITY ROOM AND BUILT-IN CABINETRY AROUND SINK, ON EITHER SIDE OF 1-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT, DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOW, AND ABOVE MAJOR APPLIANCE AREA. VIEW TO WEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  3. 9. Typical 'furnished rooms' overlook the Washington Street alley. Each ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Typical 'furnished rooms' overlook the Washington Street alley. Each has two double-hung windows that are fitted with roller-shade brackets. The plaster was formulated with lime and is heavily laden with animal hair. Each room is provided with a stove-pipe connection. Credit GADA/MRM. - Stroud Building, 31-33 North Central Avenue, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  4. 17. BATHROOM INTERIOR SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO NORTH BEDROOM AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. BATHROOM INTERIOR SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO NORTH BEDROOM AT PHOTO RIGHT, PLUMBING FOR SINK IN CORNER AT PHOTO CENTER, AND 1 OVER 1 LIGHT DOUBLE-HUNG, WOODFRAME WINDOW AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Big Creek Town, Operator House, Orchard Avenue south of Huntington Lake Road, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  5. Women's Energy Tool Kit: Home Heating, Cooling and Weatherization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byalin, Joan

    This book is the first in a series of Energy Tool Kits designed for women by Consumer Action Now, a non-profit organization devoted to promoting energy efficiency and renewable energy resources. Information is provided in 16 sections: introduction, home energy survey; caulking; weatherstripping (double-hung and sliding windows, and casement,…

  6. Interior building details of Building C, Room C113: historic painted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building C, Room C-113: historic painted plaster lath partition wall, painted plaster east wall and four light over two light double-hung window; southerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  7. 5. EXTERIOR OF SOUTH END OF HOUSE SHOWING OPEN DOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EXTERIOR OF SOUTH END OF HOUSE SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO BASEMENT BELOW KITCHEN, ORIGINAL PAIRED WOODFRAMED SLIDING-GLASS WINDOWS ON KITCHEN WALL AND 1LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOW ON STORM PORCH ADDITION. VIEW TO WEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Clubhouse Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  8. Interior building details of Building B, Room B101: wood columns ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building B, Room B-101: wood columns and kickers, plywood baton partition wall, painted plaster west brick wall, four-over-four double-hung wood window; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  9. Interior building details of Building A, Room A002: plastered painted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building A, Room A-002: plastered painted west brick wall, four light double-hung wood window with brick arch lintel, east plastered wall (could be granite), wood ceiling; northerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  10. Measure Guideline. Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Zero Energy Ready House Flat Roofs

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, H.; Pettit, B.

    2015-05-29

    This Measure Guideline provides design and construction information for a deep energy enclosure retrofit solution of a flat roof assembly. It describes the strategies and procedures for an exterior retrofit of a flat wood-framed roof with brick masonry exterior walls using exterior and interior (framing cavity) insulation. The approach supported in this guide could also be adapted for use with flat wood-framed roofs with wood-framed exterior walls.

  11. Measure Guideline: Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Zero Energy Ready House Flat Roofs

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, H.; Pettit, B.

    2015-05-01

    This Measure Guideline provides design and construction information for a deep energy enclosure retrofit (DEER) solution of a flat roof assembly. It describes the strategies and procedures for an exterior retrofit of a flat, wood-framed roof with brick masonry exterior walls, using exterior and interior (framing cavity) insulation. The approach supported in this guide could also be adapted for use with flat, wood-framed roofs with wood-framed exterior walls.

  12. Exterior building details of Building A; west façade: white painted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building A; west façade: white painted brick wall of road and second level, road level: paired four-light casement window and a small single-light wood casement window; second level: four-over-four wood double-hung window and a six-light horizontal pivot over a three-light fixed window; easterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  13. 48. Interior detail, study, doublehung sash in the south wall. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Interior detail, study, double-hung sash in the south wall. Most of the windows in the John Bartram House were replaced sometime in the first decades of the nineteenth century. This window contains a slightly wider muntin profile than the later sash and is probably representative of the windows used in phase III construction (Mid-1750's-1770). - John Bartram House & Garden, House, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. 1. BARN. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST. EACH HORSE STALL HAS A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. BARN. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST. EACH HORSE STALL HAS A SMALL WINDOW. THE 4/4 DOUBLE-HUNG WINDOW IS IN THE STORE ROOM. THE ROLLING DOOR WAS WIDENED, PROBABLY IN 1926, ELIMINATING THE ORIGINAL LOFT LADDER AT THE CORNER OF THE BUILDING. THE PUBLIC RESTROOM NEAR THE LEFT EDGE OF THE VIEW DOES NOT RELATE TO THE RANGER STATION. - Tonto Ranger Station, Barn, Forest Service Road 65 at Tonto Wash, Skull Valley, Yavapai County, AZ

  15. Brownfields Samoa Peninsula, CA: Sustainable Solutions for Historic Houses in Northern California, A Voluntary Green Code & Green Rehabilitation Manual

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This manual was created to help homeowners choose sustainable strategies for restoring and rehabilitating many of the smaller, Victorian-style, wood-framed houses built in Northern California during the late 1800s and early 1900s.

  16. 5. VIEW OF SECOND ELEVATOR WITH WOODFRAME HEADHOUSE AND ASPHALTIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF SECOND ELEVATOR WITH WOOD-FRAME HEADHOUSE AND ASPHALTIC SIDING, LOOKING WEST. - Lockport DuPage Farmer's Elevator Company Grain Elevator, South of Romeoville Road, Lockport, Will County, IL

  17. 78 FR 48155 - Rock River Beach, Inc.; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing With the Commission; Intent To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... 18- foot by 24-foot wood-framed powerhouse housing a 3-kilowatt (kW) generating unit run by a water... identified through additional scoping. The EA will consider assessing the potential effects of...

  18. 17. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN SHOWING UPDATED CABINETS, SINK, AND FAUCET, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN SHOWING UPDATED CABINETS, SINK, AND FAUCET, AND ORIGINAL WOOD-FRAMED SLIDING GLASS WINDOWS ON SOUTH WALL OVER SINK. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  19. 16. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN SHOWING UPDATED CABINETS AND ORIGINAL WOODFRAMED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN SHOWING UPDATED CABINETS AND ORIGINAL WOOD-FRAMED SLIDING-GLASS WINDOWS OVER SINK. VIEW TO EAST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  20. 16. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN SHOWING UPDATED CABINETS AND COUNTER TOP, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN SHOWING UPDATED CABINETS AND COUNTER TOP, AND ORIGINAL WOOD-FRAMED SLIDING GLASS WINDOW IN NORTH WALL OVERLOOKING FRONT ENTRY. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  1. 8. DETAIL OF QUONSET HUT SHOWING BOARDWALK ON TUNDRA CONNECTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL OF QUONSET HUT SHOWING BOARDWALK ON TUNDRA CONNECTING QUONSET HUTS THAT DID NOT HAVE INTERCONNNECTING WOOD FRAME CORRIDORS - Fort Randall, Neuro-Psychiatric Ward, Northeast of intersection of California Boulevard & Nurse Drive, Cold Bay, Aleutian Islands, AK

  2. Detail view of redwood spline joinery of woodframe section against ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of redwood spline joinery of wood-frame section against adobe addition (measuring tape denotes plumb line from center of top board) - First Theatre in California, Southwest corner of Pacific & Scott Streets, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  3. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: StreetScape Development, LLC, Libertyville, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-01

    These single-family, HERS 45 homes incorporate 2×6 wood framed walls with R-20 open cell spray insulation and OSB. The builder, StreetScape Development, won a 2013 Housing Innovation Award in the custom builder category.

  4. Learning Through Play: Joslyn Multi-Service Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryder, Sharon Lee

    1974-01-01

    In an old, wood frame school building, a day care facility, based on a modular, movable, and highly flexible series of components, permits active use and almost constant change in a learning situation. (Author)

  5. 1. VIEW OF MECHANICAL ROOM CONSTRUCTED OF CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF MECHANICAL ROOM CONSTRUCTED OF CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS AND A WOOD FRAME ENLISTED MEN BARRACKS. - Nike Hercules Missile Battery Summit Site, Battery Control Administration & Barracks Building, Anchorage, Anchorage, AK

  6. 1. FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR OF BUILDING No. 3 DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR OF BUILDING No. 3 - DETAIL OF WOOD FRAMING TO SHOW WOOD COLUMNS, WOOD GIRDERS AND BEAMS WITH COLUMN CAPS - ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION - Whiting-Plover Paper Mill, Building No. 3, 3243 Whiting Road, Whiting, Portage County, WI

  7. 1. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, WOODFRAME TIPPLE AND CONVEYOR, NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, WOOD-FRAME TIPPLE AND CONVEYOR, NORTH SIDE OF RTE 869. - Allendale Coal Processing Plant, Tipple & Conveyor, South of State Route 869, Beaverdale, Cambria County, PA

  8. Cameron Station Remedial Investigation, Final Asbestos Survey Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    houses the installation’s clinic, is a wood frame structure built on pilings. The roof consists of asphalt shingles over roofing felt; the exterior... asphalt shingles over roofing felt. Heat is supplied by Building 21, the Boiler House, through underground steam pipes. Currently Building 25 houses the...8217C ootr oi - N £ .e BUILDING 34 34.1 DESCRIPTION Building 34 is a wood frame structure built on pilings. The roof is asphalt shingles over

  9. 15. The second story in the north segment of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. The second story in the north segment of the building was originally constructed as a restaurant. The north wall of the dining room retains the original wood wainscot and double-hung windows. At some undetermined time, a building was constructed on the adjacent property; blocking the windows in the dining room. Several chimneys with stove-pipe connections occur in the room. The members seen on the floor are part of a system recently installed to support the failing roof. Credit GADA/MRM. - Stroud Building, 31-33 North Central Avenue, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  10. Characterization of Asbestos Construction Products at Naval Shore Facilities.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    in building construction usually are a blend of 5% to 95% asbestos fibers combined with vermiculite, sand, mineral fibers , bentonite clay binders , or... roofing shingles , corrugated sheets, facings of acoustical products, laboratory table tops, electrical conduits, and laminated panels. Asbestos-cement...probably was never used in Navy construction. However, asbestos siding shingles have been used extensively on wood frame buildings. Asbestos roofing

  11. 10. VIEW EAST (93 DEGREES) OF RCA COMMUNICATION RECEIVING STATION. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW EAST (93 DEGREES) OF RCA COMMUNICATION RECEIVING STATION. WOOD FRAMING SUPPORTED STANDOFF INSULATORS AND ANTENNA WIRES COMING FROM THE FIELD INTO THE BUILDING. BOLT ON FOUNDATION POLES SUPPORTED SATELLITE ANTENNAS, METAL CAP AND POSTS AT LEFT PROTECTED CONDUIT SUPPLYING POWER TO SATELLITE ANTENNA MOTORS. - Marconi Radio Sites, Receiving, Point Reyes Station, Marin County, CA

  12. 14. INTERIOR OF ROOM 101 LOOKING NORTHWEST. SIX OVER SIX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR OF ROOM 101 LOOKING NORTHWEST. SIX OVER SIX LITE WOOD FRAME WINDOWS ARE CENTERED ON NORTHEAST AND NORTHWEST WALLS. ADDED TREATMENT TO WALLS IS A GYPSUM BOARD FINISH WITH WOOD TRIM, BOTH PAINTED. ADDED FLOOR TREATMENT IS VINYL COMPOSITION TILE. - Presidio of San Francisco, Cavalry Stables, Cowles Street, between Lincoln Boulevard & McDowell Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  13. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHEAST SIDE AND NORTHWEST END, SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHEAST SIDE AND NORTHWEST END, SHOWING THE WOOD-FRAMED WING (IN BACKGROUND) AND THE PROJECTING ENTRY FOYER. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, First Aid & Decontamination Building, Wasp Boulevard near Ranger Loop, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. 15. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN SHOWING UPDATED CABINETS, OUNTER TOP, SINK, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN SHOWING UPDATED CABINETS, OUNTER TOP, SINK, AND FAUCET, AND ORIGINAL WOOD FRAMED SLIDING-GLASS WINDOW IN NORTH WALL OVERLOOKING FRONT PORCH. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  15. 4. EXTERIOR OF SOUTH END OF BUILDING 104 SHOWING 1LIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EXTERIOR OF SOUTH END OF BUILDING 104 SHOWING 1-LIGHT SIDE EXIT DOOR AND ORIGINAL WOOD-FRAMED SLIDING GLASS KITCHEN WINDOWS AT PHOTO CENTER, AND TALL RUSTIC STYLE CHIMNEY WITH GABLE FRAME ON BACK WALL OF HOUSE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  16. Builders Challenge High Performance Builder Spotlight: David Weekley Homes, Houston, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-22

    Building America Builders Challenge fact sheet on David Weekley Homes of Houston, Texas. The builder plans homes as a "system," with features such as wood-framed walls that are air-sealed then insulated with R-13 unfaced fiberglass batts plus an external covering of R-2 polyisocyanurate rigid foam sheathing.

  17. Projecting north wing on left, older part of building center, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Projecting north wing on left, older part of building center, and separate wood frame building at extreme right - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Booster Pump Station, End of West Bushnell Avenue, 250 feet West of intersection of West Bushnell Avenue & South First Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  18. 7 CFR 1924.5 - Planning development work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... construction and additions shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the earthquake (seismic... earthquake (seismic) requirements. (ii) Single family conventional light wood frame dwellings of two stories... and constructed in accordance with the earthquake (seismic) requirements of one of the building...

  19. 7 CFR 1924.5 - Planning development work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... construction and additions shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the earthquake (seismic... earthquake (seismic) requirements. (ii) Single family conventional light wood frame dwellings of two stories... and constructed in accordance with the earthquake (seismic) requirements of one of the building...

  20. 7 CFR 1924.5 - Planning development work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... construction and additions shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the earthquake (seismic... earthquake (seismic) requirements. (ii) Single family conventional light wood frame dwellings of two stories... and constructed in accordance with the earthquake (seismic) requirements of one of the building...

  1. Development of Novel Decontamination Techniques for Explosive Contaminated Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    underground storage tanks , wastewater/ sludge sumps ventilation ducts, conduits and related explosive/munition production. The decontamination involves the removal of explosives from exposed surfaces of the materials as well as explosives that have penetrated porous media, cracks, and expansion joints. Site inspections have been performed and the contaminated structures include a wide range of concrete and wood frame

  2. 29 CFR 1910.103 - Hydrogen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...,000 CF to 15,000 CF In excess of 15,000 CF 1. Building or structure Wood frame construction 1 10 25 50... in such a manner as to prevent any impingement of escaping gas upon the container, adjacent structure... inclusive do not apply where protective structures such as adequate fire walls are located between...

  3. 29 CFR 1910.103 - Hydrogen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...,000 CF to 15,000 CF In excess of 15,000 CF 1. Building or structure Wood frame construction 1 10 25 50... in such a manner as to prevent any impingement of escaping gas upon the container, adjacent structure... inclusive do not apply where protective structures such as adequate fire walls are located between...

  4. Measure Guideline: Three High Performance Mineral Fiber Insulation Board Retrofit Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, Ken

    2015-01-01

    This Measure Guideline describes a high performance enclosure retrofit package that uses mineral fiber insulation board. The Measure Guideline describes retrofit assembly and details for wood frame roof and walls and for cast concrete foundations. This Measure Guideline is intended to serve contractors and designers seeking guidance for non-foam exterior insulation retrofit.

  5. Measure Guideline: Three High Performance Mineral Fiber Insulation Board Retrofit Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, K.

    2015-01-01

    This Measure Guideline describes a high performance enclosure retrofit package that uses mineral fiber insulation board, and is intended to serve contractors and designers seeking guidance for non-foam exterior insulation retrofit processes. The guideline describes retrofit assembly and details for wood frame roof and walls and for cast concrete foundations.

  6. 72. View of tunnel intake building, looking southwest. The winches ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. View of tunnel intake building, looking southwest. The winches for the trash racks, sheltered by a wood-frame structure with a gable roof, are to the left. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  7. 5. Log calving barn (center), loafing shed (right of center), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Log calving barn (center), loafing shed (right of center), and wood-frame garage (far right). View to southwest. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  8. 76 FR 77388 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... reportedly deposited as berm material surrounding the lagoons. The inability to economically treat.... The SI also found asbestos-covered pipes throughout the main former tannery building and determined... conducted an asbestos removal pursuant to CERCLA and demolished the wood frame sections of the...

