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Sample records for 6-month survival rate

  1. Predictive Factors of Survival and 6-Month Favorable Outcome of Very Severe Head Trauma Patients; a Historical Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Vathanalaoha, Karin; Oearsakul, Thakul; Tunthanathip, Thara

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Very severe head trauma cases, defined as Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of less than 6, have a higher mortality rate and poorer outcome. The purpose of this study was to recognize factors associated with survival and 6-month favorable outcome of very severe head trauma patients presenting to emergency department. Methods: In this historical cohort study, the authors retrospectively reviewed medical records of head trauma patients who were admitted to the emergency department with post-resuscitation GCS scores of less than 6. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were used to test the association between various parameters with survival and 6-month outcome. Results: 103 cases with the mean age of 39 ± 16.5 years were studied (80% male). The overall survival rate was 41.7% and the rate of 6-month favorable outcome was 28.2%. In multivariate analysis, brisk pupil light reaction on admission and patent basal cistern on brain computed tomography (CT) scan were significant factors associated with both survival (OR 5.20, 95% CI 1.57-17.246, p = 0.007 and OR 3.65, 95% CI 1.22-10.91, p=0.02 respectively) and favorable outcome (OR 4.07, 95% CI 1.35-12.24, p=0.01 and OR 3.54, 95% CI 1.22-10.26, p 0.02), respectively. Conclusion: Based on the results of present study, the survival rate of patients with very severe head trauma (GCS < 6) was 41.7%. The strong predictors of survival and 6-month favorable outcome of these patients were brisk pupillary reactivity and patent cistern on brain CT scan. It seems that very severe head trauma patients still have a reasonable chance to survive and aggressive management should be continued. PMID:28286831

  2. Effects of Concurrent Topotecan and Radiation on 6-Month Progression-Free Survival in the Primary Treatment of Glioblastoma Multiforme

    SciTech Connect

    Grabenbauer, Gerhard G. Gerber, Klaus-Dieter; Ganslandt, Oliver; Richter, Andrea M.S.; Klautke, Gunther; Birkmann, Josef; Meyer, Martin

    2009-09-01

    Purpose: To report a prospective, randomized, Phase II trial of radiotherapy with and without topotecan for the treatment of glioblastoma. Patients and Methods: Inclusion criteria were histology of glioblastoma, age <60 years, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group status 0-2. Patients were stratified according to recursive partitioning analysis class, center, and enzyme-inducing antiepileptic medication. Magnetic resonance imaging scans, neurologic examinations, and quality of life assessments were done every 3 months. The primary endpoint was the progression-free survival rate at 6 months (6-m-PFS). This trial was designed as an exploratory, randomized, Phase II trial with an accrual of 140 patients to detect a difference of 15-20% in 6-m-PFS. An interim analysis was scheduled after 60 patients. Median follow-up was 14 months (range, 1-50 months). Results: The 6-m-PFS was 56% and 40% for patients with and without topotecan, respectively. This benefit disappeared within 2 months. Mean (range) progression-free survival time was 8 (5-10.9) months and 6.7 (4-9.5) months for patients with and without topotecan, respectively. The corresponding 2-year-overall survival rates were 28% vs. 22% (nonsignificant difference), and mean (range) survival time was 20.7 (13.9-27.5) months vs. 18.9 (13.5-24.4) months (nonsignificant difference). Conclusions: A slight but measurable increase of 16% was detected in 6-m-PFS for patients receiving topotecan with radiation as compared with patients having radiotherapy alone. These data might support further investigations into topotecan for the treatment of glioblastoma.

  3. Quit rates at 6 months in a pharmacist-led smoking cessation service in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Fai, Sui Chee; Yen, Gan Kim; Malik, Nurdiyana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Smoking cessation clinics have been established in Malaysia since 2004, but wide variations in success rates have been observed. This study aimed to evaluate the proposed pharmacist-led Integrated Quit Smoking Service (IQSS) in Sabah, Malaysia, and identify factors associated with successful smoking cessation. Methods: Data from 176 participants were collected from one of the quit-smoking centres in Sabah, Malaysia. Pharmacists, doctors and nurses were involved throughout the study. Any health care provider can refer patients for smoking cessation, and free pharmacotherapy and counselling was provided during the cessation period for up to 3 months. Information on demographic characteristics, smoking behaviours, follow-up and pharmacotherapy were collected. The main outcome measure was the abstinence from smoking, which was verified through carbon monoxide in expired air during the 6-month follow-up. Results: A 42.6% success rate was achieved in IQSS. Smoking behaviour such as lower cigarette intake and lower Fagerström score were identified as factors associated with success. On top of that, a longer duration of follow-up and more frequent visits were significantly associated with success in quitting smoking. Conclusion: Collaboration among health care practitioners should be the main focus, and we need a combination of proven effective modalities in order to create an ideal smoking cessation module. PMID:27708676

  4. MRI Assessment of Uterine Artery Patency and Fibroid Infarction Rates 6 Months after Uterine Artery Embolization with Nonspherical Polyvinyl Alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Raj Gonsalves, Michael; Vlahos, Ioannis; Manyonda, Issac; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: We have observed significant rates of uterine artery patency after uterine artery embolization (UAE) with nonspherical polyvinyl alcohol (nsPVA) on 6 month follow-up MR scanning. The study aim was to quantitatively assess uterine artery patency after UAE with nsPVA and to assess the effect of continued uterine artery patency on outcomes. Methods: A single centre, retrospective study of 50 patients undergoing bilateral UAE for uterine leiomyomata was undertaken. Pelvic MRI was performed before and 6 months after UAE. All embolizations were performed with nsPVA. Outcome measures included uterine artery patency, uterine and dominant fibroid volume, dominant fibroid percentage infarction, presence of ovarian arterial collaterals, and symptom scores assessed by the Uterine Fibroid Symptom and Quality of Life questionnaire (UFS-QOL). Results: Magnetic resonance angiographic evidence of uterine artery recanalization was demonstrated in 90 % of the patients (64 % bilateral, 26 % unilateral) at 6 months. Eighty percent of all dominant fibroids demonstrated >90 % infarction. The mean percentage reduction in dominant fibroid volume was 35 %. No significant difference was identified between nonpatent, unilateral, and bilateral recanalization of the uterine arteries with regard to percentage dominant fibroid infarction or dominant fibroid volume reduction. The presence of bilaterally or unilaterally patent uterine arteries was not associated with inferior clinical outcomes (symptom score or UFS-QOL scores) at 6 months. Conclusion: The high rates of uterine artery patency challenge the current paradigm that nsPVA is a permanent embolic agent and that permanent uterine artery occlusion is necessary to optimally treat uterine fibroids. Despite high rates of uterine artery recanalization in this cohort, satisfactory fibroid infarction rates and UFS-QOL scores were achieved.

  5. Developmental milestones record - 6 months

    MedlinePlus

    Normal childhood growth milestones - 6 months; Childhood growth milestones - 6 months; Growth milestones for children - 6 months ... the weight on hands (often occurs by 4 months) Able to pick up a dropped object Able ...

  6. Survival Rates for Thymus Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Survival Rates for Thymus Cancer Survival rates are often used by doctors ... Ask Your Doctor About Thymus Cancer? More In Thymus Cancer About Thymus Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  7. Your Child's Development: 6 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: 6 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: 6 Months A A A Notice your baby doing anything new? Big strides in development are happening this month. That's because the left side of the brain ...

  8. Your Child's Development: 6 Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: 6 Months KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: 6 Months Print A A A en español El desarrollo ... new? Big strides in development are happening this month. That's because the left side of the brain ...

  9. A standardized randomized 6-month aerobic exercise-training down-regulated pro-inflammatory genes, but up-regulated anti-inflammatory, neuron survival and axon growth-related genes.

    PubMed

    Iyalomhe, Osigbemhe; Chen, Yuanxiu; Allard, Joanne; Ntekim, Oyonumo; Johnson, Sheree; Bond, Vernon; Goerlitz, David; Li, James; Obisesan, Thomas O

    2015-09-01

    There is considerable support for the view that aerobic exercise may confer cognitive benefits to mild cognitively impaired elderly persons. However, the biological mechanisms mediating these effects are not entirely clear. As a preliminary step towards informing this gap in knowledge, we enrolled older adults confirmed to have mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in a 6-month exercise program. Male and female subjects were randomized into a 6-month program of either aerobic or stretch (control) exercise. Data collected from the first 10 completers, aerobic exercise (n=5) or stretch (control) exercise (n=5), were used to determine intervention-induced changes in the global gene expression profiles of the aerobic and stretch groups. Using microarray, we identified genes with altered expression (relative to baseline values) in response to the 6-month exercise intervention. Genes whose expression were altered by at least two-fold, and met the p-value cutoff of 0.01 were inputted into the Ingenuity Pathway Knowledge Base Library to generate gene-interaction networks. After a 6-month aerobic exercise-training, genes promoting inflammation became down-regulated, whereas genes having anti-inflammatory properties and those modulating immune function or promoting neuron survival and axon growth, became up-regulated (all fold change≥±2.0, p<0.01). These changes were not observed in the stretch group. Importantly, the differences in the expression profiles correlated with significant improvement in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in the aerobic program as opposed to the stretch group. We conclude that three distinct cellular pathways may collectively influence the training effects of aerobic exercise in MCI subjects. We plan to confirm these effects using rt-PCR and correlate such changes with the cognitive phenotype.

  10. APACHE II scoring system on a general intensive care unit: audit of daily APACHE II scores and 6-month survival of 691 patients admitted to a general intensive care unit between May 1990 and December 1991.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, N N; Tooley, M A; Willatts, S M

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the use of the APACHE II (acute physiological and chronic health evaluation) scoring system on all of the patients admitted to the general intensive care unit at the Bristol Royal Infirmary over a 20-month period. The 6-month survival of 691 adult medical and surgical patients following intensive care was recorded and this data was analysed with admission and daily APACHE II scores using a relational database. Our data confirms the relationship between admission APACHE II scores and outcome, with mean scores decreasing as duration of survival increases. We also demonstrate that the best day one scores are approximately 50% less than the admission score, irrespective of outcome, indicating the benefit of intensive care. By contrast, however, the scores on day one have either not improved or have worsened since admission, reflecting the importance of the pre-morbid health status of the patient in determining outcome from intensive care. PMID:8196033

  11. Survival rates in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Wilmott, R W; Tyson, S L; Dinwiddie, R; Matthew, D J

    1983-01-01

    Life tables were calculated for 273 British children with cystic fibrosis for the period 1974-9. There was a marked improvement in survival rates in the meconium ileus group compared with the 1969-73 data, but there was little improvement in patients presenting later with other symptoms. PMID:6639137

  12. Teacher Survival Rates--A Current Look

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mark, Jonathan H.; Anderson, Barry D.

    1978-01-01

    To examine how survival rates change with time, each cohort of new entrants to the public school teaching profession between 1968 and 1976 was examined. Results replicated Charters' downward sloping survival curve, although the curve has shifted up steadily through time. The survival rate differential between men and women is decreasing over time.…

  13. Sexual Function 6 Months After First Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Brubaker, Linda; Handa, Victoria L.; Bradley, Catherine S.; Connolly, AnnaMarie; Moalli, Pamela; Brown, Morton B.; Weber, Anne

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the association of anal sphincter laceration and sexual function 6 months postpartum in the Childbirth and Pelvic Symptoms (CAPS) cohort. METHODS The primary CAPS study, a prospective cohort study, was designed to estimate the postpartum prevalence and incidence of urinary and fecal incontinence. Three cohorts of new mothers (vaginal delivery with a third- or fourth-degree anal sphincter tear, vaginal delivery without a third- or fourth-degree anal sphincter tear, and cesarean delivery without labor) were compared at 6 months postpartum. Sexual function was assessed with the Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence/Sexual Function Short Form Questionnaire (PISQ-12). Urinary and fecal incontinence were assessed using the Medical Epidemiological and Social Aspects of Aging questionnaire and the Fecal Incontinence Severity Index, which is embedded within the Modified Manchester Health Questionnaire. RESULTS Most women (459 [90%]) of those with partners reported sexual activity at the 6-month visit. Fewer women whose delivery was complicated by anal sphincter laceration reported sexual activity when compared with those who delivered vaginally without sphincter laceration (88 compared with 94%, P=.028). The mean PISQ-12 score (39±4) did not differ between delivery groups (P=.92). Pain (responses of “sometimes,” “usually,” or “always”) during sex affected one of three sexually active women (164 [36%]). CONCLUSION At 6 months postpartum, primiparous women who delivered with anal sphincter laceration are less likely to report sexual activity. PMID:18448733

  14. Sources of variation in waterfowl survival rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, D.G.; Barker, R.J.; Nichols, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    Because of the need to manage hunted populations of waterfowl (Anatidae), biologists have studied many demographic traits of waterfowl by analyzing band recoveries. These analyses have produced the most extensive and best estimates of survival available for any group of birds. Using these data, we examined several factors that might explain variation among annual survival rates to explore large-scale patterns that might be useful in understanding waterfowl population dynamics. We found that geography, body mass, and tribe (i.e. phylogeny) were important in explaining variation in average waterfowl survival rates.

  15. Low-Dose Chemoreduction for Infants Diagnosed with Retinoblastoma before 6 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Jesse L.; Jubran, Rima; Lee, Thomas C.; Murphree, A. Linn; Lee, Diana; Kim, Jonathan W.

    2015-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of infants diagnosed with retinoblastoma before 6 months of age, including the need for chemoreduction (CRD). In this age group, dosage of CRD was reduced due to its potential for toxicity. Methods This is a retrospective review from 2000 to 2009 that includes 126 eyes of 72 infants (18 unilateral, 54 bilateral). Systemic CRD was administered when local modalities failed or were considered inadequate. Primary outcome measures were the need for CRD and globe salvage. Results Of the 72 infants diagnosed before 6 months of age, 48 (67%) ultimately required CRD for globe salvage, 40 (56%) patients before 6 months of age. Globe salvage was achieved in 62% (78/126) of eyes overall and in 93% (68/73) of eyes with Group A-C disease. No patient was hospitalized for CRD-related illness; survival was 100%. The mean follow-up was 52.9 months (range 1-148 months). Conclusion Utilizing a combination of focal modalities and reduced-dose CRD, children diagnosed with retinoblastoma before 6 months of age attain globe salvage rates comparable to those of older age groups. Two thirds of the infants ultimately required CRD for globe salvage. Bilateral disease as well as Group D and E classification in at least one eye at presentation increased the chance of requiring CRD (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.016, respectively). PMID:27172253

  16. Survival Rates for Selected Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diagnosis, and Staging Survival Rates for Selected Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors Survival rates are often ... Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors More In Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Children About Brain ...

  17. Survival rates after serious immersion accidents in childhood.

    PubMed

    Pearn, J

    1978-01-01

    A study of childhood survival rates, after loss of consciousness in fresh water, has been undertaken. Age-specific, sex-specific and site-specific survival rates for childhood fresh water immersion accidents are reported for the first time. The overall survival rate, after loss of consciousness in the water was 0.49; swimming pool and domestic bath tub serious immersion accidents have a survival rate of 0.60 compared with a rate of 0.05 for similar immersion accidents in creeks and rivers. Young male schoolboys have the lowest potential survival (0.20 or less) of any group. Survival rates were significantly higher during the winter (0.86) than during the warmer months (survival rate of 0.49). This gives a quantitative expression to the protection from cerebral anoxia afforded by body chilling which is not extreme. Survival rates have increased significantly over the 5 year period 1971--1975; it is considered that this is due to public education campaigns of the potential danger of water to children. The use of survival rates to measure factors which modify the pathophysiology of human drowning and near-drowning is discussed.

  18. Survival rates of American woodcock wintering along the Atlantic coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, D.G.; Seginak, J.T.; Smith, D.R.; Pendleton, G.W.

    1994-01-01

    Because American woodcock (Scolopax minor) populations have been declining, we attached radio transmitters to woodcock at coastal plain sites to determine if survival during winter was involved in the decline. Sites were in Georgia (1982-84, 1989-92), South Carolina (1988-89), and Virginia (1991-92). Survival rates were not different between age or sex classes. Survival rates differed (P = 0.003) among years. Daily survival rates were lowest (P = 0.030, S = 0.987) during 1982-83 in Georgia and highest (P = 0.004, S = 0.999) during 1990-91 in Georgia than in the other years and locations combined (S = 0.996). We attributed all mortality to raptors and mammals. Compared with other periods of the year, winter was a time of low survival for woodcock. Lower survival rates were possibly a cause of population decline.

  19. Comment on 'Are survival rates for northern spotted owls biased?'

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franklin, A.B.; Nichols, J.D.; Anthony, R.G.; Burnham, K.P.; White, Gary C.; Forsman, E.D.; Anderson, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    Loehle et al. recently estimated survival rates from radio-telemetered northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina (Merriam, 1898)) and suggested that survival rates estimated for this species from capture-recapture studies were negatively biased, which subsequently resulted in the negatively biased estimates of rates of population change (lambda) reported by Anthony et al. (Wildl. Monogr. No. 163, pp. 1-47 (2006)). We argue that their survival estimates were inappropriate for comparison with capture-recapture estimates because (i) the manner in which they censored radio-telemetered individuals had the potential to positively bias their survival estimates, (ii) their estimates of survival were not valid for evaluating bias, and (iii) the size and distribution of their radiotelemetry study areas were sufficiently different from capture-recapture study areas to preclude comparisons. In addition, their inferences of negative bias in rates of population change estimated by Anthony et al. were incorrect and reflected a misunderstanding about those estimators.

  20. Estimating survival rates with age-structure data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Udevitz, M.S.; Ballachey, B.E.

    1998-01-01

    We developed a general statistical model that provides a comprehensive framework for inference about survival rates based on standing age-structure and ages-at-death data. Previously available estimators are maximum likelihood under the general model, but they use only 1 type of data and require the assumption of a stable age structure and a known population growth rate. We used the general model to derive new survival rate estimators that use both types of data and require only the assumption of a stable age structure or a known population growth rate. Our likelihood-based approach allows use of standard model-selection procedures to test hypotheses about age-structure stability, population growth rates, and age-related patterns in survival. We used this approach to estimate survival rates for female sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

  1. Survival rates of birds of tropical and temperate forests: will the dogma survive?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karr, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Klimkiewicz, M.K.; Brawn, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Survival rates of tropical forest birds are widely assumed to be high relative to the survival rates of temperate forest birds. Much life-history theory is based on this assumption despite the lack of empirical data to support it. We provide the first detailed comparison of survival rates of tropical and temperate forest birds based on extensive data bases and modern capture-recapture models. We find no support for the conventional wisdom. Because clutch size is only one component of reproductive rate, the frequently assumed, simple association between clutch size and adult survival rates should not necessarily be expected. Our results emphasize the need to consider components of fecundity in addition to clutch size when comparing the life histories of tropical and temperate birds and suggest similar considerations in the development of vertebrate life-history theory.

  2. Reliability of gait in multiple sclerosis over 6 months.

    PubMed

    Sosnoff, Jacob J; Klaren, Rachel E; Pilutti, Lara A; Dlugonski, Deirdre; Motl, Robert W

    2015-03-01

    Gait impairment is ubiquitous in multiple sclerosis (MS) and is often characterized by alterations in spatiotemporal parameters of gait. There is limited information concerning reliability of spatiotemporal gait parameters over clinical timescales (e.g. 6 months). The current report provides novel evidence that gait parameters of 74 ambulatory persons with MS with mild-to-moderate disability are reliable over 6-months (ICC's for overall sample range from 0.56 to 0.91) in the absence of any intervention above and beyond standard care. Such data can inform clinical decision-making and power analyses for designing RCTs (i.e., sample size estimates) involving persons with MS.

  3. Large Number Discrimination in 6-Month-Old Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Fei; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2000-01-01

    Two experiments examined 6-month-olds' ability to discriminate between visual displays of various number of dots varying in size and position, and with controls for other extraneous variables. Findings indicated that infants could discriminate between large sets on the basis of numerosity if they differed by a large ratio (8 versus 16, but not 8…

  4. Retrieval Protracts Deferred Imitation by 6-Month-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Rachel; Rovee-Collier, Carolyn; Campanella, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Past research using a deferred imitation task has shown that 6-month-olds remember a 3-part action sequence for only 1 day. The concept of a time window suggests that there is a limited period within which additional information can be integrated with a prior memory. Its width tracks the forgetting function of the memory. This study asked if…

  5. Survival and Recurrence Rate after Treatment for Primary Spinal Sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Wonik

    2013-01-01

    Objective We have limited understanding on the presentation and survival of primary spinal sarcomas. The survival, recurrence rate, and related prognostic factors were investigated after treatment for primary sarcomas of the spine. Methods Retrospective analysis of medical records and radiological data was done for 29 patients in whom treatment was performed due to primary sarcoma of the spine from 2000 to 2010. As for treatment method, non-radical operation, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy were simultaneously or sequentially combined. Overall survival (OS), progression free survival (PFS), ambulatory function, and pain status were analyzed. In addition, factors affecting survival and recurrence were analyzed : age (≤42 or ≥43), gender, tumor histologic type, lesion location (mobile spine or rigid spine), weakness at diagnosis, pain at diagnosis, ambulation at diagnosis, initial treatment, radiation therapy, kind of irradiation, surgery, chemotherapy and distant metastasis. Results Median OS was 60 months, the recurrence rate was 79.3% and median PFS was 26 months. Patients with distant metastasis showed significantly shorter survival than those without metastasis. No factors were found to be significant relating to recurrence. Prognostic factor associated with walking ability was the presence of weakness at diagnosis. Conclusion Primary spinal sarcomas are difficult to cure and show high recurrence rate. However, the development of new treatment methods is improving survival. PMID:23826479

  6. Generalized procedures for testing hypotheses about survival or recovery rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, J.R.; Williams, B.K.

    1989-01-01

    Comparisons of survival or recovery rates from different time periods or geographic regions may be difficult to accomplish using the Z-tests suggested by Brownie et al. (1985). We propose a general Chi-square statistic that addresses an unambiguous null hypothesis of homogeneity among several survival or recovery rates. With this statistic, specific hypotheses of differences in rates can be simultaneously tested using contrasts. If necessary, a posteriori multiple comparisons can also be conducted that incorporate an adjustment for Type I error.

