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Sample records for 6-month period results

  1. Remission in schizophrenia: results of cross-sectional with 6-month follow-up period and 1-year observational therapeutic studies in an outpatient population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A standardized definition of remission criteria in schizophrenia was proposed by the International group of NC Andreasen in 2005 (low symptom threshold for the eight core Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) symptoms for at least 6 consecutive months). Methods A cross-sectional study of remission rate, using a 6-month follow-up to assess symptomatic stability, was conducted in two healthcare districts (first and second) of an outpatient psychiatric service in Moscow. The key inclusion criteria were outpatients with an International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition (ICD-10) diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Remission was assessed using modern criteria (severity and time criteria), PANSS and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Patients who were stable but did not satisfied the symptomatic criteria were included in a further 1-year observational study, with the first group (first district) receiving risperidone (long-acting, injectable) (RLAI) and the second group (second district) continuing to receiving routine treatment. Symptoms were assessed with PANSS, social functioning with the personal and social performance scale, compliance with rating of medication influences scale, and extrapyramidal side effects with the Simpson-Angus scale. Results Only 64 (31.5%) of 203 outpatients met the criteria for symptomatic remission in the cross-sectional study, but at the end of the 6-month follow-up period, 158 (77.8%) were stable (irrespective of remission status). Among these only 53 (26.1%) patients fulfilled the remission criteria. The observational study had 42 stable patients in the RLAI group and 35 in the routine treatment group: 19.0% in the RLAI group and 5.7% in the control group met remission criteria after 12 months of therapy. Furthermore, reduction of PANSS total and subscale scores, as well as improvement in social functioning, was more significant in the first group. Conclusions Only around one-quarter of

  2. A prospective study of atopic dermatitis managed without topical corticosteroids for a 6-month period

    PubMed Central

    Fukaya, Mototsugu; Sato, Kenji; Yamada, Takahiro; Sato, Mitsuko; Fujisawa, Shigeki; Minaguchi, Satoko; Kimata, Hajime; Dozono, Haruhiko

    2016-01-01

    Topical corticosteroids (TCS) are regarded as the mainstay treatment for atopic dermatitis (AD). As AD has a tendency to heal naturally, the long-term efficacy of TCS in AD management should be compared with the outcomes seen in patients with AD not using TCS. However, there are few long-term studies that consider patients with AD not using TCS. We designed a prospective multicenter cohort study to assess the clinical outcomes in patients with AD who did not use TCS for 6 months and then compared our results with an earlier study by Furue et al which considered AD patients using TCS over 6 months. Our patients’ clinical improvement was comparable with the patients described in Furue’s research. In light of this, it is reasonable for physicians to manage AD patients who decline TCS, as the expected long-term prognosis is similar whether they use TCS or not. PMID:27445501

  3. Laparoscopic gastric bypass results in decreased prescription medication costs within 6 months.

    PubMed

    Gould, Jon Charles; Garren, Michael Joseph; Starling, James Ralph

    2004-12-01

    The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions. The treatment of obesity-related health conditions is costly. Although laparoscopic gastric bypass is expensive, health care costs in obese patients should decrease with subsequent weight loss and overall improved health. Specifically, monthly prescription medication costs should decrease quickly after surgery. Fifty consecutive laparoscopic gastric bypass patients at a university-based bariatric surgery program were enrolled in the study. Medication consumption was prospectively recorded in a database. Patients' monthly prescription (not over-the-counter) medication costs before surgery and 6 months postoperatively were calculated. Retail costs were determined by a query to drugstore.com, an online pharmacy. Generic drugs were selected when appropriate. Costs for diabetic supplies and monitoring were not included in this analysis. Patients were mostly female (86%). Mean body mass index preoperatively was 51 kg/m2. Mean excess weight loss at 6 months was 52%. Patients took an average of 3.7 prescription medications before surgery compared with 1.7 after surgery (P < 0.05). All patients took nonprescription nutritional supplements, including multivitamins, oral vitamin B12, and calcium postoperatively. Laparoscopic gastric bypass resulted in a significant improvement in comorbid health conditions as early as 6 months after surgery. In an unselected group of patients, this led to a substantial overall mean monthly prescription medication cost savings, especially in those with gastroesophageal reflux disease, hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. PMID:15585385

  4. 6-Month Results of Transdiscal Biacuplasty on Patients with Discogenic Low Back Pain: Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    Karaman, Haktan; Tüfek, Adnan; Kavak, Gönül Ölmez; Kaya, Sedat; Yildirim, Zeynep Baysal; Uysal, Ersin; Çelik, Feyzi

    2011-01-01

    Study Design: Prospective observational study. Objective: Our aim is to investigate the efficacy and safety of TransDiscal Biacuplasty. Summary of Background Data: Chronic discogenic pain is one of the leading causes of low back pain; however, the condition is not helped by most non-invasive methods. The results of major surgical operations for these patients are unsatisfactory. Recently, attention has shifted to disk heating methods for treatment. TransDiscal Biacuplasty is one of the minimally invasive treatment methods. The method was developed as an alternative to spinal surgical practices and Intradiscal Electrothermal Therapy for treatment of patients with chronic discogenic pain. Methods: The candidates for this study were patients with chronic discogenic pain that did not respond to conservative treatment. The main criteria for inclusion were: the existence of axial low back pain present for 6 months; disc degeneration or internal disc disruption at a minimum of one level, and maximum of two levels, in MR imaging; and positive discography. Physical function was assessed using the Oswestry Disability Index when measuring the pain with VAS. Patient satisfaction was evaluated using a 4-grade scale. Follow-ups were made 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. Results: 15 patients were treated at one or two levels. The mean patient age was 43.1±9.2 years. We found the mean symptom duration to be 40.5±45.7 months. At the sixth month, 57.1% of patients reported a 50% or more reduction in pain, while 78.6% of patients reported a reduction of at least two points in their VAS values. In the final check, 78.6% of patients reported a 10-point improvement in their Oswestry Disability scores compared to the initial values. No complications were observed in any of the patients. Conclusions: TransDiscal Biacuplasty is an effective and safe method. PMID:21197258

  5. [Duxil and cognitive deficiency in the elderly. Results of a 6-month controlled multicenter study].

    PubMed

    Poitrenaud, J; Piette, F; Malbezin, M; Sebban, C; Guez, D

    1990-01-01

    Two hundred and four patients, 70-85 years old, were included in a double-blind (Duxil/placebo), controlled, multicentric study. The inclusion criteria were a subjective complaint of a cognitive deficiency and a cognitive deficit objectively determined using the Folstein mini-mental state test and the Sandoz geriatric clinical evaluation score. The patients, treated for 6 months, were examined at the onset of the study (T0), then 3 (T3) and 6 months (T6) later. The assessment criteria included: a visual self-evaluation test measuring cognitive function and the following psychometric tests: trail making A (TMA), memorization of a shopping list, verbal fluidity, letter identification, repetition of a story, immediate recall of numbers and immediate visual memory. Anxiety and depression evaluations were also used to assess the effects of Duxil on the affective state. Statistical analysis of the observations made on the entire population did not reveal a significant difference between the treated group and the control placebo group, in terms of assessment criteria, between T0 and T6. However, this lack of a difference could be explained, in part, by the very wide variation in the initial psychometric performance scores of the subjects. In an attempt to control this possible bias, another statistical analysis was made for each psychometric test, after the patients had been divided into 3 classes based on their initial performance scores. The results of this second analysis showed that Duxil was able to improve memory performances in TMA and number retention better than the placebo. However, this effect was limited to the group of patients whose initial scores were in the intermediate class for TMA. These findings suggest that Duxil improves the concentrating ability of patients with light to moderate deficits in this function. PMID:2082783

  6. Mississippi Communities for Healthy Living: Results of a 6-month nutrition education comparative effectiveness trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region suffers from high prevalence of chronic health conditions with nutritional etiologies, including obesity, high cholesterol, hypertension, and diabetes. Responding to the need for effective nutrition interventions in the LMD, a 2-arm, 6-month, n...

  7. Cognitive-Behaviorally-Oriented Group Rehabilitation of Adults with ADHD: Results of a 6-Month Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salakari, Anita; Virta, Maarit; Gronroos, Nina; Chydenius, Esa; Partinen, Markku; Vataja, Risto; Kaski, Markus; Iivanainen, Matti

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Recently, novel psychological treatments for adult ADHD have been reported with promising results. However, studies about long-term treatment effects are scanty. The authors study effects of cognitive-behaviorally-oriented group rehabilitation during a 6-month follow-up. Method: Participating in the rehabilitation were 29 adults, of…

  8. Common antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and genotypes of fecal Escherichia coli isolates from a single family over a 6-month period.

    PubMed

    Al-Dweik, Manar R; Shehabi, Asem A

    2009-06-01

    This study investigated the antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and genotypes among fecal Escherichia coli isolates from the members of a single Jordanian family over a 6-month period. A total of 55 (51%) E. coli isolates were resistant to >2, and 21 (19%) to >3 of the 14 tested antimicrobial agents, respectively. The highest resistance rates were observed to tetracycline (42%), followed by coamoxyclav and cotrimoxazole (32%), gentamicin (31%), and nalidixic acid (27%). Sixteen out of 21 (76%) multiresistant E. coli isolates (resistant to >3 drugs) transferred most of their resistance markers in vitro to E. coli K12. Five out of the six family members were colonized with E. coli carrying one or two of the two common plasmid sizes (54.3 and 13.2 kb). Ten of these isolates (48%) were positive for class 1 integron genes and harbored four tet (A) and five tet (B) genes, respectively, but all were negative for tet (39). The genetic diversity of E. coli isolates using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR demonstrated 13 major clusters of genotype groups, and most of the isolates (63%) belonged to one genotype group. This study indicates that all six family members are colonized with fecal E. coli isolates exhibiting a common number of antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and at least one prevalent genotype. PMID:19432518

  9. Developmentally Delayed Male with Mincer Blade Obstructing the Oesophagus for a Period of Time Suspected to Be 6 Months

    PubMed Central

    Grønhøj Larsen, Christian; Charabi, Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Sharp, retained foreign bodies in the oesophagus are associated with severe complications. Developmentally delayed patients are especially subject to foreign objects. We describe a 37-year-old, developmentally delayed male with a mincer blade obstructing the oesophagus. Six months prior to surgical intervention, the patient was hospitalized in a condition of sepsis and pneumonia where the thoracic X-ray reveals a foreign body in the proximal oesophagus. When rehospitalized 6 months later, a mincer blade of the type used in immersion blenders was surgically removed. During these 6 months the patient's main symptoms were dysphagia, weight loss, and diarrhoea. When developmentally delayed patients present with dysphagia, we strongly encourage the awareness of the possible presence of foreign bodies. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of a mincer blade in the oesophagus. PMID:26236532

  10. A Comparison of Endothelial Cell Loss in Combined Cataract and MIGS (Hydrus) Procedure to Phacoemulsification Alone: 6-Month Results

    PubMed Central

    Fea, Antonio M.; Consolandi, Giulia; Pignata, Giulia; Cannizzo, Paola Maria Loredana; Lavia, Carlo; Billia, Filippo; Rolle, Teresa; Grignolo, Federico M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the corneal endothelial cell loss after phacoemulsification, alone or combined with microinvasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS), in nonglaucomatous versus primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) eyes affected by age-related cataract. Methods. 62 eyes of 62 patients were divided into group 1 (n = 25, affected by age-related cataract) and group 2 (n = 37, affected by age-related cataract and POAG). All patients underwent cataract surgery. Group 2 was divided into subgroups A (n = 19, cataract surgery alone) and B (n = 18, cataract surgery and MIGS). Prior to and 6 months after surgery the patients' endothelium was studied. Main outcomes were CD (cell density), SD (standard deviation), CV (coefficient of variation), and 6A (hexagonality coefficient) variations after surgeries. Results. There were no significant differences among the groups concerning preoperative endothelial parameters. The differences in CD before and after surgery were significant in all groups: 9.1% in group 1, 17.24% in group 2A, and 11.71% in group 2B. All endothelial parameters did not significantly change after surgery. Conclusions. Phacoemulsification determined a loss of endothelial cells in all groups. After surgery the change in endothelial parameters after MIGS was comparable to the ones of patients who underwent cataract surgery alone. PMID:26664740

  11. Relationship of cravings with weight loss and hunger: results from a 6 month worksite weight loss intervention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the association of food cravings with weight loss and eating behaviors in a 6 month worksite lifestyle weight loss program. This randomized controlled trial of the intervention versus a wait-listed control was conducted at 4 worksites, and 95 participants completed outcome assessments ...

  12. Histological and Histomorphometric Human Results of HA-Beta-TCP 30/70 Compared to Three Different Biomaterials in Maxillary Sinus Augmentation at 6 Months: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Annibali, Susanna; Iezzi, Giovanna; Sfasciotti, Gian Luca; Cristalli, Maria Paola; Vozza, Iole; Mangano, Carlo; La Monaca, Gerardo; Polimeni, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this investigation was to examine the bone regenerative potential of newly biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics (HA-β-TCP 30/70), by assessing histological and histomorphometric results of human specimens retrieved from sinuses augmented with HA-β-TCP 30/70, and comparing them to anorganic bovine bone (ABB), mineralized solvent-dehydrated bone allograft (MSDBA), and equine bone (EB), after a healing period of 6 months. Materials and Methods. Four consecutive patients with edentulous atrophic posterior maxilla were included in this report. A two-stage procedure was carried out for sinus augmentation with HA-β-TCP 30/70, ABB, MSDBA, and EB. After 6 months, specimens were retrieved at the time of implant placement and processed for histological and histomorphometric analyses. Results. At histological examination, all biomaterials were in close contact with the newly formed bone and showed the same pattern of bone formation; the grafted granules were surrounded by a bridge-like network of newly formed bone. A limited number of ABB particles were partially covered by connective tissue. The histomorphometric analysis revealed 30.2% newly formed bone for Ha-β-TCP 30/70, 20.1% for ABB, 16.4% for MSDBA, and 21.9% for EB. Conclusions. Within the limitations of the present investigation, these results support the successful use of HA-β-TCP 30/70 for sinus augmentation. PMID:26273589

  13. Results of immediate loading for implant restoration in partially edentulous patients: a 6-month preliminary prospective study using SinusQuick™ EB implant system

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Hwa; Kim, Young-Kyun; Yi, Yang-Jin; Yun, Pil-Young; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Kim, Myung-Jin

    2009-01-01

    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM Many dental clinicians are concerned about immediate loading of inserted implants. However, there have been few clinical studies surveying the success rates of immediate loading, based on Korean implant systems. PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of immediate functional loading of the implant (SinusQuick™ EB, Neobiotech Co., Seoul, Korea) in partially edentulous maxilla or mandible. MATERIAL AND METHODS Total 15 implants were placed. Within 2 weeks after implant insertion, provisional implant-supported fixed partial dentures were delivered to the patients. Quantitatively, marginal bone loss was measured at the time of immediate loading, after 3-months of continued loading and at the last follow-up. The mean follow-up period was 4.8 months. RESULTS Mean marginal bone loss from implant surgery to early loading, 3-months follow-up and last follow-up was 0.03 ± 0.07 mm, 0.16 ± 0.17 mm and 0.29 ± 0.19 mm. No implant failed up to 6 months after insertion, resulting in a 100% survival rate. CONCLUSION Immediate loading exhibited high success rate in partial edentulism for up to 6 months. Well-controlled long term clinical studies with large sample size are necessary to confirm this finding. PMID:21165269

  14. Calcium supplementation, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. Predictors of bone mass changes in adolescent mothers during the 6-month postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Malpeli, Agustina; Apezteguia, María; Mansur, José L; Armanini, Alicia; Macías Couret, Melisa; Villalobos, Rosa; Kuzminczuk, Marta; Gonzalez, Horacio F

    2012-03-01

    We determined the effect of calcium supplementation on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) and identified predictors of bone mass changes in adolescent mothers 6 months postpartum. A prospective, analytical, clinical study was performed in adolescent mothers (< or = 19 years old; n = 37) from La Plata, Argentina. At 15 days postpartum, mothers were randomly assigned into one of two groups and started with calcium supplementation; one group received dairy products (932 mg Ca; n = 19) and the other calcium citrate tablets (1000 mg calcium/day; n = 18). Weight, height and dietary intake were measured and BMD was determined by DEXA at 15 days (baseline) and 6 months postpartum. BMC, total body BMD and BMD were assessed in lumbar spine, femoral neck, trochanter and total hip. Regression models were used to identify the relationship of total body BMD and BMC with independent variables (calcium supplementation, months of lactation, weight at 6 months, percent weight change, lean mass at 6 months, percent lean mass change, total calcium intake). Results showed that changes in BMD and BMC at the different sites were similar in both groups, and changes in percent body weight and total calcium intake were the main predictive factors. In conclusion, the effect of calcium was similar with either form of supplementation, i.e., dairy products or tablets, and changes in percent body weight and total calcium intake were predictors of total body BMD and BMC changes. PMID:23477205

  15. No significant steady state surface creep along the North Anatolian Fault offshore Istanbul: Results of 6 months of seafloor acoustic ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakic, P.; Piété, H.; Ballu, V.; Royer, J.-Y.; Kopp, H.; Lange, D.; Petersen, F.; Özeren, M. S.; Ergintav, S.; Geli, L.; Henry, P.; Deschamps, A.

    2016-07-01

    The submarine Istanbul-Silivri fault segment, within 15 km of Istanbul, is the only portion of the North Anatolian Fault that has not ruptured in the last 250 years. We report first results of a seafloor acoustic ranging experiment to quantify current horizontal deformation along this segment and assess whether the segment is creeping aseismically or accumulating stress to be released in a future event. Ten transponders were installed to monitor length variations along 15 baselines. A joint least squares inversion for across-fault baseline changes, accounting for sound speed drift at each transponder, precludes fault displacement rates larger than a few millimeters per year during the 6 month observation period. Forward modeling shows that the data better fit a locked state or a very moderate surface creep—less than 6 mm/yr compared to a far-field slip rate of over 20 mm/yr—suggesting that the fault segment is currently accumulating stress.

  16. Exercise, character strengths, well-being, and learning climate in the prediction of performance over a 6-month period at a call center

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Saleh; Nima, Ali A.; Rapp Ricciardi, Max; Archer, Trevor; Garcia, Danilo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Performance monitoring might have an adverse influence on call center agents' well-being. We investigate how performance, over a 6-month period, is related to agents' perceptions of their learning climate, character strengths, well-being (subjective and psychological), and physical activity. Method: Agents (N = 135) self-reported perception of the learning climate (Learning Climate Questionnaire), character strengths (Values In Action Inventory Short Version), well-being (Positive Affect, Negative Affect Schedule, Satisfaction With Life Scale, Psychological Well-Being Scales Short Version), and how often/intensively they engaged in physical activity. Performance, “time on the phone,” was monitored for 6 consecutive months by the same system handling the calls. Results: Performance was positively related to having opportunities to develop, the character strengths clusters of Wisdom and Knowledge (e.g., curiosity for learning, perspective) and Temperance (e.g., having self-control, being prudent, humble, and modest), and exercise frequency. Performance was negatively related to the sense of autonomy and responsibility, contentedness, the character strengths clusters of Humanity and Love (e.g., helping others, cooperation) and Justice (e.g., affiliation, fairness, leadership), positive affect, life satisfaction and exercise Intensity. Conclusion: Call centers may need to create opportunities to develop to increase agents' performance and focus on individual differences in the recruitment and selection of agents to prevent future shortcomings or worker dissatisfaction. Nevertheless, performance measurement in call centers may need to include other aspects that are more attuned with different character strengths. After all, allowing individuals to put their strengths at work should empower the individual and at the end the organization itself. Finally, physical activity enhancement programs might offer considerable positive work outcomes. PMID:25002853

  17. Incidence and Determinants of Endophthalmitis within 6 Months of Surgeries over a 2-Year Period at King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Saudi Arabia: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Khandekar, Rajiv; Al-Motowa, Saeed; Alkatan, Hind M.; Karaoui, Mohammed; Ortiz, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background: We present the incidence and determinants of endophthalmitis between July 2010 and June 2012 at King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. On its basis, we recommended recommendations to strengthen the infection prevention and control strategies. Methods: This is a retrospective review of health records type of study. The details of cases reported having endophthalmitis among those operated in 2 years of study period were studied. The incidence of endophthalmitis was calculated for different eye surgeries and epidemiological variables. The causative organisms in vitreous tap were reviewed. The visual outcomes 6 weeks following intervention/treatment of endophthalmmitis were also studied. Results: Of the 22,554 cases operated, 17 developed endophthalmitis. The incidence was 0.08% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.04–0.11). The incidence of endophthlamitis among cataract surgeries was 0.12% (95% CI 0.04–0.21). Five specimens did not show any bacteria or fungus. Staphylococcus epidermis (3 cases) was the main pathogen identified. In 8 (47%) eyes, vision deteriorated in spite of treatment. In 5 (29%) eyes, it became stable and in 4 (23.5%) eyes, it improved following treatment. Signs of infection were noted in 1st week, 3 weeks and 12 weeks in 4, 6 and 5 eyes respectively. Late presentation of infection (6 months postoperatively) was reported in two eyes. Conclusions: A vigilant infection control unit in a large eye hospital helps in monitoring endophthalmitis related catastrophes and suggests timely preventive measures to reduce the occurrence and appropriate measures to limit visual disabilities following eye surgery related endophthalmitis. PMID:25949078

  18. Tweets, Apps, and Pods: Results of the 6-Month Mobile Pounds Off Digitally (Mobile POD) Randomized Weight-Loss Intervention Among Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous interventions have shown promising results using theory-based podcasts to deliver a behavioral weight-loss intervention. Objective The objective of our study was to examine whether a combination of podcasting, mobile support communication, and mobile diet monitoring can assist people in weight loss. Methods In this 6-month, minimal contact intervention, overweight (n = 96, body mass index 32.6 kg/m2) adults were recruited through television advertisements and email listservs and randomly assigned to Podcast-only or Podcast+Mobile groups. Both groups received 2 podcasts per week for 3 months and 2 minipodcasts per week for months 3–6. In addition to the podcasts, the Podcast+Mobile group was also instructed to use a diet and physical activity monitoring application (app) on their mobile device and to interact with study counselors and other participants on Twitter. Results Weight loss did not differ by group at 6 months: mean –2.7% (SD 5.6%) Podcast+Mobile, n = 47; mean –2.7% (SD 5.1%) Podcast, n = 49; P = .98. Days/week of reported diet monitoring did not differ between Podcast+Mobile (mean 2.3, SD 1.9 days/week) and Podcast groups (mean 1.9, SD 1.7 days/week; P = .28) but method of monitoring did differ. Podcast+Mobile participants were 3.5 times more likely than the Podcast group to use an app to monitor diet (P = .01), whereas the majority of Podcast participants reported using the Web (14/41, 34%) or paper (12/41, 29%). There were more downloads per episode in the Podcast+Mobile group (1.4/person) than in the Podcast group (1.1/person; P < .001). The number of podcasts participants reported downloading over the 6-month period was significantly moderately correlated with weight loss in both the Podcast+Mobile (r = –.46, P = .001) and the Podcast (r = –.53, P < .001) groups. Podcast+Mobile participants felt more user control at 3 months (P = .02), but not at 6 months, and there was a trend (P = .06) toward greater elaboration among

  19. Developmental milestones record - 6 months

    MedlinePlus

    Normal childhood growth milestones - 6 months; Childhood growth milestones - 6 months; Growth milestones for children - 6 months ... the weight on hands (often occurs by 4 months) Able to pick up a dropped object Able ...

  20. Seismic monitoring results from the first 6 months of CO2 injection at the Aquistore geological storage site, Saskatchewan, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daley, T. M.; White, D. J.; Stork, A.; Schmitt, D. R.; Worth, K.; Harris, K.; Roberts, B.; Samson, C.; Kendal, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Aquistore Project, located in SE Saskatchewan, Canada, is a demonstration project for CO2 storage in a deep saline aquifer. CO2 captured from a nearby coal-fired power plant is being injected into a brine-filled sandstone formation at 3100-3300 m depth. CO2 injection commenced in April, 2015, at initial rates of up to 250 tonnes per day. Seismic monitoring methods have been employed to track the subsurface CO2 plume and to record any injection-induced microseismicity. Active seismic methods utilized include 4D surface seismics using a sparse permanent array, 4D vertical seismic profiles (VSP) with both downhole geophones and a fiber optic distributed acoustic sensor (DAS) system. Pre-injection baseline seismic surveys have established very good repeatability with NRMS values as low as 0.07. 3D finite-difference seismic modelling of fluid flow simulations is used with the repeatability estimates to determine the appropriate timing for the first CO2 monitor surveys. Time-lapse logging is being conducted on a regular basis to provide in situ measurement of the change in seismic velocity associated with changes in CO2 saturation. Continuous passive seismic recording has been ongoing since the summer of 2012 to establish background local seismicity prior to the start of CO2 injection. Passive monitoring is being conducted using two, 2.5 km long, orthogonal linear arrays of surface geophones.with 3-component short-period geophones, 3 broadband surface seismometers, and an array of 3-component short-period geophones in an observation well. No significant injection-related seismicity (Mw > -1) has been detected at the surface during the first 4 months of CO2 injection. On-going analysis of the downhole passive data will provide further information as to the occurrence of lower magnitude microseismicity (Mw of -1 to -3).

  1. Summary of Sonic Boom Rise Times Observed During FAA Community Response Studies over a 6-Month Period in the Oklahoma City Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maglieri, Domenic J.; Sothcott, Victor E.

    1990-01-01

    The sonic boom signature data acquired from about 1225 supersonic flights, over a 6-month period in 1964 in the Oklahoma City area, was enhanced with the addition of data relating to rise times and total signature duration. These later parameters, not available at the time of publication of the original report on the Oklahoma City sonic boom exposures, are listed in tabular form along with overpressure, positive impulse, positive duration, and waveform category. Airplane operating information along with the surface weather observations are also included. Sonic boom rise times include readings to the 1/2, 3/4, and maximum overpressure values. Rise time relative probabilities for various lateral locations from the ground track of 0, 5, and 10 miles are presented along with the variation of rise times with flight altitude. The tabulated signature data, along with corresponding airplane operating conditions and surface and upper level atmospheric information, are also available on electronic files to provide it in the format for more efficient and effective utilization.

  2. Percutaneous coronary excimer laser angioplasty in patients with stable and unstable angina pectoris. Acute results and incidence of restenosis during 6-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Karsch, K R; Haase, K K; Voelker, W; Baumbach, A; Mauser, M; Seipel, L

    1990-06-01

    A clinical study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of percutaneous coronary excimer laser angioplasty in 60 patients with coronary artery disease. Forty-nine patients had stable exertional angina, and 11 patients had unstable angina despite medical therapy. A novel 1.4-mm diameter catheter with 20 quartz fibers of 100-microns diameter each arranged concentrically around a central lumen suitable for a 0.014-in. flexible guide wire was coupled to an excimer laser. A commercial excimer laser emitting energy at a wavelength of 308 nm with a pulse duration of 60 nsec was used. The laser was operated at 20 Hz. Mean energy transmission was 30 +/- 5 mJ/mm2. In five of the 60 patients, laser angioplasty was not attempted. In 23 patients with laser ablation alone, percent stenosis decreased from 76 +/- 14% before to 27 +/- 17% after ablation and was 34 +/- 15% at the early follow-up angiogram. In 32 patients, additional balloon angioplasty was performed because of vessel closure after laser ablation in 11 and an insufficient qualitative result in 21 patients. Of the 11 patients with unstable angina, one patient died due to vessel closure 3 hours after intervention, and two patients developed a myocardial infarction. In 22 of 47 patients with late follow-up angiography, restenosis within the 6-month follow-up period occurred. Rate of restenosis was higher in patients treated with laser ablation and balloon angioplasty (16 of 28) than in patients treated with laser ablation alone (six of 19). These results suggest that coronary excimer laser angioplasty for ablation of obstructive lesions is feasible and safe in patients with stable angina. However, development of new catheter systems is necessary for an improved success rate. PMID:2344680

  3. Fusion and failure following anterior cervical plating with dynamic or rigid plates: 6-months results of a multi-centric, prospective, randomized, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Stulik, Jan; Chrobok, Jan; Ruffing, Sabine; Drumm, Jörg; Sova, Laurentius; Kucera, Ravel; Vyskocil, Tomas; Steudel, Wolf Ingo

    2007-01-01

    Anterior cervical plate fixation is an approved surgical technique for cervical spine stabilization in the presence of anterior cervical instability. Rigid plate design with screws rigidly locked to the plate is widely used and is thought to provide a better fixation for the treated spinal segment than a dynamic design in which the screws may slide when the graft is settling. Recent biomechanical studies showed that dynamic anterior plates provide a better graft loading possibly leading to accelerated spinal fusion with a lower incidence of implant complications. This, however, was investigated in vitro and does not necessarily mean to be the case in vivo, as well. Thus, the two major aspects of this study were to compare the speed of bone fusion and the rate of implant complications using either rigid- or dynamic plates. The study design is prospective, randomized, controlled, and multi-centric, having been approved by respective ethic committees of all participating sites. One hundred and thirty-two patients were included in this study and randomly assigned to one of the two groups, both undergoing routine level-1- or level-2 anterior cervical discectomy with autograft fusion receiving either a dynamic plate with screws being locked in ap - position (ABC, Aesculap, Germany), or a rigid plate (CSLP, Synthes, Switzerland). Segmental mobility and implant complications were compared after 3- and 6 months, respectively. All measurements were performed by an independent radiologist. Mobility results after 6 months were available for 77 patients (43 ABC/34 CSLP). Mean segmental mobility for the ABC group was 1.7 mm at the time of discharge, 1.4 mm after 3 months, and 0.8 mm after 6 months. For the CSLP- group the measurements were 1.0, 1.8, and 1.7 mm, respectively. The differences of mean segmental mobility were statistically significant between both groups after 6 months (P = 0.02). Four patients of the CSLP-group demonstrated surgical hardware complications

  4. Undersea acoustic telemetry across the North Anatolian Fault, Marmara Sea: results from the first 6 months of monitoring of the fault displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, J. Y.; Deschamps, A.; Piete, H.; Sakic, P.; Ballu, V.; Apprioual, R.; Kopp, H.; Lange, D.; Ruffine, L.; Géli, L.

    2015-12-01

    Located in the Marmara Sea, the Istanbul-Silivri segment of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) is known to be a seismic gap since 1766, although, in the last century, the NAF has caused major devastating earthquakes over most of its extent. This fault segment, void of seismicity, may be either creeping aseismically or blocked and accumulating enough strain to produce an earthquake of magnitude 7 or greater. This section of the NAF may thus represent a major seismic and tsunamigenic hazard for the Istanbul megalopolis, located only 40 km away. The objective of the MARSITE project, funded by the European Union and coordinated by the Observatory of the University of Kandilli (KOERI), is to determine the blocking state of the Istanbul-Silivri fault segment. In this context, an array of 10 acoustic transponders has been deployed on either sides of the fault, in the eastern part of the Kumburgaz Basin, to measure the displacements of the fault over a period of 3 to 5 years. The telemetric beacons (4 from the University of Brest and 6 from the GEOMAR Institute in Kiel) form two arrays fitted in one another. The principle of the experiment is to repeatedly measure the distance (ie two-way-travel time of acoustic pings) between pairs of beacons and thus to monitor the deformation of an array of 9 baselines, 500m to 3000m long, of which 5 cross obliquely the assumed fault trace. The French and German arrays are independent but ensure a redundancy of rangings along common baselines. Each acoustic transponder also monitors the temperature, pressure, sound-velocity and attitude (tiltmeters), every one or two hours. Data are stored in each beacon and can be downloaded from the surface using an acoustic modem. We present here the first 6 months of recording by the French array, from November 1st, 2014 to April 25, 2015. All acoustic transponders worked nominally for 6 months and appear to have remained stable on the seafloor. Recorded sea-bottom temperatures provide evidence for

  5. Efficacy and safety of duloxetine for treatment of fibromyalgia in patients with or without major depressive disorder: Results from a 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose trial.

    PubMed

    Russell, I Jon; Mease, Philip J; Smith, Timothy R; Kajdasz, Daniel K; Wohlreich, Madelaine M; Detke, Michael J; Walker, Daniel J; Chappell, Amy S; Arnold, Lesley M

    2008-06-01

    The primary objectives of this study were to assess the efficacy and safety of duloxetine for reducing pain severity in fibromyalgia patients with or without current major depressive disorder. This was a 6-month, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. In total, 520 patients meeting American College of Rheumatology criteria for fibromyalgia were randomly assigned to duloxetine (20 mg/day, 60 mg/day, or 120 mg/day) or placebo, administered once daily, for 6 months (after 3 months, the duloxetine 20-mg/day group titrated to 60 mg/day). The co-primary outcome measures were the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) average pain severity score and Patient Global Impressions of Improvement (PGI-I) score. Safety was assessed via treatment-emergent adverse events, and changes in vital sign, laboratory, and ECG measures. Compared with placebo-treated patients, those patients treated with duloxetine 120 mg/day improved significantly more on the co-primary outcome measures at 3 months (change in BPI score [-2.31 vs -1.39, P<0.001] and PGI-I [2.89 vs 3.39, P=0.004]) and at 6 months (change in BPI [-2.26 vs -1.43, P=0.003] and PGI-I [2.93 vs 3.37, P=0.012]). Compared with placebo, treatment with duloxetine 60 mg/day also significantly improved the co-primary measures at 3 months and BPI at 6 months. Duloxetine was efficacious in patients both with and without major depressive disorder. There were no clinically significant differences between treatment groups in changes in vital signs, laboratory measures, or ECG measures. Study results demonstrated that duloxetine at doses of 60 mg/day and 120 mg/day appears to be safe and efficacious in patients with fibromyalgia. PMID:18395345

  6. Mean corpuscular volume of control red blood cells determines the interpretation of eosin-5'-maleimide (EMA) test result in infants aged less than 6 months.

    PubMed

    Ciepiela, Olga; Adamowicz-Salach, Anna; Bystrzycka, Weronika; Łukasik, Jan; Kotuła, Iwona

    2015-08-01

    Eosin-5'-maleimide (EMA) binding test is a flow cytometric test used to detect hereditary spherocytosis (HS). To perform the test sample from patients, 5-6 reference samples of red blood are needed. Our aim was to investigate how the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) of red blood cells influences on the value of fluorescence of bounded EMA dye and how the choice of reference samples affects the test result. EMA test was performed in peripheral blood from 404 individuals, including 31 children suffering from HS. Mean fluorescence channel of EMA-RBCs was measured with Cytomics FC500 flow cytometer. Mean corpuscular volume of RBCs was assessed with LH750 Beckman Coulter. Statistical analysis was performed using Graph Pad Prism. The correlation Spearman coefficient between mean channel of fluorescence of EMA-RBCs and MCV was r = 0.39, p < 0.0001. Interpretation of EMA test depends on MCV of the reference samples. If reference blood samples have lower MCV than the patients MCV, EMA test result might be negative. Due to different MCV values of RBCs in infancy and ca. Three months later, EMA test in neonates might be interpreted falsely negative. Samples from children younger than 3 months old had EMA test result 86.1 ± 11.7 %, whereas same samples that analyzed 4.1 ± 2.1 later had results of 75.4 ± 4.5 %, p < 0.05. Mean fluorescence of EMA-bound RBC depends on RBC's volume. MCV of reference samples affects EMA test results; thus, we recommend selection of reference samples with MCV in range of ±2 fL compared to MCV of patient RBC's. PMID:25907377

  7. The comparative effectiveness of anti‐TNF therapy and methotrexate in patients with psoriatic arthritis: 6 month results from a longitudinal, observational, multicentre study

    PubMed Central

    Heiberg, M S; Kaufmann, C; Rødevand, E; Mikkelsen, K; Koldingsnes, W; Mowinckel, P; Kvien, T K

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To compare the response to treatment with tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors and methotrexate (MTX) monotherapy in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) within a real‐life clinical setting. Methods We analysed data from an ongoing longitudinal, observational multicentre study in Norway. Our data comprised 526 cases of patients with PsA who received either anti‐TNF treatment (n = 146) or MTX monotherapy (n = 380) and were followed for at least 6 months with measures of disease activity, health status and utility scores. A propensity score was computed to adjust for channelling bias. The changes in measures of disease activity and health‐related quality of life from baseline to 3‐ and 6‐month follow‐up were compared between the groups with adjustments for the baseline value of the dependent variable and the propensity score (analyses of covariance (ANCOVA)). Results The groups were significantly different at baseline with respect to demographic and disease activity measures. The variables included in the propensity score were age, sex, number of previous disease modifying anti‐rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), presence of erosive disease, treatment centre and investigator's global assessment. The adjusted changes at 6 months were significantly larger in the anti‐TNF group for ESR, DAS‐28, M‐HAQ, patient's assessments of pain, fatigue and global disease activity on a visual analogue scale (VAS) and 4 out of 8 SF‐36 dimensions. Conclusions Clinical improvement was superior with TNF inhibitors compared to MTX monotherapy in patients with PsA, when assessed in this setting of daily clinical practice. PMID:17213251

  8. Efficacy of As-Needed Nalmefene in Alcohol-Dependent Patients with at Least a High Drinking Risk Level: Results from a Subgroup Analysis of Two Randomized Controlled 6-Month Studies

    PubMed Central

    van den Brink, Wim; Aubin, Henri-Jean; Bladström, Anna; Torup, Lars; Gual, Antoni; Mann, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of as-needed use of nalmefene 18 mg versus placebo in reducing alcohol consumption in patients who did not reduce their alcohol consumption after an initial assessment, i.e. the pooled subgroup of patients with at least a high drinking risk level (men: >60 g/day; women: >40 g/day) at both screening and randomization from the two randomized controlled 6-month studies ESENSE 1 (NCT00811720) and ESENSE 2 (NCT00812461). Methods: Nalmefene 18 mg and placebo were taken on an as-needed basis. All the patients also received a motivational and adherence-enhancing intervention (BRENDA). The co-primary outcomes were number of heavy drinking days (HDDs) and mean total alcohol consumption (g/day) in Month 6 measured using the Timeline Follow-back method. Additionally, data on clinical improvement, liver function and safety were collected throughout the study. Results: The pooled population consisted of 667 patients: placebo n = 332; nalmefene n = 335. There was a superior effect of nalmefene compared with placebo in reducing the number of HDDs [treatment difference: −3.2 days (95% CI: −4.8; −1.6); P < 0.0001] and total alcohol consumption [treatment difference: −14.3 g/day (−20.8; −7.8); P < 0.0001] at Month 6. Improvements in clinical status and liver parameters were greater in the nalmefene group compared with the placebo group. Adverse events and adverse events leading to dropout were more common with nalmefene than placebo. Conclusion: As-needed nalmefene was efficacious in reducing alcohol consumption in patients with at least a high drinking risk level at both screening and randomization, and the effect in this subgroup was larger than in the total population. PMID:23873853

  9. Patients with Persistently Elevated PSA and Negative Results of TRUS-Biopsy: Does 6-Month Treatment with Dutasteride can Indicate Candidates for Re-Biopsy. What is the Best of Saturation Schemes: Transrectal or Transperineal Approach?

    PubMed

    Kravchick, Sergey; Lobik, Leonid; Cytron, Shmuel; Kravchenko, Yakov; Dor, David Ben; Peled, Ronit

    2015-09-01

    To identify patients who actually need a re - biopsy, based on alterations in PSA readings after 6-month treatment with Dutasteride. We also sought to bring out the most beneficial re-biopsy scheme. We have reviewed the records of patients with persistently elevated PSA and at least one set of TRUS biopsies. Patients who were treated with alpha -blockers/Dutasteride combination were considered as the study group, while patients in control received alpha-blockers alone. Patients in both groups underwent re-biopsy 6 months later. The two protocols of re-biopsies were used at that time: 20-24 cores saturation transrectal (ST)) and ≥ 40 cores saturation transperineal template-guided (STT) biopsies. One hundred thirty-three patients were included in this study. In 86.7 % of the patients in the study group mean PSA decreased from 7.4 ± 2.69 to 4.037 ± 1.53 (p-0.001). The overall cancer detection rate was 29 % (n-39: 19 v/s 20, control and study groups, respectively). In the study group PSA decreased to 26.73 ± 11.26 % in patients with cancer, compared with 40.54 ± 13.3 % in patients without. It must be emphasized that STT-biopsies detected significantly more cancers (38.46 v/s 20.59 %, p- 0.005). Mean cores number got to 21 ± 2.45 and 45 ± 5.65 in ST and STT biopsies, respectively. Six-month treatment with Dutasteride decreases PSA readings in 86.7 % of the patients. A PSA decline of less than 40% (cutoff) should be considered as an indicator for re-biopsy. Transperineal template-guided biopsies had a higher cancer detection rate. PMID:25753982

  10. To Compare the Microleakage Among Experimental Adhesives Containing Nanoclay Fillers after the Storages of 24 Hours and 6 Months

    PubMed Central

    Mousavinasab, Seyed Mostafa; Atai, Mohammad; Alavi, Bagher

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the microleakage among experimental adhesives containing nanoclay fillers after the storages of 24 hours and 6 months. Materials and Methods: Class V cavities were prepared on extracted human molars with the occlusal margins located in enamel and the cervical margins in cementum. Phosphoric acid was applied to the enamel and dentin margins.Subsequently, the cavities were treated using four groups of experimental adhesive systems and restored with a resin composite. Adper Single Bond® was used as control group. After 24- hour and 6- month storages, the samples were subjected to thermocycling shocks and then immersed in silver nitrate as well as developer solution and finally evaluated for leakage. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Based on Kruskal –Wallis test, significant differences were found between groups regarding microleakage. The Mann- Whitney test showed that Leakage was significantly lower in Adper Single Bond® compared to the other groups in dentinal margins after 24 hours and 6 months and in enamel margins after 6 months. The Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test showed that the enamel leakage in experimental adhesives was significantly lower than dentinal leakage after 24 hours as well as enamel leakage in Adper Single Bond and adhesive with 0.5% PMAA-g-nanoclay was significantly lower than dentinal margins after storage period of 6 months. Conclusion: All the experimental adhesives were effective in reducing enamel leakage after 24 hours, but were not effective in reducing dentinal leakage after 24 hours as well as in enamel and dentinal leakage after a 6-month storage. No improvement was observed in the microleakage in dentin in both short (24 hrs) and long times (6 months). The high microleakage in the adhesives is probably attributed to the high concentration of HEMA in the recipe of the bonding agent. PMID:21566692

  11. A cohort study of developmental polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in relation to post-vaccination antibody response at 6-months of age

    SciTech Connect

    Jusko, Todd A.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Paige Lawrence, B.; Palkovicova, Lubica; Nemessanyi, Tomas; Drobna, Beata; Fabisikova, Anna; Kocan, Anton; Sonneborn, Dean; Jahnova, Eva; Kavanagh, Terrance J.; Trnovec, Tomas; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2010-05-15

    Background: Extensive experimental data in animals indicate that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy leads to changes in offspring immune function during the postnatal period. Whether developmental PCB exposure influences immunologic development in humans has received little study. Methods: The study population was 384 mother-infant pairs recruited from two districts of eastern Slovakia for whom prospectively collected maternal, cord, and 6-month infant blood specimens were available. Several PCB congeners were measured in maternal, cord, and 6-month infant sera by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Concentrations of IgG-specific anti-haemophilus influenzae type b, tetanus toxoid, and diphtheria toxoid were assayed in 6-month infant sera using ELISA methods. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the relation between maternal, cord, and 6-month infant PCB concentrations and the antibody concentrations evaluated at 6-months of age. Results: Overall, there was little evidence of an association between infant antibody concentrations and PCB measures during the pre- and early postnatal period. In addition, our results did not show specificity in terms of associations limited to a particular developmental period (e.g. pre- vs. postnatal), a particular antibody, or a particular PCB congener. Conclusions: At the PCB concentrations measured in this cohort, which are high relative to most human populations today, we did not detect an association between maternal or early postnatal PCB exposure and specific antibody responses at 6-months of age.

  12. Swashzone Fellowships: a 6-month research experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raubenheimer, B.

    2011-12-01

    The Swashzone Fellowships funded by the CAREER program were designed to provide sufficient time for undergraduates with little knowledge of ocean processes and minimal prior research experience to participate in observational nearshore oceanographic studies. The fellows learned background material, developed hypotheses, planned field experiments, designed sensor arrays, tested and debugged instrumentation, collected and analyzed data, and communicated the results through oral and written presentations. The program funded 12 undergraduate student fellows (4 male and 8 female), with backgrounds in math (3 students), physics (4), geology (1), and environmental sciences (4). Preference was given to applicants who had not taken oceanography classes and who were unsure of career plans. All the students presented their results at department seminars, and most presented their results at a professional conference (eg, AGU or Ocean Sciences). The results often were incorporated in peer-reviewed manuscripts. Evaluations conducted following the fellowships and again several years after each fellowship indicated that many of the students pursued STEM careers: 5 are pursuing PhD degrees, including bio-mathematics, physics, atmospheric physics, and ocean physics; 2 are employed at environmental engineering and consulting firms; 4 are employed as research technicians at WHOI; and 1 is a lawyer (currently being considered as a clerk for the Supreme Court). Many of the students were excited to learn about the range of oceanographic career options, including engineering and technical staff, as well as science research. The graduating seniors expressed their appreciation for the fellowship opportunity, stating that there were few science positions available to students without significant prior research experience. Several students noted that the fellowships were critical to their later employment and to their decisions to pursue careers in science. In particular, the students noted

  13. Do 6-month-olds understand that speech can communicate?

    PubMed

    Vouloumanos, Athena; Martin, Alia; Onishi, Kristine H

    2014-11-01

    Adults and 12-month-old infants recognize that even unfamiliar speech can communicate information between third parties, suggesting that they can separate the communicative function of speech from its lexical content. But do infants recognize that speech can communicate due to their experience understanding and producing language, or do they appreciate that speech is communicative earlier, with little such experience? We examined whether 6-month-olds recognize that speech can communicate information about an object. Infants watched a Communicator selectively grasp one of two objects (target). During test, the Communicator could no longer reach the objects; she turned to a Recipient and produced speech (a nonsense word) or non-speech (coughing). Infants looked longer when the Recipient selected the non-target than the target object when the Communicator spoke but not when she coughed - unless the Recipient had previously witnessed the Communicator's selective grasping of the target object. Our results suggest that at 6 months, with a receptive vocabulary of no more than a handful of commonly used words, infants possess some abstract understanding of the communicative function of speech. This understanding may provide an early mechanism for language and knowledge acquisition. PMID:24835877

  14. Feeding patterns and diet - children 6 months to 2 years

    MedlinePlus

    ... You can start to introduce solid foods at age 6 months. Most of your baby's calories should still come from breast milk or formula. Breast milk is not a good source of iron. So after 6 months, your baby will start ...

  15. Scheduling periodic jobs using imprecise results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Jen-Yao; Liu, Jane W. S.; Lin, Kwei-Jay

    1987-01-01

    One approach to avoid timing faults in hard, real-time systems is to make available intermediate, imprecise results produced by real-time processes. When a result of the desired quality cannot be produced in time, an imprecise result of acceptable quality produced before the deadline can be used. The problem of scheduling periodic jobs to meet deadlines on a system that provides the necessary programming language primitives and run-time support for processes to return imprecise results is discussed. Since the scheduler may choose to terminate a task before it is completed, causing it to produce an acceptable but imprecise result, the amount of processor time assigned to any task in a valid schedule can be less than the amount of time required to complete the task. A meaningful formulation of the scheduling problem must take into account the overall quality of the results. Depending on the different types of undesirable effects caused by errors, jobs are classified as type N or type C. For type N jobs, the effects of errors in results produced in different periods are not cumulative. A reasonable performance measure is the average error over all jobs. Three heuristic algorithms that lead to feasible schedules with small average errors are described. For type C jobs, the undesirable effects of errors produced in different periods are cumulative. Schedulability criteria of type C jobs are discussed.

  16. Reliability of gait in multiple sclerosis over 6 months.

    PubMed

    Sosnoff, Jacob J; Klaren, Rachel E; Pilutti, Lara A; Dlugonski, Deirdre; Motl, Robert W

    2015-03-01

    Gait impairment is ubiquitous in multiple sclerosis (MS) and is often characterized by alterations in spatiotemporal parameters of gait. There is limited information concerning reliability of spatiotemporal gait parameters over clinical timescales (e.g. 6 months). The current report provides novel evidence that gait parameters of 74 ambulatory persons with MS with mild-to-moderate disability are reliable over 6-months (ICC's for overall sample range from 0.56 to 0.91) in the absence of any intervention above and beyond standard care. Such data can inform clinical decision-making and power analyses for designing RCTs (i.e., sample size estimates) involving persons with MS. PMID:25772669

  17. Scheduling periodic jobs that allow imprecise results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Jen-Yao; Liu, Jane W. S.; Lin, Kwei-Jay

    1990-01-01

    The problem of scheduling periodic jobs in hard real-time systems that support imprecise computations is discussed. Two workload models of imprecise computations are presented. These models differ from traditional models in that a task may be terminated any time after it has produced an acceptable result. Each task is logically decomposed into a mandatory part followed by an optional part. In a feasible schedule, the mandatory part of every task is completed before the deadline of the task. The optional part refines the result produced by the mandatory part to reduce the error in the result. Applications are classified as type N and type C, according to undesirable effects of errors. The two workload models characterize the two types of applications. The optional parts of the tasks in an N job need not ever be completed. The resulting quality of each type-N job is measured in terms of the average error in the results over several consecutive periods. A class of preemptive, priority-driven algorithms that leads to feasible schedules with small average error is described and evaluated.

  18. Guttural pouch mycosis in a 6-month-old filly

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Abstract A 6-month-old filly was presented with unilateral epistaxis. Based on clinical signs, endoscopic examination, and postmortem examination, guttural pouch mycosis was diagnosed. The young age of the filly and the fact that this was the 2nd diagnosis of guttural pouch mycosis on this farm was unusual. PMID:16604984

  19. Legal medical consideration of Alzheimer’s disease patients’ dysgraphia and cognitive dysfunction: a 6 month follow up

    PubMed Central

    Onofri, Emanuela; Mercuri, Marco; Archer, Trevor; Rapp-Ricciardi, Max; Ricci, Serafino

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients to express intentions and desires, and their decision-making capacity. This study examines the findings from a 6-month follow-up of our previous results in which 30 patients participated. Materials and methods The patient’s cognition was examined by conducting the tests of 14 questions and letter-writing ability over a period of 19 days, and it was repeated after 6 months. The difference between these two cognitive measures (PQ1 before–PQ2 before), tested previously and later the writing test, was designated DΔ before. The test was repeated after 6 months, and PQ1 after–PQ2 after was designated DΔ after. Results Several markedly strong relationships between dysgraphia and other measures of cognitive performance in AD patients were observed. The most aged patients (over 86 years), despite less frequency, maintain the cognitive capacity manifested in the graphic expressions. A document, written by an AD patient presents an honest expression of the patient’s intention if that document is legible, clear, and comprehensive. Conclusion The identification of impairment/deficits in writing and cognition during different phases of AD may facilitate the understanding of disease progression and identify the occasions during which the patient may be considered sufficiently lucid to make decisions. PMID:27022252

  20. Radiographic Evaluation of Bone Formation and Density Changes after Mandibular Third Molar Extraction: A 6 Month Follow up

    PubMed Central

    Haghighat, Abbas; Hekmatian, Ehsan; Abdinian, Mehrdad; Sadeghkhani, Ezzeddin

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is a controversy about exact time of bone healing. The aim of this study was evaluation of bone formation and change of density after mandibular third molar extraction. Methods: Radiographs were taken from 16 empty tooth sockets immediately after extraction of mandibular third molars and 2, 4 and 6 months later under similar condition. The radiographs were digitized and the density numbers of pixels were calculated. Then, socket and neighbor regions were compared using Photoshop software. Three expert observers evaluated and compared the radiographs by the longitudinal radiographic assessment (LRA) method. Paired t-test and McNemar test were used to analyze the data and investigate the inter-observer reliability, respectively. Results: Analysis of the quantitative digital subtraction radiography (QDSR) data indicated that the difference between the digital numbers of interest points and reference points has been decreased during the months 2, 4 and 6 but the difference between the month 4 and 6 was not significant. The alternative method indicated that the mean digital numbers in the socket within 0and 2 months period was less than 128 and within 4 and 6 months was more than 128. In evaluation of LRA method, lamina dura started to change gradually in month 2 and it might disappear completely after 6 months. Conclusion: Both QDSR and LRA methods can be used in evaluation of the rate of bone formation in the tooth socket but the former is more precise. PMID:22132008

  1. Maternal regulation of infant reactivity from 2 to 6 months.

    PubMed

    Jahromi, Laudan B; Putnam, Samuel P; Stifter, Cynthia A

    2004-07-01

    Previous research has investigated the effect of maternal soothing behaviors on reducing infant reactivity but not the differential effects of specific maternal behaviors on infant stress responses. The present study investigated maternal regulation of 2- and 6-month-olds' responses to an inoculation and found a significant decline with age in both the intensity and duration of infants' crying. Maternal affection and touching decreased from 2 to 6 months, whereas maternal vocalizing and distraction behaviors increased. At both ages, the combination of maternal holding/rocking and vocalizing was associated with decreases in all levels of infant reactivity. Neither strategy alone, however, was found to be effective. Feeding/ pacifying behaviors were effective only when initial distress was at a low or moderate level, which suggests that the effectiveness of maternal regulatory behaviors may depend on the intensity of infants' crying. PMID:15238037

  2. Femtosecond lenticule extraction for correction of myopia: a 6 month follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Demirok, Ahmet; Agca, Alper; Ozgurhan, Engin Bilge; Bozkurt, Ercument; Celik, Ugur; Demircan, Ali; Guleryuz, Nimet Burcu; Cankaya, Kadir İlker; Yilmaz, Omer Faruk

    2013-01-01

    Aims To report our initial experience with femtosecond lenticule extraction (FLEX) compared with femtosecond laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Settings and design This was a prospective pilot study carried out at the Refractive Surgery Department of the Beyoglu Eye Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. Materials and methods Surgery was performed on both eyes of 14 consecutive patients with myopia or myopic astigmatism. Patients underwent FLEX in one eye and femtosecond LASIK (FemtoLASIK) in the other eye. The primary outcome was based on uncorrected distance visual acuity, corrected distance visual acuity, and spherical equivalent of the subjective manifest refraction, at 1 week, 1 month, and 6 months postsurgery. Statistical analyses were performed using PAWS Statistics 18. Unpaired Student’s t-test was used to compare the groups. Results During the last follow-up visit (6 months postsurgery), the mean spherical was −0.37 ± 0.60 diopters (D) (range −1.00 to 0.50) (P < 0.001) and −0.25 ± 0.41 D (range −0.88 to 0.12 D) (P < 0.001) in the FLEX and FemtoLASIK eyes, respectively. The spherical was within ± 0.50 D of the intended correction in ten (72%) of the FLEX eyes and 12 (86%) of the FemtoLASIK eyes (P > 0.05). No complications occurred during surgery or the postoperative period. Conclusion FLEX is a safe, effective, and predictable procedure for surgical correction of myopia. Refractive results were stabilized within the first postoperative week, and visual acuities were stabilized within the first month, comparable to FemtoLASIK. PMID:23766626

  3. Perception of neon color spreading in 3-6-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiale; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K

    2009-12-01

    Although lots of studies about neon color spreading have been reported, few of these studies have focused on the perceptual development of it in human infants. Therefore, this study explores the perceptual development of neon color spreading in infants. In experiment 1, we examined 3-6-month-olds' perception of neon color spreading in static conditions. In experiment 2, we examined 3-6-month-olds' perception of neon color spreading in moving conditions. Our results suggest that while only 5-6-month-old infants show a preference for neon color spreading in the static condition, 3-4-month-old infants also prefer neon color spreading if motion information is available. PMID:19836080

  4. Improved Squat and Gait Biomechanics 6-Months Post-Arthroscopic Surgery for Femoroacetabular Impingement

    PubMed Central

    Cvetanovich, Gregory; Farkas, Gary Jordan; Rajan, Kumar; Espinoza, Alejandro; Nho, Shane Jay

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to assess gait and squat biomechanics 6-months following arthroscopic surgery for femoroacetabular impingement. Methods: Symptomatic patients with clinical and radiographic diagnosis of FAI who had failed non-operative treatment underwent gait and squat analysis preoperatively and at 6-months postoperatively following arthroscopic surgery for FAI. Age- and BMI-matched controls without radiographic FAI or other lumbar or lower extremity pathology underwent a single analysis for comparison. Comparisons between preoperative and 6-month postoperative gait and squat parameters as well as comparison to the control group were performed using paired and independent sample t-tests. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results: Fifteen FAI patients and 9 controls were analyzed. Age for the patients vs. controls was 28.7±9.6 y vs. 27.8±6.5 y (p>0.05), respectively; while BMI was 23.5±5.1 kg/m2 vs. 22.8±3.5 kg/m2 (p>0.05). All gait parameters were unchanged between preoperative and 6-month postoperative testing (p>0.05), with a trend toward significance for hip external rotation moment (p=0.056) (Table 1). Squat testing revealed that FAI arthroscopic surgery increased maximum hip extension (p=0.011), with a trend toward significance for hip adduction moment (p=0.059). All other squat parameters did not differ from preoperative to 6-month follow-up (p>0.05). Compared to the control group, preoperative FAI patients had reduced hip external rotation moment during gait (p=0.024), with a trend toward significance for hip abduction moment (p=0.082). No other gait or squat differences were detected between FAI patients preoperatively or 6-months postoperatively compared to controls (p>0.05). Conclusion: Biomechanical gait and squat analysis at 6-month follow-up from arthroscopic FAI surgery revealed a tendency to improve external hip rotation during gait and maximum hip extension and hip adduction during squat. Arthroscopic surgery for FAI may

  5. Effects of familiarity and attentiveness of partner on 6-month-old infants' social engagement.

    PubMed

    Devouche, Emmanuel; Dominguez, Sara; Bobin-Bègue, Anne; Gratier, Maya; Apter, Gisèle

    2012-12-01

    This study presents an ecological experiment investigating 6-month-olds' social engagement. Results show that infants look and smile more at a socially attending distant partner than at an inattentive partner and that their looking and smiling behavior is different when the inattentive partner is their mother. PMID:22982274

  6. Conditioning 1-6 Month Old Infants by Means of Myoelectrically Controlled Reinforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Dale M.; McDonnell, Paul M.

    1995-01-01

    In order to evaluate possibilities of fitting myoelectrically controlled prosthetic arms on infants, this study examined whether 32 infants (1-6 months) could learn to control environmental contingencies by means of contracting the forearm flexor muscle group. Results indicated that older subjects (age greater than 104 days) demonstrated learning,…

  7. Prenatal Adversities and Latino Children’s Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity Trajectories from 6 Months to 5 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Alkon, Abbey; Boyce, W. Thomas; Tran, Linh; Harley, Kim G.; Neuhaus, John; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether mothers’ adversities experienced during early pregnancy are associated with offspring’s autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity trajectories from 6 months to 5 years of age. This cohort study of primarily Latino families included maternal interviews at 13–14 weeks gestation about their experience of a range of adversities: father’s absence, general social support, poverty level, and household density. ANS measures of heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (parasympathetic nervous system) and preejection period (sympathetic nervous system) were collected during resting and challenging conditions on children at 6 months and 1, 3.5 and 5 years of age. Reactivity measures were calculated as the mean of the responses to challenging conditions minus a resting condition. Fixed effects models were conducted for the 212 children with two or more timepoints of ANS measures. Interactions between maternal prenatal adversity levels and child age at time of ANS protocol were included in the models, allowing the calculation of separate trajectories or slopes for each level of adversity. Results showed no significant relations between mothers’ prenatal socioeconomic or social support adversity and offspring’s parasympathetic nervous system trajectories, but there was a statistically significant relationship between social support adversity and offspring’s heart rate trajectories (p<.05) and a borderline significant relationship between socioeconomic adversity and offspring’s sympathetic nervous system trajectories (p = .05). Children whose mothers experienced one, not two, social support adversity had the smallest increases in heart rate reactivity compared to children whose mothers experienced no adversity. The children whose mothers experienced no social support and no socioeconomic adversity had the largest increases in heart rate and preejection period respectively from 6 months to 5 years showing the

  8. Factors associated to breastfeeding cessation before 6 months.

    PubMed

    Roig, Antoni Oliver; Martínez, Miguel Richart; García, Julio Cabrero; Hoyos, Santiago Pérez; Navidad, Ginesa Laguna; Alvarez, Juan Carlos Flores; Pujalte, María Del Mar Calatayud; De León González, Ricardo García

    2010-01-01

    This research aimed to identify the determinants of full breastfeeding (FBF) and any breastfeeding (ABF) cessation before 6 months, through a six-month follow-up of 248 mothers going a postpartum visit. Data were collected by personal interview during the first month and telephone interviews at four and six months postpartum. Coxs proportional hazards model was used. Not having previous ABF experience, previous ABF duration

  9. Malignant hyperthermia in a 6-month-old infant.

    PubMed

    Mathur, P R; Rundla, M; Jain, N; Mathur, V

    2016-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a rare hypermetabolic disorder of skeletal muscles that manifests as a life-threatening crisis in susceptible individuals, after exposure to triggering agents, most commonly halothane and succinylcholine. MH presents with multiple nonspecific signs and laboratory findings such as tachycardia, hyperthermia, hypercarbia, acidosis, and muscle rigidity. Caffeine halothane contracture test is not available at most centers in India. Larach et al. have described a clinical grading scale for determining the MH raw score based on clinical findings and biochemical tests. The high degree of suspicion, early recognition and aggressive treatment should commence immediately. It is imperative to avoid triggering agents, such as volatile anesthetics and succinylcholine, and promote the use of total intravenous anesthesia in MH susceptible patients. We report a case of 6-month-old child undergoing laparotomy under general anesthesia, who presented with signs and symptoms of MH, had MH rank 5 and raw score 36. PMID:27375398

  10. Malignant hyperthermia in a 6-month-old infant

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, PR; Rundla, M; Jain, N; Mathur, V

    2016-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a rare hypermetabolic disorder of skeletal muscles that manifests as a life-threatening crisis in susceptible individuals, after exposure to triggering agents, most commonly halothane and succinylcholine. MH presents with multiple nonspecific signs and laboratory findings such as tachycardia, hyperthermia, hypercarbia, acidosis, and muscle rigidity. Caffeine halothane contracture test is not available at most centers in India. Larach et al. have described a clinical grading scale for determining the MH raw score based on clinical findings and biochemical tests. The high degree of suspicion, early recognition and aggressive treatment should commence immediately. It is imperative to avoid triggering agents, such as volatile anesthetics and succinylcholine, and promote the use of total intravenous anesthesia in MH susceptible patients. We report a case of 6-month-old child undergoing laparotomy under general anesthesia, who presented with signs and symptoms of MH, had MH rank 5 and raw score 36. PMID:27375398

  11. Distortion product otoacoustic emission suppression tuning and acoustic admittance in human infants: Birth through 6 months

    PubMed Central

    Abdala, Carolina; Keefe, Douglas H.; Oba, Sandra I.

    2009-01-01

    Previous work has reported non-adultlike distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) suppression in human newborns at f2 =6000 Hz, indicating an immaturity in peripheral auditory function. In this study, DPOAE suppression tuning curves (STCs) were recorded as a measure of cochlear function and acoustic admittance/reflectance (YR) in the ear canal recorded as a measure of middle-ear function, in the same 20 infants at birth and through 6 months of age. DPOAE STCs changed little from birth through 6 months, showing excessively narrow and sharp tuning throughout the test period. In contrast, several middle-ear indices at corresponding frequencies shifted systematically with increasing age, although they also remained non-adultlike at 6 months. Linear correlations were conducted between YR and DPOAE suppression features. Only two correlations out of 76 were significant, and all but three YR variables accounted for <10% of the variance in DPOAE suppression tuning. The strongest correlation was noted between admittance phase at 5700 Hz and STC tip-to-tail (R=0.49). The association between middle-ear variables and DPOAE suppression may be stronger during other developmental time periods. Study of older infants and children is needed to fully define postnatal immaturity of human peripheral auditory function. PMID:17552713

  12. Times to Discontinue Antidepressants Over 6 Months in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Woo-Young; Jang, Sae-Heon; Jae, Young-Myo; Kong, Bo-Geum; Kim, Ho-Chan; Choe, Byeong-Moo; Kim, Jeong-Gee; Kim, Choong-Rak

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate differences in discontinuation time among antidepressants and total antidepressant discontinuation rate of patients with depression over a 6 month period in a naturalistic treatment setting. Methods We reviewed the medical records of 900 patients with major depressive disorder who were initially prescribed only one kind of antidepressant. The prescribed antidepressants and the reasons for discontinuation were surveyed at baseline and every 4 weeks during the 24 week study. We investigated the discontinuation rate and the mean time to discontinuation among six antidepressants groups. Results Mean and median overall discontinuation times were 13.8 and 12 weeks, respectively. Sertraline and escitalopram had longer discontinuation times than that of fluoxetine, and patients who used sertraline discontinued use significantly later than those taking mirtazapine. No differences in discontinuation rate were observed after 24 weeks among these antidepressants. About 73% of patients discontinued antidepressant treatment after 24 weeks. Conclusion Sertraline and escitalopram tended to have longer mean times to discontinuation, although no difference in discontinuation rate was detected between antidepressants after 24 weeks. About three-quarters of patients discontinued antidepressant maintenance therapy after 24 weeks. PMID:27482246

  13. Development of Specific Aspects of Spirituality during a 6-Month Intensive Yoga Practice

    PubMed Central

    Büssing, Arndt; Hedtstück, Anemone; Khalsa, Sat Bir S.; Ostermann, Thomas; Heusser, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The majority of research on yoga focuses on its psychophysiological and therapeutic benefits, while the spiritual aspects are rarely addressed. Changes of specific aspects of spirituality were thus investigated among 160 individuals (91% women, mean age 40.9 ± 8.3 years; 57% Christians) starting a 2-year yoga teacher training. We used standardized questionnaires to measure aspects of spirituality (ASP), mindfulness (FMI—Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory), life satisfaction (BMLSS—Brief Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale), and positive mood (lightheartedness/relief). At the start of the course, scores of the respective ASP subscales for search for insight/wisdom, transcendence conviction, and conscious interactions/compassion were high, while those for religious orientation were low. Within the 6 month observation period, both conscious interactions/compassion (effect size, Cohen's d = .33), Religious orientation (d = .21), Lightheartedness/Relief (d = .75) and mindfulness (d = .53) increased significantly. Particularly non-religious/non-spiritual individuals showed moderate effects for an increase of conscious interactions/compassion. The results from this study suggest that an intensive yoga practice (1) may significantly increase specific aspects of practitioners' spirituality, mindfulness, and mood, (2) that these changes are dependent in part on their original spiritual/religious self-perception, and (3) that there are strong correlations amongst these constructs (i.e., conscious interactions/compassion, and mindfulness). PMID:22852023

  14. Exclusive or Partial Breastfeeding for 6 Months Is Associated With Reduced Milk Sensitization and Risk of Eczema in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chih-Yung; Liao, Sui-Ling; Su, Kuan-Wen; Tsai, Ming-Han; Hua, Man-Chin; Lai, Shen-Hao; Chen, Li-Chen; Yao, Tsung-Chieh; Yeh, Kuo-Wei; Huang, Jing-Long

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There is insufficient evidence to confirm the association between breastfeeding and allergic outcomes later in life. This study aimed to determine the relationships between different breastfeeding patterns and allergen sensitizations and risk of developing atopic diseases in early childhood. A total of 186 children from a birth cohort in the Prediction of Allergies in Taiwanese Children study for a 4-year follow-up period were enrolled. Total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and specific IgE antibodies against food and inhalant allergens were measured sequentially at 6 months as well as at 1, 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 years of age. A significantly lower prevalence of milk sensitization was found in children at ages 1 and 1.5 years who were exclusively or partially breastfed for ≥6 months. Breastfeeding ≥6 months was significantly associated with a reduced risk of developing eczema but not allergic rhinitis and asthma at ages 1 and 2 years. Compared with exclusive breastfeeding ≥6 months, partial breastfeeding <6 months was significantly associated with an increased risk of developing eczema at ages 1 and 2 years. As with exclusive breastfeeding, partial breastfeeding for at least 6 months appears to be associated with a reduced prevalence of milk sensitization as well as a reduced risk of developing eczema in early childhood. PMID:27082611

  15. Hardwood smoke alters murine splenic T cell responses to mitogens following a 6-month whole body inhalation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Burchiel, Scott W. . E-mail: Sburchiel@salud.unm.edu; Lauer, Fredine T.; Dunaway, Sandy L.; Zawadzki, Jerome; McDonald, Jacob D.; Reed, Matthew D.

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of these studies was to assess the effects of hardwood smoke (HWS) inhalation (30-1000 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) on the systemic immune responses of A/J mice evaluated after 6 months of daily exposures. Spleen cells obtained from mice were assessed for changes in cell number, cell surface marker expression [B, T, macrophage, and natural killer (NK) cells], and responses to B cell (LPS, endotoxin) and T cell (Con A) mitogens. Results showed that HWS smoke increased T cell proliferation in the 100 {mu}g/m{sup 3} exposure group and produced a concentration-dependent suppression of T cell proliferation at concentrations >300 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. There were no effects on B cell proliferation or in spleen cell surface marker expression. Analyses of the exposure atmospheres revealed the presence of significant levels of naphthalene and methylated napthalenes, fluorene, phenanthrene, and anthracene in the exposure chambers, as well as low concentrations of several metals (K, Ca, and Fe). Our results demonstrate that environmentally relevant concentrations of HWS may be immunosuppressive to the immune system of mice exposed during a 6-month period.

  16. Perceived stress among a workforce 6 months following hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Leon, Kyla A; Hyre, Amanda D; Ompad, Danielle; Desalvo, Karen B; Muntner, Paul

    2007-12-01

    To determine stress levels among a workforce 6 months after hurricane Katrina made landfall, a web-based survey that included the four-item Perceived Stress Scale was administered to employees of the largest employer in New Orleans. An overall Perceived Stress Scale score was obtained by pooling responses for the four items. Among 1,542 adult respondents, 24.1% stated they felt that they were "fairly often" or "very often" unable to control the important things in their life and 21.4% considered that their difficulties were "fairly often" or "very often" piling up so high that they could not overcome them. Also, 6.1% reported that they "almost never" or "never" felt confident about their ability to handle their personal problems and 15.2% indicated that things were "almost never" or "never" going their way. The overall mean Perceived Stress Scale score was 6.3 (standard deviation = 3.1; range = 0-16). Higher stress scale scores, indicating more stress, were present for women, and for participants with lower income, displaced longer than 3 months, who were more afraid of losing their life during hurricane Katrina and its immediate aftermath, and who knew someone that died during the storm. Additionally, participants who were living in a relative of friend's house or in a temporary trailer at the time of the survey had higher stress scores compared to their counterparts who had returned to live in their pre-hurricane residence. There was a direct association between higher stress scores and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. Employers and health care providers should be apprised of the need for monitoring stress and offering counseling opportunities for returning workforces following future large-scale disasters. PMID:17932611

  17. Social perception: How do 6-month-old infants look at pointing gestures?

    PubMed

    Schmitow, Clara; Kochukhova, Olga; Nyström, Pär

    2016-02-01

    The study explored 6-month-old infants' ability to follow a pointing gesture in a dynamic social context. The infants were presented with a video of a model pointing to one of two toys. The pointing gesture was performed either normally (with arm and hand pointing at the same direction), with a stick, or the model's arm and hand pointing in different directions (at different toys). The results indicate that infants at this age reliably followed pointing performed normally. PMID:26859864

  18. Stability of Cachet Phakic Intraocular Lens Position During 6-Months Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Lomoriello, D Schiano; Lombardo, M; Gualdi, L; Iacobelli, L; Tranchina, L; Ducoli, P; Serrao, S

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the position stability of a phakic intraocular lens (Cachet pIOL; Alcon, Laboratories, Inc., Fort Worth, TX) in the anterior chamber (AC) during a 6-months follow-up. Methods: Thirty eyes of 16 subjects underwent a Cachet pIOL implantation for the correction of high myopia from -6.50 to -16.00 D with plano targeted refraction. The position stability of the Cachet pIOL was evaluated using an Anterior Segment-OCT (AS-OCT, Carl Zeiss AG, Oberkochen, Germany) at 1- and 6-months postoperatively. Three measurements have been taken into account: 1) the minimum distance between the anterior surface of the Cachet pIOL optic disk and the central corneal endothelium; 2) the minimum distance between the optic disk’s edges of the pIOL and the endothelium; 3) the minimum distance between the posterior surface of the pIOL optic disk and the anterior surface of the crystalline lens. The endothelial cell density (ECD) was also recorded. Results: No statistically significant changes of the Cachet pIOL position in the AC were found during follow-up. The average changes were ≤0.1 mm between 1- and 6-months postoperatively (P>0.05). At the end of follow-up, The mean ECD loss was 0.7 % (from 2794 ± 337 cell/mm2 to 2776 ± 388 cell/mm2; P>0.05). Conclusion: A high position stability of the Cachet pIOL in the anterior chamber was shown during a 6-months follow-up. PMID:23898355

  19. Aspartate aminotransferase activity in the pulp of teeth treated for 6 months with fixed orthodontic appliances

    PubMed Central

    Latkauskiene, Dalia; Racinskaite, Vilma; Skucaite, Neringa; Machiulskiene, Vita

    2015-01-01

    Objective To measure aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity in the pulp of teeth treated with fixed appliances for 6 months, and compare it with AST activity measured in untreated teeth. Methods The study sample consisted of 16 healthy subjects (mean age 25.7 ± 4.3 years) who required the extraction of maxillary premolars for orthodontic reasons. Of these, 6 individuals had a total of 11 sound teeth extracted without any orthodontic treatment (the control group), and 10 individuals had a total of 20 sound teeth extracted after 6 months of orthodontic alignment (the experimental group). Dental pulp samples were extracted from all control and experimental teeth, and the AST activity exhibited by these samples was determined spectrophotometrically at 20℃. Results Mean AST values were 25.29 × 10-5 U/mg (standard deviation [SD] 9.95) in the control group and 27.54 × 10-5 U/mg (SD 31.81) in the experimental group. The difference between these means was not statistically significantly (p = 0.778), and the distribution of the AST values was also similar in both groups. Conclusions No statistically significant increase in AST activity in the pulp of mechanically loaded teeth was detected after 6 months of orthodontic alignment, as compared to that of teeth extracted from individuals who had not undergone orthodontic treatment. This suggests that time-related regenerative processes occur in the dental pulp. PMID:26445721

  20. Neck strain in car occupants: injury status after 6 months and crash-related factors.

    PubMed

    Ryan, G A; Taylor, G W; Moore, V M; Dolinis, J

    1994-10-01

    In this study, 29 individuals who sustained a neck strain as a result of a car crash were drawn from a group of physiotherapy and general practices and were followed up after 6 months. The aim was to examine relationships between the state of the neck injury at the time of follow up and crash-related factors, notably crash severity and occupant awareness. Crash severity was assessed by measurement of damage to the involved vehicles, while 6-month injury status was established through physical examinations and interviews. No statistically significant associations between crash severity and 6-month injury status were found, but subjects who were unaware of the impending collision had a greatly increased likelihood of experiencing persisting symptoms of and/or signs of neck strain, compared with those who were aware (odds ratio = 15.0; 95 per cent confidence limits: 1.8, 178). While the role of crash severity in the production and duration of neck strains remains unclear, awareness appears to have a strong protective influence and may prove to be a useful prognostic indicator in clinical settings. PMID:7960072

  1. Structural connectome disruption at baseline predicts 6-months post-stroke outcome.

    PubMed

    Kuceyeski, Amy; Navi, Babak B; Kamel, Hooman; Raj, Ashish; Relkin, Norman; Toglia, Joan; Iadecola, Costantino; O'Dell, Michael

    2016-07-01

    In this study, models based on quantitative imaging biomarkers of post-stroke structural connectome disruption were used to predict six-month outcomes in various domains. Demographic information and clinical MRIs were collected from 40 ischemic stroke subjects (age: 68.1 ± 13.2 years, 17 female, NIHSS: 6.8 ± 5.6). Diffusion-weighted images were used to create lesion masks, which were uploaded to the Network Modification (NeMo) Tool. The NeMo Tool, using only clinical MRIs, allows estimation of connectome disruption at three levels: whole brain, individual gray matter regions and between pairs of gray matter regions. Partial Least Squares Regression models were constructed for each level of connectome disruption and for each of the three six-month outcomes: applied cognitive, basic mobility and daily activity. Models based on lesion volume were created for comparison. Cross-validation, bootstrapping and multiple comparisons corrections were implemented to minimize over-fitting and Type I errors. The regional disconnection model best predicted applied cognitive (R(2)  = 0.56) and basic mobility outcomes (R(2)  = 0.70), while the pairwise disconnection model best predicted the daily activity measure (R(2)  = 0.72). These results demonstrate that models based on connectome disruption metrics were more accurate than ones based on lesion volume and that increasing anatomical specificity of disconnection metrics does not always increase model accuracy, likely due to statistical adjustments for concomitant increases in data dimensionality. This work establishes that the NeMo Tool's measures of baseline connectome disruption, acquired using only routinely collected MRI scans, can predict 6-month post-stroke outcomes in various functional domains including cognition, motor function and daily activities. Hum Brain Mapp, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27016287

  2. Neuromuscular Evaluation With Single-Leg Squat Test at 6 Months After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Michael P.; Paik, Ronald S.; Ware, Anthony J.; Mohr, Karen J.; Limpisvasti, Orr

    2015-01-01

    Background: Criteria for return to unrestricted activity after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction varies, with some using time after surgery as the sole criterion—most often at 6 months. Patients may have residual neuromuscular deficits, which may increase the risk of ACL injury. A single-leg squat test (SLST) can dynamically assess for many of these deficits prior to return to unrestricted activity. Hypothesis: A significant number of patients will continue to exhibit neuromuscular deficits with SLST at 6 months after ACL reconstruction. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Patients using a standardized accelerated rehabilitation protocol at their 6-month follow-up after primary ACL reconstruction were enrolled. Evaluation included bilateral SLST, single-leg hop distance, hip abduction strength, and the subjective International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score. Results: Thirty-three patients were enrolled. Poor performance of the operative leg SLST was found in 15 of 33 patients (45%). Of those 15 patients, 7 (45%) had concomitant poor performance of the nonoperative leg compared with 2 of 18 patients (11%) in those who demonstrated good performance in the operative leg. The poor performers were significantly older (33.6 years) than the good performers (24.2 years) (P = .007). Those with poor performance demonstrated decreased hip abduction strength (17.6 kg operative leg vs 20.5 kg nonoperative leg) (P = .024), decreased single-leg hop distance (83.3 cm operative leg vs 112.3 cm nonoperative leg) (P = .036), and lower IKDC scores (67.9 vs 82.3) (P = .001). Conclusion: Nearly half of patients demonstrated persistent neuromuscular deficits on SLST at 6 months, which is when many patients return to unrestricted activity. Those with poor performance were of a significantly older age, decreased hip abduction strength, decreased single-leg hop distance, and lower IKDC subjective scores. Clinical Relevance: The SLST

  3. Implications of newborn amygdala connectivity for fear and cognitive development at 6-months-of-age.

    PubMed

    Graham, Alice M; Buss, Claudia; Rasmussen, Jerod M; Rudolph, Marc D; Demeter, Damion V; Gilmore, John H; Styner, Martin; Entringer, Sonja; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Fair, Damien A

    2016-04-01

    The first year of life is an important period for emergence of fear in humans. While animal models have revealed developmental changes in amygdala circuitry accompanying emerging fear, human neural systems involved in early fear development remain poorly understood. To increase understanding of the neural foundations of human fear, it is important to consider parallel cognitive development, which may modulate associations between typical development of early fear and subsequent risk for fear-related psychopathology. We, therefore, examined amygdala functional connectivity with rs-fcMRI in 48 neonates (M=3.65 weeks, SD=1.72), and measured fear and cognitive development at 6-months-of-age. Stronger, positive neonatal amygdala connectivity to several regions, including bilateral anterior insula and ventral striatum, was prospectively associated with higher fear at 6-months. Stronger amygdala connectivity to ventral anterior cingulate/anterior medial prefrontal cortex predicted a specific phenotype of higher fear combined with more advanced cognitive development. Overall, findings demonstrate unique profiles of neonatal amygdala functional connectivity related to emerging fear and cognitive development, which may have implications for normative and pathological fear in later years. Consideration of infant fear in the context of cognitive development will likely contribute to a more nuanced understanding of fear, its neural bases, and its implications for future mental health. PMID:26499255

  4. Increases in kidney volume in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease can be detected within 6 months.

