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Sample records for 6-month aerobic training

  1. Effects of 6 months of moderate aerobic exercise training on immune function in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Woods, J A; Ceddia, M A; Wolters, B W; Evans, J K; Lu, Q; McAuley, E

    1999-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 6 months of moderate aerobic exercise on age-dysregulated measures of T lymphocyte and natural killer (NK) cell number and function. Previously sedentary elderly (age = 65 +/- 0.8 years) subjects were randomly assigned to supervised 3 time/week exercise intervention group (EXC, n = 14) or flexibility/toning control group (FT-CON, n = 15). Fasting resting blood samples were drawn prior to and after the 6 month intervention. The EXC group exhibited a significant (P < 0.05) 20% increase in VO2 max, whereas the FT-CON group had a smaller non-significant (P = 0.07) increase (9%). Immune results revealed that, in general, changes in immune function in response to 6 months of exercise training at an average intensity of 52% heart rate reserve (HRR) were similar when compared to FT-CON who exercised at approximately 21% HRR. There were no intervention-induced changes in total white blood cell, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, or basophil blood counts. Furthermore, the percentage and number of CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the blood remained unchanged. There was a tendency for the percentage and number of CD4+ and CD8+ näive cells (CD45RA+) to increase and for CD4+ memory cells (CD45RO+) to decrease post-intervention, especially in FT-CON. Both groups exhibited a small intervention-induced increase in the T-cell proliferative response to mitogenic stimulation: the percentage change of which was higher in the EXC group at several doses of Con A. Unstimulated NK cell cytolysis versus K562 cells tended to increase (P < 0.1) in the EXC group with little change in FT-CON. We conclude that 6 months of supervised exercise training can lead to nominal increases in some measures of immune function, while not affecting others, in previously sedentary elderly.

  2. Impact of 6-month aerobic exercise on Alzheimer's symptoms.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fang; Thomas, William; Nelson, Nathaniel W; Bronas, Ulf G; Dysken, Maurice; Wyman, Jean F

    2015-06-01

    Little is known about how aerobic exercise affects Alzheimer's disease (AD). The purpose of this pilot study was to test the impact of 6-month cycling on AD symptoms in community-dwelling older adults with mild-to-moderate AD, using a single-group, repeated-measures design (n = 26). AD symptoms were measured with the AD Assessment Scale-Cognitive (ADAS-Cog), Disability in AD (DAD), and Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Caregiver (NPI-Q) scales at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Data were analyzed using mixed linear models. The ADAS-Cog, DAD, and NPI-Q severity scores remained unchanged over the 6-month period, while caregiver distress decreased 40% (p < .05). We conclude that aerobic exercise may reduce AD symptoms and appears effective in decreasing caregiver distress. Further randomized controlled trials are needed to examine the effects of aerobic exercise in AD. © The Author(s) 2013.

  3. A Standardized Randomized 6-Month Aerobic Exercise-Training Down-regulated Pro-inflammatory Genes, but Up-regulated Anti-inflammatory, Neuron Survival and Axon Growth-Related Genes

    PubMed Central

    Iyalomhe, Osigbemhe; Chen, Yuanxiu; Allard, Joanne; Ntekim, Oyonumo; Johnson, Sheree; Bond, Vernon; Goerlitz, David; Li, James; Obisesan, Thomas O.

    2015-01-01

    There is considerable support for the view that aerobic exercise may confer cognitive benefits to mild cognitively impaired elderly persons. However, the biological mechanisms mediating these effects are not entirely clear. As a preliminary step towards informing this gap in knowledge, we enrolled older adults confirmed to have mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in a 6-month exercise program. Male and female subjects were randomized into a 6-month program of either aerobic or stretch (control) exercise. Data collected from the first 10 completers, aerobic exercise (n=5) or stretch (control) exercise (n=5), were used to determine intervention-induced changes in the global gene expression profiles of the aerobic and stretch groups. Using microarray, we identified genes with altered expression (relative to baseline values) in response to the 6-month exercise intervention. Genes whose expression were altered by at least two-fold, and met the p-value cutoff of 0.01 were inputted into the Ingenuity Pathway Knowledge Base library to generate gene-interaction networks. After a 6-month aerobic exercise-training, genes promoting inflammation became down-regulated, whereas genes having anti-inflammatory properties and those modulating immune function or promoting neuron survival and axon growth, became up-regulated (all fold change ≥ ± 2.0, p < 0.01). These changes were not observed in the stretch group. Importantly, the differences in the expression profiles correlated with significant improvement in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in the aerobic program as opposed to the stretch group. We conclude that three distinct cellular pathways may collectively influence the training effects of aerobic exercise in MCI subjects. We plan to confirm these effects using rt-PCR and correlate such changes with the cognitive phenotype. PMID:25981742

  4. A standardized randomized 6-month aerobic exercise-training down-regulated pro-inflammatory genes, but up-regulated anti-inflammatory, neuron survival and axon growth-related genes.

    PubMed

    Iyalomhe, Osigbemhe; Chen, Yuanxiu; Allard, Joanne; Ntekim, Oyonumo; Johnson, Sheree; Bond, Vernon; Goerlitz, David; Li, James; Obisesan, Thomas O

    2015-09-01

    There is considerable support for the view that aerobic exercise may confer cognitive benefits to mild cognitively impaired elderly persons. However, the biological mechanisms mediating these effects are not entirely clear. As a preliminary step towards informing this gap in knowledge, we enrolled older adults confirmed to have mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in a 6-month exercise program. Male and female subjects were randomized into a 6-month program of either aerobic or stretch (control) exercise. Data collected from the first 10 completers, aerobic exercise (n=5) or stretch (control) exercise (n=5), were used to determine intervention-induced changes in the global gene expression profiles of the aerobic and stretch groups. Using microarray, we identified genes with altered expression (relative to baseline values) in response to the 6-month exercise intervention. Genes whose expression were altered by at least two-fold, and met the p-value cutoff of 0.01 were inputted into the Ingenuity Pathway Knowledge Base Library to generate gene-interaction networks. After a 6-month aerobic exercise-training, genes promoting inflammation became down-regulated, whereas genes having anti-inflammatory properties and those modulating immune function or promoting neuron survival and axon growth, became up-regulated (all fold change≥±2.0, p<0.01). These changes were not observed in the stretch group. Importantly, the differences in the expression profiles correlated with significant improvement in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in the aerobic program as opposed to the stretch group. We conclude that three distinct cellular pathways may collectively influence the training effects of aerobic exercise in MCI subjects. We plan to confirm these effects using rt-PCR and correlate such changes with the cognitive phenotype.

  5. Aerobic exercise increases hippocampal volume in older women with probable mild cognitive impairment: a 6-month randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    ten Brinke, Lisanne F; Bolandzadeh, Niousha; Nagamatsu, Lindsay S; Hsu, Chun Liang; Davis, Jennifer C; Miran-Khan, Karim; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2015-02-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a well-recognised risk factor for dementia and represents a vital opportunity for intervening. Exercise is a promising strategy for combating cognitive decline by improving brain structure and function. Specifically, aerobic training (AT) improved spatial memory and hippocampal volume in healthy community-dwelling older adults. In older women with probable MCI, we previously demonstrated that resistance training (RT) and AT improved memory. In this secondary analysis, we investigated: (1) the effect of RT and AT on hippocampal volume and (2) the association between change in hippocampal volume and change in memory. 86 women aged 70-80 years with probable MCI were randomly assigned to a 6-month, twice-weekly programme of: (1) AT, (2) RT or (3) balance and tone training (BAT; ie, control). At baseline and trial completion, participants performed a 3T MRI scan to determine hippocampal volume. Verbal memory and learning were assessed by Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Compared with the BAT group, AT significantly improved left, right and total hippocampal volumes (p≤0.03). After accounting for baseline cognitive function and experimental group, increased left hippocampal volume was independently associated with reduced verbal memory and learning performance as indexed by loss after interference (r=0.42, p=0.03). Aerobic training significantly increased hippocampal volume in older women with probable MCI. More research is needed to ascertain the relevance of exercise-induced changes in hippocampal volume on memory performance in older adults with MCI. NCT00958867. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. A 6-month analysis of training-intensity distribution and physiological adaptation in Ironman triathletes.

    PubMed

    Neal, Craig M; Hunter, Angus M; Galloway, Stuart D R

    2011-11-01

    In the present study, we analysed the training-intensity distribution and physiological adaptations over a 6-month period preceding an Ironman triathlon race. Ten athletes (mean ± s: age 43 ± 3 years, mass 78.3 ± 10.3 kg, stature 1.79 ± 0.05 m) participated in the study. The study consisted of three training periods (A, B, C), each of approximately 2 months' duration, and four testing weeks. Testing consisted of incremental tests to exhaustion for swimming, cycling and running, and assessments for anthropometry plus cardiovascular and pulmonary measures. The lactate threshold and the lactate turnpoint were used to demarcate three discipline-specific, exercise-intensity zones. The mean percentage of time spent in zones 1, 2, and 3 was 69 ± 9%, 25 ± 8%, and 6 ± 2% for periods A-C combined. Only modest physiological adaptation occurred throughout the 6-month period, with small to moderate effect sizes at best. Relationships between the training volume/training load and the training-intensity distribution with the changes in key measures of adaptation were weak and probably reflect differences in initial training status. Our results suggest that the effects of intensity distribution are small over short-term training periods and future experimental research is needed to clarify the potential impact of intensity distribution on physiological adaptation.

  7. Strategy training shows promise for addressing disability in the first 6 months after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Skidmore, Elizabeth R.; Dawson, Deirdre R.; Butters, Meryl A.; Grattan, Emily S.; Juengst, Shannon B.; Whyte, Ellen M.; Begley, Amy; Holm, Margo B.; Becker, James T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cognitive impairments occur frequently after stroke and contribute to significant disability. Strategy training shows promise but has not been examined in the acute phase of recovery. Objective We conducted a single-blind randomized pilot study estimating the effect of strategy training, relative to reflective listening (attention control), for reducing disability and executive cognitive impairments. Methods Thirty participants with acute stroke who were enrolled in inpatient rehabilitation and had cognitive impairments were randomized to receive strategy training (n=15, 10 sessions as adjunct to usual inpatient rehabilitation) or reflective listening (n=15, same dose). The Functional Independence Measure assessed disability at baseline, rehabilitation discharge, 3 and 6 months. The Color Word Interference Test of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System assessed selected executive cognitive impairments (inhibition, flexibility) at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Results Changes in Functional Independence Measure scores for the two groups over 6 months showed significant effects of group (F1,27=9.25, p=0.005), time (F3.74=96.00, p<0.001), and group*time interactions (F3,74=4.37, p<0.007) after controlling for baseline differences in stroke severity (F1,27=6.74, p=0.015). Color Word Interference Inhibition scores showed significant effects of group (F1,26=6.50, p=0.017), and time (F2,34=4.74, p=0.015), but the group*time interaction was not significant (F2,34=2.55, p=0.093). Color Word Interference Cognitive Flexibility scores showed significant effects of group (F1,26=23.41, p<0.001), and time (F2,34=12.77, p<0.001), and group*time interactions (F2,34=7.83, p<0.002). Interaction effects suggested greater improvements were associated with strategy training. Conclusions Strategy training shows promise for addressing disability in the first 6 months after stroke. Lessons from this pilot study may inform future clinical trials. PMID:25505221

  8. Effect of 6 Months of Balance Training During Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Patients With COPD.

    PubMed

    Mkacher, Wajdi; Mekki, Marwa; Tabka, Zouhair; Trabelsi, Yassine

    2015-01-01

    Balance impairment is recognized as an important issue for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to examine the effect of balance training as part of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) on balance in COPD patients. Patients were randomly assigned to an intervention or usual care group. The intervention group underwent balance training 3 times a week for 6 months in addition to the standard PR. The control group received 6 months of the standard PR program only. Balance was assessed by the Timed Up and Go (TUG), Tinetti, Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and the Unipodal Stance (UST) tests. Balance confidence was rated using the ABC scale. Exercise tolerance was determined using a 6-Minute Walk Test. Following the completion of PR, the intervention group showed improvement in all balance measures. Only TUG, ABC, and UST scores were improved in the usual care group (P < .05). Results demonstrated significant between-group differences in TUG, Tinetti, BBS, and ABC scores (P < .01) and UST score (P < .05). Balance training incorporated into a standard PR program significantly improves scores on balance tests in COPD patients.

  9. Virtual reality job interview training and 6-month employment outcomes for individuals with schizophrenia seeking employment.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew J; Fleming, Michael F; Wright, Michael A; Roberts, Andrea G; Humm, Laura Boteler; Olsen, Dale; Bell, Morris D

    2015-08-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have low employment rates and the job interview presents a critical barrier for them to obtain employment. Virtual reality training has demonstrated efficacy at improving interview skills and employment outcomes among multiple clinical populations. However, the effects of this training on individuals with schizophrenia are unknown. This study evaluated the efficacy of virtual reality job interview training (VR-JIT) at improving job interview skills and employment outcomes among individuals with schizophrenia in a small randomized controlled trial (n=21 VR-JIT trainees, n=11 waitlist controls). Trainees completed up to 10h of virtual interviews using VR-JIT, while controls received services as usual. Primary outcome measures included two pre-test and two post-test video-recorded role-play interviews scored by blinded raters with expertise in human resources and self-reported interviewing self-confidence. Six-month follow-up data on employment outcomes were collected. Trainees reported that the intervention was easy-to-use, helpful, and prepared them for future interviews. Trainees demonstrated increased role-play scores between pre-test and post-test while controls did not (p=0.001). After accounting for neurocognition and months since prior employment, trainees had greater odds of receiving a job offer by 6month follow-up compared to controls (OR: 8.73, p=0.04) and more training was associated with fewer weeks until receiving a job offer (r=-0.63, p<0.001). Results suggest that VR-JIT is acceptable to trainees and may be efficacious for improving job interview skills in individuals with schizophrenia. Moreover, trainees had greater odds of receiving a job offer by 6-month follow-up. Future studies could evaluate the effectiveness of VR-JIT within community-based services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Impact of Aerobic Exercise on Fronto-Parietal Network Connectivity and Its Relation to Mobility: An Exploratory Analysis of a 6-Month Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chun L.; Best, John R.; Wang, Shirley; Voss, Michelle W.; Hsiung, Robin G. Y.; Munkacsy, Michelle; Cheung, Winnie; Handy, Todd C.; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Impaired mobility is a major concern for older adults and has significant consequences. While the widely accepted belief is that improved physical function underlies the effectiveness of targeted exercise training in improving mobility and reducing falls, recent evidence suggests cognitive and neural benefits gained through exercise may also play an important role in promoting mobility. However, the underlying neural mechanisms of this relationship are currently unclear. Thus, we hypothesize that 6 months of progressive aerobic exercise training would alter frontoparietal network (FPN) connectivity during a motor task among older adults with mild subcortical ischemic vascular cognitive impairment (SIVCI)—and exercise-induced changes in FPN connectivity would correlate with changes in mobility. We focused on the FPN as it is involved in top-down attentional control as well as motor planning and motor execution. Participants were randomized either to usual-care (CON), which included monthly educational materials about VCI and healthy diet; or thrice-weekly aerobic training (AT), which was walking outdoors with progressive intensity. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was acquired at baseline and trial completion, where the participants were instructed to perform bilateral finger tapping task. At trial completion, compared with AT, CON showed significantly increased FPN connectivity strength during right finger tapping (p < 0.05). Across the participants, reduced FPN connectivity was associated with greater cardiovascular capacity (p = 0.05). In the AT group, reduced FPN connectivity was significantly associated with improved mobility performance, as measured by the Timed-Up-and-Go test (r = 0.67, p = 0.02). These results suggest progressive AT may improve mobility in older adults with SIVCI via maintaining intra-network connectivity of the FPN. PMID:28713255

  11. Effect of 6-month athletic training on motor abilities in seven-year-old schoolgirls.

    PubMed

    Katić, R; Males, B; Miletić, D

    2002-12-01

    The effects of six-month athletic training on improving motor abilities in 7-year-old schoolgirls were assessed. Analysis of the results of 12 motor tests showed significant improvement in the study group (n = 38) in comparison with control group (n = 140) subjected to conventional physical education classes only. The improvement referred to the variables of aerobic endurance (3-min run), flexibility (forward bow), explosive strength (ball throwing and 20-m run), keeping balance (bench standing), static strength (bent arm hang), and repetitive strength (sit-ups). These are probably adaptive changes brought up by discriminant functions. The varimax factor and discriminative function correlations indicated that all four factors of changes contributed significantly to the explanation of discriminative function. An almost equally high correlation of varimax factors and discriminative function was obtained on the basis of differences in the third factor responsible for changes in the frequency of movements and in the explosive strength of the jump type; in the second factor responsible for changes in coordination with changes in the repetitive strength of the body; and in the fourth factor responsible for changes in the explosive strength of the throw and sprint types with changes and endurance.

  12. Effectiveness of a 6-Month Home-Based Training Program in Prader-Willi Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vismara, Luca; Cimolin, Veronica; Grugni, Graziano; Galli, Manuela; Parisio, Cinzia; Sibilia, Olivia; Capodaglio, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    In addition to hypotonia and relative sarcopenia, patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) show reduced spontaneous physical activity and gait disorders. Scant evidence exists that daily muscle training increases their lean mass and physical activity levels. Whether adequate long-term physical training is feasible and effective in improving…

  13. Effectiveness of a 6-Month Home-Based Training Program in Prader-Willi Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vismara, Luca; Cimolin, Veronica; Grugni, Graziano; Galli, Manuela; Parisio, Cinzia; Sibilia, Olivia; Capodaglio, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    In addition to hypotonia and relative sarcopenia, patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) show reduced spontaneous physical activity and gait disorders. Scant evidence exists that daily muscle training increases their lean mass and physical activity levels. Whether adequate long-term physical training is feasible and effective in improving…

  14. Comparison of muscle hypertrophy following 6-month of continuous and periodic strength training.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Riki; Yasuda, Tomohiro; Ishii, Naokata; Abe, Takashi

    2013-04-01

    To compare the effects of a periodic resistance training (PTR) program with those of a continuous resistance training (CTR) program on muscle size and function, 14 young men were randomly divided into a CTR group and a PTR group. Both groups performed high-intensity bench press exercise training [75 % of one repetition maximum (1-RM); 3 sets of 10 reps] for 3 days per week. The CTR group trained continuously over a 24-week period, whereas the PTR group performed three cycles of 6-week training (or retraining), with 3-week detraining periods between training cycles. After an initial 6 weeks of training, increases in cross-sectional area (CSA) of the triceps brachii and pectoralis major muscles and maximum isometric voluntary contraction of the elbow extensors and 1-RM were similar between the two groups. In the CTR group, muscle CSA and strength gradually increased during the initial 6 weeks of training. However, the rate of increase in muscle CSA and 1-RM decreased gradually after that. In the PTR group, increase in muscle CSA and strength during the first 3-week detraining/6-week retraining cycle were similar to that in the CTR group during the corresponding period. However, increase in muscle CSA and strength during the second 3-week detraining/6-week retraining cycle were significantly higher in the PTR group than in the CTR group. Thus, overall improvements in muscle CSA and strength were similar between the groups. The results indicate that 3-week detraining/6-week retraining cycles result in muscle hypertrophy similar to that occurring with continuous resistance training after 24 weeks.

  15. Athletic Training Students Demonstrate Airway Management Skill Decay, but Retain Knowledge over 6 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popp, Jennifer K.; Berry, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Airway management (AM) knowledge and skills are taught in all athletic training programs; however, research suggests that skill decay occurs with acute care skills as length of nonpractice increases. Objective: Evaluate retention of AM knowledge and skills, specifically oropharyngeal airway (OPA) and nasopharyngeal airway (NPA) use, in…

  16. Athletic Training Students Demonstrate Airway Management Skill Decay, but Retain Knowledge over 6 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popp, Jennifer K.; Berry, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Airway management (AM) knowledge and skills are taught in all athletic training programs; however, research suggests that skill decay occurs with acute care skills as length of nonpractice increases. Objective: Evaluate retention of AM knowledge and skills, specifically oropharyngeal airway (OPA) and nasopharyngeal airway (NPA) use, in…

  17. Lipid and lipoprotein changes in women following 6 months of exercise training in a worksite fitness program.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, P W; Oden, G L; Crouse, S F; Brown, J A; Green, J S

    1996-03-01

    It was the purpose of this investigation to examine the influence of a worksite aerobic training program on serum lipid and lipoproteins and cardiovascular fitness in female employees. Thirty-seven healthy but previously untrained, female employees (Ss) from Westinghouse Corporation, (College Station, Texas) volunteered for the study. Ss were randomly assigned to either an exercise group (Ex) (n = 20) or control group (C) (n = 17). Prior to training (PRE) and following training (POST), all Ss were measured for weight (WT), body composition (%FAT) and tested for maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max). PRE and POST Lipid analysis included: total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and triglycerides (TG). Following PRE testing, the Ex group aerobically trained by walking, jogging and/or cycling, at least 3 days per wk for 24 wks. Exercise training resulted in an improvement in VO2 max (p < 0.0006) and a 2 kg WT loss in Ex (p < 0.025) with no change in C. Both Ex and C Ss exhibited a loss in %-FAT (p < 0.0001), and a decrease in TC (p < 0.0001) and LDL-C (p < 0.0001). No differences were observed between groups or over the training period for VLDL-C or TG. Although HDL-C increased 6 mg/dl in the Ex group but not in C, this difference did not reach statistical significance (p < 0.0625). These results demonstrate that aerobic training by females in a worksite fitness program significantly improves cardiovascular fitness without altering lipids or lipoproteins.

  18. The brain-in-motion study: effect of a 6-month aerobic exercise intervention on cerebrovascular regulation and cognitive function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Tyndall, Amanda V; Davenport, Margie H; Wilson, Ben J; Burek, Grazyna M; Arsenault-Lapierre, Genevieve; Haley, Eryka; Eskes, Gail A; Friedenreich, Christine M; Hill, Michael D; Hogan, David B; Longman, R Stewart; Anderson, Todd J; Leigh, Richard; Smith, Eric E; Poulin, Marc J

    2013-02-28

    Aging and physical inactivity are associated with declines in some cognitive domains and cerebrovascular function, as well as an elevated risk of cerebrovascular disease and other morbidities. With the increase in the number of sedentary older Canadians, promoting healthy brain aging is becoming an increasingly important population health issue. Emerging research suggests that higher levels of physical fitness at any age are associated with better cognitive functioning and this may be mediated, at least in part, by improvements in cerebrovascular reserve. We are currently conducting a study to determine: if a structured 6-month aerobic exercise program is associated with improvements or maintenance of both cerebrovascular function and cognitive abilities in older individuals; and, the extent to which any changes seen persist 6 months after the completion of the structured exercise program. Two hundred and fifty men and women aged 55-80 years are being enrolled into an 18-month combined quasi-experimental and prospective cohort study. Participants are eligible for enrollment into the study if they are inactive (i.e., not participating in regular physical activity), non-smokers, have a body mass index <35.0 kg/m(2), are free of significant cognitive impairment (defined as a Montreal Cognitive Assessment score of 24 or more), and do not have clinically significant cardiovascular, cerebrovascular disease, or chronic obstructive pulmonary airway disease. Repeated measurements are done during three sequential six-month phases: 1) pre-intervention; 2) aerobic exercise intervention; and 3) post-intervention. These outcomes include: cardiorespiratory fitness, resting cerebral blood flow, cerebrovascular reserve, and cognitive function. This is the first study to our knowledge that will examine contemporaneously the effect of an exercise intervention on both cerebrovascular reserve and cognition in an older population. This study will further our understanding of whether

  19. Ergonomic Training Reduces Musculoskeletal Disorders among Office Workers: Results from the 6-Month Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Mahmud, Norashikin; Kenny, Dianna Theadora; Md Zein, Raemy; Hassan, Siti Nurani

    2011-01-01

    Background: Musculoskeletal disorders are commonly reported among computer users. This study explored whether these disorders can be reduced by the provision of ergonomics education. Methods: A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted in which 3 units were randomised for intervention and received training, and 3 units were given a leaflet. The effect of intervention on workstation habits, musculoskeletal disorders, days and episodes of sick leave, and psychological well-being were assessed. Results: A significant improvement in workstation habits was found, and the differences remained significant at the follow-up time point for keyboard, mouse, chair, and desk use. The largest reduction in the percentage of musculoskeletal disorders was in the neck region (−42.2%, 95% CI −60.0 to −24.4). After adjusting for baseline values, significant differences were found at the follow-up time point in the neck, right shoulder, right and left upper limbs, lower back, and right and left lower limbs. No significant differences were found for the days and episodes of sick leave or the psychological well-being among workers after the intervention. Conclusion: Consistent reductions were observed for all musculoskeletal disorders at the follow-up time point, although the difference was not statistically significant for the upper back. The improvements in the musculoskeletal disorders did not translate into fewer days lost from work or improved psychological well-being. PMID:22135582

  20. Training Cambodian Village Health Support Guides in Diabetes Prevention: Effects on Guides' Knowledge and Teaching Activities Over 6 Months.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Julie; Keuky, Lim; Fraser-King, Lorraine; Kuoch, Theanvy; Scully, Mary

    2016-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a pressing public health concern in Cambodia, a country with limited human resource capacity due to genocide. Cambodian village health support guides (Guides) promote health at the local level. This paper reports preliminary results of training Guides in diabetes prevention. The curriculum, called Eat, Walk, Sleep was delivered to Guides in Siem Reap province once over 3 h. Participants completed a pretest and posttest on diabetes knowledge. Guides were offered continuing education through Eat, Walk, Sleep resources and were encouraged to teach Eat, Walk, Sleep in their villages. For each of 6 months following their training, Guides completed a checklist regarding their activities. One hundred eighty-five Guides attended one of ten trainings. Knowledge scores increased significantly from pretest to posttest. During 6 months of follow-up, n = 159 Guides (85 %) completed at least one monthly checklist. Guides reported high rates of uptake and delivery of the Eat, Walk, Sleep curriculum and moderate rates of continuing education about diabetes. Diabetes prevention in Cambodia is nascent. Guides show excellent uptake and dissemination of the curriculum. Future research should examine effect of support for Guide activities and the effect of the curriculum on villager health behaviors, and ultimately, on rates of type 2 diabetes.

  1. A training program for novice paramedics provides initial laryngeal mask airway insertion skill and improves skill retention at 6 months.

    PubMed

    Hein, Cindy; Owen, Harry; Plummer, John

    2010-02-01

    Major resuscitation councils endorse the use of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) by paramedics for lifesaving airway interventions. Learning and maintaining adequate skill level is important for patient safety. The aim of this project was to develop a training program that provides student paramedics with initial knowledge and experience in LMA insertion skills but equally important to provide ongoing skill retention. After ethics approval and informed consent, 55 first year Paramedic degree students watched a manufacturer's LMA instruction video and practiced insertion in three different part task trainers. Six months later, subjects were randomized to an intervention (reviewing the video and 10 minutes unsupervised practice) or control group before participating in a high-fidelity simulated clinical scenario. For equity of training, the control group received the intervention after the scenario. Main outcomes measured were time to insertion; success rate; and LMA skill retention (sum of LMA orientation; cuff inflation; bite block; securing; patient positioning; and overall subject performance). Fifty subjects completed the study. Those in the intervention group displayed significantly shorter insertion times (P = 0.029), fewer attempts to achieve success (P = 0.033), and had significantly higher LMA skill performance levels (P = 0.019) at 6 months. We devised a short intervention based on our training program using a video and practice in part task trainers. In an assessment using high-fidelity simulation, we demonstrated significant improvements in maintenance of LMA insertion skills in student paramedics at 6 months. Our model of just-in-time assessment and reinforcement of training prevents skill decay and has implications for healthcare skills training in general.

  2. Development of Computer-Aided Cognitive Training Program for Elderly and Its Effectiveness through a 6 Months Group Intervention Study.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Tsunehiro; Tanemura, Rumi; Noda, Kazue; Nagao, Toru; Sakai, Hiroshi; Luo, Zhi-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Since the increasing population of aging, cognitive training is focused as one of the non-pharmacological preventive approach of cognitive decline. Although the accumulation of the knowledge, they hardly reflect to the programs for clinical use. We developed a task set named "Atama-no-dojo," designed to activate multiple cognitive functions and enhance motivational incentives. The objective of our study is to confirm the effect of our program through a 6 months group intervention program. The intervention program conducted in a day service center for 6 months in the duration of 45 minutes per day, 4 days per month for a total of 25 sessions. Participants worked to the tasks on the screen all together with filling in the answering sheet. Neuropsychological tests, SF36 and GDS were assessed at pre-/post-intervention periods. Participants filled in a questionnaire about impression to the program at the last training session. Fourteen women (82.2 ± 2.9 years old) were analyzed and significant changes were found in the improvement of memory, attention, inhibition, GDS and some items of SF36. All participants recognized the program as fun and wanted to continue. Some of the participants' positive impressions to the program correlated to cognitive improvement. The improved cognitive functions by 6 months intervention of "Atama-no-dojo" were mainly related to prefrontal cortex and the motivational incentives seemed supported the effect of task contents. We recognized the importance of task difficulty setting and motivational incentives to reduce frustration from working on difficult tasks and enhance the effects of improvement from activating brain function.

  3. The brain-in-motion study: effect of a 6-month aerobic exercise intervention on cerebrovascular regulation and cognitive function in older adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aging and physical inactivity are associated with declines in some cognitive domains and cerebrovascular function, as well as an elevated risk of cerebrovascular disease and other morbidities. With the increase in the number of sedentary older Canadians, promoting healthy brain aging is becoming an increasingly important population health issue. Emerging research suggests that higher levels of physical fitness at any age are associated with better cognitive functioning and this may be mediated, at least in part, by improvements in cerebrovascular reserve. We are currently conducting a study to determine: if a structured 6-month aerobic exercise program is associated with improvements or maintenance of both cerebrovascular function and cognitive abilities in older individuals; and, the extent to which any changes seen persist 6 months after the completion of the structured exercise program. Methods/design Two hundred and fifty men and women aged 55–80 years are being enrolled into an 18-month combined quasi-experimental and prospective cohort study. Participants are eligible for enrollment into the study if they are inactive (i.e., not participating in regular physical activity), non-smokers, have a body mass index <35.0 kg/m2, are free of significant cognitive impairment (defined as a Montreal Cognitive Assessment score of 24 or more), and do not have clinically significant cardiovascular, cerebrovascular disease, or chronic obstructive pulmonary airway disease. Repeated measurements are done during three sequential six-month phases: 1) pre-intervention; 2) aerobic exercise intervention; and 3) post-intervention. These outcomes include: cardiorespiratory fitness, resting cerebral blood flow, cerebrovascular reserve, and cognitive function. Discussion This is the first study to our knowledge that will examine contemporaneously the effect of an exercise intervention on both cerebrovascular reserve and cognition in an older population. This study

  4. Effect of aerobic exercise training on blood pressure sensitivity to dietary sodium in older hypertensives.

    PubMed

    Dengel, D R; Brown, M D; Reynolds, T H; Kuskowski, M A; Supiano, M A

    2006-05-01

    Although aerobic exercise training has been shown to lower blood pressure (BP) in older adults, its effect on BP sensitivity to dietary sodium (Na(+)) is unknown. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the effect of aerobic exercise training on BP sensitivity to dietary Na(+) in older hypertensive individuals. Blood pressure was measured after 8 days of low (20 mEq) and high (200 mEq) Na(+) diets in 31 older (63+/-7 years, mean+/-standard deviation), hypertensive (152+/-11/88+/-5 mm Hg) individuals at baseline and following 6 months of aerobic exercise training (at 75% VO(2)max, 3 times/week, 40 min/session). Subjects were grouped on the basis of the difference in mean arterial BP (MAP) between diets (Na(+) sensitive: >or=5 mm Hg increase in MAP on high Na(+), n=20; Na(+) resistant: <5 mm Hg increase in MAP on the high Na(+) diet, n=11). Following 6 months of aerobic exercise training, there was a significant increase in maximal aerobic capacity (VO(2)max: 18.3+/-3.8 vs 20.7+/-4.2 ml/kg/min, P<0.017). Aerobic exercise training had a significant (P=0.02) effect on Na(+) sensitivity status, with the proportion of Na(+)-resistant individuals increasing from 35% at baseline to 61% following the 6-month aerobic exercise training programme. This study demonstrates the importance of physical activity on BP sensitivity to dietary Na(+).

  5. Strength training vs. aerobic training: cardiovascular tolerance in elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Joana; Mota, Jorge; Soares, José M

    2003-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate cardiovascular tolerance to two different types of exercise (strength training vs. aerobic training) in healthy elderly subjects. Nineteen healthy elderly subjects aged 65-81 were studied. All the subjects participated in a 6-month combined physical activity program of gymnastics (2 times/week; 50 min.) and strength training (2 times/week; 40-50 min.). The gymnastics sessions consisted of general physical activity that is usually offered to elderly people and included warm-up, aerobic exercises, strength training, some balance and coordination exercises, recreational games and cool-down. The strength training consisted of two sets of 10 to 12 repetitions at 70% of one repetition maximum (1 RM) for "women's double chest"; "leg extension"; "overhead press; "seated leg curl"; "lateral raise"; "leg press" and "abdominal machine". Cardiovascular tolerance was evaluated both by measuring heart rate (HR) continuously (Polar Vantage NV) during the sessions and by measuring systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) with an electronic sphygmomanometer at five different times (baseline, after warm-up, 15-20 min., 30-40 min. and after cool-down). Moreover, in order to measure the response according to the type of exercise, in strength training sessions, SBP and DBP were also evaluated in different machines (legs vs. arms). Comparison between the two different types of exercise (gymnastics vs. strength training) and between different machines was performed by an unpaired Student's t test. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. The results showed no significant differences in HR, SBP and DBP values between the two training types. Both sessions were performed at appropriate intensity without exaggerated cardiovascular response. In strength training, exercises that involved the legs presented higher rises in SBP and DBP values than those performed with the arms. These data suggest that, if appropriate techniques are used

  6. A 6-month follow-up of the effects of an information and communication technology (ICT) training programme on people with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Li-Tsang, Cecilia W P; Lee, Maggie Y F; Yeung, Susanna S S; Siu, Andrew M H; Lam, C S

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the long-term effects of an information and communication technology (ICT) training programme for people with intellectual disabilities (ID). A community-based ICT training programme was designed to enhance the computer skills of people with ID and prepare them to make use of ICT in their daily life. Of the 100 who had participated in the original ICT training programme, 59 of them and their caregivers agreed to participate in the follow-up interview. A computer skills checklist was used to assess the ICT competence of the participants before training, after training, and at the 6-month follow-up assessment. All caregivers were interviewed at the 6-month follow-up session to explore the use of ICT by people with ID and their needs for further training. Results from repeated measures ANOVA showed that participants maintained at the 6-month follow-up the basic ICT skills that they acquired during training [F=13.86, p<0.001]. Caregivers reported that participants spent more time in using the computers, but still needed occasional guidance. They also reported a need to advance their ICT skills beyond the basic computer training. We concluded that ICT training for people with ID would help them in maximizing the benefits of information technology via computers.

  7. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy after Aerobic Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Adam R.; Harber, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Current dogma suggests aerobic exercise training has minimal effect on skeletal muscle size. We and others have demonstrated that aerobic exercise acutely and chronically alters protein metabolism and induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. These findings promote an antithesis to the status quo by providing novel perspective on skeletal muscle mass regulation and insight into exercise-countermeasures for populations prone to muscle loss. PMID:24508740

  8. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy after aerobic exercise training.

    PubMed

    Konopka, Adam R; Harber, Matthew P

    2014-04-01

    Current dogma suggests that aerobic exercise training has minimal effects on skeletal muscle size. We and others have demonstrated that aerobic exercise acutely and chronically alters protein metabolism and induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. These findings promote an antithesis to the status quo by providing novel perspective on skeletal muscle mass regulation and insight into exercise countermeasures for populations prone to muscle loss.

  9. Society of Neurological Surgeons boot camp courses: knowledge retention and relevance of hands-on learning after 6 months of postgraduate year 1 training.

    PubMed

    Selden, Nathan R; Anderson, Valerie C; McCartney, Shirley; Origitano, Thomas C; Burchiel, Kim J; Barbaro, Nicholas M

    2013-09-01

    In July 2010, the Society of Neurological Surgeons (SNS) introduced regional courses to promote patient safety and teach fundamental skills and knowledge to all postgraduate Year 1 (PGY1) trainees entering Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-accredited US neurosurgery residency programs. Data from these courses demonstrated significant didactic learning and high faculty and resident satisfaction with hands-on training. Here, the authors evaluated the durability of learning from and the relevance of participation in SNS PGY1 courses as measured midway through PGY1 training. Resident participants were resurveyed 6 months after boot camp course attendance to assess knowledge retention and course effectiveness. Exposure to relevant hands-on experiences during PGY1 training and the subjective value of pre-residency simulated training in the courses were assessed. Ninety-four percent of all residents entering US PGY1 neurosurgical training participated in the 2010 SNS boot camp courses. One hundred sixty-four (88%) of these resident participants responded to the survey. Six months after course completion, 99% of respondents believed the boot camp courses benefited beginning neurosurgery residents and imparted skills and knowledge that would improve patient care. The PGY1 residents' knowledge of information taught in the courses was retained 6 months after initial testing (p < 0.0001). The learning and other benefits of participation in a national curriculum for residents entering PGY1 neurosurgical training were maintained 6 months after the courses, halfway through the initial training year.

  10. Changes in Gait Symmetry After Training on a Treadmill with Biofeedback in Chronic Stroke Patients: A 6-Month Follow-Up from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Drużbicki, Mariusz; Guzik, Agnieszka; Przysada, Grzegorz; Kwolek, Andrzej; Brzozowska-Magoń, Agnieszka; Sobolewski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Background One of the most significant challenges for patients who survive a stroke is relearning basic motor tasks such as walking. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether training on a treadmill with visual biofeedback improves gait symmetry, as well as spatiotemporal and kinematic gait parameters, in stroke patients. Material/Methods Thirty patients in the chronic phase after a stroke were randomly allocated into groups with a rehabilitation program of treadmill training with or without visual biofeedback. The training program lasted 10 days. Spatiotemporal and kinematic gait parameters were evaluated. For all parameters analyzed, a symmetrical index was calculated. Follow-up studies were performed 6 months after completion of the program. Results The symmetrical index had significantly normalized in terms of the step length (p=0.006), stance phase time, and inter-limb ratio in the intervention group. After 6 months, the improvement in the symmetry of the step length had been maintained. In the control group, no statistically significant change was observed in any of the parameters tested. There was no significant difference between the intervention group and the control group on completion of the program or at 6 months following the completion of the program. Conclusions Training on a treadmill has a significant effect on the improvement of spatiotemporal parameters and symmetry of gait in patients with chronic stroke. In the group with the treadmill training using visual biofeedback, no significantly greater improvement was observed. PMID:27941712

  11. The Effects of 6 Months of Progressive High Effort Resistance Training Methods upon Strength, Body Composition, Function, and Wellbeing of Elderly Adults

    PubMed Central

    Raubold, Kristin; Gentil, Paulo; Giessing, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The present study examined the progressive implementation of a high effort resistance training (RT) approach in older adults over 6 months and through a 6-month follow-up on strength, body composition, function, and wellbeing of older adults. Methods Twenty-three older adults (aged 61 to 80 years) completed a 6-month supervised RT intervention applying progressive introduction of higher effort set end points. After completion of the intervention participants could choose to continue performing RT unsupervised until 6-month follow-up. Results Strength, body composition, function, and wellbeing all significantly improved over the intervention. Over the follow-up, body composition changes reverted to baseline values, strength was reduced though it remained significantly higher than baseline, and wellbeing outcomes were mostly maintained. Comparisons over the follow-up between those who did and those who did not continue with RT revealed no significant differences for changes in any outcome measure. Conclusions Supervised RT employing progressive application of high effort set end points is well tolerated and effective in improving strength, body composition, function, and wellbeing in older adults. However, whether participants continued, or did not, with RT unsupervised at follow-up had no effect on outcomes perhaps due to reduced effort employed during unsupervised RT. PMID:28676855

  12. Training paediatric healthcare staff in recognising, understanding and managing conflict with patients and families: findings from a survey on immediate and 6-month impact.

    PubMed

    Forbat, Liz; Simons, Jean; Sayer, Charlotte; Davies, Megan; Barclay, Sarah

    2017-03-01

    Conflict is a recognised component of healthcare. Disagreements about treatment protocols, treatment aims and poor communication are recognised warning signs. Conflict management strategies can be used to prevent escalation, but are not a routine component of clinical training. To report the findings from a novel training intervention, aimed at enabling paediatric staff to identify and understand the warning signs of conflict, and to implement conflict resolution strategies. Self-report measures were taken at baseline, immediately after the training and at 6 months. Questionnaires recorded quantitative and qualitative feedback on the experience of training, and the ability to recognise and de-escalate conflict. The training was provided in a tertiary teaching paediatric hospital in England over 18 months, commencing in June 2013. A 4-h training course on identifying, understanding and managing conflict was provided to staff. Baseline data were collected from all 711 staff trained, and 6-month follow-up data were collected for 313 of those staff (44%). The training was successful in equipping staff to recognise and de-escalate conflict. Six months after the training, 57% of respondents had experienced conflict, of whom 91% reported that the training had enabled them to de-escalate the conflict. Learning was retained at 6 months with staff more able than at baseline recognising conflict triggers (Fischer's exact test, p=0.001) and managing conflict situations (Pearson's χ(2) test, p=0.001). This training has the potential to reduce substantially the human and economic costs of conflicts for healthcare providers, healthcare staff, patients and relatives. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Does multicomponent physical exercise with simultaneous cognitive training boost cognitive performance in older adults? A 6-month randomized controlled trial with a 1-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Eggenberger, Patrick; Schumacher, Vera; Angst, Marius; Theill, Nathan; de Bruin, Eling D

    2015-01-01

    Background Cognitive impairment is a health problem that concerns almost every second elderly person. Physical and cognitive training have differential positive effects on cognition, but have been rarely applied in combination. This study evaluates synergistic effects of multicomponent physical exercise complemented with novel simultaneous cognitive training on cognition in older adults. We hypothesized that simultaneous cognitive–physical components would add training specific cognitive benefits compared to exclusively physical training. Methods Seniors, older than 70 years, without cognitive impairment, were randomly assigned to either: 1) virtual reality video game dancing (DANCE), 2) treadmill walking with simultaneous verbal memory training (MEMORY), or 3) treadmill walking (PHYS). Each program was complemented with strength and balance exercises. Two 1-hour training sessions per week over 6 months were applied. Cognitive performance was assessed at baseline, after 3 and 6 months, and at 1-year follow-up. Multiple regression analyses with planned comparisons were calculated. Results Eighty-nine participants were randomized to the three groups initially, 71 completed the training, while 47 were available at 1-year follow-up. Advantages of the simultaneous cognitive–physical programs were found in two dimensions of executive function. “Shifting attention” showed a time×intervention interaction in favor of DANCE/MEMORY versus PHYS (F[2, 68] =1.95, trend P=0.075, r=0.17); and “working memory” showed a time×intervention interaction in favor of DANCE versus MEMORY (F[1, 136] =2.71, trend P=0.051, R2=0.006). Performance improvements in executive functions, long-term visual memory (episodic memory), and processing speed were maintained at follow-up in all groups. Conclusion Particular executive functions benefit from simultaneous cognitive–physical training compared to exclusively physical multicomponent training. Cognitive–physical training programs

  14. Ventilation Limits Aerobic Capacity after Functional Electrical Stimulation Row Training in High Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Shuang; Alzhab, Saeed; Picard, Glen; Taylor, J Andrew

    2016-06-01

    In the able-bodied, exercise training results in increased ventilatory capacity to meet increased aerobic demands of trained skeletal muscle. However, after spinal cord injury (SCI), peak ventilation can be limited by pulmonary muscle denervation. In fact, peak ventilation may restrict aerobic capacity in direct relation to injury level. Hybrid functional electrical stimulation (FES) exercise training results in increased aerobic capacity and dissociation between aerobic capacity and injury level in those with injuries at T3 and below. However, injuries above T3 have the greatest pulmonary denervation, and ventilatory capacity may restrict the increase in aerobic capacity with hybrid FES training. We assessed relationships among injury level, peak ventilation, and peak aerobic capacity and calculated oxygen uptake efficiency slope during hybrid FES exercise in 12 individuals (1 female) with SCI at level T2 to C4 (injury duration = 0.33-33 yr, age = 20-60 yr), before and after 6 months of FES-row training (FES-RT). Training increased peak aerobic capacity by 12% (P = 0.02) with only a modest increase in peak ventilation (7 of 12 subjects, P = 0.09). Both before and after training, injury level was directly related to peak ventilation (R = 0.48 and 0.43) and peak aerobic capacity (R = 0.70 and 0.55). Before training, the relationship of peak aerobic capacity to peak ventilation was strong (R = 0.62), however, after training, this relationship became almost completely linearized (R = 0.84). In addition, oxygen uptake efficiency slope increased by 11% (P < 0.05) after FES-RT. Despite the ability to increase exercise capacity via hybrid FES exercise, the inability to increase peak ventilation beyond limits set by SCI level in those with high-level injuries (above T3) appears to restrict aerobic capacity.

  15. [Effect of combined application of nitrogen baths and 6 month physical training on physical work capacity and extrasystole in patients with ischemic heart disease and stable stenocardia].

    PubMed

    Klemenkov, S V; Razumov, A N; Iavisia, A M; Voronin, S S; Kubushko, I V

    2003-01-01

    To study effects of combined use of general artificial nitric baths and bicycle exercise for 6 months on physical performance (PP) and extrasystole (ES) in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and stable angina pectoris (SAP) of functional class I-II. A total of 129 CHD with SAP patients entered the study. Of them, 44 patients received balneotherapy (a course of general artificial nitric baths); 37 patients took the baths and exercised on bicycle ergometer; 48 patients took the baths, exercised on bicycle ergometer in the outpatient clinic and continued the exercises for 6 months. The patients were examined with spiroveloergometry and ambulatory Holter ECG monitoring. The latter group of patients achieved the highest training effect manifesting with increased PP and coronary heart reserve, an antiarrhythmic effect (a 73.3% fall in the mean number of ventricular ES for 24 hours, a 72.2% one in this number of supraventricular ES). A significant efficacy is shown of combined use of general nitric baths and bicycle exercise with prolongation for 6 months in CHD patients and SAP of functional class I-II with ES.

  16. Aerobic training-induced improvements in arterial stiffness are not sustained in older adults with multiple cardiovascular risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Madden, K M; Lockhart, C; Cuff, D; Potter, T F; Meneilly, G S

    2013-01-01

    There is a well-established relationship between increased arterial stiffness and cardiovascular mortality. We examined whether a long-term aerobic exercise intervention (6 months) would increase arterial compliance in older adults with hypertension complicated by Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and hyperlipidemia. A total of 52 older adults (mean age 69.3±0.6 years, 30 males and 22 females) with diet/oral hypoglycemic-controlled T2DM, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia were recruited. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups: an aerobic group (6 months vigorous aerobic exercise, AT group) and a non-aerobic group (6 months of no aerobic exercise, NA group). Arterial stiffness was measured as pulse-wave velocity (PWV) using the Complior device. Aerobic training decreased arterial stiffness as measured by both radial (P=0.001, 2-way analysis of variance with repeated measures) and femoral (P=0.002) PWV. This was due to a decrease in arterial stiffness in the AT group after 3 months of training, which was not maintained after 6-month training for either radial (P=0.707) or femoral (P=0.680) PWV. Our findings indicate that in older adults with multiple cardiovascular risk factors, short-term improvements in arterial stiffness became attenuated over the long term. PMID:22951625

  17. Strength training and aerobic exercise training for muscle disease.

    PubMed

    Voet, Nicoline B M; van der Kooi, Elly L; Riphagen, Ingrid I; Lindeman, Eline; van Engelen, Baziel G M; Geurts, Alexander C H

    2013-07-09

    Strength training or aerobic exercise programmes might optimise muscle and cardiorespiratory function and prevent additional disuse atrophy and deconditioning in people with a muscle disease. This is an update of a review first published in 2004. To examine the safety and efficacy of strength training and aerobic exercise training in people with a muscle disease. We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register (July 2012), CENTRAL (2012 Issue 3 of 4), MEDLINE (January 1946 to July 2012), EMBASE (January 1974 to July 2012), EMBASE Classic (1947 to 1973) and CINAHL (January 1982 to July 2012). Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing strength training or aerobic exercise programmes, or both, to no training, and lasting at least six weeks, in people with a well-described diagnosis of a muscle disease.We did not use the reporting of specific outcomes as a study selection criterion. Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted the data obtained from the full text-articles and from the original investigators. We collected adverse event data from included studies. We included five trials (170 participants). The first trial compared the effect of strength training versus no training in 36 people with myotonic dystrophy. The second trial compared aerobic exercise training versus no training in 14 people with polymyositis and dermatomyositis. The third trial compared strength training versus no training in a factorial trial that also compared albuterol with placebo, in 65 people with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). The fourth trial compared combined strength training and aerobic exercise versus no training in 18 people with mitochondrial myopathy. The fifth trial compared combined strength training and aerobic exercise versus no training in 35 people with myotonic dystrophy type 1.In both myotonic dystrophy trials and the dermatomyositis and polymyositis trial there were no significant differences

  18. Effects of aerobic training, resistance training, or both on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Sigal, Ronald J; Kenny, Glen P; Boulé, Normand G; Wells, George A; Prud'homme, Denis; Fortier, Michelle; Reid, Robert D; Tulloch, Heather; Coyle, Douglas; Phillips, Penny; Jennings, Alison; Jaffey, James

    2007-09-18

    Previous trials have evaluated the effects of aerobic training alone and of resistance training alone on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes, as assessed by hemoglobin A1c values. However, none could assess incremental effects of combined aerobic and resistance training compared with either type of exercise alone. To determine the effects of aerobic training alone, resistance training alone, and combined exercise training on hemoglobin A1c values in patients with type 2 diabetes. Randomized, controlled trial. 8 community-based facilities. 251 adults age 39 to 70 years with type 2 diabetes. A negative result on a stress test or clearance by a cardiologist, and adherence to exercise during a 4-week run-in period, were required before randomization. Aerobic training, resistance training, or both types of exercise (combined exercise training). A sedentary control group was included. Exercise training was performed 3 times weekly for 22 weeks (weeks 5 to 26 of the study). The primary outcome was the change in hemoglobin A1c value at 6 months. Secondary outcomes were changes in body composition, plasma lipid values, and blood pressure. The absolute change in the hemoglobin A1c value in the combined exercise training group compared with the control group was -0.51 percentage point (95% CI, -0.87 to -0.14) in the aerobic training group and -0.38 percentage point (CI, -0.72 to -0.22) in the resistance training group. Combined exercise training resulted in an additional change in the hemoglobin A1c value of -0.46 percentage point (CI, -0.83 to -0.09) compared with aerobic training alone and -0.59 percentage point (CI, -0.95 to -0.23) compared with resistance training alone. Changes in blood pressure and lipid values did not statistically significantly differ among groups. Adverse events were more common in the exercise groups. The generalizability of the results to patients who are less adherent to exercise programs is uncertain. The participants were not blinded, and the

  19. Developmental milestones record - 6 months

    MedlinePlus

    Normal childhood growth milestones - 6 months; Childhood growth milestones - 6 months; Growth milestones for children - 6 months ... the weight on hands (often occurs by 4 months) Able to pick up a dropped object Able ...

  20. Aerobic exercise training for adults with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Bidonde, Julia; Busch, Angela J; Schachter, Candice L; Overend, Tom J; Kim, Soo Y; Góes, Suelen M; Boden, Catherine; Foulds, Heather Ja

    2017-06-21

    Exercise training is commonly recommended for individuals with fibromyalgia. This review is one of a series of reviews about exercise training for people with fibromyalgia that will replace the "Exercise for treating fibromyalgia syndrome" review first published in 2002. • To evaluate the benefits and harms of aerobic exercise training for adults with fibromyalgia• To assess the following specific comparisons ० Aerobic versus control conditions (eg, treatment as usual, wait list control, physical activity as usual) ० Aerobic versus aerobic interventions (eg, running vs brisk walking) ० Aerobic versus non-exercise interventions (eg, medications, education) We did not assess specific comparisons involving aerobic exercise versus other exercise interventions (eg, resistance exercise, aquatic exercise, flexibility exercise, mixed exercise). Other systematic reviews have examined or will examine these comparisons (Bidonde 2014; Busch 2013). We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Thesis and Dissertation Abstracts, the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP), and the ClinicalTrials.gov registry up to June 2016, unrestricted by language, and we reviewed the reference lists of retrieved trials to identify potentially relevant trials. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in adults with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia that compared aerobic training interventions (dynamic physical activity that increases breathing and heart rate to submaximal levels for a prolonged period) versus no exercise or another intervention. Major outcomes were health-related quality of life (HRQL), pain intensity, stiffness, fatigue, physical function, withdrawals, and adverse events. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted

  1. The impact of 6-month training preparation for an Ironman triathlon on the proportions of naïve, memory and senescent T cells in resting blood.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Cormac; Galloway, Stuart D R; Neal, Craig; Hunter, Angus M; McFarlin, Brian K; Spielmann, Guilllaume; Simpson, Richard J

    2012-08-01

    Athletes appear to be at a greater risk of illness while undertaking arduous training regimens in preparation for endurance events. As infection susceptibility has been linked with increased proportions of differentiated and senescent T cells in the periphery, changes in the proportions of these cell types due to long-term high-volume exercise training could have important implications for athlete infection risk. This study examined the effects of 6-month training preparation for an Ironman triathlon on the proportions of naïve, memory and senescent T cells in resting blood. Ten club-level triathletes (9 males; 1 female: 43 ± 3 years) were sampled at 27 (December), 21 (January), 15 (March), 9 (May) and 3 (June) weeks before an Ironman Triathlon. An additional sample was collected 2-week post-competition (August). Four-colour flow cytometry was used for the phenotypic analysis of CD4+ and CD8+ blood T cells. Proportions of differentiated (KLRG1+/CD57-) CD8+ T cells and "transitional" (CD45RA+/CD45RO+) CD4+ and CD8+ T cells increased with training, as the values in June were elevated 37, 142 and 116%, respectively, from those observed in December. Proportions of senescent (KLRG1+/CD57+) CD4+ or CD8+ T cells did not change during the training phase. Two weeks post-race, proportions of differentiated CD8+ T cells had returned to baseline values, while the proportions of senescent CD4+ T cells increased 192% alongside a 31% reduction in naïve (CD45RA+/CD45RO-) cells. In conclusion, increases in differentiated and "transitional" T cells due to arduous exercise training could compromise host protection to novel pathogens and increase athlete infection risk, although whether or not the composition of naïve and differentiated T cells in blood can serve as prognostic biomarkers in athletes remains to be established.

  2. Aerobic training for older men with Alzheimer's disease: individual examples of progression.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fang; Leon, Arthur S; Bliss, Donna; Dysken, Maurice; Savik, Kay; Wyman, Jean F

    2011-10-01

    Little is known about cardiorespiratory fitness and aerobic exercise training in older adults with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The purposes of this article are to describe the change in cardiorespiratory fitness after 2 months of aerobic training and the feasibility of aerobic training in 4 men with moderate-to-severe AD. A one-group, pretest-posttest test design was used to measure cardiorespiratory fitness using symptom limited, graded cycle ergometer testing. In exit interviews, participants and spouses identified exercise facilitators and barriers. The results show that cardiorespiratory fitness increased in 2 participants with moderate AD but decreased in 2 with severe AD. Participants showed great variability in exercise progression and doses actually delivered. In conclusion, older men with moderate-to-severe AD can engage in aerobic training. Two months might be better used as the adaptive period for longer duration aerobic training, such as a 6-month program. Suggestions and implications for future exercise research in AD are detailed. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Training Intensity Distribution and Changes in Performance and Physiology of a 2nd Place Finisher Team of the Race across America Over a 6 Month Preparation Period

    PubMed Central

    Manunzio, Christian; Mester, Joachim; Kaiser, Walter; Wahl, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To monitor the training intensity distribution (TID) and the development of physiological and performance parameters. Methods: During their preparation period for the RAAM, 4 athletes (plus 1 additional backup racer) performed 3 testing sessions; one before, one after 3, and one after 6 months of training. VO2max, maximal rate of lactate accumulation (dLa/dtmax), critical power, power output at lactate minimum (MLSSP), peak and mean power output during a sprint test, heart rate recovery, isometric strength, jumping height, and body composition were determined. All training sessions were recorded with a power meter. The endurance TID was analyzed based on the time in zone approach, according to a classical 3-zone model, including all power data of training sessions, and a power specific 3-zone model, where time with power output below 50% of MLSSP was not considered. Results: The TID using the classical 3-zone model reflected a pyramidal TID (zone 1: 63 ± 16, zone 2: 28 ± 13 and zone 3: 9 ± 4%). The power specific 3-zone model resulted in a threshold-based TID (zone 1: 48 ± 13, zone 2: 39 ± 10, zone 3: 13 ± 4%). VO2max increased by 7.1 ± 5.3% (P = 0.06). dLa/dtmax decreased by 16.3 ± 8.1% (P = 0.03). Power output at lactate minimum and critical power increased by 10.3 ± 4.1 and 16.8 ± 6.2% (P = 0.01), respectively. No changes were found for strength parameters and jumps. Conclusion: The present study underlines that a threshold oriented TID results in only moderate increases in physiological parameters. The amount of training below 50% of MLSSp (~28% of total training time) is remarkably high. Researchers, trainers, and athletes should pay attention to the different ways of interpreting training power data, to gain realistic insights into the TID and the corresponding improvements in performance and physiological parameters. PMID:28082909

  4. Skeletal myopathy in heart failure: effects of aerobic exercise training.

    PubMed

    Brum, P C; Bacurau, A V; Cunha, T F; Bechara, L R G; Moreira, J B N

    2014-04-01

    Reduced aerobic capacity, as measured by maximal oxygen uptake, is a hallmark in cardiovascular diseases and strongly predicts poor prognosis and higher mortality rates in heart failure patients. While exercise capacity is poorly correlated with cardiac function in this population, skeletal muscle abnormalities present a striking association with maximal oxygen uptake. This fact draws substantial attention to the clinical relevance of targeting skeletal myopathy in heart failure. Considering that skeletal muscle is highly responsive to aerobic exercise training, we addressed the benefits of aerobic exercise training to combat skeletal myopathy in heart failure, focusing on the mechanisms by which aerobic exercise training counteracts skeletal muscle atrophy.

  5. Effects of Kettlebell Training on Aerobic Capacity.

    PubMed

    Falatic, J Asher; Plato, Peggy A; Holder, Christopher; Finch, Daryl; Han, Kyungmo; Cisar, Craig J

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the effects of a kettlebell training program on aerobic capacity. Seventeen female National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate soccer players (age: 19.7 ± 1.0 years, height: 166.1 ± 6.4 cm, weight: 64.2 ± 8.2 kg) completed a graded exercise test to determine maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max). Participants were assigned to a kettlebell intervention group (KB) (n = 9) or a circuit weight-training (CWT) control group (n = 8). Participants in the KB group completed a kettlebell snatch test to determine individual snatch repetitions. Both groups trained 3 days a week for 4 weeks in addition to their off-season strength and conditioning program. The KB group performed the 15:15 MVO2 protocol (20 minutes of kettlebell snatching with 15 seconds of work and rest intervals). The CWT group performed multiple free-weight and dynamic body-weight exercises as part of a continuous circuit program for 20 minutes. The 15:15 MVO2 protocol significantly increased V̇O2max in the KB group. The average increase was 2.3 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹, or approximately a 6% gain. There was no significant change in V̇O2max in the CWT control group. Thus, the 4-week 15:15 MVO2 kettlebell protocol, using high-intensity kettlebell snatches, significantly improved aerobic capacity in female intercollegiate soccer players and could be used as an alternative mode to maintain or improve cardiovascular conditioning.

  6. Cardioprotective Properties of Aerobic and Resistance Training Against Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Barboza, C A; Souza, G I H; Oliveira, J C M F; Silva, L M; Mostarda, C T; Dourado, P M M; Oyama, L M; Lira, F S; Irigoyen, M C; Rodrigues, B

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the effects of aerobic and resistance exercise training on ventricular morphometry and function, physical capacity, autonomic function, as well as on ventricular inflammatory status in trained rats prior to myocardial infarction. Male Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: sedentary+Sham, sedentary+myocardial infarction, aerobic trained+myocardial infarction, and resistance trained+myocardial infarction. Sham and myocardial infarction were performed after training periods. In the days following the surgeries, evaluations were performed. Aerobic training prevents aerobic (to a greater extent) and resistance capacity impairments, ventricular dysfunction, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic disorders (vagal tonus decrease and sympathetic tonus increase) triggered by myocardial infarction. Resistance training was able to prevent negative changes to aerobic and resistance capacity (to a greater extent) but not to ventricular dysfunction, and it prevented cardiovascular sympathetic increments. Additionally, both types of training reduced left ventricle inflammatory cytokine concentration. Our results suggest that aerobic and, for the first time, dynamic resistance training were able to reduce sympathetic tonus to the heart and vessels, as well as preventing the increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations in the left ventricle of trained groups. These data emphasizes the positive effects of aerobic and dynamic resistance training on the prevention of the negative changes triggered by myocardial infarction. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Facilitating aerobic exercise training in older adults with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fang; Kolanowski, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Emerging science suggests that aerobic exercise might modify the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and improve cognition. However, there are no clinical practice guidelines for aerobic exercise prescription and training in older adults with AD. A few existing studies showed that older adults with AD can participate in aerobic exercise and improve dementia symptoms, but lack adequate descriptions of their aerobic exercise training programs and their clinical applicability. In this paper, we summarize current knowledge about the potential benefits of aerobic exercise in older adults with AD. We then describe the development of a moderate-intensity aerobic exercise program for this population and report results from its initial testing in a feasibility trial completed by two persons with AD. Two older adults with AD completed the aerobic exercise program. Barriers to the program's implementation are described, and methods to improve more wide-spread adoption of such programs and the design of future studies that test them are suggested.

  8. Strength vs aerobic training in children with cystic fibrosis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Orenstein, David M; Hovell, Melbourne F; Mulvihill, Mary; Keating, Kristen K; Hofstetter, C Richard; Kelsey, Sheryl; Morris, Kimberly; Nixon, Patricia A

    2004-10-01

    Exercise has the potential to improve the ability of a patient with cystic fibrosis (CF) to cope with the physical demands of everyday life, and may improve prognosis. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a home-based, semi-supervised, upper-body strength-training regimen with a similarly structured aerobic training regimen. Data were collected during a 1-year randomized clinical trial. Counselors conducted in-home visits with the participants once per week for the first 8 weeks followed by monthly visits for the remainder of the study. Sixty-seven patients with CF, aged 8 to 18 years, participated in the trial. Participants in both exercise conditions were encouraged to exercise at least three times per week for 1 year. Each child in the aerobic group was given a stair-stepping machine, and each child in the upper-body strength training group was given an upper-body-only weight-resistance machine. Aerobic fitness, pulmonary function, quality of life, and strength were measured at baseline, at 6 months, and at 12 months. Strength training increased the maximum weight lifted for biceps curls significantly more than aerobic training (p < 0.02). However, this differential did not remain significant after control for increase in height. Both training procedures were associated with increased strength (p < 0.002) and physical work capacity (PWC) [p < 0.033]. We concluded that strength and aerobic training may increase upper-body strength, and that both types of training may increase PWC for children with CF. Future trials should be conducted with no-training control subjects and larger samples to increase statistical power.

  9. A preliminary analysis of narratives on the impact of training in solution-focused therapy expressed by students having completed a 6-month training course.

    PubMed

    Smith, S

    2010-03-01

    Solution-focused brief therapy (SFBT) is a therapeutic approach utilized in a wide variety of settings. Its roots are in systemic and family therapy, and the emphasis in practice is on helping clients identify what their life will be like when they no longer have their problem, and how close they are to experiencing that situation now. The literature suggests that SFBT is at least as effective as other forms of psychotherapy. This pilot-study explored the impact of a training course in SFBT on the nurses who took part. Interviews were carried out with participants (n= 8) and narrative accounts were analysed and grouped according to emerging themes. Three major themes were perceived; Trust in clients, Positivity and Confidence, and these were supported by interconnected minor themes relating to the eclectic use of the approach, the use of language within the approach, and the application of SFBT in wider life. It is argued that training in SFBT may have a positive impact on the therapeutic and professional role of nurses, and that further studies are required to explore the impact of SFBT training on the professional and cultural identity of nurses.

  10. Your Child's Development: 6 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: 6 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: 6 Months A A A Notice your baby doing anything new? Big strides in development are happening this month. That's because the left side of the brain ...

  11. The effects of a 6-month resistance training and dried plum consumption intervention on strength, body composition, blood markers of bone turnover, and inflammation in breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Simonavice, Emily; Liu, Pei-Yang; Ilich, Jasminka Z; Kim, Jeong-Su; Arjmandi, Bahram; Panton, Lynn B

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of resistance training (RT) and dried plum (DP) consumption on strength, body composition, blood markers of bone, and inflammation in breast cancer survivors (BCS). Twenty-three BCS (RT, n = 12; RT+DP, n = 11), aged 64 ± 7 years, were evaluated at baseline and after 6 months of intervention on the following: muscular strength (chest press and leg extension) via 1-repetition maximums (1RMs); body composition, specifically bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry; biochemical markers of bone turnover (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP-5b)); and inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP)). Target RT prescription was 2 days/week of 10 exercises, including 2 sets of 8-12 repetitions at ∼60%-80% of 1RM. RT+DP also consumed 90 g of DP daily. There were no baseline differences between groups or any group-by-time interactions for any of the variables. BCS increased upper (p < 0.05) (RT: 64 ± 14 to 80 ± 17 kg; RT+DP: 72 ± 23 to 91 ± 20 kg) and lower (p < 0.05) (RT: 69 ± 20 to 87 ± 28 kg; RT+DP: 78 ± 19 to 100 ± 21 kg) body strength. Body composition and BMD improvements were not observed. TRAP-5b decreased in the RT group (p < 0.05) (4.55 ± 1.57 to 4.04 ± 1.63 U/L) and the RT+DP group (p = 0.07) (5.10 ± 2.75 to 4.27 ± 2.03 U/L). Changes in BAP and CRP were not observed. RT was effective for improving biochemical markers of bone turnover and muscular strength in BCS. A longer and higher intensity intervention may be needed to reveal the true effects of RT and DP on body composition and biochemical markers of inflammation.

  12. Resistance versus aerobic exercise training in chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Mandic, Sandra; Myers, Jonathan; Selig, Steve E; Levinger, Itamar

    2012-03-01

    It is now accepted that exercise training is a safe and effective therapeutic intervention to improve clinical status, functional capacity, and quality of life in people with chronic heart failure (CHF). Nevertheless, this therapeutic modality remains underprescribed and underutilized. Both aerobic and resistance training improve exercise capacity and may partially reverse some of the cardiac, vascular, and skeletal muscle abnormalities in individuals with CHF. Aerobic training has more beneficial effects on aerobic power (peak oxygen consumption) and cardiac structure and function than resistance exercise training, while the latter is more effective for increasing muscle strength and endurance and promoting favorable arterial remodeling. Combined aerobic and resistance training is the preferred exercise intervention to reverse or attenuate the loss of muscle mass and improve exercise and functional capacity, muscle strength, and quality of life in individuals with CHF. The challenge now is to translate these research findings into clinical practice.

  13. Your Child's Development: 6 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child's Development: 6 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: ...

  14. Strength and aerobic training in overweight females in Gdansk, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Sawczyn, Stanisław; Mishchenko, Viktor; Moska, Waldemar; Sawczyn, Michał; Jagiełło, Marina; Kuehne, Tatiana; Nowak, Robert; Cięszczyk, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    We compared the effects of 16-week-training on rest metabolic rate, aerobic power, and body fat, and the post-exercise effects upon rest oxygen uptake and respiratory exchange ratio in overweight middle-aged females. Twenty nine overweight women (BMI 29.9 ± 1.2 kg*m−2) participated in training (3 days a week). The subjects were divided onto groups of aerobic (AT) and strength (ST) training. The results showed that the total body mass decrease and VO2 max increase did not differ in both groups. Decrease in waist circumference after 16 weeks was higher in the ST group. In the ST group fat-free mass increased during the first 8 weeks. Rest metabolic rate was increased significantly at 16th week compared to initial value in ST group only. Significant increase in post-exercise resting VO2 and respiratory exchange ratio at 12 and 36 h was observed after the strength training session only. Increase in rest metabolic rate and post-exercise rest energy expenditure occurred after strength training but not after aerobic training despite the similar increase in aerobic power. The effect of 8–16 weeks of strength training on body mass decrease was higher in comparison to aerobic training. PMID:28352690

  15. Effects of aerobic training, resistance training, or both on percentage body fat and cardiometabolic risk markers in obese adolescents: the healthy eating aerobic and resistance training in youth randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Sigal, Ronald J; Alberga, Angela S; Goldfield, Gary S; Prud'homme, Denis; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Gougeon, Réjeanne; Phillips, Penny; Tulloch, Heather; Malcolm, Janine; Doucette, Steve; Wells, George A; Ma, Jinhui; Kenny, Glen P

    2014-11-01

    Little evidence exists on which exercise modality is optimal for obese adolescents. To determine the effects of aerobic training, resistance training, and combined training on percentage body fat in overweight and obese adolescents. Randomized, parallel-group clinical trial at community-based exercise facilities in Ottawa (Ontario) and Gatineau (Quebec), Canada, among previously inactive postpubertal adolescents aged 14 to 18 years (Tanner stage IV or V) with body mass index at or above the 95th percentile for age and sex or at or above the 85th percentile plus an additional diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular risk factor. After a 4-week run-in period, 304 participants were randomized to the following 4 groups for 22 weeks: aerobic training (n = 75), resistance training (n = 78), combined aerobic and resistance training (n = 75), or nonexercising control (n = 76). All participants received dietary counseling, with a daily energy deficit of 250 kcal. The primary outcome was percentage body fat measured by magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and 6 months. We hypothesized that aerobic training and resistance training would each yield greater decreases than the control and that combined training would cause greater decreases than aerobic or resistance training alone. Decreases in percentage body fat were -0.3 (95% CI, -0.9 to 0.3) in the control group, -1.1 (95% CI, -1.7 to -0.5) in the aerobic training group (P = .06 vs controls), and -1.6 (95% CI, -2.2 to -1.0) in the resistance training group (P = .002 vs controls). The -1.4 (95% CI, -2.0 to -0.8) decrease in the combined training group did not differ significantly from that in the aerobic or resistance training group. Waist circumference changes were -0.2 (95% CI, -1.7 to 1.2) cm in the control group, -3.0 (95% CI, -4.4 to -1.6) cm in the aerobic group (P = .006 vs controls), -2.2 (95% CI -3.7 to -0.8) cm in the resistance training group (P = .048 vs controls), and -4.1 (95% CI, -5.5 to -2.7) cm in the combined

  16. Effects of moderate aerobic exercise training on chronic primary insomnia.

    PubMed

    Passos, Giselle Soares; Poyares, Dalva; Santana, Marcos Gonçalves; D'Aurea, Carolina Vicaria Rodrigues; Youngstedt, Shawn D; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of long-term moderate aerobic exercise on sleep, quality of life, and mood of individuals with chronic primary insomnia, and to examine whether these effects differed between exercise in the morning and exercise in the late afternoon. Nineteen sedentary individuals with chronic primary insomnia, mean age 45.0 (standard error [SE] 1.9) years, completed a 6-month exercise training protocol, randomized to morning and late-afternoon exercise groups. Combining polysomnographic data across both time points, this study found a significant decrease in sleep onset latency (from 17.1 [SE 2.6] min to 8.7 [SE 1.4] min; P<0.01) and wake time after sleep onset (from 63.2 [SE 12.8] min to 40.1 [SE 6.0] min), and a significant increase in sleep efficiency (from 79.8 [SE 3.0]% to 87.2 [SE 1.6]%) following exercise. Data from sleep diaries revealed significant improvement in sleep onset latency (from 76.2 [SE 21.5] min to 80.3 [SE 7.4] min) sleep quality (from 41.5 [SE 5.2]% to 59.4 [SE 6.6]%) and feeling rested in the morning (from 50.8 [SE 5.3] to 65.1 [SE 5.0]). There were generally no significant differences in response between morning and late-afternoon exercise. Following exercise, some quality-of-life measures improved significantly, and a significant decrease was seen in the following Profile of Mood State measures: tension-anxiety (from 7.2 [SE 1.0] to 3.5 [SE 1.0]), depression (from 5.9 [SE 1.2] to 3.3 [SE 1.1]) and total mood disturbance (from 9.2 [SE 4.8] to -1.7 [SE 4.8]). These effects did not vary between morning and late-afternoon exercise. Long-term moderate aerobic exercise elicited significant improvements in sleep, quality of life and mood in individuals with chronic primary insomnia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Economic evaluation of aerobic exercise training in older adults with vascular cognitive impairment: PROMoTE trial

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jennifer C; Hsiung, Ging-Yuek Robin; Bryan, Stirling; Best, John R; Eng, Janice J; Munkacsy, Michelle; Cheung, Winnie; Chiu, Bryan; Jacova, Claudia; Lee, Philip; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Background/objectives Evidence suggests that aerobic exercise may slow the progression of subcortical ischaemic vascular cognitive impairment (SIVCI) by modifying cardiovascular risk factors. Yet the economic consequences relating to aerobic training (AT) remain unknown. Therefore, our primary objective was to estimate the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained of a thrice weekly AT intervention compared with usual care. Design Cost–utility analysis alongside a randomised trial. Setting Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Participants 70 adults (mean age of 74 years, 51% women) who meet the diagnostic criteria for mild SIVCI. Intervention A 6-month, thrice weekly, progressive aerobic exercise training programme compared with usual care (CON; comparator) with a follow-up assessment 6 months after formal cessation of aerobic exercise training. Measurements Healthcare resource usage was estimated over the 6-month intervention and 6-month follow-up period. Health status (using the EQ-5D-3L) at baseline and trial completion and 6-month follow-up was used to calculate QALYs. The incremental cost–utility ratio (cost per QALY gained) was calculated. Results QALYs were both modestly greater, indicating a health gain. Total healthcare costs (ie, 1791±1369 {2015 $CAD} at 6 months) were greater, indicating a greater cost for the thrice weekly AT group compared with CON. From the Canadian healthcare system perspective, the incremental cost–utility ratios for thrice weekly AT were cost-effective compared with CON, when using a willingness to pay threshold of $CAD 20 000 per QALY gained or higher. Conclusions AT represents an attractive and potentially cost-effective strategy for older adults with mild SIVCI. Trial registration number NCT01027858. PMID:28360247

  18. An economic evaluation of resistance training and aerobic training versus balance and toning exercises in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jennifer C; Bryan, Stirling; Marra, Carlo A; Sharma, Devika; Chan, Alison; Beattie, B Lynn; Graf, Peter; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) represents a critical window to intervene against dementia. Exercise training is a promising intervention strategy, but the efficiency (i.e., relationship of costs and consequences) of such types of training remains unknown. Thus, we estimated the incremental cost-effectiveness of resistance training or aerobic training compared with balance and tone exercises in terms of changes in executive cognitive function among senior women with probable MCI. Economic evaluation conducted concurrently with a six-month three arm randomized controlled trial including eighty-six community dwelling women aged 70 to 80 years living in Vancouver, Canada. Participants received twice-weekly resistance training (n = 28), twice weekly aerobic training (n = 30) or twice-weekly balance and tone (control group) classes (n = 28) for 6 months. The primary outcome measure of the Exercise for Cognition and Everyday Living (EXCEL) study assessed executive cognitive function, a test of selective attention and conflict resolution (i.e., Stroop Test). We collected healthcare resource utilization costs over six months. Based on the bootstrapped estimates from our base case analysis, we found that both the aerobic training and resistance training interventions were less costly than twice weekly balance and tone classes. Compared with the balance and tone group, the resistance-training group had significantly improved performance on the Stroop Test (p = 0.04). Resistance training and aerobic training result in health care cost saving and are more effective than balance and tone classes after only 6 months of intervention. Resistance training is a promising strategy to alter the trajectory of cognitive decline in seniors with MCI. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00958867.