  9. 10. Photocopy of c. 1912 photograph looking N showing original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of c. 1912 photograph looking N showing original c. 1845 brick mill with c. 1897 3-story, wood-frame addition at end; cane shed extends out to the left. - Laurel Valley Sugar Plantation, Sugar Mill, 2 miles South of Thibodaux on State Route 308, Thibodaux, Lafourche Parish, LA

  10. 1. PEAVEY GLOVE ELEVATOR, SUPERIOR, WI 1887; WORKHOUSE (NO. 1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PEAVEY GLOVE ELEVATOR, SUPERIOR, WI 1887; WORKHOUSE (NO. 1 HOUSE) WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTION. VIEW FROM NORTHERN PACIFIC TRAIN BED, LOOKING APPROXIMATELY SOUTHEAST; NO. 2 HOUSE IN CENTER; NO. 3 HOUSE ON EXTREME RIGHT. - Peavey Globe Elevator, No. 1 House, West Gate Basin & Howard's Bay, east side of slip, Superior, Douglas County, WI

  11. 50. The apartment building on the left (164166 West Granite) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. The apartment building on the left (164-166 West Granite) was built about 1885-1886, and was used as a combination of residence and rooming house. It is one of the few remaining wood-frame structures dating from the beginning of Butte's economic and building development. Modifications, both interior and exterior, have been minimal, and the historic integrity of the structure has been retained. The Courthouse Grocery on the right (ca. 1887), is another early wood-frame building, and was also originally used as a residence and rooming house. It was modified in the early 20th century to accomodate commercial use on the ground floor, but the historic fabric of the structure is largely intact. - Butte Historic District, Bounded by Copper, Arizona, Mercury & Continental Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  12. Greenbelt Homes Pilot Energy Efficiency Program Phase 1 Summary. Existing Conditions and Baseline Energy Use

    SciTech Connect

    Wiehagen, J.; Del Bianco, M.; Wood, A.

    2013-02-01

    A multi-year pilot energy efficiency retrofit project has been undertaken by Greenbelt Homes, Inc, (GHI) a 1,566 co-operative of circa 1930 and '40 homes. The three predominate construction methods of the townhomes in the community are materials common to the area and climate zone including 8” CMU block, wood frame with brick veneer and wood frame with vinyl siding. GHI has established a pilot project that will serve as a basis for decision making for the roll out of a decade-long community upgrade program that will incorporate energy efficiency to the building envelope and equipment with the modernization of other systems like plumbing, mechanical equipment, and cladding.

  13. Greenbelt Homes Pilot Energy Efficiency Program Phase 1 Summary: Existing Conditions and Baseline Energy Use

    SciTech Connect

    Wiehagen, J.; Del Bianco, M.; Wood, A.

    2013-02-01

    A multi-year pilot energy efficiency retrofit project has been undertaken by Greenbelt Homes, Inc, (GHI) a 1,566 co-operative of circa 1930 and '40 homes. The three predominate construction methods of the townhomes in the community are materials common to the area and climate zone including 8" CMU block, wood frame with brick veneer and wood frame with vinyl siding. GHI has established a pilot project that will serve as a basis for decision making for the roll out of a decade-long community upgrade program that will incorporate energy efficiency to the building envelope and equipment with the modernization of other systems like plumbing, mechanical equipment, and cladding.

  14. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph located in National Park Service, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original photograph located in National Park Service, U.S.S. Arizona Memorial, 14th Naval District Photograph Collection), 14th ND PHOG no. PH 00-46. U.S. Navy photograph, 1946. FACILITY 250 AT MAKALAPA WITH ADDED WOOD-FRAMED STORIES. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Headquarters, Commander-in-Chief of the Pacific Fleet, Intersection of Halawa & Makalapa Drives, Makalapa Administration Area, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. 4. EXTERIOR OF SOUTH END OF BUILDING 103 SHOWING 1LIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EXTERIOR OF SOUTH END OF BUILDING 103 SHOWING 1-LIGHT SIDE EXIT DOOR AND ORIGINAL WOOD-FRAMED SLIDING GLASS KITCHEN WINDOWS AT PHOTO LEFT, CRISS-CROSS WOOD BALUSTRADE AROUND FRONT PORCH WITH OPEN DOOWAY TO BASEMENT BENEATH, AND STONE FACING ALONG ORIGINAL PORTION OF HOUSE FRONT AT PHOTO RIGHT. VIEW TO WEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  16. T2 Laboratories Explosion Damage Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    north-east of the reactor vessel. The control room was constructed with concrete masonry unit (CMU) walls and a precast hollow core roof. The...include damaged buildings, deformed structural members (beams, columns, wall panels, etc.) and broken windows both at the explosion scene and at... wall with brick veneer at north elevation. 201B PBM Construction 3000 Faye Rd 1-Story wood frame structure with metal wall panels. Wood roof

  17. Camp Upshur, Marine Corps Base Quantico, VA Architectural Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    British. The Nissen was a prefabricated structure identi- fied by its unique semi- cylindrical roof of galvanized corrugated sheet metal attached to...additions con- sist of wood frame construction with metal roofs . The fenestration pattern ERDC/CERL SR-09-11 46 has also been severely altered...majority of the original construction materials are intact. The original metal siding and roof , six-pane metal awning windows, and large metal sliding

  18. Evaluation of Potential Damage to Unconventional Structures by Sonic Booms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    plaster and gypsum board caused by sonic boom is broken...on wood lath 3.3 5.6 2. Plaster on gyplath 7.5 16 3. Plaster on expanded metal lath 16 16 4. Plaster on concrete block 16 16 5. Gypsum board (new) 16... wallboard (also called plasterboard or drywall), it is assumed that interior walls of unconventional historic wood frame buildings used plaster instead.

  19. Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials. Volume 6. Aircraft. Civil and Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    EFFECT ANALYSIS) ■ thermoplastics, wiring insulation , wood frames for the vertical and ceiling panels, and neoprene/nylon vapor barrier covering the...materials, and the wiring insulation prevented access for fire control. In the forward (first class) cabin, damage was far less severe. The contribution...of insulation , or breaking of the wire . Insulation of the wire should be selected with regard to fire retardance and the products of combustion of

  20. Indigenous Construction Materials for Theater Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    protection over thinner walls (i.e., wood frame construction). A building’s resistance to weapons attack is another safety factor. Fire resistance is...the steel and good paint maintenance (Roye 1996). K-span buildings do not provide much force protection , particularly against ballistic weapons...fire- resistant and provides force protection against ballistics and blasts. Issues related to shotcrete construction in foreign countries include

  1. 1. General view, looking northeast, of the headworks showing crib ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view, looking northeast, of the headworks showing crib dam, stoney gates, one-story concrete-constructed headgate house, wood-frame gable-roofed utility building, tramway crossing the river to service the dam, and the headgate operator's cottage on the hill above the headworks. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  2. 16. View, looking west, of fish ladder and steel frame ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. View, looking west, of fish ladder and steel frame supporting fish trap, both constructed by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1949. One-story wood-frame building with hip roof is a utility shed used for fish-trap operation. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  3. DETAIL OF THE PROMENADE SHOWING (FROM RIGHT TO LEFT) THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF THE PROMENADE SHOWING (FROM RIGHT TO LEFT) THE STAIRWAY TO BASEMENT, A WOOD FRAMED POSTER CASE, DOORWAYS TO THE FOYER, AND SMALL RAISED CONCRETE SLAB FOR THE FORMER TICKET BOOTH. IN THE BACKGROUND ARE THE CAST CONCRETE LOUVERS OF THE OFFICE. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Theater, Hornet Avenue between Enterprise & Pokomoke Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF MILL WORKER HOUSE AT 107 GREEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF MILL WORKER HOUSE AT 107 GREEN STREET HOUSE IS A WOOD-FRAME DUPLEX WITH A PYRAMIDAL ROOF, KITCHEN ELL IN REAR, AND A PORCH EXTENDING FROM THE FRONT. NOTE 105 GREEN STREET TO RIGHT. THESE DWELLINGS WERE CONSTRUCTED BY HOGANSVILLE MANUFACTURING COMPANY c. 1900. THE MILL WAS LOCATED ON THE OTHER SIDE OF GREEN STREET UNTIL IT WAS DEMOLISHED IN THE 1970S. CURRENTLY THE SITE IS AN EMPTY LOT SURROUNDED BY A FENCE. - 107 Green Street (House), 107 Green Street, Hogansville, Troup County, GA

  5. Reliability of residential basements and blast shelters

    SciTech Connect

    Longinow, A.; Mohammadi, J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes an analysis method for predicting the probability of failure of a wood-framed basement when subjected to a static, uniformly distributed load. The analysis considers the primary failure modes of each framing member and determines the probability of failure for each mode acting alone. The failure probability of the system as a whole is then bounded. The upper bound is determined on the assumption that the failure modes are independent, while the lower bound is determined on the assumption that the failure modes are perfectly correlated. The analysis is described with reference to an example problem.

  6. 10. LIVING ROOM INTERIOR SHOWING 1 OVER 1 LIGHT, DOUBLEHUNG, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. LIVING ROOM INTERIOR SHOWING 1 OVER 1 LIGHT, DOUBLEHUNG, WOOD-FRAME WINDOWS FLANKING FRONT ENTRANCE DOOR AND SOUTH END DOOR TO ENCLOSED SLEEPING PORCH/STAIR ACCESS TO ATTIC. CEILING AND WALLS IN THIS ROOM AND THROUGHOUT THE HOUSE ARE COVERED WITH ORIGINAL FIBERBOARD. THE FLOOR IN THIS ROOM AND ALL OTHERS EXCEPT THE BATHROOM, KITCHEN AND DINING ROOM ARE HARDWOOD. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Big Creek Town, Operator House, Orchard Avenue south of Huntington Lake Road, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  7. Closeup view, looking toward project south at the north elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view, looking toward project south at the north elevation of the tower, and featuring the single-story, wood-frame addition to the east side of the tower. The addition covered the stone-lined, gravity-fed water cistern, and contained a pump (now removed) that lifted water from the cistern into the water tank for use by trains. - East Broad Top Railroad & Company, Water Tank at Coles Station, East Broad Top Railroad & Company (at Milepost 24.3), 0.5 miles east of Coles Valley Road, Saltillo, Huntingdon County, PA

  8. Closeup view, looking toward project north at the south elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view, looking toward project north at the south elevation of the tower, and featuring the single-story, wood-frame addition to the east side of the tower. The addition covered the stone-lined, gravity-fed water cistern, and contained a pump (now removed) that lifted water from the cistern into the water tank for use by trains. - East Broad Top Railroad & Company, Water Tank at Coles Station, East Broad Top Railroad & Company (at Milepost 24.3), 0.5 miles east of Coles Valley Road, Saltillo, Huntingdon County, PA

  9. Solar heating system at Quitman County Bank, Marks, Mississippi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Information on the Solar Energy Heating System installed in a single story wood frame, cedar exterior, sloped roof building is presented. The system has on-site temperature and power measurements readouts. The 468 square feet of Solaron air flat plate collectors provide for 2,000 square feet of space heating, an estimated 60 percent of the heating load. Solar heated air is distributed to the 235 cubic foot rock storage box or to the load (space heating) by a 960 cubic feet per minute air handler unit. A 7.5 ton Carrier air-to-air heat pump with 15 kilowatts of electric booster strips serve as a back-up (auxiliary) to the solar system. Motorized dampers control the direction of airflow and back draft dampers prevent thermal siphoning of conditioned air.

  10. Relative effectiveness of structures as protection from gamma radiation from cloud and fallout sources as a function of source energy. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fingerlos, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Point kernel models were developed for both fallout and cloud sources. That development included a method of accurately combining buildup factors in multi-region problems over wide ranges of energy and photon mean free path, and a method for calculating the effect of ground roughness on the attenuation factor for fallout sources. The results were reported for six spectra as well as discrete energies from 15 keV to 15 MeV. The structures used as examples include small wood frame and large brick houses. The results show that the protection provided by houses for the PWR-2 event is approximately equal to that for the 1-hr weapon fallout. However there are significant differences for other spectra, such as that from Three Mile Island. The effects of varying building size are reported as well as the relative importance of both cloud and fallout sources that infiltrate structures. A listing of computer program CLOUD is provided.

  11. Monte Carlo Population Defense Model: Initial Results.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    wood, concrete flat plate, or band beam support. D Basements of wood frame and brick veneer structures including residences. E First three stories of...975: OETu4 !Z,,,3: FRCC *P~1y 97.: FFACF:7RCSvtIF0P(13,Kh#FRFOP(1gK) ,NRAOZ,~O.,M 977: DETIE1O,Kl=(FFQCF-FCC.PWliX 979: FAYOI 1O,t,):f...FRCVI (ZzI8.PCIZI ________ NJ1?2: FqCrti)rQUAN*rLRIlE.-QUAI*FER2 10737 F;.CE I U I*FWCFR J l07.,: QUAN:FRCPOP IEFC7~t~ FRCC ,FRCFAT I Uj~.- FCEl tZI:i

  12. Using safety inspection data to estimate shaking intensity for the 1994 Northridge earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thywissen, K.; Boatwright, J.

    1998-01-01

    We map the shaking intensity suffered in Los Angeles County during the 17 January 1994, Northridge earthquake using municipal safety inspection data. The intensity is estimated from the number of buildings given red, yellow, or green tags, aggregated by census tract. Census tracts contain from 200 to 4000 residential buildings and have an average area of 6 km2 but are as small as 2 and 1 km2 in the most densely populated areas of the San Fernando Valley and downtown Los Angeles, respectively. In comparison, the zip code areas on which standard MMI intensity estimates are based are six times larger, on average, than the census tracts. We group the buildings by age (before and after 1940 and 1976), by number of housing units (one, two to four, and five or more), and by construction type, and we normalize the tags by the total number of similar buildings in each census tract. We analyze the seven most abundant building categories. The fragilities (the fraction of buildings in each category tagged within each intensity level) for these seven building categories are adjusted so that the intensity estimates agree. We calibrate the shaking intensity to correspond with the modified Mercalli intensities (MMI) estimated and compiled by Dewey et al. (1995); the shapes of the resulting isoseismals are similar, although we underestimate the extent of the MMI = 6 and 7 areas. The fragility varies significantly between different building categories (by factors of 10 to 20) and building ages (by factors of 2 to 6). The post-1940 wood-frame multi-family (???5 units) dwellings make up the most fragile building category, and the post-1940 wood-frame single-family dwellings make up the most resistant building category.

  13. Hygrothermal Properties of Cross Laminated Timber and Moisture Response of Wood at High Relative Humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlSayegh, George

    Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) is a new wood-based material composed of cross laminated wood boards that form a structural panel. This study focuses on identifying the appropriate methods to determine the hygrothermal properties of CLTs fabricated with Canadian and European Lumber. The laboratory tests carried out in this study will help establish heat, air and moisture response properties to be used for hygrothermal simulation to assess the durability of CLTs in building envelope construction. Measurement of water vapour permeability, liquid water absorption, sorption isotherms, thermal conductivity, and air permeability were performed on three Canadian CLT specimens composed of Hem-Fir, Eastern Spruce-Pine-Fir, and Western Spruce-Pine-Fir and one European specimen composed of Spruce. The hygrothermal properties of CLT, considered in this study, appear to be similar to commonly used wood specimens reported in the literature. However, liquid water absorption coefficients of CLT were found to be generally lower than common wood species, possibly due to the presence of glue between the wood layers which limits the moisture movement across the specimen. On the other hand, the air permeability across the CLT specimens varied due to the glue discontinuity within the specimen which led some CLTs to be permeable, however all the European specimens were found to be impermeable. This study also critically analyzed the significance of equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of wood at high relative humidity, measured by means of a pressure plate apparatus and humidity chambers, on the moisture management performance of a wood-frame stucco wall, using the hygrothermal simulation tool hygIRC-2D. The simulation results indicate that the prediction of the moisture response of a wood-frame stucco wall assembly depends significantly on the method adopted to derive the EMC of wood at high RH.