    PubMed

    Kistler, Andreas D; Poster, Diane; Krauer, Fabienne; Weishaupt, Dominik; Raina, Shagun; Senn, Oliver; Binet, Isabelle; Spanaus, Katharina; Wüthrich, Rudolf P; Serra, Andreas L

    2009-01-01

    Kidney volume growth is considered the best surrogate marker predicting the decline of renal function in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. To assess the therapeutic benefit of new drugs more rapidly, changes in kidney volume need to be determined over a short time interval. Here we measured renal volume changes by manual segmentation volumetry applied to magnetic resonance imaging scans obtained with an optimized T1-weighted acquisition protocol without gadolinium-based contrast agents. One hundred young patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and preserved renal function had a significant increase in total kidney volume by 2.71+/-4.82% in 6 months. Volume measurements were highly reproducible and accurate, as indicated by correlation coefficients of 1.000 for intra-observer and 0.996 for inter-observer agreement, with acceptable within-subject standard deviations. The change in renal volume correlated with baseline total kidney volume in all age subgroups. Total kidney volume positively correlated with male gender, hypertension, albuminuria and a history of macrohematuria but negatively with creatinine clearance. Albuminuria was associated with accelerated volume progression. Our study shows that increases in kidney volume can be reliably measured over a 6 month period in early autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease using unenhanced magnetic resonance imaging sequences. PMID:18971924

  5. Dynamic relation between working memory capacity and speech recognition in noise during the first 6 months of hearing aid use.

    PubMed

    Ng, Elaine H N; Classon, Elisabet; Larsby, Birgitta; Arlinger, Stig; Lunner, Thomas; Rudner, Mary; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the changing relationship between aided speech recognition and cognitive function during the first 6 months of hearing aid use. Twenty-seven first-time hearing aid users with symmetrical mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss were recruited. Aided speech recognition thresholds in noise were obtained in the hearing aid fitting session as well as at 3 and 6 months postfitting. Cognitive abilities were assessed using a reading span test, which is a measure of working memory capacity, and a cognitive test battery. Results showed a significant correlation between reading span and speech reception threshold during the hearing aid fitting session. This relation was significantly weakened over the first 6 months of hearing aid use. Multiple regression analysis showed that reading span was the main predictor of speech recognition thresholds in noise when hearing aids were first fitted, but that the pure-tone average hearing threshold was the main predictor 6 months later. One way of explaining the results is that working memory capacity plays a more important role in speech recognition in noise initially rather than after 6 months of use. We propose that new hearing aid users engage working memory capacity to recognize unfamiliar processed speech signals because the phonological form of these signals cannot be automatically matched to phonological representations in long-term memory. As familiarization proceeds, the mismatch effect is alleviated, and the engagement of working memory capacity is reduced. PMID:25421088

  6. Dynamic Relation Between Working Memory Capacity and Speech Recognition in Noise During the First 6 Months of Hearing Aid Use

    PubMed Central

    Classon, Elisabet; Larsby, Birgitta; Arlinger, Stig; Lunner, Thomas; Rudner, Mary; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the changing relationship between aided speech recognition and cognitive function during the first 6 months of hearing aid use. Twenty-seven first-time hearing aid users with symmetrical mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss were recruited. Aided speech recognition thresholds in noise were obtained in the hearing aid fitting session as well as at 3 and 6 months postfitting. Cognitive abilities were assessed using a reading span test, which is a measure of working memory capacity, and a cognitive test battery. Results showed a significant correlation between reading span and speech reception threshold during the hearing aid fitting session. This relation was significantly weakened over the first 6 months of hearing aid use. Multiple regression analysis showed that reading span was the main predictor of speech recognition thresholds in noise when hearing aids were first fitted, but that the pure-tone average hearing threshold was the main predictor 6 months later. One way of explaining the results is that working memory capacity plays a more important role in speech recognition in noise initially rather than after 6 months of use. We propose that new hearing aid users engage working memory capacity to recognize unfamiliar processed speech signals because the phonological form of these signals cannot be automatically matched to phonological representations in long-term memory. As familiarization proceeds, the mismatch effect is alleviated, and the engagement of working memory capacity is reduced. PMID:25421088

  7. Effect of upper airway obstruction in acute stroke on functional outcome at 6 months

    PubMed Central

    Turkington, P; Allgar, V; Bamford, J; Wanklyn, P; Elliott, M

    2004-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine whether upper airway obstruction occurring within the first 24 hours of stroke onset has an effect on outcome following stroke at 6 months. Traditional definitions used for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) are arbitrary and may not apply in the acute stroke setting, so a further aim of the study was to redefine respiratory events and to assess their impact on outcome. Methods: 120 patients with acute stroke underwent a sleep study within 24 hours of onset to determine the severity of upper airway obstruction (respiratory disturbance index, RDI-total study). Stroke severity (Scandinavian Stroke Scale, SSS) and disability (Barthel score) were also recorded. Each patient was subsequently followed up at 6 months to determine morbidity and mortality. Results: Death was independently associated with SSS (OR (95% CI) 0.92 (0.88 to 0.95), p<0.00001) and RDI-total study (OR (95% CI) 1.07 (1.03 to 1.12), p<0.01). The Barthel index was independently predicted by SSS (p = 0.0001; r = 0.259; 95% CI 0.191 to 0.327) and minimum oxygen saturation during the night (p = 0.037; r = 0.16; 95% CI 0.006 to 0.184). The mean length of the respiratory event most significantly associated with death at 6 months was 15 seconds (sensitivity 0.625, specificity 0.525) using ROC curve analysis. Conclusion: The severity of upper airway obstruction appears to be associated with a worse functional outcome following stroke, increasing the likelihood of death and dependency. Longer respiratory events appear to have a greater effect. These data suggest that long term outcome might be improved by reducing upper airway obstruction in acute stroke. PMID:15115859

  8. Prenatal maternal depression alters amygdala functional connectivity in 6-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Qiu, A; Anh, T T; Li, Y; Chen, H; Rifkin-Graboi, A; Broekman, B F P; Kwek, K; Saw, S-M; Chong, Y-S; Gluckman, P D; Fortier, M V; Meaney, M J

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal maternal depression is associated with alterations in the neonatal amygdala microstructure, shedding light on the timing for the influence of prenatal maternal depression on the brain structure of the offspring. This study aimed to examine the association between prenatal maternal depressive symptomatology and infant amygdala functional connectivity and to thus establish the neural functional basis for the transgenerational transmission of vulnerability for affective disorders during prenatal development. Twenty-four infants were included in this study with both structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) at 6 months of age. Maternal depression was assessed at 26 weeks of gestation and 3 months after delivery using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Linear regression was used to identify the amygdala functional networks and to examine the associations between prenatal maternal depressive symptoms and amygdala functional connectivity. Our results showed that at 6 months of age, the amygdala is functionally connected to widespread brain regions, forming the emotional regulation, sensory and perceptual, and emotional memory networks. After controlling for postnatal maternal depressive symptoms, infants born to mothers with higher prenatal maternal depressive symptoms showed greater functional connectivity of the amygdala with the left temporal cortex and insula, as well as the bilateral anterior cingulate, medial orbitofrontal and ventromedial prefrontal cortices, which are largely consistent with patterns of connectivity observed in adolescents and adults with major depressive disorder. Our study provides novel evidence that prenatal maternal depressive symptomatology alters the amygdala's functional connectivity in early postnatal life, which reveals that the neuroimaging correlates of the familial transmission of phenotypes associated with maternal mood are apparent in infants at 6 months of age. PMID:25689569

  9. Prenatal maternal depression alters amygdala functional connectivity in 6-month-old infants

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, A; Anh, T T; Li, Y; Chen, H; Rifkin-Graboi, A; Broekman, B F P; Kwek, K; Saw, S-M; Chong, Y-S; Gluckman, P D; Fortier, M V; Meaney, M J

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal maternal depression is associated with alterations in the neonatal amygdala microstructure, shedding light on the timing for the influence of prenatal maternal depression on the brain structure of the offspring. This study aimed to examine the association between prenatal maternal depressive symptomatology and infant amygdala functional connectivity and to thus establish the neural functional basis for the transgenerational transmission of vulnerability for affective disorders during prenatal development. Twenty-four infants were included in this study with both structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) at 6 months of age. Maternal depression was assessed at 26 weeks of gestation and 3 months after delivery using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Linear regression was used to identify the amygdala functional networks and to examine the associations between prenatal maternal depressive symptoms and amygdala functional connectivity. Our results showed that at 6 months of age, the amygdala is functionally connected to widespread brain regions, forming the emotional regulation, sensory and perceptual, and emotional memory networks. After controlling for postnatal maternal depressive symptoms, infants born to mothers with higher prenatal maternal depressive symptoms showed greater functional connectivity of the amygdala with the left temporal cortex and insula, as well as the bilateral anterior cingulate, medial orbitofrontal and ventromedial prefrontal cortices, which are largely consistent with patterns of connectivity observed in adolescents and adults with major depressive disorder. Our study provides novel evidence that prenatal maternal depressive symptomatology alters the amygdala's functional connectivity in early postnatal life, which reveals that the neuroimaging correlates of the familial transmission of phenotypes associated with maternal mood are apparent in infants at 6 months of age. PMID:25689569

  10. Anxiety and depression in patients with head and neck cancer: 6-month follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yi-Shan; Lin, Pao-Yen; Chien, Chih-Yen; Fang, Fu-Min; Chiu, Nien-Mu; Hung, Chi-Fa; Lee, Yu; Chong, Mian-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to assess psychiatric morbidities of patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) in a prospective study at pretreatment, and 3 and 6 months after treatment, and to compare their health-related quality of life (HRQL) between those with and without depressive disorders (depression). Materials and methods Patients with newly diagnosed HNC from a tertiary hospital were recruited into the study. They were assessed for psychiatric morbidities using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition. Their HRQL was simultaneously evaluated using the quality of life questionnaire of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer with a specific module for head and neck cancer; and depressed and nondepressed HNC patients were compared by using the generalized mixed-effect model for repeated measurements. Results A total of 106 patients were recruited into this study. High rates of anxiety were found at pretreatment, but steadily declined over time (from 27.3% to 6.4%, and later 3.3%). A skew pattern of depression was observed, with prevalence rates from 8.5% at pretreatment to 24.5% and 14% at 3 and 6 months, respectively, after treatment. We found that loss of sense (P=0.001), loss of speech (P<0.001), low libido (P=0.001), dry mouth (P<0.001), and weight loss (P=0.001) were related to depression over time. The depressed patients had a higher consumption of painkillers (P=0.001) and nutrition supplements (P<0.001). The results showed that depression was predicted by sticky saliva (P<0.001) and trouble with social contact (P<0.001) at 3 months, and trouble with social eating (P<0.001) at 6 months. Conclusion Patients with HNC experienced different changes in anxiety and depression in the first 6 months of treatment. Dysfunction in salivation, problems with eating, and problems with social contacts were major risk factors for depression. PMID:27175080

  11. Frontolimbic neural circuitry at 6 months predicts individual differences in joint attention at 9 months.

    PubMed

    Elison, Jed T; Wolff, Jason J; Heimer, Debra C; Paterson, Sarah J; Gu, Hongbin; Hazlett, Heather C; Styner, Martin; Gerig, Guido; Piven, Joseph

    2013-03-01

    Elucidating the neural basis of joint attention in infancy promises to yield important insights into the development of language and social cognition, and directly informs developmental models of autism. We describe a new method for evaluating responding to joint attention performance in infancy that highlights the 9- to 10-month period as a time interval of maximal individual differences. We then demonstrate that fractional anisotropy in the right uncinate fasciculus, a white matter fiber bundle connecting the amygdala to the ventral-medial prefrontal cortex and anterior temporal pole, measured in 6-month-olds predicts individual differences in responding to joint attention at 9 months of age. The white matter microstructure of the right uncinate was not related to receptive language ability at 9 months. These findings suggest that the development of core nonverbal social communication skills in infancy is largely supported by preceding developments within right lateralized frontotemporal brain systems. PMID:23432829

  12. Frontolimbic Neural Circuitry at 6 Months Predicts Individual Differences in Joint Attention at 9 Months

    PubMed Central

    Elison, Jed T.; Wolff, Jason J.; Heimer, Debra C.; Paterson, Sarah J.; Gu, Hongbin; Hazlett, Heather C.; Styner, Martin; Gerig, Guido; Piven, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Elucidating the neural basis of joint attention in infancy promises to yield important insights into the development of language and social cognition, and directly informs developmental models of autism. We describe a new method for evaluating responding to joint attention performance in infancy that highlights the 9 to 10 month period as a time interval of maximal individual differences. We then demonstrate that fractional anisotropy in the right uncinate fasciculus, a white matter fiber bundle connecting the amygdala to the ventral-medial prefrontal cortex and anterior temporal pole, measured in 6 month-olds predicts individual differences in responding to joint attention at 9 months of age. The white matter microstructure of the right uncinate was not related to receptive language ability at 9 months. These findings suggest that the development of core nonverbal social communication skills in infancy is largely supported by preceding developments within right lateralized frontotemporal brain systems. PMID:23432829

  13. Factors Affecting Return to Baseline Function at 6 months Following Anterior Shoulder Instability Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hettrich, Carolyn M.; Buckwalter, Joseph; Wolf, Brian R.; Bollier, Matthew; MOON, Shoulder Group; Glass, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Pre-operative and surgical factors related to early return to baseline function after anterior shoulder instability surgery are not clear. This study was designed to determine the pre-operative and operative factors affecting return to baseline function at 6 months following anterior shoulder instability surgery. Identifying these factors will help surgeons establish expectations for functional return post-operatively. Methods: The Multicenter Orthopaedic Outcomes Network (MOON) shoulder group enrolled patients undergoing surgery for shoulder instability from 16 sites throughout the United States. Initial demographic data and validated, patient-oriented outcomes questionnaires were collected along with the physicians documented initial physical exam, treatment, surgical findings and surgical techniques used at the time of surgery. At the 6-month follow up visit, range of motion (ROM) and strength measurement of the operative shoulder were collected and compared to pre-operative measurement. Return to baseline was defined as return to within -10° ROM and full strength at the 6 month physical exam. Continuous and categorical data were analyzed using student t-tests and chi-square tests, respectively. The Kruskal-Wallis/Wilcoxin tests were used to compare groups that were not normally distributed. Factors reaching significance in a univariate analysis were then applied in a multivariable model. Significance was set a p<0.05. Results: A total of 338 patients with history of surgical intervention for anterior instability of the shoulder were identified. 278 patients had complete pre- and post-surgical range of motion and strength measurements. 138 (50%) patients (139 shoulders) returned to baseline and 133 (50%) patients did not return to baseline. Univariate analysis identified age (p=0.0013), Beighton score (p=0.0004), SF-36 general health (p=0.0017), WOSI (p=0.0250), and duration of symptoms (p=0.0046) as significant factors. When these factors were

  14. Vaporization of the Prostate with 150-W Thulium Laser: Complications with 6-Month Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    García-Larrosa, Alejandro; Capdevila, Santiago; Laborda, Ainhoa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To analyze the efficacy and safety of vaporization of the prostate (VP) with the 150-W thulium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Tm:YAG) laser. Patients and Methods: In a prospective series of 55 patients with small- and medium-size prostates undergoing major outpatient surgery (MOS), the primary objectives were to analyze changes in maximum flow (Qmax) and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) after 6 months. Immediate (<30 days) and late (>30 days) complications were subsequently recorded. Results: An increase in mean Qmax of 9.33 mL/s (95% confidence interval [CI] of the mean difference 6.73–11.93; P<0.001) was recorded, and mean IPSS was reduced by 16.88 points (95% CI 14.22–19.54; P<0.001). The immediate complications recorded were acute urinary retention (one patient), urinary tract infection without fever (two patients), and macroscopic hematuria (two patients). The only late complication observed was bladder neck sclerosis (one patient). Conclusion: After 6 months, VP with 150-W Tm:YAG presents promising results in the clinical improvement of patients with small- and medium-size prostates. Its complication rate is low and it offers excellent hemostasis. The data from our study provide the basis for the design of clinical trials to compare this technique with other procedures. PMID:24521152

  15. Retrieval Results of Unassisted Searches of Two General Periodical Indexes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Jennifer O.

    A survey of public library users was conducted regarding retrieval results of unassisted user searches in general periodical indexes. The data were analyzed to evaluate the impact or lack of impact of searching a CD-ROM index with loosely-controlled vocabulary and expanded-search capabilities (i.e., InfoTrac-General Periodicals Index) versus a…

  16. Visual Development and Neuropsychological Profile in Preterm Children from 6 Months to School Age.

    PubMed

    Sayeur, Mélissa Sue; Vannasing, Phetsamone; Tremblay, Emmanuel; Lepore, Franco; McKerral, Michelle; Lassonde, Maryse; Gallagher, Anne

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this semilongitudinal study was to investigate the development of central visual pathways in children born preterm but without major neurologic impairments and to establish their cognitive and behavioral profile at school age. Ten children born preterm were assessed at 6 months and at school age, using visual evoked potentials at both time points and cognitive and behavioral tests at school age. We also tested 10 age-matched children born full-term. At 6 months' corrected age, we found no significant differences between preterm and full-term groups for either amplitude or latency of N1 and P1 components. At school age, the preterm group manifested significantly higher N1 amplitudes and tended to show higher P1 amplitudes than the full-term group. We found no significant differences in cognitive and behavioral measures at school age. These results suggest that preterm birth affects visual pathways development, yet the children born preterm did not manifest cognitive problems. PMID:25414236

  17. Prognostic Utility of Routine Chimerism Testing at 2 – 6 Months after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Mossallam, Ghada I.; Kamel, Azza M.; Storer, Barry; Martin, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    The utility of routine chimerism analysis as a prognostic indicator of subsequent outcomes after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) with myeloablative conditioning regimens remains controversial. To address this controversy, routine chimerism test results at 2 – 6 months after HCT with myeloablative conditioning regimens were evaluated for association with subsequent risks of chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD), non-relapse mortality (NRM), relapse and overall mortality. Only 70 (5%) of 1304 patients had <95% donor-derived cells in the marrow. Low donor chimerism in the marrow occurred predominantly among patients with low risk disease as compared to higher risk diseases and was significantly associated with a reduced risk of chronic GVHD. Among 673 patients tested, 164 (24%) had <85% donor-derived T cells in the blood. Low donor T cell chimerism occurred predominantly among patients with low risk disease as compared to higher risk diseases, among those who had conditioning with busulfan as compared to TBI, and among those with lower grades of acute GVHD. Low donor T cell chimerism in the blood was significantly associated with a reduced risk of chronic GVHD, but not with the risks of relapse, NRM or overall mortality. Routine testing of chimerism in the marrow and blood at 2 – 6 months after HCT with myeloablative conditioning regimens may be helpful in documenting engraftment in clinical trials but provides only limited prognostic information in clinical practice. PMID:19203726

  18. Origins of a stereotype: categorization of facial attractiveness by 6-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Jennifer L; Langlois, Judith H; Hoss, Rebecca A; Rubenstein, Adam J; Griffin, Angela M

    2004-04-01

    Like adults, young infants prefer attractive to unattractive faces (e.g. Langlois, Roggman, Casey, Ritter, Rieser-Danner & Jenkins, 1987; Slater, von der Schulenburg, Brown, Badenoch, Butterworth, Parsons & Samuels, 1998). Older children and adults stereotype based on facial attractiveness (Eagly, Ashmore, Makhijani & Longo, 1991; Langlois, Kalakanis, Rubenstein, Larson, Hallam & Smooth, 2000). How do preferences for attractive faces develop into stereotypes? Several theories of stereotyping posit that categorization of groups is necessary before positive and negative traits can become linked to the groups (e.g. Taifel, Billig, Bundy & Flament, 1971; Zebrowitz-McArthur, 1982). We investigated whether or not 6-month-old infants can categorize faces as attractive or unattractive. In Experiment 1, we familiarized infants to unattractive female faces; in Experiment 2, we familiarized infants to attractive female faces and tested both groups of infants on novel faces from the familiar or novel attractiveness category. Results showed that 6-month-olds categorized attractive and unattractive female faces into two different groups of faces. Experiments 3 and 4 confirmed that infants could discriminate among the faces used in Experiments 1 and 2, and therefore categorized the faces based on their similarities in attractiveness rather than because they could not differentiate among the faces. These findings suggest that categorization of facial attractiveness may underlie the development of the 'beauty is good' stereotype. PMID:15320380

  19. A cornea substitute derived from fish scale: 6-month followup on rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Fei; Wang, Liyan; Lin, Chien-Chen; Chou, Cheng-Hung; Li, Lei

    2014-01-01

    A fish scale-derived cornea substitute (Biocornea) is proposed as an alternative for human donor corneal tissue. We adopt a regenerative medicine approach to design a primary alternative to the use of fish scale for restoring sight by corneal replacement. Biocornea with corneal multilayer arrangement collagen was implanted to rabbits by pocket implantation. Our study demonstrated the safety and detailed morphologic and physiologic results from the 6 months of followup of rabbit model. In the peripheral Biocornea, the collagen fibrils were arranged in reticular fashion. Slit lamp examination showed that haze and an ulcer were not observed in all groups at 3 months postoperatively while all corneas with Biocornea were clear at both 3 months and 6 months postoperatively. The interface of Biocornea and stromal tissue were filled successfully and without observable immune cells at postoperative day 180. Moreover, the Biocornea was not dissolved and degenerated but remained transparent and showed no apparent fragmentation. Our study demonstrated that the Biocornea derived from fish scale as a good substitute had high biocompatibility and support function after a long-term evaluation. This revealed that the new approach of using Biocornea may yield an ideal artificial cornea substitute for long-term inlay placement. PMID:25089206

  20. A Cornea Substitute Derived from Fish Scale: 6-Month Followup on Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Fei; Wang, Liyan; Lin, Chien-Chen; Chou, Cheng-Hung; Li, Lei

    2014-01-01

    A fish scale-derived cornea substitute (Biocornea) is proposed as an alternative for human donor corneal tissue. We adopt a regenerative medicine approach to design a primary alternative to the use of fish scale for restoring sight by corneal replacement. Biocornea with corneal multilayer arrangement collagen was implanted to rabbits by pocket implantation. Our study demonstrated the safety and detailed morphologic and physiologic results from the 6 months of followup of rabbit model. In the peripheral Biocornea, the collagen fibrils were arranged in reticular fashion. Slit lamp examination showed that haze and an ulcer were not observed in all groups at 3 months postoperatively while all corneas with Biocornea were clear at both 3 months and 6 months postoperatively. The interface of Biocornea and stromal tissue were filled successfully and without observable immune cells at postoperative day 180. Moreover, the Biocornea was not dissolved and degenerated but remained transparent and showed no apparent fragmentation. Our study demonstrated that the Biocornea derived from fish scale as a good substitute had high biocompatibility and support function after a long-term evaluation. This revealed that the new approach of using Biocornea may yield an ideal artificial cornea substitute for long-term inlay placement. PMID:25089206

  1. The 'natural' history of active rheumatoid arthritis over 3-6 months--an analysis of patients enrolled into trials of potential disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, and treated with placebo.

    PubMed

    Porter, D R; Capell, H A

    1993-06-01

    The natural history of RA over a period of 6 months is not known, but this is of central importance to the design and interpretation of drug trials of possible DMARDs. We analysed the disease activity of 142 rheumatoid patients who were randomized to receive placebo in five double blind, placebo-controlled trials of possible disease-modifying drugs conducted in a single unit. There was no significant change in ESR, duration of morning stiffness or platelet count over a period of 6 months; the mean change in ESR at 3 months was an increase of 2 mm/h (99% C.I. -3, +7), and only 5% of patients more than halved their ESR over 6 months. There was a small significant fall in articular index over 6 months of placebo treatment. There is no measurable placebo effect on ESR, morning stiffness or platelet count when these are used as measures of disease activity in trials of drug therapy in RA. ESR is an informative, stable measure of disease activity; the duration of morning stiffness may be more useful than the articular index. The use of these results as the basis of a historical cohort to help design future placebo-controlled trials, and to interpret uncontrolled trials of putative anti-rheumatic drugs is discussed. PMID:8508282

  2. Effects of a 6-month infliximab treatment on plasma levels of leptin and adiponectin in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Derdemezis, Christos S; Filippatos, Theodosios D; Voulgari, Paraskevi V; Tselepis, Alexandros D; Drosos, Alexandros A; Kiortsis, Dimitrios N

    2009-10-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) appear to have increased plasma levels of leptin and adiponectin. These adipokines may be implicated in the pathophysiology of RA. Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is a potential modulator of adipokines. The effects of long-term anti-TNF treatment on plasma levels of leptin and adiponectin are not clear. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of 6-month anti-TNF treatment (infliximab) on leptin and adiponectin plasma levels in RA patients. Thirty women with RA were included in the study. Patients with diabetes mellitus, any endocrine disorder or receiving any hypolipidemic or antidiabetic medication were not included. Thirty healthy age- and body mass index-matched women served as controls. Plasma levels of leptin and adiponectin were measured with enzyme immunoassay methods prior to and after the 6-month treatment with infliximab. Mean age and disease duration of patients were 51.8 +/- 14.4 and 12.2 +/- 6.7 years, respectively. Body weight did not change significantly over the 6-month period. Plasma levels of leptin and adiponectin were higher in patients than controls and did not change significantly after 6-month treatment. Interestingly, in the tertile of patients with the highest baseline adiponectin concentrations, adiponectin levels were significantly reduced (P < 0.05). Infliximab treatment did not change plasma levels of leptin and adiponectin after 6-month treatment in the whole study population. However, a reduction of adiponectin levels was observed in patients with higher baseline adiponectin levels. PMID:19563510

  3. Becoming a role model: the breastfeeding trajectory of Hong Kong women breastfeeding longer than 6 months.

    PubMed

    Tarrant, Marie; Dodgson, Joan E; Choi, Vinkline Wing Kay

    2004-07-01

    While a substantial proportion of breastfeeding women stop early in the postpartum period, some women are able to breastfeed for longer periods. The aim of this research was to explore the experience of breastfeeding with a subsample of Hong Kong women who have breastfed for longer than 6 months. Participants (n=17) were recruited from a larger infant-feeding study (n=360) conducted in tertiary-care hospitals in Hong Kong. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted and content analysis was used to analyse the data. Data analysis revealed four themes that encompassed the women's experiences: (1) making the decision, (2) maintaining family harmony, (3) overcoming barriers, and (4) sustaining lactation. Antenatally, participants anticipated that breastfeeding would be very 'difficult' and described how the practice did not fit with the image of a professional woman in Hong Kong. Despite family opposition, frequently from their mother-in-law, and lack of societal acceptance, difficulties were overcome by what the Chinese people call hung-sum or determination. This study highlights unique cultural and social findings affecting breastfeeding women in Hong Kong which may be useful to health-care providers working with Chinese women locally and internationally. PMID:15120982

  4. Improvement in physiological and psychological parameters after 6 months of yoga practice.

    PubMed

    Rocha, K K F; Ribeiro, A M; Rocha, K C F; Sousa, M B C; Albuquerque, F S; Ribeiro, S; Silva, R H

    2012-06-01

    Yoga is believed to have beneficial effects on cognition, attenuation of emotional intensity and stress reduction. Previous studies were mainly performed on eastern experienced practitioners or unhealthy subjects undergoing concomitant conventional therapies. Further investigation is needed on the effects of yoga per se, as well as its possible preventive benefits on healthy subjects. We investigated the effects of yoga on memory and psychophysiological parameters related to stress, comparing yoga practice and conventional physical exercises in healthy men (previously yoga-naïve). Memory tests, salivary cortisol levels and stress, anxiety, and depression inventories were assessed before and after 6 months of practice. Yoga practitioners showed improvement of the memory performance, as well as improvements in psychophysiological parameters. The present results suggest that regular yoga practice can improve aspects of cognition and quality of life for healthy individuals. An indirect influence of emotional state on cognitive improvement promoted by yoga practice can be proposed. PMID:22342535

  5. Physical Exercise with Multicomponent Cognitive Intervention for Older Adults with Alzheimer's Disease: A 6-Month Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Ji; Han, Chang-Wan; Min, Kyoung-Youn; Cho, Chae-Yoon; Lee, Chae-Won; Ogawa, Yoshiko; Mori, Etsuro; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Aims This study aimed to investigate the effect of 6-month physical exercise with a multicomponent cognitive program (MCP) on the cognitive function of older adults with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods We included 33 participants with AD in a 6-month randomized controlled trial. The intervention group participated in physical exercise and received a MCP. The control group received only the MCP. Before and after the intervention, cognitive outcomes were assessed using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-cog), Mini-Mental State Examination, and the Clock Drawing Test. Physical performance was evaluated by exercise time, the number of pedal rotation, total load, grip strength, and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Results In all cognitive measures, there were no significant improvements between the two groups after 6 months in the baseline value-adjusted primary analysis. However, the ADAS-cog score was significantly lower between the two groups in secondary analysis adjusted for baseline value, age, sex, and education years. All physical outcomes were significantly higher in the intervention group except for total load compared with baseline measurements. Conclusion This study indicates that it is possible to improve cognitive function in older adults with moderate to severe AD through 6-month physical exercise with a multicomponent cognitive intervention. PMID:27403134

  6. A pilot study: reports of benefits from a 6-month, multidisciplinary, shared medical appointment approach for heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Lin, Andrew; Cavendish, Jeffrey; Boren, Denise; Ofstad, Trish; Seidensticker, Daniel

    2008-12-01

    ABSTRACT Heart failure continues to be the leading cause of hospitalization among older adults. Noncompliance with medications, dietary indiscretion, failure to recognize symptoms, and failed social support systems contribute to increased morbidity. Multidisciplinary medical approaches have proven successful for heart failure. In 2004, the Naval Medical Center San Diego started a multidisciplinary shared medical appointment for patients with complicated cases of heart failure. Patients enrolled in the heart failure clinic were monitored prospectively for 6 months. Validated questionnaires concerning satisfaction with care, self-care management, depression, and quality-of-life measures were administered at baseline and 6 months after enrollment. Thirty-nine individuals were enrolled in the clinic, with 33 completing 6 months of follow-up monitoring to date. Hospital admissions for any cause decreased from 11 to eight, whereas congestive heart failure-related admissions decreased from four to two. There was a total of six deaths. During the 6 months of enrollment, use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-receptor blockers had absolute increases of 20% and 19%, respectively. Statistically significant improvements were seen in the Beck Depression Inventory and Self-Care Management Index results. A multidisciplinary approach to heart failure patients using the shared medical appointment model can improve patient satisfaction, enhance quality of life, and help reduce hospitalizations while improving provider efficiency. PMID:19149341

  7. Virtual Reality Job Interview Training and 6-Month Employment Outcomes for Individuals with Schizophrenia Seeking Employment

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Matthew J.; Fleming, Michael F.; Wright, Michael A.; Roberts, Andrea G.; Humm, Laura Boteler; Olsen, Dale; Bell, Morris D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Individuals with schizophrenia have low employment rates and the job interview presents a critical barrier for them to obtain employment. Virtual reality training has demonstrated efficacy at improving interview skills and employment outcomes among multiple clinical populations. However, the effects of this training on individuals with schizophrenia are unknown. This study evaluated the efficacy of virtual reality job interview training (VR-JIT) at improving job interview skills and employment outcomes among individuals with schizophrenia in a small randomized controlled trial (n=21 VR-JIT trainees, n=11 waitlist controls). METHODS Trainees completed up to 10 hours of virtual interviews using VR-JIT, while controls received services as usual. Primary outcome measures included two pre-test and two post-test video-recorded role-play interviews scored by blinded human resource experts and self-reported interviewing self-confidence. Six-month follow-up data on employment outcomes were collected. RESULTS Trainees reported the intervention was easy-to-use, helpful, and prepared them for future interviews. Trainees demonstrated increased role-play scores between pre-test and post-test while controls did not (p=0.001). After accounting for neurocognition and months since prior employment, trainees had greater odds of receiving a job offer by 6 month follow-up compared to controls (OR: 8.73, p=0.04) and more training was associated with fewer weeks until receiving a job offer (r=−0.63, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS Results suggest VR-JIT is acceptable to trainees and may be efficacious for improving job interview skills in individuals with schizophrenia. Moreover, trainees had greater odds of receiving a job offer by 6-month follow-up. Future studies could evaluate the effectiveness of VR-JIT within community-based services. PMID:26032567

  8. Relationship between the behaviour of sows at 6 months old and the behaviour and performance at farrowing.

    PubMed

    Lensink, B J; Leruste, H; Le Roux, T; Bizeray-Filoche, D

    2009-01-01

    .21, P = 0.09; rs = 0.22, P = 0.08). These results suggest that behavioural responses to humans and during management practices of nulliparous sows at 6 months of age are, to some extent, related with their behaviour around farrowing and crushing levels of piglets at farrowing. PMID:22444179

  9. Anatomical and functional recurrence after dexamethasone intravitreal implants: a 6-month prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Fortoul, V; Denis, P; Kodjikian, L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy, safety, and delay of anatomical and functional recurrence after a first intravitreal injection of dexamethasone implant in eyes with cystoid macular edema (CME) secondary to retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Methods A 6-month prospective, monocentric and noncomparative case-series of 26 eyes of 26 patients. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central subfield thickness (CST) were measured at baseline and each visit at 1 week, and months 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 after a first treatment. Primary efficacy outcome was the proportion of eyes with a minimum three-line improvement from baseline BCVA at each visit and at 6 months. We also defined different patterns of recurrence: qualitative anatomical recurrence, quantitative anatomical recurrence and functional recurrence. A P-value <5% was considered statistically significant. Results Mean population age was 69.3 years (SD=12.2; range=42–94 years). Mean ME duration before treatment was ~9.2 months (SD=11.43; range=0.4–40 months). Eighty eight percent of eyes achieved a three-line improvement from baseline at 2 months (P=0.02). The mean delay from baseline until qualitative anatomical, functional, or quantitative anatomical recurrence was 4.11 months (±0.86), 4.31 months (±1.33), and 4.40 months (±1.14), respectively. Qualitative anatomical recurrence occurred on average 14.4 days (SD=42.18) before a minimum of one-line BCVA impairment (functional recurrence). Conclusion Dexamethasone intravitreal treatment seems to be effective for ME after RVO even with long-duration ME or poor visual acuity before treatment. Other longer studies should assess the delay of recurrence after second and further treatments with DEX implants or combined therapies for ME after RVO. PMID:25853447

  10. Speech Disturbs Face Scanning in 6-Month Olds who Develop Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Shic, Frederick; Macari, Suzanne; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Background From birth, infants show a preference for the faces, gaze, and voices of others. In individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) these biases appear to be disturbed. The source of these disturbances is not well-understood, but recent efforts have shown that the spontaneous deployment of attention to social targets may be atypical as early as 6 months of age. The nature of this atypical behavior and the conditions under which it arises are currently unknown. Methods We used eye-tracking to examine the gaze patterns of 6-month-old infants (N=99) at high risk (HR; N=57) and low risk (LR; N=42) for developing ASD as they viewed faces that were (1) still, (2) moving and expressing positive affect, or (3) speaking. Clinical outcomes were determined through a comprehensive assessment at the age of 3 years. The scanning patterns of infants later diagnosed with ASD were compared to infants without an ASD outcome. Results Infants who later developed ASD spent less time looking at the presented scenes in general than other infants. When these infants looked at faces, their looking towards the inner features of faces decreased compared to the other groups only when the presented face was speaking. Conclusions Our study suggests that infants later diagnosed with ASD have difficulties regulating attention to complex social scenes. It also suggests that the presence of speech may uniquely disturb the attention of infants who later develop ASD at a critical developmental point when other infants are acquiring language and learning about their social world. PMID:23954107

  11. A Prognostic Model for 6-Month Mortality in Elderly Survivors of Critical Illness

    PubMed Central

    Narain, Wazim R.; Wunsch, Hannah; Schluger, Neil W.; Cooke, Joseph T.; Maurer, Mathew S.; Rowe, John W.; Lederer, David J.; Bach, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although 1.4 million elderly Americans survive hospitalization involving intensive care annually, many are at risk for early mortality following discharge. No models that predict the likelihood of death after discharge exist explicitly for this population. Therefore, we derived and externally validated a 6-month postdischarge mortality prediction model for elderly ICU survivors. Methods: We derived the model from medical record and claims data for 1,526 consecutive patients aged ≥ 65 years who had their first medical ICU admission in 2006 to 2009 at a tertiary-care hospital and survived to discharge (excluding those patients discharged to hospice). We then validated the model in 1,010 patients from a different tertiary-care hospital. Results: Six-month mortality was 27.3% and 30.2% in the derivation and validation cohorts, respectively. Independent predictors of mortality (in descending order of contribution to the model’s predictive power) were a do-not-resuscitate order, older age, burden of comorbidity, admission from or discharge to a skilled-care facility, hospital length of stay, principal diagnoses of sepsis and hematologic malignancy, and male sex. For the derivation and external validation cohorts, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.80 (SE, 0.01) and 0.71 (SE, 0.02), respectively, with good calibration for both (P = 0.31 and 0.43). Conclusions: Clinical variables available at hospital discharge can help predict 6-month mortality for elderly ICU survivors. Variables that capture elements of frailty, disability, the burden of comorbidity, and patient preferences regarding resuscitation during the hospitalization contribute most to this model’s predictive power. The model could aid providers in counseling elderly ICU survivors at high risk of death and their families. PMID:23632902

  12. Scheduling real-time, periodic jobs using imprecise results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Jane W. S.; Lin, Kwei-Jay; Natarajan, Swaminathan

    1987-01-01

    A process is called a monotone process if the accuracy of its intermediate results is non-decreasing as more time is spent to obtain the result. The result produced by a monotone process upon its normal termination is the desired result; the error in this result is zero. External events such as timeouts or crashes may cause the process to terminate prematurely. If the intermediate result produced by the process upon its premature termination is saved and made available, the application may still find the result unusable and, hence, acceptable; such a result is said to be an imprecise one. The error in an imprecise result is nonzero. The problem of scheduling periodic jobs to meet deadlines on a system that provides the necessary programming language primitives and run-time support for processes to return imprecise results is discussed. This problem differs from the traditional scheduling problems since the scheduler may choose to terminate a task before it is completed, causing it to produce an acceptable but imprecise result. Consequently, the amounts of processor time assigned to tasks in a valid schedule can be less than the amounts of time required to complete the tasks. A meaningful formulation of this problem taking into account the quality of the overall result is discussed. Three algorithms for scheduling jobs for which the effects of errors in results produced in different periods are not cumulative are described, and their relative merits are evaluated.

  13. Differential brain shrinkage over 6 months shows limited association with cognitive practice.

    PubMed

    Raz, Naftali; Schmiedek, Florian; Rodrigue, Karen M; Kennedy, Kristen M; Lindenberger, Ulman; Lövdén, Martin

    2013-07-01

    The brain shrinks with age, but the timing of this process and the extent of its malleability are unclear. We measured changes in regional brain volumes in younger (age 20-31) and older (age 65-80) adults twice over a 6 month period, and examined the association between changes in volume, history of hypertension, and cognitive training. Between two MRI scans, 49 participants underwent intensive practice in three cognitive domains for 100 consecutive days, whereas 23 control group members performed no laboratory cognitive tasks. Regional volumes of seven brain structures were measured manually and adjusted for intracranial volume. We observed significant mean shrinkage in the lateral prefrontal cortex, the hippocampus, the caudate nucleus, and the cerebellum, but no reliable mean change of the prefrontal white matter, orbital-frontal cortex, and the primary visual cortex. Individual differences in change were reliable in all regions. History of hypertension was associated with greater cerebellar shrinkage. The cerebellum was the only region in which significantly reduced shrinkage was apparent in the experimental group after completion of cognitive training. Thus, in healthy adults, differential brain shrinkage can be observed in a narrow time window, vascular risk may aggravate it, and intensive cognitive activity may have a limited effect on it. PMID:23665948

  14. Exclusive or Partial Breastfeeding for 6 Months Is Associated With Reduced Milk Sensitization and Risk of Eczema in Early Childhood: The PATCH Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chih-Yung; Liao, Sui-Ling; Su, Kuan-Wen; Tsai, Ming-Han; Hua, Man-Chin; Lai, Shen-Hao; Chen, Li-Chen; Yao, Tsung-Chieh; Yeh, Kuo-Wei; Huang, Jing-Long

    2016-04-01

    There is insufficient evidence to confirm the association between breastfeeding and allergic outcomes later in life. This study aimed to determine the relationships between different breastfeeding patterns and allergen sensitizations and risk of developing atopic diseases in early childhood. A total of 186 children from a birth cohort in the Prediction of Allergies in Taiwanese Children study for a 4-year follow-up period were enrolled. Total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and specific IgE antibodies against food and inhalant allergens were measured sequentially at 6 months as well as at 1, 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 years of age. A significantly lower prevalence of milk sensitization was found in children at ages 1 and 1.5 years who were exclusively or partially breastfed for ≥6 months. Breastfeeding ≥6 months was significantly associated with a reduced risk of developing eczema but not allergic rhinitis and asthma at ages 1 and 2 years. Compared with exclusive breastfeeding ≥6 months, partial breastfeeding <6 months was significantly associated with an increased risk of developing eczema at ages 1 and 2 years. As with exclusive breastfeeding, partial breastfeeding for at least 6 months appears to be associated with a reduced prevalence of milk sensitization as well as a reduced risk of developing eczema in early childhood. PMID:27082611

  15. T-wave inversions and the role of de-training in the differentiation of athlete’s heart from pathology: is 6 months too long?

    PubMed Central

    Whyte, Gregory; Somauroo, John; Wilson, Mathew; Sharma, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    Electrocardiographic changes are common in athletes. Differentiation of a physiological from a pathological substrate is important as ECG changes may indicate underlying cardiac disease placing the athlete at increased risk of sudden cardiac death. Deep T-wave inversions are uncommon in Caucasian athletes however; appear more prevalent in black athletes. Irrespective of the ethnic origin of the athlete, deep T-wave inversions require thorough follow-up. At present, 6 months de-training is recommended to assist in the differentiation of physiologic and pathologic changes where a definitive diagnosis is elusive through standard diagnostic techniques. This case study examines findings from a black and a Caucasian athlete presenting with deep T-wave inversions following a brief (ca.3 week) period of de-training resulting in normalisation of T-wave. These cases suggest that a shorter period of time may be sufficient in differentiating physiological from pathological mechanisms for deep T-wave inversions. PMID:23035157

  16. Increased skin collagen extractability and proportions of collagen type III are not normalized after 6 months healing of human excisional wounds.

    PubMed

    Robins, Simon P; Milne, George; Duncan, Alexander; Davies, Claire; Butt, Richard; Greiling, Doris; James, Ian T

    2003-08-01

    In an attempt to identify potential staging markers of effective healing, changes in connective tissue properties were measured in a human skin excisional wound healing model in which tissue was re-excised at intervals up to 6 months after injury. The proportion of collagen III relative to collagen I increased significantly (p<0.001) up to 6 weeks after initial injury and remained elevated up to 6 months, at which time the proportion of collagen III was 70% above baseline values. Extractability of biopsy tissue collagen by pepsin increased significantly throughout the study (baseline, 32.8+/-6.8%; 6 months, 89.1+/-8.9%), with inverse changes in the mature skin cross-link, histidinohydroxylysinonorleucine (baseline, 1.18+/-0.11 mol/mol collagen; 6 months, 0.27+/-0.09 mol/mol collagen). Pyridinoline content increased over the period of the study, although remaining at relatively low concentrations (baseline, 0.037+/-0.011; 6 months, 0.063+/-0.014 mol/mol collagen), and the pyridinoline/deoxypyridinoline ratio was significantly higher (baseline, 3.5+/-0.6; 6 months, 10.3+/-2.2). Elastin content, measured as desmosine cross-links, decreased significantly in the first 3 weeks and continued to decline over the period of study. Overall, the data suggest that remodeling of the wound tissue continues at least up to 6 months after injury. The close inverse correlation between histidinohydroxylysinonorleucine concentrations and extractability by pepsin (r2=0.89, p<0.0001) suggests a causal relationship, consistent with the likely effects of a substantial network of mature, inter-helical bonds in collagen. PMID:12880417

  17. Improvements in the Child-Rearing Attitudes of Latina Mothers Exposed to Interpersonal Trauma Predict Greater Maternal Sensitivity Toward Their 6-Month-Old Infants.

    PubMed

    Waters, Sara F; Hagan, Melissa J; Rivera, Luisa; Lieberman, Alicia F

    2015-10-01

    The current study investigated maternal sensitivity in a treatment-seeking sample of predominately Latina, low-income pregnant women with histories of interpersonal trauma exposure. Pregnant women (N = 52; M = 27.08 years, SD = 5.66) who enrolled in a study of a perinatal adaptation of child-parent psychotherapy reported on their posttraumatic stress symptoms and child-rearing attitudes at baseline and again at 6-months postpartum. Maternal sensitivity was measured via observational coding of a free-play episode at 6-months postpartum. Two thirds of mothers exhibited healthy levels of maternal sensitivity, M > 4.0 (range = 2.5-7.0). The results of multiple linear regression predicting maternal sensitivity, R(2) = .26, indicated that greater improvements in child-rearing attitudes over the course of treatment predicted higher levels of maternal sensitivity, β = .33, whereas improvements in posttraumatic stress symptoms over the course of treatment did not, β = -.10. Mothers' attitudes regarding parenting during the perinatal period may be a mechanism by which intervention fosters healthy mother-infant relationship dynamics. Thus, parenting attitudes are a worthy target of intervention in vulnerable families. PMID:26418308

  18. Antiphospholipid antibodies during 6-month treatment with infliximab: A preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Kolarz, Bogdan; Majdan, Maria; Darmochwał-Kolarz, Dorota A.; Dryglewska, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Background The introduction of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists (adalimumab, infliximab, and etanercept) was a major advance and was highly important and beneficial in most rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. The adverse effects of this treatment are infrequent, but include opportunistic intracellular infection (especially the reactivation of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis); exacerbation of demyelinating disorders; and the production of various types of antibodies such as antinuclear antibodies (ANA) or double-stranded DNA autoantibodies (dsDNA) and antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) such as anti-cardiolipin antibodies (aCL) and anti-B2GP-I antibodies (B2GP-I). The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of aCL and B2GP-I in IgM and IgG classes, using ELISA tests, during 6 months of follow-up in patients with refractory RA successfully treated with infliximab. Material/Methods We determined the prevalence of aCL and B2GP-I in IgM and IgG classes, using ELISA tests, during 6 months of follow-up in patients with refractory RA successfully treated with infliximab. Results We observed a statistically important increase only in the group of B2GP-I IgM (p<0.05). There are contradictory results concerning the ability of infliximab to induce aPL, but most authors confirm this phenomenon. Conclusions Further investigations are needed to determine if the new aPL appears in patients with β2-GPI gene polymorphisms such as leucine-to-valine substitution at position 247, which can lead to a conformational changes in β2-GPI protein, leading to aPL synthesis. The role of aPL in pathogenesis of APS is still unclear, but we should remember the immunogenic aspect of TNF antagonist treatment. Therefore, we recommend early detection of aPL and observation of the patient, paying special attention to signs and symptoms of thromboembolism. PMID:25027437

  19. Differential gene expression in the liver of the African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, after 6 months of aestivation in air or 1 day of arousal from 6 months of aestivation.

    PubMed

    Hiong, Kum C; Ip, Yuen K; Wong, Wai P; Chew, Shit F

    2015-01-01

    The African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, can undergo aestivation during drought. Aestivation has three phases: induction, maintenance and arousal. The objective of this study was to examine the differential gene expression in the liver of P. annectens after 6 months (the maintenance phase) of aestivation as compared with the freshwater control, or after 1 day of arousal from 6 months aestivation as compared with 6 months of aestivation using suppression subtractive hybridization. During the maintenance phase of aestivation, the mRNA expression of argininosuccinate synthetase 1 and carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III were up-regulated, indicating an increase in the ornithine-urea cycle capacity to detoxify ammonia to urea. There was also an increase in the expression of betaine homocysteine-S-transferase 1 which could reduce and prevent the accumulation of hepatic homocysteine. On the other hand, the down-regulation of superoxide dismutase 1 expression could signify a decrease in ROS production during the maintenance phase of aestivation. In addition, the maintenance phase was marked by decreases in expressions of genes related to blood coagulation, complement fixation and iron and copper metabolism, which could be strategies used to prevent thrombosis and to conserve energy. Unlike the maintenance phase of aestivation, there were increases in expressions of genes related to nitrogen, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and fatty acid transport after 1 day of arousal from 6 months aestivation. There were also up-regulation in expressions of genes that were involved in the electron transport system and ATP synthesis, indicating a greater demand for metabolic energy during arousal. Overall, our results signify the importance of sustaining a low rate of waste production and conservation of energy store during the maintenance phase, and the dependence on internal energy store for repair and structural modification during the arousal phase, of aestivation in the liver

  20. Differential Gene Expression in the Liver of the African Lungfish, Protopterus annectens, after 6 Months of Aestivation in Air or 1 Day of Arousal from 6 Months of Aestivation

    PubMed Central

    Hiong, Kum C.; Ip, Yuen K.; Wong, Wai P.; Chew, Shit F.

    2015-01-01

    The African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, can undergo aestivation during drought. Aestivation has three phases: induction, maintenance and arousal. The objective of this study was to examine the differential gene expression in the liver of P. annectens after 6 months (the maintenance phase) of aestivation as compared with the freshwater control, or after 1 day of arousal from 6 months aestivation as compared with 6 months of aestivation using suppression subtractive hybridization. During the maintenance phase of aestivation, the mRNA expression of argininosuccinate synthetase 1 and carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III were up-regulated, indicating an increase in the ornithine-urea cycle capacity to detoxify ammonia to urea. There was also an increase in the expression of betaine homocysteine-S-transferase 1 which could reduce and prevent the accumulation of hepatic homocysteine. On the other hand, the down-regulation of superoxide dismutase 1 expression could signify a decrease in ROS production during the maintenance phase of aestivation. In addition, the maintenance phase was marked by decreases in expressions of genes related to blood coagulation, complement fixation and iron and copper metabolism, which could be strategies used to prevent thrombosis and to conserve energy. Unlike the maintenance phase of aestivation, there were increases in expressions of genes related to nitrogen, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and fatty acid transport after 1 day of arousal from 6 months aestivation. There were also up-regulation in expressions of genes that were involved in the electron transport system and ATP synthesis, indicating a greater demand for metabolic energy during arousal. Overall, our results signify the importance of sustaining a low rate of waste production and conservation of energy store during the maintenance phase, and the dependence on internal energy store for repair and structural modification during the arousal phase, of aestivation in the liver

  1. Benefits of Diabetes Self-Management for Health Plan Members: A 6-Month Translation Study

    PubMed Central

    Lorig, Kate; Turner, Ralph M; English, Kathleen; Laurent, Diana D; Greenberg, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes self-management education has been shown to be effective in controlled trials. However, few programs that meet American Association of Diabetes Educators standards have been translated into widespread practice. Objective This study examined the translation of the evidence-based Better Choices, Better Health-Diabetes program in both Internet and face-to-face versions. Methods We administered the Internet program nationally in the United States (n=1010). We conducted face-to-face workshops in Atlanta, Georgia; Indianapolis, Indiana; and St. Louis, Missouri (n=232). Self-report questionnaires collected health indicator, health behavior, and health care utilization measures. Questionnaires were administered on the Web or by mail. We determined hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) from blood samples collected via mailed kits. Paired t tests determined whether changes between baseline and 6 months differed significantly from no change. Subgroup analyses determined whether participants with specific conditions benefited (high HbA1c, depression, hypoglycemia, nonadherence to medication taking, and no aerobic exercise). We calculated the percentage of participants with improvements of at least 0.4 effect size in at least one of the 5 above measures. Results Of the 1242 participants, 884 provided 6-month follow-up questionnaires. There were statistically significant improvements in 6 of 7 health indicators (including HbA1c) and in 7 of 7 behaviors. For each of the 5 conditions, there were significant improvements among those with the condition (effect sizes 0.59–1.1). A total of 662 (75.0%) of study participants improved at least 0.4 effect size in at least one criterion, and 327 (37.1%) improved in 2 or more. Conclusions The Diabetes Self-Management Program, offered in two modes, was successfully disseminated to a heterogeneous national population of members of either insured or administered health plans. Participants had small but significant benefits in multiple

  2. A model to examine the validity of the 6-month abstinence criterion for liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yates, W R; Martin, M; LaBrecque, D; Hillebrand, D; Voigt, M; Pfab, D

    1998-04-01

    Six months of abstinence from alcohol is a commonly used criterion for liver transplantation eligibility for patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. There is limited evidence to document the validity of this criterion with regard to risk of alcoholism relapse. Ninety-one patients with alcoholic cirrhosis were interviewed for relapse risk using the High Risk Alcoholism Relapse (HRAR) Scale. The HRAR model can be used to predict relapse risk independent of duration of sobriety and therefore can be used to examine the validity of the 6 months of abstinence criteria in this clinical population. The two methods demonstrated poor to fair agreement. Agreement was highest with a cutoff allowing a 5% 6-month relapse risk when 79% agreement (c = 0.56) was demonstrated between the two methods. Using the 6-month abstinence criterion alone disallows a significant number of candidates who have a low relapse risk based on their HRAR score. The validity of the 6-month abstinence criterion is supported somewhat by comparison with the HRAR model. However, use of the 6-month abstinence criterion alone forces a significant number of patients with a low relapse risk by HRAR to wait for transplant listing. A relapse risk model based on an estimate of alcoholism severity in addition to duration of sobriety may more accurately select patients who are most likely to benefit from liver transplantation. PMID:9581661

  3. Neural Dynamics of Audiovisual Synchrony and Asynchrony Perception in 6-Month-Old Infants

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, Franziska; Dietrich, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Young infants are sensitive to multisensory temporal synchrony relations, but the neural dynamics of temporal interactions between vision and audition in infancy are not well understood. We investigated audiovisual synchrony and asynchrony perception in 6-month-old infants using event-related brain potentials (ERP). In a prior behavioral experiment (n = 45), infants were habituated to an audiovisual synchronous stimulus and tested for recovery of interest by presenting an asynchronous test stimulus in which the visual stream was delayed with respect to the auditory stream by 400 ms. Infants who behaviorally discriminated the change in temporal alignment were included in further analyses. In the EEG experiment (final sample: n = 15), synchronous and asynchronous stimuli (visual delay of 400 ms) were presented in random order. Results show latency shifts in the auditory ERP components N1 and P2 as well as the infant ERP component Nc. Latencies in the asynchronous condition were significantly longer than in the synchronous condition. After video onset but preceding the auditory onset, amplitude modulations propagating from posterior to anterior sites and related to the Pb component of infants’ ERP were observed. Results suggest temporal interactions between the two modalities. Specifically, they point to the significance of anticipatory visual motion for auditory processing, and indicate young infants’ predictive capacities for audiovisual temporal synchrony relations. PMID:23346071

  4. MRI Assessment of Uterine Artery Patency and Fibroid Infarction Rates 6 Months after Uterine Artery Embolization with Nonspherical Polyvinyl Alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Raj Gonsalves, Michael; Vlahos, Ioannis; Manyonda, Issac; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: We have observed significant rates of uterine artery patency after uterine artery embolization (UAE) with nonspherical polyvinyl alcohol (nsPVA) on 6 month follow-up MR scanning. The study aim was to quantitatively assess uterine artery patency after UAE with nsPVA and to assess the effect of continued uterine artery patency on outcomes. Methods: A single centre, retrospective study of 50 patients undergoing bilateral UAE for uterine leiomyomata was undertaken. Pelvic MRI was performed before and 6 months after UAE. All embolizations were performed with nsPVA. Outcome measures included uterine artery patency, uterine and dominant fibroid volume, dominant fibroid percentage infarction, presence of ovarian arterial collaterals, and symptom scores assessed by the Uterine Fibroid Symptom and Quality of Life questionnaire (UFS-QOL). Results: Magnetic resonance angiographic evidence of uterine artery recanalization was demonstrated in 90 % of the patients (64 % bilateral, 26 % unilateral) at 6 months. Eighty percent of all dominant fibroids demonstrated >90 % infarction. The mean percentage reduction in dominant fibroid volume was 35 %. No significant difference was identified between nonpatent, unilateral, and bilateral recanalization of the uterine arteries with regard to percentage dominant fibroid infarction or dominant fibroid volume reduction. The presence of bilaterally or unilaterally patent uterine arteries was not associated with inferior clinical outcomes (symptom score or UFS-QOL scores) at 6 months. Conclusion: The high rates of uterine artery patency challenge the current paradigm that nsPVA is a permanent embolic agent and that permanent uterine artery occlusion is necessary to optimally treat uterine fibroids. Despite high rates of uterine artery recanalization in this cohort, satisfactory fibroid infarction rates and UFS-QOL scores were achieved.

  5. Risk factors for cancer recurrence or death within 6 months after liver resection in patients with colorectal cancer liver metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sung Won; Yu, Young Dong; Han, Jae Hyun; Suh, Sung-Ock

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to find risk factors for early recurrence (ER) and early death (ED) after liver resection for colorectal cancer liver metastasis (CRCLM). Methods Between May 1990 and December 2011, 279 patients underwent liver resection for CRCLM at Korea University Medical Center. They were assigned to group ER (recurrence within 6 months after liver resection) or group NER (non-ER; no recurrence within 6 months after liver resection) and group ED (death within 6 months after liver resection) or group NED (alive > 6 months after liver resection). Results The ER group included 30 patients (10.8%) and the NER group included 247 patients (89.2%). The ED group included 18 patients (6.6%) and the NED group included 253 patients (93.4%). Prognostic factors for ER in a univariate analysis were poorly differentiated colorectal cancer (CRC), synchronous metastasis, ≥5 cm of liver mass, ≥50 ng/mL preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen level, positive liver resection margin, and surgery alone without perioperative chemotherapy. Prognostic factors for ED in a univariate analysis were poorly differentiated CRC, positive liver resection margin, and surgery alone without perioperative chemotherapy. Multivariate analysis showed that poorly differentiated CRC, ≥5-cm metastatic tumor size, positive liver resection margin, and surgery alone without perioperative chemotherapy were independent risk factors related to ER. For ED, poorly differentiated CRC, positive liver resection margin, and surgery alone without perioperative chemotherapy were risk factors in multivariate analysis. Conclusion Complete liver resection with clear resection margin and perioperative chemotherapy should be carefully considered when patients have the following preoperative risk factors: metastatic tumor size ≥ 5 cm and poorly differentiated CRC. PMID:27186570

  6. Yoga, as a transitional platform to more active lifestyle: a 6-month pilot study in the USA.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kyeongra; James, Khara A

    2016-06-01

    A 6-month pilot study explored the effects of a yoga program on the physical activity (PA) level of overweight or obese sedentary adults. Fourteen community-dwelling overweight or obese sedentary adults participated in a 6-month program (2-month yoga program and 4-month follow-up) delivered by two types of instruction [the direct guidance of an instructor (face-to-face group) vs. the self-learning method of using a DVD (DVD group)]. Measurements included program adherence (class attendance and home practice; min/week) and level of PA [metabolic equivalent (MET)-hour/week] at baseline, 2, 4 and 6 months. Descriptive statistics and nonparametric tests were used to describe the sample and examine differences by group and time. There were no significant differences in demographic variables by group assigned. Participants showed significant PA changes from baseline to each measurement point. The direct guidance of an instructor was preferred over the self-learning method. At each time interval, the DVD group showed higher levels of PA than the face-to-face group; the only difference that achieved statistical significance occurred at 4 months. The PA level significantly changed over 6 months in the DVD group, but not in the face-to-face group. The results indicate that a yoga program may be utilized as a 'stepping-stone' toward regular exercise among overweight sedentary adults. Research with a larger sample is needed to further evaluate the effects of the program on the level of PA among this population. PMID:25524471

  7. Management of acute malnutrition in infants aged under 6 months (MAMI): Current issues and future directions in policy and research

    PubMed Central

    Kerac, Marko; Mwangome, Martha; McGrath, Marie; Haider, Rukhsana; Berkley, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, some 4.7 million infants aged under 6 months are moderately wasted and 3.8 million are severely wasted. Traditionally, they have been overlooked by clinicians, nutritionists, and policy makers. Objective To present evidence and arguments for why treating acute malnutrition in infants under 6 months of age is important and outline some of the key debates and research questions needed to advance their care. Methods Narrative review. Results and conclusions Treating malnourished infants under 6 months of age is important to avoid malnutrition-associated mortality in the short term and adverse health and development outcomes in the long term. Physiological and pathological differences demand a different approach from that in older children; key among these is a focus on exclusive breastfeeding wherever possible. New World Health Organization guidelines for the management of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) include this age group for the first time and are also applicable to management of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM). Community-based breastfeeding support is the core, but not the sole, treatment. The mother–infant dyad is at the heart of approaches, but wider family and community relationships are also important. An urgent priority is to develop better case definitions; criteria based on mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) are promising but need further research. To effectively move forward, clinical trials of assessment and treatment are needed to bolster the currently sparse evidence base. In the meantime, nutrition surveys and screening at health facilities should routinely include infants under 6 months of age in order to better define the burden and outcomes of acute malnutrition in this age group. PMID:25993754

  8. Single-leg drop landing movement strategies 6 months following first-time acute lateral ankle sprain injury.

    PubMed

    Doherty, C; Bleakley, C; Hertel, J; Caulfield, B; Ryan, J; Delahunt, E

    2015-12-01

    No research exists predicating a link between acute ankle sprain injury-affiliated movement patterns and those of chronic ankle instability (CAI) populations. The aim of the current study was to perform a biomechanical analysis of participants, 6 months after they sustained a first-time acute lateral ankle sprain (LAS) injury to establish this link. Fifty-seven participants with a 6-month history of first-time LAS and 20 noninjured participants completed a single-leg drop landing task on both limbs. Three-dimensional kinematic (angular displacement) and sagittal plane kinetic (moment of force) data were acquired for the joints of the lower extremity, from 200 ms pre-initial contact (IC) to 200 ms post-IC. Individual joint stiffnesses and the peak magnitude of the vertical component of the ground reaction force (GRF) were also computed. LAS participants displayed increases in hip flexion and ankle inversion on their injured limb (P < 0.05); this coincided with a reduction in the net flexion-extension moment at the hip joint, with an increase in its stiffness (P < 0.05). There was no difference in the magnitude of the peak vertical GRF for either limb compared with controls. These results demonstrate that altered movement strategies persist in participants, 6 months following acute LAS, which may precipitate the onset of CAI. PMID:25545409

  9. Intensive Rehabilitation Treatment in Parkinsonian Patients with Dyskinesias: A Preliminary Study with 6-Month Followup

    PubMed Central

    Frazzitta, Giuseppe; Morelli, Micaela; Bertotti, Gabriella; Felicetti, Guido; Pezzoli, Gianni; Maestri, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    A major adverse effect of levodopa therapy is the development of dyskinesia, which affects 30–40% of chronically treated Parkinsonian patients. We hypothesized that our rehabilitation protocol might allow a reduction in levodopa dosage without worsening motor performances, thus reducing frequency and severity of dyskinesias. Ten Parkinsonian patients underwent a 4-week intensive rehabilitation treatment (IRT). Patients were evaluated at baseline, at the end of the rehabilitation treatment and at 6-month followup. Outcome measures were the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Sections II, III, and IV (UPDRS II, III, IV) and the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS). At the end of the IRT, levodopa dosage was significantly reduced (P = 0.0035), passing from 1016 ± 327 to 777 ± 333 mg/day. All outcome variables improved significantly (P < 0.0005 all) by the end of IRT. At followup, all variables still maintained better values with respect to admission (P < 0.02 all). In particular AIMS score improved passing from 11.90 ± 6.5 at admission to 3.10 ± 2.3 at discharge and to 4.20 ± 2.7 at followup. Our results suggest that it is possible to act on dyskinesias in Parkinsonian patients with properly designed rehabilitation protocols. Intensive rehabilitation treatment, whose acute beneficial effects are maintained over time, might be considered a valid noninvasive therapeutic support for Parkinsonian patients suffering from diskinesia, allowing a reduction in drugs dosage and related adverse effects. PMID:22701812

  10. Individual experiences following a 6-month exercise intervention: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Kerkelä, Ellen Staveborg; Jonsson, Linus; Lindwall, Magnus; Strand, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Dropout is a common problem in various exercise interventions. The individual's experience is believed to greatly impact dropout, yet little is known about the individual experiences of taking part in exercise interventions. The aim of this study was to examine individuals’ experiences following a self-determination theory–based exercise intervention in order to gain understanding of how standardized interventions can be adjusted to fit individuals’ specific needs, capacities, and circumstances. Methods A qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews was conducted with eight informants (three male and five female) aged between 26 and 47 years, whom all had participated in a 6-month exercise intervention with individual coaching based on self-determination theory and motivational interviewing. The interviews were analyzed thematically with an inductive approach. Results Aspects that influenced the informants’ motivation and participation in the exercise intervention were linked to three themes: the frames of the intervention, measurable changes, and the individual's context. The themes present information about the process and to what extent the informants felt that the intervention was adapted to fit their lives and needs. Conclusions This study emphasizes the importance of individualizing exercise interventions to support individuals’ diverse capacities and psychological needs. PMID:26282865

  11. Chronic vagus nerve stimulation in Crohn's disease: a 6-month follow-up pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bonaz, B; Sinniger, V; Hoffmann, D; Clarençon, D; Mathieu, N; Dantzer, C; Vercueil, L; Picq, C; Trocmé, C; Faure, P; Cracowski, J-L; Pellissier, S

    2016-06-01

    The vagus nerve (VN) is a link between the brain and the gut. The VN is a mixed nerve with anti-inflammatory properties through the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis by its afferents and by activating the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway through its efferents. We have previously shown that VN stimulation (VNS) improves colitis in rats and that the vagal tone is blunted in Crohn's disease (CD) patients. We thus performed a pilot study of chronic VNS in patients with active CD. Seven patients under VNS were followed up for 6 months with a primary endpoint to induce clinical remission and a secondary endpoint to induce biological (CRP and/or fecal calprotectin) and endoscopic remission and to restore vagal tone (heart rate variability). Vagus nerve stimulation was feasible and well-tolerated in all patients. Among the seven patients, two were removed from the study at 3 months for clinical worsening and five evolved toward clinical, biological, and endoscopic remission with a restored vagal tone. These results provide the first evidence that VNS is feasible and appears as an effective tool in the treatment of active CD. PMID:26920654

  12. Atypical Cry Acoustics in 6-Month-Old Infants at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Iverson, Jana M.; Rinaldi, Melissa L.; Lester, Barry M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined differences in acoustic characteristics of infant cries in a sample of babies at risk for autism and a low-risk comparison group. Cry samples derived from vocal recordings of 6-month-old infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 21) and low-risk infants (n = 18) were subjected to acoustic analyses using analysis software designed for this purpose. Cries were categorized as either pain-related or non-pain-related based on videotape coding. At-risk infants produced pain-related cries with higher and more variable fundamental frequency (F0) than low-risk infants. At-risk infants later classified with ASD at 36 months had among the highest F0 values for both types of cries and produced cries that were more poorly phonated than those of nonautistic infants, reflecting cries that were less likely to be produced in a voiced mode. These results provide preliminary evidence that disruptions in cry acoustics may be part of an atypical vocal signature of autism in early life. PMID:22890558

  13. Object engagement and manipulation in extremely preterm and full term infants at 6 months of age.

    PubMed

    Zuccarini, Mariagrazia; Sansavini, Alessandra; Iverson, Jana M; Savini, Silvia; Guarini, Annalisa; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo; Aureli, Tiziana

    2016-08-01

    Delays in the motor domain have been frequently observed in preterm children, especially those born at an extremely low gestational age (ELGA;<28 weeks GA). However, early motor exploration has received relatively little attention despite its relevance for object knowledge and its impact on cognitive and language development. The present study aimed at comparing early object exploration in 20 ELGA and 20 full-term (FT) infants at 6 months of age during a 5-minute mother-infant play interaction. Object engagement (visual vs manual), visual object engagement (no act vs reach), manual object engagement (passive vs active), and active object manipulation (mouthing, transferring, banging, turn/rotating, shaking, fingering) were analyzed. Moreover, the Griffiths Mental Development Scales 0-2 years (1996) were administered to the infants. Relative to FT peers, ELGA infants spent more time in visual engagement, and less time in manual engagement, active manipulation, mouthing, and turning/rotating. Moreover, they had lower scores on general psychomotor development, eye & hand coordination, and performance abilities. Close relationships emerged between manual object engagement and psychomotor development. Clinical implications of these results in terms of early evaluation of action schemes in ELGA infants and the provision of intervention programs for supporting these abilities are discussed. PMID:27101093

  14. Gripe Water Administration in Infants 1-6 months of Age-A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Keerthi; Gunasekaran, Dhandapany; Soundararajan, Palanisamy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Gripe water (GW) administration to young infants is common practice in this part of country. In order to ascertain why mothers administer gripe water to their infants and to find out what benefits or health risks it poses, we proposed to study the practice of mothers giving GW to their babies. Materials and Methods Three hundred and thirty five eligible mothers of infants aged 1-6 months (who after qualifying inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study) who attended the well baby clinic during the study period, were interviewed using a semi structured questionnaire which contained both open and close ended questions after obtaining informed written consent. The study population was then divided into two groups based on administration of GW or not and the results were compared and analysed among the two groups using odds ratio with 95% C.I. For calculation of statistics, the statistical package SPSS 13 was used. Results 64.18% of the mothers were administering GW for their infants. Most mothers believed that GW helps in digestion and prevents stomach ache. Infantile colic, vomiting and constipation were common in GW administered infants, when compared to those who did not receive GW and the difference was significant with p-values of 0.0001, 0.0373, 0.0007respectively. Conclusion GW administration is a common problem in infants and remains a significant challenge that thwarts exclusive breast feeding. More over GW administration does not seem to prevent infantile colic and on the other hand, may be associated with vomiting and constipation. Misconceptions prevailing among mothers have to be removed by effective counseling so that the mothers are aware of safe and healthy feeding practices to be adopted for feeding their babies. PMID:26673749

  15. Surgical Retrieval of Tooth Fragment from Lower Lip and Reattachment after 6 Months of Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Kalpana; Srivastava, Ankit; Maheshwari, Neha

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dental traumas are one of the most frequent facial traumas especially in children. Maxillary incisors are the most frequently involved teeth. Here we present, a report of a child who sustained a crown fracture with lost portion of tooth embedded in her lower lip for 6 months. The fragment was surgically retrieved and successfully reattached to the fractured 21 using acid-etch resin technique. How to cite this article: Marwaha M, Bansal K, Srivastava A, Maheshwari N. Surgical Retrieval of Tooth Fragment from Lower Lip and Reattachment after 6 Months of Trauma. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(2):145-148. PMID:26379385

  16. Goal Attribution to Schematic Animals: Do 6-Month-Olds Perceive Biological Motion as Animate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlottmann, Anne; Ray, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Infants are sensitive to biological motion, but do they recognize it as animate? As a first step towards answering this question, two experiments investigated whether 6-month-olds selectively attribute goals to shapes moving like animals. We habituated infants to a square moving towards one of two targets. When target locations were switched,…

  17. 78 FR 53011 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Reinstatement (Insurance Lapsed More Than 6 Months...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... comment. The PRA submission describes the nature of the information collection and its expected cost and... (Insurance Lapsed More than 6 Months), Government Life Insurance and/or Total Disability Income Provision, VA... Life Insurance, VA Form 29-353. OMB Control Number: 2900-0011. Type of Review: Extension of a...