  7. Prognostic factors on survival rate of fingers replantation

    PubMed Central

    Lima, José Queiroz; Carli, Alberto De; Nakamoto, Hugo Alberto; Bersani, Gustavo; Crepaldi, Bruno Eiras; de Rezende, Marcelo Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the factors that influence the survival rate of replantation and revascularization of the thumb and/or fingers. Methods: We included fifty cases treated in our department from May 2012 to October 2013 with total or partial finger amputations, which had blood perfusion deficit and underwent vascular anastomosis. The parameters evaluated were: age, gender, comorbidities, trauma, time and type of ischemia, mechanism, the injured area, number of anastomosed vessels and use of vein grafts. The results were statistically analyzed and type I error value was set at p <0.05 . Results: Fifty four percent of the 50 performed replantation survived. Of 15 revascularizations performed, the survival rate was 93.3%. The only factor that affected the survival of the amputated limb was the necessity of venous anastomosis. Conclusion: We could not establish contraindications or absolute indications for the replantation and revascularization of finger amputations in this study. Level of Evidence III, Retropective Study. PMID:26327788

  8. Effect of lead poisoning on spectacled eider survival rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grand, James B.; Flint, Paul L.; Petersen, Margaret R.; Moran, Christine L.

    1998-01-01

    Spectacled eider (Somateria fischeri) populations on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (Y-K Delta), Alaska, declined rapidly through the 1980s, and low adult female survival was suggested as the likely cause of the decline. We used mark-resighting techniques to study annual survival rates of adult female spectacled eiders at 2 sites on the Y-K Delta during 1993-96. Our data suggest survival rates may differ among sites. However, a model fit to a subset of data on females for which we knew lead levels in blood suggests lead exposure influences survival. Adult females exposed to lead prior to hatching their eggs survived at a much lower rate (0.44 ?? 0.10) each year than females not exposed to lead before hatch (0.78 ?? 0.05). We suggest most mortality from lead exposure occurs over winter, and the related reduction in adult survival may be impeding recovery of local populations. We encourage managers to curtail input of lead shot into the environment.

  9. Temporal variation in survival and recovery rates of lesser scaup

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, Todd W.; Afton, Alan D.; Anteau, Michael J.; Koons, David N.; Nicolai, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Management of lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) has been hindered by access to reliable data on population trajectories and vital rates. We conducted a Bayesian analysis of historical (1951–2011) band-recovery data throughout North America to estimate annual survival and recovery rates for juvenile and adult male and female lesser scaup to determine if increasing harvest or declining survival rates have contributed to population changes and to determine if harvest has been primarily additive or compensatory. Annual recovery rates were low, ranging from 1% to 4% for adults and 2% to 10% for juveniles during most years, with trend models indicating that recovery rates have declined through time for all age–sex classes. Annual survival (mid-Aug to mid-Aug) averaged 0.402 (σ ̂ 0.043) for juvenile males, 0.416 (σ ̂ 0.067) for juvenile females, 0.689 (σ ̂ 0.109) for adult males, and 0.602 (σ ̂ 0.115) for adult females, where σ ̂ represents an estimate of annual process variation in each survival rate. Annual survival rates exhibited no evidence of long-term declines or negative correlations with annual recovery rates (i.e., an index of harvest intensity) for any age–sex class, suggesting that declining fecundity was the most likely explanation for population declines during 1975–2005. We conclude that hunting mortality played a minor role in affecting population dynamics of lesser scaup and waterfowl managers could take a less cautious approach in managing harvest, especially if recruiting or maintaining waterfowl hunters are viewed as important management objectives.

  10. HIV Transmission Risk Persists During the First 6 Months of Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mujugira, Andrew; Celum, Connie; Coombs, Robert W.; Campbell, James D.; Ndase, Patrick; Ronald, Allan; Were, Edwin; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Mugo, Nelly; Kiarie, James; Baeten, Jared M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) decreases the risk of sexual HIV transmission by suppressing blood and genital HIV RNA concentrations. We sought to determine HIV transmission risk prior to achieving complete viral suppression. Design Prospective cohort study. Methods Using data from the Partners PrEP Study, a prospective study of 4747 heterosexual HIV-serodiscordant couples in Kenya and Uganda, we examined multiple markers of HIV transmission risk during the first months after ART initiation: time to viral suppression in blood, persistence of HIV RNA in genital specimens, sexual risk behavior, pregnancy incidence, and HIV transmission using survival analysis and GEE logistic regression. Results The cumulative probabilities of achieving blood viral suppression (<80 copies/ml) 3, 6 and 9-months after ART initiation were 65.3%, 84.8% and 89.1%, respectively. Endocervical and seminal HIV RNA were detectable in 12% and 21% of samples obtained within 6-months of ART. Pregnancy incidence was 8.8 per 100 person-years during the first 6-months of ART, and sex unprotected by condoms was reported at 10.5% of visits. Among initially uninfected partners, HIV incidence before ART was 2.08 per 100 person-years (55 infections; 2644 person-years), 1.79 for 0–6 months after ART initiation (3 infections; 168 person-years), and 0.00 with >6 months of ART (0 infections; 167 person-years). Conclusions Residual HIV transmission risk persists during the first 6-months of ART, with incomplete viral suppression in blood and genital compartments. For HIV-serodiscordant couples in which the infected partner starts ART, other prevention options are needed, such as pre-exposure prophylaxis, until viral suppression is achieved. PMID:27070123

  11. Severe Septic Patients with Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroup JT Show Higher Survival Rates: A Prospective, Multicenter, Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Martín, María M.; López-Gallardo, Esther; Solé-Violán, Jordi; Blanquer, José; Labarta, Lorenzo; Díaz, César; Borreguero-León, Juan María; Jiménez, Alejandro; Montoya, Julio; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Objective In a previous cohort study (n=96), we found an association between mitochondrial (mt) DNA haplogroup JT and increased survival of severe septic patients, after controlling for age and serum lactic acid levels. The aim of this research was to increase the predictive accuracy and to control for more confounder variables in a larger cohort (n=196) of severe septic patients, to confirm whether mtDNA haplogroup JT influences short and medium-term survival in these patients. Methods We conducted a prospective, multicenter, observational study in six Spanish Intensive Care Units. We determined 30-day and 6-month survival and mtDNA haplogroup in this second cohort of 196 patients and in the global cohort (first and second cohorts combined) with 292 severe septic patients. Multiple logistic regression and Cox regression analyses were used to test for the association of mtDNA haplogroups JT with survival at 30-days and 6-months, controlling for age, sex, serum interleukin-6 levels and SOFA score. Results Logistic and Cox regression analyses showed no differences in 30-day and 6-month survival between patients with mtDNA haplogroup JT and other haplogroups in the first cohort (n=96). In the second cohort (n=196), these analyses showed a trend to higher 30-day and 6-month survival in those with haplogroup JT. In the global cohort (n=292), logistic and Cox regression analyses showed higher 30-day and 6-month survival for haplogroup JT. There were no significant differences between J and T sub-haplogroups in 30-day and 6-month survival. Conclusions The global cohort study (first and second cohorts combined), the largest to date reporting on mtDNA haplogroups in septic patients, confirmed that haplogroup JT patients showed increased 30-day and 6-month survival. This finding may be due to single nucleotide polymorphism defining the whole haplogroup JT and not separately for J or T sub-haplogroups. PMID:24069186

  12. Taking Orlistat: Predicting Weight Loss over 6 Months.

    PubMed

    Hollywood, Amelia; Ogden, Jane

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the predictors of weight loss following orlistat with a focus on both baseline variables and changes in beliefs and behaviours occurring over the course of taking the drug. Patients (n = 566) prescribed orlistat completed a questionnaire at baseline and after 6 months concerning their weight, beliefs and behaviours. By 6 months the majority had lost some weight and showed improvements in diet. Many had also stopped taking the drug and a large minority reported using it flexibly as a lifestyle drug. Those who lost most weight showed a decrease in beliefs in a medical solution, a decrease in unhealthy eating, an increased belief in treatment control and an increased belief that the unpleasant consequences are both due to their eating behaviour and just part of the drug. When taken with fatty food orlistat causes symptoms such as anal leakage and oily stools. These may encourage some patients to focus on the behavioural aspects of their weight problem thus promoting the dietary changes needed for both short and longer term weight loss. When prescribing orlistat, clinicians should encourage patients to see the consequences as an education as a means to promote the effectiveness of this form of medical management.

  13. The seven-year cumulative survival rate of Osstem implants

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Kyun; Kim, Bum-Su; Yun, Pil-Young; Mun, Sang-Un; Yi, Yang-Jin; Jeong, Kyung-In

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was performed to analyze the cumulative survival rate of Osstem implants (Osstem Implant Co., Ltd.) over a seven-year period. Materials and Methods A total of 105 patients who had 467 Osstem implants that were placed at the Section of Dentistry, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital (Seongnam, Korea) from June 2003 through December 2005 were analyzed. The life table method and a cross-tubulation analysis, log rank test were used to evaluate the survival curve and the influence that the prognostic factors. The prognostic factors, i.e., age and gender of patients, diameter and length, type of implants, bone graft history and loading time were determined with a Cox proportional hazard model based on logistic regression analysis. Results The seven-year cumulative survival rate of Osstem implants was 95.37%. The Cox proportional hazard model revealed that the following factors had a significant influence on survival rate; increased diameter, reduced prosthetic loading period and performance of bone grafting. Conclusion The osstem implants showed satisfactory results over the seven-year study period. PMID:24868503

  14. Effects of a 6-month incentive-based exercise program on adherence and work capacity.

    PubMed

    Robison, J I; Rogers, M A; Carlson, J J; Mavis, B E; Stachnik, T; Stoffelmayr, B; Sprague, H A; McGrew, C R; Van Huss, W D

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of behavioral management techniques on exercise adherence linked to improvements in work capacity and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). One hundred thirty-seven participants in six different worksites on a university campus (five experimental and one comparison site) completed 6 months of a minimally supervised, incentive-based endurance exercise program. All participants in the experimental group contracted to engage in at least four bouts of 30 min of verified aerobic exercise within a prescribed target heart rate range each week for the duration of the program. Forty dollars deposited at the beginning of the program served as a response cost that could be lost as a result of failure to fulfill the weekly contracts. Individuals in the comparison group participated in a similar 6-month program but without the contracts and response cost strategies. Weekly adherence for both groups was strictly defined as verified fulfillment of all four bouts of exercise. Adherence for the experimental group was 97% by this definition, and adherence for the comparison group was 19% (P less than 0.01). VO2max increased 2.6% (P less than 0.01), and treadmill test time increased 16% (P less than 0.01) in the experimental group after the 6-month program, with no significant changes in the comparison group. Recovery heart rates at 2 and 4 min post-exercise were significantly lower at 6 months in the experimental group but not in the comparison group. These data provide evidence that adherence to a 6-month endurance exercise program can be improved significantly through the use of well conceived behavior management strategies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Sex difference in the survival rate of wild brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) experimentally challenged with bovine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Rouco, Carlos; Richardson, Kyle S; Buddle, Bryce M; French, Nigel P; Tompkins, Daniel M

    2016-08-01

    The main wildlife reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in New Zealand is the introduced brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), with spillover of infection from possums to livestock being regarded as the largest barrier to eradicating TB from the country. Past studies have experimentally challenged possums with Mycobacterium bovis (the causative agent of TB) to quantify infection parameters. However, the challenge models used are invariably non-representative of natural infection due to their resulting in much faster rates, and different clinical patterns of disease progression. We monitored the survival of 16 wild free-living possums, fitted with VHF mortality collars and experimentally challenged with a new model, out to six months post-challenge. The aim was to assess whether the new model does indeed result in an ongoing pathogenesis trajectory that is more reflective of natural TB in possums. The mean survival period of challenged possums (~4.6months) did not differ from that estimated for wild free-living possums with naturally acquired TB. In addition, and unexpectedly, infected males survived on average for five weeks longer than females. This significant difference has not been previously observed in experimental trials with other TB/possum challenge models. If this is reflective of natural disease (as is the survival period produced by the percutaneous challenge model), TB infected males in the wild may be generating more secondary cases of infection than infected females. This insight has important implications for understanding the dynamics of, and managing, the disease in its New Zealand wildlife reservoir.

  16. Epidemiological Data and Survival Rate of Removable Partial Dentures

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Amália; Haddad, Marcela Filié; Rocha, Eduardo Passos; Assunção, Wirley Gonçalves; Filho, Humberto Gennari; Santos, Emerson Gomes Dos; Sonego, Mariana Vilela; Santos, Daniela Micheline Dos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The use of removable partial denture (RPD) is considered as low-cost and common treatment option to rehabilitate edentulous areas. Aim This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological data of patients rehabilitated with removable partial denture (RPD) in order to assess treatment survival rate and failures. Materials and Methods Epidemiological data and medical records of patients treated with RPD between 2007 and 2012 at the RPD discipline of a Brazilian University (Aracatuba Dental School- UNESP) were evaluated as well as dental records of patients who underwent RPD treatments (fabrication or repairs) between 2000 and 2010. Factors such as gender, age, presence of systemic disease, main complaint, edentulous arch, period and cause of denture replacement and the prosthesis characteristics were recorded. The chi-square test was used to assess the differences between the variables and the Kaplan Meyer to assess the survival of the RPDs evaluated. Results A total of 324 maxillary RPD and 432 mandibular RPD were fabricated. Most of the patients were women aging 41 to 60-year-old. The number of mandibular RPD Kennedy class I (26%) was statistically higher for the maxillary arch (p<.05). There was no association between main complaint to gender or the presence of systemic disease. The lingual plate was the most common major connector used in the mandible (32%). The main reason for altering the design of replaced RPDs were changes during treatment plan. Conclusion The number of patients who require RPD is large; most of RPDs are Kennedy Class I. A good treatment plan is very important for achieving a positive treatment outcome, and it is strictly related to the survival rate. PMID:27437367

  17. Adrenalectomy does not improve survival rates of patients with solitary adrenal metastasis from non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shao-Hong; Kong, Qing-Lei; Chen, Xue-Xia; He, Jin-Yuan; Qin, Jie; Chen, Zhuang-Gui

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose Several case reports and studies have suggested that there is an increased survival rate for patients who undergo resection of solitary adrenal metastasis from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study aimed to investigate whether NSCLC patients with solitary adrenal metastasis could gain a higher survival rate after adrenalectomy (ADX) when compared with those patients undergoing nonsurgical treatment, and to investigate the potential prognostic factors. Patients and methods A total of 1,302 NSCLC inpatients’ data from 2001 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed to identify those with solitary adrenal metastasis. Overall survival for those who underwent both primary resection and ADX was compared to those patients with conservative treatment using the log-rank test. Potential prognostic variables were evaluated with univariate and multivariate analyses including clinical, therapeutic, pathologic, primary and metastatic data. Results A total of 22 NSCLC patients with solitary adrenal metastasis were identified, with an overall median survival of 11 months (95% confidence interval: 9.4–12.6 months) and a 1-year survival rate of 51.4% (95% confidence interval: 29.6%–73.2%). All of the patients had died by 30 months. There was no significant survival difference between patients who underwent primary and metastasis resection (n=10) and those treated conservatively (n=12), (P=0.209). Univariate analysis identified Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) as the significant predictor of survival (P=0.024). Age (<65 vs ≥65 years), sex, pathologic type, mediastinal lymph node stage (N2 vs N0/N1), primary tumor size (<5 vs ≥5 cm), primary location (central vs peripheral), metastatic tumor size (<5 vs ≥5 cm), metastasis laterality, synchronous metastasis, and metastatic field radiotherapy were not identified as potential prognostic factors in relation to survival rate. In multivariate analysis, a stepwise

  18. Comparison of social support content within online communities for high- and low-survival-rate cancers.

    PubMed

    Buis, Lorraine R; Whitten, Pamela

    2011-08-01

    People experiencing cancer use the Internet for many reasons, particularly for social support. This study sought to determine how social support content within online support communities for different cancers varied according to cancer survival rate. A quantitative content analysis was conducted on 3717 posts from eight online communities focused on cancers with high and low 5-year relative survival rates. Using Optimal Matching Theory, we predicted that low-survival-rate communities would have more emotional support content than high-survival-rate communities, and high-survival-rate communities would have more informational support content than low-survival-rate communities. Emotional support content was consistently more common than informational support. Overall, high-survival-rate communities had a greater proportion of posts containing emotional support content (75%) than low-survival-rate communities (66%) (χ1 = 20.89 [n = 2235], P < .001). Furthermore, low-survival-rate communities had a greater proportion of posts containing informational support content (46%) than high-survival-rate communities (36%) (χ1 = 21.13 [n = 2235], P< .001). Although the relationships between survival rate and support types were significant, they were not as hypothesized. Deviations from theoretically predicted results suggest that individuals experiencing low-survival-rate cancers may have a greater desire for informational support online than individuals experiencing high-survival-rate cancers.

  19. Survival rate of preserved cultures contained in baker's vaccine.

    PubMed

    Kornacki, K; Klebukowska, I; Sienkiewicz, J

    2001-01-01

    The studies comprised the preparation and preservation, by the method of spray-drying, of baker's vaccine composed of lactic acid bacteria. The selection of particular strains was conducted taking into consideration the fermentation activity and growth dynamics of Lactobacillus rods isolated from plant material. Mixed vaccine was composed of chosen monocultures, characterized by the highest acidifying activity (4 strains). Before the vaccine was preserved, it had been used for making bread leaven (of rye flour) whose activity and usefulness for rye bread production was then determined The vaccine was subjected to spray-drying. The survival rate of Lactobacillus rods was determined directly after drying and during storage. It was found that the parameters of spray-drying applied in the experiment caused a considerable reduction in the number of vaccine components--by 2 log on average.

  20. Precursors to Aggression Are Evident by 6 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Dale F.; Waters, Cerith S.; Perra, Oliver; Swift, Naomi; Kairis, Victoria; Phillips, Rebecca; Jones, Roland; Goodyer, Ian; Harold, Gordon; Thapar, Anita; van Goozen, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that developmental precursors to aggression are apparent in infancy. Up to three informants rated 301 firstborn infants for early signs of anger, hitting and biting; 279 (93%) were assessed again as toddlers. Informants' ratings were validated by direct observation at both ages. The precursor behaviours were…

  1. Inferences regarding survival and recovery rates of winter-banded canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Haramis, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    Banding and recovery data from 3 populations of winter-banded canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) were analyzed and survival and recovery rates were estimated. Sex-specific differences in these rates were detected in some populations, and lower survival rates were exhibited by females. Some geographic variation in survival rates was evident, suggesting that canvasbacks should not be managed strictly on a continent-wide basis. Evidence of temporal variation in both survival and recovery rates was found. Lower recovery rates were noted during periods of restrictive hunting regulations, but the relationship between survival rates and hunting regulations was not clear-cut.

  2. Survival and band recovery rates of sympatric grey ducks and mallards in New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caithness, T.; Williams, M.; Nichols, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    We used band recovery data from grey ducks (Anas superciliosa) and mallards. (A. platyrhynchos) banded sympatrically during 1957-74 to estimate annual survival and recovery rates. Young birds tended to have higher recovery rates and lower survival rates than adults for both species. Both species showed strong evidence of year-to-year variation in annual survival rates. Survival rates of male mallards were higher than those in females, as is typical for this species in North America, but there was no evidence of sex-specific survival differences in grey ducks. Recovery rate estimates for grey ducks were high and were significantly higher than those for mallards. However, survival rates did not differ significantly between the 2 species within any age-sex class. The similar survival rates, when mallard populations were increasing and grey ducks were decreasing, suggest that mallard reproductive rates have been greater than those of grey ducks.

  3. Band reporting rates of waterfowl: does individual heterogeneity bias estimated survival rates?

    PubMed Central

    White, Gary C; Cordes, Line S; Arnold, Todd W

    2013-01-01

    In capture–recapture studies, the estimation accuracy of demographic parameters is essential to the efficacy of management of hunted animal populations. Dead recovery models based upon the reporting of rings or bands are often used for estimating survival of waterfowl and other harvested species. However, distance from the ringing site or condition of the bird may introduce substantial individual heterogeneity in the conditional band reporting rates (r), which could cause bias in estimated survival rates (S) or suggest nonexistent individual heterogeneity in S. To explore these hypotheses, we ran two sets of simulations (n = 1000) in MARK using Seber's dead recovery model, allowing time variation on both S and r. This included a series of heterogeneity models, allowing substantial variation on logit(r), and control models with no heterogeneity. We conducted simulations using two different values of S: S = 0.60, which would be typical of dabbling ducks such as mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and S = 0.80, which would be more typical of sea ducks or geese. We chose a mean reporting rate on the logit scale of −1.9459 with SD = 1.5 for the heterogeneity models (producing a back-transformed mean of 0.196 with SD = 0.196, median = 0.125) and a constant reporting rate for the control models of 0.196. Within these sets of simulations, estimation models where σS = 0 and σS > 0 (σS is SD of individual survival rates on the logit scale) were incorporated to investigate whether real heterogeneity in r would induce apparent individual heterogeneity in S. Models where σS = 0 were selected approximately 91% of the time over models where σS > 0. Simulation results showed < 0.05% relative bias in estimating survival rates except for models estimating σS > 0 when true S = 0.8, where relative bias was a modest 0.5%. These results indicate that considerable variation in reporting rates does not cause major bias in estimated survival rates of waterfowl, further highlighting

  4. Pre-Liver Transplant Transthoracic Echocardiogram Findings and 6-Month Post-Transplant Outcomes: A Case-Control Analysis.