  14. Damage and Shaking Intensity in the M5.7 Canyondam Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boatwright, J.; Chapman, K.; Gold, M. B.; Hardebeck, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    An M5.7 earthquake occurred southeast of Lake Almanor, CA, at 8:47 PM on May 23, 2013. Double-difference relocations of the main shock and aftershocks indicate that the earthquake nucleated at 11 km depth and ruptured up dip on a fault striking 292° and dipping 70° to the northeast. The earthquake cracked foundations, broke chimneys, and ruptured plumbing around Lake Almanor. We canvassed communities around the lake and to the south and east for earthquake damage, adding reports from our interviews to the geocoded 'Did You Feel It?' reports and to a set of damage reports collected by the Plumas County Office of Emergency Services. Three communities suffered significant damage. In Lake Almanor West, 14 km and 290° from the hypocenter, one wood-frame house was shifted on its foundation, the cripple wall of another house was racked, and water and gas pipes in five houses were ruptured. This damage indicates the shaking approached MMI 8. In Lake Almanor Country Club, 10 km and 310° from the hypocenter, more than 40 chimneys were cracked, broken, or collapsed, a coupling for the municipal water tank was ruptured, and a 200-foot long fissure opened on a slope facing the lake. This damage indicates shaking between MMI 7 and MMI 8, consistent with the accelerograph recording of PGA = 38% g and PGV = 30 cm/s at the Fire Station in Lake Almanor Country Club. This CSMIP station and a PG&E station on the crest of the Butt Valley Dam obtained the only recordings within 50 km of the epicenter. In Hamilton Branch, 10 km and 345° from the hypocenter, a foundation of a wood-frame house was damaged, and 14 chimneys and a water pipe were broken, indicative of MMI 7 shaking. All three communities are underlain by Tertiary and Quaternary basalts. The communities of Chester, Westwood, and Greenville were less damaged, suffering cracked drywall, broken windows, and objects thrown from shelves. The intensities in the three most strongly damaged communities increase as the azimuth

  15. 8. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO KITCHEN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO KITCHEN, 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOWS ON FRONT WALL AT PHOTO LEFT, AND 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON BACK WALL AT EXTREME PHOTO RIGHT. VIEW TO EAST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  16. Assessment of seismic loss dependence using copula.

    PubMed

    Goda, Katsuichiro; Ren, Jiandong

    2010-07-01

    The catastrophic nature of seismic risk is attributed to spatiotemporal correlation of seismic losses of buildings and infrastructure. For seismic risk management, such correlated seismic effects must be adequately taken into account, since they affect the probability distribution of aggregate seismic losses of spatially distributed structures significantly, and its upper tail behavior can be of particular importance. To investigate seismic loss dependence for two closely located portfolios of buildings, simulated seismic loss samples, which are obtained from a seismic risk model of spatially distributed buildings by taking spatiotemporally correlated ground motions into account, are employed. The characterization considers a loss frequency model that incorporates one dependent random component acting as a common shock to all buildings, and a copula-based loss severity model, which facilitates the separate construction of marginal loss distribution functions and nonlinear copula function with upper tail dependence. The proposed method is applied to groups of wood-frame buildings located in southwestern British Columbia. Analysis results indicate that the dependence structure of aggregate seismic losses can be adequately modeled by the right heavy tail copula or Gumbel copula, and that for the considered example, overall accuracy of the proposed method is satisfactory at probability levels of practical interest (at most 10% estimation error of fractiles of aggregate seismic loss). The developed statistical seismic loss model may be adopted in dynamic financial analysis for achieving faster evaluation with reasonable accuracy.

  17. Effect of wall mass on the peak sensible heating and cooling loads of a single-family residence

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, D.M.; Walton, G.N.; Licitra, B.A.; Cavanaugh, K.; Klein, M.D.

    1986-10-01

    The effect of wall mass on the peak sensible heating and cooling loads of a single-family residence was investigated using a sophisticated computer program called the Thermal Analysis Research Program (TARP). The computer simulation accuracy was verified by comparing its predicted sensible heating and cooling loads to measured values for six test buildings each having different wall constructions at the National Bureau of Standards. Good agreement was obtained for the load comparisons. The computer program subsequently was used to simulate the performance of identical houses each having the following three insulated-wall constructions: wood frame, conventional masonry (outside wall mass), and innovative masonry (inside wall mass). When the house was operated with fixed thermostat settings, the effect of wall mass on the peak sensible heating and cooling loads was found to be less than 11% for the climatic regions analyzed. Operating the typical house with a 10/sup 0/F (5.6/sup 0/C) night temperature setback during an 8-hour night period caused the daily peak sensible heating loads to be approximately twice those without setback.

  18. Satellite sound broadcast propagation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, Wolfhard J.; Torrence, Geoffrey W.

    1991-01-01

    Power transmitted from atop a 17.9 m tower in simulation of a satellite signal, emitted by a tone generator sweeping from 700 to 1800 MHz, was received using a 90 deg beamwidth linearly scanning antenna at many locations inside six buildings of solid brick, corrugated sheet-metal, wood-frame, mobile home, and concrete wall construction. The signal levels are found to have much structure in the spatial and frequency domain but were relatively stable in time. Typically, people moving nearby produced less than 0.5 dB variations, whereas a person blocking the transmission path produces 6 to 10 dB fades. Losses, which at an average position in a room increased from 6 to 12 dB over 750 to 1750 MHz, could be mitigated to 2 to 6 dB by moving the antenna typically less than 30 cm. Severe losses (17.5 dB, mitigated to 12.5 dB) were observed in a concrete wall building, which also exhibited the longest multipath delays (greater than 100 ns). Losses inside a mobile home were even larger (greater than 20 dB) and independent of antenna orientation. The losses showed a clear frequency dependence.

  19. Lightning dock geothermal space heating project, Lightning Dock KGRA, New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McCants, T.W.

    1980-12-01

    The proposed project was to take the existing geothermal greenhouse and home heating systems, which consisted of pumping geothermal water and steam through passive steam heaters, and convert the systems to one using modern heat exchange units. It was proposed to complete the existing unfinished, re-inforced glass side wall, wood framed structure, as a nursery lath house, the purpose of which would be to use geothermal water in implementing university concepts on the advantages of bottom heat to establish hardy root systems in nursery and bedding plants. The use of this framework was abandoned in favor of erecting new structures for the proposed purpose. The final project of the proposal was the establishment of a drip irrigation system, to an area just west of the existing greenhouse and within feet of the geothermal well. Through this drip irrigation system geothermal water would be pumped, to prevent killing spring frosts. The purpose of this area of the proposal is to increase the potential use of existing geothermal waters of the Lightning Dock KGRA, in opening a new geothermal agri-industry which is economically feasible for the area and would be extremely energy efficient.

  20. Some real-world applications of wireless sensor nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, Steven D.

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents two case histories of the use of wireless sensor Mote technologies. These are devices that incorporate communications, processing, sensors, sensor fusion, and power source into a package currently about two cubic inches in size -- networked autonomous sensor nodes. The first case discussed is the November, 2001, instrumentation of a blast-induced liquefaction test in Tokachi Port, Japan. The second case discussed is the dense-pak instrumentation of the seismic shaking test of a full-scale wood-frame building on the UCB Richmond shake table. The utility of dense instumentation is shown, and how it allows location of damage globally unseen. A methodology of interpreting structural seismic respose by Bayesian updating and extended Kalman filtering is presented. It is shown that dense, inexpensive instrumentation is needed to identify structural damage and prognosticate future behavior. The case studies show that the current families of Motes are very useful, but the hardware still has difficulties in terms of reliability and consistancy. It is apparent that the TinyOS is a wonderful tool for computer science education but is not an industrual quality instrumentation system. These are, of course, growing pains of the first incarnations of the Berkeley Smart Dust ideal. We expect the dream of easy to use, inexpensive, smart, wireless, sensor networks to become a reality in the next couple of years.

  1. Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of wood-framed walls and mass masonry wall assemblies. The location of the insulation on the exterior of the structure has many direct benefits, including better effective R-value from reduced thermal bridging, better condensation resistance, reduced thermal stress on the structure, as well as other commonly associated improvements such as increased airtightness and improved water management. For thick layers of exterior insulation (more than 1.5 in.), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location. Although the approach has proven effective, there is significant resistance to its widespread implementation due to a lack of research and understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of the vertical displacement resistance capacity. In addition, the long-term in-service performance of the system has been questioned due to potential creep effects of the assembly under the sustained dead load of the cladding and effects of varying environmental conditions. In addition, the current International Building Code (IBC) and International Residential Code (IRC) do not have a provision that specifically allows this assembly.

  2. Relative effectiveness of structures as protection from gamma radiation from cloud and fallout sources as a function of source energy

    SciTech Connect

    Fingerlos, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    In the event of a release of radioactive material, it is necessary to know the doses the public could receive in order to make decisions that minimize the public's risk. In order to determine what doses the public might receive if they try to evacuate or seek shelter, it is necessary to know how much protection structures such as homes and vehicles provide. This information is well known only for a few gamma ray spectra, such as that from weapon fallout. The research reported here transfers the knowledge gained from the previous weapon-fallout shielding work to realistic protection factors for possible accidental releases whatever the released spectrum might be. Point kernel models were developed for both the fallout and cloud sources. That development included a method of accurately combining buildup factors in multi-region problems over wide ranges of energy and photon mean free path. A generalized method for calculating the effect of ground roughness on the attentuation factor for fallout sources was also developed. The results were reported for the 1-hr weapon fallout, and TMI-2 cloud and fallout spectra, as well as for discrete energies from 15 KeV to 15 MeV. The structures given as examples include small wood frame and large brick houses.

  3. Solar heating system at Quitman County Bank, Marks, Mississippi. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    Information is provided on the solar heating system installed in a single story wood frame, cedar exterior, sloped roof building, the Quitman County Bank, a branch of the First National Bank of Clarksdale, Mississippi. It is the first solar system in the geographical area and has promoted much interest. The system has on-site temperature and power measurements readouts. The 468 square feet of Solaron air flat plate collectors provide for 2000 square feet of space heating, an estimated 60% of the heating load. Solar heated air is distributed to the 235 cubic foot rock storage box or to the load (space heating) by a 960 cubic feet per minute air handler unit. A 7.5 ton Carrier air-to-air heat pump with 15 kilowatts of electric booster strips serve as a back-up (auxiliary) to the solar system. Motorized dampers control the direction of airflow and back draft dampers prevent thermal siphoning of conditioned air. The system was turned on in September 1979, and acceptance testing completed in February 1980. This is a Pon Cycle 3 Project with the Government sharing $13,445.00 of the $24,921 Solar Energy System installation cost.

  4. Technology Solutions Case Study: Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of wood-framed walls and mass masonry wall assemblies. Insulation on the exterior of the structure has many direct benefits, including better effective R-value from reduced thermal bridging, better condensation resistance, reduced thermal stress on the structure, as well as other commonly associated improvements such as increased airtightness and improved water management. Although the approach has proven effective, there is resistance to its widespread implementation due to a lack of research and understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of the vertical displacement resistance capacity. In addition, the long-term in-service performance of the system has been questioned due to potential creep effects of the assembly under the sustained dead load of the cladding and effects of varying environmental conditions. In addition, the current International Building Code (IBC) and International Residential Code (IRC) do not have a provision that specifically allows this assembly. In this project, researchers from Building Science Corporation, a Building America team, investigated these issues to better understand the mechanics behind this method of cladding attachment

  5. Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, P.; Eng, P.; Lepage, R.

    2014-01-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location (Straube and Smegal 2009, Pettit 2009, Joyce 2009, Ueno 2010). The research presented in this report is intended to help develop a better understanding of the system mechanics involved and the potential for environmental exposure induced movement between the furring strip and the framing. BSC sought to address the following research questions: 1. What are the relative roles of the mechanisms and the magnitudes of the force that influence the vertical displacement resistance of the system? 2. Can the capacity at a specified deflection be reliably calculated using mechanics based equations? 3. What are the impacts of environmental exposure on the vertical displacement of furring strips attached directly through insulation back to a wood structure?

  6. Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, P.; Eng, P.; Lepage, R.

    2014-01-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location (Straube and Smegal 2009, Pettit 2009, Joyce 2009, Ueno 2010). The research presented in this report is intended to help develop a better understanding of the system mechanics involved and the potential for environmental exposure induced movement between the furring strip and the framing. BSC sought to address the following research questions: 1.What are the relative roles of the mechanisms and the magnitudes of the force that influence the vertical displacement resistance of the system? 2.Can the capacity at a specified deflection be reliably calculated using mechanics based equations? 3.What are the impacts of environmental exposure on the vertical displacement of furring strips attached directly through insulation back to a wood structure?

  7. The history of aggregate development in the denver, Co area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    At the start of the 20th century Denver's population was 203,795. Most streets were unpaved. Buildings were constructed of wood frame or masonry. Transport was by horse-drawn-wagon or rail. Statewide, aggregate consumption was less than 0.25 metric tons per person per year. One hundred years later Denver had a population of 2,365,345. Today Denver is a major metropolitan area at the crossroads of two interstates, home to a new international airport, and in the process of expanding its light rail transit system. The skyline is punctuated with skyscrapers. The urban center is surrounded with edge cities. These changes required huge amounts of aggregate. Statewide, aggregate consumption increased 50 fold to over 13 metric tons per person per year. Denver has a large potential supply of aggregate, but sand and gravel quality decreases downstream from the mountain front and potential sources of crushed stone occur in areas prized for their scenic beauty. These issues, along with urban encroachment and citizen opposition, have complicated aggregate development and have paved a new path for future aggregate development including sustainable resource management and reclamation techniques.

  8. Prescriptive method for insulating concrete forms in residential construction

    SciTech Connect

    Vrankar, A.; Elhajj, N.

    1998-05-01

    Characterized as strong, durable, and energy-efficient, a new wall system for housing called Insulating Concrete Forms (ICFs) is emerging as an alternative to lumber wall frames. Due to rising costs and varying quality of framing lumber, home builders are increasing their use of ICFs even though added engineering costs make ICF homes slightly more expensive than homes with wood framing. To improve the affordability and acceptance of ICF homes, this report sets guidelines on the design, construction and inspection of ICF wall systems in residential construction. Based on thorough testing and research, the Prescriptive Method section of the report outlines minimum requirements for ICF systems including wall thickness, termite protection, reinforcement, lintel span, and connection requirements. It highlights construction and thermal guidelines for ICFs and explains how to apply the prescriptive requirements to one- and two-family homes. The Commentary section provides supplemental information and the engineering assumptions and methods used for the prescriptive method. Appendices contain step-by-step examples on how to apply ICF requirements when designing a home. They also contain engineering technical substantiation and metric conversion factors.

  9. Beryllium decontamination with different solvents on different structures.

    PubMed

    Dufresne, A; Dion, C; Viau, S; Perrault, G

    2009-10-01

    The objective of the present work was to estimate the efficiency of moistened wipes in removing beryllium with different solutions including Citranox, Alconox, NaCl 5%, Resolve, and Ledizolv on various types of surfaces such as unpainted metal, wood frames, painted metal, concrete, painted concrete, and Plexiglas from three different occupational settings. Of the three plants that were investigated, only surfaces in the aluminium smelter were decontaminated down to the clearance reference level of 0.2 microg 100 cm(-2), with all the solvents used. In the machine tooling and milling department, the clearance level of 0.2 microg 100 cm(-2) was reached after the three decontaminations, with all the solvents. In the machine plant for the military, aerospace, and telecommunications industries, the beryllium concentrations on the concrete wall, before decontamination with the high-pressure gun, were usually >3 microg 100 cm(-2), and concentrations as high as 31 microg 100 cm(-2) were measured. After the high-pressure cleanup, the beryllium concentrations were sometimes reduced by a factor of 10, but never reached the clearance level. Beryllium compounds that had adhered to most types of structures that we attempted to decontaminate were reduced to below the clearance reference value except on concrete floors. There did not seem to be any difference between the decontamination actions for all the solvents used in this study.