  18. Sporadic juvenile thymic lymphoma in a 6-month-old Holstein heifer

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract A 6-month-old Holstein heifer was presented for recurrent bloat and a firm, primarily left-sided mass in the caudoventral cervical region. Surgical exploration revealed a vascularized, encapsulated mass extending from the submandibular region to the thoracic inlet. Postmortem gross and histopathologic examination and the history enabled a diagnosis of sporadic thymic lymphoma. PMID:16231655

  19. Night Waking in 6-Month-Old Infants and Maternal Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karraker, Katherine Hildebrandt; Young, Marion

    2007-01-01

    Relations between night waking in infants and depressive symptoms in their mothers at 6 months postpartum were examined using the data from the National Institute for Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. Although more depressive symptoms were only weakly correlated with a higher frequency of infant waking, longer wake…

  20. Predictors of Trauma Symptomatology in Sexually Abused Adolescents: A 6-Month Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, Sarah; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Crombez, Geert; Van Oost, Paulette

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the natural course of trauma-specific symptoms 6 months after disclosure. Furthermore, this study investigates whether severity and type of abuse (intrafamilial or extrafamilial sexual abuse), negative appraisals, coping strategies, and crisis support measured at time of disclosure can be predictive of trauma symptoms 6 months…

  1. The Impact of SNAP-ED and EFNEP on Program Graduates 6 Months after Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koszewski, Wanda; Sehi, Natalie; Behrends, Donnia; Tuttle, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Research was conducted to determine if graduates from either the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education or Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program maintained behavioral changes 6 months after completing the program. Staff asked graduates to complete a 10- or 15-question behavior checklist that was identical to the entry and exit…

  2. Sporadic juvenile thymic lymphoma in a 6-month-old Holstein heifer.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Karen S

    2005-09-01

    A 6-month-old Holstein heifer was presented for recurrent bloat and a firm, primarily left-sided mass in the caudoventral cervical region. Surgical exploration revealed a vascularized, encapsulated mass extending from the submandibular region to the thoracic inlet. Postmortem gross and histopathologic examination and the history enabled a diagnosis of sporadic thymic lymphoma. PMID:16231655

  3. Child-Parent Psychotherapy: 6-Month Follow-up of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Alicia F.; Ippen, Chandra Ghosh; Van Horn, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the durability of improvement in child and maternal symptoms 6 months after termination of child-parent psychotherapy (CPP). Method: Seventy-five multiethnic preschool-age child-mother dyads from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds were randomly assigned to (1) CPP or (2) case management plus community referral for individual…

  4. Determining the Impact of Prenatal Tobacco Exposure on Self-Regulation at 6 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebe, Sandra A.; Fang, Hua; Johnson, Craig; James, Karen E.; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2014-01-01

    Our goal in the present study was to examine the effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy on infant self-regulation, exploring birth weight as a mediator and sex as a moderator of risk. A prospective sample of 218 infants was assessed at 6 months of age. Infants completed a battery of tasks assessing working memory/inhibition, attention, and…

  5. Perception of Speech Modulation Cues by 6-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrera, Laurianne; Bertoncini, Josiane; Lorenzi, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The capacity of 6-month-old infants to discriminate a voicing contrast (/aba/--/apa/) on the basis of "amplitude modulation (AM) cues" and "frequency modulation (FM) cues" was evaluated. Method: Several vocoded speech conditions were designed to either degrade FM cues in 4 or 32 bands or degrade AM in 32 bands. Infants…

  6. Perfectionism, neuroticism, and daily stress reactivity and coping effectiveness 6 months and 3 years later.

    PubMed

    Dunkley, David M; Mandel, Tobey; Ma, Denise

    2014-10-01

    The present study addressed a fundamental gap between research and clinical work by advancing longitudinal explanatory conceptualizations of stress and coping processes that trigger daily affect in the short- and long-term for individuals with higher levels of personality vulnerability. Community adults completed measures of 2 higher order dimensions of perfectionism (personal standards [PS], self-criticism [SC]), neuroticism, and conscientiousness. Then, 6 months later and again 3 years later, participants completed daily questionnaires of stress, coping, and affect for 14 consecutive days. PS was associated with aggregated daily problem-focused coping and positive reinterpretation, whereas SC was uniquely associated with daily negative social interactions, avoidant coping, negative affect, and sadness at Month 6 and Year 3. Multilevel modeling results demonstrated that both individuals with higher PS and those with higher SC were emotionally reactive to event stress, negative social interactions, and avoidant coping at Month 6 and Year 3 and to less perceived control at Year 3. Positive reinterpretation was especially effective for individuals with higher SC at Month 6 and Year 3. The effects of PS on daily stress reactivity and coping (in)effectiveness were clearly distinguished from the effects of neuroticism and conscientiousness, whereas the SC effects were due to shared overlap with PS and neuroticism. The present findings demonstrate the promise of using repeated daily diary methodologies to help therapists and clients reliably predict future client reactions to daily stressors, which, in turn, could help guide interventions to break apart dysfunctional patterns connected to distress and build resilience for vulnerable individuals. PMID:25111703

  7. Correlation between vestibular and autonomous function after 6 months of spaceflight: Data of the SPIN and GAZE-SPIN experiments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuyts, Floris; Clement, Gilles; Naumov, Ivan; Kornilova, Ludmila; Glukhikh, Dmitriy; Hallgren, Emma; MacDougall, Hamish; Migeotte, Pierre-Francois; Delière, Quentin; Weerts, Aurelie; Moore, Steven; Diedrich, Andre

    In 13 cosmonauts, the vestibulo-autonomic reflex was investigated before and after 6 months duration spaceflight. Cosmonauts were rotated on the mini-centrifuge VVIS, which is installed in Star City. Initially, this mini-centrifuge flew on board of the Neurolab mission (STS-90), and served to generate intermittent artificial gravity during that mission, with apparent very positive effects on the preservation of the orthostatic tolerance upon return to earth in the 4 crew members that were subjected to the rotations in space. The current experiments SPIN and GAZE-SPIN are control experiments to test the hypothesis that intermittent artificial gravity in space can serve as a counter measure against several deleterious effects of microgravity. Additionally, the effect of microgravity on the gaze holding system is studied as well. Cosmonauts from a long duration stay in the International Space Station were tested on the VVIS (1 g centripetal interaural acceleration; consecutive right-ear-out anti-clockwise and left-ear-out clockwise measurement) on 5 different days. Two measurements were scheduled about one month and a half prior to launch and the remaining three immediately after their return from space (typically on R+2, R+4, R+9; R = return day from space). The ocular counter roll (OCR) as a measure of otolith function was measured on before, during and after the rotation in the mini centrifuge, using infrared video goggles. The perception of verticality was monitored using an ultrasound system. Gaze holding was tested before, during and after rotation. After the centrifugation part, the crew was installed on a tilt table, and instrumented with several cardiovascular recording equipment (ECG, continuous blood pressure monitoring, respiratory monitoring), as well as with impedance measurement devices to investigate fluid redistribution throughout the operational tilt test. To measure heart rate variability parameters, imposed breathing periods were included in the

  8. Influence of complete spinal cord injury on skeletal muscle mechanics within the first 6 months of injury.

    PubMed

    Castro, M J; Apple, D F; Rogers, S; Dudley, G A

    2000-01-01

    In this study we examined the influence of complete spinal cord injury (SCI) on the mechanical characteristics of skeletal muscle in vivo within 6 months of the injury. Surface electrical stimulation (ES) was applied to the left m. quadriceps femoris of patients at 6, 11 and 24 weeks after injury. Surface ES was also applied to seven able-bodied controls (AB) at two time points 18 weeks apart. ES consisted of 2 bouts of 20, 1-s isometric contractions with 2 s and 2 min of rest between contractions and bouts, respectively. The time from 20-80% of peak torque (rise time) and the half relaxation time (1/2 RT) were determined for the first and for the last few contractions. Force loss over repeat contractions was greater in SCI than AB (27% vs 95%; P = 0.0001), and did not change over the 18-week period. Rise time did not change over repeat contractions, was not different between groups, and nor did it change over the 18-week period (range: 150-172 ms). 1/2 RT showed several group differences. Overall, 1/2 RT was longer at the beginning of ES in SCI than AB [mean (SE) 133 (15) ms vs 90 (6) ms, P = 0.037]. Slowing of relaxation time with force loss over repeat contractions was found in SCI at 24 weeks after injury [167 (18) ms, P = 0.016], but not at 6 [128 (14) ms] or 11 [145 (12) ms] weeks after injury. AB, in contrast, showed prolonged relaxation times, with force loss at both time points [115 (10) ms and 113 (11) ms; P = 0.0001]. The results indicate that SCI alters the relaxation but not contractile properties of mixed skeletal muscle within the first 24 weeks of injury. Altered calcium handling and contraction-induced fiber injury are suggested to explain the slower relaxation time per se, and the prolonged relaxation with force loss observed after SCI. PMID:10552277

  9. Environmental Resources in Maintenance of Physical Activity 6 Months Following Cardiac Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Perez, Adriana; Fleury, Julie; Belyea, Michael

    2016-08-01

    This study examined differences in weekly time spent in physical activity by level of perceived environmental resources, 6 months following graduation from cardiac rehabilitation. A descriptive, longitudinal design used standardized measures to evaluate perceived environmental resources and physical activity levels. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to examine mean differences in weekly time spent in physical activity by level of perceived environmental resources. Adults 51 to 86 years old (N = 150) diagnosed with coronary heart disease were included. There was a significant change over time in physical activity as measured by minutes per week, F(2, 148) = 7.915, p = .001, where activity increased between baseline and 3 months, and then dropped slightly at 6 months. This change over time differed by the level of perceived neighborhood resources, F(2, 148) = 3.545, p = .032. Home and neighborhood resources may positively influence physical activity maintenance following cardiac rehabilitation. PMID:26826141

  10. Effect of 6-month caloric restriction on Cu bound to ceruloplasmin in adult overweight subjects.

    PubMed

    Piacenza, Francesco; Malavolta, Marco; Basso, Andrea; Costarelli, Laura; Giacconi, Robertina; Ravussin, Eric; Redman, Leanne M; Mocchegiani, Eugenio

    2015-08-01

    In a randomized clinical trial of calorie restriction (CR), we demonstrated that important cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers were favorably influenced by CR alone and in conjunction with physical exercise. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of CR with or without exercise on copper bound to ceruloplasmin (CuCp), a well-known biomarker for CVD, in overweight men and women enrolled in the CALERIE phase 1 study. Forty-six individuals were randomized to one of four groups for 6 months: control, healthy weight maintenance; CR, 25% CR from baseline energy requirements; CR+exercise, 12.5% CR and 12.5% through aerobic exercise; and low-calorie diet, low-calorie diet until 15% reduction in body weight followed by weight maintenance diet. CuCp was determined in fasting blood samples by a high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry methodology and compared with changes in body composition and markers of CVD. After 6 months, CR combined with exercise induced a decrease in plasma concentration of CuCp. CuCp was inversely correlated with insulin sensitivity at baseline and after 6 months of intervention. A cluster analysis showed that the percent change of weight after 6 months of intervention was the most important variable that could discriminate the intervention groups. The percent change of CuCp was the only other variable selected by the analysis. Decreased CuCp in overweight subjects by CR combined with exercise suggests a positive effect of this intervention on metabolic health. Further studies to explain the relationship between weight loss and CuCp and its relevance for cardiovascular health are needed. PMID:26001545

  11. Repairing the Brain by SCF+G-CSF Treatment at 6 Months Postexperimental Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Lili; Wang, Dandan; McGillis, Sandra; Kyle, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Stroke, a leading cause of adult disability in the world, is a severe medical condition with limited treatment. Physical therapy, the only treatment available for stroke rehabilitation, appears to be effective within 6 months post-stroke. Here, we have mechanistically determined the efficacy of combined two hematopoietic growth factors, stem cell factor (SCF) and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF; SCF + G-CSF), in brain repair 6 months after cortical infarct induction in the transgenic mice carrying yellow fluorescent protein in Layer V pyramidal neurons (Thy1-YFP-H). Using a combination of live brain imaging, whole brain imaging, molecular manipulation, synaptic and vascular assessments, and motor function examination, we found that SCF + G-CSF promoted mushroom spine formation, enlarged postsynaptic membrane size, and increased postsynaptic density-95 accumulation and blood vessel density in the peri-infarct cavity cortex; and that SCF + G-CSF treatment improved motor functional recovery. The SCF + G-CSF-enhanced motor functional recovery was dependent on the synaptic and vascular regeneration in the peri-infarct cavity cortex. These data suggest that a stroke-damaged brain is repairable by SCF + G-CSF even 6 months after the lesion occurs. This study provides novel insights into the development of new restorative strategies for stroke recovery. PMID:27511907

  12. Internalized stigma of mental illness and depressive and psychotic symptoms in homeless veterans over 6 months.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Jennifer E; Hayward, H'Sien; Bassett, Elena D; Hoff, Rani

    2016-06-30

    We investigated the relationship between internalized stigma of mental illness at baseline and depressive and psychotic symptoms 3 and 6 months later, controlling for baseline symptoms. Data on homeless veterans with severe mental illness (SMI) were provided by the Northeast Program Evaluation Center (NEPEC) Special Needs-Chronic Mental Illness (SN-CMI) study (Kasprow and Rosenheck, 2008). The study used the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale to measure internalized stigma at baseline and the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) to measure depressive and psychotic symptoms at baseline and 3 and 6 month follow-ups. Higher levels of internalized stigma were associated with greater levels of depressive and psychotic symptoms 3 and 6 months later, even controlling for symptoms at baseline. Alienation and Discrimination Experience were the subscales most strongly associated with symptoms. Exploratory analyses of individual items yielded further insight into characteristics of potentially successful interventions that could be studied. Overall, our findings show that homeless veterans with SMI experiencing higher levels of internalized stigma are likely to experience more depression and psychosis over time. This quasi-experimental study replicates and extends findings of other studies and has implications for future controlled research into the potential long-term effects of anti-stigma interventions on mental health recovery. PMID:27138814

  13. Treatment of the Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip with an Abduction Brace in Children up to 6 Months Old

    PubMed Central

    Wahlen, Raphaël; Zambelli, Pierre-Yves

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Use of Pavlik harness for the treatment of DDH can be complicated for parents. Any misuse or failure in the adjustments may lead to significant complications. An abduction brace was introduced in our institution, as it was thought to be easier to use. Aim. We assess the results for the treatment of DDH using our abduction brace in children of 0–6 months old and compare these results with data on treatments using the Pavlik harness. Method. Retrospective analysis of patients with DDH from 0 to 6 months old at diagnosis, performed from 2004 to 2009. Outcomes were rates of reduction of the hip and avascular necrosis of the femoral head (AVN). Follow-up was at one year and up to 4 years old. Results. Hip reduction was successful in 28 of 33 patients (85%), with no AVN. Conclusion. Our results in terms of hip reduction rate and AVN rate are similar to those found in literature assessing Pavlik harness use, with a simpler and comfortable treatment procedure. PMID:25815214

  14. Hospital Based Prospective Observational Study to Audit the Prescription Practices and Outcomes of Paediatric Patients (6 months to 5 years age group) Presenting with Acute Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Kondekar, Santosh; Rathi, Surbhi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diarrhea is a leading killer of children, accounting for 9% of all deaths among under-five children worldwide. WHO protocol deviation in management of diarrheas in children is likely due to various reasons. Aim To study the prescription practices, regarding adherence to WHO protocol and deviations, in the management of acute diarrhea in children presenting at a tertiary care hospital and its impact on the outcome. Materials and Methods This was a prospective observational hospital based study at a tertiary care carried out over a 12-month period including all cases of acute diarrhea (defined as 3 or more loose stools in last 24 hours) in children belonging to the age group of 6 months to 5 years. Patients were followed up on day 3,7,14 and 28 from the day of presentation. Software SPSS Version 17.0 was used for analysis. Correlation regression analysis was used to study predictiveness of different variables affecting outcome. Results In this study, 447 children aged between 6 months and 5 years were enrolled, of which 45 cases were lost in follow-up and excluded. The median age was 14 months. Some deviation from WHO protocol was noted in 78.4% of the cases. Most common deviations from WHO protocol were addition of probiotics (78.1% of cases) and addition of race cadotril (15.9% of cases). Inadvertent use of antibiotics in diarrhea was noted in 12.2% of cases. Presence of fever was strong predictor for use of antibiotics. Cases of early recovery within 3 days of presentation were higher in WHO protocol deviation group. Use of probiotics had statistically significant association with early recovery. Conclusion In diarrhea management, WHO protocol deviation is common. Probiotics are likely to help in early recovery. PMID:27437317

  15. Independent development of the Reach and the Grasp in spontaneous self-touching by human infants in the first 6 months

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Brittany L.; Karl, Jenni M.; Whishaw, Ian Q.

    2015-01-01

    The Dual Visuomotor Channel Theory proposes that visually guided reaching is a composite of two movements, a Reach that advances the hand to contact the target and a Grasp that shapes the digits for target purchase. The theory is supported by biometric analyses of adult reaching, evolutionary contrasts, and differential developmental patterns for the Reach and the Grasp in visually guided reaching in human infants. The present ethological study asked whether there is evidence for a dissociated development for the Reach and the Grasp in nonvisual hand use in very early infancy. The study documents a rich array of spontaneous self-touching behavior in infants during the first 6 months of life and subjected the Reach movements to an analysis in relation to body target, contact type, and Grasp. Video recordings were made of resting alert infants biweekly from birth to 6 months. In younger infants, self-touching targets included the head and trunk. As infants aged, targets became more caudal and included the hips, then legs, and eventually the feet. In younger infants hand contact was mainly made with the dorsum of the hand, but as infants aged, contacts included palmar contacts and eventually grasp and manipulation contacts with the body and clothes. The relative incidence of caudal contacts and palmar contacts increased concurrently and were significantly correlated throughout the period of study. Developmental increases in self-grasping contacts occurred a few weeks after the increase in caudal and palmar contacts. The behavioral and temporal pattern of these spontaneous self-touching movements suggest that the Reach, in which the hand extends to make a palmar self-contact, and the Grasp, in which the digits close and make manipulatory movements, have partially independent developmental profiles. The results additionally suggest that self-touching behavior is an important developmental phase that allows the coordination of the Reach and the Grasp prior to and

  16. Injectable Chemically Crosslinked Hydrogel for the Controlled Release of Bevacizumab in Vitreous: A 6-Month In Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yu; Lau, Laurence Chi Ming; Lo, Amy Cheuk-yin; Chau, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the biocompatibility and 6-month in vivo release of bevacizumab from a hyaluronic acid/dextran-based in situ hydrogel after intravitreal injection in rabbit eye. Methods The in situ hydrogel was formed by the catalyst-free chemical crosslinking between vinylsulfone functionalized hyaluronic acid (HA-VS) and thiolated dextran (Dex-SH) at physiological condition. The pH 7.4 buffered mixture containing HA-VS, Dex-SH, and bevacizumab were injected into the vitreous of rabbit eyes by a 30-G needle. The biocompatibility was evaluated by intraocular pressure measurement, binocular indirect ophthalmoscope (BIO), full-field electroretinogram (ERG), and histology. The concentrations of both total and active bevacizumab in rabbit vitreous were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The concentration of bevacizumab in rabbit vitreous after bolus injection was simulated by one-compartment first order elimination model. Results A transparent gel was seen in the vitreous after injection. BIO images, ERG, and histology showed that the gel does not induce hemorrhage, retinal detachment, inflammation, or other gross pathological changes in rabbit eyes after injection. While the bolus intravitreal injected bevacizumab follows the first order elimination kinetics in rabbit eye, the in situ gel formation was able to prolong the retention of bevacizumab in rabbit eye at therapeutic relevant concentration for at least 6 months. The concentration of bevacizumab 6 months after injection was about 107 times higher than bolus injection. Conclusions The new in situ hydrogel formulation of bevacizumab was biocompatible and able to prolong the retention of drug in rabbit eyes in vivo at therapeutic relevant concentration for at least 6 months. Translational Relevance Although proven to be effective, monthly intravitreal injection of bevacizumab or other protein drugs may cause various complications. Extending the residence time of protein therapeutics in the eye

  17. Improving Functional Performance and Muscle Power 4-to-6 Months After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Souissi, Sabrine; Wong, Del P; Dellal, Alexandre; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Ellouze, Zied; Chamari, Karim

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 8-week retraining programs, with either two or three training sessions per week, on measures of functional performance and muscular power in athletes with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Sixteen male athletes were randomly assigned to two groups after ACLR: a functional training group (FTG, n = 8) training 2 intense sessions per week (4hrs/week), and a control group (CG, n = 8) training 3 sessions per week with moderate intensity (6hrs/week). The two groups were assessed at four and six months post-ACLR and the effects of retraining were measured using the following assessments: the functional and the muscular power tests, and the agility T-test. After retraining, the FTG had improved more than the CG in the operated leg in the single leg hop test (+34.64% vs. +10.92%; large effect), the five jump test (+8.87% vs. +5.03%; medium effect), and single leg triple jump (+32.15% vs. +16.05%; medium effect). For the agility T-test, the FTG had larger improvements (+17.26% vs. +13.03%, medium effect) as compared to the CG. For the bilateral power tests, no significant training effects were shown for the two groups in the squat jump (SJ), the counter movement jump (CMJ) and the free arms CMJ (Arm CMJ). On the other hand, the unilateral CMJ test with the injured and the uninjured legs showed a significant increase for the FTG with respect to CG (p < 0.05). The present study introduces a new training modality in rehabilitation after ACLR that results in good recovery of the operated limb along with the contra-lateral leg. This may allow the athletes to reach good functional and strength performance with only two physical training sessions per week, better preparing them for a return to sport activity at 6 months post- ACLR and eventually sparing time for a possible progressive introduction of the sport specific technical training. Key pointsFunctional training (plyometrics, neuromuscular, proprioceptive

  18. Frequency of “Nursing Strike” among 6-Month-Old Infants, at East Tehran Health Center and Contributing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Nayyeri, Fatemeh; Raji, Farima; Haghnazarian, Edith; Shariat, Mamak; Dalili, Hosein

    2015-01-01

    Objective: An abrupt refusal by the infant to breastfeed is often called “nursing strike”. In fact a common reason for cessation of nursing is infant’s refusal to breast feed. This problem can often be overcome. This paper has aimed to identify the causes of “breast feeding refusal” or “nursing strike” in 6 month old infants visiting the East Tehran health center for their scheduled vaccination of 6 months old. Materials and methods: Totally 175 six month old infants were enrolled in this study. A questionnaire was filled by mother for each child and later the infants with “nursing strike” were compared with all others. Results: In this study prevalence of breast feeding refusal in infants was 24%.There was significant relation between the “breastfeeding refusal” and maternal academic education or working status. In this study mothers reported various reasons associated with “refusal breast feeding. According to the mothers playful infant and nasal obstructions were the probable causes for refusal. Conclusion: There is a diverse variety of factors influencing nursing strike. Most of these factors can be prevented by identifying the background reasons and proper training. PMID:26622313

  19. Community Partners in Care (CPIC): Video Summary of Rationale, Study Approach / Implementation, and Client 6-month Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mango, Joseph; Cabiling, Eileen; Jones, Loretta; Lucas-Wright, Aziza; Williams, Pluscedia; Wells, Kenneth; Pulido, Esmeralda; Meldrum, Marcia; Ramos, Ana; Chung, Bowen

    2014-01-01

    “Community Partners in Care (CPIC): Video Summary of Rationale, Study Approach / Implementation, and Client 6-month Outcomes” is a 2 minute, 46 second video summarizing the study rationale, study approach, and the 6-month outcomes. The video was produced by four agencies: Healthy African American Families II, a health advocacy organization in South Los Angeles; Behavioral Health Services, the largest substance/alcohol abuse service provider in LA County; UCLA; and RAND Health; contract filmmakers Eileen Cabiling and Joe Mango handled cinematography, editing, and video support. The individuals appearing in the video are key CPIC community and academic partners. The celebratory tone of the video is consistent with a Community Partnered Participatory Research approach, a local variant of participatory action research, where study findings are celebrated by the partners, and dissemination efforts include approaches intended for general audiences, especially from low-income, low-literacy, minority communities, in addition to traditional academic products like peer-reviewed scientific manuscripts. The CPIC video offers a community perspective on the study results to our partners, the general public, other scientists and policy makers. We designed the video to teach community and healthcare partners how to adapt and implement the CPIC depression care model and to offer other community –academic partnerships an example of a non-traditional product developed for dissemination from an NIH-funded research study. PMID:25364622

  20. Community Partners in Care (CPIC): Video Summary of Rationale, Study Approach / Implementation, and Client 6-month Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mango, Joseph; Cabiling, Eileen; Jones, Loretta; Lucas-Wright, Aziza; Williams, Pluscedia; Wells, Kenneth; Pulido, Esmeralda; Meldrum, Marcia; Ramos, Ana; Chung, Bowen

    2014-02-25

    "Community Partners in Care (CPIC): Video Summary of Rationale, Study Approach / Implementation, and Client 6-month Outcomes" is a 2 minute, 46 second video summarizing the study rationale, study approach, and the 6-month outcomes. The video was produced by four agencies: Healthy African American Families II, a health advocacy organization in South Los Angeles; Behavioral Health Services, the largest substance/alcohol abuse service provider in LA County; UCLA; and RAND Health; contract filmmakers Eileen Cabiling and Joe Mango handled cinematography, editing, and video support. The individuals appearing in the video are key CPIC community and academic partners. The celebratory tone of the video is consistent with a Community Partnered Participatory Research approach, a local variant of participatory action research, where study findings are celebrated by the partners, and dissemination efforts include approaches intended for general audiences, especially from low-income, low-literacy, minority communities, in addition to traditional academic products like peer-reviewed scientific manuscripts. The CPIC video offers a community perspective on the study results to our partners, the general public, other scientists and policy makers. We designed the video to teach community and healthcare partners how to adapt and implement the CPIC depression care model and to offer other community -academic partnerships an example of a non-traditional product developed for dissemination from an NIH-funded research study. PMID:25364622

  1. Functional Outcome at 6 Months in Surgical Treatment of Spontaneous Supratentorial Intracerebral Haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Ghani, Abdul Rahman Izaini; John, John Tharakan Kalappurakkal; Idris, Zamzuri; Ghazali, Mazira Mohamad; Murshid, Nur-Leem; Musa, Kamarul Imran

    2008-01-01

    A prospective cohort study was done to evaluate the role of surgery in patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral haemorrhage (SICH) and to identify predictors of outcome including the use of invasive regional cortical cerebral blood flow (rCoBF) and microdialysis. Surgery consisted of craniotomy or decompressive craniectomy. The ventriculostomy for intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring and drainage and regional cortical cerebral blood flow (rCoBF) and microdialysis were performed in all subjects. Pre and post operative information on subjects were collected. The study end points was functional outcome at 6 months based on a dichotomised Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS).The selected clinical, radiological, biochemical and treatment factors that may influence the functional outcome were analysed for their significance. A total of 36 patients were recruited with 27(75%) patients had Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) between 5 to 8 on admission and 9(25%) were admitted with GCS of 9. At 6 months, 86 % had a poor or unfavourable outcome (GOS I–III) and 14% had good or favourable outcome (GOS IV–V). The mortality rate at 6 months was 55%. Univariate analysis for the functional outcome identified 2 significant variables, the midline shift (p=0.013) and mean lactate:pyruvate ratio (p=0.038). Multivariate analysis identified midline shift as the single significant independent predictor of functional outcome (p=0.013).Despite aggressive regional cortical cerebral blood flow (rCoBF) and microdialysis study for detection of early ischemia, surgical treatment for spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage only benefited a small number of patients in terms of favourable outcome (14%) and in the majority of patients (86%), the outcome was unfavourable. Patients with midline shift > 5mm has almost 21 times higher chances (adj) OR 20.8 of being associated with poor outcome (GOS I–III). PMID:22589638

  2. Infants, mothers, and dyadic contributions to stability and prediction of social stress response at 6 months.

    PubMed

    Provenzi, Livio; Olson, Karen L; Montirosso, Rosario; Tronick, Ed

    2016-01-01

    The study of infants' interactive style and social stress response to repeated stress exposures is of great interest for developmental and clinical psychologists. Stable maternal and dyadic behavior is critical to sustain infants' development of an adaptive social stress response, but the association between infants' interactive style and social stress response has received scant attention in previous literature. In the present article, overtime stability of infant, maternal, and dyadic behaviors was measured across 2 social stress (i.e., Face-to-Face Still-Face, FFSF) exposures, separated by 15 days. Moreover, infant, maternal, and dyadic behaviors were simultaneously assessed as predictors of infants' social stress to both FFSF exposures. Eighty-one mother-infant dyads underwent the FFSF twice, at 6 months (Exposure 1: the first social stress) and at 6 months and 15 days (Exposure 2: repeated social stress). Infant and mother behavior and dyadic synchrony were microanalytically coded. Overall, individual behavioral stability emerged between FFSF exposures. Infants' response to the first stress was predicted by infant behavior during Exposure 1 Play. Infants' response to the repeated social stress was predicted by infants' response to the first exposure to the Still-Face and by infants' behavior and dyadic synchrony during Exposure 2 Play. Findings reveal stability for individual, but not for dyadic, behavior between 2 social stress exposures at 6 months. Infants' response to repeated social stress was predicted by infants' earlier stress response, infants' own behavior in play, and dyadic synchrony. No predictive effects of maternal behavior were found. Insights for research and clinical work are discussed. PMID:26569560

  3. Night Waking in 6-Month-Old Infants and Maternal Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Karraker, Katherine Hildebrandt; Young, Marion

    2008-01-01

    Relations between night waking in infants and depressive symptoms in their mothers at 6 months postpartum were examined using the data from the National Institute for Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. Although more depressive symptoms were only weakly correlated with a higher frequency of infant waking, longer wake times, and more total time awake, the rate of clinically significant depression scores was about double in mothers of chronically waking infants in comparison with mothers whose infants did not awaken during the night. The value of comparing subgroups to elucidate relations identified through correlations is discussed. PMID:19050747

  4. A 6-month-old Female with Fever and Increased Head Circumference.

    PubMed

    John, Collin C; Jenkins, Ashley; Morley, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    Brain abscesses, while a fairly rare occurrence in the pediatric population, can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Staphylococcus aureus is a rare cause of intracranial abscess that is generally seen in pediatric patients who have had traumatic injury or neurosurgical intervention. We present the case of a 6-month-old patient who was found to have a large brain abscess secondary to methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), despite no clear precipitating factors. She underwent percutaneous drainage and IV antibiotic treatment with gradual recovery but as-of-yet undetermined developmental sequelae. PMID:27025117

  5. Dual Antiplatelet Therapy Over 6 Months Increases the Risk of Bleeding after Biodegradable Polymer-Coated Sirolimus Eluting Stents Implantation: Insights from the CREATE Study

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, LEI; LI, YI; JING, QUAN-MIN; WANG, XIAO-ZENG; MA, YING-YAN; WANG, GENG; XU, BO; GAO, RUN-LIN; HAN, YA-LING

    2014-01-01

    Background The optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation remains controversial. The primary aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of optimal DAPT duration on bleeding events between 6 and 12 months after biodegradable polymer-coated DES implantation. The secondary aim is to determine the predictors and prognostic implications of bleeding. Methods This study is a post hoc analysis of the Multi-Center Registry of EXCEL Biodegradable Polymer Drug Eluting Stents (CREATE) study population. A total of 2,040 patients surviving at 6 months were studied, including 1,639 (80.3%) who had received 6-month DAPT and 401 (19.7%) who had received DAPT greater than 6 months. Bleeding events were defined according to the bleeding academic research consortium (BARC) definitions as described previously and were classified as major/minor (BARC 2–5) and minimal (BARC 1). A left censored method with a landmark at 6 months was used to determine the incidence, predictors, and impact of bleeding on clinical prognosis between 6 and 12 months. Results At 1-year follow-up, patients who received prolonged DAPT longer than 6 months had a significantly higher incidence of overall (3.0% vs. 5.5%, P = 0.021) and major/minor bleeding (1.1% vs. 2.5%, P = 0.050) compared to the patients who received 6-month DAPT. Multivariate analysis showed that being elderly (OR = 1.882, 95% CI: 1.109–3.193, P = 0.019), having diabetes (OR = 1.735, 95% CI: 1.020–2.952, P = 0.042), having a history of coronary artery disease (OR = 2.163, 95% CI: 1.097–4.266, P = 0.026), and duration of DAPT longer than 6 months (OR = 1.814, 95% CI: 1.064–3.091, P = 0.029) were independent predictors of bleeding. Patients with bleeding events had a significantly higher incidence of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, target lesion revascularization, and stent thrombosis. Conclusions Prolonged DAPT (greater than 6 months) after biodegradable polymer-coated DES

  6. [Inconsolable crying revealing primary erythermalgia in a 6-month-old infant].

    PubMed

    Ahogo, K-C; Menet, V; Modiano, P; Lasek, A

    2014-03-01

    Erythermalgia is a peripheral vascular disease triggered by exposure to heat. The primary infantile form is rare. No cases have been described in infants. We report a case in a 6-month-old child revealed by crying bouts associated with erythema of the lower limbs. A 6-month-old child was brought in for consultation for daily crying bouts, occurring six times a day, associated with erythema of the lower limbs. Blood count, abdominal ultrasound and endoscopy were normal, excluding gastroesophageal reflux and intussusception. Attacks disappeared during winter but recurred at high temperatures. The diagnosis was primary infant erythemalgia. Treatment with analgesics and ice packs was established. Erythermalgia is a rare peripheral vascular disease characterized by paroxysmal pain triggered by heat and relieved by cold. The primary form occurs in childhood but has never been reported in infants. The pathophysiology is based on an alteration of sodium channels inducing neuropathy in small-caliber fibers. Genetic mutations have been found in the SNC9 gene on chromosome 2q, with autosomal dominant transmission. Support of this condition is difficult due to resistance to conventional analgesics. The prognosis is sometimes poor with a significant death rate in the pediatric population. PMID:24468061

  7. Infant humor perception from 3- to 6-months and attachment at one year.

    PubMed

    Mireault, Gina; Sparrow, John; Poutre, Merlin; Perdue, Brittany; Macke, Laura

    2012-12-01

    Infancy is a critical time for the development of secure attachment, which is facilitated by emotionally synchronous interactions with parents. Humor development, which includes shared laughter and joint attention to an event, emerges concurrently with attachment, but little is known regarding the relationship, if any, between humor development and attachment in the first year. Thirty 3-month-old infants were videoed at home each month until they were 6-months old while their parents attempted to amuse them. Frequency of infants' smiles and laughs served as a measure of "state humor", and the smiling/laughing subscale of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised served as a measure of "trait humor". State and trait humor were not correlated. Lower trait humor as 6 months predicted higher attachment security on the Attachment Q-sort at 12-months (r=.46), suggesting that less good-humored infants elicit greater parental engagement, which works to the benefit of attachment, or vice versa. Future studies should examine the importance of smiling and laughter as they relate to other developmental phenomena in the first year. PMID:22982281

  8. Optimizing parent-infant sleep from birth to 6 months: a new paradigm.

    PubMed

    Whittingham, Koa; Douglas, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the dominant paradigm for infant sleep from birth to 6 months is behavioral sleep interventions that aim to entrain the infant's biological patterns of sleep using techniques such as delayed response to cues, feed-play-sleep routines, sleep algorithms, and education of parents about "tired cues" and "overstimulation." A recent systematic literature review has identified that while behavioral sleep interventions may modestly increase the length of time an infant sleeps at night without signaling, they are not associated with improved infant or maternal outcomes and may have unintended negative consequences (Douglas & Hill, 2013). This article reviews the empirical literature on behavioral infant sleep interventions, sleep regulation, and sleep disturbance. Based on the available scientific literature, a new paradigm for infant sleep intervention, from birth to 6 months of age, is proposed. This new approach, the Possums Sleep Intervention, integrates interdisciplinary knowledge from developmental psychology, medical science, lactation science, evolutionary science, and neuroscience with third-wave contextual behaviorism, acceptance and commitment therapy, to create a unique, new intervention that supports parental flexibility, cued care, and the establishment of healthy biopsychosocial rhythms. PMID:25798510

  9. [Repair of ventricular septal defects before 6 months of age. Apropos of a series of 194 infants].

    PubMed

    Chambran, P; Maatouk, M; Bruniaux, J; Lacour-Gayet, F; Binet, J P; Planché, C

    1989-05-01

    Between 1982 and 1988, 194 infants under 6 months of age underwent surgical closure of a ventricular septal defect at the Marie Lannelongue Surgical Centre. The hospital death in this series was 6.7 p. 100. Mortality was influenced by the infant's age, by associated cardiac or extracardiac lesions and by the pre-operative ventilatory status. A residual ventricular septal defect was present in 11 infants (5.6 p. 100). Complete atrioventricular block occurred in 2 cases (1.1 p. 100). These results are in favour of a complete repair of simple ventricular septal defects at a very young age if medical treatment does not result in a satisfactory improvement. PMID:2500096

  10. Gaze behavior and affect at 6 months: predicting clinical outcomes and language development in typically developing infants and infants at risk for autism.

    PubMed

    Young, Gregory S; Merin, Noah; Rogers, Sally J; Ozonoff, Sally

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents follow-up longitudinal data to research that previously suggested the possibility of abnormal gaze behavior marked by decreased eye contact in a subgroup of 6-month-old infants at risk for autism (Merin, Young, Ozonoff & Rogers, 2007). Using eye-tracking data and behavioral data recorded during a live mother-infant interaction involving the still-face procedure, the predictive utility of gaze behavior and affective behaviors at 6 months was examined using diagnostic outcome data obtained longitudinally over the following 18 months. Results revealed that none of the infants previously identified as showing lower rates of eye contact had any signs of autism at outcome. In contrast, three infants who were diagnosed with autism demonstrated consistent gaze to the eye region and typical affective responses at 6 months. Individual differences in face scanning and affective responsivity during the live interaction were not related to any continuous measures of symptom frequency or symptom severity. In contrast, results of growth curve models for language development revealed significant relationships between face scanning and expressive language. Greater amounts of fixation to the mother's mouth during live interaction predicted higher levels of expressive language at outcome and greater rates of growth. These findings suggest that although gaze behavior at 6 months may not provide early markers for autism as initially conceived, gaze to the mouth in particular may be useful in predicting individual differences in language development. PMID:19702771

  11. Cocaine hydrolase encoded in viral vector blocks the reinstatement of cocaine seeking in rats for 6 months

    PubMed Central

    Anker, Justin J.; Brimijoin, Stephen; Gao, Yang; Geng, Liyi; Zlebnik, Natalie E.; Parks, Robin J.; Carroll, Marilyn E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Cocaine dependence is a pervasive disorder with high rates of relapse. In a previous study, direct administration of a quadruple mutant albumin-fused butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) that efficiently catalyzes hydrolysis of cocaine to benzoic acid and ecgonine methyl ester acutely blocked cocaine seeking in an animal model of relapse. In the present experiments these results were extended to achieve a long duration blockade of cocaine seeking with a gene transfer paradigm using a related BChE-based cocaine hydrolase, termed “CocH”. Methods Male and female rats were allowed to self-administer cocaine under a fixed-ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement for approximately 14 days. Following the final self-administration session, rats were injected with CocH vector or a control injection (empty vector or saline), and their cocaine solutions were replaced with saline for 14 days to allow for extinction of lever pressing. Subsequently, they were tested for drug-primed reinstatement by administering i.p. injections of saline (S), cocaine (5, 10, and 15 mg/kg, C), and d-amphetamine (A) according to the following sequence: S, C, S, C, S, C, S, A. Rats then received cocaine-priming injections once weekly for 4 weeks, and subsequently, once monthly for up to 6 months. Results Administration of CocH vector produced substantial and sustained CocH activity in plasma that corresponded with diminished cocaine- (but not amphetamine-) induced reinstatement responding for up to 6 months following treatment (compared to high responding controls). Conclusion These results demonstrate that viral transfer of CocH may be useful in promoting long-term resistance to relapse to cocaine addiction. PMID:22209637

  12. A Pilot Prospective Randomized Control Trial Comparing Exercises Using Videogame Therapy to Standard Physical Therapy: 6 Months Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Parry, Ingrid; Painting, Lynda; Bagley, Anita; Kawada, Jason; Molitor, Fred; Sen, Soman; Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2015-01-01

    Commercially available, interactive videogames that use body movements for interaction are used clinically in burn rehabilitation and have been shown to facilitate functional range of motion (ROM) but their efficacy with burn patients has not yet been proven. The purpose of this pilot randomized control study was to prospectively compare planar and functional ROM, compliance, pain, enjoyment, and exertion in pediatric burn patients receiving two types of rehabilitation therapy. Seventeen school-aged children with 31 affected limbs who demonstrated limited shoulder ROM from burn injury were randomized to receive exercises using either standard therapy ROM activities (ST) or interactive videogame therapy (VGT). Patients received 3 weeks of the designated therapy intervention twice daily. They were then given a corresponding home program of the same type of therapy to perform regularly for 6 months. Standard goniometry and three-dimensional motion analysis during functional tasks were used to assess ROM. Measures were taken at baseline, 3 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. Pain was measured before and after each treatment session during the 3-week intervention. There was no difference in compliance, enjoyment, or exertion between the groups. Patients in both the ST and VGT groups showed significant improvement in shoulder flexion (P < .001), shoulder abduction (P <.001), shoulder external rotation (P = .01), and elbow flexion (P = .004) ROM from baseline to 6 months as measured with goniometry. Subjects also showed significant gains in elbow flexion (P = .04) during hand to head and shoulder flexion (P = .04) during high reach. There was no difference in ROM gains between the groups. Within group comparison showed that the VGT group had significantly more recovery of ROM during the first 3 weeks than any other timeframe in the study, whereas ST had most gains at 3 months. There was a significant difference between the groups in the subjects' pain response. ST subjects

  13. Visual and Optical Performances of Multifocal Intraocular Lenses with Three Different Near Additions: 6-Month Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mengmeng; Corpuz, Christine Carole C; Fujiwara, Megumi; Tomita, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Purpose : To compare the visual and optical outcomes of four multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs) with three different near additions of +3.00 diopters (D), +3.75 D and +4.00 D. Methods : In this prospective study, 133 eyes of 88 patients were implanted with one of the following IOLs: AcrySof® ReSTOR® SN6AD1 (+3.00 D) for Group A, AcrivaUD Reviol BB MF 613 or BB MFM 611 (+3.75 D) for Group B, and AcrySof® ReSTOR® SN6AD3 (+4.00 D) for Group C. The visual acuity, refraction, intraocular pressure, tomography and corneal endothelial cell density (ECD) were compared between the three groups preoperatively and at 6 month postoperatively. Defocus curve, contrast sensitivity and higher order aberrations (HOAs) at 6 month postoperative visit were measured and compared. Results : There were no statistically significant differences in distance visual acuity, refraction, intraocular pressure or ECD among the three groups after 6 months (P > 0.05). The photopic contrast sensitivity in Group C was statistically better than in Group A (P < 0.05). The scotopic ocular aberration in Group B was statistically greater compared to that in Group A (P < 0.05). The highest near-visual peaks were -0.06 logMAR at a -2.50 D (40 cm) in Group A, -0.07 logMAR at -3.00D (33 cm) in Group B, and -0.06 logMAR at -3.50 D (29 cm) in Group C. Statistically significant differences in near and intermediate visual acuities were observed among the three groups at -2.00 D (50 cm), -2.50 D (40 cm), -3.50 D (29 cm) and -4.00 D (25 cm) (P < 0.01). Conclusion : AcrySof® ReSTOR® SN6AD1 IOLs (+3.00 D) and SN6AD3 (+4.00 D) IOLs provided the best intermediate and near vision, respectively. Both intermediate and near vision were comparatively better in the eyes with AcrivaUD Reviol BB MFM 611 IOLs or BB MF 613 IOLs (+3.75 D). PMID:25674189

  14. Reversal of functional changes in the brain associated with obstructive sleep apnoea following 6 months of CPAP.

    PubMed

    Fatouleh, Rania H; Lundblad, Linda C; Macey, Paul M; McKenzie, David K; Henderson, Luke A; Macefield, Vaughan G

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is associated with an increase in the number of bursts of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), leading to neurogenic hypertension. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the most effective and widely used treatment for preventing collapse of the upper airway in OSA. In addition to improving sleep, CPAP decreases daytime MSNA towards control levels. It remains unknown how this restoration of MSNA occurs, in particular whether CPAP treatment results in a simple readjustment in activity of those brain regions responsible for the initial increase in MSNA or whether other brain regions are recruited to over-ride aberrant brain activity. By recording MSNA concurrently with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), we aimed to assess brain activity associated with each individual subject's patterns of MSNA prior to and following 6 months of CPAP treatment. Spontaneous fluctuations in MSNA were recorded via tungsten microelectrodes inserted into the common peroneal nerve in 13 newly diagnosed patients with OSA before and after 6 months of treatment with CPAP and in 15 healthy control subjects while lying in a 3 T MRI scanner. Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) contrast gradient echo, echo-planar images were continuously collected in a 4 s ON, 4 s OFF (200 volumes) sampling protocol. MSNA was significantly elevated in newly diagnosed OSA patients compared to control subjects (55 ± 4 vs 26 ± 2 bursts/min). Fluctuations in BOLD signal intensity in multiple regions covaried with the intensity of the concurrently recorded bursts of MSNA. There was a significant fall in MSNA after 6 months of CPAP (39 ± 2 bursts/min). The reduction in resting MSNA was coupled with significant falls in signal intensity in precuneus bilaterally, the left and right insula, right medial prefrontal cortex, right anterior cingulate cortex, right parahippocampus and the left and right retrosplenial cortices. These data support our contention that

  15. [TESTING STABILITY OF TABLETED ACETAMINOPHEN AND FUROSEMIDE AFTER 6-MONTH STORAGE IN SPACE FLIGHT].

    PubMed

    Bogomolov, V V; Kondratenko, S N; Kovachevich, I V

    2015-01-01

    It was shown that multiple spaceflight factors (i.e., acceleration, overvibration, microgravity etc.) do not impact stability of acetaminophen and furosemide tablets stored onboard the International space station over 6 months. Acetaminophen dose in a tablet was 496.44 ± 6.88 mg (99.29 ± 1.38%) before spaceflight (SF) and 481.77 ± 1 2.40 mg (96.35 ± 0.48%) after 6 mos. of storage; furosemide dose in a tablet was 40.19 ± 0.28 mg (100.47 ± 0.71%) before and 39.24 ± 0.72 mg (98.105 ± 1.80%) after SF remaining within the established limits. PMID:26087581

  16. Determining the impact of prenatal tobacco exposure on self-regulation at 6 months.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, Sandra A; Fang, Hua; Johnson, Craig; James, Karen E; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2014-06-01

    Our goal in the present study was to examine the effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy on infant self-regulation, exploring birth weight as a mediator and sex as a moderator of risk. A prospective sample of 218 infants was assessed at 6 months of age. Infants completed a battery of tasks assessing working memory/inhibition, attention, and emotional reactivity and regulation. Propensity scores were used to statistically control for confounding risk factors associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy. After prenatal and postnatal confounds were controlled, prenatal tobacco exposure was related to reactivity to frustration and control of attention during stimulus encoding. Birth weight did not mediate the effect of prenatal exposure but was independently related to reactivity and working memory/inhibition. The effect of tobacco exposure was not moderated by sex. PMID:24512173

  17. [Myocardiosis in a 6-month-old Lawson's Dragon (Pogona henrylawsonii)].

    PubMed

    Günther, P; Wohlsein, P; Junginger, J; Dziallas, P; Fehr, M; Mathes, K

    2013-01-01

    In a 6-month-old, chronically inappetent Lawsons's Dragon (Pogona henrylawsonii) with stunted growth a hyperdense cardiac region was found using radiology and computed tomography. At necropsy a profound necrosis of the myocardium with dystrophic calcification was diagnosed. In contrast to the frequently seen metastatic mineralisation of soft tissues, mainly due to poor husbandry, primary tissue destruction is the cause for dystrophic calcification. In reptiles, this is a rarely described form of calcification. Possible causes are infectious processes, nutritional or metabolic insufficiencies, intoxications or genetic components. In the presented case the aetiology could not be determined. In conclusion, dystrophic calcifications should be considered as a differential diagnosis in reptiles with soft tissue mineralisation. PMID:23765364

  18. Emotional Experiences Predict the Conversion of Individuals with Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome to Psychosis: A 6-Month Follow up Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fa Zhan; Wang, Yi; Sun, Xi Rong; Yao, Yu Hong; Zhang, Ning; Qiao, Hui Fen; Zhang, Lan; Li, Zhan Jiang; Lin, Hong; Lu, Zheng; Li, Jing; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Zhao, Xu Dong

    2016-01-01

    The present study explored the conversion rate in individuals with Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome (APS) and potential predictor for transition in mainland China. Sixty-three participants identified as APS were followed up 6 months later. The results showed that 17% of individuals with APS converted to full-blown psychosis. The converters exhibited significantly poorer emotional experience and expression than the non-converters at baseline. A further binary logistic regression analysis showed that emotional experience could predict the transition (Wald = 4.18, p = 0.041, 95% CI = 1.04~6.82). The present study suggests an important role of emotional processing in the prediction of the development of full-blown psychosis. PMID:27313553

  19. Relationships between regulatory temperament dimensions and self-regulatory behaviors at 4 and 6 months of age.

    PubMed

    Aureli, Tiziana; Coppola, Gabrielle; Picconi, Laura; Grazia, Annalisa; Ponzetti, Silvia

    2015-02-01

    The present study focused on relationships between temperament and behavior in early regulation development. Unlike most studies on the topic, we observed infant behavior in a naturalistic playful situation rather than in experimental stressful procedure, and employed temperament measures uniquely reflecting regulatory dispositions rather than a global measure of reactivity. The infant's self-regulatory behaviors were observed at 4 and 6 months during face-to-face interactions and regulatory dimensions were assessed at 4 months. We found that low intensity pleasure and soothability dimensions, related to the infant physical and social experience, respectively, significantly affected regulatory behavior and their influence showed to depend on the infant's age, with the former dimension being influential at the earlier age and the latter being influential when the behavior was observed at the later age. Results are interpreted on the light of a dynamic view of regulation development. PMID:25667170

  20. Immunoglobulin G2 deficiency with transient hypogammaglobulinemia and chronic respiratory disease in a 6-month-old Holstein heifer.

    PubMed

    Francoz, David; Lapointe, Jean-Martin; Wellemans, Vincent; Desrochers, André; Caswell, Jeff L; Stott, Jeff L; Dubreuil, Pascal

    2004-09-01

    A 6-month-old Holstein heifer that was nonresponsive to medical treatment was evaluated for chronic respiratory disease. Complete blood count and serum chemistry revealed neutrophilic leukocytosis and low globulin levels. Assays for bovine leukemia virus, bovine virus diarrhea, and bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency were negative. Serum globulin subclass assays revealed transient low concentrations of immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 and IgA, persistent low IgG2, and subnormal IgM. Vaccination with 2 doses of multiple, inactived viruses induced seroconversion for most viruses. Flow cytometric analysis of blood lymphocyte subpopulation demonstrated an increase in CD5+ B-cells. Blood lymphocyte proliferation and neutrophil function tests were normal. Results of immunologic assays indicated IgG2 deficiency with transient hypogammaglobulinemia. PMID:15460327

  1. Assessment of ocular toxicity in dogs during 6 months' exposure to a potent organophosphate.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, J E; Bolte, H F; Rubin, L F; Sonawane, M

    1994-01-01

    Exposure to anticholinesterase pesticides has been associated with the development of ocular toxicity in humans and animals, ranging from blurred vision to degeneration of the optic nerve. Based on the concern for human safety, the US Environmental Protection Agency has recently required additional studies for this class of compounds, focusing on biochemical, functional and histopathological evaluation of the ocular system. This study was designed to determine the effects on the eye of ethyl parathion, a highly toxic organophosphate, when administered orally to 30 beagle dogs (five of each sex per group) at doses of 2.4, 7.9 or 794 micrograms kg-1day-1 for 6 months. Control animals received corn oil. Routine ophthalmoscopic and slit lamp examinations, refraction and intraocular pressure determinations and electroretinograms were performed as functional assessments at various intervals over the study. Plasma and erythrocyte cholinesterase were determined at weeks 1, 6, 14, 20 and 26, while brain, retinal and ocular muscle cholinesterase were measured at week 26 only. Histopathological examination of the retina, optic nerve, ocular muscle and ciliary body was conducted at termination. Plasma and erythrocyte cholinesterase was markedly depressed at 7.9 and 794 micrograms kg-1day-1 as early as week 1. Retinal cholinesterase was decreased (37-55%) from control values in the 794 micrograms kg-1day-1 group only. Ocular muscle cholinesterase was comparable in treated and control groups at termination. No functional impairment of the eye was noted over the 6-month study.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8027510

  2. Comparison of methods to diagnose lymphoedema among breast cancer survivors: 6-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Sandi; Cornish, Bruce; Newman, Beth

    2005-02-01

    One of the more problematic and dreaded complications of breast cancer is lymphoedema. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of lymphoedema 6-months following breast cancer treatment and to examine potential risk factors among a population-based sample of women residing in South-East Queensland (n = 176). Women were defined as having lymphoedema if the difference between the sum of arm circumferences (SOAC) of the treated and untreated sides was >5 cm (prevalence = 11.9%) or >10% (prevalence = 0.6%), their multi- frequency bioelectrical impedance (MFBIA) score was > or =3 standard deviations above the reference impedance score (prevalence = 11.4%), or they reported 'yes' when asked if arm swelling had been present in the previous 6 months (prevalence = 27.8%). Of those with lymphoedema defined by MFBIA, only 35% were detected using the SOAC method (difference > 5 cm), while 65% were identified via the self-report method (i.e., respective sensitivities). Specificities for SOAC (difference > 5 cm) and self-report were 88.5% and 76.9%, respectively. When examining associations between presence of lymphoedema and a range of characteristics, findings also varied depending on the method used to assess lymphoedema. Nevertheless, one of the more novel and significant findings was that being treated on the non-dominant, compared to dominant, side was associated with an 80% increased risk of having lymphoedema (MFBIA). Our work raises questions about the use of circumferences as the choice of measurement for lymphoedema in both research and clinical settings, and assesses MFBIA as a potential alternative. PMID:15754119

  3. Integrating Vitamin A Supplementation at 6 months into the Expanded Program of Immunization in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Mary H; Sesay, Fatmata F; Kamara, Habib I; Nyorkor, Emmanuel D; Bah, Mariama; Koroma, Aminata S; Kandeh, Joseph N; Ouédraogo, Rasmata; Wolfe, Adam C; Katcher, Heather I; Blankenship, Jessica L; Baker, Shawn K

    2015-09-01

    Since 2004, twice-yearly mass vitamin A supplementation (VAS) has equitably reached over 85% of children 6-59 months old in Sierra Leone. However infants who turn 6 months after the event may wait until they are 11 months old to receive their first dose. The effectiveness of integrating VAS at 6 months into the Expanded Program of Immunization (EPI) in a revised child health card was studied. Health facilities matched according to staff cadre and work load were assigned to provide either a 'mini package' of VAS and infant and young child feeding (IYCF), a 'full package' of VAS, IYCF and family planning (FP), or 'child health card' only. 400 neonates were enrolled into each group, caregivers given the new child health card and followed until they were 12 months old. More infants in the full: 74.5% and mini: 71.7% group received VAS between 6 and 7 months of age compared with the new CH card only group: 60.2% (p = 0.002, p < 0.001 respectively). FP commodities were provided to 44.5% of caregivers in the full compared with <2.5% in the mini and new child health card only groups (p < 0.0001). Integration of VAS within the EPI schedule achieved >60% coverage for infants between 6 and 7 months of age. Provision of FP and/or IYCF further improved coverage. Funding was provided by the Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development who had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript. PMID:25665894

  4. Activation of 5-HT3 receptors leads to altered responses 6 months after MDMA treatment.

    PubMed

    Gyongyosi, Norbert; Balogh, Brigitta; Katai, Zita; Molnar, Eszter; Laufer, Rudolf; Tekes, Kornelia; Bagdy, Gyorgy

    2010-03-01

    The recreational drug "Ecstasy" [3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)] has a well-characterised neurotoxic effect on the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neurons in animals. Despite intensive studies, the long-term functional consequencies of the 5-HT neurodegeneration remains elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate whether any alteration of 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT(3)) receptor functions on the sleep-wake cycle, motor activity, and quantitative EEG could be detected 6 months after a single dose of 15 mg/kg of MDMA. The selective 5-HT(3) receptor agonist m-chlorophenylbiguanide (mCPBG; 1 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle was administered to freely moving rats pre-treated with MDMA (15 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle 6 months earlier. Polysomnographic and motor activity recordings were performed. Active wake (AW), passive wake (PW), light slow wave sleep (SWS-1), deep slow wave sleep (SWS-2), and paradoxical sleep were classified. In addition, EEG power spectra were calculated for the second hour after mCPBG treatment for each stage. AW increased and SWS-1 decreased in the second hour after mCPBG treatment in control animals. mCPBG caused significant changes in the EEG power in states with cortical activation (AW, PW, paradoxical sleep). In addition, mCPBG had a biphasic effect on hippocampal theta power in AW with a decrease in 7 Hz and a stage-selective increase in the upper range (8-9 Hz). Effects of mCPBG on the time spent in AW and SWS-1 were eliminated or reduced in MDMA-treated animals. In addition, mCPBG did not increase the upper theta power of AW in rats pre-treated with MDMA. These data suggest long-term changes in 5-HT(3) receptor function after MDMA. PMID:20052506

  5. Epstein–Barr virus dynamics in asymptomatic immunocompetent adults: an intensive 6-month study

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kristin H; Webb, Chiu-Ho; Schmeling, David O; Brundage, Richard C; Balfour, Henry H

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) dynamics in asymptomatic immunocompetent persons provides a baseline for defining quantitative thresholds associated with EBV disease. Studying latent membrane protein (LMP)-1 sequence variation over time could establish the rates of reactivation and superinfection, and also trace transmission. Twelve asymptomatic adult subjects were evaluated prospectively nine times over 6 months. EBV serum antibodies were measured by enzyme immunoassay. EBV DNA in oral and whole-blood samples was quantitated by real-time (TaqMan) PCR and analyzed for LMP-1 sequence variability. All 11 antibody positive subjects had EBV DNA detected in their oral compartment at least once during the 6-month study. The quantities ranged from 1.70 to 4.91 log10 copies EBV per ml of oral cell pellet. One subject was continuously viremic for 79 days. Overall, EBV DNA was detected in 63 (24%) of 260 samples from 11 antibody-positive subjects and in 0/27 samples from an antibody-negative subject. The quantities in positive samples ranged from 1.7 to 4.9 log10 copies EBV per ml. EBV LMP-1 gene sequence variations in subjects were constant over time regardless of the compartment sampled. Subjects 18–30 years old had EBV DNA detected more frequently than subjects >30 years old (38/108 positive samples versus 25/152; P<0.001). In conclusion, EBV DNA shedding is common in asymptomatic adults. The younger adults shed more frequently, which may reflect a shorter time from their primary EBV infection to sampling. The LMP-1 sequence analysis method employed here could be used to trace person-to-person transmission because patterns remained almost identical over time. PMID:27350880

  6. Visual and optical performance of diffractive multifocal intraocular lenses with different haptic designs: 6 month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mengmeng; Corpuz, Christine Carole C; Fujiwara, Megumi; Tomita, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate and compare the visual acuity outcomes and optical performances of eyes implanted with two diffractive multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) models with either a plate haptic design or a modified-C design. Methods This retrospective study comprised cataract patients who were implanted with either a plate haptic multifocal IOL model (AcrivaUD Reviol BB MFM 611 [VSY Biotechnology, Amsterdam, the Netherlands], group 1) or a modified-C haptic multifocal IOL model (AcrivaUD Reviol BB MF 613 [VSY Biotechnology, Amsterdam, the Netherlands], group 2) between June 2012 and May 2013. The 6 month postoperative visual acuity, refraction, defocus curve, contrast sensitivity, and wave-front aberration were evaluated and compared between these eyes, using different IOL models. Results One hundred fifty-eight eyes of 107 patients were included in this study. Significant improvement in visual acuities and refraction was found in both groups after cataract surgery (P<0.01). The visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were statistically better in group 1 than in group 2 (P<0.01). No statistically significant difference in the corneal higher-order aberrations was found between the two groups (P>0.05). However, the ocular higher-order aberrations in group 2 were significantly greater than in group 1 (P<0.05). Conclusion At 6 months postoperatively, both AcrivaUD Reviol BB MFM 611 IOL and AcrivaUD Reviol BB MF 613 IOL achieved excellent visual and refractive outcomes. The multifocal IOL model with plate haptic design resulted in better optical performances than that with the modified-C haptic design. PMID:24868143

  7. Comparative clinical evaluation of laterally positioned pedicle graft and subepithelial connective tissue graft in the treatment of Miller's Class I and II gingival recession: A 6 months study

    PubMed Central

    Dulani, Kirti Satish; Bhavsar, Neeta Vijay; Trivedi, Sakshee Rahul; Trivedi, Rahul Anil

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of the study was to compare clinical outcomes of laterally positioned pedicle graft (LPPG) and subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG) for treatment of Miller's Class I and II gingival recession defects, at the end of 6 months. Materials and Methods: Sixty Miller's Class I or II gingival recession defects (≥3 mm) (n = 30 each) on the labial aspect of anterior teeth were treated by either of the above techniques. Clinical parameters including recession depth (RD), width of keratinized gingiva (WKG), percentage of root coverage (%RC), and complete RC were recorded at baseline and 6 months postoperatively. Data were recorded and statistical analysis was done for both intergroup and intragroup. Statistical Analysis Used: Paired t-test intragroup and Student's t-test intergroup. Results: In LPPG, RD decreased from 4.9 ± 0.99 mm to 1.1 ± 0.3 mm and WKG increased from 0.7 ± 0.87 to 4.5 ± 0.86 mm at 6 months, while in SCTG, RD decreased from 4.67 ± 1.12 mm to 0.46 ± 0.68 mm and WKG increased from 1.1 ± 0.99 to 5.33 ± 0.72 mm at 6 months postoperatively. The values of the soft tissue coverage remained stable for 6 months. Conclusions: Highly significant and effective soft tissue coverage was obtained by both techniques. LPPG resulted in effective soft tissue coverage for isolated deep narrow defects while SCTG in isolated and multiple, deep narrow and wide defects. PMID:26941517

  8. Is surgery at progression a prognostic marker for improved 6-month progression-free survival or overall survival for patients with recurrent glioblastoma?

    PubMed Central

    Clarke†, Jennifer L.; Ennis†, Michele M.; Yung, W. K. Alfred; Chang, Susan M.; Wen, Patrick Y.; Cloughesy, Timothy F.; DeAngelis, Lisa M.; Robins, H. Ian; Lieberman, Frank S.; Fine, Howard A.; Abrey, Lauren; Gilbert, Mark R.; Mehta, Minesh; Kuhn, John G.; Aldape, Kenneth D.; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Prados, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Historically, the North American Brain Tumor Consortium used 6-month progression-free survival (PFS6) as the primary outcome for recurrent glioma phase II clinical trials. In some trials, a subset of patients received the trial treatment before surgery to assess tumor uptake and biological activity. We compared PFS6 and overall survival (OS) for patients with glioblastoma undergoing surgery at progression to results for those without surgery to evaluate the impact of surgical intervention on these outcomes. Two data sets were analyzed. The first included 511 patients enrolled during the period 1998–2005, 105 of whom had surgery (excluding biopsies) during the study or ≤30 days prior to registration. Analysis was stratified on the basis of whether temozolomide was part of the protocol treatment regimen. The second data set included 247 patients enrolled during 2005–2008, 103 of whom underwent surgery during the clinical trial or immediately prior to study registration. A combined data set consisting of all patients who did not receive temozolomide was also compiled. No statistically significant difference in PFS6 or OS was found between the surgery and nonsurgery groups in either data set alone or in the combined data set (P > .45). We conclude that PFS6 and OS results for patients with and without surgical intervention at the time of progression are similar, allowing data from these patients to be combined in assessing the benefit of new treatments without the need for stratification or other statistical adjustment. PMID:21813511

  9. Is surgery at progression a prognostic marker for improved 6-month progression-free survival or overall survival for patients with recurrent glioblastoma?

    PubMed

    Clarke, Jennifer L; Ennis, Michele M; Yung, W K Alfred; Chang, Susan M; Wen, Patrick Y; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Deangelis, Lisa M; Robins, H Ian; Lieberman, Frank S; Fine, Howard A; Abrey, Lauren; Gilbert, Mark R; Mehta, Minesh; Kuhn, John G; Aldape, Kenneth D; Lamborn, Kathleen R; Prados, Michael D

    2011-10-01

    Historically, the North American Brain Tumor Consortium used 6-month progression-free survival (PFS6) as the primary outcome for recurrent glioma phase II clinical trials. In some trials, a subset of patients received the trial treatment before surgery to assess tumor uptake and biological activity. We compared PFS6 and overall survival (OS) for patients with glioblastoma undergoing surgery at progression to results for those without surgery to evaluate the impact of surgical intervention on these outcomes. Two data sets were analyzed. The first included 511 patients enrolled during the period 1998-2005, 105 of whom had surgery (excluding biopsies) during the study or ≤ 30 days prior to registration. Analysis was stratified on the basis of whether temozolomide was part of the protocol treatment regimen. The second data set included 247 patients enrolled during 2005-2008, 103 of whom underwent surgery during the clinical trial or immediately prior to study registration. A combined data set consisting of all patients who did not receive temozolomide was also compiled. No statistically significant difference in PFS6 or OS was found between the surgery and nonsurgery groups in either data set alone or in the combined data set (P > .45). We conclude that PFS6 and OS results for patients with and without surgical intervention at the time of progression are similar, allowing data from these patients to be combined in assessing the benefit of new treatments without the need for stratification or other statistical adjustment. PMID:21813511

  10. Transoral Incisionless Fundoplication Effective in Eliminating GERD Symptoms in Partial Responders to Proton Pump Inhibitor Therapy at 6 Months

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, William E.; Simoni, Gilbert; Shughoury, Ahmad B.; Mavrelis, Peter G.; Raza, Mamoon; Heise, Jeffrey A.; Turgeon, Daniel G.; Fox, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Incomplete control of troublesome regurgitation and extraesophageal manifestations of chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a known limitation of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy. This multicenter randomized study compared the efficacy of transoral incisionless fundoplication (TIF) against PPIs in controlling these symptoms in patients with small hiatal hernias. Methods. Between June and August 2012, 63 patients were randomized at 7 US community hospitals. Patients in the PPI group were placed on maximum standard dose (MSD). Patients in the TIF group underwent esophagogastric fundoplication using the EsophyX2 device. Primary outcome was elimination of daily troublesome regurgitation or extraesophageal symptoms. Secondary outcomes were normalization of esophageal acid exposure (EAE), PPI usage and healing of esophagitis. Results. Of 63 randomized patients (40 TIF and 23 PPI), 3 were lost to follow-up leaving 39 TIF and 21 PPI patients for analysis. At 6-month follow-up, troublesome regurgitation was eliminated in 97% of TIF patients versus 50% of PPI patients, relative risk (RR) = 1.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2-3.11 (P = .006). Globally, 62% of TIF patients experienced elimination of regurgitation and extraesophageal symptoms versus 5% of PPI patients, RR = 12.9, 95% CI = 1.9-88.9 (P = .009). EAE was normalized in 54% of TIF patients (off PPIs) versus 52% of PPI patients (on MSD), RR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.6-1.7 (P = .914). Ninety percent of TIF patients were off PPIs. Conclusion. At 6-month follow-up, TIF was more effective than MSD PPI therapy in eliminating troublesome regurgitation and extraesophageal symptoms of GERD. PMID:24756976

  11. Behavioral Predictors of Outpatient Mental Health Service Utilization within 6 Months after Traumatic Brain Injury in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kurowski, Brad G.; Wade, Shari L.; Kirkwood, Michael W.; Brown, Tanya M.; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H. Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Objective To characterize utilization of mental health services and determine the ability of a behavior problem and clinical functioning assessment to predict utilization of such services within the first 6 months after moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in a large cohort of adolescents. Design Multicenter cross-sectional study. Setting Outpatient setting of four tertiary pediatric hospitals, two tertiary general medical centers, and one specialized children's hospital. Participants Adolescents age 12-17 years (N=132), 1 to 6 months after moderate to severe TBI. Methods Logistic regression was used to determine the association of mental health service utilization with clinical functioning as assessed by the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS) and behavior problems assessed by the Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL). Main Outcome Measure Mental health service utilization measured by the Service Assessment for Children and Adolescents (SACA). Results Behavioral or functional impairment occurred in 37 to 56%. Of the total study population, 24.2% reported receiving outpatient mental health services, 8.3% reported receiving school services, and 28.8% reported receiving any type of mental health service. Use of any (school or outpatient) mental health service was associated with borderline to impaired total CAFAS (OR [CI] = 3.50 [1.46, 8.40], p < 0.01) and CBCL total competence (OR [CI] = 5.08 (2.02, 12.76), p < 0.01). Conclusions A large proportion of participants had unmet mental health needs. Both the CAFAS and CBCL identified individuals who would likely benefit from mental health services in outpatient or school settings. Future research should focus on methods to ensure early identification by health care providers of adolescents with TBI in need of mental health services. PMID:23973505

  12. Enhanced midbrain response at 6-month follow-up in cocaine addiction, association with reduced drug-related choice

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Scott J.; Tomasi, Dardo; Woicik, Patricia A.; Maloney, Thomas; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Honorio, Jean; Telang, Frank; Wang, Gene-Jack; Wang, Ruiliang; Sinha, Rajita; Carise, Deni; Astone-Twerell, Janetta; Bolger, Joy; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2012-01-01

    Drug addiction is characterized by dysregulated dopamine neurotransmission. Although dopamine functioning appears to partially recover with abstinence, the specific regions that recover and potential impact on drug seeking remain to be determined. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study an ecologically valid sample of 15 treatment-seeking cocaine addicted individuals at baseline and 6-month follow-up. At both study sessions, we collected fMRI scans during performance of a drug Stroop task, clinical self-report measures of addiction severity, and behavioral measures of cocaine seeking (simulated cocaine choice); actual drug use in between the two study sessions was also monitored. At 6-month follow-up (compared with baseline) we predicted functional enhancement of dopaminergically-innervated brain regions, relevant to the behavioral responsiveness toward salient stimuli. Consistent with predictions, whole-brain analyses revealed responses in the midbrain (encompassing the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra complex) and thalamus (encompassing the mediodorsal nucleus) that were higher (and more positively correlated) at follow-up than baseline. Increased midbrain activity from baseline to follow-up correlated with reduced simulated cocaine choice, indicating that heightened midbrain activations in this context may be marking lower approach motivation for cocaine. Normalization of midbrain function at follow-up was also suggested by exploratory comparisons with active cocaine users and healthy controls (who were assessed only at baseline). Enhanced self-control at follow-up was suggested by a trend for the commonly hypoactive dorsal anterior cingulate cortex to increase response during a drug-related context. Together, these results suggest that fMRI could be useful in sensitively tracking follow-up outcomes in drug addiction. PMID:22458423

  13. HUB city steps: a 6-month lifestyle intervention improves blood pressure among a primarily African-American community.