    PubMed

    Konerman, Monica A; Price, Jennifer C; Campbell, Catherine Y; Eluri, Swathi; Gurakar, Ahmet; Hamilton, James; Li, Zhiping

    2016-07-05

    BACKGROUND Cardiopulmonary (CP) outcomes remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality following liver transplantation (LT). The optimal CP risk stratification of LT candidates remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of pre-LT transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) findings and 6-month post-LT outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS This retrospective review analyzed adults who underwent LT, comparing those who died within 6 months of LT (cases; n=38) with age- and sex-matched patients who survived >6 months (controls; n=38). Cases were categorized by cause of death (COD) defined as either a primary CP process (n=20) or a non-CP process (n=18). Data were analyzed using logistic regression and survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier curves. RESULTS There was a higher odds of death within 6 months of LT with ≥ mild mitral regurgitation (OR 3.44, p=0.03) or an incomplete assessment of right ventricular systolic function (RVSF) (OR 24, p=0.004). On subgroup analysis, these findings only persisted in patients with a CP COD. Patients with CP COD were older (61 vs. 54.5, p=0.04), had longer intervals between TTE and LT (122 vs. 29 days, p=0.05), less complete assessments of RVSF (p=0.009), and lower RV fractional area change (p=0.04) compared to patients with non-CP COD. CONCLUSIONS Multiple TTE parameters were associated with patients who died within 6 months of LT, and in particular patients with a CP COD. Our findings suggest that pre-LT TTEs can convey useful CP risk stratification information and emphasizes the importance of adequately assessing these parameters prior to LT.

  5. Data analysis of 87 tic patients for 6 months' treatment in a Korean medicine clinic.

    PubMed

    Chun, Young-Ho; Kim, Won-Ill; Kim, Bo-Kyung

    2013-10-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the relationship between the therapeutic effects of treatment for tic disorder and Korean medicine clinical tests, including body mass index (BMI) and heart variability rate (HRV). This study was not a clinical trial, but a data analysis of 87 tic patients who were treated for 6 months during the time period from Nov. 2010 to Jan. 2012. The clinical evaluation of the symptoms was recorded using the Korean version of the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS). The BMI and the HRV were measured according to a schedule, and various kinds of statistical methods were used. Among the 87 patients, the number of males was 3.34 times the number of females, and 58 patients (66.7%) had been suffering for more than 12 months. The onset age of the males was significantly lower than that of the females, and males had the symptoms longer than females had. Also, males with a family history of tics were 2.5 times as many as females, and their onset ages were substantially lower. At the first medical examinations, the average score on the YGTSS was 34.08, and it decreased linearly as the treatment progressed. After 4 and 6 months of treatment, it had decreased significantly. The YGTSS score and the period of suffering correlated positively. At the first visit, each HRV datum was in the normal range. After the 6 months' treatment, Ln (TP), Ln (LF), and Ln (HF) had dropped substantially in the normal range while Ln (VLF) and the LF/HF ratio had not changed in a meaningful way. During the treatment period, the BMI stayed relatively constant without any meaningful changes.

  6. Survival rate of eukaryotic cells following electrophoretic nanoinjection

    PubMed Central

    Simonis, Matthias; Hübner, Wolfgang; Wilking, Alice; Huser, Thomas; Hennig, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Insertion of foreign molecules such as functionalized fluorescent probes, antibodies, or plasmid DNA to living cells requires overcoming the plasma membrane barrier without harming the cell during the staining process. Many techniques such as electroporation, lipofection or microinjection have been developed to overcome the cellular plasma membrane, but they all result in reduced cell viability. A novel approach is the injection of cells with a nanopipette and using electrophoretic forces for the delivery of molecules. The tip size of these pipettes is approximately ten times smaller than typical microinjection pipettes and rather than pressure pulses as delivery method, moderate DC electric fields are used to drive charged molecules out of the tip. Here, we show that this approach leads to a significantly higher survival rate of nanoinjected cells and that injection with nanopipettes has a significantly lower impact on the proliferation behavior of injected cells. Thus, we propose that injection with nanopipettes using electrophoretic delivery is an excellent alternative when working with valuable and rare living cells, such as primary cells or stem cells. PMID:28120926

  7. A new approach to the "apparent survival" problem: estimating true survival rates from mark-recapture studies.

    PubMed

    Gilroy, James J; Virzi, Thomas; Boulton, Rebecca L; Lockwood, Julie L

    2012-07-01

    Survival estimates generated from live capture-mark-recapture studies may be negatively biased due to the permanent emigration of marked individuals from the study area. In the absence of a robust analytical solution, researchers typically sidestep this problem by simply reporting estimates using the term "apparent survival." Here, we present a hierarchical Bayesian multistate model designed to estimate true survival by accounting for predicted rates of permanent emigration. Initially we use dispersal kernels to generate spatial projections of dispersal probability around each capture location. From these projections, we estimate emigration probability for each marked individual and use the resulting values to generate bias-adjusted survival estimates from individual capture histories. When tested using simulated data sets featuring variable detection probabilities, survival rates, and dispersal patterns, the model consistently eliminated negative biases shown by apparent survival estimates from standard models. When applied to a case study concerning juvenile survival in the endangered Cape Sable Seaside Sparrow (Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis), bias-adjusted survival estimates increased more than twofold above apparent survival estimates. Our approach is applicable to any capture-mark-recapture study design and should be particularly valuable for organisms with dispersive juvenile life stages.

  8. Safety and 6-month effectiveness of minimally invasive sacroiliac joint fusion: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Duhon, Bradley S; Cher, Daniel J; Wine, Kathryn D; Lockstadt, Harry; Kovalsky, Don; Soo, Cheng-Lun

    2013-01-01

    Background Sacroiliac (SI) joint pain is an often overlooked cause of low back pain. SI joint arthrodesis has been reported to relieve pain and improve quality of life in patients suffering from degeneration or disruption of the SI joint who have failed non-surgical care. We report herein early results of a multicenter prospective single-arm cohort of patients with SI joint degeneration or disruption who underwent minimally invasive fusion using the iFuse Implant System®. Methods The safety cohort includes 94 subjects at 23 sites with chronic SI joint pain who met study eligibility criteria and underwent minimally invasive SI joint fusion with the iFuse Implant System® between August 2012 and September 2013. Subjects underwent structured assessments preoperatively, immediately postoperatively, and at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively, including SI joint and back pain visual analog scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Short Form-36 (SF-36), and EuroQoL-5D (EQ-5D). Patient satisfaction with surgery was assessed at 6 months. The effectiveness cohort includes the 32 subjects who have had 6-month follow-up to date. Results Mean subject age was 51 years (n=94, safety cohort) and 66% of patients were women. Subjects were highly debilitated at baseline (mean VAS pain score 78, mean ODI score 54). Three implants were used in 80% of patients; two patients underwent staged bilateral implants. Twenty-three adverse events occurred within 1 month of surgery and 29 additional events occurred between 30 days and latest follow-up. Six adverse events were severe but none were device-related. Complete 6-month postoperative follow-up was available in 26 subjects. In the effectiveness cohort, mean (± standard deviation) SI joint pain improved from a baseline score of 76 (±16.2) to a 6-month score of 29.3 (±23.3, an improvement of 49 points, P<0.0001), mean ODI improved from 55.3 (±10.7) to 38.9 (±18.5, an improvement of 15.8 points, P<0.0001) and SF-36 PCS improved

  9. β2-microglobulin Normalization Within 6 months of Ibrutinib-based Treatment is Associated with Superior PFS in CLL

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Philip A.; O’Brien, Susan M.; Xiao, Lianchun; Wang, Xuemei; Burger, Jan A.; Jain, Nitin; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Estrov, Zeev; Keating, Michael J.; Wierda, William G.

    2016-01-01

    High pre-treatment β2-microglobulin (B2M) level is associated with inferior survival outcomes. However, the prognostic and predictive significance of changes in B2M during treatment have not been reported. We analyzed 83 patients treated with ibrutinib-based regimens (66 relapsed/refractory) and 198 treatment-naïve (TN) patients treated with combined fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and rituximab (FCR) to characterize change in B2M and their relationship to clinical outcomes. B2M rapidly fell during treatment with ibrutinib; in multivariable analysis (MVA), patients who received FCR [OR 0.40 (0.18–0.90), p=0.027] were less likely to normalize B2M at 6 months than patients treated with ibrutinib. On univariable analysis, normalization of B2M was associated with superior progression-free survival (PFS) from the 6-month landmark in patients treated with ibrutinib-based regimens and FCR. On MVA, failure to normalize B2M at 6 months of treatment was associated with inferior PFS [HR 16.9 (1.3–220.0), p=0.031] for ibrutinib-treated patients, after adjusting for the effects of baseline B2M, stage, fludarabine-refractory disease and del(17p). In contrast, in FCR-treated patients, bone marrow MRD-negative status was the only variable significantly associated with superior PFS [HR 0.28 (0.12–0.67), p=0.004]. Normalization of B2M at 6 months in ibrutinib-treated patients thus was a useful predictor of subsequent PFS and may assist clinical decision-making. PMID:26588193

  10. Survival rate after emergency diagnosis of cancer is 'shocking'.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    ONE QUARTER of patients diagnosed with cancer after attending a London emergency department will die within two months, latest research suggests. Study author Kathy Pritchard-Jones, chief medical officer for London Cancer, said the 'shocking figures' confirm that early diagnosis makes a huge difference to the chances of surviving cancer.

  11. 6-Month Outcomes from a Randomized Controlled Trial to Prevent Perinatal Depression in Low-Income Home Visiting Clients

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, S. Darius; Leis, Julie A.; Mendelson, Tamar; Perry, Deborah F.; Kemp, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Perinatal depression (PD) has negative consequences for mothers and children and is more prevalent among women of low socioeconomic status. Home visitation programs serve low-income pregnant women at risk for PD. This study tested the efficacy of a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention (Mothers and Babies Course; MB) in reducing depressive symptoms and preventing the onset of perinatal depression among low-income women enrolled in home visitation. Methods A randomized controlled trial was conducted. Seventy-eight women who were pregnant or had a child less than 6 months of age and who were assessed as at risk for PD were randomized to the MB intervention or usual home visiting services. Depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline and 1-week, 3- and 6-months post-intervention; depressive episodes were assessed with a clinical interview at the 6-month follow-up. Results Depressive symptoms declined at a significantly greater rate for intervention participants than usual care participants between baseline and 1-week, 3 months, and 6 months post-intervention. At the six-month follow-up, 15% of women who received the MB intervention had experienced a major depressive episode as compared with 32% of women receiving usual care. Conclusions Integrating mental health interventions into home visitation appears to be a promising approach for preventing PD. Cognitive behavioral techniques can be effective in preventing depression in perinatal populations and treating it. PMID:23793487

  12. Doubly robust estimator for net survival rate in analyses of cancer registry data.

    PubMed

    Komukai, Sho; Hattori, Satoshi

    2017-03-01

    Cancer population studies based on cancer registry databases are widely conducted to address various research questions. In general, cancer registry databases do not collect information on cause of death. The net survival rate is defined as the survival rate if a subject would not die for any causes other than cancer. This counterfactual concept is widely used for the analyses of cancer registry data. Perme, Stare, and Estève (2012) proposed a nonparametric estimator of the net survival rate under the assumption that the censoring time is independent of the survival time and covariates. Kodre and Perme (2013) proposed an inverse weighting estimator for the net survival rate under the covariate-dependent censoring. An alternative approach to estimating the net survival rate under covariate-dependent censoring is to apply a regression model for the conditional net survival rate given covariates. In this article, we propose a new estimator for the net survival rate. The proposed estimator is shown to be doubly robust in the sense that it is consistent at least one of the regression models for survival time and for censoring time. We examine the theoretical and empirical properties of our proposed estimator by asymptotic theory and simulation studies. We also apply the proposed method to cancer registry data for gastric cancer patients in Osaka, Japan.

  13. Survival rates of female greater sage-grouse in autumn and winter in Southeastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, R.G.; Willis, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    We estimated survival rates of 135 female greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) on 3 study areas in southeastern Oregon, USA during autumn and winter for 3 years. We used known-fate models in Program MARK to test for differences among study areas and years, investigate the potential influence of weather, and compute estimates of overwinter survival. We found no evidence for differences in survival rates among study areas, which was contrary to our original hypothesis. There also were no declines in survival rates during fallwinter, but survival rates varied among years and time within years. Average survival rate from October through February was 0.456 (SE 0.062). The coefficient of variation for this estimate was 13.6% indicating good precision in our estimates of survival. We found strong evidence for an effect of weather (i.e., mean daily min. temp, extreme min. temp, snow depth) on bi-weekly survival rates of sage-grouse for 2 of the study areas in one year. Extremely low (1,500 m) elevations. In contrast, we found no evidence for an influence of weather on the low-elevation study area or during the winters of 19891990 and 19911992. Extreme weather during winter can cause lower survival of adult female sage-grouse, so managers should be aware of these potential effects and reduce harvest rates accordingly.

  14. Estimation of survival rates from band recoveries of mule deer in Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    White, G.C.; Bartmann, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    An attempt has been made to determine the survival rate of mule deer in the White River drainage basin in northwestern Colorado. During five winters, 1972-76, 1923 mule deer were trapped and marked. Survival rates were determined at yearly intervals. A FORTRAN program was used to perform the analysis.

  15. A randomized controlled trial of a mindfulness-based intervention program for people with schizophrenia: 6-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-Qun; Chien, Wai Tong; Yip, Lai King; Karatzias, Thanos

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions have been increasingly evidenced to be effective in different mental illnesses but limited in schizophrenia. This single-blind, multisite randomized controlled trial tested the effects of a mindfulness-based psychoeducation group program (MPGP in addition to usual care) versus a conventional psychoeducation group program (CPGP) versus treatment-as-usual (TAU) alone, in schizophrenia spectrum disorders over a 6-month follow-up. In each of the two study sites (outpatient clinics), 69 outpatients with schizophrenia or its subtypes (N=138) were randomly allocated to one of the three study groups (n=46) after baseline measurements and underwent 6 months of intervention. Primary outcomes including patients’ mental state and rehospitalization rate and other secondary outcomes were assessed at entry and at 1 week and 6 months. One hundred and thirty-one (95%) participants completed the interventions assigned and one to two post-tests. Multivariate analyses of variance (followed by univariate contrast tests) indicated that the MPGP participants reported greater reductions in their psychotic symptoms (P=0.003) and length/duration of rehospitalizations (P=0.005) at 6-month follow-up. Patients in the MPGP group also reported greater improvements in their insight into illness/treatment (P=0.0008) and level of functioning (P=0.002) than the CPGP and TAU alone at the 1-week and 6-month follow-up. Overall, the findings suggest that MPGP can be useful in improving the short- to medium-term clinical outcomes of outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, not only in terms of their mental state and risk of relapse but also their insight into illness/treatment and psychosocial functioning. PMID:27994466

  16. Endovascular treatment of bifurcation intracranial aneurysms with the WEB SL/SLS: 6-month clinical and angiographic results

    PubMed Central

    Bozzetto Ambrosi, Patricia; Sivan-Hoffmann, Rotem; Riva, Roberto; Signorelli, Francesco; Labeyrie, Paul-Emile; Eldesouky, Islam; Sadeh-Gonike, Udi; Armoiry, Xavier; Turjman, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Background The WEB device is a recent intrasaccular flow disruption technique developed for the treatment of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms. To date, a single report on the WEB Single-Layer (SL) treatment of intracranial aneurysms has been published with 1-months' safety results. The aim of this study is to report our experience and 6-month clinical and angiographic follow-up of endovascular treatment of wide-neck aneurysm with the WEB SL. Methods Ten patients with 10 unruptured wide-necked aneurysms were prospectively enrolled in this study. Feasibility, intraoperative and postoperative complications, and outcomes were recorded. Immediate and 6-month clinical and angiographic results were evaluated. Results Failure of WEB SL placement occurred in two cases. Eight aneurysms were successfully treated using one WEB SL without additional treatment. Three middle cerebral artery, four anterior communicating artery, and one basilar artery aneurysms were treated. Average dome width was 7.5 mm (range 5.4–10.7 mm), and average neck size was 4.9 mm (range 2.6–6.5 mm). No periprocedural complication was observed, and morbi-mortality at discharge and 6 months was 0.0%. Angiographic follow-up at 6 months demonstrated complete aneurysm occlusion in 2/8 aneurysms, neck remnant in 5/8 aneurysms, and aneurysm remnant in 1/8 aneurysm. Conclusions From this preliminary study, treatment of bifurcation intracranial aneurysms using WEB SL is feasible. WEB SL treatment seems safe at 6 months; however, the rate of neck remnants is not negligible due to compression of the WEB SL. Further technical improvements may be needed in order to ameliorate the occlusion in the WEB SL treatment. PMID:26111987

  17. The impact of fecal and urinary incontinence on quality of life 6 months after childbirth

    PubMed Central

    Handa, Victoria L.; Zyczynski, Halina M.; Burgio, Kathryn L.; Fitzgerald, Mary Pat; Borello-France, Diane; Janz, Nancy K.; Fine, Paul M.; Whitehead, William; Brown, Morton B.; Weber, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of postpartum fecal incontinence (FI) and urinary incontinence (UI) on quality of life (QOL). Study Design Seven hundred fifty-nine primiparous women in the Childbirth and Pelvic Symptoms study were interviewed 6 months postpartum. FI and UI were assessed with validated questionnaires. We measured QOL with SF-12 summary scores, health utility index score (a measure of self-rated overall health), and the modified Manchester Health Questionnaire. Results Women with FI had worse self-rated health utility index scores (85.1 ± 9.8 vs 88.0 ± 11.6, P = .02) and Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) mental summary scores (46.8 ± 9.2 vs 51.1 ± 8.7, P < .0001) than women without FI or flatal incontinence. Women with UI had worse SF-12 mental summary scores (48.3 ± 9.8 vs 51.6 ± 7.8, P < .01) and self-rated health utility index scores (84.1 ± 12.5 vs 88.7 ± 10.1, P < .01) than women without UI. Women with both FI and UI had the lowest SF-12 mental summary scores (44.5 ± 9.0). Conclusion Six months after delivery, women experiencing FI or UI reported negative effects on health-related QOL. FI and UI together have a greater impact than either condition alone. PMID:18060960

  18. AMS INSIGHT--absorbable metal stent implantation for treatment of below-the-knee critical limb ischemia: 6-month analysis.

    PubMed

    Bosiers, Marc; Peeters, Patrick; D'Archambeau, Olivier; Hendriks, Jeroen; Pilger, Ernst; Düber, Christoph; Zeller, Thomas; Gussmann, Andreas; Lohle, Paul N M; Minar, Erich; Scheinert, Dierk; Hausegger, Klaus; Schulte, Karl-Ludwig; Verbist, Jürgen; Deloose, Koen; Lammer, J

    2009-05-01

    Endoluminal treatment of infrapopliteal artery lesions is a matter of controversy. Bioabsorbable stents are discussed as a means to combine mechanical prevention of vessel recoil with the advantages of long-term perspectives. The possibility of not having a permanent metallic implant could permit the occurrence of positive remodeling with lumen enlargement to compensate for the development of new lesions. The present study was designed to investigate the safety of absorbable metal stents (AMSs) in the infrapopliteal arteries based on 1- and 6-month clinical follow-up and efficacy based on 6-month angiographic patency. One hundred seventeen patients with 149 lesions with chronic limb ischemia (CLI) were randomized to implantation of an AMS (60 patients, 74 lesions) or stand-alone percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA; 57 patients, 75 lesions). Seven PTA-group patients "crossed over" to AMS stenting. The study population consisted of patients with symptomatic CLI (Rutherford categories 4 and 5) and de novo stenotic (>50%) or occlusive atherosclerotic disease of the infrapopliteal arteries who presented with a reference diameter of between 3.0 and 3.5 mm and a lesion length of <15 mm. The primary safety endpoint was defined as absence of major amputation and/or death within 30 days after index intervention and the primary efficacy endpoint was the 6-month angiographic patency rate as confirmed by core-lab quantitative vessel analysis. The 30-day complication rate was 5.3% (3/57) and 5.0% (3/60) in patients randomized for PTA alone and PTA followed by AMS implantation, respectively. On an intention-to-treat basis, the 6-month angiographic patency rate for lesions treated with AMS (31.8%) was significantly lower (p = 0.013) than the rate for those treated with PTA (58.0%). Although the present study indicates that the AMS technology can be safely applied, it did not demonstrate efficacy in long-term patency over standard PTA in the infrapopliteal vessels.

  19. Survival of young American alligators on a Florida lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodward, A.R.; Hines, T.C.; Abercrombie, C.L.; Nichols, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    A capture-recapture study was conducted on Orange Lake, Florida, from 1979 through 1984 to estimate survival rates of young in an American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) populations. Hatchlings remained together in sibling groups (pods) for at least their 1st year and then began to disperse during their 2nd spring and summer. Mortality through mid-November of their 1st year was negligible. Jolly-Seber (JS) survival estimates of hatchlings for 6 and 12 months were 76 and 41%, respectively. The 2-year JS estimate for the 1980 cohort was 8%. Minimum-Known-Alive (MKA) survival values were 72 and 46% of JS estimates for 6 months and 1 year of age. Survival during the 2nd 6 months of life (spring-summer) tended to be lower than survival during the 1st 6 months (fall-winter).

  20. Variability in nest survival rates and implications to nesting studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, A.T.; Johnson, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    We used four reasonably large samples (83-213) of Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and Blue-winged Teal (A. discors) nests on an interstate highway right-of-way in southcentral North Dakota to evaluate potential biases in hatch-rate estimates. Twelve consecutive, weekly searches for nests were conducted with a cable-chain drag in 1976 and 1977. Nests were revisited at weekly intervals. Four methods were used to estimate hatch rates for the four data sets: the Traditional Method, the Mayfield Method, and two modifications of the Mayfield Method that are sometimes appropriate when daily mortality rates of nests are not constant. Hatch rates and the average age of nests at discovery declined as the interval between searches decreased, suggesting that mortality rates were not constant in our samples. An analysis of variance indicated that daily mortality rates varied with the age of nests in all four samples. Mortality was generally highest during the early laying period, moderately high during the late laying period, and lowest during incubation. We speculate that this relationship of mortality to nest age might be due to the presence of hens at nests or to differences in the vulnerability of nest sites to predation. A modification of the Mayfield Method that accounts for age-related variation in nest mortality was most appropriate for our samples. We suggest methods for conducting nesting studies and estimating nest success for species possessing similar nesting habits.