  19. An Economic Evaluation of Resistance Training and Aerobic Training versus Balance and Toning Exercises in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jennifer C.; Bryan, Stirling; Marra, Carlo A.; Sharma, Devika; Chan, Alison; Beattie, B. Lynn; Graf, Peter; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Background Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) represents a critical window to intervene against dementia. Exercise training is a promising intervention strategy, but the efficiency (i.e., relationship of costs and consequences) of such types of training remains unknown. Thus, we estimated the incremental cost-effectiveness of resistance training or aerobic training compared with balance and tone exercises in terms of changes in executive cognitive function among senior women with probable MCI. Methods Economic evaluation conducted concurrently with a six-month three arm randomized controlled trial including eighty-six community dwelling women aged 70 to 80 years living in Vancouver, Canada. Participants received twice-weekly resistance training (n = 28), twice weekly aerobic training (n = 30) or twice-weekly balance and tone (control group) classes (n = 28) for 6 months. The primary outcome measure of the Exercise for Cognition and Everyday Living (EXCEL) study assessed executive cognitive function, a test of selective attention and conflict resolution (i.e., Stroop Test). We collected healthcare resource utilization costs over six months. Results Based on the bootstrapped estimates from our base case analysis, we found that both the aerobic training and resistance training interventions were less costly than twice weekly balance and tone classes. Compared with the balance and tone group, the resistance-training group had significantly improved performance on the Stroop Test (p = 0.04). Conclusions Resistance training and aerobic training result in health care cost saving and are more effective than balance and tone classes after only 6 months of intervention. Resistance training is a promising strategy to alter the trajectory of cognitive decline in seniors with MCI. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00958867. PMID:23690976

  20. Outcomes Following a Vestibular Rehabilitation and Aerobic Training Program to Address Persistent Post-Concussion Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Moore, Brian M; Adams, Joseph T; Barakatt, Edward

    2016-01-01

    To describe changes in adults with persistent symptoms and disability following a concussion after completing a supervised home exercise vestibular rehabilitation (VR) program combined with aerobic training. Participants included 14 consecutive individuals referred for VR within the context of a comprehensive concussion center. Outcome measures were administered at initial evaluation, 3 mos, and 6 mos. Outcome measures included: Rivermead Post-Concussion Questionnaire symptom (RPQ-3) and function (RPQ-13) subcategories, Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI), Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC), functional gait assessment (FGA), return to work/study (RTW), and return to activity (RTA). At 6 months, all clinical outcome measures were found to be statistically significant or approaching statistical significance: RPQ-3 (p<0.001), RPQ-13 (p<0.004), DHI (p<0.001), ABC (p<0.007), FGA (p<0.001). For return to meaningful activity, associations between time of measure and both RTW (p<0.019) and RTA (p<0.001) were found to be statistically significant or approach statistical significance. Following 6 months of participation in a supervised home exercise VR program with aerobic training, significant improvements were observed in participants' report of concussion-related symptoms, function, and return to meaningful activities.

  1. Triptorelin embonate (6-month formulation).

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2010-02-12

    A 6-month formulation of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist triptorelin embonate (designed to deliver 22.5 mg of triptorelin over a 6-month period) has been developed for use in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. Following intramuscular administration of the 6-month formulation of triptorelin embonate 22.5 mg to men with advanced prostate cancer (subset of 15 patients from the pivotal clinical trial), serum testosterone levels initially increased, followed by a rapid, sustained decrease. Castrate serum testosterone levels (i.e. < or =1.735 nmol/L) were achieved in a geometric mean time of 18.8 days. The 6-month formulation of triptorelin embonate achieved and maintained castrate serum testosterone levels in patients with advanced prostate cancer (n = 120), according to the results of the pivotal, noncomparative, multicentre trial (patients received intramuscular triptorelin embonate 22.5 mg on day 1 and at month 6 [week 24]). By day 29, 97.5% of patients had castrate serum testosterone levels. Castrate serum testosterone levels were maintained from months 2 to 12 in 93.0% of patients. Prior to the second injection at month 6, 98.3% of patients had castrate serum testosterone levels, and 98.3% of patients had castrate serum testosterone levels at study completion. The 6-month formulation of triptorelin embonate 22.5 mg was generally well tolerated in patients with advanced prostate cancer; adverse events were of mild severity in the majority of patients. Drug-related adverse events (e.g. hot flushes) were consistent with the pharmacological action of triptorelin. Injection-site reactions occurred in 6.7% of triptorelin embonate recipients.

  2. A 6-Month Follow-Up of the Effects of an Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Training Programme on People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li-Tsang, Cecilia W. P.; Lee, Maggie Y. F.; Yeung, Susanna S. S.; Siu, Andrew M. H.; Lam, C. S.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the long-term effects of an information and communication technology (ICT) training programme for people with intellectual disabilities (ID). A community-based ICT training programme was designed to enhance the computer skills of people with ID and prepare them to make use of ICT in their daily life. Of the 100 who had participated…

  3. A 6-Month Follow-Up of the Effects of an Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Training Programme on People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li-Tsang, Cecilia W. P.; Lee, Maggie Y. F.; Yeung, Susanna S. S.; Siu, Andrew M. H.; Lam, C. S.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the long-term effects of an information and communication technology (ICT) training programme for people with intellectual disabilities (ID). A community-based ICT training programme was designed to enhance the computer skills of people with ID and prepare them to make use of ICT in their daily life. Of the 100 who had participated…

  4. Resistance and agility training reduce fall risk in women aged 75 to 85 with low bone mass: a 6-month randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Khan, Karim M; Eng, Janice J; Janssen, Patti A; Lord, Stephen R; McKay, Heather A

    2004-05-01

    To compare the effectiveness of group resistance and agility-training programs in reducing fall risk in community-dwelling older women with low bone mass. A randomized, controlled, single-blind 25-week prospective study with assessments at baseline, midpoint, and trial completion. Community center. Community-dwelling women aged 75 to 85 with low bone mass. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: resistance training (n=32), agility training (n=34), and stretching (sham) exercises (n=32). The exercise classes for each study arm were held twice weekly. The primary outcome measure was fall risk (derived from weighted scores from tests of postural sway, reaction time, strength, proprioception, and vision), as measured using a Physiological Profile Assessment (PPA). Secondary outcome measures were ankle dorsiflexion strength, foot reaction time, and Community Balance and Mobility Scale score. Attendance at the exercise sessions for all three groups was excellent: resistance training (85.4%), agility training (87.3%), and stretching program (78.8%). At the end of the trial, PPA fall-risk scores were reduced by 57.3% and 47.5% in the resistance and agility-training groups, respectively, but by only 20.2% in the stretching group. In the resistance and agility groups, the reduction in fall risk was mediated primarily by improved postural stability, where sway was reduced by 30.6% and 29.2%, respectively. There were no significant differences between the groups for the secondary outcomes measures. Within the resistance-training group, reductions in sway were significantly associated with improved strength, as assessed using increased squat load used in the exercise sessions. These findings support the implementation of community-based resistance and agility-training programs to reduce fall risk in older women with low bone mass. Such programs may have particular public health benefits because it has been shown that this group is at increased risk of

  5. Both resistance and agility training increase cortical bone density in 75- to 85-year-old women with low bone mass: a 6-month randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Liu-Ambrose, Teresa Y L; Khan, Karim M; Eng, Janice J; Heinonen, Ari; McKay, Heather A

    2004-01-01

    A randomized, controlled, single-blinded 25-wk prospective study was conducted to compare the effects of group-based resistance and agility training on bone, as measured by both dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), in older women with low bone mass. Ninety-eight community-dwelling women aged 75-85 yr were randomized to one of three experimental groups: resistance training (n = 32), agility training (n = 34), or stretching (sham exercise) (n = 32). Total hip, femoral neck, and trochanteric bone mineral density (BMD) were measured by DXA. Peripheral QCT measurements were performed at the tibia and radius. The pQCT outcome measures at the shaft regions were cortical bone content, cortical bone cross-sectional area, cortical bone density, and density-weighted polar section modulus (SSI). The pQCT outcome measures at the distal sites were total bone content, total bone cross-sectional area, and total bone density. At trial completion, the agility training group significantly increased cortical bone density by 0.5 +/- 0.2% (SE) at the tibial shaft compared with a 0.4 +/- 0.3% loss in the stretching group. The resistance training group significantly increased cortical bone density (1.4 +/- 0.6%) at the radial shaft compared, with a 0.4 +/- 0.5% loss in the agility training group. No significant between-group differences were observed in the other bone outcome measures (by DXA or pQCT). Future research is needed to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for the observed adaptation of the cortical bone to mechanical loading.

  6. Effect of aerobic training and aerobic and resistance training on the inflammatory status of hypertensive older adults.

    PubMed

    Lima, Leandra G; Bonardi, José M T; Campos, Giulliard O; Bertani, Rodrigo F; Scher, Luria M L; Louzada-Junior, Paulo; Moriguti, Júlio C; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Lima, Nereida K C

    2015-08-01

    There is a relationship between high levels of inflammatory markers and low adhesion to the practice of physical activity in the older population. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of two types of exercise programs, i.e., aerobic training and aerobic plus resistance training on the plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) of elderly hypertensive subjects. Hypertensive older volunteers in use of antihypertensive drugs were randomized to three groups: aerobic group (AG), resistance and aerobic group (RAG) and control group (CG). Training lasted 10 weeks, with sessions held three times a week. Blood samples were collected before training and 24 h after completion of the 30 sessions for the determination of serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels. Body mass index was obtained before and after 10 weeks. After intervention, BMI values were lower in AG and RAG compared to CG (p < 0.001), IL-6 was reduced in AG compared to CG (p = 0.04), and TNF-α levels were lower only in RAG compared to CG (p = 0.01). Concluding, both types of training were effective in reducing BMI values in hypertensive older subjects. Aerobic exercise produced the reduction of plasma IL-6 levels. However, the combination of aerobic and resistance exercise, which would be more indicated for the prevention of loss of functionality with aging, showed lower TNF-α mediator after training than control group and a greater fall of TNF-α levels associated to higher BMI reduction.

  7. Unimanual and bimanual intensive training in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy and persistence in time of hand function improvement: 6-month follow-up results of a multisite clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Fedrizzi, Ermellina; Rosa-Rizzotto, Melissa; Turconi, Anna Carla; Pagliano, Emanuela; Fazzi, Elisa; Pozza, Laura Visonà Dalla; Facchin, Paola

    2013-02-01

    This study aims to compare in hemiplegic children the effectiveness of intensive training (unimanual and bimanual) versus standard treatment in improving hand function, assessing the persistence after 6 months. A multicenter, prospective, cluster-randomized controlled clinical trial was designed comparing 2 groups of children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy, treated for 10 weeks (3 h/d 7 d/wk; first with unimanual constraint-induced movement therapy, second with intensive bimanual training) with a standard treatment group. Children were assessed before and after treatment and at 3 and 6 months postintervention using Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test (QUEST) and Besta Scales. One hundred five children were recruited (39 constraint-induced movement therapy, 33 intensive bimanual training, 33 standard treatment). Constraint-induced movement therapy and intensive bimanual training groups had significantly improved hand function, showing constant increase in time. Grasp improved immediately and significantly with constraint-induced movement therapy, and with bimanual training grasp improved gradually, reaching the same result. In both, spontaneous hand use increased in long-term assessment.

  8. Endurance training and aerobic fitness in young people.

    PubMed

    Baquet, Georges; van Praagh, Emmanuel; Berthoin, Serge

    2003-01-01

    Training-induced adaptations in aerobic fitness have been extensively studied in adults, and some exercise scientists have recommended similar training programmes for young people. However, the subject of the response to aerobic training of children and adolescents is controversial. The effects of exercise training on prepubertal children are particularly debatable. The latter may be partly explained by different training designs, which make comparisons between studies very problematic. We have analysed the procedures applied to protocol design and training methods to highlight the real impact of aerobic training on the peak oxygen uptake (V-dotO2) of healthy children and adolescents. In accordance with previously published reviews on trainability in youngsters, research papers were rejected from the final analysis according to criteria such as the lack of a control group, an unclear training protocol, inappropriate statistical procedures, small sample size, studies with trained or special populations, or with no peak V-dotO2 data. Factors such as maturity, group constitution, consistency between training and testing procedures, drop out rates, or attendance were considered, and possible associations with changes in peak V-dotO2 with training are discussed. From 51 studies reviewed, 22 were finally retained. In most of the studies, there was a considerable lack of research regarding circumpubertal individuals in general, and particularly in girls. The results suggest that methodologically listed parameters will exert a potential influence on the magnitude of peak V-dotO2 improvement. Even if little difference is reported for each parameter, it is suggested that the sum of errors will result in a significant bias in the assessment of training effects. The characteristics of each training protocol were also analysed to establish their respective potential influence on peak V-dotO2 changes. In general, aerobic training leads to a mean improvement of 5-6% in the peak V

  9. Aerobic training in persons who have recovered from juvenile dermatomyositis.

    PubMed

    Riisager, M; Mathiesen, P R; Vissing, J; Preisler, N; Ørngreen, M C

    2013-12-01

    A recent study has shown that 36 persons who had recovered from juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) have on average an 18% decrease in maximal oxygen uptake. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a 12-week aerobic training program in this group, and assess whether aerobic training can normalize aerobic capacity to the expected level for age and gender. The patients participating in the study, one male and nine females (16-42 years of age), were in remission from JDM, defined as no clinical or biochemical evidence of disease activity and no medical treatment for 1 year. The patients had a median disease duration of 3.4 years (1.4-10.3), a median treatment duration of 2.4 years (0.4-9.3) and a median duration of remission of 7.0 years (1.2-30.0). Patients trained at home on a cycle ergometer for 12 weeks at a heart rate interval corresponding to 65% of their maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)). VO(2max) and maximal workload (W(max)) were determined before and after the 12-week training period through an incremental cycling test to exhaustion. The patients served as their own controls. Eight patients with JDM in remission completed the 12-week exercise program; one patient completed 9 weeks out of the 12-week program and one dropped out of the study. Training increased VO(2max) and W(max) by 26% and 30% (P < 0.001). Creatine kinase (CK) levels were normal pre-training and did not change with training, reflecting no muscle damage. We also found that at a given workload, heart rate was lowered significantly after the 12-week training period, indicating an improvement in cardiovascular fitness. This study shows that 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic training is an effective and safe method to increase oxidative capacity and fitness in persons who have recovered from JDM. The results indicate that the low oxidative capacity in JDM patients in remission is reversible and can be improved. Thus, we recommend frequent aerobic training to be incorporated

  10. Concentric left ventricular morphology in aerobically trained kayak canoeists.

    PubMed

    Gates, Phillip E; Campbell, Ian G; George, Keith P

    2004-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that upper body aerobically trained athletes (kayak canoeists) would have greater left ventricular wall thickness, but similar left ventricular diastolic chamber dimensions, compared with recreationally active and sedentary men. Ultrasound echocardiography was used to determine cardiac structure and function in highly trained kayak canoeists (n = 10), moderately active (n = 10) and sedentary men (n = 10). The septal and posterior left ventricular walls were approximately 0.2 cm thicker in kayak canoeists (P < 0.05), and left ventricular mass was 51% and 32% greater (P < 0.05) in canoeists than in the sedentary and moderately trained participants, respectively. There were no differences in left ventricular chamber dimension, suggesting that the kayak canoeists had a concentric pattern of left ventricular adaptation to aerobic upper body training. Scaling the data to body composition indices had no effect on the outcome of the statistical analysis. There were no differences in resting Doppler left ventricular diastolic or systolic function among the groups. Ejection fraction was lower in the kayak canoeists, but the magnitude of the difference was within the normal variability for this measurement. Thus aerobically upper body trained athletes demonstrated a concentric pattern of cardiac enlargement, but resting left ventricle function was not different between athletes, moderately active and sedentary individuals.

  11. Aerobic training alone or combined with strength training affects fitness in elderly: Randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Burich, Rasmus; Teljigović, Sanel; Boyle, Eleanor; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2015-01-01

    To investigate if combined strength and aerobic training can enhance aerobic capacity in the elderly to a similar extent as aerobic training alone when training duration is matched. Elderly men and women (age 63.2 ± 4.7) were randomized into two intervention groups: an aerobic group (AG, n = 17) and a combined group (CG, n = 16). Subjects trained 40 minutes three times a week for 12 weeks. Both groups trained 20 minutes at 65% of heart rate reserve on ergometer cycles followed by another 20 minutes on the ergometer cycles for AG and 20-minute strength training for the lower body for CG. The primary outcome was VO2max. Secondary outcomes were maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) in isometric knee extension, 1 repetition maximum in three leg exercises, body fat, waist-to-hip ratio, blood pressure and score on the Health Survey Short Form 36 (SF-36). Both groups improved VO2max (p < .01) and MVC (p < .001). VO2max increased 17% confidence interval (CI) [7.4-26] in CG and 26% CI [14.1-38.2] in AG, with no significant difference between groups. MVC increased 22% CI [16.3-27.7] in CG and 9% CI [4.6-13.5] in AG with CG improving MVC more than AG (p < .01). CG's score on the general health dimension on the SF-36 health survey improved more than AG's score. Elderly can substitute a part of their aerobic training with strength training and still improve VO2max to a clinically significant degree when strength training is performed with large muscle groups subsequently to the aerobic training. Combined training additionally improves strength and self-assessed general health more than aerobic training alone.

  12. The effect of endurance training on parameters of aerobic fitness.

    PubMed

    Jones, A M; Carter, H

    2000-06-01

    Endurance exercise training results in profound adaptations of the cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular systems that enhance the delivery of oxygen from the atmosphere to the mitochondria and enable a tighter regulation of muscle metabolism. These adaptations effect an improvement in endurance performance that is manifest as a rightward shift in the 'velocity-time curve'. This shift enables athletes to exercise for longer at a given absolute exercise intensity, or to exercise at a higher exercise intensity for a given duration. There are 4 key parameters of aerobic fitness that affect the nature of the velocity-time curve that can be measured in the human athlete. These are the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), exercise economy, the lactate/ventilatory threshold and oxygen uptake kinetics. Other parameters that may help determine endurance performance, and that are related to the other 4 parameters, are the velocity at VO2max (V-VO2max) and the maximal lactate steady state or critical power. This review considers the effect of endurance training on the key parameters of aerobic (endurance) fitness and attempts to relate these changes to the adaptations seen in the body's physiological systems with training. The importance of improvements in the aerobic fitness parameters to the enhancement of endurance performance is highlighted, as are the training methods that may be considered optimal for facilitating such improvements.

  13. Vitamin D receptor FokI genotype influences bone mineral density response to strength training, but not aerobic training.

    PubMed

    Rabon-Stith, Karma M; Hagberg, James M; Phares, Dana A; Kostek, Matthew C; Delmonico, Matthew J; Roth, Stephen M; Ferrell, Robert E; Conway, Joan M; Ryan, Alice S; Hurley, Ben F

    2005-07-01

    To determine the influence of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene FokI and BsmI genotype on bone mineral density response to two exercise training modalities, 206 healthy men and women (50-81 years old) were studied before and after approximately 5-6 months of either aerobic exercise training (AT) or strength training (ST). A totla of 123 subjects completed AT (51 men, 72 women) and 83 subjects completed ST (40 men, 43 women). DNA was extracted from blood samples of all subjects and genotyping was performed at the VDR FokI and BsmI locus to determine its association to training response. Total body, greater trochanter and femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) were measured before and after both training programmes using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. VDR BsmI genotype was not significantly related to BMD at baseline or after ST or AT. However, VDR FokI genotype was significantly related to ST- but not AT-induced changes in femoral neck BMD (P < 0.05). The heterozygotes (Ff) in the ST group approached a significantly greater increase in femoral neck BMD (P = 0.058) compared to f homozygotes. There were no significant genotype relationships in the AT group. These data indicate that VDR FokI genotype may influence femoral neck BMD response to ST, but not AT.

  14. Integrated Resistance and Aerobic Training Study - Sprint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Moore, Alan; Ryder, Jeffrey; Everett, Meg; Bloomberg, Jacob; Sibonga, Jean; Shackelford, Linda; Platts, Steven; Martin, David; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; hide

    2010-01-01

    Space flight causes reductions in fitness/health: (1) Cardiovascular -- reduced VO2max, cardiac output (2) Bone -- reduced bone mineral density (3) Muscle -- reduced mass, strength and endurance. Exercise is the primary countermeasure to protect against these changes and was made operational before completely mature. Research continues to identify most effective/efficient exercise programs. Crew medical tests (cardio, muscle, bone) do not yield sufficient information to fine tune the effectiveness of exercise programs, thus there is a need for more detailed testing aimed at identifying the most effective training program. The objective of this program was to obtain detailed information about crew physical fitness pre-and post-flight and evaluate new evidence based exercise prescription with higher intensity, lower duration and frequency.

  15. Effects of Aerobic Training in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Fábio; Oliveira, Hilda Alcântara; de Souza, Marcelo Cardoso; Cruz, Vaneska da Graça; Natour, Jamil

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Seventy patients classified with AS by the modified New York criteria were included. The patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups. The intervention group (IG) performed 50 min of walking followed by stretching exercises 3 times a week for 12 weeks. The control group (CG) performed only stretching exercises. The outcome measurements were the Bath indexes [Bath AS Functional Index (BASFI), Bath AS Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), and Bath AS Metrology Index (BASMI)], Health Assessment Questionnaire for the Spondyloarthropathies (HAQ-S), AS Disease Activity Score (ASDAS), the 6-min walk test (6MWT), chest expansion, and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36. Aerobic capacity was assessed by ergospirometry on a treadmill. Routine laboratory techniques were used in determining lipid levels. Assessments were performed immediately before randomization and after 6, 12, and 24 weeks. Thirty-five patients were randomized to the IG and 35 to the CG. There was significant improvement in the BASFI, HAQ-S, BASMI, BASDAI, and ASDAS in both groups (p < 0.05), but did not differ between groups. There was a significant increase in the walking distance in the 6MWT in the IG compared with CG (p < 0.001). The IG showed significant improvement in cardiopulmonary capacity compared with CG. Cholesterol and triglyceride levels did not change in either group. In patients with AS, aerobic training improved walking distance and aerobic capacity. Aerobic training did not provide additional benefits in functional capacity, mobility, disease activity, quality of life, and lipid levels when compared with stretching exercises alone.

  16. Multicomponent physical exercise with simultaneous cognitive training to enhance dual-task walking of older adults: a secondary analysis of a 6-month randomized controlled trial with 1-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Eggenberger, Patrick; Theill, Nathan; Holenstein, Stefan; Schumacher, Vera; de Bruin, Eling D

    2015-01-01

    Background About one-third of people older than 65 years fall at least once a year. Physical exercise has been previously demonstrated to improve gait, enhance physical fitness, and prevent falls. Nonetheless, the addition of cognitive training components may potentially increase these effects, since cognitive impairment is related to gait irregularities and fall risk. We hypothesized that simultaneous cognitive–physical training would lead to greater improvements in dual-task (DT) gait compared to exclusive physical training. Methods Elderly persons older than 70 years and without cognitive impairment were randomly assigned to the following groups: 1) virtual reality video game dancing (DANCE), 2) treadmill walking with simultaneous verbal memory training (MEMORY), or 3) treadmill walking (PHYS). Each program was complemented with strength and balance exercises. Two 1-hour training sessions per week over 6 months were applied. Gait variables, functional fitness (Short Physical Performance Battery, 6-minute walk), and fall frequencies were assessed at baseline, after 3 months and 6 months, and at 1-year follow-up. Multiple regression analyses with planned comparisons were carried out. Results Eighty-nine participants were randomized to three groups initially; 71 completed the training and 47 were available at 1-year follow-up. DANCE/MEMORY showed a significant advantage compared to PHYS in DT costs of step time variability at fast walking (P=0.044). Training-specific gait adaptations were found on comparing DANCE and MEMORY: DANCE reduced step time at fast walking (P=0.007) and MEMORY reduced gait variability in DT and DT costs at preferred walking speed (both trend P=0.062). Global linear time effects showed improved gait (P<0.05), functional fitness (P<0.05), and reduced fall frequency (−77%, P<0.001). Only single-task fast walking, gait variability at preferred walking speed, and Short Physical Performance Battery were reduced at follow-up (all P<0.05 or

  17. Effects of intermittent hypoxic training on aerobic and anaerobic performance.

    PubMed

    Morton, James Peter; Cable, Nigel Tim

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether short-term intermittent hypoxic training would enhance sea level aerobic and anaerobic performance over and above that occurring with equivalent sea level training. Over a 4-week period, two groups of eight moderately trained team sports players performed 30 min of cycling exercise three times per week. One group trained in normobaric hypoxia at a simulated altitude of 2750 m (F(I)O2= 0.15), the other group trained in a laboratory under sea level conditions. Each training session consisted of ten 1-min bouts at 80% maximum workload maintained for 2 min (Wmax) during the incremental exercise test at sea level separated by 2-min active recovery at 50% Wmax. Training intensities were increased by 5% after six training sessions and by a further 5% (of original Wmax) after nine sessions. Pre-training assessments of VO(2max), power output at onset of 4 mM blood lactate accumulation (OBLA), Wmax and Wingate anaerobic performance were performed on a cycle ergometer at sea level and repeated 4-7 d following the training intervention. Following training there were significant increases (p < 0.01) in VO(2max) (7.2 vs. 8.0%), Wmax (15.5 vs. 17.8%), OBLA (11.1 vs. 11.9%), mean power (8.0 vs. 6.5%) and peak power (2.9 vs. 9.3%) in both the hypoxic and normoxic groups respectively. There were no significant differences between the increases in any of the above-mentioned performance parameters in either training environment (p > 0.05). In addition, neither haemoglobin concentration nor haematocrit were significantly changed in either group (p > 0.05). It is concluded that acute exposure of moderately trained subjects to normobaric hypoxia during a short-term training programme consisting of moderate- to high-intensity intermittent exercise has no enhanced effect on the degree of improvement in either aerobic or anaerobic performance. These data suggest that if there are any advantages to training in hypoxia for sea level

  18. Guidelines for Aerobic Fitness Training in the U.S. Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-06

    aerobic type exercises but they require special equipment or facilities. The most readily administered, least expensive and most efficient aerobic ...type do not provide the same degree of aerobic training as 󈧛 ’" . . exercises of long duration et lower intensities. Because it increases endurance...for minimal aerobic training. 9. Medical considerations No one should begin an exercise program unless they are in good health. It is also a good idea

  19. Adherence of older women with strength training and aerobic exercise

    PubMed Central

    Picorelli, Alexandra Miranda Assumpção; Pereira, Daniele Sirineu; Felício, Diogo Carvalho; Dos Anjos, Daniela Maria; Pereira, Danielle Aparecida Gomes; Dias, Rosângela Corrêa; Assis, Marcella Guimarães; Pereira, Leani Souza Máximo

    2014-01-01

    Background Participation of older people in a program of regular exercise is an effective strategy to minimize the physical decline associated with age. The purpose of this study was to assess adherence rates in older women enrolled in two different exercise programs (one aerobic exercise and one strength training) and identify any associated clinical or functional factors. Methods This was an exploratory observational study in a sample of 231 elderly women of mean age 70.5 years. We used a structured questionnaire with standardized tests to evaluate the relevant clinical and functional measures. A specific adherence questionnaire was developed by the researchers to determine motivators and barriers to exercise adherence. Results The adherence rate was 49.70% in the aerobic exercise group and 56.20% in the strength training group. Multiple logistic regression models for motivation were significant (P=0.003) for the muscle strengthening group (R2=0.310) and also significant (P=0.008) for the aerobic exercise group (R2=0.154). A third regression model for barriers to exercise was significant (P=0.003) only for the muscle strengthening group (R2=0.236). The present study shows no direct relationship between worsening health status and poor adherence. Conclusion Factors related to adherence with exercise in the elderly are multifactorial. PMID:24600212

  20. HIGHER TREADMILL TRAINING INTENSITY TO ADDRESS FUNCTIONAL AEROBIC IMPAIRMENT AFTER STROKE

    PubMed Central

    Ivey, Frederick M.; Stookey, Alyssa D.; Hafer-Macko, Charlene E.; Ryan, Alice S.; Macko, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Peak Aerobic capacity (V02 peak) is severely worsened after disabling stroke, having serious implications for function, metabolism and ongoing cardiovascular risk. Work from our lab and others has previously shown that modest improvements in VO2 peak are possible in stroke participants with aerobic exercise training. The purpose of the current investigation was to test the extent to which greater enhancements in VO2 peak after stroke are possible using a treadmill protocol with far greater emphasis on intensity progression compared to a protocol without such emphasis. Methods Using a randomized design we compared stroke survivors engaged in higher intensity treadmill training (HI-TM, 80% Heart Rate Reserve- HRR) with those undergoing lower intensity training (LO-TM, 50% HRR). Measured outcomes were change in VO2 peak, 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), 30-ft walk times (30WT) and 48-hr step counts (48SC). LO-TM participants trained for a longer period of time per session in an effort to approximately match workload/ caloric expenditure. Participants were randomized with stratification according to age and baseline walking capacity. Results HI-TM participants (N=18) had significantly greater gains in VO2 peak (+34%) than LO-TM participants (N=16) (+5%) across the 6 month intervention period (p=0.001, group × time interaction). Conversely, there was no statistical difference between groups in the changes observed for 6MWD, 30WT, or 48SC. Conclusion HI-TM is far more effective than LO-TM for improving VO2 peak after disabling stroke. The magnitude of relative improvement for HI-TM was double compared to previous reports from our laboratory with probable clinical significance for this population. PMID:26303787

  1. The use of aerobic exercise training in improving aerobic capacity in individuals with stroke: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Marco YC; Eng, Janice J; Dawson, Andrew S; Gylfadóttir, Sif

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether aerobic exercise improves aerobic capacity in individuals with stroke. Design A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Databases searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Physiotherapy Evidence Database were searched. Inclusion criteria Design: randomized controlled trials; Participants: individuals with stroke; Interventions: aerobic exercise training aimed at improving aerobic capacity; Outcomes Primary outcomes: aerobic capacity [peak oxygen consumption (VO2), peak workload); Secondary outcomes: walking velocity, walking endurance. Data Analysis The methodological quality was assessed by the PEDro scale. Meta-analyses were performed for all primary and secondary outcomes. Results Nine articles (seven RCTs) were identified. The exercise intensity ranged from 50% to 80% heart rate reserve. Exercise duration was 20–40 minutes for 3–5 days a week. The total number of subjects included in the studies was 480. All studies reported positive effects on aerobic capacity, regardless of the stage of stroke recovery. Meta-analysis revealed a significant homogeneous standardized effect size (SES) in favour of aerobic exercise to improve peak VO2 (SES, 0.42; 95%CI, 0.15 to 0.69; p=0.001) and peak workload (SES, 0.50; 95%CI, 0.26 to 0.73; p<0.001). There was also a significant homogeneous SES in favour of aerobic training to improve walking velocity (SES, 0.26; 95%CI, 0.05 to 0.48; p=0.008) and walking endurance (SES, 0.30; 95%CI, 0.06to 0.55; p=0.008). Conclusions There is good evidence that aerobic exercise is beneficial for improving aerobic capacity in people with mild and moderate stroke. Aerobic exercise should be an important component of stroke rehabilitation. PMID:16541930

  2. Effects of combined training vs aerobic training on cognitive functions in COPD: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Aquino, Giovanna; Iuliano, Enzo; di Cagno, Alessandra; Vardaro, Angela; Fiorilli, Giovanni; Moffa, Stefano; Di Costanzo, Alfonso; De Simone, Giuseppe; Calcagno, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high-intensity aerobic training (AT) and high-intensity aerobic training combined with resistance training (ie, combined training [CT]) on cognitive function in patients with COPD. Methods Twenty-eight Caucasian male patients (68.35±9.64 years; mean ± SD) with COPD were recruited and randomized into two groups, AT and CT. Both groups performed physical reconditioning for 4 weeks, with a frequency of five training sessions per week. The CT group completed two daily sessions of 30 minutes: one aerobic session and one strength session, respectively; The AT group performed two 30-minute aerobic endurance exercise sessions on treadmill. Physical and cognitive function tests were performed before and after the training intervention performances. Results Exercise training improved the following cognitive functions: long-term memory, verbal fluency, attentional capacity, apraxia, and reasoning skills (P<0.01). Moreover, the improvements in the CT group were significantly greater than those in the AT group in long-term memory, apraxia, and reasoning skills (P<0.05). Conclusion CT may be a possible strategy to prevent cognitive decline and associated comorbidities in male patients with COPD. PMID:27110107

  3. Aerobic exercise training reduces arterial stiffness in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Donley, David A; Fournier, Sara B; Reger, Brian L; DeVallance, Evan; Bonner, Daniel E; Olfert, I Mark; Frisbee, Jefferson C; Chantler, Paul D

    2014-06-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a threefold increase risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality partly due to increased arterial stiffening. We compared the effects of aerobic exercise training on arterial stiffening/mechanics in MetS subjects without overt CVD or type 2 diabetes. MetS and healthy control (Con) subjects underwent 8 wk of exercise training (ExT; 11 MetS and 11 Con) or remained inactive (11 MetS and 10 Con). The following measures were performed pre- and postintervention: radial pulse wave analysis (applanation tonometry) was used to measure augmentation pressure and index, central pressures, and an estimate of myocardial efficiency; arterial stiffness was assessed from carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (cfPWV, applanation tonometry); carotid thickness was assessed from B-mode ultrasound; and peak aerobic capacity (gas exchange) was performed in the seated position. Plasma matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and CVD risk (Framingham risk score) were also assessed. cfPWV was reduced (P < 0.05) in MetS-ExT subjects (7.9 ± 0.6 to 7.2 ± 0.4 m/s) and Con-ExT (6.6 ± 1.8 to 5.6 ± 1.6 m/s). Exercise training reduced (P < 0.05) central systolic pressure (116 ± 5 to 110 ± 4 mmHg), augmentation pressure (9 ± 1 to 7 ± 1 mmHg), augmentation index (19 ± 3 to 15 ± 4%), and improved myocardial efficiency (155 ± 8 to 168 ± 9), but only in the MetS group. Aerobic capacity increased (P < 0.05) in MetS-ExT (16.6 ± 1.0 to 19.9 ± 1.0) and Con-ExT subjects (23.8 ± 1.6 to 26.3 ± 1.6). MMP-1 and -7 were correlated with cfPWV, and both MMP-1 and -7 were reduced post-ExT in MetS subjects. These findings suggest that some of the pathophysiological changes associated with MetS can be improved after aerobic exercise training, thereby lowering their cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Aerobic exercise training reduces arterial stiffness in metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Donley, David A.; Fournier, Sara B.; Reger, Brian L.; DeVallance, Evan; Bonner, Daniel E.; Olfert, I. Mark; Frisbee, Jefferson C.

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a threefold increase risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality partly due to increased arterial stiffening. We compared the effects of aerobic exercise training on arterial stiffening/mechanics in MetS subjects without overt CVD or type 2 diabetes. MetS and healthy control (Con) subjects underwent 8 wk of exercise training (ExT; 11 MetS and 11 Con) or remained inactive (11 MetS and 10 Con). The following measures were performed pre- and postintervention: radial pulse wave analysis (applanation tonometry) was used to measure augmentation pressure and index, central pressures, and an estimate of myocardial efficiency; arterial stiffness was assessed from carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (cfPWV, applanation tonometry); carotid thickness was assessed from B-mode ultrasound; and peak aerobic capacity (gas exchange) was performed in the seated position. Plasma matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and CVD risk (Framingham risk score) were also assessed. cfPWV was reduced (P < 0.05) in MetS-ExT subjects (7.9 ± 0.6 to 7.2 ± 0.4 m/s) and Con-ExT (6.6 ± 1.8 to 5.6 ± 1.6 m/s). Exercise training reduced (P < 0.05) central systolic pressure (116 ± 5 to 110 ± 4 mmHg), augmentation pressure (9 ± 1 to 7 ± 1 mmHg), augmentation index (19 ± 3 to 15 ± 4%), and improved myocardial efficiency (155 ± 8 to 168 ± 9), but only in the MetS group. Aerobic capacity increased (P < 0.05) in MetS-ExT (16.6 ± 1.0 to 19.9 ± 1.0) and Con-ExT subjects (23.8 ± 1.6 to 26.3 ± 1.6). MMP-1 and -7 were correlated with cfPWV, and both MMP-1 and -7 were reduced post-ExT in MetS subjects. These findings suggest that some of the pathophysiological changes associated with MetS can be improved after aerobic exercise training, thereby lowering their cardiovascular risk. PMID:24744384

  5. The Effect of Different Doses of Aerobic Exercise Training on Exercise Blood Pressure in Overweight and Obese Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Damon L.; Earnest, Conrad P.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Blair, Steven N.; Church, Timothy S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Abnormally elevated exercise blood pressure is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Aerobic exercise training has been shown to reduce exercise blood pressure. However, it is unknown if these improvements occur in a dose dependent manner. The purpose of the present study is to determine the effect of different doses of aerobic exercise training on exercise blood pressure in obese postmenopausal women. Methods Participants (n=404) were randomized to one of 4 groups: 4, 8, or 12 kilocalories per kilogram of energy expenditure per week (kcal/kg/week) or the non-exercise control group for 6 months. Exercise blood pressure was obtained during the 50 watts stage of a cycle ergometer maximal exercise test. Results There was a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure at 50 watts in the 4 kcal/kg/week (−10.9 mmHg, p< 0.001), 8 kcal/kg/week (−9.9 mmHg, p= 0.022), and 12 kcal/kg/week (−13.7 mmHg, p<0.001) compared to control (−4.2 mmHg). Only the highest exercise training dose significantly reduced diastolic blood pressure (−4.3 mmHg, p= 0.033) compared to control. Additionally, resting blood pressure was not altered following exercise training (p>0.05) compared to control, and was not associated with changes in exercise systolic (r=0.09, p=0.09) or diastolic (r=0.10, p=0.08) blood pressure. Conclusions Aerobic exercise training reduces exercise blood pressure and may be more modifiable than changes in resting blood pressure. A high dose of aerobic exercise is recommended to successfully reduce both exercise systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and therefore may attenuate the CVD risk associated with abnormally elevated exercise blood pressure. PMID:22547251

  6. The effect of different doses of aerobic exercise training on exercise blood pressure in overweight and obese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Swift, Damon L; Earnest, Conrad P; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Blair, Steven N; Church, Timothy S

    2012-05-01

    Abnormally elevated exercise blood pressure is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Aerobic exercise training has been shown to reduce exercise blood pressure. However, it is unknown whether these improvements occur in a dose-dependent manner. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of different doses of aerobic exercise training on exercise blood pressure in obese postmenopausal women. Participants (N = 404) were randomized to one of four groups--groups with 4, 8, or 12 kcal/kg of energy expenditure per week or a nonexercise control group--for 6 months. Exercise blood pressure was obtained during the 50-watt stage of a cycle ergometer maximal exercise test. There was a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure at 50 watts in the 4 kcal/kg per week (-10.9 mm Hg, P < 0.001), 8 kcal/kg per week (-9.9 mm Hg, P = 0.022), and 12 kcal/kg per week (-13.7 mm Hg, P < 0.001) compared with control (-4.2 mm Hg). Only the highest exercise training dose significantly reduced diastolic blood pressure (-4.3 mm Hg, P = 0.033) compared with control. In addition, resting blood pressure was not altered after exercise training (P > 0.05) compared with control and was not associated with changes in exercise systolic (r = 0.09, P = 0.09) or diastolic (r = 0.10, P = 0.08) blood pressure. Aerobic exercise training reduces exercise blood pressure and may be more modifiable than changes in resting blood pressure. A high dose of aerobic exercise is recommended to successfully reduce both exercise systolic and diastolic blood pressure and therefore may attenuate the cardiovascular disease risk associated with abnormally elevated exercise blood pressure.

  7. Integrating Aerobic Training Within Subacute Stroke Rehabilitation: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Sage, Michael D.; Brunton, Karen; Fraser, Julia; Howe, Jo-Anne; Bayley, Mark; Brooks, Dina; McIlroy, William E.; Mansfield, Avril; Inness, Elizabeth L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Aerobic activity positively affects patients recovering from stroke and is part of best practice guidelines, yet this evidence has not been translated to routine practice. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a model of care that integrated aerobic training in an inpatient rehabilitation setting for patients in the subacute stage of stroke recovery. Key elements of the program were personalized training prescription based on submaximal test results and supervision within a group setting. Design This was a prospective cohort study. Methods Participants (N=78) completed submaximal exercise testing prior to enrollment, and the test results were used by their treating physical therapists for exercise prescription. Feasibility was evaluated using enrollment, class attendance, adherence to prescription, and participant perceptions. Results Overall, 31 patients (40%) were referred to and completed the exercise program. Cardiac comorbidities were the main reason for nonreferral to the fitness group. Program attendance was 77%; scheduling conflicts were the primary barrier to participation. The majority of participants (63%) achieved 20 minutes of continuous exercise by the end of the program. No adverse events were reported, all participants felt they benefited from the program, and 80% of the participants expressed interest in continuing to exercise regularly after discharge. Limitations Cardiac comorbidities prevented enrollment in the program for 27% of the admitted patients, and strategies for inclusion in exercise programs in this population should be explored. Conclusions This individualized exercise program within a group delivery model was feasible; however, ensuring adequate aerobic targets were met was a challenge, and future work should focus on how best to include individuals with cardiac comorbidities. PMID:25082924

  8. Effects of 12 weeks of aerobic training on autonomic modulation, mucociliary clearance, and aerobic parameters in patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Marceli Rocha; Ramos, Ercy Mara Cipulo; Kalva-Filho, Carlos Augusto; Freire, Ana Paula Coelho Figueira; de Alencar Silva, Bruna Spolador; Nicolino, Juliana; de Toledo-Arruda, Alessandra Choqueta; Papoti, Marcelo; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Ramos, Dionei

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exhibit aerobic function, autonomic nervous system, and mucociliary clearance alterations. These parameters can be attenuated by aerobic training, which can be applied with continuous or interval efforts. However, the possible effects of aerobic training, using progressively both continuous and interval sessions (ie, linear periodization), require further investigation. Aim To analyze the effects of 12-week aerobic training using continuous and interval sessions on autonomic modulation, mucociliary clearance, and aerobic function in patients with COPD. Methods Sixteen patients with COPD were divided into an aerobic (continuous and interval) training group (AT) (n=10) and a control group (CG) (n=6). An incremental test (initial speed of 2.0 km·h−1, constant slope of 3%, and increments of 0.5 km·h−1 every 2 minutes) was performed. The training group underwent training for 4 weeks at 60% of the peak velocity reached in the incremental test (vVO2peak) (50 minutes of continuous effort), followed by 4 weeks of sessions at 75% of vVO2peak (30 minutes of continuous effort), and 4 weeks of interval training (5×3-minute effort at vVO2peak, separated by 1 minute of passive recovery). Intensities were adjusted through an incremental test performed at the end of each period. Results The AT presented an increase in the high frequency index (ms2) (P=0.04), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) (P=0.01), vVO2peak (P=0.04), and anaerobic threshold (P=0.02). No significant changes were observed in the CG (P>0.21) group. Neither of the groups presented changes in mucociliary clearance after 12 weeks (AT: P=0.94 and CG: P=0.69). Conclusion Twelve weeks of aerobic training (continuous and interval sessions) positively influenced the autonomic modulation and aerobic parameters in patients with COPD. However, mucociliary clearance was not affected by aerobic training. PMID:26648712

  9. EPOC Comparison Between Isocaloric Bouts of Steady-State Aerobic, Intermittent Aerobic, and Resistance Training.

    PubMed

    Greer, Beau Kjerulf; Sirithienthad, Prawee; Moffatt, Robert J; Marcello, Richard T; Panton, Lynn B

    2015-06-01

    Excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) is dependent on intensity, duration, and mode of exercise. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of both exercise mode and intensity on EPOC while controlling for caloric expenditure and duration. Ten low to moderately physically active men (22 ± 2 yrs) performed 3 nonrandomized isocaloric bouts of exercise separated by 7 days. The 1st session was resistance training (RT), followed by moderate-intensity steady-state (SS) aerobic exercise, and concluding with a high-intensity intermittent (IT) aerobic session. Total energy expenditure, rate of energy expenditure, and duration did not differ among trials (p>.05). Respiratory exchange ratio was greater during the RT trial than the SS trial (p < .05). At 12 hr postexercise, resting metabolic rate (RMR) was higher after the RT trial (4.7 ± 0.67 mL/kg/min) and IT trial (4.6 ± 0.62 mL/kg/min) compared with their respective baseline measurements (p < .008) and the SS trial (4.3 ± 0.58 mL/kg/min; p < .008). At 21 hr postexercise, RMR was higher after the RT trial (3.7 ± 0.51 mL/kg/min) and IT trial (3.5 ± 0.39 mL/kg/min) compared with the SS trial (3.2 ± 0.38 mL/kg/min; p < .008). The SS trial did not influence RMR at either 12 hr or 21 hr postexercise. Both RT and IT aerobic work increased EPOC to a greater degree than did SS work, indicating that either mode may be more effective at increasing total daily caloric expenditure than SS aerobic exercise.

  10. Supplementary Low-Intensity Aerobic Training Improves Aerobic Capacity and Does Not Affect Psychomotor Performance in Professional Female Ballet Dancers

    PubMed Central

    Smol, Ewelina; Fredyk, Artur

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether 6-week low-intensity aerobic training program used as a supplement to regular dance practice might improve both the aerobic capacity and psychomotor performance in female ballet dancers. To assess their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and anaerobic threshold (AT), the dancers performed a standard graded bicycle ergometer exercise test until volitional exhaustion prior to and after the supplementary training. At both these occasions, the psychomotor performance (assessed as multiple choice reaction time) and number of correct responses to audio-visual stimuli was assessed at rest and immediately after cessation of maximal intensity exercise. The supplementary low-intensity exercise training increased VO2max and markedly shifted AT toward higher absolute workload. Immediately after completion of the graded exercise to volitional exhaustion, the ballerinas’ psychomotor performance remained at the pre-exercise (resting) level. Neither the resting nor the maximal multiple choice reaction time and accuracy of responses were affected by the supplementary aerobic training. The results of this study indicate that addition of low-intensity aerobic training to regular dance practice increases aerobic capacity of ballerinas with no loss of speed and accuracy of their psychomotor reaction. PMID:23485962

  11. Effects of aerobic or resistance training or both on health-related quality of life in youth with obesity: the HEARTY Trial.

    PubMed

    Goldfield, Gary S; Kenny, Glen P; Alberga, Angela S; Tulloch, Heather E; Doucette, Steve; Cameron, Jameason D; Sigal, Ronald J

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the effects of aerobic and resistance training, and their combination on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adolescents with overweight or obesity. After a 4-week run-in period, 304 (91 males, 213 females) post-pubertal adolescents aged 14-18 years, were randomized to 4 groups for 22 weeks of: aerobic training (n = 75), resistance training (n = 78), combined aerobic and resistance training (n = 75), or nonexercising control (n = 76). All participants received dietary counseling with a daily energy deficit of 250 kcal. Indicators of HRQoL such as overall HRQoL, and physical and psychosocial (an aggregate of emotional, social, and school functioning) HRQoL at baseline and 6 months postintervention were measured by the Pediatric Quality of Life questionnaire. The trial began in March 2005 and was completed in June 2011. In the intention-to-treat analyses, all groups showed significant improvements at 6 months on all HRQoL indicators. The aerobic group showed greater improvements than controls on physical HRQoL (mean differences of 5.5; 95% CI; 1.4-9.6, p = 0.009). In participants with ≥70% adherence, combined training produced greater improvements than control on overall HRQoL (mean differences of 4.8, 95% CI; 0.7-9.0, p = 0.02), physical HRQoL (mean differences of 5.8; 95% CI: 0.6-10.7; p = 0.03), social HRQoL (mean differences of 7.6; 95% CI: 1.0-14.2; p = 0.02), and school-based HRQoL (mean differences of 7.6; 95% CI: 1.0-14.2; p = 0.02). These findings highlight the potential importance of including resistance exercise into traditional aerobic exercise programs to maximize HRQoL in adolescents with obesity.

  12. Aerobic training abolishes ambulatory blood pressure increase induced by estrogen therapy: a double blind randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Crivaldo Gomes; Rosas, Fabrício Collares; Oneda, Bruna; Labes, Eliana; Tinucci, Taís; Abrahão, Sandra Balieiro; da Fonseca, Angela Maggio; Mion, Decio; Forjaz, Cláudia Lúcia de Moraes

    2011-06-01

    Emerging data reveal that oral estrogen therapy can increase clinic blood pressure (BP) in post-menopausal women; however, it is important to establish its effects on ambulatory BP, which is a better predictor for target-organ damage. Besides estrogen therapy, aerobic training is widely recommended for post-menopausal women, and it can decrease ambulatory BP levels. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of aerobic training and estrogen therapy on the ambulatory BP of post-menopausal women. Forty seven healthy hysterectomized women were randomly divided (in a double-blind manner) into 4 groups: placebo-control (PLA-CO=12), estrogen therapy-control (ET-CO=14), placebo-aerobic training (PLA-AT=12), and estrogen therapy-aerobic training (ET-AT=09). The ET groups received estradiol valerate (1 mg/day) and the AT groups performed cycle ergometer, 3×/week at moderate intensity. Hormonal status (blood analysis), maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test (VO(2) peak) and ambulatory BP (24-h, daytime and nighttime) was evaluated before and 6 months after interventions. A significant increase in VO(2) peak was observed only in women who participated in aerobic training groups (+4.6±1.0 ml kg(-1) min(-1), P=0.00). Follicle-stimulating hormone was a significant decreased in the ET groups (-18.65±5.19 pg/ml, P=0.00), and it was accompanied by an increase in circulating estrogen (56.1±6.6 pg/ml). A significant increase was observed in the ET groups for daytime (P=0.01) and nighttime systolic BP (P=0.01), as well as nighttime diastolic BP (P=0.02). However, daytime diastolic BP was increased only in the ET-CO group (+3.4±1.2 mmHg, P=0.04), and did not change in any other groups. No significant effect was found in ambulatory heart rate. In conclusion, aerobic training abolished the increase of daytime ambulatory BP induced by estrogen therapy in hysterectomized, healthy, normotensive and postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of aerobic training on inter-arm coordination in highly trained swimmers.

    PubMed

    Schnitzler, Christophe; Seifert, Ludovic; Chollet, Didier; Toussaint, Huub

    2014-02-01

    The effect of three months of aerobic training on spatio-temporal and coordination parameters was examined during a swim trial at maximal aerobic speed. Nine male swimmers swam a 400-m front crawl at maximal speed twice: in trial 1, after summer break, and trial 2, after three months of aerobic training. Video analysis determined the stroke (swimming speed, stroke length, and stroke rate) and coordination (Index of Coordination and propulsive phase duration) parameters for every 50-m segment. All swimmers significantly increased their swimming speed after training. For all swimmers except one, stroke length increased and stroke rate remained constant, whereas the Index of Coordination and the propulsive phase duration decreased (p<.05). This study suggests that aerobic training developed a greater force impulse in the swimmers during the propulsive phases, which allowed them to take advantage of longer non-propulsive phases. In this case, catch-up coordination, if associated with greater stroke length, can be an efficient coordination mode that reflects optimal drag/propulsion adaptation. This finding thus provides new insight into swimmers' adaptations to the middle-distance event. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Moderate aerobic training improves autonomic cardiovascular control in older women.

    PubMed

    Gulli, Giosuè; Cevese, Antonio; Cappelletto, Paola; Gasparini, Gianpaolo; Schena, Federico

    2003-06-01

    The decline in the cardiovascular autonomic regulation in advanced age is considered a risk factor for several cardiovascular diseases. We tested, on eleven healthy untreated women aged 60-70 years, whether a six-month period of group-based training exerts positive effects on this age-associated decline. Before and after training, ECG and arterial pressure (Finapres) were recorded in supine position. We calculated mean values +/- SEM of R-R period (RR), systolic (SAP) and diastolic (DAP) arterial pressure, as well as, by autoregressive spectral analysis methods, low (approximately 0.1 Hz) and high (respiratory) frequency oscillations of RR (LF(RR), HF(RR)) and SAP (LF(SAP), HF(SAP)), and the baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). Training induced statistically significant changes (p < 0.05 by paired t-test): increase in RR (mean +/- SEM) from 894 +/- 41 to 947 +/- 31 ms and in heart rate variability (HRV) by 25 %, decrease in DAP from 75.8 +/- 3.0 to 70.8 +/- 2.2 mmHg, no change in SAP. LF(RR) and LF(SAP) increased by more than 100%, while BRS by 32%. We suggest that the increase in BRS might be responsible for the observed bradycardia and higher LF(RR). An improved modulation, rather than an increase, in tonic sympathetic activity, is also suggested. A specific program of moderate aerobic training is adequate to increase the BRS and the HRV in older women.

  15. Metabolic Effects of Aerobic Training and Resistance Training in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Bacchi, Elisabetta; Negri, Carlo; Zanolin, Maria Elisabetta; Milanese, Chiara; Faccioli, Niccolò; Trombetta, Maddalena; Zoppini, Giacomo; Cevese, Antonio; Bonadonna, Riccardo C.; Schena, Federico; Bonora, Enzo; Lanza, Massimo; Moghetti, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess differences between the effects of aerobic and resistance training on HbA1c (primary outcome) and several metabolic risk factors in subjects with type 2 diabetes, and to identify predictors of exercise-induced metabolic improvement. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Type 2 diabetic patients (n = 40) were randomly assigned to aerobic training or resistance training. Before and after 4 months of intervention, metabolic phenotypes (including HbA1c, glucose clamp–measured insulin sensitivity, and oral glucose tolerance test–assessed β-cell function), body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue by magnetic resonance imaging, cardiorespiratory fitness, and muscular strength were measured. RESULTS After training, increase in peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) was greater in the aerobic group (time-by-group interaction P = 0.045), whereas increase in strength was greater in the resistance group (time-by-group interaction P < 0.0001). HbA1c was similarly reduced in both groups (−0.40% [95% CI −0.61 to −0.18] vs. −0.35% [−0.59 to −0.10], respectively). Total and truncal fat, VAT, and SAT were also similarly reduced in both groups, whereas insulin sensitivity and lean limb mass were similarly increased. β-Cell function showed no significant changes. In multivariate analyses, improvement in HbA1c after training was independently predicted by baseline HbA1c and by changes in VO2peak and truncal fat. CONCLUSIONS Resistance training, similarly to aerobic training, improves metabolic features and insulin sensitivity and reduces abdominal fat in type 2 diabetic patients. Changes after training in VO2peak and truncal fat may be primary determinants of exercise-induced metabolic improvement. PMID:22344613

  16. Effects of Aerobic Training on Primary Dysmenorrhea Symptomatology in College Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Israel, Richard G.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a 12-week aerobic training program on menstrual distress symptoms in college females with clinically diagnosed primary dysmenorrhea. The findings suggest that aerobic training can significantly reduce the symptoms associated with primary dysmenorrhea. (Author/MT)

  17. Excess postexercise oxygen consumption after aerobic exercise training.

    PubMed

    Sedlock, Darlene A; Lee, Man-Gyoon; Flynn, Michael G; Park, Kyung-Shin; Kamimori, Gary H

    2010-08-01

    Literature examining the effects of aerobic exercise training on excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) is sparse. In this study, 9 male participants (19-32 yr) trained (EX) for 12 wk, and 10 in a control group (CON) maintained normal activity. VO(2max), rectal temperature (T(re)), epinephrine, norepinephrine, free fatty acids (FFA), insulin, glucose, blood lactate (BLA), and EPOC were measured before (PRE) and after (POST) the intervention. EPOC at PRE was measured for 120 min after 30 min of treadmill running at 70% VO(2max). EX completed 2 EPOC trials at POST, i.e., at the same absolute (ABS) and relative (REL) intensity; 1 EPOC test for CON served as both the ABS and REL trial because no significant change in VO(2max) was noted. During the ABS trial, total EPOC decreased significantly (p < .01) from PRE (39.4 ± 3.6 kcal) to POST (31.7 ± 2.2 kcal). T(re), epinephrine, insulin, glucose, and BLA at end-exercise or during recovery were significantly lower and FFA significantly higher after training. Training did not significantly affect EPOC during the REL trial; however, epinephrine was significantly lower, and norepinephrine and FFA, significantly higher, at endexercise after training. Results indicate that EPOC varies as a function of relative rather than absolute metabolic stress and that training improves the efficiency of metabolic regulation during recovery from exercise. Mechanisms for the decreased magnitude of EPOC in the ABS trial include decreases in BLA, T(re), and perhaps epinephrine-mediated hepatic glucose production and insulin-mediated glucose uptake.

  18. Elevated energy coupling and aerobic capacity improves exercise performance in endurance-trained elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Conley, Kevin E; Jubrias, Sharon A; Cress, M Elaine; Esselman, Peter C

    2013-04-01

    Increased maximal oxygen uptake (V(O(2)max)), mitochondrial capacity and energy coupling efficiency are reported after endurance training (ET) in adult subjects. Here we test whether leg exercise performance (power output of the legs, P(max), at V(O(2)max)) reflects these improvements with ET in the elderly. Fifteen male and female subjects were endurance trained for a 6 month programme, with 13 subjects (69.5 ± 1.2 years old, range 65-80 years old; n = 7 males; n = 6 females) completing the study. This training significantly improved P(max) (Δ17%; P = 0.003), V(O(2)max) (Δ5.4%; P = 0.021) and the increment in oxygen uptake (V(O(2))) above resting (ΔV(O(2)m-r) = V(O(2)max) - V(O(2)rest; Δ9%; P < 0.02). In addition, evidence of improved energy coupling came from elevated leg power output per unit V(O(2))at the aerobic capacity [Δ(P(max)/ΔV(O(2)m-r)); P = 0.02] and during submaximal exercise in the ramp test as measured by delta efficiency (ΔP(ex)/ΔV(O(2)); P = 0.04). No change was found in blood lactate, muscle glycolysis or fibre type. The rise in P(max) paralleled the improvement in muscle oxidative phosphorylation capacity (ATP(max)) in these subjects. In addition, the greater exercise energy coupling [Δ(P(max)/ΔV(O(2)m-r)) and delta efficiency] was accompanied by increased mitochondrial energy coupling as measured by elevated ATP production per unit mitochondrial content in these subjects. These results suggest that leg exercise performance benefits from elevations in energy coupling and oxidative phosphorylation capacity at both the whole-body and muscle levels that accompany endurance training in the elderly.

  19. Aerobic and Strength Training Reduces Adiposity in Overweight Latina Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    DAVIS, JAIMIE N.; TUNG, AMY; CHAK, SALVA S.; VENTURA, EMILY E.; BYRD-WILLIAMS, COURTNEY E.; ALEXANDER, KATHARINE E.; LANE, CHRISTIANNE J.; WEIGENSBERG, MARC J.; SPRUIJT-METZ, DONNA; GORAN, MICHAEL I.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To date, no study has examined the synergistic effects of a nutrition and combination of aerobic and strength training (CAST) on both adiposity and metabolic parameters in overweight Latina adolescent females. The goal was to assess if a 16-wk nutrition plus CAST pilot study had stronger effects on reducing adiposity and on improving glucose/insulin indices compared with control (C), nutrition only (N), and a nutrition plus strength training (N + ST) groups. Methods In a 16-wk randomized trial, 41 overweight Latina girls (15.2 ± 1.1 yr) were randomly assigned to C (n = 7), N (n = 10), N + ST (n = 9), or N + CAST (n = 15). All intervention groups received modified carbohydrate nutrition classes (once a week), whereas the N + ST also received strength training (twice a week) and the N + CAST received a combination of strength and aerobic training (twice a week). The following were measured before and after intervention: strength by one repetition maximum, physical activity by the 7-d accelerometry and the 3-d physical activity recall, dietary intake by 3-d records, body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), glucose/insulin indices by oral glucose tolerance test, and intravenous glucose tolerance test with minimal modeling. Across intervention group, effects were tested using ANCOVA with post hoc pairwise comparisons. Results There were significant overall intervention effects for all adiposity measures (weight, body mass index [BMI], BMI z-scores, and DEXA total body fat), with a decrease of 3% in the N + CAST group compared with a 3% increase in the N + ST group (P ≤ 0.05). There was also an intervention effect for fasting glucose with the N group increasing by 3% and the N + CAST group decreasing by 4% (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion The CAST was more effective than nutrition alone or nutrition plus strength training for reducing multiple adiposity outcomes and fasting glucose in overweight Latina girls. However, further research investigating

  20. Aerobic and strength training reduces adiposity in overweight Latina adolescents.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jaimie N; Tung, Amy; Chak, Salva S; Ventura, Emily E; Byrd-Williams, Courtney E; Alexander, Katharine E; Lane, Christianne J; Weigensberg, Marc J; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Goran, Michael I

    2009-07-01

    To date, no study has examined the synergistic effects of a nutrition and combination of aerobic and strength training (CAST) on both adiposity and metabolic parameters in overweight Latina adolescent females. The goal was to assess if a 16-wk nutrition plus CAST pilot study had stronger effects on reducing adiposity and on improving glucose/insulin indices compared with control (C), nutrition only (N), and a nutrition plus strength training (N + ST) groups. In a 16-wk randomized trial, 41 overweight Latina girls (15.2 +/- 1.1 yr) were randomly assigned to C (n = 7), N (n = 10), N + ST (n = 9), or N + CAST (n = 15). All intervention groups received modified carbohydrate nutrition classes (once a week), whereas the N + ST also received strength training (twice a week) and the N + CAST received a combination of strength and aerobic training (twice a week). The following were measured before and after intervention: strength by one repetition maximum, physical activity by the 7-d accelerometry and the 3-d physical activity recall, dietary intake by 3-d records, body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), glucose/insulin indices by oral glucose tolerance test, and intravenous glucose tolerance test with minimal modeling. Across intervention group, effects were tested using ANCOVA with post hoc pairwise comparisons. There were significant overall intervention effects for all adiposity measures (weight, body mass index [BMI], BMI z-scores, and DEXA total body fat), with a decrease of 3% in the N + CAST group compared with a 3% increase in the N + ST group (P < or = 0.05). There was also an intervention effect for fasting glucose with the N group increasing by 3% and the N + CAST group decreasing by 4% (P < or = 0.05). The CAST was more effective than nutrition alone or nutrition plus strength training for reducing multiple adiposity outcomes and fasting glucose in overweight Latina girls. However, further research investigating and identifying

  1. Aerobic training for improved memory in patients with stress-related exhaustion: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Eskilsson, Therese; Slunga Järvholm, Lisbeth; Malmberg Gavelin, Hanna; Stigsdotter Neely, Anna; Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan

    2017-09-02

    Patients with stress-related exhaustion suffer from cognitive impairments, which often remain after psychological treatment or work place interventions. It is important to find effective treatments that can address this problem. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects on cognitive performance and psychological variables of a 12-week aerobic training program performed at a moderate-vigorous intensity for patients with exhaustion disorder who participated in a multimodal rehabilitation program. In this open-label, parallel, randomized and controlled trial, 88 patients diagnosed with exhaustion disorder participated in a 24-week multimodal rehabilitation program. After 12 weeks in the program the patients were randomized to either a 12-week aerobic training intervention or to a control group with no additional training. Primary outcome measure was cognitive function, and secondary outcome measures were psychological health variables and aerobic capacity. In total, 51% patients in the aerobic training group and 78% patients in the control group completed the intervention period. The aerobic training group significantly improved in maximal oxygen uptake and episodic memory performance. No additional improvement in burnout, depression or anxiety was observed in the aerobic group compared with controls. Aerobic training at a moderate-vigorous intensity within a multimodal rehabilitation program for patients with exhaustion disorder facilitated episodic memory. A future challenge would be the clinical implementation of aerobic training and methods to increase feasibility in this patient group. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03073772 . Retrospectively registered 21 February 2017.

  2. Extremely low volume, whole-body aerobic-resistance training improves aerobic fitness and muscular endurance in females.

    PubMed

    McRae, Gill; Payne, Alexa; Zelt, Jason G E; Scribbans, Trisha D; Jung, Mary E; Little, Jonathan P; Gurd, Brendon J

    2012-12-01

    The current study evaluated changes in aerobic fitness and muscular endurance following endurance training and very low volume, whole-body, high-intensity, interval-style aerobic-resistance training. Subjects' enjoyment and implementation intentions were also examined prior to and following training. Subjects (22 recreationally active females (20.3 ± 1.4 years)) completed 4 weeks of exercise training 4 days per week consisting of either 30 min of endurance treadmill training (~85% maximal heart rate; n = 7) or whole-body aerobic-resistance training involving one set of 8 × 20 s of a single exercise (burpees, jumping jacks, mountain climbers, or squat thrusts) separated by 10 s of rest per session (n = 7). A third group was assigned to a nontraining control group (n = 8). Following training, [Formula: see text]O(2peak) was increased in both the endurance (~7%) and interval (~8%) groups (p < 0.05), whereas muscle endurance was improved (p < 0.05) in the interval group (leg extensions, +40%; chest presses, +207%; sit-ups, +64%; push-ups, +135%; and back extensions, +75%). Perceived enjoyment of, and intentions to engage in, very low volume, high-intensity, whole-body interval exercise were both increased following training (p < 0.05). No significant changes were observed for any variable in the control (nontraining) group. These data demonstrate that although improvements in cardiovascular fitness are induced by both endurance and extremely low volume interval-style training, whole-body aerobic-resistance training imparted addition benefit in the form of improved skeletal muscle endurance.

  3. The effects of aerobic training on children's creativity, self-perception, and aerobic power.

    PubMed

    Herman-Tofler, L R; Tuckman, B W

    1998-10-01

    The article examines whether participation in an aerobic exercise program (AE), as compared with a traditional physical education class (PE), significantly increased children's perceived athletic competence, physical appearance, social acceptance, behavioral conduct, and global self-worth; increased their figural creativity; and improved aerobic power as measured by an 800-meter run around a track. Further research on the effects of different types of AE is discussed, as well as the need for aerobic conditioning in the elementary school.

  4. Health-Promoting Effects of Serial vs. Integrated Combined Strength and Aerobic Training.

    PubMed

    Karatrantou, K; Gerodimos, V; Häkkinen, K; Zafeiridis, A

    2017-01-01

    Combined strength and aerobic training programs are widely used for improving markers of physical fitness and health. We compared the efficiency of a serial and an integrated combined training program on health and overall fitness in middle-aged females. 54 females (46.7±4.5yrs) were assigned to a serial (SCG) or an integrated (ICG) combined training group or to a control group (CG). The SCG and ICG performed a 3-month training combining aerobic dance and calisthenics. The 2 training programs differ in the sequence of aerobic and strength exercises. SCG performed the strength exercises prior to aerobic; in ICG, the aerobic and strength exercises were altered in a predetermined order. Body composition/circumferences, blood pressure, respiratory function, flexibility, balance, muscle strength/endurance, power and aerobic capacity were measured before and after training. SCG and ICG significantly increased muscle strength and endurance, power, aerobic capacity, flexibility, balance, fat-free mass and respiratory function (p<0.001-0.05), while significant reductions were observed for blood pressure, heart rate and body fat/circumferences (p<0.001-0.05). However, there were no significant differences between SCG and ICG after training. Serial and integrated combined training programs confer analogous adaptations and can be used interchangeably for counteracting the detrimental effects of sedentary lifestyle on indices of physical fitness and health. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Whole-body aerobic resistance training circuit improves aerobic fitness and muscle strength in sedentary young females.

    PubMed

    Myers, Terrence R; Schneider, Matthew G; Schmale, Matthew S; Hazell, Tom J

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to determine whether a time-effective whole-body aerobic resistance training circuit using only body weight exercises is as effective in improving aerobic and anaerobic fitness, as well as muscular strength and endurance as a traditional concurrent style training combining resistance and endurance training. Thirty-four sedentary females (20.9 ± 3.2 years; 167.6 ± 6.4 cm; 65.0 ± 15.2 kg) were assigned to either: (a) a combined resistance and aerobic exercise group (COMBINED; n = 17) or (b) a circuit-based whole-body aerobic resistance training circuit group (CIRCUIT; n = 17). Training was 3 days per week for 5 weeks. Pre- and post-training measures included a (Equation is included in full-text article.)test, anaerobic Wingate cycling test, and muscular strength and endurance tests. After training, (Equation is included in full-text article.)improved with CIRCUIT by 11% (p = 0.015), with no change for COMBINED (p = 0.375). Both relative peak power output and relative average power output improved with CIRCUIT by 5% (p = 0.027) and 3.2% (p = 0.006), respectively, and with COMBINED by 5.3% (p = 0.025) and 5.1% (p = 0.003). Chest and hamstrings 1 repetition maximum (1RM) improved with CIRCUIT by 20.6% (p = 0.011) and 8.3% (p = 0.022) and with COMBINED by 35.6% (p < 0.001) and 10.2% (p = 0.004), respectively. Only the COMBINED group improved back (11.7%; p = 0.017) and quadriceps (9.6%; p = 0.006) 1RM. The COMBINED group performed more repetitions at 60% of their pretraining 1RM for back (10.0%; p = 0.006) and hamstring (23.3%; p = 0.056) vs. CIRCUIT. Our results suggest that a circuit-based whole-body aerobic resistance training program can elicit a greater cardiorespiratory response and similar muscular strength gains with less time commitment compared with a traditional resistance training program combined with aerobic exercise.