    PubMed

    Zoellner, Jamie; Connell, Carol; Madson, Michael B; Thomson, Jessica L; Landry, Alicia S; Fontenot Molaison, Elaine; Blakely Reed, Vickie; Yadrick, Kathleen

    2014-04-01

    The effectiveness of community-based participatory research (CBPR) efforts to address the disproportionate burden of hypertension among African Americans remains largely untested. The objective of this 6-month, noncontrolled, pre-/post-experimental intervention was to examine the effectiveness of a CBPR intervention in achieving improvements in blood pressure, anthropometric measures, biological measures, and diet. Conducted in 2010, this multicomponent lifestyle intervention included motivational enhancement, social support provided by peer coaches, pedometer diary self-monitoring, and monthly nutrition and physical activity education sessions. Of 269 enrolled participants, 94% were African American and 85% were female. Statistical analysis included generalized linear mixed models using maximum likelihood estimation. From baseline to 6 months, blood pressure decreased significantly: mean (± standard deviation) systolic blood pressure decreased from 126.0 ± 19.1 to 119.6 ± 15.8 mm Hg, P=0.0002; mean diastolic blood pressure decreased from 83.2 ± 12.3 to 78.6 ± 11.1 mm Hg, P<0.0001). Sugar intake also decreased significantly as compared with baseline (by approximately 3 tsp; P<0.0001). Time differences were not apparent for any other measures. Results from this study suggest that CBPR efforts are a viable and effective strategy for implementing nonpharmacologic, multicomponent, lifestyle interventions that can help address the persistent racial and ethnic disparities in hypertension treatment and control. Outcome findings help fill gaps in the literature for effectively translating lifestyle interventions to reach and engage African-American communities to reduce the burden of hypertension. PMID:24534602

  14. An immersive “simulation week” enhances clinical performance of incoming surgical interns improved performance persists at 6 months follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pritam; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Pucher, Philip H.; Hashimoto, Daniel A.; Beyer-Berjot, Laura; Bharathan, Rasiah; Middleton, Katherine E.; Jones, Joanne; Darzi, Ara

    2015-01-01

    Background The transition from student to intern can be challenging. The “August” or “July effect” describes increased errors and reduced patient safety during this transition. The study objectives were to develop, pilot, and evaluate clinical performance after an immersive simulation course for incoming interns. Methods Graduating students were recruited for a 1-week immersive simulation course. Controls received no simulation training. Primary outcome (at baseline, and 1 and 6 months) was clinical performance on Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCE) of clinical procedures and surgical technical skills. Secondary outcomes were self-reported confidence and clinical procedure logbook data. Results Nineteen students were recruited. Sixteen completed the 6-month follow-up, 10 in the intervention group and 6 in the control group. No differences were demonstrated between interventions and controls at baseline (OSCE [median, 66 vs 78; P = .181], technical skills [48 vs 52.5; P = .381], and confidence [101 vs 96; P = .368]). Interventions outperformed controls at 1 month (OSCE [111 vs 82; P = .001], technical skills [78.5 vs 63; P = .030], and confidence [142 vs 119; P < .001]), and 6 months (OSCE [107 vs 93; P = .007], technical skills [92.5 vs 69; P = .044], and confidence [148 vs 129; P = .022]). No differences were observed in numbers of clinical procedures performed at 1 (P = .958), 4 (P = .093), or 6 months (P = .713). Conclusion The immersive simulation course objectively improved subjects’ clinical skills, technical skills, and confidence. Despite similar clinical experience as controls, the intervention group’s improved performance persisted at 6 months follow-up. This feasible and effective intervention to ease transition from student to intern could reduce errors and enhance patient safety. PMID:25633735

  15. Effects of the Cessation of Mass Screening for Neuroblastoma at 6 Months of Age: A Population-Based Study in Osaka, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ioka, Akiko; Inoue, Masami; Yoneda, Akihiro; Nakamura, Tetsuro; Hara, Junichi; Hashii, Yoshiko; Sakata, Naoki; Yamato, Kazumi; Tsukuma, Hideaki; Kawa, Keisei

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2004, the Japanese government halted the 6-month mass screening program for neuroblastoma. We investigated whether its cessation had led to an increase not only in mortality due to this disease but also in the incidence of advanced-stage disease among older children. Methods Study subjects were neuroblastoma patients retrieved from the population-based Osaka Cancer Registry. Trends of incidence and mortality from neuroblastoma were analyzed by calendar year and birth cohort. Prognostic factors, including stage and v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene neuroblastoma derived homolog (MYCN) oncogene status, were compared before and after the cessation of mass screening. Results Age-standardized incidence rates in 2005–2009 (the cessation period of mass screening; 11.1 per million) were similar to those in 1975–1979 (the pre-screening period; 8.6 per million). Age-standardized mortality rates tended to decrease from 1975–1979 (4.0 per million) to 2005–2009 (2.7 per million) in parallel with the improvement in survival. Analysis by birth cohort indicated that the mortality rates in 2004–2005 (after cessation) for children 0–4 years of age were lower than those in 1975–1979 (O:E ratio 0.25; 95% confidence interval, 0.03–0.90). For children 1–9 years of age, there was a not significant difference in the distribution of stage, MYCN oncogene status, and DNA ploidy between 1991–2003 (the mass screening period) and 2004–2008 (after cessation). Conclusions The cessation of mass screening for neuroblastoma does not appear to have increased mortality due to this disease or incidence of advanced-stage disease among older children. PMID:26548355

  16. Chronic Uterine Inversion Presenting as a Painless Vaginal Mass at 6 Months Post Partum: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ali, Eram; Kumar, Manisha

    2016-05-01

    Uterine inversion is an abnormal protrusion of internal surface of relaxed uterus through the vaginal orifice. Its causes can be broadly classified as puerperal and non-puerperal with puerperal uterine inversion more common than non-puerperal uterine inversion. Acute inversions occurring immediately, or within 24 hours post-partum are the most common type. Chronic Uterine Inversions (CUI) occurring more than four weeks after the delivery are rare identities. There differential diagnosis includes prolapsed fibroids and endometrial polyp. Chronic nature of these inversions makes the restoration of the normal position of the uterus per vaginal difficult contrary to acute inversions which can be reposited more easily. We hereby present a case of 28-year-old lady who presented with a painless vaginal mass at 6 months post-partum. She was diagnosed as a case of CUI based on clinical and sonographic examination. Inverted uterus was successfully restored through per abdominal approach. The presentation of CUI as a painless vaginal mass at delayed post-partum period is rare and therefore reported. PMID:27437313

  17. Chronic Uterine Inversion Presenting as a Painless Vaginal Mass at 6 Months Post Partum: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Manisha

    2016-01-01

    Uterine inversion is an abnormal protrusion of internal surface of relaxed uterus through the vaginal orifice. Its causes can be broadly classified as puerperal and non-puerperal with puerperal uterine inversion more common than non-puerperal uterine inversion. Acute inversions occurring immediately, or within 24 hours post-partum are the most common type. Chronic Uterine Inversions (CUI) occurring more than four weeks after the delivery are rare identities. There differential diagnosis includes prolapsed fibroids and endometrial polyp. Chronic nature of these inversions makes the restoration of the normal position of the uterus per vaginal difficult contrary to acute inversions which can be reposited more easily. We hereby present a case of 28-year-old lady who presented with a painless vaginal mass at 6 months post-partum. She was diagnosed as a case of CUI based on clinical and sonographic examination. Inverted uterus was successfully restored through per abdominal approach. The presentation of CUI as a painless vaginal mass at delayed post-partum period is rare and therefore reported. PMID:27437313

  18. Infants' interactions with professional caregivers at 3 and 6 months of age: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Albers, Esther M; Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne; de Weerth, Carolina

    2007-12-01

    This study longitudinally investigated the quality and stability of 64 infants' interactions with their professional caregivers in child care centers at 3 and 6 months of age, i.e., across the first 3 months after they entered child care. It was also examined whether the infants' negative emotionality (as rated by the mother) predicted the quality of the caregiver-infant interaction. The interactive behavior of the professional caregivers (sensitivity, cooperation) and the infants (responsiveness, involvement) was rated from videotapes recorded in three different caregiving situations, lasting about 25 min in total. In contrast to our expectation, the quality of the caregiver-infant interaction did not significantly increase across the first 3 months in child care. As expected, significant rank order stability was found for the quality of the caregivers' behavior over time. Also in accordance with our expectations, infants with higher negative emotionality scores experienced less sensitivity and cooperation in interactions with their primary professional caregivers at both ages. PMID:17420055

  19. Effect of feeding thoroughbred horses a high unsaturated or saturated vegetable oil supplemented diet for 6 months following a 10 month fat acclimation.

    PubMed

    Harris, P A; Pagan, J D; Crandell, K G; Davidson, N

    1999-07-01

    This study looked at the effect of feeding diets supplemented with either a predominantly saturated or unsaturated vegetable oil over a prolonged period to exercising horses. Eight Thoroughbred horses were assigned to 2 diet treatments and for 10 months were fed Timothy hay and oats, together with a fortified sweet feed supplemented with either a predominantly unsaturated (Un) or a saturated (S) vegetable oil so that approximately 19% DE (Digestible Energy) came from dietary fat and approximately 12% from either the Un or S source (AC). An increased amount of Un or S fortified sweet feed, replacing the oats, was then fed for a further 6 months (HF) so that approximately 27% DE came from fat and approximately 20% from the Un or S vegetable oil. Standardised incremental treadmill exercise (8-12 m/s) tests (STEP) and duplicate oral glucose tolerance tests (TOL) were carried out after 3, 6 and 9 months of the AC diet and after 3 and 6 months on the HF diet. There was no significant effect of dietary treatment or when the tests were undertaken (time) on the insulin or lactate responses to the STEP tests. Overall there was a significant (P < 0.05) effect of time and treatment on the glucose response, but there was no difference between treatments at the first and last tests or between the results for these tests or between the endAC and endHF tests. No significant effect of treatment or time was seen on the TOL glucose response (% change from Time '0') although there was a trend for the glucose concentrations to be lower and the insulin responses higher (nonsignificant) in the S treatment group. No significant effect of treatment on haematological parameters, monitored monthly, was found. Total protein and gamma glutamyl transferase remained within the normal range throughout. There was a significant effect of treatment (P < 0.05) on cholesterol and triglycerides with higher concentrations in the S group from the first (1 month) sample. Linoleic acid was the main fatty

  20. Change of Serum BNP Between Admission and Discharge After Acute Decompensated Heart Failure Is a Better Predictor of 6-Month All-Cause Mortality Than the Single BNP Value Determined at Admission

    PubMed Central

    De Vecchis, Renato; Ariano, Carmelina; Giandomenico, Giuseppe; Di Maio, Marco; Baldi, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    Background B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is regarded as a reliable predictor of outcome in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). However, according to some scholars, a single isolated measurement of serum BNP at the time of hospital admission would not be sufficient to provide reliable prognostic information. Methods A retrospective study was carried out on patients hospitalized for ADHF, who had then undergone follow-up of at least 6 months, in order to see if there was any difference in midterm mortality among patients with rising BNP at discharge as compared to those with decreasing BNP at discharge. Medical records had to be carefully examined to divide the case records into two groups, the former characterized by an increase in BNP during hospitalization, and the latter showing a decrease in BNP from the time of admission to the time of discharge. Results Ultimately, 177 patients were enrolled in a retrospective study. Among them, 53 patients (29.94%) had increased BNPs at the time of discharge relative to admission, whereas 124 (70.06%) exhibited decreases in serum BNP during their hospital stay. The group with patients who exhibited BNP increases at the time of discharge had higher degree of congestion evident in the higher frequency of persistent jugular venous distention (odds ratio: 3.72; P = 0.0001) and persistent orthopnea at discharge (odds ratio: 2.93; P = 0.0016). Moreover, patients with increased BNP at the time of discharge had a lower reduction in inferior vena cava maximum diameter (1.58 ± 2.2 mm vs. 6.32 ± 1.82 mm; P = 0.001 (one-way ANOVA)). In contrast, there was no significant difference in weight loss when patients with increased BNP at discharge were compared to those with no such increase. A total of 14 patients (7.9%) died during the 6-month follow-up period. Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed that BNP increase at the time of discharge was an independent predictor of 6-month all-cause mortality after

  1. Mean Length of Utterance Levels in 6-month Intervals for Children 3 to 9 Years with and without Language Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Mabel L.; Smolik, Filip; Perpich, Denise; Thompson, Travis; Rytting, Nathan; Blossom, Megan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The mean length of children’s utterances is a valuable estimate of their early language acquisition. The available normative data lacks documentation of language and nonverbal intelligence levels of the samples. This study reports age-referenced MLU data from children with specific language impairment and children without language impairments. Method 306 child participants were drawn from a data archive, ages 2;6–9;0 years, 170 with SLI and 136 control children. 1564 spontaneous language samples were collected, transcribed and analyzed for sample size and MLU in words and morphemes. Means, standard deviations, and effect sizes for group differences are reported for MLUs, along with concurrent language and nonverbal intelligence assessments, per 6-month intervals. Results The results document an age progression in MLU words and morphemes, and a persistent lower level of performance for children with SLI. Conclusions The results support the reliability and validity of MLU as an index of normative language acquisition and a marker of language impairment. The findings can be used for clinical benchmarking of deficits and language intervention outcomes, as well as comparisons across research samples. PMID:20360460

  2. Snap-frozen brain tissue sections stored with desiccant at ambient laboratory conditions without chemical fixation are resistant to degradation for a minimum of 6 months.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Theodore R; Khodavirdi, Ani C; Hinton, David R; Holschneider, Daniel P

    2009-03-01

    Cryosectioned tissues from snap-frozen samples offer the advantage of preserving proteins at the cellular and subcellular levels and maintaining overall cell integrity in the tissue of interest without the use of chemical fixatives. To prevent specific or nonspecific degradation of proteins by autolytic and/or proteolytic processes, it is common practice to immediately store frozen tissue sections obtained from a cryostat under cryogenic conditions, for example -80 degrees C. Our laboratory recently challenged this widely held belief by extracting proteins from brain tissue samples that were archived for 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, and 6 months at various storage conditions (frozen, ambient, or desiccated) without the use of chemical fixatives. Our results from immunofluorescent stains, immunoperoxidase stains, silver stains, and Western blot analyses demonstrated that snap-frozen, heat-dried tissue sections stored and desiccated at ambient laboratory conditions are comparable to frozen samples stored up to 6 months. PMID:19521279

  3. Is 6-month GRACE risk score a useful tool to predict stroke after an acute coronary syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Álvarez, Belén; Raposeiras-Roubín, Sergio; Abu-Assi, Emad; Cambeiro-González, Cristina; Gestal-Romaní, Santiago; López-López, Andrea; Bouzas-Cruz, Noelia; Castiñeira-Busto, María; Saidhodjayeva, Ozoda; Redondo-Diéguez, Alfredo; Pereira López, Eva; García-Acuña, José María; González-Juanatey, José Ramón

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The risk of stroke after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has increased. The aim of this study was to do a comparative validation of the 6-month GRACE (Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events) risk score and CH2DS2VASc risk score to predict the risk of post-ACS ischaemic stroke. Methods This was a retrospective study carried out in a single centre with 4229 patients with ACS discharged between 2004 and 2010 (66.9±12.8 years, 27.9% women, 64.2% underwent percutaneous coronary intervention). The primary end point is the occurrence of an ischaemic stroke during follow-up (median 4.6 years, IQR 2.7–7.1 years). Results 184 (4.4%) patients developed an ischaemic stroke; 153 (83.2%) had sinus rhythm and 31 (16.9%) had atrial fibrillation. Patients with stroke were older, with higher rates of hypertension, diabetes, previous stroke and previous coronary artery disease. The HR for CHA2DS2VASc was 1.36 (95% CI, 1.27 to 1.48, p<0.001) and for GRACE, HR was 1.02(95% CI, 1.01 to 1.03, p<0.001). Both risk scores show adequate discriminative ability (c-index 0.63±0.02 and 0.60±0.02 for CHA2DS2VASc and GRACE, respectively). In the reclassification method there was no difference (Net Reclassification Improvement 1.98%, p=0.69). Comparing moderate-risk/high-risk patients with low-risk patients, both risk scores showed very high negative predictive value (98.5% for CHA2DS2VASc, 98.1% for GRACE). The sensitivity of CHA2DS2VASc score was higher than the GRACE risk score (95.1% vs 87.0%), whereas specificity was lower (14.4% vs 30.2%). Conclusions The 6-month GRACE model is a clinical risk score that facilitates the identification of individual patients who are at high risk of ischaemic stroke after ACS discharge. PMID:25544887

  4. Risk and Protective Factors for Suicidality at 6-Month Follow-up in Adolescent Inpatients Who Attempted Suicide: An Exploratory Model

    PubMed Central

    Consoli, Angèle; Cohen, David; Bodeau, Nicolas; Guilé, Jean-Marc; Mirkovic, Bojan; Knafo, Alexandra; Mahé, Vincent; Laurent, Claudine; Renaud, Johanne; Labelle, Réal; Breton, Jean-Jacques; Gérardin, Priscille

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess risk and protective factors for suicidality at 6-month follow-up in adolescent inpatients after a suicide attempt. Methods: One hundred seven adolescents from 5 inpatient units who had a suicide attempt were seen at 6-month follow-up. Baseline measures included sociodemographics, mood and suicidality, dependence, borderline symptomatology, temperament and character inventory (TCI), reasons for living, spirituality, and coping scores. Results: At 6-month follow-up, 41 (38%) subjects relapsed from suicidal behaviours. Among them, 15 (14%) had repeated a suicide attempt. Higher depression and hopelessness scores, the occurrence of a new suicide attempt, or a new hospitalization belonged to the same factorial dimension (suicidality). Derived from the best-fit structural equation modelling for suicidality as an outcome measure at 6-month follow-up, risk factors among the baseline variables included: major depressive disorder, high depression scores, and high scores for TCI self-transcendence. Only one protective factor emerged: coping–hard work and achievement. Conclusion: In this very high-risk population, some established risk factors (for example, a history of suicide attempts) may not predict suicidality. Our results suggest that adolescents who retain high scores for depression or hopelessness, who remain depressed, or who express a low value for life or an abnormally high connection with the universe are at higher risk for suicidality and should be targeted for more intense intervention. Improving adolescent motivation in school and in work may be protective. Given the sample size, the model should be regarded as exploratory. PMID:25886668

  5. Maternal fatty acid desaturase genotype correlates with infant immune responses at 6 months.

    PubMed

    Muc, Magdalena; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Larsen, Jeppe M; Birch, Sune; Brix, Susanne; Bisgaard, Hans; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2015-09-28

    Breast milk long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) have been associated with changes in early life immune responses and may modulate T-cell function in infancy. We studied the effect of maternal fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genotype and breast milk LCPUFA levels on infants' blood T-cell profiles and ex vivo-produced cytokines after anti-CD3/CD28 stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in 6-month-old infants from the Copenhagen Prospective Study of Asthma in Childhood birth cohort. LCPUFA concentrations of breast milk were assessed at 4 weeks of age, and FADS SNP were determined in both mothers and infants (n 109). In general, breast milk arachidonic acid (AA) levels were inversely correlated with the production of IL-10 (r -0.25; P=0.004), IL-17 (r -0.24; P=0.005), IL-5 (r -0.21; P=0.014) and IL-13 (r -0.17; P=0.047), whereas EPA was positively correlated with the counts of blood regulatory T-cells and cytotoxic T-cells and decreased T-helper cell counts. The minor FADS alleles were associated with lower breast milk AA and EPA, and infants of mothers carrying the minor allele of FADS SNP rs174556 had higher production of IL-10 (r -0.23; P=0.018), IL-17 (r -0.25; P=0.009) and IL-5 (r -0.21; P=0.038) from ex vivo-activated immune cells. We observed no association between T-cell distribution and maternal or infant FADS gene variants. We conclude that increased maternal LCPUFA synthesis and breast milk AA are associated with decreased levels of IL-5, IL-13 (type-2 related), IL-17 (type-17 related) and IL-10 (regulatory immune responses), but not with interferon-γ and TNF-α, which could be due to an effect of the maternal FADS variants on the offspring immune response transferred via breast milk LCPUFA. PMID:26283408

  6. A 6-month follow-up of the effects of an information and communication technology (ICT) training programme on people with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Li-Tsang, Cecilia W P; Lee, Maggie Y F; Yeung, Susanna S S; Siu, Andrew M H; Lam, C S

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the long-term effects of an information and communication technology (ICT) training programme for people with intellectual disabilities (ID). A community-based ICT training programme was designed to enhance the computer skills of people with ID and prepare them to make use of ICT in their daily life. Of the 100 who had participated in the original ICT training programme, 59 of them and their caregivers agreed to participate in the follow-up interview. A computer skills checklist was used to assess the ICT competence of the participants before training, after training, and at the 6-month follow-up assessment. All caregivers were interviewed at the 6-month follow-up session to explore the use of ICT by people with ID and their needs for further training. Results from repeated measures ANOVA showed that participants maintained at the 6-month follow-up the basic ICT skills that they acquired during training [F=13.86, p<0.001]. Caregivers reported that participants spent more time in using the computers, but still needed occasional guidance. They also reported a need to advance their ICT skills beyond the basic computer training. We concluded that ICT training for people with ID would help them in maximizing the benefits of information technology via computers. PMID:16979318

  7. Psychosocial adjustments in patients with prostate cancer from pre-diagnosis to 6 months post-treatment.

    PubMed

    Chien, Ching-Hui; Chuang, Cheng-Keng; Liu, Kuan-Lin; Huang, Xuan-Yi; Liu, Hsueh-Erh

    2016-02-01

    We evaluated changes in psychosocial adjustment over time and its associated factors in prostate cancer patients. A total of 69 patients with prostate cancer were surveyed at pre-diagnosis, 1 month and 6 months post-treatment. The questionnaires distributed to the patients consisted of the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale and the UCLA Prostate Cancer Index. The generalized estimating equations were used to analyse the collected data. The results of adjustments to psychological distress, the domestic environment and the social environment worsened post-treatment. However, the adjustment to health-care orientation was worst at the time of pre-diagnosis and improved during post-treatment. Patients who perceived an unfavourable health status reported poor adjustment in psychological distress. Patients exhibiting poor urinary function poorly adjusted to the domestic environment. Patients with sexual dysfunction exhibited poor adjustment to the social environment. Patients with low education demonstrated poor adjustment to health-care orientation. Further studies should assess the psychosocial adjustment among prostate cancer patients and provide interventions following pre-diagnosis. PMID:25307968

  8. Stroke thrombolysis in New Zealand: data from the first 6 months of the New Zealand Thrombolysis Register.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Purwa; Fink, John; Barber, Peter Alan; Davis, Alan; Lanford, Jeremy; Seymour, Andrea; Wright, Peter; Busby, Wendy; Abernethy, Ginny; Ranta, Annemarei Anna

    2016-01-01

    The New Zealand National Stroke Network introduced a National Stroke Thrombolysis Register on the first of January 2015 to assist with quality assurance and continuous service improvement. In the first 6 months, there were 179 [75 women, mean (SD) age 69.9 (14) years] treated with stroke thrombolysis out of a total of 2,796 ischaemic stroke patients, giving a national thrombolysis rate of 6.4%. The median [Inter-quartile range (IQR)] onset-to-treatment time was 154 (125-190) minutes, and the median (IQR) door-to-needle time was 74.5 (55.7-105.0) minutes. The rate of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage following thrombolysis was 4.4%. These results are similar to other international centres, and indicate an approximate doubling of the proportion of stroke patients treated with stroke thrombolysis since a 2009 national audit. However, there is need for on-going efforts to improve treatment rates and process efficiency, particularly door-toneedle times. PMID:27447135

  9. Evaluation of the teratological and dominant lethal potential of N,N-bis-(2-hydroxyethyl)-p-phenylenediamine sulphate in a 6-month feeding study in rats.

    PubMed

    Burnett, C M; Re, T A; Loehr, R F; Rodriguez, S C; Corbett, J F

    1986-08-01

    N,N-Bis-(2-hydroxyethyl)-p-phenylenediamine sulphate (N,N-Bis) was administered to 40 male and 45 female Sprague-Dawley rats per group by admixture with their diets at levels of 0.03, 0.1 and 0.3% for periods up to 6 months. Methaemoglobin levels were determined at wk 6. After 90 days ten animals/sex/group were killed for studies of possible target organs, haematology and blood chemistry. After 90 days, 25 females in each group were mated to untreated males in a teratology study. At wk 20, 20 males in each group were transferred from the test diets containing N,N-Bis to the control diet and were mated to untreated females in a dominant lethal study. The remaining animals were killed after 6 months for terminal studies (gross examination of organs, haematology and blood chemistry). The males used in the dominant lethal study were also killed at month 6, to serve as a comparison recovery group (gross examination of organs). Feeding of N,N-Bis at levels up to 0.3% in the diet caused a significant reduction in the body weight of male rats. The only signs of gross pathology after either 3 or 6 months of N,N-Bis feeding were darkened thyroids. This effect was noted in the high-dose group at both time intervals and, to a lesser extent, in the mid-dose group at month 6, and it was also seen in most of the high-dose recovery males and in a small number of mid-dose recovery males. No pathological effects were detected microscopically after the feeding of N,N-Bis for 90 days. N,N-Bis was not teratogenic, nor did it induce a dominant lethal effect in this study when administered to rats at levels including those causing borderline toxicity. PMID:3781436

  10. Prognosis of adult men with heat exhaustion with regard to postural stability and neurobehavioral effects: a 6-month follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Chia, Sin-Eng; Teo, Kwang-Joo

    2003-01-01

    The medical complications of heat disorders, including hematological, cardiovascular and renal damage, have been well documented. However, very little has been written on its neurological complications. In an earlier study, we reported that men with heat exhaustion, studied 2 weeks after the acute episode, had significantly more symptoms of neurasthenia, poorer performance in short-term memory and slower reaction time. The cases (as a group) had significantly poorer postural stability. The objective of this study was to assess the prognosis of men with heat exhaustion with regard to postural stability and neurobehavioral functions 12, 3 and 6 months after the acute episode. The study is prospective in design and spans a 2-year period. All soldiers who were diagnosed to have heat exhaustion (cases) from 1 March 1998 were included in the study. For each case, a healthy soldier (matched for age, ethnicity, years of education and military vocation) was recruited to serve as control. Each subject had a neurobehavioral assessment by using the Swedish Performance Evaluation System (SPES), a computerized test battery. The postural stability of the subjects was assessed using a computerized postural sway system. Each subject took the test 2 weeks after the acute episode and repeated the test 3 and 6 months later for duration of 2 years. We report here the findings of 21 heat exhaustion cases and 18 controls, which completed all the three tests (i.e. done 2 weeks after the acute episode and 3 and 6 months later). Significant differences were only detected in some of the neurobehavioral and neurophysiological parameters between the cases and the control for first two tests but not the third test. The prognosis of adult with heat exhaustion is good. There were no significant differences in neurobehavioral tests and postural stability among the cases and controls 612 months after the episode. PMID:12798967

  11. The 6-Month Prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Syndrome (PTSS) Among Older Adults: Validity and Reliability of the PTSS Scale

    PubMed Central

    Préville, Michel; Lamoureux-Lamarche, Catherine; Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Grenier, Sébastien; Potvin, Olivier; Quesnel, Louise; Gontijo-Guerra, Samantha; Mechakra-Tahiri, Samia Djemaa; Berbiche, Djamal

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To document the 6-month prevalence of posttraumatic stress syndrome (PTSS) in the older adult population and the validity of a PTSS Scale in an epidemiologic setting. Method: Data came from the Enquête sur la santé des aînés et l’utilisation des services de santé (ESA Services Study) conducted during 2012–2013 using a probability sample of older adults seeking medical services in primary health clinics. Results: Results showed that a first-order PTSS measurement model consisting of 3 indicators—the number of lifetime traumatic events, the frequency of reactions and symptoms of distress associated with the traumatic events, and the presence of consequences on the social functioning—was plausible. Reliability of the PTSS was 0.82. According to the PTSS, 11.1% of the older adult patients presented with PTSS, but only 21.7% of them reported an impact of their symptoms on their social functioning. The prevalence of older adults meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria for full posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) reached 1.8%, and 1.8% of older adults reached criteria for partial PTSD. Our results also showed that women were more at risk to report PTSS than men and that older adults aged 75 years and older were less likely to report these symptoms than those aged between 65 and 74 years. Conclusions: PTSS is a common mental health problem among adults aged 65 and older and seeking health services in the general medical sector. PMID:25565688

  12. A Case Report of Plasmodium Vivax, Plasmodium Falciparum and Dengue Co-Infection in a 6 Months Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Pande, A; Guharoy, D

    2013-01-01

    India being a tropical country, parasitic infections especially with Plasmodium species are very common in this region. The present case report is that of Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium falciparum and dengue co-infection in a 6 months pregnant lady who was timely diagnosed and appropriately treated followed by a complete recovery along with feto-maternal well-being. PMID:24349838

  13. Compliance and acceptability of maintaining a 6-month pedometer diary in a rural, African American community-based walking intervention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited research has been done on the compliance and acceptability of maintaining the pedometer diaries for an extensive time frame in community-based interventions targeting minority populations. Community "coaches" led participants in a 6-month community-based walking intervention that included we...

  14. Touching up Mental Rotation: Effects of Manual Experience on 6-Month-Old Infants' Mental Object Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Möhring, Wenke; Frick, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In this study, 6-month-olds' ability to mentally rotate objects was investigated using the violation-of-expectation paradigm. Forty infants watched an asymmetric object being moved straight down behind an occluder. When the occluder was lowered, it revealed the original object (possible) or its mirror image (impossible) in one of five…

  15. HUB city steps: a 6-month lifestyle intervention improves blood pressure among a primarily African American community

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of community-based participatory research (CBPR) efforts to address the disproportionate burden of hypertension among African Americans remains largely untested. The objective of this 6-month, non-controlled, pre- post-experimental intervention was to examine the effectiveness of ...

  16. Maternal overweight predicts infant caloric intake from complimentary foods and weight-for-length at age 6 months

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We assessed the role of maternal overweight on infant dietary intake and body size during the first 6 months of life. Participants were from the Beginnings study, an on-going, longitudinal cohort. Trained research assistants measured infant weight and length; weight-for-length percentiles (WL perc...

  17. Frontolimbic Neural Circuitry at 6 Months Predicts Individual Differences in Joint Attention at 9 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elison, Jed T.; Wolff, Jason J.; Heimer, Debra C.; Paterson, Sarah J.; Gu, Hongbin; Hazlett, Heather C.; Styner, Martin; Gerig, Guido; Piven, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Elucidating the neural basis of joint attention in infancy promises to yield important insights into the development of language and social cognition, and directly informs developmental models of autism. We describe a new method for evaluating responding to joint attention performance in infancy that highlights the 9- to 10-month period as a time…

  18. Exploratory study describing 6 month outcomes for young children with autism who receive treatment as usual in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Muratori, Filippo; Narzisi, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Background In the last few years, the results of different studies have confirmed, in different ways, the importance of early intervention for autism. This study aims to evaluate the role of early “as usual” interventions in the outcome of toddlers diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method Seventy children with ASD aged between 24 and 48 months were recruited at different centers in Italy. They were evaluated by blind researchers at baseline and after 6 months of using Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G), Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales, and Vineland Adaptive Behavior scales. Parents filled out the MacArthur Inventory, Social Communication Questionnaire, and Child Behavior Check List. All children were referred to community providers for available interventions. Results At the endpoint, most of the children were still classified as having an ADOS-G classification of ASD. However, 21 (34.2%) passed from autism to autism spectrum, and 3 (4.2%) passed from autism spectrum to no spectrum. Treatment effects were obtained for cognitive functioning, language, adaptive behavior, and child behavior without differences between development-oriented and behavior-oriented interventions. Parent involvement was a mediator for the best clinical outcome. Baseline low impairments of communication, language comprehension, and gesture were predictors of positive outcome. Conclusion Treatment as usual, composed of individual therapy plus school-supported inclusion, may be an effective intervention in ASD. Better initial levels of communication in child and parent involvement during treatment have an important role for a positive outcome. PMID:24748794

  19. Efficacy of a Single Computer-Tailored E-Mail for Smoking Cessation: Results after 6 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poel, Fam Te; Bolman, Catherine; Reubsaet, Astrid; de Vries, Hein

    2009-01-01

    To date, few Internet-delivered smoking cessation interventions have been tested. This study tested the efficacy, understandability, credibility and personal relevance of an e-mail-delivered computer-tailored smoking cessation intervention. It included tailored action plan feedback, as recent studies have demonstrated the importance of planning in…

  20. Vitamin A supplementation every 6 months with retinol in 1 million pre-school children in north India: DEVTA, a cluster-randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Awasthi, Shally; Peto, Richard; Read, Simon; Clark, Sarah; Pande, Vinod; Bundy, Donald; the DEVTA (Deworming and Enhanced Vitamin A) team

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background In north India, vitamin A deficiency (retinol <0·70 μmol/L) is common in pre-school children and 2–3% die at ages 1·0–6·0 years. We aimed to assess whether periodic vitamin A supplementation could reduce this mortality. Methods Participants in this cluster-randomised trial were pre-school children in the defined catchment areas of 8338 state-staffed village child-care centres (under-5 population 1 million) in 72 administrative blocks. Groups of four neighbouring blocks (clusters) were cluster-randomly allocated in Oxford, UK, between 6-monthly vitamin A (retinol capsule of 200 000 IU retinyl acetate in oil, to be cut and dripped into the child's mouth every 6 months), albendazole (400 mg tablet every 6 months), both, or neither (open control). Analyses of retinol effects are by block (36 vs 36 clusters). The study spanned 5 calendar years, with 11 6-monthly mass-treatment days for all children then aged 6–72 months. Annually, one centre per block was randomly selected and visited by a study team 1–5 months after any trial vitamin A to sample blood (for retinol assay, technically reliable only after mid-study), examine eyes, and interview caregivers. Separately, all 8338 centres were visited every 6 months to monitor pre-school deaths (100 000 visits, 25 000 deaths at ages 1·0–6·0 years [the primary outcome]). This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00222547. Findings Estimated compliance with 6-monthly retinol supplements was 86%. Among 2581 versus 2584 children surveyed during the second half of the study, mean plasma retinol was one-sixth higher (0·72 [SE 0·01] vs 0·62 [0·01] μmol/L, increase 0·10 [SE 0·01] μmol/L) and the prevalence of severe deficiency was halved (retinol <0·35 μmol/L 6% vs 13%, decrease 7% [SE 1%]), as was that of Bitot's spots (1·4% vs 3·5%, decrease 2·1% [SE 0·7%]). Comparing the 36 retinol-allocated versus 36 control blocks in analyses of the primary outcome, deaths per child

  1. A 6-month randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of a lifestyle intervention for weight gain management in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with schizophrenia have lower longevity than the general population as a consequence of a combination of risk factors connected to the disease, lifestyle and the use of medications, which are related to weight gain. Methods A multicentric, randomized, controlled-trial was conducted to test the efficacy of a 12-week group Lifestyle Wellness Program (LWP). The program consists of a one-hour weekly session to discuss topics like dietary choices, lifestyle, physical activity and self-esteem with patients and their relatives. Patients were randomized into two groups: standard care (SC) and standard care plus intervention (LWP). Primary outcome was defined as the weight and body mass index (BMI). Results 160 patients participated in the study (81 in the intervention group and 79 in the SC group). On an intent to treat analysis, after three months the patients in the intervention group presented a decrease of 0.48 kg (CI 95% -0.65 to 1.13) while the standard care group showed an increase of 0.48 kg (CI 95% 0.13 to 0.83; p=0.055). At six-month follow-up, there was a significant weight decrease of −1.15 kg, (CI 95% -2.11 to 0.19) in the intervention group compared to a weight increase in the standard care group (+0.5 kg, CI 95% -0.42–1.42, p=0.017). Conclusion In conclusion, this was a multicentric randomized clinical trial with a lifestyle intervention for individuals with schizophrenia, where the intervention group maintained weight and presented a tendency to decrease weight after 6 months. It is reasonable to suppose that lifestyle interventions may be important long-term strategies to avoid the tendency of these individuals to increase weight. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01368406 PMID:23418863

  2. Analysis of motor function in 6-month-old male and female 3xTg-AD mice.

    PubMed

    Stover, Kurt R; Campbell, Mackenzie A; Van Winssen, Christine M; Brown, Richard E

    2015-03-15

    The 3xTg-AD mouse has high validity as a model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) because it develops both amyloid beta plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Human patients with AD typically develop motor deficits, which worsen as the disease progresses, but 3xTg-AD mice have been reported to show enhanced motor abilities. We investigated the motor behaviour phenotype of male and female 3xTg-AD and B6129SF2 wildtype mice on a battery of motor behaviours at 6 months of age. Compared to wildtype mice, the 3xTg-AD mice had enhanced motor performance on the Rotarod, but worse performance on the grid suspension task. In gait analysis 3xTg-AD mice had a longer stride length and made more foot slips on the balance beam than wildtype mice. There was no overall difference in voluntary wheel-running activity between genotypes, but there was a disruption in circadian activity rhythm in 3xTg-AD mice. In some motor tasks, such as the Rotarod and balance beam, females appeared to perform better than males, but this sex differences was accounted for by differences in body weight. Our results indicate that while the 3xTg-AD mice show enhanced performance on the Rotarod, they have poorer performance on other motor behaviour tasks, indicating that their motor behaviour phenotype is more complex than previously reported. The presence of the P301L transgene may explain the enhancement of Rotarod performance but the poorer performance on other motor behaviour tasks may be due to other transgenes. PMID:25486177

  3. Intrastromal Corneal Ring Segment Implantation (Keraring 355°) in Patients with Central Keratoconus: 6-Month Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Jadidi, Khosrow; Mosavi, Seyed Aliasghar; Nejat, Farhad; Naderi, Mostafa; Janani, Leila; Serahati, Sara

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate the efficacy and safety of Keraring 355° intrastromal corneal ring segment (ICRS) implantation aided by PocketMaker microkeratome for the correction of keratoconus. Patients underwent ICRS insertion using mechanical dissection with PocketMaker microkeratome and completed 6 months of follow-up. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), refraction, topographic findings, safety, efficacy index, and adverse events were reported for six months postoperatively. We evaluated 15 eyes of 15 patients (12 men) with a mean age of 28.87 ± 6.94 years (range 21–49 years). At final postoperative examination, there was a statistically significant reduction in the spherical equivalent refractive error compared to preoperative measurements (−5.46 ± 1.52 to −2.01 ± 1.63 D, P < 0.001). Mean preoperative UCVA (logMAR) before implantation was 0.79 ± 0.48, and postoperative UCVA was 0.28 ± 0.15, P = 0.001. Mean preoperative BSCVA (logMAR) before implantation was 0.36 ± 0.21; at final follow-up examination BSCVA was 0.18 ± 0.9, P = 0.009. Mean K decreased from 48.33 to 43.31 D, P < 0.001. All patients were satisfied with ICRS implantation; 86.7% were moderately to very happy with the results. No intraoperative or postoperative complications were demonstrated. This preliminary study shows that ICRS (Keraring 355°) implantation is an efficient, cost-effective, and minimally invasive procedure for improving visual acuity in nipple type keratoconic corneas. PMID:25685395

  4. Safety and efficacy of a 6-month home-based exercise program in patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Bankolé, Landry-Cyrille; Millet, Guillaume Y.; Temesi, John; Bachasson, Damien; Ravelojaona, Marion; Wuyam, Bernard; Verges, Samuel; Ponsot, Elodie; Antoine, Jean-Christophe; Kadi, Fawzi; Féasson, Léonard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Previous randomized controlled trials investigating exercise training programs in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) patients are scarce and of short duration only. This study assessed the safety and efficacy of a 6-month home-based exercise training program on fitness, muscle, and motor function in FSHD patients. Methods: Sixteen FSHD patients were randomly assigned to training (TG) and control (CG) groups (both n = 8) in a home-based exercise intervention. Training consisted of cycling 3 times weekly for 35 minutes (combination of strength, high-intensity interval, and low-intensity aerobic) at home for 24 weeks. Patients in CG also performed an identical training program (CTG) after 24 weeks. The primary outcome was change in peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) measured every 6 weeks. The principal secondary outcomes were maximal quadriceps strength (MVC) and local quadriceps endurance every 12 weeks. Other outcome measures included maximal aerobic power (MAP) and experienced fatigue every 6 weeks, 6-minute walking distance every 12 weeks, and muscle characteristics from vastus lateralis biopsies taken pre- and postintervention. Results: The compliance rate was 91% in TG. Significant improvements with training were observed in the VO2 peak (+19%, P = 0.002) and MAP by week 6 and further to week 24. Muscle endurance, MVC, and 6-minute walking distance increased and experienced fatigue decreased. Muscle fiber cross-sectional area and citrate synthase activity increased by 34% (P = 0.008) and 46% (P = 0.003), respectively. Dystrophic pathophysiologic patterns were not exacerbated. Similar improvements were experienced by TG and CTG. Conclusions: A combined strength and interval cycling exercise-training program compatible with patients’ daily professional and social activities leads to significant functional benefits without compromising muscle tissue. PMID:27495097

  5. Effects of Concurrent Topotecan and Radiation on 6-Month Progression-Free Survival in the Primary Treatment of Glioblastoma Multiforme

    SciTech Connect

    Grabenbauer, Gerhard G. Gerber, Klaus-Dieter; Ganslandt, Oliver; Richter, Andrea M.S.; Klautke, Gunther; Birkmann, Josef; Meyer, Martin

    2009-09-01

    Purpose: To report a prospective, randomized, Phase II trial of radiotherapy with and without topotecan for the treatment of glioblastoma. Patients and Methods: Inclusion criteria were histology of glioblastoma, age <60 years, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group status 0-2. Patients were stratified according to recursive partitioning analysis class, center, and enzyme-inducing antiepileptic medication. Magnetic resonance imaging scans, neurologic examinations, and quality of life assessments were done every 3 months. The primary endpoint was the progression-free survival rate at 6 months (6-m-PFS). This trial was designed as an exploratory, randomized, Phase II trial with an accrual of 140 patients to detect a difference of 15-20% in 6-m-PFS. An interim analysis was scheduled after 60 patients. Median follow-up was 14 months (range, 1-50 months). Results: The 6-m-PFS was 56% and 40% for patients with and without topotecan, respectively. This benefit disappeared within 2 months. Mean (range) progression-free survival time was 8 (5-10.9) months and 6.7 (4-9.5) months for patients with and without topotecan, respectively. The corresponding 2-year-overall survival rates were 28% vs. 22% (nonsignificant difference), and mean (range) survival time was 20.7 (13.9-27.5) months vs. 18.9 (13.5-24.4) months (nonsignificant difference). Conclusions: A slight but measurable increase of 16% was detected in 6-m-PFS for patients receiving topotecan with radiation as compared with patients having radiotherapy alone. These data might support further investigations into topotecan for the treatment of glioblastoma.

  6. Comparison of Physical Examination and Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography 4-6 Months After Radiotherapy to Assess Residual Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Zundel, M. Tracy; Michel, Michelle A.; Schultz, Christopher J.; Maheshwari, Mohit; Wong, Stuart J.; Campbell, Bruce H.; Massey, Becky L.; Blumin, Joel; Wilson, J. Frank; Wang, Dian

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively compare fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and physical examination 4-6 months after radiotherapy for assessing residual head-and-neck cancer (HNC). Methods and Materials: From July 2002 through March 2006, 52 HNC patients underwent definitive radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Categoric assessments of residual tumor by PET/CT and physical examination 4-6 months after therapy were correlated and compared with clinical outcomes. Pretreatment data, including tumor stage and primary site standardized uptake value, were also gathered retrospectively and correlated with clinical outcomes. Median follow-up time was 58 months. Results: Twenty-one patients had either locoregionally 'positive' (17 of 21) or 'equivocal' (4 of 21) PET/CT scans, whereas 31 patients had locoregionally negative scans. Four patients failed treatment and had biopsy-confirmed residual or recurrent local disease. All patients, including patients with locally suspicious scans or examinations who refused biopsies, were followed clinically for a minimum of 29 months after therapy, with no other cases of treatment failure detected during this time. No patient had residual nodal disease after therapy. Sensitivities of PET/CT vs. physical examination for early detection of treatment failure were 100% vs. 50%, whereas the specificities of the two modalities were 64.6% vs. 89.6%, respectively. Higher initial T stage and American Joint Commission on Cancer stage correlated with increased incidence of positive/equivocal PET/CT results and treatment failure. Maximal standardized uptake value was not predictive of any clinical outcome. Conclusions: A negative result on PET/CT obtained 4-6 months after radiotherapy is highly sensitive and correlates with successful locoregional control. Patients with negative scans may reasonably be spared invasive diagnostic procedures, such as biopsy and neck dissection, unless recurrent disease is suspected

  7. Verapamil-sensitive idiopathic left ventricular tachycardia in a 6-month-old: unique considerations in diagnosis and management in an infant.

    PubMed

    Hiremath, Gurumurthy; Li, Walter; Foltz, Rhonda; Roy-Burman, Arup; Cocalis, Mark; Tanel, Ronn E

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic left ventricular tachycardia of the Belhassen type is rare in infants. We present a 6-month-old infant girl with a wide-complex tachycardia with right bundle branch block QRS morphology, a superior axis, and atrioventricular dissociation, consistent with a left anterior fascicular tachycardia. Initial echocardiogram revealed depressed ventricular function. The tachycardia was unresponsive to therapeutic trials of adenosine, esmolol, procainamide, and lidocaine. There was brief conversion of the tachycardia to sinus rhythm with transesophageal atrial overdrive pacing, suggesting a reentrant mechanism of the arrhythmia. Ultimately, the judicious administration of intravenous verapamil resulted in termination of the arrhythmia, which has been sustained on oral therapy. PMID:25526021

  8. Distinguishing Mother-Infant Interaction from Stranger-Infant Interaction at 2, 4, and 6 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Ann E.; Power, Michelle; Mcquaid, Nancy; Ward, Ashley; Rochat, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Observers watched videotaped face-to-face mother-infant and stranger-infant interactions of 12 infants at 2, 4, or 6 months of age. Half of the observers saw each mother paired with her own infant and another infant of the same age (mother tapes) and half saw each infant paired with his or her mother and with a stranger (infant tapes). Observers…

  9. The Impact of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder on the 6-Month Outcomes in Collaborative Care Management for Depression.

    PubMed

    Angstman, Kurt B; Marcelin, Alberto; Gonzalez, Cesar A; Kaufman, Tara K; Maxson, Julie A; Williams, Mark D

    2016-07-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has symptoms that exist along a spectrum that includes depression and the 2 disorders may coexist. Collaborative care management (CCM) has been successfully used in outpatient mental health management (especially depression and anxiety) with favorable outcomes. Despite this, there exist limited data on clinical impact of a diagnosis of PTSD on depression outcomes in CCM. The present study used a retrospective cohort design to examine the association of PTSD with depression outcomes among 2121 adult patients involved in CCM in a primary care setting. Using standardized self-report measures, baseline depression scores and 6-month outcome scores were evaluated. Seventy-six patients had a diagnosis of PTSD documented in their electronic medical record. Patients with PTSD reported more severe depressive symptoms at baseline (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score of 17.9 vs 15.4, P < .001) than those without PTSD. Controlling for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, a clinical diagnosis of PTSD was associated with lower odds (AOR = 0.457, CI = 0.274-0.760, P = .003) of remission at 6 months and was also associated with higher odds (AOR = 3.112, CI = 1.921-5.041, P < .001) of persistent depressive symptoms at 6 months after CCM. When coexisting with depression, a diagnosis of PTSD was associated with worse depression outcomes, when managed with CCM in primary care. Opportunities still exist for more aggressive management of depression in these patients to help improve remission as well as reduce persistent depressive symptoms. PMID:26994060

  10. The Edge Factor in Early Word Segmentation: Utterance-Level Prosody Enables Word Form Extraction by 6-Month-Olds

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Elizabeth K.; Seidl, Amanda; Tyler, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Past research has shown that English learners begin segmenting words from speech by 7.5 months of age. However, more recent research has begun to show that, in some situations, infants may exhibit rudimentary segmentation capabilities at an earlier age. Here, we report on four perceptual experiments and a corpus analysis further investigating the initial emergence of segmentation capabilities. In Experiments 1 and 2, 6-month-olds were familiarized with passages containing target words located either utterance medially or at utterance edges. Only those infants familiarized with passages containing target words aligned with utterance edges exhibited evidence of segmentation. In Experiments 3 and 4, 6-month-olds recognized familiarized words when they were presented in a new acoustically distinct voice (male rather than female), but not when they were presented in a phonologically altered manner (missing the initial segment). Finally, we report corpus analyses examining how often different word types occur at utterance boundaries in different registers. Our findings suggest that edge-aligned words likely play a key role in infants’ early segmentation attempts, and also converge with recent reports suggesting that 6-month-olds’ have already started building a rudimentary lexicon. PMID:24421892

  11. Coordination and symmetry patterns during the drop vertical jump, 6-months after first-time lateral ankle sprain.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Cailbhe; Bleakley, Chris; Hertel, Jay; Caulfield, Brian; Ryan, John; Sweeney, Kevin; Patterson, Matthew R; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the adaptive movement and motor control patterns of a group with a 6-month history of first-time lateral ankle sprain (LAS) injury during a drop vertical jump (DVJ) task. Fifty-one participants with a 6-month history of first-time acute LAS injury and twenty controls performed a DVJ task. 3D kinematic and sagittal plane kinetic profiles were plotted for the lower extremity joints of both limbs for the drop jump (phase 1) and drop landing (phase 2) phases of the DVJ. Inter-limb symmetry and the rate of impact modulation (RIM) relative to bodyweight (BW) during both phases of the DVJ were also determined. LAS participants displayed bilateral increases in knee flexion and an increase in ankle inversion during phases 1 and 2, respectively. They also displayed reduced ankle plantar flexion on their injured limb during both phases of the DVJ (p < 0.05); increased inter-limb asymmetry of RIM was noted for both phases of the DVJ, while the moment-of-force profile exhibited bilaterally greater hip extensor dominance during phase 1. Participants with a 6-month history of first-time LAS display some movement patterns consistent with those observed in chronic ankle instability populations during similar tasks. PMID:25940807

  12. Global and local processing of incidental information and memory retrieval at 6 months.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, R S; Rovee-Collier, C; Shyi, G C

    1994-04-01

    In five experiments, we examined the role of global and local cues in memory retrieval in infancy. Six-month-old infants were trained at home in a distinctive context (playpen liner) to kick to move a mobile. The liners were yellow and displayed either green stripes, green squares aligned vertically in stripe-like columns, or green squares in a grid pattern. The stripes and columns liners had a similar global configuration but different local components; the columns and grid liners had identical local components but different global configurations. When infants were tested 24 h after training in the presence of context liners that differed from the training context in either global configurations or local features, their memory retrieval was disrupted (Experiments 1 and 2). However, a change from stripes to columns failed to disrupt memory retrieval, even though the reverse change, from columns to stripes, did. Experiments 3, 4, and 5 revealed that this asymmetry was due to the fact that, when discriminative local information is not directly associated with training, a postperceptual strategy enables infants to disregard a mismatch in local information between training and test contexts and to generalize on the basis of a match in global information during the 24-h retention test. Thus, infants encode and remember for substantial periods of time both global configuration information and local component information in the incidental context in which an event occurs and flexibly utilize this information when responding to new events. PMID:8169579

  13. Oxidoreductive homeostasis in alcohol-dependent male patients and the risk of alcohol drinking relapse in a 6-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Budzyński, Jacek; Ziółkowski, Marcin; Kłopocka, Maria; Czarnecki, Damian

    2016-02-01

    Disturbances in the central signaling of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to energy intake are recognized as taking part in appetitive and consummative phases of eating disorders. This study aimed to verify the hypothesis that blood oxidoreductive balance can also affect demand for energy substances, such as alcoholic beverages in alcohol-dependent individuals, as well as the severity of their alcohol dependence and risk of drinking relapse. The following values were determined in the blood of 54 alcohol-dependent male patients after alcohol withdrawal, again after 4 weeks and after 6 months: the aldehyde products of lipid peroxidation (malonyl dialdehyde [MDA] and 4-hydroxynonenal [4-HNE]), nitric oxide (NO) metabolites, total antioxidant status (TAS), the blood activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GSHred), blood glucose, and lipids. Alcoholics who relapsed during 6 months of observation (n = 31, 57%) compared with patients who maintained alcohol abstinence for 6 months (n = 23, 43%) differed only in relation to initial and final NO metabolite serum concentrations. The risk of alcohol drinking relapse was lower in patients with an above-median initial blood concentration of NO metabolites and TAS. The oxidative stress parameters correlated with alcohol-dependence severity markers. No significant correlations between the studied antioxidant balance parameters and markers of nutritional status, including blood glucose and lipids, were found. Although the results of our study have some limitations and require further investigation, they suggest the role of oxidoreductive balance in the pathomechanisms of alcohol dependence and drinking relapse. In addition, due to a lack of association found between blood oxidative stress parameters and BMI, blood glucose, and lipid concentrations, they show the presence of disturbances in systemic ROS signaling in response to energy availability in alcoholics after

  14. 14-day prulifloxacin treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis in women with recurrent urinary tract infections: a prospective, open-label, pilot trial with 6-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Cai, T; Mazzoli, S; Nesi, G; Boddi, V; Mondaini, N; Bartoletti, R

    2009-11-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) are very common in otherwise healthy young women, and can have a very negative social and economic impact. In order to evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of a 14-day course of prulifloxacin orally administered once daily, 51 young female patients, attending the same STD center between may and June 2007 for symptoms of cystitis, with a history of recurrent UTI and urine culture positive for uropathogens, were enrolled in this prospective study. Microbiological and clinical efficacy was tested over three follow-up visits at 1, 3 and 6 months. Quality of life (QoL) was measured and the impact of prulifloxacin in modifying the Lactobacillus vaginal flora was also evaluated. At baseline, the pathogens most commonly isolated were Enterococcus faecalis (43.2%) and Escherichia coli (27.5%). 41 of the 51 women, (80.3%) had Lactobacillus spp. in vaginal samples at baseline. microbiological results at follow-up examinations were as follows: after 1 month, 47 patients were recurrence-free and 4 had recurrence; after 3 months, 41 were recurrence-free, while 6 reported recurrence; finally, after 6 months, 36 were recurrence-free and 5 had recurrence. A statistically significant difference was reported between the QoL questionnaire mean scores at baseline (0.63), 1 (0.77), 3 (0.77) and 6 months (0.78) after treatment (all p<0.001). the vaginal swab cultures demonstrated that Lactobacillus spp. flora was maintained in 38 out of the 41 (92.6%) patients who had positive vaginal swab sample at baseline. in conclusion, a 14-day administration of prulifloxacin 600 mg is a safe, well tolerated and effective treatment for the management of UTI in young women. PMID:19933045

  15. Specificity and 6-Month Durability of Immune Responses Induced by DNA and Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Ankara Vaccines Expressing HIV-1 Virus-Like Particles

    PubMed Central

    Goepfert, Paul A.; Elizaga, Marnie L.; Seaton, Kelly; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Montefiori, David C.; Sato, Alicia; Hural, John; DeRosa, Stephen C.; Kalams, Spyros A.; McElrath, M. Juliana; Keefer, Michael C.; Baden, Lindsey R.; Lama, Javier R.; Sanchez, Jorge; Mulligan, Mark J.; Buchbinder, Susan P.; Hammer, Scott M.; Koblin, Beryl A.; Pensiero, Michael; Butler, Chris; Moss, Bernard; Robinson, Harriet L.; Donastorg, Yeycy; Qin, Li; Lawrence, Dale; Cardinali, Massimo; Bae, Jin; Holt, Renée; Redinger, Huguette; Johannessen, Jan; Broder, Gail; Moody-White, Jerri; McKay, Butch; Calazans, Gabriela; Bentley, Carter; Kakinami, Lisa; Skibinski, Katie; Estep, Scharla; Tseng, Jenny; Swenson, Molly; Madenwald, Tamra; Overton, Edgar Turner; Edupuganti, Srilatha; Rouphael, Nadine; Whitaker, Jennifer; Hay, C Mhorag; Bunce, Catherine A; Gonzales, Pedro; Hurtado, Juan Carlos; Dolin, Raphael; Mayer, Ken; Walsh, Steven; Johnson, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Background. Clade B DNA and recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vaccines producing virus-like particles displaying trimeric membrane-bound envelope glycoprotein (Env) were tested in a phase 2a trial in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–uninfected adults for safety, immunogenicity, and 6-month durability of immune responses. Methods. A total of 299 individuals received 2 doses of JS7 DNA vaccine and 2 doses of MVA/HIV62B at 0, 2, 4, and 6 months, respectively (the DDMM regimen); 3 doses of MVA/HIV62B at 0, 2, and 6 months (the MMM regimen); or placebo injections. Results. At peak response, 93.2% of the DDMM group and 98.4% of the MMM group had binding antibodies for Env. These binding antibodies were more frequent and of higher magnitude for the transmembrane subunit (gp41) than the receptor-binding subunit (gp120) of Env. For both regimens, response rates were higher for CD4+ T cells (66.4% in the DDMM group and 43.1% in the MMM group) than for CD8+ T cells (21.8% in the DDMM group and 14.9% in the MMM group). Responding CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were biased toward Gag, and >70% produced 2 or 3 of the 4 cytokines evaluated (ie, interferon γ, interleukin 2, tumor necrosis factor α, and granzyme B). Six months after vaccination, the magnitudes of antibodies and T-cell responses had decreased by <3-fold. Conclusions. DDMM and MMM vaccinations with virus-like particle–expressing immunogens elicited durable antibody and T-cell responses. PMID:24403557

  16. Randomized controlled trial of primary care physician motivational interviewing versus brief advice to engage adolescents with an Internet-based depression prevention intervention: 6-month outcomes and predictors of improvement.

    PubMed

    Hoek, Willemijn; Marko, Monika; Fogel, Joshua; Schuurmans, Josien; Gladstone, Tracy; Bradford, Nathan; Domanico, Rocco; Fagan, Blake; Bell, Carl; Reinecke, Mark A; Van Voorhees, Benjamin W

    2011-12-01

    We believe that primary care physicians could play a key role in engaging youth with a depression prevention intervention. We developed CATCH-IT (Competent Adulthood Transition with Cognitive Behavioral and Interpersonal Training), which is an adolescent Internet-based behavior change model. We conducted a randomized comparison of two approaches in engaging adolescents with the Internet intervention: primary care physician (PCP) motivational interview + CATCH-IT Internet program (MI) vs PCP brief advice + CATCH-IT Internet program (BA). The participants (N = 84) were recruited by screening for risk of depression in 13 primary care practices. We compared depressive disorder outcomes between groups and within groups over 6 months and examined the potential predictors and moderators of outcomes across both study arms. Depressive symptom scores declined from baseline to 6 weeks with these statistically significant reductions sustained at the 6 months follow-up in both groups. No significant interactions with treatment condition were found. However, by 6 months, the MI group demonstrated significantly fewer depressive episodes and reported less hopelessness as compared with the BA group. Hierarchical linear modeling regressions showed higher ratings of ease of use of the Internet program predicting lower depressive symptom levels over 6 months. In conclusion, a primary care/Internet-based intervention model among adolescents demonstrated reductions in depressed mood over 6 months and may result in fewer depressive episodes. PMID:22061038

  17. Effect of treatment for 6 months with human parathyroid hormone (1-34) peptide in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Jerome, C P; Johnson, C S; Vafai, H T; Kaplan, K C; Bailey, J; Capwell, B; Fraser, F; Hansen, L; Ramsay, H; Shadoan, M; Lees, C J; Thomsen, J S; Mosekilde, L

    1999-09-01

    A potential negative side effect of intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) therapy to treat osteoporosis is the loss of cortical bone concomitant with increased cancellous bone mass. We addressed this issue by studying the effects of PTH on whole-body, axial, and appendicular bone mass in an animal model with haversian cortical bone remodeling. Ovariectomized, young adult female cynomolgus monkeys were assigned to placebo (n = 9) or PTH groups (n = 10). The PTH group received 10 microg/kg synthetic human PTH(1-34) peptide by subcutaneous injection, 3 days/week for 6 months, and the placebo group received vehicle. Multiple endpoints of bone mass, strength, and turnover in the axial and appendicular skeleton were assessed, including dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), quantitative computed tomography (qCT), analysis of serum (calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase) and urinary (calcium and creatinine) biomarkers, histomorphometry, and biomechanical testing. Compared with placebo-treated animals, PTH-treated monkeys had no change in whole-body bone mass, but a 6.7% increase in spinal areal bone mineral density (aBMD) was observed. Cortical bone mass measured by qCT at appendicular sites was not affected by PTH treatment, but there were significant increases in cancellous bone mass in the proximal tibia, and a similar trend in the distal radius. Small, transient increases in serum and urinary calcium were observed, but there were no treatment-related effects on other biochemical endpoints. Increased bone formation rate (BFR/BV) in the midradius and midfemur was accompanied by a nonsignificant increase in midfemur porosity. Increased vertebral cancellous bone volume (BV/TV) was associated with greater trabecular and interstitial thickness with no effect on wall thickness. Increases in bone strength were observed in both axial (vertebral maximum stress and load at fracture) and appendicular (femoral neck

  18. Dental auscultation for nursing personnel as a model of oral health care education: development, baseline, and 6-month follow-up assessments.

    PubMed

    Wårdh, Inger; Berggren, Ulf; Hallberg, Lillemor R M; Andersson, Lars; Sörensen, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    Oral health care has been shown to have low priority in nursing and has been only partly successful. To create more positive effects than those achieved through traditional oral health care education, this project tested an educational model for nursing staff personnel. In addition to traditional oral health care education, some of the nursing staff members passed an additional dental auscultation period and served as oral care aides. The aides were responsible for the oral health care of the residents at their nursing facilities (intervention group). The intervention nursing facilities were compared with facilities where nursing personnel only received a traditional oral health care education program. Assessments were made at baseline and at a 6-month follow-up. At follow-up it was shown that the nursing staff in the intervention group gave higher priority to the oral health care work than the nursing staff in the control group. PMID:11905448

  19. FedEx Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation: 6-Month Interim Report

    SciTech Connect

    Barnitt, R.

    2010-05-01

    This interim report presents partial (six months) results for a technology evaluation of gasoline hybrid electric parcel delivery trucks operated by FedEx in and around Los Angeles, CA. A 12 month in-use technology evaluation comparing in-use fuel economy and maintenance costs of GHEVs and comparative diesel parcel delivery trucks was started in April 2009. Comparison data was collected and analyzed for in-use fuel economy and fuel costs, maintenance costs, total operating costs, and vehicle uptime. In addition, this interim report presents results of parcel delivery drive cycle collection and analysis activities as well as emissions and fuel economy results of chassis dynamometer testing of a gHEV and a comparative diesel truck at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) ReFUEL laboratory. A final report will be issued when 12 months of in-use data have been collected and analyzed.

  20. Low self-esteem as a vulnerability differentially predicts symptom dimensions of depression in university students in China: A 6-month longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xinyue; Wang, Danyang; Yu, Ping; Yao, Shuqiao; Xiao, Jing

    2014-12-01

    This 6-month longitudinal study examined how self-esteem as a vulnerability differentially predicts symptom dimensions of depression in a sample of university students from Hunan Province, China. Baseline and 6-month follow-up data were obtained from 659 university students. During an initial assessment, participants completed measures assessing their low self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and the occurrence of daily hassle. Participants subsequently completed measures assessing daily hassle and depressive symptoms once per month for 6 months. Higher low self-esteem scores were associated with greater increases in the somatic complaints and positive affect dimensions, but not the depressed affect and interpersonal problem dimensions of depressive symptoms following daily hassle in Chinese university students. The results of the current study suggest that low self-esteem plays a significant role in the etiology and course of depressive symptoms that develop in response to exposure to daily hassles. Consistent with the vulnerability-stress model of depression, the results suggest that low self-esteem serves as a risk factor and daily hassles serve as a precipitating factor. PMID:26272119

  1. A result on quasi-periodic solutions of a nonlinear beam equation with a quasi-periodic forcing term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Si, Jianguo

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, a quasi-periodically forced nonlinear beam equation {u_{tt}+u_{xxxx}+μ u+\\varepsilonφ(t)h(u)=0} with hinged boundary conditions is considered, where μ > 0, {\\varepsilon} is a small positive parameter, {φ} is a real analytic quasi-periodic function in t with a frequency vector ω = ( ω 1, ω 2 . . . , ω m ), and the nonlinearity h is a real analytic odd function of the form {h(u)=η_1u+η_{2bar{r}+1}u^{2bar{r}+1}+sum_{k≥ bar{r}+1}η_{2k+1}u^{2k+1},η_1,η_{2bar{r}+1} neq0, bar{r} in {mathbb {N}}.} The above equation admits a quasi-periodic solution.

  2. Operational point of neural cardiovascular regulation in humans up to 6 months in space.

    PubMed

    Verheyden, B; Liu, J; Beckers, F; Aubert, A E

    2010-03-01

    Entering weightlessness affects central circulation in humans by enhancing venous return and cardiac output. We tested whether the operational point of neural cardiovascular regulation in space sets accordingly to adopt a level close to that found in the ground-based horizontal position. Heart rate (HR), finger blood and brachial blood pressure (BP), and respiratory frequency were collected in 11 astronauts from nine space missions. Recordings were made in supine and standing positions at least 10 days before launch and during spaceflight (days 5-19, 45-67, 77-116, 146-180). Cross-correlation analyses of HR and systolic BP were used to measure three complementary aspects of cardiac baroreflex modulation: 1) baroreflex sensitivity, 2) number of effective baroreflex estimates, and 3) baroreflex time delay. A fixed breathing protocol was performed to measure respiratory sinus arrhythmia and low-frequency power of systolic BP variability. We found that HR and mean arterial pressure did not differ from preflight supine values for up to 6 mo in space. Respiration frequency tended to decrease during prolonged spaceflight. Concerning neural markers of cardiovascular regulation, we observed in-flight adaptations toward homeostatic conditions similar to those found in the ground-based supine position. Surprisingly, this was not the case for baroreflex time delay distribution, which had somewhat longer latencies in space. Except for this finding, our results confirm that the operational point of neural cardiovascular regulation in space sets to a level close to that of an Earth-based supine position. This adaptation level suggests that circulation is chronically relaxed for at least 6 mo in space. PMID:20075261

  3. A preliminary 6-month prospective study examining self-reported religious preference, religiosity/spirituality, and retention at a Jewish residential treatment center for substance-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Parhami, Iman; Davtian, Margarit; Collard, Michael; Lopez, Jean; Fong, Timothy W

    2014-07-01

    Although there is a substantial amount of research suggesting that higher levels of religiosity/spirituality (R/S) are associated with better treatment outcomes of substance-related disorders, no studies have explored this relationship at a faith-based residential treatment center. The objective of this prospective study is to explore the relationship between R/S, self-reported religious preference, and retention at a Jewish residential treatment center for substance-related disorders. Using the Daily Spiritual Experience Scale, R/S levels were assessed for 33 subjects at baseline, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months. Results demonstrated a significant relationship between baseline R/S level and retention at 6 months, while R/S levels were unchanged during the course of treatment. Notably, no relationship was found between self-reported religious affiliation and retention. This study demonstrates that patients' R/S level, rather than religious affiliation, is a possible predictor for better outcome at faith-based residential centers for substance-related disorders. PMID:22460083

  4. Antimicrobial comparison on effectiveness of endodontic therapy and endodontic therapy combined with photo-disinfection on patients with periapical lesion: a 6 month follow-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcez, Aguinaldo S.; Núñez, Silvia C.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Ribeiro, Martha S.

    2008-03-01

    This study compares the antimicrobial effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) combined to endodontic treatment with conventional endodontic treatment alone in patients with necrotic pulp and has a 6-month radiographic follow up comparing the healing of periapical lesions. Fifteen patients with periapical lesion and requiring root canal treatment were selected. Microbiological samples were taken after accessing the root canal, conventional manual endodontic therapy (group 1 n=5) and after accessing the canal, endodontic therapy and PDT (group 2 n=10). All the root canals were filled with a calcium hydroxide paste for 1 week. Radiographs were taken after obturation and following 6 months. Endodontic therapy alone presented an 87% reduction in microorganisms while the combination with PDT had a 95% reduction. Radiographic follow up showed 32% higher reduction in the lesion area in PDT group. Results suggest that the use of PDT added to conventional endodontic treatment leads to a further major reduction of microbial load. PDT is an efficient alternative to chemical antimicrobial agents. It is a non-cumulative local treatment, which may be an appropriate approach for the treatment of infections in the oral cavity.

  5. A Preliminary 6-Month Prospective Study Examining Self-reported Religious Preference, Religiosity/Spirituality, and Retention at a Jewish Residential Treatment Center for Substance-Related Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Davtian, Margarit; Collard, Michael; Lopez, Jean; Fong, Timothy W.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is a substantial amount of research suggesting that higher levels of religiosity/spirituality (R/S) are associated with better treatment outcomes of substance-related disorders, no studies have explored this relationship at a faith-based residential treatment center. The objective of this prospective study is to explore the relationship between R/S, self-reported religious preference, and retention at a Jewish residential treatment center for substance-related disorders. Using the Daily Spiritual Experience Scale, R/S levels were assessed for 33 subjects at baseline, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months. Results demonstrated a significant relationship between baseline R/S level and retention at 6 months, while R/S levels were unchanged during the course of treatment. Notably, no relationship was found between self-reported religious affiliation and retention. This study demonstrates that patients’ R/S level, rather than religious affiliation, is a possible predictor for better outcome at faith-based residential centers for substance-related disorders. PMID:22460083

  6. Smos Instrument Performance and Calibration after 4 Years and 6 Months in Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Neira, Manuel; Corbella, Ignasi; Torres, Francesc; Kainulainen, Juha; Oliva, Roger; Closa, Josep; Cabot, François; Khazaal, Ali; Anterrieu, Eric; Barbosa, Jose; Gutierrez, Antonio; Freitas, Sofia; Tenerelli, Joe; Martin-Porqueras, Fernando; Díez-García, Raul; Fauste, Jorge; Delwart, Steven; Crapolicchio, Raffaele; Suess, Martin

    2014-05-01

    cancellation algorithms, including or not the limited set of Sun acquisition responses which are available. The reduction of the spatial ripple and the residual land-sea contamination will require further understanding of fundamental image reconstruction issues as well as more elaborated ways to compute and apply the Ocean Target Transformation. Finally, the mitigation of the temporal variations will be attempted using a more sophisticated model of the front-end losses of the receivers, applied to the current instrument configuration as well as to the so called ALL-LICEF mode. An overview of the results of the second mission reprocessing at Level-1 and the progress achieved in both calibration and image reconstruction by April 2014, as anticipated above, will be presented in this contribution.

  7. Effectiveness of 6 Months of Tailored Text Message Reminders for Obese Male Participants in a Worksite Weight Loss Program: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sohee; Steinhubl, Steven; Kim, Sohye; Bae, Woo Kyung; Han, Jong Soo; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Lee, Keehyuck; Kim, Mi Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background Worksite nutrition and physical activity interventions are important to help overweight and obese employees lose weight, but costs and insufficient sustained motivation prevent the majority of these programs from succeeding. Tailored text messaging in aiding weight management has been effective in several studies, but no studies have evaluated the effect of a tailored text message service on weight loss in a worksite health promotion program. Objective We studied the efficacy of a tailored text-messaging intervention for obese male participants in a worksite weight loss program of 6 months duration. Methods The study was an unblinded, randomized controlled trial. Men with a body mass index greater than 25 kg/m2 were recruited from the Korea District Heating Corporation, the Korea Expressway Corporation, and the Korea Gas Corporation. The participants were identified by nurse managers. Participants were randomly allocated to 1 of the following 2 groups for 24 weeks: (1) intervention group, which received tailored text message reminders every other day plus 4 offline education sessions and brief counseling with monthly weight check by nurses for weight control over 6 months and (2) control group, which received the 4 offline education sessions and brief counseling with monthly weight check by nurses about weight control over 6 months. The primary outcome was the difference in weight loss at 6 months. A mixed-model repeated-measures analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of the intervention group’s weight loss compared with the control group. Results A total of 205 obese men were randomized into either the intervention (n=104) or the control group (n=101). At the end of 6 months, the intervention group (n=63) had lost 1.71 kg (95% CI –2.53 to –0.88) and the control group (n=59) had lost 1.56 kg (95% CI –2.45 to –0.66); the difference between the 2 groups was not significant (mean difference –0.15, 95% CI –1.36 to 1.07). At the end of

  8. Introducing a novel method to assess cumulative steroid concentrations: increased hair cortisol concentrations over 6 months in medicated patients with depression.

    PubMed

    Dettenborn, Lucia; Muhtz, Christoph; Skoluda, Nadine; Stalder, Tobias; Steudte, Susann; Hinkelmann, Kim; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Otte, Christian

    2012-05-01

    Depression has been linked to increased cortisol concentrations using point measures taken from urine, blood, or saliva samples. However, with regard to hypercortisolism-induced consequences, long-term cumulative cortisol burden is of relevance. Our objective was to use hair analysis as a new method to assess cortisol exposure over 6 months in depressed patients and healthy controls. We examined 23 depressed patients (8 men and 15 women, mean age: 41.6 years ( ± standard deviation (SD), 13.1 years); mean duration of current depressive episode 9 months ( ± SD, 13 months)) and 64 healthy controls, matched for age and gender. Cortisol concentrations in two 3-cm hair segments from near to the scalp were analyzed, representing cortisol secretion during the 6 months prior to sampling. Compared with healthy individuals, depressed patients had higher hair cortisol concentrations in the first (mean ± SD: 26.7 ± 20.8 vs. 18.7 ± 11.5 pg/mg, p < 0.05) and second hair segment (mean ±  SD: 21.9 ± 23.7 vs. 13.4 ± 9.6 pg/mg, p < 0.05). In conclusion, hair cortisol analysis confirmed enhanced cortisol secretion in depressed patients over a prolonged time period. Because of the retrospective and cumulative nature of cortisol in hair, the assessment of hair cortisol concentration may help in addressing unanswered questions regarding hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis overactivity and associated health consequences in psychiatric disorders. PMID:22043813

  9. Relationship between neurocognitive functioning and medication management ability over the first 6 months following allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mayo, S; Messner, H A; Rourke, S B; Howell, D; Victor, J C; Kuruvilla, J; Lipton, J H; Gupta, V; Kim, D D; Piescic, C; Breen, D; Lambie, A; Loach, D; Michelis, F V; Alam, N; Uhm, J; McGillis, L; Metcalfe, K

    2016-06-01

    Although neurocognitive impairment has been established as a major issue among cancer survivors, the real-world consequences of this impairment are unclear. This study investigated the relationship between neurocognitive functioning and medication management ability over time among 58 patients treated with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). Participants completed a neuropsychological test battery and a simulated medication management task at three time points: pre-transplant (T0), Day 100 (T1) and 6 months post transplant (T2). Neurocognitively impaired participants performed worse on the medication management task than neurocognitively normal participants at each time point, and were more likely to score in the impaired range of medication management ability post transplant (72% vs 20%, P<0.001 at T1; 67% vs 23%, P=0.013 at T2). In multivariate analyses, worse performance in executive functioning/working memory consistently predicted impaired medication management ability, even when controlling for sociodemographic and clinical confounders (odds ratio=0.89, 95% confidence interval (0.80, 0.98), P=0.023). Lower physical symptom distress also predicted impaired medication management ability, but this effect decreased over time. Self-reported cognitive problems were not correlated with medication management ability at any time point. Findings suggest that poor neurocognitive functioning, particularly in the domain of executive functioning/working memory, is associated with worse medication management ability within the first 6 months after allogeneic HCT. PMID:26926230

  10. Women's experiences of their osteoporosis diagnosis at the time of diagnosis and 6 months later: a phenomenological hermeneutic study.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Carrinna; Konradsen, Hanne; Abrahamsen, Bo; Pedersen, Birthe D

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a phenomenological hermeneutic study of experiences of women who were recently diagnosed with osteoporosis. The research objective was to investigate women's experiences of living with osteoporosis during the first 6 months after diagnosis when treatment was first prescribed. Fifteen women were included in the study. The inclusion criteria were a DXA scan at one of the two hospitals showing a T-score below -2.5 (lower back or hip), age 65 years or older; no previous known osteoporotic fracture; at least one of the known risk factors for osteoporosis; and prescription of anti-osteoporotic treatment. Exclusion criteria were previous diagnosis of osteoporosis or previous treatment with anti-osteoporotic medication. Data were collected through in-depth interviews shortly after diagnosis and 6 months later. The performed analyses were inspired by Paul Ricoeur's theory of interpretation of texts comprising three levels: naïve reading, structural analysis, and critical interpretation and discussion. Three key themes emerged: 1) being diagnosed, 2) being prescribed medical treatment, and 3) being on the path of learning to live with osteoporosis. The findings suggest a need for improved support for the patients to gain understanding of their diagnosis and the risk of osteoporotic fracture as well as to learn to live with osteoporosis. The study highlights new health promotion areas for targeting interventions at newly diagnosed patients, helping them accept and interpret the diagnosis, and the medical treatment. PMID:24559545

  11. Sub-daily periodicities in the results of local monitoring using global navigation satellite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaftan, Vladimir; Ustinov, Alexander

    Nowadays the more attention is focused on the continuous monitoring by using of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) in the study and control of stability of engineering structures and natural objects. The diurnal and semi-diurnal oscillations take place in high frequency GNSS observation. These waves are caused by the presence of the high frequency periodicities in changes of all geospheres, but also in systematic errors of GNSS techniques. Thus the diurnal variations are already found in the coordinates of global and regional networks of CORS stations. They are often related with the influence of Earth's diurnal tides. The purpose of this study is to examine the periodic variations in coordinate increments of local monitoring networks of engineering structures and the earth's surface. But in this case the tidal changes have a small influence because of the relative proximity of the network control points. Results of static GNSS observations in the local network with the control vectors baselines from 170 m to 4.3 km of length were used for the analysis of periodicities. The hourly time series of baseline components of the length of two months were analyzed. Three qualitatively different methods were applied: wavelet transformation (Morlet wavelet function), fast Fourier transformation (FFT), and sequential analysis of the dominant harmonics (dominant analysis) for the more sure detection of hidden periodicities. The results of determination of oscillation spectrum were obtained by the three methods mentioned above. For all baselines their good mutual agreement were obtained. Diurnal and semi-diurnal waves are mainly and the most vividly appeared in the horizontal components, in the height’s component there are also other periodicity of the high and low frequencies. The oscillation’s amplitude reaches 4 mm. It is necessary to clarify the nature of the observed oscillations, which will be the main subject of the following more detailed studies. It is

  12. Results of Laboratory and Industrial Tests of Periodic-Type Gas Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karp, I. N.; P‧yanykh, K. E.; Antoshchuk, T. A.; Lysenko, A. A.