  1. Survival rate of breast cancer patients in Malaysia: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Nor Aini; Wan Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita; Muhammad, Nor Asiah; Ali, Zainudin Mohamad; Ibrahim, Lailanor; Ibrahim Tamim, Nor Saleha; Mustafa, Amal Nasir; Kamaluddin, Muhammad Amir

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Malaysian women. Other than hospital-based results, there are no documented population-based survival rates of Malaysian women for breast cancers. This population- based retrospective cohort study was therefore conducted. Data were obtained from Health Informatics Centre, Ministry of Health Malaysia, National Cancer Registry and National Registration Department for the period from 1st Jan 2000 to 31st December 2005. Cases were captured by ICD-10 and linked to death certificates to identify the status. Only complete data were analysed. Survival time was calculated from the estimated date of diagnosis to the date of death or date of loss to follow-up. Observed survival rates were estimated by Kaplan- Meier method using SPSS Statistical Software version 17. A total of 10,230 complete data sets were analysed. The mean age at diagnosis was 50.6 years old. The overall 5-year survival rate was 49% with median survival time of 68.1 months. Indian women had a higher survival rate of 54% compared to Chinese women (49%) and Malays (45%). The overall 5-year survival rate of breast cancer patient among Malaysian women was still low for the cohort of 2000 to 2005 as compared to survival rates in developed nations. Therefore, it is necessary to enhance the strategies for early detection and intervention.

  2. Is the rate of metabolic ageing and survival determined by Basal metabolic rate in the zebra finch?

    PubMed

    Rønning, Bernt; Moe, Børge; Berntsen, Henrik H; Noreen, Elin; Bech, Claus

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between energy metabolism and ageing is of great interest because aerobic metabolism is the primary source of reactive oxygen species which is believed to be of major importance in the ageing process. We conducted a longitudinal study on captive zebra finches where we tested the effect of age on basal metabolic rate (BMR), as well as the effect of BMR on the rate of metabolic ageing (decline in BMR with age) and survival. Basal metabolic rate declined with age in both sexes after controlling for the effect of body mass, indicating a loss of functionality with age. This loss of functionality could be due to accumulated oxidative damage, believed to increase with increasing metabolic rate, c.f. the free radical theory of ageing. If so, we would expect the rate of metabolic ageing to increase and survival to decrease with increasing BMR. However, we found no effect of BMR on the rate of metabolic ageing. Furthermore, survival was not affected by BMR in the males. In female zebra finches there was a tendency for survival to decrease with increasing BMR, but the effect did not reach significance (P<0.1). Thus, the effect of BMR on the rate of functional deterioration with age, if any, was not strong enough to influence neither the rate of metabolic ageing nor survival in the zebra finches.

  3. Trends in 5-year survival rates among breast cancer patients by hormone receptor status and stage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lu; Linden, Hannah M.; Anderson, Benjamin O.; Li, Christopher I.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Improvement in breast cancer survival has been observed in recent decades in the U.S., but it is unclear if similar survival gains are consistent across breast cancer subtypes, especially with regards to more advanced stages of the disease. Methods Data were from 13 population-based cancer registries participating in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program, consisting of women between 20–79 years of age diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 1992 and 2008. 2-year (1992–2008) and 5-year (1992–2006) breast cancer cause-specific survival rates were calculated and stratified by estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) status, stage and race. Annual percent changes in survival rates were assessed. Results From 1992 through 1998–1999, 5-year and 2-year cause specific survival rates significantly improved across ER+/PR+, ER−/PR− and ER+/PR− subtypes, with an annual increase ranging from 0.5%–1.0%. From 1998–1999 to 2006, different patterns were observed by ER/PR subtypes with survival rates slightly improving for ER+/PR+, continuing to improve at a rate of 0.5% per year for ER−/PR−, and dropping 0.3% annually for ER+/PR− No significant survival gains were experienced by patients with ER−/PR+ cancer during the study period. In terms of advanced diseases, greatest annual increases in survival rates were seen for patients with stage III–IV ER+/PR+ and ER−/PR− tumors but less progress was observed for advanced ER+/PR− breast cancers. Conclusion Steady improvements in survival rates for breast cancer have been achieved over the past several decades. However, 5-year survival rates for stage IV disease remained dismally below 20% for most ER/PR subtypes. PMID:25164974

  4. A 6-Month Assessment of Sleep During Naval Deployment: A Case Study of a Commanding Officer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    less than a month in duration. 1 , 10 Although useful, sleep studies of only days or weeks in duration may give an inaccurate portrayal of the...Reprint & Copyright © by the Aerospace Medical Association, Alexandria, VA. DOI: 10.3357/AMHP.4140.2015 A 6- Month Assessment of Sleep During Naval...environments , sleep debt , maritime sleep , sleep at sea , predicted eff ectiveness . Shattuck NL, Matsangas P. A 6- month assessment of sleep

  5. Monitoring survival rates of Swainson's Thrush Catharus ustulatus at multiple spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, D.K.; DeSante, D.F.; McKelvey, K.S.; Hines, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    We estimated survival rates of Swainson's Thrush, a common, neotropical, migratory landbird, at multiple spatial scales, using data collected in the western USA from the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship Programme. We evaluated statistical power to detect spatially heterogeneous survival rates and exponentially declining survival rates among spatial scales with simulated populations parameterized from results of the Swainson's Thrush analyses. Models describing survival rates as constant across large spatial scales did not fit the data. The model we chose as most appropriate to describe survival rates of Swainson's Thrush allowed survival rates to vary among Physiographic Provinces, included a separate parameter for the probability that a newly captured bird is a resident individual in the study population, and constrained capture probability to be constant across all stations. Estimated annual survival rates under this model varied from 0.42 to 0.75 among Provinces. The coefficient of variation of survival estimates ranged from 5.8 to 20% among Physiographic Provinces. Statistical power to detect exponentially declining trends was fairly low for small spatial scales, although large annual declines (3% of previous year's rate) were likely to be detected when monitoring was conducted for long periods of time (e.g. 20 years). Although our simulations and field results are based on only four years of date from a limited number and distribution of stations, it is likely that they illustrate genuine difficulties inherent to broadscale efforts to monitor survival rates of territorial landbirds. In particular, our results suggest that more attention needs to be paid to sampling schemes of monitoring programmes particularly regarding the trade-off between precison and potential bias o parameter estimates at varying spatial scales.

  6. Monitoring survival rates of Swainson's Thrush Catharus ustulatus at multiple spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, D.K.; DeSante, D.F.; McKelvey, K.S.; Hines, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    We estimated survival rates of Swainson's Thrush, a common, neotropical, migratory landbird, at multiple spatial scales, using data collected in the western USA from the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship Programme. We evaluated statistical power to detect spatially heterogeneous survival rates and exponentially declining survival rates among spatial scales with simulated populations parameterized from results of the Swainson's Thrush analyses. Models describing survival rates as constant across large spatial scales did not fit the data. The model we chose as most appropriate to describe survival rates of Swainson's Thrush allowed survival rates to vary among Physiographic Provinces, included a separate parameter for the probability that a newly captured bird is a resident individual in the study population, and constrained capture probability to be constant across all stations. Estimated annual survival rates under this model varied from 0.42 to 0.75 among Provinces. The coefficient of variation of survival estimates ranged from 5.8 to 20% among Physiographic Provinces. Statistical power to detect exponentially declining trends was fairly low for small spatial scales, although large annual declines (3% of previous year's rate) were likely to be detected when monitoring was conducted for long periods of time (e.g. 20 years). Although our simulations and field results are based on only four years of data from a limited number and distribution of stations, it is likely that they illustrate genuine difficulties inherent to broadscale efforts to monitor survival rates of territorial landbirds. In particular, our results suggest that more attention needs to be paid to sampling schemes of monitoring programmes, particularly regarding the trade-off between precision and potential bias of parameter estimates at varying spatial scales.

  7. Outcomes of ≤6-month versus 12-month dual antiplatelet therapy after drug-eluting stent implantation

    PubMed Central

    Villablanca, Pedro A.; Massera, Daniele; Mathew, Verghese; Bangalore, Sripal; Christia, Panagiota; Perez, Irving; Wan, Ningxin; Schulz-Schüpke, Stefanie; Briceno, David F.; Bortnick, Anna E.; Garcia, Mario J.; Lucariello, Richard; Menegus, Mark; Pyo, Robert; Wiley, Jose; Ramakrishna, Harish

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The benefit of ≤6-month compared with 12-month dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stent (DES) placement remains controversial. We performed a meta-analysis and meta-regression of ≤6-month versus 12-month DAPT in patients undergoing PCI with DES placement. Methods: We conducted electronic database searches of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing DAPT durations after DES placement. For studies with longer follow-up, outcomes at 12 months were identified. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were computed with the Mantel–Haenszel method. Fixed-effect models were used; if heterogeneity (I2) > 40 was identified, effects were obtained with random models. Results: Nine RCTs were included with total n = 19,224 patients. No significant differences were observed between ≤6-month compared with 12-month DAPT in all-cause mortality (OR 0.87; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69–1.11), cardiovascular (CV) mortality (OR 0.89; 95% CI: 0.66–1.21), non-CV mortality (OR 0.85; 95% 0.58–1.24), myocardial infarction (OR 1.10; 95% CI: 0.89–1.37), stroke (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.67–1.42), stent thrombosis (ST) (OR 1.37; 95% CI: 0.89–2.10), and target vessel revascularization (OR 0.95; 95% CI: 0.77–1.18). No significant difference in major bleeding (OR 0.72; 95% CI: 0.49–1.05) was observed, though the all-bleeding event rate was significantly lower in the ≤6-month DAPT group (OR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.59–0.96). In the meta-regression analysis, a significant association between bleeding events and non-CV mortality with 12-month DAPT was found, as well as between ST and mortality in addition to MI with ≤6-month DAPT. Conclusion: DAPT for ≤6 months is associated with similar mortality and ischemic outcomes but less bleeding events compared with 12-month DAPT after PCI with DES. PMID:28033306

  8. A 6-month large-scale study into the safety of tamsulosin

    PubMed Central

    Michel, M C; Bressel, H-U; Goepel, M; Rübben, H

    2001-01-01

    Aims Tamsulosin is an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist for the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia with a tolerability similar to that of placebo in short-term, placebo-controlled studies with limited patient numbers. The present study was designed to test the safety of tamsulosin treatment in a large cohort of men during a prolonged period of time, particularly with regard to comedications. Methods A multicentre, open-label phase IIIb study with 1784 patients receiving 0.4 mg o.d. tamsulosin for 6 months was performed according to good clinical practice guidelines. The analysis was performed on an intention-to-treat basis and powered to detect adverse events (AE) occurring in 0.15% of patients with 95% confidence. Results During a total drug exposure time of 811 patient years, 386 AE were recorded in 253 patients (14.2%; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 12.0–15.2%). Twenty-nine patients suffered 44 serious AE including five fatal events (CI 0.12–0.73%) due to myocardial infarction (n = 3) and to pneumonia and a car accident (one each), but all deaths were judged to be unlikely to be related to study medication. The frequency of AE in patients without any comedication (n = 1095) was 13.0% (CI 11.3–14.9%). In a logistic regression analysis β-adrenoceptor blockers, converting enzyme inhibitors, antidiabetics and diuretics did not significantly affect the odds ratio for having AE. However, concomitant α-adrenoceptor antagonists (a protocol violation) and treatment with verapamil (which also has α-adrenoceptor antagonist activity) significantly enhanced the odds ratio for having AE to 3.87 (CI 1.52–9.85) and 3.17 (CI 1.52–6.58), respectively. Minor increases in the odds ratio, which did not reach statistical significance, were also observed for Ca2+ antagonists other than verapamil and for nitrates. Conclusions We conclude that tamsulosin has a good safety profile relative to AE rates in the placebo arms of previous studies on tamsulosin even in

  9. Differential gene expression in the liver of the African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, after 6 months of aestivation in air or 1 day of arousal from 6 months of aestivation.

    PubMed

    Hiong, Kum C; Ip, Yuen K; Wong, Wai P; Chew, Shit F

    2015-01-01

    The African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, can undergo aestivation during drought. Aestivation has three phases: induction, maintenance and arousal. The objective of this study was to examine the differential gene expression in the liver of P. annectens after 6 months (the maintenance phase) of aestivation as compared with the freshwater control, or after 1 day of arousal from 6 months aestivation as compared with 6 months of aestivation using suppression subtractive hybridization. During the maintenance phase of aestivation, the mRNA expression of argininosuccinate synthetase 1 and carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III were up-regulated, indicating an increase in the ornithine-urea cycle capacity to detoxify ammonia to urea. There was also an increase in the expression of betaine homocysteine-S-transferase 1 which could reduce and prevent the accumulation of hepatic homocysteine. On the other hand, the down-regulation of superoxide dismutase 1 expression could signify a decrease in ROS production during the maintenance phase of aestivation. In addition, the maintenance phase was marked by decreases in expressions of genes related to blood coagulation, complement fixation and iron and copper metabolism, which could be strategies used to prevent thrombosis and to conserve energy. Unlike the maintenance phase of aestivation, there were increases in expressions of genes related to nitrogen, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and fatty acid transport after 1 day of arousal from 6 months aestivation. There were also up-regulation in expressions of genes that were involved in the electron transport system and ATP synthesis, indicating a greater demand for metabolic energy during arousal. Overall, our results signify the importance of sustaining a low rate of waste production and conservation of energy store during the maintenance phase, and the dependence on internal energy store for repair and structural modification during the arousal phase, of aestivation in the liver

  10. Differential Gene Expression in the Liver of the African Lungfish, Protopterus annectens, after 6 Months of Aestivation in Air or 1 Day of Arousal from 6 Months of Aestivation

    PubMed Central

    Hiong, Kum C.; Ip, Yuen K.; Wong, Wai P.; Chew, Shit F.

    2015-01-01

    The African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, can undergo aestivation during drought. Aestivation has three phases: induction, maintenance and arousal. The objective of this study was to examine the differential gene expression in the liver of P. annectens after 6 months (the maintenance phase) of aestivation as compared with the freshwater control, or after 1 day of arousal from 6 months aestivation as compared with 6 months of aestivation using suppression subtractive hybridization. During the maintenance phase of aestivation, the mRNA expression of argininosuccinate synthetase 1 and carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III were up-regulated, indicating an increase in the ornithine-urea cycle capacity to detoxify ammonia to urea. There was also an increase in the expression of betaine homocysteine-S-transferase 1 which could reduce and prevent the accumulation of hepatic homocysteine. On the other hand, the down-regulation of superoxide dismutase 1 expression could signify a decrease in ROS production during the maintenance phase of aestivation. In addition, the maintenance phase was marked by decreases in expressions of genes related to blood coagulation, complement fixation and iron and copper metabolism, which could be strategies used to prevent thrombosis and to conserve energy. Unlike the maintenance phase of aestivation, there were increases in expressions of genes related to nitrogen, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and fatty acid transport after 1 day of arousal from 6 months aestivation. There were also up-regulation in expressions of genes that were involved in the electron transport system and ATP synthesis, indicating a greater demand for metabolic energy during arousal. Overall, our results signify the importance of sustaining a low rate of waste production and conservation of energy store during the maintenance phase, and the dependence on internal energy store for repair and structural modification during the arousal phase, of aestivation in the liver

  11. Low survival rates of Swan Geese (Anser cygnoides) estimated from neck-collar resighting and telemetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choi, Chang-Yong; Lee, Ki-Sup; Poyarkov, Nikolay D.; Park, Jin-Young; Lee, Hansoo; Takekawa, John; Smith, Lacy M.; Ely, Craig R.; Wang, Xin; Cao, Lei; Fox, Anthony D.; Goroshko, Oleg; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Prosser, Diann J.; Xiao, Xiangming

    2016-01-01

    Waterbird survival rates are a key component of demographic modeling used for effective conservation of long-lived threatened species. The Swan Goose (Anser cygnoides) is globally threatened and the most vulnerable goose species endemic to East Asia due to its small and rapidly declining population. To address a current knowledge gap in demographic parameters of the Swan Goose, available datasets were compiled from neck-collar resighting and telemetry studies, and two different models were used to estimate their survival rates. Results of a mark-resighting model using 15 years of neck-collar data (2001–2015) provided age-dependent survival rates and season-dependent encounter rates with a constant neck-collar retention rate. Annual survival rate was 0.638 (95% CI: 0.378–0.803) for adults and 0.122 (95% CI: 0.028–0.286) for first-year juveniles. Known-fate models were applied to the single season of telemetry data (autumn 2014) and estimated a mean annual survival rate of 0.408 (95% CI: 0.152–0.670) with higher but non-significant differences for adults (0.477) vs. juveniles (0.306). Our findings indicate that Swan Goose survival rates are comparable to the lowest rates reported for European or North American goose species. Poor survival may be a key demographic parameter contributing to their declining trend. Quantitative threat assessments and associated conservation measures, such as restricting hunting, may be a key step to mitigate for their low survival rates and maintain or enhance their population.

  12. Aircrew Survival Equipmentman 1 and C. NAVPERS 10360-D. Rate Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    A guide for advancement and training in the Aircrew Survival Equipmentman rating for enlisted personnel of the Regular Navy and the Naval Reserve is provided in this training manual. The chapters outline the qualifications necessary and the responsibilities of Aircrew Survival Equipmentmen involved in blueprint reading and the development of…

  13. Aircrew Survival Equipmentman 3 & 2; Naval Training Command Rate Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The training manual is one of a series prepared for enlisted personnel of the Regular Navy and the Naval Reserve who are training for performance proficiency and studying for advancement in the Aircrew Survival Equipmentman (PR) rating. The illustrated and indexed manual focuses on the personnel parachute and other related survival equipment.…

  14. Impact of 6-month caloric restriction on autonomic nervous system activity in healthy, overweight, individuals.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, Lilian; Moreira, Emilia A M; Martin, Corby K; Ravussin, Eric

    2010-02-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) increases maximum lifespan but the mechanisms are unclear. Dominance of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) over the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) has been shown to be a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Obesity and aging are associated with increased SNS activity, and weight loss and/or exercise seem to have positive effects on this balance. We therefore evaluated the effect of different approaches of CR on autonomic function in 28 overweight individuals participating in the Comprehensive Assessment of Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy (CALERIE) trial. Participants were randomized to either control, CR: 25% decrease in energy intake, CREX: 12.5% CR + 12.5% increase in energy expenditure, or LCD: low-calorie diet until 15% weight reduction followed by weight maintenance. Autonomic function was assessed by spectral analysis of heart-rate variability (HRV) while fasting and after a meal. Measurements were performed at baseline and 6 months. HR and SNS index decreased and PNS index increased in all intervention groups but reached significance only in CREX. HR and SNS index increased and PNS index decreased in response to the meal in all intervention groups. The results therefore suggest that weight loss improved SNS/PNS balance especially when CR is combined with exercise.

  15. Application of Artificial Neural Network in Predicting the Survival Rate of Gastric Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Biglarian, A; Hajizadeh, E; Kazemnejad, A; Zali, MR

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to predict the survival rate of Iranian gastric cancer patients using the Cox proportional hazard and artificial neural network models as well as comparing the ability of these approaches in predicting the survival of these patients. Methods: In this historical cohort study, the data gathered from 436 registered gastric cancer patients who have had surgery between 2002 and 2007 at the Taleghani Hospital (a referral center for gastrointestinal cancers), Tehran, Iran, to predict the survival time using Cox proportional hazard and artificial neural network techniques. Results: The estimated one-year, two-year, three-year, four-year and five-year survival rates of the patients were 77.9%, 53.1%, 40.8%, 32.0%, and 17.4%, respectively. The Cox regression analysis revealed that the age at diagnosis, high-risk behaviors, extent of wall penetration, distant metastasis and tumor stage were significantly associated with the survival rate of the patients. The true prediction of neural network was 83.1%, and for Cox regression model, 75.0%. Conclusion: The present study shows that neural network model is a more powerful statistical tool in predicting the survival rate of the gastric cancer patients compared to Cox proportional hazard regression model. Therefore, this model recommended for the predicting the survival rate of these patients. PMID:23113076

  16. 38 CFR 3.23 - Improved pension rates-Veterans and surviving spouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... income of the veteran or surviving spouse. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 1521, 1541) (c) Mexican border period and World War I veterans. The applicable maximum annual rate payable to a Mexican border period...

  17. 38 CFR 3.23 - Improved pension rates-Veterans and surviving spouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... income of the veteran or surviving spouse. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 1521, 1541) (c) Mexican border period and World War I veterans. The applicable maximum annual rate payable to a Mexican border period...

  18. 38 CFR 3.23 - Improved pension rates-Veterans and surviving spouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... income of the veteran or surviving spouse. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 1521, 1541) (c) Mexican border period and World War I veterans. The applicable maximum annual rate payable to a Mexican border period...

  19. 38 CFR 3.23 - Improved pension rates-Veterans and surviving spouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... income of the veteran or surviving spouse. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 1521, 1541) (c) Mexican border period and World War I veterans. The applicable maximum annual rate payable to a Mexican border period...

  20. Adult survival and population growth rate in Colorado big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, T.J.; Ellison, L.E.; Stanley, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    We studied adult survival and population growth at multiple maternity colonies of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Fort Collins, Colorado. We investigated hypotheses about survival using information-theoretic methods and mark-recapture analyses based on passive detection of adult females tagged with passive integrated transponders. We constructed a 3-stage life-history matrix model to estimate population growth rate (??) and assessed the relative importance of adult survival and other life-history parameters to population growth through elasticity and sensitivity analysis. Annual adult survival at 5 maternity colonies monitored from 2001 to 2005 was estimated at 0.79 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.77-0.82). Adult survival varied by year and roost, with low survival during an extreme drought year, a finding with negative implications for bat populations because of the likelihood of increasing drought in western North America due to global climate change. Adult survival during winter was higher than in summer, and mean life expectancies calculated from survival estimates were lower than maximum longevity records. We modeled adult survival with recruitment parameter estimates from the same population. The study population was growing (?? = 1.096; 95% CI = 1.057-1.135). Adult survival was the most important demographic parameter for population growth. Growth clearly had the highest elasticity to adult survival, followed by juvenile survival and adult fecundity (approximately equivalent in rank). Elasticity was lowest for fecundity of yearlings. The relative importances of the various life-history parameters for population growth rate are similar to those of large mammals. ?? 2011 American Society of Mammalogists.