  10. An Engineer's Physics Lab -- using a Large Force Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heid, Christy; Rampolla, Donald

    2009-03-01

    We have constructed very economical, easy to assemble force frames that are used by students in our general physics laboratory at Chatham University. The force frame is used at the beginning of the semester to study vector properties of forces. The force frame can be used as a horizontal or vertical force table. Angles of forces are measured using a large movable (rotation and translation) Cartesian coordinate board attached to the frame with large binder clips. The force frame is a versatile device which is used for a number of other experiments, including beam bending and torsion, mechanical resonance, projectile trajectories, torque, mechanical equilibrium, an isolated non-magnetic support for magnetic field experiments, easily adjustable support for inclined plane experiments, support for traveling wave experiments with heavy rope, and support for large scale fluid flow experiments. One advantage to a wood frame is that things can be easily stapled, nailed, screwed or glued just about anywhere on the frame, and damaged frame members can be replaced easily. As one of the few remaining women's undergraduate institutions, we have found the use of these frames to provide an additional advantage in helping women overcome their fear of simple power tools and assembly of mechanical parts as they become comfortable with these through working with the force frames throughout the semester. We intend to describe and model these applications during the session.

  11. Double Wall Framing Technique An Example of High Performance, Sustainable Building Envelope Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kosny, Dr. Jan; Asiz, Andi; Shrestha, Som S; Biswas, Kaushik; Nitin, Shukla

    2015-01-01

    Double wall technologies utilizing wood framing have been well-known and used in North American buildings for decades. Most of double wall designs use only natural materials such as wood products, gypsum, and cellulose fiber insulation, being one of few building envelope technologies achieving high thermal performance without use of plastic foams or fiberglass. Today, after several material and structural design modifications, these technologies are considered as highly thermally efficient, sustainable option for new constructions and sometimes, for retrofit projects. Following earlier analysis performed for U.S. Department of Energy by Fraunhofer CSE, this paper discusses different ways to build double walls and to optimize their thermal performance to minimize the space conditioning energy consumption. Description of structural configuration alternatives and thermal performance analysis are presented as well. Laboratory tests to evaluate thermal properties of used insulation and whole wall system thermal performance are also discussed in this paper. Finally, the thermal loads generated in field conditions by double walls are discussed utilizing results from a joined project performed by Zero Energy Building Research Alliance and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), which made possible evaluation of the market viability of low-energy homes built in the Tennessee Valley. Experimental data recorded in two of the test houses built during this field study is presented in this work.

  12. Remedial investigation/feasibility study analysis asphalt storage area, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.S.

    1993-01-01

    This report is focused on an abandoned material storage area located on Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB), Alaska. The site is located approximately 2000 feet from the east end of the east/west runway and includes approximately 25 acres. The site was used for asphalt storage and preparation activities during the 1940s and 1950s. Approximately 4,500 drums of asphalt and 29 drums of unknown materials have been abandoned at the site. The drums are located in 32 areas throughout the 25-acre site. Following several decades of exposure to the elements, many of the drums have corroded and leaked to the ground surface. Several acres of soil are inundated with liquid asphalt that has leaked from the drums. Depths of the asphalt range from 6 to 10 inches in areas where surface anomalies have created depressions, and thus a collection point for the asphalt. A 14-x 18-x 4 foot wood frame pit used to support previous asphalt operations is located at the north end of the site. The pit contains approximately 2300 gallons of asphalt. There are also locations where the soil appears to be contaminated by petroleum products other than asphalt.

  13. Thermal Integrity Assessment of Building Envelopes of Experimental Houses Using Infrared Thermography

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Kaushik; Kosny, Jan; Miller, William A

    2010-01-01

    Zero Energy Building Research Alliance, or ZEBRAlliance, is a joint DOE-ORNL-construction industry initiative to develop and demonstrate new energy efficiency technologies for residential buildings, as well as fine-tune and integrate existing technologies, to lower energy costs. Construction of residential envelopes, the diaphragms that separate the inside from outdoors, can have enormous impact on whole-building energy usage. Consequently, post-construction thermal integrity assessment of the building envelopes in the experimental ZEBRAlliance homes is an integral part of the research and development cycle. Nondestructive infrared (IR) thermography provides a relatively easy and quick means of inspecting the experimental homes for thermal bridging, insulation imperfections, moisture penetration, air leakage, etc. Two experimental homes located in Oak Ridge, TN were inspected using IR thermography. The homes are designed with two different envelope systems: (i) Structural Insulated Panels (SIP home) consisting of an insulating foam core sandwiched between oriented strand boards, and (ii) Optimal Value Framing (OVF home) using innovatively spaced wood studs, which are designed to minimize the amount of wood framing, reduce thermal bridging, and lower material costs. IR thermal imaging was performed from both outside and inside of the homes. In this paper, IR images of roof and wall sections of the homes are presented and discussed with respect to identification of areas of thermal bridging and any insulation deficiencies.

  14. Expert Meeting Report: Cladding Attachment Over Exterior Insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, P.

    2013-10-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. The location of the insulation to the exterior of the structure has many direct benefits including better effective R-value from reduced thermal bridging, better condensation resistance, reduced thermal stress on thestructure, as well as other commonly associated improvements such as increased air tightness and improved water management (Hutcheon 1964, Lstiburek 2007). The intent of the meeting was to review the current state of industry knowledge regarding cladding attachment over exterior insulation with a specific focus on: 1. Gravity load resistance, 2. Wind load resistance. The presentations explorethese topics from an engineering design, laboratory testing, field monitoring, as well as practical construction perspective. By bringing various groups together (who have been conduction research or have experience in this area), a more holistic review of the design limits and current code language proposals can be completed and additional gaps identified. The results of which will help informdesign standards and criteria.

  15. Expert Meeting Report: Cladding Attachment Over Exterior Insulation (BSC Report)

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. The location of the insulation to the exterior of the structure has many direct benefits including better effective R-value from reduced thermal bridging, better condensation resistance, reduced thermal stress on the structure, as well as other commonly associated improvements such as increased air tightness and improved water management (Hutcheon 1964, Lstiburek 2007). The intent of the meeting was to review the current state of industry knowledge regarding cladding attachment over exterior insulation with a specific focus on: 1. Gravity load resistance, 2. Wind load resistance. The presentations explore these topics from an engineering design, laboratory testing, field monitoring, as well as practical construction perspective. By bringing various groups together (who have been conduction research or have experience in this area), a more holistic review of the design limits and current code language proposals can be completed and additional gaps identified. The results of which will help inform design standards and criteria.

  16. Contamination source review for Building E3613, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Billmark, K.A.; Emken, M.E.; Muir-Ploense, K.L.

    1995-09-01

    This report was prepared by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to document the results of a contamination source review of Building E3613 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) in Maryland. The report may be used to assist the U.S. Army in planning for the future use or disposition of this building, The review included a historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, and collection of air samples. The field investigations were performed by ANL during 1994 and 1995. Building E3613 (APG designation) is located in the Canal Creek Area of APG. The building was constructed in 1954 for use as a change house, office, and storage building in support of the white phosphorus smoke program. The building has not been used since 1988. During an inspection in 1988, asbestos was listed as the only potential contaminant. The physical inspection and photographic documentation of Building E3613 were completed in November 1994. At the time of the inspection, Building E3613 was inactive and in disrepair. The single-story, rectangular structure contains five rooms and measures 16 ft 2 in. by 32 ft. The building is wood frame construction with a gabled roof. The exterior walls and roof are constructed of wood covered with asphalt sheeting. The building rests on a concrete foundation. The interior walls are 6-in.-thick wood, and the ceiling is assumed to be white drywall nailed to a wooden frame. Overhead steam pipes supported by vertical pipes traverse the area. Two concrete footings for guy wires that support the overhead steam pipes are located north and west of the building. Four additional vertical pipes exit the ground east of the building.

  17. Acoustic Barrier Facilitates Inlet Noise Measurements for Aft-Dominated Fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Noise levels for modern high-bypass-ratio subsonic turbofans tend to be aft dominated. That is, the highest flyover noise levels radiate from the fan exit. Measuring fan inlet sound radiation without aft radiation contamination requires selective suppression of the aft noise. In NASA Lewis Research Center's 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel, an acoustic barrier was used to effectively isolate the inlet noise field for a model of an advanced turbofan. This proof-of-concept test was performed on a model turbofan manufactured for NASA Lewis by the Allison Engine Company as part of the Advanced Subsonic Technology program. The 8-cm-thick acoustic barrier was constructed in sections that were joined upon installation. These sections, which were composed of a wood frame with typically 0.64-cm tempered fiberboard skins, extended from the tunnel's floor to its ceiling and had an axial length of 61 cm. On the fan side of the barrier just downstream of the leading edge, the upstream section had an acoustic treatment--a bulk absorber with a perforated metal skin. It had a nominal full height and an axial length of 46 cm. In addition, an elliptical leading edge was faired into the upstream barrier section. The barrier was mounted on tracks on the tunnel floor and ceiling at a sideline distance of 15 cm from the fan nacelle. Tests were made with the barrier leading edge at the fan inlet highlight plane and 15 cm further aft. The barrier extended downstream essentially to the end of the treated tunnel test section.

  18. Uncertainty of earthquake losses due to model uncertainty of input ground motions in the Los Angeles area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cao, T.; Petersen, M.D.

    2006-01-01

    In a recent study we used the Monte Carlo simulation method to evaluate the ground-motion uncertainty of the 2002 update of the California probabilistic seismic hazard model. The resulting ground-motion distribution is used in this article to evaluate the contribution of the hazard model to the uncertainty in earthquake loss ratio, the ratio of the expected loss to the total value of a structure. We use the Hazards U.S. (HAZUS) methodology for loss estimation because it is a widely used and publicly available risk model and intended for regional studies by public agencies and for use by governmental decision makers. We found that the loss ratio uncertainty depends not only on the ground-motion uncertainty but also on the mean ground-motion level. The ground-motion uncertainty, as measured by the coefficient of variation (COV), is amplified when converting to the loss ratio uncertainty because loss increases concavely with ground motion. By comparing the ground-motion uncertainty with the corresponding loss ratio uncertainty for the structural damage of light wood-frame buildings in Los Angeles area, we show that the COV of loss ratio is almost twice the COV of ground motion with a return period of 475 years around the San Andreas fault and other major faults in the area. The loss ratio for the 2475-year ground-motion maps is about a factor of three higher than for the 475-year maps. However, the uncertainties in ground motion and loss ratio for the longer return periods are lower than for the shorter return periods because the uncertainty parameters in the hazard logic tree are independent of the return period, but the mean ground motion increases with return period.

  19. Using High-Resolution Hand-Held Radiometers To Measure In-Situ Thermal Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burch, Douglas M.; Krintz, Donald F.

    1984-03-01

    A field study was carried out to investigate the accuracy of using high-resolution radiometers to determine the in situ thermal resistance of building components having conventional residential construction. Two different types of radiometers were used to determine the thermal resistances of the walls of six test buildings located at the National Bureau of Standards. These radiometer thermal resistance measurements were compared to reference thermal resistance values determined from steady-state series resistance predictions, time-averaged heat-flow-sensor measurements, and guarded-hot-box measurements. When measurements were carried out 5 hours after sunset when the outdoor temperature was relatively steady and the heating plant was operated in a typical cyclic fashion, the following results were obtained: for lightweight wood-frame cavity walls, the radiometer procedures were found to distinguish wall thermal resistance 4.4 h.ft2- °F/Btu (0.77 m2•K/W) systematically higher than corresponding reference values. Such a discrimination will per-mit insulated and uninsulated walls to be distinguished. However, in the case of walls having large heat capacity (e.g., masonry and log), thermal storage effects produced large time lags between the outdoor diurnal temperature variation and the heat-flow response at the inside surface. This phenomenon caused radiometer thermal resistances to deviate substantially from corresponding reference values. This study recommends that the ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 101-1981 be modified requiring the heating plant to be operated in a typical cyclic fashion instead of being turned off prior to and during radiometer measurements.

  20. Energy performance evaluation of AAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aybek, Hulya

    was accomplished by using conducting several simulation models to determine the relative energy efficiency of wood-framed, metal-framed, and Aerated Autoclaved Concrete (AAC) wall structures for both commercial and residential buildings.

  1. Is There a Linear Building Transfer Function for Small Excitation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clinton, J. F.; Heaton, T. H.

    2003-12-01

    In the absence of actual building accelerometer data, the linear response of a structure to strong ground motion is estimated by the convolution of the dynamic response of the structure with an input ground motion. The input motion is usually provided by a local `reference' station record. In this study, we look at whether actual recorded ground motion at two instrumented buildings with well studied dynamic properties can be satisfactorily modeled using a local ground station. All stations record continuous 24-bit data streams on the CISN network, so analysis of a variety of weak earthquake motions, as well as ambient noise, is possible. Our buildings are the 9-story reinforced concrete Millikan Library (CISN Station MIK) and the 3-story braced steel frame Broad Center (CBC), both on the Caltech Campus. Motions recorded on their upper floors are compared with motions from ground stations located in the basement of a lightweight wood-frame house (GSA), and in a subsurface vault (CRP). All stations are within 200m of each other. Recent work using the new continuous datastream indicates that the natural frequencies of these structures can vary by up to 5% during normal ambient conditions, due to such factors as changing building usage, diurnal temperature variation, and wind/rainfall events. These shifts can be sudden, and models of building motions are sensitive to these previously un-documented changes. Further, during stronger motions, such as forced vibration testing, and minor earthquake shaking, natural frequencies are shown to drop by up to 10% (2003 M5.4 Big Bear Earthquake, Δ = 119km), with near-instantaneous recovery once the excitation is over. Moderate earthquakes can temporarily reduce frequencies by up to 30% with no apparent structural damage (1971 M6.6 San Fernando Earthquake, Δ = 31km). Post-event permanent reductions of about 10% have been observed. The ability to monitor these evolving dynamic characteristics makes a re-evaluation of the

  2. Gas-Filled Panels: An update on applications in the building thermal envelope

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, B.T.; Arasteh, D.; Tuerler, D.

    1995-10-01

    This paper discusses the application of Gas-Filled Panels to the building thermal envelope. Gas-Filled Panels, or GFPs, are thermal insulating devices that retain a high concentration of a low- conductivity gas, at atmospheric pressure, within a multilayer infrared reflective baffle. The thermal performance of the panel depends on the type of gas fill and the baffle configuration. Heat- flow meter apparatus measurements have shown effective apparent thermal conductivities of 0.194 Btu{center_dot}in/h{center_dot}ft{sup 2}{center_dot}{degree}F with air as the gas fill, 0.138 Btu{center_dot}in/h{center_dot}ft{sup 2}{center_dot}{degree}F with argon, and 0.081 Btu{center_dot}in/h{center_dot}ft{sup 2}{center_dot}{degree}F with krypton. Calorimetric measurements have also shown total resistance levels of about R-12.6 h{center_dot}ft{sup 2}{center_dot}{degree}F/Btu for a 1.0-inch thick krypton panel, R-25.7 h{center_dot}ft{sup 2}{center_dot}{degree}F/Btu for a 2.0-inch krypton panel, and R-18.4 f{center_dot}ft{sup 2}{center_dot}{degree}F/Btu for a 10-inch xenon panel. GFPs are flexible, self-supporting and can be made in a variety of shapes and sizes to thoroughly fill most types of cavities in building walls and roofs, although the modular nature of the panels can lead to complications in installing them, especially for irregularly shaped cavities. We present computer simulation results showing the improvement in thermal resistance resulting from using an argon-GFP in place of glass fiber batt insulation in wood-frame construction. This report also presents estimates of the quantity and cost of material components needed to manufacture GFPs using current prototype designs.

  3. Demolitions of the Savannah River Site's concentrator and finishing facilities

    SciTech Connect

    McDonagh, Paul

    2008-01-15

    been successfully demolished at SRS utilizing five different demolition techniques. The routine method employed on the vast majority of facilities has been extremely successful and should be applied whenever possible. Because of their height, the 420-D and 421-D facilities required developing a new (to SRS) demolition method. This technique of toppling the structures with a bulldozer and implementing additional safety measures provided a successful, safe, and cost efficient demolition method. This method should be employed in the future on any steel or wood framed structures that are over forty ft. high that have ample space around them.