    2015-05-01

    Results of laboratory and industrial tests of periodic-type gas generators burning various solid biofuels have been presented. The tests were carried out with the aim of obtaining producer gas which could totally or partly replace natural gas in power equipment burning gaseous fuel. The energy and environmental characteristics of a boiler unit burning a mixture of producer gas and natural gas have been assessed.

  13. Association between cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and respiratory tract infections in the first 6 months of age in a Korean population: a birth cohort study (COCOA)

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Youn Ho; Yu, Jinho; Kim, Kyung Won; Ahn, Kangmo; Hong, Seo-Ah; Lee, Eun; Yang, Song-I; Jung, Young-Ho; Kim, Hyung Young; Seo, Ju-Hee; Kwon, Ji-Won; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Kim, Hyo-Bin; Shim, Jung Yeon; Kim, Woo Kyung; Song, Dae Jin; Lee, So-Yeon; Lee, Soo Young; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Suh, Dong In; Yang, Hyeon-Jong; Kim, Bong Sung; Choi, Suk-Joo; Oh, Soo-Young; Kwon, Ja-Young; Lee, Kyung-Ju; Park, Hee Jin; Lee, Pil Ryang; Won, Hye-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies suggest that the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in cord blood may show an inverse association with respiratory tract infections (RTI) during childhood. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of 25(OH)D concentrations in cord blood on infant RTI in a Korean birth cohort. Methods The levels of 25(OH)D in cord blood obtained from 525 Korean newborns in the prospective COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases were examined. The primary outcome variable of interest was the prevalence of RTI at 6-month follow-up, as diagnosed by pediatricians and pediatric allergy and pulmonology specialists. RTI included acute nasopharyngitis, rhinosinusitis, otitis media, croup, tracheobronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia. Results The median concentration of 25(OH)D in cord blood was 32.0 nmol/L (interquartile range, 21.4 to 53.2). One hundred and eighty neonates (34.3%) showed 25(OH)D concentrations less than 25.0 nmol/L, 292 (55.6%) showed 25(OH)D concentrations of 25.0-74.9 nmol/L, and 53 (10.1%) showed concentrations of ≥75.0 nmol/L. Adjusting for the season of birth, multivitamin intake during pregnancy, and exposure to passive smoking during pregnancy, 25(OH)D concentrations showed an inverse association with the risk of acquiring acute nasopharyngitis by 6 months of age (P for trend=0.0004). Conclusion The results show that 89.9% of healthy newborns in Korea are born with vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency (55.6% and 34.3%, respectively). Cord blood vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency in healthy neonates is associated with an increased risk of acute nasopharyngitis by 6 months of age. More time spent outdoors and more intensified vitamin D supplementation for pregnant women may be needed to prevent the onset of acute nasopharyngitis in infants. PMID:24244212

  14. Percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion – treatment outcomes and 6 months of follow-up – a single-center experience

    PubMed Central

    Karczewski, Michał; Skowronek, Radomir; Burysz, Marian; Fischer, Marcin; Anisimowicz, Lech; Demkow, Marcin; Konka, Marek; Ogorzeja, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Aim To present the results of treatment and evaluate 6 months of follow-up in a group of patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation, who underwent the procedure of percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion (PLAAO). Material and methods Percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion was performed in 34 patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and contraindications for oral anticoagulation therapy. The risk of thromboembolic and bleeding complications was determined based on the CHA2DS2VASc and HAS-BLED scales. The Amplatzer Amulet system from St. Jude Medical was used. On the first postoperative day, all patients were started on double antiplatelet therapy with 75 mg/day of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and 75 mg/day of clopidogrel (CLO). On the 30th postoperative day, the efficacy of the antiplatelet therapy was assessed with impedance aggregometry using a Multiplate analyzer (Roche). Echocardiographic examinations were performed intraoperatively and on the first postoperative day; subsequently, follow-up examinations were conducted 1 and 6 months after the implantation. Results In all patients, proper occluder position was observed throughout the follow-up. No leakage or thrombi around the implants were found. No strokes or bleeding complications associated with the antiplatelet therapy were observed. Multiplate assessment of platelet activity was conducted in 20 out of 34 patients. The efficacy of ASA treatment was demonstrated in all patients; no response to clopidogrel treatment was observed in 5 out of 20 patients. One patient suffered from cardiac tamponade, which required the performance of full sternotomy. Local complications (hematomas of the inguinal region) were observed in 3 patients. One of the patients died for reasons unrelated to the procedure. Conclusions Percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion is an effective procedure in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and contraindications for chronic anticoagulation therapy. Further

  15. The Rhythmic, Sonorous and Melodic Components of Adult-Child-Object Interactions Between 2 and 6 Months Old.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Núñez, Ana; Rodríguez, Cintia; Del Olmo, María Jesús

    2015-12-01

    Adults mediate the relationship between material reality and children, according to functional units of cultural relevance. This paper explores early development of semiotic systems in infants, analyzing rhythmic, sonorous and melodic components, which enable adult-child interaction with and about objects. The triads (with sonorous and non-sonorous objects) was studied longitudinally at age 2, 4 and 6 months. We propose that rhythmic, sonorous and melodic components conformed one of the basic semiotic systems upon the adult's action relies (through gestures and uses of objects) in order to segment and organize objects in the world. Likewise, children actively respond to these presentations and seek sounds for themselves when they are able to interact with the object more autonomously. PMID:25715826

  16. Periodic inspection on crop sprayers: results according to age of sprayers.

    PubMed

    Antuniassi, Ulisses R; Gandolfo, Marco A

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of the IPP Project--Periodic Inspection on Crop Sprayers--are to develop methods for sprayer certification, analyze quality on spray operation, propose an inspection system for crop sprayers in Brazil, improve environmental quality on spray operation, and reduce costs on chemical control for plant protection systems. Periodic inspections on crop sprayers are performed in several countries and are compulsory in most of them, and it is becoming an important tool for improvement and optimization of use of chemicals. The IPP Project in Brazil is funded by FAPESP--Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo. The results so far showed that all the sprayers presented failures. However, most of them could be approved with minor services. As an example, 56.6% of the sprayers with more than 2 years of use presented leaks, 47% of them had damaged hoses and 80.5% presented bad tips (nozzles). These results indicate the need for better procedures of use and maintenance of sprayers, justifying the periodic inspection system. PMID:15656181

  17. Recurrent neonatal herpes simplex virus infection with central nervous system disease after completion of a 6-month course of suppressive therapy: Case report.

    PubMed

    Kato, Koji; Hara, Shinya; Kawada, Jun-Ichi; Ito, Yoshinori

    2015-12-01

    A boy at 12 days of age developed neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 infection with central nervous system (CNS) disease. After a 21-day course of high-dose intravenous acyclovir, the patient recovered with negative results for HSV DNA in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Two weeks after a 6-month course of oral valacyclovir suppressive therapy with negative virological assessment, the disease recurred. Another 21-day course of intravenous acyclovir and subsequent 1-year course of oral suppressive therapy were completed. He showed mild developmental delay in language-social skills at 18 months of age. Although recurrences of neonatal HSV infection with CNS disease after suppressive therapy are uncommon, both clinical and virological assessments at the end of the suppressive therapy may be required. Administration of extended long-term suppressive ACV therapy should be considered to reduce the rate of recurrence. PMID:26390826

  18. Rural N(SO) and German middle-class mothers' interaction with their 3- and 6-month-old infants: A longitudinal cross-cultural analysis.

    PubMed

    Lamm, Bettina; Gudi, Helene; Fassbender, Ina; Freitag, Claudia; Graf, Frauke; Goertz, Claudia; Spangler, Sibylle; Teubert, Manuel; Knopf, Monika; Lohaus, Arnold; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Keller, Heidi

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to analyze culture-specific development of maternal interactional behavior longitudinally. Rural Cameroonian Nso mothers (n = 72) and German middle-class mothers (n = 106) were observed in free-play interactions with their 3- and 6-month-old infants. Results reveal the expected shift from a social to a nonsocial focus only in the German middle-class mothers' play interactions but not the rural Nso mothers' play. Nso mothers continue their proximal interactional style with a focus on body contact and body stimulation, whereas German middle-class mothers prefer a distal style of interaction with increasing object-centeredness. These cultural differences are in line with broader cultural models and become more accentuated as the infants grow older. PMID:26075741

  19. Factors Related to Relapse After 6 Months of Smoking Cessation Among Men in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun Young; Lim, Min Kyung; Kim, Byung-Mi; Jeong, Bo Yoon; Oh, Jin-Kyoung; Yun, E. Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We identified factors associated with relapse after 6 months of smoking cessation (late relapse) among males of the Republic of Korea. Of the 222,707 smokers who visited public health center-based smoking cessation clinics (SCCs) between January 1, 2009 and mid-December 2009, we included 1720 individuals who successfully completed a 6-month smoking cessation program at an SCC. These participants were selected via a random stratified sampling design and completed an SCC user satisfaction survey between December 31, 2009 and January 6, 2010. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with late relapse, and path analysis was employed to explore relationships among these factors. The frequency of late relapse was 21.6% (n = 372). Residence in a metropolitan area, low socioeconomic status, and the use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) were associated with statistically significant increases in late relapse, whereas greater access to counseling and more satisfaction with the SCC were associated with reduced late relapse. The path analysis showed that a greater number of cigarettes smoked daily and a younger age at smoking initiation exerted significant indirect effects on late relapse when NRT was employed. Residence in a metropolitan area indirectly prevented late relapse as counseling frequency increased. NRT use, counseling frequency, and SCC user satisfaction were affected by both smoking behavior and socioeconomic status. Relapse prevention efforts should concentrate on increasing both counseling frequency and SCC user satisfaction. Future studies should focus on the effect of NRT on the maintenance of long-term cessation at the population level in real-world settings. PMID:26200623

  20. Risk of dietary exposure to aflatoxins and fumonisins in infants less than 6 months of age in Rombo, Northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Magoha, Happy; Kimanya, Martin; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Roberfroid, Dominique; Lachat, Carl; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    Infants less than 6 months of age receiving foods other than breast milk are at a high risk of exposure to mycotoxins. We surveyed food intake and estimated the risk of exposures to aflatoxin and fumonisin mycotoxins for infants less than 6 months of age in Northern Tanzania. A total of 143 infants were progressively recruited and three follow-up visits were made at 1, 3 and 5 months of age. A 24-h dietary recall technique was used to estimate flour intake of infants who had been introduced to maize foods. Aflatoxins and fumonisins in the flours were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography technique. Exposure to aflatoxins or fumonisins was estimated using the deterministic approach. By the age of 3 months, 98 infants had started taking food; 67 of them, maize flours at levels ranging from 0.57 to 37.50 g per infant per day (average 8 g per infant per day). Fifty-eight per cent of 67 maize flour samples contained detectable aflatoxins (range 0.33-69.47 μg kg(-1) ; median 6 μg kg(-1) ) and 31% contained detectable fumonisins (range 48-1224 μg kg(-1) ; median 124 μg kg(-1) ). For infants who consumed contaminated flours, aflatoxin exposure ranged from 0.14 to 120 ng kg(-1) body weight (BW) per day (all above the health concern level of 0.017 ng kg(-1) BW per day as recommended by the European Food Safety Agency) and fumonisin exposure ranged from 0.005 to 0.88 μg kg(-1) BW per day. Insignificant association was observed between exposure to fumonisins or aflatoxins and stunting or underweight. Reducing aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination of maize and dietary diversification can prevent infants and the public, in general, from exposure to the toxins. PMID:25422038

  1. Breast-feeding among the urban poor in southern Brazil: reasons for termination in the first 6 months of life.

    PubMed Central

    Martines, J. C.; Ashworth, A.; Kirkwood, B.

    1989-01-01

    A study of breast-feeding practices over the first 6 months of life among a cohort of urban poor infants in southern Brazil indicated that the median duration of breast-feeding was 18 weeks, and at 6 months 41% of the infants were still being breast-fed. The duration of breast-feeding was significantly associated with the following: the infant's sex, mother's colour, type of first feed, timing of the first breast-feed, breast-feeding regimen and frequency of breast-feeding at 1 month, and the use of hormonal contraceptives by the mother. The following were significant risk factors for early termination of breast-feeding: the infant's sex, type of first feed, use of supplementary feeds, frequency of breast-feeding, feeding regimen, weight-for-age, and weight-for-age after controlling for birth weight. Dissatisfaction with their infant's growth rate was the most frequent reason given by mothers for supplementing the diets of infants who were exclusively breast-fed in the first 3 months of life. Also, the mothers' perception that their milk output was inadequate was the most frequent reason expressed for stopping breast-feeding in the first 4 months. The roles of health services and family support in providing favourable conditions for increasing the duration of breast-feeding in the study population are discussed, as well as the possibility of bias being introduced into studies of the relationship between infant feeding and growth by the effect of the infant's rate of growth on the mother's decision to continue breast-feeding. PMID:2743537

  2. Pain-related avoidance versus endurance in primary care patients with subacute back pain: psychological characteristics and outcome at a 6-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Hasenbring, Monika I; Hallner, Dirk; Klasen, Bernhard; Streitlein-Böhme, Irmgard; Willburger, Roland; Rusche, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has found individual differences in back pain patients due to behavioral avoidance vs persistence. However, there is a lack of prospective studies of nonspecific low back pain patients. The avoidance-endurance model (AEM) suggests at least 3 pathways leading to chronic pain: fear-avoidance response, distress-endurance response, and eustress-endurance response. We sought to compare these 3 maladaptive subgroups with an adaptive group using a classification tool that included the following scales: the thought suppression and behavioral endurance subscale of the Avoidance-Endurance Questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory. The psychological characteristics, and pain and disability of the AEM subgroups were investigated. We report results from 177 patients with subacute nonspecific low back pain at the start of outpatient treatment and at follow-up after 6 months. At baseline, a multivariate analysis of variance found that the fear-avoidance patients scored higher in pain catastrophizing than the other groups. The distress-endurance patients displayed elevated anxiety/depression and helplessness/hopelessness accompanied with the highest scores in the classification variables thought suppression and persistence behavior. The eustress-endurance patients had the highest humor/distraction scores, pain persistence, and positive mood despite pain. All 3 maladaptive groups revealed a higher pain intensity than the adaptive patients at follow-up after 6 months; however, disability at follow-up was elevated only in the fear-avoidance and distress-endurance patients. The study provides preliminary evidence for the construct and prospective validity of AEM-based subgroups of subacute, nonspecific back pain patients. The results suggest the need for individually targeted cognitive behavioral treatments in the maladaptive groups. PMID:22093816

  3. Maternal Nutrition and Glycaemic Index during Pregnancy Impacts on Offspring Adiposity at 6 Months of Age--Analysis from the ROLO Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Horan, Mary K; McGowan, Ciara A; Gibney, Eileen R; Byrne, Jacinta; Donnelly, Jean M; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of adult obesity and metabolic disease. Diet and lifestyle in pregnancy influence fetal programming; however the influence of specific dietary components, including low glycaemic index (GI), remains complex. We examined the effect of a maternal low GI dietary intervention on offspring adiposity at 6 months and explored the association between diet and lifestyle factors in pregnancy and infant body composition at 6 months. 280 6-month old infant and mother pairs from the control (n = 142) and intervention group (n = 138), who received low GI dietary advice in pregnancy, in the ROLO study were analysed. Questionnaires (food diaries and lifestyle) were completed during pregnancy, followed by maternal lifestyle and infant feeding questionnaires at 6 months postpartum. Maternal anthropometry was measured throughout pregnancy and at 6 months post-delivery, along with infant anthropometry. No difference was found in 6 months infant adiposity between control and intervention groups. Maternal trimester three GI, trimester two saturated fats and trimester one and three sodium intake were positively associated with offspring adiposity, while trimester two and three vitamin C intake was negatively associated. In conclusion associations were observed between maternal dietary intake and GI during pregnancy and offspring adiposity at 6 months of age. PMID:26742066

  4. Maternal Nutrition and Glycaemic Index during Pregnancy Impacts on Offspring Adiposity at 6 Months of Age—Analysis from the ROLO Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Horan, Mary K.; McGowan, Ciara A.; Gibney, Eileen R.; Byrne, Jacinta; Donnelly, Jean M.; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of adult obesity and metabolic disease. Diet and lifestyle in pregnancy influence fetal programming; however the influence of specific dietary components, including low glycaemic index (GI), remains complex. We examined the effect of a maternal low GI dietary intervention on offspring adiposity at 6 months and explored the association between diet and lifestyle factors in pregnancy and infant body composition at 6 months. 280 6-month old infant and mother pairs from the control (n = 142) and intervention group (n = 138), who received low GI dietary advice in pregnancy, in the ROLO study were analysed. Questionnaires (food diaries and lifestyle) were completed during pregnancy, followed by maternal lifestyle and infant feeding questionnaires at 6 months postpartum. Maternal anthropometry was measured throughout pregnancy and at 6 months post-delivery, along with infant anthropometry. No difference was found in 6 months infant adiposity between control and intervention groups. Maternal trimester three GI, trimester two saturated fats and trimester one and three sodium intake were positively associated with offspring adiposity, while trimester two and three vitamin C intake was negatively associated. In conclusion associations were observed between maternal dietary intake and GI during pregnancy and offspring adiposity at 6 months of age. PMID:26742066

  5. Communications with Mars During Periods of Solar Conjunction: Initial Study Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morabito, D.; Hastrup, R.

    2001-07-01

    During the initial phase of the human exploration of Mars, a reliable communications link to and from Earth will be required. The direct link can easily be maintained during most of the 780-day Earth-Mars synodic period. However, during periods in which the direct Earth-Mars link encounters increased intervening charged particles during superior solar conjunctions of Mars, the resultant effects are expected to corrupt the data signals to varying degrees. The purpose of this article is to explore possible strategies, provide recommendations, and identify options for communicating over this link during periods of solar conjunctions. A significant improvement in telemetry data return can be realized by using the higher frequency 32 GHz (Ka-band), which is less susceptible to solar effects. During the era of the onset of probable human exploration of Mars, six superior conjunctions were identified from 2015 to 2026. For five of these six conjunctions, where the signal source is not occulted by the disk of the Sun, continuous communications with Mars should be achievable. Only during the superior conjunction of 2023 is the signal source at Mars expected to lie behind the disk of the Sun for about one day and within two solar radii (0. 5 deg) for about three days.

  6. Temporal Trends of Suicide Mortality in Mainland China: Results from the Age-Period-Cohort Framework

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenkun; Wang, Jinyao; Bao, Junzhe; Gao, Xudong; Yu, Chuanhua; Xiang, Huiyun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the long-term trends of suicide mortality in China. We implemented the age-period-cohort (APC) framework, using data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Our results showed that the net drift of suicide mortality was −4.727% (95% CI: −4.821% to −4.634%) per year for men and −6.633% (95% CI: −6.751% to −6.515%) per year for women, and the local drift values were below 0 in all age groups (p < 0.01 for all) for both sexes during the period of 1994–2013. Longitudinal age curves indicated that, in the same birth cohort, suicide death risk increased rapidly to peak at the life stage of 20–24 years old and 15–24 years old for men and women, respectively, and then showed a decelerated decline, followed by a rise thereafter after 54 years old for men and a slight one after 69 years old for women. The estimated period and cohort RRs were found to show similar monotonic downward patterns (significantly with p < 0.01 for all) for both sexes, with more quickly decreasing for women than for men during the whole period. The decreasing trend of suicide was likely to be related to the economic rapid growth, improvements in health care, enhancement on the level of education, and increasing awareness of suicide among the public in China. In addition, fast urbanization and the effective control of pesticides and rodenticides might be the special reasons behind these trends we observed in this study. PMID:27527195

  7. Temporal Trends of Suicide Mortality in Mainland China: Results from the Age-Period-Cohort Framework.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenkun; Wang, Jinyao; Bao, Junzhe; Gao, Xudong; Yu, Chuanhua; Xiang, Huiyun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the long-term trends of suicide mortality in China. We implemented the age-period-cohort (APC) framework, using data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Our results showed that the net drift of suicide mortality was -4.727% (95% CI: -4.821% to -4.634%) per year for men and -6.633% (95% CI: -6.751% to -6.515%) per year for women, and the local drift values were below 0 in all age groups (p < 0.01 for all) for both sexes during the period of 1994-2013. Longitudinal age curves indicated that, in the same birth cohort, suicide death risk increased rapidly to peak at the life stage of 20-24 years old and 15-24 years old for men and women, respectively, and then showed a decelerated decline, followed by a rise thereafter after 54 years old for men and a slight one after 69 years old for women. The estimated period and cohort RRs were found to show similar monotonic downward patterns (significantly with p < 0.01 for all) for both sexes, with more quickly decreasing for women than for men during the whole period. The decreasing trend of suicide was likely to be related to the economic rapid growth, improvements in health care, enhancement on the level of education, and increasing awareness of suicide among the public in China. In addition, fast urbanization and the effective control of pesticides and rodenticides might be the special reasons behind these trends we observed in this study. PMID:27527195

  8. Weight-Loss Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Intermittent Energy Restriction Trials Lasting a Minimum of 6 Months.

    PubMed

    Headland, Michelle; Clifton, Peter M; Carter, Sharayah; Keogh, Jennifer B

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to summarise the effects of intermittent energy restriction on weight and biological markers in long term intervention studies of >6 months duration. An electronic search was performed using the MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library databases for intervention trials lasting 6 months or longer investigating the effects of intermittent energy restriction. A total of nine studies were identified as meeting the pre-specified criteria. All studies included an intermittent energy restriction arm, with six being directly compared to continuous energy restriction. A total of 981 subjects were enrolled and randomised, with weight loss observed in all intermittent energy restriction arms regardless of study duration or follow up length. Eight interventions in six trials were used for the meta-analyses, with results indicating neither intermittent or continuous energy restriction being superior with respect to weight loss, 0.084 ± 0.114 (overall mean difference between groups ± standard error; p = 0.458). The effects of intermittent energy restriction in the long term remain unclear. The number of long term studies conducted is very limited, and participant numbers typically small (less than 50 completers), indicating the need for larger, long term trials of 12 months or more, to be conducted in order to understand the impact of intermittent energy restriction on weight loss and long term weight management. Blood lipid concentrations, glucose, and insulin were not altered by intermittent energy expenditure in values greater than those seen with continuous energy restriction. PMID:27338458

  9. Weight-Loss Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Intermittent Energy Restriction Trials Lasting a Minimum of 6 Months

    PubMed Central

    Headland, Michelle; Clifton, Peter M.; Carter, Sharayah; Keogh, Jennifer B.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to summarise the effects of intermittent energy restriction on weight and biological markers in long term intervention studies of >6 months duration. An electronic search was performed using the MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library databases for intervention trials lasting 6 months or longer investigating the effects of intermittent energy restriction. A total of nine studies were identified as meeting the pre-specified criteria. All studies included an intermittent energy restriction arm, with six being directly compared to continuous energy restriction. A total of 981 subjects were enrolled and randomised, with weight loss observed in all intermittent energy restriction arms regardless of study duration or follow up length. Eight interventions in six trials were used for the meta-analyses, with results indicating neither intermittent or continuous energy restriction being superior with respect to weight loss, 0.084 ± 0.114 (overall mean difference between groups ± standard error; p = 0.458). The effects of intermittent energy restriction in the long term remain unclear. The number of long term studies conducted is very limited, and participant numbers typically small (less than 50 completers), indicating the need for larger, long term trials of 12 months or more, to be conducted in order to understand the impact of intermittent energy restriction on weight loss and long term weight management. Blood lipid concentrations, glucose, and insulin were not altered by intermittent energy expenditure in values greater than those seen with continuous energy restriction. PMID:27338458

  10. Enhanced midbrain response at 6-month follow-up in cocaine addiction, association with reduced drug-related choice: Midbrain in drug choice

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, Scott J.; Tomasi, Dardo; Woicik, Patricia A.; Maloney, Thomas; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Honorio, Jean; Telang, Frank; Wang, Gene-Jack; Wang, Ruiliang; Sinha, Rajita; Carise, Deni; Astone-Twerell, Janetta; Bolger, Joy; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2012-03-28

    Drug addiction is characterized by dysregulated dopamine neurotransmission. Although dopamine functioning appears to partially recover with abstinence, the specific regions that recover and potential impact on drug seeking remain to be determined. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study an ecologically valid sample of 15 treatment-seeking cocaine addicted individuals at baseline and 6-month follow-up. At both study sessions, we collected fMRI scans during performance of a drug Stroop task, clinical self-report measures of addiction severity and behavioral measures of cocaine seeking (simulated cocaine choice); actual drug use in between the two study sessions was also monitored. At 6-month follow-up (compared with baseline), we predicted functional enhancement of dopaminergically innervated brain regions, relevant to the behavioral responsiveness toward salient stimuli. Consistent with predictions, whole-brain analyses revealed responses in the midbrain (encompassing the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra complex) and thalamus (encompassing the mediodorsal nucleus) that were higher (and more positively correlated) at follow-up than baseline. Increased midbrain activity from baseline to follow-up correlated with reduced simulated cocaine choice, indicating that heightened midbrain activations in this context may be marking lower approach motivation for cocaine. Normalization of midbrain function at follow-up was also suggested by exploratory comparisons with active cocaine users and healthy controls (who were assessed only at baseline). Enhanced self-control at follow-up was suggested by a trend for the commonly hypoactive dorsal anterior cingulate cortex to increase response during a drug-related context. Together, these results suggest that fMRI could be useful in sensitively tracking follow-up outcomes in drug addiction.

  11. Family Perception and 6-Month Symptomatic and Functioning Outcomes in Young Adolescents at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis in a General Population in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Shi, JingYu; Chen, FaZhan; Yao, YuHong; Zhan, ChenYu; Yin, XiaoWen; Fang, XiaoYan; Wang, HaoJie; Yuan, JiaBei; Zhao, XuDong

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Given the difficulty of treating schizophrenia and other forms of psychosis, researchers have shifted focus to early detection and intervention of individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis. Previous studies have shown that elements in family functioning could predict symptom outcome in CHR individuals. However, associations between self reported family functioning and symptom or functioning outcome of CHR individuals was rarely reported. Our study aimed to investigate the characteristics and the role of family functioning in the development of CHR individuals among young adolescents. Methods A sample of 32 CHR individuals was recruited from 2800 university students. The characteristics of family perception were evaluated by both Family Assessment Device (FAD) and Family cohesion and adaptability evaluation Scale II (FACES II). 6 month follow up data was available with 25 of the recruited CHR individuals. Baseline socio-demographic characteristics and family functioning were compared between CHR and control group. We also measured the associations between different dimensions of perceived family functioning and both severity of prodromal symptoms and global functioning at baseline and 6-month follow up. Results CHR individuals showed more maladaptive family functioning compared to control in nearly all of the dimensions of FAD and FACES II except for Affective Involvement. Better Problem Solving and Affective Responsiveness predicted less severe positive and negative symptoms respectively. Family cohesion and adaptability were not only correlated with the baseline severity of general symptoms, but also positively associated with the general and disorganized symptom outcome. Conclusions This study contributed preliminary evidence towards the associations between family perception and symptom outcome of CHR individuals. It also provided evidence for the importance of family interventions on CHR individuals. PMID:26394221

  12. Tolerability and efficacy of newly developed penile injection of cross-linked dextran and polymethylmethacrylate mixture on penile enhancement: 6 months follow-up.

    PubMed

    Yang, D Y; Lee, W K; Kim, S C

    2013-05-01

    Cross-linked dextran and polymethylmethacrylate mixture (Lipen-10) is newly developed tissue filler. The purpose of this study was to evaluate tolerability and efficacy of Lipen-10 on penile enhancement. Twenty adult males were included in this study. Lipen-10 was injected into the subcutaneous tissue of the penile shaft. The penile girth and length were measured in the flaccid state, before and 1, 3 and 6 months after the injection. The circumference increased by 3.7±1.2 cm (50.8%, P<0.0001) at penile base, 4.2±0.9 cm (59.0%, P<0.001) at mid-shaft, and 3.8±1.0 cm (53.2%, P<0.0001) at distal shaft and the length increased by 2.3±1.4 cm (63.2%, P<0.001). There was, however, no significant difference between 3 and 6 months post-treatment in girth and length (P-values: 0.796, 0.498, 0.600 and 0.084 for penile base, mid- and distal-shaft and length, respectively). The complications were only one mild asymmetry of penile shape and one 5-mm-sized nodule in the injected site. There were no clinically significant adverse events in all subjects. Penile injection of Lipen-10 led to a significant increase in penile size, showed a good durability and was well-tolerated, without serious adverse events. These results suggest that penile injection of Lipen-10 may be a new effective method for penile enhancement. PMID:23171980

  13. Perinatal Parenting Stress, Anxiety, and Depression Outcomes in First-Time Mothers and Fathers: A 3- to 6-Months Postpartum Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Vismara, Laura; Rollè, Luca; Agostini, Francesca; Sechi, Cristina; Fenaroli, Valentina; Molgora, Sara; Neri, Erica; Prino, Laura E.; Odorisio, Flaminia; Trovato, Annamaria; Polizzi, Concetta; Brustia, Piera; Lucarelli, Loredana; Monti, Fiorella; Saita, Emanuela; Tambelli, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although there is an established link between parenting stress, postnatal depression, and anxiety, no study has yet investigated this link in first-time parental couples. The specific aims of this study were 1) to investigate whether there were any differences between first-time fathers’ and mothers’ postnatal parenting stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms and to see their evolution between three and 6 months after their child’s birth; and 2) to explore how each parent’s parenting stress and anxiety levels and the anxiety levels and depressive symptoms of their partners contributed to parental postnatal depression. Method: The sample included 362 parents (181 couples; mothers’ MAge = 35.03, SD = 4.7; fathers’ MAge = 37.9, SD = 5.6) of healthy babies. At three (T1) and 6 months (T2) postpartum, both parents filled out, in a counterbalanced order, the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Results: The analyses showed that compared to fathers, mothers reported higher scores on postpartum anxiety, depression, and parenting stress. The scores for all measures for both mothers and fathers decreased from T1 to T2. However, a path analysis suggested that the persistence of both maternal and paternal postnatal depression was directly influenced by the parent’s own levels of anxiety and parenting stress and by the presence of depression in his/her partner. Discussion: This study highlights the relevant impact and effects of both maternal and paternal stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms during the transition to parenthood. Therefore, to provide efficacious, targeted, early interventions, perinatal screening should be directed at both parents. PMID:27445906

  14. Does multicomponent physical exercise with simultaneous cognitive training boost cognitive performance in older adults? A 6-month randomized controlled trial with a 1-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Eggenberger, Patrick; Schumacher, Vera; Angst, Marius; Theill, Nathan; de Bruin, Eling D

    2015-01-01

    Background Cognitive impairment is a health problem that concerns almost every second elderly person. Physical and cognitive training have differential positive effects on cognition, but have been rarely applied in combination. This study evaluates synergistic effects of multicomponent physical exercise complemented with novel simultaneous cognitive training on cognition in older adults. We hypothesized that simultaneous cognitive–physical components would add training specific cognitive benefits compared to exclusively physical training. Methods Seniors, older than 70 years, without cognitive impairment, were randomly assigned to either: 1) virtual reality video game dancing (DANCE), 2) treadmill walking with simultaneous verbal memory training (MEMORY), or 3) treadmill walking (PHYS). Each program was complemented with strength and balance exercises. Two 1-hour training sessions per week over 6 months were applied. Cognitive performance was assessed at baseline, after 3 and 6 months, and at 1-year follow-up. Multiple regression analyses with planned comparisons were calculated. Results Eighty-nine participants were randomized to the three groups initially, 71 completed the training, while 47 were available at 1-year follow-up. Advantages of the simultaneous cognitive–physical programs were found in two dimensions of executive function. “Shifting attention” showed a time×intervention interaction in favor of DANCE/MEMORY versus PHYS (F[2, 68] =1.95, trend P=0.075, r=0.17); and “working memory” showed a time×intervention interaction in favor of DANCE versus MEMORY (F[1, 136] =2.71, trend P=0.051, R2=0.006). Performance improvements in executive functions, long-term visual memory (episodic memory), and processing speed were maintained at follow-up in all groups. Conclusion Particular executive functions benefit from simultaneous cognitive–physical training compared to exclusively physical multicomponent training. Cognitive–physical training programs

  15. Continence and Quality-of-Life Outcomes 6 Months Following an Intensive Pelvic-Floor Muscle Exercise Program for Female Stress Urinary Incontinence: A Randomized Trial Comparing Low- and High-Frequency Maintenance Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Borello-France, Diane F; Downey, Patricia A; Zyczynski, Halina M; Rause, Christine R

    2008-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Few studies have examined the effectiveness of pelvic-floor muscle (PFM) exercises to reduce female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) over the long term. This study: (1) evaluated continence and quality-of-life outcomes of women 6 months following formalized therapy and (2) determined whether low- and high-frequency maintenance exercise programs were equivalent in sustaining outcomes. Subjects and Methods: Thirty-six women with SUI who completed an intensive PFM exercise intervention trial were randomly assigned to perform a maintenance exercise program either 1 or 4 times per week. Urine leaks per week, volume of urine loss, quality of life (Incontinence Impact Questionnaire [IIQ] score), PFM strength (Brink score), and prevalence of urodynamic stress incontinence (USI) were measured at a 6-month follow-up for comparison with postintervention status. Parametric and nonparametric statistics were used to determine differences in outcome status over time and between exercise frequency groups. Results: Twenty-eight women provided follow-up data. Postintervention status was sustained at 6 months for all outcomes (mean [SD] urine leaks per week=1.2±2.1 versus 1.4±3.1; mean [SD] urine loss=0.2±0.5 g versus 0.2±0.8 g; mean [SD] IIQ score=17±20 versus 22±30; mean [SD] Brink score=11±1 versus 11±1; and prevalence of USI=48% versus 35%). Women assigned to perform exercises once or 4 times per week similarly sustained their postintervention status. Discussion and Conclusions: Benefits of an initial intensive intervention program for SUI were sustained over 6 months. However, only 15 of the 28 women provided documentation of their exercise adherence, limiting conclusions regarding the need for continued PFM exercise during follow-up intervals of ≤6 months. PMID:18820095

  16. A prospective randomized longitudinal study involving 6 months of endurance or resistance exercise. Conduit artery adaptation in humans.

    PubMed

    Spence, Angela L; Carter, Howard H; Naylor, Louise H; Green, Daniel J

    2013-03-01

    Abstract  This randomized trial evaluated the impact of different exercise training modalities on the function and size of conduit arteries in healthy volunteers. Young (27 ± 5 years) healthy male subjects were randomized to undertake 6 months of either endurance training (ET; n = 10) or resistance training (RT; n = 13). High-resolution ultrasound was used to determine brachial, femoral and carotid artery diameter and wall thickness (IMT) and femoral and brachial flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and glyceryl trinitrate (GTN)-mediated dilatation. Improvements in peak oxygen uptake occurred with ET (from 3.6 ± 0.7 to 3.8 ± 0.6 l min(-1), P = 0.024) but not RT. Upper body muscular strength increased following RT (from 57.8 ± 17.7 to 69.0 ± 19.5 kg, P < 0.001), but not ET. Both groups exhibited increases in lean body mass (ET, 1.4 ± 1.8 kg and RT, 2.3 ± 1.3 kg, P < 0.05). Resistance training increased brachial artery resting diameter (from 3.8 ± 0.5 to 4.1 ± 0.4 mm, P < 0.05), peak FMD diameter (+0.2 ± 0.2 mm, P < 0.05) and GTN-mediated diameter (+0.3 ± 0.3 mm, P < 0.01), as well as brachial FMD (from 5.1 ± 2.2 to 7.0 ± 3.9%, P < 0.05). No improvements in any brachial parameters were observed following ET. Conversely, ET increased femoral artery resting diameter (from 6.2 ± 0.7 to 6.4 ± 0.6 mm, P < 0.05), peak FMD diameter (+0.4 ± 0.4 mm, P < 0.05) and GTN-induced diameter (+0.3 ± 0.3 mm, P < 0.05), as well as femoral FMD-to-GTN ratio (from 0.6 ± 0.3 to 1.1 ± 0.8, P < 0.05). Resistance training did not induce changes in femoral artery parameters. Carotid artery IMT decreased in response to both forms of training. These findings indicate that 6 months of supervised exercise training induced changes in brachial and femoral artery size and function and decreased carotid artery IMT. These impacts of both RT and ET would be expected to translate to decreased cardiovascular risk. PMID:23247114

  17. [The morphofunctional cellular evaluation of liver and kidney in rats in dynamics of 6-month consumption of water produced with the use of noncontact activation after electrochemical treatment].

    PubMed

    Beliaeva, N N; Rakhmanin, Iu A; Mikhailova, R I; Savostikova, O N; Gasimova, Z M; Kamenetskaia, D B; Alekseeva, A V; Vasina, D A; Ryzhova, I N

    2015-01-01

    There were investigated morphofunctional indices of liver and kidney in male outbred rats in the dynamics of the 6-months consumption of water after its noncontact activation. There were studied 4 experimental groups of animals consumed waters named as "Anolyte" and in dependence on the activation time, 3 types of catholyte water ("Catholyte--5", "Catholyte--25", "Catholyte--40"). Moscow tap water settled for a week served as control. "Anolyte" water was found to increase in the kidney the number of hypertrophied gromeruli only in 6 months, while the consumption of "Catholyte--25" water and especially, "Catholyte--40" in 1 and 6 months caused the damage of liver and kidney, and for the index of alteration of renal glomeruli after 6 months of water consumption there was revealed the dependence on the activation time of "Catalytes". PMID:26031038

  18. The Neutral Atmosphere Parameters on Measurements Using the Artificial Periodic Irregularities. Techniques, processing, results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolmacheva, Ariadna V.; Bakhmetieva, Nataliya V.; Grigoriev; Kalinina, Elena E.

    The measurements with the aid of the artificial periodic irregularities (APIs) were begun in 1990. The APIs are created in the ionosphere illuminated by a high power HF radio wave of a frequency below the critical one. The APIs diagnostics is based upon observation of the Bragg backscatter of the pulsed probe radio waves from the periodic structure. The amplitudes and phases of the probe signals back scattered by the APIs are measured. At the E-region heights the APIs relax in the ambipolar diffusion process. Based on this fact we could determine the neutral atmosphere parameters suggesting that the processes of isothermal on small scales (3-5 km) and the electron, ion and neutral temperatures are equal at the E-region heights. The atmospheric height scale H and the neutral atmospheric temperature T are determined on the height dependence of the relaxation times tau(z). The altitude step is about 3 km. Whole height interval of the measurements of τ is equal to about 20-30 km. Selecting small height intervals step by step we obtain altitude dependences T(z), nu(z) and rho(z). Such a way was employed because the steady state is achieved on the scales 20-30 km for a long time. We obtained a lot of information about dynamical phenomena in the lower thermosphere. These results are presented in the report. Firstly, there were temperature profiles with minimum about 100-140 K above 100 km in the equinoctial periods. But in summer of 1999 temperature maximum was observed on z = 100 km. Secondary, there were often profiles with the wave-like variations and with the vertical scale of about to 4-6 km. The temporal variations of the atmospheric parameters had periods from 15 minutes to some hours. These variations caused by the propagation of the internal gravity and tide waves. Planetary waves produce the longer temporal variations. Thirdly, we observed some cases of the instability growth. The dependencies of the atmospheric parameters on the solar and geomagnetic activity

  19. Results of IPS Observations in the Period Near Solar Activity Minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashei, I. V.; Shishov, V. I.; Tyul'bashev, S. A.; Subaev, I. A.; Oreshko, V. V.

    2013-07-01

    IPS observations with the Big Scanning Array of Lebedev Physical Institute (BSA LPI) radio telescope at the frequency 111 MHz have been monitored since 2006. All the sources, about several hundred daily, with a scintillating flux greater than 0.2 Jy are recorded for 24 hours in the 16 beams of the radio telescope covering a sky strip of 8∘ declination width. We present some results of IPS observations for the recent period of low solar activity considering a statistical ensemble of scintillating radio sources. The dependences of the averaged over ensemble scintillation index on heliocentric distance are considerably weaker than the dependence expected for a spherically symmetric geometry. The difference is especially pronounced in the year 2008 during the very deep solar activity minimum period. These features are explained by the influence of the heliospheric current sheet that is seen as a strong concentration of turbulent solar wind plasma aligned with the solar equatorial plane. A local maximum of the scintillation index is found in the anti-solar direction. Future prospects of IPS observations using BSA LPI are briefly discussed.

  20. Radiocesium concentrations in epigeic earthworms at various distances from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant 6 months after the 2011 accident.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Motohiro; Ito, Masamichi T; Kaneko, Shinji; Kiyono, Yoshiyuki; Ikeda, Shigeto; Makino, Shun'ichi

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the concentrations of radiocesium in epigeic earthworms, litter, and soil samples collected from forests in Fukushima Prefecture 6 months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011. Radiocesium concentrations in litter accumulated on the forest floor were higher than those in the soil (0-5 cm depth). The highest average (134+137)Cs concentrations in earthworms (approximately 19 Bq g(-1) of wet weight with gut contents and 108 Bq g(-1) of dry weight without gut contents) were recorded from a plot that experienced an air dose rate of 3.1 μSv h(-1), and earthworm concentrations were found to increase with litter and/or soil concentrations. Average (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentrations (with or without gut contents) were intermediate between accumulated litter and soil. Different species in the same ecological groups on the same plots had similar concentrations because of their use of the same habitats or their similar physiological characteristics. The contribution of global fallout (137)Cs to earthworms with gut contents was calculated to be very low, and most (137)Cs in earthworms was derived from the Fukushima accident. Transfer factors from accumulated litter to earthworms, based on their dry weights, ranged from 0.21 to 0.35, in agreement with previous field studies. PMID:23933081

  1. Femoral Arteriovenous Fistula Associated With Leg Swelling 6 Months After Removal of a Hemodialysis Catheter: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lie; Wang, Jian; Wu, Chuifen; Shao, Chuxiao; Yu, Xueping; Lei, Wenhui

    2015-10-01

    Double-lumen catheters have been used widely to obtain temporary access in patients who are in need of acute hemodialysis (HD) because of acute renal failure. Several complications are associated with the insertion of these catheters, including bleeding, infection, injuries to arteries, and deep venous thrombosis. An arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is a rare but significant complication following catheterization for temporary HD. Herein, we present a case of AVF associated with leg swelling 6 months after the removal ofa double-lumen HD catheter. We describe a special case of a 42-year-old man who experienced acute renal failure secondary to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). A 12-Fr dialysis catheter was inserted in the right femoral vein. Six months after catheter removal, the patient was admitted for pain and swelling in the right leg. Color Doppler ultrasound and three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) revealed an AVF between the right femoral vein and the right femoral superficial artery. The fistula was repaired successfully by vascular surgeons. This case highlights that an AVF is a rare but significant complication after catheterization for temporary HD. The nephrologist should be wary of the potential of this complication and perform clinical and medical examinations at the insertion and removal of temporary HD catheters. PMID:26448032

  2. Factors influencing breastfeeding exclusivity during the first 6 months of life in developing countries: a quantitative and qualitative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Balogun, Olukunmi Omobolanle; Dagvadorj, Amarjagal; Anigo, Kola Mathew; Ota, Erika; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2015-10-01

    Breastfeeding is the most advantageous feeding option for infants, and epidemiological studies provide evidence for its promotion. The objective of this review was to comprehensively delineate the barriers and facilitators of exclusive breastfeeding of infants aged 0-6 months old by mothers in developing countries. A search of CINAHL, MEDLINE and PsycINFO was carried out to retrieve studies from January 2001 to January 2014. Using our inclusion criteria, we selected studies that described barriers and facilitators of exclusive breastfeeding. Qualitative and quantitative studies were considered. Twenty-five studies involving 11 025 participants from 19 countries were included. Barriers and facilitators of exclusive/full breastfeeding were identified, analysed tabulated and summarised in this review. Maternal employment was the most frequently cited barrier to exclusive breastfeeding. Maternal perceptions of insufficient breast milk supply was pervasive among studies while medical barriers related to illness of mothers and/or infants as well as breast problems, rather than health care providers. Socio-cultural factors such as maternal and significant other's beliefs about infant nutrition also often constitute strong barriers to exclusive breastfeeding. Despite these barriers, mothers in developing countries often possess certain personal characteristics and develop strategic plans to enhance their success at breastfeeding. Health care providers should be informed about the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding and provide practical anticipatory guidance targeted at overcoming these barriers. In so doing, health care providers in developing countries can contribute to improving maternal and child health outcomes. PMID:25857205

  3. [Complete repair of tetralogy of Fallot in infants under the age of 6 months. Apropos of 25 cases].

    PubMed

    Guirgis, N H; Losay, J; Serraf, A; Ouaknine, R; Chambran, P; Lacour-Gayet, F; Bruniaux, J; Binet, J P; Planché, C

    1991-05-01

    Between January 1982 and October 1988, 25 infants with Tetralogy of Fallot underwent total correction, total primary repair was carried out in 22 cases; 3 underwent correction after a palliative anastomosis. The average age was 3.7 +/- 1.6 months; the average weight was 5.06 +/- 1.41 kg and average body surface area was 0.30 +/- 0.06 m2. Nineteen patients had a regular anatomic form and 6 had an irregular form of the condition. The hospital mortality was 8% (2 cases): the mortality was nil in the regular anatomic form but 33% in the irregular anatomic forms. Twenty-one patients have been followed up for an average of 50.8 +/- 19.2 months. There were no late deaths; two patients were reoperated for a residual pulmonary stenosis; 19 patients are well and asymptomatic. Doppler echocardiography shows a residual pressure gradient between the right ventricule and pulmonary artery of 17.8 +/- 22.7 mmHg associated with a grade 1-2/4 pulmonary regurgitation. There are no residual ventricular septal defects or cases of atrioventricular block requiring permanent pacing. PMID:1898202

  4. Top-down modulation in the infant brain: Learning-induced expectations rapidly affect the sensory cortex at 6 months

    PubMed Central

    Emberson, Lauren L.; Richards, John E.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    Recent theoretical work emphasizes the role of expectation in neural processing, shifting the focus from feed-forward cortical hierarchies to models that include extensive feedback (e.g., predictive coding). Empirical support for expectation-related feedback is compelling but restricted to adult humans and nonhuman animals. Given the considerable differences in neural organization, connectivity, and efficiency between infant and adult brains, it is a crucial yet open question whether expectation-related feedback is an inherent property of the cortex (i.e., operational early in development) or whether expectation-related feedback develops with extensive experience and neural maturation. To determine whether infants’ expectations about future sensory input modulate their sensory cortices without the confounds of stimulus novelty or repetition suppression, we used a cross-modal (audiovisual) omission paradigm and used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to record hemodynamic responses in the infant cortex. We show that the occipital cortex of 6-month-old infants exhibits the signature of expectation-based feedback. Crucially, we found that this region does not respond to auditory stimuli if they are not predictive of a visual event. Overall, these findings suggest that the young infant’s brain is already capable of some rudimentary form of expectation-based feedback. PMID:26195772

  5. Top-down modulation in the infant brain: Learning-induced expectations rapidly affect the sensory cortex at 6 months.

    PubMed

    Emberson, Lauren L; Richards, John E; Aslin, Richard N

    2015-08-01

    Recent theoretical work emphasizes the role of expectation in neural processing, shifting the focus from feed-forward cortical hierarchies to models that include extensive feedback (e.g., predictive coding). Empirical support for expectation-related feedback is compelling but restricted to adult humans and nonhuman animals. Given the considerable differences in neural organization, connectivity, and efficiency between infant and adult brains, it is a crucial yet open question whether expectation-related feedback is an inherent property of the cortex (i.e., operational early in development) or whether expectation-related feedback develops with extensive experience and neural maturation. To determine whether infants' expectations about future sensory input modulate their sensory cortices without the confounds of stimulus novelty or repetition suppression, we used a cross-modal (audiovisual) omission paradigm and used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to record hemodynamic responses in the infant cortex. We show that the occipital cortex of 6-month-old infants exhibits the signature of expectation-based feedback. Crucially, we found that this region does not respond to auditory stimuli if they are not predictive of a visual event. Overall, these findings suggest that the young infant's brain is already capable of some rudimentary form of expectation-based feedback. PMID:26195772

  6. No harmful effect of different Coca-cola beverages after 6 months of intake on rat testes.

    PubMed

    Tóthová, Lubomíra; Hodosy, Július; Mettenburg, Kathryn; Fábryová, Helena; Wagnerová, Alexandra; Bábíčková, Janka; Okuliarová, Monika; Zeman, Michal; Celec, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Our laboratory recently reported that a 3-month exposure of rats to cola-like beverages induced sex hormone changes. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of various types of Coca-cola intake with different composition for 6 months on oxidative status in testes and testosterone in adult male rats. Fifty adult male Wistar rats were divided into control group drinking water, and groups drinking different Coca-cola beverages (regular Coca-cola, Coca-cola caffeine-free, Coca-cola Light and Coca-cola Zero). Oxidative and carbonyl stress markers were measured in the testicular tissue to assess oxidative status together with testicular and plasma testosterone. StAR expression in testes as a marker of steroidogenesis was quantified. No significant differences were found between the groups in any of the measured parameters. In conclusion, oxidative and carbonyl stress in testicular tissue were not influenced by drinking any type of Coca-cola. Additionally, testosterone in testes and in plasma, as well as testicular StAR expression were comparable among the groups. PMID:24001441

  7. Patch-test results in children and adolescents: systematic review of a 15-year period*

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2016-01-01

    The number of studies on patch-test results in children and adolescents has gradually increased in recent years, thus stimulating reviews. This paper is a systematic review of a 15-year period devoted to studying the issue. Variations pertaining to the number and age groups of tested children and/or adolescents, the number of subjects with atopy/atopic dermatitis history, the quantity, type and concentrations of the tested substances, the test technique and type of data regarding clinical relevance, must all be considered in evaluating these studies, as they make it harder to formulate conclusions. The most common allergens in children were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, lanolin and neomycin. In adolescents, they were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, potassium dichromate, and Myroxylon pereirae. Knowledge of this matter aids health professionals in planning preventive programs aimed at improving children's quality of life and ensuring that their future prospects are not undermined. PMID:26982781

  8. Patch-test results in children and adolescents: systematic review of a 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2016-02-01

    The number of studies on patch-test results in children and adolescents has gradually increased in recent years, thus stimulating reviews. This paper is a systematic review of a 15-year period devoted to studying the issue. Variations pertaining to the number and age groups of tested children and/or adolescents, the number of subjects with atopy/atopic dermatitis history, the quantity, type and concentrations of the tested substances, the test technique and type of data regarding clinical relevance, must all be considered in evaluating these studies, as they make it harder to formulate conclusions. The most common allergens in children were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, lanolin and neomycin. In adolescents, they were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, potassium dichromate, and Myroxylon pereirae. Knowledge of this matter aids health professionals in planning preventive programs aimed at improving children's quality of life and ensuring that their future prospects are not undermined. PMID:26982781

  9. The OmegaWhite survey for short-period variable stars - I. Overview and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macfarlane, S. A.; Toma, R.; Ramsay, G.; Groot, P. J.; Woudt, P. A.; Drew, J. E.; Barentsen, G.; Eislöffel, J.

    2015-11-01

    We present the goals, strategy and first results of the OmegaWhite survey: a wide-field high-cadence g-band synoptic survey which aims to unveil the Galactic population of short-period variable stars (with periods <80 min), including ultracompact binary star systems and stellar pulsators. The ultimate goal of OmegaWhite is to cover 400 deg2 along the Galactic plane reaching a depth of g = 21.5 mag (10σ), using OmegaCam on the VLT Survey Telescope (VST). The fields are selected to overlap with surveys such as the Galactic Bulge Survey and the VST Photometric Hα Survey of the Southern Galactic Plane for multiband colour information. Each field is observed using 38 exposures of 39 s each, with a median cadence of ˜2.7 min for a total duration of two hours. Within an initial 26 deg2, we have extracted the light curves of 1.6 million stars, and have identified 613 variable candidates which satisfy our selection criteria. Furthermore, we present the light curves and statistical properties of 20 sources which have the highest likelihood of being variable stars. One of these candidates exhibits the colours and light-curve properties typically associated with ultracompact AM CVn binaries, although its spectrum exhibits weak Balmer absorption lines and is thus not likely to be such a binary system. We also present follow-up spectroscopy of five other variable candidates, which identifies them as likely low-amplitude δ Sct pulsating stars.

  10. Hydrochemical monitoring results in relation to the vogtland-nw bohemian earthquake swarm period 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kämpf, H.; Bräuer, K.; Dulski, P.; Faber, E.; Koch, U.; Mrlina, J.; Strauch, G.; Weise, S. M.

    2003-04-01

    The Vogtland-NW Bohemian earthquake swarm area/Central Europe is characterised by carbon dioxide- rich mineral springs and mofetts. The August-December 2000 earthquake period was the strongest compared with the December 1985/86 swarms occurred in the area of Novy Kostel, Czech Republic. Here, we present first results of long-term hydrochemical monitoring studies before, during and after the 2000 swarm period. The swarm 2000 lasted from August 28 until December 26 and consisted of altogether nine sub-swarm episodes, each of them lasting for several days. At the mineral spring Wettinquelle, Bad Brambach/Germany the water chemistry and isotope (D, 18O) composition was monitored weekly and two-weekly, respectively, since May 2000. The mineral spring Wettinquelle is located in a distance of about 10 km from the epicentral area of Novy Kostel. The aim of our investigation was to look for seismic induced or seismic coupled changes of the chemical and isotope composition of the mineral water. We had to separate seismohydrological effects from seasonal and hydrological caused changes. The seasonal caused shifts were found for water temperature and alkaline elements (Li, Na, K, Rb and Cs) as well as for discharge, conductivity, hydrogenecarbonate- concentration, and the concentration of the alkaline earth's (Ca, Mg, Sr). Strain related anomalies which could influence the hydrogeochemistry of the mineral water seems to be visible in the iron- concentration of the spring water, in the methane- concentration of the free gas component and caused probably changes of the groundwater level of the well H3 located about 5 km SE of the Wettinquelle at Skalna.

  11. Time periods of GSR particles deposition after discharge-final results.

    PubMed

    Fojtásek, Lubor; Kmjec, Tomás

    2005-10-29

    The elemental objects of the research study are: determination of time periods corresponding to gunshot residue particles (GSR) deposition after the shot from selected pistols and a revolver, and evaluation of the deposited particles number. For several shooting experiments were used a pistol CZ model 85, caliber 9 mm Luger with common ammunition 9 mm Luger FMJ Sellier & Bellot, a pistol CZ model 70, caliber 7.65 mm Browning (32 ACP) with common 7.65 mm Browning FMJ Sellier & Bellot ammunition and a revolver S&W Modell 60, barell length 2-1/8'', cal. .38 Special with common Sellier&Bellot (FMJ) ammunition. The results of the study have indicated the behavior of GSR particles deposited after a single discharge. The overall time interval of GSR particles deposition and the number of deposited particles with the above mentioned arms and ammunition were established. The results can potentially be used for clarifying the situation at crime scenes and for subsequent interpretation of GSR evidential value in caseworks. PMID:16139100

  12. Lactation and appetite-regulating hormones: increased maternal plasma peptide YY concentrations 3-6 months postpartum.

    PubMed

    Vila, Greisa; Hopfgartner, Judith; Grimm, Gabriele; Baumgartner-Parzer, Sabina M; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Clodi, Martin; Luger, Anton

    2015-10-28

    Breast-feeding is associated with maternal hormonal and metabolic changes ensuring adequate milk production. In this study, we investigate the impact of breast-feeding on the profile of changes in maternal appetite-regulating hormones 3-6 months postpartum. Study participants were age- and BMI-matched lactating mothers (n 10), non-lactating mothers (n 9) and women without any history of pregnancy or breast-feeding in the previous 12 months (control group, n 10). During study sessions, young mothers breast-fed or bottle-fed their babies, and maternal blood samples were collected at five time points during 90 min: before, during and after feeding the babies. Outcome parameters were plasma concentrations of ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), leptin, adiponectin, prolactin, cortisol, insulin, glucose and lipid values. At baseline, circulating PYY concentrations were significantly increased in lactating mothers (100·3 (se 6·7) pg/ml) v. non-lactating mothers (73·6 (se 4·9) pg/ml, P=0·008) and v. the control group (70·2 (se 9) pg/ml, P=0·021). We found no differences in ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin values. Baseline prolactin concentrations were over 4-fold higher in lactating mothers (P<0·001). Lactating women had reduced TAG levels and LDL-cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio, but increased waist circumference, when compared with non-lactating women. Breast-feeding sessions further elevated circulating prolactin (P<0·001), but induced no acute effects on appetite-regulating hormones. In summary, one single breast-feeding session did not acutely modulate circulating appetite-regulating hormones, but increased baseline PYY concentrations are associated with prolonged lactation. PYY might play a role in the coordination of energy balance during lactation, increasing fat mobilisation from maternal depots and ensuring adequate milk production for the demands of the growing infant. PMID:26299586

  13. Is There a Critical Period for Amblyopia Therapy? Results of a Study on Older Anisometropic Amblyopes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Amblyopia, a common cause of low vision, is rarely treated in adults. Improvement in vision has been seen beyond the critical period at times. Hence, this study was taken up to study the effect of minimal occlusion therapy (2-4 hours/day) in anisometropic amblyopic patients in the age group of 12-30 years. Materials and Methods The study is a prospective, randomized case series of anisometropic amblyopia patients aged 12-30 years who reported in the outpatient department of Hakeem Abdul Hameed Centenary Hospital, New Delhi, from December 2011 to November 2013. Thorough ocular examination and cycloplegic refraction was done to rule out other ocular disease. Anisometropic Amblyopia was diagnosed only after four weeks of spectacle wear. The selected patients were then advised occlusion therapy of 2-4 hours per day of better eye with stress on near visual task. Videogames, computers, mobile phone gaming and colouring in especially designed patterns were used as vision training aids. The outcome measure selected was best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) achieved that remained stable for three consecutive months of occlusion. Results Sixty one patients of anisometropic amblyopia were included in the study (32 males and 29 females) aged 12-30 years (mean age 17 years). Mean BCVA at the start of treatment was 20/125 (0.8 log MAR units) and 20/32 (0.2 log MAR units) at the end of the treatment. Thirty three patients (54%) out of 61 had BCVA of 20/20, while 58 patients (95%) had ≥ 20/40 BCVA, 01(1.6%) had 20/50 and 02 (3.27%) had 20/80 BCVA at the end of therapy. The results were statistically significant (p- value <0.0001) with a 95% confidence interval. Conclusion This study clearly proves that there is no critical period for the treatment in older (12-30 years) anisometropic amblyope. Even 2-4 hours per day of occlusion of better eye with vision training thorough near visual task of amblyopic eye is effective. However, counseling and patient compliance is

  14. The Effect of Exclusive Breastfeeding on Hospital Stay and Morbidity due to Various Diseases in Infants under 6 Months of Age: A Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Amarpreet; Singh, Karnail; Pannu, M. S.; Singh, Palwinder; Sehgal, Neeraj; Kaur, Rupinderjeet

    2016-01-01

    Background. Mother's milk is the best for the babies. Protective and preventive role of breast milk was evaluated in this study by assessing the relation of type of feeding and duration of hospital stay or morbidity. Methods. This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital and 232 infants in the age group of 14 weeks to 6 months formed the sample. There are two groups of infants, that is, one for breastfed and one for top fed infants. Statistical analysis was done and results were calculated up to 95% to 99% level of significance to find effect of feeding pattern on hospital stay due to various diseases and morbidity. Results. Prolonged hospital stay, that is, >7 days, was lesser in breastfed infants and results were statistically significant in case of gastroenteritis (p value < 0.001), bronchopneumonia (p value = 0.0012), bronchiolitis (p value = 0.005), otitis media (p value = 0.003), and skin diseases (p value = 0.047). Lesser morbidity was seen in breastfed infants with gastroenteritis (p value 0.0414), bronchopneumonia (p value 0.03705), bronchiolitis (p value 0.036706), meningitis (p value 0.043), and septicemia (p value 0.04). Conclusions. Breastfed infants have shorter hospital stay and lesser morbidity in regard to various diseases as compared to top fed infants. PMID:27190526

  15. Follow-up of infants given measles vaccine at 6 months of age: antibody and CMI responses to MMRII at 15 months of age and antibody levels at 27 months of age.

    PubMed

    Carson, Mary M; Spady, Donald W; Beeler, Judith A; Krezolek, Margaret P; Audet, Susette; Pabst, Henry F

    2005-05-01

    The worldwide elimination of measles is an important target. In developed countries, to control measles outbreaks, immunization from 6 months of age is recommended. In this study, infants (n = 290) who were (1) born to mothers with natural immunity or to vaccinated mothers and (2) previously immunized with Connaught (CLL) or AIK-C measles vaccine at 6 months of age, were evaluated for measles immunity before and after measles-mumps-rubella (MMRII at 15 months of age. Eight weeks after MMRII, 98.9% of infants were seropositive by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and 70% demonstrated measles specific cellular immunity by blast transformation (BT) of lymphocytes. At 27 months of age, 98.4% of infants had protective antibody levels by plaque reduction neutralization (PRN) test. These results suggest that AIK-C and CLL vaccines elicit durable protective immunity in young infants when used in early immunization programs. PMID:15837229

  16. Bergamot Reduces Plasma Lipids, Atherogenic Small Dense LDL, and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Subjects with Moderate Hypercholesterolemia: A 6 Months Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Peter P.; Patti, Angelo M.; Nikolic, Dragana; Giglio, Rosaria V.; Castellino, Giuseppa; Biancucci, Teresa; Geraci, Fabiana; David, Sabrina; Montalto, Giuseppe; Rizvi, Ali; Rizzo, Manfredi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Some patients experience statin-induced side effects or prefer nutraceutical approaches for the treatment of dyslipidemia. This has led to a search for alternative therapeutic approaches for dyslipidemia management. In recent studies Citrus bergamia (known as Bergamot) juice was able to reduce serum levels of lipids. Such benefit may be attributed to high amounts of flavonoids contained in Bergamot fruit juice (neoeriocitrin, neohesperidin, naringin). The aim of the present study was to fully investigate the effects of a Bergamot extract on cardio-metabolic parameters, including plasma lipids, atherogenic lipoproteins and subclinical atherosclerosis. Methods: Eighty subjects (42 men and 38 women, mean age: 55 ± 13 years) with moderate hypercholesterolemia [e.g., with plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations between 160 and 190 mg/dl (between 4.1 and 4.9 mmol/l)] were included. A Bergamot-derived extract (Bergavit R®) was given at a fixed dose daily (150 mg of flavonoids, with 16% of neoeriocitrin, 47% of neohesperidin and 37% of naringin) for 6 months. Lipoprotein subfractions were assessed by gel electrophoresis. With this methodology low density lipoprotein (LDL) subclasses are distributed as seven bands (LDL-1 and -2 as large LDL, and LDL-3 to -7 as atherogenic small, dense LDL). Subclinical atherosclerosis was assessed by carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) using B-mode ultrasound. Results: After 6 months, Bergavit R® reduced total cholesterol (from 6.6 ± 0.4 to 5.8 ± 1.1 mmol/l, p < 0.0001), triglycerides (from 1.8 ± 0.6 to 1.5 ± 0.9 mmol/l, p = 0.0020), and LDL-cholesterol (from 4.6 ± 0.2 to 3.7 ± 1.0 mmol/l, p < 0.0001), while HDL- cholesterol increased (from 1.3 ± 0.2 to 1.4 ± 0.4 mmol/l, p < 0.0007). In addition, a significant increase in LDL-1 (from 41.2 ± 0.2 to 49.6 ± 0.2%, p < 0.0001) was accompanied by decreased small, dense LDL-3, -4, and 5 particles (from 14.5 ± 0.1 to 9.0 ± 0.1% p < 0.0001; 3.2 ± 0.1 to 1.5 ± 0.1% p = 0

  17. Are symptom features of depression during pregnancy, the postpartum period and outside the peripartum period distinct? Results from a nationally representative sample using Item Response Theory (IRT)

    PubMed Central

    Hoertel, Nicolas; López, Saioa; Peyre, Hugo; Wall, Melanie M.; González-Pinto, Ana; Limosin, Frédéric; Blanco, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Background Whether there are systematic differences in depression symptom expression during pregnancy, the postpartum period and outside these periods (i.e., outside the peripartum period) remains debated. The aim of this study was to use methods based on item response theory (IRT) to examine, after equating for depression severity, differences in the likelihood of reporting DSM-IV symptoms of major depressive episode (MDE) in women of childbearing age (i.e., aged 18-50) during pregnancy, the postpartum period and outside the peripartum period. Method We conducted these analyses using a large, nationally representative sample of women of childbearing age from the USA (n = 11,256) who participated in the second wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Results The overall 12-month prevalence of all depressive criteria (except for worthlessness/guilt) was significantly lower in pregnant women than in women of childbearing age outside the peripartum period, whereas the prevalence of all symptoms (except for “psychomotor symptoms”) were not significantly different between the postpartum and the non-peripartum group. There were no clinically significant differences in the endorsement rates of symptoms of MDE by pregnancy status when equating for levels of depression severity. Conclusions This study suggests that the clinical presentation of depressive symptoms in women of childbearing age does not differ during pregnancy, the postpartum period and outside the peripartum period. These findings do not provide psychometric support for the inclusion of the peripartum onset specifier for major depressive disorder in the DSM-5. PMID:25424539

  18. Radiation With or Without 6 Months of Androgen Suppression Therapy in Intermediate- and High-Risk Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer: A Postrandomization Analysis by Risk Group

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Paul L.; Chen, Ming-Hui; Beard, Clair J.; Suh, W. Warren

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: Six months of androgen suppression therapy (AST) plus radiation (RT) prolongs survival vs. RT alone in men with unfavorable risk localized prostate cancer (PCa), but it is unknown if this benefit applies to all risk subgroups and, in particular, the intermediate-risk group. Methods and Materials: Among 206 men with stages T1b to T2b PCa and either a prostate-specific antigen level of >10 or a Gleason score of {>=}7 or MRI evidence of T3 disease randomized to receive 70 Gy of RT with or without 6 months of AST, Cox multivariable analysis was used to assess the impact of AST on overall survival in intermediate- and high-risk localized PCa, adjusting for age, Adult Comorbidity Evaluation 27 comorbidity score, interaction between comorbidity and treatment, and known prognostic factors. Survival estimates were compared using a two-sided log-rank test. Results: After an 8.2-year median follow-up, 74 men died. Compared to treatment with AST plus RT, treatment with RT alone was associated with an increased risk of death in intermediate-risk (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.0 [95% confidence interval, 1.3-7.2]; p = 0.01) and high-risk PCa (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.3 [95% confidence interval, 0.94-11.3]; p = 0.06). The survival benefit of adding AST was restricted to men with no or mild comorbidity in both the intermediate-risk (90.9% vs. 85.8% survival, respectively, at 7 years for AST plus RT vs. RT alone; p = 0.009) and high-risk (88.9% vs. 51.2% survival, respectively, at 7 years for AST plus RT vs. RT alone; p = 0.007) subgroups. Conclusions: In men with localized PCa who have no or mild comorbidity, adding 6 months of AST to RT was associated with improved survival for those with both intermediate-risk and high-risk disease, but in men with moderate to severe comorbidity, no benefit was observed in either risk group.

  19. Effect of a 6-month vegan low-carbohydrate (‘Eco-Atkins’) diet on cardiovascular risk factors and body weight in hyperlipidaemic adults: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, David J A; Wong, Julia M W; Kendall, Cyril W C; Esfahani, Amin; Ng, Vivian W Y; Leong, Tracy C K; Faulkner, Dorothea A; Vidgen, Ed; Paul, Gregory; Mukherjea, Ratna; Krul, Elaine S; Singer, William

    2014-01-01

    Objective Low-carbohydrate diets may be useful for weight loss. Diets high in vegetable proteins and oils may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. The main objective was to determine the longer term effect of a diet that was both low-carbohydrate and plant-based on weight loss and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Design, setting, participants A parallel design study of 39 overweight hyperlipidaemic men and postmenopausal women conducted at a Canadian university-affiliated hospital nutrition research centre from April 2005 to November 2006. Intervention Participants were advised to consume either a low-carbohydrate vegan diet or a high-carbohydrate lacto-ovo vegetarian diet for 6 months after completing 1-month metabolic (all foods provided) versions of these diets. The prescribed macronutrient intakes for the low-carbohydrate and high-carbohydrate diets were: 26% and 58% of energy from carbohydrate, 31% and 16% from protein and 43% and 25% from fat, respectively. Primary outcome Change in body weight. Results 23 participants (50% test, 68% control) completed the 6-month ad libitum study. The approximate 4 kg weight loss on the metabolic study was increased to −6.9 kg on low-carbohydrate and −5.8 kg on high-carbohydrate 6-month ad libitum treatments (treatment difference (95% CI) −1.1 kg (−2.1 to 0.0), p=0.047). The relative LDL-C and triglyceride reductions were also greater on the low-carbohydrate treatment (treatment difference (95% CI) −0.49 mmol/L (−0.70 to −0.28), p<0.001 and −0.34 mmol/L (−0.57 to −0.11), p=0.005, respectively), as were the total cholesterol:HDL-C and apolipoprotein B:A1 ratios (−0.57 (−0.83, −0.32), p<0.001 and −0.05 (−0.09, −0.02), p=0.003, respectively). Conclusions A self-selected low-carbohydrate vegan diet, containing increased protein and fat from gluten and soy products, nuts and vegetable oils, had lipid lowering advantages over a high-carbohydrate, low-fat weight loss

  20. Social-Cognitive Behaviors and Playmate Preferences in Same-Age and Mixed-Age Classrooms over a 6-Month Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roopnarine, Jaipaul L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Observations of mixed-age classrooms of three and four year olds (n=36), of three year olds (n=27), and four year olds (n=31) found significant age differences in social and cognitive play for same-age, but not mixed-age, classes. Implications for early childhood education are discussed. (SLD)

  1. STS-40 orbital acceleration research experiment flight results during a typical sleep period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, R. C.; Nicholson, J. Y.; Ritter, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    The Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), an electrostatic accelerometer package with complete on-orbit calibration capabilities, was flown for the first time aboard the Space Shuttle on STS-40. This is also the first time an accelerometer package with nano-g sensitivity and a calibration facility has flown aboard the Space Shuttle. The instrument is designed to measure and record the Space Shuttle aerodynamic acceleration environment from the free molecule flow regime through the rarified flow transition into the hypersonic continuum regime. Because of its sensitivity, the OARE instrument defects aerodynamic behavior of the Space Shuttle while in low-earth orbit. A 2-hour orbital time period on day seven of the mission, when the crew was asleep and other spacecraft activities were at a minimum, was examined. During the flight, a 'trimmed-mean' filter was used to produce high quality, low frequency data which was successfully stored aboard the Space Shuttle in the OARE data storage system. Initial review of the data indicated that, although the expected precision was achieved, some equipment problems occurred resulting in uncertain accuracy. An acceleration model which includes aerodynamic, gravity-gradient, and rotational effects was constructed and compared with flight data. Examination of the model with the flight data shows the instrument to be sensitive to all major expected low frequency acceleration phenomena; however, some erratic instrument bias behavior persists in two axes. In these axes, the OARE data can be made to match a comprehensive atmospheric-aerodynamic model by making bias adjustments and slight linear corrections for drift. The other axis does not exhibit these difficulties and gives good agreement with the acceleration model.

  2. Comparing the DN4 tool with the IASP grading system for chronic neuropathic pain screening after breast tumor resection with and without paravertebral blocks: a prospective 6-month validation study.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Faraj W; Morgan, Pamela J; Cil, Tulin; Escallon, Jaime M; Semple, John L; Chan, Vincent W

    2015-04-01

    Investigating protective strategies against chronic neuropathic pain (CNP) after breast cancer surgery entails using valid screening tools. The DN4 (Douleur Neuropathique en 4 questions) is 1 tool that offers important research advantages. This prospective 6-month follow-up study seeks to validate the DN4 and assess its responsiveness in screening for CNP that satisfies the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) definition and fulfills its grading system criteria after breast tumor resection with and without paravertebral blocks (PVBs). We randomized 66 females to standardized general anesthesia and sham subcutaneous injections, or PVB and total intravenous anesthesia. The 6-month CNP risk was assessed using the IASP grading system and the DN4 screening tools. We evaluated the DN4 sensitivity, specificity, and responsiveness in capturing the impact of PVB on the CNP risk relative to the IASP grading system. Data from 64 patients showed similar demographic characteristics in both groups. Twenty patients in both groups met the grading system CNP criteria; among these, 18 patients also met the DN4 CNP criteria. Furthermore, 15 patients in both groups did not meet the grading system CNP criteria; among these, 9 patients also did not meet the DN4 CNP criteria. Therefore, the sensitivity and specificity of the DN4 were estimated at 90% and 60%, respectively. Both screening tools suggested that PVB reduced the 6-month CNP risk. Our results suggest that the DN4 can reliably identify CNP at 6 months after breast tumor resection and detect the preincisional PVB effect on the risk of developing such pain. PMID:25719620

  3. Long Period Variables in the LMC: Results from MACHO and 2Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, O J; Cook, K H; Keller, S C; Hawley, S L

    2004-07-19

    We use the eight year light curve database from the MACHO (MAssive Compact Halo Objects) project together with infrared colors and magnitudes from 2MASS (the Two Micron All Sky Survey) to identify a sample of 22,000 long period variables in the Large Magellanic Cloud (referred to hereafter as LMC LPVs). A period luminosity diagram of these stars reveals six well defined sequences, in substantial agreement with previous analyses of samples from OGLE (Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment). In our analysis we identify analogues to galactic LPVs in the LMC LPV sample. We find that carbon dominated AGB stars populate only two of the sequences, one of which includes the Mira variables. The high luminosity end of the same two sequences are also the location of the only stars with J K{sub s} > 2, indicating that they are enshrouded in dust. The unknown mechanism that produces the variability of the last sequence--those stars with long secondary periods--produces different morphology in the period luminosity diagram than what is seen in the first four sequences, which are thought to be caused by pulsation. In particular, the last sequence extends to lower luminosity RGB stars and the luminosity function does not peak among the AGB stars. We point out several features which will constrain new models of the period luminosity sequences.