  1. Dose-rate dependent stochastic effects in radiation cell-survival models.

    PubMed

    Sachs, R K; Hlatky, L R

    1990-01-01

    When cells are subjected to ionizing radiation the specific energy rate (microscopic analog of dose-rate) varies from cell to cell. Within one cell, this rate fluctuates during the course of time; a crossing of a sensitive cellular site by a high energy charged particle produces many ionizations almost simultaneously, but during the interval between events no ionizations occur. In any cell-survival model one can incorporate the effect of such fluctuations without changing the basic biological assumptions. Using stochastic differential equations and Monte Carlo methods to take into account stochastic effects we calculated the dose-survival relationships in a number of current cell survival models. Some of the models assume quadratic misrepair; others assume saturable repair enzyme systems. It was found that a significant effect of random fluctuations is to decrease the theoretically predicted amount of dose-rate sparing. In the limit of low dose-rates neglecting the stochastic nature of specific energy rates often leads to qualitatively misleading results by overestimating the surviving fraction drastically. In the opposite limit of acute irradiation, analyzing the fluctuations in rates merely amounts to analyzing fluctuations in total specific energy via the usual microdosimetric specific energy distribution function, and neglecting fluctuations usually underestimates the surviving fraction. The MOnte Carlo methods interpolate systematically between the low dose-rate and high dose-rate limits. As in other approaches, the slope of the survival curve at low dose-rates is virtually independent of dose and equals the initial slope of the survival curve for acute radiation.

  2. Improving village poultry's survival rate through community-based poultry health management: evidence from Benin.

    PubMed

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Olorounto Delphin

    2013-01-01

    Community-based poultry health management (CBM) is a strategy for village poultry improvement based on the installment of "poultry interest groups" in experimental villages. These groups serve as a channel for the dissemination of village poultry improvement technologies. The use of CBM is due to the fact that village poultry farming is practiced in a total or partial scavenging system which gives the impression that all the birds in the village belong to the same flock. Accordingly, actions that target all farmers of the same village may have a larger impact on the village poultry's survival rate than actions that target individual producers. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of CBM on the survival rate of village poultry. Based on data collected on 353 poultry keepers, the study shows that CBM significantly improves the survival rate of village poultry. The adoption of technologies--poultry vaccination, construction of henhouses, and improved feed--disseminated through the CBM also significantly improves the survival rate. The access to markets for inputs and veterinary services is also important in improving the survival rate of poultry. Finally, the study suggests that governments and development agencies can improve village poultry survival rates by investing in the dissemination of information regarding best husbandry management practices through approaches that rely on the community such as CBM because CBM groups serve as channels for the dissemination of village poultry improvement technologies.

  3. Estimating survival rates with time series of standing age-structure data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Udevitz, Mark S.; Gogan, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    It has long been recognized that age-structure data contain useful information for assessing the status and dynamics of wildlife populations. For example, age-specific survival rates can be estimated with just a single sample from the age distribution of a stable, stationary population. For a population that is not stable, age-specific survival rates can be estimated using techniques such as inverse methods that combine time series of age-structure data with other demographic data. However, estimation of survival rates using these methods typically requires numerical optimization, a relatively long time series of data, and smoothing or other constraints to provide useful estimates. We developed general models for possibly unstable populations that combine time series of age-structure data with other demographic data to provide explicit maximum likelihood estimators of age-specific survival rates with as few as two years of data. As an example, we applied these methods to estimate survival rates for female bison (Bison bison) in Yellowstone National Park, USA. This approach provides a simple tool for monitoring survival rates based on age-structure data.

  4. Computed Tomography-Guided High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Safety, Efficacy, and Effect on Survival

    SciTech Connect

    Mohnike, Konrad; Wieners, Gero; Schwartz, Franziska; Seidensticker, Max; Pech, Maciej; Ruehl, Ricarda; Wust, Peter; Lopez-Haenninen, Enrique; Gademann, Guenther; Peters, Nils; Berg, Thomas; Malfertheiner, Peter; Ricke, Jens

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: To determine the saftety and efficacy of computed tomography (CT)-guided brachytherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: A total of 83 patients were recruited, presenting with 140 HCC- lesions. Treatment was performed by CT-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy with an iridium-192 source. The primary endpoint was time to progression; secondary endpoints included local tumor control and overall survival (OS). A matched-pair analysis with patients not receiving brachytherapy was performed. Match criteria included the Cancer of the Liver Italian Program (CLIP) score, alpha-fetoprotein, presence, and extent of multifocal disease. For statistical analysis, Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression were performed. Results: Mean and median cumulative TTP for all patients (n = 75) were 17.7 and 10.4 months. Five local recurrences were observed. The OS after inclusion reached median times of 19.4 months (all patients), 46.3 months (CLIP score, 0), 20.6 months (CLIP score, 1) 12.7 months, (CLIP score, 2), and 8.3 months (CLIP score, {>=}3). The 1- and 3-year OS were 94% and 65% (CLIP score, 0), 69% and 12% (CLIP score, 1), and 48% and 19% (CLIP score, 2), respectively. Nine complications requiring intervention were encountered in 124 interventions. Matched-pair analysis revealed a significantly longer OS for patients undergoing CT-guided brachytherapy. Conclusion: Based on our results the study treatment could be safely performed. The study treatment had a beneficial effect on OS in patients with advanced HCC, with respect to (and depending on) the CLIP score and compared with OS in a historical control group. A high rate of local control was also observed, regardless of applied dose in a range of 15 to 25 Gy.

  5. Infant sleep development from 3 to 6 months postpartum: links with maternal sleep and paternal involvement.

    PubMed

    Tikotzky, Liat; Sadeh, Avi; Volkovich, Ella; Manber, Rachel; Meiri, Gal; Shahar, Golan

    2015-03-01

    The aims of this longitudinal study were to examine (a) development of infant sleep and maternal sleep from 3 to 6 months postpartum; (b) concomitant and prospective links between maternal sleep and infant sleep; and (c) triadic links between paternal involvement in infant caregiving and maternal and infant sleep. The study included 57 families that were recruited during pregnancy. Maternal and infant sleep was assessed using actigraphy and sleep diaries for 5 nights. Both fathers and mothers completed a questionnaire assessing the involvement of fathers relative to mothers in infant caregiving. The results demonstrated moderate improvement in infant and maternal sleep percent between 3 and 6 months. Maternal sleep percent at 3 months significantly predicted infant sleep percent at 6 months. Greater paternal involvement in infant daytime and nighttime caregiving at 3 months significantly predicted more consolidated maternal and infant sleep at 6 months. These findings suggest that maternal sleep is an important predictor of infant sleep and that increased involvement of fathers in infant caregiving responsibilities may contribute to improvements in both maternal and infant sleep during the first 6 months postpartum.

  6. Survival rates, mortality causes, and habitats of Pennsylvania white-tailed deer fawns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vreeland, J.K.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Wallingford, B.D.

    2004-01-01

    Estimates of survival and cause-specific mortality of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns are important to population management. We quantified cause-specific mortality, survival rates, and habitat characteristics related to fawn survival in a forested landscape and an agricultural landscape in central Pennsylvania. We captured and radiocollared neonatal (0.05). Predation accounted for 46.2% (95% Cl = 37.6-56.7%) of 106 mortalities through 34 weeks. We attributed 32.7% (95% Cl = 21.9-48.6%) and 36.7% (95% Cl = 25.5-52.9%) of 49 predation events to black bears (Ursus americanus) and coyotes (Canis latrans], respectively. Natural causes, excluding predation, accounted for 27.4% (95% Cl = 20.1-37.3) of mortalities. Fawn survival in Pennsylvania was comparable to reported survival in forested and agricultural regions in northern portions of the white-tailed deer range. We have no evidence to suggest that the fawn survival rates we observed were preventing population growth. Because white-tailed deer are habitat generalists, home-range-scale habitat characteristics may be unrelated to fawn survival; therefore, future studies should consider landscape-related characteristics on fawn survival.

  7. Perception of neon color spreading in 3-6-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiale; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K

    2009-12-01

    Although lots of studies about neon color spreading have been reported, few of these studies have focused on the perceptual development of it in human infants. Therefore, this study explores the perceptual development of neon color spreading in infants. In experiment 1, we examined 3-6-month-olds' perception of neon color spreading in static conditions. In experiment 2, we examined 3-6-month-olds' perception of neon color spreading in moving conditions. Our results suggest that while only 5-6-month-old infants show a preference for neon color spreading in the static condition, 3-4-month-old infants also prefer neon color spreading if motion information is available.

  8. Infants' responses to arm restraint at 2 and 6 months: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Moscardino, Ughetta; Axia, Giovanna

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the continuity, stability, and change of infants' responses to a frustrating event (i.e., arm restraint) between 2 and 6 months in terms of both negative reactivity and its regulation. Fifty-two healthy, full-term infants and their mothers participated in an arm restraint procedure. Infant behaviors were observed and coded at 3-s intervals. The results showed that infants' reactivity to frustration and their ability to regulate such reactivity significantly changed in level over time. Individual differences in frustration reactivity were stable across the two ages; two regulatory behaviors (i.e., orientation to mother and avoidance) could be observed in the same percentage of babies at both 2 and 6 months. At 6 months, several significant associations between frustration reactivity and infant regulatory behaviors emerged. These findings suggest that the arm restraint procedure may be usefully employed to study individual differences in infants as young as 2 months of age.

  9. Pain and emotions reported after childbirth and recalled 6 months later: the role of controllability.

    PubMed

    Tinti, Carla; Schmidt, Susanna; Businaro, Nicoletta

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was twofold: to investigate the relationship between subjectively evaluated control, positive and negative emotional feelings, and pain intensity during childbirth; to assess the recall of these aspects of childbirth experience 6 months after delivery. Participants were 123 women who delivered naturally and spoke fluent Italian. Results showed that both immediately after delivery and 6 months later, higher subjective controllability was related to less severe reported pain, more intense positive emotions and less intense negative emotions. Furthermore, although there was no significant bias in the vividness of the recall, 6 months after delivery women reported higher subjective controllability, more intense positive emotions, less intense negative emotions and less intense pain. It is concluded that in preparing women for childbirth, two aspects deserve particular attention: the enhancement of subjectively perceived controllability and the possibility to work on both negative and positive emotions.

  10. Effects of habitat disturbance on survival rates of softshell turtles (Apalone spinifera) in an urban stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plummer, M.V.; Krementz, D.G.; Powell, L.A.; Mills, N.E.

    2008-01-01

    We monitored Spiny Softshell Turtles (Apalone spinifera) using mark-recapture during 1994-2005 in Gin Creek, Searcy, Arkansas. In 1997-2000 the creek bed and riparian zone were bulldozed in an effort to remove debris and improve water flow. This disturbance appeared to reduce the quantity and quality of turtle habitat. We tested for the potential effect of this habitat disturbance on the survival rates of marked turtles. We estimated annual survival rates for the population using models that allowed for variation in survival by state of maturation, year, and effects of the disturbance; we evaluated two different models of the disturbance impact. The first disturbance model incorporated a single change in survival rates, following the disturbance, whereas the second disturbance model incorporated three survival rates: pre- and postdisturbance, as well as a short-term decline during the disturbance. We used a state-transition model for our mark-recapture analysis, as softshells transition from juveniles to adults in a variable period of time. Our analysis indicated that survival varied by maturation state and was independent of a time trend or the disturbance. Annual survival rates were lower for juveniles (S?? = 0.717, SE = 0.039) than for adults (S?? = 0.836, SE = 0.025). Despite the dramatic habitat disturbance, we found no negative effects on survival rates. Our results demonstrate that, like a few other freshwater turtle species known to thrive in urban environments, populations of A. spinifera are resilient and can persist in urban environments despite periodic habitat disturbances. Copyright 2008 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  11. Banding reference areas and survival rates of green-winged teal, 1950-1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chu, D.S.; Nichols, J.D.; Hestbeck, J.B.; Hines, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    The green-winged teal (Anas crecca carolinensis) is an important harvest species, yet we know relatively little about its population ecology. We investigated aspects of green-winged teal population ecology of potential importance to waterfowl managers. We used recoveries of green-winged teal banded during winter (1950-89) to establish banding reference areas and estimate survival and band recovery rates. We used cluster analysis based on similarities in recovery patterns to group banding degree blocks into 8 minor and 5 major reference areas describing the principal wintering range of green-winged teal in North America. We then estimated survival and recovery rates of green-winged teal banded in these areas. Mean annual survival rate estimates across years and reference areas were similar (P gt 0.05) for males (0.55, cxa SE = 0.022) and females (0.51, cxa SE = 0.057). Mean annual recovery rate estimates were larger for males (0.033, cxa SE = 0.0017) than for females (0.024, cxa SE = 0.0024) (P lt 0.01). There was little evidence of temporal variation in survival or recovery rates for most datasets. There was evidence of geographic variation in survival rates among major reference areas for males (P = 0.04) but not for females (P = 0.30). We recommend that analyses be conducted on greenwinged teal banded during preseason to further investigate possible sex specificity of survival rates and to address questions about the relationship between harvest rates and survival.

  12. Association between Higher Rates of Cardioprotective Drug Use and Survival in Patients on Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yuexin; Brooks, John M.; Wetmore, James B.; Shireman, Theresa I.

    2015-01-01

    Background While cardiovascular (CV) disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients on chronic dialysis, utilization rates of cardioprotective drugs for dialysis patients remain low. This study sought to determine whether higher rates of cardioprotective drug use among dialysis patients might increase survival. Methods A retrospective cohort of incident dialysis patients (n = 50,468) with dual eligibility for U.S. Medicare and Medicaid was constructed using USRDS data linked with billing claims. Medication exposures included angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEIs/ARBs), β-blockers, calcium channel blockers (CCBs), and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) prescribed within 90 days of dialysis initiation. The outcomes were one- and two-year survival and CV event-free survival. Variation in treatment rates based on local area practice styles were used as instruments in instrumental variable (IV) estimation, yielding average treatment effect estimates for patients whose treatment choices were affected by local area practice styles. Results Patients aged 65 years and older comprised 47.4% of the sample, while 59.5% were female and 35.0% were white. The utilization rate was 40.7% for ACEIs/ARBs, 43.0% for β-blockers, 50.7% for CCBs and 26.4% for statins. The local area practice style instruments were highly significantly related to cardioprotective drug use in dialysis patients (Chow-F values > 10). IV estimates showed only that higher rates of β-blockers increased one-year survival (β = 0.161, P-value = 0.020) and CV event-free survival (β = 0.189, P-value = 0.033), but that higher rates of CCBs decreased two-year CV event-free survival (β = -0.520, P-value = 0.009). Conclusions This study suggests that higher utilization rates of β-blockers might yield higher survival rates for dialysis patients. However, higher rates of the other drugs studied had no correlations with survival, and higher CCB rates

  13. Mini Nutritional Assessment predicts gait status and mortality 6 months after hip fracture.

    PubMed

    Gumieiro, David N; Rafacho, Bruna P M; Gonçalves, Andrea F; Tanni, Suzana E; Azevedo, Paula S; Sakane, Daniel T; Carneiro, Carlos A S; Gaspardo, David; Zornoff, Leonardo A M; Pereira, Gilberto J C; Paiva, Sergio A R; Minicucci, Marcos F

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), the Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS) 2002 and the American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status Score (ASA) as predictors of gait status and mortality 6 months after hip fracture. A total of eighty-eight consecutive patients over the age of 65 years with hip fracture admitted to an orthopaedic unit were prospectively evaluated. Within the first 72 h of admission, each patient's characteristics were recorded, and the MNA, the NRS 2002 and the ASA were performed. Gait status and mortality were evaluated 6 months after hip fracture. Of the total patients, two were excluded because of pathological fractures. The remaining eighty-six patients (aged 80·2 (sd 7·3) years) were studied. Among these patients 76·7 % were female, 69·8 % walked with or without support and 12·8 % died 6 months after the fracture. In a multivariate analysis, only the MNA was associated with gait status 6 months after hip fracture (OR 0·773, 95 % CI 0·663, 0·901; P= 0·001). In the Cox regression model, only the MNA was associated with mortality 6 months after hip fracture (hazard ratio 0·869, 95 % CI 0·757, 0·998; P= 0·04). In conclusion, the MNA best predicts gait status and mortality 6 months after hip fracture. These results suggest that the MNA should be included in the clinical stratification of patients with hip fracture to identify and treat malnutrition in order to improve the outcomes.

  14. Intrauterine Device Placement During Cesarean Delivery and Continued Use 6 Months Postpartum: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Levi, Erika E; Stuart, Gretchen S; Zerden, Matthew L; Garrett, Joanne M; Bryant, Amy G

    2017-01-01

    Objective To compare intrauterine device (IUD) use at 6 months postpartum among women who underwent intracesarean delivery (during cesarean delivery) IUD placement versus women who planned for interval IUD placement 6 or more weeks postpartum. Methods In this non-blinded randomized trial women who were undergoing a cesarean and desired an IUD were randomized to intracesarean cesarean delivery or interval IUD placement. The primary outcome was IUD use at 6 months postpartum. A sample size of 112 (56 in each group) was planned to detect a 15% difference in IUD use at 6 months postpartum between groups. Results From March 2012 to June 2014, 172 women were screened and 112 women were randomized into the trial. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. Data regarding IUD use at 6 months postpartum was available for 98 women, 48 and 50 women in the intracesarean and interval groups, respectively. A larger proportion of the women in the intracesarean group were using an IUD at 6 months postpartum ((40/48), 83%) compared to those in the interval group ((32/50) 64%, relative risk [RR]=1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02, 1.66). Among the 56 women randomized to interval IUD insertion, 22 (39%) of them never received an IUD; 14 (25%) never returned for IUD placement, five (9%) women declined an IUD, and three (5%) had a failed IUD placement. Conclusion IUD placement at the time of cesarean delivery leads to a higher proportion of IUD use at 6 months postpartum when compared to interval IUD placement. PMID:26241250

  15. Modeling the effect of toe clipping on treefrog survival: Beyond the return rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waddle, J.H.; Rice, K.G.; Mazzotti, F.J.; Percival, H.F.

    2008-01-01

    Some studies have described a negative effect of toe clipping on return rates of marked anurans, but the return rate is limited in that it does not account for heterogeneity of capture probabilities. We used open population mark-recapture models to estimate both apparent survival (ϕ) and the recapture probability (p) of two treefrog species individually marked by clipping 2–4 toes. We used information-theoretic model selection to examine the effect of toe clipping on survival while accounting for variation in capture probability. The model selection results indicate strong support for an effect of toe clipping on survival of Green Treefrogs (Hyla cinerea) and only limited support for an effect of toe clipping on capture probability. We estimate there was a mean absolute decrease in survival of 5.02% and 11.16% for Green Treefrogs with three and four toes removed, respectively, compared to individuals with just two toes removed. Results for Squirrel Treefrogs (Hyla squirella) indicate little support for an effect of toe clipping on survival but may indicate some support for a negative effect on capture probability. We believe that the return rate alone should not be used to examine survival of marked animals because constant capture probability must be assumed, and our examples demonstrate how capture probability may vary over time and among groups. Mark-recapture models provide a method for estimating the effect of toe clipping on anuran survival in situations where unique marks are applied.

  16. Improved Squat and Gait Biomechanics 6-Months Post-Arthroscopic Surgery for Femoroacetabular Impingement

    PubMed Central

    Cvetanovich, Gregory; Farkas, Gary Jordan; Rajan, Kumar; Espinoza, Alejandro; Nho, Shane Jay

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to assess gait and squat biomechanics 6-months following arthroscopic surgery for femoroacetabular impingement. Methods: Symptomatic patients with clinical and radiographic diagnosis of FAI who had failed non-operative treatment underwent gait and squat analysis preoperatively and at 6-months postoperatively following arthroscopic surgery for FAI. Age- and BMI-matched controls without radiographic FAI or other lumbar or lower extremity pathology underwent a single analysis for comparison. Comparisons between preoperative and 6-month postoperative gait and squat parameters as well as comparison to the control group were performed using paired and independent sample t-tests. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results: Fifteen FAI patients and 9 controls were analyzed. Age for the patients vs. controls was 28.7±9.6 y vs. 27.8±6.5 y (p>0.05), respectively; while BMI was 23.5±5.1 kg/m2 vs. 22.8±3.5 kg/m2 (p>0.05). All gait parameters were unchanged between preoperative and 6-month postoperative testing (p>0.05), with a trend toward significance for hip external rotation moment (p=0.056) (Table 1). Squat testing revealed that FAI arthroscopic surgery increased maximum hip extension (p=0.011), with a trend toward significance for hip adduction moment (p=0.059). All other squat parameters did not differ from preoperative to 6-month follow-up (p>0.05). Compared to the control group, preoperative FAI patients had reduced hip external rotation moment during gait (p=0.024), with a trend toward significance for hip abduction moment (p=0.082). No other gait or squat differences were detected between FAI patients preoperatively or 6-months postoperatively compared to controls (p>0.05). Conclusion: Biomechanical gait and squat analysis at 6-month follow-up from arthroscopic FAI surgery revealed a tendency to improve external hip rotation during gait and maximum hip extension and hip adduction during squat. Arthroscopic surgery for FAI may

  17. The impact factors on 5-year survival rate in patients operated with oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Geum, Dong-Ho; Roh, Young-Chea; Yoon, Sang-Yong; Kim, Hyo-Geon; Lee, Jung-Han; Song, Jae-Min; Lee, Jae-Yeol; Hwang, Dae-Seok; Kim, Yong-Deok; Shin, Sang-Hun; Chung, In-Kyo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to analyze clinical impact factors on the survival rate, and to acquire basic clinical data for the diagnosis of oral cancer, for a determination of the treatment plan with long-term survival in oral cancer patients. Materials and Methods Through a retrospective review of the medical records, the factors for long-term survival rate were analyzed. Thirty-seven patients, among patient database with oral cancer treated in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at Pusan National University Hospital within a period from March 1998 to March 2008, were selected within the study criteria and were followed-up for more than 5 years. The analyzed factors were gender, age, drinking, smoking, primary tumor site, type of cancer, TNM stage, recurrence of affected region, and metastasis of cervical lymph node. The 5-year survival rate on the impact factors was calculated statistically using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results By classification of clinical TNM at the 1st visit, there were 11 (29.7%) cases for stage I, 11 (29.7%) cases for stage II, 3 (8.1%) cases for stage III, and 12 (32.5%) cases for stage IV. The 5-year survival rate of total oral cancer patients after the operation were 75.7%, pathological TNM stage related 5-year survival rate were as follows: stage I 90.0%, stage II 81.8%, stage III 100% and stage IV 45.5%; in which the survival rate difference by each stage was significantly observed. The recurrence of cervical lymph node was the significant impact factor for the survival rate, because only 30.0% the survival rate in recurrent cases existed. During the follow-up, there were 15 (40.5%) patients with confirmed recurrence, and the 5-year survival rate of these patients was decreased as 46.7%. Conclusion The classification of clinical and pathological TNM stage, local recurrence after surgery, and metastasis of cervical lymph node after surgery were analyzed as the 3 most significant factors. PMID:24471047

  18. Survival rate of gastric cancer in Iran; a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Veisani, Yousef; Delpisheh, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Aim: In this study, we aimed to estimate one- to five-year survival rates in Iranian patients with gastric cancer (GC). In addition, we preformed subgroup analyses and meta-regression to explore possible sources of heterogeneity between studies. Background: According to literatures, there has been increasing attention to the long-term survival rate in patients with GC in Iran. However, results have been inconsistent and remain controversial in overall survival rates. Patients and methods: Literature searches were conducted using PubMed, Scopus, and ISI, as well as Magiran, Medlib, SID, and Iran Medex databases. Studies were pooled and summary one to five survival rates were calculated. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to explore possible sources of heterogeneity among studies. Subgroup analyses were also conducted. Analyses were conducted using the STATA statistical software package. Results: Final analysis of 29361 patients from 26 eligible studies was performed. The overall survival rate (one to five years) in all studies, by meta-analysis of 24, 14, 23, 12 and 22 studies were 52%, 31%, 24%, 22%, and 15%, respectively. Meta-regression analysis showed an increase in one- and five-year survival rate over the time (Reg Coef = 0.016, p= 0.04) and (Reg Coef= 0.021, p= 0.049), respectively. Positive heterogeneity was observed between quality of papers and data sources (P<0.001). Conclusion: More than half of GC deaths happened in the first year at diagnosis, and another 30% plus they occurred during the second year after confirmed diagnosis. Our results admit lower survival rates in Iran, similar to other developing countries. PMID:27099666

  19. Program CONTRAST--A general program for the analysis of several survival or recovery rate estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hines, J.E.; Sauer, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This manual describes the use of program CONTRAST, which implements a generalized procedure for the comparison of several rate estimates. This method can be used to test both simple and composite hypotheses about rate estimates, and we discuss its application to multiple comparisons of survival rate estimates. Several examples of the use of program CONTRAST are presented. Program CONTRAST will run on IBM-cimpatible computers, and requires estimates of the rates to be tested, along with associated variance and covariance estimates.