  4. Contributing to Net Zero Building: High Energy Efficient EIFS Wall Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Carbary, Lawrence D.; Perkins, Laura L.; Serino, Roland; Preston, Bill; Kosny, Jan

    2014-01-29

    The team led by Dow Corning collaborated to increase the thermal performance of exterior insulation and finishing systems (EIFS) to reach R-40 performance meeting the needs for high efficiency insulated walls. Additionally, the project helped remove barriers to using EIFS on retrofit commercial buildings desiring high insulated walls. The three wall systems developed within the scope of this project provide the thermal performance of R-24 to R-40 by incorporating vacuum insulation panels (VIPs) into an expanded polystyrene (EPS) encapsulated vacuum insulated sandwich element (VISE). The VISE was incorporated into an EIFS as pre-engineered insulation boards. The VISE is installed using typical EIFS details and network of trained installers. These three wall systems were tested and engineered to be fully code compliant as an EIFS and meet all of the International Building Code structural, durability and fire test requirements for a code compliant exterior wall cladding system. This system is being commercialized under the trade name Dryvit® Outsulation® HE system. Full details, specifications, and application guidelines have been developed for the system. The system has been modeled both thermally and hygrothermally to predict condensation potential. Based on weather models for Baltimore, MD; Boston, MA; Miami, FL; Minneapolis, MN; Phoenix, AZ; and Seattle, WA; condensation and water build up in the wall system is not a concern. Finally, the team conducted a field trial of the system on a building at the former Brunswick Naval Air Station which is being redeveloped by the Midcoast Regional Redevelopment Authority (Brunswick, Maine). The field trial provided a retrofit R-30 wall onto a wood frame construction, slab on grade, 1800 ft2 building, that was monitored over the course of a year. Simultaneous with the façade retrofit, the building’s windows were upgraded at no charge to this program. The retrofit building used 49% less natural gas during the winter of

  5. 14. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING FLOOR TO CEILING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING FLOOR TO CEILING BUILT-IN CLOSET OCCUPING ENTIRE NORTH END OF ROOM, AND 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON EAST WALL. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  6. 9. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO KITCHEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO KITCHEN AT PHOTO LEFT CENTER, AND 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON REAR WALL AT PHOTO RIGHT. FIREPLACE ORIGINALLY OCCUPIED SPACE TO THE EXTREME PHOTO RIGHT OF SASH WINDOW ON THE REAR WALL. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  7. 16. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING OPEN PANEL DOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING OPEN PANEL DOOR TO WALK-IN CLOSET AT PHOTO CENTER, OPEN PANEL DOOR FROM BEDROOM NUMBER ONE AT EXTREME PHOTO LEFT, AND 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON NORTH WALL AT PHOTO RIGHT. VIEW TO WEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  8. 15. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO VESTIBULE AT PHOTO RIGHT, AND 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW THROUGH SOUTH WALL AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  9. 8. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO KITCHEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN DOORWAY TO KITCHEN AT PHOTO RIGHT, 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOWS ON FRONT (EAST) WALL AT PHOTO CENTER. ENTRY ROOM AND OPEN 1-LIGHT FRONT DOOR AT EXTREME PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  10. 9. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN PANEL DOOR TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN PANEL DOOR TO BEDROOM NUMBER ONE AT PHOTO RIGHT, 6-LIGHT OVER 1 LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON REAR WALL AT PHOTO LEFT CENTER. FIREPLACE ORIGINALLY OCCUPIED SPACE UNDER ROUND HEATER VENT HOLE AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  11. 7. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING FLUSH FRONT DOOR AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING FLUSH FRONT DOOR AT PHOTO CENTER, MODERN SIDING WINDOW ON EAST WALL (FORMER PORCH) AT PHOTO CENTER RIGHT, AND ORIGINAL PAIRED 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT WINDOWS ON NORTH WALL (PHOTO LEFT). VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Control Station, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  12. 10. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN PANEL DOOR TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR OF LIVING ROOM SHOWING OPEN PANEL DOOR TO BEDROOM NUMBER ONE AT PHOTO CENTER, AND SECOND 6 LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON REAR WALL AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  13. Parameter Measurement Methods for Interfacing Hydraulic Systems with Microelectronic Instruments and Controllers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    Force and Torque Sensors ... ......... . 90 LightSensors ..... .. ... ... ... .. 94 Liquid Level Sensors . . . ...... ........... 97 Pressure Sensors...101 Sound- Pressure Sensors ..... ............ 106 Speed and Velocity Sensors .... ........... 108 Strain Sensors...95 k 3.6 Light Sensor Specification Sheet ... ............. .98 3.7 Liquid Level Sensor Specification Sheet . .. ..... 102 3.8 Pressure

  14. Bibliography on School Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nomani, M. S.; Srivastava, R. D.

    This bibliography comprises 153 references with abstracts on school building publications published during the period of 1960-1966. The references have been grouped under seven headings--(1) air conditioning and ventilation, (2) bibliography and research reports, (3) construction systems, (4) design development, (5) furniture, (6) lighting, and…

  15. Extended Abstracts. The Electrochemical Society Fall Meeting (174th) Held in Chicago, Illinois on 9-14 October 1988. Volume 88-2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-14

    sealed under moderate vacuum with Bunsen J. Ortega and J. Herrero flame. The sealed tube was annealed at Instituto Energias Renovables . CIEMAT 400*C for...B.Shao.Y.Wu and J.WanaAcracurrent Iph , the readout of the same Iph when Energiae Solaris Sinica,No.4,35: (19S6).light was chopped off manually and the total

  16. How to Save Money by Saving Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet presents energy conservation tips to help consumers save money. Conservation measures suggested here cover topics such as: (1) insulation; (2) space heating and cooling; (3) hot water heating; (4) cooking; (5) laundry; (6) lighting; (7) electrical appliances; (8) buying or building a home; and (9) buying, maintaining and driving a…

  17. Comprehensive Base Realignment/Closure and Fort Belvoir Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    I 0N C’ hi -9 I mJ. LL a LL cci 40 I ( II - 0. am ,(.m mC 6...lighting, ammunition distribution, and security system. A gravel area for loading and unloading trucks will also be provided. The project also I includes...Basin is planned for the South Post at the confluence of Accotink Bay and Gunston Cove (Figure 2-50). This area will have a beach area , nature center, I

  18. 17. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING OPEN DOOR TO BATHROOM NUMBER ONE AT EXTREME PHOTO LEFT, OPEN PANEL DOOR TO THE WALK-IN CLOSET AT PHOTO CENTER LEFT, OPEN PANEL DOOR TO HALL AT PHOTO CENTER RIGHT, AND A 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON THE WEST WALL AT PHOTO RIGHT. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Clubhouse Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  19. Ofu and Ologesa survey of the 29 September 2009 tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foteinis, S.; Synolakis, C.; Titov, V. V.

    2009-12-01

    On 29 September 2009 an Mw~8.0 earthquake struck the Samoan Islands generating a tsunami at least 189 deaths and substantial damage to many coastal infrastructure. An incarnation of the ITST surveyed the impacted region between 4 Oct and 11 Oct measuring inundation per the protocol discussed in Synolakis and Okal (2005). We report here survey results from Ofu and Ologesa, two sparsely populated adjacent islands connected with a bridge. No human casualties were reported. Buildings did not sustain substantial damage, due to light construction materials and open wood frame construction. The strongest effects of the tsunami were recorded in the northern part of Ofu, with runup ranging to 6.1m, with 50m inundation. The longest inundation distance was 74 m (3m runup), in Ofu village. The runup at the airport was 3.9m and inundation 27m. Near the bridge there is motel where runup reached 5.1m with 50m inundation. On the north of Ologessa at Sili village, runup ranged up to 4m with inundation less than 25m. Iin Ologessa village, runup ranged from 2.7m to 4.4m and inundation from 5 to 55m. By serendipity, the team of surveyors experienced a tsunami warning while working in a fairly vulnerable locale. The warning resulted from the 7 October 2009 Mw ~7.6, off Vanuatu . The evacuation message was broadcast by a passing police vehicle in the sole road connecting Ofu and the Ologesa. There was no information where to evacuate to. With the exception of a school bus that drove children from the sole school of the island, evacuations were orderly with care for the elderly and special needs neighbors, although the latter were delayed for tens of minutes on some neighborhoods. In this regard, had there been a real local tsunami, the school bus would had been swept away as allegedly happened in Poloa. For over three hours, there was no further information provided, and residents relied on unofficial reports from radio stations in Samoa relating that there had been no tsunami generated

  20. Disseminating Landslide Hazard Information for California Local Government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wills, C. J.

    2010-12-01

    landslide susceptibility map to give a single value of susceptibility for each census tract. We then calculated the loss ratio, the cost of landslide damage from the 1978 storms divided by the value of light wood frame structures in the census tract. The comparison suggests three general categories of damage: tracts with low landslide susceptibility have no landslide damage: tracts with moderate susceptibility have loss ratios of about 0.016%: and tracts with high susceptibility have loss ratios of 0.096%. Using these values, the susceptibility map becomes a landslide loss ratio map for the average storm intensity and landslide vulnerability of Los Angeles in 1978. Generalization to other storm intensities uses differences in storm intensity and landslide damage data from the 1982 storm in the Bay Area. In Santa Cruz County, that storm had a recurrence interval of over 100 years, and over 3 times the damage as our projection from the 1978 data. In Sonoma County, that storm had a recurrence interval of only 10 years and damage that was only 2% of our projection. If a relationship between storm intensity and the projections from the 1978 Los Angeles data can be developed, we may be able to estimate landslide losses for any projected storm intensity.

  1. Advanced Energy Efficient Roof System

    SciTech Connect

    Jane Davidson

    2008-09-30

    Energy consumption in buildings represents 40 percent of primary U.S. energy consumption, split almost equally between residential (22%) and commercial (18%) buildings.1 Space heating (31%) and cooling (12%) account for approximately 9 quadrillion Btu. Improvements in the building envelope can have a significant impact on reducing energy consumption. Thermal losses (or gains) from the roof make up 14 percent of the building component energy load. Infiltration through the building envelope, including the roof, accounts for an additional 28 percent of the heating loads and 16 percent of the cooling loads. These figures provide a strong incentive to develop and implement more energy efficient roof systems. The roof is perhaps the most challenging component of the building envelope to change for many reasons. The engineered roof truss, which has been around since 1956, is relatively low cost and is the industry standard. The roof has multiple functions. A typical wood frame home lasts a long time. Building codes vary across the country. Customer and trade acceptance of new building products and materials may impede market penetration. The energy savings of a new roof system must be balanced with other requirements such as first and life-cycle costs, durability, appearance, and ease of construction. Conventional residential roof construction utilizes closely spaced roof trusses supporting a layer of sheathing and roofing materials. Gypsum board is typically attached to the lower chord of the trusses forming the finished ceiling for the occupied space. Often in warmer climates, the HVAC system and ducts are placed in the unconditioned and otherwise unusable attic. High temperature differentials and leaky ducts result in thermal losses. Penetrations through the ceilings are notoriously difficult to seal and lead to moisture and air infiltration. These issues all contribute to greater energy use and have led builders to consider construction of a conditioned attic. The

  2. UV/visible camera for the Clementine mission

    SciTech Connect

    Kordas, J.F.; Lewis, I.T.; Priest, R.E.

    1995-04-01

    This article describes the Clementine UV/Visible (UV/Vis) multispectral camera, discusses design goals and preliminary estimates of on-orbit performance, and summarizes lessons learned in building and using the sensor. While the primary objective of the Clementine Program was to qualify a suite of 6 light-weight, low power imagers for future Department of Defense flights, the mission also has provided the first systematic mapping of the complete lunar surface in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions. The 410 g, 4.65 W UV/Vis camera uses a 384 x 288 frame-transfer silicon CCD FPA and operates at 6 user-selectable wavelength bands between 0.4 and 1.1 {micro}m. It has yielded lunar imagery and mineralogy data with up to 120 in spatial resolution (band dependent) at 400 km periselene along a 39 km cross-track swath.

  3. Controlled environment fumigation chambers for the study of reactive air pollutant effects on plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, N. J.; Lucas, P. W.; Nicholas Hewitt, C.

    The design and construction of eight 1-m 3 fumigation chambers for exposing plants to reactive air pollutants at low concentrations are reported. Teflon surfaces are used where possible to minimize the adsorption, absorption, desorption and chemical reaction of the pollutants. A purified ambient air supply, to which metered quantities of gaseous pollutants are added, is used to give two air changes per minute at constant, low, pollutant concentrations. Comparative analysis of the chambers indicates that conditions may be maintained with a significant degree of precision, i.e. temperature ±0.3°C, RH ±6%, light intensity ±5 μmol m -2 s -1. Boundary layer analysis from models of cherry tree ( Prunus avium) leaves indicate that the minimum conductance value within these chambers is 2 cm s -1.

  4. MQWs InGaN/GaN LED with embedded micro-mirror array in the epitaxial-lateral-overgrowth gallium nitride for light extraction enhancement.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chen-Yang; Ku, Hao-Min; Liao, Chen-Zi; Chao, Shiuh

    2010-05-10

    Multi-quantum wells (MQWs) InGaN/GaN LEDs, 300 microm x 300 microm chip size, were fabricated with Ta(2)O(5) / SiO(2) dielectric multi-layer micro-mirror array (MMA) embedded in the epitaxiallateral- overgrowth (ELOG) gallium nitride (GaN) on the c-plane sapphire substrate. MQWs InGaN/GaN LEDs with ELOG embedded patterned SiO(2) array (P-SiO(2)) of the same dimension as the MMA were also fabricated for comparison. Dislocation density was reduced for the ELOG samples. 75.2% light extraction enhancement for P-SiO(2)-LED and 102.6% light extraction enhancement for MMA-LED were obtained over the standard LED. We showed that multiple-diffraction with high intensity from the MMA redirected the trap lights to escape from the LED causing the light extraction enhancement.

  5. Transportation Energy Data Book, Edition 18

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Stacy C.

    1998-09-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 18 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. This edition of the Data Book has 11 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 - energy Chapter 3 - emissions; Chapter 4 - transportation and the economy; Chapter 5 - highway vehicles; Chapter 6 - Light vehicles; Chapter 7 - heavy vehicles; Chapter 8 - alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 9 - fleet vehicles; Chapter 10 - household vehicles; and Chapter 11 - nonhighway modes. The sources used represent the latest available data.

  6. Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project; Strobe Light Deterrent Efficacy Test and Fish Behavior Determination at the Grand Coulee Dam Third Powerplant Forebay, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.; McKinstry, C.; Simmons, C.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1995, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville Confederated Tribes) have managed the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program. Project objectives have focused on understanding natural production of kokanee (a land-locked sockeye salmon) and other fish stocks in the area above Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams on the Columbia River. A 42-month investigation concluded that entrainment at Grand Coulee Dam ranged from 211,685 to 576,676 fish annually. Further analysis revealed that 85% of the total entrainment occurred at the dam's third powerplant. These numbers represent a significant loss to the tribal fisheries upstream of the dam. In response to a suggestion by the NWPPC Independent Scientific Review Panel, the scope of work for the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project was expanded to include a multiyear pilot test of a strobe light system to help mitigate fish entrainment. This report details the work conducted during the second year of the study by researchers of the Colville Confederated Tribes in collaboration with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The 2002 study period extended from May 18 through July 30. The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of a prototype strobe light system to elicit a negative phototactic response in kokanee and rainbow trout. The prototype system consisted of six strobe lights affixed to an aluminum frame suspended vertically underwater from a barge secured in the center of the entrance to the third powerplant forebay. The lights, controlled by a computer, were aimed to illuminate a specific region directly upstream of the barge. Three light level treatments were used: 6 of 6 lights on, 3 of 6 lights on, and all lights off. These three treatment conditions were applied for an entire 24-hr day and were randomly assigned within a 3-day block throughout the study period. A seven-transducer splitbeam

  7. Light Chain Amyloid Fibrils Cause Metabolic Dysfunction in Human Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    McWilliams-Koeppen, Helen P.; Foster, James S.; Hackenbrack, Nicole; Ramirez-Alvarado, Marina; Donohoe, Dallas; Williams, Angela; Macy, Sallie; Wooliver, Craig; Wortham, Dale; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer; Foster, Carmen M.; Kennel, Stephen J.; Wall, Jonathan S.