  4. Are you talking to me? Neural activations in 6-month-old infants in response to being addressed during natural interactions.

    PubMed

    Lloyd-Fox, Sarah; Széplaki-Köllőd, Borbála; Yin, Jun; Csibra, Gergely

    2015-09-01

    Human interactions are guided by continuous communication among the parties involved, in which verbal communication plays a primary role. However, speech does not necessarily reveal to whom it is addressed, especially for young infants who are unable to decode its semantic content. To overcome such difficulty, adults often explicitly mark their communication as infant-directed. In the present study we investigated whether ostensive signals, which would disambiguate the infant as the addressee of a communicative act, would modulate the brain responses of 6-month-old infants to speech and gestures in an ecologically valid setting. In Experiment 1, we tested whether the gaze direction of the speaker modulates cortical responses to infant-direct speech. To provide a naturalistic environment, two infants and their parents participated at the same time. In Experiment 2, we tested whether a similar modulation of the cortical response would be obtained by varying the intonation (infant versus adult directed speech) of the speech during face-to-face communication, one on one. The results of both experiments indicated that only the combination of ostensive signals (infant directed speech and direct gaze) led to enhanced brain activation. This effect was indicated by responses localized in regions known to be involved in processing auditory and visual aspects of social communication. This study also demonstrated the potential of fNIRS as a tool for studying neural responses in naturalistic scenarios, and for simultaneous measurement of brain function in multiple participants. PMID:25891796

  5. Agreement of the Kato-Katz test established by the WHO with samples fixed with sodium acetate analyzed at 6 months to diagnose intestinal geohelminthes.

    PubMed

    Alfredo Fernández-Niño, Julián; David Ramírez, Juan; Consuelo López, Myriam; Inés Moncada, Ligia; Reyes, Patricia; Darío Heredia, Rubén

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Kato-Katz test (WHO version) with stool samples from a rural area, fixed with sodium acetate (SAF). The Kato-Katz test was used to compare unfixed samples (conventional test) with the same samples containing SAF fixative at time 0 and at 6 months. The study included stools from 154 subjects. A marginally statistically significant decrease in prevalence was estimated only for hookworm, when comparing unfixed samples versus the SAF fixed samples read at 6 months (p=0.06). A significant reduction in parasite load was found for hookworm (p<0.01) and Trichuris trichiura (p<0.01) between the unfixed and the fixed sample read at 6 months, but not for Ascaris lumbricoides (p=0.10). This research suggests that the SAF fixative solution is a good option for transporting samples for diagnosis, especially in rural areas in developing countries. PMID:25771113

  6. Results of 5-year photometric monitoring of the intermediate polar V2306 Cygni: correction of the orbital period and evidence of 2-day periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breus, V.; Petrík, K.; Zoła, S.; Baransky, A.; Hegedus, T.

    2015-09-01

    We present the results of 6 years of photometric monitoring of the magnetic cataclysmic variable V2306 Cygni (formerly known as 1WGAJ1958.2+3232) obtained at collaborating observatories. Using (O-C) analysis we tried to study variability of the spin period of the white dwarf, however we cannot make a firm conclusion based on the scatter. Simultaneously, using (O-C) diagram of orbital minima, we found that the value of 0.181545(3) days better corresponds with the light curve, than do previously published orbital period values. We also found that the variability has a 2.01 day period; this variability may be interpreted as possible precession of the accretion disk in this system.

  7. Boundary conditions for creeping flow along periodic or random rough surfaces : experimental and theoretical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecoq, Nicolas

    2012-12-01

    Hydrodynamic interactions between particles and walls are relevant for the open problem of specifying boundary conditions for suspension flows. The Reynolds number around a small particle close to a wall is usually low and creeping flow equations apply. From the solution of these equations, the drag coefficient on a sphere becomes infinite when the gap between the sphere and a smooth wall vanishes, so that contact may not occur. Physically, the drag is finite because of various reasons, one of them being the particle and wall roughness. Then, for vanishing gap, even though some layers of fluid molecules may be left between the particle and wall roughness peaks, it may conventionally be said that contact occurs. In this paper, we are considering the example of a smooth sphere moving towards a rough wall. The roughness considered here consist of random rough planes or parallel periodic wedges, the characteristic length of which is small compared with the sphere radius. This problem is considered both experimentally and theoretically. The motion of a millimetre size bead settling towards a corrugated horizontal wall in a viscous oil is measured with laser interferometry giving an accuracy on the displacement of 0.2μm. Several random rough planes and wedge shaped walls were used, with various wavelengths and wedge angles. From the results, it is observed that the velocity of the sphere is, except for small gaps, similar to that towards a smooth plane that is shifted down from the top of corrugations. For the periodic wedges, the creeping flow is calculated as a series in the slope of the roughness grooves. The convergence of the series for the shift distance in term of the slope is accelerated by use of Euler transformation and of the existence of a limit for large slope. The cases of a flow along and across the grooves are considered separately. The shift is larger in the former case. Slightly flattened tops of the wedges used in experiments are also considered in

  8. [Quality of results of therapy of acute respiratory failure : changes over a period of two decades].

    PubMed

    Briegel, I; Dolch, M; Irlbeck, M; Hauer, D; Kaufmann, I; Schelling, G

    2013-04-01

    Progress in intensive care (ICU) treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) over the last 20 years includes the introduction of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for CO2 removal and the widespread use of evidence-based lung-protective ventilatory strategies. Little is known, however, about whether these changes have resulted in improvements in short-term and long-term outcome of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) within the two decades after introduction. In a retrospective study 167 long-term survivors of severe ARDS who were transferred to the clinic for anesthesiology of the University of Munich, Campus Großhadern by means of specialized intensive care unit (ICU) transport teams and treated over a period of 20 years (1985-2005) were evaluated to investigate whether significant improvements in outcome as a consequence of the above mentioned progress in ARDS therapy have occurred. The ARDS patient cohort studied was characterized with regard to demographic variables, initial acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II score, duration of ICU treatment, the duration of mechanical ventilation and mortality. Data on long-term outcome were collected in a subcohort (n = 125) of patients who responded to mailed questionnaires and included health-related quality of life (HRQL, SF-36 questionnaire), symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), traumatic memories from ICU treatment (PTSS-10 instrument) and current state of employment. During the observation period no significant changes regarding patient age (39 ± 16 years, mean ± SD), disease severity on admission to the ICU (APACHE II scores 22 ± 5), duration of ICU treatment (47 ± 39 days) or duration of mechanical ventilation (39 ± 38 days) were found. Overall ICU mortality during the two decades was 37.3 % (range 25.0 %-38.1 %) between 1995 and 2001 and a non-significant increase in values between 36.8 % and 58.3 % during the time interval from 2002 und 2005. The

  9. CULP (California Union List of Periodicals) 1980 User Survey Results. PN-77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Karl M., Jr.

    This survey of California libraries was conducted to gather information on the use of the California Union List of Periodicals (CULP), a microfiche finding list for serials held in all kinds of libraries statewide, exept for those held by major academic institutions. Returned by 391 of 696 libraries in October 1980, the survey questionnaire was…

  10. Saturn's periodicities: New results from an MHD simulation of magnetospheric response to rotating ionospheric vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivelson, M.; Jia, X.

    2013-12-01

    In previous work we demonstrated that a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of Saturn's magnetosphere in which periodicity is imposed by rotating vortical flows in the ionosphere reproduces many reported periodically varying properties of the system. Here we shall show that previously unreported features of the MHD simulation of Saturn's magnetosphere illuminate additional measured properties of the system. By averaging over a rotation period, we identify a global electric field whose magnitude is a few tenths of a mV/m (see Figure 1). The electric field intensity decreases with radial distance in the middle magnetosphere, consistent with drift speeds v=E/B of a few km/s towards the morning side and relatively independent of radial distance. The electric field within 10 RS in the equatorial plane is oriented from post-noon to post-midnight, in excellent agreement with observations [e.g., Thomsen et al., 2012; Andriopoulou et al., 2012, 2013; Wilson et al., 2013]. By following the electric field over a full rotation phase we identify oscillatory behavior whose magnitude is consistent with the reported fluctuations of measured electric fields. Of particular interest is the nature of the fast mode perturbations that produce periodic displacement of the magnetopause and flapping of the current sheet. Figure (2) shows the total perturbation pressure (the sum of magnetic and thermal pressure) in the equatorial plane at a rotation phase for which the ionospheric flow near noon is equatorward. By following the perturbations over a full rotation period, we demonstrate properties of the fast mode wave launched by the rotating flow structures and thereby characterize the 'cam' signal originally proposed by Espinosa et al. [2003].

  11. Inappropriate Neural Activity during a Sensitive Period in Embryogenesis Results in Persistent Seizure-like Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Giachello, Carlo N.G.; Baines, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Maturation of neural circuits requires activity-dependent processes that underpin the emergence of appropriate behavior in the adult. It has been proposed that disruption of these events, during specific critical periods when they exert maximal influence, may lead to neurodevelopmental diseases, including epilepsy [1, 2, 3]. However, complexity of neurocircuitry, coupled with the lack of information on network formation in mammals, makes it difficult to directly investigate this hypothesis. Alternative models, including the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, show remarkable similarities between experimental seizure-like activity and clinical phenotypes [4, 5, 6]. In particular, a group of flies, termed bang-sensitive (bs) mutants have been extensively used to investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying seizure [7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12]. Seizure phenotype can be measured in larval stages using an electroshock assay, and this behavior in bs mutants is dramatically reduced following ingestion of typical anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs; [13]). In this study we describe a critical period of embryonic development in Drosophila during which manipulation of neural activity is sufficient to significantly influence seizure behavior at postembryonic stages. We show that inhibition of elevated activity, characteristic of bs seizure models, during the critical period is sufficient to suppress seizure. By contrast, increasing neuronal excitation during the same period in wild-type (WT) is sufficient to permanently induce a seizure behavior. Further, we show that induction of seizure in WT correlates with functional alteration of motoneuron inputs that is a characteristic of bs mutants. Induction of seizure is rescued by prior administration of AEDs, opening a new perspective for early drug intervention in the treatment of genetic epilepsy. PMID:26549258

  12. Development/global validation of a 6-month-old pediatric head finite element model and application in investigation of drop-induced infant head injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhigang; Luo, Xiao; Zhang, Jinhuan

    2013-12-01

    Drop is a frequent cause for infant head injury. To date, finite element (FE) modeling was gradually used to investigate child head dynamic response under drop impact conditions, however, two shortages still exist on this topic: (1) due to ethical reasons, none of developed 6-month-old (6MO) head FE model was found to be quantitatively validated against child cadaver tests at similar age group; (2) drop height and impact surface stiffness effects on infant head responses were not comprehensively investigated. In this study, motivated by the recently published material properties of soft tissues (skull and suture, etc.) and reported pediatric head global cadaver tests, a 6MO child head FE model was developed and simulated results compared with the child cadaver experimental data under compression and drop conditions. Comparison of results indicated that the FE model showed a fairly good biofidelic behavior in most dynamic responses. The validated FE model was further used to investigate effects of different drop heights and impact surface stiffness on the head dynamic responses. Numerical results show that the pediatric head mechanical parameters (peak acceleration, HIC, maximal vonMises stress and maximal first principal strain of skull) keep increasing with the increase in drop height, and exhibit "logarithmic function" shapes at "fast-slow" trends with increase in impact surface stiffness. Based on above analysis, the regressions were conducted to describe the relationship between drop height and impact surface stiffness and head global injury predictors (head peak acceleration, HIC, etc.). This paper provides a fundamental study of child head injury mechanism and protection under drop conditions. PMID:24008251

  13. Visual Fixation Patterns during Reciprocal Social Interaction Distinguish a Subgroup of 6-Month-Old Infants At-Risk for Autism from Comparison Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merin, Noah; Young, Gregory S.; Ozonoff, Sally; Rogers, Sally J.

    2007-01-01

    Thirty-one infant siblings of children with autism and 24 comparison infants were tested at 6 months of age during social interaction with a caregiver, using a modified Still Face paradigm conducted via a closed-circuit TV-video system. In the Still Face paradigm, the mother interacts with the infant, then freezes and displays a neutral,…

  14. Gaze Behavior and Affect at 6 Months: Predicting Clinical Outcomes and Language Development in Typically Developing Infants and Infants at Risk for Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Gregory S.; Merin, Noah; Rogers, Sally J.; Ozonoff, Sally

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents follow-up longitudinal data to research that previously suggested the possibility of abnormal gaze behavior marked by decreased eye contact in a subgroup of 6-month-old infants at risk for autism (Merin, Young, Ozonoff & Rogers, 2007). Using eye-tracking data and behavioral data recorded during a live mother-infant interaction…

  15. Face Detection in Complex Visual Displays: An Eye-Tracking Study with 3- and 6-Month-Old Infants and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Giorgio, Elisa; Turati, Chiara; Altoe, Gianmarco; Simion, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    The ability to detect and prefer a face when embedded in complex visual displays was investigated in 3- and 6-month-old infants, as well as in adults, through a modified version of the visual search paradigm and the recording of eye movements. Participants "(N" = 43) were shown 32 visual displays that comprised a target face among 3 or 5…

  16. Effects of breast milk and milk formula on synthesized speech sound-induced event-related potentials at 3 and 6 months of age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of breast milk and milk formula supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid on speech processing were investigated by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) to synthesized /pa/ and /ba/ (oddball paradigm, 80%:20%) at 3 and 6 months of age. Behavioral assessment was also ob...

  17. Emerging Perception of Causality in Action-and-Reaction Sequences from 4 to 6 Months of Age: Is It Domain-Specific?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlottmann, Anne; Ray, Elizabeth D.; Surian, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments (N=136) studied how 4- to 6-month-olds perceive a simple schematic event, seen as goal-directed action and reaction from 3 years of age. In our causal reaction event, a red square moved toward a blue square, stopping prior to contact. Blue began to move away before red stopped, so that both briefly moved simultaneously at a…

  18. Health Status, Cognitive and Motor Development of Young Children Adopted from China, East Asia, and Russia across the First 6 Months after Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerleau, Andree; Malcuit, Gerard; Chicoine, Jean-Francois; Seguin, Renee; Belhumeur, Celine; Germain, Patricia; Amyot, Isabelle; Jeliu, Gloria

    2005-01-01

    We compared health status, anthropometric and psychological development of 123 children adopted before 18 months of age from China, East Asia (Vietnam, Taiwan, Thailand, South Korea, Cambodia), and Eastern Europe (mostly Russia). Data were collected close to the time of arrival, and 3 and 6 months later. Anthropometric measures included weight,…

  19. Effects of the Home Environmental Skill-Building Program on the Caregiver-Care Recipient Dyad: 6-Month Outcomes from the Philadelphia REACH Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitlin, Laura N.; Winter, Laraine; Corcoran, Mary; Dennis, Marie P.; Schinfield, Sandy; Hauck, Walter W.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: We examine 6-month effects of the Environmental Skill-Building Program on caregiver well-being and care recipient functioning and whether effects vary by caregiver gender, race (White or non-White), and relationship (spouse or nonspouse). Design and Methods: We enrolled 255 family caregivers of community-residing persons with Alzheimer's…

  20. EEG POWER SPECTRAL CHANGES IN BREAST FED, MILK-FORMULA FED OR SOY-FORMULA FED INFANTS IN THE FIRST 6 MONTHS OF LIFE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of infant soy formula (SF) on brain maturation in the first 6 months of life were investigated in full-term infants by comparing spectral power of resting EEGs. Recordings (124 electrode sites on the scalp) were obtained from 38 breast fed (BF), 47 milk formula fed (MF) and 32 soy formula fe...

  1. 41 CFR 302-3.407 - What is the effect on my TCS reimbursement if my assignment lasts less than 6 months?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the effect on my... Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RELOCATION... the effect on my TCS reimbursement if my assignment lasts less than 6 months? Your agency...

  2. Effect of Serum Fibrinogen, Total Stent Length, and Type of Acute Coronary Syndrome on 6-Month Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events and Bleeding After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Ehtisham; Ramsis, Mattheus; Behnamfar, Omid; Enright, Kelly; Huynh, Andrew; Kaushal, Khushboo; Palakodeti, Samhita; Li, Shiqian; Teh, Phildrich; Lin, Felice; Reeves, Ryan; Patel, Mitul; Ang, Lawrence

    2016-05-15

    This study evaluated the relation between baseline fibrinogen and 6-month major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and bleeding after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Three hundred eighty-seven subjects (65.6 ± 16.1 years, 69.5% men, 26.9% acute coronary syndrome [ACS]) who underwent PCI with baseline fibrinogen and platelet reactivity (VerifyNow P2Y12 assay, Accumetrics, San Diego, California) measured were enrolled. Fibrinogen (368.8 ± 144.1 vs 316.8 ± 114.3 mg/dl; p = 0.001), total stent length (TSL; 44.5 ± 25.0 vs 32.2 ± 20.1 mm; p <0.001), and ACS presentation (40.6% vs 23.9%; p = 0.005) were independently associated with 6-month MACE rates (17.8%: myocardial infarction 9.8%, rehospitalization for ACS 3.6%, urgent revascularization 3.6%, stroke 0.5%, and death 0.3%). Measures of platelet reactivity were not associated with 6-month MACE. After multivariate analysis, fibrinogen ≥280 mg/dl (odds ratio [OR] 2.60, 95% CI 1.33 to 5.11, p = 0.005), TSL ≥32 mm (OR 3.21, 95% CI 1.82 to 5.64, p <0.001), and ACS presentation (OR 2.58, 95% CI 1.45 to 4.61, p = 0.001) were associated with higher 6-month MACE. In 271 subjects receiving chronic P2Y12 inhibitor therapy, 6-month Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction bleeding after PCI was 7.0%, but no difference in fibrinogen level (338.3 ± 109.7 vs 324.3 ± 113.8 mg/dl, p = 0.60) stratified by Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction bleeding was observed. In conclusion, elevated serum fibrinogen, ACS presentation, and longer TSL are independently associated with higher 6-month MACE after PCI, whereas no association with on-thienopyridine platelet reactivity and 6-month MACE was observed. Post-PCI bleeding was not associated with lower fibrinogen level. PMID:27040574

  3. Displacement reactions in the Ni-Al-O system resulting in periodic layer structures

    SciTech Connect

    Song, D.W.; Subramanian, R.; Dieckmann, R.

    1995-10-01

    Displacement reactions may play an important role in in situ processing technologies for the production of metal-ceramic composites. To better understand such reactions displacement reactions between NiO and Al were studied at high temperatures. Different reaction layers with periodic structures were observed involving Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Al{sub 3}Ni, Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}, Ni and Al. The experimental observations are presented and discussed with regard to the reaction mechanism.

  4. Experimental results of antigliadin antibodies detection using long period fiber grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corres, J. M.; Matias, I. R.; Goicoechea, J.; Arregui, F. J.; Viegas, D.; Araújo, F. M.; Santos, J. L.

    2008-04-01

    In this work a new nano-biofilm is proposed for the detection of celiac disease (CD). A long-period fiber grating (LPFG) is used as a transducer and the surface of the fiber is coated with a precursor layer of SiO2-nanospheres using the electrostatic self-assembly technique (ESA). This layer has been designed in order to create a substrate of high porosity where the gliadins could be deposited. Under the presence of specific antibodies antigliadin antibodies (AGA) the refractive index of the overlay changes giving a detectable shift in the resonance wavelength of the LPFG. Concentrations as low as 5 ppm were detected.

  5. 78 FR 41022 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 6-Month Extension of Final Determination for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... in the Federal Register a proposed rule (77 FR 73828) to list the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus...- chicken that was published in the Federal Register on December 11, 2012 (77 FR 73828), and on our proposed... FR 26302). The reopening of the comment period closed June 20, 2013. Section 4(b)(6) of the Act...

  6. 76 FR 75858 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 6-Month Extension of Final Determination for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... published a proposed rule (75 FR 77801) to list the dunes sagebrush lizard, a lizard known from southeastern... the dunes sagebrush lizard that was published in the Federal Register on December 14, 2010 (75 FR... public meetings in April 2011 and reopened the comment period to accept additional public comments (76...

  7. 78 FR 54218 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 6-Month Extension of Final Determination for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... Mazama Pocket Gopher as Threatened On December 11, 2012, we published a proposed rule (77 FR 73770) to... comment period for an additional 30 days to accept additional public comments (78 FR 20074; April 3, 2013... in the Federal Register on December 10, 2012 (77 FR 73770). We will consider information...

  8. Lateral resonances in 1{endash}3 piezoelectric periodic composite: Modeling and experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Certon, D.; Patat, F.; Levassort, F.; Feuillard, G.; Karlsson, B.

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this work is to provide an accurate model of the lateral resonance modes in 1{endash}3 piezoelectric composite materials. These materials are widely used in ultrasonic transducers and the lowest lateral mode frequency gives the upper limit for the usable transducer bandwidth. Considering the propagation of purely transverse waves in a 2-D periodic medium of infinite thickness, two different approaches for obtaining the solutions are presented and compared. The first approach is based on the use of the Bloch waves theory. The second is a straightforward method (a so-called membrane method) which consists in numerically solving the propagation equation in the two-phase medium while taking into account the periodic boundary conditions. Methods based on both models are described that allow the calculation of the dispersion curves and the stop band limits, as well as the frequencies and the displacement fields of the lateral modes. A test case is used to compare and discuss the theoretical predictions provided by each model. The calculations of the first lateral mode frequency are compared with experimental values obtained for samples with different ceramic volume fractions. The conclusion reached indicates that the infinite thickness assumption is valid for plates of practical interest and that the membrane model enables the prediction of lateral mode frequency with low computation effort and an accuracy better than 5{percent}. {copyright} {ital 1997 Acoustical Society of America.}

  9. 2011 Joplin, Missouri Tornado Experience, Mental Health Reactions, and Service Utilization: Cross-Sectional Assessments at Approximately 6 Months and 2.5 Years Post-Event

    PubMed Central

    Houston, J. Brian; Spialek, Matthew L.; Stevens, Jordan; First, Jennifer; Mieseler, Vicky L.; Pfefferbaum, Betty

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. On May 22, 2011 the deadliest tornado in the United States since 1947 struck Joplin, Missouri killing 161 people, injuring approximately 1,150 individuals, and causing approximately $2.8 billion in economic losses. Methods. This study examined the mental health effects of this event through a random digit dialing sample (N = 380) of Joplin adults at approximately 6 months post-disaster (Survey 1) and a purposive convenience sample (N = 438) of Joplin adults at approximately 2.5 years post-disaster (Survey 2). For both surveys we assessed tornado experience, posttraumatic stress, depression, mental health service utilization, and sociodemographics. For Survey 2 we also assessed social support and parent report of child strengths and difficulties. Results. Probable PTSD relevance was 12.63% at Survey 1 and 26.74% at Survey 2, while current depression prevalence was 20.82% at Survey 1 and 13.33% at Survey 2. Less education and more tornado experience was generally related to greater likelihood of experiencing probable PTSD and current depression for both surveys. Men and younger participants were more likely to report current depression at Survey 1. Low levels of social support (assessed only at Survey 2) were related to more probable PTSD and current depression. For both surveys, we observed low rates of mental health service utilization, and these rates were also low for participants reporting probable PTSD and current depression. At Survey 2 we assessed parent report of child (ages 4 to 17) strengths and difficulties and found that child difficulties were more frequent for younger children (ages 4 to 10) than older children (ages 11 to 17), and that parents reporting probable PTSD reported a greater frequency of children with borderline or abnormal difficulties. Discussion. Overall our results indicate that long-term (multi-year) community disaster mental health monitoring, assessment, referral, outreach, and services are needed following a major

  10. 2011 Joplin, Missouri Tornado Experience, Mental Health Reactions, and Service Utilization: Cross-Sectional Assessments at Approximately 6 Months and 2.5 Years Post-Event.

    PubMed

    Houston, J Brian; Spialek, Matthew L; Stevens, Jordan; First, Jennifer; Mieseler, Vicky L; Pfefferbaum, Betty

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. On May 22, 2011 the deadliest tornado in the United States since 1947 struck Joplin, Missouri killing 161 people, injuring approximately 1,150 individuals, and causing approximately $2.8 billion in economic losses. Methods. This study examined the mental health effects of this event through a random digit dialing sample (N = 380) of Joplin adults at approximately 6 months post-disaster (Survey 1) and a purposive convenience sample (N = 438) of Joplin adults at approximately 2.5 years post-disaster (Survey 2). For both surveys we assessed tornado experience, posttraumatic stress, depression, mental health service utilization, and sociodemographics. For Survey 2 we also assessed social support and parent report of child strengths and difficulties. Results. Probable PTSD relevance was 12.63% at Survey 1 and 26.74% at Survey 2, while current depression prevalence was 20.82% at Survey 1 and 13.33% at Survey 2. Less education and more tornado experience was generally related to greater likelihood of experiencing probable PTSD and current depression for both surveys. Men and younger participants were more likely to report current depression at Survey 1. Low levels of social support (assessed only at Survey 2) were related to more probable PTSD and current depression. For both surveys, we observed low rates of mental health service utilization, and these rates were also low for participants reporting probable PTSD and current depression. At Survey 2 we assessed parent report of child (ages 4 to 17) strengths and difficulties and found that child difficulties were more frequent for younger children (ages 4 to 10) than older children (ages 11 to 17), and that parents reporting probable PTSD reported a greater frequency of children with borderline or abnormal difficulties. Discussion. Overall our results indicate that long-term (multi-year) community disaster mental health monitoring, assessment, referral, outreach, and services are needed following a major

  11. STS-40 orbital acceleration research experiment flight results during a typical sleep period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Nicholson, John Y.; Ritter, James R.

    1992-01-01

    The Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), an electrostatic accelerometer package with complete on-orbit calibration capabilities was flown aboard Shuttle on STS-40. The instrument is designed to measure and record the Shuttle aerodynamic acceleration environment from the free molecule flow regime through the rarefied flow transition into the hypersonic continuum regime. Because of its sensitivity, the OARE instrument detects aerodynamic behavior of the Shuttle while in low-earth orbit. A 2-h orbital time period on day seven of the mission, when the crew was asleep and other spacecraft activities were at a minimum, was examined. Examination of the model with the flight data shows the instrument to be sensitive to all major expected low-frequency acceleration phenomena; however, some erratic instrument bias behavior persists in two axes. In these axes, the OARE data can be made to match a comprehensive atmospheric-aerodynamic model by making bias adjustments and slight liner corrections for drift.

  12. Antibiotic Exposure by 6 Months and Asthma and Allergy at 6 Years: Findings in a Cohort of 1,401 US Children

    PubMed Central

    Risnes, Kari R.; Belanger, Kathleen; Murk, William; Bracken, Michael B.

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have reported that antibiotic use may be associated with increased risk of childhood asthma. Respiratory tract infections in small children may be difficult to distinguish from early symptoms of asthma, and studies may have been confounded by “protopathic” bias, where antibiotics are used to treat early symptoms of asthma. These analyses of a cohort including 1,401 US children assess the association between antibiotic use within the first 6 months of life and asthma and allergy at 6 years of age between 2003 and 2007. Antibiotic exposure was associated with increased risk of asthma (adjusted odds ratio = 1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07, 2.16). The odds ratio if asthma was first diagnosed after 3 years of age was 1.66 (95% CI: 0.99, 2.79) and, in children with no history of lower respiratory infection in the first year of life, the odds ratio was 1.66 (95% CI: 1.12, 3.46). The adverse effect of antibiotics was particularly strong in children with no family history of asthma (odds ratio = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.00, 3.58) (Pinteraction = 0.03). The odds ratio for a positive allergy blood or skin test was 1.59 (95% CI: 1.10, 2.28). The results show that early antibiotic use was associated with asthma and allergy at 6 years of age, and that protopathic bias was unlikely to account for the main findings. PMID:21190986

  13. Effects of 6-month soccer and traditional physical activity programmes on body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory, oxidative stress markers and cardiorespiratory fitness in obese boys.

    PubMed

    Seabra, André; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Carvalho, Maria José; Seabra, Ana; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel; Abreu, Sandra; Vale, Susana; Póvoas, Susana; Nascimento, Henrique; Belo, Luís; Torres, Sandra; Oliveira, José; Mota, Jorge; Santos-Silva, Alice; Rêgo, Carla; Malina, Robert M

    2016-10-01

    Physical activity is important in obesity prevention, but the effectiveness of different physical activity modalities remains to be determined among children. The main purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a 6-month soccer programme and a traditional physical activity programme on changes in body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory and oxidative markers, cardiorespiratory fitness and perceived psychological status in obese boys. Eighty-eight boys (8-12 years; BMI > +2 standard deviations of WHO reference values) participated in one of three groups: soccer, traditional activity and control. Soccer and traditional activity programmes involved 3 sessions per week for 60-90 min at an average intensity of 70-80% of maximal heart rate. Control group participated in activities of normal daily living. All boys participated in school physical education, two sessions per week of 45-90-min. Measurements were taken at baseline and after 6 months, and included body size and composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory and oxidative markers, cardiorespiratory fitness and perceived psychological status. Physical activity and dietary intake were assessed before and immediately following the intervention. The three groups had similar characteristics at baseline. After 6 months, both intervention groups had significantly lower relative fatness (% fat), waist circumference and total cholesterol, and higher cardiorespiratory fitness, self-esteem, perceived physical competence and attraction to physical activity compared with control group. In conclusion, physical activity interventions over 6 months positively influenced several indicators of health status among obese boys. The results also suggested that soccer has the potential as an effective tool for the prevention and reduction of childhood obesity and associated consequences. PMID:26890580

  14. Anthropometric, metabolic, psychosocial and dietary factors associated with dropout in overweight and obese postmenopausal women engaged in a 6-month weight loss programme: a MONET study.

    PubMed

    Messier, Virginie; Hayek, Jessy; Karelis, Antony D; Messier, Lyne; Doucet, Eric; Prud'homme, Denis; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Strychar, Irene

    2010-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine anthropometric, metabolic, psychosocial and dietary factors associated with dropout in a 6-month weight loss intervention aimed at reducing body weight by 10 %. The study sample included 137 sedentary, overweight and obese postmenopausal women, participating in a weight loss intervention that consisted of either energy restriction (ER) or ER with resistance training (ER+RT). Anthropometric (BMI, percent lean body mass, percent fat mass, visceral adipose tissue and waist circumference), metabolic (total energy expenditure, RMR, insulin sensitivity and fasting plasma levels of leptin and ghrelin), psychosocial (body esteem, self-esteem, stress, dietary restraint, disinhibition, hunger, quality of life, self-efficacy, perceived benefits for controlling weight and perceived risk) and dietary (3-d food record) variables were measured. Thirty subjects out of 137 dropped out of the weight loss programme (22 %), with no significant differences in dropout rates between those in the ER and the ER+RT groups. Overall, amount of weight loss was significantly lower in dropouts than in completers ( - 1.7 (sd 3.5) v. - 5.6 (sd 4.3) kg, P < 0.05); weekly weight loss during the first 4 weeks was also significantly lower. Dropouts consumed fewer fruit servings than completers (1.7 (sd 1.1) v. 2.7 (sd 1.53), P < 0.05) and had higher insulin sensitivity levels (12.6 (sd 3.8) v. 11.1 (sd 2.8) mg glucose/min per kg fat-free mass, P < 0.05). The present results suggest that the rate of weight loss during the first weeks of an intervention plays an important role in the completion of the programme. Thus, participants with low rates of initial weight loss should be monitored intensely to undertake corrective measures to increase the likelihood of completion. PMID:19930768

  15. The volume of nipple aspirate fluid is not affected by 6 months of treatment with soy foods in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Morimoto, Yukiko; Conroy, Shannon M; Pagano, Ian S; Franke, Adrian A

    2011-04-01

    Based on the hypothesis that soy food consumption may influence breast tissue activity, we examined its effect on the production of nipple aspirate fluid (NAF), a possible indicator of breast cancer risk. Of 310 premenopausal women screened, 112 (36%) produced at least 10 μL of NAF, the minimum for study participation. In a crossover design, we randomized 96 women to 2 groups who, in reverse order, consumed a high-soy diet with 2 soy servings/d (1 serving = 177 mL soy milk, 126 g tofu, or 23 g soy nuts) and a low-soy diet with <3 servings/wk of soy for 6 mo each separated by a 1-mo washout period. During each diet period, 3 NAF samples were obtained (baseline and 3 and 6 mo) using a FirstCyte Aspirator and 4 urine samples (baseline and 1, 3, and 6 mo) were analyzed for isoflavonoids by liquid chromatography tandem MS. Adherence to the study protocol according to 24-h dietary recalls and urinary isoflavonoid excretion was high. The drop-out rate was 15% (n = 14); 82 women completed the intervention. The 2 groups produced similar mean NAF volumes at baseline (P = 0.95) but differed in age and previous soy intake and in their response to the intervention (P = 0.03). In both groups, NAF volume decreased during the first 3 mo of the high-soy diet period and returned to baseline at 6 mo, but there was no effect of the high-soy diet on NAF volume (P = 0.50 for diet; P-interaction = 0.21 for diet with time). Contrary to an earlier report, soy foods in amounts consumed by Asians did not increase breast tissue activity as assessed by NAF volume. PMID:21325473

  16. Results of magnetic measurements of ELF fields in Tomsk for the period 2013-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolmakov, A. A.; Kolesnik, S. A.; Nedosekov, D. A.

    2015-11-01

    The paper describes a method of magnetic measurements of natural electromagnetic fields ELF range. The results of the analysis of the frequency characteristics of fashion Schumann resonances in a suburban area in the seasonally-daily cycle of observations.

  17. [Influenza surveillance in five consecutive seasons during post pandemic period: results from National Influenza Center, Turkey].

    PubMed

    Altaş, Ayşe Başak; Bayrakdar, Fatma; Korukluoğlu, Gülay

    2016-07-01

    Influenza surveillance provides data about the characteristics of influenza activity, types, sub-types and antigenic properties of the influenza viruses in circulation in a region. Surveillance also provides for the preparation against potential influenza pandemics with the identification of the genetic properties of viruses and the mutant strains that could pose a threat. In this study, data in the scope of national influenza surveillance carried out by National Influenza Center, Turkey for five consecutive influenza seasons between 2010-2015, following the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus pandemic, have been presented and evaluated. A total of 15.149 respiratory samples, including 8.894 sentinel and 6.255 non-sentinel specimens, during 2010-2015 influenza seasons, within the periods between September and May, were evaluated in our center. All samples were tested using real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) for the presence of influenza virus types and subtypes. Within the sentinel influenza surveillance, the samples that were detected negative for influenza viruses, have also been tested for the other respiratory viruses (respiratory syncytial virus, rhinoviruses, paramyxoviruses, coronaviruses) using the same technique. Further analysis, including virus isolation by cell culture inoculation and antigenic characterization by hemagglutination inhibiton test were performed for the samples found positive for influenza A and B viruses. Selected representative virus isolates have been sent to WHO reference laboratory for the sequence analysis. In the study, influenza virus positivity rates detected for all of the samples (sentinel+non-sentinel) were as follows; 34% (779/2316) in 2010-11 season; 25% (388/1554) in 2011-12; 20% (696/3541) in 2012-13; 23% (615/2678) in 2013-14; and 26% (1332/5060) in 2014-15. When all the samples were considered for influenza A and B viruses, the positivity rates for the seasons of 2010-11; 2011-12; 2012-13; 2013-14; 2014-15 were determined as

  18. Effects of structured vocational services in ex-offender veterans with mental illness: 6-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    LePage, James P; Lewis, Avery A; Washington, Edward L; Davis, Brandi; Glasgow, Anne

    2013-01-01

    With more than 200,000 veterans incarcerated, a significant need exists for the development of technologies that help veterans with felony histories return to employment. This study evaluated the effect of three methods of vocational assistance on competitive employment over a 6 mo follow-up period: (1) basic vocational services, (2) self-study using a vocational manual designed for formerly incarcerated veterans, and (3) a group led by vocational staff using the vocational manual. We evaluated 111 veterans for time to obtain and total time of competitive employment. The group format was expected to be superior to the self-study and the self-study superior to basic services. Findings indicated that the group format was associated with quicker employment and more total employment than the basic and self-study conditions. Limitations and directions for future refinement are discussed. PMID:23760999

  19. Effects of initiation and titration of a single pre-prandial dose of insulin glulisine while continuing titrated insulin glargine in type 2 diabetes: a 6-month ‘proof-of-concept’ study

    PubMed Central

    Owens, D R; Luzio, S D; Sert-Langeron, C; Riddle, M C

    2011-01-01

    Aim Stepwise intensification of insulin treatment to match the progressive decline of endogenous insulin secretion has been shown to be an effective management strategy in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The efficacy of initiating and titrating a single bolus dose of insulin glulisine to baseline insulin glargine plus oral hypoglycaemic agents (OHAs) was investigated. Methods This was a 6-month, parallel-group, randomized, open-label, Phase IV study conducted in the US, UK and Russia. People with T2DM (HbA1c 7.5–9.5%) using any basal insulin underwent a 3-month run-in period on insulin glargine titrated to optimize fasting blood glucose (BG) control. Those with HbA1c >7.0% were randomized to either continue prior therapy (n = 57) or to add a single dose of insulin glulisine (n = 49) immediately prior to the main meal for a further 3 months. Two different titration algorithms were employed for the bolus dose, targeting 2-h postprandial BG ≤135 mg/dL (≤7.5 mmol/l; Russia and UK) or pre-meal/bedtime BG 100–120 mg/dl (5.5–6.7 mmol/l; US). Results HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose levels decreased during the run-in period. In the 3 months after randomization, more participants in the basal-plus-bolus group reached HbA1c <7.0% than the basal-only control group (22.4 vs. 8.8%; p < 0.05), with significantly greater reduction of HbA1c (−0.37 vs. −0.11%; p = 0.0290). Rates of hypoglycaemia and mean weight change were comparable between the treatment groups. Conclusions In people with T2DM inadequately controlled on basal insulin plus OHAs, adding a single injection of insulin glulisine prior to the main meal significantly improves glucose control without undesired side effects. PMID:21679291

  20. A 6-month “self-monitoring” lifestyle modification with increased sunlight exposure modestly improves vitamin D status, lipid profile and glycemic status in overweight and obese Saudi adults with varying glycemic levels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The over-all age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) in Saudi Arabia is unprecedented at 31%. Aggressive measures should be done to curb down increasing incidence. In this prospective 6-month study we aim to determine whether a self-monitoring, life-style modification program that includes increased sunlight exposure confer improvement in vitamin D status and health benefits among adult Saudi overweight and obese patients with varying glycemic status. Methods A total of 150 overweight and obese Saudi adults with varying glycemic status aged 30–60 years were included in this study. They were divided into 3 groups (Non-DMT2, Pre-diabetes and DMT2). Baseline anthropometrics and blood glucose were taken at baseline and after 6 months. Fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, calcium, albumin and phosphate were measured routinely. Serum 25(OH) vitamin D was measured using standard assays. Within the time period they were instructed to reduce total intake of fat, increased fiber intake and increase sun exposure. Results In all groups there was a significant improvement in vitamin D levels as well as serum triglycerides, LDL- and total cholesterol. However, a significant increase in serum glucose levels was noted in the non-DMT2 group, and a significant decrease in HDL-cholesterol in both non-DMT2 and pre-diabetes group. In the pre-diabetes group, 53.2% were able to normalize their fasting blood levels after 6 months, with 8.5% reaching the DMT2 stage and 38.3% remaining pre-diabetic. In all groups there was a significant increase in the prevalence of hypertension. Conclusion Improving vitamin D status with modest lifestyle modifications over a short-period translates to improvement in lipid profile except HDL-cholesterol among overweight and obese Saudi adults, but not BMI and blood pressure. Findings of the present study merit further investigation as to whether full vitamin D status correction can delay or prevent onset of DMT2. PMID

  1. Prevalence and risk factors of diastasis recti abdominis from late pregnancy to 6 months postpartum, and relationship with lumbo-pelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Fernandes da Mota, Patrícia Gonçalves; Pascoal, Augusto Gil Brites Andrade; Carita, Ana Isabel Andrade Dinis; Bø, Kari

    2015-02-01

    Diastasis recti abdominis (DRA) is an impairment characterized by a midline separation of the rectus abdominis muscles along the linea alba. It has its onset during pregnancy and the first weeks following childbirth. There is scant knowledge on both prevalence and risk factors for development of the condition. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of DRA at gestational week 35 and three timepoints postpartum, possible risk factors, and the relationship between DRA and lumbo-pelvic pain. Ultrasound images of inter rectus distance (IRD) were recorded in 84 healthy primiparous women, at three locations on the linea alba. The IRD was measured at: gestational week 35 and 6-8, 12-14, and 24-26 weeks postpartum. Diagnosis of DRA was defined as 16 mm at 2 cm below the umbilicus. Independent sample t-test and binary logistic regression was used to assess differences and risk factors in women with and without DRA and women with and without lumbo-pelvic pain. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The prevalence of DRA decreased from 100% at gestational week 35-39% at 6 months postpartum. No statistically significant differences were found in prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), weight gain, baby's birth weight or abdominal circumference between women with and without DRA at 6 months postpartum. Women with DRA at 6 months postpartum were not more likely to report lumbo-pelvic pain than women without DRA. DRA is prevalent at 6 months postpartum, but is not linked with lumbo-pelvic pain. PMID:25282439

  2. Amphetamines and cannabinoids testing in hair: Evaluation of results from a two-year period.

    PubMed

    Burgueño, María José; Alonso, Amaya; Sánchez, Sergio

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an overview of a set of amphetamines and cannabinoids tests performed on head hair samples from the Medico-Legal sector at the Madrid Department of the Spanish National Institute of Toxicology and Forensic Sciences during the years 2013 and 2014. The hair samples were tested for five stimulant phenylalkylamine derivatives -amphetamine (AP), methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-amphetamine (MDA), and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA)- and/or two cannabinoids-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabinol (CBN)- by gas chromatography equipped with mass spectrometry detection in selected-ion monitoring mode, applying a method accredited to ISO/IEC 17025 standards. The test results were interpreted according to the confirmation cut-offs proposed by the Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) to identify chronic drug use. The ratios of positive results were studied in relation to gender, age, hair colour, dyeing and length of the tested samples to assess the independence from these variables or the association with them. Low, medium and high ranges of concentration were also estimated for each drug. 21.94% of the 2954 hair samples tested for phenylalkylamine derivatives were positive for one or more substances. 16.38% of the samples were positive for AP, 12.09% for MDMA and only 0.44% for MA. 6.60% of the tested samples were positive for AP/MDMA combination. A total of 3178 samples were tested for cannabinoids, resulting in 53.40% positive for THC and CBN. Simultaneous tests for phenylalkylamine derivatives and cannabinoids were performed in 2931 of the samples; 14.94% of them were positive for THC, CBN, and one or more amphetamines. According to the results from the statistical analysis, the use of THC and MDMA vary with age and gender among the Medico-Legal sector in an extended area of Spain, while the use of AP appears to be independent of these variables. On the other hand, the results of THC in

  3. Repairing the Brain by SCF+G-CSF Treatment at 6 Months Postexperimental Stroke: Mechanistic Determination of the Causal Link Between Neurovascular Regeneration and Motor Functional Recovery.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lili; Wang, Dandan; McGillis, Sandra; Kyle, Michele; Zhao, Li-Ru

    2016-06-01

    Stroke, a leading cause of adult disability in the world, is a severe medical condition with limited treatment. Physical therapy, the only treatment available for stroke rehabilitation, appears to be effective within 6 months post-stroke. Here, we have mechanistically determined the efficacy of combined two hematopoietic growth factors, stem cell factor (SCF) and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF; SCF + G-CSF), in brain repair 6 months after cortical infarct induction in the transgenic mice carrying yellow fluorescent protein in Layer V pyramidal neurons (Thy1-YFP-H). Using a combination of live brain imaging, whole brain imaging, molecular manipulation, synaptic and vascular assessments, and motor function examination, we found that SCF + G-CSF promoted mushroom spine formation, enlarged postsynaptic membrane size, and increased postsynaptic density-95 accumulation and blood vessel density in the peri-infarct cavity cortex; and that SCF + G-CSF treatment improved motor functional recovery. The SCF + G-CSF-enhanced motor functional recovery was dependent on the synaptic and vascular regeneration in the peri-infarct cavity cortex. These data suggest that a stroke-damaged brain is repairable by SCF + G-CSF even 6 months after the lesion occurs. This study provides novel insights into the development of new restorative strategies for stroke recovery. PMID:27511907

  4. Patients in a depression collaborative care model of care: comparison of 6-month cost utilization data with usual care.

    PubMed

    Angstman, Kurt B; Williams, Mark D

    2010-04-01

    A collaborative care model (CCM) has been implemented for management of depression. This paper studies the impact that the CCM had on cost measures for the period of six months after initial diagnosis of depression compared to patients receiving usual care (UC). There was a significant increase in the CPT costs for the six months following diagnosis in the CCM group ($451.35 vs. $323.50, P < 0.001). The average CPT cost rank and CPT cost differential were also significantly increased in the CCM group. The adjusted means of the CPT costs were (when controlling for prior utilization) $452.11 for the CCM group and $322.09 for UC (P < 0.001). In the CCM group; there were 161 patients (73.5%) that achieved a clinical response for their depression compared to the UC group, which had a 15.1% (18/119) response rate (P < 0.001). There also was a significant difference between the groups in those who were symptoms free of their depression (PHQ-9 score < 5), with the CCM having 59.4% of the patients symptom-free compared to 10.9% of the UC group (P < 0.001). In this group of patients, CCM is associated with markedly improved clinical outcomes for depression, however with a modest short-term increase in CPT costs. PMID:23804062

  5. Persistent fear of aftershocks, impairment of working memory, and acute stress disorder predict post-traumatic stress disorder: 6-month follow-up of help seekers following the L'Aquila earthquake.

    PubMed

    Roncone, Rita; Giusti, Laura; Mazza, Monica; Bianchini, Valeria; Ussorio, Donatella; Pollice, Rocco; Casacchia, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our 6-month follow-up study was to assess predictors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among individuals seeking treatment at the General Hospital Psychiatric Unit within the first month following the L'Aquila earthquake. Clinical, trauma-related and neurocognitive variables were considered. At the 6-month follow-up, 91 (74.5%) out of 122 subjects were re-assessed and administered the Impact of Events Scale-revised (IES-R) for the detection of PTSD according to DSM-IV criteria. Within 4 weeks following the earthquake, patients were assessed with a checklist of traumatic-event-related variables, along with the Stanford Acute Stress Disorder Questionnaire (SASDQ) for the detection of ASD, with a short battery on working (Wechler Memory Scale-R, Digit Forward and Backward) and verbal memory (subtest of Milan Overall Dementia Assessment, MODA). A statistically significant higher proportion of subjects affected by 'partial' ASD showed a PTSD diagnosis (80.6%, N = 29) compared to not diagnosed subjects (40%, N = 22) and a PTSD diagnosis was shown by all the 4 subjects (4.4%) affected by 'full' ASD at the entry in the study. At the 6-month follow-up 56% of the sample could be considered affected by PTSD on the IES-R scale. The results of the logistic regression analysis on our selected predictors indicated that the persistent fear of aftershocks seemed to increase by over 57 times the likelihood of positive estimate of PTSD, followed by impairment of working memory backward (OR 48.2), and having being diagnosed as ASD case in the first 4 week after the earthquake (OR 17.4). This study underlines the importance of identifying PTSD predictors, in order to planning early treatment interventions after natural disasters. PMID:24324929

  6. Design and Experimental Results for the S825 Airfoil; Period of Performance: 1998-1999

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, D. M.

    2005-01-01

    A 17%-thick, natural-laminar-flow airfoil, the S825, for the 75% blade radial station of 20- to 40-meter, variable-speed and variable-pitch (toward feather), horizontal-axis wind turbines has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the NASA Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. The two primary objectives of high maximum lift, relatively insensitive to roughness and low-profile drag have been achieved. The airfoil exhibits a rapid, trailing-edge stall, which does not meet the design goal of a docile stall. The constraints on the pitching moment and the airfoil thickness have been satisfied. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results generally show good agreement.

  7. Design and Experimental Results for the S827 Airfoil; Period of Performance: 1998--1999

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, D. M.

    2005-01-01

    A 21%-thick, natural-laminar-flow airfoil, the S827, for the 75% blade radial station of 40- to 50-meter, stall-regulated, horizontal-axis wind turbines has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the NASA Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. The primary objective of restrained maximum lift has not been achieved, although the maximum lift is relatively insensitive to roughness, which meets the design goal. The airfoil exhibits a relatively docile stall, which meets the design goal. The primary objective of low profile drag has been achieved. The constraints on the pitching moment and the airfoil thickness have been satisfied. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results generally show good agreement with the exception of maximum lift, which is significantly underpredicted.

  8. A new paleointensity result deduced for the Oligocene period fromQatrani basalt, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Ahmed; Yamamoto, Yuhji

    2016-04-01

    We have conducted paleodirection and paleointensity measurements of basalt flows from Qatrani basalt, Egypt. Published age of Qatrani basat is 25±2 Ma. Various rock magnetic analyses indicate that the main magnetic carriers of samples are one phase of pure magnetite (Ti-poor titanomagnetites), which have pseudo single domain (PSD) sizes. Directional analysis of the Oligocene basalts is very straightforward and updated mean VGPs have been calculated from the Qatrani (68N, 90E; Kappa=274; A95=1.8) which is coincide with the previous Oligocene paleomagnetic studies. The Tsunakawa-Shaw (LTD-DHT Shaw) method yielded five successful results of 12.9-17.5 μTfrom two sites, giving one acceptable site-mean paleointensityof 15.5 μT with a standard deviation of 1.8 μTat the 25±2Ma. In terms of a dipole moment, an average VDM is calculated to be 2.7×1022A m2with a standard deviation of 1.29×1022Am2. This is the first result from Egypt, and is associated with a reasonably high QPI value (Biggin and Paterson, 2015) of 5. The newly obtained VDM is indistinguishable from an average VDM of 3.55×1022Am2with a standard deviation of 0.67×1022Am2 calculated from theselected 65 site-mean Thellier paleointensity data from the latest paleointensity database, and is about third of the present geomagnetic dipole moment (˜8×1022 Am2).

  9. Clinical and functional results after the rehabilitation period in minimally-invasive unicondylar knee arthroplasty patients.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Susanne; Rolauffs, Bernd; Plaumann, Thorsten; Tibesku, Carsten O; Rosenbaum, Dieter

    2005-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the clinical and functional outcome after minimally-invasive implantation of a Repicci-type unicompartmental sledge prosthesis . In 29 patients with primary unicompartmental knee osteoarthritis, 29 replacements of the medial compartment and four of the lateral compartment were performed using the minimally-invasive technique with the metal-backed and the all-polyethylene versions of the Repicci sledge prosthesis. Electromyography (EMG) of standardized locations was measured with the MyoSystem 2000 and analyzed with Myoresearch software. Gait analysis was performed with a six-camera motion analysis system and force platforms. Established clinical and quality of life (SF-36) scores were used to compare patients with 11 healthy age-matched individuals. The Repicci sledge prosthesis led postoperatively to functional results that were in the range of healthy joints, and superior to sledge prostheses of a different design. Gait and balance parameters were comparable to the control group, whilst electromyographically lower amplitudes were found in the patients than the controls and in the operated legs as compared to the non-operated legs. Many parameters of quality of life and activity were comparable to age-matched healthy individuals, and quality of life was superior to total knee replacement. When implanted using a minimally-invasive technique and with suitable patient selection, the Repicci sledge led to functional results comparable to those of healthy joints and gait parameters comparable to those of healthy individuals. The level of evidence is Level III, retrospective cohort study. PMID:15175850

  10. Long-term quasi-periodicity of 4U 1636-536 resulting from accretion disc instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisniewicz, Mateusz; Zdziarski, Andrzej; Janiuk, Agnieszka; Rosinska, Dorota; Slowikowska, Agnieszka

    2016-07-01

    We present the results of a study of the low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1636-536. We have performed temporal analysis of all available RXTE/ASM, RXTE/PCA, Swift/BAT and MAXI data. We have confirmed the previously discovered quasi-periodicity of ˜45 d present during ˜2004, however we found it continued to 2006. At other epochs, the quasi-periodicity is only transient, and the quasi-period, if present, drifts. We have then applied a time-dependent accretion disc model to the interval with the significant X-ray quasi-periodicity. For our best model, the period and the amplitude of the theoretical light curve agree well with that observed. The modelled quasi-periodicity is due to the hydrogen thermal-ionization instability occurring in outer regions of the accretion disc. The model parameters are the average mass accretion rate (estimated from the light curves), and the accretion disc viscosity parameters, α_{cold} and α_{hot}, for the hot and cold phases, respectively. Our best model gives relatively low values of α_{cold} and α_{hot}.

  11. APACHE II scoring system on a general intensive care unit: audit of daily APACHE II scores and 6-month survival of 691 patients admitted to a general intensive care unit between May 1990 and December 1991.

    PubMed

    Campbell, N N; Tooley, M A; Willatts, S M

    1994-02-01

    In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the use of the APACHE II (acute physiological and chronic health evaluation) scoring system on all of the patients admitted to the general intensive care unit at the Bristol Royal Infirmary over a 20-month period. The 6-month survival of 691 adult medical and surgical patients following intensive care was recorded and this data was analysed with admission and daily APACHE II scores using a relational database. Our data confirms the relationship between admission APACHE II scores and outcome, with mean scores decreasing as duration of survival increases. We also demonstrate that the best day one scores are approximately 50% less than the admission score, irrespective of outcome, indicating the benefit of intensive care. By contrast, however, the scores on day one have either not improved or have worsened since admission, reflecting the importance of the pre-morbid health status of the patient in determining outcome from intensive care. PMID:8196033

  12. APACHE II scoring system on a general intensive care unit: audit of daily APACHE II scores and 6-month survival of 691 patients admitted to a general intensive care unit between May 1990 and December 1991.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, N N; Tooley, M A; Willatts, S M

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the use of the APACHE II (acute physiological and chronic health evaluation) scoring system on all of the patients admitted to the general intensive care unit at the Bristol Royal Infirmary over a 20-month period. The 6-month survival of 691 adult medical and surgical patients following intensive care was recorded and this data was analysed with admission and daily APACHE II scores using a relational database. Our data confirms the relationship between admission APACHE II scores and outcome, with mean scores decreasing as duration of survival increases. We also demonstrate that the best day one scores are approximately 50% less than the admission score, irrespective of outcome, indicating the benefit of intensive care. By contrast, however, the scores on day one have either not improved or have worsened since admission, reflecting the importance of the pre-morbid health status of the patient in determining outcome from intensive care. PMID:8196033

  13. 42 CFR 476.96 - Review period and reopening of initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Review period and reopening of initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. 476.96 Section 476.96 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS UTILIZATION AND QUALITY...

  14. 42 CFR 476.96 - Review period and reopening of initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Review period and reopening of initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. 476.96 Section 476.96 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS QUALITY IMPROVEMENT...

  15. Identifying factors related to Achilles tendon stress, strain, and stiffness before and after 6 months of growth in youth 10-14 years of age.

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, Jennifer M; Hawkins, David A

    2012-09-21

    The purposes of this study were (1) determine if youth peak Achilles tendon (AT) strain, peak AT stress, and AT stiffness, measured during an isometric plantar flexion, differed after six months (mos) of growth, and (2) determine if sex, physical activity level (Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ-C)), and/or growth rate (GR) were related to these properties. AT stress, strain, and stiffness were quantified in 20 boys (13.47±0.81 years) and 22 girls (11.18±0.82 years) at 2 times (0 and 6 mos). GR (change in height in 6 mos) was not significantly different between boys and girls (3.5±1.4 and 3.4±1.1cm/6 mos respectively). Peak AT strain and stiffness (mean 3.8±0.4% and 128.9±153.6N/mm, respectively) did not differ between testing sessions or sex. Peak AT stress (22.1±2.4 and 24.0±2.1MPa at 0 and 6 mos, respectively) did not differ between sex and increased significantly at 6 mos due to a significant decrease in AT cross-sectional area (40.6±1.3 and 38.1±1.6mm(2) at 0 and 6 mos, respectively) with no significant difference in peak AT force (882.3±93.9 and 900.3± 65.5N at 0 and 6 mos, respectively). Peak AT stress was significantly greater in subjects with greater PAQ-C scores (9.1% increase with 1 unit increase in PAQ-C score) and smaller in subjects with faster GRs (13.8% decrease with 1cm/6 mos increase in GR). These results indicate that of the AT mechanical properties quantified, none differed between sex, and only peak AT stress significantly differed after 6 months and was related to GR and physical activity. PMID:22877892

  16. Efficacy and safety of leuprorelin acetate 6-month depot in prostate cancer patients: a Phase III, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, comparative study in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Namiki, Mikio; Fujimoto, Tsukasa; Takabayashi, Nobuyoshi; Kudou, Kentarou; Akaza, Hideyuki

    2015-01-01

    Objective Leuprorelin acetate (TAP-144-SR) is commonly used worldwide in prostate cancer patients. This study was conducted to assess the non-inferiority of a 6-month depot formulation of TAP-144-SR (TAP-144-SR [6M]) 22.5 mg to a 3-month depot formulation of TAP-144-SR (TAP-144-SR [3M]) 11.25 mg in prostate cancer patients in Japan. Methods This was a 48-week Phase III, open-label, parallel-group comparative study. TAP-144-SR (6M) 22.5 mg (6M group) and TAP-144-SR (3M) 11.25 mg (3M group) were administered to 81 and 79 subjects, respectively. The primary endpoint was the rate of serum testosterone suppression to the castrate level (≤100 ng/dl). Results Serum testosterone of all subjects excluding one subject in the 3M group was suppressed to the castrate level throughout 48 weeks. The estimated between-group difference (6M group − 3M group) in suppression rate was 1.3% (95% confidence interval: −3.4, 6.8), and its lower confidence interval was more than −10% of the pre-determined allowable limit value to judge the non-inferiority. The prostate-specific antigen concentrations were stable throughout the study in both groups. Progressive disease in the best overall response based on the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors was 0.0% for the 6M group and 2.6% for the 3M group. Adverse events occurred in 92.6% in the 6M group and 89.9% in the 3M group. Adverse events leading to discontinuation were reported in 2.5% in the 6M group and 3.8% in the 3M group. Conclusions TAP-144-SR (6M) was not inferior to TAP-144-SR (3M) for the suppressive effect on serum testosterone level. TAP-144-SR (6M) was also as well tolerated as TAP-144-SR (3M). PMID:26486824

  17. The OmegaWhite Survey for short period variable stars II: An overview of results from the first four years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toma, R.; Ramsay, G.; Macfarlane, S.; Groot, P. J.; Woudt, P. A.; Dhillon, V.; Jeffery, C. S.; Marsh, T.; Nelemans, G.; Steeghs, D.

    2016-08-01

    OmegaWhite is a wide-field, high cadence, synoptic survey targeting fields in the southern Galactic plane, with the aim of discovering short period variable stars. Our strategy is to take a series of 39 s exposures in the g band of a 1 square degree of sky lasting 2 h using the OmegaCAM wide field imager on the VLT Survey Telescope (VST). We give an overview of the initial 4 years of data which covers 134 square degrees and includes 12.3 million light curves. As the fields overlap with the VLT Survey Telescope Hα Photometric Survey of the Galactic plane and Bulge (VPHAS+), we currently have ugriHα photometry for ˜1/3 of our fields. We find that a significant fraction of the light curves have been affected by the diffraction spikes of bright stars sweeping across stars within a few dozen of pixels over the two hour observing time interval due to the alt-az nature of the VST. We select candidate variable stars using a variety of variability statistics, followed by a manual verification stage. We present samples of several classes of short period variables, including: an ultra compact binary, a DQ white dwarf, a compact object with evidence of a 100 min rotation period, three CVs, one eclipsing binary with an 85 min period, a symbiotic binary which shows evidence of a 31 min photometric period, and a large sample of candidate δ Sct type stars including one with a 9.3 min period. Our overall goal is to cover 400 square degrees, and this study indicates we will find many more interesting short period variable stars as a result.

  18. Forecasting Flooding in the Brahmaputra and Ganges Delta of Bangladesh on Short (1-10 days), Medium (20-30 days) and Seasonal Time Scales (1-6 months)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, P. J.; Hoyos, C. D.; Hopson, T. M.; Chang, H.; Jian, J.

    2007-12-01

    Following the devastating flood years of 1998 during which 60% of Bangladesh was under water for a period of 3 months, the Climate Forecast Applications in Bangladesh (CFAB) project was formed with funding by USAID and NSF which eventually resulted in a joint project with the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF), the Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre (ADPC) and the Bangladesh Flood Forecasting and Warning Centre. The project was organized and developed through the Georgia Institute of Technology. The aim of CFAB was to develop innovative methods of extending the warning of flooding in Bangladesh noting that there was a unique problem: India provided no upstream discharge data to Bangladesh so that before CFAB the maximum lead time of a forecast was that given by measuring river discharge at the India-Bangladesh border: no lead-time at the border and 2 days in the southern parts of the country. Given that the Brahmaputra and Ganges catchment areas had to be regarded as essentially unguaged, it was clear that innovative techniques had to be developed. On of the basic criterion was that the system should provide probabilistic forecasts in order for the Bangladeshis to assess risk. A three-tier system was developed to allow strategic and tactical decisions to be made for agricultural purposes and disaster mitigation: seasonal (1-6 months: strategic), medium range (20-30 days: strategic/tactical) and short range (1-10 days: tactical). The system that has been developed brings together for the first time operational meteorological forecasts (ensemble forecasts from ECMWF), with satellite and discharge data and a suite of hydrological models. In addition, with ADPC and FFWC we have developed an in-country forecast dispersion system that allows a rapid dissemination. The system has proven to be rather successful, especially in the short range. The flooding events of 2004 were forecast with all forecasting tiers at the respective lead time. In

  19. Association between theta power in 6-month old infants at rest and maternal PTSD severity: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sanjuan, Pilar M; Poremba, Carly; Flynn, Lucinda R; Savich, Renate; Annett, Robert D; Stephen, Julia

    2016-09-01

    Compared to infants born to mothers without PTSD, infants born to mothers with active PTSD develop poorer behavioral reactivity and emotional regulation. However, the association between perinatal maternal PTSD and infant neural activation remains largely unknown. This pilot study (N=14) examined the association between perinatal PTSD severity and infant frontal neural activity, as measured by MEG theta power during rest. Results indicated that resting left anterior temporal/frontal theta power was correlated with perinatal PTSD severity (p=0.004). These findings suggest delayed cortical maturation in infants whose mothers had higher perinatal PTSD severity and generate questions regarding perinatal PTSD severity and infant neurophysiological consequences. PMID:27473944

  20. Does highly symptomatic class membership in the acute phase predict highly symptomatic classification in victims 6 months after traumatic exposure?

    PubMed

    Hansen, Maj; Hyland, Philip; Armour, Cherie

    2016-05-01

    Recently studies have indicated the existence of both posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and acute stress disorder (ASD) subtypes but no studies have investigated their mutual association. Although ASD may not be a precursor of PTSD per se, there are potential benefits associated with early identification of victims at risk of developing PTSD subtypes. The present study investigates ASD and PTSD subtypes using latent class analysis (LCA) following bank robbery (N=371). Moreover, we assessed if highly symptomatic ASD and selected risk factors increased the probability of highly symptomatic PTSD. The results of LCA revealed a three class solution for ASD and a two class solution for PTSD. Negative cognitions about self (OR=1.08), neuroticism (OR=1.09) and membership of the 'High symptomatic ASD' class (OR=20.41) significantly increased the probability of 'symptomatic PTSD' class membership. Future studies are needed to investigate the existence of ASD and PTSD subtypes and their mutual relationship. PMID:27101400

  1. Blood lipids and adipokines concentrations during a 6-month nutritional and physical activity intervention for metabolic syndrome treatment

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To report changes in body weight, total and central fat mass, metabolic, hormonal and inflammatory parameters in overweight people who participated in a six months weight loss intervention associating diet management and exercise. Subjects and Methods Fourteen subjects (10 M, 4 F, mean age 62.9 ± 6.9 years, BMI 30.4+/- 3.8 kg/m2) presenting the characteristics of the Metabolic Syndrome (MS) were included in the survey. They followed a three weeks (D0 to D20) cure in a medical establishment and a six months (D20 to M3 and M6) follow up at home. During the cure, they receive a balanced diet corresponding to 500 Kcal deficit vs their dayly energy expenditure (DEE) and they exercised 2 to 3 hours per day. At D0, D20, M3 and M6, body composition (lean mass, total and central fat mass) was analyzed with DEXA, blood pressure was taken and blood was collected to evaluate glycaemia, triglycerides, total, LDL and HDL cholesterol, insulin, leptin and adiponectin levels, CRP and pro-inflammatory interleukines IL1, IL.6 and TNFalpha. Results All parameters listed above except the cytokine were improved at D20, so that 4 subjects among 14 still presented the MS. After returning to home, these parameters remained stable. Conclusion The efficacy of therapeutic lifestyle modifications with education and exercise and diet was demonstrated, but the compliance to the new healthy lifestyle initiated during the cure was not optimal. PMID:21194421

  2. Investigating Long-Range Dependence in American Treasury Bills Variations and Volatilities during Stable and Unstable Periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahmiri, Salim

    2016-05-01

    Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is used to examine long-range dependence in variations and volatilities of American treasury bills (TB) during periods of low and high movements in TB rates. Volatility series are estimated by generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) model under Gaussian, Student, and the generalized error distribution (GED) assumptions. The DFA-based Hurst exponents from 3-month, 6-month, and 1-year TB data indicates that in general the dynamics of the TB variations process is characterized by persistence during stable time period (before 2008 international financial crisis) and anti-persistence during unstable time period (post-2008 international financial crisis). For volatility series, it is found that; for stable period; 3-month volatility process is more likely random, 6-month volatility process is anti-persistent, and 1-year volatility process is persistent. For unstable period, estimation results show that the generating process is persistent for all maturities and for all distributional assumptions.

  3. Population deworming every 6 months with albendazole in 1 million pre-school children in north India: DEVTA, a cluster-randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Awasthi, Shally; Peto, Richard; Read, Simon; Richards, Susan M; Pande, Vinod; Bundy, Donald; the DEVTA (Deworming and Enhanced Vitamin A) team

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background In north India many pre-school children are underweight, many have intestinal worms, and 2–3% die at ages 1·0–6·0 years. We used the state-wide Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS) infrastructure to help to assess any effects of regular deworming on mortality. Methods Participants in this cluster-randomised study were children in catchment areas of 8338 ICDS-staffed village child-care centres (under-5 population 1 million) in 72 administrative blocks. Groups of four neighbouring blocks were cluster-randomly allocated in Oxford between 6-monthly vitamin A (retinol capsule of 200 000 IU retinyl acetate in oil, to be cut and dripped into the child's mouth every 6 months), albendazole (400 mg tablet every 6 months), both, or neither (open control). Analyses of albendazole effects are by block (36 vs 36 clusters). The study spanned 5 calendar years, with 11 6-monthly mass-treatment days for all children then aged 6–72 months. Annually, one centre per block was randomly selected and visited by a study team 1–5 months after any trial deworming to sample faeces (for presence of worm eggs, reliably assessed only after mid-study), weigh children, and interview caregivers. Separately, all 8338 centres were visited every 6 months to monitor pre-school deaths (100 000 visits, 25 000 deaths at age 1·0–6·0 years [the primary outcome]). This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00222547. Findings Estimated compliance with 6-monthly albendazole was 86%. Among 2589 versus 2576 children surveyed during the second half of the study, nematode egg prevalence was 16% versus 36%, and most infection was light. After at least 2 years of treatment, weight at ages 3·0–6·0 years (standardised to age 4·0 years, 50% male) was 12·72 kg albendazole versus 12·68 kg control (difference 0·04 kg, 95% CI −0·14 to 0·21, p=0·66). Comparing the 36 albendazole-allocated versus 36 control blocks in analyses of the primary outcome, deaths

  4. Superior virologic and treatment outcomes when viral load is measured at 3 months compared to 6 months on antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kerschberger, Bernhard; Boulle, Andrew M; Kranzer, Katharina; Hilderbrand, Katherine; Schomaker, Michael; Coetzee, David; Goemaere, Eric; Van Cutsem, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Routine viral load (VL) monitoring is utilized to assess antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and virologic failure, and it is currently scaled-up in many resource-constrained settings. The first routine VL is recommended as late as six months after ART initiation for early detection of sub-optimal adherence. We aimed to assess the optimal timing of first VL measurement after initiation of ART. Methods This was a retrospective, cohort analysis of routine monitoring data of adults enrolled at three primary care clinics in Khayelitsha, Cape Town, between January 2002 and March 2009. Primary outcomes were virologic failure and switch to second-line ART comparing patients in whom first VL done was at three months (VL3M) and six months (VL6M) after ART initiation. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. Results In total, 6264 patients were included for the time to virologic failure and 6269 for the time to switch to second-line ART analysis. Patients in the VL3M group had a 22% risk reduction of virologic failure (aHR 0.78, 95% CI 0.64–0.95; p=0.016) and a 27% risk reduction of switch to second-line ART (aHR 0.73, 95% CI 0.58–0.92; p=0.008) when compared to patients in the VL6M group. For each additional month of delay of the first VL measurement (up to nine months), the risk of virologic failure increased by 9% (aHR 1.09, 95% CI 1.02–1.15; p=0.008) and switch to second-line ART by 13% (aHR 1.13, 95% CI 1.05–1.21; p<0.001). Conclusions A first VL at three months rather than six months with targeted adherence interventions for patients with high VL may improve long-term virologic suppression and reduce switches to costly second-line ART. ART programmes should consider the first VL measurement at three months after ART initiation. PMID:26403636

  5. Emerging perception of causality in action-and-reaction sequences from 4 to 6 months of age: is it domain-specific?

    PubMed

    Schlottmann, Anne; Ray, Elizabeth D; Surian, Luca

    2012-06-01

    Two experiments (N=136) studied how 4- to 6-month-olds perceive a simple schematic event, seen as goal-directed action and reaction from 3 years of age. In our causal reaction event, a red square moved toward a blue square, stopping prior to contact. Blue began to move away before red stopped, so that both briefly moved simultaneously at a distance. Primarily, our study sought to determine from what age infants see the causal structure of this reaction event. In addition, we looked at whether this causal percept depends on an animate style of motion and whether it correlates with tasks assessing goal perception and goal-directed action. Infants saw either causal reactions or noncausal delayed control events in which blue started some time after red stopped. These events involved squares that moved either rigidly or nonrigidly in an apparently animate manner. After habituation to one of the four events, infants were tested on reversal of the habituation event. Spatiotemporal features reversed for all events, but causal roles changed only in reversed reactions. The 6-month-olds dishabituated significantly more to reversal of causal reaction events than to noncausal delay events, whereas younger infants reacted similarly to reversal of both. Thus, perceptual causality for reaction events emerges by 6 months of age, a younger age than previously reported but, crucially, the same age at which perceptual causality for launch events has emerged in prior research. On our second question, animate/inanimate motion had no effect at any age, nor did significant correlations emerge with our additional tasks assessing goal perception or goal-directed object retrieval. Available evidence, here and elsewhere, is as compatible with a view that infants initially see A affecting B, without differentiation into physical or psychological causality, as with the standard assumption of distinct physical/psychological causal perception. PMID:22417922

  6. Ultra-short-period Planets in K2 SuPerPiG Results for Campaigns 0–5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Elisabeth R.; Jackson, Brian; Endl, Michael

    2016-08-01

    We analyzed data from Campaigns 0–5 of the K2 mission and report 19 ultra-short-period candidate planets with orbital periods of less than one day (nine of which have not been previously reported). Planet candidates range in size from 0.7 to 16 Earth radii and in orbital period from 4.2 to 23.5 hr. One candidate (EPIC 203533312, Kp = 12.5) is among the shortest-period planet candidates discovered to date (P=4.2 hr), and, if confirmed as a planet, must have a density of at least ρ =8.9 {{g}} {{cm}}-3 to not be tidally disrupted. Five candidates have nominal radius values in the sub-Jovian desert ({R}P=3{--}11 {R}\\oplus and P≤slant 1.5 days) where theoretical models do not favor their long-term stability; the only confirmed planet in this range is thought to be disintegrating (EPIC 201637175). In addition to the planet candidates, we report on four objects that may not be planetary, including one with intermittent transits (EPIC 211152484) and three initially promising candidates that are likely false positives based on characteristics of their light curves and on radial velocity follow-up. A list of 91 suspected eclipsing binaries identified at various stages in our vetting process is also provided. Based on an assessment of our survey's completeness, we estimate an occurrence rate for ultra-short-period planets among K2 target stars that is about half that estimated from the Kepler sample, raising questions as to whether K2 systems are intrinsically different from Kepler systems, possibly as a result of their different galactic location.

  7. Joint inversion of displacement and gravity changes at Mt. Etna volcano during the 1995-2000 period: results and conclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Jose; Camacho, Antonio; Carbone, Daniele; Bonforte, Alessandro; Guglielmino, Francesco; Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    Persistent inflation and long-period gravity fluctuations were observed at Mt. Etna (Italy) during the time interval bounded by the 1991-93 and 2001 main flank eruptions. Past studies suggest that, since 1993 and before the 2001 eruption, a large amount of magma was stored at depth. Until now, a joint inversion of displacement and gravity data has not been performed. We carry out simultaneous inversion of gravity, GNSS and Advanced Differential InSAR displacement data covering the 1995-2000 period. Our inversion scheme uses bodies with a 3D free geometry to determine the best-fitting configuration of pressure and density sources. Results provide new insight into the shallow plumbing system of Etna. Inflation pressure sources are located below the northwestern flank, at depths of 4-6 km, while a mass source is located in a shallower position below the SE flank. Mass increases and decreases are observed without significant associated deformation. The neat separation between mass and pressure sources is a key feature to understand the processes which controlled the activity of Mt Etna during the studied period.

  8. The main results of the long-term measurements of the neutral atmosphere parameters by the artificial periodic irregularities techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolmacheva, Ariadna V.; Bakhmetieva, Nataliya V.; Grigoriev, Gennady I.; Kalinina, Elena E.

    2015-09-01

    The results of the atmospheric parameter determination by the method of artificial periodic irregularities (the API techniques) at the E-region heights obtained during many years of the observation are presented. The features of the obtaining data, their processing and the determination of the atmospheric parameters are given in details. A lot of information about dynamical phenomena in the lower thermosphere has been obtained. There are often height profiles of the atmospheric parameters with the wave-like variations and with the vertical scale of about 4-6 km. The temporal variations of the atmospheric parameters take place with the periods from 15 min to some hours. Such variations could be caused by the passage of the internal gravity waves (IGWs) and the tide waves. The temperature minima were observed as 100-140 K above 100 km in the equinoctial periods. The instability growth is also observed in the number of cases. The dependence of the neutral temperature and the density on solar and geomagnetic activity is not found.

  9. [Relationship between the intensity of gynecologic supervision during the postpartum period and fertility results in dairy cow herds].