  6. The Effect of Three Months of Aerobic Training on Response Preparation in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Renaud, Mélanie; Maquestiaux, François; Joncas, Steve; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Bherer, Louis

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of an aerobic training program on reaction time tasks that manipulated preparatory intervals (PI) to produce temporal preparation effects using short (1, 3, 5 s) and long (5, 7, 9 s) PI. Older adults were assigned to either a 3-month aerobic training group or to a control group. Individuals in the training group participated in an aerobic training program of three 60-min sessions per week. The control group did not receive any training. Results indicated that 12 weeks of aerobic training induced a significant improvement in cardiorespiratory capacity (VO2max estimate). All participants who completed the aerobic program showed improvement after training in the choice RT task, along with enhanced preparation, such that they maintained preparation over time more efficiently after the training program. Moreover, enhanced ability to use the short PI was observed but only in lower fit individuals. Results of the present study suggest that improving aerobic fitness may enhance attentional control mechanisms in older adults. PMID:21151355

  7. Sexual Function 6 Months After First Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Brubaker, Linda; Handa, Victoria L.; Bradley, Catherine S.; Connolly, AnnaMarie; Moalli, Pamela; Brown, Morton B.; Weber, Anne

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the association of anal sphincter laceration and sexual function 6 months postpartum in the Childbirth and Pelvic Symptoms (CAPS) cohort. METHODS The primary CAPS study, a prospective cohort study, was designed to estimate the postpartum prevalence and incidence of urinary and fecal incontinence. Three cohorts of new mothers (vaginal delivery with a third- or fourth-degree anal sphincter tear, vaginal delivery without a third- or fourth-degree anal sphincter tear, and cesarean delivery without labor) were compared at 6 months postpartum. Sexual function was assessed with the Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence/Sexual Function Short Form Questionnaire (PISQ-12). Urinary and fecal incontinence were assessed using the Medical Epidemiological and Social Aspects of Aging questionnaire and the Fecal Incontinence Severity Index, which is embedded within the Modified Manchester Health Questionnaire. RESULTS Most women (459 [90%]) of those with partners reported sexual activity at the 6-month visit. Fewer women whose delivery was complicated by anal sphincter laceration reported sexual activity when compared with those who delivered vaginally without sphincter laceration (88 compared with 94%, P=.028). The mean PISQ-12 score (39±4) did not differ between delivery groups (P=.92). Pain (responses of “sometimes,” “usually,” or “always”) during sex affected one of three sexually active women (164 [36%]). CONCLUSION At 6 months postpartum, primiparous women who delivered with anal sphincter laceration are less likely to report sexual activity. PMID:18448733

  8. Adverse cardiometabolic response to aerobic exercise training: Should this be a concern?

    PubMed Central

    Leifer, Eric S.; Church, Timothy S.; Earnest, Conrad P.; Fleg, Jerome L.; Hakkinen, Keijo; Karavirta, Laura; Kraus, William E.; Mikus, Catherine; Resnick, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Aerobic exercise training in sedentary individuals improves physical fitness and various cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. Prior reports suggest that exercise training may adversely affect some risk factors in a small segment of the population. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether clinically significant worsening of CV risk variables was as or more prevalent among individuals randomized to a supervised endurance training program as compared to those randomized to a control condition. Methods Baseline and end of study measurements of resting systolic blood pressure (SBP) and fasting insulin (FI), triglycerides (TG), and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and were obtained on 1188 healthy sedentary subjects from the following studies: DREW (N=464), INFLAME (N=162), University of Jyvaskyla study (N=140), and STRRIDE (N=422). Each study randomized subjects to 4- to 6-month supervised aerobic exercise programs or to a control group of no supervised exercise training. For our analyses, the respective control and exercise groups for each study were combined to create one control group (N=345) and one exercise group (n=843). For each of the 4 CV risk variables, we calculated the respective proportions of control and exercise group subjects whose baseline-to-followup changes were greater than or equal to prespecified adverse change (AC) thresholds (ref). Those thresholds were increases of ≥ 24 pmol/L for FI, ≥ 0.42 mmol/L for TG, ≥ 10 mm Hg for SBP, and a decrease of ≥ 0.12 mmol/L for HDL-C Results The respective proportions of subjects meeting the AC threshold in the control and exercise groups were 15.2% vs. 9.6% (p=0.02) for FI, 14.9% vs. 13.1% (p=0.37) for TG, 28.6% vs. 22.5% (p=0.03) for HDL-C, and 16.9% vs. 15.8% (p=0.52) for SBP. The mean changes in the control and exercise groups were 1.8 vs. −6.5 pmol/L (p < 0.0001) for FI, −0.03 vs. −0.11 mmol/L (p=0.02) for TG, −0.03 vs. 0.00 mmol/L (p=0.02) for HDL-C, and −1.9 vs. −2.0 mm Hg (p=0

  9. HIIT enhances endurance performance and aerobic characteristics more than high-volume training in trained rowers.

    PubMed

    Ní Chéilleachair, Niamh J; Harrison, Andrew J; Warrington, Giles D

    2016-07-20

    This study compared the effects of long slow distance training (LSD) with high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in rowers. Nineteen well-trained rowers performed three tests before and after an 8-week training intervention: (1) 2000 m time trial; (2) seven-stage incremental step test to determine maximum oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O2max), power output at [Formula: see text]O2max (W[Formula: see text]O2max), peak power output (PPO), rowing economy and blood lactate indices and (3) seven-stroke power-output test to determine maximal power output (Wmax) and force (Fmax). After baseline testing, participants were randomly assigned either to a HIIT or LSD group. The LSD comprised 10 weekly aerobic sessions. The HIIT also comprised 10 weekly sessions: 8 aerobic and 2 HIIT. The HIIT sessions comprised 6-8 × 2.5 min intervals at 100% PPO with recovery time based on heart rate (HR) returning to 70% HRmax. Results demonstrated that the HIIT produced greater improvement in 2000 m time trial performance than the LSD (effect size (ES) = 0.25). Moreover, the HIIT produced greater improvements in [Formula: see text]O2max (ES = 0.95, P = 0.035) and power output at lactate threshold (WLT) (ES = 1.15, P = 0.008). Eight weeks of HIIT performed at 100% PPO is more effective than LSD in improving performance and aerobic characteristics in well-trained rowers.

  10. APOE genotype affects black-white responses of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol subspecies to aerobic exercise training.

    PubMed

    Obisesan, Thomas O; Ferrell, Robert E; Goldberg, Andrew P; Phares, Dana A; Ellis, Tina J; Hagberg, James M

    2008-12-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether ethnicity interacts with the APOE genotype to influence conventionally measured high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) subfraction levels and nuclear magnetic resonance-measured (HDL(NMR)-C) particle size at baseline and after training, and the changes with training. After a 6-week dietary stabilization period, men and postmenopausal women 50 to 75 years old underwent baseline testing (NMR lipid, maximum oxygen consumption, body composition, and genotyping assessments). Tests were repeated after completing 24 weeks of endurance exercise training. At baseline, APOE2/3 blacks had significantly larger particle size (P < .001) and higher total HDL(NMR)-C particle concentration (P = .006) than whites. After 6 months of endurance exercise training, APOE2/3 blacks maintained a significantly larger HDL(NMR)-C particle size (P < .001) and particle concentration of the large HDL(NMR)-C than APOE2/3 whites (P < .001). In multivariate analyses of variance adjusted for demographic and environmental confounding factors and for training-induced changes in lean body mass and intraabdominal fat, the model explained approximately 33% of the observed variability in training-induced improvements in HDL(NMR)-C particle size (P = .002), with APOE2/3 blacks having a greater increase in training-induced changes in HDL(NMR)-C particle size. In a separate but similarly adjusted model for conventionally measured HDL(2)-C, the model explained approximately 49% of the observed variability in training-induced changes in HDL(2)-C. Ethnicity interacted with the E2/3 genotype at the APOE gene locus to influence higher baseline and after-training levels, and greater exercise training-induced improvements in the advantageous HDL-C subfractions in blacks than in whites. APOE2/3 blacks may benefit more from aerobic fitness to reduce cardiovascular risk.

  11. APOE Genotype Affects Black-White Responses of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Subspecies to Aerobic Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Obisesan, Thomas O.; Ferrell, Robert E.; Goldberg, Andrew P.; Phares, Dana A.; Ellis, Tina J; Hagberg, James M.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether ethnicity interacts with the APO E genotype to influence conventionally-measured high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) subfraction levels and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance measured (HDLNMR-C) particle size at baseline, after training, and changes with training. Methods After a 6-week dietary stabilization period, men and postmenopausal women 50-75 yrs old underwent baseline testing (NMR lipid, VO2max, body composition, and genotyping assessments). Tests were repeated after completing 24 wks of endurance exercise-training. Results At baseline, APO E2/3 Blacks had significantly larger particle size (P<0.001) and higher total HDLNMR-C particle concentration (P=0.006) than Whites. After 6 months of endurance exercise-training, APO E2/3 Blacks maintained a significantly larger HDLNMR-C particle size (P<0.001), and particle concentration of the large HDLNMR-C than APO E2/3 Whites (P<0.001). In multivariate ANOVAs adjusted for demographic and environmental confounding factors, and training-induced changes in lean body mass and intra-abdominal fat; the model explained ∼33 percent of the observed variability in training-induced improvements in HDLNMR-C particle size (P=0.002), with APO E2/3 Blacks having a greater increase in training-induced changes in HDLNMR-C particle size. In a separate but similarly adjusted model for conventionally-measured HDL2-C, the model explained, ∼49 percent of the observed variability in training-induced changes in HDL2-C. Conclusion Ethnicity interacted with the E2/3 genotype at the APO E gene locus to influence higher baseline, after training, and greater exercise training-induced improvements in the advantageous HDL-C subfractions in Blacks than in Whites. APO E2/3 Blacks may benefit more from aerobic-fitness to reduce CVD risk. PMID:19013289

  12. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Carl; Farland, Courtney V.; Guidotti, Flavia; Harbin, Michelle; Roberts, Brianna; Schuette, Jeff; Tuuri, Andrew; Doberstein, Scott T.; Porcari, John P.

    2015-01-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly). Steady-state (n = 19) exercised (cycle ergometer) 20 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold (VT). Tabata (n = 21) completed eight intervals of 20s at 170% VO2max/10s rest. Meyer (n = 15) completed 13 sets of 30s (20 min) @ 100% PVO2 max/ 60s recovery, average PO = 90% VT. Each subject did 24 training sessions during 8 weeks. Results: There were significant (p < 0.05) increases in VO2max (+19, +18 and +18%) and PPO (+17, +24 and +14%) for each training group, as well as significant increases in peak (+8, + 9 and +5%) & mean (+4, +7 and +6%) power during Wingate testing, but no significant differences between groups. Measures of the enjoyment of the training program indicated that the Tabata protocol was significantly less enjoyable (p < 0.05) than the steady state and Meyer protocols, and that the enjoyment of all protocols declined (p < 0.05) across the duration of the study. The results suggest that although HIIT protocols are time efficient, they are not superior to conventional exercise training in sedentary young adults. Key points Steady state training equivalent to HIIT in untrained students Mild interval training presents very similar physiologic challenge compared to steady state training HIIT (particularly very high intensity variants were less enjoyable than steady state or mild interval training Enjoyment of training decreases across the course of an 8 week experimental training program PMID:26664271

  13. Effects of aerobic training, resistance training, or both on psychological health in adolescents with obesity: The HEARTY randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Goldfield, Gary S; Kenny, Glen P; Alberga, Angela S; Prud'homme, Denis; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Gougeon, Réjeanne; Phillips, Penny; Tulloch, Heather; Malcolm, Janine; Doucette, Steve; Wells, George A; Ma, Jinhui; Cameron, Jameason D; Sigal, Ronald J

    2015-12-01

    To determine the effects of aerobic training, resistance training, and combined training on mood, body image, and self-esteem in adolescents with obesity. After a 4-week prerandomization treatment, 304 postpubertal adolescents (91 males, 213 females) with obesity ages 14-18 years were randomized to 1 of 4 groups for 22 weeks: aerobic training (n = 75), resistance training (n = 78), combined aerobic and resistance training (n = 75), or nonexercising control (n = 76). All participants received dietary counseling, with a daily energy deficit of 250 kcal. Mood was measured using the Brunel Mood Scale. Body image was assessed using the Multiple Body Self-Relations Questionnaire, and physical self-perceptions and global self-esteem were measured using the Harter Physical Self-Perceptions Questionnaire. Median adherence was 62%, 56%, and 64% in aerobic, resistance, and combined training, respectively. Resistance and combined training produced greater improvements than control on vigor, and resistance training reduced depressive symptoms. All groups improved on body image and physical self-perceptions, but combined showed greater increases than control on perceived physical conditioning, while only resistance training showed greater increases than controls on global self-esteem. Both combined and resistance training demonstrated greater increases in perceived strength than control. Psychological benefits were more related to better adherence and reductions in body fat than changes in strength or fitness. Resistance training, alone or in combination with aerobic training, may provide psychological benefits in adolescents with overweight or obesity, and therefore could be an alternative to aerobic training for some individuals in the biological and psychological management of adolescent obesity. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. The effect of detraining and reduced training on the physiological adaptations to aerobic exercise training.

    PubMed

    Neufer, P D

    1989-11-01

    In previously sedentary individuals, regularly performed aerobic exercise results in significant improvements in exercise capacity. The development of peak exercise performance, as typified by competitive endurance athletes, is dependent upon several months to years of aerobic training. The physiological adaptations associated with these improvements in both maximal exercise performance, as reflected by increases in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), and submaximal exercise endurance include increases in both cardiovascular function and skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. Despite prolonged periods of aerobic training, reductions in maximal and submaximal exercise performance occur within weeks after the cessation of training. These losses in exercise performance coincide with declines in cardiovascular function and muscle metabolic potential. Significant reductions in VO2max have been reported to occur within 2 to 4 weeks of detraining. This initial rapid decline in VO2max is likely related to a corresponding fall in maximal cardiac output which, in turn, appears to be mediated by a reduced stroke volume with little or no change in maximal heart rate. A loss in blood volume appears to, at least partially, account for the decline in stroke volume and VO2max during the initial weeks of detraining, although changes in cardiac hypertrophy, total haemoglobin content, skeletal muscle capillarisation and temperature regulation have been suggested as possible mediating factors. When detraining continues beyond 2 to 4 weeks, further declines in VO2max appear to be a function of corresponding reductions in maximal arterial-venous (mixed) oxygen difference. Whether reductions in oxygen delivery to and/or extraction by working muscle regulates this progressive decline is not readily apparent. Changes in maximal oxygen delivery may result from decreases in total haemoglobin content and/or maximal muscle blood flow and vascular conductance. The declines in skeletal muscle oxidative

  15. Does exercise intensity affect blood pressure and heart rate in obese adolescents? A 6-month multidisciplinary randomized intervention study.

    PubMed

    Farah, B Q; Ritti-Dias, R M; Balagopal, P B; Hill, J O; Prado, W L

    2014-04-01

    Aerobic exercise improves cardiovascular health in general, but whether the impact varies with exercise intensity is not clear. The aim of the current study was to compare the effects of a high-intensity aerobic exercise training (HIT) vs. a low-intensity aerobic exercise training (LIT) on blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) in obese adolescents. Forty-three (13-18 years) Tanner stage (III-IV) matched obese adolescents were studied in a randomized trial of either HIT (corresponding to the ventilatory threshold I; n = 20) or LIT (corresponding to 20% below the ventilatory threshold I; n = 23) programme for a period of 6 months. All participants also received a multidisciplinary therapy that included nutritional, psychological and clinical counselling. Both HIT and LIT sessions were isocaloric, with energy expenditure set at 350 kcal. BP, HR and HRV were measured along with markers of body adiposity and insulin resistance before and after the respective interventions. The participants in both groups had similar physical and clinical characteristics. After the 6-month intervention, systolic, diastolic and mean BP decreased (P < 0.05, for all) similarly in both groups, whereas waist circumference, HR and HRV showed beneficial changes only in the HIT group (P < 0.05). Aerobic exercise training set at a high intensity compared with the low intensity appears to have additional benefits on abdominal obesity and cardiovascular health in that it enhances the parasympathetic and autonomic modulation of the heart in obese adolescents. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  16. Effects of aerobic training, resistance training, or combined resistance-aerobic training on the left ventricular myocardium in a rat model.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Mônica Rodrigues; Pimenta, Leo; Pithon-Curi, Tania Cristina; Bucci, Marco; Fontinele, Renata Gabriel; De Souza, Romeu Rodrigues

    2014-09-01

    This study follows the left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy in rats undergoing aerobic training alone (A), resistance training alone (R), or combined resistance and aerobic training (RA) (usually referred as concurrent training) program. A sedentary control group (C) was included. LV remodeling was evaluated using electron and light microscopy. The LV weight to body weight (LVW: BW) increased 11.4% in A group, 35% in the R group, and 18% in the RA group compared to the C group. The LV thickness increased 6% in the A group, 17% in the R group, and 10% in the RA group. The LV internal diameter increased 19% in the A group, 3% in the R group, and 8% in the RA group compared with the C group. The cross-sectional area of cardiomyocyte increased by 1% with the A group, 27% with R group, and 12% with RA training. The capillary density increased by 5.4% with A training, 11.0% with R training, and 7.7% with RA training compared with the C group. The volume fraction of interstitial collagen increased by 0.4% with training A, increased by 2.8% with R training, and 0.9% with RA training. In conclusion, except for the LV internal diameter, which increased more in the A group, the cardiac parameters increased more in the R group than in the other groups and in RA group than in A group. Collagen density increased from 5.4 ± 0.8% in the C group to 5.8 ± 0.6% in the A group (n. s.) (P > 0.05), to 8.2 ± 0.7% in the R group (P < 0.05), and to 6.3 ± 0.4% in the RA group (P < 0.05). These results demonstrate a significant increase for collagen content in the LV with R and RA exercise, but the increase was higher with R training alone than with RA training. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A new ventilatory threshold equation for aerobically trained men and women.

    PubMed

    Malek, Moh H; Coburn, Jared W

    2009-04-01

    The purposes of the present study were to (i) modify previously published ventilatory threshold (VT) equations using the constant error (CE) values for aerobically trained individuals from a recent study; (ii) cross-validate the modified equations to determine their accuracy for estimating VT in aerobically trained individuals; (iii) derive a new non-exercise based equation for estimating VT in aerobically trained individuals if the modified equations are found to be inaccurate; and (iv) cross-validate the new VT equation using the Predicted REsidual Sum of Squares (PRESS) statistic and an independent sample of aerobically trained individuals. Two hundred and eight (n = 208) aerobically trained men and women (mean +/- SD: age = 38.8 +/- 10.4 year) performed a maximal incremental test on a cycle ergometer to determine the observed VT. The predicted VT values from seven published equations were compared with the observed VT by examining the CE, standard error of estimate, validity coefficient (r), and total error (TE). Cross-validation of the modified equations resulted in high %TE values. Therefore, a new VT equation was derived. Cross-validation of this equation on an independent sample of 72 subjects resulted in a low %TE value. The new model is recommended over previous models for estimating VT in aerobically trained individuals.

  18. Resistance to Aerobic Exercise Training Causes Metabolic Dysfunction and Reveals Novel Exercise-Regulated Signaling Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lessard, Sarah J.; Rivas, Donato A.; Alves-Wagner, Ana B.; Hirshman, Michael F.; Gallagher, Iain J.; Constantin-Teodosiu, Dumitru; Atkins, Ryan; Greenhaff, Paul L.; Qi, Nathan R.; Gustafsson, Thomas; Fielding, Roger A.; Timmons, James A.; Britton, Steven L.; Koch, Lauren G.; Goodyear, Laurie J.

    2013-01-01

    Low aerobic exercise capacity is a risk factor for diabetes and a strong predictor of mortality, yet some individuals are “exercise-resistant” and unable to improve exercise capacity through exercise training. To test the hypothesis that resistance to aerobic exercise training underlies metabolic disease risk, we used selective breeding for 15 generations to develop rat models of low and high aerobic response to training. Before exercise training, rats selected as low and high responders had similar exercise capacities. However, after 8 weeks of treadmill training, low responders failed to improve their exercise capacity, whereas high responders improved by 54%. Remarkably, low responders to aerobic training exhibited pronounced metabolic dysfunction characterized by insulin resistance and increased adiposity, demonstrating that the exercise-resistant phenotype segregates with disease risk. Low responders had impaired exercise-induced angiogenesis in muscle; however, mitochondrial capacity was intact and increased normally with exercise training, demonstrating that mitochondria are not limiting for aerobic adaptation or responsible for metabolic dysfunction in low responders. Low responders had increased stress/inflammatory signaling and altered transforming growth factor-β signaling, characterized by hyperphosphorylation of a novel exercise-regulated phosphorylation site on SMAD2. Using this powerful biological model system, we have discovered key pathways for low exercise training response that may represent novel targets for the treatment of metabolic disease. PMID:23610057

  19. Resistance to aerobic exercise training causes metabolic dysfunction and reveals novel exercise-regulated signaling networks.

    PubMed

    Lessard, Sarah J; Rivas, Donato A; Alves-Wagner, Ana B; Hirshman, Michael F; Gallagher, Iain J; Constantin-Teodosiu, Dumitru; Atkins, Ryan; Greenhaff, Paul L; Qi, Nathan R; Gustafsson, Thomas; Fielding, Roger A; Timmons, James A; Britton, Steven L; Koch, Lauren G; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2013-08-01

    Low aerobic exercise capacity is a risk factor for diabetes and a strong predictor of mortality, yet some individuals are "exercise-resistant" and unable to improve exercise capacity through exercise training. To test the hypothesis that resistance to aerobic exercise training underlies metabolic disease risk, we used selective breeding for 15 generations to develop rat models of low and high aerobic response to training. Before exercise training, rats selected as low and high responders had similar exercise capacities. However, after 8 weeks of treadmill training, low responders failed to improve their exercise capacity, whereas high responders improved by 54%. Remarkably, low responders to aerobic training exhibited pronounced metabolic dysfunction characterized by insulin resistance and increased adiposity, demonstrating that the exercise-resistant phenotype segregates with disease risk. Low responders had impaired exercise-induced angiogenesis in muscle; however, mitochondrial capacity was intact and increased normally with exercise training, demonstrating that mitochondria are not limiting for aerobic adaptation or responsible for metabolic dysfunction in low responders. Low responders had increased stress/inflammatory signaling and altered transforming growth factor-β signaling, characterized by hyperphosphorylation of a novel exercise-regulated phosphorylation site on SMAD2. Using this powerful biological model system, we have discovered key pathways for low exercise training response that may represent novel targets for the treatment of metabolic disease.

  20. Living high-training low: effect on erythropoiesis and aerobic performance in highly-trained swimmers.

    PubMed

    Robach, Paul; Schmitt, Laurent; Brugniaux, Julien V; Roels, Belle; Millet, Grégoire; Hellard, Philippe; Nicolet, Gérard; Duvallet, Alain; Fouillot, Jean-Pierre; Moutereau, Stéphane; Lasne, Françoise; Pialoux, Vincent; Olsen, Niels V; Richalet, Jean-Paul

    2006-03-01

    The "living high-training low" model (LHTL), i.e., training in normoxia but sleeping/living in hypoxia, is designed to improve the athletes performance. However, LHTL efficacy still remains controversial and also little is known about the duration of its potential benefit. This study tested whether LHTL enhances aerobic performance in athletes, and if any positive effect may last for up to 2 weeks after LHTL intervention. Eighteen swimmers trained for 13 days at 1,200 m while sleeping/living at 1,200 m in ambient air (control, n=9) or in hypoxic rooms (LHTL, n=9, 5 days at simulated altitude of 2,500 m followed by 8 days at simulated altitude of 3,000 m, 16 h day(-1)). Measures were done before 1-2 days (POST-1) and 2 weeks after intervention (POST-15). Aerobic performance was assessed from two swimming trials, exploring .VO(2max) and endurance performance (2,000-m time trial), respectively. Reticulocyte, serum EPO and soluble transferrin receptor responses were not altered by LHTL, whereas reticulocytes decreased in controls. In POST-1 (vs. before): red blood cell volume increased in LHTL only (+8.5%, P=0.03), .VO(2max) tended to increase more in LHTL (+8.1%, P=0.09) than in controls (+2.5%, P=0.21) without any difference between groups (P=0.42) and 2,000-m performance was unchanged with LHTL. In POST-15, both performance and hematological parameters were similar to initial levels. Our results indicate that LHTL may stimulate red cell production, without any concurrent amelioration of aerobic performance. The absence of any prolonged benefit after LHTL suggests that this LHTL model cannot be recommended for long-term purposes.

  1. Guiding research and practice: a conceptual model for aerobic exercise training in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Fang Yu

    2011-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a global, epidemic problem affecting mainly older adults with tremendous social and financial burdens. Older adults with Alzheimer's disease showed reduced physical activity and cognitive changes that are probably amenable to aerobic exercise training. The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual model to guide future aerobic exercise research and practice by synthesizing the current state of the science on aerobic exercise training in older adults with AD. The literature review found 12 qualified studies that met the eligibility criteria for inclusion in this review and revealed six constructs (aerobic exercise training, physical fitness, physical performance, activities of daily living limitations, cognition, and psychological and behavioral symptoms), which composed the Functional Impact of aerobic exercise Training in Alzheimer's disease (FIT-AD) model. The state of science on each construct in older adults with Alzheimer's disease is reviewed and summarized. The emerging evidence suggests that aerobic exercise training might positively impacts all five other constructs. The implications of the FIT-AD model for future research and practice are discussed highlighted.

  2. The training effects of dance aerobics: A review with an emphasis on the perspectives of investigations.

    PubMed

    Zaletel, Petra; Gabrilo, Goran; Perić, Mia

    2013-05-01

    The training effects of contemporary aerobics programmes (hi lo, dance aerobics, step aerobics, aqua aerobics etc.) have been frequently investigated. However, we found no recent paper which reviewed aerobic programmes with regard to their training effectiveness, characteristics of the subjects involved, variables of interest and experimental design. In this paper we summarise the findings of more than 40 studies published in the 2000-2011 period that investigated the training effects of different forms of contemporary aerobics. In this review, the studies are grouped according to their characteristics (sample of subjects, variables of interest, study design, effects, etc.). Around 80% of the investigations dealt with females, with adults being most commonly observed. In the majority of investigations, the authors studied different variables at the same time (morphological anthropometric, motor, cardiovascular, biochemical indices, etc.). In recent studies a trend toward a psychological status examination is evident. In most instances positive training effects on motor-endurance and varsity of physiological variables are declared throughout a training period of 8 to 12 weeks. However, the positive changes in anaerobic endurance are not evidenced. Knowing the tendency of the overall increase of certain psychological disorders in population (including depression) there are indications that future, potentially highly interesting studies will deal with the psychological status of adults and older subjects.

  3. Combined Aerobic/Strength Training and Energy Expenditure in Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Gary R.; Bickel, C. Scott; Fisher, Gordon; Neumeier, William; McCarthy, John

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine the effects of three different frequencies of combined resistance and aerobic training on total energy expenditure (TEE) and activity related energy expenditure (AEE) in a group of older adults. Methods Seventy-two women, 60 – 74 years old, were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 1 day/week of aerobic and 1 day/week of resistance (1+1); 2 days/week of aerobic and 2 days/week resistance (2+2); or 3 days/week aerobic and 3 days/week resistance (3+3). Body composition (DXA), feeling of fatigue, depression, and vigor (questionnaire), strength (1RM), serum cytokines (ELISA), maximal oxygen uptake (progressive treadmill test), resting energy expenditure, and TEE were measured before and after 16 weeks of training. Aerobic training consisted of 40 minutes of aerobic exercise at 80% maximum heart rate and resistance training consisted of 2 sets of 10 repetitions for 10 different exercises at 80% of one repetition maximum. Results All groups increased fat free mass, strength and aerobic fitness and decreased fat mass. No changes were observed in cytokines or perceptions of fatigue/depression. No time by group interaction was found for any fitness/body composition variable. TEE and AEE increased with the 2+2 group but not with the other two groups. Non-exercise training AEE (NEAT) increased significantly in the 2+2 group (+200 kcal/day), group 1×1 showed a trend for an increase (+68 kcal/day) and group 3+3 decreased significantly (−150 kcal/day). Conclusion Results indicate that 3+3 training may inhibit NEAT by being too time consuming and does not induce superior training adaptations to 1+1 and 2+2 training. Key words: physical activity, older adults, total energy expenditure, maximum oxygen uptake. PMID:23774582

  4. Influence of Aerobic Training and Combinations of Interventions on Cognition and Neuroplasticity after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Constans, Annabelle; Pin-barre, Caroline; Temprado, Jean-Jacques; Decherchi, Patrick; Laurin, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Stroke often aggravated age-related cognitive impairments that strongly affect several aspects of quality of life. However, few studies are, to date, focused on rehabilitation strategies that could improve cognition. Among possible interventions, aerobic training is well known to enhance cardiovascular and motor functions but may also induce beneficial effects on cognitive functions. To assess the effectiveness of aerobic training on cognition, it seems necessary to know whether training promotes the neuroplasticity in brain areas involved in cognitive functions. In the present review, we first explore in both human and animal how aerobic training could improve cognition after stroke by highlighting the neuroplasticity mechanisms. Then, we address the potential effect of combinations between aerobic training with other interventions, including resistance exercises and pharmacological treatments. In addition, we postulate that classic recommendations for aerobic training need to be reconsidered to target both cognition and motor recovery because the current guidelines are only focused on cardiovascular and motor recovery. Finally, methodological limitations of training programs and cognitive function assessment are also developed in this review to clarify their effectiveness in stroke patients. PMID:27445801

  5. Influence of Aerobic Training and Combinations of Interventions on Cognition and Neuroplasticity after Stroke.

    PubMed

    Constans, Annabelle; Pin-Barre, Caroline; Temprado, Jean-Jacques; Decherchi, Patrick; Laurin, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Stroke often aggravated age-related cognitive impairments that strongly affect several aspects of quality of life. However, few studies are, to date, focused on rehabilitation strategies that could improve cognition. Among possible interventions, aerobic training is well known to enhance cardiovascular and motor functions but may also induce beneficial effects on cognitive functions. To assess the effectiveness of aerobic training on cognition, it seems necessary to know whether training promotes the neuroplasticity in brain areas involved in cognitive functions. In the present review, we first explore in both human and animal how aerobic training could improve cognition after stroke by highlighting the neuroplasticity mechanisms. Then, we address the potential effect of combinations between aerobic training with other interventions, including resistance exercises and pharmacological treatments. In addition, we postulate that classic recommendations for aerobic training need to be reconsidered to target both cognition and motor recovery because the current guidelines are only focused on cardiovascular and motor recovery. Finally, methodological limitations of training programs and cognitive function assessment are also developed in this review to clarify their effectiveness in stroke patients.

  6. Extensive Functional Evaluations to Monitor Aerobic Training in Becker Muscular Dystrophy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Tramonti, Caterina; Rossi, Bruno; Chisari, Carmelo

    2016-06-13

    Low-intensity aerobic training seems to have positive effects on muscle strength, endurance and fatigue in Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD) patients. We describe the case of a 33-year old BMD man, who performed a four-week aerobic training. Extensive functional evaluations were executed to monitor the efficacy of the rehabilitative treatment. Results evidenced an increased force exertion and an improvement in muscle contraction during sustained exercise. An improvement of walk velocity, together with agility, endurance capacity and oxygen consumption during exercise was observed. Moreover, an enhanced metabolic efficiency was evidenced, as shown by reduced lactate blood levels after training. Interestingly, CK showed higher levels after the training protocol, revealing possible muscle damage. In conclusion, aerobic training may represent an effective method improving exercise performance, functional status and metabolic efficiency. Anyway, a careful functional assessment should be taken into account as a useful approach in the management of the disease's rehabilitative treatment.

  7. Extensive Functional Evaluations to Monitor Aerobic Training in Becker Muscular Dystrophy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Tramonti, Caterina; Rossi, Bruno; Chisari, Carmelo

    2016-01-01

    Low-intensity aerobic training seems to have positive effects on muscle strength, endurance and fatigue in Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD) patients. We describe the case of a 33-year old BMD man, who performed a four-week aerobic training. Extensive functional evaluations were executed to monitor the efficacy of the rehabilitative treatment. Results evidenced an increased force exertion and an improvement in muscle contraction during sustained exercise. An improvement of walk velocity, together with agility, endurance capacity and oxygen consumption during exercise was observed. Moreover, an enhanced metabolic efficiency was evidenced, as shown by reduced lactate blood levels after training. Interestingly, CK showed higher levels after the training protocol, revealing possible muscle damage. In conclusion, aerobic training may represent an effective method improving exercise performance, functional status and metabolic efficiency. Anyway, a careful functional assessment should be taken into account as a useful approach in the management of the disease’s rehabilitative treatment. PMID:27478558

  8. Combined aerobic and resistance training: are there additional benefits for older hypertensive adults?

    PubMed

    Lima, Leandra G; Bonardi, José T M; Campos, Giulliard O; Bertani, Rodrigo F; Scher, Luria M L; Moriguti, Júlio C; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Lima, Nereida K C

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of a combination of aerobic and resistance training to those of isolated aerobic training on blood pressure, body composition, and insulin sensitivity in hypertensive older adults. Forty-four patients were randomly assigned to the aerobic group, resistance and aerobic group, and control group. Before and after 10 weeks, the following data were obtained: 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure data, abdominal circumference, waist circumference, body mass index, lean mass, fat mass, and insulin sensitivity. The study was conducted with 3 training sessions per week. Comparison revealed significant reductions in the body mass index, abdominal and waist circumferences, and ambulatory blood pressure (24-hour, wakefulness and sleep systolic/diastolic blood pressures) in both the aerobic group and the resistance and aerobic (combined) group. The fat mass only changed in the combined group. There was no difference in the insulin sensitivity in any group. The combined treatment and aerobic treatment alone were equally effective in reducing the blood pressure, body mass index, and abdominal and waist circumferences, although the addition of the resistance component also helped reduce the fat mass.

  9. Combined aerobic and resistance training: are there additional benefits for older hypertensive adults?

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Leandra G.; Bonardi, José T.M.; Campos, Giulliard O.; Bertani, Rodrigo F.; Scher, Luria M.L.; Moriguti, Júlio C.; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Lima, Nereida K.C.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to compare the effects of a combination of aerobic and resistance training to those of isolated aerobic training on blood pressure, body composition, and insulin sensitivity in hypertensive older adults. METHOD: Forty-four patients were randomly assigned to the aerobic group, resistance and aerobic group, and control group. Before and after 10 weeks, the following data were obtained: 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure data, abdominal circumference, waist circumference, body mass index, lean mass, fat mass, and insulin sensitivity. The study was conducted with 3 training sessions per week. RESULTS: Comparison revealed significant reductions in the body mass index, abdominal and waist circumferences, and ambulatory blood pressure (24-hour, wakefulness and sleep systolic/diastolic blood pressures) in both the aerobic group and the resistance and aerobic (combined) group. The fat mass only changed in the combined group. There was no difference in the insulin sensitivity in any group. CONCLUSIONS: The combined treatment and aerobic treatment alone were equally effective in reducing the blood pressure, body mass index, and abdominal and waist circumferences, although the addition of the resistance component also helped reduce the fat mass. PMID:28658436

  10. Effects of aerobic and resistance training on abdominal fat, apolipoproteins and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in adolescents with obesity: the HEARTY randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Alberga, A S; Prud'homme, D; Kenny, G P; Goldfield, G S; Hadjiyannakis, S; Gougeon, R; Phillips, P; Malcolm, J; Wells, G; Doucette, S; Ma, J; Sigal, R J

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the effects of aerobic training, resistance training, or both on abdominal subcutaneous fat (subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT)) (deep and superficial), visceral fat (visceral adipose tissue (VAT)), apolipoproteins A-1 and B (ApoA-1, ApoB), ApoB/ApoA-1 ratio and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HSCRP) in post-pubertal adolescents with obesity. After a 4-week supervised moderate-intensity exercise run-in period, 304 postpubertal adolescents with overweight (body mass index (BMI) ⩾85th percentile for age and sex+diabetes risk factor) or obesity (⩾95th BMI percentile) aged 14-18 years were randomized to four groups for 22 weeks (5 months): aerobic training, resistance training, combined training or a non-exercising control. This study used a randomized controlled design. All groups received dietary counseling designed to promote healthy eating with a maximum daily energy deficit of 250 kcal. Abdominal fat (SAT and VAT) at the level of the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae (L4-L5) was measured by magnetic resonance imaging and ApoA-1, ApoB and HSCRP were measured after a 12-h fast at baseline and after 6 months. Changes in SAT at L4-L5 were -16.2 cm(2) in aerobic (P=0.04 vs control), -22.7 cm(2) in resistance (P=0.009 vs control) and -18.7 cm(2) in combined (P=0.02 vs control). Combined training reduced ApoB levels from 0.81±0.02 to 0.78±0.02 g l(-1) (P=0.04 vs control) and ApoB/ApoA-1 ratio from 0.67±0.02 to 0.64±0.02 (P=0.02 vs control and P=0.04 vs aerobic). There were no significant differences in VAT, ApoA-1 or HSCRP levels between groups. Aerobic and resistance training and their combination decreased abdominal SAT in adolescents with obesity. Combined training caused greater improvements in ApoB/ApoA-1 ratio compared with aerobic training alone.

  11. Effects of a 6-month exercise program on patients with multiple sclerosis: a randomized study.

    PubMed

    Romberg, A; Virtanen, A; Ruutiainen, J; Aunola, S; Karppi, S-L; Vaara, M; Surakka, J; Pohjolainen, T; Seppänen, A

    2004-12-14

    To improve walking and other aspects of physical function with a progressive 6-month exercise program in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). MS patients with mild to moderate disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale scores 1.0 to 5.5) were randomly assigned to an exercise or control group. The intervention consisted of strength and aerobic training initiated during 3-week inpatient rehabilitation and continued for 23 weeks at home. The groups were evaluated at baseline and at 6 months. The primary outcome was walking speed, measured by 7.62 m and 500 m walk tests. Secondary outcomes included lower extremity strength, upper extremity endurance and dexterity, peak oxygen uptake, and static balance. An intention-to-treat analysis was used. Ninety-one (96%) of the 95 patients entering the study completed it. Change between groups was significant in the 7.62 m (p = 0.04) and 500 m walk tests (p = 0.01). In the 7.62 m walk test, 22% of the exercising patients showed clinically meaningful improvements. The exercise group also showed increased upper extremity endurance as compared to controls. No other noteworthy exercise-induced changes were observed. Exercise adherence varied considerably among the exercisers. Walking speed improved in this randomized study. The results confirm that exercise is safe for multiple sclerosis patients and should be recommended for those with mild to moderate disability.

  12. Effects of swimming training on aerobic capacity and exercise induced bronchoconstriction in children with bronchial asthma

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, I; Araki, H; Tsuda, K; Odajima, H; Nishima, S; Higaki, Y; Tanaka, H; Tanaka, M; Shindo, M

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—A study was undertaken to determine whether swimming training improved aerobic capacity, exercise induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), and bronchial responsiveness to inhaled histamine in children with asthma.
METHODS—Eight children with mild or moderate asthma participated in swimming training every day for six weeks. The intensity of training was individually determined and set at 125% of the child's lactate threshold (LT), measured using a swimming ergometer. Another group of eight asthmatic children served as control subjects. Aerobic capacity and the degree of EIB were assessed by both cycle ergometer and swimming ergometer before and after swimming training.
RESULTS—The mean (SD) aerobic capacity at LT increased by 0.26 (0.11) kp after training when assessed with the swimming ergometer and by 10.6 (4.5) W when assessed with the cycle ergometer, and these changes were significantly different from the control group. The mean (SD) maximum % fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) to an exercise challenge (cycle ergometer) set at 175% of LT decreased from 38.7 (15.4)% before training to 17.9(17.6)% after training, but with no significant difference from the control group. There was, however, no difference in histamine responsiveness when compared before and after the training period.
CONCLUSION—A six week swimming training programme has a beneficial effect on aerobic capacity but not on histamine responsiveness in children with asthma.

 PMID:10325893

  13. Effects of aerobic training, resistance training, or both on cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal fitness in adolescents with obesity: the HEARTY trial.

    PubMed

    Alberga, Angela S; Prud'homme, Denis; Sigal, Ronald J; Goldfield, Gary S; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Phillips, Penny; Malcolm, Janine; Ma, Jinhui; Doucette, Steve; Gougeon, Rejeanne; Wells, George A; Kenny, Glen P

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of aerobic, resistance, and combined exercise training on cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal fitness in postpubertal adolescents with obesity. After a 4-week supervised moderate-intensity exercise run-in, 304 adolescents aged 14-18 years with body mass index ≥85th percentile were randomized to 4 groups for 22 weeks of aerobic training, resistance training, combined training, or a nonexercising control. All participants received dietary counselling with a maximum daily energy deficit of 250 kcal. Cardiorespiratory fitness (peak oxygen consumption) was measured by indirect calorimetry using a graded treadmill exercise test. Musculoskeletal fitness was measured using the 2003 Canadian Physical Activity Fitness and Lifestyle Appraisal tests (hand grip, push-ups, partial curl-ups, sit and reach, and vertical jump). Muscular strength was assessed using an 8-repetition maximum test on the bench press, seated row, and leg press machines. A greater increase in peak oxygen consumption in the aerobic exercise group (30.6 ± 0.6 to 33.4 ± 0.7 mLO2/kg/min) was measured relative to the control group (30.6 ± 0.5 to 30.9 ± 0.7 mLO2/kg/min) (p = 0.002). Similarly, the number of partial curl-ups increased in the aerobic group (19 ± 1 to 23 ± 1) while no differences were measured in the control group (19 ± 1 to 20 ± 1) (p = 0.015). Increases in muscular strength and number of push-ups were greatest in the resistance group versus the control and combined groups versus the aerobic group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, aerobic training had the strongest effect on cardiorespiratory fitness, while resistance and combined training improved both muscular strength and endurance more than control and aerobic training alone, respectively, in adolescents with obesity.

  14. Effects of high-impact aerobics vs. low-impact aerobics and strength training in overweight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Said, Mohamed; Lamya, Ncir; Olfa, Nejlaoui; Hamda, Mansour

    2017-03-01

    Regular exercise is one of the factors determining weight reduction and fat loss, and at the same time it is associated with important health benefits. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two different modalities of exercise on changes in body composition, physical fitness, and CVR factors in healthy overweight and obese women. Thirty-two women were randomly assigned in 2 groups: a high-impact aerobics group (HIA, N.=16) and a low-impact aerobics combined with a strength training program group (LIAS, N.=16). Body weight (BW), body composition, aerobic fitness (AF), speed and agility, vertical-jump distance (VJ), abdominal muscle endurance (AME), the flexibility of the lower back and hamstrings, heart rate (HR), systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), HDL-c, LDL-c, apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I) and B (Apo B) were measured at baseline and at the end of the training period. A significant decrease was noted in all anthropometric variables excepting fat-free mass (FFM) which increased in LIAS group (P<0.05). Comparisons between groups noted significant differences in favor of HIA group in BW, fat percentage and FM, and in favor of LIAS group in FFM (P<0.05 for all). DBP, HR, TC, LDL-c, TG, and Apo B significantly decreased, and HDL-c and Apo A-I significantly increased in both groups. No significant modifications were noted in SBP and glucose concentrations. Significant improvements in all physical fitness components were also noted in HIA group (P<0.05), however, only the AF, VJ, AME, and the flexibility were improved in LIAS group (P<0.01). Comparison between groups reported that values related to VJ and AME were higher in LIAS compared to HIA group (P<0.01). Our findings noted that a 24-week of HIA or LIAS training improved body composition, physical fitness and CVR factors in overweight and obese women. Nevertheless, the use of each training method remains tributary to wished effects. In fact

  15. Block periodization of high-intensity aerobic intervals provides superior training effects in trained cyclists.

    PubMed

    Rønnestad, B R; Hansen, J; Ellefsen, S

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of two different methods of organizing endurance training in trained cyclists. One group of cyclists performed block periodization, wherein the first week constituted five sessions of high-intensity aerobic training (HIT), followed by 3 weeks of one weekly HIT session and focus on low-intensity training (LIT) (BP; n = 10, VO2max  = 62 ± 2 mL/kg/min). Another group of cyclists performed a more traditional organization, with 4 weeks of two weekly HIT sessions interspersed with LIT (TRAD; n = 9, VO2max  = 63 ± 2 mL/kg/min). Similar volumes of both HIT and LIT was performed in the two groups. While BP increased VO2max , peak power output (Wmax) and power output at 2 mmol/L [la(-)] by 4.6 ± 3.7%, 2.1 ± 2.8%, and 10 ± 12%, respectively (P < 0.05), no changes occurred in TRAD. BP showed relative improvements in VO2max compared with TRAD (P < 0.05). Mean effect size (ES) of the relative improvement in VO2max , Wmax , and power output at 2 mmol/L [la(-)] revealed large to moderate effects of BP training compared with TRAD training (ES = 1.34, ES = 0.85, and ES = 0.71, respectively). The present study suggests that block periodization of training provides superior adaptations to traditional organization during a 4-week endurance training period, despite similar training volume and intensity. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Aerobic exercise supplemented with muscular endurance training improves onset of blood lactate accumulation.

    PubMed

    Farrell, John W; Lantis, David J; Ade, Carl J; Cantrell, Greg S; Larson, Rebecca D

    2017-05-05

    Studies have shown that when aerobic exercise is supplemented with muscular endurance training metabolic adaptions occur that result in the delay of the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA). However, previous studies have not explored any submaximal cardiorespiratory adaptations that may result from this training protocol. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the effect of supplementing an aerobic exercise training program with a muscular endurance training program on various cardiorespiratory and metabolic measurements. Fourteen aerobically active men performed an incremental exercise test to determine the OBLA, gas exchange threshold (GET), and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Maximal strength was measured using 1-repetition max (1-RM) for leg press (LP), leg curl (LC), and leg extension (LE). Eight subjects supplemented their aerobic activity (EX group) with 8 weeks of muscular endurance training, while six continued their regular aerobic activity (CON group). No significant group differences were observed for all pretraining variables. Following eight weeks of training no significant differences in body mass, GET, and VO2max were observed for either group. However, the EX group showed a significant improvement for both absolute and relative VO2 at OBLA compared to the CON group. LC and LE 1-RM assessments for the EX group showed a significant improvement compared to CON group. Muscular endurance training did not improve GET and VO2max, but significantly increased VO2 at OBLA, LP, and LC. These findings suggest that this training protocol maybe useful in the development of submaximal aerobic performance and leg strength for endurance athletes.

  17. A randomized 9-month study of blood pressure and body fat responses to aerobic training versus combined aerobic and resistance training in older men.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Nelson; Mendes, Romeu; Abrantes, Catarina; Sampaio, Jaime; Oliveira, José

    2013-08-01

    This randomized study evaluated the impact of different exercise training modalities on blood pressure and body fat responses in apparently healthy older men. Forty-eight elderly men (aged 65-75 years) were randomly assigned to an aerobic training group (ATG, n=15), a combined aerobic and resistance training group (CTG, n=16), or a control group (n=17). Both exercise training programs were moderate-to-vigorous intensity, three days/week for 9-months. Strength, aerobic endurance, body fat and blood pressure were measured on five different occasions. The data were analyzed using a mixed-model ANOVA, and the independence between systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and group was tested. A significant main effect of group (p<0.001) was observed in strength and aerobic endurance, with higher performance observed in the CTG. A significant main effect of group (p<0.001) and time (p=0.029) was observed in body fat percentage, with a 2.3% decrease in CTG. A significant main effect of time was observed in SBP (p=0.005) and in DBP (p=0.011) for both ATG and CTG. Mean decreases in SBP and DBP, respectively, were 15 and 6 mmHg for ATG and 24 and 12 mmHg for CTG. There was a significant association for SBP (p=0.008) and DBP (p=0.005) in the CTG, with significant individual BP profile modifications. Both exercise-training programs reduce resting blood pressure. However, only the combined exercise training was effective at reducing body fat percentage; consequently, there were larger changes in blood pressure, which result in a significant reduction in hypertensive subjects.

  18. Role of Thermal Factors on Aerobic Capacity Improvements With Endurance Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    the effect. Plasma volume remained un- volume higher, during exercise in cold than hot water changed by training in both the HWT and CWT groups. Last...plasma volume expansion have also been observed to result from repeated heat exposure, and aerobic exercise adaptations; physical fitness; body tempera...prescribed by the protocol. the subjects were exercising . This was accomplished by Initially, the subjects’ body composition and aerobic establishing the

  19. Relative importance of aerobic versus resistance training for healthy aging

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This review will focus on the importance of aerobic and resistance modes of physical activity for healthy aging as supported by findings in 2007. In line with public health recommendations, several studies in 2007 employed an exercise paradigm that combined both modes of physical activity. While a...

  20. A new non-exercise-based Vo2max prediction equation for aerobically trained men.

    PubMed

    Malek, Moh H; Housh, Terry J; Berger, Dale E; Coburn, Jared W; Beck, Travis W

    2005-08-01

    The purposes of the present study were to (a) modify previously published Vo(2)max equations using the constant error (CE = mean difference between actual and predicted Vo(2)max) values from Malek et al. (28); (b) cross-validate the modified equations to determine their accuracy for estimating Vo(2)max in aerobically trained men; (c) derive a new non- exercise-based equation for estimating Vo(2)max in aerobically trained men if the modified equations are not found to be accurate; and (d) cross-validate the new Vo(2)max equation using the predicted residual sum of squares (PRESS) statistic and an independent sample of aerobically trained men. One hundred and fifty-two aerobically trained men (Vo(2)max mean +/- SD = 4,154 +/- 629 ml.min(-1)) performed a maximal incremental test on a cycle ergometer to determine actual Vo(2)max. An aerobically trained man was defined as someone who had participated in continuous aerobic exercise 3 or more sessions per week for a minimum of 1 hour per session for at least the past 18 months. Nine previously published Vo(2)max equations were modified for use with aerobically trained men. The predicted Vo(2)max values from the 9 modified equations were compared to actual Vo(2)max by examining the CE, standard error of estimate (SEE), validity coefficient (r), and total error (TE). Cross-validation of the modified non-exercise-based equations on a random subsample of 50 subjects resulted in a %TE > or = 13% of the mean of actual Vo(2)max. Therefore, the following non-exercise-based Vo(2)max equation was derived from a random subsample of 112 subjects: Vo(2)max (ml.min(-1)) = 27.387(weight in kg) + 26.634(height in cm) - 27.572(age in years) + 26.161(h.wk(-1) of training) + 114.904(intensity of training using the Borg 6-20 scale) + 506.752(natural log of years of training) - 4,609.791 (R = 0.82, R(2) adjusted = 0.65, and SEE = 378 ml.min(-1)). Cross-validation of this equation on the remaining sample of 40 subjects resulted in a %TE of 10

  1. β-alanine Supplementation Fails to Increase Peak Aerobic Power or Ventilatory Threshold in Aerobically Trained Males.

    PubMed

    Greer, Beau Kjerulf; Katalinas, Matthew E; Shaholli, Danielle M; Gallo, Paul M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of 30 days of β-alanine supplementation on peak aerobic power and ventilatory threshold (VT) in aerobically fit males. Fourteen males (28.8 ± 9.8 yrs) were assigned to either a β-alanine (SUPP) or placebo (PLAC) group; groups were matched for VT as it was the primary outcome measure. β-alanine supplementation consisted of 3 g/day for 7 days, and 6 g/day for the remaining 23 days. Before and after the supplementation period, subjects performed a continuous, graded cycle ergometry test to determine VO2 peak and VT. Metabolic data were analyzed using a 2 × 2 ANOVA with repeated measures. Thirty days of β-alanine supplementation (SUPP) did not increase VO2 peak (4.05 ± 0.6 vs. 4.14 ± 0.6 L/min) as compared to the placebo (PLAC) group (3.88 ± 0.2 vs. 3.97 ± 0.2 L/min) (p > .05). VT did not significantly improve in either the SUPP (3.21 ± 0.5 vs. 3.33 ± 0.5 L/min) or PLAC (3.19 ± 0.1 vs. 3.20 ± 0.1 L/min) group (p > .05). In conclusion, 30 days of β-alanine supplementation had no effect on VO2 peak or VT in aerobically trained athletes.

  2. Exercise training modalities in chronic heart failure: does high intensity aerobic interval training make the difference?

    PubMed

    Giallauria, Francesco; Smart, Neil Andrew; Cittadini, Antonio; Vigorito, Carlo

    2016-10-14

    Exercise training (ET) is strongly recommended in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Moderate-intensity aerobic continuous ET is the best established training modality in CHF patients. In the last decade, however, high-intensity interval exercise training (HIIT) has aroused considerable interest in cardiac rehabilitation community. Basically, HIIT consists of repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise alternated with recovery periods. In CHF patients, HIIT exerts larger improvements in exercise capacity compared to moderate-continuous ET. These results are intriguing, mostly considering that better functional capacity translates into an improvement of symptoms and quality of life. Notably, HIIT did not reveal major safety issues; although CHF patients should be clinically stable, have had recent exposure to at least regular moderate-intensity exercise, and appropriate supervision and monitoring during and after the exercise session are mandatory. The impact of HIIT on cardiac dimensions and function and on endothelial function remains uncertain. HIIT should not replace other training modalities in heart failure but should rather complement them. Combining and tailoring different ET modalities according to each patient's baseline clinical characteristics (i.e. exercise capacity, personal needs, preferences and goals) seem the most astute approach to exercise prescription.

  3. Effects of Low Volume Aerobic Training on Muscle Desaturation During Exercise in Elderly Subjects.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Shun; Kime, Ryotaro; Murase, Norio; Niwayama, Masatsugu; Osada, Takuya; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2016-01-01

    Aging enhances muscle desaturation responses due to reduced O2 supply. Even though aerobic training enhances muscle desaturation responses in young subjects, it is unclear whether the same is true in elderly subjects. Ten elderly women (age: 62±4 years) participated in 12-weeks of cycling exercise training. Training consisted of 30 min cycling exercise at the lactate threshold. The subjects exercised 15±6 sessions during training. Before and after endurance training, the subjects performed ramp cycling exercise. Muscle O2 saturation (SmO2) was measured at the vastus lateralis by near infrared spectroscopy during the exercise. There were no significant differences in SmO2 between before and after training. Nevertheless, changes in peak pulmonary O2 uptake were significantly negatively related to changes in SmO2 (r=-0.67, p<0.05) after training. Muscle desaturation was not enhanced by low volume aerobic training in this study, possibly because the training volume was too low. However, our findings suggest that aerobic training may potentially enhance muscle desaturation at peak exercise in elderly subjects.

  4. Aerobic training prior to myocardial infarction increases cardiac GLUT4 and partially preserves heart function in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Schaun, Maximiliano Isoppo; Marschner, Rafael Aguiar; Peres, Thiago Rodrigues; Markoski, Melissa Medeiros; Lehnen, Alexandre Machado

    2017-03-01

    We assessed cardiac function (echocardiographic) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) expression (Western blot) in response to 10 weeks of aerobic training (treadmill) prior to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by ligation of the left coronary artery in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Animals were allocated to sedentary+sham, sedentary+AMI, training+sham, and training+AMI. Aerobic training prior to AMI partially preserves heart function. AMI and/or aerobic training increased GLUT4 expression. However, those animals trained prior to AMI showed a greater increase in GLUT4 in cardiomyocytes.

  5. Aerobic exercise training intensity in patients with chronic heart failure: principles of assessment and prescription.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira; Mezzani, Alessandro

    2011-02-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a significant cause of worldwide mortality and morbidity, whose clinical picture is characterized by exercise intolerance and impaired quality of life. Aerobic exercise training is a well-established nonpharmacological tool improving the CHF’s pathophysiological, clinical, and prognostic picture, and prescription of an adequate training intensity is crucial to obtain both exercise-induced benefits and a reasonable control of exercise-related risk. However, clarity is still lacking regarding the definition of exercise intensity domains and the lower and upper intensity limits of prescriptible aerobic exercise in CHF patients. The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the methods for the exercise intensity assessment and continuous aerobic training intensity prescription in the CHF population, furnishing indications useful for implementation of physical rehabilitation programs in these patients.

  6. Effect of an aerobic training program as complementary therapy in patients with moderate depression.

    PubMed

    de la Cerda, Pablo; Cervelló, Eduardo; Cocca, Armando; Viciana, Jesús

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of an aerobic training program as complementary therapy in patients suffering from moderate depression. 82 female patients weredivided into a group that received traditional pharmacotherapy (Fluoxetine 20 mg) and a group that received pharmacotherapy plus an aerobic training program. This program was carried out for eight consecutive weeks, three days per week, and included gymnastics, dancing, and walking. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Beck Depression Inventory and the ICD-10 Guide for Depression Diagnosis, both administered before and after treatments. The results confirm the effectiveness of the aerobic training program as a complementary therapy to diminish depressive symptoms in patients suffering from moderate depression.

  7. Modulation of cardiovascular toxicity in Hodgkin lymphoma: potential role and mechanisms of aerobic training

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Anthony F; Jones, Lee W

    2015-01-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) outcomes have improved due to advances in cancer treatment. However, HL survivors remain at increased risk for cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality related to the long-term cardiotoxicity of HL treatment, particularly anthracycline chemotherapy and mediastinal radiotherapy. The role of aerobic training for the prevention of CV disease in the general population has been well established. However the safety and efficacy of aerobic training on CV outcomes has not been well studied in HL survivors. The purpose of this paper is to provide an up-to-date summary of the treatment-related adverse CV effects in HL survivors, review the CV benefits of exercise and review the limited evidence on the potential CV benefit of aerobic training in HL survivors. PMID:26234325

  8. The effects of aerobic exercise training on psychosocial aspects of men with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Sardar, Mohammad Ali; Boghrabadi, Vahdat; Sohrabi, Mehdi; Aminzadeh, Reza; Jalalian, Mehrdad

    2014-01-20

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of aerobic exercise training on psychosocial aspects (mental health, the aspects of physical symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social functioning, and depression) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. 53 men who had type 2 diabetes mellitus for a mean duration of the disease for 3±5 years were selected purposely and classified randomly into experimental (27 patients) and a control group (26 patients). Patients in the experimental group did aerobic exercise training three times a week for eight weeks. The exercise included an aerobic activity for 45 to 60 minutes during which the patients' heart rates were maintained at 60-70 percent of heart rate reserve on ergo meter bikes. The eight-week aerobic exercise training had significant effects on mental health (p = 0.002), subscales of physical symptoms (p = 0.006), and anxiety and insomnia (p = 0.001). It had no significant effects on subscales related to disorder of social functioning (p = 0.117) and depression (p = 0.657). Aerobic exercise training can be considered as an appropriate program for improving the health of the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and it also can improve their mental health.

  9. Aerobic exercise training promotes additional cardiac benefits better than resistance exercise training in postmenopausal rats with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Quinteiro, Hugo; Buzin, Morgana; Conti, Filipe Fernandes; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Figueroa, Diego; Llesuy, Susana; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia; Sanches, Iris Callado; De Angelis, Kátia

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise training or resistance exercise training on cardiac morphometric, functional, and oxidative stress parameters in rats with ovarian hormone deprivation and diabetes. Female Wistar rats (200-220 g) were divided into a sham-operated group (euglycemic sham-operated sedentary [ES]; n = 8) and three ovariectomized (bilateral removal of ovaries) and diabetic (streptozotocin 50 mg/kg IV) groups as follows: diabetic ovariectomized sedentary (DOS; n = 8), diabetic ovariectomized undergoing aerobic exercise training (DOTA; n = 8), and diabetic ovariectomized undergoing resistance exercise training (DOTR; n = 8). After 8 weeks of resistance (ladder) or aerobic (treadmill) exercise training, left ventricle function and morphometry were evaluated by echocardiography, whereas oxidative stress was evaluated at the left ventricle. The DOS group presented with increased left ventricle cavity in diastole and relative wall thickness (RWT), and these changes were attenuated in both DOTA and DOTR groups. Systolic and diastolic function was impaired in the DOS group compared with the ES group, and only the DOTA group was able to reverse this dysfunction. Lipoperoxidation and glutathione redox balance were improved in both trained groups compared with the DOS group. Glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were higher in the DOTA group than in the other studied groups. Correlations were observed between lipoperoxidation and left ventricle cavity in diastole (r = 0.55), between redox balance and RWT (r = 0.62), and between lipoperoxidation and RWT (r = -0.60). Aerobic exercise training and resistance exercise training promote attenuation of cardiac morphometric dysfunction associated with a reduction in oxidative stress in an experimental model of diabetes and menopause. However, only dynamic aerobic exercise training is able to attenuate systolic and diastolic dysfunction under this condition.

  10. Aerobic training does not alter CRP in apparently healthy, untrained men.

    PubMed

    Stoutenberg, M; Kressler, J; Chen, G L; Perry, A C; Myerburg, R J; Mendez, A J; Signorile, J F; Arheart, K L; Lewis, J E; Jacobs, K A

    2012-02-01

    Regular aerobic exercise may reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by lowering the concentration of inflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein (CRP). While studies in diseased populations have shown significant decreases in CRP concentrations with regular aerobic training, little has been conclusively determined regarding the effects of aerobic training on CRP concentrations in apparently healthy, untrained populations. Aim of the study was to examine the effects of a 17-wk half marathon training program (TP) on CRP concentrations, aerobic fitness, and body composition in apparently healthy, untrained men. Twenty men (29.3±1.0 y) enrolled as training subjects (TRN) in a 17-wk half marathon TP. An additional 22 men (27.8±1.4 y) served as controls (CON). Fasting blood samples were taken at four time points over the TP and were analyzed for CRP and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations. Aerobic capacity (VO2max) and body fat percent (BF%) were measured before and after the TP. No significant post-training changes in CRP (P=0.70) or IL-6 concentrations (P=0.67) were seen in TRN as a result of the TP, despite significant improvements in VO2max (42.2±1.9 ml∙kg-1∙min⁻¹, P<0.0001) and significant reductions in resting heart rate (P=0.004), BF% (P=0.03), and body mass index (BMI, P=0.05). No significant changes in CRP, VO2max, BMI, or BF% were detected in CON over time. Regular aerobic training does not appear to affect CRP concentrations in apparently healthy, untrained men despite significant improvements in bodyweight, BF%, BMI, and VO2max.

  11. Aerobic vs anaerobic exercise training effects on the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Patel, Harsh; Alkhawam, Hassan; Madanieh, Raef; Shah, Niel; Kosmas, Constantine E; Vittorio, Timothy J

    2017-02-26

    Physical exercise is one of the most effective methods to help prevent cardiovascular (CV) disease and to promote CV health. Aerobic and anaerobic exercises are two types of exercise that differ based on the intensity, interval and types of muscle fibers incorporated. In this article, we aim to further elaborate on these two categories of physical exercise and to help decipher which provides the most effective means of promoting CV health.

  12. Aerobic vs anaerobic exercise training effects on the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Harsh; Alkhawam, Hassan; Madanieh, Raef; Shah, Niel; Kosmas, Constantine E; Vittorio, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    Physical exercise is one of the most effective methods to help prevent cardiovascular (CV) disease and to promote CV health. Aerobic and anaerobic exercises are two types of exercise that differ based on the intensity, interval and types of muscle fibers incorporated. In this article, we aim to further elaborate on these two categories of physical exercise and to help decipher which provides the most effective means of promoting CV health. PMID:28289526

  13. Interval versus continuous training with identical workload: physiological and aerobic capacity adaptations.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, G G; Gobatto, C A; Marcos-Pereira, M; Dos Reis, I G M; Verlengia, R

    2015-01-01

    The interval model training has been more recommended to promote aerobic adaptations due to recovery period that enables the execution of elevated intensity and as consequence, higher workload in relation to continuous training. However, the physiological and aerobic capacity adaptations in interval training with identical workload to continuous are still uncertain. The purpose was to characterize the effects of chronic and acute biomarkers adaptations and aerobic capacity in interval and continuous protocols with equivalent load. Fifty Wistar rats were divided in three groups: Continuous training (GTC), interval training (GTI) and control (CG). The running training lasted 8 weeks (wk) and was based at Anaerobic Threshold (AT) velocity. GTI showed glycogen super-compensation (mg/100 mg) 48 h after training session in relation to CG and GTC (GTI red gastrocnemius (RG)=1.41+/-0.16; GTI white gastrocnemius (WG)=1.78+/-0.20; GTI soleus (S)=0.26+/-0.01; GTI liver (L)=2.72+/-0.36; GTC RG=0.42+/-0.17; GTC WG=0.54+/-0.22; GTC S=0.100+/-0.01; GTC L=1.12+/-0.24; CG RG=0.32+/-0.05; CG WG=0.65+/-0.17; CG S=0.14+/-0.01; CG L=2.28+/-0.33). The volume performed by GTI was higher than GTC. The aerobic capacity reduced 11 % after experimental period in GTC when compared to GTI, but this change was insignificant (19.6+/-5.4 m/min; 17.7+/-2.5 m/min, effect size = 0.59). Free fatty acids and glucose concentration did not show statistical differences among the groups. Corticosterone concentration increased in acute condition for GTI and GTC. Testosterone concentration reduced 71 % in GTC immediately after the exercise in comparison to CG. The GTI allowed positive adaptations when compared to GTC in relation to: glycogen super-compensation, training volume performed and anabolic condition. However, the GTI not improved the aerobic performance.

  14. Specific Training Effects of Concurrent Aerobic and Strength Exercises Depend on Recovery Duration.

    PubMed

    Robineau, Julien; Babault, Nicolas; Piscione, Julien; Lacome, Mathieu; Bigard, André X

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to determine whether the duration (0, 6, or 24 hours) of recovery between strength and aerobic sequences influences the responses to a concurrent training program. Fifty-eight amateur rugby players were randomly assigned to control (CONT), concurrent training (C-0h, C-6h, or C-24h), or strength training (STR) groups during a 7-week training period. Two sessions of each quality were proposed each week with strength always performed before aerobic training. Neuromuscular and aerobic measurements were performed before and immediately after the overall training period. Data were assessed for practical significance using magnitude-based inference. Gains in maximal strength for bench press and half squat were lower in C-0h compared with that in C-6h, C-24h, and STR. The maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) during isokinetic knee extension at 60°·s(-1) was likely higher for C-24h compared with C-0h. Changes in MVC at 180°·s(-1) was likely higher in C-24h and STR than in C-0h and C-6h. Training-induced gains in isometric MVC for C-0h, C-6h, C-24h, and STR were unclear. V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak increased in C-0h, C-6h, and C-24h. Training-induced changes in V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak were higher in C-24h than in C-0h and C-6h. Our study emphasized that the interference on strength development depends on the recovery delay between the 2 sequences. Daily training without a recovery period between sessions (C-0h) and, to a lesser extent, training twice a day (C-6h), is not optimal for neuromuscular and aerobic improvements. Fitness coaches should avoid scheduling 2 contradictory qualities, with less than 6-hour recovery between them to obtain full adaptive responses to concurrent training.

  15. Is balance exercise training as effective as aerobic exercise training in fibromyalgia syndrome?

    PubMed

    Duruturk, Neslihan; Tuzun, Emine Handan; Culhaoglu, Belde

    2015-05-01

    The aim was to compare the effect of aerobic and balance exercises on pain severity, myalgic score, quality of life, exercise capacity and balance in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). A total of 33 females diagnosed with FMS by the American College of Rheumatology criteria were recruited in this randomised controlled study and allocated to aerobic exercise (AE) or balance exercise (BE) groups. Exercises were performed three times a week, for 6 weeks on a treadmill or with a Tetrax interactive balance system (TIBS). Outcome measures were characterised by myalgic score, visual analogue scale, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), exercise testing, Timed Up-Go (TUG) and TIBS measurements. Comparisons from baseline to 6 weeks were evaluated using Wilcoxon test. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare differences between groups. Effect sizes were also calculated. Improvements in pain, myalgic score and FIQ were found in both groups (p < 0.05). While comparing groups, myalgic score was significant (p = 0.02, d = -1.77), the value was higher in AE. Exercise duration, Borg scale, resting blood pressures (RBP) and maximal heart rate were significant in AE. In BE, Borg scale, exercise duration was significant (p < 0.05). While comparing groups, diastolic RBP (p = 0.04, d = -0.92), exercise duration (p = 0.00, d = -1.64) were significant, with higher values in AE. TUG significantly changed in groups (p < 0.05, d ≥ -1.22). Stability scores, eyes open while standing on elastic pads (p = 0.00, d = -0.98) and head back (p = 0.03, d = -0.74), were significant, with higher values in BE. This study showed that BE provided some improvements in FMS, but AE training led to greater gains. BE training should be included in comprehensive programs.

  16. A proposed model for examining the interference phenomenon between concurrent aerobic and strength training.

    PubMed

    Docherty, D; Sporer, B

    2000-12-01

    A review of the current research on the interference phenomenon between concurrent aerobic and strength training indicates modest support for the model proposed in this article. However, it is clear that without a systematic approach to the investigation of the phenomenon there is lack of control and manipulation of the independent variables, which makes it difficult to test the validity of the model. To enhance the understanding of the interference phenomenon, it is important that researchers are precise and deliberate in their choice of training protocols. Clear definition of the specific training objectives for strength (muscle hypertrophy or neural adaptation) and aerobic power (maximal aerobic power or anaerobic threshold) are required. In addition, researchers should equate training volumes as much as possible for all groups. Care needs to be exercised to avoid overtraining individuals. There should be adequate recovery and regeneration between the concurrent training sessions as well as during the training cycle. The model should be initially tested by maintaining the same protocols throughout the duration of the study. However, it is becoming common practice to use a periodised approach in a training mesocycle in which there is a shift from high volume and moderate intensity training to tower volume and higher intensity. The model should be evaluated in the context of a periodised mesocycle provided the investigators are sensitive to the potential impact of the loading parameters on the interference phenomenon. It may be that the periodised approach is one way of maintaining the training stimulus and minimising the amount of interference. The effects of gender, training status, duration and frequency of training, and the mode of training need to be regarded as potential factors effecting the training response when investigating the interference phenomenon. Other experimental design factors such as unilateral limb training or training the upper body for one

  17. How much will older adults exercise? A feasibility study of aerobic training combined with resistance training.

    PubMed

    Falck, Ryan S; Davis, Jennifer C; Milosevic, Elizabeth; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Both aerobic training (AT) and resistance training (RT) have multidimensional health benefits for older adults including increased life expectancy and decreased risk of chronic diseases. However, the volume (i.e., frequency*time) of AT combined with RT in which untrained older adults can feasibly and safely participate remains unclear. Thus, our primary objective was to investigate the feasibility and safety of a high-volume exercise program consisting of twice weekly AT combined with twice weekly RT (i.e., four times weekly exercise) on a group of untrained older adults. In addition, we investigated the effects of the program on physical function, aerobic capacity, muscular strength, and explored factors related to participant adherence. We recruited eight inactive older adults (65+ years) to participate in a 6-week, single-group pre-post exercise intervention, consisting of 2 days/week of AT plus 2 days/week of progressive RT for 6 weeks. We recorded program attendance and monitored for adverse events during the course of the program. Participants were tested at both baseline and follow-up on the following: (1) physical function (i.e., timed-up-and-go test (TUG) and short physical performance battery (SPPB)), (2) aerobic capacity (VO2max) using the modified Bruce protocol; and (3) muscular strength on the leg press and lat pull-down. Post intervention, we performed qualitative semi-structured interviews of all participants regarding their experiences in the exercise program. We used these responses to examine themes that may affect continued program adherence to a high-volume exercise program. We recorded an average attendance rate of 83.3% with the lowest attendance for one session being five out of eight participants; no significant adverse events occurred. Significant improvements were observed for SPPB score (1.6; 95% CI: [0.3, 2.9]), VO2max (8.8 ml/kg/min; 95% CI: [2.8, 14.8]), and lat pull-down strength (11.8 lbs; 95% CI: [3.3, 20.2]). Qualitative

  18. Enhancing Cognitive Training Through Aerobic Exercise After a First Schizophrenia Episode: Theoretical Conception and Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Nuechterlein, Keith H.; Ventura, Joseph; McEwen, Sarah C.; Gretchen-Doorly, Denise; Vinogradov, Sophia; Subotnik, Kenneth L.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive training (CT) and aerobic exercise have separately shown promise for improving cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Aerobic exercise releases brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which promotes synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. Thus, aerobic exercise provides a neurotrophic platform for neuroplasticity-based CT. The combination of aerobic exercise and CT may yield more robust effects than CT alone, particularly in the initial course of schizophrenia. In a pilot study, 7 patients with a recent onset of schizophrenia were assigned to Cognitive Training & Exercise (CT&E) and 9 to CT alone for a 10-week period. Posit Science programs were used for CT. Neurocognitive training focused on tuning neural circuits related to perceptual processing and verbal learning and memory. Social cognitive training used the same learning principles with social and affective stimuli. Both groups participated in these training sessions 2d/wk, 2h/d. The CT&E group also participated in an aerobic conditioning program for 30 minutes at our clinic 2d/wk and at home 2d/wk. The effect size for improvement in the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery Overall Composite score for CT&E patients relative to CT patients was large. Functional outcome, particularly independent living skills, also tended to improve more in the CT&E than in the CT group. Muscular endurance, cardiovascular fitness, and diastolic blood pressure also showed relative improvement in the CT&E compared to the CT group. These encouraging pilot study findings support the promise of combining CT and aerobic exercise to improve the early course of schizophrenia. PMID:27460618

  19. Enhancing Cognitive Training Through Aerobic Exercise After a First Schizophrenia Episode: Theoretical Conception and Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Nuechterlein, Keith H; Ventura, Joseph; McEwen, Sarah C; Gretchen-Doorly, Denise; Vinogradov, Sophia; Subotnik, Kenneth L

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive training (CT) and aerobic exercise have separately shown promise for improving cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Aerobic exercise releases brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which promotes synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. Thus, aerobic exercise provides a neurotrophic platform for neuroplasticity-based CT. The combination of aerobic exercise and CT may yield more robust effects than CT alone, particularly in the initial course of schizophrenia. In a pilot study, 7 patients with a recent onset of schizophrenia were assigned to Cognitive Training & Exercise (CT&E) and 9 to CT alone for a 10-week period. Posit Science programs were used for CT. Neurocognitive training focused on tuning neural circuits related to perceptual processing and verbal learning and memory. Social cognitive training used the same learning principles with social and affective stimuli. Both groups participated in these training sessions 2d/wk, 2h/d. The CT&E group also participated in an aerobic conditioning program for 30 minutes at our clinic 2d/wk and at home 2d/wk. The effect size for improvement in the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery Overall Composite score for CT&E patients relative to CT patients was large. Functional outcome, particularly independent living skills, also tended to improve more in the CT&E than in the CT group. Muscular endurance, cardiovascular fitness, and diastolic blood pressure also showed relative improvement in the CT&E compared to the CT group. These encouraging pilot study findings support the promise of combining CT and aerobic exercise to improve the early course of schizophrenia.