  20. Metabolic rate suppression as a mechanism for surviving environmental challenge in fish.

    PubMed

    Richards, Jeffrey G

    2010-01-01

    The ability to reduce metabolic rate during exposure to environmental stress, termed metabolic rate suppression, is thought to be an important component to enhance survival in many organisms. Metabolic rate suppression can be achieved through modifications to behavior, physiology, and cellular biochemistry, all of which act to reduce whole organisms energy expenditure. This chapter will critically evaluate the use of metabolic rate suppression as a response to environmental challenge in fish using three metabolic states: aestivation, hypoxia/anoxia exposure, and diapause.

  1. Demography of forest birds in Panama: How do transients affect estimates of survival rates?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brawn, J.D.; Karr, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Robinson, W.D.; Adams, N.J.; Slotow, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    Estimates of annual survival rates of neotropical birds have proven controversial. Traditionally, tropical birds were thought to have high survival rates for their size, but analyses of a multispecies assemblage from Panama by Karr et al. (1990) provided a counterexample to that view. One criticism of that study has been that the estimates were biased by transient birds captured only once as they passed through the area being sampled. New models that formally adjust for transient individuals have been developed since 1990. Preliminary analyses indicate that these models are indeed useful in modelling the data from Panama. Nonetheless, there is considerable interspecific variation and overall estimates of annual survival rates for understorey birds in Panama remain lower than those from other studies in the Neotropics and well below the rates long assumed for tropical birds (i.e. > 0.80). Therefore, tropical birds may not have systematically higher survival rates than temperate-zone species. Variation in survival rates among tropical species suggests that theory based on a simple tradeoff between clutch size and longevity is inadequate. The demographic traits of birds in the tropics (and elsewhere) vary within and among species according to some combination of historical and ongoing ecological factors. Understanding these processes is the challenge for future work.

  2. Monitoring survival rates of landbirds at varying spatial scales: An application of the MAPS Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, D.K.; DeSante, D.F.; Hines, J.E.; Bonney, Rick; Pashley, David N.; Cooper, Robert; Niles, Larry

    2000-01-01

    Survivorship is a primary demographic parameter affecting population dynamics, and thus trends in species abundance. The Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship (MAPS) program is a cooperative effort designed to monitor landbird demographic parameters. A principle goal of MAPS is to estimate annual survivorship and identify spatial patterns and temporal trends in these rates. We evaluated hypotheses of spatial patterns in survival rates among a collection of neighboring sampling sites, such as within national forests, among biogeographic provinces, and between breeding populations that winter in either Central or South America, and compared these geographic-specific models to a model of a common survival rate among all sampling sites. We used data collected during 1992-1995 from Swainson's Thrush (Cathorus ustulatus) populations in the western region of the United States. We evaluated the ability to detect spatial and temporal patterns of survivorship with simulated data. We found weak evidence of spatial differences in survival rates at the local scale of 'location,' which typically contained 3 mist-netting stations. There was little evidence of differences in survival rates among biogeographic provinces or between populations that winter in either Central or South America. When data were pooled for a regional estimate of survivorship, the percent relative bias due to pooling 'locations' was 12 years of monitoring. Detection of spatial patterns and temporal trends in survival rates from local to regional scales will provide important information for management and future research directed toward conservation of landbirds.

  3. Economics of Life and Death: Mortality and Survival Rates for African-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Char, S. V.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the correlates of premature death, infant mortality rates, and associated costs for African Americans using census and other government data. There is unimpeachable evidence to confirm the inferior health and survival rates of African Americans at all age intervals. (SLD)

  4. Incidence and survival rates of ovarian cancer in low-income women in Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Abuidris, Dafalla O.; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Elhaj, Ahmed M.; Eltayeb, Elgaylani Abdallah; Elsanousi, Mohamed; Ibnoof, Rehab S.; Mohammed, Sulma I.

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the second most common gynecological cancer worldwide. Little is known about the disease in Sudan. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the incidence rate, age and stage at diagnosis, and median survival time of patients presenting at the National Cancer Institute-University of Gezira (NCI-UG), Sudan. Data were collected in a prospective study of women with ovarian cancer over a period of eleven years of follow-up (between 2000 and 2011). Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the distribution of the demographics of the sample. The direct method was used to compute the age-standardized rate (ASR) using data from the 1966 and 2000 World Standard Populations (WSPs). The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival functions and the median survival time. Log-rank tests were used to statistically compare between the survival functions. There were steady increases in ovarian cancer incidence rates between 2000 and 2009, with a slight decline noted in 2010 and 2011. The patients' age range was 9–90. The age-specific incidence rate increased greatly in women aged 55 years or older. The majority of the patients had stage III or IV disease. The annual ASR using WSPs 1966 and 2000 as standard populations were 3.3 and 3.7 per 100,000 women, respectively. The median survival time was 31 months (95% confidence interval, 19–43). The 5-year cumulative survival rate was 38%. In Sudan, ovarian cancer affects postmenopausal women, akin to what is reported in the developed world with high incidence rates. Presenting with advanced stage disease is the predominant factor that results in a short survival time for women. PMID:28105363

  5. Estimating the personal cure rate of cancer patients using population-based grouped cancer survival data.

    PubMed

    Binbing Yu; Tiwari, Ram C; Feuer, Eric J

    2011-06-01

    Cancer patients are subject to multiple competing risks of death and may die from causes other than the cancer diagnosed. The probability of not dying from the cancer diagnosed, which is one of the patients' main concerns, is sometimes called the 'personal cure' rate. Two approaches of modelling competing-risk survival data, namely the cause-specific hazards approach and the mixture model approach, have been used to model competing-risk survival data. In this article, we first show the connection and differences between crude cause-specific survival in the presence of other causes and net survival in the absence of other causes. The mixture survival model is extended to population-based grouped survival data to estimate the personal cure rate. Using the colorectal cancer survival data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Programme, we estimate the probabilities of dying from colorectal cancer, heart disease, and other causes by age at diagnosis, race and American Joint Committee on Cancer stage.

  6. Rapidly-growing buccal mass in a 6-month-old infant.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Brierley, D; Hunter, K D; Lee, N

    2015-11-01

    Lipoblastoma and lipoblastomatosis are rare benign tumours of fetal-embryonal adipocytes that usually present in young children, which is why they are not often included in the differential diagnosis of soft tissue lesions in infants. We describe a case of a 6-month-old infant with an intraoral buccal lipoblastoma.

  7. Mississippi Communities for Healthy Living: Results of a 6-month nutrition education comparative effectiveness trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region suffers from high prevalence of chronic health conditions with nutritional etiologies, including obesity, high cholesterol, hypertension, and diabetes. Responding to the need for effective nutrition interventions in the LMD, a 2-arm, 6-month, n...

  8. The Impact of SNAP-ED and EFNEP on Program Graduates 6 Months after Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koszewski, Wanda; Sehi, Natalie; Behrends, Donnia; Tuttle, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Research was conducted to determine if graduates from either the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education or Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program maintained behavioral changes 6 months after completing the program. Staff asked graduates to complete a 10- or 15-question behavior checklist that was identical to the entry and exit…

  9. Perception of Speech Modulation Cues by 6-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrera, Laurianne; Bertoncini, Josiane; Lorenzi, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The capacity of 6-month-old infants to discriminate a voicing contrast (/aba/--/apa/) on the basis of "amplitude modulation (AM) cues" and "frequency modulation (FM) cues" was evaluated. Method: Several vocoded speech conditions were designed to either degrade FM cues in 4 or 32 bands or degrade AM in 32 bands. Infants…

  10. Conditioning 1-6 Month Old Infants by Means of Myoelectrically Controlled Reinforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Dale M.; McDonnell, Paul M.

    1995-01-01

    In order to evaluate possibilities of fitting myoelectrically controlled prosthetic arms on infants, this study examined whether 32 infants (1-6 months) could learn to control environmental contingencies by means of contracting the forearm flexor muscle group. Results indicated that older subjects (age greater than 104 days) demonstrated learning,…

  11. Determining the Impact of Prenatal Tobacco Exposure on Self-Regulation at 6 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebe, Sandra A.; Fang, Hua; Johnson, Craig; James, Karen E.; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2014-01-01

    Our goal in the present study was to examine the effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy on infant self-regulation, exploring birth weight as a mediator and sex as a moderator of risk. A prospective sample of 218 infants was assessed at 6 months of age. Infants completed a battery of tasks assessing working memory/inhibition, attention, and…

  12. Goal Attribution to Schematic Animals: Do 6-Month-Olds Perceive Biological Motion as Animate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlottmann, Anne; Ray, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Infants are sensitive to biological motion, but do they recognize it as animate? As a first step towards answering this question, two experiments investigated whether 6-month-olds selectively attribute goals to shapes moving like animals. We habituated infants to a square moving towards one of two targets. When target locations were switched,…

  13. Night Waking in 6-Month-Old Infants and Maternal Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karraker, Katherine Hildebrandt; Young, Marion

    2007-01-01

    Relations between night waking in infants and depressive symptoms in their mothers at 6 months postpartum were examined using the data from the National Institute for Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. Although more depressive symptoms were only weakly correlated with a higher frequency of infant waking, longer wake…

  14. Relationship between Visual and Tactual Exploration by 6-Month-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushnell, Emily W.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Investigating relationship between infants' visual and tactual exploration, looking and touching responses of 6-month-olds to objects only visually or tactually novel were observed. Results indicated infants were capable of tactual recognition memory, that temperature was salient object property, and that visual and tactual exploration are not…

  15. Demography of forest birds in Panama: How do transients affect estimates of survival rates?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brawn, J.D.; Karr, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Robinson, W.D.; Adams, N.J.; Slotow, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    Estimates of annual survival rates for a multispecies sample of neotropical birds from Panama have proven controversial. Traditionally, tropical birds were thought to have high survival rates for their size, but analyses by Kart et al. (1990. Am. Nat. 136:277-91) contradicted that view, suggesting tropical birds may not have systematically high survival rates. A persistent criticism of that study has been that the estimates were biased by transient birds captured only once as they passed through the area being sampled. New models that formally adjust for transient individuals have been developed since 1990. Preliminary analyses using these models indicate that, despite some variation among species, overall estimates of survival rates for understory birds in Panama are not strongly affected by adjustments for transients. We also compare estimates of survival rates based on mark-recapture models with observations of colour-marked birds. The demographic traits of birds in the tropics (and elsewhere) vary within and among species according to combinations of historical and ongoing ecological factors. Understanding sources of this variation is the challenge for future work.

  16. Five-Year Cancer Survival Rates in Oklahoma from 1997 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Janis; Gandhi, Krupa; Pate, Anne; Janitz, Amanda; Anderson, Amber; Kinnard, Robin; Ding, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This study evaluated the five-year observed survival rates of American Indians/Alaskan Native, African American, and white cancer patients among various demographic characteristics in Oklahoma focusing on lung and bronchus, colon and rectum, female breast, and prostate for the cancer patients diagnosed between 1997 and 2008. Methods The five-year observed survival rates were calculated for overall cancer and specific cancer sites, using Kaplan-Meier method with data from the Oklahoma Central Cancer Registry. Results Overall, 51.5% patients diagnosed with cancer survived for five years. For specific sites we found: 79.2% for female breast cancer survived; 77.5% for prostate cancer; 12.9% for lung and bronchus cancer; and 49.9% for colorectal cancer. Conclusions The five-year observed survival rates in Oklahoma were consistent with national trends. Overall, cancer survival seems to be improving over time, but there remains disparity with the AA and AI/AN populations in contrast to whites in Oklahoma. PMID:27890941

  17. Fructose in Breast Milk Is Positively Associated with Infant Body Composition at 6 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Goran, Michael I.; Martin, Ashley A.; Alderete, Tanya L.; Fujiwara, Hideji; Fields, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Dietary sugars have been shown to promote excess adiposity among children and adults; however, no study has examined fructose in human milk and its effects on body composition during infancy. Twenty-five mother–infant dyads attended clinical visits to the Oklahoma Health Sciences Center at 1 and 6 months of infant age. Infants were exclusively breastfed for 6 months and sugars in breast milk (i.e., fructose, glucose, lactose) were measured by Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and glucose oxidase. Infant body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at 1 and 6 months. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations between breast milk sugars and infant body composition at 6 months of age. Fructose, glucose, and lactose were present in breast milk and stable across visits (means = 6.7 μg/mL, 255.2 μg/mL, and 7.6 g/dL, respectively). Despite its very low concentration, fructose was the only sugar significantly associated with infant body composition. A 1-μg/mL higher breast milk fructose was associated with a 257 g higher body weight (p = 0.02), 170 g higher lean mass (p = 0.01), 131 g higher fat mass (p = 0.05), and 5 g higher bone mineral content (p = 0.03). In conclusion, fructose is detectable in human breast milk and is positively associated with all components of body composition at 6 months of age. PMID:28212335

  18. Fructose in Breast Milk Is Positively Associated with Infant Body Composition at 6 Months of Age.

    PubMed

    Goran, Michael I; Martin, Ashley A; Alderete, Tanya L; Fujiwara, Hideji; Fields, David A

    2017-02-16

    Dietary sugars have been shown to promote excess adiposity among children and adults; however, no study has examined fructose in human milk and its effects on body composition during infancy. Twenty-five mother-infant dyads attended clinical visits to the Oklahoma Health Sciences Center at 1 and 6 months of infant age. Infants were exclusively breastfed for 6 months and sugars in breast milk (i.e., fructose, glucose, lactose) were measured by Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and glucose oxidase. Infant body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at 1 and 6 months. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations between breast milk sugars and infant body composition at 6 months of age. Fructose, glucose, and lactose were present in breast milk and stable across visits (means = 6.7 μg/mL, 255.2 μg/mL, and 7.6 g/dL, respectively). Despite its very low concentration, fructose was the only sugar significantly associated with infant body composition. A 1-μg/mL higher breast milk fructose was associated with a 257 g higher body weight (p = 0.02), 170 g higher lean mass (p = 0.01), 131 g higher fat mass (p = 0.05), and 5 g higher bone mineral content (p = 0.03). In conclusion, fructose is detectable in human breast milk and is positively associated with all components of body composition at 6 months of age.

  19. Influenza vaccination during the first 6 months after solid organ transplantation is efficacious and safe.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Romero, P; Bulnes-Ramos, A; Torre-Cisneros, J; Gavaldá, J; Aydillo, T A; Moreno, A; Montejo, M; Fariñas, M C; Carratalá, J; Muñoz, P; Blanes, M; Fortún, J; Suárez-Benjumea, A; López-Medrano, F; Barranco, J L; Peghin, M; Roca, C; Lara, R; Cordero, E

    2015-11-01

    Preventing influenza infection early after transplantation is essential, given the disease's high mortality. A multicentre prospective cohort study in adult solid organ transplant recipients (SOTR) receiving the influenza vaccine during four consecutive influenza seasons (2009-2013) was performed to assess the immunogenicity and safety of influenza vaccination in SOTR before and 6 months after transplantation. A total of 798 SOTR, 130 of them vaccinated within 6 months of transplantation and 668 of them vaccinated more than 6 months since transplantation. Seroprotection was similar in both groups: 73.1% vs. 76.5% for A/(H1N1)pdm (p 0.49), 67.5% vs. 74.1% for A/H3N2 (p 0.17) and 84.2% vs. 85.2% for influenza B (p 0.80), respectively. Geometric mean titres after vaccination did not differ among groups: 117.32 (95% confidence interval (CI) 81.52, 168.83) vs. 87.43 (95% CI 72.87, 104.91) for A/(H1N1)pdm, 120.45 (95% CI 82.17, 176.57) vs. 97.86 (95% CI 81.34, 117.44) for A/H3N2 and 143.32 (95% CI 103.46, 198.53) vs. 145.54 (95% CI 122.35, 174.24) for influenza B, respectively. After adjusting for confounding factors, time since transplantation was not associated with response to vaccination. No cases of rejection or severe adverse events were detected in patients vaccinated within the first 6 months after transplantation. In conclusion, influenza vaccination within the first 6 months after transplantation is as safe and immunogenic as vaccination thereafter. Thus, administration of the influenza vaccine can be recommended as soon as 1 month after transplantation.

  20. Look Different: Effect of Radiation Hormesis on the Survival Rate of Immunosuppressed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, M.; Taeb, S.; Okhovat, M.A.; Atefi, M.; Negahdari, F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hormesis is defined as the bio-positive response of something which is bio-negative in high doses. In the present study, the effect of radiation hormesis was evaluated on the survival rate of immunosuppressed BALB/c mice by Cyclosporine A. Material and Methods: We used 75 consanguine, male, BALB/c mice in this experiment. The first group received Technetium-99m and the second group was placed on a sample radioactive soil of Ramsar region (800Bq) for 20 days. The third group was exposed to X-rays and the fourth group was placed on the radioactive soil and then injected Technetium-99m. The last group was the sham irradiated control group. Finally, 30mg Cyclosporine A as the immunosuppressive agent was orally administered to all mice 48 hours after receiving X-rays and Technetium-99m. The mean survival rate of mice in each group was estimated during time. Results: A log rank test was run to determine if there were differences in the survival distribution for different groups and related treatments. According to the results, the survival rate of all pre-irradiated groups was more than the sham irradiated control group (p < .05). The highest survival time was related to the mice which were placed on the radioactive soil of Ramsar region for 20 days and then injected Technetium-99m. Conclusion: This study confirmed the presence of hormetic models and the enhancement of survival rate in immunosuppressed BALB/c mice as a consequence of low-dose irradiation. It is also revealed the positive synergetic radioadaptive response on survival rate of immunosuppressed animals. PMID:27853721

  1. Improved Estimates of Cancer-Specific Survival Rates From Population-Based Data

    PubMed Central

    Ries, Lynn A. G.; Mariotto, Angela B.; Reichman, Marsha E.; Ruhl, Jennifer; Cronin, Kathleen A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Accurate estimates of cancer survival are important for assessing optimal patient care and prognosis. Evaluation of these estimates via relative survival (a ratio of observed and expected survival rates) requires a population life table that is matched to the cancer population by age, sex, race and/or ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and ideally risk factors for the cancer under examination. Because life tables for all subgroups in a study may be unavailable, we investigated whether cause-specific survival could be used as an alternative for relative survival. Methods We used data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program for 2 330 905 cancer patients from January 1, 1992, through December 31, 2004. We defined cancer-specific deaths according to the following variables: cause of death, only one tumor or the first of multiple tumors, site of the original cancer diagnosis, and comorbidities. Estimates of relative survival and cause-specific survival that were derived by use of an actuarial method were compared. Results Among breast cancer patients who were white, black, or of Asian or Pacific Islander descent and who were older than 65 years, estimates of 5-year relative survival (107.5%, 106.6%, and 103.0%, respectively) were higher than estimates of 5-year cause-specific survival (98.6%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 98.4% to 98.8%; 97.4%, 95% CI = 96.2% to 98.2%; and 99.2%, 95% CI = 98.4%, 99.6%, respectively). Relative survival methods likely underestimated rates for cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx (eg, for white cancer patients aged ≥65 years, relative survival = 54.2%, 95% CI = 53.1% to 55.3%, and cause-specific survival = 60.1%, 95% CI = 59.1% to 60.9%) and the lung and bronchus (eg, for black cancer patients aged ≥65 years, relative survival = 10.5%, 95% CI = 9.9% to 11.2%, and cause-specific survival = 11.9%, 95% CI = 11.2 % to 12.6%), largely because of mismatches between the population with these diseases and

  2. Single gene and gene interaction effects on fertilization and embryonic survival rates in cattle.

    PubMed

    Khatib, H; Huang, W; Wang, X; Tran, A H; Bindrim, A B; Schutzkus, V; Monson, R L; Yandell, B S

    2009-05-01

    Decrease in fertility and conception rates is a major cause of economic loss and cow culling in dairy herds. Conception rate is the product of fertilization rate and embryonic survival rate. Identification of genetic factors that cause the death of embryos is the first step in eliminating this problem from the population and thereby increasing reproductive efficiency. A candidate pathway approach was used to identify candidate genes affecting fertilization and embryo survival rates using an in vitro fertilization experimental system. A total of 7,413 in vitro fertilizations were performed using oocytes from 504 ovaries and semen samples from 10 different bulls. Fertilization rate was calculated as the number of cleaved embryos 48 h postfertilization out of the total number of oocytes exposed to sperm. Survival rate of embryos was calculated as the number of blastocysts on d 7 of development out of the number of total embryos cultured. All ovaries were genotyped for 8 genes in the POU1F1 signaling pathway. Single-gene analysis revealed significant associations of GHR, PRLR, STAT5A, and UTMP with survival rate and of POU1F1, GHR, STAT5A, and OPN with fertilization rate. To further characterize the contribution of the entire integrated POU1F1 pathway to fertilization and early embryonic survival, a model selection procedure was applied. Comparisons among the different models showed that interactions between adjacent genes in the pathway revealed a significant contribution to the variation in fertility traits compared with other models that analyzed only bull information or only genes without interactions. Moreover, some genes that were not significant in the single-gene analysis showed significant effects in the interaction analysis. Thus, we propose that single genes as well as an entire pathway can be used in selection programs to improve reproduction performance in dairy cattle.