    2015-01-01

    Light chain (AL) amyloidosis is the most common form of systemic amyloid disease, and cardiomyopathy is a dire consequence, resulting in an extremely poor prognosis. AL is characterized by the production of monoclonal free light chains that deposit as amyloid fibrils principally in the heart, liver, and kidneys causing organ dysfunction. We have studied the effects of amyloid fibrils, produced from recombinant λ6 light chain variable domains, on metabolic activity of human cardiomyocytes. The data indicate that fibrils at 0.1 μM, but not monomer, significantly decrease the enzymatic activity of cellular NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductase, without causing significant cell death. The presence of amyloid fibrils did not affect ATP levels; however, oxygen consumption was increased and reactive oxygen species were detected. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that fibrils bound to and remained at the cell surface with little fibril internalization. These data indicate that AL amyloid fibrils severely impair cardiomyocyte metabolism in a dose dependent manner. These data suggest that effective therapeutic intervention for these patients should include methods for removing potentially toxic amyloid fibrils. PMID:26393799

  8. Identifying opportune landing sites in degraded visual environments with terrain and cultural databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, Marc; Fisher, Robert; Little, J. Kristin

    2014-06-01

    Boeing has developed a degraded visual environment navigational aid that is flying on the Boeing AH-6 light attack helicopter. The navigational aid is a two dimensional software digital map underlay generated by the Boeing™ Geospatial Embedded Mapping Software (GEMS) and fully integrated with the operational flight program. The page format on the aircraft's multi function displays (MFD) is termed the Approach page. The existing work utilizes Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) and OpenGL ES 2.0 graphics capabilities to compute the pertinent graphics underlay entirely on the graphics processor unit (GPU) within the AH-6 mission computer. The next release will incorporate cultural databases containing Digital Vertical Obstructions (DVO) to warn the crew of towers, buildings, and power lines when choosing an opportune landing site. Future IRAD will include Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) point cloud generating sensors to provide 2D and 3D synthetic vision on the final approach to the landing zone. Collision detection with respect to terrain, cultural, and point cloud datasets may be used to further augment the crew warning system. The techniques for creating the digital map underlay leverage the GPU almost entirely, making this solution viable on most embedded mission computing systems with an OpenGL ES 2.0 capable GPU. This paper focuses on the AH-6 crew interface process for determining a landing zone and flying the aircraft to it.

  9. Gene expression profile in pelvic organ prolapse†

    PubMed Central

    Brizzolara, S.S.; Killeen, J.; Urschitz, J.

    2009-01-01

    It was hypothesized that the processes contributing to pelvic organ prolapse (POP) may be identified by transcriptional profiling of pelvic connective tissue in conjunction with light microscopy. In order to test this, we performed a frequency-matched case–control study of women undergoing hysterectomy for POP and controls. Total RNA, extracted from uterosacral and round ligament samples used to generate labeled cRNA, was hybridized to microarrays and analyzed for the expression of 32 878 genes. Significance Analysis of Microarrays (Stanford University, CA, USA) identified differentially expressed genes used for ontoanalysis. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) confirmed results. Light microscopy confirmed the tissue type and assessed inflammatory infiltration. The analysis of 34 arrays revealed 249 differentially expressed genes with fold changes (FC) larger than 1.5 and false discovery rates ≤5.2%. Immunity and defense was the most significant biological process differentially expressed in POP. qPCR confirmed the elevated steady-state mRNA levels for four genes: interleukin-6 (FC 9.8), thrombospondin 1 (FC 3.5) and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (FC 2.4) and activating transcription factor 3 (FC 2.6). Light microscopy showed all the samples were composed of fibromuscular connective tissue with no inflammatory infiltrates. In conclusion, genes enriched for ‘immunity and defense’ contribute to POP independent of inflammatory infiltrates. PMID:19056808

  10. Coupling of cytochrome and quinone turnovers in the photocycle of reaction centers from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    PubMed Central

    Osváth, S; Maróti, P

    1997-01-01

    A minimal kinetic model of the photocycle, including both quinone (Q-6) reduction at the secondary quinone-binding site and (mammalian) cytochrome c oxidation at the cytochrome docking site of isolated reaction centers from photosynthetic purple bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides, was elaborated and tested by cytochrome photooxidation under strong continuous illumination. The typical rate of photochemical excitation by a laser diode at 810 nm was 2.200 s-1, and the rates of stationary turnover of the reaction center (one-half of that of cytochrome photooxidation) were 600 +/- 70 s-1 at pH 6 and 400 +/- 50 s-1 at pH 8. The rate of turnover showed strong pH dependence, indicating the contribution of different rate-limiting processes. The kinetic limitation of the photocycle was attributed to the turnover of the cytochrome c binding site (pH < 6), light intensity and quinone/quinol exchange (6 < pH < 8), and proton-coupled second electron transfer in the quinone acceptor complex (pH > 8). The analysis of the double-reciprocal plot of the rate of turnover versus light intensity has proved useful in determining the light-independent (maximum) turnover rate of the reaction center (445 +/- 50 s-1 at pH 7.8). PMID:9251814

  11. Light Chain Amyloid Fibrils Cause Metabolic Dysfunction in Human Cardiomyocytes

    SciTech Connect

    McWilliams-Koeppen, Helen P.; Foster, James S.; Hackenbrack, Nicole; Ramirez-Alvarado, Marina; Donohoe, Dallas; Williams, Angela; Macy, Sallie; Wooliver, Craig; Wortham, Dale; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer; Foster, Carmen M.; Kennel, Stephen J.; Wall, Jonathan S.

    2015-09-22

    Light chain (AL) amyloidosis is the most common form of systemic amyloid disease, and cardiomyopathy is a dire consequence, resulting in an extremely poor prognosis. AL is characterized by the production of monoclonal free light chains that deposit as amyloid fibrils principally in the heart, liver, and kidneys causing organ dysfunction. We have studied the effects of amyloid fibrils, produced from recombinant λ6 light chain variable domains, on metabolic activity of human cardiomyocytes. The data indicate that fibrils at 0.1 μM, but not monomer, significantly decrease the enzymatic activity of cellular NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductase, without causing significant cell death. The presence of amyloid fibrils did not affect ATP levels; however, oxygen consumption was increased and reactive oxygen species were detected. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that fibrils bound to and remained at the cell surface with little fibril internalization. Ultimately, these data indicate that AL amyloid fibrils severely impair cardiomyocyte metabolism in a dose dependent manner. These data suggest that effective therapeutic intervention for these patients should include methods for removing potentially toxic amyloid fibrils.

  12. Algal productivity modeling: a step toward accurate assessments of full-scale algal cultivation.

    PubMed

    Béchet, Quentin; Chambonnière, Paul; Shilton, Andy; Guizard, Guillaume; Guieysse, Benoit

    2015-05-01

    A new biomass productivity model was parameterized for Chlorella vulgaris using short-term (<30 min) oxygen productivities from algal microcosms exposed to 6 light intensities (20-420 W/m(2)) and 6 temperatures (5-42 °C). The model was then validated against experimental biomass productivities recorded in bench-scale photobioreactors operated under 4 light intensities (30.6-74.3 W/m(2)) and 4 temperatures (10-30 °C), yielding an accuracy of ± 15% over 163 days of cultivation. This modeling approach addresses major challenges associated with the accurate prediction of algal productivity at full-scale. Firstly, while most prior modeling approaches have only considered the impact of light intensity on algal productivity, the model herein validated also accounts for the critical impact of temperature. Secondly, this study validates a theoretical approach to convert short-term oxygen productivities into long-term biomass productivities. Thirdly, the experimental methodology used has the practical advantage of only requiring one day of experimental work for complete model parameterization. The validation of this new modeling approach is therefore an important step for refining feasibility assessments of algae biotechnologies.

  13. Solidification and loss of hydrostaticity in liquid media used for pressure measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Torikachvili, M. S.; Kim, S. K.; Colombier, E.; Bud’ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.

    2015-12-16

    We carried out a study of the pressure dependence of the solidification temperature in nine pressure transmitting media that are liquid at ambient temperature, under pressures up to 2.3 GPa. These fluids are 1:1 isopentane/n-pentane, 4:6 light mineral oil/n-pentane, 1:1 isoamyl alcohol/n-pentane, 4:1 methanol/ethanol, 1:1 FC72/FC84 (Fluorinert), Daphne 7373, isopentane, and Dow Corning PMX silicone oils 200 and 60,000 cS. We relied on the high sensitivity of the electrical resistivity of Ba(Fe1–xRux)2As2 single crystals to the freezing of the pressure media and cross-checked with corresponding anomalies observed in the resistance of the manganin coil that served as the ambient temperature resistive manometer. In addition to establishing the temperature-pressure line separating the liquid (hydrostatic) and frozen (non-hydrostatic) phases, these data permit rough estimates of the freezing pressure of these media at ambient temperature. As a result, this pressure establishes the extreme limit for the medium to be considered hydrostatic. For higher applied pressures, the medium has to be treated as non-hydrostatic.

  14. Solidification and loss of hydrostaticity in liquid media used for pressure measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Torikachvili, M. S.; Kim, S. K.; Colombier, E.; ...

    2015-12-16

    We carried out a study of the pressure dependence of the solidification temperature in nine pressure transmitting media that are liquid at ambient temperature, under pressures up to 2.3 GPa. These fluids are 1:1 isopentane/n-pentane, 4:6 light mineral oil/n-pentane, 1:1 isoamyl alcohol/n-pentane, 4:1 methanol/ethanol, 1:1 FC72/FC84 (Fluorinert), Daphne 7373, isopentane, and Dow Corning PMX silicone oils 200 and 60,000 cS. We relied on the high sensitivity of the electrical resistivity of Ba(Fe1–xRux)2As2 single crystals to the freezing of the pressure media and cross-checked with corresponding anomalies observed in the resistance of the manganin coil that served as the ambient temperaturemore » resistive manometer. In addition to establishing the temperature-pressure line separating the liquid (hydrostatic) and frozen (non-hydrostatic) phases, these data permit rough estimates of the freezing pressure of these media at ambient temperature. As a result, this pressure establishes the extreme limit for the medium to be considered hydrostatic. For higher applied pressures, the medium has to be treated as non-hydrostatic.« less

  15. Flexible transparent conductive films combining flexographic printed silver grids with CNT coating.

    PubMed

    Mo, Lixin; Ran, Jun; Yang, Li; Fang, Yi; Zhai, Qingbin; Li, Luhai

    2016-02-12

    A high-performance ITO-free transparent conductive film (TCF) has been made by combining high resolution Ag grids with a carbon nanotube (CNT) coating. Ag grids printed with flexography have a 20 μm line width at a grid interval of 400 μm. The Ag grid/CNT hybrid film exhibits excellent overall performance, with a typical sheet resistance of 14.8 Ω/□ and 82.6% light transmittance at room temperature. This means a 23.98% reduction in sheet resistance and only 2.52% loss in transmittance compared to a pure Ag grid film. Analysis indicates that filling areas between the Ag grids and interconnecting the silver nanoparticles with the CNT coating are the primary reasons for the significantly improved conductivity of the hybrid film that also exhibits excellent flexibility and mechanical strength compared to an ITO film. The hybrid film may fully satisfy the requirements of different applications, e.g. use as the anode of polymer solar cells (PSCs). The J-V curve shows that the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the PSCs using the Ag grid/CNT hybrid anode is 0.61%, which is 24.5% higher than that of the pure Ag grids with a PCE of 0.49%. Further investigations to improve the performance of the solar cells based on the printed hybrid TCFs are ongoing.

  16. Environmental research on a modified in situ oil shale task process. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the US Department of Energy's Oil Shale Task Force in its research program at the Occidental Oil Shale, Inc. facility at Logan Wash, Colorado. More specifically, the Task Force obtained samples from Retort 3E and Retort 6 and submitted these samples to a variety of analyses. The samples collected included: crude oil (Retort 6); light oil (Retort 6); product water (Retort 6); boiler blowdown (Retort 6); makeup water (Retort 6); mine sump water; groundwater; water from Retorts 1 through 5; retort gas (Retort 6); mine air; mine dust; and spent shale core (Retort 3E). The locations of the sampling points and methods used for collection and storage are discussed in Chapter 2 (Characterization). These samples were then distributed to the various laboratories and universities participating in the Task Force. For convenience in organizing the data, it is useful to group the work into three categories: Characterization, Leaching, and Health Effects. While many samples still have not been analyzed and much of the data remains to be interpreted, there are some preliminary conclusions the Task Force feels will be helpful in defining future needs and establishing priorities. It is important to note that drilling agents other than water were used in the recovery of the core from Retort 3E. These agents have been analyzed (see Table 12 in Chapter 2) for several constituents of interest. As a result some of the analyses of this core sample and leachates must be considered tentative.

  17. Quantitative twoplex glycan analysis using (12)C6 and (13)C6 stable isotope 2-aminobenzoic acid labelling and capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Váradi, Csaba; Mittermayr, Stefan; Millán-Martín, Silvia; Bones, Jonathan

    2016-12-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) offers excellent efficiency and orthogonality to liquid chromatographic (LC) separations for oligosaccharide structural analysis. Combination of CE with high resolution mass spectrometry (MS) for glycan analysis remains a challenging task due to the MS incompatibility of background electrolyte buffers and additives commonly used in offline CE separations. Here, a novel method is presented for the analysis of 2-aminobenzoic acid (2-AA) labelled glycans by capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry (CE-MS). To ensure maximum resolution and excellent precision without the requirement for excessive analysis times, CE separation conditions including the concentration and pH of the background electrolyte, the effect of applied pressure on the capillary inlet and the capillary length were evaluated. Using readily available (12/13)C6 stable isotopologues of 2-AA, the developed method can be applied for quantitative glycan profiling in a twoplex manner based on the generation of extracted ion electropherograms (EIE) for (12)C6 'light' and (13)C6 'heavy' 2-AA labelled glycan isotope clusters. The twoplex quantitative CE-MS glycan analysis platform is ideally suited for comparability assessment of biopharmaceuticals, such as monoclonal antibodies, for differential glycomic analysis of clinical material for potential biomarker discovery or for quantitative microheterogeneity analysis of different glycosylation sites within a glycoprotein. Additionally, due to the low injection volume requirements of CE, subsequent LC-MS analysis of the same sample can be performed facilitating the use of orthogonal separation techniques for structural elucidation or verification of quantitative performance.

  18. Ground motion measurements at the LBL Light Source site, the Bevatron and at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.A.; Majer, E.I.; More, V.D.; O'Connell, D.R.; Shilling, R.C.

    1986-12-01

    This report describes the technique for measuring ground motion at the site of the 1.0 to 2.0 GeV Synchrotron Radiation Facility which was known as the Advanced Light Source (in 1983 when the measurements were taken). The results of ground motion measurements at the Light Source site at Building 6 at LBL are presented. As comparison, ground motion measurements were made at the Byerly Tunnel, the Bevatron, Blackberry Canyon, and SLAC at the Spear Ring. Ground Motion at the Light Source site was measured in a band from 4 to 100 Hz. The measured noise is primarily local in origin and is not easily transported through LBL soils. The background ground motion is for the most part less than 0.1 microns. Localized truck traffic near Building 6 and the operation of the cranes in the building can result in local ground motions of a micron or more for short periods of time. The background motion at Building 6 is between 1 and 2 orders of magnitude higher than ground motion in a quiet seismic tunnel, which is representative of quiet sites worldwide. The magnitude of the ground motions at SLAC and the Bevatron are comparable to ground motions measured at the Building 6 Light Source site. However, the frequency signature of each site is very different.

  19. Light Chain Amyloid Fibrils Cause Metabolic Dysfunction in Human Cardiomyocytes

    DOE PAGES

    McWilliams-Koeppen, Helen P.; Foster, James S.; Hackenbrack, Nicole; ...