  20. Aerobic, resistance and combined exercise training on arterial stiffness in normotensive and hypertensive adults: A review.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanlei; Hanssen, Henner; Cordes, Mareike; Rossmeissl, Anja; Endes, Simon; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno

    2015-01-01

    Exercise training has different effects on arterial stiffness according to training modalities. The optimal exercise modality for improvement of arterial function in normotensive and hypertensive individuals has not been well established. In this review, we aim to evaluate the effects of aerobic, resistance and combined aerobic and resistance training on arterial stiffness in individuals with and without hypertension. We systematically searched the Pubmed and Web of Science database from 1985 until December 2013 for relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The data were extracted by one investigator and checked by a second investigator. The training effects on arterial stiffness were estimated using weighted mean differences of the relative changes (%) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We finally reviewed the results from 17 RCTs. The available evidence indicates that aerobic exercise tends to have a beneficial effect on arterial stiffness in normotensive and hypertensive patients, but does not affect arterial stiffness in patients with isolated systolic hypertension. Resistance exercise has differing effects on arterial stiffness depending on type and intensity. Vigorous resistance training is associated with an increase in arterial stiffness. There seem to be no unfavourable effects on arterial stiffness if the training is of low intensity, in a slow eccentric manner or with lower limb in healthy individuals. Combined training has neutral or even a beneficial effect on arterial stiffness. In conclusion, our review shows that exercise training has varying effects on arterial stiffness depending on the exercise modalities.

  1. Aerobic training as a means to enhance inhibition: what's yet to be studied?

    PubMed

    Levin, Oron; Netz, Yael

    2015-01-01

    Some of the neurodegenerative processes in healthy aging, including changes in structural and biochemical properties of the brain, are argued to affect cortical inhibitory functions. Age-related deficits in the ability to control cerebral inhibition may explain wide range of motor and cognitive deficits that healthy older adults experience in daily life such as impaired coordination skills and declines in attention, concentration, and learning abilities. Importantly, evidence from many studies suggests that impaired inhibitory control in advancing age can be delayed or even alleviated by aerobic exercise training. Findings from a recent study by Duchesne and colleagues (2015) may provide insights into this process. First, observations from Duchesne et al. indicated that aerobic exercise training program improved cognitive inhibitory functioning in both patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and matched older controls. Second, Duchesne et al. showed that cognitive inhibition and motor skills were highly correlated both pre- and post-exercise in PD but not in controls. Based on the aforementioned findings we highlight possible mechanisms that may play a role in the interactions between cognitive and motor inhibitory functions in healthy elderly that could benefit from aerobic exercise training: specifically, the brain neurotransmission systems and the frontal-basal ganglia network. In conclusion, we raise two fundamental questions which are yet to be addressed: (1) the extent to which different brain neurotransmitter systems are affected by aerobic exercise training; (2) the extent to which neurotransmitter levels prior to the onset of intervention may facilitate (or impede) training-induced neuroplasticity in the aging brain.

  2. Effects of Cognitive Training with and without Aerobic Exercise on Cognitively-Demanding Everyday Activities

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Mark A.; Binder, Ellen F.; Bugg, Julie M.; Waldum, Emily R.; Dufault, Carolyn; Meyer, Amanda; Johanning, Jennifer; Zheng, Jie; Schechtman, Kenneth B.; Kudelka, Chris

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the potential benefits of a novel cognitive training protocol and an aerobic exercise intervention, both individually and in concert, on older adults’ performances in laboratory simulations of select real-world tasks. The cognitive training focused on a range of cognitive processes, including attentional coordination, prospective memory, and retrospective-memory retrieval, processes that are likely involved in many everyday tasks, and that decline with age. Primary outcome measures were three laboratory tasks that simulated everyday activities: Cooking Breakfast, Virtual Week, and Memory for Health Information. Two months of cognitive training improved older adults’ performance on prospective memory tasks embedded in Virtual Week. Cognitive training, either alone or in combination with six months of aerobic exercise, did not significantly improve Cooking Breakfast or Memory for Health Information. Although gains in aerobic power were comparable to previous reports, aerobic exercise did not produce improvements for the primary outcome measures. Discussion focuses on the possibility that cognitive training programs that include explicit strategy instruction and varied practice contexts may confer gains to older adults for performance on cognitively challenging everyday tasks. PMID:25244489

  3. Efficacy of a Ventilatory Training Mask to Improve Anaerobic and Aerobic Capacity in Reserve Officers' Training Corps Cadets.

    PubMed

    Sellers, John H; Monaghan, Taylor P; Schnaiter, Jessica A; Jacobson, Bert H; Pope, Zachary K

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of a ventilatory training mask to improve anaerobic and aerobic fitness in reserve officers' training corps (ROTC) cadets. Seventeen ROTC cadets from a Midwest university completed pre- and postassessments consisting of anthropometry, a 30-second Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT), and a maximal aerobic capacity test (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max). A 6-week intervention training period was used during which time participants completed their mandatory physical training (PT) sessions. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (MASK; n = 9) or the control group (CON; n = 8). The ventilatory training masks were adjusted to simulate an altitude of 2,750 m. There was no significant effect (p ≤ 0.05) between groups on fatigue index, anaerobic capacity, peak power, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, or time to exhaustion. These results suggest that the use of the ventilatory training mask during mandatory PT did not elicit superior aerobic or anaerobic adaptations in ROTC cadets. Therefore, it is recommended that more established simulated altitude training methods be used when incorporating intermittent hypoxic training.

  4. Effects of estrogen therapy and aerobic training on sympathetic activity and hemodynamics in healthy postmenopausal women: a double-blind randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Oneda, Bruna; Cardoso, Crivaldo G; Forjaz, Cláudia L M; Araújo, Tatiana G; Bernardo, Fernanda R; de Gusmão, Josiane Lima; Pinto, Luiz Gustavo; Labes, Eliana; Abrahão, Sandra B; Mion, Décio; Fonseca, Angela M; Tinucci, Taís

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the isolated and associated effects of aerobic training and estrogen therapy on sympathetic nerve activity and hemodynamics in healthy postmenopausal women. Forty-five postmenopausal women (mean [SD] age, 51 [3] y) were randomly divided into four groups: sedentary-placebo (SED-PLA; n = 11), sedentary-estrogen therapy (SED-ET; n = 14), aerobic training-placebo (AT-PLA; n = 12), and aerobic training-estrogen therapy (AT-ET; n = 8). The ET groups received oral estradiol valerate (1 mg/d), whereas the PLA groups received placebo. The AT groups performed aerobic exercise three times a week on a cycle ergometer for 50 minutes, whereas the SED groups remained sedentary. All participants were evaluated before and after 6 months. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; microneurography), forearm blood flow (plethysmography), blood pressure (oscillometry), and heart rate (HR) were measured at rest for 10 minutes. Data were analyzed by three-way analysis of variance. Estrogen administration itself did not change any of the studied parameters. AT improved forearm blood flow (AT-PLA, 2.02 [0.85] vs 2.92 [1.65] mL min(-1) 100 mL(-1), P = 0.03; AT-ET, 1.68 [1.11] vs 2.27 [0.76] mL min(-1) 100 mL(-1), P = 0.03), reduced MSNA in the AT-PLA group (39 [6] vs 34 [5] bursts/min(-1), P = 0.01), and decreased HR in the AT-ET group (65 [8] vs 62 [7] beats/min, P = 0.01). AT reduces sympathetic nerve activity and improves muscle blood flow in healthy hysterectomized postmenopausal women. Moreover, AT decreases HR when combined with ET. However, ET abolishes the reducing effect of AT on MSNA.

  5. Integrated Resistance and Aerobic Training Maintains Cardiovascular and Skeletal Muscle Fitness During 14 Days of Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Goetchius, Elizabeth; Crowell, Brent; Hackney, Kyle; Wickwire, Jason; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Snyder, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Background: Known incompatibilities exist between resistance and aerobic training. Of particular importance are findings that concurrent resistance and aerobic training reduces the effectiveness of the resistance training and limits skeletal muscle adaptations (example: Dudley & Djamil, 1985). Numerous unloading studies have documented the effectiveness of resistance training alone for the maintenance of skeletal muscle size and strength. However the practical applications of those studies are limited because long ]duration crew members perform both aerobic and resistance exercise throughout missions/spaceflight. To date, such integrated training on the International Space Station (ISS) has not been fully effective in the maintenance of skeletal muscle function. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of high intensity concurrent resistance and aerobic training for the maintenance of cardiovascular fitness and skeletal muscle strength, power and endurance over 14 days of strict bed rest. Methods: 9 subjects (8 male and 1 female; 34.5 +/- 8.2 years) underwent 14 days of bed rest with concurrent training. Resistance and aerobic training were integrated as shown in table 1. Days that included 2 exercise sessions had a 4-8 hour rest between exercise bouts. The resistance training consisted of 3 sets of 12 repetitions of squat, heel raise, leg press and hamstring curl exercise. Aerobic exercise consisted of periodized interval training that included 30 sec, 2 min and 4 min intervals alternating by day with continuous aerobic exercise.

  6. Aerobic plus resistance training improves bone metabolism and inflammation in adolescents who are obese.

    PubMed

    Campos, Raquel M S; de Mello, Marco T; Tock, Lian; Silva, Patrícia L; Masquio, Deborah C L; de Piano, Aline; Sanches, Priscila L; Carnier, June; Corgosinho, Flávia C; Foschini, Denis; Tufik, Sergio; Dâmaso, Ana R

    2014-03-01

    Obesity is a worldwide epidemic with a high prevalence of comorbidities, including alterations in bone mineral metabolism. The purpose of this yearlong study was to evaluate the role of 2 types of exercise training (aerobic and aerobic plus resistance exercise) on adipokines parameters and bone metabolism in adolescents who are obese. This was a clinical trial study with interdisciplinary weight loss therapy. Forty-two postpubertal adolescents who are obese were subjected to interdisciplinary weight loss therapy with physical exercise, medical monitoring, nutritional intervention, and psychological intervention. Data were collected from serum analyses of leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, glucose, and insulin. Anthropometric measurements of body composition, bone mineral density, visceral, and subcutaneous fat were also performed. Statistical tests were applied using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Correlations were established using the Pearson test, and dependencies of variables were established using simple linear regression test. Both training types promoted reductions in body mass index, total central, visceral and subcutaneous fat, insulin concentration, and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, but only aerobic plus resistance training showed statistical improvements in the bone mineral content, adiponectin concentration, and lean tissue. Effective reduction in the visceral/subcutaneous ratio, central/peripheral ratio, and leptin concentration was observed. Insulin and the HOMA-IR index were negative predictors of bone mineral content in the combined training group. Moreover, fat distribution was a negative predictor for bone mineral density in both groups. Aerobic plus resistance training promotes a protective role in bone mineral content associated with an improvement in adiponectin and leptin concentrations, favoring the control of the inflammatory state related to obesity in adolescents. Aerobic plus resistance training

  7. Investigating Aerobic, Anaerobic Combine Technical Trainings' Effects on Performance in Tennis Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suna, Gürhan; Kumartasli, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate eight-week aerobic, anaerobic combine technical trainings' effects on developments of performance. 21 athletes of tennis proficiency students from Sports Sciences Department were joined to the study voluntarily. Participated in the research athletes' ages' mean was 22,2 ± 0,3 year, lengths' mean was 177,3 ±…

  8. Exercise training enhances aerobic capacity in juvenile estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus).

    PubMed

    Owerkowicz, Tomasz; Baudinette, Russell V

    2008-06-01

    Aerobic capacity (VO2max) of endothermic vertebrates is known to increase with exercise training, but this effect has not been found to-date in non-avian reptiles. We exercised juvenile estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) to walk at 0.75-0.88 km/h on a treadmill for up to 20 min a day over 16 weeks, and compared their aerobic performance with that of unexercised crocodiles. In the exercised group, VO2max increased from 6.9 to 8.5 mLO2/kg/min (+28%), and locomotor endurance increased from 3.8 to 6.9 min (+82%). Neither VO2max nor endurance changed significantly in the sedentary group. This finding extends the exercise training effect onto another vertebrate clade, and demonstrates that ectothermic amniotes are capable of elevating their aerobic capacity in response to exercise training. We propose that differences in cardiopulmonary structure and function in non-avian reptiles may be responsible for the absence (in squamates) or presence (in crocodilians) of a strong training effect on aerobic capacity.

  9. The Ability of Instructors to Organize Aerobic Dance Exercise Into Effective Cardiovascular Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claremont, Alan D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The ability of five aerobics instructors to combine music and exercise movements into effective low, medium, and high levels of cardiovascular intensity was evaluated by measuring respiratory gas exchange and heart rate for twelve subjects. Results underscore the need for instructor training guidelines. (Author/MT)

  10. Specificity of arm training on aerobic power during swimming and running.

    PubMed

    Gergley, T J; McArdle, W D; DeJesus, P; Toner, M M; Jacobowitz, S; Spina, R J

    1984-08-01

    The specificity of aerobic training for upper-body exercise requiring differing amounts of muscle mass was evaluated in 25 college-aged male recreational swimmers who were randomly assigned to either a non-training control group (N = 9), a 10-wk swim(S)-training group (N = 9), or a group that trained with a standard swim-bench pulley system (SB; N = 7). For all subjects prior to training, tethered-swimming peak VO2 averaged 19% below treadmill values (P less than 0.01), while SB-ergometry peak VO2 was 50% and 39% below running and swimming values, respectively (P less than 0.01). Significant (P less than 0.01) increases of peak VO2 in tethered swimming (11%) and SB (21%) were observed for the SB-trained group, while the S-trained group improved (P less than 0.01) 18% and 19% on the tethered swimming and SB tests, respectively. No changes were observed during treadmill running, and the control subjects remained unchanged on all measures. Comparisons between training groups indicated that although both groups improved to a similar extent when measured on the swim bench, the 0.53 l X min-1 improvement in tethered-swimming peak VO2 for the S-trained group was greater (P less than 0.05) than the 0.32 l X min-1 increase noted for the SB-trained group. The comparisons between SB and S exercise vs treadmill exercise support the specificity of aerobic improvement with training and suggest that local adaptations contribute significantly to improvements in peak VO2. Furthermore, the present data indicate that SB exercise activates a considerable portion of the musculature involved in swimming, and that aerobic improvements with SB training are directly transferred to swimming.

  11. Effect of step aerobics training on anaerobic performance of men and women.

    PubMed

    Kin-Isler, Ayse; Kosar, Sukran Nazan

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 10 weeks of step aerobics training on anaerobic performance of men and women. College-age volunteers (64 women and 54 men) were divided into step aerobics (33 women, 27 men) and control (31 women, 27 men) groups. Before and after the 10-week period, the subjects' body composition, muscular strength, Wingate anaerobic performance, and vertical jump anaerobic performance were determined. The step aerobics group participated in step aerobics sessions of 50 minutes per day, 3 days per week for 10 weeks, at 60-80% of their heart rate reserve. Results of 2 x 2 analysis of covariance with repeated measures indicated significant sex differences in percentage body fat, lean body mass, muscular strength, and in all of the measured indices of the Wingate Anaerobic Test. The step aerobics group showed significant improvement only in mean power relative to body weight compared with the control group and women showed significant improvement only in anaerobic power of vertical jump when compared with men. It can be concluded that 10 weeks of step aerobics was not effective in improving all of the measured anaerobic indices in men and women.

  12. Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Blood Pressure in Indians: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Punia, Vandana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. High blood pressure (BP) is one of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, which accounts for one in every eight deaths worldwide. It has been predicted that, by 2020, there would be 111% increase in cardiovascular deaths in India. Aerobic exercise in the form of brisk walking, jogging, running, and cycling would result in reduction in BP. Many meta-analytical studies from western world confirm this. However, there is no such review from Indian subcontinent. Objective. Our objective is to systematically review and report the articles from India in aerobic exercise on blood pressure. Methodology. Study was done in March 2016 in Google Scholar using search terms “Aerobic exercise” AND “Training” AND “Blood pressure” AND “India.” This search produced 3210 titles. Results. 24 articles were identified for this review based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Total of 1107 subjects participated with median of 25 subjects. Studies vary in duration from +3 weeks to 12 months with each session lasting 15–60 minutes and frequency varies from 3 to 8 times/week. The results suggest that there was mean reduction of −05.00 mmHg in SBP and −03.09 mmHg in DBP after aerobic training. Conclusion. Aerobic training reduces the blood pressure in Indians. PMID:27493989

  13. Ginger extract and aerobic training reduces lipid profile in high-fat fed diet rats.

    PubMed

    Khosravani, M; Azarbayjani, M A; Abolmaesoomi, M; Yusof, A; Zainal Abidin, N; Rahimi, E; Feizolahi, F; Akbari, M; Seyedjalali, S; Dehghan, F

    2016-04-01

    Obesity, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia, are major risk factors. However, natural therapies, dietary components, and physical activity may effect on these concerns. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of aerobic exercise and consumption of liquid ginger extract on lipid profile of Male rats with a high-fat fed diet. 32 rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: 1) aerobic exercise, 2) Ginger extract, 3) combined aerobic exercise and Ginger extract, and 4) the control. Subjects of the first three groups received ginger extract via gavage feeding of 250 mg/kg. The exercise program was 3 sessions per week on 3 different days over 4 weeks. Total cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), HDL and LDL were measured 24-h before the first session and 24-h after the final training session. The concentration of TG in the control group was significantly higher than other groups. In addition, the mean concentration of TG in the aerobic exercise group was significantly lower than Ginger extract group but there was no significant difference as compared to combined aerobic exercise and ginger extract group. The combination of aerobic exercise and ginger consumption significantly reduced the TG level compared to ginger group. TC and LDL concentrations were significantly decreased in all groups compare to control. The combination of aerobic exercise and ginger extract feeding caused a significant increase in HDL levels. The finding of this study suggests that the combination of aerobic exercise and liquid ginger extract consumption might be an effective method of reducing lipid profiles, which will reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases caused by high-fat diets.

  14. Resistance training is associated with spontaneous changes in aerobic physical activity but not overall diet quality in adults with prediabetes.

    PubMed

    Halliday, Tanya M; Savla, Jyoti; Marinik, Elaina L; Hedrick, Valisa E; Winett, Richard A; Davy, Brenda M

    2017-08-01

    Aerobic exercise interventions have been shown to result in alterations to dietary intake and non-exercise physical activity (PA). To date, the ability for resistance training (RT) to influence other health-related behaviors has not been examined. This study aimed to determine if initiation and maintenance of RT is associated with spontaneous changes in dietary quality and non-RT PA in adults with prediabetes. Overweight/obese adults (n=170, BMI=32.9±3.8kg·m(2), age=59.5±5.5years, 73% female) with prediabetes were enrolled in the 15-month Resist Diabetes trial. Participants completed a supervised 3-month RT initiation phase followed by a 6-month maintenance phase and a 6-month no-contact phase. Participants were not encouraged to change eating or non-RT PA behaviors. At baseline, and months 3, 9, and 15, three 24-hour diet recalls were collected to evaluate dietary intake and quality, the Aerobics Institute Longitudinal Study Questionnaire was completed to evaluate non-RT PA, and body mass, body composition (DXA), and muscular strength were measured. At months 3, 9, and 15 social cognitive theory (SCT) constructs were assessed with a RT Health Beliefs Questionnaire. Mixed effects models were used to assess changes in dietary intake and non-RT PA over the 15-month study period. Energy and carbohydrate intake decreased with RT initiation and maintenance phases (baseline to month 9: β=-87.9, p=0.015 and β=-16.3, p<0.001, respectively). No change in overall dietary quality (Healthy Eating Index [HEI]-2010 score: β=-0.13, p=0.722) occurred, but alterations in HEI-2010 sub-scores were detected. Maintenance of RT was accompanied by an increase in MET-min/week of total non-RT PA (month 3 to month 9: β=146.2, p=0.01), which was predicted by increased self-regulation and decreased negative outcome expectancies for RT (β=83.7, p=0.014 and β=-70.0, p=0.038, respectively). Initiation and maintenance of RT may be a gateway behavior leading to improvements in other

  15. Role of thermal factors on aerobic capacity improvements with endurance training.

    PubMed

    Young, A J; Sawka, M N; Quigley, M D; Cadarette, B S; Neufer, P D; Dennis, R C; Valeri, C R

    1993-07-01

    This investigation studied the importance of the rise in body temperature during exercise for aerobic capacity adaptations produced by endurance training. The approach used was to compare training effects produced by subjects exercising in hot (35 degrees C) water vs. cold (20 degrees C) water. Hot water was used to potentiate, and cold water to blunt, the rise in body temperature during exercise. Eighteen young men trained by cycle-ergometer exercise at 60% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) while immersed to the neck in either hot (HWT, n = 9) or cold (CWT, n = 9) water for 60 min, 5 days/wk, for 8 wk. Before and after training, VO2max, erythrocyte volume, plasma volume, and vastus lateralis citrate synthase activity were measured. Training increased (P < 0.01) VO2max by 13%, with no difference between HWT and CWT in the magnitude of the effect. Erythrocyte volume increased 4% (P < 0.01) with training, with no difference between HWT and CWT in the magnitude of the effect. Plasma volume remained unchanged by training in both the HWT and CWT groups. Last, vastus lateralis citrate synthase activity increased by 38% with training, but there was no difference between HWT and CWT in the training effect. Thus, exercise-induced body temperature elevations are not an important stimulus for the aerobic adaptations to moderate-intensity endurance training.

  16. Effect of aerobic exercise training on fatigue and physical activity in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Ali A.; Chin, Lisa M.K.; Keyser, Randall E.; Kennedy, Michelle; Nathan, Steven D.; Woolstenhulme, Joshua G.; Connors, Gerilynn; Chan, Leighton

    2013-01-01

    Summary Objective To investigate the effectiveness of an exercise intervention for decreasing fatigue severity and increasing physical activity in individuals with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). A small, phase 2 randomized clinical trial of the effect of aerobic exercise training on fatigue severity and physical activity in patients with idiopathic or PAH associated with other conditions was conducted. Methods Twenty-four patients with PAH (24 female; age: 54.4 ± 10.4 years; BMI: 30.8 ± 7.2 kg/m2) participated in the study. A convenience sample was recruited in which 9% (28 of 303) of screened patients were enrolled. The project was carried out in a clinical pulmonary rehabilitation clinic during existing pulmonary rehabilitation program sessions. Patients with PH were randomized into a 10-week program that consisted of patient education only or patient education plus an aerobic exercise-training regimen. Both groups received 20 lectures, two per week over the 10-weeks, on topics related to PAH and its management. The aerobic exercise training consisted of 24–30 sessions of treadmill walking for 30–45 min per session at an intensity of 70–80% of heart rate reserve, three days per week over the 10 weeks. Results After 10-weeks of intervention, patients receiving aerobic exercise training plus education reported routinely engaging in higher levels of physical activity (p < 0.05) and a decrease in fatigue severity (p = 0.03). Patients in the education only group did not report changes in fatigue severity or participation in physical activity. Conclusions The 10-week aerobic exercise training intervention resulted in increased physical activity and decreased fatigue in individuals with PAH. PMID:23478192

  17. Effect of aerobic exercise training on fatigue and physical activity in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Ali A; Chin, Lisa M K; Keyser, Randall E; Kennedy, Michelle; Nathan, Steven D; Woolstenhulme, Joshua G; Connors, Gerilynn; Chan, Leighton

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of an exercise intervention for decreasing fatigue severity and increasing physical activity in individuals with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). A small, phase 2 randomized clinical trial of the effect of aerobic exercise training on fatigue severity and physical activity in patients with idiopathic or PAH associated with other conditions was conducted. Twenty-four patients with PAH (24 female; age: 54.4 ± 10.4 years; BMI: 30.8 ± 7.2 kg/m(2)) participated in the study. A convenience sample was recruited in which 9% (28 of 303) of screened patients were enrolled. The project was carried out in a clinical pulmonary rehabilitation clinic during existing pulmonary rehabilitation program sessions. Patients with PH were randomized into a 10-week program that consisted of patient education only or patient education plus an aerobic exercise-training regimen. Both groups received 20 lectures, two per week over the 10-weeks, on topics related to PAH and its management. The aerobic exercise training consisted of 24-30 sessions of treadmill walking for 30-45 min per session at an intensity of 70-80% of heart rate reserve, three days per week over the 10 weeks. After 10-weeks of intervention, patients receiving aerobic exercise training plus education reported routinely engaging in higher levels of physical activity (p < 0.05) and a decrease in fatigue severity (p = 0.03). Patients in the education only group did not report changes in fatigue severity or participation in physical activity. The 10-week aerobic exercise training intervention resulted in increased physical activity and decreased fatigue in individuals with PAH. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00678821. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Utility of the Conconi's heart rate deflection to monitor the intensity of aerobic training.

    PubMed

    Passelergue, Philippe A; Cormery, Bruno; Lac, Gérard; Léger, Luc A

    2006-02-01

    The Conconi's heart-rate deflection point (HRd) in the heart rate (HR)/speed curve is often used to set aerobic training loads. Training could either be set in percentage running speed or HR at HRd. In order to establish the limits and usefulness of various aerobic-training modalities for intermediate athletic level (physical-education students), acute responses were analyzed while running for a typical 40-minute training session. Speed, HR, lactate, and cortisol were thus recorded during training at 90 and 100% of running speed (RS: n = 14) and HR (HR: n = 16) at HRd (90% running speed [RS90], 100% running speed [RS100], 90% HR [HR90], and 100% HR [HR100]). During constant HR training, RS decreases while HR drifts upward during constant RS training. Half of the subjects can not finish the 40-minute RS100 session. For HR90, RS90, HR100, and RS100, average intensities are 67, 69, 74.9, and 77% maximal aerobic speed (multistage test), respectively. This study indicates that (1) training at HR100 and RS100 is more appropriate to improve high-intensity metabolic capacities (increased cortisol and lactate) while RS100 is too difficult to be maintained for 40 minutes for subjects at that level at least, (2) training at HR90, however, is better to improve endurance and capacity to do a large amount of work considering cortisol and lactate homeostasis, and (3) training at a constant HR using a HR monitor is a good method to control the intensity of the training with subjects not used to pacing themselves with the split-time approach.

  19. Aerobic training attenuates nicotinic acethylcholine receptor changes in the diaphragm muscle during heart failure.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Paula Aiello Tomé; de Souza, Rodrigo Wagner Alves; Soares, Luana Campos; Piedade, Warlen Pereira; Campos, Dijon Henrique S; Carvalho, Robson Francisco; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Okoshi, Katashi; Cicogna, Antônio Carlos; Matheus, Selma Maria Michelin; Dal-Pai-Silva, Maeli

    2015-07-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a progressive myopathy, with clinical signs of fatigue and limb weakness that can damage the nerve-muscle interaction, altering synaptic transmission and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) in neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). The diaphragm is composed of a mixed proportion of muscle fibres, and during HF, this muscle becomes slower and can alter its function. As exercise training is an accepted practice to minimise abnormalities of skeletal muscle during HF, in this study, we evaluated the hypothesis that aerobic training attenuates alterations in the expression of nAChR subunits in NMJs diaphragm during heart failure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution and expression of nAChR subunits in the diaphragm muscle fibres of rats subjected to an aerobic training programme during HF. Control (Sham), control training (ShamTR), aortic stenosis (AS) and aortic stenosis training (ASTR) groups were evaluated. The expression of nAChR subunits (γ, α1, ε, β1 and δ) was determined by qRT-PCR, and NMJs were analysed using confocal microscopy. We observed increased expression of the γ, α1 and β1 subunits in the AS group compared with the ASTR group. The distribution of NMJs was modulated in these groups. HF alters the mRNA expression of nAChR subunits and the structural characteristics of diaphragm NMJs. In addition, aerobic training did not alter NMJs morphology but attenuated the alterations in heart structure and function and in nAChR subunit mRNA expression. Our findings demonstrate the beneficial effects of aerobic exercise training in maintaining the integrity of the neuromuscular system in the diaphragm muscle during HF and may be critical for non-pharmacological therapy to improve the quality of life for patients with this syndrome.

  20. Aerobic training suppresses exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and inflammation in overweight/obese adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Hala; Groussard, Carole; Lemoine-Morel, Sophie; Pincemail, Joel; Jacob, Christophe; Moussa, Elie; Fazah, Abdallah; Cillard, Josiane; Pineau, Jean-Claude; Delamarche, Arlette

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to determine whether aerobic training could reduce lipid peroxidation and inflammation at rest and after maximal exhaustive exercise in overweight/obese adolescent girls. Thirty-nine adolescent girls (14-19 years old) were classified as nonobese or overweight/obese and then randomly assigned to either the nontrained or trained group (12-week multivariate aerobic training program). Measurements at the beginning of the experiment and at 3 months consisted of body composition, aerobic fitness (VO2peak) and the following blood assays: pre- and postexercise lipid peroxidation (15F2a-isoprostanes [F2-Isop], lipid hydroperoxide [ROOH], oxidized LDL [ox-LDL]) and inflammation (myeloperoxidase [MPO]) markers. In the overweight/ obese group, the training program significantly increased their fat-free mass (FFM) and decreased their percentage of fat mass (%FM) and hip circumference but did not modify their VO2peak. Conversely, in the nontrained overweight/obese group, weight and %FM increased, and VO2peak decreased, during the same period. Training also prevented exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and/or inflammation in overweight/obese girls (F2-Isop, ROOH, ox-LDL, MPO). In addition, in the trained overweight/obese group, exercise-induced changes in ROOH, ox-LDL and F2-Isop were correlated with improvements in anthropometric parameters (waist-to-hip ratio, %FM and FFM). In conclusion aerobic training increased tolerance to exercise-induced oxidative stress in overweight/obese adolescent girls partly as a result of improved body composition.

  1. Aerobic exercise training increases plasma Klotho levels and reduces arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Tomoko; Miyaki, Asako; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Choi, Youngju; Ra, Song-Gyu; Tanahashi, Koichiro; Kumagai, Hiroshi; Oikawa, Satoshi; Maeda, Seiji

    2014-02-01

    The Klotho gene is a suppressor of the aging phenomena, and the secretion as well as the circulation of Klotho proteins decrease with aging. Although habitual exercise has antiaging effects (e.g., a decrease in arterial stiffness), the relationship between Klotho and habitual exercise remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of habitual exercise on Klotho, with a particular focus on arterial stiffness. First, we examined the correlation between plasma Klotho concentration and arterial stiffness (carotid artery compliance and β-stiffness index) or aerobic exercise capacity [oxygen uptake at ventilatory threshold (VT)] in 69 healthy, postmenopausal women (50-76 years old) by conducting a cross-sectional study. Second, we tested the effects of aerobic exercise training on plasma Klotho concentrations and arterial stiffness. A total of 19 healthy, postmenopausal women (50-76 years old) were divided into two groups: control group and exercise group. The exercise group completed 12 wk of moderate aerobic exercise training. In the cross-sectional study, plasma Klotho concentrations positively correlated with carotid artery compliance and VT and negatively correlated with the β-stiffness index. In the interventional study, aerobic exercise training increased plasma Klotho concentrations and carotid artery compliance and decreased the β-stiffness index. Moreover, the changes in plasma Klotho concentration and arterial stiffness were found to be correlated. These results suggest a possible role for secreted Klotho in the exercise-induced modulation of arterial stiffness.

  2. Step aerobic combined with resistance training improves cutaneous microvascular reactivity in overweight women.

    PubMed

    Suksom, D; Phanpheng, Y; Soogarun, S; Sapwarobol, S

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training on body weight and cutaneous microvascular reactivity in overweight individuals. A total of 41 overweight women aged 30-45 years (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m²) were randomized into sedentary time control (CON; N.=15), traditional aerobic dance (AD; N.=11), and step aerobic dance combined with upper-body resistance training (SAR; N.=15) groups. Exercise programs were 50 minutes/session, 3 times/week for 12 weeks. Maximal oxygen consumption and 1-RM strength of lower body increased (P<0.05) in the AD and SAR groups. Body mass and BMI decreased (P<0.05) in the SAR group. Plasma concentration of adiponectin increased (P<0.05) whereas leptin concentration did not change. Peak postocclusive reactive hyperemia measured by laser-Doppler fluxmeter improved (P<0.05) in the SAR group. These changes were not observed in the CON or AD groups. Peak occlusive reactive hyperemia was positively and significantly correlated with adiponectin level (r=0.23). The present findings suggest that simultaneously performed step aerobic dance and resistance training exerts more favorable effects on weight loss and improving cutaneous microvascular reactivity in overweight women.

  3. Metabolic effects of glycerol supplementation and aerobic physical training on Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Eric Francelino; Lobato, Raquel Vieira; Araújo, Ticiana Vasques; Orlando, Débora Ribeiro; Gomes, Núbia Ferreira; Alvarenga, Renata Ribeiro; Rogatto, Gustavo Puggina; Zangeronimo, Márcio Gilberto; Pereira, Luciano José

    2014-09-01

    We evaluated the effects of oral glycerol supplementation on trained rats fed a normal diet. Wistar rats were distributed among 6 groups in a completely randomized 2 × 3 factorial design. The animals were subjected to 6 weeks of aerobic training. In the last 4 weeks, the animals' diet was supplemented with saline, glucose, or glycerol. Data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by a Student-Newmann-Keuls test, with values for P < 0.05 considered statistically significant. The change in body mass was lower in the trained groups, and their food and water consumption were higher. Glycerol supplementation resulted in an increase in the levels of triacylglycerol (TAG) and total cholesterol, as well as in the area and diameter of adipocytes. When associated with training, these parameters were similar to those of other trained groups. Levels of low-density lipoprotein + very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased in the trained animals that received glycerol compared with the non-trained ones. Glycerol consumption caused a reduction in food intake and increased the villous:crypt (V:C) ratio. No changes in glycemia, high density lipoproteins, or density of adipocytes were observed. Supplementation with glycerol together with aerobic physical training promoted beneficial metabolic effects. However, in non-trained rats glycerol increased the diameter and area of adipocytes, as well as the levels of TAG and total cholesterol.

  4. The effects of intermittent hypoxia training on hematological and aerobic performance in triathletes.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Campo, D J; Martínez-Sánchez, F; Esteban-García, P; Rubio-Arias, J A; Clemente-Suarez, V J; Jiménez-Díaz, J F

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present research was to analyze modifications on hematological and aerobic performance parameters after a 7-week intermittent hypoxia training (IHT) program. Eighteen male trained triathletes were divided in two groups: an intermittent hypoxia training group (IHTG: n: 9; 26.0 ± 6.7 years; 173.3 ± 5.9 cm; 66.4 ± 5.9 kg; VO₂max: 59.5 ± 5.0 ml/kg/min) that conducted a normoxic training plus an IHT and a control group (CG: n: 9; 29.3 ± 6.8 years; 174.9 ± 4.6 cm; 59.7 ± 6.8 kg; VO₂max: 58.9 ± 4.5 ml/kg/min) that performed only a normoxic training. Training process was standardized across the two groups. The IHT program consisted of two 60-min sessions per week at intensities over the anaerobic threshold and atmospheric conditions between 14.5 and 15% FiO₂. Before and after the 7-week training, aerobic performance in an incremental running test and hematological parameters were analyzed. After this training program, the IHTG showed higher hemoglobin and erythrocytes (p < 0.05) values than in the CG. In terms of physiological and performance variables, between the two groups no changes were found. The addition of an IHT program to normoxic training caused an improvement in hematological parameters but aerobic performance and physiological variables compared to similar training under normoxic conditions did not increase.

  5. Combined short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training improves cardiovascular function and physical working capacity in humans.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chang-Bin; Zhang, Shu; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Bing; Yao, Yong-Jie; Wang, Yong-Chun; Wu, Yan-Hong; Liang, Wen-Bin; Sun, Xi-Qing

    2010-12-01

    Musculoskeletal and cardiovascular deconditioning occurring in long-term spaceflight gives rise to the needs to develop new strategies to counteract these adverse effects. Short-arm centrifuge combined with ergometer has been proposed as a strategy to counteract adverse effects of microgravity. This study sought to investigate whether the combination of short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training have advantages over short-arm centrifuge or aerobic exercise training alone. One week training was conducted by 24 healthy men. They were randomly divided into 3 groups: (1) short-arm centrifuge training, (2) aerobic exercise training, 40 W, and (3) combined short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training. Before and after training, the cardiac pump function represented by stroke volume, cardiac output, left ventricular ejection time, and total peripheral resistance was evaluated. Variability of heart rate and systolic blood pressure were determined by spectral analysis. Physical working capacity was surveyed by near maximal physical working capacity test. The 1-week combined short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training remarkably ameliorated the cardiac pump function and enhanced vasomotor sympathetic nerve modulation and improved physical working capacity by 10.9% (P<.05, n=8). In contrast, neither the short-arm centrifuge nor the aerobic exercise group showed improvements in these functions. These results demonstrate that combined short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training has advantages over short-arm centrifuge or aerobic exercise training alone in influencing several physiologically important cardiovascular functions in humans. The combination of short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise offers a promising countermeasure to microgravity.

  6. Aerobic exercise training without weight loss reduces dyspnea on exertion in obese women.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Vipa; Stickford, Jonathon L; Bhammar, Dharini M; Babb, Tony G

    2016-01-15

    Dyspnea on exertion (DOE) is a common symptom in obesity. We investigated whether aerobic exercise training without weight loss could reduce DOE. Twenty-two otherwise healthy obese women participated in a 12-week supervised aerobic exercise training program, exercising 30 min/day at 70-80% heart rate reserve, 4 days/week. Subjects were grouped based on their Ratings of Perceived Breathlessness (RPB) during constant load 60 W cycling: +DOE (n=12, RPB≥4, 37±7 years, 34±4 kg/m(2)) and -DOE (n=10, RPB≤2, 32±6 years, 33±3 kg/m(2)). No significant differences between the groups in body composition, pulmonary function, or cardiorespiratory fitness were observed pre-training. Post-training,peak was improved significantly in both groups (+DOE: 12±7, -DOE: 14±8%). RPB was significantly decreased in the +DOE (4.7±1.0-2.5±1.0) and remained low in the -DOE group (1.2±0.6-1.3±1.0) (interaction p<0.001). The reduction in RPB was not significantly correlated with the improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness. Aerobic exercise training improved cardiorespiratory fitness and DOE and thus appears to be an effective treatment for DOE in obese women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. MAP training: combining meditation and aerobic exercise reduces depression and rumination while enhancing synchronized brain activity.

    PubMed

    Alderman, B L; Olson, R L; Brush, C J; Shors, T J

    2016-02-02

    Mental and physical (MAP) training is a novel clinical intervention that combines mental training through meditation and physical training through aerobic exercise. The intervention was translated from neuroscientific studies indicating that MAP training increases neurogenesis in the adult brain. Each session consisted of 30 min of focused-attention (FA) meditation and 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. Fifty-two participants completed the 8-week intervention, which consisted of two sessions per week. Following the intervention, individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD; n=22) reported significantly less depressive symptoms and ruminative thoughts. Typical healthy individuals (n=30) also reported less depressive symptoms at follow-up. Behavioral and event-related potential indices of cognitive control were collected at baseline and follow-up during a modified flanker task. Following MAP training, N2 and P3 component amplitudes increased relative to baseline, especially among individuals with MDD. These data indicate enhanced neural responses during the detection and resolution of conflicting stimuli. Although previous research has supported the individual beneficial effects of aerobic exercise and meditation for depression, these findings indicate that a combination of the two may be particularly effective in increasing cognitive control processes and decreasing ruminative thought patterns.

  8. MAP training: combining meditation and aerobic exercise reduces depression and rumination while enhancing synchronized brain activity

    PubMed Central

    Alderman, B L; Olson, R L; Brush, C J; Shors, T J

    2016-01-01

    Mental and physical (MAP) training is a novel clinical intervention that combines mental training through meditation and physical training through aerobic exercise. The intervention was translated from neuroscientific studies indicating that MAP training increases neurogenesis in the adult brain. Each session consisted of 30 min of focused-attention (FA) meditation and 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. Fifty-two participants completed the 8-week intervention, which consisted of two sessions per week. Following the intervention, individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD; n=22) reported significantly less depressive symptoms and ruminative thoughts. Typical healthy individuals (n=30) also reported less depressive symptoms at follow-up. Behavioral and event-related potential indices of cognitive control were collected at baseline and follow-up during a modified flanker task. Following MAP training, N2 and P3 component amplitudes increased relative to baseline, especially among individuals with MDD. These data indicate enhanced neural responses during the detection and resolution of conflicting stimuli. Although previous research has supported the individual beneficial effects of aerobic exercise and meditation for depression, these findings indicate that a combination of the two may be particularly effective in increasing cognitive control processes and decreasing ruminative thought patterns. PMID:26836414

  9. Aerobic exercise training without weight loss reduces dyspnea on exertion in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Bernhardt, Vipa; Stickford, Jonathon L.; Bhammar, Dharini M.; Babb, Tony G.

    2015-01-01

    Dyspnea on exertion (DOE) is a common symptom in obesity. We investigated whether aerobic exercise training without weight loss could reduce DOE. Twenty-two otherwise healthy obese women participated in a 12-week supervised aerobic exercise training program, exercising 30 min/day at 70–80% heart rate reserve, 4 days/week. Subjects were grouped based on their Ratings of Perceived Breathlessness (RPB) during constant load 60W cycling: +DOE (n = 12, RPB ≥ 4, 37 ± 7 years, 34 ± 4kg/m2) and −DOE (n = 10, RPB ≤ 2, 32 ± 6 years, 33 ± 3kg/m2). No significant differences between the groups in body composition, pulmonary function, or cardiorespiratory fitness were observed pre-training. Post-training, peak was improved significantly in both groups (+DOE: 12 ± 7, −DOE: 14 ± 8%). RPB was significantly decreased in the + DOE (4.7 ± 1.0–2.5 ± 1.0) and remained low in the −DOE group (1.2 ± 0.6–1.3 ± 1.0) (interaction p < 0.001). The reduction in RPB was not significantly correlated with the improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness. Aerobic exercise training improved cardiorespiratory fitness and DOE and thus appears to be an effective treatment for DOE in obese women. PMID:26593640

  10. The effect of an aerobic interval training program on intermittent anaerobic performance.

    PubMed

    Gaiga, M C; Docherty, D

    1995-12-01

    The effects of a 9-week aerobic interval training program on anaerobic intermittent performance were investigated. Intermittent work consisted of four repeat 30-sec maximal efforts on a cycle ergometer (Wingate test) with 3-min recovery intervals. Thirteen men trained 3 days a week on the cycle ergometer, completing 3-min work-to-rest intervals and progressing from 5 to 10 reps. Relative and absolute values of aerobic power increased significantly for the training group (p < .05). No significant change was observed for the control group (n = 11). The training group demonstrated significant increases in the four anaerobic variables of short-term peak power (SPP), short-term anaerobic capacity (SAC), intermediate-term peak power (IPP), and total work (TW), and across the four 30-sec maximal repeats for anaerobic performance (T1-T4) (p < .05). Greater percentages of increase occurred for IPP and TW, especially during Repeats 3 and 4. The control group only demonstrated a significant increase in SPP for Repeat 3. These data suggest that the type of interval training program used in the study increased aerobic power and also enhanced performance in repeated high intensity, short duration work.

  11. The effect of progressive resistance training on aerobic fitness and strength in adults with coronary heart disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Hollings, Matthew; Mavros, Yorgi; Freeston, Jonathan; Fiatarone Singh, Maria

    2017-08-01

    Design We aimed to evaluate the effect of progressive resistance training on cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength in coronary heart disease, when compared to control or aerobic training, and when combined with aerobic training. Secondary aims were to evaluate the safety and efficacy of progressive resistance training on other physiological and clinical outcomes. Methods and results Electronic databases were searched from inception until July 2016. Designs included progressive resistance training vs control, progressive resistance training vs aerobic training, and combined training vs aerobic training. From 268,778 titles, 34 studies were included (1940 participants; 71.9% male; age 60 ± 7 years). Progressive resistance training was more effective than control for lower (standardized mean difference 0.57, 95% confidence interval (0.17-0.96)) and upper (1.43 (0.73-2.13)) body strength. Aerobic fitness improved similarly after progressive resistance training (16.9%) or aerobic training (21.0%); (standardized mean difference -0.13, 95% confidence interval (-0.35-0.08)). Combined training was more effective than aerobic training for aerobic fitness (0.21 (0.09-0.34), lower (0.62 (0.32-0.92)) and upper (0.51 (0.27-0.74)) body strength. Twenty studies reported adverse event information, with five reporting 64 cardiovascular complications, 63 during aerobic training. Conclusion Isolated progressive resistance training resulted in an increase in lower and upper body strength, and improved aerobic fitness to a similar degree as aerobic training in coronary heart disease cohorts. Importantly, when progressive resistance training was added to aerobic training, effects on both fitness and strength were enhanced compared to aerobic training alone. Reporting of adverse events was poor, and clinical gaps were identified for women, older adults, high intensity progressive resistance training and long-term outcomes, warranting future trials to confirm safety and

  12. Safety and efficacy of a 6-month home-based exercise program in patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Bankolé, Landry-Cyrille; Millet, Guillaume Y.; Temesi, John; Bachasson, Damien; Ravelojaona, Marion; Wuyam, Bernard; Verges, Samuel; Ponsot, Elodie; Antoine, Jean-Christophe; Kadi, Fawzi; Féasson, Léonard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Previous randomized controlled trials investigating exercise training programs in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) patients are scarce and of short duration only. This study assessed the safety and efficacy of a 6-month home-based exercise training program on fitness, muscle, and motor function in FSHD patients. Methods: Sixteen FSHD patients were randomly assigned to training (TG) and control (CG) groups (both n = 8) in a home-based exercise intervention. Training consisted of cycling 3 times weekly for 35 minutes (combination of strength, high-intensity interval, and low-intensity aerobic) at home for 24 weeks. Patients in CG also performed an identical training program (CTG) after 24 weeks. The primary outcome was change in peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) measured every 6 weeks. The principal secondary outcomes were maximal quadriceps strength (MVC) and local quadriceps endurance every 12 weeks. Other outcome measures included maximal aerobic power (MAP) and experienced fatigue every 6 weeks, 6-minute walking distance every 12 weeks, and muscle characteristics from vastus lateralis biopsies taken pre- and postintervention. Results: The compliance rate was 91% in TG. Significant improvements with training were observed in the VO2 peak (+19%, P = 0.002) and MAP by week 6 and further to week 24. Muscle endurance, MVC, and 6-minute walking distance increased and experienced fatigue decreased. Muscle fiber cross-sectional area and citrate synthase activity increased by 34% (P = 0.008) and 46% (P = 0.003), respectively. Dystrophic pathophysiologic patterns were not exacerbated. Similar improvements were experienced by TG and CTG. Conclusions: A combined strength and interval cycling exercise-training program compatible with patients’ daily professional and social activities leads to significant functional benefits without compromising muscle tissue. PMID:27495097

  13. Effect of training intensity distribution on aerobic fitness variables in elite soccer players: a case study.

    PubMed

    Castagna, Carlo; Impellizzeri, Franco M; Chaouachi, Anis; Bordon, Claudio; Manzi, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article was to quantify the distribution of training intensities and its effect on aerobic fitness in professional elite soccer players. Fourteen professional soccer players were observed during the prechampionship training period (6 weeks). Treadmill running speed and heart rates (HRs) at 2 and 4 mmol · L(-1) blood-lactate concentrations were assessed pre and posttraining. Training intensities were categorized using 3 HR zones: low intensity (


    HR 4 mmol · L(-1)). Analysis of the 504 individual training sessions showed that 73 ± 2.5, 19 ± 2.8, and 8 ± 1.4% of the total training time was spent at low, moderate, and high intensity, respectively (p < 0.001). Speed at 2 and 4 mmol · L(-1) significantly improved posttraining (5 and 7%, respectively, p < 0.01). Training spent at high intensity was significantly related to relative speed improvements at 2 mmol · L(-1) (r = 0.84, p < 0.001;) and 4 mmol · L(-1) (r = 0.65, p = 0.001). Players spent almost two-thirds of their training time at low intensities. However, only the time spent at high intensity (>90% of maximal HR) was related to changes in aerobic fitness. These results support the usefulness of the quantification of aerobic training load using HR. Furthermore, it stresses the effectiveness of the high-intensity training in soccer.

  14. THE GSTP1 c.313A>G POLYMORPHISM MODULATES THE CARDIORESPIRATORY RESPONSE TO AEROBIC TRAINING

    PubMed Central

    Zarebska, A; Jastrzebski, Z; Kaczmarczyk, M; Ficek, K; Maciejewska-Karlowska, A; Sawczuk, M; Leońska-Duniec, A; Krol, P; Cieszczyk, P; Zmijewski, P

    2014-01-01

    The GSTP1 c.313A>G polymorphism is a candidate to explain some of the individual differences in cardiorespiratory fitness phenotypes’ responses to aerobic exercise training. We aim to explore the association between the GSTP1 c.313A>G polymorphism and the response to low-high impact aerobic exercise training. Sixty-six Polish Caucasian women were genotyped for the GSTP1 c.313A>G polymorphism; 62 of them completed 12-week aerobic (50-75% HRmax) exercise training and were measured for selected somatic features (body mass and BMI) and cardiorespiratory fitness indices – maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, maximum heart rate (HRmax), maximum ventilation (VEmax) and anaerobic threshold (AT) – before and after the training period. Two-factor analysis of variance revealed a main training effect for body mass reduction (p=0.007) and BMI reduction (p=0.013), improvements of absolute and relative VO2max (both p<0.001), and increased VEmax (p=0.005), but not for changes in fat-free mass (FFM) (p=0.162). However, a significant training x GSTP1 c.313A>G interaction was found only for FFM (p=0.042), absolute and relative VO2max (p=0.029 and p=0.026), and VEmax (p=0.005). As the result of training, significantly greater improvements in VO2max, VEmax and FFM were gained by the GG+GA group compared to the AA genotype group. The results support the hypothesis that heterogeneity in individual response to training stimuli is at least in part determined by genetics, and GSTP1 c.313A>G may be considered as one (of what appear to be many) target polymorphisms to influence these changes. PMID:25435667

  15. THE GSTP1 c.313A>G POLYMORPHISM MODULATES THE CARDIORESPIRATORY RESPONSE TO AEROBIC TRAINING.

    PubMed

    Zarebska, A; Jastrzebski, Z; Kaczmarczyk, M; Ficek, K; Maciejewska-Karlowska, A; Sawczuk, M; Leońska-Duniec, A; Krol, P; Cieszczyk, P; Zmijewski, P; Eynon, N

    2014-12-01

    The GSTP1 c.313A>G polymorphism is a candidate to explain some of the individual differences in cardiorespiratory fitness phenotypes' responses to aerobic exercise training. We aim to explore the association between the GSTP1 c.313A>G polymorphism and the response to low-high impact aerobic exercise training. Sixty-six Polish Caucasian women were genotyped for the GSTP1 c.313A>G polymorphism; 62 of them completed 12-week aerobic (50-75% HRmax) exercise training and were measured for selected somatic features (body mass and BMI) and cardiorespiratory fitness indices - maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, maximum heart rate (HRmax), maximum ventilation (VEmax) and anaerobic threshold (AT) - before and after the training period. Two-factor analysis of variance revealed a main training effect for body mass reduction (p=0.007) and BMI reduction (p=0.013), improvements of absolute and relative VO2max (both p<0.001), and increased VEmax (p=0.005), but not for changes in fat-free mass (FFM) (p=0.162). However, a significant training x GSTP1 c.313A>G interaction was found only for FFM (p=0.042), absolute and relative VO2max (p=0.029 and p=0.026), and VEmax (p=0.005). As the result of training, significantly greater improvements in VO2max, VEmax and FFM were gained by the GG+GA group compared to the AA genotype group. The results support the hypothesis that heterogeneity in individual response to training stimuli is at least in part determined by genetics, and GSTP1 c.313A>G may be considered as one (of what appear to be many) target polymorphisms to influence these changes.

  16. Aerobic Exercise Training and Arterial Changes in African-Americans versus Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Ranadive, Sushant M.; Yan, Huimin; Lane, Abbi D.; Kappus, Rebecca M.; Cook, Marc D.; Sun, Peng; Harvey, Idethia; Ploutz-Synder, Robert; Woods, Jeffrey A.; Wilund, Kenneth R.; Fernhall, Bo

    2015-01-01

    African-Americans (AA) have increased carotid artery intima-media thickness and decreased vascular function compared to their Caucasian (CA) peers. Aerobic exercise prevents and potentially reverses arterial dysfunction. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 8 weeks of moderate-high intensity aerobic training in young healthy sedentary AA and CA men and women. Methods Sixty-four healthy volunteers (men = 28, women = 36) with mean age = 24 underwent measures of arterial structure, function and blood pressure variables at baseline, post-4 week control period and 8 weeks post-training. Results There was a significant increase in VO2peak amongst both groups post exercise training. Brachial systolic blood pressure decreased significantly following control period in both groups but not following exercise training. Carotid pulse pressure decreased significantly in both groups post exercise training as compared to baseline. There was no change in any of the other blood pressure variables. AAs had a higher intima-media thickness at baseline and post-control period, but significantly decreased following exercise training compared to CAs. AAs had significantly lower baseline forearm blood flow and RH compared to CAs, but exercise training had no effect on these variables. There was no significant difference in arterial stiffness (cPWV) and wave-reflection (AIx) between the two groups at any time point. Conclusions This is the first study to show that, 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training causes significant improvement in the arterial structure in young, healthy AAs, making it comparable to the CAs and with minimal effects on blood pressure variables. PMID:26225767

  17. Antioxidant effect on urinary excretion of malondialdehyde in non-athletes during aerobic training.

    PubMed

    Hadley, M; Visser, M F; Vander Steen, T

    2009-01-01

    Conditions in the body during aerobic exercise increase the level of lipid peroxidation (LP). LP is associated with elevated concentration of modified low-density lipoproteins that are implicated in development of cardiovascular disease. Supplementation with antioxidant vitamin E to athletes at 267 mg (400 IUs) or greater has been reported to reduce levels of LP associated with exercise. Little is currently known about the effects of modest supplementation of vitamin E on previously sedentary adults who initiate an aerobic fitness program. In the present study, sedentary subjects (n = 14) kept 24-hour diet records to establish antioxidant intake of vitamins E and C and collected 24-hour urine samples that were used to determine baseline urinary malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, one measure of in vivo LP. No significant differences were noted in the parameters between groups. Seven subjects were randomly selected and supplemented daily with 133 mg (200 IUs) of vitamin E. All subjects participated in moderate-intensity aerobic training for 8 weeks. Post-training, non-supplemented subjects excreted significantly more MDA (p<0.05) and consumed significantly fewer antioxidants than the supplemented group. Vitamin E supplementation appears to suppress elevated LP associated with beginning an aerobic exercise regimen in previously sedentary subjects.

  18. Aerobic exercise training-induced decrease in plasma visfatin and insulin resistance in obese female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyu-Jin; Shin, Yun-A; Lee, Kyoung-Young; Jun, Tae-Won; Song, Wook

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess differences in the levels of plasma visfatin among female adolescents and changes in plasma visfatin and insulin resistance in obese female adolescents after 12 wk of aerobic exercise training. Twenty normal-weight female students (body-mass index [BMI] < 22.9 kg/m² and body fat ≤ 29.9) and 18 obese female students (BMI ≥ 25 kg/ m² and body fat ≥ 30%) participated in this study. Eleven obese students were assigned to an exercise group and completed a 12-wk aerobic exercise-training program that included four 40- to 50-min sessions per wk with an energy expenditure of 300-400 kcal/d. Seven obese students were assigned to a control group that received no exercise sessions or dietary restriction. The plasma visfatin levels of obese female adolescents were significantly higher (p < .05) than those of the normal-weight female adolescents. The plasma visfatin levels (294.00 ± 124.74 ng/ml to 185.55 ± 67.30 ng/ml, p < .01) and insulin resistance (p < .05) were significantly reduced after 12 wk of aerobic exercise. The results suggest that aerobic exercise resulting in an energy expenditure of 1,200-1,600 kcal/wk for 12 wk decreases plasma visfatin and insulin resistance in obese female adolescents.

  19. Orange juice improved lipid profile and blood lactate of overweight middle-aged women subjected to aerobic training

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study evaluated the influence of regular consumption of orange juice associated with aerobic exercise on the lipid profile of middle aged women, previously sedentary. Twenty-six women, 30 to 55 years old, volunteered to consume orange juice daily for 3 months and participate in an aerobic train...

  20. Effects of intra-session concurrent endurance and strength training sequence on aerobic performance and capacity

    PubMed Central

    Chtara, M; Chamari, K; Chaouachi, M; Chaouachi, A; Koubaa, D; Feki, Y; Millet, G; Amri, M

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To examine the effects of the sequencing order of individualised intermittent endurance training combined with muscular strengthening on aerobic performance and capacity. Methods: Forty eight male sport students (mean (SD) age 21.4 (1.3) years) were divided into five homogeneous groups according to their maximal aerobic speeds (vV·O2MAX). Four groups participated in various training programmes for 12 weeks (two sessions a week) as follows: E (n = 10), running endurance training; S (n = 9), strength circuit training; E+S (n = 10) and S+E (n = 10) combined the two programmes in a different order during the same training session. Group C (n = 9) served as a control. All the subjects were evaluated before (T0) and after (T1) the training period using four tests: (1) a 4 km time trial running test; (2) an incremental track test to estimate vV·O2MAX; (3) a time to exhaustion test (tlim) at 100% vV·O2MAX; (4) a maximal cycling laboratory test to assess V·O2MAX. Results: Training produced significant improvements in performance and aerobic capacity in the 4 km time trial with interaction effect (p<0.001). The improvements were significantly higher for the E+S group than for the E, S+E, and S groups: 8.6%, 5.7%, 4.7%, and 2.5% for the 4 km test (p<0.05); 10.4%, 8.3%, 8.2%, and 1.6% for vV·O2MAX (p<0.01); 13.7%, 10.1%, 11.0%, and 6.4% for V·O2MAX (ml/kg0.75/min) (p<0.05) respectively. Similar significant results were observed for tlim and the second ventilatory threshold (%V·O2MAX). Conclusions: Circuit training immediately after individualised endurance training in the same session (E+S) produced greater improvement in the 4 km time trial and aerobic capacity than the opposite order or each of the training programmes performed separately. PMID:16046343

  1. Does Combined Dry Land Strength and Aerobic Training Inhibit Performance of Young Competitive Swimmers?

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Nuno; Marinho, Daniel A.; Reis, Victor M.; van den Tillaar, Roland; Costa, Aldo M.; Silva, António J.; Marques, Mário C.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the current study was twofold: (i) to examine the effects of eight weeks of combined dry land strength and aerobic swimming training for increasing upper and lower body strength, power and swimming performance in young competitive swimmers and, (ii) to assess the effects of a detraining period (strength training cessation) on strength and swimming performance. The participants were divided into two groups: an experimental group (eight boys and four girls) and a control group (six boys and five girls). Apart from normal practice sessions (six training units per week of 1 h and 30 min per day), the experimental group underwent eight weeks (two sessions per week) of strength training. The principal strength exercises were the bench press, the leg extension, and two power exercises such as countermovement jump and medicine ball throwing. Immediately following this strength training program, all the swimmers undertook a 6 week detraining period, maintaining the normal swimming program, without any strength training. Swimming (25 m and 50 m performances, and hydrodynamic drag values), and strength (bench press and leg extension) and power (throwing medicine ball and countermovement jump) performances were tested in three moments: (i) before the experimental period, (ii) after eight weeks of combined strength and swimming training, and (iii) after the six weeks of detraining period. Both experimental and control groups were evaluated. A combined strength and aerobic swimming training allow dry land strength developments in young swimmers. The main data can not clearly state that strength training allowed an enhancement in swimming performance, although a tendency to improve sprint performance due to strength training was noticed. The detraining period showed that, although strength parameters remained stable, swimming performance still improved. Key points This study investigated the effect of dry land strength training on sprint performance in young

  2. Mitochondrial biogenesis-associated factors underlie the magnitude of response to aerobic endurance training in rats

    PubMed Central

    Marton, Orsolya; Koltai, Erika; Takeda, Masaki; Koch, Lauren Gerard; Britton, Steven L.; Davies, Kelvin J.A.; Boldogh, Istvan; Radak, Zsolt

    2014-01-01

    Trainability is important in elite sport and in recreational physical activity and the wide range for response to training is largely dependent on genotype. In this study, we compare a newly developed rat model system selectively bred for low and high gain in running distance from aerobic training to test whether genetic segregation for trainability associates with differences in factors associated with mitochondrial biogenesis. Low response trainer (LRT) and high response trainer (HRT) rats from generation 11 of artificial selection were trained five times a week, 30 min per day for three months at 70% VO2max to study the mitochondrial molecular background of trainability. As expected, we found significant differential for the gain in running distance between LRT and HRT groups as a result of training. However, the changes in VO2max, COX 4, redox homeostasis associated markers (ROS), silent mating-type information regulation 2 homolog (SIRT1), NAD+/NADH ratio, proteasome (R2 subunit), and mitochondrial network related proteins such as mitochondrial fission protein 1 (Fis1), and mitochondrial fusion protein (Mfn1) suggest that these markers are not strongly involved in the differences in trainability between LRT and HRT. On the other hand, according to our results, we discovered that differences in basal activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and differential changes in aerobic exercise-induced responses of citrate synthase, carbonylated protein, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC1-α), nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1), mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), and Lon protease limits trainability between these selected lines. From this we conclude that mitochondrial biogenesis associated factors adapt differently to aerobic exercise training in training sensitive and training resistant rats. PMID:24943897

  3. Two-step stool aerobic training for smokers.

    PubMed

    Gimenez, Manuel; Saavedra, Pedro; Martin, Nieves; Lantarón, Ev M; Polu, Elisabeth; Bach, John Robert

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze subjective, physical, and physiologic responses to a standardized incremental 30-min two-step stool test to create an individualized 45-min maximally intensive two-step stool endurance exercise regimen for home training. This is a longitudinal study on 26 consecutively referred male smokers aged 39-66 yrs. Each performed the two-step stool test on two 15-cm steps at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 climbs per minute. Exertional dyspnea, oxygen consumption per unit time, ventilation, respiratory rate, tidal volume, heart rate, capillary oxyhemoglobin saturation, physiologic cost index, and oxygen pulse were recorded and compared with those observed during incremental cycle exercise (30 W per 3 mins). Multivariate analysis for each parameter was undertaken as a mixed model. All subjects attained 60 climbs per minute on the two-step stool test and performed 38-42 mins of two-step stool endurance. All parameters reached 80%-96% of cycle maximum oxygen consumption. The subjects found the two-step stool endurance simple and practical to perform at home. There were no complications. The incremental two-step stool test is a simple, cost-effective way to establish a 45-min maximally intensive endurance exercise training program practical for use in the home.

  4. A combined continuous and interval aerobic training improves metabolic syndrome risk factors in men

    PubMed Central

    Sari-Sarraf, Vahid; Aliasgarzadeh, Akbar; Naderali, Mohammad-Mahdi; Esmaeili, Hamid; Naderali, Ebrahim K

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with metabolic syndrome have significantly higher risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes leading to premature death mortality. Metabolic syndrome has a complex etiology; thus, it may require a combined and multi-targeted aerobic exercise regimen to improve risk factors associated with it. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combined continuous and interval aerobic training on patients with metabolic syndrome. Thirty adult male with metabolic syndrome (54±8 years) were randomly divided into two groups: test training group (TTG; n=15) and control group (CG; n=15). Subjects in TTG performed combined continuous and interval aerobic training using a motorized treadmill three times per week for 16 weeks. Subjects in CG were advised to continue with their normal activities of life. Twenty-two men completed the study (eleven men in each group). At the end of the study, in TTG, there were significant (for all, P<0.05) reductions in total body weight (−3.2%), waist circumference (−3.43 cm), blood pressure (up to −12.7 mmHg), and plasma insulin, glucose, and triacylglyceride levels. Moreover, there were significant (for all, P<0.05) increases VO2max (−15.3%) and isometric strength of thigh muscle (28.1%) and high-density lipoprotein in TTG. None of the above indices were changed in CG at the end of 16-week study period. Our study suggests that adoption of a 16-week combined continuous and interval aerobic training regimen in men with metabolic syndrome could significantly reduce cardiovascular risk factors in these patients. PMID:26056487

  5. Voluntary aerobic exercise increases the cognitive enhancing effects of working memory training.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew M; Spiegler, Kevin M; Sauce, Bruno; Wass, Christopher D; Sturzoiu, Tudor; Matzel, Louis D

    2013-11-01

    Increases in performance on tests of attention and learning are often observed shortly after a period of aerobic exercise, and evidence suggests that humans who engage in regular exercise are partially protected from age-related cognitive decline. However, the cognitive benefits of exercise are typically short-lived, limiting the practical application of these observations. Here, we explored whether physical exercise might induce lasting changes in general cognitive ability if that exercise was combined with working memory training, which is purported to broadly impact cognitive performance. Mice received either exercise treatment (6 weeks of voluntary running wheel access), working memory training (in a dual radial-arm maze), both treatments, or various control treatments. After this period of exercise, working memory training was initiated (alternating with days of exercise), and continued for several weeks. Upon completion of these treatments, animals were assessed (2-4 weeks later) for performance on four diverse learning tasks, and the aggregate performance of individual animals across all four learning tasks was estimated. Working memory training alone promoted small increases in general cognitive performance, although any beneficial effects of exercise alone had dissipated by the time of learning assessments. However, the two treatments in combination more than doubled the improvement in general cognitive performance supported by working memory training alone. Unlike the transient effects that acute aerobic exercise can have on isolated learning tasks, these results indicate that an acute period of exercise combined with working memory training can have synergistic and lasting impact on general cognitive performance.

  6. Effect of aerobic training on baroreflex regulation of cardiac and sympathetic function.

    PubMed

    Sheldahl, L M; Ebert, T J; Cox, B; Tristani, F E

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the effect of aerobic exercise training on baroreflex regulation of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and cardiac R-R intervals in a middle-aged to older population, 10 healthy men > 40 yr of age underwent tests of autonomic function before and after 12 wk of high-intensity training. Cardiac and peripheral baroslopes were determined from the R-R interval vs. mean arterial pressure (MAP) and peroneal MSNA vs. diastolic pressure relationships, respectively, during sequential bolus injections of nitroprusside and phenylephrine. Maximal oxygen uptake increased (P < 0.05) 17% with training. Resting R-R interval increased (881 +/- 23 to 956 +/- 38 ms, P < 0.05), MAP decreased (96 +/- 2 to 91 +/- 3 mmHg, P < 0.05), and MSNA was unaltered (23.1 +/- 2.3 to 23.6 +/- 1.9 bursts/min) with training. Before and after training, respectively, cardiac baroslopes determined with decreasing (8.7 +/- 0.9 to 9.9 +/- 5.5 ms/mmHg) and increasing MAP (9.6 +/- 2.1 to 9.9 +/- 2.2 ms/mmHg) and the peripheral sympathetic baroslope (-3.3 +/- 0.4 to -3.5 +/- 0.6 bursts.min-1 x mmHg-1) did not differ. The results suggest that short-term aerobic training does not alter resting MSNA or neurocirculatory responses to baroreceptor challenges in middle-aged and older men.

  7. Interseason Training and Aerobic Fitness of Motocross Racers.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, J E; Rauhala, E

    1983-02-01

    In brief: The excellent endurance capacities of ten members of the Finnish motocross team, studied before and after a three-month program stressing endurance and strength, showed further improvement with intense training. Before the program they had 12.2% body fat and maximal oxygen consumption of 64.7 ml· kg(-1)· min(-1) during bicycle ergometry. After the program, fat decreased 7.7%, weight decreased insignificantly, VO2 max increased 12.4%, and anaerobic thresholds (AT) increased 21%, averaging 37.3 ml· kg(-1)· min(-1) (56.1% of VO(2) max). Heart rates at the AT increased 11.7%. Most physiological variables improved more at the AT than at maximum.

  8. The effects of statin medications on aerobic exercise capacity and training adaptations.

    PubMed

    Murlasits, Zsolt; Radák, Zsolt

    2014-11-01

    The incidence of myopathy increases dramatically in statin users who also exercise, likely limiting the positive impact of this lifesaving medication. New evidence also indicates that statin use can directly compromise aerobic exercise capacity; however, we are just beginning to understand the interactions of statins with exercise training and adaptations. This review focuses on the interactions of statins with aerobic exercise capacity and training adaptations to summarize the available information and draw attention to the gaps in our current knowledge in this area. PubMed, Web of knowledge, and Google scholar databases were searched between January 2000 and December 2013 using the following terms and their combinations: statins, exercise, aerobic capacity, endurance training, adaptations. The reference lists of the relevant articles were also scanned for additional information. Considering the widespread use of statins and the need for exercise for cardiovascular health, a better understanding of the interactions of these interventions as well as practical solutions are needed to reduce statin adverse effects associated with exercise.

  9. Does creatine supplementation improve the plasma lipid profile in healthy male subjects undergoing aerobic training?

    PubMed Central

    Gualano, Bruno; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Artioli, Guilherme G; Benatti, Fabiana B; Scagliusi, Fernanda B; Harris, Roger C; Lancha, Antonio H

    2008-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of creatine (Cr) supplementation on the plasma lipid profile in sedentary male subjects undergoing aerobic training. Subjects (n = 22) were randomly divided into two groups and were allocated to receive treatment with either creatine monohydrate (CR) (~20 g·day-1 for one week followed by ~10 g·day-1 for a further eleven weeks) or placebo (PL) (dextrose) in a double blind fashion. All subjects undertook moderate intensity aerobic training during three 40-minute sessions per week, over 3 months. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TAG), fasting insulin and fasting glycemia were analyzed in plasma. Thereafter, the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) was calculated. Tests were performed at baseline (Pre) and after four (Post 4), eight (Post 8) and twelve (Post 12) weeks. We observed main time effects in both groups for HDL (Post 4 versus Post 8; P = 0.01), TAG and VLDL (Pre versus Post 4 and Post 8; P = 0.02 and P = 0.01, respectively). However, no between group differences were noted in HDL, LDL, CT, VLDL and TAG. Additionally, fasting insulin, fasting glycemia and HOMA did not change significantly. These findings suggest that Cr supplementation does not exert any additional effect on the improvement in the plasma lipid profile than aerobic training alone. PMID:18831767

  10. Cardioprotective effects of early and late aerobic exercise training in experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Moreira-Gonçalves, Daniel; Ferreira, Rita; Fonseca, Hélder; Padrão, Ana Isabel; Moreno, Nuno; Silva, Ana Filipa; Vasques-Nóvoa, Francisco; Gonçalves, Nádia; Vieira, Sara; Santos, Mário; Amado, Francisco; Duarte, José Alberto; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F; Henriques-Coelho, Tiago

    2015-11-01

    Clinical studies suggest that aerobic exercise can exert beneficial effects in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We compared the impact of early or late aerobic exercise training on right ventricular function, remodeling and survival in experimental PAH. Male Wistar rats were submitted to normal cage activity (SED), exercise training in early (EarlyEX) and in late stage (LateEX) of PAH induced by monocrotaline (MCT, 60 mg/kg). Both exercise interventions resulted in improved cardiac function despite persistent right pressure-overload, increased exercise tolerance and survival, with greater benefits in EarlyEX+MCT. This was accompanied by improvements in the markers of cardiac remodeling (SERCA2a), neurohumoral activation (lower endothelin-1, brain natriuretic peptide and preserved vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA), metabolism and mitochondrial oxidative stress in both exercise interventions. EarlyEX+MCT provided additional improvements in fibrosis, tumor necrosis factor-alpha/interleukin-10 and brain natriuretic peptide mRNA, and beta/alpha myosin heavy chain protein expression. The present study demonstrates important cardioprotective effects of aerobic exercise in experimental PAH, with greater benefits obtained when exercise training is initiated at an early stage of the disease.