    PubMed

    Bostedt, H; Maurer, G

    1990-10-01

    The efficiency of regular post-partum gynaecological care in the dairy cow can only be correctly evaluated if cows with a normal post-partum period and those with problems during this time are distinguished. From 1,125 dairy cows being fed a high proportion of maize silage it was shown that gynaecological examinations on days 12, 28 and 40 post-partum had a positive effect on herd fertility. Regular checks resulted in significant reductions in the calving to conception interval, the insemination index and in the percentage culled due to fertility problems in comparison to the control animals (n = 451) where veterinary control took place only occasionally. In particular the early detection and treatment of endometritis and ovary function abnormalities contributed to a high conception rate with appropriate calving interval. The administration of GnRH (20 micrograms Buserelin) to cows with problems in the post-partum period and under continuous gynaecological supervision resulted in improvements in only some aspects (uterine involution, ovarian cyst incidence). The conception rates in the treated group and in the intensively controlled group were the same. PMID:2124734

  10. Vaccine immune response and interference of colostral antibodies in calves vaccinated against rabies at 2, 4 and 6 months of age born from antirabies revaccinated females.

    PubMed

    Filho, O A; Megid, J; Geronutti, L; Ratti, J; Almeida, M F A; Kataoka, A P A G; Martorelli, L F A

    2012-06-01

    Considering the high prevalence of rabies in cattle, we aimed to evaluate the interference of colostral antibodies transferred to calves after birth and the benefit of administering an antirabies vaccination in two-month-old calves compared to vaccinating at 4 and 6 months of age. Calves born from females revaccinated against rabies during the third trimester of pregnancy were studied. Forty-eight hours after parturition, blood samples from dams and offspring were collected, and antirabies neutralizing antibody titers were analyzed using the Rapid Focus Fluorescent Inhibition Test. We found that all calves had similar titers of antibodies transferred through the colostrum. Furthermore, none of the calves presented a satisfactory serological response after the first vaccination, but all had an appropriate response after revaccination. This study demonstrates that antirabies vaccination should be recommended for calves at two months of age in endemic and epizootic situations. PMID:21543096

  11. High resolution imaging science experiment (HiRISE) images of volcanic terrains from the first 6 months of the Mars reconnaissance orbiter primary science phase

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keszthelyi, L.; Jaeger, W.; McEwen, A.; Tornabene, L.; Beyer, R.A.; Dundas, C.; Milazzo, M.

    2008-01-01

    In the first 6 months of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Primary Science Phase, the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera has returned images sampling the diversity of volcanic terrains on Mars. While many of these features were noted in earlier imaging, they are now seen with unprecedented clarity. We find that some volcanic vents produced predominantly effusive products while others generated mostly pyroclastics. Flood lavas were emplaced in both turbulent and gentle eruptions, producing roofed channels and inflation features. However, many areas on Mars are too heavily mantled to allow meter-scale volcanic features to be discerned. In particular, the major volcanic edifices are extensively mantled, though it is possible that some of the mantle is pyroclastic material rather than atmospheric dust. Support imaging by the Context Imager (CTX) and topographic information derived from stereo imaging are both invaluable in interpreting the HiRISE data. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Unusual pediatric co-morbility: autoimmune thyroiditis and cortico-resistant nephrotic syndrome in a 6-month-old Italian patient

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We report on a case of autoimmune thyroiditis in a 6-month-old patient with cortico-resistant nephrotic syndrome. Normal serum levels of thyroid hormons and thyroid-stimulating hormone were detected with high titers of circulant antithyroid antibodies and a dysomogeneous ultrasound appearance of the gland, typical of autoimmune thyroiditis. The research of maternal thyroid antibodies was negative. This is the first case of autoimmune thyroiditis found in such a young patient with pre-existing nephrotic syndrome ever described in literature. This association is random because nephrotic syndrome does not have an autoimmune pathogenesis and the genes involved in autoimmune thyroiditis are not related to those of nephrotic syndrome. PMID:23092196

  13. The association between maternal-reported responses to infant crying at 4 weeks and 6 months and offspring depression at 18: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Catherine J; Kessler, David; Fernyhough, Charles; Lewis, Glyn; Pearson, Rebecca M

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the association between maternal response to infant crying and the psychological health of the child in later life. Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort, consisting of 15,247 pregnancies, 10,278 with exposure variables and 3201 complete cases were identified as having exposure, covariate and outcome data. Using a postal questionnaire, mothers were asked regarding their infant at 4 weeks and 6 months, 'If they cry what do you do?': (a) pick them up immediately; (b) if they cry, leave them for a while, and if they do not stop, pick them up; or (c) never pick them up until you are ready. Outcome was an International Statistical Classification-10th revision criteria (ICD-10) diagnosis of depression at 18 years for the infant. Offspring of mothers who at 4 weeks reported that they never picked their infants up until they were ready were more likely to have depression at 18 years (OR = 2.06, CI 0.95-4.47, adjusted for sociodemographic confounding variables). There was no evidence for an association at 6 months. Including adjustment variables reduced the strength of our association; an observed objective measure of maternal response rather than a self-report may have more accurately determined the mother's actual responses. There is some evidence for an association between maternal reporting of responses to infant crying at 4 weeks and risk of developing depression at 18 years. If this association is found to be causal, interventions encouraging mothers to represent and respond to their infants' emotional states may help prevent offspring depression. PMID:26837614

  14. Rehabilitation of Patellar Tendinopathy Using Hip Extensor Strengthening and Landing-Strategy Modification: Case Report With 6-Month Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Scattone Silva, Rodrigo; Ferreira, Ana Luisa G; Nakagawa, Theresa H; Santos, José E M; Serrão, Fábio V

    2015-11-01

    Study Design Case report. Background Although eccentric exercises have been a cornerstone of the rehabilitation of athletes with patellar tendinopathy, the effectiveness of this intervention is sometimes less than ideal. Athletes with patellar tendinopathy have been shown to have different jump-landing patterns and lower hip extensor strength compared to asymptomatic athletes. To our knowledge, the effectiveness of an intervention addressing these impairments has not yet been investigated. Case Description The patient was a 21-year-old male volleyball athlete with a 9-month history of patellar tendon pain. Pain was measured with a visual analog scale. Disability was measured with the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-patella questionnaire. These assessments were conducted before and after an 8-week intervention, as well as at 6 months after the intervention. Hip and knee kinematics and kinetics during drop vertical jump and isometric strength were also measured before and after the 8-week intervention. The intervention consisted of hip extensor muscle strengthening and jump landing strategy modification training. The patient did not interrupt volleyball practice/competition during rehabilitation. Outcomes After the 8-week intervention and at 6 months postintervention, the athlete was completely asymptomatic during sports participation. This favorable clinical outcome was accompanied by a 50% increase in hip extensor moment, a 21% decrease in knee extensor moment, and a 26% decrease in patellar tendon force during jump landing measured at 8 weeks. Discussion This case report provides an example of how an 8-week intervention of hip muscle strengthening and jump-landing modification decreased pain and disability and improved jump-landing biomechanics in an athlete with patellar tendinopathy. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2015;45(11):899-909. Epub 21 Sep 2015. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.6242. PMID:26390271

  15. Cognitive and Affective Changes in Mild to Moderate Alzheimer’s Disease Patients Undergoing Switch of Cholinesterase Inhibitors: A 6-Month Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Spalletta, Gianfranco; Caltagirone, Carlo; Padovani, Alessandro; Sorbi, Sandro; Attar, Mahmood; Colombo, Delia; Cravello, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Patients with Alzheimer’s disease after an initial response to cholinesterase inhibitors may complain a later lack of efficacy. This, in association with incident neuropsychiatric symptoms, may worsen patient quality of life. Thus, the switch to another cholinesterase inhibitor could represent a valid therapeutic strategy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the switch from one to another cholinesterase inhibitor on cognitive and affective symptoms in mild to moderate Alzheimer disease patients. Four hundred twenty-three subjects were included from the EVOLUTION study, an observational, longitudinal, multicentre study conducted on Alzheimer disease patients who switched to different cholinesterase inhibitor due either to lack/loss of efficacy or response, reduced tolerability or poor compliance. All patients underwent cognitive and neuropsychiatric assessments, carried out before the switch (baseline), and at 3 and 6-month follow-up. A significant effect of the different switch types was found on Mini-Mental State Examination score during time, with best effectiveness on mild Alzheimer’s disease patients switching from oral cholinesterase inhibitors to rivastigmine patch. Depressive symptoms, when measured using continuous Neuropsychiatric Inventory values, decreased significantly, while apathy symptoms remained stable over the 6 months after the switch. However, frequency of both depression and apathy, when measured categorically using Neuropsychiatric Inventory cut-off scores, did not change significantly during time. In mild to moderate Alzheimer disease patients with loss of efficacy and tolerability during cholinesterase inhibitor treatment, the switch to another cholinesterase inhibitor may represent an important option for slowing cognitive deterioration. The evidence of apathy stabilization and the positive tendency of depressive symptom improvement should definitively be confirmed in double-blind controlled studies. PMID

  16. The growth of the oceanic boundary layer during the COARE intensive observational period: Large Eddy simulation results

    SciTech Connect

    Skyllingstad, E.D.; Wijesekera, H.W.; Gregg, M.C.

    1995-03-01

    A principal goal of the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) is to gain an understanding of the processes that control mixing in the upper 100 m of the western tropical Pacific warm pool. The warm pool is an important heat reservoir for the global ocean and is responsible for many of the observed climatic changes associated with El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. This water mass is highly sensitive to mixed-layer processes that are controlled by surface heat, salinity, and momentum fluxes. During most of the year, these fluxes are dominated by solar heating and occasional squalls that freshen the top of the mixed layer and force shallow mixing of about 10-20 m. From November to April, the usual weather pattern is frequently altered by westerly wind bursts that are forced by tropical cyclones and intraseasonal oscillations. These wind bursts generate a strong eastward surface current and can force mixing as deep as 100 m over a period of days. Observations from the intensive observation period (IOP) in COARE indicate that mixed-layer deepening is accompanied by strong turbulence dissipation at the mixed layer base. A short westerly wind burst occurred during the first leg of TOGA-COARE, and lasted about 4-5 days. During this period, the maximum winds were about 10 m s{sup -1}, and the resulting eastward surface flow was about 0.5 m s{sup -1}. The strength of this event was somewhat weaker than a typical westerly wind burst, but the mixed-layer structure and growth are similar to the more vigorous wind bursts discussed.

  17. 48 CFR 9.407-4 - Period of suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 9.407-4 Period of..., in which case it may be extended for an additional 6 months. In no event may a suspension...

  18. 19 CFR 127.4 - General order period defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General order period defined. 127.4 Section 127.4... order period defined. The general order period is that period of time during which general order merchandise, as defined in § 127.1, is not subject to sale. The general order period expires 6 months from...

  19. Results of dose sensors measurements in the middle-Earth orbit for the period of 2009-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protopopov, Grigory; Shatov, Pavel; Tasenko, Sergey; Lyakhov, Igor; Makarova, Nina; Balashov, Sergey; Sitnikova, Ninel

    2016-07-01

    The measurements results of space radiation exposure on electronic components carried out by dose sensors are presented in the paper. Dose sensors operate on metal-nitride-oxide-semiconductor dosimetry pricniple. The flight data have been receiving for more than 6 years. The measurements results are compared with others flight data on different orbits. The analysis of the received data from 2009 to 2015 allows us to find out the periods with sharp increase of dose rate and to define values of such increases. We had analyzed space radiation characteristics data from other monitoring systems (such as GOES, Electro-L) in dates of dose rate sharp increase. Results of the analysis of dose rate increase, which had been fixed by TID sensors in 2015, will be presented in full paper. We had calculated average dose rates for different space models in the middle-Earth orbit (AE8, AE9 and others) and determined the most relevant models to the experimental data (with account for relaxation effect of dose sensor outputs). The comparison results for different models will be presented in the full paper. We had used different approaches for simulating of dose sensors shielding geometry, such as semi-sphere, semi-infinite plate, sector analysis, with taking account of different shielding elements. The analysis results of shielding configuration influence on calculated values of dose rate will be presented in the full paper.

  20. Searches for periodic gravitational waves from unknown isolated sources and Scorpius X-1: Results from the second LIGO science run

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Agresti, J.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Amin, R.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arain, M.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Ashley, M.; Aston, S.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Ballmer, S.; Bantilan, H.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, C.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barriga, P.; Barton, M. A.; Bayer, K.; Belczynski, K.; Berukoff, S. J.; Betzwieser, J.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bhawal, B.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Biswas, R.; Black, E.; Blackburn, K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, B.; Bland, B.; Bogenstahl, J.; Bogue, L.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Brinkmann, M.; Brooks, A.; Brown, D. A.; Bullington, A.; Bunkowski, A.; Buonanno, A.; Burmeister, O.; Busby, D.; Butler, W. E.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K.; Cantley, C. A.; Cao, J.; Cardenas, L.; Carter, K.; Casey, M. M.; Castaldi, G.; Cepeda, C.; Chalkey, E.; Charlton, P.; Chatterji, S.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, Y.; Chiadini, F.; Chin, D.; Chin, E.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Clark, J.; Cochrane, . P.; Cokelaer, T.; Colacino, C. N.; Coldwell, R.; Coles, M.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T.; Coward, D.; Coyne, D.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Croce, R. P.; Crooks, D. R. M.; Cruise, A. M.; Csatorday, P.; Cumming, A.; Cutler, C.; Dalrymple, J.; D'Ambrosio, E.; Danzmann, K.; Davies, G.; Daw, E.; Debra, D.; Degallaix, J.; Degree, M.; Delker, T.; Demma, T.; Dergachev, V.; Desai, S.; Desalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M.; Dickson, J.; di Credico, A.; Diederichs, G.; Dietz, A.; Ding, H.; Doomes, E. E.; Drever, R. W. P.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dupuis, R. J.; Dwyer, J. G.; Ehrens, P.; Espinoza, E.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, Y.; Fazi, D.; Fejer, M. M.; Finn, L. S.; Fiumara, V.; Fotopoulos, N.; Franzen, A.; Franzen, K. Y.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fyffe, M.; Galdi, V.; Ganezer, K. S.; Garofoli, J.; Gholami, I.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Goda, K.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L. M.; González, G.; Gossler, S.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Gray, M.; Greenhalgh, J.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guenther, M.; Gustafson, R.; Hage, B.; Hammer, D.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G.; Harstad, E.; Hayler, T.; Heefner, J.; Heinzel, G.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hirose, E.; Hoak, D.; Hosken, D.; Hough, J.; Howell, E.; Hoyland, D.; Huttner, S. H.; Ingram, D.; Innerhofer, E.; Ito, M.; Itoh, Y.; Ivanov, A.; Jackrel, D.; Jennrich, O.; Johnson, B.; Johnson, W. W.; Johnston, W. R.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kasprzyk, D.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Khalili, F. Ya.; Killow, C. J.; Kim, C.; King, P.; Kissell, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Kopparapu, R. K.; Kozak, D.; Krishnan, B.; Kwee, P.; Lam, P. K.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Lazzarini, A.; Lee, B.; Lei, M.; Leiner, J.; Leonhardt, V.; Leonor, I.; Libbrecht, K.; Libson, A.; Lindquist, P.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Logan, J.; Longo, M.; Lormand, M.; Lubiński, M.; Lück, H.; Machenschalk, B.; Macinnis, M.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Malec, M.; Mandic, V.; Marano, S.; Márka, S.; Markowitz, J.; Maros, E.; Martin, I.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Matone, L.; Matta, V.; Mavalvala, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McGuire, S. C.; McHugh, M.; McKenzie, K.; McNabb, J. W. C.; McWilliams, S.; Meier, T.; Melissinos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messaritaki, E.; Messenger, C. J.; Meyers, D.; Mikhailov, E.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Miyakawa, O.; Mohanty, S.; Moreno, G.; Mossavi, K.; Mowlowry, C.; Moylan, A.; Mudge, D.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Müller-Ebhardt, H.; Munch, J.; Murray, P.; Myers, E.; Myers, J.; Nagano, S.; Nash, T.; Newton, G.; Nishizawa, A.; Nocera, F.; Numata, K.; Nutzman, P.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pan, Y.; Papa, M. A.; Parameshwaraiah, V.; Parameswariah, C.; Patel, P.; Pedraza, M.; Penn, S.; Pierro, V.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Pletsch, H.; Plissi, M. V.; Postiglione, F.; Prix, R.; Quetschke, V.; Raab, F.; Rabeling, D.; Radkins, H.; Rahkola, R.; Rainer, N.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramsunder, M.; Rawlins, K.; Ray-Majumder, S.; Re, V.; Regimbau, T.; Rehbein, H.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ribichini, L.; Richman, S.; Riesen, R.; Riles, K.; Rivera, B.; Robertson, N. A.; Robinson, C.; Robison, E. L.; Roddy, S.; Rodriguez, A.; Rogan, A. M.; Rollins, J.; Romano, J. D.; Romie, J.; Rong, H.; Route, R.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruet, L.; Russell, P.; Ryan, K.; Sakata, S.; Samidi, M.; Sancho de La Jordana, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, G. H.; Sannibale, V.; Saraf, S.; Sarin, P.; Sathyaprakash, B.; Sato, S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Savov, P.; Sazonov, A.; Schediwy, S.; Schilling, R.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwinberg, P.; Scott, S. M.; Searle, A. C.; Sears, B.; Seifert, F.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sibley, A.; Sidles, J. A.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Sinha, S.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Slutsky, J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Somiya, K.; Strain, K. A.; Strand, N. E.; Strom, D. M.; Stuver, A.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, K.-X.; Sung, M.; Sutton, P. J.; Sylvestre, J.; Takahashi, H.; Takamori, A.; Tanner, D. B.; Tarallo, M.; Taylor, R.; Taylor, R.; Thacker, J.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thüring, A.; Tinto, M.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Torres, C.; Torrie, C.; Traylor, G.; Trias, M.; Tyler, W.; Ugolini, D.; Ungarelli, C.; Urbanek, K.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vallisneri, M.; van den Broeck, C.; van Putten, M.; Varvella, M.; Vass, S.; Vecchio, A.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.; Villar, A.; Vorvick, C.; Vyachanin, S. P.; Waldman, S. J.; Wallace, L.; Ward, H.; Ward, R.; Watts, K.; Webber, D.; Weidner, A.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wen, S.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitbeck, D.. M.; Whitcomb, S. E.; Whiting, B. F.; Wiley, S.; Wilkinson, C.; Willems, P. A.; Williams, L.; Willke, B.; Wilmut, I.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wise, S.; Wiseman, A. G.; Woan, G.; Woods, D.; Wooley, R.; Worden, J.; Wu, W.; Yakushin, I.; Yamamoto, H.; Yan, Z.; Yoshida, S.; Yunes, N.; Zaleski, K. D.; Zanolin, M.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, C.; Zotov, N.; Zucker, M.; Zur Mühlen, H.; Zweizig, J.

    2007-10-01

    We carry out two searches for periodic gravitational waves using the most sensitive few hours of data from the second LIGO science run. Both searches exploit fully coherent matched filtering and cover wide areas of parameter space, an innovation over previous analyses which requires considerable algorithm development and computational power. The first search is targeted at isolated, previously unknown neutron stars, covers the entire sky in the frequency band 160 728.8 Hz, and assumes a frequency derivative of less than 4×10-10Hz/s. The second search targets the accreting neutron star in the low-mass x-ray binary Scorpius X-1 and covers the frequency bands 464 484 Hz and 604 624 Hz as well as the two relevant binary orbit parameters. Because of the high computational cost of these searches we limit the analyses to the most sensitive 10 hours and 6 hours of data, respectively. Given the limited sensitivity and duration of the analyzed data set, we do not attempt deep follow-up studies. Rather we concentrate on demonstrating the data analysis method on a real data set and present our results as upper limits over large volumes of the parameter space. In order to achieve this, we look for coincidences in parameter space between the Livingston and Hanford 4-km interferometers. For isolated neutron stars our 95% confidence level upper limits on the gravitational wave strain amplitude range from 6.6×10-23 to 1×10-21 across the frequency band; for Scorpius X-1 they range from 1.7×10-22 to 1.3×10-21 across the two 20-Hz frequency bands. The upper limits presented in this paper are the first broadband wide parameter space upper limits on periodic gravitational waves from coherent search techniques. The methods developed here lay the foundations for upcoming hierarchical searches of more sensitive data which may detect astrophysical signals.

  1. One-year sustained glycaemic control and less hypoglycaemia with new insulin glargine 300 U/ml compared with 100 U/ml in people with type 2 diabetes using basal plus meal-time insulin: the EDITION 1 12-month randomized trial, including 6-month extension

    PubMed Central

    Riddle, M C; Yki-Järvinen, H; Bolli, G B; Ziemen, M; Muehlen-Bartmer, I; Cissokho, S; Home, P D

    2015-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the maintenance of efficacy and safety of insulin glargine 300 U/ml (Gla-300) versus glargine 100 U/ml (Gla-100) in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using basal plus meal-time insulin for 12 months in the EDITION 1 trial. Methods EDITION 1 was a multicentre, randomized, open-label, two-arm, phase IIIa study. Participants completing the initial 6-month treatment period continued to receive Gla-300 or Gla-100, as previously randomized, once daily for a further 6-month open-label extension phase. Changes in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting plasma glucose concentrations, insulin dose, hypoglycaemic events and body weight were assessed. Results Of 807 participants enrolled in the initial phase, 89% (359/404) assigned to Gla-300 and 88% (355/403) assigned to Gla-100 completed 12 months. Glycaemic control was sustained in both groups (mean HbA1c: Gla-300, 7.24%; Gla-100, 7.42%), with more sustained HbA1c reduction for Gla-300 at 12 months: least squares mean difference Gla-300 vs Gla-100: HbA1c −0.17 [95% confidence interval (CI) −0.30 to −0.05]%. The mean daily basal insulin dose at 12 months was 1.03 U/kg for Gla-300 and 0.90 U/kg for Gla-100. Lower percentages of participants had ≥1 confirmed [≤3.9 mmol/l (≤70 mg/dl)] or severe hypoglycaemic event with Gla-300 than Gla-100 at any time of day [24 h; 86 vs 92%; relative risk 0.94 (95% CI 0.89–0.99)] and during the night [54 vs 65%; relative risk 0.84 (95% CI 0.75–0.94)], while the annualized rates of such hypoglycaemic events were similar. No between-treatment differences in adverse events were apparent. Conclusion During 12 months of treatment of T2DM requiring basal and meal-time insulin, glycaemic control was better sustained and fewer individuals reported hypoglycaemia with Gla-300 than with Gla-100. The mean basal insulin dose was higher with Gla-300 compared with Gla-100, but total numbers of hypoglycaemic events and overall tolerability did not differ between

  2. Fumonisin B1 contamination in breast milk and its exposure in infants under 6 months of age in Rombo, Northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Magoha, Happy; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Kimanya, Martin; Hipolite, Danstan; Lachat, Carl; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    The carry-over of fumonisin B1 from contaminated feed into dairy milk also suggests its carry-over from contaminated food into breast milk. This study assessed fumonisin B1 contamination in breast milk and associated exposures of infants under 6 months of age. Breast milk samples were collected from 131 lactating mothers and the weight of their infants was measured during the first month of lactation. Fumonisin B1 was extracted using methanol:acetone, cleaned up with Strong Anion Exchange columns and quantified by HPLC. Fumonisin B1 exposure in each child was estimated using deterministic approach. Out of the 131 samples, 58 (44.3%) contained fumonisin B1 at levels ranging from 6.57 to 471.05 ng/ml. Of the contaminated samples, 10.3% had fumonisin B1 levels above the EU limit of 200 ppb for fumonisins in infants' food. Exposure in the infants ranged from 0.78 to 64.93 µg/kg body weight (bw) per day (median, 3 µg/kg bw/day) and exceeded the provisional maximum tolerable limit of 2 µg/kg bw/day in 29% of the infants. In conclusion, breast milk from mothers in Northern Tanzania is contaminated with fumonisins at levels that lead to unacceptable exposures in infants. Strategies to prevent lactating mothers from fumonisin exposure are urgently needed to minimise fumonisin exposure in infants. PMID:25280923

  3. Sex and Genotype Differences in Odor Detection in the 3×Tg-AD and 5XFAD Mouse Models of Alzheimer's Disease at 6 Months of Age.

    PubMed

    Roddick, Kyle M; Roberts, Amelia D; Schellinck, Heather M; Brown, Richard E

    2016-06-01

    Deficits in odor identification and detection are early symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Two transgenic mouse models of AD, the 5XFAD and the 3×Tg-AD mice and their wildtype controls, were assessed for olfactory detection with decreasing concentrations of ethyl acetate in a go no-go operant olfactometer task at 6 months of age. For both the 5XFAD and their B6SJLF1 wildtype littermates, females made fewer errors in detecting the ethyl acetate than males on all but the lowest odor concentrations. Female 5XFAD mice performed slightly better than their female wildtype littermates on the higher odor concentrations, though not at the lowest concentration. The 3×Tg-AD females showed decreased olfactory detection compared with their wildtype B6129S1 controls, whereas there was no difference in the males. Therefore, although the 5XFAD mice showed no olfactory detection deficits, female 3×Tg-AD mice had impaired olfactory detection at low odor concentrations but males did not. This difference in odor detection should be considered in studies of olfactory learning and memory, as differences in performance may be due to sensory rather than cognitive factors, though detection seems unimpaired at high odor concentrations. PMID:26969629

  4. Evaluation of Vipassana Meditation Course Effects on Subjective Stress, Well-being, Self-kindness and Mindfulness in a Community Sample: Post-course and 6-month Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Szekeres, Roberta A; Wertheim, Eleanor H

    2015-12-01

    Residential Vipassana meditation courses, which teach mindfulness skills, are widely available globally but under-evaluated. This study examined effects of a standardized, community-based Vipassana course, on subjective stress, well-being, self-kindness and trait mindfulness in a community sample. Participants completed self-report measures of these variables at pre-course and post-course (n = 122), and outcomes were compared to a control group of early enrollers (EEs) (n = 50) who completed measures at parallel time points before course commencement. Six-month follow-up was undertaken in the intervention group (n = 90). Findings, including intention-to-complete analyses, suggested positive effects of the Vipassana course in reducing subjective stress and increasing well-being, self-kindness and overall mindfulness (present-moment awareness and non-reaction). Although some reductions in post-course gains were found at follow-up, particularly in stress, follow-up scores still showed improvements compared to pre-course scores. Mindfulness change scores between pre-course and 6-month follow-up were moderately to highly correlated with outcome variable change scores, consistent with the idea that effects of the Vipassana course on stress and well-being operate, at least partially, through increasing mindfulness. The present research underscores the importance of undertaking further investigations into Vipassana courses' effects and applications. PMID:24515781

  5. Comparison of SAFER behavior assessment results in shelter dogs at intake and after a 3-day acclimation period.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Sara L; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Walker, Sheryl L; Placer, Margaret; Litster, Annette

    2015-01-01

    In this study, it was hypothesized that different results would be obtained by canine behavior assessments performed within 24 hr of shelter intake (Day 0) and after a 3-day acclimation period (Day 3). Safety Assessment for Evaluating Rehoming assessments were performed on 33 dogs at 2 municipal shelters. Agreements between Day 0 and Day 3 varied among subtests, and no consistent temporal patterns were observed. Weighted kappa statistics for each subtest ranged from .28 to .78, and percentage discordance was 0% to 18%. In a 2nd analysis, subtests skipped due to serious aggression were replaced with scores corresponding to serious aggression, and missing values for the Food subtest were replaced with scores for no aggression if the dog did not eat. For subtests skipped due to severe aggression, more than 50% of the dogs had scores indicating low aggression on the other assessment. Eight of 16 dogs who did not eat on Day 0 ate on Day 3; 2 showed aggression. Until the ideal time to test can be identified, it should be based on the individual dog's welfare status, and testing of dogs showing severe stress should be avoided. PMID:25603466

  6. Factors that influence fatigue status in patients with severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and good disease outcome following 6 months of TNF inhibitor therapy: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Minnock, Patricia; Veale, Douglas J; Bresnihan, Barry; FitzGerald, Oliver; McKee, Gabrielle

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the present study is to determine the factors associated with persistent fatigue in patients with severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and good disease response to 6 months of tumour necrosis factor inhibitor therapy. Eligible patients with either persistent (PF) or no fatigue (NF) were compared. Using validated questionnaires and bivariate analysis, this cross-sectional survey explored if clinical characteristics, pain, self-efficacy, sleep and mood/depression differed between groups. Patients with PF (PF; NF) (n = 28; 28) reported significantly more overall pain (11.3 ± 9.4 (0-33); 6.9 ± 8.9 (0-33)), more recent and current pain intensity (41.4 ± 26.6 (0-80) 24.4 ± 26.6 (0-100) and depression (11.8 ± 7.5 (1-35); 8.2 ± 6.6 (0-26)), than the NF group. There was no significant difference between groups in self-efficacy and both groups experienced poor sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index >5). Despite having good disease response, the PF group had significantly higher rheumatoid factor incidence, disease activity score-28, early morning stiffness duration and lower incidence of ever-failing disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs than the NF group. These findings enhance the fatigue literature in patients with RA prescribed tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibition therapy, identifying the potentially modifiable factors of pain and depression, previously demonstrated to be strongly associated with fatigue in non-biologic populations. In addition, this study highlights the association between persistent fatigue and an on-going state of low disease activity. This infers that more judicious disease management could minimise the symptom burden of pain and depression and consequentially fatigue. PMID:26453249

  7. Nutritional status and dietary intakes of children aged 6 months to 12 years: findings of the Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children (SEANUTS Malaysia).

    PubMed

    Poh, Bee Koon; Ng, Boon Koon; Siti Haslinda, Mohd Din; Nik Shanita, Safii; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Budin, Siti Balkis; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Ng, Lai Oon; Khouw, Ilse; Norimah, A Karim

    2013-09-01

    The dual burden of malnutrition reportedly coexists in Malaysia; however, existing data are scarce and do not adequately represent the nutritional status of Malaysian children. The Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children was carried out with the aim of assessing the nutritional status in a sample of nationally representative population of children aged 6 months to 12 years. A total of 3542 children were recruited using a stratified random sampling method. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, and waist and hip circumferences. Blood biochemical assessment involved analyses of Hb, serum ferritin, and vitamins A and D. Dietary intake was assessed using semi-quantitative FFQ, and nutrient intakes were compared with the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI). The prevalence of overweight (9·8%) and obesity (11·8%) was higher than that of thinness (5·4%) and stunting (8·4%). Only a small proportion of children had low levels of Hb (6·6%), serum ferritin (4·4%) and vitamin A (4·4%), but almost half the children (47·5%) had vitamin D insufficiency. Dietary intake of the children was not compatible with the recommendations, where more than one-third did not achieve the Malaysian RNI for energy, Ca and vitamin D. The present study revealed that overnutrition was more prevalent than undernutrition. The presence of high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and the inadequate intake of Ca and vitamin D are of concern. Hence, strategies for improving the nutritional status of Malaysian children need to consider both sides of malnutrition and also put emphasis on approaches for the prevention of overweight and obesity as well as vitamin D insufficiency. PMID:24016764

  8. Changes in HDL-cholesterol and lipoprotein Lp(a) after 6-month treatment with finasteride in males affected by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

    PubMed

    Denti, L; Pasolini, G; Cortellini, P; Sanfelici, L; Benedetti, R; Cecchetti, A; Ferretti, S; Bruschieri, L; Ablondi, F; Valenti, G

    2000-09-01

    Androgen effects on lipoproteins, mainly high density lipoprotein (HDL), could be exerted by a direct interaction of testosterone (T) or dihydrotestosterone (DHT) with liver androgen receptors. To assess if T needs to be converted into DHT to affect lipid metabolism, 13 patients were studied, affected with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and treated with an inhibitor of 5 alpha-reductase (finasteride). They were compared with 15 untreated controls. At baseline and after 3 and 6 months of therapy, each patient was evaluated as for lipoprotein and hormone concentrations, as well as for nutritional status. Body composition was assessed by anthropometry and bio-impedance analysis (BIA). Treatment was associated with a significant increase of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), mainly HDL3 subclass, and lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)), as well as a decline of DHT, whereas no significant changes were apparent for T, estradiol (E2), sex hormone binding hormone (SHBG) and body composition indexes. However, no significant associations between DHT and lipid relative changes were apparent at bivariate correlation analysis. This finding was confirmed by comparing patient subsets identified by cluster analysis, according to HDL subclass individual responses. Rather, a slight association with E2 for HDL2 (positive) and HDL3 (negative) was found. In conclusion, finasteride can modify HDL and Lp(a) concentrations. However, by the data, these effects cannot be definitively attributed to the changes in DHT synthesis induced by finasteride, since a direct and non-specific interference of the drug on liver metabolism cannot be excluded. PMID:10996351

  9. Add-on montelukast in inadequately controlled asthma patients in a 6-month open-label study: the MONtelukast In Chronic Asthma (MONICA) study.

    PubMed

    Virchow, J Christian; Mehta, Anish; Ljungblad, Li; Mitfessel, Harald

    2010-05-01

    Bronchial asthma often remains uncontrolled despite treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), long-acting beta(2)-agonists (LABA) or both, necessitating additional treatment. Patients >or=18 years (n=1681) with mild-to-moderate asthma received oral montelukast 10mg added to ICS or ICS+LABAs, and were followed for 6 months in a prospective, open-label observational study. The primary endpoint was change in Asthma Control Test (ACT) score. Secondary endpoints included mini-Asthma Quality-of-Life Questionnaire (mini-AQLQ) and FEV(1)/PEF. Mean ACT scores improved from 14.6+/-4.6 (baseline) to 19.4+/-4.4 (month 6; p<0.0001). Using ACT score categories, the percentage of patients with uncontrolled (57.5%) or poorly controlled (25.0%) asthma at baseline decreased at month 6 (17.6 and 21.7%, respectively); the percentage of patients with well controlled (13.9%) or completely controlled (1.2%) asthma at baseline increased at month 6 (47.5 and 11.4%, respectively). The mini-AQLQ score (mean+/-SD) improved from 4.0+/-1.1 to 5.3+/-1.1 (p<0.0001); FEV(1) increased from 2.46+/-0.89 to 2.60+/-0.92L (p<0.0001). Treatment with montelukast was generally well tolerated. In patients insufficiently controlled with ICS or ICS+LABAs, daily add-on montelukast improved both asthma control and asthma-related quality of life. Clinicaltrials.gov registry number NCT00802789. PMID:20031382

  10. Immunogenicity of quadrivalent HPV and combined hepatitis A and B vaccine when co-administered or administered one month apart to 9–10 year-old girls according to 0–6 month schedule

    PubMed Central

    Gilca, Vladimir; Sauvageau, Chantal; Boulianne, Nicole; De Serres, Gaston; Couillard, Michel; Krajden, Mel; Ouakki, Manale; Murphy, Donald; Trevisan, Andrea; Dionne, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Background. No immunogenicity data has been reported after a single dose of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (qHPV-Gardasil®) and no data are available on co-administration of this vaccine with the HAV/HBV vaccine (Twinrix-Junior®). Two pre-licensure studies reported similar anti-HPV but lower anti-HBs titers when co-administering HPV and HBV vaccines.   Objectives. To assess the immunogenicity of the qHPV and HAV/HBV vaccine when co-administered (Group-Co-adm) or given one month apart (Group-Sep) and to measure the persistence of HPV antibodies three years post-second dose of qHPV vaccine in both study groups. Methods. 416 9–10 year-old girls were enrolled. Vaccination schedule was 0–6 months. Anti-HAV and anti-HBs were measured in all subjects 6 months post-first dose and 1 month post-second dose. Anti-HPV were measured 6 months post-first dose in Group-Co-adm and in all subjects 1 and 36 months post-second dose. Results. Six months post-first dose: 100% of subjects had detectable anti-HAV and 56% and 73% had detectable anti-HBs in Group-Co-Adm and Group-Sep, respectively. In Group-Co-adm 94, 100, 99 and 96% had detectable antibodies to HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18, respectively. One month post-second dose of qHPV and HAV/HBV vaccine, in both study groups 99.5–100% of subjects had an anti-HAV titer ≥ 20IU/L, 97.5–97.6% an anti-HBs level ≥ 10IU/L, and 100% had an anti-HPV titer ≥ 3LU. Thirty-six months post-second dose of qHPV all but four subjects (99%) had antibodies to HPV18 and 100% had antibodies to HPV6, 11 and 16. The great majority (97–100%) had an anti-HPV titer ≥ 3 LU. Post-second dose administration of qHPV and HAV/HBV, no meaningful difference was observed in the immune response in the two study groups to any component of vaccines. Conclusions. The results indicate that qHPV and HAV/HBV can be given during the same vaccination session. Two doses of of qHPV and HAV/HBV vaccines induce a strong immune response. Three years post-second dose of q

  11. Conditional deletion of Mecp2 in parvalbumin-expressing GABAergic cells results in the absence of critical period plasticity.

    PubMed

    He, Ling-jie; Liu, Nan; Cheng, Tian-lin; Chen, Xiao-jing; Li, Yi-ding; Shu, You-sheng; Qiu, Zi-long; Zhang, Xiao-hui

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the X-linked gene encoding the transcriptional modulator methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) impair postnatal development of the brain. Here we use neuronal-type specific gene deletion in mice to show that conditional Mecp2 deletion in GABAergic parvalbumin-expressing (PV) cells (PV-Mecp2(-/y)) does not cause most Rett-syndrome-like behaviours, but completely abolishes experience-dependent critical period plasticity of primary visual cortex (V1) that develops normal visual functions. However, selective loss of Mecp2 in GABAergic somatostatin-expressing cells or glutamatergic pyramidal cells does not affect the critical period plasticity. MeCP2-deficient PV cells exhibit high intrinsic excitability, selectively reduced efficacy of recurrent excitatory synapses in V1 layer 4 circuits, and decreased evoked visual responses in vivo. Enhancing cortical gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibition with diazepam infusion can restore critical period plasticity in both young and adult PV-Mecp2(-/y) mice. Thus, MeCP2 expression in inhibitory PV cells during the critical period is essential for local circuit functions underlying experience-dependent cortical plasticity. PMID:25297674

  12. Summary of TMX results: executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Simonen, T.C.

    1981-02-26

    This report summarizes results from the successful experimental operation of the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX) over the period October 1978 through September 1980. The experimental program, summarized by the DOE milestones given in Table 1, had three basic phases: (1) an 8-month checkout period, October 1978 through May 1979; (2) a 6-month initial period of operation, June through November 1979, during which the basic principles of the tandem configuration were demonstrated (i.e., plasma confinement was improved over that of a single-cell mirror); and (3) a 10-month period, December 1979 through September 1980, during which the initial TMX results were corroborated by additional diagnostic measurements and many detailed physics investigations were carried out. This report summarizes the early results, presents results of recent data analysis, and outlines areas of ongoing research.

  13. Multicomponent physical exercise with simultaneous cognitive training to enhance dual-task walking of older adults: a secondary analysis of a 6-month randomized controlled trial with 1-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Eggenberger, Patrick; Theill, Nathan; Holenstein, Stefan; Schumacher, Vera; de Bruin, Eling D

    2015-01-01

    Background About one-third of people older than 65 years fall at least once a year. Physical exercise has been previously demonstrated to improve gait, enhance physical fitness, and prevent falls. Nonetheless, the addition of cognitive training components may potentially increase these effects, since cognitive impairment is related to gait irregularities and fall risk. We hypothesized that simultaneous cognitive–physical training would lead to greater improvements in dual-task (DT) gait compared to exclusive physical training. Methods Elderly persons older than 70 years and without cognitive impairment were randomly assigned to the following groups: 1) virtual reality video game dancing (DANCE), 2) treadmill walking with simultaneous verbal memory training (MEMORY), or 3) treadmill walking (PHYS). Each program was complemented with strength and balance exercises. Two 1-hour training sessions per week over 6 months were applied. Gait variables, functional fitness (Short Physical Performance Battery, 6-minute walk), and fall frequencies were assessed at baseline, after 3 months and 6 months, and at 1-year follow-up. Multiple regression analyses with planned comparisons were carried out. Results Eighty-nine participants were randomized to three groups initially; 71 completed the training and 47 were available at 1-year follow-up. DANCE/MEMORY showed a significant advantage compared to PHYS in DT costs of step time variability at fast walking (P=0.044). Training-specific gait adaptations were found on comparing DANCE and MEMORY: DANCE reduced step time at fast walking (P=0.007) and MEMORY reduced gait variability in DT and DT costs at preferred walking speed (both trend P=0.062). Global linear time effects showed improved gait (P<0.05), functional fitness (P<0.05), and reduced fall frequency (−77%, P<0.001). Only single-task fast walking, gait variability at preferred walking speed, and Short Physical Performance Battery were reduced at follow-up (all P<0.05 or

  14. Molecular responses at 3 and 6 months after switching to a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor are complementary and predictive of long-term outcomes in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia who fail imatinib.

    PubMed

    Boquimpani, Carla; Schaffel, Rony; Biasoli, Irene; Bendit, Israel; Spector, Nelson

    2015-06-01

    Early molecular response (MR) defined by BCR-ABL(IS) levels has prognostic impact in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). MR was evaluated at 3 and 6 months after switching to nilotinib or dasatinib in 115 patients with resistance to imatinib. Three groups were delineated at 3 months (< 1%, 1-10% or > 10% BCR-ABL(IS) levels) with different outcomes at 3 years regarding major molecular response (MMR, 91%, 47%, 22%, p < 0.001), failure-free survival (FFS), progression-free survival (PFS, 96%, 89% and 78%, p = 0.05) and overall survival (OS). After 6 months, patients with MR < 1% had higher 3-year MMR (83% vs. 16%, p < 0.001), FFS, PFS (94% vs. 84%, p = 0.05) and OS. Four patients had 3-month and 6-month MR > 10% and < 1%, respectively (3-year FFS 50%). Thirteen had 3-month and 6-month MR < 10% and ≥ 1%, respectively (3-year FFS 38%). These findings confirm the strong predictive value of 3-month and 6-month BCR-ABL(IS) levels in imatinib-resistant patients. PMID:25311496

  15. Consumption of low-fat dairy foods for 6 months improves insulin resistance without adversely affecting lipids or bodyweight in healthy adults: a randomized free-living cross-over study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Given the highly debated role of dairy food consumption in modulating biomarkers of metabolic syndrome, this study was conducted to examine the influence of long-term (6 month) dairy consumption on metabolic parameters in healthy volunteers under free-living conditions without energy restriction. Methods Twenty-three healthy subjects completed a randomized, crossover trial of 12 months. Participants consumed their habitual diets and were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: a high dairy supplemented group instructed to consume 4 servings of dairy per day (HD); or a low dairy supplemented group limited to no more than 2 servings of dairy per day (LD). Baseline, midpoint, and endpoint metabolic responses were examined. Results Endpoint measurements of body weight and composition, energy expenditure, blood pressure, blood glucose, and blood lipid and lipoprotein responses did not differ (p > 0.05) between the LD and HD groups. HD consumption improved (p < 0.05) plasma insulin (-9%) and insulin resistance (-11%, p = 0.03) as estimated by HOMA-IR compared with the LD group. Conclusions Study results suggest that high dairy consumption (4 servings/d) may improve insulin resistance without negatively impacting bodyweight or lipid status under free-living conditions. Trial registration Trial registration: NCT01761955 PMID:23638799

  16. ATLAS Detector Performance status, improvements during winter 2010 shutdown and results with initial 2011 data taking period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benekos, Nektarios Chr

    2012-02-01

    After the successful 2010 LHC run, where the ATLAS detector recorder 45pb-1 of proton-proton collision data with 93.6% data taking efficiency and during the recent LHC shutdown period, ATLAS performed vital maintenance and improvements on the various sub-detectors. Maintenance on the Muon Spectrometer included repairs on the readout system as well as updates and leak checks in the gas system. Six TGC chambers have been also replaced. For the Calorimeters, repairs were carried out on the front-end electronics and power supplies to recover detector coverage that have been lost since the last maintenance period. Repairs were also performed on the Inner Detector, but at a smaller scale. Finally the ALFA luminosity detector was installed along the beam line and is being commissioned. This talk summarizes the above repairs and their expected improvement for physics performance and reliability of the ATLAS for the 2011 LHC run.

  17. Burden of Influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Pregnant Women and Infants Under 6 Months in Mongolia: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chaw, Liling; Kamigaki, Taro; Burmaa, Alexanderyn; Urtnasan, Chuluunbatiin; Od, Ishiin; Nyamaa, Gunregjaviin; Nymadawa, Pagbajabyn; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Pregnant women and infants under 6 months are at risk of influenza-related complications. Limited information exists on their community burden of respiratory viruses. Methods and Findings This prospective, observational open cohort study was conducted in Baganuur district, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia during 2013/14 and 2014/15 influenza seasons. Influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe acute respiratory infection (sARI) were identified by follow-up calls twice a week. For those identified, influenza and respiratory syncytical virus (RSV) were tested by point-of-care test kits. We calculated overall and stratified (by trimester or age group) incidence rates (IR) and used Cox proportional hazard regression for risk factor analyses. Among 1260 unvaccinated pregnant women enrolled, overall IRs for ILI, sARI and influenza A were 11.8 (95% confidence interval (C.I):11.2–12.4), 0.1 (95%C.I:0.0–0.4), and 1.7 (95%C.I:1.5–1.9) per 1,000person-days, respectively. One sARI case was influenza A positive. IRs and adjusted hazard ratios (Adj.HR) for ILI and influenza A were lowest in the third trimester. Those with co-morbidity were 1.4 times more likely to develop ILI [Adj.HR:1.4 (95%C.I:1.1–1.9)]. Among 1304 infants enrolled, overall ILI and sARI IRs were 15.2 (95%C.I:14.5–15.8) and 20.5 (95%C.I:19.7–21.3) per 1,000person-days, respectively. From the tested ILI (77.6%) and sARI (30.6%) cases, the overall positivity rates were 6.3% (influenza A), 1.1% (influenza B) and 9.3% (RSV). Positivity rates of influenza A and RSV tend to increase with age. sARI cases were 1.4 times more likely to be male [Adj.HR:1.4 (95%C.I:1.1–1.8)]. Among all influenza A and RSV positive infants, 11.8% and 68.0% were respectively identified among sARI hospitalized cases. Conclusion We observed low overall influenza A burden in both groups, though underestimation was likely due to point-of-care tests used. For infants, RSV burden was more significant than influenza A. These findings

  18. The effects of a 6-month resistance training and dried plum consumption intervention on strength, body composition, blood markers of bone turnover, and inflammation in breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Simonavice, Emily; Liu, Pei-Yang; Ilich, Jasminka Z; Kim, Jeong-Su; Arjmandi, Bahram; Panton, Lynn B

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of resistance training (RT) and dried plum (DP) consumption on strength, body composition, blood markers of bone, and inflammation in breast cancer survivors (BCS). Twenty-three BCS (RT, n = 12; RT+DP, n = 11), aged 64 ± 7 years, were evaluated at baseline and after 6 months of intervention on the following: muscular strength (chest press and leg extension) via 1-repetition maximums (1RMs); body composition, specifically bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry; biochemical markers of bone turnover (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP-5b)); and inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP)). Target RT prescription was 2 days/week of 10 exercises, including 2 sets of 8-12 repetitions at ∼60%-80% of 1RM. RT+DP also consumed 90 g of DP daily. There were no baseline differences between groups or any group-by-time interactions for any of the variables. BCS increased upper (p < 0.05) (RT: 64 ± 14 to 80 ± 17 kg; RT+DP: 72 ± 23 to 91 ± 20 kg) and lower (p < 0.05) (RT: 69 ± 20 to 87 ± 28 kg; RT+DP: 78 ± 19 to 100 ± 21 kg) body strength. Body composition and BMD improvements were not observed. TRAP-5b decreased in the RT group (p < 0.05) (4.55 ± 1.57 to 4.04 ± 1.63 U/L) and the RT+DP group (p = 0.07) (5.10 ± 2.75 to 4.27 ± 2.03 U/L). Changes in BAP and CRP were not observed. RT was effective for improving biochemical markers of bone turnover and muscular strength in BCS. A longer and higher intensity intervention may be needed to reveal the true effects of RT and DP on body composition and biochemical markers of inflammation. PMID:24869977

  19. In Alzheimer’s Disease, 6-Month Treatment with GLP-1 Analog Prevents Decline of Brain Glucose Metabolism: Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gejl, Michael; Gjedde, Albert; Egefjord, Lærke; Møller, Arne; Hansen, Søren B.; Vang, Kim; Rodell, Anders; Brændgaard, Hans; Gottrup, Hanne; Schacht, Anna; Møller, Niels; Brock, Birgitte; Rungby, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    In animal models, the incretin hormone GLP-1 affects Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We hypothesized that treatment with GLP-1 or an analog of GLP-1 would prevent accumulation of Aβ and raise, or prevent decline of, glucose metabolism (CMRglc) in AD. In this 26-week trial, we randomized 38 patients with AD to treatment with the GLP-1 analog liraglutide (n = 18), or placebo (n = 20). We measured Aβ load in brain with tracer [11C]PIB (PIB), CMRglc with [18F]FDG (FDG), and cognition with the WMS-IV scale (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01469351). The PIB binding increased significantly in temporal lobe in placebo and treatment patients (both P = 0.04), and in occipital lobe in treatment patients (P = 0.04). Regional and global increases of PIB retention did not differ between the groups (P ≥ 0.38). In placebo treated patients CMRglc declined in all regions, significantly so by the following means in precuneus (P = 0.009, 3.2 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 5.45; 0.92), and in parietal (P = 0.04, 2.1 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 4.21; 0.081), temporal (P = 0.046, 1.54 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 3.05; 0.030), and occipital (P = 0.009, 2.10 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 3.61; 0.59) lobes, and in cerebellum (P = 0.04, 1.54 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 3.01; 0.064). In contrast, the GLP-1 analog treatment caused a numerical but insignificant increase of CMRglc after 6 months. Cognitive scores did not change. We conclude that the GLP-1 analog treatment prevented the decline of CMRglc that signifies cognitive impairment, synaptic dysfunction, and disease evolution. We draw no firm conclusions from the Aβ load or cognition measures, for which the study was underpowered. PMID:27252647

  20. Results of the Tiegcm and the Peak Height Disturbance Models on the Occasion of Selected Magnetically Disturbed Periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altadill, David; Blanch, Estefania; Marsal, Santiago

    The AMPERE-driven Thermosphere-Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIEGCM) and the ionospheric peak height disturbances model have been used to analyze the ionospheric effects at global and local scales. The AMPERE-driven TIEGCM has been newly improved with auroral conductivities consistent with field-aligned currents provided by the AMPERE satellite mission. Both models are validated using real ionosonde and ground magnetic data on the occasion of recent magnetically active periods.

  1. PG 0308 + 096 and PG 1026 + 002 - Two new short period binary stars resulting from common-envelope evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saffer, Rex A.; Wade, Richard A.; Liebert, James; Green, Richard F.; Sion, Edward M.; Bechtold, J.; Foss, Diana; Kidder, K.

    1993-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectroscopy, optical spectroscopy, and spectrophotometry have been used to study the excess UV stars PG 0308 + 096 and PG 1026 + 002. Both objects are short-period binary systems, each containing a DA white dwarf star and a dM star. Orbital periods of approximately 0.284 day for PG 0308 + 096, and aproximately 0.597 day for PG 1026, have been found by spectroscopic analysis of the H-alpha emission line. Ly-alpha and Balmer line profile fitting were used to estimate the mass of white dwarf stars; mass estimates for the dM stars are based on their spectral types. The orbital inclinations are derived from these masses, the periods, and amplitudes of the H-alpha radial velocity curves. The equivalent width of the H-alpha emission line, in each binary system, varies with the orbital phase in such a manner as to imply that it arises, in large part at least, from the hemisphere of the M star that faces the white dwarf star.

  2. Observations of Non-Methane Hydrocarbons Over India During the Asian Summer Monsoon Period: Results from CARIBIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. K.; Schuck, T. J.; Slemr, F.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A.

    2008-12-01

    The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, www.caribic-atmospheric.com) involves the monthly deployment of an instrument container equipped to make atmospheric measurements from onboard a long-range commercial airliner. Since December 2004, flights for the second phase of CARIBIC have been aboard a Lufthansa Airbus A340-600 traveling between Frankfurt, Germany and destinations in Asia, North America and South America. The instrument package housed in the container (1.5 ton) is fully automated and during each monthly set of flights carries out a variety of real-time trace gas and aerosol measurements, and also collects 28 air samples, which are analyzed upon return to the laboratory. Routine measurements made from the sampling flasks include non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) analysis, and these measurements provide the basis for the data presented here. Between April and September of 2008, the container was deployed monthly on two sequential roundtrip flights between Frankfurt and Chennai, India. To achieve greater resolution, air samples were collected only on the first of the roundtrip flights, with 14 samples collected on the flight to Chennai and 14 collected on the return. These flights provided the opportunity to study the composition of the upper troposphere in this region during the Asian summer monsoon period (typically June-September), which is characterized by anticyclonic circulation in the upper troposphere coupled with deep convection. Samples collected during the monsoon period exhibit elevated levels of NMHCs relative to samples collected outside of the monsoon period, with enhancements in ethyne and benzene being more substantial than enhancements in the alkanes. Enhanced mixing ratios are observed between 15N and 40N, and correspond to enhancements in other trace gases, namely methane and CO. Ethyne in particular is strongly correlated with both methane and CO in this region

  3. Results of Groundwater Monitoring for the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins Reporting Period: July-December 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, Mary J.

    2007-04-10

    This is one of a series of reports on Resource Conservation and Recovery Act monitoring at the 183 H basins. It fulfills a requirement of WAC 173-303-645(11)(g) to report twice each year on the effectiveness of the corrective action program. This report covers the period from July through December 2006. The current objective of corrective action monitoring is simply to track trends. Although there is short-term variability in contaminant concentrations, trends over the past 10 years are downward. The current RCRA permit and monitoring plan remain adequate for the objective of tracking trends.

  4. 5 CFR 870.507 - Open enrollment periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... period. (d) Within 6 months after an open enrollment period ends, an employing office may determine that... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Open enrollment periods. 870.507 Section 870.507 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE...

  5. 5 CFR 870.507 - Open enrollment periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... enrollment period. (d) Within 6 months after an open enrollment period ends, an employing office may... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Open enrollment periods. 870.507 Section 870.507 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE...

  6. 42 CFR 476.96 - Review period and reopening of initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. 476.96 Section 476.96 Public Health CENTERS FOR... initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. (a) General timeframe. A QIO or... initial denial determination or a change as a result of a DRG validation. (b) Extended timeframes. (1)...

  7. 42 CFR 476.96 - Review period and reopening of initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. 476.96 Section 476.96 Public Health CENTERS FOR... initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. (a) General timeframe. A QIO or... initial denial determination or a change as a result of a DRG validation. (b) Extended timeframes. (1)...

  8. Oats in the diet of children with celiac disease: preliminary results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled multicenter Italian study.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Simona; Caporelli, Nicole; Galeazzi, Tiziana; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Barbato, Maria; Roggero, Paola; Malamisura, Basilio; Iacono, Giuseppe; Budelli, Andrea; Gesuita, Rosaria; Catassi, Carlo; Lionetti, Elena

    2013-11-01

    A gluten-free diet (GFD) is currently the only available treatment for patients with celiac disease (CD). Several clinical trials have demonstrated that most celiac patients can tolerate a medium-high quantity of oats without any negative clinical effects; however, the inclusion of oats in GFD is still a matter of debate. In this study, Italian children with CD were enrolled in a 15-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial. Participants were randomized in two groups following either A-B treatment (6 months of diet "A", 3 months of standard GFD, 6 months of diet "B"), or B-A treatment (6 months of diet "B", 3 months of standard GFD, 6 months of diet "A"). A and B diets included gluten-free (GF) products (flour, pasta, biscuits, cakes and crisp toasts) with either purified oats or placebo. Clinical data (Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rate Scale [GSRS] score) and intestinal permeability tests (IPT), were measured through the study period. Although the study is still blinded, no significant differences were found in GSRS score or the urinary lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratio between the two groups after 6 months of treatment. These preliminary results suggest that the addition of non-contaminated oats from selected varieties in the treatment of children with CD does not determine changes in intestinal permeability and gastrointestinal symptoms. PMID:24264227

  9. Changes in physical activity, physical fitness, self-perception and quality of life following a 6-month physical activity counseling and cognitive behavioral therapy program in outpatients with binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Vancampfort, Davy; Probst, Michel; Adriaens, An; Pieters, Guido; De Hert, Marc; Stubbs, Brendon; Soundy, Andy; Vanderlinden, Johan

    2014-10-30

    The aim of the current study was to explore the associations between changes in the number of binges, physical activity participation, physical fitness, physical self-perception and quality of life following a 6-month physical activity counseling and cognitive behavioral program in patients with binge eating disorder (BED). In total 34 (31 women) outpatients with BED (38.5±10.7 years) completed a 6-month 1-day per week group-based program. Participants completed the 36-item Short Form Health Survey, the Baecke Physical Activity questionnaire, the Physical Self Perception Profile and performed a 6-min walk test (6MWT) at baseline, after 3 and 6 months. Except for physical activity at work, physical strength and self-worth perception, all parameters significantly improved after 6 months. The effect sizes ranged from -0.33 for the number of binges to 1.67 for participation in sports activities. Significant increases in leisure time physical activity were associated with significant improvements in physical health related quality of life, perceived sports competence and physical fitness and in perceived body attractiveness. The significant reduction in the number of binges was associated with significant improvements in physical health related quality of life. Future research should focus on detailing which techniques can stimulate physical activity participation in patients with BED. PMID:24929440

  10. Effects of Diet on Early Stage Cortical Perception and Discrimination of Syllables Differing in Voice-Onset Time: A Longitudinal ERP Study in 3 and 6 Month Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pivik, R. T.; Andres, Aline; Badger, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of diet on cortical processing of syllables was examined at 3 and 6 months in 239 infants who were breastfed or fed milk or soy-based formula. Event-related potentials to syllables differing in voice-onset-time were recorded from placements overlying brain areas specialized for language processing. P1 component amplitude and latency…

  11. The HyMeX Special Observation Period in Central Italy: precipitation measurements, retrieval techniques and preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvio Marzano, Frank; Baldini, Luca; Picciotti, Errico; Colantonio, Matteo; Barbieri, Stefano; Di Fabio, Saverio; Montopoli, Mario; Vulpiani, Gianfranco; Roberto, Nicoletta; Adirosi, Elisa; Gorgucci, Eugenio; Anagnostou, Marios N.; Kalogiros, John; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Ferretti, Rossella; Gatlin, Patrick.; Wingo, Matt; Petersen, Walt

    2013-04-01

    The Mediterranean area concentrates the major natural risks related to the water cycle, including heavy precipitation and flash-flooding during the fall season. The capability to predict such high-impact events remains weak because of the contribution of very fine-scale processes and their non-linear interactions with the larger scale processes. These societal and science issues motivate the HyMeX (Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment, http://www.hymex.org/) experimental programme. HyMeX aims at a better quantification and understanding of the water cycle in the Mediterranean with emphasis on intense events. The observation strategy of HyMEX is organized in a long-term (4 years) Enhanced Observation Periods (EOP) and short-term (2 months) Special Observation Periods (SOP). HyMEX has identified 3 main Mediterranean target areas: North-West (NW), Adriatic (A) and South-East (SE). Within each target area several hydrometeorological sites for heavy rainfall and flash flooding have been set up. The hydrometeorological site in Central Italy (CI) is interested by both western and eastern fronts coming from the Atlantic Ocean and Siberia, respectively. Orographic precipitations play an important role due to the central Apennine range, which reaches nearly 3000 m (Gran Sasso peak). Moreover, convective systems commonly develop in CI during late summer and beginning of autumn, often causing localized hailstorms with cluster organized cells. Western fronts may heavily hit the Tiber basin crossing large urban areas (Rome), whereas eastern fronts can cause flash floods along the Adriatic coastline. Two major basins are involved within CI region: Tiber basin (1000 km long) and its tributary Aniene and the Aterno-Pescara basin (300 km long). The first HyMeX SOP1.1 was carried out from Sept. till Nov. 2012 in the NW target area. The Italian SOP1.1 was coordinated by the Centre of Excellence CETEMPS, University of L'Aquila, a city located in the CI heart. The CI area

  12. The HyMeX Special Observation Period in Central Italy: Precipitation Measurements, Retrieval Techniques and Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatlin, Patrick; Wingo, Matt; Petersen, Walt; Marzano, Frank Silvio; Baldini, Luca; Picciotti, Errico; Colantonio, Matteo; Barbieri, Stefano; Di Fabio, Saverio; Montopoli, Mario; Roberto, Nicoletta; Adirosi, Elisa; Gorgucci, Eugenio; Anagnostou, Emmanoil N..; Ferretti, Rossella

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean area concentrates the major natural risks related to the water cycle, including heavy precipitation and flash-flooding during the fall season. The capability to predict such high-impact events remains weak because of the contribution of very fine-scale processes and their non-linear interactions with the larger scale processes. These societal and science issues motivate the HyMeX (Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment, http://www.hymex.orgl) experimental programme. HyMeX aims at a better quantification and understanding of the water cycle in the Mediterranean with emphasis on intense events. The observation strategy of HyMEX is organized in a long-term (4 years) Enhanced Observation Periods (EOP) and short-term (2 months) Special Observation Periods (SOP). HyMEX has identified 3 main Mediterranean target areas: North-West (NW), Adriatic (A) and South-East (SE). Within each target area several hydrometeorological sites for heavy rainfall and flash flooding have been set up. The hydrometeorological sire in Central Italy (CI) is interested by both western and eastern fronts coming from the Atlantic Ocean and Siberia, respectively. Orographic precipitations play an important role due to the central Apennine range, which reaches nearly 3000 m (Gran Sasso peak). Moreover, convective systems commonly develop in CI during late summer and beginning of autumn, often causing localized hailstorms with cluster organized cells. Western fronts may heavily hit the Tiber basin crossing large urban areas (Rome), whereas eastern fronts can cause flash floods along the Adriatic coastline. Two major basins are involved within Cl region: Tiber basin (1000 km long) and its tributary Aniene and the Aterno-Pescara basin (300 km long). The first HyMeX SOP1.1 was carried out from Sept. till Nov. 2012 in the NW target area The Italian SOP1.1 was coordinated by the Centre of Excellence CETEMPS, University of L'Aquila, a city located in the CI heart. The CI area

  13. 34 CFR Appendix E to Part 674 - Examples for Computing Maximum Penalty Charges (6 Months Unpaid Overdue Payments) on Direct Loans...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Months Unpaid Overdue Payments) on Direct Loans Made for Periods of Enrollment Before January 1, 1986 E Appendix E to Part 674 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Pt. 674, App....

  14. Lumbar disc replacement: preliminary results with ProDisc II after a minimum follow-up period of 1 year.

    PubMed

    Tropiano, Patrick; Huang, Russel C; Girardi, Federico P; Marnay, Thierry

    2003-08-01

    Total disc replacement has the potential to replace fusion as the gold standard surgical treatment of degenerative disc disease. Potential advantages of disc replacement over fusion include avoidance of pseudarthrosis, postoperative orthoses, and junctional degeneration. After observing satisfactory clinical results at 7-11 years' follow-up with the ProDisc first-generation implant, a second-generation prosthesis was designed. This study is a prospective analysis of the early results of total disc replacement with the ProDisc II total disc prosthesis. Fifty-three patients had single-level or multilevel disc replacement and were evaluated clinically and radiographically preoperatively and at mean 1.4-year follow-up. There were clinically and statistically significant improvements in back and leg pain Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry disability scores that were maintained at final follow-up. The clinical results of patients with single- and multilevel surgery were equivalent. Satisfactory results were achieved in 90% of patients who had previous lumbar surgery. Complications occurred in 9% of patients and included vertebral body fracture, transient radicular pain, implant malposition, and transient retrograde ejaculation. Three patients (6%) required reoperation to address complications. No mechanical failure of the implants or loosening was observed, and the prostheses retained motion. Randomized, prospective, long-term studies will be necessary to compare the effectiveness of arthrodesis with total disc replacement. PMID:12902952

  15. Sustained efficacy of agomelatine 10 mg, 25 mg, and 25-50 mg on depressive symptoms and functional outcomes in patients with major depressive disorder. A placebo-controlled study over 6 months.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Sidney H; Avedisova, Alla; Belaïdi, Carole; Picarel-Blanchot, Françoise; de Bodinat, Christian

    2016-02-01

    agomelatine. The threshold dose of 25 mg for initiating treatment can be maintained over 6 months in depressed patients. PMID:26708320

  16. Use of calcium, folate, and vitamin D₃-fortified milk for 6 months improves nutritional status but not bone mass or turnover, in a group of Australian aged care residents.

    PubMed

    Grieger, Jessica A; Nowson, Caryl A

    2009-07-01

    In residential care, inadequate calcium and folate intakes and low serum vitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations are common. We assessed whether daily provision of calcium, folate, and vitamin D₃-fortified milk for 6 months improved nutritional status (serum micronutrients), bone quality (heel ultrasound), bone turnover markers (parathyroid hormone, C-terminal collagen I telopeptide, terminal propeptide of type I procollagen), and/or muscle strength and mobility in a group of Australian aged care residents. One hundred and seven residents completed the study (mean (SD) age: 79.9 (10.1) years; body weight: 68.4 (15.4) kg). The median (inter-quartile range) volume of fortified milk consumed was 160 (149) ml/day. At the end of the study, the median daily vitamin D intake increased to 10.4 (8.7) μg (P < .001), which is 70% of the adequate intake (15 μg); and calcium density (mg/MJ) was higher over the study period compared with baseline (161 ± 5 mg/MJ vs. 142 ± 4 mg/MJ, P < .001). Serum 25(OH)D concentrations increased by 23 ± 2 nmol/L (83 (107)%, P < .001), yet remained in the insufficient range (mean 45 ± 2 nmol/L). Consumption of greater than the median intake of milk (160 ml/day) (n = 54, 50%) increased serum 25(OH)D levels into the adequate range (53 ± 2 nmol/L) and reduced serum parathyroid hormone by 24% (P = .045). There was no effect on bone quality, bone turnover markers, muscle strength, or mobility. Consumption of fortified milk increased dietary vitamin D intake and raised serum 25(OH)D concentrations, but not to the level thought to reduce fracture risk. If calcium-fortified milk also was used in cooking and milk drinks, this approach could allow residents to achieve a dietary calcium intake close to recommended levels. A vitamin D supplement would be recommended to ensure adequate vitamin D status for all residents. PMID:21184368

  17. Implementation of basic quality control tests for malaria medicines in Amazon Basin countries: results for the 2005–2010 period

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ensuring the quality of malaria medicines is crucial in working toward malaria control and eventual elimination. Unlike other validated tests that can assess all critical quality attributes, which is the standard for determining the quality of medicines, basic tests are significantly less expensive, faster, and require less skilled labour; yet, these tests provide reproducible data and information on several critical quality attributes, such as identity, purity, content, and disintegration. Visual and physical inspection also provides valuable information about the manufacturing and the labelling of medicines, and in many cases this inspection is sufficient to detect counterfeit medicines. The Promoting the Quality of Medicines (PQM) programme has provided technical assistance to Amazon Malaria Initiative (AMI) countries to implement the use of basic tests as a key screening mechanism to assess the quality of malaria medicines available to patients in decentralized regions. Methods Trained personnel from the National Malaria Control Programmes (NMCPs), often in collaboration with country’s Official Medicine Control Laboratory (OMCL), developed country- specific protocols that encompassed sampling methods, sample analysis, and data reporting. Sampling sites were selected based on malaria burden, accessibility, and geographical location. Convenience sampling was performed and countries were recommended to store the sampled medicines under conditions that did not compromise their quality. Basic analytical tests, such as disintegration and thin layer chromatography (TLC), were performed utilizing a portable mini-laboratory. Results Results were originally presented at regional meetings in a non-standardized format that lacked relevant medicines information. However, since 2008 information has been submitted utilizing a template specifically developed by PQM for that purpose. From 2005 to 2010, the quality of 1,663 malaria medicines from seven AMI countries

  18. French regional surveillance program of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli: results from a 2-year period.

    PubMed

    Pantel, A; Boutet-Dubois, A; Jean-Pierre, H; Marchandin, H; Sotto, A; Lavigne, J-P

    2014-12-01

    In February 2011, the CARB-LR group was created as a sentinel laboratory-based surveillance network to control the emergence of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (CR GNB) in a French Southern Region. We report the epidemiological results of a 2-year study. All the Gram-negative bacilli isolates detected in the different labs (hospital and community settings) of a French Southern Region and with reduced susceptibility to ertapenem and/or imipenem were characterised with regard to antibiotic resistance, bla genes content, repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) profiles and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A total of 221 strains were analysed. Acinetobacter baumannii was the most prevalent carbapenemase-producing bacteria, with a majority of OXA-23 producers (n = 37). One isolate co-produced OXA-23 and OXA-58 enzymes. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most frequent carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) (OXA-48 producer: n = 29, KPC producer: n = 1), followed by Escherichia coli (OXA-48 producer: n = 8, KPC producer: n = 1) and Enterobacter cloacae (OXA-48 producer, n = 1). One isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa produced a VIM-1 carbapenemase. A clonal diversity of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae and E. coli was noted with different MLSTs. On the other hand, almost all OXA-23-producing A. baumannii strains belonged to the widespread ST2/international clone II. The link between the detection of CR GNB and a foreign country was less obvious, suggesting the beginning of a local cross-transmission. The number of CR GNB cases in our French Southern Region has sharply increased very recently due to the diffusion of OXA-48 producers. PMID:25037867

  19. Motor recovery at 6 months after admission is related to structural and functional reorganization of the spine and brain in patients with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jingming; Xiang, Zimin; Yan, Rubing; Zhao, Ming; Wu, Yongtao; Zhong, Jianfeng; Guo, Lei; Li, Haitao; Wang, Jian; Wu, Jixiang; Sun, Tiansheng; Liu, Hongliang

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to explore structural and functional reorganization of the brain in the early stages of spinal cord injury (SCI) and identify brain areas that contribute to motor recovery. We studied 25 patients with SCI, including 10 with good motor recovery and 15 with poor motor recovery, along with 25 matched healthy controls. The mean period post-SCI was 9.2 ± 3.5 weeks in good recoverers and 8.8 ± 2.6 weeks in poor recoverers. All participants underwent structural and functional MRI on a 3-T magnetic resonance system. We evaluated differences in cross-sectional spinal cord area at the C2/C3 level, brain cortical thickness, white matter microstructure, and functional connectivity during the resting state among the three groups. We also evaluated associations between structural and functional reorganization and the rate of motor recovery. After SCI, compared with good recoverers, poor recoverers had a significantly decreased cross-sectional spinal cord area, cortical thickness in the right supplementary motor area and premotor cortex, and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the right primary motor cortex and posterior limb of the internal capsule. Meanwhile, poor recoverers showed decreased functional connectivity between the primary motor cortex and higher order motor areas (supplementary motor area and premotor cortex), while good recoverers showed increased functional connectivity among these regions. The structural and functional reorganization of the spine and brain was associated with motor recovery rate in all SCI patients. In conclusion, structural and functional reorganization of the spine and brain directly affected the motor recovery of SCI. Less structural atrophy and enhanced functional connectivity are associated with good motor recovery in patients with SCI. Multimodal imaging has the potential to predict motor recovery in the early stage of SCI. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2195-2209, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26936834

  20. A population-based survey on infant feeding practice (0-2 years) in Hong Kong: breastfeeding rate and patterns among 3,161 infants below 6 months old.

    PubMed

    Lee, Warren T K; Lui, Susan S H; Chan, Veronica; Wong, Eric; Lau, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of breastfeeding for the first 6 months in infants has been low in Hong Kong since the 1970s. In order to develop effective breastfeeding policies and promotion programs, an appraisal of feeding practices and factors related to initiation and early cessation of breastfeeding is necessary. A survey with a population-based representative sample was conducted to determine social-demographic, personal and cultural factors that influenced decision, duration and practice of infant feeding among infants 0-24 months old. This paper focuses on infants below 6 months old to study factors related to decision, duration and practice of breastfeeding. In 1993, 7,298 healthy infants were recruited from 46 Maternal-and-Child-Health-Clinics (MCHC) throughout Hong Kong, of whom 3161 were below 6 months old. The mother reported her feeding decision, duration and practice in a questionnaire. Breastfeeding rate was found to be very low (8.4%) for infants below 6 months old. Only 50.9% infants were breastfed. Infant formulae were widely given among partially breastfed infants. 45% mothers were full-time employed. Most mothers were aware of the benefits of breastfeeding to the infants and themselves. Husbands (43.3%) were regarded the most influential on initiation and duration on breastfeeding. Restricted food varieties (54%), sore nipple and breast engorgement (67%), perceived home confinement (41.5%) and perceived inadequate milk supply (31.7%) were major concerns upon breastfeeding. Furthermore, 76.9% mothers turned to MCHC staff for advice when they encountered difficulties during breastfeeding. In conclusion, the survey collected population-based representative data on factors determining initiation and early cessation of breastfeeding in Hong Kong in 1993. The findings will serve as a cornerstone in understanding the evolution of breastfeeding practice in Hong Kong. It merits further study to investigate how the confounders interplay to modulate initiation, duration

  1. Breakfast and Energy Drink Consumption in Secondary School Children: Breakfast Omission, in Isolation or in Combination with Frequent Energy Drink Use, is Associated with Stress, Anxiety, and Depression Cross-Sectionally, but not at 6-Month Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Gareth; Smith, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    A considerable amount of research suggests that breakfast omission and the frequent use of caffeinated energy drinks may be associated with undesirable effects, and particularly so in children and adolescents. The current paper presents cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the Cornish Academies Project to investigate the effects of consuming energy drinks and missing breakfast on stress, anxiety, and depression in a cohort of secondary school children from the South West of England. Questionnaires were administered at two time-points (spaced 6 months apart) to collect information relating to diet and lifestyle over the previous 6 months. Demographic and school data were acquired through the School Information Management System, and single-item measures of stress, anxiety, and depression were administered at the second time-point only. Associations between breakfast and energy drink consumption and stress, anxiety, and depression were investigated, and a multivariate approach was taken so that additional variance from diet, demography, and lifestyle could be controlled for statistically. Cross-sectional analyses showed that breakfast omission was consistently associated with negative outcomes, and that this was largely observed for both those who frequently consumed energy drinks and those who did not. However, cross-lag analyses showed that neither breakfast omission or energy drink consumption, alone or in combination, was predictive of stress, anxiety, or depression at 6-month follow-up. This suggests that associations between breakfast and mental health may be bi-directional rather than breakfast being the causal factor. PMID:26903914

  2. Breakfast and Energy Drink Consumption in Secondary School Children: Breakfast Omission, in Isolation or in Combination with Frequent Energy Drink Use, is Associated with Stress, Anxiety, and Depression Cross-Sectionally, but not at 6-Month Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Richards, Gareth; Smith, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    A considerable amount of research suggests that breakfast omission and the frequent use of caffeinated energy drinks may be associated with undesirable effects, and particularly so in children and adolescents. The current paper presents cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the Cornish Academies Project to investigate the effects of consuming energy drinks and missing breakfast on stress, anxiety, and depression in a cohort of secondary school children from the South West of England. Questionnaires were administered at two time-points (spaced 6 months apart) to collect information relating to diet and lifestyle over the previous 6 months. Demographic and school data were acquired through the School Information Management System, and single-item measures of stress, anxiety, and depression were administered at the second time-point only. Associations between breakfast and energy drink consumption and stress, anxiety, and depression were investigated, and a multivariate approach was taken so that additional variance from diet, demography, and lifestyle could be controlled for statistically. Cross-sectional analyses showed that breakfast omission was consistently associated with negative outcomes, and that this was largely observed for both those who frequently consumed energy drinks and those who did not. However, cross-lag analyses showed that neither breakfast omission or energy drink consumption, alone or in combination, was predictive of stress, anxiety, or depression at 6-month follow-up. This suggests that associations between breakfast and mental health may be bi-directional rather than breakfast being the causal factor. PMID:26903914

  3. Inter- and intraindividual pharmacokinetic variations of mirtazapine and its N-demethyl metabolite in patients treated for major depressive disorder: a 6-month therapeutic drug monitoring study.