    2015-09-22

    Light chain (AL) amyloidosis is the most common form of systemic amyloid disease, and cardiomyopathy is a dire consequence, resulting in an extremely poor prognosis. AL is characterized by the production of monoclonal free light chains that deposit as amyloid fibrils principally in the heart, liver, and kidneys causing organ dysfunction. We have studied the effects of amyloid fibrils, produced from recombinant λ6 light chain variable domains, on metabolic activity of human cardiomyocytes. The data indicate that fibrils at 0.1 μM, but not monomer, significantly decrease the enzymatic activity of cellular NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductase, without causing significant cell death. The presencemore » of amyloid fibrils did not affect ATP levels; however, oxygen consumption was increased and reactive oxygen species were detected. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that fibrils bound to and remained at the cell surface with little fibril internalization. Ultimately, these data indicate that AL amyloid fibrils severely impair cardiomyocyte metabolism in a dose dependent manner. These data suggest that effective therapeutic intervention for these patients should include methods for removing potentially toxic amyloid fibrils.« less

  20. Flexible transparent conductive films combining flexographic printed silver grids with CNT coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Lixin; Ran, Jun; Yang, Li; Fang, Yi; Zhai, Qingbin; Li, Luhai

    2016-02-01

    A high-performance ITO-free transparent conductive film (TCF) has been made by combining high resolution Ag grids with a carbon nanotube (CNT) coating. Ag grids printed with flexography have a 20 μm line width at a grid interval of 400 μm. The Ag grid/CNT hybrid film exhibits excellent overall performance, with a typical sheet resistance of 14.8 Ω/□ and 82.6% light transmittance at room temperature. This means a 23.98% reduction in sheet resistance and only 2.52% loss in transmittance compared to a pure Ag grid film. Analysis indicates that filling areas between the Ag grids and interconnecting the silver nanoparticles with the CNT coating are the primary reasons for the significantly improved conductivity of the hybrid film that also exhibits excellent flexibility and mechanical strength compared to an ITO film. The hybrid film may fully satisfy the requirements of different applications, e.g. use as the anode of polymer solar cells (PSCs). The J-V curve shows that the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the PSCs using the Ag grid/CNT hybrid anode is 0.61%, which is 24.5% higher than that of the pure Ag grids with a PCE of 0.49%. Further investigations to improve the performance of the solar cells based on the printed hybrid TCFs are ongoing.

  1. In-vivo reflection spectroscopy measurements in pig brain during stereotactic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonsson, Johan; Eriksson, Ola; Wardell, Karin

    2003-07-01

    Radio frequency (RF) lesioning in the human brain is a common surgical therapy for relieving severe pain as well as for movement disorders such as Parkinsonia. During the procedure a small electrode is introduced by stereotactic means towards a target area localized by CT or MRI. An RF-current is applied through the electrode tip when positioned in the target area. The tissue in the proximity of the tip is heated by the current and finally coagulated. The overall aim of this study was to improve the RF-technique and its ability to estimate lesion size by means of optical methods. Therefore, the optical differences between white and gray matter, as well as lesioned and unlesioned tissue were investigated. Reflection spectroscopy measurements in the range of 450-800 nm were conducted on fully anesthetized pigs during stereotactic RF-lesioning (n=6). Light from a tungsten lamp was guided to the electrode tip through optical fibers, inserted along a 2 mm in diameter monopolar RF-electrode. Measurements were performed in steps of 0-10 mm from the target in each hemisphere towards the entry point of the skull. In the central gray of the porcine brain measurements were performed both before and after the creation of a lesion. A total of 55 spectra were collected during this study. Correlation to tissue type was done using post-operative MR-images. The spectral signature for white and gray matter differs significantly for the entire spectral range of 450-800 nm. Pre- and post-lesioning reflection spectroscopy showed the largest differences below 600 and above 620 nm, which implies that lasers within this wavelength range may be useful for in-vivo measurements of tissue optical changes during RF-lesioning.

  2. Energy drink use is associated with alcohol and substance use in eighth, tenth, and twelfth graders.

    PubMed

    Polak, Kathryn; Dillon, Pamela; Koch, J Randy; Miller, Willis G; Thacker, Leroy; Svikis, Dace

    2016-12-01

    The increasing prevalence of energy drink (ED) use and its link with negative behaviors and adverse health outcomes has garnered much attention. Use of EDs combined with alcohol among college students has been of particular interest. It is unclear if these relationships develop in the context of college, or if similar associations exist in younger individuals. The present study examined associations between ED consumption patterns and other substance use in an adolescent, school-based sample. Participants were N = 3743 students attending 8th, 10th or 12th grade in a suburban central Virginia public school system who completed a prevention needs assessment survey in 2012. Chi-square analyses and logistic regressions were used to compare rates of alcohol, tobacco and other drug use across three ED use groups: moderate/heavy (12.6%), light (30.5%), and non-users (57%). Over 40% of the sample reported recent (past month) ED use, with males more likely to report moderate/heavy ED use than females (14.0% and 11.1%, respectively; p = 0.02). After adjusting for gender and grade, ED use group predicted lifetime alcohol, tobacco and other drug use (all p < 0.001). Moderate/heavy ED users were most likely and ED non-users were least likely to report using each of the 13 substances in the survey, with light ED users intermediate to the other two groups. Moderate/heavy ED users were consistently most likely to report licit and illicit substance use. Additional research is needed to better understand which adolescents are at greatest risk for adverse health behaviors associated with ED use.

  3. PRELIMINARY CROSS SECTION AND NU-BAR COVARIANCES FOR WPEC SUBGROUP 26

    SciTech Connect

    ROCHMAN,D.

    2007-01-31

    We report preliminary cross section covariances developed for the WPEC Subgroup 26 for 45 out of 52 requested materials. The covariances were produced in 15- and 187-group representations as follows: (1) 36 isotopes ({sup 16}O, {sup 19}F, {sup 23}Na, {sup 27}Al, {sup 28}Si, {sup 52}Cr, {sup 56,56}Fe, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 90,91,92,94}Zr, {sup 166,167,168,170}Er, {sup 206,207,208}Pb, {sup 209}Bi, {sup 233,234,236}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 238,240,241,242}Pu, {sup 241,242m,243}Am, {sup 242,243,244,245}Cm) were evaluated using the BNL-LANL methodology. For the thermal region and the resolved and unresolved resonance regions, the methodology has been based on the Atlas-Kalman approach, in the fast neutron region the Empire-Kalman method has been used; (2) 6 isotopes ({sup 155,156,157,158,160}Gd and {sup 232}Th) were taken from ENDF/B-VII.0; and (3) 3 isotopes ({sup 1}H, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu) were taken from JENDL-3.3. For 6 light nuclei ({sup 4}He, {sup 6,7}Li, {sup 9}Be, {sup 10}B, {sup 12}C), only partial cross section covariance results were obtained, additional work is needed and they do not report the results here. Likewise, the cross section covariances for {sup 235}U, which they recommend to take from JENDL-3.3, will be included once the multigroup processing is successfully completed. Covariances for the average number of neutrons per fission, total {nu}-bar, are provided for 10 actinides identified as priority by SG26. Further work is needed to resolve some of the issues and to produce covariances for the full set of 52 materials.

  4. Developing a social practice‐based typology of British drinking culture in 2009–2011: implications for alcohol policy analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ally, Abdallah K.; Lovatt, Melanie; Meier, Petra S.; Brennan, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and aims The concept of national drinking culture is well established in research and policy debate, but rarely features in contemporary alcohol policy analysis. We aim to demonstrate the value of the alternative concept of social practices for quantitatively operationalizing drinking culture. We discuss how a practice perspective addresses limitations in existing analytical approaches to health‐related behaviour before demonstrating its empirical application by constructing a statistical typology of British drinking occasions. Design Cross‐sectional latent class analysis of drinking occasions derived from retrospective 1‐week drinking diaries obtained from quota samples of a market research panel. Occasions are periods of drinking with no more than 2 hours between drinks. Setting Great Britain, 2009–11. Cases A total of 187 878 occasions nested within 60 215 nationally representative adults (aged 18 + years). Measurements Beverage type and quantity per occasion; location, company and gender composition of company; motivation and reason for occasion; day, start‐time and duration of occasion; and age, sex and social grade. Findings Eight occasion types are derived based primarily on parsimony considerations rather than model fit statistics. These are mixed location heavy drinking (10.4% of occasions), heavy drinking at home with a partner (9.4%), going out with friends (11.1%), get‐together at someone's house (14.4%), going out for a meal (8.6%), drinking at home alone (13.6%), light drinking at home with family (12.8%) and light drinking at home with a partner (19.6%). Conclusions An empirical model of drinking culture, comprising a typology of drinking practices, reveals the dominance of moderate drinking practices in Great Britain. The model demonstrates the potential for a practice perspective to be used in evaluation of how and why drinking cultures change in response to public health interventions. PMID:27095617

  5. [Effects of simulating acid rain on photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of Quercus glauca Quercus glauca].

    PubMed

    Wang, Sai; Yi, Li-Ta; Yu, Shu-Quan; Zhang, Chao; Shi, Jing-Jing

    2014-08-01

    At three levels of simulated acid rainfall intensities with pH values of 2.5 (severe), 40 (medium) and 5.6 (light) respectively, the responses of chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic parameters of Quercus glauca seedlings were studied in three acid rainfall treatments, i. e. only the aboveground of seedlings exposed to acid rain (T1), both of the seedlings and soil exposed to acid rain (T2), only the soil exposed to acid rain (T3) compared with blank control (CK). Under the severe acid rainfall, T1 significantly inhibited chlorophyll synthesis, and thus reduced the primary photochemical efficiency of PS II ( F(v)/F(m)), potential activity of PS II (F(v)/F(o)) , apparent quantum (Y), net photosynthetic rate (P(n)), and transpiration rate (T(r)), but increased the light compensation point (LCP) and dark respiration rate (R(d)) of Q. glauca seedlings. T2 inhibited, but T3 played a little enhancement on the aforementioned parameters of Q. glauca seedlings. Under the conditions of medium and light acid rainfall intensities, the above parameters in the three treatments were higher than that of CK, except with lower R(d). The chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic parameters showed a similar tendency in the three treatments, i. e. T2>T3 >T1. It indicated that T1 had the strongest inhibition on seedlings in condition of the severe acid rainfall, while T2 had the most dramatic facilitating effect on seedlings under the medium and light acid rainfall. Intensity of acid rainfall had significant influences on SPAD, F(v)/F(m), F(v)/F(o), Y, P(n), T(r), and maximum photosynthetic rate (A(max)), whereas treatments of acid rainfall affected SPAD, F(v)/F(m), Y, P(n), T(r), A(max) and light saturation point (LSP). The interaction of acid rainfall intensities and treatments played significant effects on SPAD, F(v)/F(m), Y, P(n) and A(max).

  6. EMODnet Physical Parameters (EMODNet PP) Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novellino, A.; Schaap, D.; Manzella, G. M. R.; Pouliquen, S.; Gorringe, P.

    2012-04-01

    basin. 2. monitoring and reporting on the effectiveness of the portal in meeting the needs of users in terms of ease of use, quality of information and fitness for purpose of the products delivered. 3. analysing what lessons have been learned for a future operational EMODnet. 4. keeping the portal operational afterwards The EMODNet PP project asks for the following types of measurements: Measurements from fixed stations that should cover at least: 1. wave height and period; 2. temperature of the water column; 3. wind speed and direction; 4. salinity of the water column; 5. horizontal velocity of the water column ; 6. light attenuation; 7. sea level. Measurements from ferryboxes that should cover at least: - temperature of the water column; - salinity of the water column. A portal accessing distributed data bases has been developed.

  7. Caffeine, but not bicarbonate, improves 6 min maximal performance in elite rowers.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Peter M; Petersen, Mads H; Friis, Signe N; Bangsbo, Jens

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the ergogenic effects in a 6 min maximal performance test (PT) on 12 elite rowers: 6 open-weight (mean ± SD; 25 ± 1 years, and 92 ± 3 kg) and 6 light-weight (25 ± 3 years, and 73 ± 6 kg), following supplementation with caffeine (CAF), sodium bicarbonate (SB), and the combination of both, in a double-blind randomized placebo (PLA) controlled design. PT was executed on 4 occasions, on separate days within a week, and in a non-fasted state, with standardized training being performed the day before PT. Protocols were as follows: (i) CAF, 3 mg/kg, 45 min prior to PT + calcium as SB-PLA; (ii) SB, 0.3 g/kg, 75 min prior to PT + dextrose as CAF-PLA; (iii) CAF + SB; and (iv) PLA; CAF-PLA + SB-PLA. The total distance in the CAF (1878 ± 97 m) and CAF + SB (1877 ± 97 m) was longer than in the PLA (1865 ± 104 m; P < 0.05) and SB (1860 ± 96 m; P < 0.01). The mean power in CAF (400 ± 58 W) and CAF + SB (400 ± 58 W) was higher than the PLA (393 ± 61 W; P < 0.05) and SB (389 ± 57 W; P < 0.01). In CAF and CAF + SB, power was higher (P < 0.05) relative to PLA in the last half (4-6 min) of PT. Trials with CAF were more effective in light-weight rowers (1.0% ± 0.8% improvement in distance; P < 0.05) than in open-weight rowers (0.3% ± 0.8%; P > 0.05). No difference between interventions was observed for readiness and stomach comfort before PT and perceived exertion during PT. This study demonstrates that caffeine ingestion does improve performance in elite rowing. In contrast sodium bicarbonate does not appear to be ergogenic, but it does not abolish the ergogenic effect of caffeine.

  8. Tolerability and safety: essentials in antidepressant pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lader, M H

    1996-01-01

    Current antidepressants achieve similar efficacy, with 60% to 80% of patients responding adequately. Clinical response is gradual, and differential response factors are difficult to discern. However, side effect profiles and toxicity vary substantially, so the choice of medication depends primarily on tolerability and safety. Dry mouth is prevalent with tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), whereas nausea occurs more frequently with a serotonin selective reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Long-term unwanted effects tend not to be a major problem, with a dropout rate of approximately 5% due to side effects. The relationship between suicidality and antidepressants remains under debate. Many TCAs are highly toxic in overdose whereas the SSRIs appear much safer. Nefazodone is a unique antidepressant with demonstrated efficacy. It is different from other antidepressants because of its two actions in the serotonin system, moderate serotonin selective reuptake blocking properties and direct 5-HT2 antagonism, which also can enhance 5-HT1 neurotransmission. The 5-HT2 antagonist properties may limit serotonin-mediated effects and, as a result, nefazodone may be more anxiolytic than other antidepressants. Nefazodone also moderately inhibits norepinephrine reuptake and blocks alpha 1-adrenergic receptors. The data base on the safety of nefazodone currently comprises approximately 3,500 patients from all research trials, which include controlled trials that allow comparisons of nefazodone treatment with several hundred patients taking TCAs or SSRIs and nearly 900 patients receiving placebo. The most frequent adverse experiences with nefazodone as compared with placebo treatment are nausea (21% vs. 14%), somnolence (19% vs. 13%), dry mouth (19% vs. 13%), dizziness (12% vs. 6%), constipation (11% vs. 7%), asthenia (11% vs. 6%), light-headedness (10% vs. 4%), and amblyopia (blurred vision; 6% vs. 3%). Approximately 12% of nefazodone-treated patients dropped out because of adverse experiences

  9. Geochemical anomalies in carbonate lacustrine sediments as seasonal and centennial environmental proxy for continental climate conditions in South Siberia during the last 2450 yrs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalugin, I.; Darin, A.; Tretyakov, G.; Rogozin, D.; Khromykh, S.; Kholodova, L.; Maksimova, N.