  11. High-intensity aerobic exercise training improves the heart in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Kemi, Ole Johan; Wisloff, Ulrik

    2010-01-01

    Regular exercise training confers beneficial effects to the heart as well as to the entire body. This occurs partly because exercise training improves skeletal muscle work capacity and reduces resistance, thus increasing conductance in the peripheral circulation. More directly, exercise training also alters extrinsic modulation of the heart and improves the intrinsic pump capacity of the heart. Together, these effects allow for improved exercise capacity. Accumulating evidence suggests that the magnitude of these benefits increases proportionally with the intensity of individual exercise training sessions constituting the exercise training program. It has emerged that regular exercise training also confers beneficial effects to patients at risk for, or who have, established heart dysfunction and disease and, moreover, that exercise training may reduce the dysfunction of the heart itself and, at least, partly restore its ability to effectively function as a pump. The most recent studies in patients with established heart disease suggest that a high relative, yet aerobic, intensity of the exercise training improves the intrinsic pump capacity of the myocardium, an effect not previously believed to occur with exercise training. However, more and larger studies are needed to establish the safety and efficacy of such exercise training in patients with heart disease. Here, we consider the nature of the intensity dependence of exercise training and the causes of the improved heart function.

  12. Effects of a combined aerobic and strength training program in youth patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Perondi, Maria Beatriz; Gualano, Bruno; Artioli, Guilherme Gianini; de Salles Painelli, Vítor; Filho, Vicente Odone; Netto, Gabrieli; Muratt, Mavi; Roschel, Hamilton; de Sá Pinto, Ana Lúcia

    2012-01-01

    Cure rates of youth with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) have increased in the past decades, but survivor's quality of life and physical fitness has become a growing concern. Although previous reports showed that resistance training is feasible and effective, we hypothesized that a more intense exercise program would also be feasible, but more beneficial than low- to moderate-intensity training programs. We aimed to examine the effects of an exercise program combining high-intensity resistance exercises and moderate-intensity aerobic exercises in young patients undergoing treatment for ALL. A quasi-experimental study was conducted. The patients (n = 6; 5-16 years of age) underwent a 12-week intra-hospital training program involving high-intensity strength exercises and aerobic exercise at 70% of the peak oxygen consumption. At baseline and after 12 weeks, we assessed sub-maximal strength (10 repetition-maximum), quality of life and possible adverse effects. A significant improvement was observed in the sub maximal strength for bench press (71%), lat pull down (50%), leg press (73%) and leg extension (64%) as a result of the training (p < 0.01). The parents' evaluations of their children's quality of life revealed an improvement in fatigue and general quality of life, but the children's self-reported quality of life was not changed. No adverse effects occurred. A 12-week in-hospital training program including high-intensity resistance exercises promotes marked strength improvements in patients during the maintenance phase of the treatment for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia without side-effects. Parents' evaluations of their children revealed an improvement in the quality of life. Key pointsPatients with ALL present low muscle strength and poor quality of life.High-intensity resistance exercises combined with moderate-intensity aerobic exercise improved muscle strength and quality of life during the maintenance phase of ALL treatment.The exercise training program

  13. Interval Running Training Improves Cognitive Flexibility and Aerobic Power of Young Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Venckunas, Tomas; Snieckus, Audrius; Trinkunas, Eugenijus; Baranauskiene, Neringa; Solianik, Rima; Juodsnukis, Antanas; Streckis, Vytautas; Kamandulis, Sigitas

    2016-08-01

    Venckunas, T, Snieckus, A, Trinkunas, E, Baranauskiene, N, Solianik, R, Juodsnukis, A, Streckis, V, and Kamandulis, S. Interval running training improves cognitive flexibility and aerobic power of young healthy adults. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2114-2121, 2016-The benefits of regular physical exercise may well extend beyond the reduction of chronic diseases risk and augmentation of working capacity, to many other aspects of human well-being, including improved cognitive functioning. Although the effects of moderate intensity continuous training on cognitive performance are relatively well studied, the benefits of interval training have not been investigated in this respect so far. The aim of the current study was to assess whether 7 weeks of interval running training is effective at improving both aerobic fitness and cognitive performance. For this purpose, 8 young dinghy sailors (6 boys and 2 girls) completed the interval running program with 200 m and 2,000 m running performance, cycling maximal oxygen uptake, and cognitive function was measured before and after the intervention. The control group consisted of healthy age-matched subjects (8 boys and 2 girls) who continued their active lifestyle and were tested in the same way as the experimental group, but did not complete any regular training. In the experimental group, 200 m and 2,000 m running performance and cycling maximal oxygen uptake increased together with improved results on cognitive flexibility tasks. No changes in the results of short-term and working memory tasks were observed in the experimental group, and no changes in any of the measured indices were evident in the controls. In conclusion, 7 weeks of interval running training improved running performance and cycling aerobic power, and were sufficient to improve the ability to adjust behavior to changing demands in young active individuals.

  14. Promotion of the mind through exercise (PROMoTE): a proof-of-concept randomized controlled trial of aerobic exercise training in older adults with vascular cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Eng, Janice J; Boyd, Lara A; Jacova, Claudia; Davis, Jennifer C; Bryan, Stirling; Lee, Philip; Brasher, Penny; Hsiung, Ging-Yuek R

    2010-02-17

    Sub-cortical vascular ischaemia is the second most common etiology contributing to cognitive impairment in older adults, and is frequently under-diagnosed and under-treated. Although evidence is mounting that exercise has benefits for cognitive function among seniors, very few randomized controlled trials of exercise have been conducted in populations at high-risk for progression to dementia. Aerobic-based exercise training may be of specific benefit in delaying the progression of cognitive decline among seniors with vascular cognitive impairment by reducing key vascular risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome. Thus, we aim to carry out a proof-of-concept single-blinded randomized controlled trial primarily designed to provide preliminary evidence of efficacy aerobic-based exercise training program on cognitive and everyday function among older adults with mild sub-cortical ischaemic vascular cognitive impairment. A proof-of-concept single-blinded randomized trial comparing a six-month, thrice-weekly, aerobic-based exercise training group with usual care on cognitive and everyday function. Seventy older adults who meet the diagnostic criteria for sub-cortical ischaemic vascular cognitive impairment as outlined by Erkinjuntti and colleagues will be recruited from a memory clinic of a metropolitan hospital. The aerobic-based exercise training will last for 6 months. Participants will be followed for an additional six months after the cessation of exercise training. This research will be an important first step in quantifying the effect of an exercise intervention on cognitive and daily function among seniors with sub-cortical ischaemic vascular cognitive impairment, a recognized risk state for progression to dementia. Exercise has the potential to be an effective, inexpensive, and accessible intervention strategy with minimal adverse effects. Reducing the rate of cognitive decline among seniors with sub-cortical ischaemic vascular cognitive impairment could

  15. Cardiovascular Fitness and Energy Expenditure Response during a Combined Aerobic and Circuit Weight Training Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Benito, Pedro J.; Alvarez-Sánchez, María; Díaz, Víctor; Morencos, Esther; Peinado, Ana B.; Cupeiro, Rocio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The present study describes the oxygen uptake and total energy expenditure (including both aerobic and anaerobic contribution) response during three different circuit weight training (CWT) protocols of equivalent duration composed of free weight exercises, machine exercises, and a combination of free weight exercises intercalating aerobic exercise. Design Controlled, randomized crossover designs. Methods Subjects completed in a randomized order three circuit weight training protocols of the same duration (3 sets of 8 exercises, 45min 15s) and intensity (70% of 15 repetitions maximum). The circuit protocols were composed of free weight exercises, machine exercises, or a combination of free weight exercises with aerobic exercise. Oxygen consumption and lactate concentration were measured throughout the circuit to estimate aerobic and anaerobic energy expenditure respectively. Results Energy expenditure is higher in the combined exercise protocol (29.9±3.6 ml/kg/min), compared with Freeweight (24.2±2.8ml/kg/min) and Machine (20.4±2.9ml/kg/min). The combined exercise protocol produced the highest total energy expenditure but the lowest lactate concentration and perceived exertion. The anaerobic contribution to total energy expenditure was higher in the machine and free weight protocols compared with the combined exercise protocol (6.2%, 4.6% and 2.3% respectively). Conclusions In the proposed protocols, the combined exercise protocol results in the highest oxygen consumption. Total energy expenditure is related to the type of exercise included in the circuit. Anaerobic contributions to total energy expenditure during circuit weight training may be modest, but lack of their estimation may underestimate total energy expenditure. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01116856 PMID:27832062

  16. Assessment of protein synthesis in highly aerobic canine species at the onset and during exercise training

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlicher, Sarah E.; Drake, Joshua C.; Peelor, Frederick F.; Biela, Laurie M.; Pratt-Phillips, Shannon; Davis, Michael; Hamilton, Karyn L.

    2015-01-01

    Canis lupus familiaris, the domesticated dog, is capable of extreme endurance performance. The ability to perform sustained aerobic exercise is dependent on a well-developed mitochondrial reticulum. In this study we examined the cumulative muscle protein and DNA synthesis in groups of athletic dogs at the onset of an exercise training program and following a strenuous exercise training program. We hypothesized that both at the onset and during an exercise training program there would be greater mitochondrial protein synthesis rates compared with sedentary control with no difference in mixed or cytoplasmic protein synthesis rates. Protein synthetic rates of three protein fractions and DNA synthesis were determined over 1 wk using 2H2O in competitive Alaskan Huskies and Labrador Retrievers trained for explosive device detection. Both groups of dogs had very high rates of skeletal muscle protein synthesis in the sedentary state [Alaskan Huskies: Mixed = 2.28 ± 0.12, cytoplasmic (Cyto) = 2.91 ± 0.10, and mitochondrial (Mito) = 2.62 ± 0.07; Labrador Retrievers: Mixed = 3.88 ± 0.37, Cyto = 3.85 ± 0.06, and Mito = 2.92 ± 0.20%/day]. Mitochondrial (Mito) protein synthesis rates did not increase at the onset of an exercise training program. Exercise-trained dogs maintained Mito protein synthesis during exercise training when mixed (Mixed) and cytosolic (Cyto) fractions decreased, and this coincided with a decrease in p-RpS6 but also a decrease in p-ACC signaling. Contrary to our hypothesis, canines did not have large increases in mitochondrial protein synthesis at the onset or during an exercise training program. However, dogs have a high rate of protein synthesis compared with humans that perhaps does not necessitate an extra increase in protein synthesis at the onset of aerobic exercise training. PMID:25614602

  17. Assessment of protein synthesis in highly aerobic canine species at the onset and during exercise training.

    PubMed

    Miller, Benjamin F; Ehrlicher, Sarah E; Drake, Joshua C; Peelor, Frederick F; Biela, Laurie M; Pratt-Phillips, Shannon; Davis, Michael; Hamilton, Karyn L

    2015-04-01

    Canis lupus familiaris, the domesticated dog, is capable of extreme endurance performance. The ability to perform sustained aerobic exercise is dependent on a well-developed mitochondrial reticulum. In this study we examined the cumulative muscle protein and DNA synthesis in groups of athletic dogs at the onset of an exercise training program and following a strenuous exercise training program. We hypothesized that both at the onset and during an exercise training program there would be greater mitochondrial protein synthesis rates compared with sedentary control with no difference in mixed or cytoplasmic protein synthesis rates. Protein synthetic rates of three protein fractions and DNA synthesis were determined over 1 wk using (2)H2O in competitive Alaskan Huskies and Labrador Retrievers trained for explosive device detection. Both groups of dogs had very high rates of skeletal muscle protein synthesis in the sedentary state [Alaskan Huskies: Mixed = 2.28 ± 0.12, cytoplasmic (Cyto) = 2.91 ± 0.10, and mitochondrial (Mito) = 2.62 ± 0.07; Labrador Retrievers: Mixed = 3.88 ± 0.37, Cyto = 3.85 ± 0.06, and Mito = 2.92 ± 0.20%/day]. Mitochondrial (Mito) protein synthesis rates did not increase at the onset of an exercise training program. Exercise-trained dogs maintained Mito protein synthesis during exercise training when mixed (Mixed) and cytosolic (Cyto) fractions decreased, and this coincided with a decrease in p-RpS6 but also a decrease in p-ACC signaling. Contrary to our hypothesis, canines did not have large increases in mitochondrial protein synthesis at the onset or during an exercise training program. However, dogs have a high rate of protein synthesis compared with humans that perhaps does not necessitate an extra increase in protein synthesis at the onset of aerobic exercise training. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  18. CARDIORESPIRATORY FUNCTION BEFORE AND AFTER AEROBIC EXERCISE TRAINING IN PATIETNS WITH INTERSTITIAL LUNG DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Keyser, Randall E.; Woolstenhulme, Joshua G.; Chin, Lisa M.K.; Nathan, Steven D.; Weir, Nargues A.; Connors, Gerilynn; Drinkard, Bart; Lamberti, James; Chan, Leighton

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE To characterize the cardiorespiratory response to exercise before and after aerobic exercise training in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). METHODS We performed a clinical study, examining 13 patients (New York Heart Association/World Health Organization Functional Class II or III) before and after 10-weeks of supervised treadmill exercise walking, at 70–80% of heart rate reserve, 30–45 minutes per session, 3 times per week. Outcome variables included measures of cardiorespiratory function during a treadmill cardiopulmonary exercise test (tCPET), with additional near infrared spectroscopy measurements of peripheral oxygen extraction and bioimpedance cardiography measurements of cardiac output. 6-minute walk test distance (6MWD) was also measured. RESULTS All subjects participated in at least 24 of their 30, scheduled exercise sessions with no significant adverse events. After training, the mean 6MWD increased by 52±48 meters (P=.001), peak tCPET time increased by 163±130 seconds (P=.001), and time to achieve gas exchange threshold increased by 145±37 seconds (P<.001). Despite a negligible increase in peak oxygen uptake (VO2) with no changes to cardiac output, the overall work rate/VO2 relationship was enhanced after training. Muscle oxygen extraction increased by 16% (P=.049) after training. CONCLUSION Clinically significant improvements in cardiorespiratory function were observed after aerobic exercise training in this group of subjects with ILD. These improvements appear to have been mediated by increases in the peripheral extraction of oxygen rather than changes in oxygen delivery. PMID:25313451

  19. Morphological adaptation and protein modulation of myotendinous junction following moderate aerobic training.

    PubMed

    Curzi, Davide; Baldassarri, Valentina; De Matteis, Rita; Salamanna, Francesca; Bolotta, Alessandra; Frizziero, Antonio; Fini, Milena; Marini, Marina; Falcieri, Elisabetta

    2015-04-01

    Myotendinous junction is the muscle-tendon interface through which the contractile force can be transferred from myofibrils to the tendon extracellular matrix. At the ultrastructural level, aerobic training can modify the distal myotendinous junction of rat gastrocnemius, increasing the contact area between tissues. The aim of this work is to investigate the correlation between morphological changes and protein modulation of the myotendinous junction following moderate training. For this reason, talin, vinculin and type IV collagen amount and spatial distribution were investigated by immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. The images were then digitally analyzed by evaluating fluorescence intensity. Morphometric analysis revealed a significant increased thickening of muscle basal lamina in the trained group (53.1 ± 0.4 nm) with respect to the control group (43.9 ± 0.3 nm), and morphological observation showed the presence of an electron-dense area in the exercised muscles, close to the myotendinous junction. Protein concentrations appeared significantly increased in the trained group (talin +22.2%; vinculin +22.8% and type IV collagen +11.8%) with respect to the control group. Therefore, our findings suggest that moderate aerobic training induces/causes morphological changes at the myotendinous junction, correlated to the synthesis of structural proteins of the muscular basal lamina and of the cytoskeleton.

  20. Moderate Aerobic Training Improves Cardiorespiratory Parameters in Elastase-Induced Emphysema

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, Isabela; Lopes-Pacheco, Miquéias; Padilha, Gisele A.; Marques, Patrícia S.; Magalhães, Raquel F.; Antunes, Mariana A.; Morales, Marcelo M.; Rocha, Nazareth N.; Silva, Pedro L.; Xisto, Débora G.; Rocco, Patricia R. M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: We investigated the therapeutic effects of aerobic training on lung mechanics, inflammation, morphometry and biological markers associated with inflammation, and endothelial cell damage, as well as cardiac function in a model of elastase-induced emphysema. Methods: Eighty-four BALB/c mice were randomly allocated to receive saline (control, C) or 0.1 IU porcine pancreatic elastase (emphysema, ELA) intratracheally once weekly for 4 weeks. After the end of administration period, once cardiorespiratory impairment associated with emphysema was confirmed, each group was further randomized into sedentary (S) and trained (T) subgroups. Trained mice ran on a motorized treadmill, at moderate intensity, 30 min/day, 3 times/week for 4 weeks. Results: Four weeks after the first instillation, ELA animals, compared to C, showed: (1) reduced static lung elastance (Est,L) and levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in lung tissue, (2) increased elastic and collagen fiber content, dynamic elastance (E, in vitro), alveolar hyperinflation, and levels of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and (3) increased right ventricular diastolic area (RVA). Four weeks after aerobic training, ELA-T group, compared to ELA-S, was associated with reduced lung hyperinflation, elastic and collagen fiber content, TNF-α levels, and RVA, as well as increased Est,L, E, and levels of VEGF. Conclusion: Four weeks of regular and moderate intensity aerobic training modulated lung inflammation and remodeling, thus improving pulmonary function, and reduced RVA and pulmonary arterial hypertension in this animal model of elastase-induced emphysema. PMID:27536247

  1. Effectiveness of an individualized program of muscular strength and endurance with aerobic training for improving germ cell cancer-related fatigue in men undergoing chemotherapy: EFICATEST study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio Ignacio; Carabantes, Francisco; Caracuel, Zaira; Conejo, Inmaculada; Alba, Emilio

    2016-01-05

    Patients with testicular germ cell cancer (GCC) have a high cure rate; however, cancer-related fatigue is the most common complication among patients with GCC undergoing treatment with chemotherapy. Although exercise is widely recommended, information about the physio-pathological effects of cancer therapy on skeletal muscle is very limited. Our aim is to evaluate the effects of an individualized program of muscular strength and endurance with aerobic training on cancer-related fatigue. The present study is a randomized controlled trial comparing an individualized program of muscular strength and endurance with aerobic training compared to a control group. We will conduct this trial in patients undergoing chemotherapy, recruited by the Department of Oncology of Virgen de la Victoria Hospital (Málaga). Patients will be included and evaluated before the first cycle of chemotherapy and assigned randomly to the experimental or control group. Cancer-related fatigue, physical condition and biological samples will be measured at the beginning and at the end of an 8-week intervention by the same evaluator, who will be unaware of the allocation of participants to each group. Furthermore, there will be monitoring for 6 months (24 weeks) after training for all outcome variables. This study hopes to offer patients with GCC an individualized exercise program with aerobic training for cancer-related fatigue. Such a scheme, if beneficial, could be implemented successfully within public health. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02433197 . Date of registration: 13 April 2015.

  2. Aerobic Exercise Training in Post-Polio Syndrome: Process Evaluation of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Voorn, Eric L.; Koopman, Fieke S.; Brehm, Merel A.; Beelen, Anita; de Haan, Arnold; Gerrits, Karin H. L.; Nollet, Frans

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore reasons for the lack of efficacy of a high intensity aerobic exercise program in post-polio syndrome (PPS) on cardiorespiratory fitness by evaluating adherence to the training program and effects on muscle function. Design A process evaluation using data from an RCT. Patients Forty-four severely fatigued individuals with PPS were randomized to exercise therapy (n = 22) or usual care (n = 22). Methods Participants in the exercise group were instructed to exercise 3 times weekly for 4 months on a bicycle ergometer (60–70% heart rate reserve). Results The attendance rate was high (median 89%). None of the participants trained within the target heart rate range during >75% of the designated time. Instead, participants exercised at lower intensities, though still around the anaerobic threshold (AT) most of the time. Muscle function did not improve in the exercise group. Conclusion Our results suggest that severely fatigued individuals with PPS cannot adhere to a high intensity aerobic exercise program on a cycle ergometer. Despite exercise intensities around the AT, lower extremity muscle function nor cardiorespiratory fitness improved. Improving the aerobic capacity in PPS is difficult through exercise primarily focusing on the lower extremities, and may require a more individualized approach, including the use of other large muscle groups instead. Trial Registration Netherlands National Trial Register NTR1371 PMID:27419388

  3. Effects of aerobic conditioning and strength training on a child with Down syndrome: a case study.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Cynthia L; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A

    2005-01-01

    To determine the effects of a home exercise program of combined aerobic and strength training on fitness with a 10.5-year-old girl with Down syndrome (DS). Measurements included cardiovascular variables, strength, body composition, flexibility, and skill. The subject participated in a home exercise program: 30 to 60 minutes of moderate- to high-intensity exercise five to six days per week for six weeks. The cardiovascular variables monitored were heart rate, respiration rate, and oxygen consumption during a submaximal treadmill stress test. Other measures included 10-repetition maximal strength of selected muscle groups, body mass index, flexibility, Gross Motor Scales of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, and anaerobic muscle power. Improvements in submaximal heart and respiration rates, aerobic performance, muscle strength and endurance, gross motor skills, and anaerobic power were observed for this subject. Body weight and flexibility were unchanged. For this subject, a combined aerobic and strength-training program resulted in improved cardiopulmonary functions not observed in previous studies of subjects with DS.

  4. Balance and walking performance are improved after resistance and aerobic training in persons with chronic stroke.

    PubMed

    Lund, Caroline; Dalgas, Ulrik; Grønborg, Therese Koops; Andersen, Henning; Severinsen, Kåre; Riemenschneider, Morten; Overgaard, Kristian

    2017-06-09

    To investigate the effect of different types of physical training on balance performance and whether improved balance correlates with improved walking performance. Forty eight participants with chronic stroke were randomly assigned to aerobic training on cycle ergometer (AT-group), resistance training of the lower extremities (RT-group), or sham training of upper extremities (ST-group). Participants exercised 3 d/week for 12 weeks. Balance (Berg Balance Scale), peak oxygen uptake rate, isometric knee extensor strength, maximal gait speed, and 6 minute walk test were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks. Training specific effects were observed; the AT-group improved peak oxygen uptake rate by 15.5 (6.0-25.0)%, the RT-group improved non-paretic knee extensor strength by 35.1 (18.3-51.9)% and the ST-group improved non-paretic knee extensor strength by 8.9 (0.7-17.1)%. All groups improved balance (6.0 (95% CI: 3.2-8.8)%), maximal gait speed (10.2 (6.5-14.0)%), and 6 minute walk distance (12.4 (8.8-15.9)%) but balance improvements did not correlate with improvements in muscle strength, peak oxygen uptake rate, or walking. Physical exercise improves balance and walking performance, but improved balance is not a prerequisite for functional improvements in chronic stroke. Implications for Rehabilitation Aerobic training and progressive resistance training show small significant improvements in balance and walking, indicating a possible clinical relevance of these training modalities. Improvements in balance may not be a prerequisite for improvements in walking distance when assistive devices are allowed during walking tests.

  5. Maximal strength, power, and aerobic endurance adaptations to concurrent strength and sprint interval training.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Gregory S; Schilling, Brian K; Paquette, Max R; Murlasits, Zsolt

    2014-04-01

    This study was designed to examine whether concurrent sprint interval and strength training (CT) would result in compromised strength development when compared to strength training (ST) alone. In addition, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and time to exhaustion (TTE) were measured to determine if sprint interval training (SIT) would augment aerobic performance. Fourteen recreationally active men completed the study. ST (n = 7) was performed 2 days/week and CT (n = 7) was performed 4 days/week for 12 weeks. CT was separated by 24 h to reduce the influence of acute fatigue. Body composition was analyzed pre- and post-intervention. Anaerobic power, one-repetition maximum (1RM) lower- and upper-body strength, VO2max and TTE were analyzed pre-, mid-, and post-training. Training intensity for ST was set at 85 % 1RM and SIT trained using a modified Wingate protocol, adjusted to 20 s. Upper- and lower-body strength improved significantly after training (p < 0.001) with no difference between the groups (p > 0.05). VO2max increased 40.9 ± 8.4 to 42.3 ± 7.1 ml/kg/min (p < 0.05) for CT, whereas ST remained unchanged. A significant difference in VO2max (p < 0.05) was observed between groups post-intervention (CT: 42.3 ± 7.1 vs. ST: 36.0 ± 3.0 ml/kg/min). A main effect for time and group was observed in TTE (p < 0.05). A significant main effect for time was observed in average power (p < 0.05). Preliminary findings suggest that performing concurrent sprint interval and strength training does not attenuate the strength response when compared to ST alone, while also improves aerobic performance measures, such as VO2max at the same time.

  6. Effects of a Single Bout of Aerobic Exercise Versus Resistance Training on Cognitive Vulnerabilities for Anxiety Disorders.

    PubMed

    Broman-Fulks, Joshua J; Kelso, Kerry; Zawilinski, Laci

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the relative effects of a single bout of aerobic exercise versus resistance training on cognitive vulnerabilities for anxiety disorders. Seventy-seven participants (60% female; 84% Caucasian) were randomized to complete 20 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise, resistance training, or rest, followed by a 35% CO2/65% O2 inhalation challenge task. Results indicated that aerobic exercise and resistance training were significantly and equally effective in reducing anxiety sensitivity (AS) compared with rest ((η(2)(p ) = 52), though only aerobic exercise significantly attenuated reactivity to the CO2 challenge task. Neither form of exercise generated observable effects on distress tolerance, discomfort intolerance, or state anxiety (all ps >.10). The results of this study are discussed with regard to their implications for the use of exercise interventions for anxiety and related forms of psychopathology, and potential directions for future research are discussed.

  7. Aerobic Exercise Training Adaptations Are Increased by Postexercise Carbohydrate-Protein Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson-Stegall, Lisa; McCleave, Erin; Ding, Zhenping; Doerner III, Phillip G.; Liu, Yang; Wang, Bei; Healy, Marin; Kleinert, Maximilian; Dessard, Benjamin; Lassiter, David G.; Kammer, Lynne; Ivy, John L.

    2011-01-01

    Carbohydrate-protein supplementation has been found to increase the rate of training adaptation when provided postresistance exercise. The present study compared the effects of a carbohydrate and protein supplement in the form of chocolate milk (CM), isocaloric carbohydrate (CHO), and placebo on training adaptations occurring over 4.5 weeks of aerobic exercise training. Thirty-two untrained subjects cycled 60 min/d, 5 d/wk for 4.5 wks at 75–80% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max). Supplements were ingested immediately and 1 h after each exercise session. VO2 max and body composition were assessed before the start and end of training. VO2 max improvements were significantly greater in CM than CHO and placebo. Greater improvements in body composition, represented by a calculated lean and fat mass differential for whole body and trunk, were found in the CM group compared to CHO. We conclude supplementing with CM postexercise improves aerobic power and body composition more effectively than CHO alone. PMID:21773022

  8. Life-Space Mobility Change Predicts 6-Month Mortality.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Richard E; Sawyer, Patricia; Williams, Courtney P; Lo, Alexander X; Ritchie, Christine S; Roth, David L; Allman, Richard M; Brown, Cynthia J

    2017-04-01

    To examine 6-month change in life-space mobility as a predictor of subsequent 6-month mortality in community-dwelling older adults. Prospective cohort study. Community-dwelling older adults from five Alabama counties in the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) Study of Aging. A random sample of 1,000 Medicare beneficiaries, stratified according to sex, race, and rural or urban residence, recruited between November 1999 and February 2001, followed by a telephone interview every 6 months for the subsequent 8.5 years. Mortality data were determined from informant contacts and confirmed using the National Death Index and Social Security Death Index. Life-space was measured at each interview using the UAB Life-Space Assessment, a validated instrument for assessing community mobility. Eleven thousand eight hundred seventeen 6-month life-space change scores were calculated over 8.5 years of follow-up. Generalized linear mixed models were used to test predictors of mortality at subsequent 6-month intervals. Three hundred fifty-four deaths occurred within 6 months of two sequential life-space assessments. Controlling for age, sex, race, rural or urban residence, and comorbidity, life-space score and life-space decline over the preceding 6-month interval predicted mortality. A 10-point decrease in life-space resulted in a 72% increase in odds of dying over the subsequent 6 months (odds ratio = 1.723, P < .001). Life-space score at the beginning of a 6-month interval and change in life-space over 6 months were each associated with significant differences in subsequent 6-month mortality. Life-space assessment may assist clinicians in identifying older adults at risk of short-term mortality. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  9. Improved cognitive performance following aerobic exercise training in people with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Chin, Lisa M; Keyser, Randall Eugene; Dsurney, John; Chan, Leighton

    2015-04-01

    To examine cognitive function in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) prior to and after participation in an aerobic exercise training program. Pre-post intervention study. Medical research center. Volunteer sample of individuals (N=7) (age, 33.3±7.9y) with chronic nonpenetrating TBI (injury severity: 3=mild, 4=moderate; time since most current injury: 4.0±5.5y) who were ambulatory. Twelve weeks of supervised vigorous aerobic exercise training performed 3 times a week for 30 minutes on a treadmill. Cognitive function was assessed using the Trail Making Test Part A (TMT-A), Trail Making Test Part B (TMT-B), and Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). Sleep quality and depression were measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Beck Depression Inventory, version 2 (BDI-II). Indices of cardiorespiratory fitness were used to examine the relation between improvements in cognitive function and cardiorespiratory fitness. After training, improvements in cognitive function were observed with greater scores on the TMT-A (10.3±6.8; P=.007), TMT-B (9.6±7.0; P=.011), and RBANS total scale (13.3±9.3; P=.009). No changes were observed in measures of the PSQI and BDI-II. The magnitude of cognitive improvements was also strongly related to the gains in cardiorespiratory fitness. These findings suggest that vigorous aerobic exercise training may improve specific aspects of cognitive function in individuals with TBI and cardiorespiratory fitness gains may be a determinant of these improvements. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. AKT1 G205T genotype influences obesity-related metabolic phenotypes and their responses to aerobic exercise training in older Caucasians.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Jennifer A; Witkowski, Sarah; Ludlow, Andrew T; Roth, Stephen M; Hagberg, James M

    2011-03-01

    As part of the insulin signalling pathway, Akt influences growth and metabolism. The AKT1 gene G205T (rs1130214) polymorphism has potential functional effects. Thus, we determined whether the G205T polymorphism influences metabolic variables and their responses to aerobic exercise training. Following dietary stabilization, healthy, sedentary, 50- to 75-year-old Caucasian men (n = 51) and women (n = 58) underwent 6 months of aerobic exercise training. Before and after completing the intervention, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure percentage body fat, computed tomography to measure visceral and subcutaneous fat, and oral glucose tolerance testing to measure glucose total area under the curve (AUC), insulin AUC and insulin sensitivity. Taqman assay was used to determine AKT1 G205T genotypes. At baseline, men with the GG genotype (n = 29) had lower maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) values (P = 0.026) and higher percentage body fat (P = 0.046), subcutaneous fat (P = 0.021) and insulin AUC (P = 0.003) values than T allele carriers (n = 22). Despite their rather disadvantageous starting values, men with the GG genotype seemed to respond to exercise training more robustly than men with the T allele, highlighted by significantly greater fold change improvements in insulin AUC (P = 0.012) and glucose AUC (P = 0.035). Although the GG group also significantly improved VO2 max with training, the change in VO2 max was not as great as that of the T allele carriers (P = 0.037). In contrast, after accounting for hormone replacement therapy use, none of the variables differed in the women at baseline. As a result of exercise training, women with the T allele (n = 20) had greater fold change improvements in fasting glucose (P = 0.011), glucose AUC (P = 0.017) and insulin sensitivity (P = 0.044) than GG genotype women (n = 38). Our results suggest that the AKT1 G205T polymorphism influences metabolic variables and their responses to aerobic exercise training in

  11. Strategies to optimize concurrent training of strength and aerobic fitness for rowing and canoeing.

    PubMed

    García-Pallarés, Jesús; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2011-04-01

    During the last several decades many researchers have reported an interference effect on muscle strength development when strength and endurance were trained concurrently. The majority of these studies found that the magnitude of increase in maximum strength was higher in the group that performed only strength training compared with the concurrent training group, commonly referred to as the 'interference phenomenon'. Currently, concurrent strength and endurance training has become essential to optimizing athletic performance in middle- and long-distance events. Rowing and canoeing, especially in the case of Olympic events, with exercise efforts between 30 seconds and 8 minutes, require high amounts of maximal aerobic and anaerobic capacities as well as high levels of maximum strength and muscle power. Thus, strength training, in events such as rowing and canoeing, is integrated into the training plan. However, several studies indicate that the degree of interference is affected by the training protocols and there may be ways in which the interference effect can be minimized or avoided. Therefore, the aim of this review is to recommend strategies, based on research, to avoid or minimize any interference effect when training to optimize performance in endurance sports such as rowing and canoeing.

  12. Exhaustive exercise training enhances aerobic capacity in American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Eme, John; Owerkowicz, Tomasz; Gwalthney, June; Blank, Jason M; Rourke, Bryan C; Hicks, James W

    2009-11-01

    The oxygen transport system in mammals is extensively remodelled in response to repeated bouts of activity, but many reptiles appear to be 'metabolically inflexible' in response to exercise training. A recent report showed that estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) increase their maximum metabolic rate in response to exhaustive treadmill training, and in the present study, we confirm this response in another crocodilian, American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). We further specify the nature of the crocodilian training response by analysing effects of training on aerobic [citrate synthase (CS)] and anaerobic [lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)] enzyme activities in selected skeletal muscles, ventricular and skeletal muscle masses and haematocrit. Compared to sedentary control animals, alligators regularly trained for 15 months on a treadmill (run group) or in a flume (swim group) exhibited peak oxygen consumption rates higher by 27 and 16%, respectively. Run and swim exercise training significantly increased ventricular mass (~11%) and haematocrit (~11%), but not the mass of skeletal muscles. However, exercise training did not alter CS or LDH activities of skeletal muscles. Similar to mammals, alligators respond to exercise training by increasing convective oxygen transport mechanisms, specifically heart size (potentially greater stroke volume) and haematocrit (increased oxygen carrying-capacity of the blood). Unlike mammals, but similar to squamate reptiles, alligators do not also increase citrate synthase activity of the skeletal muscles in response to exercise.

  13. Adding strength to endurance training does not enhance aerobic capacity in cyclists.

    PubMed

    Psilander, N; Frank, P; Flockhart, M; Sahlin, K

    2015-08-01

    The molecular signaling of mitochondrial biogenesis is enhanced when resistance exercise is added to a bout of endurance exercise. The purpose of the present study was to examine if this mode of concurrent training translates into increased mitochondrial content and improved endurance performance. Moderately trained cyclists performed 8 weeks (two sessions per week) of endurance training only (E, n = 10; 60-min cycling) or endurance training followed by strength training (ES, n = 9; 60-min cycling + leg press). Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after the training period and analyzed for enzyme activities and protein content. Only the ES group increased in leg strength (+19%, P < 0.01), sprint peak power (+5%, P < 0.05), and short-term endurance (+9%, P < 0.01). In contrast, only the E group increased in muscle citrate synthase activity (+11%, P = 0.06), lactate threshold intensity (+3%, P < 0.05), and long-term endurance performance (+4%, P < 0.05). Content of mitochondrial proteins and cycling economy was not affected by training. Contrary to our hypothesis, the results demonstrate that concurrent training does not enhance muscle aerobic capacity and endurance performance in cyclists. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effects of a high-intensity intermittent training program on aerobic capacity and lipid profile in trained subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ouerghi, Nejmeddine; Khammassi, Marwa; Boukorraa, Sami; Feki, Moncef; Kaabachi, Naziha; Bouassida, Anissa

    2014-01-01

    Background Data regarding the effect of training on plasma lipids are controversial. Most studies have addressed continuous or long intermittent training programs. The present study evaluated the effect of short-short high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) on aerobic capacity and plasma lipids in soccer players. Methods The study included 24 male subjects aged 21–26 years, divided into three groups: experimental group 1 (EG1, n=8) comprising soccer players who exercised in addition to regular short-short HIIT twice a week for 12 weeks; experimental group 2 (EG2, n=8) comprising soccer players who exercised in a regular football training program; and a control group (CG, n=8) comprising untrained subjects who did not practice regular physical activity. Maximal aerobic velocity and maximal oxygen uptake along with plasma lipids were measured before and after 6 weeks and 12 weeks of the respective training program. Results Compared with basal values, maximal oxygen uptake had significantly increased in EG1 (from 53.3±4.0 mL/min/kg to 54.8±3.0 mL/min/kg at 6 weeks [P<0.05] and to 57.0±3.2 mL/min/kg at 12 weeks [P<0.001]). Maximal oxygen uptake was increased only after 12 weeks in EG2 (from 52.8±2.7 mL/min/kg to 54.2±2.6 mL/min/kg, [P<0.05]), but remain unchanged in CG. After 12 weeks of training, maximal oxygen uptake was significantly higher in EG1 than in EG2 (P<0.05). During training, no significant changes in plasma lipids occurred. However, after 12 weeks, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels had decreased (by about 2%) in EG1 but increased in CG. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased in EG1 and EG2, but decreased in CG. Plasma triglycerides decreased by 8% in EG1 and increased by about 4% in CG. Conclusion Twelve weeks of short-short HIIT improves aerobic capacity. Although changes in the lipid profile were not significant after this training program, they may have a beneficial impact on health. PMID:25378960

  15. Effects of strength, endurance, and concurrent training on aerobic power and dynamic neuromuscular economy in elderly men.

    PubMed

    Cadore, Eduardo L; Pinto, Ronei S; Pinto, Stephanie S; Alberton, Cristine L; Correa, Cleiton S; Tartaruga, Marcus P; Silva, Eduardo M; Almeida, Ana P V; Trindade, Guilherme T; Kruel, Luiz F M

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of concurrent training on endurance capacity and dynamic neuromuscular economy in elderly men. Twenty-three healthy men (65 ± 4 years) were divided into 3 groups: concurrent (CG, n = 8), strength (SG, n = 8), and aerobic training group (EG, n = 7). Each group trained 3 times a week for 12 weeks, strength training, aerobic training, or both types of training in the same session. The maximum aerobic workload (Wmax) and peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) of the subjects were evaluated on a cycle ergometer before and after the training period. Moreover, during the maximal test, muscle activation was measured at each intensity by means of electromyographic signals from the vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris long head, and gastrocnemius lateralis to determine the dynamic neuromuscular economy. After training, significant increases in VO2peak and Wmax were only found in the CG and EG (p < 0.05), with no difference between groups. Moreover, there was a significant decrease in myoelectric activity of the RF muscle at 50 (EG), 75 and 100 W (EG and CG) and in the VL for the 3 groups at 100 W (p < 0.05). No change was seen in the electrical signal from the lateral gastrocnemius muscle and biceps femoris. The results suggest specificity in adaptations investigated in elderly subjects, because the most marked changes in the neuromuscular economy occurred in the aerobically trained groups.

  16. A 6-month prospective study of injury in Gaelic football.

    PubMed

    Wilson, F; Caffrey, S; King, E; Casey, K; Gissane, C

    2007-05-01

    To describe the injury incidence in Gaelic football. A total of 83 players from three counties were interviewed monthly about their injury experience, during the 6 months of the playing season. The injury rate was 13.5/1000 h exposure to Gaelic football (95% CI, 10.9 to 16.6). There were nearly twice as many injuries during matches (64.4%, 95% CI, 54.1 to 73.6) as in training (35.6%, 95% CI, 26.4 to 49.5). The ankle was found to be the most commonly injured site (13.3%, 95% CI, 7.8 to 21.9). The musculotendinous unit accounted for nearly 1/3 of all injuries (31.1%). The tackle accounted for 27.8% of the injuries sustained (tackler 10%, 95% CI, 5.4 to 17.9; player being tackled 17.9%, 95% CI, 11.2 to 26.9). Of total match injuries, 56.9% (95% CI, 46.1 to 67.1) were experienced in the second half as opposed to 39.7% (95% CI, 29.8 to 50.5) in the first half. Gaelic footballers are under considerable risk of injury. Greater efforts must be made to reduce this risk so that players miss less time from sport due to injury. Risk factors for injury in Gaelic football must now be investigated so that specific interventions may be established to reduce them.

  17. Kinetics of Hypotension during 50 Sessions of Resistance and Aerobic Training in Hypertensive Patients: a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Damorim, Igor Rodrigues; Santos, Tony Meireles; Barros, Gustavo Willames Pimentel; Carvalho, Paulo Roberto Cavalcanti

    2017-01-01

    Background Resistance and aerobic training are recommended as an adjunctive treatment for hypertension. However, the number of sessions required until the hypotensive effect of the exercise has stabilized has not been clearly established. Objective To establish the adaptive kinetics of the blood pressure (BP) responses as a function of time and type of training in hypertensive patients. Methods We recruited 69 patients with a mean age of 63.4 ± 2.1 years, randomized into one group of resistance training (n = 32) and another of aerobic training (n = 32). Anthropometric measurements were obtained, and one repetition maximum (1RM) testing was performed. BP was measured before each training session with a digital BP arm monitor. The 50 training sessions were categorized into quintiles. To compare the effect of BP reduction with both training methods, we used two-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) adjusted for the BP values obtained before the interventions. The differences between the moments were established by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results The reductions in systolic (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were 6.9 mmHg and 5.3 mmHg, respectively, with resistance training and 16.5 mmHg and 11.6 mmHg, respectively, with aerobic training. The kinetics of the hypotensive response of the SBP showed significant reductions until the 20th session in both groups. Stabilization of the DBP occurred in the 20th session of resistance training and in the 10th session of aerobic training. Conclusion A total of 20 sessions of resistance or aerobic training are required to achieve the maximum benefits of BP reduction. The methods investigated yielded distinct adaptive kinetic patterns along the 50 sessions. PMID:28380132

  18. Modified step aerobics training and neuromuscular function in osteoporotic patients: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Martin; Müller, Karoline; Kilb, Jill-Isabel; Schleese, Lennart; Herlyn, Philipp K E; Bruhn, Sven; Mittlmeier, Thomas; Schober, Hans-Christof; Fischer, Dagmar-C

    2017-02-01

    Training programs directed to improve neuromuscular and musculoskeletal function of the legs are scarce with respect to older osteoporotic patients. We hypothesized that a modified step aerobics training program might be suitable for this purpose and performed a randomized controlled pilot study to assess the feasibility of conducting a large study. Here we report on the training-related effects on neuromuscular function of the plantar flexors. Twenty-seven patients with an age of at least 65 years were enrolled and randomized into control and intervention group. The latter received supervised modified step aerobics training (twice weekly, 1 h per session) over a period of 6 months. At baseline, and after 3 and 6 months neuromuscular function of the plantar flexors, i.e., isometric maximum voluntary torque, rate of torque development and twitch torque parameters were determined in detail in all patients of both groups. Twenty-seven patients (median age 75 years; range 66-84 years) were randomized (control group n = 14; intervention group n = 13). After 3 and 6 months of training, maximum voluntary contraction strength in the intervention group was significantly higher by 7.7 Nm (9.1%; 95% CI 3.3-12.2 Nm, P < 0.01) and 12.4 Nm (14.8%; 95% CI 6.4-18.5 Nm, P < 0.01) compared to controls. These changes were most probably due to neural and muscular adaptations. It is worthwhile to investigate efficacy of this training program in a large randomized trial. However, a detailed neuromuscular assessment appears feasible only in a subset of participants.

  19. Interval training in the boundaries of severe domain: effects on aerobic parameters.

    PubMed

    Turnes, Tiago; de Aguiar, Rafael Alves; Cruz, Rogério Santos de Oliveira; Caputo, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Although time spent at VO2max (t@VO2max) has been suggested as an optimal stimulus for the promotion of greater VO2max improvements, scientific findings supporting this notion are surprisingly still lacking. To investigate this, the present study described t@VO2max in two different severe-intensity interval training regimens and compared its effects on aerobic indexes after a 4-week intervention. Twenty-one recreational cyclists performed an incremental exercise test and six time-to-exhaustion tests on four different days to determine VO2max, lactate threshold (LT), critical power (CP) and the highest intensity (IHIGH) and lowest exercise duration (TLOW) at which VO2max was attained. Subjects were assigned to the lower (LO, n = 11, 4 × 5 min at 105% CP, 1 min recovery) or the upper severe-intensity training groups (UP, n = 10, 8 × 60% TLOW at 100% IHIGH, 1:2 work:recovery ratio). t@VO2max was measured during the first and last training sessions. A significantly higher t@VO2max was elicited in the UP during training sessions in comparison with the LO group (P < 0.05), and superior improvements were observed in VO2max (change in measure ± 95% confidence interval) (6.3 ± 1.9 vs. 3.3 ± 1.8%, P = 0.034 for interaction terms) and LT (54.8 ± 11.8 vs. 27.9 ± 11.3%, P = 0.023 for interaction terms). The other aerobic indexes were similarly improved between the groups. The present results demonstrated that UP training produced superior gains in VO2max and LT in comparison with LO training, which may be associated with the higher t@VO2max.

  20. Aerobic Fitness for Young Athletes: Combining Game-based and High-intensity Interval Training.

    PubMed

    Harrison, C B; Kinugasa, T; Gill, N; Kilding, A E

    2015-11-01

    This study compared the effect of game-based training (GT) vs. a mix of game-based training and high-intensity interval training (MT) on physical performance characteristics. 26 young athletes (13.9±0.3 years) were assigned to either GT (n=13) or MT (n=13) for 6 weeks. Game-based training consisted of 2×8-11 min 3 vs. 3 'bucketball' SSGs separated by 3 min of passive rest twice per week, while MT consisted of one SSGs session and one high-intensity session of 15 s runs at 90-95% of the speed reached at the end of the 30-15 intermittent fitness test (VIFT) interspersed with 15 s passive recovery. Peak oxygen uptake (V˙ O2peak), VIFT, jump height, and speed were assessed pre- and post-training. Following training, V˙ O2peak (5.5±3.3%; ES=large) improved after MT, whereas VIFT improved after MT (6.6±3.2%; ES, large) and GT (4.2±5.5%, ES=small). 5-m sprint improved after GT (ES=small), while 20 m sprint and jump height were unchanged. In conclusion, while MT and GT were both effective at increasing performance parameters, greater effects were seen following MT. Therefore, MT should be considered as the preferred training method for improving aerobic power in young athletes.

  1. The rate of training response to aerobic exercise affects brain function of rats.

    PubMed

    Marton, Orsolya; Koltai, Erika; Takeda, Masaki; Mimura, Tatsuya; Pajk, Melitta; Abraham, Dora; Koch, Lauren Gerard; Britton, Steven L; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Boldogh, Istvan; Radak, Zsolt

    2016-10-01

    There is an increasing volume of data connecting capacity to respond to exercise training with quality of life and aging. In this study, we used a rat model in which animals were selectively bred for low and high gain in running distance to test t whether genetic segregation for trainability is associated with brain function and signaling processes in the hippocampus. Rats selected for low response (LRT) and high response training (HRT) were randomly divided into control or exercise group that trained five times a week for 30 min per day for three months at 70% VO2max. All four groups had similar running distance before training. With training, HRT rats showed significantly greater increases in VO2max and running distance than LRT rats (p < 0.05). On the reverse Morris Maze test HRT-trained rats outperformed HRT control ones. Significant difference was noted between LRT and HRT groups in redox milieu as assessed by levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), carbonylation of proteins, nNOS and S-nitroso-cysteine. Moreover the silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), ratio of phospho and total cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), and apoptotic index, also showed significant differences between LRT and HRT groups. These findings suggest that aerobic training responses are not localized to skeletal muscle, but differently involve signaling processes in the brain of LRT and HRT rats.

  2. Validity of VO2max equations for aerobically trained males and females.

    PubMed

    Malek, Moh H; Berger, Dale E; Housh, Terry J; Coburn, Jared W; Beck, Travis W

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to cross-validate existing VO2max prediction equations on samples of aerobically trained males and females. A total of 142 aerobically trained males (mean +/- SD; 39.0 +/- 11.1 yr, N = 93) and females (39.7 +/- 10.1 yr, N = 49) performed a maximal incremental test to determine actual VO2max on a cycle ergometer. The predicted VO2max values from 18 equations (nine for each gender) were compared with actual VO2max by examining the constant error (CE), standard error of estimate (SEE), correlation coefficient (r), and total error (TE). The results of this investigation indicated that all of the equations resulted in significant (P < 0.006) CE values ranging from -216 to 1415 mL x min(-1) for the males and 132 to 1037 mL x min(-1) for the females. In addition the SEE, r, and TE values ranged from 266 to 609 mL x min(-1), 0.36 to 0.88, and 317 to 1535 mL x min(-1), respectively. Furthermore, the lowest TE values for the males and females represented 10% and 12% of the mean actual VO2max values, respectively. The results of the analysis indicated that the two equations using age, body weight, and the power output achieved at VO2 as predictor variables had the lowest SEE (7.7-9.8% of actual VO2max) and TE (10-12% of actual VO2max) values and are recommended for estimating VO2max in aerobically trained males and females. The magnitude of the TE values (>or= 20% of actual VO2max) associated with the remaining 16 equations, however, were too large to be of practical value for estimating VO2max.

  3. Aerobic exercise training attenuates obesity-related hypogonadism in male rats.

    PubMed

    You, Tongjian; Disanzo, Beth L; Arsenis, Nicole C

    2013-07-01

    Hypogonadism is associated with obesity and other features of metabolic syndrome in males. The purpose of this study was to compare lean and obese male Zucker rats on their reproductive endocrine function in response to aerobic exercise training. Lean (Fa/Fa) and obese (fa/fa) male Zucker rats at 2 months of age were randomly assigned to a sedentary and an aerobic exercise training group (lean sedentary, n = 7; lean exercise, n = 8; obese sedentary, n = 7; obese exercise, n = 7). The exercise group walked on a rat treadmill, starting at 10 m · min(-1) for 20 min and building up to 20 m · min(-1) for 60 min, five times per week for 8 wk. Serum levels of total and free testosterone and testicular levels of testosterone, as well as epididymal and inguinal adipose tissue monocyte chemotactic protein 1 release levels, were measured. There were significant obesity-by-exercise interactions on serum levels of total and free testosterone and testicular levels of testosterone (all P < 0.05). Compared to lean sedentary rats, obese sedentary rats had lower serum and testicular testosterone levels (0.72- to 0.74-fold, all P < 0.001). There were no group differences between lean sedentary and lean exercise rats on serum and testicular testosterone levels. However, compared to the obese sedentary group, the obese exercise group had higher serum and testicular testosterone levels (1.37- to 1.47-fold, all P < 0.05). In the whole cohort, serum and testicular testosterone levels were inversely related to epididymal adipose tissue monocyte chemotactic protein 1 secretion (r = -0.40 to r = -0.45, all P < 0.05). Our results support that aerobic exercise training could improve severe obesity-related hypogonadism in male Zucker rats. The underlying mechanism needs to be further clarified.

  4. Effect of respiratory muscle training on pulmonary function and aerobic endurance in soccer players.

    PubMed

    Ozmen, Tarik; Gunes, Gokce Y; Ucar, Ilyas; Dogan, Hanife; Gafuroglu, Tuba U

    2017-05-01

    Few studies investigated the effects of the respiratory muscle training (RMT) in soccer although exhaustive high intensity exercise is known to lead to muscle fatigue in respiratory muscles. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of RMT on pulmonary function and aerobic endurance in soccer players. Eighteen male soccer players (mean age 22.2±1.4 years) participated in this study. Participants were assigned randomly to either an RMT or a control (CON) group. The RMT group performed a 15-minute endurance training of respiratory muscles twice a week for 5 weeks. The CON group did not receive RMT during this period. All participants were evaluated for aerobic endurance using 20-meter shuttle run test (20-MST), pulmonary function, maximal inspiratory mouth pressure (MIP), and maximal expiratory mouth pressure (MEP) using spirometry. There was a significant improvement in RMT group (14%) as compared to CON group (4%) in MIP measurement (P=0.04). No significant differences were observed in forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV), and MEP after a five week of RMT (P>0.05). Similarly, there was no difference in 20-MST in the RMT group compared to CON group (P>0.05). We concluded that a five week of RMT increased MIP, but FVC, FEV1, MVV, MEP and aerobic endurance did not improve in soccer players. The RMT in addition to soccer training may improve MIP but not the tolerance to high intensity exercise.

  5. The aerobic performance of trained and untrained handcyclists with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Dale; Shields, Darron; Beck, Belinda; Cuneo, Ross; McLellan, Chris

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the cardiorespiratory response and mechanical efficiency (ME) of highly trained spinal cord injured (SCI) handcyclists with untrained SCI men. Ten trained handcyclists (≥ 2 years training) and ten untrained but physically active SCI men completed an incremental exercise test to exhaustion and a sub-maximal test (50 and 80 W) on an electromagnetically braked arm ergometer. The trained participants completed a questionnaire on their training and race performance over the past year, including average training volume (in kilometers), number of training sessions per week and best 20-km time trial. The trained SCI men had higher VO2 peak, peak power (p ≤ 0.001) and peak heart rate (p = 0.021) compared to the untrained SCI men. The trained men had higher (p ≤ 0.001) ME at 50 W (14.1 ± 2.0%) and 80 W (17.2 ± 2.6) compared to the untrained men (50 W; 12.5 ± 1.8 and 80 W; 15.7 ± 2.1). Peak power (r = -0.87, p = 0.001), VO2 peak (r = -0.67, p = 0.033) and ME (r = -0.58, p = 0.041) were negatively correlated with the participants best 20-km time trial. Multiple linear regression indicated peak power (p < 0.001) and VO2 peak (p = 0.021) were the best predictors (87%) of 20-km time trial performance. Highly trained SCI handcyclists have a greater aerobic capacity and ME compared to untrained SCI, and are able to reach their maximum age-predicted heart rate during an incremental exercise test. The best predictor of 20 km race performance in highly trained SCI handcyclists is peak power attained during an incremental exercise test.

  6. Cardiovascular and autonomic modulation by the central nervous system after aerobic exercise training.

    PubMed

    Martins-Pinge, M C

    2011-09-01

    The autonomic nervous system plays a key role in maintaining homeostasis under normal and pathological conditions. The sympathetic tone, particularly for the cardiovascular system, is generated by sympathetic discharges originating in specific areas of the brainstem. Aerobic exercise training promotes several cardiovascular adjustments that are influenced by the central areas involved in the output of the autonomic nervous system. In this review, we emphasize the studies that investigate aerobic exercise training protocols to identify the cardiovascular adaptations that may be the result of central nervous system plasticity due to chronic exercise. The focus of our study is on some groups of neurons involved in sympathetic regulation. They include the nucleus tractus solitarii, caudal ventrolateral medulla and the rostral ventrolateral medulla that maintain and regulate the cardiac and vascular autonomic tonus. We also discuss studies that demonstrate the involvement of supramedullary areas in exercise training modulation, with emphasis on the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, an important area of integration for autonomic and neuroendocrine responses. The results of these studies suggest that the beneficial effects of physical activity may be due, at least in part, to reductions in sympathetic nervous system activity. Conversely, with the recent association of physical inactivity with chronic disease, these data may also suggest that increases in sympathetic nervous system activity contribute to the increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases associated with a sedentary lifestyle.

  7. Effect of Moderate Aerobic Exercise Training on Autonomic Functions and its Correlation with the Antioxidant Status.

    PubMed

    Gupt, Anju Madan; Kumar, Mukesh; Sharma, Rajesh Kumar; Misra, Rajesh; Gupt, Anadi

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic exercise is a proven measure to enhance the cardio-respiratory efficiency. This improvement isprimarily due to improvement in autonomic function where in there is increase in the parasympathetic function and decrease in sympathetic function. Exercise also affects many metabolic activities in our body and may be one of the factors which reduce the oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to see the effect of moderate aerobic exercise training on autonomic function and its correlation with antioxidant status. 30 healthy volunteers in the age group of 18-22 years were screened. Autonomic function tests included activity (tone) and reactivity parameters. Antioxidant status was assessed by the level of malondialdehyde in plasma. We observed a significant change in SBP, DBP, LF nu, HF nu, delta value of DBP in CPT and MDA. Our findings are consistent with earlier findings that short duration physical training is known to reduce blood pressure and that there is a relationship between HF (in HRV) and training response Physical exercise also provides a favorable change in the biochemical parameters such as MDA.

  8. Aerobic interval training reduces vascular resistances during submaximal exercise in obese metabolic syndrome individuals.

    PubMed

    Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Fernandez-Elias, V E; Morales-Palomo, F; Pallares, J G; Ramirez-Jimenez, M; Ortega, J F

    2017-08-12

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity aerobic interval training (AIT) on exercise hemodynamics in metabolic syndrome (MetS) volunteers. Thirty-eight, MetS participants were randomly assigned to a training (TRAIN) or to a non-training control (CONT) group. TRAIN consisted of stationary interval cycling alternating bouts at 70-90% of maximal heart rate during 45 min day(-1) for 6 months. CONT maintained baseline physical activity and no changes in cardiovascular function or MetS factors were detected. In contrast, TRAIN increased cardiorespiratory fitness (14% in VO2PEAK; 95% CI 9-18%) and improved metabolic syndrome (-42% in Z score; 95% CI 83-1%). After TRAIN, the workload that elicited a VO2 of 1500 ml min(-1) increased 15% (95% CI 5-25%; P < 0.001). After TRAIN when subjects pedaled at an identical submaximal rate of oxygen consumption, cardiac output increased by 8% (95% CI 4-11%; P < 0.01) and stroke volume by 10% (95% CI, 6-14%; P < 0.005) being above the CONT group values at that time point. TRAIN reduced submaximal exercise heart rate (109 ± 15-106 ± 13 beats min(-1); P < 0.05), diastolic blood pressure (83 ± 8-75 ± 8 mmHg; P < 0.001) and systemic vascular resistances (P < 0.01) below CONT values. Double product was reduced only after TRAIN (18.2 ± 3.2-17.4 ± 2.4 bt min(-1) mmHg 10(-3); P < 0.05). The data suggest that intense aerobic interval training improves hemodynamics during submaximal exercise in MetS patients. Specifically, it reduces diastolic blood pressure, systemic vascular resistances, and the double product. The reduction in double product, suggests decreased myocardial oxygen demands which could prevent the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular events during exercise in this population. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT03019796.

  9. Effects of Exercise Rehab on Male Asthmatic Patients: Aerobic Verses Rebound Training

    PubMed Central

    Zolaktaf, Vahid; Ghasemi, Gholam A; Sadeghi, Morteza

    2013-01-01

    Background: There are some auspicious records on applying aerobic exercise for asthmatic patients. Recently, it is suggested that rebound exercise might even increase the gains. This study was designed to compare the effects of rebound therapy to aerobic training in male asthmatic patients. Methods: Sample included 37 male asthmatic patients (20-40 years) from the same respiratory clinic. After signing the informed consent, subjects volunteered to take part in control, rebound, or aerobic groups. There was no change in the routine medical treatment of patients. Supervised exercise programs continued for 8 weeks, consisting of two sessions of 45 to 60 minutes per week. Criteria measures were assessed pre- and post exercise program. Peak exercise capacity (VO2peak) was estimated by modified Bruce protocol, Forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and FEV1% were measured by spirometer. Data were analyzed by repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Significant interactions were observed for all 4 criteria measures (P < 0.01), meaning that both the exercise programs were effective in improving FVC, FEV1, FEV1%, and VO2peak. Rebound exercise produced more improvement in FEV1, FEV1%, and VO2peak. Conclusions: Regular exercise strengthens the respiratory muscles and improves the cellular respiration. At the same time, it improves the muscular, respiratory, and cardio-vascular systems. Effects of rebound exercise seem to be promising. Findings suggest that rebound exercise is a useful complementary means for asthmatic male patients. PMID:23717762

  10. Aerobic exercise training facilitates the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy in panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Gaudlitz, Katharina; Plag, Jens; Dimeo, Fernando; Ströhle, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    Physical activity has been discussed as a therapeutic alternative or add-on for the treatment of anxiety disorders. We studied whether aerobic exercise compared to physical activity with low impact can improve the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in patients with panic disorder (PD) with/without agoraphobia. Forty-seven patients received group CBT treatment over 1 month, which was augmented with an 8-week protocol of either aerobic exercise (three times/week, 30 min, 70% VO(2) max; n = 24) or a training program including exercises with very low intensity (n = 23) in a randomized controlled double-blind design. The primary outcome measure was the total score on the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (Ham-A). A 2 × 3 analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with baseline value as a covariate was conducted for data analysis. Time × group interaction for the Ham-A revealed a significant effect (P = .047, η(2) p = .072), which represented the significant group difference at a 7-month follow-up. For the other clinical outcome measures no statistical significance emerged, although improvement was more sustained in the exercise group. For patients with PD, regular aerobic exercise adds an additional benefit to CBT. This supports previous results and provides evidence about the intensity of exercise that needs to be performed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Effects of exercise rehab on male asthmatic patients: aerobic verses rebound training.

    PubMed

    Zolaktaf, Vahid; Ghasemi, Gholam A; Sadeghi, Morteza

    2013-04-01

    There are some auspicious records on applying aerobic exercise for asthmatic patients. Recently, it is suggested that rebound exercise might even increase the gains. This study was designed to compare the effects of rebound therapy to aerobic training in male asthmatic patients. Sample included 37 male asthmatic patients (20-40 years) from the same respiratory clinic. After signing the informed consent, subjects volunteered to take part in control, rebound, or aerobic groups. There was no change in the routine medical treatment of patients. Supervised exercise programs continued for 8 weeks, consisting of two sessions of 45 to 60 minutes per week. Criteria measures were assessed pre- and post exercise program. Peak exercise capacity (VO2peak) was estimated by modified Bruce protocol, Forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and FEV1% were measured by spirometer. Data were analyzed by repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA). Significant interactions were observed for all 4 criteria measures (P < 0.01), meaning that both the exercise programs were effective in improving FVC, FEV1, FEV1%, and VO2peak. Rebound exercise produced more improvement in FEV1, FEV1%, and VO2peak. Regular exercise strengthens the respiratory muscles and improves the cellular respiration. At the same time, it improves the muscular, respiratory, and cardio-vascular systems. Effects of rebound exercise seem to be promising. Findings suggest that rebound exercise is a useful complementary means for asthmatic male patients.

  12. Reasonable expectations: how much aerobic capacity, muscle strength, and quality of life can improve with exercise training in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Williams, Mark A; Pozehl, Bunny

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the literature that describes the magnitude of functional and quality of life gains with a traditional moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance training programs is reviewed, and differences between the impact of exercise training in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction versus heart failure with reduced ejection fraction are discussed.

  13. Effects of interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise on body composition, glycaemic and lipid profile and aerobic capacity of obese rats.

    PubMed

    Coll-Risco, Irene; Aparicio, Virginia A; Nebot, Elena; Camiletti-Moirón, Daniel; Martínez, Rosario; Kapravelou, Garyfallia; López-Jurado, María; Porres, Jesús M; Aranda, Pilar

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise in the same training session on body composition, and glycaemic and lipid profile in obese rats. Sixteen lean Zucker rats and sixteen obese Zucker rats were randomly divided into exercise and sedentary subgroups (4 groups, n = 8). Exercise consisted of interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise in the same training session. The animals trained 60 min/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks. Body composition, lipid and glycaemic profiles and inflammatory markers were assessed. Results showed that fat mass was reduced in both lean and obese rats following the exercise training (effect size (95% confidence interval (CI)) = 1.8 (0.5-3.0)). Plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and fasting glucose were lower in the exercise compared to the sedentary groups (d = 2.0 (0.7-3.2) and 1.8 (0.5-3.0), respectively). Plasma insulin was reduced in exercise compared to sedentary groups (d = 2.1 (0.8-3.4)). Some exercise × phenotype interactions showed that the highest decreases in insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance, fasting and postprandial glucose were observed in the obese + exercise group (all, P < 0.01). The findings of this study suggest that interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise would improve body composition, and lipid and glycaemic profiles, especially in obese rats.

  14. Aerobic treadmill plus Bobath walking training improves walking in subacute stroke: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Eich, H-J; Mach, H; Werner, C; Hesse, S

    2004-09-01

    To evaluate the immediate and long-term effects of aerobic treadmill plus Bobath walking training in subacute stroke survivors compared with Bobath walking training alone. Randomized controlled trial. Rehabilitation unit. Fifty patients, first-time supratentorial stroke, stroke interval less than six weeks, Barthel Index (0-100) from 50 to 80, able to walk a minimum distance of 12 m with either intermittent help or stand-by while walking, cardiovascular stable, minimum 50 W in the bicycle ergometry, randomly allocated to two groups, A and B. Group A 30 min of treadmill training, harness secured and minimally supported according to patients' needs, and 30 min of physiotherapy, every workday for six weeks, speed and inclination of the treadmill were adjusted to achieve a heart rate of HR: (Hrmax-HRrest)*0.6+HRrest; in group B 60 min of daily physiotherapy for six weeks. Primary outcome variables were the absolute improvement of walking velocity (m/s) and capacity (m), secondary were gross motor function including walking ability (score out of 13) and walking quality (score out of 41), blindly assessed before and after the intervention, and at follow-up three months later. Patients tolerated the aerobic training well with no side-effects, significantly greater improvement of walking velocity and capacity both at study end (p =0.001 versus p =0.002) and at follow-up (p <0.001 versus p <0.001) in the experimental group. Between weeks 0 and 6, the experimental group improved walking speed and capacity by a mean of.31 m/s and 91 m, the control group by a mean of 0.16 m/s and 56 m. Between weeks 0 and 18, the experimental group improved walking speed and capacity by a mean of 0.36 m/s and 111 m, the control group by a mean of 0.15 m/s and 57 m. Gross motor function and walking quality did not differ at any time. Aerobic treadmill plus Bobath walking training in moderately affected stroke patients was better than Bobath walking training alone with respect to the improvement

  15. Aerobic Training Intensity for Improved Endothelial Function in Heart Failure Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is widely utilised to assess endothelial function and aerobic exercise improves FMD in heart failure patients. The aim of this meta-analysis is to quantify the effect of aerobic training intensity on FMD in patients with heart failure. Background. A large number of studies now exist that examine endothelial function in patients with heart failure. We sought to add to the current literature by quantifying the effect of the aerobic training intensity on endothelial function. Methods. We conducted database searches (PubMed, Embase, ProQuest, and Cochrane Trials Register to June 30, 2016) for exercise based rehabilitation trials in heart failure, using search terms exercise training, endothelial function, and flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Results. The 13 included studies provided a total of 458 participants, 264 in intervention groups, and 194 in nonexercising control groups. Both vigorous and moderate intensity aerobic training significantly improved FMD. Conclusion. Overall both vigorous and moderate aerobic exercise training improved FMD in patients with heart failure. PMID:28348916

  16. Impact of aerobic exercise training on heart rate variability and functional capacity in obese women after gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Castello, Viviane; Simões, Rodrigo Polaquini; Bassi, Daniela; Catai, Aparecida Maria; Arena, Ross; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2011-11-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern on a global scale. Bariatric surgery is among the treatment options, resulting in significant and sustainable weight loss as well as amelioration of comorbidities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a 12-week aerobic exercise program positively impacts heart rate variability (HRV) and functional capacity after gastric bypass surgery (GBS) in a female cohort. Of the 52 patients initially recruited, 21 were randomized to a training group (TG) or control group and successfully completed the study. Patients were tested on two occasions: 1 week before GBS and 4 months after GBS. Anthropometric variables, body composition, record of heart rate and R-R intervals, and 6-min walk test (6MWT) were assessed at both time points. The TG underwent an aerobic exercise training program on a treadmill (1-h session, totaling 36 sessions over 12 weeks). The main findings from this study were: (1) only the TG demonstrated a significant increase (p < 0.05) in all indexes of heart rate variability (HRV) after 12 weeks of aerobic exercise training and (2) only the TG demonstrated a significant increase (p < 0.05) in 6MWT distance and decrease in diastolic blood pressure after aerobic exercise training. We conclude that 12 weeks of aerobic exercise training improves cardiac autonomic modulation and functional capacity 4 months after GBS.

  17. High aerobic intensity training and psychological States in patients with depression or schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Heggelund, Jørn; Kleppe, Kim Daniel; Morken, Gunnar; Vedul-Kjelsås, Einar

    2014-01-01

    To explore changes in psychological states in response to a bout of high aerobic intensity training (HIT) in patients with depression or schizophrenia compared to healthy individuals. After familiarization training of HIT, 20 patients with schizophrenia, 13 patients with depression, and 20 healthy individuals performed a no-training day followed by a training day. HIT was 4 × 4 min intervals at 85-95% of peak heart rate, intermitted by 3 min active rest periods at 70% of peak heart rate. Self-evaluation questionnaires of positive affect, negative affect, state anxiety, well-being, distress, and fatigue were completed before training, 15 min after, and 3 h after training. The two latter measures were also completed the no-training day. All three groups improved in positive affect and well-being 15 min after HIT (p < 0.01), but only patients with depression had maintained the effect after 3 h (p = 0.007, p = 0.012). The duration of the improved positive affect was longer in depression (p = 0.002) and schizophrenia (p = 0.025) than in healthy individuals (F 2.50 = 5.83, p < 0.01). Patients with depression or schizophrenia had reduced distress and state anxiety 15 min after HIT and 3 h after HIT (p < 0.05). The improvement in distress 15 min after HIT was larger in patients with depression (p = 0.028) compared to healthy individuals (F 2.50 = 5.05, p < 0.01). No changes were found during the no-training day (p > 0.05). High aerobic intensity training used as an acute intervention improved positive affect and well-being and reduced distress and state anxiety in patients with depression and schizophrenia. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01310998.

  18. Feeding patterns and diet -- children 6 months to 2 years

    MedlinePlus

    ... patterns and diet - children 6 months to 2 years To use the sharing features on this page, ... Clinical Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David ...

  19. Effects of chest physiotherapy and aerobic exercise training on physical fitness in young children with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Elbasan, Bulent; Tunali, Nur; Duzgun, Irem; Ozcelik, Ugur

    2012-01-10

    Cystic fibrosis is a multisystem disease where the main problems are existing in the respiratory system. Aerobic exercise programs are effective in increasing physical fitness and muscle endurance in addition to chest physiotherapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chest physiotherapy and aerobic exercise training on physical fitness in young children with cystic fibrosis. Sixteen patients with cystic fibrosis, between the ages 5-13 years, were included in this study. All children were assessed at the beginning and at the end of 6 week of the training. Modified Bruce protocol was used for assessing the cardiovascular endurance. The sit-up test was used to evaluate the dynamic endurance of abdominal muscles, standing long jump was used to test power, sit and reach, trunk lateral flexion, trunk hyperextension, trunk rotation and forward bending tests were used to assess flexibility, 20 m shuttle run test and 10-step stair climbing tests were used to assess power and agility. All patients received chest physiotherapy and aerobic training, three days a week for six weeks. Active cycle of breathing technique and aerobic exercise training program on a treadmill were applied. By evaluating the results of the training, positive progressions in all parameters except 20 m shuttle run and 10 stairs climbing tests were observed (p < 0.05). Active cycle of breathing techniques were used together with exercise training in clinically stable cystic fibrosis patients increases thoracic mobility (p < 0.05) and the physical fitness parameters such as muscle endurance, strength and speed (p < 0.05). Comparison of the results in sit and reach and forward bending tests were not significant (p > 0.05). It is thought that in addition to medical approaches to the systems affected, the active cycle of breathing techniques along with aerobic training helps to enhance the aerobic performance, thoracic mobility and improves physical fitness in children with cystic fibrosis.

  20. Effects of resistance training and aerobic exercise in elderly people concerning physical fitness and ability: a prospective clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Roma, Maria Fernanda Bottino; Busse, Alexandre Leopold; Betoni, Rosana Aparecida; Melo, Antonio Cesar de; Kong, Juwando; Santarem, Jose Maria; Jacob Filho, Wilson

    2013-01-01

    To compare the effects of physical fitness and function on older adults in two programs of supervised exercise activity: resistance training and aerobic exercise. This study is a randomized, prospective clinical trial composed of sedentary elderly people who did not have contraindications to exercise. Participants were divided into two groups: group one performed 6 exercises of resistance training twice a week, and group two participated in walking activity for 30 minutes twice a week. Functional assessment (time 0, 6 and 12 months) was measured by the Short Physical Performance Battery (time to sit or stand, gait speed, and balance), flexibility test, and the six-minute walking test. We randomly selected 96 patients: 46 in the Resistance Training Group and 50 in the Aerobic Exercise Group. In the Resistance Training Group, 46 attended the first assessment and 20 attended until the third section. In the Aerobic Exercise Group, 50 attended the first assessment and 12 attended until the third assessment. Mean age was 68.8 years in the Resistance Training Group and 69.1 years in the Aerobic Exercise Group. The Resistance Training Group showed improvement in the sit/stand (p = 0.022), balance with feet in a row (p = 0.039) and queued (p = 0.001). The second showed a statistical difference in speed and balance with the feet lined up and the feet together (p = 0.008; p = 0.02; and p = 0.043, respectively). Concerning flexibility, the Resistance Training Group had improvement (p = 0.001), whereas in the Aerobic Exercise Group, no significant difference was seen (p = 0.359). Both groups had improvement in the six-minute walking test, but no significant improvement was seen in the Aerobic Exercise Group (p = 0.033). Both groups showed improvement in physical fitness. No statistical difference was seen when groups was compared in the short physical performance battery, flexibility, and six-minute walking test.