  3. Increasing Winter Maximal Metabolic Rate Improves Intrawinter Survival in Small Birds.

    PubMed

    Petit, Magali; Clavijo-Baquet, Sabrina; Vézina, François

    Small resident bird species living at northern latitudes increase their metabolism in winter, and this is widely assumed to improve their chances of survival. However, the relationship between winter metabolic performance and survival has yet to be demonstrated. Using capture-mark-recapture, we followed a population of free-living black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) over 3 yr and evaluated their survival probability within and among winters. We also measured the size-independent body mass (Ms), hematocrit (Hct), basal metabolic rate (BMR), and maximal thermogenic capacity (Msum) and investigated how these parameters influenced survival within and among winters. Results showed that survival probability was high and constant both within (0.92) and among (0.96) winters. They also showed that while Ms, Hct, and BMR had no significant influence, survival was positively related to Msum-following a sigmoid relationship-within but not among winter. Birds expressing an Msum below 1.26 W (i.e., similar to summer levels) had a <50% chance of survival, while birds with an Msum above 1.35 W had at least a 90% chance of surviving through the winter. Our data therefore suggest that black-capped chickadees that are either too slow or unable to adjust their phenotype from summer to winter have little chances of survival and thus that seasonal upregulation of metabolic performance is highly beneficial. This study is the first to document in an avian system the relationship between thermogenic capacity and winter survival, a proxy of fitness.

  4. Survival of cackling Canada geese, 1982-1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raveling, D.G.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Zezulak, D.S.; Silveira, J.G.; Johnson, J.C.; Aldrich, T.W.; Weldon, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    We estimated seasonal and annual survival rates of cackling Canada geese (Branta canadensis minima ) for the period 1982-1989 to identify periods of high mortality and assess effects of harvest management decisions. We tested hypotheses about age- and sex-specific variation in survival, seasonal variation in survival rates, and variation in survival between years in which hunting seasons were open and closed. Geese were marked with individually identifiable neckbands and observed from autumn through spring. We used these data to estimate survival rates for 3-month periods in early (EW) and late (LW) winter and a 6-month period in summer (SU). Mean annual survival rates of immature females were lower than those of adults over the entire study. Survival rates of immature males were lower than those of adults during the 2 years with sport hunting seasons. We found no evidence of sex-specific differences in seasonal or annual survival rates of immature geese.

  5. Temperature, Larval Diet, and Density Effects on Development Rate and Survival of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Couret, Jannelle; Dotson, Ellen; Benedict, Mark Q.

    2014-01-01

    Many environmental factors, biotic and abiotic interact to influence organismal development. Given the importance of Aedes aegypti as a vector of human pathogens including dengue and yellow fever, understanding the impact of environmental factors such as temperature, resource availability, and intraspecific competition during development is critical for population control purposes. Despite known associations between developmental traits and factors of diet and density, temperature has been considered the primary driver of development rate and survival. To determine the relative importance of these critical factors, wide gradients of conditions must be considered. We hypothesize that 1) diet and density, as well as temperature influence the variation in development rate and survival, 2) that these factors interact, and this interaction is also necessary to understand variation in developmental traits. Temperature, diet, density, and their two-way interactions are significant factors in explaining development rate variation of the larval stages of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. These factors as well as two and three-way interactions are significantly associated with the development rate from hatch to emergence. Temperature, but not diet or density, significantly impacted juvenile mortality. Development time was heteroskedastic with the highest variation occurring at the extremes of diet and density conditions. All three factors significantly impacted survival curves of experimental larvae that died during development. Complex interactions may contribute to variation in development rate. To better predict variation in development rate and survival in Ae. aegypti, factors of resource availability and intraspecific density must be considered in addition, but never to the exclusion of temperature. PMID:24498328

  6. Age-specificity of black-capped chickadee survival rates: Analysis of capture-recapture data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loery, G.; Pollock, K.H.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    The ornithological literature indicates a widespread belief in two generalizations about the age-specificity of avian survival rates: (1) survival rates of young birds for some period following fledging are lower than those of adults, and (2) after reaching adulthood survival rates are constant for birds of all ages. There is a growing body of evidence in support of the first generalization, although little is known about how long the survival difference between young and adults lasts. This latter question can be addressed with capture-recapture or band recovery studies based on birds marked in the winter, but the inability to determine age in many species during winter has prevented the use of standard methods. There is very little evidence supporting the second generalization, and we are in need of methods and actual analyses that address this question. In the present paper we restate the two generalizations as hypotheses and test them using data from a wintering Black-capped Chickadee (Parus atricapillus) population in Connecticut, which has been studied by Loery for 26 yr. We use a cohort-based Jolly-Seber approach, which should be useful in other investigations of this nature. We found strong evidence of lower survival rates in 1st-yr birds than in adults, but could not determine whether this was the result of higher mortality rates, higher emigration rates, or a combination of the two. We also found evidence that survival rates of adult birds were not constant with age but decreased at a rate of ? 3.5%/yr. As adult birds are very faithful to their wintering areas, we believe that almost all this decrease can be attributed to an increase in mortality with age. Simulation results suggest that heterogeneity of capture probabilities could not explain the magnitude of the decrease in survival with age. Age-dependent tag loss is also discussed as an alternative explanation, but is dismissed as very unlikely in this situation. This analysis thus provides some of the

  7. A prospective study of atopic dermatitis managed without topical corticosteroids for a 6-month period

    PubMed Central

    Fukaya, Mototsugu; Sato, Kenji; Yamada, Takahiro; Sato, Mitsuko; Fujisawa, Shigeki; Minaguchi, Satoko; Kimata, Hajime; Dozono, Haruhiko

    2016-01-01

    Topical corticosteroids (TCS) are regarded as the mainstay treatment for atopic dermatitis (AD). As AD has a tendency to heal naturally, the long-term efficacy of TCS in AD management should be compared with the outcomes seen in patients with AD not using TCS. However, there are few long-term studies that consider patients with AD not using TCS. We designed a prospective multicenter cohort study to assess the clinical outcomes in patients with AD who did not use TCS for 6 months and then compared our results with an earlier study by Furue et al which considered AD patients using TCS over 6 months. Our patients’ clinical improvement was comparable with the patients described in Furue’s research. In light of this, it is reasonable for physicians to manage AD patients who decline TCS, as the expected long-term prognosis is similar whether they use TCS or not. PMID:27445501

  8. Prevention of Traumatic Stress in Mothers of Preterms: 6-Month Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    St John, Nick; Lilo, Emily; Jo, Booil; Benitz, William; Stevenson, David K.; Horwitz, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder are a well-recognized phenomenon in mothers of preterm infants, with implications for maternal health and infant outcomes. This randomized controlled trial evaluated 6-month outcomes from a skills-based intervention developed to reduce symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression. METHODS: One hundred five mothers of preterm infants were randomly assigned to (1) a 6- or 9-session intervention based on principles of trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy with infant redefinition or (2) a 1-session active comparison intervention based on education about the NICU and parenting of the premature infant. Outcome measures included the Davidson Trauma Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory II, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Participants were assessed at baseline, 4 to 5 weeks after birth, and 6 months after the birth of the infant. RESULTS: At the 6-month assessment, the differences between the intervention and comparison condition were all significant and sizable and became more pronounced when compared with the 4- to 5-week outcomes: Davidson Trauma Scale (Cohen's d = −0.74, P < .001), Beck Anxiety Inventory (Cohen's d = −0.627, P = .001), Beck Depression Inventory II (Cohen's d = −0.638, P = .002). However, there were no differences in the effect sizes between the 6- and 9-session interventions. CONCLUSIONS: A brief 6-session intervention based on principles of trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy was effective at reducing symptoms of trauma, anxiety, and depression in mothers of preterm infants. Mothers showed increased benefits at the 6-month follow-up, suggesting that they continue to make use of techniques acquired during the intervention phase. PMID:25049338

  9. The posterior iris-claw lens outcome study: 6-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Jare, Nana Madhukar; Kesari, Ashwini Ganesh; Gadkari, Salil S; Deshpande, Madan D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate functional and anatomical outcomes of posterior iris-claw intraocular lens (IOL) implant for correction of aphakia in eyes with inadequate capsular support. Materials and Methods: Prospective case series of 108 aphakic eyes with inadequate capsular support which underwent posterior iris-claw IOL with a 6-month follow-up period was conducted. The cases belonged to two clinical settings: elective secondary implantation and those with intraoperative posterior dislocation of cataractous lens or IOL. Main outcome measures were visual acuity, anterior chamber reaction, stability of IOL, endothelial cell count, intraocular pressure (IOP), and cystoid macular edema (CME). Results: The mean best-corrected visual acuity was LogMAR 0.25. None had chronic anterior chamber inflammation. The mean difference in central endothelial counts before surgery and 1 month after surgery was 104.21 cell/mm2 (4.92%). There was no statistically significant difference in central endothelial cell count at 1 and 6 months (P = 0.91) and also in the central macular thickness at preoperative and after 6 months suggestive of CME (P = 0.078). Three eyes had raised IOP which were managed with neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser peripheral iridotomy. There were no IOL dislocations or other adverse events in our series. Conclusion: Posterior chamber iris-claw lenses are a good option in eyes with inadequate posterior capsular support. Chronic inflammation, poor lens stability, or significant central endothelial cell loss was not observed during the 6-month follow-up period. PMID:28112126

  10. Possible effects of the 2004 and 2005 hurricanes on manatee survival rates and movement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langtimm, C.A.; Krohn, M.D.; Reid, J.P.; Stith, B.M.; Beck, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    Prior research on manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) survival in northwest Florida, based on mark-resighting photo-identification data from 1982-1998, showed that annual adult apparent survival rate was significantly lower during years with extreme storms. Mechanisms that we proposed could have led to lower estimates included stranding, injury from debris, being fatally swept out to sea, or displacement into poorly monitored areas due to storm-generated longshore currents or storm-related loss of habitat. In 2004 and 2005, seven major hurricanes impacted areas of Florida encompassing three regional manatee subpopulations, enabling us to further examine some of these mechanisms. Data from a group of manatees tracked in southwest Florida with satellite transmitters during Hurricanes Charley, Katrina, and Wilma showed that these animals made no significant movement before and during storm passage. Mark-resighting data are being collected to determine if survival rates were lower with the 2004 and 2005 storms. ?? 2006 Estuarine Research Federation.

  11. Word learning in 6-month-olds: fast encoding-weak retention.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Manuela; Friederici, Angela D

    2011-11-01

    There has been general consensus that initial word learning during early infancy is a slow and time-consuming process that requires very frequent exposure, whereas later in development, infants are able to quickly learn a novel word for a novel meaning. From the perspective of memory maturation, this shift in behavioral development might represent a shift from slow procedural to fast declarative memory formation. Alternatively, it might be caused by the maturation of specific brain structures within the declarative memory system that may support lexical mapping from the very first. Here, we used the neurophysiological method of ERPs to watch the brain activity of 6-month-old infants, when repeatedly presented with object-word pairs in a cross-modal learning paradigm. We report first evidence that infants as young as 6 months are able to associate objects and words after only very few exposures. A memory test 1 day later showed that infants did not fully forget this newly acquired knowledge, although the ERP effects indicated it to be less stable than immediately after encoding. The combined results suggest that already at 6 months the encoding process of word learning is based on fast declarative memory formation, but limitations in the consolidation of declarative memory diminish the long lasting effect in lexical-semantic memory at that age.

  12. Internalized stigma of mental illness and depressive and psychotic symptoms in homeless veterans over 6 months.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Jennifer E; Hayward, H'Sien; Bassett, Elena D; Hoff, Rani

    2016-06-30

    We investigated the relationship between internalized stigma of mental illness at baseline and depressive and psychotic symptoms 3 and 6 months later, controlling for baseline symptoms. Data on homeless veterans with severe mental illness (SMI) were provided by the Northeast Program Evaluation Center (NEPEC) Special Needs-Chronic Mental Illness (SN-CMI) study (Kasprow and Rosenheck, 2008). The study used the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale to measure internalized stigma at baseline and the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) to measure depressive and psychotic symptoms at baseline and 3 and 6 month follow-ups. Higher levels of internalized stigma were associated with greater levels of depressive and psychotic symptoms 3 and 6 months later, even controlling for symptoms at baseline. Alienation and Discrimination Experience were the subscales most strongly associated with symptoms. Exploratory analyses of individual items yielded further insight into characteristics of potentially successful interventions that could be studied. Overall, our findings show that homeless veterans with SMI experiencing higher levels of internalized stigma are likely to experience more depression and psychosis over time. This quasi-experimental study replicates and extends findings of other studies and has implications for future controlled research into the potential long-term effects of anti-stigma interventions on mental health recovery.

  13. Association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D with symptoms of depression after 6 months in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Yue, Wei; Xiang, Lei; Zhang, Ya-Jing; Ji, Yong; Li, Xin

    2014-11-01

    Our aim was to determine whether there was a relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH] D) and post-stroke depression (PSD). Two hundred and forty-four ischemic stroke patients admitted to the hospital within the first 24 h after stroke onset were consecutively recruited and followed up for 6 months. Clinical information was collected. Serum 25[OH] D levels were measured at baseline. Based on the symptoms, diagnoses of depression were made in accordance with DSM-IV criteria for depression at 6-month after stroke. At 6-month, 91 patients (37.3 %) showed depression and in 60 patients (24.6 %) this depression was classified as major. There was a significant difference in median serum 25[OH] D levels between PSD patients and no depression cases [8.3 (IQR, 6.8-9.5) vs. 15.6 (IQR, 13.2-20.3) ng/ml, respectively; P < 0.001]. Serum 25[OH] D levels ≤ 11.2 ng/ml were independently associated with PSD [odds ratio 10.32, 95 % confidence interval 4.97-28.63; P < 0.001], after adjusting for possible confounders. Serum 25[OH] D levels reduced at admission was found to be associated with PSD. Additional research is needed on vitamin D supplementation to improve the outcome of patients with PSD.

  14. Aspartate aminotransferase activity in the pulp of teeth treated for 6 months with fixed orthodontic appliances

    PubMed Central

    Latkauskiene, Dalia; Racinskaite, Vilma; Skucaite, Neringa; Machiulskiene, Vita

    2015-01-01

    Objective To measure aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity in the pulp of teeth treated with fixed appliances for 6 months, and compare it with AST activity measured in untreated teeth. Methods The study sample consisted of 16 healthy subjects (mean age 25.7 ± 4.3 years) who required the extraction of maxillary premolars for orthodontic reasons. Of these, 6 individuals had a total of 11 sound teeth extracted without any orthodontic treatment (the control group), and 10 individuals had a total of 20 sound teeth extracted after 6 months of orthodontic alignment (the experimental group). Dental pulp samples were extracted from all control and experimental teeth, and the AST activity exhibited by these samples was determined spectrophotometrically at 20℃. Results Mean AST values were 25.29 × 10-5 U/mg (standard deviation [SD] 9.95) in the control group and 27.54 × 10-5 U/mg (SD 31.81) in the experimental group. The difference between these means was not statistically significantly (p = 0.778), and the distribution of the AST values was also similar in both groups. Conclusions No statistically significant increase in AST activity in the pulp of mechanically loaded teeth was detected after 6 months of orthodontic alignment, as compared to that of teeth extracted from individuals who had not undergone orthodontic treatment. This suggests that time-related regenerative processes occur in the dental pulp. PMID:26445721

  15. Repairing the Brain by SCF+G-CSF Treatment at 6 Months Postexperimental Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Lili; Wang, Dandan; McGillis, Sandra; Kyle, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Stroke, a leading cause of adult disability in the world, is a severe medical condition with limited treatment. Physical therapy, the only treatment available for stroke rehabilitation, appears to be effective within 6 months post-stroke. Here, we have mechanistically determined the efficacy of combined two hematopoietic growth factors, stem cell factor (SCF) and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF; SCF + G-CSF), in brain repair 6 months after cortical infarct induction in the transgenic mice carrying yellow fluorescent protein in Layer V pyramidal neurons (Thy1-YFP-H). Using a combination of live brain imaging, whole brain imaging, molecular manipulation, synaptic and vascular assessments, and motor function examination, we found that SCF + G-CSF promoted mushroom spine formation, enlarged postsynaptic membrane size, and increased postsynaptic density-95 accumulation and blood vessel density in the peri-infarct cavity cortex; and that SCF + G-CSF treatment improved motor functional recovery. The SCF + G-CSF-enhanced motor functional recovery was dependent on the synaptic and vascular regeneration in the peri-infarct cavity cortex. These data suggest that a stroke-damaged brain is repairable by SCF + G-CSF even 6 months after the lesion occurs. This study provides novel insights into the development of new restorative strategies for stroke recovery. PMID:27511907

  16. 38 CFR 3.10 - Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... compensation; (D) VA was withholding payments under the provisions of 10 U.S.C. 1174(h)(2); (E) VA was... paragraph (b) or (d) of this section and any applicable increases specified in paragraph (c) or (e) of this... rate of DIC for a surviving spouse will be the amount set forth in 38 U.S.C. 1311(a)(1). (c)...

  17. 38 CFR 3.10 - Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... compensation; (D) VA was withholding payments under the provisions of 10 U.S.C. 1174(h)(2); (E) VA was... paragraph (b) or (d) of this section and any applicable increases specified in paragraph (c) or (e) of this... rate of DIC for a surviving spouse will be the amount set forth in 38 U.S.C. 1311(a)(1). (c)...

  18. Marathon Running Fails to Influence RBC Survival Rates in Iron-Replete Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steenkamp, Irene; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This study used radiolabeling to measure red blood cell (RBC) survival rates in six iron-replete female marathon runners, and urinary tests were conducted to search for secondary evidence of RBC damage. The hypothesized RBC fragmentation was not disclosed. (Author/MT)

  19. Correlation between albuminemia, natremia and survival rates in patients with hepatorenal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Niculae, A; Jinga, Mariana; Ciocâlteu, A; Lascăr, I; Jinga, V; Checheriţă, I A

    2011-01-01

    A two years prospective study was developed, based on the monitoring of 84 patients with cirrhosis and elevated serum creatinine; 33 patients met the diagnostic criteria for the hepatorenal syndrome. In these 33 patients, survival rate has been studied in correlation with hepatorenal syndrome types, serum albumin and natremia.

  20. Temporal and geographic estimates of survival and recovery rates for the mallard, 1950 through 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chu, D.S.; Hestbeck, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    Estimates of survival and recovery rates and the corresponding sample variances and covariances were made for mallards (Anas platyrhychos) banded before the hunting season for the period 1950-85. Estimates were made for adults and young, males and females, for as many banding reference areas as possible using standard band-recovery methods.

  1. Sexual victimization history, depression, and task physiology as predictors of sexual revictimization: results from a 6-month prospective pilot study.

    PubMed

    Waldron, Jonathan C; Wilson, Laura C; Patriquin, Michelle A; Scarpa, Angela

    2015-02-01

    The current study examined depression and physiological reactivity to a sexual threat task as longitudinal predictors of sexual revictimization in women with sexual victimization histories. The sample included 14 young adult women (M(age) = 19.15) who reported child sexual abuse. Heart rate and root mean square of the successive differences were measured at baseline and during the presentation of sexual victimization-related words during an Emotional Stroop task. Results indicated that women who reported a greater history of childhood sexual abuse and adult sexual victimization were at increased risk for sexual revictimization 6 months after initial data collection. Furthermore, even after accounting for their childhood and adult sexual victimization histories and depression symptoms, women who exhibited reduced, or blunted, physiological activity during the sexual victimization stimuli of the Stroop task were more likely to report sexual revictimization during the 6-month follow-up. The findings suggest that sexual victimization survivors may benefit from interventions that address physiological blunting and the recognition of sexual threat cues in their environment.