    2012-04-01

    Sedimentation history of saline lakes efficiently reflects environmental change in catchment area especially for wet-arid conditions. Different sediment carbonates allows quantitative assessment of physicochemical conditions and bioproduction. Shira lake in South Siberia is a good representative object for detail weather-climate modeling due to it`s local hydroclimatic information and annually laminated bottom sediments. Thermodynamic estimation of rock-water multisystem in conformity with local conditions and source matter gives grounds for interpretation of measured geochemical parameters in sediments as environmental indicators like temperature, salinity, pH etc. At the same time using a modern scanning X-ray fluorescence technique for sub-millimeter microstratigraphic study of varves results quantitative environmental reconstruction year by year. Meromictic Shira Lake is closed shallow (25 m) basin 9,4x5,3 km2 of brackish water (total salinity up to 19 g/l) inflowed by small Son river. Continental climate provides mean July temperature 18o and January -20oC. A long-term waterbody stratification with intra-annual chemocline depth 11-16,2 m is observed as well as level oscillations up to 7 m Sediment has thin laminated structure, where black clay-carbonate organic bearing layers are coupled with white organic free ones. Thickness of rhythms varied from 2 mm in the uppermost 20 cm of core to 0.4 mm close to the bottom. Clastic components quartz, feldspar, micas, chlorite are distributed under dust and flood events but not regularly. Visible 6 light intervals depleted of organics are revealed along the core. They have 45-120 mm in thickness and are repeated every 200-250 mm. Dark and light sediments are different in water content as well as rock-forming element composition. LOI<500oC is rather lower in light components, that confirms lack organic matter. Correspondingly, calcite (18-30%) and monohydrocalcite (13-14%) predominate in black muds coloured by organics

  10. Energetic Ring Shows Way To Discovery Of Pulsar "Bulls-Eye"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-06-01

    particles to form jets blasting away from the poles and a disk of matter and anti-matter flowing away from the equator at high speeds. As the equatorial flow rams into particles and magnetic fields in the nebula, a shock wave forms. The shock wave then boosts the particles to extremely high energies causing them to glow in X-rays and produce the bright ring. The particles continue to stream outward from the ring and the jets to supply the extended nebula, which spans approximately 6 light years. The features observed in SNR G54.1+0.3 are very similar to other "pulsar wind nebulas" found by Chandra in the Crab Nebula, the Vela supernova remnant, and B1509-58. By analyzing the similarities and differences between these objects, scientists hope to better understand the fascinating process of transforming the rotational energy of the neutron star into extremely high-energy particles with very little frictional heat loss. Chandra observed SNR G54.1+0.3 on June 6-7, 2001, using the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer instrument. The radio data on the central pulsar, known as PSR J1930+1852, were gathered at Arecibo on April 29, 2002. The results from this work appear in two separate papers in the March 20 and July 20, 2002 issues of the Astrophysical Journal Letters. The Arecibo Observatory is part of the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center (NAIC), operated by Cornell University under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for the Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, Calif., is the prime contractor for the spacecraft. The Smithsonian's Chandra X-ray Center controls science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass.

  11. European Marine Observation and DataNetwork (EMODNET)- physical parameters: A support to marine science and operational oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlin, Hans; Gies, Tobias; Giordano, Marco; Gorringe, Patrick; Manzella, Giuseppe; Maudire, Gilbert; Novellino, Antonio; Pagnani, Maureen; Petersson, Sian; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Rickards, Lesley; Schaap, Dick; Tijsse, Peter; van der Horste, Serge

    2013-04-01

    The overall objectives of EMODNET - physical parameters is to provide access to archived and real-time data on physical conditions in Europe's seas and oceans and to determine how well the data meet the needs of users. In particular it will contribute towards the definition of an operational European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) and contribute to developing the definition of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) marine core service. Access to data and metadata will consider measurements from fixed stations that will cover at least: 1. wave height and period; 2. temperature of the water column; 3. wind speed and direction; 4. salinity of the water column; 5. horizontal velocity of the water column ; 6. light attenuation; 7. sea level. A first running prototype of the portal active from the end of 2011, the final release of the EMODnet PP is due by half June 2012. Then there are 6 months for testing and users' feedback acquisition and management. The project finishes 16th December 2013 after one year of maintenance. Compliance with INSPIRE framework and temporal and geographical data coverage are ensured under the requirements contained in the several Commission Regulations issued from 2008 until 2010. The metadata are based upon the ISO 19115 standard and are compliant with the INSPIRE directive and regulations. This assures also a minimum metadata content in both systems that will facilitate the setting up of a portal that can provide information on data and access to them, depending on the internal data policy of potential contributors. Data coverage: There are three pillars sustaining EMODnet PP: EuroGOOS ROOSs (the EuroGOOS regional Operational Systems), MyOcean and SeaDataNet. MyOcean and EuroGOOS have agreed in EuroGOOS general assemblies (2008-2009-2010) to share their efforts to set up a common infrastructure for real-time data integration for operational oceanography needs extending the global and regional portals set up

  12. TURTLE IN SPACE DESCRIBES NEW HUBBLE IMAGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    ionized gas.) NGC 6210 is about 6,600 light-years away in the constellation Hercules. The nebula measures 1.6 light-years from the very top of the turtle-shaped form to the tip of the bottom. The inner nautilus shell is about 0.5 light-years in diameter. Credits: Robert Rubin and Christopher Ortiz (NASA Ames Research Center), Patrick Harrington and Nancy Jo Lame (University of Maryland), Reginald Dufour (Rice University), and NASA

  13. HUBBLE'S PLANETARY NEBULA GALLERY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    each of the lobes to expand, much like a pair of balloons with internal heaters. This observation was taken Sept. 9, 1997 by the Hubble telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. Hubble 5 is 2,200 light-years away in the constellation Sagittarius. Credits: Bruce Balick (University of Washington), Vincent Icke (Leiden University, The Netherlands), Garrelt Mellema (Stockholm University), and NASA [Bottom center ] - Like NGC 6826, NGC 7009 has a bright central star at the center of a dark cavity bounded by a football-shaped rim of dense, blue and red gas. The cavity and its rim are trapped inside smoothly-distributed greenish material in the shape of a barrel and comprised of the star's former outer layers. At larger distances, and lying along the long axis of the nebula, a pair of red 'ansae', or 'handles' appears. Each ansa is joined to the tips of the cavity by a long greenish jet of material. The handles are clouds of low-density gas. NGC 7009 is 1,400 light-years away in the constellation Aquarius. The Hubble telescope observation was taken April 28, 1996 by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. Credits: Bruce Balick (University of Washington), Jason Alexander (University of Washington), Arsen Hajian (U.S. Naval Observatory), Yervant Terzian (Cornell University), Mario Perinotto (University of Florence, Italy), Patrizio Patriarchi (Arcetri Observatory, Italy), NASA [Bottom right ] - NGC 5307 also lies in Centaurus but is about 10,000 light-years away and has a diameter of approximately 0.6 light-year. It is an example of a planetary nebula with a pinwheel or spiral structure; each blob of gas ejected from the central star has a counterpart on the opposite side of the star. Credits: Howard Bond (Space Telescope Science Institute), Robin Ciardullo (Pennsylvania State University) and NASA

  14. Ages of Lunar Light Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiesinger, Harald; Howes van der Bogert, Carolyn; Thiessen, Fiona; Robinson, Mark

    2013-04-01

    light plains are necessary to corroborate this preliminary observation. In general, our new absolute model ages are similar to model ages derived for light plains north of Mare Frigoris (3.65-4.0 Ga) [6], light plains within the SPA basin (3.43-3.81 Ga) [7], and light plains in the surroundings of the Orientale and Imbrium basins (3.8-4.3 Ga) [8]. The ages are not only similar, but also show similar ranges. While our model ages vary by about 300 Ma, model ages of [6,7] exhibit ranges of ~350 Ma and ~380 Ma, respectively. Ages of [8] show a somewhat wider range of ~500 Ma. From this wide range in ages it has been concluded that a formation of the light plains by a single event (i.e., Orientale or Imbrium) is unlikely [6-8]. References: [1] Wilhelms and McCauley (1971), USGS I-703; [2] Stuart-Alexander (1978), USGS I-1047; [3] Wilhelms et al. (1979), USGS I-1162; [4] Scott et al. (1977), USGS I-1034; [5] Wilhelms and El-Baz (1977), USGS I-948; [6] Köhler et al. (2000), LPSC 31, #1822; [7] Thiessen et al. (2012), LPSC 43, #2060; [8] Neukum (1977b), Moon 17, 383-393.

  15. Young and Exotic Stellar Zoo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-03-01

    Summary Super star clusters are groups of hundreds of thousands of very young stars packed into an unbelievably small volume. They represent the most extreme environments in which stars and planets can form. Until now, super star clusters were only known to exist very far away, mostly in pairs or groups of interacting galaxies. Now, however, a team of European astronomers [1] have used ESO's telescopes to uncover such a monster object within our own Galaxy, the Milky Way, almost, but not quite, in our own backyard! The newly found massive structure is hidden behind a large cloud of dust and gas and this is why it took so long to unveil its true nature. It is known as "Westerlund 1" and is a thousand times closer than any other super star cluster known so far. It is close enough that astronomers may now probe its structure in some detail. Westerlund 1 contains hundreds of very massive stars, some shining with a brilliance of almost one million suns and some two-thousand times larger than the Sun (as large as the orbit of Saturn)! Indeed, if the Sun were located at the heart of this remarkable cluster, our sky would be full of hundreds of stars as bright as the full Moon. Westerlund 1 is a most unique natural laboratory for the study of extreme stellar physics, helping astronomers to find out how the most massive stars in our Galaxy live and die. From their observations, the astronomers conclude that this extreme cluster most probably contains no less than 100,000 times the mass of the Sun, and all of its stars are located within a region less than 6 light-years across. Westerlund 1 thus appears to be the most massive compact young cluster yet identified in the Milky Way Galaxy. PR Photo 09a/05: The Super Star Cluster Westerlund 1 (2.2m MPG/ESO + WFI) PR Photo 09b/05: Properties of Young Massive Clusters Super Star Clusters Stars are generally born in small groups, mostly in so-called "open clusters" that typically contain a few hundred stars. From a wide range of

  16. How Much Mass Makes a Black Hole? - Astronomers Challenge Current Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-08-01

    huge quantities of mass from the progenitor star. While no such companion is currently visible at the site of the magnetar, this could be because the supernova that formed the magnetar caused the binary to break apart, ejecting both stars at high velocity from the cluster. "If this is the case it suggests that binary systems may play a key role in stellar evolution by driving mass loss - the ultimate cosmic 'diet plan' for heavyweight stars, which shifts over 95% of their initial mass," concludes Clark. Notes [1] The open cluster Westerlund 1 was discovered in 1961 from Australia by Swedish astronomer Bengt Westerlund, who later moved from there to become ESO Director in Chile (1970-74). This cluster is behind a huge interstellar cloud of gas and dust, which blocks most of its visible light. The dimming factor is more than 100 000, and this is why it has taken so long to uncover the true nature of this particular cluster. Westerlund 1 is a unique natural laboratory for the study of extreme stellar physics, helping astronomers to find out how the most massive stars in our Milky Way live and die. From their observations, the astronomers conclude that this extreme cluster most probably contains no less than 100 000 times the mass of the Sun, and all of its stars are located within a region less than 6 light-years across. Westerlund 1 thus appears to be the most massive compact young cluster yet identified in the Milky Way galaxy. All stars so far analysed in Westerlund 1 have masses at least 30-40 times that of the Sun. Because such stars have a rather short life - astronomically speaking - Westerlund 1 must be very young. The astronomers determine an age somewhere between 3.5 and 5 million years. So, Westerlund 1 is clearly a "newborn" cluster in our galaxy. More information The research presented in this ESO Press Release will soon appear in the research journal Astronomy and Astrophysics ("A VLT/FLAMES survey for massive binaries in Westerlund 1: II. Dynamical

  17. a Faint and Lonely Brown Dwarf in the Solar Vicinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-04-01

    cubic light-years). A further consideration of the search statistics indicates that less than 10 percent of the Brown Dwarfs present in the surveyed volume would have been found. This translates into a local density of about 0.4 such objects per cubic parsec. Although the mass density of Brown Dwarfs derived from this estimate is insufficient to constitute all the `dark matter' in the Milky Way Galaxy, it is consistent with the most recent estimates of the local mass density, both observed and as infered from dynamical considerations of the motions of stars in the solar neighborhood. Notes: [1] This is done by means of a so-called blink-comparator , an optical device in which the two plates are placed. A tilting mirror allows to view the same sky field alternately on the two plates. Any celestial object that has changed its position will appear to `jump' back and forth and can thus be identified. [2] A proper motion in the sky of 0.25 arcsec/year corresponds to a transversal speed of about 12 km/sec if the object is located at a distance of 10 parsec, or 32.6 light-years. The largest known proper motion of an object outside the solar system is that of Barnard's Star at about 10 arcsec/year. [3] For instance, as the mineral perovskite . How to obtain ESO Press Information ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http://www.eso.org../). ESO Press Photos may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory.

  18. The Orion Nebula: The Jewel in the Sword

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-01-01

    series of images were taken in each of the near-infrared J s - (centred at 1.24 µm wavelength), H- (1.65 µm), and K s - (2.16 µm) bands. North is up and East left. The total integration time for each pixel in the mosaic was 4.5 min in each band. The seeing FWHM (full width at half maximum) was excellent, between 0.35 and 0.50 arcsec throughout. Point sources are detected at the 3-sigma level (central pixel above background noise) of 20.5, 19.2, and 18.8 magnitude in the J s -, H-, and K s -bands, respectively, mainly limited by the bright background emission of the nebula. After removal of instrumental signatures and the bright infrared sky background, all frames in a given band were carefully aligned and adjusted to form a seamless mosaic. The three monochromatic mosaics were then unsharp-masked and scaled logarithmically to reduce the enormous dynamic range and enhance the faint features of the outer nebula. The mosaics were then combined to create this colour-coded image, with the J s -band being rendered as blue, the H-band as green, and the K s -band as red. A total of 81 individual ISAAC images were merged to form this mosaic. PR Photos 03b-c/01 show smaller sections of the large image; the areas are 2.6 x 3.2 and 4.2 x 3.8 arcmin (1.1 x 1.4 and 1.8 x 1.6 light-years), respectively. PR Photo 03d/01 is based on J s band data only, to ensure good visibility (maximum contrast) of the Orion 114-426 silhouette disk against the background nebula. The three highest spatial resolution images covering this region were accurately aligned to form a mosaic with a resolution of 0.4 arcsec FWHM (180 Astronomical Units [AU]) in the vicinity of the disk. A 29 x 29 arcsec (0.2 x 0.2 light-year) section of this smaller mosaic was cut out and the square root of the intensity taken to enhance the disk. The disk is roughly 2 arcsec or 900 AU in diameter. North is up, East left.

  19. Discovery of Nearest Known Brown Dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    perfectly suited to the search for objects with large proper motions and extreme colours, such as brown dwarfs in the Solar vicinity. Everything is moving - a question of perspective In astronomy, the `proper motion' of a star signifies its apparent motion on the celestial sphere; it is usually expressed in arcseconds per year [4]. The corresponding, real velocity of a star (in kilometres per second) can only be estimated if the distance is known. A star with a large proper motion may indicate a real large velocity or simply that the star is close to us. By analogy, an airplane just after takeoff has a much lower true speed than when it's cruising at high altitude, but to an observer watching near an airport, the departing airplane seems to be moving much more quickly across the sky. Proxima Centauri, our nearest stellar neighbour, is just 4.2 light-years away (cf. ESO PR 22/02) and has a proper motion of 3.8 arcsec/year (corresponding to 23 km/sec relative to the Sun, in the direction perpendicular to the line-of-sight). The highest known proper motion star is Barnard's Star at 6 light-years distance and moving 10 arcsec/year (87 km/sec relative to the Sun). All known stars within 30 light-years are high-proper-motion objects and move at least 0.2 arcsec/year. Trawling for fast moving objects For some time, astronomers at the Astrophysical Institute in Potsdam have been making a systematic computerised search for high-proper-motion objects which appear on red photographic sky plates, but not on the equivalent blue plates. Their goal is to identify hitherto unknown cool objects in the Solar neighbourhood. They had previously found a handful of new objects within 30 light-years in this way, but nothing as red or moving remotely as fast as the one they have now snared in the constellation of Indus in the southern sky. This object was only seen on the very longest-wavelength plates in the SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey database. It was moving so quickly that on plates taken just two