  1. Effects of chest physiotherapy and aerobic exercise training on physical fitness in young children with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cystic fibrosis is a multisystem disease where the main problems are existing in the respiratory system. Aerobic exercise programs are effective in increasing physical fitness and muscle endurance in addition to chest physiotherapy. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chest physiotherapy and aerobic exercise training on physical fitness in young children with cystic fibrosis. Methods Sixteen patients with cystic fibrosis, between the ages 5-13 years, were included in this study. All children were assessed at the beginning and at the end of 6 week of the training. Modified Bruce protocol was used for assessing the cardiovascular endurance. The sit-up test was used to evaluate the dynamic endurance of abdominal muscles, standing long jump was used to test power, sit and reach, trunk lateral flexion, trunk hyperextension, trunk rotation and forward bending tests were used to assess flexibility, 20 m shuttle run test and 10-step stair climbing tests were used to assess power and agility. All patients received chest physiotherapy and aerobic training, three days a week for six weeks. Active cycle of breathing technique and aerobic exercise training program on a treadmill were applied. Results By evaluating the results of the training, positive progressions in all parameters except 20 m shuttle run and 10 stairs climbing tests were observed (p < 0.05). Active cycle of breathing techniques were used together with exercise training in clinically stable cystic fibrosis patients increases thoracic mobility (p < 0.05) and the physical fitness parameters such as muscle endurance, strength and speed (p < 0.05). Comparison of the results in sit and reach and forward bending tests were not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusion It is thought that in addition to medical approaches to the systems affected, the active cycle of breathing techniques along with aerobic training helps to enhance the aerobic performance, thoracic mobility and improves

  2. Multimodal therapy concept and aerobic training in breast cancer patients with chronic cancer-related fatigue.

    PubMed

    Kröz, Matthias; Fink, Matthias; Reif, Marcus; Grobbecker, Siglinde; Zerm, Roland; Quetz, Michaele; Frühwirth, Matthias; Brinkhaus, Benno; Bartsch, Christian; Girke, Matthias; Gutenbrunner, Christoph

    2013-07-01

    HYPOTHESE: Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) and sleep disorders are some of the most wearing and common symptoms in disease-free breast cancer patients (BC). Aerobic training (AT) is the treatment with the best available evidence, even though it seems to be insufficient with regards to improvements in cognitive fatigue. We introduced a new multimodal therapy concept (MM) consisting of psycho-, sleep-education and new approaches based on anthroposophic medicine such as eurythmy and painting therapy. This pilot study will test the implementation of MM and yield first results of the MM and AE in our centres. 31 out of 34 patients suffering from BC and CRF were fully assessed in a ten-week intervention study. 21 patients chose MM and 10 decided on AT. CRF was measured with the help of the Cancer Fatigue Scale (CFS-D), and the global quality of sleep was measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). We also captured autonomic regulation (aR) and patients' satisfaction with questionnaires. Statistical analysis was done with SAS 9.1.3 for windows. The new MM therapy can be implemented with high satisfaction among patients. Significant improvements were found in the MM group with regards to CFS-D, global quality of sleep, sleep efficiency (PSQI), aR and rest/activity regulation compared to baseline (all p<0.05). In the AT group aR orthostatic-circulatory and rest/activity regulation improved significantly (p<0.05), too. However, no improvement in cognitive fatigue was seen in either group. The multimodal therapy concept was feasible and improved cancer fatigue, sleep quality, autonomic and rest-/activity regulation in breast cancer patients. It may therefore constitute a valuable treatment option in addition to aerobic training for BC patients with CRF. A further study with larger sample size needs to be carried out to assess the efficacy of combined multimodal-aerobic therapy.

  3. Crossfit-based high-intensity power training improves maximal aerobic fitness and body composition.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael M; Sommer, Allan J; Starkoff, Brooke E; Devor, Steven T

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a crossfit-based high-intensity power training (HIPT) program on aerobic fitness and body composition. Healthy subjects of both genders (23 men, 20 women) spanning all levels of aerobic fitness and body composition completed 10 weeks of HIPT consisting of lifts such as the squat, deadlift, clean, snatch, and overhead press performed as quickly as possible. Additionally, this crossfit-based HIPT program included skill work for the improvement of traditional Olympic lifts and selected gymnastic exercises. Body fat percentage was estimated using whole-body plethysmography, and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was measured by analyzing expired gasses during a Bruce protocol maximal graded treadmill test. These variables were measured again after 10 weeks of training and compared for significant changes using a paired t-test. Results showed significant (p < 0.05) improvements of VO2max in men (43.10 ± 1.40 to 48.96 ± 1.42 ml · kg · min) and women (35.98 ± 1.60 to 40.22 ± 1.62 ml · kg · min) and decreased body fat percentage in men (22.2 ± 1.3 to 18.0 ± 1.3) and women (26.6 ± 2.0 to 23.2 ± 2.0). These improvements were significant across all levels of initial fitness. Significant correlations between absolute oxygen consumption and oxygen consumption relative to body weight was found in both men (r = 0.83, p < 0.001) and women (r = 0.94, p < 0.001), indicating that HIPT improved VO2max scaled to body weight independent of changes to body composition. Our data show that HIPT significantly improves VO2max and body composition in subjects of both genders across all levels of fitness.

  4. Effects of aerobic training on markers of autophagy in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Mejías-Peña, Yubisay; Rodriguez-Miguelez, Paula; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Martínez-Flórez, Susana; Almar, Mar; de Paz, José A; Cuevas, María J; González-Gallego, Javier

    2016-04-01

    Autophagy is a molecular process essential for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis, which appears to (i) decline with age and (ii) respond to physical exercise. In addition, recent evidence suggests a crosstalk between autophagy and toll-like receptor (TLR)-associated inflammatory responses. This study assessed the effects of aerobic exercise training on autophagy and TLR signaling in older subjects. Twenty-nine healthy women and men (age, 69.7 ± 1.0 year) were randomized to a training (TG) or a control (CG) group. TG performed an 8-week aerobic training program, while CG followed their daily routines. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from blood samples obtained before and after the intervention, and protein levels of protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), sequestosome 1 (p62/SQSTM1), beclin-1, phosphorylated unc-51-like kinase (ULK-1), ubiquitin-like autophagy-related (Atg)12, Atg16, and lysosome-associated membrane protein (LAMP)-2 were measured. TLR2 and TLR4 signaling pathways were also analyzed. Peak oxygen uptake increased in TG after the intervention. Protein expression of beclin-1, Atg12, Atg16, and the LC3II/I ratio increased following the training program (p < 0.05), while expression of p62/SQSTM1 and phosphorylation of ULK-1 at Ser(757) were lower (p < 0.05). Protein content of TLR2, TLR4, myeloid differentiation primary response gen 88 (MyD88), and TIR domain-containing adaptor-inducing interferon (TRIF) were not significantly modified by exercise. The current data indicate that aerobic exercise training induces alterations in multiple markers of autophagy, which seem to be unrelated to changes in TLR2 and TLR4 signaling pathways. These results expand knowledge on exercise-induced autophagy adaptations in humans and suggest that the exercise type employed may be a key factor explaining the potential relationship between autophagy and TLR pathways.

  5. Aerobic Interval Exercise Training Induces Greater Reduction in Cardiac Workload in the Recovery Period in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Juliana Pereira; Masson, Gustavo Santos; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Lessa, Marcos Adriano

    2014-01-01

    Background Aerobic interval exercise training has greater benefits on cardiovascular function as compared with aerobic continuous exercise training. Objective The present study aimed at analyzing the effects of both exercise modalities on acute and subacute hemodynamic responses of healthy rats. Methods Thirty male rats were randomly assigned into three groups as follows: continuous exercise (CE, n = 10); interval exercise (IE, n = 10); and control (C, n = 10). Both IE and CE groups performed a 30-minute exercise session. The IE group session consisted of three successive 4-minute periods at 60% of maximal velocity (Max Vel), with 4-minute recovery intervals at 40% of Max Vel. The CE group ran continuously at 50% of Max Vel. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure(BP), and rate pressure product (RPP) were measured before, during and after the exercise session. Results The CE and IE groups showed an increase in systolic BP and RPP during exercise as compared with the baseline values. After the end of exercise, the CE group showed a lower response of systolic BP and RPP as compared with the baseline values, while the IE group showed lower systolic BP and mean BP values. However, only the IE group had a lower response of HR and RPP during recovery. Conclusion In healthy rats, one interval exercise session, as compared with continuous exercise, induced similar hemodynamic responses during exercise. However, during recovery, the interval exercise caused greater reductions in cardiac workload than the continuous exercise. PMID:24270864

  6. The effects of four weeks aerobic training on saliva cortisol and testosterone in young healthy persons

    PubMed Central

    Alghadir, Ahmad H.; Gabr, Sami A.; Aly, Farag A.

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 4 weeks moderate aerobic exercise on outcome measures of saliva stress hormones and lactate levels in healthy adult volunteers. [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen healthy students with an age range of 15–25 years participated in this study. The participants performed an exercise test of moderate intensity for 4 weeks, three times per week. The exercise was treadmill walking. Saliva concentrations of cortisol, testosterone and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured before and after the 4 weeks of moderate aerobic training using immunoassay techniques. [Results] After 4 weeks of exercise, there were significant increases in cortisol, free testosterone levels, and LDH activity along with a significant decrease in the ratios between testosterone and cortisol levels. No significant correlations were found among the studied parameters in the resting stage, a result which supports the positive effect of exercise on stress hormones following 4 weeks of training. [Conclusion] The results suggest that four weeks exercise of moderate intensity significantly affects the salivary stress hormones of young healthy volunteers. The data support the importance of salivary stress hormones as potential biological markers especially for older ages. However, more research is required to validate these biological markers which determine the host response to physical activity. PMID:26311920

  7. Antioxidant effect of lemon verbena extracts in lymphocytes of university students performing aerobic training program.

    PubMed

    Carrera-Quintanar, L; Funes, L; Viudes, E; Tur, J; Micol, V; Roche, E; Pons, A

    2012-08-01

    Aerobic training is related to an increase in blood oxidation markers. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant capacity of Lippia citriodora extracts (PLX(®) ) on plasma and blood cell oxidative status of university students beginning a 21 days aerobic training routine (3 days/week). Using a double-blind design, 15 male athletes (21 ± 2.1 years) were assigned to a group consuming 1.8 g/day of the plant extract (PLX(®) -group) or a placebo (PLB-group). Two blood extractions were performed at day 0 and 21, from which lymphocytes, erythrocytes and plasma were isolated. Several circulating parameters, antioxidant enzyme activities and oxidative stress markers were measured. The PLX(®) -group displayed an increased HDL-cholesterol, a modest decrease in erythrocyte number and an increased circulating urea. Activation of glutathione (GSH)-reductase was observed in erythrocytes and lymphocytes of PLX(®) -group, accompanied by lower levels of oxidative stress markers, such as malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls in plasma. The antioxidant action exerted by PLX(®) on GSH-reductase seems to be post-translational and mainly due to verbascoside, a phenylpropanoid that represents 10% (w/w) of extract content. In conclusion, PLX(®) shows antioxidant properties that could play an important role in modulating GSH-reductase activity in lymphocytes and erythrocytes and protecting plasma from exercise oxidative damage. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Beneficial effects of aerobic training in adolescent patients with moderate idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Bas, Paloma; Romagnoli, Marco; Gomez-Cabrera, Mari-Carmen; Bas, Jose Luis; Aura, Javier Villar; Franco, Nuria; Bas, Teresa

    2011-08-01

    The major aim of this study was to determine whether after 6 weeks of aerobic training adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) girls who suffer from mild scoliotic curvatures (n = 6) behaved in a similar way than healthy controls (n = 6) in different biochemical, anthropometric, and cardio respiratory parameters. The maximal power output and the power output achieved at the anaerobic threshold (AT), during the maximal exercise test, were significantly increased in both experimental groups, when compared with resting conditions. The training program caused significant changes in body composition (i.e., a decrease in body fat %) only in the scoliotic group. Regarding the cardio respiratory measurements, VO(2max) was increased by 17% in AIS group and 10% in the healthy group. Our results suggest that physical activity should be encouraged in scoliotic girls with mild curvatures.

  9. Effect of mild aerobic training on the myocardium of mice with chronic Chagas disease

    PubMed Central

    Preto, Emerson; Lima, Nathalia EA; Simardi, Lucila; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso; Filho, Abílio Augusto Fragata; Maifrino, Laura Beatriz Mesiano

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic chagasic heart disease represents extensive remodeling of the cardiovascular system, manifested as cardiac denervation, interstitial mononuclear infiltrate, myocyte and vascular degenerative changes, fibrosis, and hypertrophy. Moreover, aerobic exercises are widely indicated for the treatment of various disorders of the cardiovascular system. Purpose To evaluate the right and left ventricles of BALB/c mice with chronic Chagas disease, undergoing mild exercise, by using morphometric and stereological methods. Materials and methods A total of 20 male mice at 4 months of age were used for experiments. The animals were divided into four groups (n=5 in each group): untrained control, trained control, untrained infected (UI), and trained infected (TI). Animals of UI and TI groups were inoculated with 1,000 trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi (Y strain), and after 40 days, animals entered chronic phase of the disease. Physical exercise, which included swimming, was performed for 30 minutes daily, five times a week for 8 consecutive weeks at a bath temperature of 30°C. After the trial period, euthanasia and subsequent withdrawal of the heart were done. The organ was prepared by histological staining procedures with hematoxylin–eosin and picrosirius red. Results We found that the physical training used in our experimental model promoted increase in volume density of capillaries and decrease in volume density of collagen fibers and cross-sectional area of cardiomyocytes in chagasic animals (TI group). By histopathological analysis, we found differences in the inflammatory infiltrate, which was lower in animals of TI group. The training program promoted a recovery of these parameters in the TI group. Conclusion Our results suggest that low-intensity aerobic exercise acts on morphological and morphometric parameters of the left and right ventricles in mice infected with T. cruzi, reducing the changes caused by the organism and making the results

  10. Exercise training reverses impaired skeletal muscle metabolism induced by artificial selection for low aerobic capacity

    PubMed Central

    Lessard, Sarah J.; Rivas, Donato A.; Stephenson, Erin J.; Yaspelkis, Ben B.; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.

    2011-01-01

    We have used a novel model of genetically imparted endurance exercise capacity and metabolic health to study the genetic and environmental contributions to skeletal muscle glucose and lipid metabolism. We hypothesized that metabolic abnormalities associated with low intrinsic running capacity would be ameliorated by exercise training. Selective breeding for 22 generations resulted in rat models with a fivefold difference in intrinsic aerobic capacity. Low (LCR)- and high (HCR)-capacity runners remained sedentary (SED) or underwent 6 wk of exercise training (EXT). Insulin-stimulated glucose transport, insulin signal transduction, and rates of palmitate oxidation were lower in LCR SED vs. HCR SED (P < 0.05). Decreases in glucose and lipid metabolism were associated with decreased β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR), and reduced expression of Nur77 target proteins that are critical regulators of muscle glucose and lipid metabolism [uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3), fatty acid transporter (FAT)/CD36; P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively]. EXT reversed the impairments to glucose and lipid metabolism observed in the skeletal muscle of LCR, while increasing the expression of β2-AR, Nur77, GLUT4, UCP3, and FAT/CD36 (P < 0.05) in this tissue. However, no metabolic improvements were observed following exercise training in HCR. Our results demonstrate that metabolic impairments resulting from genetic factors (low intrinsic aerobic capacity) can be overcome by an environmental intervention (exercise training). Furthermore, we identify Nur77 as a potential mechanism for improved skeletal muscle metabolism in response to EXT. PMID:21048074

  11. The effects of 12 weeks of step aerobics training on functional fitness of elderly women.

    PubMed

    Hallage, Tatiane; Krause, Maressa P; Haile, Luke; Miculis, Cristiane P; Nagle, Elizabeth F; Reis, Rodrigo S; Da Silva, Sergio G

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 12 weeks of step aerobics (SA) training on the functional fitness of apparently healthy older women. Thirteen previously sedentary elderly women (mean age 63.14 years) participated in this study. Subjects performed 3 training sessions per week for 30-60 minutes per session. All measurements were assessed at baseline, after 12 weeks of training (posttest), and after 1 month of detraining. Assessments included the evaluation of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), strength of the upper (arm-curl [AC] test) and lower body (30-second chair-stand test [CS]), dynamic balance and agility (8 foot up and go [8 ft]), flexibility (chair sit-and-reach [CSR]), and cardiorespiratory fitness (6-minute walk test [6MW]). Step aerobics significantly improved all functional fitness components except for BMI. The 12 weeks of SA promoted a large effect size in the following measurements: WC (d = 1.6); CSR (d = 1.51); CS (d = 1.49); AC (d = 1.41); 8 ft (d = 1.32); and 6MW (d = 1.06) (p < 0.05). These results indicate that 12 weeks of SA had a positive effect on the functional fitness components of these older women. Furthermore, these findings were confirmed by the reverse effect observed after 1 month of detraining, except for upper body strength (AC test). In conclusion, 12 weeks of SA training can promote improvements in the functional fitness of apparently healthy older women. Therefore, SA can be considered an effective exercise modality to prevent the loss of functional fitness and its associated consequences.

  12. Aerobic exercise in adolescents with obesity: preliminary evaluation of a modular training program and the modified shuttle test

    PubMed Central

    Klijn, Peter HC; van der Baan-Slootweg, Olga H; van Stel, Henk F

    2007-01-01

    Background Increasing activity levels in adolescents with obesity requires the development of exercise programs that are both attractive to adolescents and easily reproducible. The aim of this study was to develop a modular aerobic training program for adolescents with severe obesity, with a focus on variety, individual targets and acquiring physical skills. We report here the effects on aerobic fitness from a pilot study. Furthermore, we examined the feasibility of the modified shuttle test (MST) as an outcome parameter for aerobic fitness in adolescents with severe obesity. Methods Fifteen adolescents from an inpatient body weight management program participated in the aerobic training study (age 14.7 ± 2.1 yrs, body mass index 37.4 ± 3.5). The subjects trained three days per week for 12 weeks, with each session lasting 30–60 minutes. The modular training program consisted of indoor, outdoor and swimming activities. Feasibility of the MST was studied by assessing construct validity, test-retest reliability and sensitivity to change. Results Comparing pretraining and end of training period showed large clinically relevant and significant improvements for all aerobic indices: e.g. VO2 peak 17.5%, effect size (ES) 2.4; Wmax 8%, ES 0.8. In addition, a significant improvement was found for the efficiency of the cardiovascular system as assessed by the oxygen pulse (15.8%, ES 1.6). Construct validity, test-retest reliability and sensitivity to change of the MST were very good. MST was significantly correlated with VO2 peak (r = 0.79) and Wmax (r = 0.84) but not with anthropometric measures. The MST walking distance improved significantly by 32.5%, ES 2.5. The attendance rate at the exercise sessions was excellent. Conclusion This modular, varied aerobic training program has clinically relevant effects on aerobic performance in adolescents with severe obesity. The added value of our aerobic training program for body weight management programs for adolescents with

  13. Intrahospital weight and aerobic training in children with cystic fibrosis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Santana Sosa, Elena; Groeneveld, Iris F; Gonzalez-Saiz, Laura; López-Mojares, Luis M; Villa-Asensi, José R; Barrio Gonzalez, María I; Fleck, Steven J; Pérez, Margarita; Lucia, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to assess the effects of an 8-wk intrahospital combined circuit weight and aerobic training program performed by children with cystic fibrosis (of low-moderate severity and stable clinical condition) on the following outcomes: cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) and muscle strength (five-repetition maximum (5RM) bench press, 5RM leg press, and 5RM seated row) (primary outcomes) and pulmonary function (forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s), weight, body composition, functional mobility (Timed Up and Down Stairs and 3-m Timed Up and Go tests), and quality of life (secondary outcomes). We also determined the effects of a detraining period (4 wk) on the aforementioned outcomes. We performed a randomized controlled trial design. Eleven participants in each group (controls: 7 boys, age = 11 ± 3 yr, body mass index = 17.2 ± 0.8 kg · m(-2) (mean ± SEM); intervention: 6 boys, age = 10 ± 2 yr, body mass index = 18.4 ± 1.0 kg · m(-2)) started the study. Adherence to training averaged 95.1% ± 7.4%. We observed a significant group × time interaction effect (P = 0.036) for VO2peak. In the intervention group, VO2peak significantly increased with training by 3.9 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1) (95% confidence interval = 1.8-6.1 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1), P = 0.002), whereas it decreased during the detraining period (-3.4 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1), 95% confidence interval = -5.7 to -1.7 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1), P = 0.001). In contrast, no significant changes were observed during the study period within the control group. Although significant improvements were also observed after training for all 5RM strength tests (P < 0.001 for the interaction effect), the training improvements were not significantly decreased after the detraining period in the intervention group (all P > 0.1 for after training vs detraining). We found no significant training benefits in any of the secondary outcomes. A short-term combined circuit weight and aerobic

  14. The Effects of Intermittent Hypoxic Training on Aerobic Capacity and Endurance Performance in Cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Czuba, Milosz; Waskiewicz, Zbigniew; Zajac, Adam; Poprzecki, Stanislaw; Cholewa, Jaroslaw; Roczniok, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) with 95 % of lactate threshold workload (WRLT) on aerobic capacity and endurance performance in well-trained cyclists. Twenty male elite cyclists, randomly divided into a hypoxia (H) group (n=10; age 22 ± 2.7years; VO2max 67.8 ± 2.5 ml·kg-1·min-1; body height (BH) 1.78 ± 0.05 m; body mass (BM) 66.7 ± 5.4kg; fat free mass (FFM) 59.3 ± 5.1kg; fat content (FAT%) 11.3 ± 2.1%), and a control (C) group (n = 10; age 23.5 ± 3. 5years; VO2max 67.7 ± 2.0 ml·kg-1·min-1; BH 1.79 ± 3.2 m; BM 69.2 ± 5.5 kg; FFM 63.6 ± 4.8 kg; FAT% 7.9 ± 1.94 %) took part in the research project. The training program used during the experiment was the same for the both groups. For three weeks, the subjects in H group performed 3 training sessions per week in normobaric hypoxia environment (IHT - O2 = 15. 2%). During the elemental core of the IHT session, the intensity was set at 95% WRLT for 30-min in 1st microcycle, 35-min in 2nd microcycle and 40-min in 3rd microcycle. The same training procedure was provided in C group, yet the intensity of the main sessions were set at 100% WRLT in the normoxia environment. The results indicate a significant (p < 0.05) increase in VO2max,VO2LT, WRmax, WRLT and change in lactate concentration (∆LA) during incremental test in H group. Also a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in time of the time trial was seen, associated with a significant increase (p < 0.05) in average generated power (Pavg) and average speed (Vavg) during the time trial. The intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) applied in this research did not significantly affect the hematological variables considered: number of erythrocytes (RBC), hemoglobin concentration (HGB) and haematocrit value (HCT). Significant blood value increases (p < 0.05) were only observed in MCV in H group. This data suggests that intermittent hypoxic training at lactate threshold intensity and medium duration (30

  15. Effects of a Rebound Exercise Training Program on Aerobic Capacity and Body Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomassoni, Teresa L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to determine if aerobic dancing on rebound exercise equipment (minitrampolines) is an effective way to improve aerobic capacity and body composition. Although aerobic capacity improved, percent body fat did not change. Results were similar to those produced by conventional aerobic dance programs of like intensity. (MT)

  16. Effects of a Rebound Exercise Training Program on Aerobic Capacity and Body Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomassoni, Teresa L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to determine if aerobic dancing on rebound exercise equipment (minitrampolines) is an effective way to improve aerobic capacity and body composition. Although aerobic capacity improved, percent body fat did not change. Results were similar to those produced by conventional aerobic dance programs of like intensity. (MT)

  17. Effect of Wearing the Elevation Training Mask on Aerobic Capacity, Lung Function, and Hematological Variables.

    PubMed

    Porcari, John P; Probst, Lauren; Forrester, Karlei; Doberstein, Scott; Foster, Carl; Cress, Maria L; Schmidt, Katharina

    2016-06-01

    Altitude training and respiratory muscle training (RMT) have been reported to improve performance in elite and well-trained athletes. Several devices (altitude and RMT) have been developed to help athletes gain the competitive edge. The Elevation Training Mask 2.0 (ETM) purportedly simulates altitude training and has been suggested to increase aerobic capacity (VO2max), endurance performance, and lung function. Twenty-four moderately trained subjects completed 6 weeks of high-intensity cycle ergometer training. Subjects were randomized into a mask (n = 12) or control (n = 12) group. Pre and post-training tests included VO2max, pulmonary function, maximal inspiration pressure, hemoglobin and hematocrit. No significant differences were found in pulmonary function or hematological variables between or within groups. There was a significant improvement in VO2max and PPO in both the control (13.5% and 9.9%) and mask (16.5% and 13.6%) groups. There was no difference in the magnitude of improvement between groups. Only the mask group had significant improvements in ventilatory threshold (VT) (13.9%), power output (PO) at VT (19.3%), respiratory compensation threshold (RCT) (10.2%), and PO at RCT (16.4%) from pre to post-testing. The trends for improvements in VT and PO at VT between groups were similar to improvements in RCT and PO at RCT, but did not reach statistical significance (VT p = 0.06, PO at VT p = 0.170). Wearing the ETM while participating in a 6-week high-intensity cycle ergometer training program does not appear to act as a simulator of altitude, but more like a respiratory muscle training device. Wearing the ETM may improve specific markers of endurance performance beyond the improvements seen with interval training alone. Key pointsWearing the ETM during a 6-week high-intensity cycle ergometer training program may improve performance variables, such as VO2max, PPO, VT, PO at VT, RCT and PO at RCT.Wearing the ETM did not improve lung function, inspiratory

  18. Effect of Wearing the Elevation Training Mask on Aerobic Capacity, Lung Function, and Hematological Variables

    PubMed Central

    Porcari, John P.; Probst, Lauren; Forrester, Karlei; Doberstein, Scott; Foster, Carl; Cress, Maria L.; Schmidt, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Altitude training and respiratory muscle training (RMT) have been reported to improve performance in elite and well-trained athletes. Several devices (altitude and RMT) have been developed to help athletes gain the competitive edge. The Elevation Training Mask 2.0 (ETM) purportedly simulates altitude training and has been suggested to increase aerobic capacity (VO2max), endurance performance, and lung function. Twenty-four moderately trained subjects completed 6 weeks of high-intensity cycle ergometer training. Subjects were randomized into a mask (n = 12) or control (n = 12) group. Pre and post-training tests included VO2max, pulmonary function, maximal inspiration pressure, hemoglobin and hematocrit. No significant differences were found in pulmonary function or hematological variables between or within groups. There was a significant improvement in VO2max and PPO in both the control (13.5% and 9.9%) and mask (16.5% and 13.6%) groups. There was no difference in the magnitude of improvement between groups. Only the mask group had significant improvements in ventilatory threshold (VT) (13.9%), power output (PO) at VT (19.3%), respiratory compensation threshold (RCT) (10.2%), and PO at RCT (16.4%) from pre to post-testing. The trends for improvements in VT and PO at VT between groups were similar to improvements in RCT and PO at RCT, but did not reach statistical significance (VT p = 0.06, PO at VT p = 0.170). Wearing the ETM while participating in a 6-week high-intensity cycle ergometer training program does not appear to act as a simulator of altitude, but more like a respiratory muscle training device. Wearing the ETM may improve specific markers of endurance performance beyond the improvements seen with interval training alone. Key points Wearing the ETM during a 6-week high-intensity cycle ergometer training program may improve performance variables, such as VO2max, PPO, VT, PO at VT, RCT and PO at RCT. Wearing the ETM did not improve lung function, inspiratory

  19. Maximal Aerobic Frequency of Ball Hitting: A New Training Load Parameter in Tennis.

    PubMed

    Baiget, Ernest; Iglesias, Xavier; Rodríguez, Ferran A

    2017-01-01

    Baiget, E, Iglesias, X, and Rodríguez, FA. Maximal aerobic frequency of ball hitting: a new training load parameter in tennis. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 106-114, 2017-This study aimed (a) to evaluate a new training load parameter in tennis based on the ball-hitting frequency (Ballf) at V[Combining Dot Above]O2max occurs (maximal aerobic frequency of ball hitting, MAF) and (b) to assess the accuracy of a specific endurance tennis test (SET-Test) for predicting MAF. Thirty-five male competitive tennis players performed the SET-Test and selected physiological and performance parameters at maximal workload (MAX), and last completed stage (LS) and MAF were compared. Performance parameters (Ballf, time, stage, and hits per test) at LS were higher than at MAF (20.2 ± 1.7 vs. 18.1 ± 1.5 shots·min, 6.6 ± 0.8 vs. 5.6 ± 0.8 stages, and 189 ± 33 vs. 147 ± 27 hits; p < 0.001), and highly correlated (r = 0.72-0.77; p < 0.001). The mean difference between Ballf and stage at MAF and LS were 2.1 ± 1.1 shots·min and 1.1 ± 0.6 stages, respectively. The main physiological parameters (heart rate, V[Combining Dot Above]O2, and V[Combining Dot Above]CO2 at LS) were higher than at MAF (191 ± 9 vs. 186 ± 8 beats·min, 55.5 ± 5.9 vs. 55.0 ± 6.0 ml·kg·min and 4,724 ± 880 vs. 4,253 ± 739 ml·min; p < 0.005), and were very strongly correlated (r = 0.93-0.99; p < 0.001). We conclude that MAF can be used as a practical performance parameter to prescribe tennis-specific training, and that the SET-Test is a valid method for assessing MAF. Gas exchange measurements not being available, as a rule of thumb, most players reach their MAF at ∼1 stage (95% confidence interval: 0.9-1.2) and ∼2 shots·min (95% confidence interval: 1.7-2.5) less than their completed LS. A model for specific on-court training protocols for optimizing aerobic fitness in competitive tennis player is proposed.

  20. Improved nutritional status in elderly patients 6 months after stroke.

    PubMed

    Brynningsen, P K; Damsgaard, E M S; Husted, S E

    2007-01-01

    Nutritional status among stroke patients has received limited attention despite the fact, that it may have an influence on clinical outcome. Previous studies have estimated that 15-20 % of patients suffer from malnutrition in the acute phase of stroke, but so far no studies have focused on the late rehabilitation phase after stroke in the patients own home, where the attention on nutrition may be reduced. To determine the prevalence of malnutrition during 6 months of stroke rehabilitation, and to investigate the association between nutritional status, functional recovery, length of stay in hospital and infectious complications. 89 patients with ischemic stroke consecutively admitted to a geriatric stroke rehabilitation unit had their nutritional status evaluated in the hospital at 1 week and 5 weeks after stroke, and in their own home at 3 months and 6 months. Nutritional status was evaluated by body weight, body mass index (BMI), mid upper arm circumference (MAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSF) and serum concentrations of albumin and transferrin. Malnutrition was defined if the patients had 2 or more abnormal nutritional variables. We found a significant increase in albumin from 1 week to 6 months (P < 0.0001), and a significant increase in transferrin form 5 weeks to 6 months (P < 0.05). There was no significant change in weight or BMI from 1 week to 6 months. The number of patients with 2 or more abnormal nutritional variables was 31 (35 %) at 1 week and was reduced to 20 (22 %) at 6 months. 35 % of elderly patients with ischemic stroke admitted to a geriatric rehabilitation unit were malnourished 1 week after stroke. Particularly serum proteins and body fat were affected. Follow-up of nutritional variables showed improvement for serum proteins, and 22 % of the patients were malnourished 6 months after stroke.

  1. Continuation of copper-containing intrauterine devices at 6 months.

    PubMed

    Garbers, Samantha; Haines-Stephan, Jessica; Lipton, Yael; Meserve, Allison; Spieler, Leah; Chiasson, Mary Ann

    2013-01-01

    Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are highly effective at preventing pregnancy and cost-effective. Suboptimal continuation of IUDs places women at risk of unintended pregnancy. Little is known about prevalence or predictors of discontinuation of IUDs within the first 6 months. A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted among 306 family planning patients who had a CuT380A IUD inserted from November 2008-August 2011. Rates of continuation among 283 users were calculated using survival analyses, and predictors of removal within 6 months of insertion were assessed using logistic regression. Among 306 IUD insertions, 13 (4.2%) full or partial expulsions occurred within the first 6 months: 9 (10.7%) among nulliparous and 4 (2.0%) among parous women (chi-square, p<.001). In the first 6 months, four (1.3%) pregnancies occurred among women without prior removal or expulsion of the device (unadjusted Pearl Index: 2.61 per 100 woman-years at 6 months), all among parous women. Of 283 women in continuation analyses, 26% were under 20 years old and 29% nulliparous. Most (84%) received health education specific to IUDs before insertion. Overall, 11% had their IUD removed within 6 months of insertion. In an adjusted logistic regression model, women who did not receive health education were significantly more likely (Adjusted Odds Ratio=3.37, 95% confidence interval: 1.35-8.39) to have a removal within 6 months, but no significant association was found for age, race/ethnicity or parity. Early discontinuation of IUDs was prevalent but lower among women who received method-specific health education. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Exercise training from late middle age until senescence does not attenuate the declines in skeletal muscle aerobic function.

    PubMed

    Betik, Andrew C; Thomas, Melissa M; Wright, Kathryn J; Riel, Caitlin D; Hepple, Russell T

    2009-09-01

    We previously showed that 7 wk of treadmill exercise training in late-middle-aged rats can reverse the modest reductions in skeletal muscle aerobic function and enzyme activity relative to values in young adult rats (Exp Physiol 93: 863-871, 2008). The purpose of the present study was to determine whether extending this training program into senescence would attenuate the accelerated decline in the muscle aerobic machinery normally seen at this advanced age. For this purpose, 29-mo-old Fisher 344 Brown-Norway rats underwent 5 or 7 mo of treadmill exercise training. Training resulted in greater exercise capacity during an incremental treadmill exercise test and reduced percent body fat in 34- and 36-mo-old rats and improved survival. Despite these benefits at the whole body level, in situ muscle aerobic capacity and muscle mass were not greater in the trained groups at 34 mo or 36 mo of age. Similarly, the trained groups did not have higher activities of citrate synthase (CS) or Complex IV in homogenates of either the plantaris (fast twitch) or the soleus (slow twitch) muscles at either age. Finally, protein expression of CS (a marker of mitochondrial content) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1 (relating to the drive on mitochondrial biogenesis) were not higher in the trained groups. Therefore, although treadmill training from late middle age into senescence had significant benefits on running capacity, survival, and body fat, it did not prevent the declines in muscle mass, muscle aerobic capacity, or mitochondrial enzyme activities normally seen across this age, revealing a markedly diminished plasticity of the aerobic machinery in response to endurance exercise at advanced age.

  3. The influence of training characteristics on the effect of aerobic exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure: A meta-regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Vromen, T; Kraal, J J; Kuiper, J; Spee, R F; Peek, N; Kemps, H M

    2016-04-01

    Although aerobic exercise training has shown to be an effective treatment for chronic heart failure patients, there has been a debate about the design of training programs and which training characteristics are the strongest determinants of improvement in exercise capacity. Therefore, we performed a meta-regression analysis to determine a ranking of the individual effect of the training characteristics on the improvement in exercise capacity of an aerobic exercise training program in chronic heart failure patients. We focused on four training characteristics; session frequency, session duration, training intensity and program length, and their product; total energy expenditure. A systematic literature search was performed for randomized controlled trials comparing continuous aerobic exercise training with usual care. Seventeen unique articles were included in our analysis. Total energy expenditure appeared the only training characteristic with a significant effect on improvement in exercise capacity. However, the results were strongly dominated by one trial (HF-action trial), accounting for 90% of the total patient population and showing controversial results compared to other studies. A repeated analysis excluding the HF-action trial confirmed that the increase in exercise capacity is primarily determined by total energy expenditure, followed by session frequency, session duration and session intensity. These results suggest that the design of a training program requires high total energy expenditure as a main goal. Increases in training frequency and session duration appear to yield the largest improvement in exercise capacity.

  4. Weight training, aerobic physical activities, and long-term waist circumference change in men

    PubMed Central

    Mekary, Rania A.; Grøntved, Anders; Despres, Jean-Pierre; De Moura, Leandro Pereira; Asgarzadeh, Morteza; Willett, Walter C.; Rimm, Eric B.; Giovannucci, Edward; Hu, Frank B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Findings on weight training and waist circumference (WC) change are controversial. This study examined prospectively whether weight training, moderate-to-vigorous aerobic activity (MVAA), and replacement of one activity for another were associated with favorable changes in WC and body weight (BW). Methods Physical activity, WC, and BW were reported in 1996 and 2008 in a cohort of 10,500 healthy U.S. men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. We used multiple linear regression models (partition/substitution) to assess these associations. Results After adjusting for potential confounders, we observed a significant inverse dose-response relationship between weight training and WC change (P-trend<0.001). Less age-associated WC increase was seen with a 20 min/day activity increase; this benefit was significantly stronger for weight training (-0.67cm, 95%CI -0.93, -0.41) than for MVAA (-0.33cm, 95%CI -0.40, -0.27), other activities (-0.16cm, 95%CI -0.28, -0.03), or TV watching (0.08cm, 95%CI 0.05, 0.12). Substituting 20 min/day of weight training for any other discretionary activity had the strongest inverse association with WC change. MVAA had the strongest inverse association with BW change (-0.23kg, 95%CI -0.29, -0.17). Conclusions Among various activities, weight training had the strongest association with less WC increase. Studies on frequency /volume of weight training and WC change are warranted. PMID:25530447

  5. Effects of Exhaustive Aerobic Exercise on Tryptophan-Kynurenine Metabolism in Trained Athletes.

    PubMed

    Strasser, Barbara; Geiger, Daniela; Schauer, Markus; Gatterer, Hannes; Burtscher, Martin; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Exhaustive exercise can cause a transient depression of immune function. Data indicate significant effects of immune activation cascades on the biochemistry of monoamines and amino acids such as tryptophan. Tryptophan can be metabolized through different pathways, a major route being the kynurenine pathway, which is often systemically up-regulated when the immune response is activated. The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of exhaustive aerobic exercise on biomarkers of immune activation and tryptophan metabolism in trained athletes. After a standardized breakfast 2 h prior to exercise, 33 trained athletes (17 women, 16 men) performed an incremental cycle ergometer exercise test at 60 rpm until exhaustion. After a 20 min rest phase, the participants performed a 20 min maximal time-trial on a cycle ergometer (RBM Cyclus 2, Germany). During the test, cyclists were strongly encouraged to choose a maximal pedalling rate that could be maintained for the respective test duration. Serum concentrations of amino acids tryptophan, kynurenine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine were determined by HPLC and immune system biomarker neopterin by ELISA at rest and immediately post exercise. Intense exercise was associated with a strong increase in neopterin concentrations (p<0.001), indicating increased immune activation following intense exercise. Exhaustive exercise significantly reduced tryptophan concentrations by 12% (p<0.001) and increased kynurenine levels by 6% (p = 0.022). Also phenylalanine to tyrosine ratios were lower after exercise as compared with baseline (p<0.001). The kynurenine to tryptophan ratio correlated with neopterin (r = 0.560, p<0.01). Thus, increased tryptophan catabolism by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase appears likely. Peak oxygen uptake correlated with baseline tryptophan and kynurenine concentrations (r = 0.562 and r = 0.511, respectively, both p<0.01). Findings demonstrate that exhaustive aerobic exercise is associated with increased immune

  6. Exercise Responses to Gravity-Independent Flywheel Aerobic and Resistance Training

    PubMed Central

    Owerkowicz, Tomasz; Cotter, Joshua A.; Haddad, Fadia; Yu, Alvin M.; Camilon, Marinelle L.; Hoang, Theresa; Jimenez, Daniel; Kreitenberg, Arthur; Tesch, Per A.; Caiozzo, Vincent J.; Adams, Gregory R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although a number of exercise systems have been developed to mitigate the physiological deconditioning that occurs in microgravity, few have the capacity to positively impact multiple physiological systems and still meet the volume/mass requirements needed for missions beyond low earth orbit. The purpose of this study was to test the gravity-independent Multi-Mode Exercise Device (M-MED) for both resistance (RE) and aerobic (AE) training stimuli. Methods Eight men and nine women (mean age 22.0±0.4 years) completed five weeks of training on the M-MED: RE 4×7 squats two days a week, and AE 4×4-min rowing bouts at ~90% VO2max three days a week. Pre- and post-training data collection included an aerobic capacity test, MR imaging, strength testing, and vastus lateralis muscle biopsy. Results VO2max increased 8%, 3RM strength 18%, and quadriceps femoris cross-sectional area (CSA) 10%. Knee extensor strength increased at all isokinetic speeds tested. Subjects also demonstrated improved resistance to fatigue in knee extension. At the cellular and molecular level, the biopsy revealed increases in mixed myofiber CSA (13%), citrate synthase activity (26%), total RNA concentration (24%), IGF-I mRNA (77%), Type IIa Myosin Heavy Chain (MHC) mRNA (8%), and concomitant decrease in Type IIx MHC mRNA (−23%). None of the changes were gender-specific. Discussion Both the functional outcomes and biomarker changes indicate that a very low volume of M-MED exercise results in robust adaptation in the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems. The M-MED has the potential to provide a wide range of countermeasure exercises and should be considered for testing in ground-based spaceflight simulation. PMID:26802373

  7. Exercise Responses to Gravity-Independent Flywheel Aerobic and Resistance Training.

    PubMed

    Owerkowicz, Tomasz; Cotter, Joshua A; Haddad, Fadia; Yu, Alvin M; Camilon, Marinelle L; Hoang, Theresa N; Jimenez, Daniel J; Kreitenberg, Arthur; Tesch, Per A; Caiozzo, Vincent J; Adams, Gregory R

    2016-02-01

    Although several exercise systems have been developed to mitigate the physiological deconditioning that occurs in microgravity, few have the capacity to positively impact multiple physiological systems and still meet the volume/mass requirements needed for missions beyond low Earth orbit. The purpose of this study was to test the gravity-independent Multi-Mode Exercise Device (M-MED) for both resistance (RE) and aerobic (AE) training stimuli. Eight men and nine women (mean age 22.0 ± 0.4 yr) completed 5 wk of training on the M-MED: RE 4 × 7 squats 2 d/wk, and AE 4 × 4-min rowing bouts at ∼90% Vo2max 3 d/wk. Pre- and post-training data collection included an aerobic capacity test, MR imaging, strength testing, and vastus lateralis muscle biopsy. Vo2max increased 8%, 3RM strength 18%, and quadriceps femoris cross-sectional area (CSA) 10%. Knee extensor strength increased at all isokinetic speeds tested. Subjects also demonstrated improved fatigue resistance in knee extension. At the cellular and molecular level, the biopsy revealed increases in mixed myofiber CSA (13%), citrate synthase activity (26%), total RNA concentration (24%), IGF-I mRNA (77%), and Type IIa myosin heavy chain (MHC) mRNA (8%), and a concomitant decrease in Type IIx MHC mRNA (-23%). None of the changes were gender-specific. Both the functional outcomes and biomarker changes indicate that a very low volume of M-MED exercise results in robust adaptation in the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems. The M-MED has the potential to provide a wide range of countermeasure exercises and should be considered for testing in ground-based spaceflight simulation.

  8. SPARTEN (Scientific Program of Aerobic and Resistance Training Exercise in the Navy): A Total Body Fitness Program for Health and Physical Readiness.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    RI D-R158 869 SPARTEN (SCIENTIFIC PROGRAM OF AEROBIC AND RESISTANCE 1/1 TRINING EXERCISE I..(U) NAYAL HEALTH RESEAlRCH CENTER I SAN DIEGO CA E J...Program Outline Participants in the SPARTEN (Scientific Program of Aerobic and Resistance Training Exercise in the Navy) total body fitness program will...shipboard Scientific Program of Aerobic and Resistance Training Exercise (SPARTEN). 2. Cancellation. USS GEORGEPHILIPINST 6100.1 3. Background. All personnel

  9. The intervention composed of aerobic training and non-exercise physical activity (I-CAN) study: Rationale, design and methods.

    PubMed

    Swift, Damon L; Dover, Sara E; Nevels, Tyara R; Solar, Chelsey A; Brophy, Patricia M; Hall, Tyler R; Houmard, Joseph A; Lutes, Lesley D

    2015-11-01

    Recent data has suggested that prolonged sedentary behavior is independent risk factor for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality independent of adequate amounts of moderate to vigorous physical activity. However, few studies have prospectively evaluated if exercise training and increasing non-exercise physical activity leads to greater reduction in cardiometabolic risk compared to aerobic training alone. The purpose of the Intervention Composed of Aerobic Training and Non-Exercise Physical Activity (I-CAN) study is to determine whether a physical activity program composed of both aerobic training (consistent with public health recommendations) and increasing non-exercise physical activity (3000 steps above baseline levels) leads to enhanced improvements in waist circumference, oral glucose tolerance, systemic inflammation, body composition, and fitness compared to aerobic training alone in obese adults (N=45). Commercially available accelerometers (Fitbits) will be used to monitor physical activity levels and behavioral coaching will be used to develop strategies of how to increase non-exercise physical activity levels. In this manuscript, we describe the design, rationale, and methodology associated with the I-CAN study.

  10. Aerobic and anaerobic changes with high-intensity interval training in active college-aged men.

    PubMed

    Ziemann, Ewa; Grzywacz, Tomasz; Łuszczyk, Marcin; Laskowski, Radoslaw; Olek, Robert A; Gibson, Ann L

    2011-04-01

    We investigated the aerobic and anaerobic benefits of high-intensity interval training performed at a work-to-rest ratio of 1:2 because little performance enhancement data exist based on this ratio. Recreationally active male volunteers (21 years, 184 cm, 81.5 kg) were randomly assigned to a training (interval training [IT] n = 10) or control group (n = 11). Baseline assessments were repeated after the last training session. Each participant underwent basic anthropometric assessment and performed a VO2max test on an electronically braked cycle ergometer and a 30-second Wingate test. Venous samples were acquired at the antecubital vein and subsequently processed for lactate (LA); samples were obtained at rest, and 5 and 15-minute post-Wingate test. The interval training used a cycling power output equivalent to 80% of VO2max (80% p VO2max) applied for 6 90-second bouts (each followed by 180-second rest) per session, 3 sessions per week, for 6 weeks. The control group maintained their normal routine for the 6-week period. Group × time repeated-measures analyses of variance revealed that IT improved VO2max (5.5 ml · kg(-1) · min), anaerobic threshold (3.8 ml · kg(-1) · min), work output (12.5 J · kg(-1)), glycolytic work (11.5 J · kg(-1)), mean power (0.3 W · kg), peak power (0.4 W · kg(-1)), and max power (0.4 W · kg(-1)); p < 0.05. Posttesting LA was lower on average for IT at the 5-minute mark but significantly so at the 15-minute mark. Twenty-seven minutes of cycling at 80% p VO2max applied with a work-to-rest ratio of 1:2 and spread over 3 sessions per week for 6 weeks provided sufficient stimulus to significantly improve markers of anaerobic and aerobic performance in recreationally active college-aged men. Inclusion of such a protocol into a training program may rapidly restore or improve a client's or athlete's maximal functional capacity.

  11. Effects of intensity and duration in aerobic high-intensity interval training in highly trained junior cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Sandbakk, Øyvind; Sandbakk, Silvana B; Ettema, Gertjan; Welde, Boye

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether a long duration of aerobic high-intensity interval training is more effective than shorter intervals at a higher intensity in highly trained endurance athletes. The sample comprised of 12 male and 9 female, national-level, junior cross-country skiers (age, 17.5 ± 0.4 years, maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max): 67.4 ± 7.7 ml min kg), who performed 8-week baseline and 8-week intervention training periods on dry land. During the intervention period, a short-interval group (SIG, n = 7) added 2 weekly sessions with short duration intervals (2- to 4-minute bouts, total duration of 15-20 minutes), a long-interval group (LIG; n = 7) added 2 weekly sessions with long duration intervals (5- to 10-minute bouts, total duration of 40-45 minutes). The interval sessions were performed with the athletes' maximal sustainable intensity. A control group (CG; n = 7) added 2 weekly sessions with low-intensity endurance training at 65-74% of maximal heart rate. Before and after the intervention period, the skiers were tested for time-trial performance on 12-km roller-ski skating and 7-km hill run. V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and oxygen uptake at the ventilatory threshold (V[Combining Dot Above]O2VT) were measured during treadmill running. After the intervention training period, the LIG-improved 12-km roller ski, 7-km hill run, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, and V[Combining Dot Above]O2VT by 6.8 ± 4.0%, 4.8 ± 2.6%, 3.7 ± 1.6%, and 5.8 ± 3.3%, respectively, from pre- to posttesting, and improved both performance tests and V[Combining Dot Above]O2VT when compared with the SIG and the CG (all p < 0.05). The SIG improved V[Combining Dot Above]O2max by 3.5 ± 3.2% from pre- to posttesting (p < 0.05), whereas the CG remained unchanged. As hypothesized, a long duration of aerobic high-intensity interval training improved endurance performance and oxygen uptake at the ventilatory threshold more than shorter intervals at a higher

  12. Short-term periodized aerobic training does not attenuate strength capacity or jump performance in recreational endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Clemente-Suárez, V J; González-Ravé, J M; Navarro-Valdivielso, F

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of three different distributions of aerobic training on the isokinetic strength and vertical jump performance [SJ, CMJ and Abalakov (ABA)] in thirty middle-aged endurance athletes (38.7 ± 9.8 yrs; 174.7 ± 6.5 cm; 72.0 ± 9.8 kg). Three zones of training were required to quantify volume of training: Zone 1, low-intensity-training < VT1; Zone 2, threshold-training, between VT1 and VT2; and Zone 3, high-intensity-training > VT2. The INC group (n = 10) began training in the Zone 1 and then gradually built up training in Zone 2 and Zone 3, thereby increasing the intensity of aerobic activity over the 4-week training period. The CON group (n = 10) performed the same activity every week in Zones 1, 2 and 3. The FRE group followed a free distribution of endurance training loads (n = 10). The results showed significant decreases in peak torque knee extension 30° (p < 0.05) in CON group and significant decreases (p < 0.05) in ABA in FRE group. Results provide a physiological basis to support several performance studies that consistently indicate 5 d·wk(-1) endurance training does not impair strength development over the short term. In conclusion, variations in volume and intensity in training groups did not interfere with isokinetic strength and vertical jump performance.

  13. Effects of a 6-month incentive-based exercise program on adherence and work capacity.

    PubMed

    Robison, J I; Rogers, M A; Carlson, J J; Mavis, B E; Stachnik, T; Stoffelmayr, B; Sprague, H A; McGrew, C R; Van Huss, W D

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of behavioral management techniques on exercise adherence linked to improvements in work capacity and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). One hundred thirty-seven participants in six different worksites on a university campus (five experimental and one comparison site) completed 6 months of a minimally supervised, incentive-based endurance exercise program. All participants in the experimental group contracted to engage in at least four bouts of 30 min of verified aerobic exercise within a prescribed target heart rate range each week for the duration of the program. Forty dollars deposited at the beginning of the program served as a response cost that could be lost as a result of failure to fulfill the weekly contracts. Individuals in the comparison group participated in a similar 6-month program but without the contracts and response cost strategies. Weekly adherence for both groups was strictly defined as verified fulfillment of all four bouts of exercise. Adherence for the experimental group was 97% by this definition, and adherence for the comparison group was 19% (P less than 0.01). VO2max increased 2.6% (P less than 0.01), and treadmill test time increased 16% (P less than 0.01) in the experimental group after the 6-month program, with no significant changes in the comparison group. Recovery heart rates at 2 and 4 min post-exercise were significantly lower at 6 months in the experimental group but not in the comparison group. These data provide evidence that adherence to a 6-month endurance exercise program can be improved significantly through the use of well conceived behavior management strategies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Reliability of gait in multiple sclerosis over 6 months.

    PubMed

    Sosnoff, Jacob J; Klaren, Rachel E; Pilutti, Lara A; Dlugonski, Deirdre; Motl, Robert W

    2015-03-01

    Gait impairment is ubiquitous in multiple sclerosis (MS) and is often characterized by alterations in spatiotemporal parameters of gait. There is limited information concerning reliability of spatiotemporal gait parameters over clinical timescales (e.g. 6 months). The current report provides novel evidence that gait parameters of 74 ambulatory persons with MS with mild-to-moderate disability are reliable over 6-months (ICC's for overall sample range from 0.56 to 0.91) in the absence of any intervention above and beyond standard care. Such data can inform clinical decision-making and power analyses for designing RCTs (i.e., sample size estimates) involving persons with MS.

  15. Aerobic and resistance training do not influence plasma carnosinase content or activity in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Stegen, Sanne; Sigal, Ronald J; Kenny, Glen P; Khandwala, Farah; Yard, Benito; De Heer, Emile; Baelde, Hans; Peersman, Wim; Derave, Wim

    2015-10-01

    A particular allele of the carnosinase gene (CNDP1) is associated with reduced plasma carnosinase activity and reduced risk for nephropathy in diabetic patients. On the one hand, animal and human data suggest that hyperglycemia increases plasma carnosinase activity. On the other hand, we recently reported lower carnosinase activity levels in elite athletes involved in high-intensity exercise compared with untrained controls. Therefore, this study investigates whether exercise training and the consequent reduction in hyperglycemia can suppress carnosinase activity and content in adults with type 2 diabetes. Plasma samples were taken from 243 males and females with type 2 diabetes (mean age = 54.3 yr, SD = 7.1) without major microvascular complications before and after a 6-mo exercise training program [4 groups: sedentary control (n = 61), aerobic exercise (n = 59), resistance exercise (n = 63), and combined exercise training (n = 60)]. Plasma carnosinase content and activity, hemoglobin (Hb) A1c, lipid profile, and blood pressure were measured. A 6-mo exercise training intervention, irrespective of training modality, did not decrease plasma carnosinase content or activity in type 2 diabetic patients. Plasma carnosinase content and activity showed a high interindividual but very low intraindividual variability over the 6-mo period. Age and sex, but not Hb A1c, were significantly related to the activity or content of this enzyme. It can be concluded that the beneficial effects of exercise training on the incidence of diabetic complications are probably not related to a lowering effect on plasma carnosinase content or activity. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Combined aerobic and resistance training in breast cancer survivors: A randomized, controlled pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Herrero, F; San Juan, A F; Fleck, S J; Balmer, J; Pérez, M; Cañete, S; Earnest, C P; Foster, C; Lucía, A

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effects of a combined cardiorespiratory and resistance exercise training program of short duration on the cardiorespiratory fitness, strength endurance, task specific functional muscle capacity, body composition and quality of life (QOL) in women breast cancer survivors. Sixteen subjects were randomly assigned to either a training (n = 8; age: 50 +/- 5 yrs) or control non-exercising group (n = 8; age: 51 +/- 10 yrs). The training group followed an 8-week exercise program consisting of 3 weekly sessions of 90-min duration, supervised by an experienced investigator and divided into resistance exercises and aerobic training. Before and after the intervention period, all of the subjects performed a cardiorespiratory test to measure peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), a dynamic strength endurance test (maximum number of repetitions for chest and leg press exercise at 30 - 35 % and 100 - 110 % of body mass, respectively) and a sit-stand test. Quality of life was assessed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 (EORTC-C30) questionnaire. In response to training, QOL, VO2peak (mean 3.9 ml/kg/min; 95 % CI, 0.93, 6.90) performance in leg press (17.9 kg; 95 % CI, 12.8, 22.4) and sit-stand test (- 0.67 s; 95 % CI, - 0.52, - 1.2) improved (p < or = 0.05). We observed no significant changes in the control group. Combined cardiorespiratory and resistance training, even of very brief duration, improves the QOL and the overall physical fitness of women breast cancer survivors.

  17. Effects of aerobic and resistive exercise training on glucose disposal and skeletal muscle metabolism in older men.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Cynthia M; Goldberg, Andrew P; Ortmeyer, Heidi K; Ryan, Alice S

    2006-05-01

    Aging is associated with insulin resistance, primarily as a result of physical inactivity and increased abdominal obesity. We hypothesized that aerobic (AEX) or resistive (RT) exercise training would result in comparable improvements in glucose disposal in older men, but that there would be different metabolic adaptations in skeletal muscle. Thirty-nine older (63+/-1 years, mean+/-standard error of the mean), overweight and obese (body mass index=30.3+/-0.4 kg/m2) men were assigned to AEX (treadmill walking and/or jogging, n=19) or RT (upper and lower body, n=20) programs 3 d/wk for 6 months, with 9 completing AEX and 13 completing RT. Testing before and after the exercise programs included body composition, euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps, and vastus lateralis muscle biopsies. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) increased by 16% after AEX (p<.01), while leg and arm muscle strength increased by 45+/-5% and 27+/-5% after RT (p<.0001). Although participants were monitored to maintain their body weight during the exercise program, body weight decreased by 2% after AEX (p<.05), and increased by 2% after RT (p<.05). Whole-body glucose disposal, determined during the last 30 minutes of a 2-hour 480 pmol/m2/min euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, increased comparably by 20%-25% after AEX (51+/-5 to 61+/-5 microM/kgfat-free mass/min, p<.05) and RT (49+/-3 to 58+/-3 microM/kgfat-free mass/min, p<.05). The increase in vastus lateralis muscle glycogen synthase fractional activity in response to insulin stimulation was significantly higher after AEX compared to after RT (279+/-59% compared to 100+/-28% change, p<.05). Neither AEX nor RT altered muscle glycogen synthase total activity, glycogen content, or levels of phosphotidylinositol 3-kinase. These results suggest that AEX and RT result in comparable improvements in glucose metabolism in older men, whereas an increase in insulin activation of glycogen synthase occurred only with AEX. These improvements in insulin

  18. Rhodiola crenulata- and Cordyceps sinensis-based supplement boosts aerobic exercise performance after short-term high altitude training.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chung-Yu; Hou, Chien-Wen; Bernard, Jeffrey R; Chen, Chiu-Chou; Hung, Ta-Cheng; Cheng, Lu-Ling; Liao, Yi-Hung; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2014-09-01

    High altitude training is a widely used strategy for improving aerobic exercise performance. Both Rhodiola crenulata (R) and Cordyceps sinensis (C) supplements have been reported to improve exercise performance. However, it is not clear whether the provision of R and C during high altitude training could further enhance aerobic endurance capacity. In this study, we examined the effect of R and C based supplementation on aerobic exercise capacity following 2-week high altitude training. Alterations to autonomic nervous system activity, circulatory hormonal, and hematological profiles were investigated. Eighteen male subjects were divided into two groups: Placebo (n=9) and R/C supplementation (RC, n=9). Both groups received either RC (R: 1400 mg+C: 600 mg per day) or the placebo during a 2-week training period at an altitude of 2200 m. After 2 weeks of altitude training, compared with Placebo group, the exhaustive run time was markedly longer (Placebo: +2.2% vs. RC: +5.7%; p<0.05) and the decline of parasympathetic (PNS) activity was significantly prevented in RC group (Placebo: -51% vs. RC: -41%; p<0.05). Red blood cell, hematocrit, and hemoglobin levels were elevated in both groups to a comparable extent after high altitude training (p<0.05), whereas the erythropoietin (EPO) level remained higher in the Placebo group (∼48% above RC values; p<0.05). The provision of an RC supplement during altitude training provides greater training benefits in improving aerobic performance. This beneficial effect of RC treatment may result from better maintenance of PNS activity and accelerated physiological adaptations during high altitude training.

  19. Concurrent and aerobic exercise training promote similar benefits in body composition and metabolic profiles in obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Paula Alves; Chen, Kong Y; Lira, Fabio Santos; Saraiva, Bruna Thamyres Cicotti; Antunes, Barbara Moura Mello; Campos, Eduardo Zapaterra; Freitas, Ismael Forte

    2015-11-26

    The prevalence of obesity in pediatric population is increasing at an accelerated rate in many countries, and has become a major public health concern. Physical activity, particularly exercise training, remains to be a cornerstone of pediatric obesity interventions. The purpose of our current randomized intervention trial was to compare the effects of two types of training matched for training volume, aerobic and concurrent, on body composition and metabolic profile in obese adolescents. Thus the aim of the study was compare the effects of two types of training matched for training volume, aerobic and concurrent, on body composition and metabolic profile in obese adolescents. 32 obese adolescents participated in two randomized training groups, concurrent or aerobic, for 20 weeks (50 mins x 3 per week, supervised), and were compared to a 16-subject control group. We measured the percentage body fat (%BF, primary outcome), fat-free mass, percentage of android fat by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and others metabolic profiles at baseline and after interventions, and compared them between groups using the Intent-to-treat design. In 20 weeks, both exercise training groups significantly reduced %BF by 2.9-3.6% as compare to no change in the control group (p = 0.042). There were also positive changes in lipid levels in exercise groups. No noticeable changes were found between aerobic and concurrent training groups. The benefits of exercise in reducing body fat and metabolic risk profiles can be achieved by performing either type of training in obese adolescents. RBR-4HN597.

  20. Aerobic and Strength Training in Concomitant Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Earnest, Conrad P.; Johannsen, Neil M.; Swift, Damon L.; Gillison, Fiona B.; Mikus, Catherine R.; Lucia, Alejandro; Kramer, Kimberly; Lavie, Carl J.; Church, Timothy S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Concomitant type 2 diabetes (T2D) and metabolic syndrome exacerbates mortality risk; yet, few studies have examined the effect of combining (AER+RES) aerobic (AER) and resistance (RES) training for individuals with T2D and metabolic syndrome. Methods We examined AER, RES, and AER+RES training (9-months) commensurate with physical activity guidelines in individuals with T2D (N=262, 63% female, 44% black). Primary outcomes were change in, and prevalence of, metabolic syndrome score at follow-up (mean, 95%CI). Secondary outcomes included maximal cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak and estimated METs from time-to-exhaustion (TTE), and exercise efficiency calculated as the slope of the line between ventilatory threshold, respiratory compensation, and maximal fitness. General linear models and bootstrapped Spearman correlations were used to examine changes in metabolic syndrome associated with training primary and secondary outcome variables. Results We observed a significant decrease in metabolic syndrome scores (P-for-trend, 0.003) for AER (−0.59, 95%CI, −1.00, −0.21) and AER+RES (−0.79, 95%CI, −1.40, −0.35), both being significant (P < 0.02) vs. Control (0.26, 95%CI, −0.58, 0.40) and RES (−0.13, 95%CI, −1.00, 0.24). This lead to a reduction in metabolic syndrome prevalence for the AER (56% vs. 43%) and AER+RES (55% vs. 46%) groups between baseline and follow-up. The observed decrease in metabolic syndrome was mediated by significant improvements in exercise efficiency for the AER and AER+RES training groups (P<0.05), which was more strongly related to TTE (25–30%; r= −0.38; 95% CI: −0.55, −0.19) than VO2peak (5–6%; r= −0.24; 95% CI: −0.45, −0.01). Conclusion Aerobic and AER+RES training significantly improves metabolic syndrome scores and prevalence in patients with T2D. These improvements appear to be associated with improved exercise efficiency and are more strongly related to improved TTE versus VO2peak. PMID:24389523

  1. Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Ventilatory Efficiency and Respiratory Drive in Obese Subjects.

    PubMed

    Chlif, Mehdi; Chaouachi, Anis; Ahmaidi, Said

    2017-07-01

    Obese patients show a decline in exercise capacity and diverse degrees of dyspnea in association with mechanical abnormalities, increased ventilatory requirements secondary to the increased metabolic load, and a greater work of breathing. Consequently, obese patients may be particularly predisposed to the development of respiratory muscle fatigue during exercise. The aim of this study was to assess inspiratory muscle performance during incremental exercise in 19 obese male subjects (body mass index 41 ± 6 kg/m(2)) after aerobic exercise training using the noninvasive, inspiratory muscle tension-time index (TT0.1). Measurements performed included anthropometric parameters, lung function assessed by spirometry, rate of perceived breathlessness with the modified Borg dyspnea scale (0-10), breathing pattern, maximal exercise capacity, and inspiratory muscle performance with a breath-by-breath automated exercise metabolic system during an incremental exercise test. TT0.1 was calculated using the equation, TT0.1 = P0.1/PImax × TI/Ttot (where P0.1 represents mouth occlusion pressure, PImax is maximal inspiratory pressure, and TI/Ttot is the duty cycle). At rest, there was no statistically significant difference for spirometric parameters and cardiorespiratory parameters between pre- and post-training. At maximal exercise, the minute ventilation, the rate of exchange ratio, the rate of perceived breathlessness, and the respiratory muscle performance parameters were not significantly different pre- and post-training; in contrast, tidal volume (P = .037, effect size = 1.51), breathing frequency (P = .049, effect size = 0.97), power output (P = .048, effect size = 0.79), peak oxygen uptake (P = .02, effect size = 0.92) were significantly higher after training. At comparable work load, training induces lower minute ventilation, mouth occlusion pressure, ratio of occlusion pressure to maximal inspiratory pressure, TT0.1, and rate of perceived breathlessness. Aerobic exercise

  2. Impact of aerobic training on immune-endocrine parameters, neurotrophic factors, quality of life and coordinative function in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Karl-Heinz; Gold, Stefan M; Witte, Jan; Bartsch, Katharina; Lang, Undine E; Hellweg, Rainer; Reer, Rüdiger; Braumann, Klaus-Michael; Heesen, Christoph

    2004-10-15

    In recent years it has become clear that multiple sclerosis (MS) patients benefit from physical exercise as performed in aerobic training but little is known about the effect on functional domains and physiological factors mediating these effects. We studied immunological, endocrine and neurotrophic factors as well as coordinative function and quality of life during an 8-week aerobic bicycle training in a waitlist control design. In the immune-endocrine study (1) 28 patients were included, the coordinative extension study (2) included 39 patients. Training was performed at 60% VO(2)max after determining individual exertion levels through step-by-step ergometry. Metabolic (lactate), endocrine (cortisol, adrendocortico-releasing hormone, epinephrine, norepinephrine), immune (IL-6, soluble IL-6 receptor), and neurotrophic (brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF)) parameters were compared from a prestudy and a poststudy endurance test at 60% VO(2)max for 30 min. In study (1), lowered lactate levels despite higher workload levels indicated a training effect. Disease-specific quality of life (as measured by the Hamburg Quality of Life Questionnaire for Multiple Sclerosis, HAQUAMS) significantly increased in the training group. No significant training effects were seen for endocrine and immune parameters or neurotrophins. In study (2), two out of three coordinative parameters of the lower extremities were significantly improved. In summary, low-level aerobic training in MS improves not only quality of life but also coordinative function and physical fitness.

  3. Sweat sodium concentration during exercise in the heat in aerobically trained and untrained humans.

    PubMed

    Hamouti, Nassim; Del Coso, Juan; Ortega, Juan F; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether sweat sodium concentration ([Na(+)](sweat)) during exercise in the heat differs between aerobically trained and untrained individuals. On three occasions, ten endurance-trained (Tr) and ten untrained (UTr) subjects (VO2peak = 4.0 ± 0.8 vs. 3.4 ± 0.7 L min(-1), respectively; P < 0.05) cycled in a hot-ventilated environment (36 ± 1°C; 25 ± 2% humidity, airflow 2.5 m s(-1)) at three workloads (i.e., 40, 60, and 80% VO2peak). Whole-body (SR(WB)) and back sweat rates (SR(BACK)) were measured. At the conclusion of the study, Na(+) in sweat and blood samples was analyzed to calculate Na(+) secretion and reabsorption rates. SR(WB) and SR(BACK) were highly correlated in Tr and UTr (r = 0.74 and 0.79, respectively; P < 0.0001). In both groups, SR(BACK) increased with the increases in exercise intensity (P < 0.05). Likewise, [Na(+)](sweat) increased with the exercise intensity in both groups (P < 0.05) and it tended to be higher in Tr than in UTr at 60 and 80% VO2peak (~22 mmol L(-1) higher; P = 0.06). However, when normalized for SR(BACK), [Na(+)](sweat) was not different between groups. In both groups, Na(+) secretion and reabsorption rates increased with the increases in SR(BACK) (P < 0.05). However, Na(+) reabsorption rate was lower in the Tr than in the UTr (mean slope = 48 vs. 82 ηmol cm(-2) min(-1); P = 0.03). In conclusion, using a cross-sectional study design, our data suggest that aerobic fitness level does not reduce sweat Na(+) secretion or enhance Na(+) reabsorption during prolonged exercise in the heat that induced high sweat rates.

  4. Effect of 12-week-long aerobic training programme on body composition, aerobic capacity, complete blood count and blood lipid profile among young women

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Robert; Jastrzębski, Zbigniew; Zarębska, Aleksandra; Bichowska, Marta; Drobnik-Kozakiewicz, Izabela; Radzimiński, Łukasz; Leońska-Duniec, Agata; Ficek, Krzysztof; Cięszczyk, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Background Numerous data suggest that aerobic-type exercise improves lipoprotein-lipid profiles, cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in young women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological response to high-low impact aerobic fitness among young women. Materials and methods Thirty-four young women aged 22 (19-24) years were divided into three groups: underweight (N = 10), normal weight (N = 12) and overweight (N = 12). Aerobic capacity, anthropometry and body composition together with complete blood count and lipid profile were determined before and after completion of a 12-week-long training period. Results The training programme caused a significant decrease in weight (by 4.3 kg, P = 0.003), body mass index (by 1.3 kg/m2, P = 0.003), free fat mass (by 2.1 kg, P = 0.002), total body water (by 0.4 kg, P = 0.036), percentage of fat (by 3 percent points, P = 0.002), all analyzed skinfolds thicknesses, as well as the lipid profile in overweight group, and no changes in normal weight group. Significant changes in weight (by 4.2 kg, P = 0.005), body mass index (by 0.9 kg/m2, P = 0.005), crus skinfold thickness (by 3.3 mm, P = 0.028), and in maximum oxygen uptake (by 2.49 mL/kg/min; P = 0.047) were observed among underweight women. No change in total blood count was observed in all groups. Conclusion Twelve-week-long fitness training programme of two alternating styles (low and high impact) has a beneficial effect on overweight young women. PMID:25672474

  5. Effect of 12-week-long aerobic training programme on body composition, aerobic capacity, complete blood count and blood lipid profile among young women.

    PubMed

    Kostrzewa-Nowak, Dorota; Nowak, Robert; Jastrzębski, Zbigniew; Zarębska, Aleksandra; Bichowska, Marta; Drobnik-Kozakiewicz, Izabela; Radzimiński, Łukasz; Leońska-Duniec, Agata; Ficek, Krzysztof; Cięszczyk, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Numerous data suggest that aerobic-type exercise improves lipoprotein-lipid profiles, cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in young women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological response to high-low impact aerobic fitness among young women. Thirty-four young women aged 22 (19-24) years were divided into three groups: underweight (N=10), normal weight (N=12) and overweight (N=12). Aerobic capacity, anthropometry and body composition together with complete blood count and lipid profile were determined before and after completion of a 12-week-long training period. The training programme caused a significant decrease in weight (by 4.3 kg, P=0.003), body mass index (by 1.3 kg/m2, P=0.003), free fat mass (by 2.1 kg, P=0.002), total body water (by 0.4 kg, P=0.036), percentage of fat (by 3 percent points, P=0.002), all analyzed skinfolds thicknesses, as well as the lipid profile in overweight group, and no changes in normal weight group. Significant changes in weight (by 4.2 kg, P=0.005), body mass index (by 0.9 kg/m2, P=0.005), crus skinfold thickness (by 3.3 mm, P=0.028), and in maximum oxygen uptake (by 2.49 mL/kg/min; P=0.047) were observed among underweight women. No change in total blood count was observed in all groups. Twelve-week-long fitness training programme of two alternating styles (low and high impact) has a beneficial effect on overweight young women.