    PubMed

    Reis, Margareta; Prochazka, Jiri; Sitsen, Ad; Ahlner, Johan; Bengtsson, Finn

    2005-08-01

    Mirtazapine pharmacokinetic (PK) data from patients on long-term treatment for major depression have never been investigated. For this reason, in a large naturalistic outpatient study (prospective, multicenter, open-labeled, and noncomparative) conducted in Sweden in the period 2000-2002, one of the main objectives was to outline the inter- as well as intraindividual PK variance of mirtazapine and demethylmirtazapine serum concentrations in a patient cohort treated up to 6 (optionally 12) months. A total of 192 male and female outpatients aged 18 years or older were included. Serum samples of mirtazapine and demethylmirtazapine were collected, by the means of therapeutic drug monitoring, at weeks 1, 4, 8, and 24 (52). Altogether 683 serum samples were analyzed. A pronounced interindividual variability of mirtazapine and demethylmirtazapine, and the demethylmirtazapine/mirtazapine ratio was seen. The coefficient of variation was about 38%, 33%, and 36%, respectively. The intraindividual variation over time was low, about 20% on all variables. At the population level, no accumulation of mirtazapine, demethylmirtazapine, or change of the demethylmirtazapine/mirtazapine ratio was observed over time. Women had significantly higher dose-corrected concentrations of mirtazapine and demethylmirtazapine and demethylmirtazapine/mirtazapine ratio than men. Patients above 65 years of age had higher concentrations than their younger counterparts. Among patients with adverse events, lower demethylmirtazapine concentrations were observed than in patients with no adverse events. Patients on multiple drug treatment had higher dose-corrected mirtazapine and demethylmirtazapine serum concentrations than patients taking only mirtazapine. Weight and BMI had a significant negative correlation with demethylmirtazapine concentrations and with the demethylmirtazapine/mirtazapine ratio. Continued efforts are warranted to perform PK studies in a natural clinical setting to learn and

  4. Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

  5. Summary of results from the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX)

    SciTech Connect

    Simonen, T.C.

    1981-02-26

    This report summarizes results from the successful experimental operation of the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX) over the period October 1978 through September 1980. The experimental program, summarized by the DOE milestones given in Table 1-1, had three basic phases: (1) an 8-month checkout period, October 1978 through May 1979; (2) a 6-month initial period of operation, June through November 1979, during which the basic principles of the tandem configuration were demonstrated (i.e., plasma confinement was improved over that of a single-cell mirror); and (3) a 10-month period, December 1979 through September 1980, during which the initial TMX results were corroborated by additional diagnostic measurements and many detailed physics investigations were carried out. This report summarizes the early results, presents results of recent data analysis, and outlines areas of ongoing research and data analysis which will be reported in future journal publications.

  6. Brown midrib corn silage fed during the peripartal period increased intake and resulted in a persistent increase in milk solids yield of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Stone, W C; Chase, L E; Overton, T R; Nestor, K E

    2012-11-01

    the BMRCS treatment were likely because of a reduction in fill, whereas the increased intakes in the postpartum period in cows fed the BMRCS were either because of the higher intakes during the prepartum period or because of a reduction in fill limitations in the postpartum period. The carryover response in wk 4 to 15 may have resulted from cows that received BMRCS during the transition period being in a more positive nutrient balance than cows fed CCS. The results of this study indicate the importance that digestible NDF can have in transition diets and the long-term production responses that can occur when intake is increased in the transition period. PMID:22959939

  7. Effects of the SpeechEasy on Objective and Perceived Aspects of Stuttering: A 6-Month, Phase I Clinical Trial in Naturalistic Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Ryan; Ellis, John B.; Finan, Don; Ramig, Peter R.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Effects of the SpeechEasy when used under extraclinical conditions over several months were investigated. Primary purposes were to help establish Phase I level information about the therapeutic utility of the SpeechEasy and to compare those results with previous findings obtained in laboratory and clinical settings. Method: Eleven adults…

  8. SSPS-CRS first period of operation: preliminary operation results, experiences, and events. IEA Small Solar Power Systems Project SR4

    SciTech Connect

    Bucher, W.

    1984-05-01

    Some lessons learned from operating the SSPS-CRS plant for over one and a half years are presented and major results from the evaluation of plant performance data are provided. Meteorological conditions at the site during the period of operation are described, including insolation, wind, temperatures, precipitation, and a thunderstorm. The performance of the heliostat field system, receiver, sodium heat transfer system, and power conversion system is discussed, and results are given of heliostat flux measurements, receiver efficiencies and losses, sodium heat transfer system losses, heat transfer system performance and efficiency. (LEW)

  9. Digit Sucking Habit and Association with Dental Caries and Oral Hygiene Status of Children Aged 6 Months to 12 Years Resident in Semi-Urban Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Kolawole, Kikelomo Adebanke; Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Agbaje, Hakeem Olatunde; Oyedele, Titus Ayodeji; Oziegbe, Elizabeth Obhioneh; Onyejaka, Nneka Kate; Chukwumah, Nneka Maureen; Oshomoji, Olusegun Victor

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Non-nutritive sucking (NNS) is a common behavior in childhood. The association between digit sucking, dental caries and oral health has been studied with inconclusive results. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of, and the association between digit sucking, caries and oral hygiene status of children age six months to 12 years, resident in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Ife Central Local Government Area of Osun State. Data were collected through a household survey using a multi-stage sampling procedure from children between six months and 12 years. Details of each child’s socio-demographic characteristics, digit sucking habits, caries status and oral health status were collected. The association between digit sucking, caries status and oral hygiene status was determined using Chi square and Logistic regression. Results The mean age of the 992 study participants was 5.8 ± (3.2) years. The prevalence of digit sucking, caries and poor oral hygiene were 7.2%, 10.5% and 2.4% respectively. The mean dmft score was 0.22 ± (0.80), mean DMFT score was 0.04 ± (0.30) while mean Oral Hygiene Index score was 1.27 ± (0.73). Digit sucking increased the odds of having caries (OR: 1.28; CI: 0.58–2.81) but decreased the odds of having poor oral hygiene (OR: 0.58; CI: 0.34–1.01) insignificantly. Conclusions Digit sucking was not a significant predictor of caries and oral hygiene status, although the odds of having caries increased while the odds of having poor oral hygiene decreased with digit sucking. PMID:26890262

  10. Maternal, infant, and household factors are associated with breast-feeding trajectories during infants' first 6 months of life in Matlab, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Sabrina; Frongillo, Edward A; Devine, Carol M; Alam, Dewan S; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2009-08-01

    Women's breast-feeding patterns are complex, and existing definitions of breast-feeding behavior do not capture this complexity adequately. We used results from a prior qualitative study to define trajectories for feeding during the first half of infancy, and then examined household-, maternal-, and infant-level determinants of these trajectories using logistic regression analysis. The 1472 women in the study cohort lived in rural Bangladesh and were participants in the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Intervention in Matlab trial. The 3 infant feeding trajectories included women who fed only breast milk and water [full breast-feeding trajectory (FBT)]; offered mixed feeding continuously when their babies were 0-4 mo old [continuous mixed feeding trajectory (CMFT)]; and practiced any other type of breast-feeding [intermittent feeding trajectory (IFT)], which was the normative feeding behavior in this community. In adjusted regression models, women who lived in rural areas [odds ratio (OR), 2.1; 95% CI, 1.2, 3.4], came from the poorest households (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.5, 7.7), and offered prelacteal (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-2.7) were more likely to be in the FBT. Women from the richest households (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1, 2.6), employed mothers (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1, 2.6), and older mothers (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.0, 1.1) were more likely to be in the CMFT, and women with higher birth-weight infants (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.8) were less likely to be in the CMFT. Thus, these trajectories were associated with distinct groups of women and these results provide information useful for developing interventions to improve breast-feeding practices. PMID:19549754

  11. Efficacy of cranial electrotherapy stimulation for neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury: a multi-site randomized controlled trial with a secondary 6-month open-label phase

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Gabriel; Rintala, Diana H.; Jensen, Mark P.; Richards, J. Scott; Holmes, Sally Ann; Parachuri, Rama; Lashgari-Saegh, Shamsi; Price, Larry R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Chronic pain is a significant problem for many individuals following spinal cord injury (SCI). Unfortunately, SCI-related neuropathic pain has proven to be largely refractory to analgesic medications and other available treatments. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) has been effective in managing some types of pain. It involves the application of a small amount of current through the head via ear clip electrodes. Objective Explore the effectiveness of CES for neuropathic pain in persons with SCI and chronic pain. Study design Multi-site, double-blind, sham-controlled study. Participants Adults with SCI and chronic neuropathic pain at or below the level of injury were randomized to receive active or sham CES. Intervention Application of active CES or sham CES 1 hour daily for 21 days. Six-month open-label phase to assess ‘as-needed’ CES use. Outcome measures Change in pre- to post-session pain ratings as well as change in pain intensity, pain interference, pain quality, pain beliefs and coping strategies, general physical and mental health status, depressive symptomatology, perceived stress, and anxiety pre- to post-treatment. Results The active group reported a significantly greater average decrease in pain during daily treatments than the sham group (Kruskal–Wallis chi-square = 4.70, P < 0.05). During the 21-day trial, there was a significant group × time interaction for only one outcome variable; the active group showed larger pre- to post-treatment decreases in pain interference than the sham group did (F = 8.50, P < 0.01, d = 0.59). Conclusions On average, CES appears to have provided a small but statistically significant improvement in pain intensity and pain interference with few troublesome side effects. Individual results varied from no pain relief to a great deal of relief. PMID:21756567

  12. Leptin in maternal serum and breast milk: association with infants' body weight gain in a longitudinal study over 6 months of lactation.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Susanne; Hechler, Charlotte; Gebauer, Corinna; Kiess, Wieland; Kratzsch, Juergen

    2011-12-01

    The adipokine leptin has been detected in human breast milk, but its effect on postnatal growth and development remains largely unclear. We hypothesized that leptin could affect infant's body weight gain during early lactation in the first 6 mo of life. Therefore, we evaluated leptin levels in maternal serum and breast milk of 23 healthy, lactating mothers and their neonates in a prospective, longitudinal study. Leptin concentration was quantified by a commercially available human leptin RIA. Our results showed that leptin levels in breast milk were 22-fold lower than in maternal serum, but both parameters were positively correlated to each other (r = 0.431, p = 0.001) and to maternal BMI (serum: r = 0.512, p < 0.001; milk: r = 0.298, p < 0.001) over 6 mo of lactation. A negative association was found between breast milk leptin levels during the first week after delivery and the infant weight gain from the end of the first to the sixth month (r = -0.681, p = 0.007). This suggests that milk-borne leptin provides a link between maternal body composition and infant growth and development and plays a critical role in regulating appetite and food intake during early infancy. PMID:21857386

  13. Circulating levels of reactive oxygen species in patients with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy and the influence of antioxidant supplementation: 6-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Domanico, Daniela; Fragiotta, Serena; Cutini, Alessandro; Carnevale, Carmela; Zompatori, Luigi; Vingolo, Enzo Maria

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aim was to evaluate circulating levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and changes in central macular thickness (CMT) in patients with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) after antioxidant supplementation. Materials and Methods: A total of 68 patients (68 eyes) with NPDR were enrolled. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: Treated with antioxidant supplement (Group A) and untreated control group (Group B). Each tablet, for oral administration, containing pycnogenol 50 mg, Vitamin E 30 mg and coenzyme Q10 20 mg. CMT and free oxygen radical test (FORT) were analyzed at baseline (T0), 3 (T1) and 6 (T2) months in both groups. Results: In Group A, FORT levels and CMT were significantly reduced over time (P < 0.001 for both). In Group B, FORT levels were increased (P < 0.001) and CMT did not vary significantly (P = 0.81) over 3 time points. Conclusions: This is the first study showing the reduction of ROS levels in patients with NPDR thanks to antioxidant therapy. Moreover, our findings have suggested also an influence on retinal thickness. PMID:25686055

  14. Assessment of Cognitive Scales to Examine Memory, Executive Function and Language in Individuals with Down Syndrome: Implications of a 6-month Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Liogier d'Ardhuy, Xavier; Edgin, Jamie O.; Bouis, Charles; de Sola, Susana; Goeldner, Celia; Kishnani, Priya; Nöldeke, Jana; Rice, Sydney; Sacco, Silvia; Squassante, Lisa; Spiridigliozzi, Gail; Visootsak, Jeannie; Heller, James; Khwaja, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most commonly identifiable genetic form of intellectual disability. Individuals with DS have considerable deficits in intellectual functioning (i.e., low intellectual quotient, delayed learning and/or impaired language development) and adaptive behavior. Previous pharmacological studies in this population have been limited by a lack of appropriate endpoints that accurately measured change in cognitive and functional abilities. Therefore, the current longitudinal observational study assessed the suitability and reliability of existing cognitive scales to determine which tools would be the most effective in future interventional clinical studies. Subtests of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), and Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool-2 (CELF-P-2), and the Observer Memory Questionnaire-Parent Form (OMQ-PF), Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function®–Preschool Version (BRIEF-P) and Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised were assessed. The results reported here have contributed to the optimization of trial design and endpoint selection for the Phase 2 study of a new selective negative allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor α5-subtype (Basmisanil), and can be applied to other studies in the DS population. PMID:26635554

  15. Assessment of Cognitive Scales to Examine Memory, Executive Function and Language in Individuals with Down Syndrome: Implications of a 6-month Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Liogier d'Ardhuy, Xavier; Edgin, Jamie O; Bouis, Charles; de Sola, Susana; Goeldner, Celia; Kishnani, Priya; Nöldeke, Jana; Rice, Sydney; Sacco, Silvia; Squassante, Lisa; Spiridigliozzi, Gail; Visootsak, Jeannie; Heller, James; Khwaja, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most commonly identifiable genetic form of intellectual disability. Individuals with DS have considerable deficits in intellectual functioning (i.e., low intellectual quotient, delayed learning and/or impaired language development) and adaptive behavior. Previous pharmacological studies in this population have been limited by a lack of appropriate endpoints that accurately measured change in cognitive and functional abilities. Therefore, the current longitudinal observational study assessed the suitability and reliability of existing cognitive scales to determine which tools would be the most effective in future interventional clinical studies. Subtests of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), and Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool-2 (CELF-P-2), and the Observer Memory Questionnaire-Parent Form (OMQ-PF), Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function®-Preschool Version (BRIEF-P) and Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised were assessed. The results reported here have contributed to the optimization of trial design and endpoint selection for the Phase 2 study of a new selective negative allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor α5-subtype (Basmisanil), and can be applied to other studies in the DS population. PMID:26635554

  16. Remission Rate and Functional Outcomes During a 6-Month Treatment With Osmotic-Release Oral-System Methylphenidate in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Su, Yi; Li, Haibo; Chen, Yixin; Fang, Fang; Xu, Tong; Lu, Haiping; Xie, Ling; Zhuo, Jianmin; Qu, Jiazhi; Yang, Li; Wang, Yufeng

    2015-10-01

    Many definitions have been used to evaluate remission in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in different studies resulting with varied remission rates. This open-label, multicenter study investigated the remission rate in Chinese children (n = 239; aged 6-16 years) with a diagnosis of ADHD (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition), treated with osmotic-release oral-system methylphenidate at doses of 18, 36, and 54 mg, once daily. Two definitions of remission were used: (1) (primary end point): average scores of SNAP-IV (Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, Fourth Edition) items of 1 or less (0-3 rating scale for each item) according to the subtype of ADHD (inattentive [1-9], hyperactive-impulsive [10-18], and combined type [1-18]), and (2) total score of SNAP-IV items 1 to 18 of 18 or less, at week 8. The study consisted of screening/baseline, titration/open-label treatment (8 weeks), and extended observation (up to 24 weeks) phases. Secondary efficacy assessments were Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (clinical efficacy), Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Scale (BRIEF; executive function behaviors), and Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale (social function). Validity of remission was assessed by comparing the function measures (BRIEF and Weiss's) between patients who achieved remission and those who did not. At week 8, 69.3% (151/218) of patients achieved remission by definition 1, and 73.2% (161/220) by definition 2. At weeks 8 and 24, the remission group had significantly lower BRIEF, Weiss's, and Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scores (P < 0.001 for all) compared with the nonremission group. Overall, treatment with osmotic-release oral-system methylphenidate was well tolerated, with increased remission rates in children with ADHD. PMID:26267421

  17. Dynamics of the resting CD4+ T-cell latent HIV reservoir in infants initiating HAART less than 6 months of age

    PubMed Central

    Persaud, Deborah; Palumbo, Paul E.; Ziemniak, Carrie; Hughes, Michael D.; Alvero, Carmelita G.; Luzuriaga, Katherine; Yogev, Ram; Capparelli, Edmund V.; Chadwick, Ellen G.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Identification of HIV infection in exposed infants facilitates early therapy, which may limit viral reservoirs that maintain HIV infection under HAART. Methods The dynamics of the resting CD4+ T-cell latent HIV reservoir was determined over the first 2 years of life in 17 HIV-infected infants initiating lopinavir/ritonavir-based HAART at a median age of 8.1 weeks and achieving adequate suppression of plasma viral load by 24 weeks. Results The resting CD4+ T-cell latent HIV reservoir was detected in 12 of 14 (86%) infants tested at 24 weeks of HAART [median frequency 1.88 infectious units per million (IUPM); range <0.22 to 81.7), and remained measurable (median IUPM =0.32; range < 0.22 to 3.25) in six of 10 (60%) children retested at 96 weeks. The reservoir declined, from 24 to 96 weeks of HAART, at an estimated mean rate of 0.028 log10 IUPM/month, corresponding to a half-life of 11 months (95% confidence interval 6–30 months]. A strong relationship was found between the frequency of latently infected CD4+T cells at 96 weeks of HAART and time to first undetectable plasma viral load (Spearman r =0.91, P <0.001). Conclusion Although the resting CD4+ T-cell latent reservoir remains detectable over the first 2 years of HAART in a substantial proportion of infants, its size is associated with time to first undetectable viral load. To minimize HIV reservoirs in infants, rapid curtailment of viremia may limit HIV reservoirs and should be a therapeutic goal of early HAART in infants. PMID:22555165

  18. Problem Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ Home Body Getting your period Problem periods Problem periods It’s common to have cramps or feel ... doctor Some common period problems Signs of period problems top One way to know if you may ...

  19. Growth of HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants in the First 6 Months of Life in South Africa: The IeDEA-SA Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Morden, Erna; Technau, Karl-Günter; Giddy, Janet; Maxwell, Nicola; Keiser, Olivia; Davies, Mary-Ann

    2016-01-01

    Background HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants are a growing population in sub-Saharan Africa especially with the increasing coverage of more effective prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) antiretroviral therapy regimens. This study describes the characteristics of South African HEU infants, investigates factors impacting birth weight and assesses their growth within the first 28 weeks of life. Methods This is a retrospective cohort based on routine clinical data from two South African PMTCT programmes. Data were collected between 2007 and 2013. Linear regression assessed factors affecting birth weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ) while growth (longitudinal WAZ) was assessed using mixed effects models. Results We assessed the growth of 2621 HEU infants (median birth WAZ was -0.65 (IQR -1.46; 0.0) and 51% were male). The feeding modalities practised were as follows: 0.5% exclusive breastfeeding, 7.9% breastfeeding with unknown exclusivity, 0.08% mixed breastfeeding and 89.2% formula feeding. Mothers with CD4 <200 cells/μl delivered infants with a lower birth WAZ (adjusted ß -0.253 [95% CI -0.043; -0.072], p = 0.006) compared to mothers with aCD4 ≥500 cells/μl. Similarly, mothers who did not receive antiretroviral drugs delivered infants with a lower birth WAZ (adjusted ß -0.39 [95% CI -0.67; -0.11], p = 0.007) compared to mothers who received antenatal antiretrovirals. Infants with a birth weight <2 500g (ß 0.070 [95% CI 0.061; 0.078], p <0.0001) experienced faster growth within the first 28 weeks of life compared to infants with a birth weight ≥2 500g. Infants with any breastfeeding exposure experienced slower longitudinal growth compared to formula fed infants (adjusted ß -0.012 [95% CI 0.021; -0.003], p = 0.011). Conclusion Less severe maternal disease and the use of antiretrovirals positively impacts birth weight in this cohort of South African HEU infants. Formula feeding was common with breastfed infants experiencing marginally slower

  20. Predictions of mortality from pleural mesothelioma in Italy: a model based on asbestos consumption figures supports results from age-period-cohort models.

    PubMed

    Marinaccio, Alessandro; Montanaro, Fabio; Mastrantonio, Marina; Uccelli, Raffaella; Altavista, Pierluigi; Nesti, Massimo; Costantini, Adele Seniori; Gorini, Giuseppe

    2005-05-20

    Italy was the second main asbestos producer in Europe, after the Soviet Union, until the end of the 1980s, and raw asbestos was imported on a large scale until 1992. The Italian pattern of asbestos consumption lags on average about 10 years behind the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom and the Nordic countries. Measures to reduce exposure were introduced in the mid-1970s in some workplaces. In 1986, limitations were imposed on the use of crocidolite and in 1992 asbestos was definitively banned. We have used primary pleural cancer mortality figures (1970-1999) to predict mortality from mesothelioma among Italian men in the next 30 years by age-cohort-period models and by a model based on asbestos consumption figures. The pleural cancer/mesothelioma ratio and mesothelioma misdiagnosis in the past were taken into account in the analysis. Estimated risks of birth cohorts born after 1945 decrease less quickly in Italy than in other Western countries. The findings predict a peak with about 800 mesothelioma annual deaths in the period 2012-2024. Results estimated using age-period-cohort models were similar to those obtained from the asbestos consumption model. PMID:15645436

  1. Crying - excessive (0 to 6 months)

    MedlinePlus

    ... may cry because of any of the following: Boredom or loneliness Colic Discomfort or irritation from a ... and feeding times. If crying is due to boredom or loneliness, it may be helpful to touch, ...

  2. Crying - excessive (0 to 6 months)

    MedlinePlus

    ... or adjust the temperature of the room. If adults are cold, the baby is likely cold also. Always check for possible causes of pain or discomfort in a crying baby. When cloth diapers are used, look for diaper pins that have ...

  3. Microbial biofilm proliferation within sealer-root dentin interfaces is affected by sealer type and aging period

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Karina A; Friedman, Shimon; Lévesque, Céline M; Basrani, Bettina R; Finer, Yoav

    2012-01-01

    Background Root canal fillings are intended to prevent microbial proliferation over time in the canal after treatment. Objective To assess biofilm proliferation within the sealer-dentin interfaces of two methacrylate resin-based systems, self-etch (SE) and total-etch (TE), and an epoxy resin-based sealer (EP), aged for up to 6 months. Methods Standardized specimens (n=45) comprising the coronal 5 mm of human roots were filled with the test materials and gutta-percha. Specimens were either not pre-incubated (control; n=9), or incubated in sterile saline for 1 week, 1 month, 3 months or 6 months (n=3/group). Monospecies biofilms of Enterococcus faecalis were grown on the specimens for 7 days in a chemostat-based biofilm fermentor mimicking pathogenic oral conditions. The extent of E. faecalis proliferation within the sealer-dentin interface for each material and incubation period group was assessed using fluorescence microscopy of dihydroethidium-stained specimens. Results TE had less biofilm proliferation than both EP and SE (p<0.01). Deeper biofilm proliferation was detected in SE and EP specimens aged for 1 and 3 months than those aged for 1 week or 6 months (p<0.05). Maximum depth of biofilm penetration was recorded for SE at 1 month (p<0.05). Conclusion Within the test model used, the self-etch and epoxy resin-based sealers were more susceptible to interfacial biofilm proliferation than the total-etch restorative material. This susceptibility diminished after aging the materials’ interfaces for 6 months. PMID:22892745

  4. Radial Retinotomies with Endodiathermy for Severe Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy: Short-Term Results

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhaoxin; Qiu, Suo; Lou, Bingsheng; Lin, Miaoli; Tan, Junlian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Retinal redetachment of silicone oil-filled eyes continues to be a frustrating condition that typically requires retinectomy. We proposed radial retinotomy as a potentially less invasive surgery. Here, we preliminarily explored its feasibility, efficacy, and safety. Methods. Totally 9 eyes of 9 consecutive patients were included in a prospective noncomparative trial. A series of retinotomies were created by endodiathermy in a radial pattern to relax the foreshortened retina. The eye was refilled with fresh silicone oil. The treated eyes were examined via visual acuity (VA) tests, tonometry, slit-lamp microscopy, and fundus photography during a 6-month observation period. Results. The procedure was completed in an average of 28 minutes from silicone oil removal to fresh silicone oil placement. Fundus photography demonstrated that 7 of the 9 eyes (78%) exhibited retinal reattachment. On average, VA was significantly improved within the first 2 weeks (P = 0.02) and remained stable for the following 6 months. The change in intraocular pressure was not significant (P = 0.76), and no adverse event was observed (0%). Conclusion. Radial retinotomies with endodiathermy were shown to be feasible, effective, and safe in selected cases of inferior contracted retina without vitreous base fibrosis over a 6-month observation period. This trial is registered with NCT02201706. PMID:27022477

  5. METHODS AND RESULTS OF RECONSTRUCTION OF NOBLE GAS RELEASES FROM THE STACKS OF THE MAYAK PA GRAPHITE REACTORS OVER THE WHOLE PERIOD OF THEIR OPERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Glagolenko, Y. V.; Drozhko, Evgeniy G.; Mokrov, Y.; Pyatin, N. P.; Rovny, Sergey I.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2008-06-01

    Brief analysis of design features and operational modes of Mayak PA industrial graphite-uranium reactors (PUGRs) is given. The above mentioned Mayak PA PUGRs determined the rates of releases of radioactive noble gases (RNG) from activation (41Ar) and fission (isotopes of Krypton and Xenon) through the vent stack of the reactor. Information is given on methods and results of experimental determination of RNG atmospheric releases for the period starting from 1965 till PUGRs decommissioning in 1987-1990. A calculation method for reconstruction of radioactive noble gas releases is proposed and justified. The results of reconstruction are given. It is shown that maximum rates of RNG releases from PUGRs high stacks were observed in the 1950s, when ordinary atmospheric air was used as a cover gas for the reactor graphite stacks and gas purification systems (flow-type gas holders) had not been installed yet.

  6. Results of Experimental and Theoretical Studies of the Atmospheric Turbulence, Internal Gravity Waves and Sporadic-E Layers by Resonant Scattering of Radio Waves on Artificial Periodic Irregularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhmetieva, Nataliya V.; Grigoriev; Tolmacheva, Ariadna V.

    Artificial periodic irregularities (API) formed by the powerful standing radio waves in the ionospheric plasma give the good chance for the lower ionosphere comprehensive studies. In this paper we present some applications of the API technique for experimental studies of sporadic E-layers (E _{s}), internal gravity waves and turbulent events in the lower ionosphere. API are formed in the field of the standing radio wave produced by interference of the incident wave and reflected one from the ionosphere (in more details about the API technique one can see in the book Belikovich et al., Ionospheric Research by Means of Artificial Periodic Irregularities - Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany. 2002. Copernicus GmbH. ISBN 3-936586-03-9). The spatial period of the irregular structure is equal to the standing wavelength Lambda or one-half the powerful wavelength lambda/2. API diagnostics are carried out at the API relaxation or decay stage by their sounding of probing radio pulses. Based on the measurement of an amplitude and a phase of the API scattered signal their relaxation time and regular vertical plasma velocity are measured. In the E-region of the ionosphere API are formed as a result of the diffusion redistribution of the non-uniformly heated plasma. The relaxation of the periodic structure is specified by the ambipolar diffusion process. The diffusion time is tau=(K (2) D _{a}) (-1) where K=2pi/Lambda and D _{a} is the ambipolar diffusion rate. The atmospheric turbulence causes reduction of the API relaxation time in comparison the diffusion time. Determination of the turbulent velocity is based on this fact. The vertical plasma velocity is determined by measuring the phase of the scattered signal. Atmospheric waves having the periods from 5-10 minutes to 5-6 hours give the contribution to temporal variations of the velocity. Parameters and effects of atmospheric waves and the turbulence on the API relaxation process are presented. Determination of the masses of the

  7. How are the VLF quasi-periodic emissions controlled by harmonics of field line oscillations? - The results of a comparison between ground and GEOS satellites measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tixier, M.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.

    1986-06-01

    Data on VLF and UHF waves observed in situ for the first time by the GEOS 1 and 2 satellites close to the equatorial plane are compared with ground-based measurements. The results permit a more complete explanation of quasi-periodic (QP) modulation. The data are described, and a general ground-satellite comparison of occurrence and spectra of simultaneous emission is given. A detailed study of some selected events shows that, when the GEOS data are taken into account, it is sometimes difficult to classify QP emissions as either type I or type II. It is suggested that QPs may be due to the same mechanism involving compressional harmonics of a standing fundamental ULF wave.

  8. Trends in drinking habits among adolescents in the Baltic countries over the period of transition: HBSC survey results, 1993–2002

    PubMed Central

    Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Sumskas, Linas; Maser, Mai; Pudule, Iveta

    2006-01-01

    Background The Baltic countries – Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania – are considered to be an example of regional homogeneity over the period of transition. The World Health Organization cross-national study on Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) allows a comparison and time trends analysis of behavioral patterns among adolescents in this region. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and trends of alcohol consumption and drunkenness among adolescents of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania in 1993/94, 1997/98, and 2001/02. Methods Representative samples of 5286 boys and 6485 girls aged 15 from Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania were surveyed in 1993/94, 1997/98, and 2001/02 school-year within the framework of HBSC study. The standardized survey methods were applied. The research focused on the following outcome variables: i) frequency of drinking beer, wine, and spirits; and ii) frequency of drunkenness. The same wording of questions on the consumption of alcohol was retained in each survey. Results Beer was the most frequently used alcoholic beverage across the Baltic countries among adolescents. The rate of weekly drinking of any alcoholic beverage increased considerably during the eight years of observation, especially among Estonian and Lithuanian students. In 2001/02, 25% of boys and 12.5% of girls have reported drinking alcohol at least weekly. The rate of regular alcohol drinking was two times higher in boys, while irregular drinking was more prevalent in girls. Two or more episodes of drunkenness in the lifespan were reported by 30% of boys and 15% of girls in 1993/94 and by 52% of boys and 36% of girls in 2001/02. The use of alcoholic beverages was related to the perceived family wealth: the students from the families perceived by them as wealthy were more likely to drink weekly as compared to the students from the families perceived by them as not wealthy. Conclusion Over the period between 1993 and 2002 the prevalence of alcohol

  9. Improved safety of biologic therapy for rheumatoid arthritis over the 8-year period since implementation in Japan: long-term results from a multicenter observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Toshihisa; Takahashi, Nobunori; Funahashi, Koji; Asai, Shuji; Terabe, Kenya; Kaneko, Atsushi; Hirano, Yuji; Hayashi, Masatoshi; Miyake, Hiroyuki; Oguchi, Takeshi; Takagi, Hideki; Kanayama, Yasuhide; Yabe, Yuichiro; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Fujibayashi, Takayoshi; Shioura, Tomone; Ito, Takayasu; Yoshioka, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Hisato; Asai, Nobuyuki; Takemoto, Toki; Kojima, Masayo; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to compare the long-term safety of biologics by initiation year of treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Japan. RA patients who started their first biologics including infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, and tocilizumab between 2003 and 2008 were identified in the Tsurumai Biologics Communication Registry (TBCR), multicenter observational cohort, and followed for 2 years or until discontinuation of the drugs. We identified baseline predictors for adverse events (AEs) resulting in discontinuation of the first TNFI using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. A total of 874 cases (1,340 person-years) were observed. During the observation period, 96 AEs (4.7 events/100 person-years) occurred. From 2003 to 2008, there were significant changes in disease duration, Steinbrocker stage, and disease activity in those aged ≤64 years with no increase of incidence of AEs, whereas those aged >64 years had no significant changes in these variables. In the later initiation year of treatment with biologics, the fewer AEs were observed (log-rank, p = 0.017, 2008 vs. 2003-2005). Multivariate analysis showed that the initiation year significantly impacted the incidence of AEs 6 months into the observation period [initiation at 2008 (vs. 2003-2005): OR: 0.30, 95 % CI: (0.14-0.68)] after adjusting for variables at baseline. The decrease of AEs in the later initiation year was evident in those aged >64 years. The safety of biologic therapy improved over the course of the 8 years from its implementation in Japan. PMID:26846135

  10. An experimental investigation of gapwise periodicity and unsteady aerodynamic response in an oscillating cascade. 1: Experimental and theoretical results. [turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carta, F. O.

    1982-01-01

    Tests were conducted on a linear cascade of airfoils oscillating in pitch to measure the unsteady pressure response on selected blades along the leading edge plane of the cascade, over the chord of the center blade, and on the sidewall in the plane of the leading edge. The pressure data were reduced to Fourier coefficient form for direct comparison, and were also processed to yield integrated loads and, particularly, the aerodynamic damping coefficient. Results from the unsteady Verdon/Caspar theory for cascaded blades with nonzero thickness and camber were compared with the experimental measurements. The three primary results are: (1) from the leading edge plane blade data, the cascade was judged to be periodic in unsteady flow over the range of parameters tested; (2) the interblade phase angle was found to be the single most important parameter affecting the stability of the oscillating cascade blades; and (3) the real blade theory and the experiment were in excellent agreement for the several cases chosen for comparison.

  11. Measurement of the solar neutrino capture rate with gallium metal. III. Results for the 2002-2007 data-taking period

    SciTech Connect

    Abdurashitov, J. N.; Gavrin, V. N.; Gorbachev, V. V.; Gurkina, P. P.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Khairnasov, N. G.; Knodel, T. V.; Mirmov, I. N.; Shikhin, A. A.; Veretenkin, E. P.; Yants, V. E.; Zatsepin, G. T.; Bowles, T. J.; Elliott, S. R.; Teasdale, W. A.; Nico, J. S.; Cleveland, B. T.; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2009-07-15

    The Russian-American experiment SAGE began to measure the solar neutrino capture rate with a target of gallium metal in December 1989. Measurements have continued with only a few brief interruptions since that time. In this article we present the experimental improvements in SAGE since its last published data summary in December 2001. Assuming the solar neutrino production rate was constant during the period of data collection, combined analysis of 168 extractions through December 2007 gives a capture rate of solar neutrinos with energy more than 233 keV of 65.4{sub -3.0}{sup +3.1} (stat) {sub -2.8}{sup +2.6} (syst) SNU. The weighted average of the results of all three Ga solar neutrino experiments, SAGE, Gallex, and GNO, is now 66.1{+-}3.1 SNU, where statistical and systematic uncertainties have been combined in quadrature. During the recent period of data collection a new test of SAGE was made with a reactor-produced {sup 37}Ar neutrino source. The ratio of observed to calculated rates in this experiment, combined with the measured rates in the three prior {sup 51}Cr neutrino-source experiments with Ga, is 0.87{+-}0.05. A probable explanation for this low result is that the cross section for neutrino capture by the two lowest-lying excited states in {sup 71}Ge has been overestimated. If we assume these cross sections are zero, then the standard solar model including neutrino oscillations predicts a total capture rate in Ga in the range of 63 SNU to 66 SNU with an uncertainty of about 4%, in good agreement with experiment. We derive the current value of the neutrino flux produced in the Sun by the proton-proton fusion reaction to be {phi}{sub pp}{sup {center_dot}}=(6.0{+-}0.8)x10{sup 10}/(cm{sup 2} s), which agrees well with the pp flux predicted by the standard solar model. Finally, we make several tests and show that the data are consistent with the assumption that the solar neutrino production rate is constant in time.

  12. Repeated, Intermittent Social Defeat across the Entire Juvenile Period Resulted in Behavioral, Physiological, Hormonal, Immunological, and Neurochemical Alterations in Young Adult Male Golden Hamsters.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wei-Chun; Liu, Ching-Yi; Lai, Wen-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The developing brain is vulnerable to social defeat during the juvenile period. As complements of human studies, animal models of social defeat provide a straightforward approach to investigating the functional and neurobiological consequences of social defeats. Taking advantage of agonist behavior and social defeat in male golden hamster, a set of 6 experiments was conducted to investigate the consequences at multiple levels in young adulthood resulting from repeated, intermittent social defeats or "social threats" across the entire juvenile period. Male hamsters at postnatal day 28 (P28) were randomly assigned to either the social defeat, "social threat", or arena control group, and they correspondingly received a series of nine social interaction trials (i.e., either social defeat, "social threat", or arena control conditions) from P33 to P66. At the behavioral level (Experiment 1), we found that repeated social defeats (but not "social threats") significantly impacted locomotor activity in the familiar context and social interaction in the familiar/unfamiliar social contexts. At the physiological and hormonal levels (Experiments 2 and 3), repeated social defeat significantly enhanced the cortisol and norepinephrine concentrations in blood. Enlargement of the spleen was also found in the social defeat and "social threat" groups. At the immunological level (Experiment 4), the social defeat group showed lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the hypothalamus and hippocampus but higher concentration of IL-6 in the striatum compared to the other two groups. At the neurochemical level (Experiment 5), the socially defeated hamsters mainly displayed reductions of dopamine, dopamine metabolites, and 5-HT levels in the striatum and decreased level of 5-HT in the hippocampus. In Experiment 6, an increase in the spine density of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was specifically observed in the "social threat" group. Collectively, our findings indicate that repeated

  13. Repeated, Intermittent Social Defeat across the Entire Juvenile Period Resulted in Behavioral, Physiological, Hormonal, Immunological, and Neurochemical Alterations in Young Adult Male Golden Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wei-Chun; Liu, Ching-Yi; Lai, Wen-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The developing brain is vulnerable to social defeat during the juvenile period. As complements of human studies, animal models of social defeat provide a straightforward approach to investigating the functional and neurobiological consequences of social defeats. Taking advantage of agonist behavior and social defeat in male golden hamster, a set of 6 experiments was conducted to investigate the consequences at multiple levels in young adulthood resulting from repeated, intermittent social defeats or “social threats” across the entire juvenile period. Male hamsters at postnatal day 28 (P28) were randomly assigned to either the social defeat, “social threat”, or arena control group, and they correspondingly received a series of nine social interaction trials (i.e., either social defeat, “social threat”, or arena control conditions) from P33 to P66. At the behavioral level (Experiment 1), we found that repeated social defeats (but not “social threats”) significantly impacted locomotor activity in the familiar context and social interaction in the familiar/unfamiliar social contexts. At the physiological and hormonal levels (Experiments 2 and 3), repeated social defeat significantly enhanced the cortisol and norepinephrine concentrations in blood. Enlargement of the spleen was also found in the social defeat and “social threat” groups. At the immunological level (Experiment 4), the social defeat group showed lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the hypothalamus and hippocampus but higher concentration of IL-6 in the striatum compared to the other two groups. At the neurochemical level (Experiment 5), the socially defeated hamsters mainly displayed reductions of dopamine, dopamine metabolites, and 5-HT levels in the striatum and decreased level of 5-HT in the hippocampus. In Experiment 6, an increase in the spine density of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was specifically observed in the “social threat” group. Collectively, our

  14. CONSTRAINTS ON LONG-PERIOD PLANETS FROM AN L'- AND M-BAND SURVEY OF NEARBY SUN-LIKE STARS: MODELING RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Heinze, A. N.; Hinz, Philip M.; Kenworthy, Matthew; Sivanandam, Suresh; Miller, Douglas; Meyer, Michael E-mail: phinz@as.arizona.ed E-mail: suresh@as.arizona.ed E-mail: mmeyer@phys.ethz.c

    2010-05-10

    We have carried out an L'- and M-band adaptive optics (AO) extrasolar planet imaging survey of 54 nearby, Sun-like stars using the Clio camera at the MMT. Our survey concentrates more strongly than all others to date on very nearby F, G, and K stars, in that we have prioritized proximity higher than youth. Our survey is also the first to include extensive observations in the M band, which supplemented the primary L' observations. These longer-wavelength bands are most useful for very nearby systems in which low-temperature planets with red IR colors (i.e., H - L', H - M) could be detected. The survey detected no planets, but set interesting limits on planets and brown dwarfs in the star systems we investigated. We have interpreted our null result by means of extensive Monte Carlo simulations and constrained the distributions of extrasolar planets in mass M and semimajor axis a. If planets are distributed according to a power law with dN {proportional_to} M {sup {alpha}} a {sup {beta}} dMda, normalized to be consistent with radial velocity (RV) statistics, we find that a distribution with {alpha} = -1.1 and {beta} = -0.46, truncated at 110 AU, is ruled out at the 90% confidence level. These particular values of {alpha} and {beta} are significant because they represent the most planet-rich case consistent with current statistics from RV observations. With 90% confidence no more than 8.1% of stars like those in our survey have systems with three widely spaced, massive planets like the A star HR 8799. Our observations show that giant planets in long-period orbits around Sun-like stars are rare, confirming the results of shorter-wavelength surveys and increasing the robustness of the conclusion.

  15. Implementation of an Aerosol-Cloud Microphysics-Radiation Coupling into the NASA Unified WRF: Simulation Results for the 6-7 August 2006 AMMA Special Observing Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, J. J.; Matsui, T.; Tao, W.-K.; Tan, Q.; Peters-Lidard, C.; Chin, M.; Pickering, K.; Guy, N.; Lang, S.; Kemp, E. M.

    2014-01-01

    Aerosols affect the Earth's radiation balance directly and cloud microphysical processes indirectly via the activation of cloud condensation and ice nuclei. These two effects have often been considered separately and independently, hence the need to assess their combined impact given the differing nature of their effects on convective clouds. To study both effects, an aerosol-microphysics-radiation coupling, including Goddard microphysics and radiation schemes, was implemented into the NASA Unified Weather Research and Forecasting model (NU-WRF). Fully coupled NU-WRF simulations were conducted for a mesoscale convective system (MCS) that passed through the Niamey, Niger area on 6-7 August 2006 during an African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) special observing period. The results suggest that rainfall is reduced when aerosol indirect effects are included, regardless of the aerosol direct effect. Daily mean radiation heating profiles in the area traversed by the MCS showed the aerosol (mainly mineral dust) direct effect had the largest impact near cloud tops just above 200 hectopascals where short-wave heating increased by about 0.8 Kelvin per day; the weakest long-wave cooling was at around 250 hectopascals. It was also found that more condensation and ice nuclei as a result of higher aerosol/dust concentrations led to increased amounts of all cloud hydrometeors because of the microphysical indirect effect, and the radiation direct effect acts to reduce precipitating cloud particles (rain, snow and graupel) in the middle and lower cloud layers while increasing the non-precipitating particles (ice) in the cirrus anvil. However, when the aerosol direct effect was activated, regardless of the indirect effect, the onset of MCS precipitation was delayed about 2 hours, in conjunction with the delay in the activation of cloud condensation and ice nuclei. Overall, for this particular environment, model set-up and physics configuration, the effect of aerosol

  16. Men's Understanding of and Experiences During the Postcircumcision Abstinence Period: Results From a Field Study of ShangRing Circumcision During Routine Clinical Services in Kenya and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Philip S.; Zulu, Robert; Awori, Quentin D.; Agot, Kawango; Combes, Stephanie; Simba, Raymond O.; Lee, Richard K.; Hart, Catherine; Lai, Jaim Jou; Zyambo, Zude; Goldstein, Marc; Feldblum, Paul J.; Sokal, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Men's understanding of counseling messages after voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) plays an important role in whether they follow them. Data on triggers for early resumption of sex may be useful as scale-up of VMMC for HIV prevention continues in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: Data on understanding of post-VMMC abstinence recommendations, resumption of sex, condom use, and triggers for resuming sex were collected from participants during a follow-up interview 35–42 days after ShangRing circumcision in Kenya and Zambia. Results: Of 1149 men who had ShangRing circumcision, 1096 (95.4%) completed follow-up. Nearly all (99.2%) reported being counseled to abstain from sex post-VMMC; among those, most (92.2%) recalled the recommended abstinence period was 6 weeks. Most men (94.1%) reported that the counselor gave reasons for post-VMMC abstinence and recalled appropriate reasons. Few (13.4%) men reported resuming sex at 35–42 days' follow-up. Among those, 54.8% reported never using a condom post-VMMC. Younger participants (odds ratio 0.3, 95% confidence interval: 0.2 to 0.5, P < 0.0001) and those reporting at least some condom use at baseline (odds ratio 0.5, 95% confidence interval: 0.3 to 0.7, P = 0.0003) were less likely to report resuming sex. Among men who reported some condom use, most (71.5%) said condoms were much easier or easier to use after circumcision. Men reported various reasons for early resumption of sex, primarily strong sexual desire (76.4%). Conclusions: Most men reported awareness of and adherence to the counseling recommendations for post-VMMC abstinence. A minority reported early resumption of sex, and, among those, condom use was low. Results could be used to improve post-VMMC counseling. PMID:27331585

  17. Changes in Maternal Plasma Adiponectin from Late Pregnancy to the Postpartum Period According to the Mode of Delivery: Results from a Prospective Cohort in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rebelo, Fernanda; Franco-Sena, Ana Beatriz; Struchiner, Claudio Jose; Kac, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Maternal plasma adiponectin is inversely related to insulin resistance, atherosclerosis and child health. However, little is known about its concentrations in the perinatal period, especially according to mode of delivery. Our aim is to evaluate the association between mode of delivery and changes in maternal plasma adiponectin from 3rd trimester of pregnancy to 30–45 days postpartum. Methods A cohort was recruited in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with four waves of follow-up: 5-13th, 22-26th, 30-36th gestational weeks and 30–45 days postpartum. Eligible subjects should be between 20–40 years of age, be free of chronic and infectious diseases and presenting with a singleton pregnancy. The mode of delivery was classified as vaginal (VD) or cesarean (CS). Plasma adiponectin concentration (μg/mL) was measured using commercial ELISA kits. Statistical analyses included the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and the multiple linear mixed effects model. Results A total of 159 participated in the study. Median adiponectin concentrations were higher for the VD group (n = 99; 8.25, IQR: 5.85–11.90) than for the CS group (n = 60; 7.34, IQR: 4.36–9.76; p = 0.040) in the postpartum samples but were not different between the two groups in the 3rd trimester. Women who underwent CS had a lower rate of increase in adiponectin concentration from the 3rd trimester to 30–45 days postpartum compared to those who underwent VD (β = -.15, 95% CI: -.28-.02, p = 0.030). Conclusion The CS procedure was associated with lower maternal circulating concentrations of adiponectin at 30–45 days postpartum, compared to the VD. PMID:27391647

  18. Development of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients undergoing surgery for brain tumors: results from a single center over a 10 year period.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy R; Nanney, Allan D; Lall, Rishi R; Graham, Randall B; McClendon, Jamal; Lall, Rohan R; Adel, Joseph G; Zakarija, Anaadriana; Cote, David J; Chandler, James P

    2015-03-01

    Patients who undergo craniotomy for brain neoplasms have a high risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thromboses (DVT) and pulmonary emboli (PE). The reasons for this correlation are not fully understood. This retrospective, single-center review aimed to determine the risk factors for VTE in patients who underwent neurosurgical resection of brain tumors at Northwestern University from 1999 to 2010. Our cohort included 1148 patients, 158 (13.7%) of whom were diagnosed with DVT and 38 (3.3%) of whom were diagnosed with PE. A variety of clinical factors were studied to determine predictors of VTE, including sex, ethnicity, medical co-morbidities, surgical positioning, length of hospital stay, tumor location, and tumor histology. Use of post-operative anticoagulants and hemorrhagic complications were also investigated. A prior history of VTE was found to be highly predictive of post-operative DVT (odds ratio [OR]=7.6, p=0.01), as was the patient's sex (OR=14.2, p<0.001), ethnicity (OR=0.5, p=0.04), post-operative intensive care unit days (OR=0.2, p=0.003), and tumor histology (OR=-0.16, p=0.01). Contrary to reports in the literature, the data collected did not indicate that the administration of post-operative medical prophylaxis for VTE was significant in preventing their formation (OR=-0.14, p=0.76). Hemorrhagic complications were low (2.2%) and resultant neurologic deficit was lower still (0.7%). The study indicates that patients with high-grade primary brain tumors and metastatic lesions should receive aggressive preventative measures in the post-operative period. PMID:25533212

  19. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... number of days after the last one. The Menstrual Cycle Most girls get their first period between the ... to skip periods or to have an irregular menstrual cycle. Illness, rapid weight change, or stress can also ...

  20. Efficacy and Safety of a Lidocaine Gel in Patients from 6 Months up to 8 Years with Acute Painful Sites in the Oral Cavity: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Dörte; Otto, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Lidocaine is a well-accepted topical anaesthetic, also used in minors to treat painful conditions on mucosal membranes. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (registered prospectively as EudraCT number 2011-005336-25) was designed to generate efficacy and safety data for a lidocaine gel (2%) in younger children with painful conditions in the oral cavity. One hundred sixty-one children were included in two subgroups: 4-8 years, average age 6.4 years, treated with verum or placebo and 6 months-<4 years, average age 1.8 years, treated only with verum. Pain reduction was measured from the time prior to administration to 10 or 30 minutes after. In addition, adverse events and local tolerability were evaluated. In group I, pain was reduced significantly after treatment with verum compared to placebo at both time points. In group II, the individual pain rating shift showed statistically significant lower pain after treatment. Only seven out of 161 patients reported an adverse event but none were classified as being related to the study medication. The local tolerability was assessed as very good in over 97% of cases. For painful sites in the oral cavity, a 2% lidocaine gel is a meaningful tool for short-term treatment in the paediatric population. PMID:26693229

  1. New results to discuss possibility of irrigation in Bat (Wadi Sharsah, northwestern Oman) before Hafit period (ca. 3100-2700 BCE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouache, Eric; Desruelles, Stéphane; Eddargach, Wassel; Cammas, Cecilia; Wattez, Julia; Martin, Chloé; Tengberg, Margareta; Beuzen-Waller, Tara; Cable, Charlotte; Thornton, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Registered as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1989, the extensive archaeological site of Bat is situated within the Wadi Sharsah and around the modern village and palm grove of Bat, 24 km from the modern city of Ibri in northwestern Oman. The archaeological remains from the Bronze Age excavated by the Bat Archaeological Project are located in two mains areas. The northern area consists of a chain of low limestone hills cut by wadi tributaries leading to the main Wadi Sharsah. It is characterised by an exceptionnally high density of graves from two successive Bronze Age periods : Hafit (ca. 3100-2700 BCE) and Umm an-Nar (ca. 2700-2000 BCE). South of the Bat cemetery, in the flat part of the valley, there are several large circular structures (known historically as « towers ») and remains from both Hafit and Umm an-Nar periods, as well as later periods. Geomorphological mapping of the floodplain, associated with archaeological survey, have identified walls suggesting that during the Umm an-Nar period there was a system of irrigation which controlled flood water. Sedimentological, malacological, C14 dating and micromorphological studies of a 10 m long and 2.5 m high section located 143 m northeast of the Tower 1146 on the left bank of a small tributary of the Wadi Sharsah provide strong argument for the presence of an irrigation system that began before the Hafit period. New C14 datings confirm this hypothesis. Botanical macro-remains collected during the excavation of early Bronze Age structures at Bat further indicate the presence of date palm gardens since the 3rd millenium BCE allowing the cultivation of several crop species, in particular cereals. Most generally the global palaeoenvironmental reconstruction from our data supports a model of a general trend of aridification from Bronze Age to iron Age. Key words : Bronze Age, Holocene, Geomoephology, Micromorphology, Irrigation, Oman.

  2. Organic micro-pollutants in a karst system during low and high flow periods, results of a two-year study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reh, Roland; Licha, Tobias; Geyer, Tobias; Nödler, Karsten; Sauter, Martin

    2013-04-01

    and desethylatrazine, indicates limited aquifer connections and demonstrates a residence time of several years for vertical transport into the deep aquifer. Phenazone originates also from a disused waste disposal and is showing a persistency for more than three decades under the observed redox conditions. References Nödler K, Licha T, Bester K, Sauter M. Development of a multi-residue analytical method, based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, for the simultaneous determination of 46 micro-contaminants in aqueous samples. Journal of Chromatography A 2010;1217(42), 6511-6521. Reh R, Licha T, Geyer T, Nödler, K.,Sauter M. Occurrence and spatial distribution of organic micro-pollutants in a complex hydrogeological karst system during low flow and high flow periods, results of a two-year study. Science of The Total Environment 2013, 443,438-445, 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.11.005.

  3. LABORATORY AND FIELD RESULTS LINKING HIGH CONDUCTIVITIES TO THE MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results of a l6-month field and l6-month meso-scale laboratory investigation of unconsolidated sandy environments contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons that are undergoing natural biodegradation is presented. The purpose was to understand the processes responsible for causin...

  4. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R.; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors. PMID:26365061

  5. Nutrient emissions from diffuse and point sources into the River Danube and its main tributaries for the period of 1998-2000--results and problems.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, H; Behrendt, H; Constantinescu, L T; Cvitanic, I; Drumea, D; Jabucar, D; Juran, S; Pataki, B; Snishko, S; Zessner, M

    2005-01-01

    Nutrient emissions by point and diffuse sources were estimated for 388 sub-catchments of the Danube river basin for the period 1998-2000 by means of the Model MONERIS. For nitrogen total emissions of 684 kt/a N were estimated for the Danube basin. 80% of these emissions were caused by diffuse sources (mainly groundwater, urban areas and tile drainage). For phosphorus the emission was 57 kt/a P, with a contribution of diffuse sources to this sum of 58%. The comparison of calculated and observed loads shows that the mean deviation for the investigated sub-catchments of the Danube river basin is 20% for dissolved inorganic nitrogen and 34% for phosphorus. The spatial resolution of the emission calculations allows the identification of regional hot spots and the derivation of specific regional measures to reduce the emissions into the Danube and consequently into the Western Black Sea. PMID:15850201

  6. Periodized wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Schlossnagle, G.; Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.

    1993-12-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and contrasted against their counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrate by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and several tabulated values are included.

  7. Reliability of Fitness Tests Using Methods and Time Periods Common in Sport and Occupational Management

    PubMed Central

    Burnstein, Bryan D.; Steele, Russell J.; Shrier, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Context: Fitness testing is used frequently in many areas of physical activity, but the reliability of these measurements under real-world, practical conditions is unknown. Objective: To evaluate the reliability of specific fitness tests using the methods and time periods used in the context of real-world sport and occupational management. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Eighteen different Cirque du Soleil shows. Patients or Other Participants: Cirque du Soleil physical performers who completed 4 consecutive tests (6-month intervals) and were free of injury or illness at each session (n = 238 of 701 physical performers). Intervention(s): Performers completed 6 fitness tests on each assessment date: dynamic balance, Harvard step test, handgrip, vertical jump, pull-ups, and 60-second jump test. Main Outcome Measure(s): We calculated the intraclass coefficient (ICC) and limits of agreement between baseline and each time point and the ICC over all 4 time points combined. Results: Reliability was acceptable (ICC > 0.6) over an 18-month time period for all pairwise comparisons and all time points together for the handgrip, vertical jump, and pull-up assessments. The Harvard step test and 60-second jump test had poor reliability (ICC < 0.6) between baseline and other time points. When we excluded the baseline data and calculated the ICC for 6-month, 12-month, and 18-month time points, both the Harvard step test and 60-second jump test demonstrated acceptable reliability. Dynamic balance was unreliable in all contexts. Limit-of-agreement analysis demonstrated considerable intraindividual variability for some tests and a learning effect by administrators on others. Conclusions: Five of the 6 tests in this battery had acceptable reliability over an 18-month time frame, but the values for certain individuals may vary considerably from time to time for some tests. Specific tests may require a learning period for administrators. PMID:22488138

  8. Laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) for treatment of uterine leiomyomas: 750 myomas were treated by LITT and the results over a five-year period are analyzed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Roxana

    1997-05-01

    Approximately 750 leiomyomas of 250 symptomatic patients were treated by LITT over a five-year period. Only 12% were lost to follow-up. Most were treated by a combination of the KTP/YAG laser, rarely by one or the other alone, and a few with the diode laser. The fiber optic was inserted 2 cm apart and, depending on the size of the tumor, 480 - 20,000 Joules were required. Most were treated laparoscopically but very large myomas were treated percutaneously under ultrasound control. Symptoms were nearly always relieved and the six failures were found to be due to unrecognized adenomyosis and other associated pathology. Half the patients complaining of infertility became pregnant and, in those whose only pathology had been leiomyomas it approached 90%. Vaginal delivery was not found to be contraindicated. Finally, oestrogen receptors and epidermal growth factor were found to be destroyed. It is concluded that LITT enables leiomyomas of all sizes and locations to be treated by a minimally invasive method with preservation of the uterus.

  9. A multicenter, open-label extension study of velaglucerase alfa in Japanese patients with Gaucher disease: Results after a cumulative treatment period of 24months.

    PubMed

    Ida, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Akemi; Matsubayashi, Tomoko; Murayama, Kei; Hongo, Teruaki; Lee, Hak-Myung; Mellgard, Björn

    2016-07-01

    Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with exogenous glucocerebrosidase is indicated to treat symptomatic Gaucher disease (GD), a rare, inherited metabolic disorder. ERT with velaglucerase alfa, which is produced in a human cell line using gene activation technology, was studied in a 12-month phase III trial in Japanese patients with type 1 or 3 GD who were switched from imiglucerase ERT (n=6); the current, open-label, 12-month extension study was designed to assess longer-term safety and efficacy. Two adult and three pediatric patients (aged <18years) were enrolled into the extension study. Every-other-week intravenous infusions were administered for 63-78weeks at average doses between 51.5 and 60.7units/kg. Three non-serious adverse events were considered related to velaglucerase alfa treatment, but no patient discontinued from the study. Six serious but non-drug-related adverse events were reported. No patient tested positive for anti-velaglucerase alfa antibodies. Hemoglobin concentrations, platelet counts, and liver and spleen volumes (normalized to body weight) in these patients were generally stable over a cumulative 24-month period from the baseline of the parent trial. The data suggest that velaglucerase alfa was well tolerated and maintained clinical stability in Japanese GD patients over 2years after switching from imiglucerase. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01842841. PMID:27241455

  10. 45 CFR 146.111 - Limitations on preexisting condition exclusion period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Individual C has asthma and is treated for that condition several times during the 6-month period before C's... Employer T's plan. Two months later, C is hospitalized for asthma. (ii) Conclusion. In this Example 4, Employer T's plan may impose a preexisting condition exclusion with respect to C's asthma because...

  11. 21 CFR 314.91 - Obtaining a reduction in the discontinuance notification period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... must include a detailed description of the potential threat to the public health. (2) A biomaterials... supply of biomaterials to enable manufacturing to continue for the 6-month period and an explanation of why the biomaterials could not be secured. (3) A liability problem may exist for the manufacturer...

  12. 21 CFR 314.91 - Obtaining a reduction in the discontinuance notification period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... must include a detailed description of the potential threat to the public health. (2) A biomaterials... supply of biomaterials to enable manufacturing to continue for the 6-month period and an explanation of why the biomaterials could not be secured. (3) A liability problem may exist for the manufacturer...

  13. Periodic cages.

    PubMed

    Diudea, Mircea V; Nagy, Csaba L; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Ioan; Graovac, Ante; Janezic, Dusanka; Vikić-Topić, Drazen

    2005-01-01

    Various cages are constructed by using three types of caps: f-cap (derived from spherical fullerenes by deleting zones of various size), kf-cap (obtainable by cutting off the polar ring, of size k), and t-cap ("tubercule"-cap). Building ways are presented, some of them being possible isomerization routes in the real chemistry of fullerenes. Periodic cages with ((5,7)3) covering are modeled, and their constitutive typing enumeration is given. Spectral data revealed some electronic periodicity in fullerene clusters. Semiempirical and strain energy calculations complete their characterization. PMID:15807490

  14. Comparison of analytical predictions of longitudinal short period pilot-induced oscillations with results from a simulation study of the space shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, D. R.; Miller, G. K., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    An analytical analysis of conditions producing pilot induced oscillations (PIO's) was made for the space shuttle orbiter in a landing approach configuration for the task of milling the elevation angle of the line of sight to a target vehicle. The analysis yielded a value of PIO frequency and a value for the amount of total system time delay (pilot + control system) that can be tolerated before instability results. Calculations were performed showing the effect of varying the range to the target and of varying the handling qualities of the orbiter vehicle. Analytical predictions were compared with simulation results obtained using a visual motion simulator.

  15. Visual Analysis of the Daily QA Results of Photon and Electron Beams of a Trilogy Linac over a Five-year Period

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Maria F.; Li, Qiongge; Tang, Xiaoli; Li, Xiang; Li, Jingdong; Tang, Grace; Hunt, Margie A.; Deasy, Joseph O.

    2016-01-01

    Data visualization technique was applied to analyze the daily QA results of photon and electron beams. Special attention was paid to any trend the beams might display. A Varian Trilogy Linac equipped with dual photon energies and five electron energies was commissioned in early 2010. Daily Linac QA tests including the output constancy, beam flatness and symmetry (radial and transverse directions) were performed with an ionization chamber array device (QA BeamChecker Plus, Standard Imaging). The data of five years were collected and analyzed. For each energy, the measured data were exported and processed for visual trending using an in-house Matlab program. These daily data were cross-correlated with the monthly QA and annual QA results, as well as the preventive maintenance records. Majority of the output were within 1% of variation, with a consistent positive/upward drift for all seven energies (~+0.25% per month). The baseline of daily device is reset annually right after the TG-51 calibration. This results in a sudden drop of the output. On the other hand, the large amount of data using the same baseline exhibits a sinusoidal behavior (cycle = 12 months; amplitude = 0.8%, 0.5% for photons, electrons, respectively) on symmetry and flatness when normalization of baselines is accounted for. The well known phenomenon of new Linac output drift was clearly displayed. This output drift was a result of the air leakage of the over-pressurized sealed monitor chambers for the specific vendor. Data visualization is a new trend in the era of big data in radiation oncology research. It allows the data to be displayed visually and therefore more intuitive. Based on the visual display from the past, the physicist might predict the trend of the Linac and take actions proactively. It also makes comparisons, alerts failures, and potentially identifies causalities.

  16. Periodic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    Periodic polymers can be made by self assembly, directed self assembly and by photolithography. Such materials provide a versatile platform for 1, 2 and 3D periodic nano-micro scale composites with either dielectric or impedance contrast or both, and these can serve for example, as photonic and or phononic crystals for electromagnetic and elastic waves as well as mechanical frames/trusses. Compared to electromagnetic waves, elastic waves are both less complex (longitudinal modes in fluids) and more complex (longitudinal, transverse in-plane and transverse out-of-plane modes in solids). Engineering of the dispersion relation between wave frequency w and wave vector, k enables the opening of band gaps in the density of modes and detailed shaping of w(k). Band gaps can be opened by Bragg scattering, anti-crossing of bands and discrete shape resonances. Current interest is in our group focuses using design - modeling, fabrication and measurement of polymer-based periodic materials for applications as tunable optics and control of phonon flow. Several examples will be described including the design of structures for multispectral band gaps for elastic waves to alter the phonon density of states, the creation of block polymer and bicontinuous metal-carbon nanoframes for structures that are robust against ballistic projectiles and quasi-crystalline solid/fluid structures that can steer shock waves.

  17. Changes in body mass index in Canadians over a five-year period: Results of a prospective, population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Hopman, Wilma M; Leroux, Cristine; Berger, Claudie; Joseph, Lawrence; Barr, Susan I; Prior, Jerilynn C; Harrison, Mark; Poliquin, Suzette; Towheed, Tanveer; Anastassiades, Tassos; Goltzman, David

    2007-01-01

    Background The initiation of the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study in 1996, and subsequent follow-up of the cohort 5 years later, provided longitudinal body mass index (BMI) data for a random sample of Canadians. Methods Height and weight were measured at baseline and 5 years and used to calculate BMI and assign one of six weight categories. Multiple imputation was used to adjust for missing weight at year 5. Data were stratified by age and gender. The proportion of participants moving between categories was generated, and multivariable linear regression was used to identify factors associated with weight change. Results Baseline data were available for 8548 participants, year 5 data for 6721, and year 5 weight was imputed for 1827 (17.6%). Mean BMI for every age and gender group exceeded healthy weight guidelines. Most remained within their BMI classification over 5 years, but when change occurred, BMI category was more likely to increase than decrease. Several sociodemographic, lifestyle and clinical characteristics were associated with change. Conclusion Mean baseline BMI tended to be higher than recommended. Moreover, on average, men under age 45 and women under age 55 were gaining approximately 0.45 kilograms (one pound) per year, which leveled off with increased age and reversed in the oldest age groups. These findings underscore the need for public health efforts aimed at combating obesity. PMID:17620129

  18. [Ambulatory recording of esophageal pH over a 24-hour period in a population of 27 control subjects: analysis of technical and methodological factors influencing results].

    PubMed

    Gignoux, C; Bonnet-Eymard, P O; Hostein, J; Fournet, J

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-four hour pH monitoring is used increasingly as a technique for diagnosis of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER). The Synectics recording apparatus (Stockholm, Sweden) was used in 27 ambulatory control subjects in order to: identify the variations of the data-dependent factors (electrodes, buffer solutions, calibration, placement of esophageal electrode). The consequences of these variations were evaluated by studying the measurement deflection after 24 h, baseline variations, and a comparative double pH esophageal recording with reference equipment for 3 h postprandial; to provide normal values for several parameters of GER measurement under the conditions of this study (total number of reflux, number of reflux episodes longer than 5 min, duration of the longest reflux, percentage of time during which pH was less than 4.0). Important interindividual variations were observed. When interpreting the results provided by this type of apparatus, one should take into account these large variations due, first, to the technique used and second, to the conditions of ambulatory recording. PMID:3556956

  19. Financial Results during Periods of Inflation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, James W.; Anderson, Richard E.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of inflation on the operations of 10 northeastern colleges and universities and the effect of using current cost accounting are considered. The focus is on adjustments to assets in the plant fund by restating the surplus and deficit calculations of four state and six private institutions. The 10 institutions had plant assets with an…

  20. Setting the Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  1. Fracture Rate, Quality of Life and Back Pain in Patients with Osteoporosis Treated with Teriparatide: 24-Month Results from the Extended Forsteo Observational Study (ExFOS).

    PubMed

    Langdahl, Bente L; Ljunggren, Östen; Benhamou, Claude-Laurent; Marin, Fernando; Kapetanos, George; Kocjan, Tomaz; Lespessailles, Eric; Napoli, Nicola; Nikolic, Tatjana; Petto, Helmut; Moll, Thomas; Lindh, Erik

    2016-09-01

    We describe the pre-planned interim analysis of fracture outcomes, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and back pain in patients with severe osteoporosis treated with teriparatide for up to 24 months in the Extended Forsteo (Forsteo(®) is a registered trade name of Eli Lilly and Company) Observational Study (ExFOS), a prospective, multinational, observational study. Data on incident clinical fractures, HRQoL (EQ-5D questionnaire) and back pain [100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS)] were collected. The number of patients with fractures was summarised in 6-month intervals and fracture rate over each 6-month period was assessed using logistic regression for repeated measures. Changes from baseline in EQ-5D and back pain VAS were analysed using mixed models for repeated measures. Of 1454 patients in the active treatment cohort, 90.6 % were female and 14.4 % were taking glucocorticoids. During teriparatide treatment (median duration 23.7 months), 103 patients (7.1 %) sustained a total of 122 incident clinical fractures (21 % vertebral, 79 % non-vertebral). A 49 % decrease in the odds of fractures and a 75 % decrease in the odds of clinical vertebral fractures were observed in the >18- to 24-month period versus the first 6-month period (both p < 0.05). EQ-5D scores and back pain VAS scores were significantly improved from baseline at each post-baseline observation during teriparatide treatment. In conclusion, patients with severe osteoporosis showed a significant reduction in the incident fracture rate during 24 months of teriparatide treatment in routine clinical practice, accompanied by a significant improvement in HRQoL and reduction in back pain. Results should be interpreted in the context of the non-controlled design of this observational study. PMID:27137783

  2. Results of late surgical intervention in children with early-onset bilateral cataracts

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, Suma; Arora, Priyanka; Sethi, Sumita; Gandhi, Tapan K; Kalia, Amy; Chatterjee, Garga; Sinha, Pawan

    2016-01-01

    Background Cataracts are a major cause of childhood blindness globally. Although surgically treatable, it is unclear whether children would benefit from such interventions beyond the first few years of life, which are believed to constitute `critical' periods for visual development. Aims To study visual acuity outcomes after late treatment of early-onset cataracts and also to determine whether there are longitudinal changes in postoperative acuity. Methods We identified 53 children with dense cataracts with an onset within the first half-year after birth through a survey of over 20 000 rural children in India. All had accompanying nystagmus and were older than 8 years of age at the time of treatment. They underwent bilateral cataract surgery and intraocular lens implantation. We then assessed their best-corrected visual acuity 6 weeks and 6 months after surgery. Results 48 children from the pool of 53 showed improvement in their visual acuity after surgery. Our longitudinal assessments demonstrated further improvements in visual acuity for the majority of these children proceeding from the 6-week to 6-month assessment. Interestingly, older children in our subject pool did not differ significantly from the younger ones in the extent of improvement they exhibit. Conclusions and relevance Our results demonstrate that not only can significant vision be acquired until late in childhood, but that neural processes underlying even basic aspects of vision like resolution acuity remain malleable until at least adolescence. These data argue for the provision of cataract treatment to all children, irrespective of their age. PMID:24879807

  3. Medicaid Enrollment Gap Length and Number of Medicaid Enrollment Periods Among US Children

    PubMed Central

    Schoendorf, Kenneth C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined gap length, characteristics associated with gap length, and number of enrollment periods among Medicaid-enrolled children in the United States. Methods. We linked the 2004 National Health Interview Survey to Medicaid Analytic eXtract files for 1999 through 2008. We examined linkage-eligible children aged 5 to 13 years in the 2004 National Health Interview Survey who disenrolled from Medicaid. We generated Kaplan-Meier curves of time to reenrollment. We used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the effect of sociodemographic variables on time to reenrollment. We compared the percentage of children enrolled 4 or more times across sociodemographic groups. Results. Of children who disenrolled from Medicaid, 35.8%, 47.1%, 63.5%, 70.8%, and 79.1% of children had reenrolled in Medicaid by 6 months, 1, 3, 5, and 10 years, respectively. Children who were younger, poorer, or of minority race/ethnicity or had lower educated parents had shorter gaps in Medicaid and were more likely to have had 4 or more Medicaid enrollment periods. Conclusions. Nearly half of US children who disenrolled from Medicaid reenrolled within 1 year. Children with traditionally high-risk demographic characteristics had shorter gaps in Medicaid enrollment and were more likely to have more periods of Medicaid enrollment. PMID:25033135

  4. Relationship between Changes in Fatigue and Exercise by Follow-Up Period

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Seung Min; Choo, Se Ryung; Kim, Hee Tae; Kim, Hyun Ho; Lee, Sang Hyun; Jeong, Han Sol

    2016-01-01

    Background Fatigue is one of the most common presenting symptoms in primary care in Korea. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of exercise intervention on the severity of fatigue of unknown medical cause during a period of follow-up. Methods We used the data collected from an outpatient fatigue clinic in Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. The study was conducted from March 3, 2010 to May 31, 2014. We measured the body mass index of each patient and evaluated variables including lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, and regular exercise), quality of sleep, anxiety, depression, stress severity, and fatigue severity using questionnaires. A total of 152 participants who completed questionnaires to determine changes in fatigue severity and the effect of exercise for each period were evaluated. We used univariate analysis to verify possible factors related to fatigue and then conducted multivariate analysis using these factors and the literature. Results Of 130 patients with the complaint of chronic fatigue for over 6 months, over 90 percent reported moderate or severe fatigue on the Fatigue Severity Scale and Brief Fatigue Inventory questionnaires. The fatigue severity scores decreased and fatigue improved over time. The amount of exercise was increased in the first month, but decreased afterwards. Conclusion There was no significant relationship between changes in the amount of exercise and fatigue severity in each follow-up period. Randomized controlled trials and a cohort study with a more detailed exercise protocol in an outpatient setting are needed in the future. PMID:27073605

  5. Transition from non-periodic to periodic explosions.

    PubMed

    Cartes, Carlos; Descalzi, Orazio

    2015-12-13

    We show the existence of periodic exploding dissipative solitons. These non-chaotic explosions appear when higher-order nonlinear and dispersive effects are added to the complex cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau equation modelling soliton transmission lines. This counterintuitive phenomenon is the result of period-halving bifurcations leading to order (periodic explosions), followed by period-doubling bifurcations (or intermittency) leading to chaos (non-periodic explosions). PMID:26527807

  6. Genealogy of periodic trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    de Adguiar, M.A.M.; Maldta, C.P.; de Passos, E.J.V.

    1986-05-20

    The periodic solutions of non-integrable classical Hamiltonian systems with two degrees of freedom are numerically investigated. Curves of periodic families are given in plots of energy vs. period. Results are presented for this Hamiltonian: H = 1/2(p/sub x//sup 2/ + p/sub y//sup 2/) + 1/2 x/sup 2/ + 3/2 y/sup 2/ - x/sup 2/y + 1/12 x/sup 4/. Properties of the families of curves are pointed out. (LEW)

  7. Acute retinal necrosis in the United Kingdom: results of a prospective surveillance study

    PubMed Central

    Cochrane, T F; Silvestri, G; McDowell, C; Foot, B; McAvoy, C E

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine the incidence of acute retinal necrosis (ARN) in the United Kingdom and to describe the demographics, management, and visual outcome in these patients. Methods This was a prospective study carried out by the British Ophthalmological Surveillance Unit (BOSU) between September 2007 and October 2008. Initial and 6-month questionnaires were sent to UK ophthalmologists who reported cases of ARN via the monthly BOSU report card system. Results In all, 45 confirmed cases (52 eyes) of ARN were reported in the 14-month study period, giving a minimum incidence of 0.63 cases per million population per year. There were 20 females and 25 males. Age ranged from 10 to 94 years. Eight patients had a history of herpetic CNS disease. Aqueous sampling was carried out in 13 patients, vitreous in 27, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in 4. Varicella-zoster virus followed by herpes simplex were the most common causative agents. Treatment in 76% of the cases was with intravenous antivirals; however, 24% received only oral antivirals. In all, 47% of patients had intravitreal antiviral therapy. Visual outcome at 6 months was <6/60 in 48% of the affected eyes. Conclusion The minimum incidence of ARN in the UK is 0.63 cases per million. Patients with a history of herpetic CNS disease should be warned to immediately report any visual symptoms. There is increased use of oral and intravitreal antivirals in initial treatment. PMID:22281865

  8. Add-on prolonged-release melatonin for cognitive function and sleep in mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease: a 6-month, randomized, placebo-controlled,