  6. The Efficacy and Risk of Intense Aerobic Circuit Training in Coronary Artery Disease Patients Following Bypass Surgery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFontaine, Tom; Bruckerhoff, Diane

    1987-01-01

    This study describes the influence of highly intense aerobic circuit training on the cardiorespiratory fitness of 31 coronary artery disease patients who had undergone bypass surgery. Results show improvement in heart rate and other measured responses and no abnormal responses related to cardiovascular or musculoskeletal complications. (Author/MT)

  7. The Efficacy and Risk of Intense Aerobic Circuit Training in Coronary Artery Disease Patients Following Bypass Surgery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFontaine, Tom; Bruckerhoff, Diane

    1987-01-01

    This study describes the influence of highly intense aerobic circuit training on the cardiorespiratory fitness of 31 coronary artery disease patients who had undergone bypass surgery. Results show improvement in heart rate and other measured responses and no abnormal responses related to cardiovascular or musculoskeletal complications. (Author/MT)

  8. Effect of Cardiorespiratory Training on Aerobic Fitness and Carryover to Activity In Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Jane M.; Scianni, Aline; Ada, Louise

    2010-01-01

    The question under consideration was does cardiorespiratory training improve aerobic fitness in children with cerebral palsy and is there any carryover into activity? The study design consisted of a systematic review of randomized trials using the Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. Participants were children of school age with cerebral palsy.…

  9. Effect of Cardiorespiratory Training on Aerobic Fitness and Carryover to Activity In Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Jane M.; Scianni, Aline; Ada, Louise

    2010-01-01

    The question under consideration was does cardiorespiratory training improve aerobic fitness in children with cerebral palsy and is there any carryover into activity? The study design consisted of a systematic review of randomized trials using the Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. Participants were children of school age with cerebral palsy.…

  10. Pyruvate ingestion for 7 days does not improve aerobic performance in well-trained individuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, M. A.; Spriet, L. L.; Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    The purposes of the present studies were to test the hypotheses that lower dosages of oral pyruvate ingestion would increase blood pyruvate concentration and that the ingestion of a commonly recommended dosage of pyruvate (7 g) for 7 days would enhance performance during intense aerobic exercise in well-trained individuals. Nine recreationally active subjects (8 women, 1 man) consumed 7, 15, and 25 g of pyruvate and were monitored for a 4-h period to determine whether blood metabolites were altered. Pyruvate consumption failed to significantly elevate blood pyruvate, and it had no effect on indexes of carbohydrate (blood glucose, lactate) or lipid metabolism (blood glycerol, plasma free fatty acids). As a follow-up, we administered 7 g/day of either placebo or pyruvate, for a 1-wk period to seven, well-trained male cyclists (maximal oxygen consumption, 62.3 +/- 3.0 ml. kg(-1). min(-1)) in a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial. Subjects cycled at 74-80% of their maximal oxygen consumption until exhaustion. There was no difference in performance times between the two trials (placebo, 91 +/- 9 min; pyruvate, 88 +/- 8 min). Measured blood parameters (insulin, peptide C, glucose, lactate, glycerol, free fatty acids) were also unaffected. Our results indicate that oral pyruvate supplementation does not increase blood pyruvate content and does not enhance performance during intense exercise in well-trained cyclists.

  11. Pyruvate ingestion for 7 days does not improve aerobic performance in well-trained individuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, M. A.; Spriet, L. L.; Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    The purposes of the present studies were to test the hypotheses that lower dosages of oral pyruvate ingestion would increase blood pyruvate concentration and that the ingestion of a commonly recommended dosage of pyruvate (7 g) for 7 days would enhance performance during intense aerobic exercise in well-trained individuals. Nine recreationally active subjects (8 women, 1 man) consumed 7, 15, and 25 g of pyruvate and were monitored for a 4-h period to determine whether blood metabolites were altered. Pyruvate consumption failed to significantly elevate blood pyruvate, and it had no effect on indexes of carbohydrate (blood glucose, lactate) or lipid metabolism (blood glycerol, plasma free fatty acids). As a follow-up, we administered 7 g/day of either placebo or pyruvate, for a 1-wk period to seven, well-trained male cyclists (maximal oxygen consumption, 62.3 +/- 3.0 ml. kg(-1). min(-1)) in a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial. Subjects cycled at 74-80% of their maximal oxygen consumption until exhaustion. There was no difference in performance times between the two trials (placebo, 91 +/- 9 min; pyruvate, 88 +/- 8 min). Measured blood parameters (insulin, peptide C, glucose, lactate, glycerol, free fatty acids) were also unaffected. Our results indicate that oral pyruvate supplementation does not increase blood pyruvate content and does not enhance performance during intense exercise in well-trained cyclists.

  12. Large Number Discrimination in 6-Month-Old Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Fei; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2000-01-01

    Two experiments examined 6-month-olds' ability to discriminate between visual displays of various number of dots varying in size and position, and with controls for other extraneous variables. Findings indicated that infants could discriminate between large sets on the basis of numerosity if they differed by a large ratio (8 versus 16, but not 8…

  13. Maternal Regulation of Infant Reactivity From 2 to 6 Months.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahromi, Laudan B.; Putnam, Samuel P.; Stifter, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    Previous research has investigated the effect of maternal soothing behaviors on reducing infant reactivity but not the differential effects of specific maternal behaviors on infant stress responses. The present study investigated maternal regulation of 2- and 6-month-olds' responses to an inoculation and found a significant decline with age in…

  14. Retrieval Protracts Deferred Imitation by 6-Month-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Rachel; Rovee-Collier, Carolyn; Campanella, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Past research using a deferred imitation task has shown that 6-month-olds remember a 3-part action sequence for only 1 day. The concept of a time window suggests that there is a limited period within which additional information can be integrated with a prior memory. Its width tracks the forgetting function of the memory. This study asked if…

  15. Effect of concurrent aerobic and resistance circuit exercise training on fitness in older adults.

    PubMed

    Takeshima, Nobuo; Rogers, Michael E; Islam, Mohammod M; Yamauchi, Tomoko; Watanabe, Eiji; Okada, Akiyoshi

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the physiological effects of a programmed accommodating circuit exercise (PACE) program consisting of aerobic exercise and hydraulic-resistance exercise (HRE) on fitness in older adults. Thirty-five volunteers were randomly divided into two groups [PACE group (PG) 8 men and 10 women, 68.3 (4.9) years, and non-exercise control group (CG) 7 men and 10 women, 68.0 (3.4) years). The PG participated in a 12-week, 3 days per week supervised program consisting of 10 min warm-up and 30 min of PACE (moderate intensity HRE and aerobic movements at 70% of peak heart rate) followed by 10 min cool-down exercise. PACE increased ( P<0.05) oxygen uptake ( V(.)O(2)) at lactate threshold [PG, pre 0.79 (0.20) l min(-1), post 1.02 (0.22) l min(-1), 29%; CG, pre 0.87 (0.14) l min(-1), post 0.85 (0.15) l min(-1), -2%] and at peak V(.)O(2) [PG, pre 1.36 (0.24) l min(-1), post 1.56 (0.28) l min(-1), 15%; CG, pre 1.32 (0.29) l min(-1), post 1.37 (0.37) l min(-1), 4%] in PG measured using an incremental cycle ergometer. Muscular strength evaluated by a HRE machine increased at low to high resistance dial settings for knee extension (9-52%), knee flexion (14-76%), back extension (18-92%) and flexion (50-70%), chest pull (6-28%) and press (3-17%), shoulder press (18-31%) and pull (26-85%), and leg press (21%). Body fat (sum of three skinfolds) decreased (16%), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) increased (10.9 mg dl(-1)) for PG. There were no changes in any variables for CG. These results indicate that PACE training incorporating aerobic exercise and HRE elicits significant improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, body composition, and HDLC for older adults. Therefore, PACE training is an effective well-rounded exercise program that can be utilized as a means to improve health-related components of fitness in older adults.

  16. The lung cancer exercise training study: a randomized trial of aerobic training, resistance training, or both in postsurgical lung cancer patients: rationale and design

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Lung Cancer Exercise Training Study (LUNGEVITY) is a randomized trial to investigate the efficacy of different types of exercise training on cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak), patient-reported outcomes, and the organ components that govern VO2peak in post-operative non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods/Design Using a single-center, randomized design, 160 subjects (40 patients/study arm) with histologically confirmed stage I-IIIA NSCLC following curative-intent complete surgical resection at Duke University Medical Center (DUMC) will be potentially eligible for this trial. Following baseline assessments, eligible participants will be randomly assigned to one of four conditions: (1) aerobic training alone, (2) resistance training alone, (3) the combination of aerobic and resistance training, or (4) attention-control (progressive stretching). The ultimate goal for all exercise training groups will be 3 supervised exercise sessions per week an intensity above 70% of the individually determined VO2peak for aerobic training and an intensity between 60 and 80% of one-repetition maximum for resistance training, for 30-45 minutes/session. Progressive stretching will be matched to the exercise groups in terms of program length (i.e., 16 weeks), social interaction (participants will receive one-on-one instruction), and duration (30-45 mins/session). The primary study endpoint is VO2peak. Secondary endpoints include: patient-reported outcomes (PROs) (e.g., quality of life, fatigue, depression, etc.) and organ components of the oxygen cascade (i.e., pulmonary function, cardiac function, skeletal muscle function). All endpoints will be assessed at baseline and postintervention (16 weeks). Substudies will include genetic studies regarding individual responses to an exercise stimulus, theoretical determinants of exercise adherence, examination of the psychological mediators of the exercise - PRO relationship, and exercise-induced changes in gene

  17. Helping Adults to Stay Physically Fit: Preventing Relapse Following Aerobic Exercise Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrick, G. Ken; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Long-term adherence to an aerobic exercise regime is a major problem among exercise program graduates. This article discusses the steps involved in developing relapse prevention treatment strategies for aerobic exercise programs. (JMK)

  18. Aerobic and resistance training dependent skeletal muscle plasticity in the colon-26 murine model of cancer cachexia.

    PubMed

    Khamoui, Andy V; Park, Bong-Sup; Kim, Do-Houn; Yeh, Ming-Chia; Oh, Seung-Lyul; Elam, Marcus L; Jo, Edward; Arjmandi, Bahram H; Salazar, Gloria; Grant, Samuel C; Contreras, Robert J; Lee, Won Jun; Kim, Jeong-Su

    2016-05-01

    The appropriate mode of exercise training for cancer cachexia is not well-established. Using the colon-26 (C26) mouse model of cancer cachexia, we defined and compared the skeletal muscle responses to aerobic and resistance training. Twelve-month old Balb/c mice were initially assigned to control, aerobic training (AT; wheel running), or resistance training (RT; ladder climbing) (n=16-17/group). After 8weeks of training, half of each group was injected with C26 tumor cells, followed by 3 additional weeks of training. Body composition and neuromuscular function was evaluated pre- and post-training. Muscles were collected post-training and analyzed for fiber cross-sectional area (CSA), Akt-mTOR signaling, and expression of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and myogenic regulatory factors. Total body mass decreased (p<0.05) in C26 (-8%), AT+C26 (-18%), and RT+C26 (-15%) but not control. Sensorimotor function declined (p<0.05) in control (-16%), C26 (-13%), and RT+C26 (-23%) but not AT+C26. Similarly, strength/body weight decreased (p<0.05) in control (-7%), C26 (-21%), and RT+C26 (-10%) but not AT+C26. Gastrocnemius mass/body weight tended to be greater in AT+C26 vs. C26 (+6%, p=0.09). Enlargement of the spleen was partially corrected in AT+C26 (-27% vs. C26, p<0.05). Fiber CSA was lower in all C26 groups vs. control (-32% to 46%, p<0.05); however, the effect size calculated from C26 and AT+C26 was large (+24%, d=1.04). Phosphorylated levels of mTOR in AT+C26 exceeded C26 (+32%, p<0.05). RT+C26 showed greater mRNA expression (p<0.05) of IGF-IEa (+79%) and myogenin (+126%) with a strong tendency for greater IGF-IEb (+127%, p=0.069) vs. Aerobic or resistance training was unable to prevent tumor-induced body weight loss. However, aerobic training may have preserved function, reduced the inflammatory response of the spleen, and marginally rescued muscle mass possibly through activation of mTOR. Aerobic training may therefore have therapeutic value for patients with

  19. Energy expenditure, nutritional status, body composition and physical fitness of Royal Marines during a 6-month operational deployment in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Fallowfield, Joanne L; Delves, Simon K; Hill, Neil E; Cobley, Rosalyn; Brown, Pieter; Lanham-New, Susan A; Frost, Gary; Brett, Stephen J; Murphy, Kevin G; Montain, Scott J; Nicholson, Christopher; Stacey, Michael; Ardley, Christian; Shaw, Anneliese; Bentley, Conor; Wilson, Duncan R; Allsopp, Adrian J

    2014-09-14

    Understanding the nutritional demands on serving military personnel is critical to inform training schedules and dietary provision. Troops deployed to Afghanistan face austere living and working environments. Observations from the military and those reported in the British and US media indicated possible physical degradation of personnel deployed to Afghanistan. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the changes in body composition and nutritional status of military personnel deployed to Afghanistan and how these were related to physical fitness. In a cohort of British Royal Marines (n 249) deployed to Afghanistan for 6 months, body size and body composition were estimated from body mass, height, girth and skinfold measurements. Energy intake (EI) was estimated from food diaries and energy expenditure measured using the doubly labelled water method in a representative subgroup. Strength and aerobic fitness were assessed. The mean body mass of volunteers decreased over the first half of the deployment ( - 4·6 (sd 3·7) %), predominately reflecting fat loss. Body mass partially recovered (mean +2·2 (sd 2·9) %) between the mid- and post-deployment periods (P< 0·05). Daily EI (mean 10 590 (sd 3339) kJ) was significantly lower than the estimated daily energy expenditure (mean 15 167 (sd 1883) kJ) measured in a subgroup of volunteers. However, despite the body mass loss, aerobic fitness and strength were well maintained. Nutritional provision for British military personnel in Afghanistan appeared sufficient to maintain physical capability and micronutrient status, but providing appropriate nutrition in harsh operational environments must remain a priority.

  20. Aerobic exercise training induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy and age-dependent adaptations in myofiber function in young and older men.

    PubMed

    Harber, Matthew P; Konopka, Adam R; Undem, Miranda K; Hinkley, James M; Minchev, Kiril; Kaminsky, Leonard A; Trappe, Todd A; Trappe, Scott

    2012-11-01

    To examine potential age-specific adaptations in skeletal muscle size and myofiber contractile physiology in response to aerobic exercise, seven young (YM; 20 ± 1 yr) and six older men (OM; 74 ± 3 yr) performed 12 wk of cycle ergometer training. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis to determine size and contractile properties of isolated slow [myosin heavy chain (MHC) I] and fast (MHC IIa) myofibers, MHC composition, and muscle protein concentration. Aerobic capacity was higher (P < 0.05) after training in both YM (16 ± 2%) and OM (13 ± 3%). Quadriceps muscle volume, determined via MRI, was 5 ± 1 and 6 ± 1% greater (P < 0.05) after training for YM and OM, respectively, which was associated with an increase in MHC I myofiber cross-sectional area (CSA), independent of age. MHC I peak power was higher (P < 0.05) after training for both YM and OM, while MHC IIa peak power was increased (P < 0.05) with training in OM only. MHC I and MHC IIa myofiber peak and normalized (peak force/CSA) force were preserved with training in OM, while MHC I peak force/CSA and MHC IIa peak force were lower (P < 0.05) after training in YM. The age-dependent adaptations in myofiber function were not due to changes in protein content, as total muscle protein and myofibrillar protein concentration were unchanged (P > 0.05) with training. Training reduced (P < 0.05) the proportion of MHC IIx isoform, independent of age, whereas no other changes in MHC composition were observed. These data suggest relative improvements in muscle size and aerobic capacity are similar between YM and OM, while adaptations in myofiber contractile function showed a general improvement in OM. Training-related increases in MHC I and MHC IIa peak power reveal that skeletal muscle of OM is responsive to aerobic exercise training and further support the use of aerobic exercise for improving cardiovascular and skeletal muscle health in older individuals.

  1. Morphological assessment of pancreatic islet hormone content following aerobic exercise training in rats with poorly controlled Type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Matthew W; Murray, Michael R; Hall, Katharine E; Noble, Earl G; Melling, C W James

    2014-01-01

    Regular exercise has been shown to improve many complications of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) including enhanced glucose tolerance and increased cardiac function. While exercise training has been shown to increase insulin content in pancreatic islets of rats with T1DM, experimental models were severely hyperglycemic and not undergoing insulin treatment. Further, research to date has yet to determine how exercise training alters glucagon content in pancreatic islets. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the impact of a 10-week aerobic training program on pancreatic islet composition in insulin-treated rats with T1DM. Second, it was determined whether the acute, exercise-mediated reduction in blood glucose experienced in rats with T1DM would become larger in magnitude following aerobic exercise training. Diabetes was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by multiple low dose injections of streptozotocin (20mg/kg i.p.) and moderate intensity aerobic exercise training was performed on a motorized treadmill for one hour per day for a total of 10 weeks. Rats with T1DM demonstrated significantly less islet insulin, and significantly more islet glucagon hormone content compared with non-T1DM rats, which did not significantly change following aerobic training. The reduction in blood glucose in response to a single exercise bout was similar across 10 weeks of training. Results also support the view that different subpopulations of islets exist, as small islets (<50 μm diameter) had significantly more insulin and glucagon in rats with and without T1DM.

  2. Leukocyte Telomere Length is Preserved with Aging in Endurance Exercise-Trained Adults and Related to Maximal Aerobic Capacity

    PubMed Central

    LaRocca, Thomas J.; Seals, Douglas R.; Pierce, Gary L.

    2010-01-01

    Telomere length (TL), a measure of replicative senescence, decreases with aging, but the factors involved are incompletely understood. To determine if age-associated reductions in TL are related to habitual endurance exercise and maximal aerobic exercise capacity (maximal oxygen consumption, VO2max), we studied groups of young (18 – 32 years; n = 15, 7m) and older (55 – 72 years; n = 15, 9m) sedentary and young (n = 10, 7m) and older endurance exercise-trained (n = 17, 11m) healthy adults. Leukocyte TL (LTL) was shorter in the older (7059 ± 141 bp) vs. young (8407 ± 218) sedentary adults (P < 0.01). LTL of the older endurance-trained adults (7992 ± 169 bp) was ~900 bp greater than their sedentary peers (P < 0.01) and was not significantly different (P=0.12) from young exercise-trained adults (8579 ± 413). LTL was positively related to VO2max due to a significant association in older adults (r = 0.44, P < 0.01). Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that VO2max independently explained ~60% of the variance in LTL. Our results indicate that LTL is preserved in healthy older adults who perform vigorous aerobic exercise and is positively related to maximal aerobic exercise capacity. This may represent a novel molecular mechanism underlying the "anti-aging" effects of maintaining high aerobic fitness. PMID:20064545

  3. Impact of combined resistance and aerobic exercise training on branched-chain amino acid turnover, glycine metabolism and insulin sensitivity in overweight humans

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, Erin L.; Piner, Lucy W.; Huffman, Kim M.; Slentz, Cris A.; Elliot-Penry, Lorraine; AbouAssi, Hiba; White, Phillip J.; Bain, James R.; Muehlbauer, Michael J.; Ilkayeva, Olga R.; Stevens, Robert D.; Porter Starr, Kathryn N.; Bales, Connie W.; Volpi, Elena; Brosnan, M. Julia; Trimmer, Jeff K.; Rolph, Timothy P.

    2016-01-01

    Aims/hypotheses Obesity is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity (IS) and elevated plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between BCAA metabolism and IS in overweight (OW) individuals during exercise intervention. Methods Whole-body leucine turnover, IS by hyperinsulinaemic–euglycaemic clamp, and circulating and skeletal muscle amino acids, branched-chain α-keto acids and acylcarnitines were measured in ten healthy controls (Control) and nine OW, untrained, insulin-resistant individuals (OW-Untrained). OW-Untrained then underwent a 6 month aerobic and resistance exercise programme and repeated testing (OW-Trained). Results IS was higher in Control vs OW-Untrained and increased significantly following exercise. IS was lower in OW-Trained vs Control expressed relative to body mass, but was not different from Control when normalised to fat-free mass (FFM). Plasma BCAAs and leucine turnover (relative to FFM) were higher in OW-Untrained vs Control, but did not change on average with exercise. Despite this, within individuals, the decrease in molar sum of circulating BCAAs was the best metabolic predictor of improvement in IS. Circulating glycine levels were higher in Control and OW-Trained vs OW-Untrained, and urinary metabolic profiling suggests that exercise induces more efficient elimination of excess acyl groups derived from BCAA and aromatic amino acid (AA) metabolism via formation of urinary glycine adducts. Conclusions/interpretation A mechanism involving more efficient elimination of excess acyl groups derived from BCAA and aromatic AA metabolism via glycine conjugation in the liver, rather than increased BCAA disposal through oxidation and turnover, may mediate interactions between exercise, BCAA metabolism and IS. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01786941 PMID:26254576

  4. Impact of combined resistance and aerobic exercise training on branched-chain amino acid turnover, glycine metabolism and insulin sensitivity in overweight humans.

    PubMed

    Glynn, Erin L; Piner, Lucy W; Huffman, Kim M; Slentz, Cris A; Elliot-Penry, Lorraine; AbouAssi, Hiba; White, Phillip J; Bain, James R; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Ilkayeva, Olga R; Stevens, Robert D; Porter Starr, Kathryn N; Bales, Connie W; Volpi, Elena; Brosnan, M Julia; Trimmer, Jeff K; Rolph, Timothy P; Newgard, Christopher B; Kraus, William E

    2015-10-01

    Obesity is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity (IS) and elevated plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between BCAA metabolism and IS in overweight (OW) individuals during exercise intervention. Whole-body leucine turnover, IS by hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp, and circulating and skeletal muscle amino acids, branched-chain α-keto acids and acylcarnitines were measured in ten healthy controls (Control) and nine OW, untrained, insulin-resistant individuals (OW-Untrained). OW-Untrained then underwent a 6 month aerobic and resistance exercise programme and repeated testing (OW-Trained). IS was higher in Control vs OW-Untrained and increased significantly following exercise. IS was lower in OW-Trained vs Control expressed relative to body mass, but was not different from Control when normalised to fat-free mass (FFM). Plasma BCAAs and leucine turnover (relative to FFM) were higher in OW-Untrained vs Control, but did not change on average with exercise. Despite this, within individuals, the decrease in molar sum of circulating BCAAs was the best metabolic predictor of improvement in IS. Circulating glycine levels were higher in Control and OW-Trained vs OW-Untrained, and urinary metabolic profiling suggests that exercise induces more efficient elimination of excess acyl groups derived from BCAA and aromatic amino acid (AA) metabolism via formation of urinary glycine adducts. A mechanism involving more efficient elimination of excess acyl groups derived from BCAA and aromatic AA metabolism via glycine conjugation in the liver, rather than increased BCAA disposal through oxidation and turnover, may mediate interactions between exercise, BCAA metabolism and IS. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01786941.

  5. Effect of continuous and interval aerobic exercise training on baroreflex sensitivity in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Masson, Gustavo Santos; Borges, Juliana Pereira; da Silva, Pedro Paulo Soares; da Nóbrega, Antônio Cláudio Lucas; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Lessa, Marcos Adriano

    2016-05-01

    The ability of continuous aerobic exercise training (AET) to increase baroreflex control and cardiac function in heart failure (HF) has been well described, but the comparison between continuous and interval AET on these functions is inconclusive. To compare the effects of continuous and interval AET on cardiac function and baroreflex sensitivity (BrS) in an experimental model of HF. Rats were divided into the following groups: continuous training (HF-CT), intense interval training (HF-IIT), moderate interval training (HF-MIT), sedentary group (HF-SED), and sham sedentary (SHAM-SED). Animals underwent surgery to induce HF by ligation of the interventricular coronary artery. Six weeks after surgery, AET was started (8weeks, 3sessions/week). Echocardiography studies to assess cardiac function were performed before and after AET. At the end of the training protocols, the BrS index was assessed by stepwise intravenous infusions of sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine. All methods of exercise prevented the HF-induced increase in left ventricular diameter in diastole observed in the HF-SED rats (0.88±0.09 vs. 1.03±0.09cm; P<0.05), but only the HF-CT (28.5±6.3 vs. 39.2±12.7%; P<0.05) and HF-MIT (31.0±8.5 vs. 42.0±10.3%; P<0.05) groups exhibited an increase in ejection fraction. Nevertheless, the HF-CT group was the only group that showed a tachycardia reflex higher than that of the HF-SED group (0.87±0.34 vs. 0.20±0.05bpm/mmHg; P<0.05) and similar to that of the SHAM-SED group (1.04±0.11bpm/mmHg). These results suggest that continuous and moderate interval training induced similar improvements in cardiac function but that only continuous training induced higher BrS in HF rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of aerobic training and resistance training on circulating irisin level and their association with change of body composition in overweight/obese adults: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kim, H-J; Lee, H-J; So, B; Son, J S; Yoon, D; Song, W

    2016-06-20

    The novel myokine irisin has been reported as a therapeutic target for metabolic disease. The objective of this study is to reveal the effects of aerobic training (AT) and resistance training (RT) on circulating irisin levels and their associations with change of body composition in overweight/obese adults. Twenty eight overweight/obese adults (BMI>23 kg/m(2)) were included in this study and compared before and after 8 weeks of exercise program (60 min/day, 5 times in a week). The subjects, in both aerobic and resistance training, showed significant improvement in anthropometric parameters and exercise capacities including maximal oxygen uptake and muscle strength. Interestingly, the circulating irisin was significantly increased in resistance training group (p=0.002) but not in aerobic training (p=0.426) compared to control group. In addition, we found the positive correlation between change of the circulating irisin and muscle mass (r=0.432, p=0.022) and the negative correlation between change of the circulating irisin and fat mass (r=-0.407, p=0.031). In the present pilot study, we found that circulating irisin level was increased by 8 weeks of resistance training in overweight/obese adults, suggesting that resistance training could be the efficient exercise type in overweight/obese considering positive change of body composition concomitant with increase of irisin levels.

  7. Aerobic exercise training and burnout: a pilot study with male participants suffering from burnout

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Occupational burnout is associated with severe negative health effects. While stress management programs proved to have a positive influence on the well-being of patients suffering from burnout, it remains unclear whether aerobic exercise alleviates burnout severity and other parameters related to occupational burnout. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to pilot-test the potential outcomes of a 12-week exercise training to generate hypotheses for future larger scale studies. Methods The sample consisted of 12 male participants scoring high on the MBI emotional exhaustion and depersonalization subscales. The training program took place in a private fitness center with a 17.5 kcal/kg minimum requirement of weekly energy expenditure. Results The key findings are that increased exercise reduced overall perceived stress as well as symptoms of burnout and depression. The magnitude of the effects was large, revealing changes of substantial practical relevance. Additionally, profiles of mood states improved considerably after single exercise sessions with a marked shift towards an iceberg profile. Conclusion Among burnout patients, the findings provide preliminary evidence that exercise has the potential to reduce stress and prevent the development of a deeper depression. This has important health implications given that burnout is considered an antecedent of depressive disorders. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: ISRNCT01575743 PMID:23497731

  8. Aerobic exercise training and burnout: a pilot study with male participants suffering from burnout.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Elliot, Catherine; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe; Beck, Johannes

    2013-03-04

    Occupational burnout is associated with severe negative health effects. While stress management programs proved to have a positive influence on the well-being of patients suffering from burnout, it remains unclear whether aerobic exercise alleviates burnout severity and other parameters related to occupational burnout. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to pilot-test the potential outcomes of a 12-week exercise training to generate hypotheses for future larger scale studies. The sample consisted of 12 male participants scoring high on the MBI emotional exhaustion and depersonalization subscales. The training program took place in a private fitness center with a 17.5 kcal/kg minimum requirement of weekly energy expenditure. The key findings are that increased exercise reduced overall perceived stress as well as symptoms of burnout and depression. The magnitude of the effects was large, revealing changes of substantial practical relevance. Additionally, profiles of mood states improved considerably after single exercise sessions with a marked shift towards an iceberg profile. Among burnout patients, the findings provide preliminary evidence that exercise has the potential to reduce stress and prevent the development of a deeper depression. This has important health implications given that burnout is considered an antecedent of depressive disorders. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: ISRNCT01575743.

  9. Rhodiola crenulata- and Cordyceps sinensis-Based Supplement Boosts Aerobic Exercise Performance after Short-Term High Altitude Training

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chung-Yu; Hou, Chien-Wen; Bernard, Jeffrey R.; Chen, Chiu-Chou; Hung, Ta-Cheng; Cheng, Lu-Ling; Liao, Yi-Hung

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Chen, Chung-Yu, Chien-Wen Hou, Jeffrey R. Bernard, Chiu-Chou Chen, Ta-Cheng Hung, Lu-Ling Cheng, Yi-Hung Liao, and Chia-Hua Kuo. Rhodiola crenulata- and Cordyceps sinensis-based supplement boosts aerobic exercise performance after short-term high altitude training. High Alt Med Biol 15:371–379, 2014.—High altitude training is a widely used strategy for improving aerobic exercise performance. Both Rhodiola crenulata (R) and Cordyceps sinensis (C) supplements have been reported to improve exercise performance. However, it is not clear whether the provision of R and C during high altitude training could further enhance aerobic endurance capacity. In this study, we examined the effect of R and C based supplementation on aerobic exercise capacity following 2-week high altitude training. Alterations to autonomic nervous system activity, circulatory hormonal, and hematological profiles were investigated. Eighteen male subjects were divided into two groups: Placebo (n=9) and R/C supplementation (RC, n=9). Both groups received either RC (R: 1400 mg+C: 600 mg per day) or the placebo during a 2-week training period at an altitude of 2200 m. After 2 weeks of altitude training, compared with Placebo group, the exhaustive run time was markedly longer (Placebo: +2.2% vs. RC: +5.7%; p<0.05) and the decline of parasympathetic (PNS) activity was significantly prevented in RC group (Placebo: −51% vs. RC: −41%; p<0.05). Red blood cell, hematocrit, and hemoglobin levels were elevated in both groups to a comparable extent after high altitude training (p<0.05), whereas the erythropoietin (EPO) level remained higher in the Placebo group (∼48% above RC values; p<0.05). The provision of an RC supplement during altitude training provides greater training benefits in improving aerobic performance. This beneficial effect of RC treatment may result from better maintenance of PNS activity and accelerated physiological adaptations during high altitude training. PMID

  10. Comparison of strength training, aerobic training, and additional physical therapy as supplementary treatments for Parkinson's disease: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Alessandro; Barbirato, Dannyel; Araujo, Narahyana; Martins, Jose Vicente; Cavalcanti, Jose Luiz Sá; Santos, Tony Meireles; Coutinho, Evandro S; Laks, Jerson; Deslandes, Andrea C

    2015-01-01

    Physical rehabilitation is commonly used in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) to improve their health and alleviate the symptoms. We compared the effects of three programs, strength training (ST), aerobic training (AT), and physiotherapy, on motor symptoms, functional capacity, and electroencephalographic (EEG) activity in PD patients. Twenty-two patients were recruited and randomized into three groups: AT (70% of maximum heart rate), ST (80% of one repetition maximum), and physiotherapy (in groups). Subjects participated in their respective interventions twice a week for 12 weeks. The assessments included measures of disease symptoms (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale [UPDRS]), functional capacity (Senior Fitness Test), and EEG before and after 12 weeks of intervention. The PD motor symptoms (UPDRS-III) in the group of patients who performed ST and AT improved by 27.5% (effect size [ES]=1.25, confidence interval [CI]=-0.11, 2.25) and 35% (ES=1.34, CI=-0.16, 2.58), respectively, in contrast to the physiotherapy group, which showed a 2.9% improvement (ES=0.07, CI=-0.85, 0.99). Furthermore, the functional capacity of all three groups improved after the intervention. The mean frequency of the EEG analysis mainly showed the effect of the interventions on the groups (F=11.50, P=0.0001). ST and AT in patients with PD are associated with improved outcomes in disease symptoms and functional capacity.

  11. Aerobic exercise training promotes physiological cardiac remodeling involving a set of microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Tiago; Baraúna, Valério G.; Negrão, Carlos E.; Phillips, M. Ian

    2015-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is an important physiological compensatory mechanism in response to chronic increase in hemodynamic overload. There are two different forms of LV hypertrophy, one physiological and another pathological. Aerobic exercise induces beneficial physiological LV remodeling. The molecular/cellular mechanisms for this effect are not totally known, and here we review various mechanisms including the role of microRNA (miRNA). Studies in the heart, have identified antihypertrophic miRNA-1, -133, -26, -9, -98, -29, -378, and -145 and prohypertrophic miRNA-143, -103, -130a, -146a, -21, -210, -221, -222, -27a/b, -199a/b, -208, -195, -499, -34a/b/c, -497, -23a, and -15a/b. Four miRNAs are recognized as cardiac-specific: miRNA-1, -133a/b, -208a/b, and -499 and called myomiRs. In our studies we have shown that miRNAs respond to swimming aerobic exercise by 1) decreasing cardiac fibrosis through miRNA-29 increasing and inhibiting collagen, 2) increasing angiogenesis through miRNA-126 by inhibiting negative regulators of the VEGF pathway, and 3) modulating the renin-angiotensin system through the miRNAs-27a/b and -143. Exercise training also increases cardiomyocyte growth and survival by swimming-regulated miRNA-1, -21, -27a/b, -29a/c, -30e, -99b, -100, -124, -126, -133a/b, -143, -144, -145, -208a, and -222 and running-regulated miRNA-1, -26, -27a, -133, -143, -150, and -222, which influence genes associated with the heart remodeling and angiogenesis. We conclude that there is a potential role of these miRNAs in promoting cardioprotective effects on physiological growth. PMID:26071549

  12. Aerobic exercise does not compromise muscle hypertrophy response to short-term resistance training.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, Tommy R; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Gustafsson, Thomas; Tesch, Per A

    2013-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that chronic aerobic and resistance exercise (AE+RE) would elicit greater muscle hypertrophy than resistance exercise only (RE). Ten men (25 ± 4 yr) performed 5 wk unilateral knee extensor AE+RE. The opposing limb was subjected to RE. AE completed 6 hr prior to RE consisted of ~45 min one-legged cycle ergometry. RE comprised 4 × 7 maximal concentric-eccentric knee extensions. Various indexes of in vivo knee extensor function were measured before and after training. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessed m. quadricep femoris (QF) cross-sectional area (CSA), volume, and signal intensity (SI). Biopsies obtained from m. vastus lateralis determined fiber CSA, enzyme levels, and gene expression of myostatin, atrogin-1, MuRF-1, PGC-1α, and VEGF. Increases (P < 0.05) in isometric strength and peak power, respectively, were comparable in AE+RE (9 and 29%) and RE (11 and 24%). AE+RE showed greater increase (14%; P < 0.05) in QF volume than RE (8%). Muscle fiber CSA increased 17% after AE+RE (P < 0.05) and 9% after RE (P > 0.05). QF SI increased (12%; P < 0.05) after AE+RE, but not RE. Neither AE+RE nor RE showed altered mRNA levels. Citrate synthase activity increased (P < 0.05) after AE+RE. The results suggest that the increased aerobic capacity shown with AE+RE was accompanied by a more robust increase in muscle size compared with RE. Although this response was not carried over to greater improvement in muscle function, it remains that intense AE can be executed prior to RE without compromising performance outcome.

  13. Regulation of cardiac microRNAs induced by aerobic exercise training during heart failure.

    PubMed

    Souza, Rodrigo W A; Fernandez, Geysson J; Cunha, João P Q; Piedade, Warlen P; Soares, Luana C; Souza, Paula A T; de Campos, Dijon H S; Okoshi, Katashi; Cicogna, Antonio C; Dal-Pai-Silva, Maeli; Carvalho, Robson F

    2015-11-15

    Exercise training (ET) has beneficial effects on the myocardium in heart failure (HF) patients and in animal models of induced cardiac hypertrophy and failure. We hypothesized that if microRNAs (miRNAs) respond to changes following cardiac stress, then myocardial profiling of these miRNAs may reveal cardio-protective mechanisms of aerobic ET in HF. We used ascending aortic stenosis (AS) inducing HF in Wistar rats. Controls were sham-operated animals. At 18 wk after surgery, rats with cardiac dysfunction were randomized to 10 wk of aerobic ET (HF-ET) or to a heart failure sedentary group (HF-S). ET attenuated cardiac remodeling as well as clinical and pathological signs of HF with maintenance of systolic and diastolic function when compared with that of the HF-S. Global miRNA expression profiling of the cardiac tissue revealed 53 miRNAs exclusively dysregulated in animals in the HF-ET, but only 11 miRNAs were exclusively dysregulated in the HF-S. Out of 23 miRNAs that were differentially regulated in both groups, 17 miRNAs exhibited particularly high increases in expression, including miR-598, miR-429, miR-224, miR-425, and miR-221. From the initial set of deregulated miRNAs, 14 miRNAs with validated targets expressed in cardiac tissue that respond robustly to ET in HF were used to construct miRNA-mRNA regulatory networks that revealed a set of 203 miRNA-target genes involved in programmed cell death, TGF-β signaling, cellular metabolic processes, cytokine signaling, and cell morphogenesis. Our findings reveal that ET attenuates cardiac abnormalities during HF by regulating cardiac miRNAs with a potential role in cardio-protective mechanisms through multiple effects on gene expression.

  14. Triptorelin embonate: a 6-month formulation for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Peter

    2010-12-01

    Luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LH RH) agonists are the major agent for androgen deprivation therapy in advanced and metastatic prostate cancer. They also have a role in endometriosis, uterine fibroids and central precocious puberty. Triptorelin embonate 22.5 mg is a new, sustained-release, 6-month formulation of an LH RH agonist. It possesses longer duration of action than the current standard 3-month preparation and appears to have similar efficacy and side effects. The use of LH RH agonists for androgen deprivation in prostate cancer has increased considerably in the last 20 years. Recent work has shown that some of this usage has constituted overtreatment and it is within these newer paradigms of therapy that the new 6-month preparation is situated. The new 6-month LH RH preparation - triptorelin embonate - will be of help in several key areas of therapy for prostate cancer, notably as an adjunct to radiation therapy and chemotherapy. It possesses a similar effect, but with fewer side effects, than those that are now commonly available.

  15. Still nursing at 6 months: a survey of breastfeeding mothers.

    PubMed

    Augustin, Amy L; Donovan, Kathleen; Lozano, Emily A; Massucci, Diane J; Wohlgemuth, Fran

    2014-01-01

    To learn about the duration of breastfeeding and to describe the variables influencing breastfeeding practices of mothers who gave birth at a suburban community hospital. An Institutional Review Board approved this descriptive anonymous survey with 20 questions concerning patients' characteristics and experiences with breastfeeding, which was developed based on current literature. The survey was distributed to mothers through Survey Monkey via email 6 months after birth. The survey link was sent to 806 mothers, with a response rate of 50%. Over 59% were still breastfeeding at 6 months. Mothers who initiated skin-to-skin contact in the first hour had a higher rate of breastfeeding during this time frame compared to mothers who did not perform skin-to-skin contact. Women who had cesarean births and women who were primiparas reported a higher use of formula while in the hospital, and breastfed for a shorter duration. The primary reasons for stopping breastfeeding were low milk supply, returned to work, and baby did not latch and nurse well. This study adds to the knowledge base of what practices influence rates and duration of breastfeeding in the first 6 months of a baby's life. The information could enhance the care provided to mothers and babies through improving lactation programs and thereby increasing breastfeeding success rates.

  16. Effects of resistance training and aerobic exercise in elderly people concerning physical fitness and ability: a prospective clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Roma, Maria Fernanda Bottino; Busse, Alexandre Leopold; Betoni, Rosana Aparecida; de Melo, Antonio Cesar; Kong, Juwando; Santarem, Jose Maria; Jacob, Wilson

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the effects of physical fitness and function on older adults in two programs of supervised exercise activity: resistance training and aerobic exercise. Methods: This study is a randomized, prospective clinical trial composed of sedentary elderly people who did not have contraindications to exercise. Participants were divided into two groups: group one performed 6 exercises of resistance training twice a week, and group two participated in walking activity for 30 minutes twice a week. Functional assessment (time 0,6 and 12 months) was measured by the Short Physical Performance Battery (time to sit or stand, gait speed, and balance), flexibility test, and the six-minute walking test. We randomly selected 96 patients: 46 in the Resistance Training Group and 50 in the Aerobic Exercise Group. In the Resistance Training Group, 46 attended the first assessment and 20 attended until the third section. In the Aerobic Exercise Group, 50 attended the first assessment and 12 attended until the third assessment. Results: Mean age was 68.8 years in the Resistance Training Group and 69.1 years in the Aerobic Exercise Group. The Resistance Training Group showed improvement in the sit/ stand (p=0.022), balance with feet in a row (p=0.039) and queued (p=0.001). The second showed a statistical difference in speed and balance with the feet lined up and the feet together (p=0.008; p=0.02; and p=0.043, respectively). Concerning flexibility, the Resistance Training Group had improvement (p=0.001), whereas in the Aerobic Exercise Group, no significant difference was seen (p=0.359). Both groups had improvement in the six-minute walking test, but no significant improvement was seen in the Aerobic Exercise Group (p=0.033). Conclusion: Both groups showed improvement in physical fitness. No statistical difference was seen when groups was compared in the short physical performance battery, flexibility, and six-minute walking test. Clinical trial register: UTN: U

  17. The AGT Gene M235T Polymorphism and Response of Power-Related Variables to Aerobic Training

    PubMed Central

    Aleksandra, Zarębska; Zbigniew, Jastrzębski; Waldemar, Moska; Agata, Leońska-Duniec; Mariusz, Kaczmarczyk; Marek, Sawczuk; Agnieszka, Maciejewska-Skrendo; Piotr, Żmijewski; Krzysztof, Ficek; Grzegorz, Trybek; Ewelina, Lulińska-Kuklik; Semenova, Ekaterina A.; Ahmetov, Ildus I.; Paweł, Cięszczyk

    2016-01-01

    The C allele of the M235T (rs699) polymorphism of the AGT gene correlates with higher levels of angiotensin II and has been associated with power and strength sport performance. The aim of the study was to investigate whether or not selected power-related variables and their response to a 12-week program of aerobic dance training are modulated by the AGT M235T genotype in healthy participants. Two hundred and one Polish Caucasian women aged 21 ± 1 years met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study. All women completed a 12-week program of low and high impact aerobics. Wingate peak power and total work capacity, 5 m, 10 m, and 30 m running times and jump height and jump power were determined before and after the training programme. All power-related variables improved significantly in response to aerobic dance training. We found a significant association between the M235T polymorphism and jump-based variables (squat jump (SJ) height, p = 0.005; SJ power, p = 0.015; countermovement jump height, p = 0.025; average of 10 countermovement jumps with arm swing (ACMJ) height, p = 0.001; ACMJ power, p = 0.035). Specifically, greater improvements were observed in the C allele carriers in comparison with TT homozygotes. In conclusion, aerobic dance, one of the most commonly practiced adult fitness activities in the world, provides sufficient training stimuli for augmenting the explosive strength necessary to increase vertical jump performance. The AGT gene M235T polymorphism seems to be not only a candidate gene variant for power/strength related phenotypes, but also a genetic marker for predicting response to training. Key points Aerobic dance provides sufficient training stimuli for the improvement of explosive power. The AGT gene M235T polymorphism is associated with individual variation in the change of power-related phenotypes in response to aerobic dance training. The C allele carriers of the AGT gene M235T polymorphism show greater improvements of jump

  18. Benefits of aerobic or resistance training during pregnancy on maternal health and perinatal outcomes: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Perales, Maria; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Lucia, Alejandro; Barakat, Ruben

    2016-03-01

    To understand what evidence exists with regard to maternal and offspring benefits of aerobic and/or resistance training during pregnancy. Systematic review of RCTs (published until May 2015) with healthy pregnant women and focusing on the benefits of exercise interventions on maternal health or perinatal outcomes. Studies were ranked as high/low quality, and a level of evidence was established according to the number of high-quality studies and consistency of the results. 61 RCTs were analyzed. The evidence for a benefit of combined exercise [aerobic+resistance (muscle strength)] interventions on maternal cardiorespiratory fitness and prevention of urinary incontinence was strong. A weak or insufficient level of evidence was found for the rest of interventions and outcomes The exercise modality that seems to induce a more favorable effect on maternal health is the combination of aerobic and resistance exercises during pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cardiac vagal outflow after aerobic training by analysis of high-frequency oscillation of the R-R interval.

    PubMed

    Kiviniemi, Antti M; Hautala, Arto J; Mäkikallio, Timo H; Seppänen, Tapio; Huikuri, Heikki V; Tulppo, Mikko P

    2006-04-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of aerobic training on the dynamics between the R-R interval length and the high-frequency (HF) oscillation of the R-R interval. Seventeen healthy males (26+/-2 years) participated in an 8-week aerobic training intervention. The mean HF spectral power (0.15-0.4 Hz) of the R-R interval and the mean R-R interval length were analyzed from 24-h recordings. HF power was also analyzed in 5-min sequences and plotted as a function of the corresponding mean R-R interval length. The relationship between the R-R interval length and the HF power was analyzed by a quadratic regression model. The relationship was defined as saturated if the distinct deflection point of the model occurred before the maximum R-R interval. Otherwise, the relationship was defined as linear. Additionally, the mean HF power was calculated from the linear portion of the R-R interval versus the HF power regression curve (HF index). Before the training intervention, seven subjects had a saturated HF power. After the intervention, five new cases of saturated HF power were observed. The mean HF power of the 24-h recording did not change in the group with a saturated HF power before training (7.4+/-0.8 vs. 7.6+/-0.8 ms(2)), but the HF index increased (6.7+/-0.7 vs. 7.1+/-0.7 ms(2), P<0.05). We conclude that enhanced vagal activity due to aerobic training increases the prevalence of the saturation of the HF oscillation of the R-R interval variability in healthy subjects. HF power calculated from unsaturated area detects more accurately subtle changes in the vagally mediated beat-to-beat variability of the R-R interval after aerobic training than the mean 24-h HF power.

  20. The effects of exercise modality during additional 'high-intensity interval training' upon aerobic fitness and strength in powerlifting and strongman athletes.

    PubMed

    Androulakis-Korakakis, Patroklos; Langdown, Louis; Lewis, Adam; Fisher, James; Gentil, Paulo; Paoli, Antonio; Steele, James

    2017-04-21

    Powerlifters and strongman athletes have a necessity for optimal levels of muscular strength whilst maintaining sufficient aerobic capacity to perform and recover between events. HIIT has been popularized for its efficacy in improving both aerobic fitness and strength but never assessed within the aforementioned population group. The present study looked to compare the effect of exercise modality, e.g. a traditional aerobic mode (AM), and strength mode, (SM), during HIIT upon aerobic fitness and strength. Sixteen well resistance trained male participants, currently competing in powerlifting and strongman events, completed 8 weeks of approximately effort- and volume-matched HIIT in 2 groups: AM (cycling, n=8) and SM (resistance training, n=8). Aerobic fitness was measured as predicted V O_2Max using the YMCA 3 minute step test and strength as predicted 1RM from a 4-6RM test using a leg extension. Both groups showed significant improvements in both strength and aerobic fitness. There was a significant between-group difference for aerobic fitness improvements favoring the AM group (p<0.05). There was no between-group difference for change in strength. Magnitude of change using within group effect size (ES) for aerobic fitness and strength were considered large for each group (aerobic fitness, AM = 2.6, SM = 2.0; strength, AM = 1.9, SM = 1.8). In conclusion, our results support enhanced strength and aerobic fitness irrespective of exercise modality (e.g. traditional aerobic and resistance training). However, powerlifters and strongman athletes wishing to enhance their aerobic fitness should consider HIIT using an aerobic HIIT mode.

  1. Does Aerobic Exercise Influence Intrinsic Brain Activity? An Aerobic Exercise Intervention among Healthy Old Adults.

    PubMed

    Flodin, Pär; Jonasson, Lars S; Riklund, Katrin; Nyberg, Lars; Boraxbekk, C J

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that aerobic exercise could reduce age related decline in cognition and brain functioning. Here we investigated the effects of aerobic exercise on intrinsic brain activity. Sixty sedentary healthy males and females (64-78 years) were randomized into either an aerobic exercise group or an active control group. Both groups recieved supervised training, 3 days a week for 6 months. Multimodal brain imaging data was acquired before and after the intervention, including 10 min of resting state brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and arterial spin labeling (ASL). Additionally, a comprehensive battery of cognitive tasks assessing, e.g., executive function and episodic memory was administered. Both the aerobic and the control group improved in aerobic capacity (VO2-peak) over 6 months, but a significant group by time interaction confirmed that the aerobic group improved more. Contrary to our hypothesis, we did not observe any significant group by time interactions with regard to any measure of intrinsic activity. To further probe putative relationships between fitness and brain activity, we performed post hoc analyses disregarding group belongings. At baseline, VO2-peak was negativly related to BOLD-signal fluctuations (BOLDSTD) in mid temporal areas. Over 6 months, improvements in aerobic capacity were associated with decreased connectivity between left hippocampus and contralateral precentral gyrus, and positively to connectivity between right mid-temporal areas and frontal and parietal regions. Independent component analysis identified a VO2-related increase in coupling between the default mode network and left orbitofrontal cortex, as well as a decreased connectivity between the sensorimotor network and thalamus. Extensive exploratory data analyses of global efficiency, connectome wide multivariate pattern analysis (connectome-MVPA), as well as ASL, did not reveal any relationships between aerobic fitness and intrinsic

  2. Cardiac autonomic function and baroreflex changes following 4 weeks of resistance versus aerobic training in individuals with pre-hypertension.

    PubMed

    Collier, S R; Kanaley, J A; Carhart, R; Frechette, V; Tobin, M M; Bennett, N; Luckenbaugh, A N; Fernhall, B

    2009-03-01

    Cardiac autonomic modulation and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) are altered in individuals with hypertension. Aerobic exercise (AE) training has been shown to improve both measures, yet little is known about the effects of resistance exercise (RE). The purpose of this study was to examine the heart rate variability (HRV) and BRS following 4 weeks of resistance or aerobic training in a population with borderline high blood pressure (BP). Twenty-nine mild hypertensives were recruited and randomly assigned to 4 weeks of RE or AE training. Before and after training, resting measures of HRV frequencies and BRS were obtained. There was a significant decrease in resting systolic BP for both exercise training modes (RE 136 +/- 3.0 pre- to 132 +/- 3.4 post-training vs. AE 142 +/- 4.0 pre- to 137 +/- 3.6 mmHg post-training, P = 0.019). Diastolic BP decreased significantly following both exercise training modes (RE 78 +/- 1.31 pre to 74 +/- 1.1 post vs. AE 80 +/- 1.7 pre to 77 +/- 1.6 mmHg post, P = 0.002). A significant time by training mode interaction for low frequency : high frequency (HF) ratio (P = 0.017) with AE decreasing the ratio (275.21 +/- 67.28 to 161.26 +/- 61.49) and RE increasing this ratio (143.73 +/- 65.00 to 227.83 +/- 59.41). Natural log-transformed (ln) HRV values showed a time-by-training mode interaction for ln HF (P = 0.05) as ln HF increased (4.7 +/- 0.38 to 5.4 +/- 0.35 ms(2)) following AE and decreased (5.98 +/- 0.37 to 5.76 +/- 0.42 ms(2)) following RE. BRS increased following aerobic training and decreased after resistance training (6.74 +/- 1.2 to 7.94 +/- 1.3 and 10.44 +/- 1.2 to 9.1 +/- 1.2 ms mmHg(-1) respectively, P = 0.021). Aerobic exercise improved the autonomic nervous system (increasing vagal tone, reducing sympathovagal balance while increasing BRS) while RE showed no improvements in cardiac autonomic tone and decreased BRS.

  3. Predictors of fat mass changes in response to aerobic exercise training in women.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Brandon J; Bhammar, Dharini M; Angadi, Siddhartha S; Ryan, Dana M; Ryder, Justin R; Sussman, Elizabeth J; Bertmann, Farryl M W; Gaesser, Glenn A

    2015-02-01

    Aerobic exercise training in women typically results in minimal fat loss, with considerable individual variability. We hypothesized that women with higher baseline body fat would lose more body fat in response to exercise training and that early fat loss would predict final fat loss. Eighty-one sedentary premenopausal women (age: 30.7 ± 7.8 years; height: 164.5 ± 7.4 cm; weight: 68.2 ± 16.4 kg; fat percent: 38.1 ± 8.8) underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry before and after 12 weeks of supervised treadmill walking 3 days per week for 30 minutes at 70% of (Equation is included in full-text article.). Overall, women did not lose body weight or fat mass. However, considerable individual variability was observed for changes in body weight (-11.7 to +4.8 kg) and fat mass (-11.8 to +3.7 kg). Fifty-five women were classified as compensators and, as a group, gained fat mass (25.6 ± 11.1 kg to 26.1 ± 11.3 kg; p < 0.001). The strongest correlates of change in body fat at 12 weeks were change in body weight (r = 0.52) and fat mass (r = 0.48) at 4 weeks. Stepwise regression analysis that included change in body weight and body fat at 4 weeks and submaximal exercise energy expenditure yielded a prediction model that explained 37% of the variance in fat mass change (R = 0.37, p < 0.001). Change in body weight and fat mass at 4 weeks were moderate predictors of fat loss and may potentially be useful for identification of individuals who achieve less than expected weight loss or experience unintended fat gain in response to exercise training.

  4. Ophthalmological Evaluation of Integrated Resistance and Aerobic Training During 70-Day Bed Rest.

    PubMed

    Taibbi, Giovanni; Cromwell, Ronita L; Zanello, Susana B; Yarbough, Patrice O; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert J; Godley, Bernard F; Vizzeri, Gianmarco

    2017-07-01

    We evaluated ophthalmic changes in healthy individuals who underwent integrated resistance and aerobic training (iRAT) during 70-d 6° head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest (BR). Participants were selected using NASA standard screening procedures. Standardized NASA BR conditions were implemented. Subjects were randomly assigned to the iRAT protocol or no exercise during HDTBR. Weekly ophthalmic examinations were performed in the sitting (pre/post-BR only) and HDT (BR only) positions. Mixed-effects linear models compared pre- and post-HDTBR intraocular pressure (IOP), Spectralis OCT circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL) thickness, and peripapillary retinal thickness observations between groups. Six controls and nine exercisers completed the study. There was an overall effect of BR on our outcomes. Except Goldmann IOP (mean pre/post difference in controls and exercisers: -0.47 mmHg vs. +1.14 mmHg), the magnitude of changes from baseline was not significantly different between groups. There was a +1.38 mmHg and a +1.63 mmHg iCare IOP increase during BR in controls and exercisers, respectively. Spectralis OCT detected a +1.33 μm average cpRNFL thickness increase in both groups, and a +9.77 μm and a +6.65 μm peripapillary retinal thickening post-BR in controls and exercisers, respectively. Modified Amsler grid, red dot test, confrontational visual field, color vision, and stereoscopic fundus photography were unremarkable. HDTBR for 70 d induced peripapillary retinal thickening and cpRNFL thickening without visible signs of optic disc edema. The magnitude of such changes was not different between controls and exercisers. A slight IOP increase during BR subsided post-BR. Further study should evaluate whether different physical exercise paradigms may prevent/mitigate the risk of space-related visual impairment.Taibbi G, Cromwell RL, Zanello SB, Yarbough PO, Ploutz-Snyder RJ, Godley BF, Vizzeri G. Ophthalmological evaluation of integrated resistance and aerobic

  5. Individual Variability in Aerobic Fitness Adaptations to 70-d of Bed Rest and Exercise Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs, Meghan; Buxton, Roxanne; Goetchius, Elizabeth; DeWitt, John; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Change in maximal aerobic capacity (VO2pk) in response to exercise training and disuse is highly variable among individuals. Factors that could contribute to the observed variability (lean mass, daily activity, diet, sleep, stress) are not routinely controlled in studies. The NASA bed rest (BR) studies use a highly controlled hospital based model as an analog of spaceflight. In this study, diet, hydration, physical activity and light/dark cycles were precisely controlled and provided the opportunity to investigate individual variability. PURPOSE. Evaluate the contribution of exercise intensity and lean mass on change in VO2pk during 70-d of BR or BR + exercise. METHODS. Subjects completed 70-d of BR alone (CON, N=9) or BR + exercise (EX, N=17). The exercise prescription included 6 d/wk of aerobic exercise at 70 - 100% of max and 3 d/wk of lower body resistance exercise. Subjects were monitored 24 hr/d. VO2pk and lean mass (iDXA) were measured pre and post BR. ANOVA was used to evaluate changes in VO2pk pre to post BR. Subjects were retrospectively divided into high and low responders based on change in VO2pk (CON > 20% loss, n=5; EX >10% loss, n=4, or 5% gain, n=4) to further understand individual variability. RESULTS. VO2pk decreased from pre to post BR in CON (P<0.05) and was maintained in EX; however, significant individual variability was observed (CON: -22%, range: -39% to -.5%; EX: -1.8%, range: -16% to 12.6%). The overlap in ranges between groups included 3 CON who experienced smaller reduction in VO2pk (<16%) than the worst responding EX subjects. Individual variability was maintained when VO2pk was normalized to lean mass (range, CON: -33.7% to -5.7%; EX: -15.8% to 11%), and the overlap included 5 CON with smaller reductions in VO2pk than the worst responding EX subjects. High responders to disuse also lost the most lean mass; however, this relationship was not maintained in EX (i.e. the largest gains/losses in lean mass were observed in both high and low

  6. Short-term moderate intensive high volume training program provides aerobic endurance benefit in wheelchair basketball players.

    PubMed

    Skucas, Kestutis; Pokvytyte, Vaida

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of short-term period, moderate intensity and high volume endurance training on physiological variables in elite wheelchair basketball players. Eight wheelchair basketball players were examined. The subjects participated in a two-week intervention program of mainly two training types: wheelchair basketball and wheelchair driving endurance training. The subjects performed the continuously increasing cycling exercise (CCE) at the constant 60 rpm arm cranking speed at the beginning of the program and after two weeks of the program. The initial workload was 20 W, then the workload was increased by 2 W every 5 seconds until fatigue. The post training of the wheelchair basketball group in the study showed a significant improvement in the peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and the peak power output (POpeak). VO2peak increased by 9% from 2.32±0.16 L/min to 2.53±0.2 L/min (P<0.05). POpeak increased by 28% from 141.75±14.23 W, to 181.63±26.3 W (P<0.05). The pre-training and post training test power output (PO [w]), relative power output (PO [w/kg]) increased significantly in all zones of energy production. In conclusion, this study indicated that the wheelchair basketball squad had relatively high levels of aerobic fitness prior to participating in the endurance training program. Nevertheless, the high-volume, moderate-intensity, short-term training program, which evolved over the two-weeks period, resulted in the improvement of the athlete's aerobic endurance. The ventilatory threshold (VT) and the second ventilatory threshold (VT2) are good markers for aerobic capacity of wheelchair athletes.

  7. Effects of Small-Sided Games vs. Interval Training in Aerobic Fitness and Physical Enjoyment in Young Elite Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Los Arcos, Asier; Vázquez, Juan Sebastián; Martín, Juan; Lerga, Javier; Sánchez, Felipe; Villagra, Federico; Zulueta, Javier J

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Small-Sided Games (SSG) vs. Interval Training (IT) in soccer training on aerobic fitness and physical enjoyment in youth elite soccer players during the last 8 weeks of the season. Seventeen U-16 male soccer players (age = 15.5 ± 0.6 years, and 8.5 years of experience) of a Spanish First Division club academy were randomized to 2 different groups for 6 weeks: SSG group (n = 9) and IT group (n = 8). In addition to the usual technical and tactical sessions and competitive games, the SSG group performed 11 sessions with different SSGs, whereas the IT group performed the same number of sessions of IT. Players were tested before and after the 6-week training intervention with a continuous maximal multistage running field test and the counter movement jump test (CMJ). At the end of the study, players answered the physical activity enjoyment scale (PACES). During the study, heart rate (HR) and session perceived effort (sRPE) were assessed. SSGs were as effective as IT in maintaining the aerobic fitness in elite young soccer players during the last weeks of the season. Players in the SSG group declared a greater physical enjoyment than IT (P = 0.006; ES = 1.86 ± 1.07). Coaches could use SSG training during the last weeks of the season as an option without fear of losing aerobic fitness while promoting high physical enjoyment.

  8. Effects of Small-Sided Games vs. Interval Training in Aerobic Fitness and Physical Enjoyment in Young Elite Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Juan; Lerga, Javier; Sánchez, Felipe; Villagra, Federico; Zulueta, Javier J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Small-Sided Games (SSG) vs. Interval Training (IT) in soccer training on aerobic fitness and physical enjoyment in youth elite soccer players during the last 8 weeks of the season. Seventeen U-16 male soccer players (age = 15.5 ± 0.6 years, and 8.5 years of experience) of a Spanish First Division club academy were randomized to 2 different groups for 6 weeks: SSG group (n = 9) and IT group (n = 8). In addition to the usual technical and tactical sessions and competitive games, the SSG group performed 11 sessions with different SSGs, whereas the IT group performed the same number of sessions of IT. Players were tested before and after the 6-week training intervention with a continuous maximal multistage running field test and the counter movement jump test (CMJ). At the end of the study, players answered the physical activity enjoyment scale (PACES). During the study, heart rate (HR) and session perceived effort (sRPE) were assessed. SSGs were as effective as IT in maintaining the aerobic fitness in elite young soccer players during the last weeks of the season. Players in the SSG group declared a greater physical enjoyment than IT (P = 0.006; ES = 1.86 ± 1.07). Coaches could use SSG training during the last weeks of the season as an option without fear of losing aerobic fitness while promoting high physical enjoyment. PMID:26331623

  9. Orange juice improved lipid profile and blood lactate of overweight middle-aged women subjected to aerobic training.

    PubMed

    Aptekmann, Nancy Preising; Cesar, Thais Borges

    2010-12-01

    This study investigated how consumption of orange juice associated with aerobic training affected serum lipids and physical characteristics of overweight, middle-aged women. The experimental group consisted of 13 women who consumed 500 mL/d of orange juice and did 1h aerobic training 3 times a week for 3 months. The control group consisted of another 13 women who did the same aerobic training program but did not consume orange juice. At the end of the experiment, the control group lost an average of 15% of fat mass (P<0.05) and 2.5% of weight (P<0.05), whereas the experimental group lost 11% of fat mass and 1.2% of weight (P<0.05). Consumption of orange juice by the experimental group was associated with increased dietary intake of vitamin C and folate by 126% and 61% respectively. Serum LDL-C decreased 15% (P<0.05) and HDL-C increased 18% (P<0.05) in the experimental group, but no significant change was observed in the control group. Both groups improved the anaerobic threshold by 20% (P<0.05), but blood lactate concentration decreased 27% in the experimental group compared to the 17% control group, suggesting that experimental group has less muscle fatigue and better response to training. The consumption of 500 mL/d of orange juice associated with aerobic training in overweight women decreased cardiovascular disease risk by reducing LDL-C levels and increasing HDL-C levels. This association also decreased blood lactate concentration and increased anaerobic threshold, showing some improvement in the physical performance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The AGT Gene M235T Polymorphism and Response of Power-Related Variables to Aerobic Training.

    PubMed

    Aleksandra, Zarębska; Zbigniew, Jastrzębski; Waldemar, Moska; Agata, Leońska-Duniec; Mariusz, Kaczmarczyk; Marek, Sawczuk; Agnieszka, Maciejewska-Skrendo; Piotr, Żmijewski; Krzysztof, Ficek; Grzegorz, Trybek; Ewelina, Lulińska-Kuklik; Semenova, Ekaterina A; Ahmetov, Ildus I; Paweł, Cięszczyk

    2016-12-01

    The C allele of the M235T (rs699) polymorphism of the AGT gene correlates with higher levels of angiotensin II and has been associated with power and strength sport performance. The aim of the study was to investigate whether or not selected power-related variables and their response to a 12-week program of aerobic dance training are modulated by the AGT M235T genotype in healthy participants. Two hundred and one Polish Caucasian women aged 21 ± 1 years met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study. All women completed a 12-week program of low and high impact aerobics. Wingate peak power and total work capacity, 5 m, 10 m, and 30 m running times and jump height and jump power were determined before and after the training programme. All power-related variables improved significantly in response to aerobic dance training. We found a significant association between the M235T polymorphism and jump-based variables (squat jump (SJ) height, p = 0.005; SJ power, p = 0.015; countermovement jump height, p = 0.025; average of 10 countermovement jumps with arm swing (ACMJ) height, p = 0.001; ACMJ power, p = 0.035). Specifically, greater improvements were observed in the C allele carriers in comparison with TT homozygotes. In conclusion, aerobic dance, one of the most commonly practiced adult fitness activities in the world, provides sufficient training stimuli for augmenting the explosive strength necessary to increase vertical jump performance. The AGT gene M235T polymorphism seems to be not only a candidate gene variant for power/strength related phenotypes, but also a genetic marker for predicting response to training.

  11. Breastfeeding at 6 months and effects on infections.

    PubMed

    Chye, J K; Lim, C T

    1998-12-01

    To examine the pattern of and the influence of some socio-demographic factors on infant milk feedings, and the protective role of breastfeeding against infections. Mothers who breastfed their infants (exclusively or partially) at 6 weeks postpartum, and who had singleton pregnancies and healthy infants at birth, were interviewed when their infants had reached 6 months of age. Of the 234 mothers studied, only 31 (13%) mothers were practising exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and 133 (57%) mothers were using exclusive infant formula feeding (EIF). Solid and semi-solid foods were introduced between 4 to 6 months of life in 89% of the infants. On logistic regression analysis, mothers who were in paid employment [OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.15, 0.42] and not breast feeding at 6 weeks [OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.19, 0.54] had decreased odds of EBF. Antenatal plans to breastfeed, breast-feeding difficulties, ethnicity, level of parental education, parental ages, fathers' income, primigravida status and infants' gender were not significant co-variates. In comparison, EIF was more likely in mothers who worked, practised mixed feedings at 6 weeks and of Chinese descent. There were no significant differences in the rates of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) or diarrhoeal illnesses between the infants who were or were not being breast-fed. Most mothers were unable to breastfeed their infants exclusively in the recommended first 4 to 6 months of life. Complementary changes outside the hospital and maternity services are essential in improving breastfeeding rates. Breastfeeding does not appear to confer significant protection to either URTI or gastrointestinal tract infections.

  12. Vigorous, Aerobic Exercise versus General Motor Training Activities: Effects on Maladaptive and Stereotypic Behaviors of Adults with Both Autism and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Reed O., Jr.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Six adults with both autism and moderate/profound mental retardation were assessed in a controlled environment for changes in frequency of maladaptive and stereotypic behaviors following nonexercise activities, general motor training activities, and aerobic exercise. Although antecedent aerobic exercise reduced undesirable behaviors, general motor…

  13. Vigorous, Aerobic Exercise versus General Motor Training Activities: Effects on Maladaptive and Stereotypic Behaviors of Adults with Both Autism and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Reed O., Jr.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Six adults with both autism and moderate/profound mental retardation were assessed in a controlled environment for changes in frequency of maladaptive and stereotypic behaviors following nonexercise activities, general motor training activities, and aerobic exercise. Although antecedent aerobic exercise reduced undesirable behaviors, general motor…

  14. Playing vs. nonplaying aerobic training in tennis: physiological and performance outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pialoux, Vincent; Genevois, Cyril; Capoen, Arnaud; Forbes, Scott C; Thomas, Jordan; Rogowski, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the effects of playing and nonplaying high intensity intermittent training (HIIT) on physiological demands and tennis stroke performance in young tennis players. Eleven competitive male players (13.4 ± 1.3 years) completed both a playing and nonplaying HIIT session of equal distance, in random order. During each HIIT session, heart rate (HR), blood lactate, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were monitored. Before and after each HIIT session, the velocity and accuracy of the serve, and forehand and backhand strokes were evaluated. The results demonstrated that both HIIT sessions achieved an average HR greater than 90% HRmax. The physiological demands (average HR) were greater during the playing session compared to the nonplaying session, despite similar lactate concentrations and a lower RPE. The results also indicate a reduction in shot velocity after both HIIT sessions; however, the playing HIIT session had a more deleterious effect on stroke accuracy. These findings suggest that 1) both HIIT sessions may be sufficient to develop maximal aerobic power, 2) playing HIIT sessions provide a greater physiological demand with a lower RPE, and 3) playing HIIT has a greater deleterious effect on stroke performance, and in particular on the accuracy component of the ground stroke performance, and should be incorporated appropriately into a periodization program in young male tennis players.

  15. Playing vs. Nonplaying Aerobic Training in Tennis: Physiological and Performance Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Pialoux, Vincent; Genevois, Cyril; Capoen, Arnaud; Forbes, Scott C.; Thomas, Jordan; Rogowski, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the effects of playing and nonplaying high intensity intermittent training (HIIT) on physiological demands and tennis stroke performance in young tennis players. Eleven competitive male players (13.4 ± 1.3 years) completed both a playing and nonplaying HIIT session of equal distance, in random order. During each HIIT session, heart rate (HR), blood lactate, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were monitored. Before and after each HIIT session, the velocity and accuracy of the serve, and forehand and backhand strokes were evaluated. The results demonstrated that both HIIT sessions achieved an average HR greater than 90% HRmax. The physiological demands (average HR) were greater during the playing session compared to the nonplaying session, despite similar lactate concentrations and a lower RPE. The results also indicate a reduction in shot velocity after both HIIT sessions; however, the playing HIIT session had a more deleterious effect on stroke accuracy. These findings suggest that 1) both HIIT sessions may be sufficient to develop maximal aerobic power, 2) playing HIIT sessions provide a greater physiological demand with a lower RPE, and 3) playing HIIT has a greater deleterious effect on stroke performance, and in particular on the accuracy component of the ground stroke performance, and should be incorporated appropriately into a periodization program in young male tennis players. PMID:25816346

  16. Effect of a 12-week aerobic training program on perceptual and affective responses in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Luís Alberto Garcia; Ferreira, Sandro dos Santos; Freitas, Rosemari Queiroz; Henrique de Souza, Carlos; Garcia, Erick Doner Santos de Abreu; Gregorio da Silva, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to observe the effect of self-selected intensity or imposed intensity during aerobic training on perceptual and affective responses in obese women. [Subjects] The study included 26 obese women aged 30–60 years. [Methods] The subjects were randomly divided into two groups, with 13 subjects in each group: self-selected intensity and imposed intensity (10% above ventilatory threshold) groups. All subjects completed an intervention program that lasted 12 weeks, with three exercise sessions a week. The rating of perceived exertion and affective responses (Feeling Scale and Felt Arousal Scale) were monitored in the first, sixth, and twelfth weeks. [Results] Significant differences were observed between groups in heart rate and rating of perceived exertion. The affective responses during exercise were more negative in the imposed intensity group. [Conclusion] Use of a self-selected exercise intensity can promote smaller negative affective responses during exercise and provide a sufficient stimulus for improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:26311958

  17. Airway remodeling is reversed by aerobic training in a murine model of chronic asthma.

    PubMed

    Silva, R A; Almeida, F M; Olivo, C R; Saraiva-Romanholo, B M; Martins, M A; Carvalho, C R F

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if the aerobic training (AT) reverses airway remodeling (AR) in an asthma model. BALB/c were divided into four groups: control (unsensitized and untrained); ovalbumin (OVA: sensitized and untrained); AT (unsensitized and trained) and OVA + AT. Allergic inflammation was induced with intraperitoneal and OVA inhalation. AT (low intensity; 5×/week; 60 min/session) was performed at 7, 15, and 30 days. Leukocyte counting in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid; the expression of IL-5, eotaxin, RANTES, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1); AR features (airway smooth muscle, epithelium thickness, collagen and elastic fibers, mucus production); and AR inducers (transforming growing factor-beta, osteopontin, vascular endothelial growth factor). OVA induced an increase in leukocyte airway migration and increased AR features (P < 0.05). After 7 days, AT reversed the OVA-induced eosinophil and macrophage airway migration, the expression of IL-5, eotaxin, RANTES, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and all AR inducers. However, total reversion of the AR features and inducers and airway inflammation occurred only after 15 days of AT compared with the OVA groups (P < 0.05) and the effects were maintained until the 30th day. AT reverses AR after 15 days and this effect is preceded by the inhibition of leukocyte migration and occurs simultaneously with the reduction in the expression of inflammatory mediators and AR inducers. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A model of poorly controlled type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and its treatment with aerobic exercise training.

    PubMed

    Melling, C W J; Grisé, K N; Hasilo, C P; Fier, B; Milne, K J; Karmazyn, M; Noble, E G

    2013-05-01

    Modern exogenous insulin therapy can improve the quality of life of Type 1 Diabetic Mellitus (T1DM) patients, although maintenance of normal glycaemic levels is often a challenge given the variety of factors that alter it. A number of studies have examined the effect of exercise in T1DM; however, the majority of experimental studies have utilized diabetic rodents with severe hyperglycaemia. Given that T1DM patients are likely to refrain from hyperglycaemia, studies examining the effects of regular exercise in which blood glucose is poorly controlled would better represent the T1DM population. The current study examined the ability of a ten-week aerobic exercise training program to modify markers of cardiovascular function and bone health in STZ-induced diabetic rodents maintained in the 9-15 mM glycaemic range through insulin therapy. Moderate hyperglycaemia, when prolonged, leads to significant changes in cardiac structure, bone health, and glucose handling capacity. Ten weeks of exercise was able to alleviate many of these deleterious events as no significant cardiovascular functional alterations were evident except a reduction in resting heart rate and an increase in stroke volume index. Further, despite changes in cardiac dimensions, exercise was able to elevate cardiac output index and increase the E/A ratio of exercising diabetic animals which would be indicative of improvements of cardiac function. Together, this study demonstrates that despite moderate hyperglycaemia, the combined role of a ten-week exercise training program coupled with insulin therapy is able to alleviate many of the well-known complications associated with diabetes progression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Aerobic Interval Training Reduces the Burden of Atrial Fibrillation in the Short Term: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Malmo, Vegard; Nes, Bjarne M; Amundsen, Brage H; Tjonna, Arnt-Erik; Stoylen, Asbjorn; Rossvoll, Ole; Wisloff, Ulrik; Loennechen, Jan P

    2016-02-02

    Exercise training is an effective treatment for important atrial fibrillation (AF) comorbidities. However, a high level of endurance exercise is associated with an increased AF prevalence. We assessed the effects of aerobic interval training (AIT) on time in AF, AF symptoms, cardiovascular health, and quality of life in AF patients. Fifty-one patients with nonpermanent AF were randomized to AIT (n=26) consisting of four 4-minute intervals at 85% to 95% of peak heart rate 3 times a week for 12 weeks or to a control group (n=25) continuing their regular exercise habits. An implanted loop recorder measured time in AF continuously from 4 weeks before to 4 weeks after the intervention period. Cardiac function, peak oxygen uptake (o2peak), lipid status, quality of life, and AF symptoms were evaluated before and after the 12-week intervention period. Mean time in AF increased from 10.4% to 14.6% in the control group and was reduced from 8.1% to 4.8% in the exercise group (P=0.001 between groups). AF symptom frequency (P=0.006) and AF symptom severity (P=0.009) were reduced after AIT. AIT improved o2peak, left atrial and ventricular ejection fraction, quality-of-life measures of general health and vitality, and lipid values compared with the control group. There was a trend toward fewer cardioversions and hospital admissions after AIT. AIT for 12 weeks reduces the time in AF in patients with nonpermanent AF. This is followed by a significant improvement in AF symptoms, o2peak, left atrial and ventricular function, lipid levels, and QoL. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01325675. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Taking Orlistat: Predicting Weight Loss over 6 Months.

    PubMed

    Hollywood, Amelia; Ogden, Jane

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the predictors of weight loss following orlistat with a focus on both baseline variables and changes in beliefs and behaviours occurring over the course of taking the drug. Patients (n = 566) prescribed orlistat completed a questionnaire at baseline and after 6 months concerning their weight, beliefs and behaviours. By 6 months the majority had lost some weight and showed improvements in diet. Many had also stopped taking the drug and a large minority reported using it flexibly as a lifestyle drug. Those who lost most weight showed a decrease in beliefs in a medical solution, a decrease in unhealthy eating, an increased belief in treatment control and an increased belief that the unpleasant consequences are both due to their eating behaviour and just part of the drug. When taken with fatty food orlistat causes symptoms such as anal leakage and oily stools. These may encourage some patients to focus on the behavioural aspects of their weight problem thus promoting the dietary changes needed for both short and longer term weight loss. When prescribing orlistat, clinicians should encourage patients to see the consequences as an education as a means to promote the effectiveness of this form of medical management.

  1. Comparison of strength training, aerobic training, and additional physical therapy as supplementary treatments for Parkinson’s disease: pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Alessandro; Barbirato, Dannyel; Araujo, Narahyana; Martins, Jose Vicente; Cavalcanti, Jose Luiz Sá; Santos, Tony Meireles; Coutinho, Evandro S; Laks, Jerson; Deslandes, Andrea C

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Physical rehabilitation is commonly used in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) to improve their health and alleviate the symptoms. Objective We compared the effects of three programs, strength training (ST), aerobic training (AT), and physiotherapy, on motor symptoms, functional capacity, and electroencephalographic (EEG) activity in PD patients. Methods Twenty-two patients were recruited and randomized into three groups: AT (70% of maximum heart rate), ST (80% of one repetition maximum), and physiotherapy (in groups). Subjects participated in their respective interventions twice a week for 12 weeks. The assessments included measures of disease symptoms (Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale [UPDRS]), functional capacity (Senior Fitness Test), and EEG before and after 12 weeks of intervention. Results The PD motor symptoms (UPDRS-III) in the group of patients who performed ST and AT improved by 27.5% (effect size [ES]=1.25, confidence interval [CI]=−0.11, 2.25) and 35% (ES=1.34, CI=−0.16, 2.58), respectively, in contrast to the physiotherapy group, which showed a 2.9% improvement (ES=0.07, CI=−0.85, 0.99). Furthermore, the functional capacity of all three groups improved after the intervention. The mean frequency of the EEG analysis mainly showed the effect of the interventions on the groups (F=11.50, P=0.0001). Conclusion ST and AT in patients with PD are associated with improved outcomes in disease symptoms and functional capacity. PMID:25609935

  2. Epicardial fat gene expression after aerobic exercise training in pigs with coronary atherosclerosis: relationship to visceral and subcutaneous fat

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Frank W.; Laughlin, M. Harold; Arce-Esquivel, Arturo A.; Sacks, Harold S.; Bahouth, Suleiman W.; Fain, John N.

    2010-01-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is contiguous with coronary arteries and myocardium and potentially may play a role in coronary atherosclerosis (CAD). Exercise is known to improve cardiovascular disease risk factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aerobic exercise training on the expression of 18 genes, measured by RT-PCR and selected for their role in chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and adipocyte metabolism, in peri-coronary epicardial (cEAT), peri-myocardial epicardial (mEAT), visceral abdominal (VAT), and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissues from a castrate male pig model of familial hypercholesterolemia with CAD. We tested the hypothesis that aerobic exercise training for 16 wk would reduce the inflammatory profile of mRNAs in both components of EAT and VAT but would have little effect on SAT. Exercise increased mEAT and total heart weights. EAT and heart weights were directly correlated. Compared with sedentary pigs matched for body weight to exercised animals, aerobic exercise training reduced the inflammatory response in mEAT but not cEAT, had no effect on inflammatory genes but preferentially decreased expression of adiponectin and other adipocyte-specific genes in VAT, and had no effect in SAT except that IL-6 mRNA went down and VEGFa mRNA went up. We conclude that 1) EAT is not homogeneous in its inflammatory response to aerobic exercise training, 2) cEAT around CAD remains proinflammatory after chronic exercise, 3) cEAT and VAT share similar inflammatory expression profiles but different metabolic mRNA responses to exercise, and 4) gene expression in SAT cannot be extrapolated to VAT and heart adipose tissues in exercise intervention studies. PMID:20947714

  3. Individual training-load and aerobic-fitness variables in premiership soccer players during the precompetitive season.

    PubMed

    Manzi, Vincenzo; Bovenzi, Antonio; Franco Impellizzeri, Maria; Carminati, Ivan; Castagna, Carlo

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between individual measures of internal training load (training impulse [TRIMPi]) and aerobic-fitness and performance variables in premiership male soccer players. Eighteen Premiership soccer players (age 28.4 ± 3.2 years, height 182 ± 5.3 cm, body mass 79.9 ± 5.5 kg) performed treadmill tests for VO(2max) and ventilatory threshold (VT) and speed at blood-lactate concentration of 4 mmol·L(-1) (S4) on separate days pre and post 8 weeks of training (preseason). The Yo-Yo Intermittent recovery test (Yo-Yo IR1) performance was assessed pre and post preseason training as well. The TRIMPi was calculated using individual lactate and heart-rate profiles and assessed in each training session (n = 900). The results showed that TRIMPi was large to very-large associated with percentage changes in VO(2max) (r = 0.77, p = 0.002), VT (r = 0.78, p = 0.002), S4 (r = 0.64, p = 0.004), and Yo-Yo IR1 performance (r = 0.69, p = 0.009). Regression analyses showed that a weekly TRIMPi >500 AU was necessary to warrant improvements in aerobic fitness and performance in premiership male soccer players during the precompetitive season. It is concluded that TRIMPi is a valid and viable tool to guide training prescription in male premiership soccer players during the preseason.

  4. Effects of aerobic exercise training on peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor and eotaxin-1 levels in obese young men.

    PubMed

    Cho, Su Youn; Roh, Hee Tae

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise training on the levels of peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor and eotaxin-1 in obese young men. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects included sixteen obese young men with a body mass index greater than 25 kg/m(2). They were randomly divided between control and exercise groups (n = 8 in each group). The exercise group performed treadmill exercise for 40 min, 3 times a week for 8 weeks at the intensity of 70% heart rate reserve. Blood collection was performed to examine the levels of serum glucose, plasma malonaldehyde, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and plasma eotaxin-1 before and after the intervention (aerobic exercise training). [Results] Following the intervention, serum BDNF levels were significantly higher, while serum glucose, plasma MDA, and plasma eotaxin-1 levels were significantly lower than those prior to the intervention in the exercise group. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise training can induce neurogenesis in obese individuals by increasing the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and reducing the levels of eotaxin-1. Alleviation of oxidative stress is possibly responsible for such changes.

  5. Effect of Intermittent Hypoxic Training Followed by Intermittent Hypoxic Exposure on Aerobic Capacity of Long Distance Runners.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Fernanda P; Ivamoto, Rafael K; Andrade, Marilia Dos S; de Lira, Claudio A B; Silva, Bruno M; da Silva, Antonio C

    2016-06-01

    Effects of intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) are still controversial and detraining effects remain uninvestigated. Therefore, we investigated (a) whether IHT improves aerobic capacity; (b) whether aerobic detraining occurs post-IHT; and (c) whether intermittent hypoxic exposure (IHE) at rest reduces a possible aerobic detraining post-IHT. Twenty eight runners (21 men/7 women; 36 ± 2 years; maximal oxygen uptake [V[Combining Dot Above]O2max] 55.4 ± 1.3 ml·kg·min) participated in a single-blinded placebo-controlled trial. Twice a week, 1 group performed 6 weeks of IHT (n = 11), followed by 4 weeks of IHE (n = 11) at rest (IHT+IHE group). Another group performed 6 weeks of IHT (n = 10), followed by 4 weeks of normoxic exposure (NE, n = 9) at rest (IHT+NE group). A control group performed 6 weeks of normoxic training (NT, n = 7), followed by 4 weeks of NE (n = 6) at rest (NT+NE group). Hematological and submaximal/maximal aerobic measurements were conducted in normoxia at pretraining, posttraining, and postexposure. Hemoglobin concentration did not change, but lactate threshold and running economy improved in all groups at posttraining (p ≤ 0.05 vs. pretraining). Ventilatory threshold, respiratory compensation point, and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max increased after IHT (IHT+IHE group: 7.3, 5.4, and 9.2%, respectively; IHT+NE group: 10.7, 7.5, and 4.8%; p ≤ 0.05 vs. pretraining), but not after NT (-1.1, -1.0, and -3.8%; p > 0.05 vs. pretraining). Such IHT-induced adaptations were maintained at postexposure (p > 0.05 vs. postexposure). In conclusion, IHT induced further aerobic improvements than NT. These additional IHT adaptations were maintained for 4 weeks post-IHT, regardless of IHE.

  6. A Feasibility Study Related To Inactive Cancer Survivors Compared with Non-Cancer Controls during Aerobic Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Drum, Scott N.; Klika, Riggs J.; Carter, Susan D.; Sprod, Lisa K.; Donath, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Cancer survivors (CA) tend to demonstrate metabolic, cardiac, and ventilatory alterations due to previous chemotherapy and radiation that may impair adaptability following aerobic exercise training. Exercise training adaptations of CA finished with primary treatment compared to non-cancer participants (NC) have not yet been extensively elucidated. Thus, the present study compared physiologic responses of CA versus NC following a low-to-moderate intensity, 8-wk aerobic training program. Thirty-seven previously sedentary participants (CA: n = 14, 12 females; NC: n = 23, 19 females) with no heart or metabolic disease did not differ in age, height, weight, and body mass index (51 ± 2 y, 1.66 ± 0.02 m, 83.8 ± 3.2 kg, and 30.5 ± 1 kg·m-2). Each participant underwent baseline, 3-, 6-, and 8-wk VO2peak treadmill testing using the USAFSAM protocol and walked on a treadmill three times per week at 80-90% of ventilatory threshold (VT) for approximately 40-min·session-1. Variables obtained on the VO2peak tests included: HR at stage 2 (HR@stage2), rating of perceived exertion at stage 2 (RPE@stage2), lactate threshold (LT), ventilatory threshold (VT), salivary cortisol at 30-min post VO2peak test (SC@30-minPost),VO2peak level, time of fatigue (TOF), and maximal heart rate (HRmax). NC had significantly (p < 0.05) higher VO2peak, TOF, and HRmax at baseline, 3- and 6-wks of training but not at 8-wks. There were no differences between groups on RPE@stage2 except at baseline (p < 0.05). A significant (p < 0.05) interaction was observed only for RPE@stage2 with CA rating their initial RPE significantly greater at baseline versus NC. CA notably improved submaximal and maximal exercise capacity during 8 weeks of aerobic training and did not show altered adaptability compared to NC. We suggest prescribing aerobic exercise training at low/moderate intensity and duration initially, with progressive increases in duration and intensity after approximately 8-weeks. If available and

  7. Insulin-resistant subjects have normal angiogenic response to aerobic exercise training in skeletal muscle, but not in adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Walton, R Grace; Finlin, Brian S; Mula, Jyothi; Long, Douglas E; Zhu, Beibei; Fry, Christopher S; Westgate, Philip M; Lee, Jonah D; Bennett, Tamara; Kern, Philip A; Peterson, Charlotte A

    2015-06-01

    Reduced vessel density in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle is associated with obesity and may result in decreased perfusion, decreased oxygen consumption, and insulin resistance. In the presence of VEGFA, Angiopoietin-2 (Angpt2) and Angiopoietin-1 (Angpt1) are central determinants of angiogenesis, with greater Angpt2:Angpt1 ratios promoting angiogenesis. In skeletal muscle, exercise training stimulates angiogenesis and modulates transcription of VEGFA, Angpt1, and Angpt2. However, it remains unknown whether exercise training stimulates vessel growth in human adipose tissue, and it remains unknown whether adipose angiogenesis is mediated by angiopoietin signaling. We sought to determine whether insulin-resistant subjects would display an impaired angiogenic response to aerobic exercise training. Insulin-sensitive (IS, N = 12) and insulin-resistant (IR, N = 14) subjects had subcutaneous adipose and muscle (vastus lateralis) biopsies before and after 12 weeks of cycle ergometer training. In both tissues, we measured vessels and expression of pro-angiogenic genes. Exercise training did not increase insulin sensitivity in IR Subjects. In skeletal muscle, training resulted in increased vessels/muscle fiber and increased Angpt2:Angpt1 ratio in both IR and IS subjects. However, in adipose, exercise training only induced angiogenesis in IS subjects, likely due to chronic suppression of VEGFA expression in IR subjects. These results indicate that skeletal muscle of IR subjects exhibits a normal angiogenic response to exercise training. However, the same training regimen is insufficient to induce angiogenesis in adipose tissue of IR subjects, which may help to explain why we did not observe improved insulin sensitivity following aerobic training.

  8. Effect of 6-month supervised exercise on low-density lipoprotein apolipoprotein B kinetics in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Stolinski, Michael; Alam, Saima; Jackson, Nicola C; Shojaee-Moradie, Fariba; Pentecost, Claire; Jefferson, William; Christ, Emmanuel R; Jones, Richard H; Umpleby, A Margot

    2008-11-01

    Although low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is often normal in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, there is evidence for a reduced fractional catabolic rate and consequently an increased mean residence time (MRT), which can increase atherogenic risk. The dyslipidemia and insulin resistance of type 2 diabetes mellitus can be improved by aerobic exercise, but effects on LDL kinetics are unknown. The effect of 6-month supervised exercise on LDL apolipoprotein B kinetics was studied in a group of 17 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (mean age, 56.8 years; range, 38-68 years). Patients were randomized into a supervised group, who had a weekly training session, and an unsupervised group. LDL kinetics were measured with an infusion of 1-(13)C leucine at baseline in all groups and after 6 months of exercise in the patients. Eight body mass index-matched nondiabetic controls (mean age, 50.3 years; range, 40-67 years) were also studied at baseline only. At baseline, LDL MRT was significantly longer in the diabetic patients, whereas LDL production rate and fractional clearance rates were significantly lower than in controls. Percentage of glycated hemoglobin A(1c), body mass index, insulin sensitivity measured by the homeostasis model assessment, and very low-density lipoprotein triglyceride decreased (P < .02) in the supervised group, with no change in the unsupervised group. After 6 months, LDL cholesterol did not change in either the supervised or unsupervised group; but there was a significant change in LDL MRT between groups (P < .05) that correlated positively with very low-density lipoprotein triglyceride (r = 0.51, P < .04) and negatively with maximal oxygen uptake, a measure of fitness (r = -0.51, P = .035), in all patients. The LDL production and clearance rates did not change in either group. This study suggests that a supervised exercise program can reduce deleterious changes in LDL MRT.

  9. Malignant hyperthermia in a 6-month-old infant.

    PubMed

    Mathur, P R; Rundla, M; Jain, N; Mathur, V

    2016-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a rare hypermetabolic disorder of skeletal muscles that manifests as a life-threatening crisis in susceptible individuals, after exposure to triggering agents, most commonly halothane and succinylcholine. MH presents with multiple nonspecific signs and laboratory findings such as tachycardia, hyperthermia, hypercarbia, acidosis, and muscle rigidity. Caffeine halothane contracture test is not available at most centers in India. Larach et al. have described a clinical grading scale for determining the MH raw score based on clinical findings and biochemical tests. The high degree of suspicion, early recognition and aggressive treatment should commence immediately. It is imperative to avoid triggering agents, such as volatile anesthetics and succinylcholine, and promote the use of total intravenous anesthesia in MH susceptible patients. We report a case of 6-month-old child undergoing laparotomy under general anesthesia, who presented with signs and symptoms of MH, had MH rank 5 and raw score 36.

  10. Effects of sprint interval training on VO2max and aerobic exercise performance: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sloth, M; Sloth, D; Overgaard, K; Dalgas, U

    2013-12-01

    Recently, several studies have examined whether low-volume sprint interval training (SIT) may improve aerobic and metabolic function. The objective of this study was to systematically review the existing literature regarding the aerobic and metabolic effects of SIT in healthy sedentary or recreationally active adults. A systematic literature search was performed (Bibliotek.dk, SPORTDiscus, Embase, PEDro, SveMed+, and Pubmed). Meta-analytical procedures were applied evaluating effects on maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). Nineteen unique studies [four randomized controlled trials (RCTs), nine matched-controlled trials and six noncontrolled studies] were identified, evaluating SIT interventions lasting 2-8 weeks. Strong evidence support improvements of aerobic exercise performance and VO2max following SIT. A meta-analysis across 13 studies evaluating effects of SIT on VO2max showed a weighted mean effects size of g = 0.63 95% CI (0.39; 0.87) and VO2max increases of 4.2-13.4%. Solid evidence support peripheral adaptations known to increase the oxidative potential of the muscle following SIT, whereas evidence regarding central adaptations was limited and equivocal. Some evidence indicated changes in substrate oxidation at rest and during exercise as well as improved glycemic control and insulin sensitivity following SIT. In conclusion, strong evidence support improvement of aerobic exercise performance and VO2max following SIT, which coincides with peripheral muscular adaptations. Future RCTs on long-term SIT and underlying mechanisms are warranted.

  11. Aerobic physical activity and resistance training: an application of the theory of planned behavior among adults with type 2 diabetes in a random, national sample of Canadians.

    PubMed

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Courneya, Kerry S; Trinh, Linda; Karunamuni, Nandini; Sigal, Ronald J

    2008-12-02

    Aerobic physical activity (PA) and resistance training are paramount in the treatment and management of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but few studies have examined the determinants of both types of exercise in the same sample. The primary purpose was to investigate the utility of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in explaining aerobic PA and resistance training in a population sample of T2D adults. A total of 244 individuals were recruited through a random national sample which was created by generating a random list of household phone numbers. The list was proportionate to the actual number of household telephone numbers for each Canadian province (with the exception of Quebec). These individuals completed self-report TPB constructs of attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control and intention, and a 3-month follow-up that assessed aerobic PA and resistance training. TPB explained 10% and 8% of the variance respectively for aerobic PA and resistance training; and accounted for 39% and 45% of the variance respectively for aerobic PA and resistance training intentions. These results may guide the development of appropriate PA interventions for aerobic PA and resistance training based on the TPB.

  12. Improved exercise performance and increased aerobic capacity after endurance training of patients with stable polymyositis and dermatomyositis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This randomized, controlled study on patients with polymyositis or dermatomyositis was based on three hypotheses: patients display impaired endurance due to reduced aerobic capacity and muscle weakness, endurance training improves their exercise performance by increasing the aerobic capacity, and endurance training has general beneficial effects on their health status. Methods In the first part of this study, we compared 23 patients with polymyositis or dermatomyositis with 12 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. A subgroup of patients were randomized to perform a 12-week endurance training program (exercise group, n = 9) or to a non-exercising control group (n = 6). We measured maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and the associated power output during a progressive cycling test. Endurance was assessed as the cycling time to exhaustion at 65% of VO2 max. Lactate levels in the vastus lateralis muscle were measured with microdialysis. Mitochondrial function was assessed by measuring citrate synthase (CS) and β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (β-HAD) activities in muscle biopsies. Clinical improvement was assessed according to the International Myositis Assessment and Clinical Studies Group (IMACS) improvement criteria. All assessors were blinded to the type of intervention (that is, training or control). Results Exercise performance and aerobic capacity were lower in patients than in healthy controls, whereas lactate levels at exhaustion were similar. Patients in the exercise group increased their cycling time, aerobic capacity and CS and β-HAD activities, whereas lactate levels at exhaustion decreased. Six of nine patients in the exercise group met the IMACS improvement criteria. Patients in the control group did not show any consistent changes during the 12-week study. Conclusions Polymyositis and dermatomyositis patients have impaired endurance, which could be improved by 12 weeks of endurance training. The clinical improvement corresponds to

  13. Inspiratory muscle training improves aerobic capacity and pulmonary function in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Drăgoi, Răzvan-Gabriel; Amaricai, Elena; Drăgoi, Mihai; Popoviciu, Horatiu; Avram, Claudiu

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the impact of inspiratory muscle training on aerobic capacity and pulmonary function in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Randomized controlled study. Rheumatic Rehabilitation Centre. A total of 54 ankylosing spondylitis patients, all males, were randomized to a conventional exercise training associated with an inspiratory muscle training group, or to a conventional exercise training group. Group 1 (27 patients) performed eight weeks of conventional exercise training (supervised weekly group sessions followed by a home-based exercise programme) associated with inspiratory muscle training sessions. Group 2 (27 patients) received eight weeks of conventional exercise training only. Resting pulmonary function (forced vital capacity - FVC, forced expiratory volume in one second - FEV1); effort ventilatory efficiency (lowest ventilatory equivalent ratio for oxygen and carbon dioxide - VE/VO2 and VE/VCO2) and aerobic capacity (peak oxygen uptake - VO2peak) were assessed at baseline and after eight weeks of exercise-based intervention. After eight weeks follow-up, patients in Group 1 had a significant increased chest expansion and VO2peak compared with Group 2 (3.6 ±0.8 cm vs. 3.2 ±0.5 cm, P = 0.032; 2.0 ±0.5 l/min vs. 1.8 ±0.3 l/min, P = 0.033). There were no significant differences of spirometric measurements, except FVC which significantly improved in patients who performed inspiratory muscle training (82.7 ±5.1% vs. 79.5 ±3.5%, P = 0.014). VE/VCO2 also improved significantly in Group 1 (26.6 ±3.6 vs. 29.2 ±4.7, P = 0.040). Ankylosing spondylitis patients who performed eight weeks of inspiratory muscle training associated to conventional exercise training had an increased chest expansion, a better aerobic capacity, resting pulmonary function and ventilatory efficiency than those who performed conventional exercise training only. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Heart rate recovery and variability following combined aerobic and resistance exercise training in adults with and without Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mendonca, Goncalo V; Pereira, Fernando D; Fernhall, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Persons with Down syndrome (DS) are at high risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and there is compelling evidence of autonomic dysfunction in these individuals. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether a combined aerobic and resistance exercise intervention produces similar results in cardiac autonomic function between adults with and without DS. Twenty-five participants (13 DS; 12 non-DS), aged 27-50 years, were included. Aerobic training was performed 3 days/week for 30 min at 65-85% of peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak)). Resistance training was prescribed for 2 days/week and consisted of two rotations in a circuit of 9 exercises at 12-repetition-maximum. There was a significant improvement in the VO(2peak) and muscle strength of participants with and without DS after training. Heart rate recovery improved at 1 min post-exercise, but only in participants with DS. Both groups of participants exhibited a similar increase in normalized high frequency power and of decrease in normalized low frequency power after training. Therefore, 12 weeks of exercise training enhanced the heart rate recovery in adults with DS, but not in those without DS. Contrasting, the intervention elicited similar gains between groups for cardiovagal modulation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Association between aerobic exercise training effects of serum adropin level, arterial stiffness, and adiposity in obese elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Fujie, Shumpei; Hasegawa, Natsuki; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Iemitsu, Motoyuki

    2017-01-01

    Serum levels of adropin, which enhances endothelial cell release of nitric oxide (NO), are lower in obese patients. Although habitual aerobic exercise reduces arterial stiffness and adiposity, the relationship between these effects and circulating levels of adropin remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine if serum adropin level is associated with the effects of aerobic exercise training on arterial stiffness and adiposity in obese adults. In Experiment 1, we examined whether serum adropin levels are associated with cardiorespiratory fitness, carotid β-stiffness, plasma nitrite/nitrate (NOx) level, and abdominal visceral fat in 27 normal, 20 overweight, and 25 obese adults (age, 41-79 years). In Experiment 2, we examined the effects of an 8-week aerobic exercise training program on the relationship between serum adropin level and arterial stiffness or adiposity in 13 obese adults (age, 54-76 years). Serum adropin levels in normal, overweight, and obese adults negatively correlated with carotid β-stiffness and abdominal visceral fat, and positively correlated with plasma NOx level and cardiorespiratory fitness. After the 8-week exercise program, serum adropin levels in obese adults were elevated, and correlated with training-induced changes in carotid β-stiffness (r = -0.573, P < 0.05), plasma NOx level (r = 0.671, P < 0.05), and abdominal visceral fat (r = -0.585, P < 0.05). These findings suggest that the exercise training-induced increase in serum adropin may be related to the training effects of arterial stiffness and adiposity in obese adults.

  16. Improving Strength, Power, Muscle Aerobic Capacity, and Glucose Tolerance through Short-term Progressive Strength Training Among Elderly People.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Eva A; Frank, Per; Pontén, Marjan; Ekblom, Björn; Ekblom, Maria; Moberg, Marcus; Sahlin, Kent

    2017-07-05

    This protocol describes the simultaneous use of a broad span of methods to examine muscle aerobic capacity, glucose tolerance, strength, and power in elderly people performing short-term resistance training (RET). Supervised progressive resistance training for 1 h three times a week over 8 weeks was performed by RET participants (71±1 years, range 65-80). Compared to a control group without training, the RET showed improvements on the measures used to indicate strength, power, glucose tolerance, and several parameters of muscle aerobic capacity. Strength training was performed in a gym with only robust fitness equipment. An isokinetic dynamometer for knee extensor strength permitted the measurement of concentric, eccentric, and static strength, which increased for the RET group (8-12% post- versus pre-test). The power (rate of force development, RFD) at the initial 0-30 ms also showed an increase for the RET group (52%). A glucose tolerance test with frequent blood glucose measurements showed improvements only for the RET group in terms of blood glucose values after 2 h (14%) and the area under the curve (21%). The blood lipid profile also improved (8%). From muscle biopsy samples prepared using histochemistry, the amount of fiber type IIa increased, and a trend towards a decrease in IIx in the RET group reflected a change to a more oxidative profile in terms of fiber composition. Western blot (to determine the protein content related to the signaling for muscle protein synthesis) showed a rise of 69% in both Akt and mTOR in the RET group; this also showed an increase in mitochondrial proteins for OXPHOS complex II and citrate synthase (both ~30%) and for complex IV (90%), in only the RET group. We demonstrate that this type of progressive resistance training offers various improvements (e.g., strength, power, aerobic capacity, glucose tolerance, and plasma lipid profile).

  17. Obesity-Related Hormones and Metabolic Risk Factors: A Randomized Trial of Diet plus Either Strength or Aerobic Training versus Diet Alone in Overweight Participants

    PubMed Central

    Geliebter, Allan; Ochner, Christopher N; Dambkowski, Carl L; Hashim, Sami A

    2014-01-01

    There is debate about the additive effects of exercise in conjunction with diet to treat obesity, and not much is known about the differential effects of strength versus aerobic training. This randomized controlled trial examined the effects of diet plus strength training, diet plus aerobic training, or diet only on metabolic risk factors associated with obesity. Eighty-one overweight and obese participants completed the 8-week intervention. All participants received an energy-restrictive formula diet with an energy content based on 70% of measured resting metabolic rate (RMR). Participants assigned to an exercise group trained 3 days/week under supervision. Anthropometrics and fasting hormones were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Mean weight loss (8.5 ± 4.3kg SD) did not differ between groups nor did reductions in BMI or body fat, although the diet plus strength training group showed marginally greater lean mass retention. There were significant improvements in the values and number of metabolic syndrome risk factors, and decreases in insulin concentrations and insulin resistance, which did not vary between groups. For men, testosterone increased significantly more in the diet plus aerobic training as compared to the other groups. As compared to diet alone, the addition of strength or aerobic training did not improve changes in BMI, body fat or metabolic risk factors although the diet plus strength training group showed a trend toward preservation of lean mass, and the diet plus aerobic group in men resulted in increased testosterone concentrations. PMID:25599089

  18. Integrative Effect of Carvedilol and Aerobic Exercise Training Therapies on Improving Cardiac Contractility and Remodeling in Heart Failure Mice

    PubMed Central

    Vanzelli, Andréa S.; Medeiros, Alessandra; Rolim, Natale; Bartholomeu, Jan B.; Cunha, Telma F.; Bechara, Luiz G.; Gomes, Enéas R. M.; Mattos, Katt C.; Sirvente, Raquel; Salemi, Vera; Mady, Charles; Negrao, Carlos E.; Guatimosim, Silvia; Brum, Patricia C.

    2013-01-01

    The use of β-blockers is mandatory for counteracting heart failure (HF)-induced chronic sympathetic hyperactivity, cardiac dysfunction and remodeling. Importantly, aerobic exercise training, an efficient nonpharmacological therapy to HF, also counteracts sympathetic hyperactivity in HF and improves exercise tolerance and cardiac contractility; the latter associated with changes in cardiac Ca2+ handling. This study was undertaken to test whether combined β–blocker and aerobic exercise training would integrate the beneficial effects of isolated therapies on cardiac structure, contractility and cardiomyocyte Ca2+ handling in a genetic model of sympathetic hyperactivity-induced HF (α2A/α2C- adrenergic receptor knockout mice, KO). We used a cohort of 5–7 mo male wild-type (WT) and congenic mice (KO) with C57Bl6/J genetic background randomly assigned into 5 groups: control (WT), saline-treated KO (KOS), exercise trained KO (KOT), carvedilol-treated KO (KOC) and, combined carvedilol-treated and exercise-trained KO (KOCT). Isolated and combined therapies reduced mortality compared with KOS mice. Both KOT and KOCT groups had increased exercise tolerance, while groups receiving carvedilol had increased left ventricular fractional shortening and reduced cardiac collagen volume fraction compared with KOS group. Cellular data confirmed that cardiomyocytes from KOS mice displayed abnormal Ca2+ handling. KOT group had increased intracellular peak of Ca2+ transient and reduced diastolic Ca2+ decay compared with KOS group, while KOC had increased Ca2+ decay compared with KOS group. Notably, combined therapies re-established cardiomyocyte Ca2+ transient paralleled by increased SERCA2 expression and SERCA2:PLN ratio toward WT levels. Aerobic exercise trained increased the phosphorylation of PLN at Ser16 and Thr17 residues in both KOT and KOCT groups, but carvedilol treatment reduced lipid peroxidation in KOC and KOCT groups compared with KOS group. The present findings

  19. Integrative effect of carvedilol and aerobic exercise training therapies on improving cardiac contractility and remodeling in heart failure mice.

    PubMed

    Vanzelli, Andréa S; Medeiros, Alessandra; Rolim, Natale; Bartholomeu, Jan B; Cunha, Telma F; Bechara, Luiz R G; Bechara, Luiz G; Gomes, Enéas R M; Mattos, Katt C; Sirvente, Raquel; Salemi, Vera Maria Cury; Salemi, Vera; Mady, Charles; Negrao, Carlos E; Guatimosim, Silvia; Brum, Patricia C

    2013-01-01

    The use of β-blockers is mandatory for counteracting heart failure (HF)-induced chronic sympathetic hyperactivity, cardiac dysfunction and remodeling. Importantly, aerobic exercise training, an efficient nonpharmacological therapy to HF, also counteracts sympathetic hyperactivity in HF and improves exercise tolerance and cardiac contractility; the latter associated with changes in cardiac Ca(2+) handling. This study was undertaken to test whether combined β-blocker and aerobic exercise training would integrate the beneficial effects of isolated therapies on cardiac structure, contractility and cardiomyocyte Ca(2+) handling in a genetic model of sympathetic hyperactivity-induced HF (α2A/α2C- adrenergic receptor knockout mice, KO). We used a cohort of 5-7 mo male wild-type (WT) and congenic mice (KO) with C57Bl6/J genetic background randomly assigned into 5 groups: control (WT), saline-treated KO (KOS), exercise trained KO (KOT), carvedilol-treated KO (KOC) and, combined carvedilol-treated and exercise-trained KO (KOCT). Isolated and combined therapies reduced mortality compared with KOS mice. Both KOT and KOCT groups had increased exercise tolerance, while groups receiving carvedilol had increased left ventricular fractional shortening and reduced cardiac collagen volume fraction compared with KOS group. Cellular data confirmed that cardiomyocytes from KOS mice displayed abnormal Ca(2+) handling. KOT group had increased intracellular peak of Ca(2+) transient and reduced diastolic Ca(2+) decay compared with KOS group, while KOC had increased Ca(2+) decay compared with KOS group. Notably, combined therapies re-established cardiomyocyte Ca(2+) transient paralleled by increased SERCA2 expression and SERCA2:PLN ratio toward WT levels. Aerobic exercise trained increased the phosphorylation of PLN at Ser(16) and Thr(17) residues in both KOT and KOCT groups, but carvedilol treatment reduced lipid peroxidation in KOC and KOCT groups compared with KOS group. The present

  20. The effects of periodized concurrent and aerobic training on oxidative stress parameters, endothelial function and immune response in sedentary male individuals of middle age.

    PubMed

    Schaun, Maximiliano Isoppo; Dipp, Thiago; Rossato, Juliane da Silva; Wilhelm, Eurico Nestor; Pinto, Ronei; Rech, Anderson; Plentz, Rodrigo Della Méa; Homem de Bittencourt, Paulo I; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro

    2011-10-01

    The vascular endothelium plays a key role in arterial wall homeostasis by preventing atherosclerotic plaque formation. A primary causal factor of endothelial dysfunction is the reactive oxygen species. Aerobic exercise is ascribed as an important adjuvant therapy in endothelium-dependent cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about the effects of concurrent (aerobic + strength) training on that. For a comparison of the effects of aerobic and concurrent physical training on endothelial function, oxidative stress parameters and the immunoinflammatory activity of monocytes/macrophages, 20 adult male volunteers of middle age were divided into a concurrent training (CT) programme group and an aerobic training group. The glutathione disulphide to glutathione ratio (GSSG/GSH) and plasma lipoperoxide (LPO) levels, as well as flow-mediated dilation (FMD), monocyte/macrophage functional activity (zymosan phagocytosis), body lipid profiles, aerobic capacity (maximal oxygen uptake) and strength parameters (one-repetition maximum test), were measured before and after the exercise training programmes. The CT exhibited reduced acute effects of exercise on the GSSG/GSH ratio, plasma LPO levels and zymosan phagocytosis. The CT also displayed improved lipid profiles, glycaemic control, maximal oxygen uptake and one-repetition maximum test values. In both the aerobic training and the CT, training improved the acute responses to exercise, as inferred from a decrease in the GSSG/GSH ratios. The aerobic sessions did not alter basal levels of plasma LPO or macrophage phagocytic activity but improved FMD values as well as lipid profiles and glycaemic control. In summary, both training programmes improve systemic redox status and antioxidant defences. However, the aerobic training was more efficient in improving FMD in the individuals studied.

  1. Effects of high aerobic intensity training in patients with schizophrenia: a controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Heggelund, Jørn; Nilsberg, Geir E; Hoff, Jan; Morken, Gunnar; Helgerud, Jan

    2011-09-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have a high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). High aerobic intensity training (HIT) improve peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak)), net mechanical efficiency of walking and risk factors for CVD but has not been investigated in patients with schizophrenia. To investigate effects from HIT on VO(2peak), net mechanical efficiency of walking and risk factors for CVD in patients with schizophrenia. 25 inpatients (F20-29, ICD-10) were allocated to either HIT or playing computer games (CG), 3 days per week for 8 weeks. HIT consisted of 4 × 4-min intervals with 3-min break periods, at 85-95% and 70% of peak heart rate, respectively. 12 and seven patients completed HIT and CG, respectively. The baseline VO(2peak) in both groups combined (n = 19) was 36.8 ± 8.2 ml/kg/min and 3.12 ± 0.55 l/min. The HIT group improved VO(2peak) by 12% from 3.17 ± 0.59 to 3.56 ± 0.68 l/min (P < 0.001), more than the CG group (P = 0.014). Net mechanical efficiency of walking improved by 12% in the HIT group from 19.8 ± 3.0% to 22.2 ± 4.5% (P = 0.005), more than the CG group (P = 0.031). The psychiatric symptoms, expressed as the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS), did not improve in either group. VO(2peak) and net mechanical efficiency of walking improved significantly by 8 weeks of HIT. HIT should be included in rehabilitation in order to improve physical capacity and contribute risk reduction of CVD.

  2. Ophthalmological Evaluation of Integrated Resistance and Aerobic Training During 70-Day Bed Rest

    PubMed Central

    Taibbi, Giovanni; Cromwell, Ronita L.; Zanello, Susana B.; Yarbough, Patrice O.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert J.; Godley, Bernard F.; Vizzeri, Gianmarco

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION We evaluated ophthalmic changes in healthy individuals who underwent integrated resistance and aerobic training (iRAT) during 70-day 6° head-down-tilt (HDT) bed rest (BR). METHODS Participants were selected using NASA standard screening procedures. Standardized NASA BR conditions were implemented. Subjects were randomly assigned to the iRAT protocol or no exercise during HDTBR. Weekly ophthalmic examinations were performed in the sitting (pre/post-BR only) and HDT (BR only) positions. Mixed-effects linear models compared pre and post-HDTBR intraocular pressure (IOP), Spectralis OCT circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (cpRNFLT) and peripapillary retinal thickness observations between groups. RESULTS Six controls and nine exercisers completed the study. There was an overall effect of BR on our outcomes. Except Goldmann IOP (mean pre/post difference in controls and exercisers: −0.47mmHg versus +1.14mmHg), the magnitude of changes from baseline was not significantly different between groups. There was a +1.38mmHg and a +1.63mmHg iCare IOP increase during BR in controls and exercisers, respectively. Spectralis OCT detected a +1.33μm average cpRNFLT increase in both groups, a +9.77μm and a +6.65μm peripapillary retinal thickening post-BR in controls and exercisers, respectively. Modified Amsler grid, red dot test, confrontational visual field, color vision, and stereoscopic fundus photography were unremarkable. CONCLUSIONS Seventy-day HDTBR induced peripapillary retinal thickening and cpRNFL thickening without visible signs of optic disc edema. The magnitude of such changes was not different between controls and exercisers. A slight IOP increase during BR subsided post-BR. Further study should evaluate whether different physical exercise paradigms may prevent/mitigate the risk of space-related visual impairment. PMID:28641680

  3. Aerobic interval training reduces cardiovascular risk factors more than a multitreatment approach in overweight adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tjønna, Arnt E; Stølen, Tomas O; Bye, Anja; Volden, Marte; Slørdahl, Stig A; Odegård, Rønnaug; Skogvoll, Eirik; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of a multidisciplinary approach (MTG) and aerobic interval training (AIT) on cardiovascular risk factors in overweight adolescents. A total of 62 overweight and obese adolescents from Trøndelag County in Norway, referred to medical treatment at St Olav's Hospital, Trondheim, Norway, were invited to participate. Of these, 54 adolescents (age, 14.0 +/- 0.3 years) were randomized to either AIT (4 x 4 min intervals at 90% of maximal heart rate, each interval separated by 3 min at 70%, twice a week for 3 months) or to MTG (exercise, dietary and psychological advice, twice a month for 12 months). Follow-up testing occurred at 3 and 12 months. VO(2max) (maximal oxygen uptake) increased more after AIT compared with MTG, both at 3 months (11 compared with 0%; P<0.01) and 12 months (12 compared with -1%; P<0.01). AIT enhanced endothelial function compared with MTG at both 3 months (absolute change, 5.1 compared with 3.9%; P<0.01) and 12 months (absolute change, 6.3 compared with 1.0%; P<0.01). AIT was favourable compared with MTG in reducing BMI (body mass index), percentage of fat, MAP (mean arterial blood pressure) and increasing peak oxygen pulse. In addition, AIT induced a more favourable regulation of blood glucose and insulin compared with MTG. In conclusion, the novel findings of the present proof-of-concept study was that 3 months of twice weekly high-intensity exercise sessions reduced several known cardiovascular risk factors in obese adolescents more than that observed after a multitreatment strategy, which was initiated as hospital treatment. Follow-up at 12 months confirmed that AIT improved or maintained these risk factors to a better degree than MTG.

  4. Short-term low-intensity blood flow restricted interval training improves both aerobic fitness and muscle strength.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, M F M; Caputo, F; Corvino, R B; Denadai, B S

    2016-09-01

    The present study aimed to analyze and compare the effects of four different interval-training protocols on aerobic fitness and muscle strength. Thirty-seven subjects (23.8 ± 4 years; 171.7 ± 9.5 cm; 70 ± 11 kg) were assigned to one of four groups: low-intensity interval training with (BFR, n = 10) or without (LOW, n = 7) blood flow restriction, high-intensity interval training (HIT, n = 10), and combined HIT and BFR (BFR + HIT, n = 10, every session performed 50% as BFR and 50% as HIT). Before and after 4 weeks training (3 days a week), the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max ), maximal power output (Pmax ), onset blood lactate accumulation (OBLA), and muscle strength were measured for all subjects. All training groups were able to improve OBLA (BFR, 16%; HIT, 25%; HIT + BFR, 22%; LOW, 6%), with no difference between groups. However, VO2max and Pmax improved only for BFR (6%, 12%), HIT (9%, 15%) and HIT + BFR (6%, 11%), with no difference between groups. Muscle strength gains were only observed after BFR training (11%). This study demonstrates the advantage of short-term low-intensity interval BFR training as the single mode of training able to simultaneously improve aerobic fitness and muscular strength. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Does Intrasession Concurrent Strength and Aerobic Training Order Influence Training-Induced Explosive Strength and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in Prepubescent Children?

    PubMed

    Alves, Ana R; Marta, Carlos C; Neiva, Henrique P; Izquierdo, Mikel; Marques, Mário C

    2016-12-01

    Alves, AR, Marta, C, Neiva, HP, Izquierdo, M, and Marques, MC. Does intrasession concurrent strength and aerobic training order influence training-induced explosive strength and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in prepubescent children?. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3267-3277, 2016-The aim of this study was to analyze the interference of strength and aerobic training order over an 8-week period on explosive skills and maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max) in prepubescent children. One hundred twenty-eight prepubescent children aged 10-11 years (10.9 ± 0.5 years) were randomly selected and assigned to 1 of the 3 groups: intrasession concurrent aerobic before (GAS: n = 39) or after strength training (GSA: n = 45) or control group (GC: n = 44; no training program). The GC maintained their baseline level performance, and training-induced differences were found in the experimental groups. Increases were found in the 1-kg and 3-kg medicine ball throws: GAS: +3%, +5.5%, p ≤ 0.05, p < 0.001; GSA: +5.7%, +8.7%, p < 0.001, respectively; in the counter movement jump height and standing long jump length: GAS: +6.5%, +3.4%, p ≤ 0.05; GSA: +7%, +4.5%, p < 0.001, respectively; in the 20-m shuttle-run time: GAS: +2.3%; GSA: +4.6%, p < 0.001; and, in the V[Combining Dot Above]O2max: GAS: +7.3%, p < 0.001; GSA: +3.8%, p < 0.001 from pretraining to post-training. All programs were effective, but GSA produced better results than GAS for muscle strength variables, and GAS produced better results than GSA for aerobic capacity variables. The present study explored an unknown issue and added useful information to the literature in this area. These training methods should be taken into consideration to optimize explosive strength and cardiorespiratory fitness training in school-based programs and sports club programs.

  6. Short-term inspiratory muscle training potentiates the benefits of aerobic and resistance training in patients undergoing CABG in phase II cardiac rehabilitation program.

    PubMed

    Hermes, Bárbara Maria; Cardoso, Dannuey Machado; Gomes, Tiago José Nardi; Santos, Tamires Daros dos; Vicente, Marília Severo; Pereira, Sérgio Nunes; Barbosa, Viviane Acunha; Albuquerque, Isabella Martins de

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the efficiency of short-term inspiratory muscle training program associated with combined aerobic and resistance exercise on respiratory muscle strength, functional capacity and quality of life in patients who underwent coronary artery bypass and are in the phase II cardiac rehabilitation program. A prospective, quasi-experimental study with 24 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass and were randomly assigned to two groups in the Phase II cardiac rehabilitation program: inspiratory muscle training program associated with combined training (aerobic and resistance) group (GCR + IMT, n=12) and combined training with respiratory exercises group (GCR, n=12), over a period of 12 weeks, with two sessions per week. Before and after intervention, the following measurements were obtained: maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures (PImax and PEmax), peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2) and quality of life scores. Data were compared between pre- and post-intervention at baseline and the variation between the pre- and post-phase II cardiac rehabilitation program using the Student's t-test, except the categorical variables, which were compared using the Chi-square test. Values of P<0.05 were considered statistically significant. Compared to GCR, the GCR + IMT group showed larger increments in PImax (P<0.001), PEmax (P<0.001), peak VO2 (P<0.001) and quality of life scores (P<0.001). The present study demonstrated that the addition of inspiratory muscle training, even when applied for a short period, may potentiate the effects of combined aerobic and resistance training, becoming a simple and inexpensive strategy for patients who underwent coronary artery bypass and are in phase II cardiac rehabilitation.

  7. Short-term inspiratory muscle training potentiates the benefits of aerobic and resistance training in patients undergoing CABG in phase II cardiac rehabilitation program

    PubMed Central

    Hermes, Bárbara Maria; Cardoso, Dannuey Machado; Gomes, Tiago José Nardi; dos Santos, Tamires Daros; Vicente, Marília Severo; Pereira, Sérgio Nunes; Barbosa, Viviane Acunha; de Albuquerque, Isabella Martins

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficiency of short-term inspiratory muscle training program associated with combined aerobic and resistance exercise on respiratory muscle strength, functional capacity and quality of life in patients who underwent coronary artery bypass and are in the phase II cardiac rehabilitation program. Methods A prospective, quasi-experimental study with 24 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass and were randomly assigned to two groups in the Phase II cardiac rehabilitation program: inspiratory muscle training program associated with combined training (aerobic and resistance) group (GCR + IMT, n=12) and combined training with respiratory exercises group (GCR, n=12), over a period of 12 weeks, with two sessions per week. Before and after intervention, the following measurements were obtained: maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures (PImax and PEmax), peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2) and quality of life scores. Data were compared between pre- and post-intervention at baseline and the variation between the pre- and post-phase II cardiac rehabilitation program using the Student's t-test, except the categorical variables, which were compared using the Chi-square test. Values of P<0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results Compared to GCR, the GCR + IMT group showed larger increments in PImax (P<0.001), PEmax (P<0.001), peak VO2 (P<0.001) and quality of life scores (P<0.001). Conclusion The present study demonstrated that the addition of inspiratory muscle training, even when applied for a short period, may potentiate the effects of combined aerobic and resistance training, becoming a simple and inexpensive strategy for patients who underwent coronary artery bypass and are in phase II cardiac rehabilitation. PMID:27163422

  8. Cardiorespiratory fitness level correlates inversely with excess post-exercise oxygen consumption after aerobic-type interval training.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Tomoaki; Ohkawara, Kazunori; Seino, Satoshi; Shimojo, Nobutake; Yamada, Shin; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Mukai, Chiaki

    2012-11-21

    The purpose of this study was to reveal any association between cardiorespiratory fitness level and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) using three cycling protocols with varying degrees of exercise intensity, i.e., sprint interval training (SIT), high-intensity interval aerobic training (HIAT), and continuous aerobic training (CAT). Ten healthy men, aged 20 to 31 years, attended a cross-over experiment and completed three exercise sessions: SIT consisting of 7 sets of 30-s cycling at 120% VO2max with a 15-s rest between sets; HIAT consisting of 3 sets of 3-min cycling at 80~90% VO2max with a 2-min active rest at 50% VO2max between sets; and CAT consisting of 40 min of cycling at 60~65% VO2max. During each session, resting VO2, exercise VO2, and a 180-min post-exercise VO2 were measured. The net exercise VO2 during the SIT, HIAT, and CAT averaged 14.7 ± 1.5, 31.8 ± 4.1, and 71.1 ± 10.0 L, and the EPOCs averaged 6.8 ± 4.0, 4.5 ± 3.3, and 2.9 ± 2.8 L, respectively. The EPOC with SIT was greater than with CAT (P < 0.01) and HIAT (P = 0.12). Correlation coefficients obtained between subjects' VO2max and the ratio of EPOC to net exercise VO2 for SIT, HIAT, and CAT were -0.61 (P = 0.06), -0.79 (P < 0.01), and -0.42 (P = 0.23), respectively. Our data suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness level correlates negatively with the magnitude of EPOC, especially when performing aerobic-type interval training.

  9. The impact of aerobic exercise training on novel adipokines, apelin and ghrelin, in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kadoglou, Nikolaos P E; Vrabas, Ioannis S; Kapelouzou, Alkistis; Lampropoulos, Stilianos; Sailer, Nikolaos; Kostakis, Alkiviadis; Liapis, Christos D; Angelopoulou, Nikoletta

    2012-05-01

    Accumulating data support the atheroprotective role of the novel adipokines, apelin and ghrelin. The aim of the present randomized study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise training on these adipokines in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Fifty-four overweight (BMI >25 kg/m²) patients with T2DM, but without vascular complications, were randomized to either the aerobic exercise training group (EG, N=27), 4 times/week, 45-60 min/session; or to the control group (CG, N=27), orally instructed to increase physical activity. Clinical glycemic and lipid parameters, exercise capacity (VO₂peak), insulin, HOMA-IR, and serum levels of apelin and ghrelin were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. Aerobic exercise significantly improved lipid and glycemic profile and insulin sensitivity compared to CG (p<0.05). Furthermore, between-groups comparison showed a considerable exercise-induced upregulation in apelin (p=0.007) and VO₂peak (p<0.001) levels. Negligible changes in body-weight, waist-hip ratio and ghrelin concentrations were detected within and between groups after the completion of the study (p>0.05). However, subgroup analysis revealed a considerable increment in ghrelin levels only in the exercise-treated women compared to their control counterparts (p=0.038). LDL and HOMA-IR reduction were found to be independent predictors of apelin increment in multiple regression analysis (R²=0.391, p=0.011). In patients with T2DM, systemic, long-term, aerobic exercise exerts positive effects on apelin and ghrelin (only in women), even in the absence of significant weight loss, suggesting its pleiotropic effects.

  10. The impact of aerobic exercise training on novel adipokines, apelin and ghrelin, in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kadoglou, Nikolaos P.E.; Vrabas, Ioannis S.; Kapelouzou, Alkistis; Lampropoulos, Stylianos; Sailer, Nikolaos; Kostakis, Alkiviadis; Liapis, Christos D.; Angelopoulou, Nikoletta

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Accumulating data support the atheroprotective role of the novel adipokines, apelin and ghrelin. The aim of the present randomized study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise training on these adipokines in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Material/Methods Fifty-four overweight (BMI >25 kg/m2) patients with T2DM, but without vascular complications, were randomized to either the aerobic exercise training group (EG, N=27), 4 times/week, 45–60 min/session; or to the control group (CG, N=27), orally instructed to increase physical activity. Clinical glycemic and lipid parameters, exercise capacity (VO2peak), insulin, HOMA-IR, and serum levels of apelin and ghrelin were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. Results Aerobic exercise significantly improved lipid and glycemic profile and insulin sensitivity compared to CG (p<0.05). Furthermore, between-groups comparison showed a considerable exercise-induced upregulation in apelin (p=0.007) and VO2peak (p<0.001) levels. Negligible changes in body-weight, waist-hip ratio and ghrelin concentrations were detected within and between groups after the completion of the study (p>0.05). However, subgroup analysis revealed a considerable increment in ghrelin levels only in the exercise-treated women compared to their control counterparts (p=0.038). LDL and HOMA-IR reduction were found to be independent predictors of apelin increment in multiple regression analysis (R2=0.391, p=0.011). Conclusions In patients with T2DM, systemic, long-term, aerobic exercise exerts positive effects on apelin and ghrelin (only in women), even in the absence of significant weight loss, suggesting its pleiotropic effects. PMID:22534708

  11. High-Intensity Intermittent Training Positively Affects Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance in Judo Athletes Independently of Exercise Mode

    PubMed Central

    Franchini, Emerson; Julio, Ursula F.; Panissa, Valéria L. G.; Lira, Fábio S.; Gerosa-Neto, José; Branco, Braulio H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigated the effects of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) on lower- and upper-body graded exercise and high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE, four Wingate bouts) performance, and on physiological and muscle damage markers responses in judo athletes. Methods: Thirty-five subjects were randomly allocated to a control group (n = 8) or to one of the following HIIT groups (n = 9 for each) and tested pre- and post-four weeks (2 training d·wk−1): (1) lower-body cycle-ergometer; (2) upper-body cycle-ergometer; (3) uchi-komi (judo technique entrance). All HIIT were constituted by two blocks of 10 sets of 20 s of all out effort interspersed by 10 s set intervals and 5-min between blocks. Results: For the upper-body group there was an increase in maximal aerobic power in graded upper-body exercise test (12.3%). The lower-body group increased power at onset blood lactate in graded upper-body exercise test (22.1%). The uchi-komi group increased peak power in upper- (16.7%) and lower-body (8.5%), while the lower-body group increased lower-body mean power (14.2%) during the HIIE. There was a decrease in the delta blood lactate for the uchi-komi training group and in the third and fourth bouts for the upper-body training group. Training induced testosterone-cortisol ratio increased in the lower-body HIIE for the lower-body (14.9%) and uchi-komi (61.4%) training groups. Conclusion: Thus, short-duration low-volume HIIT added to regular judo training was able to increase upper-body aerobic power, lower- and upper-body HIIE performance. PMID:27445856

  12. Improved VO2max and time trial performance with more high aerobic intensity interval training and reduced training volume: a case study on an elite national cyclist.

    PubMed

    Støren, Øyvind; Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Haave, Marius; Helgerud, Jan

    2012-10-01

    The present study investigated to what extent more high aerobic intensity interval training (HAIT) and reduced training volume would influence maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and time trial (TT) performance in an elite national cyclist in the preseason period. The cyclist was tested for VO2max, cycling economy (C(c)), and TT performance on an ergometer cycle during 1 year. Training was continuously logged using heart rate monitor during the entire period. Total monthly training volume was reduced in the 2011 preseason compared with the 2010 preseason, and 2 HAIT blocks (14 sessions in 9 days and 15 sessions in 10 days) were performed as running. Between the HAIT blocks, 3 HAIT sessions per week were performed as cycling. From November 2010 to February 2011, the cyclist reduced total average monthly training volume by 18% and cycling training volume by 60%. The amount of training at 90-95% HRpeak increased by 41%. VO2max increased by 10.3% on ergometer cycle. TT performance improved by 14.9%. C(c) did not change. In conclusion, preseason reduced total training volume but increased amount of HAIT improved VO2max and TT performance without any changes in C(c). These improvements on cycling appeared despite that the HAIT blocks were performed as running. Reduced training time, and training transfer from running into improved cycling form, may be beneficial for cyclists living in cold climate areas.

  13. Effect of a 6-month school-based physical activity program on body composition and physical fitness in lean and obese schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Thivel, David; Isacco, Laurie; Lazaar, Nordine; Aucouturier, Julien; Ratel, Sébastien; Doré, Eric; Meyer, Martine; Duché, Pascale

    2011-11-01

    Few studies have investigated the impact of school-based physical activity interventions on anthropometric characteristics concomitantly with aerobic and anaerobic capacities in young children. The present study aimed to assess the effect of a 6-month physical activity program on body composition and physical fitness among primary schoolchildren. Four hundred fifty-seven children aged 6 to 10 years were randomly assigned to the intervention group (229 children) or observational group (228 children). Participants' height and weight were assessed, and obesity was determined using French reference curves for BMI. The sum of the four skinfolds and fat-free mass were determined. Ground tests were used to assess aerobic (20-m shuttle run test) and anaerobic (cycling peak power) fitness before and after a 6-month physical activity intervention. The anthropometric modifications obtained over the 6 months cannot be attributed to the intervention as the ANOVA revealed no group effect (intervention vs. group). However, anaerobic and aerobic fitness were significantly improved, thanks to the program in both lean and obese children. A 6-month school-based physical activity intervention in 6- to 10-year-old children did not yield positive anthropometric improvements, but appears effective in terms of aerobic and anaerobic physical fitness. Two physical activity sessions per week in addition to standard physical education classes in primary schoolchildren bring effective results for the prevention of childhood obesity.

  14. Effects of 6-months' Exercise on Cardiac Function, Structure and Metabolism in Female Hypertensive Rats–The Decisive Role of Lysyl Oxidase and Collagen III

    PubMed Central

    Schreckenberg, Rolf; Horn, Anja-Maria; da Costa Rebelo, Rui M.; Simsekyilmaz, Sakine; Niemann, Bernd; Li, Ling; Rohrbach, Susanne; Schlüter, Klaus-Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: According to the current therapeutic guidelines of the WHO physical activity and exercise are recommended as first-line therapy of arterial hypertension. Previous results lead to the conclusion, however, that hearts of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with established hypertension cannot compensate for the haemodynamic stresses caused by long-term exercise. The current study was initiated to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise on the cardiac remodeling as the sole therapeutic measure before and during hypertension became established. Methods: Beginning at their 6th week of life, six SHR were provided with a running wheel over a period of 6 months. Normotensive Wistar rats served as non-hypertensive controls. Results: In Wistar rats and SHR, voluntary exercise led to cardioprotective adaptation reactions that were reflected in increased mitochondrial respiration, reduced heart rate and improved systolic function. Exercise also had antioxidant effects and reduced the expression of maladaptive genes (TGF-β1, CTGF, and FGF2). However, at the end of the 6-months' training, the echocardiograms revealed that SHR runners developed a restrictive cardiomyopathy. The induction of lysyl oxidase (LOX), which led to an increased network of matrix proteins and a massive elevation in collagen III expression, was identified as the underlying cause. Conclusions: Running-induced adaptive mechanisms effectively counteract the classic remodeling of hearts subject to chronic pressure loads. However, with sustained running stress, signaling pathways are activated that have a negative effect on left ventricular relaxation. Our data suggest that the induction of LOX may play a causative role in the diagnosed filling disorder in trained SHR. PMID:28824452

  15. Influence of aerobic training and detraining on serum BDNF, insulin resistance, and metabolic risk factors in middle-aged men diagnosed with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Damirchi, Arsalan; Tehrani, Bahram Soltani; Alamdari, Karim Azali; Babaei, Parvin

    2014-11-01

    To study the influence of aerobic exercise training on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin resistance, and lipid profile in middle-aged men diagnosed with metabolic syndrome (MetS). This is an experimental repeated measure study. Subjects participated in aerobic training programs (18 sessions of 25-40 minutes per session) in Guilan University gymnasium and court. A total of 21 middle-aged men (50-65 years old) diagnosed with MetS participated. We randomly divided 21 middle-aged men with MetS into exercise and control groups. The exercise group followed an aerobic training program (18 sessions, 3/wk) at 50% to 60% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2 peak (25-40 minutes per session) and 6 weeks of detraining. Blood samples were collected at baseline, end of the training, and detraining. High BDNF level in patients with MetS and its reduction after chronic aerobic exercise. Aerobic training significantly decreased all the metabolic risk factors, including overall MetS z score, insulin resistance, and lipid profile (P < 0.05). After the detraining period, plasma triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, and also overall MetS z score remained unchanged (P < 0.05); however, serum BDNF, which was decreased by aerobic training (P = 0.013), restored to the baseline at the end of the detraining (P = 0.018). Improved metabolic risk factors along with decreased serum BDNF in response to aerobic training and the opposite direction during the detraining emphasize the importance of physical activity in the treatment of MetS and prevention of related diseases.

  16. Quality of life and sleep quality are similarly improved after aquatic or dry-land aerobic training in patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    S Delevatti, Rodrigo; Schuch, Felipe Barreto; Kanitz, Ana Carolina; Alberton, Cristine L; Marson, Elisa Corrêa; Lisboa, Salime Chedid; Pinho, Carolina Dertzbocher Feil; Bregagnol, Luciana Peruchena; Becker, Maríndia Teixeira; Kruel, Luiz Fernando M

    2017-09-06

    To compare the effects of two aerobic training models in water and on dry-land on quality of life, depressive symptoms and sleep quality in patients with type 2 diabetes. Randomized clinical trial. Thirty-five patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to aquatic aerobic training group (n=17) or dry-land aerobic training group (n=18). Exercise training length was of 12 weeks, performed in three weekly sessions (45min/session), with intensity progressing from 85% to 100% of heart rate of anaerobic threshold during interventions. All outcomes were evaluated at baseline and 12 weeks later. In per protocol analysis, physical and psychological domains of quality of life improved in both groups (p<0.05) without between-group differences. Overall quality of life and sleep quality improved in both groups (p<0.05), without between-group differences in per protocol and intention to treat analysis. No changes on depressive symptoms were observed in both groups at follow-up. Aerobic training in an aquatic environment provides similar effects to aerobic training in a dry-land environment on quality of life, depressive symptoms and sleep quality in patients with type 2 diabetes. Clinical trial reg. no. NCT01956357, clinicaltrials.gov. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Glucose control can be similarly improved after aquatic or dry-land aerobic training in patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Delevatti, Rodrigo S; Kanitz, Ana Carolina; Alberton, Cristine L; Marson, Elisa Corrêa; Lisboa, Salime Chedid; Pinho, Carolina Dertzbocher Feil; Lovatel, Gisele A; Korb, Arthiese; Bertoldi, Karine; Macedo, Rodrigo C O; Siqueira, Ionara R; Schaan, Beatriz D; Kruel, Luiz Fernando M

    2016-08-01

    To compare the effects of two aerobic training methods in water and on dry-land on glycemic, lipid, inflammatory, hormonal, cardiorespiratory, and functional outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. Randomized clinical trial. Thirty-five patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to aquatic aerobic training group (n=17) or dry-land aerobic training group (n=18). Exercise training interventions had duration of 12 weeks, performed in three weekly sessions (45min/session), with intensity progressing from 85% to 100% of heart rate of anaerobic threshold during interventions. All outcomes were evaluated at baseline and 12 weeks later. Patients were 56.7±7.9 years old. Decreases in glycated hemoglobin were observed in both groups (AT: -0.42±0.28%, DLT: -0.35±1.8%). Total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein levels, plasma renin activity, angiotensin II concentrations, C-reactive protein, systolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, and timed up and go test performed at the usual speed also decreased in both groups in response to both interventions (p<0.05), without between-group differences. Both groups increased the ratio between oxygen uptake at the anaerobic threshold and oxygen uptake of peak (p=0.01). Aerobic training in an aquatic environment provides effects similar to aerobic training in a dry-land environment in patients with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Climbing-specific finger endurance: a comparative study of intermediate rock climbers, rowers and aerobically trained individuals.

    PubMed

    Grant, S; Shields, C; Fitzpatrick, V; Loh, W Ming; Whitaker, A; Watt, I; Kay, J W

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the climbing-specific finger endurance of climbers, rowers and aerobically leg trained athletes. Twenty-seven males aged 21.2 +/- 2.2 years (mean +/- s) volunteered for the study. The participants were intermediate rock climbers (n = 9), rowers (n = 9) and leg trained athletes (n = 9). Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) was determined on climbing-specific finger apparatus. Endurance isometric exercise was performed at 40% MVC in three tests performed in a random order: (1) sustained exercise; (2) 6 s exercise, 4 s rest; and (3) 18 s exercise, 12 s rest. Pre- and post-exercise blood pressure and blood lactate concentration, together with post-exercise pain perception, were measured. The climbers had a significantly greater MVC (383 +/- 35.6 N) than the rowers (321 +/- 49.5 N, P = 0.007) and aerobically leg trained athletes (288 +/- 60.6 N, P = 0.001). There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of endurance times for any of the tests. In the test with 18 s exercise and 12 s rest, the climbers showed a significantly higher increase in blood lactate concentration, on average, than the rowers by 0.01-0.89 mmol x l(-1) (P = 0.006); there were no significant differences, on average, in the comparisons of climbers and the leg trained athletes and rowers and the leg trained athletes. There were no significant differences in the average changes in blood pressure from rest to post-exercise between any of the groups. Although the climbers had greater MVC on average than the other two groups, there were no significant differences in average endurance times amongthe groups. These findings suggest that training for rock climbing and participation in rock climbing may result in some specific adaptations. However, we acknowledge that this study is descriptive and there is the possibility that differences between groups could be attributed to self-selection.

  19. Effects of Continuous and Interval Training on Running Economy, Maximal Aerobic Speed and Gait Kinematics in Recreational Runners.

    PubMed

    González-Mohíno, Fernando; González-Ravé, José M; Juárez, Daniel; Fernández, Francisco A; Barragán Castellanos, Rubén; Newton, Robert U

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects on running economy (RE), V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, maximal aerobic speed (MAS), and gait kinematics (step length [SL] and frequency, flight and contact time [CT]) in recreational athletes, with 2 different training methods, Interval and Continuous (CON). Eleven participants were randomly distributed in an interval training group (INT; n = 6) or CON training group (CON; n = 5). Interval training and CON performed 2 different training programs (95-110% and 70-75% of MAS, respectively), which consisted of 3 sessions per week during 6 weeks with the same external workload (%MAS × duration). An incremental test to exhaustion was performed to obtain V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, MAS, RE, and gait variables (high speed camera) before and after the training intervention. There was a significant improvement (p ≤ 0.05) in RE at 60 and 90% of MAS by the CON group; without changes in gait. The INT group significantly increased MAS and higher stride length at 80, 90, and 100% of MAS and lower CT at 100% of MAS. As expected, training adaptations are highly specific to the overload applied with CON producing improvements in RE at lower percentage of MAS whereas INT produces improvements in MAS. The significantly increased stride length and decreased CT for the INT group are an important outcome of favorable changes in running gait.

  20. The reinforcing value and liking of resistance training and aerobic exercise as predictors of adult's physical activity.

    PubMed

    Flack, Kyle D; Johnson, LuAnn; Roemmich, James N

    2017-10-01

    Reinforcing value (motivating value) is a stronger predictor than hedonic value (liking) for engaging in drug use, gambling, and eating. The associations of reinforcing value and liking with physical activity of adults have not yet been studied and may depend on the modes of exercise (e.g., aerobic/cardiovascular exercise, resistance training) under consideration. The purpose of this study was to test associations of the reinforcing value and liking of aerobic exercise training (AT) and resistance exercise training (RT) modes of exercise with usual participation in aerobic and resistance exercise in adults. Men (n=38) and women (n=50) were measured for their liking and relative reinforcing value (RRV) of AT and RT, for their usual vigorous physical activity (VPA) participation, and for usual resistance exercise behavior (Yale physical activity questionnaire). The RRV of AT (RRVAT) and liking of AT were correlated, (r=0.22, p<0.04), as were the RRV of RT (RRVRT) and liking of RT (r=0.42, p˂0.01). The reinforcing value for, but not the liking of, a mode of exercise predicted how much an individual engaged in that mode of exercise. RRVAT (p˂0.01) was positively associated with usual VPA. RRVRT (p˂0.01) was positively associated with RT behavior. The hedonic value of AT and of RT were not associated (p>0.30) with VPA or RT behavior. Reinforcing value of a mode of exercise is a stronger predictor than the liking of that mode of exercise for usual amount of participation in the exercise. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Tissue iron deficiency without anemia impairs adaptation in endurance capacity after aerobic training in previously untrained women.

    PubMed

    Brownlie, Thomas; Utermohlen, Virginia; Hinton, Pamela S; Haas, Jere D

    2004-03-01

    We previously showed that iron supplementation significantly improves iron status and maximal work capacity in previously untrained, marginally iron-deficient women with a baseline serum transferrin receptor concentration > 8.0 mg/L. However, the effect of transferrin receptor status on adaptation in endurance capacity after aerobic training in these subjects has not been fully explored. Our objective was to examine the effect of baseline serum transferrin receptor status on adaptations in endurance capacity. Forty-one untrained, iron-depleted, nonanemic women were randomly assigned to receive either 100 mg FeSO(4) or a placebo for 6 wk in a double-blind trial. All subjects trained on cycle ergometers 5 d/wk for the last 4 wk of the study. Endurance capacity was assessed at baseline and after treatment by using a 15-km time trial conducted on a cycle ergometer. Significant treatment effects were observed for time to complete the 15-km time trial, work rate, and percentage of maximal oxygen uptake in subjects with a baseline serum transferrin receptor concentration > 8.0 mg/L. No significant treatment effects were observed in subjects with a normal baseline transferrin receptor concentration. Our findings suggest that, in the presence of overt tissue iron deficiency, iron deficiency without anemia impairs adaptation in endurance capacity after aerobic training in previously untrained women. This impairment can be corrected with iron supplementation.

  2. The influence of aerobic exercise training on the double product break point in low-to-moderate risk adults.

    PubMed

    Hargens, Trent A; Griffin, Diane C; Kaminsky, Leonard A; Whaley, Mitchell H

    2011-02-01

    The double product is the product of the heart rate and systolic blood pressure. The double product break point (DPBP) is a physiologic threshold that occurs at similar exercise intensities to that of the ventilatory threshold (VT). The influence of aerobic exercise training on the DPBP has not yet been examined. The purpose of this study was to examine whether aerobic exercise training (ET) increases the exercise intensity at which the DPBP occurs, and whether it increases in a similar fashion to the VT. Seven males and 11 females, all sedentary (mean ± SD: age = 29.9 ± 10.5 years) underwent supervised cardiopulmonary exercise testing using a cycle ergometer ramp protocol at baseline and after 8 weeks of vigorous ET on a cycle ergometer. The VT was determined by gas analysis and the V-slope method. Experienced observers using standardized instructions visually determined the DPBP. Following ET, VO(2 peak), maximal workload, and body composition variables all showed significant positive changes. The VO(2) at which the DPBP and VT occurred increased significantly from baseline to follow-up (P < 0.001). At baseline and at follow-up, the DPBP and VT did not differ. The DPBP and VT were significantly correlated to each other at both time points. Results suggest that the DPBP responds to ET in a similar fashion to that of the VT, and may be an easier and more useful marker of the VT for exercise training purposes.

  3. Association between respiratory muscle strength and reduction of arterial blood pressure levels after aerobic training in hypertensive subjects

    PubMed Central

    Galdino, Giovane; Silva, Andreia Maria; Bogão, José Angelo; Braz de Oliveira, Marcos Paulo; Araújo, Hayslenne Andressa Gonçalves de Oliveira; Oliveira, Maísa Sodoco; Maldonado, Ana Clara Desiderio; Ulisses de Oliveira, Herick; Borges, Juliana Bassalobre Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of present study was associate the increase of respiratory muscle strength with blood pressure levels in hypertensive subjects who underwent an aerobic exercise program. [Subjects and Methods] 90 hypertensive subjects were divided in two groups: intervention and control. All participants had an interview with a physiotherapist and were evaluated by 6-minute walk test, maximal inspiratory pressure, maximal expiratory pressure, heart rate, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, before and after the 8 weeks. In the intervention group, the subjects underwent aerobic exercise program, 2 times a week for 8 weeks [Results] After the program, the levels of blood pressure were significantly reduced and the distance walked in the 6-minute walk test and the respiratory muscle strength were increased, compared to pre intervention and control group values. However, there was no correlation between the res