  2. Adapting Judicial Supervision to the Risk Level of Drug Offenders: Discharge and 6-month Outcomes from a Prospective Matching Study

    PubMed Central

    Marlowe, Douglas B.; Festinger, David S.; Dugosh, Karen L.; Lee, Patricia A.; Benasutti, Kathleen M.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports recent findings from a program of experimental research examining the effects of adapting judicial supervision to the risk level of drug-abusing offenders. Prior studies revealed that high-risk participants with (1) antisocial personality disorder or (2) a history of drug abuse treatment performed significantly better in drug court when they were scheduled to attend frequent, bi-weekly judicial status hearings in court. Low-risk participants performed equivalently regardless of the schedule of court hearings. The current study prospectively matched misdemeanor drug court clients to the optimal schedule of court hearings based upon an assessment of their risk status, and compared outcomes to those of clients randomly assigned to the standard schedule of court hearings. Results confirmed that high-risk participants graduated at a higher rate, provided more drug-negative urine specimens at 6 months post-admission, and reported significantly less drug use and alcohol intoxication at 6 months post-admission when they were matched to bi-weekly hearings as compared to the usual schedule of hearings. These findings yield practical information for enhancing the efficacy and cost-efficiency of drug court services. Directions for future research on adaptive programming for drug offenders are discussed. PMID:17071020

  3. Histological assessment of porous custom-made hydroxyapatite implants 6 months and 2.5 years after cranioplasty

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Hajime; Sase, Taigen; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Takasuna, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Background: In cranial reconstruction, the features of artificial bone differ. Custom-made porous hydroxyapatite (HAp) implants for cranioplasty have been used all over the world because of their good cosmetic, biocompatibility, and osteoconductive properties. Surgical techniques were analyzed, and histological assessment of new bone formation in the hydroxyapatite was performed. Methods: Over a 6-year time period, 41 patients underwent cranioplasty using a custom-made three-dimensional hybrid pore structured hydroxyapatite (3DHPoHAp) implant. The surgical techniques and histological evaluations of 3DHPoHAp in 2 cases, removed 6 months and 2.5 years after cranioplasty, are described. Results: Using 3DHPoHAp, cranioplasty was successfully performed for all patients. The implant fit the bone defect exactly, and surgical manoeuvres were simple and easy. All implants were firmly fixed using a titanium plate, and postoperative infection occurred in 1 patient (2.4%). New bone formation was seen in 2 cases 6 months and 2.5 years after cranioplasty. Osteoblasts were progressing to the stoma at various depths, and bone tissue had ripened. Furthermore, lamellar structure was observed in the case at 2.5 years. Conclusions: In this study, there was a low infection rate, and new bone formation was seen in vivo after cranioplasty. This study also demonstrated that the 3DHPoHAp implant is a good candidate for cranial bone implants because its good osteoconductivity and biocompatibility. PMID:28217387

  4. Effects of practice on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV across 3- and 6-month intervals.

    PubMed

    Estevis, Eduardo; Basso, Michael R; Combs, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    A total of 54 participants (age M = 20.9; education M = 14.9; initial Full Scale IQ M = 111.6) were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) at baseline and again either 3 or 6 months later. Scores on the Full Scale IQ, Verbal Comprehension, Working Memory, Perceptual Reasoning, Processing Speed, and General Ability Indices improved approximately 7, 5, 4, 5, 9, and 6 points, respectively, and increases were similar regardless of whether the re-examination occurred over 3- or 6-month intervals. Reliable change indices (RCI) were computed using the simple difference and bivariate regression methods, providing estimated base rates of change across time. The regression method provided more accurate estimates of reliable change than did the simple difference between baseline and follow-up scores. These findings suggest that prior exposure to the WAIS-IV results in significant score increments. These gains reflect practice effects instead of genuine intellectual changes, which may lead to errors in clinical judgment.

  5. Adapting judicial supervision to the risk level of drug offenders: discharge and 6-month outcomes from a prospective matching study.

    PubMed

    Marlowe, Douglas B; Festinger, David S; Dugosh, Karen L; Lee, Patricia A; Benasutti, Kathleen M

    2007-05-01

    This article reports recent findings from a program of experimental research examining the effects of adapting judicial supervision to the risk level of drug-abusing offenders. Prior studies revealed that high-risk participants with (1) antisocial personality disorder or (2) a history of drug abuse treatment performed significantly better in drug court when they were scheduled to attend frequent, bi-weekly judicial status hearings in court. Low-risk participants performed equivalently regardless of the schedule of court hearings. The current study prospectively matched misdemeanor drug court clients to the optimal schedule of court hearings based upon an assessment of their risk status, and compared outcomes to those of clients randomly assigned to the standard schedule of court hearings. Results confirmed that high-risk participants graduated at a higher rate, provided more drug-negative urine specimens at 6 months post-admission, and reported significantly less drug use and alcohol intoxication at 6 months post-admission when they were matched to bi-weekly hearings as compared to the usual schedule of hearings. These findings yield practical information for enhancing the efficacy and cost-efficiency of drug court services. Directions for future research on adaptive programming for drug offenders are discussed.

  6. The effect of chemical weapons incineration on the survival rates of Red-tailed Tropicbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreiber, E.A.; Schenk, G.A.; Doherty, P.F.

    2001-01-01

    In 1992, the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS) began incinerating U.S. chemical weapons stockpiles on Johnston Atoll (Pacific Ocean) where about 500,000 seabirds breed, including Red-tailed Tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda). We hypothesized that survival rates of birds were lower in those nesting downwind of the incinerator smokestack compared to those upwind, and that birds might move away from the area. From 1992 - 2000 we monitored survival and movements between areas upwind and downwind from the JACADS facility. We used a multi-strata mark recapture approach to model survival, probability of recapture and movement. Probability of recapture was significantly higher for birds in downwind areas (owing to greater recapture effort) and thus was an important 'nuisance' parameter to take into account in modeling. We found no differences in survival between birds nesting upwind ( 0.8588) and downwind (0.8550). There was no consistent difference in movement rates between upwind or downwind areas from year to year: differences found may be attributed to differing vegetation growth and human activities between the areas. Our results suggest that JACADS has had no documentable influence on the survival and year to year movement of Red-tailed Tropicbirds.

  7. Differences in the survival rates of older patients with colorectal cancers in 2003 and 2009

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Je-Wook; Park, Byung Kwan; Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Bun; Kim, Byung Chang; Park, Sung Chan; Han, Kyung Su; Oh, Jae Hwan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate survival in patients aged ≥70 years who underwent colorectal cancer surgery in 2003 and 2009. In addition, we aimed to identify the factors that could affect survival in these patients. Methods In a cross-sectional study, a retrospective review of the data for 878 patients who underwent colorectal cancer surgery with curative intent in the years 2003 and 2009 was performed. The primary outcome was the 5-year overall survival rate (5-OSR), and the clinicopathologic factors that could affect overall survival were analyzed. Results The 5-OSR was 77.8% and 84.9% in 2003 and 2009, respectively (P = 0.013). Age, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification, stage, type of surgery, and length of hospital stay possibly affected survival per the univariate and multivariate analyses. In patients aged ≥70 years, the 5-OSR in 2009 was 75.9%, which showed improvement compared to 53.7% in 2003 (P = 0.027). The stage, type of surgery, and hospital stay were the variables that possibly affected survival in patients aged ≥70 years per the univariate analysis, whereas the stage (III; hazard ratio [HR], 2.188; P = 0.005) and length of hospital stay (>12 days; HR, 2.307; P = 0.004), were the variables that showed statistical significance on the multivariate analysis. Conclusion We found that early stage and shortening the length of hospital stay could affect survival in older patients with colorectal cancers. Because of limited evidence on the influence of shortening the length of hospital stay on survival in older patients, further investigations are warranted. PMID:28382291

  8. The impact of disease on the survival and population growth rate of the Tasmanian devil.

    PubMed

    Lachish, Shelly; Jones, Menna; McCallum, Hamish

    2007-09-01

    1. We investigated the impact of a recently emerged disease, Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD), on the survival and population growth rate of a population of Tasmanian devils, Sarcophilus harrisii, on the Freycinet Peninsula in eastern Tasmania. 2. Cormack-Jolly-Seber and multistate mark-recapture models were employed to investigate the impact of DFTD on age- and sex-specific apparent survival and transition rates. Disease impact on population growth rate was investigated using reverse-time mark-recapture models. 3. The arrival of DFTD triggered an immediate and steady decline in apparent survival rates of adults and subadults, the rate of which was predicted well by the increase in disease prevalence in the population over time. 4. Transitions from healthy to diseased state increased with disease prevalence suggesting that the force of infection in the population is increasing and that the epidemic is not subsiding. 5. The arrival of DFTD coincided with a marked, ongoing decline in the population growth rate of the previously stable population, which to date has not been offset by population compensatory responses.

  9. Habitat use and survival rates of wintering American woodcocks in coastal South Carolina and Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, D.G.; Seginak, J.T.; Longcore, Jerry R.; Sepik, Greg F.

    1993-01-01

    Habitat use and survival rates of radio-marked American woodcocks (Scolopax minor) were studied during the winter in coastal South Carolina (1988-89) and Georgia (1989-90). Soon after they arrived, woodcocks were captured in mist nets or in modified shorebird traps or by nightlighting. Each bird was weighed, aged, sexed, and fitted with a 4-g radio transmitter and monitored daily until it died or could not be located or until its radio failed. During the day, the woodcocks in South Carolina frequented seasonally flooded stands of gum-oak-willow (Liquidambar-Quercus-Salix) > 75% of the time and <15-year-old pine (Pinus spp.) plantations during the remaining time. The predominantly used understory vegetation was switch cane (Arundinaria gigantica). In Georgia, woodcocks used bottomland hardwoods, young pine plantations (<15-years-old), mature pine-hardwood stands, and clear-cuttings that had regenerated naturally. Wax myrtle (Myrica cerifera) dominated the used understory species at these sites. The woodcocks in South Carolina rarely made daily moves between daytime and nighttime cover, whereas the birds in Georgia made regular flights. At both sites, the daily survival rates of females were low, especially in the absence of losses from hunting. Daily survival rates of females ranged from 0.992 in adults to 0.994 in young. Daily survival rates of males ranged from 1.0 in adults to 0.996 in young. We determined no significant differences in the daily survival rates of woodcocks by age or sex in either South Carolina or Georgia. Probable predators of radio-marked woodcocks included bobcats (Lynx rufus), gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), and barred owls (Strix varia).

  10. Tacrolimus confers lower acute rejection rates and better renal allograft survival compared to cyclosporine

    PubMed Central

    Kamel, Mahmoud; Kadian, Manish; Srinivas, Titte; Taber, David; Posadas Salas, Maria Aurora

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare the impact of tacrolimus (FK) and cyclosporine (CYA) on acute rejection and graft survival and to assess the predominant causes of graft loss between patients receiving these two calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs). METHODS Retrospective review of 1835 patients who received a kidney transplant (KTX) between 1999-2012. Patients were grouped based on initial CNI utilized: 1195 in FK group, 640 in CYA group. Data on baseline characteristics, clinical outcomes, and causes of graft loss in both groups were analyzed. RESULTS Cumulative acute rejection rates were 14% in the FK vs 24% in the CYA group. Despite more marginal donor characteristics in the FK group, these patients had better graft survival rates compared to the CYA group. Three and five year graft survival rates were 88% and 84% respectively in the FK group compared to 79% and 70% respectively in the CYA group (P < 0.001). After multivariate analysis, which controlled for confounders, FK use was a strong predictor for lower acute rejection rates [odds ratio (OR) 0.60, 95%CI: 0.45-0.79] and better renal allograft survival (OR 0.740, 95%CI: 0.58-0.94). Death with a functioning graft was the most common cause of graft loss in both groups. Common causes of death included cardiovascular disease, infections, and malignancies. Chronic allograft nephropathy was also found to be an important cause of graft loss, being more prevalent in the CYA group. CONCLUSION The use of FK-based maintenance immunosuppression therapy is associated with a significantly lower rate of acute rejection and better graft survival compared to CYA-based regimen. Individualizing immunosuppression through risk-stratified CNI choice may lead to improved outcomes across all spectra of KTX patients. PMID:28058220

  11. Graft survival rate of renal transplantation during a period of 10 years in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi, Fatemeh; Ranjbaran, Mehdi; Karami-far, Simin; Soori, Hamid; Manesh, Hadi Jafari

    2015-01-01

    Background: Kidney transplantation is a preferred treatment for many patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and is far more profitable than hemodialysis. Analyzing renal transplantation data can help to evaluate the effectiveness of transplantation interventions. The aim of this study was to determine the organ survival rate after kidney transplantation during a period of 10 years (March 2001-March 2011) among transplanted patients in Arak, Markazi Province, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this historical cohort study, all recipients of kidney transplantation from Arak, Markazi Province, Iran who had medical records in Valiasr Hospital and “charity for kidney patients” of Arak, Markazi Province, Iran during a period of 10 years from March 2001 to March 2011 were included. Data collected by using checklists were completed from patients’ hospital records. Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine the graft cumulative survival rate, log-rank test to compare survival curves in subgroups, and Cox regression model to define the hazard ratio and for ruling out the intervening factors. Statistical analysis was conducted by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 20 and Stata 11. Results: Mean duration of follow-up was 55.43 ± 42.02 months. By using the Kaplan-Meier method, the cumulative probability of graft survival at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 years was 99.1, 97.7, 94.3, 85.7, and 62.1%, respectively. The number of dialysis by controlling the effect of other variables had a significant association with the risk of graft failure [hazard ratios and 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.47 (1.02-2.13)]. Conclusion: This study showed that the graft survival rate was satisfactory in this community and was similar to the results of single-center studies in the world. Dialysis time after transplantation was a significant predictor of survival in the recipients of kidney transplantation that should be considered. PMID:26941807

  12. Nest survival rate of Reeves's pheasant (Syrmaticus reevesii) based on artificial nest experiments.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xu; Zhao, Yu-Ze; Ma, Jing; Li, Jian-Qiang; Xu, Ji-Liang

    2017-01-18

    To explore the nest survival rate of Reeves's pheasant(Syrmaticus reevesii) and the nest-site factors that affect it, we conducted artificial nest experiments with reference to natural nests at Dongzhai National Nature Reserve(DNNR), Henan Province and Pingjingguan, Hubei Province from April to June 2014 simulating the situation in its early and later breeding season. We also determined distance characteristics of the nest sites by ArcGIS 10.0. Nest survival models were constructed in Program MARK for data analysis. Results indicated that in the early breeding season, the apparent survival rate(ASR) in DNNR(52.4%) was significantly greater than that in Pingjingguan(13.5%), and the ASR in the later breeding season in DNNR(26.7%) was not indistinctively correlated with Pingjingguan(3.2%). The daily survival rate(DSR) in the later breeding season was 93.8% in DNNR and 92.0% in Pingjingguan, respectively. The DSRs were both negatively correlated with nest distance to forest edges and settlements. The DSR in Pingjingguan was positively correlated with nest distance to paths and negatively correlated with nest distance to water sources. However, the DSR in DNNR was negatively correlated with nest distance to paths but positively correlated with nest distance to water sources.

  13. Nest survival rate of Reeves's pheasant (Syrmaticus reevesii) based on artificial nest experiments

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xu; Zhao, Yu-Ze; Ma, Jing; Li, Jian-Qiang; Xu, Ji-Liang

    2017-01-01

    To explore the nest survival rate of Reeves's pheasant (Syrmaticus reevesii) and the nest-site factors that affect it, we conducted artificial nest experiments with reference to natural nests at Dongzhai National Nature Reserve (DNNR), Henan Province and Pingjingguan, Hubei Province from April to June 2014 simulating the situation in its early and later breeding season. We also determined distance characteristics of the nest sites using ArcGIS 10.0. Nest survival models were constructed in Program MARK for data analysis. Results indicated that in the early breeding season, the apparent survival rate (ASR) in DNNR (52.4%) was significantly greater than that in Pingjingguan (13.5%), and the ASR in the later breeding season in DNNR (26.7%) was not indistinctively correlated with Pingjingguan (3.2%). The daily survival rate (DSR) in the later breeding season was 93.8% in DNNR and 92.0% in Pingjingguan, respectively. The DSRs were both negatively correlated with nest distance to forest edges and settlements. The DSR in Pingjingguan was positively correlated with nest distance to paths and negatively correlated with nest distance to water sources. However, the DSR in DNNR was negatively correlated with nest distance to paths but positively correlated with nest distance to water sources. PMID:28271670

  14. Survival rates of breast cancer: a hospital-based study from northeast of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Poum, Amornsak; Kamsa-ard, Supot; Promthet, Supannee

    2012-01-01

    A retrospective cohort study was carried out with 340 female breast cancer at a teaching university in northeast of Thailand recruited and followed-up until the end of 2006. Survival probabilities were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. 161 cases were alive after five years and 58 patients were lost to follow-up. The overall observed survival rates at 1, 3 and 5 years were 83.3%, 59.9% and 42.9%, respectively. When analysis was conducted for stage combined into 2 groups, early (stage I, II and unknown) and late (stage III and IV), the 5-year survival rate for early stage (60%; 95%CI: 0.51-0.67), was higher than for late stage (27%; 95%CI: 0.19-0.34) with high statistical significance (p<0.001). The hazard ratio of patients with stage IV was 11.6 times greater than for stage I (p=0.03). The findings indicate that the different stages of breast cancer markedly effect the overall survival rate.

  15. Effect of loading time on the survival rate of anodic oxidized implants: prospective multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seok-Gyu; Yun, Pil-Young; Park, Hyun-Sik; Shim, June-Sung; Hwang, Jung-Won

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the effect of early loading on survival rate or clinical parameter of anodic oxidized implants during the 12-month postloading period. MATERIALS AND METHODS Total 69 implants were placed in 42 patients. Anodic oxidized implants (GS II, Osstem Cor., Busan, Korea) placed on the posterior mandibles were divided into two groups, according to their prosthetic loading times: test group (2 to 6 weeks), and control group (3 to 4 months). The implant survival rates were determined during one-year postloading period and analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method. The radiographic peri-implant bone loss and periodontal parameters were also evaluated and statistically analyzed by unpaired t-test. RESULTS Total 69 implants were placed in 42 patients. The cumulative postloading implant survival rates were 88.89% in test group, compared to 100% in control group (P<.05). Periimplant marginal bone loss (T: 0.27±0.54 mm, C: 0.40±0.55 mm) and periodontal parameters showed no significant difference between the groups (P>.05). CONCLUSION Within the limitation of the present study, implant survival was affected by early loading on the anodic oxidized implants placed on posterior mandibles during one-year follow-up. Early implant loading did not influence peri-implant marginal bone loss, and periodontal parameters. PMID:22439096

  16. Survival, recruitment, and population growth rate of an important mesopredator: the northern raccoon.

    PubMed

    Troyer, Elizabeth M; Cameron Devitt, Susan E; Sunquist, Melvin E; Goswami, Varun R; Oli, Madan K

    2014-01-01

    Populations of mesopredators (mid-sized mammalian carnivores) are expanding in size and range amid declining apex predator populations and ever-growing human presence, leading to significant ecological impacts. Despite their obvious importance, population dynamics have scarcely been studied for most mesopredator species. Information on basic population parameters and processes under a range of conditions is necessary for managing these species. Here we investigate survival, recruitment, and population growth rate of a widely distributed and abundant mesopredator, the northern raccoon (Procyon lotor), using Pradel's temporal symmetry models and >6 years of monthly capture-mark-recapture data collected in a protected area. Monthly apparent survival probability was higher for females (0.949, 95% CI = 0.936-0.960) than for males (0.908, 95% CI = 0.893-0.920), while monthly recruitment rate was higher for males (0.091, 95% CI = 0.078-0.106) than for females (0.054, 95% CI = 0.042-0.067). Finally, monthly realized population growth rate was 1.000 (95% CI = 0.996-1.004), indicating that our study population has reached a stable equilibrium in this relatively undisturbed habitat. There was little evidence for substantial temporal variation in population growth rate or its components. Our study is one of the first to quantify survival, recruitment, and realized population growth rate of raccoons using long-term data and rigorous statistical models.

  17. Survival and recovery rates of mottled ducks banded in Texas and Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haukos, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The Western Gulf Coast population of the mottled duck (Anas fulvigula) is dependent on the Gulf coastal marsh to complete its entire life cycle. Band recovery data can be used to monitor mottled duck populations by estimating annual survival, indexing harvest rate, and assessing movements. Band returns from hunting seasons 1997–2013 were used to evaluate factors influencing annual survival, recovery rates, and movements of mottled ducks in Texas and Louisiana. For banding years of 1997–2013, 58,349 normal, wild mottled ducks were banded and released in Texas and Louisiana. Since 2002, 86% of mottled duck bandings have occurred on the Chenier Plain of Texas and Louisiana. Hunters shot, recovered, and reported 7,061birds with bands during this period. Direct recovery rates were greater for juveniles than adults but changed little since the 1970s. Estimates of annual survival did not differ between Texas and Louisiana, but did among years and between sex and age classes. Adult male and juvenile female mottled ducks had the greatest and lowest annual survival rates, respectively. Recovery of birds banded on the Chenier Plain was four times greater for birds banded in Texas and harvested in Louisiana than banded in Louisiana and harvested in Texas. Much of the current inference of results from banding mottled ducks is limited to the Chenier Plain. To monitor the entire Western Gulf Coast population of mottled ducks, managers can consider expanding operational banding operations with annual quotas, which would improve survival and recovery estimates and allow for inference beyond the Chenier Plain region.

  18. Effects of climatic variation on survival rates in northern spotted owls

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin, A.B.; Anderson, D.R.; Gutierrez, R.J. |

    1995-09-01

    We examined the effect of climate on the annual survival of marked northern spotted owls in northwest California between 1985 through 1994. We tested a priori predictions concerning the effects of precipitation and temperature during critical environmental and life history periods using mark-recapture models where logit(survival) was modeled as a function of the climatic covariates. Additional factors considered in models included sex, age and random time effects. We used Akaike`s Information Criterion to select parsimonious models in lieu of time effects. We used Akaike`s Information Criterion to select parsimonious models in lieu of a strict hypothesis-testing framework. Models incorporating climatic covariates, such as precipitation during the winter and nesting periods, explained variation in survival rates significantly better than models with time effects. These results have important implications for the life history of this species as well as it`s conservation as a threatened species.

  19. Effects of the Cessation of Mass Screening for Neuroblastoma at 6 Months of Age: A Population-Based Study in Osaka, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ioka, Akiko; Inoue, Masami; Yoneda, Akihiro; Nakamura, Tetsuro; Hara, Junichi; Hashii, Yoshiko; Sakata, Naoki; Yamato, Kazumi; Tsukuma, Hideaki; Kawa, Keisei

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2004, the Japanese government halted the 6-month mass screening program for neuroblastoma. We investigated whether its cessation had led to an increase not only in mortality due to this disease but also in the incidence of advanced-stage disease among older children. Methods Study subjects were neuroblastoma patients retrieved from the population-based Osaka Cancer Registry. Trends of incidence and mortality from neuroblastoma were analyzed by calendar year and birth cohort. Prognostic factors, including stage and v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene neuroblastoma derived homolog (MYCN) oncogene status, were compared before and after the cessation of mass screening. Results Age-standardized incidence rates in 2005–2009 (the cessation period of mass screening; 11.1 per million) were similar to those in 1975–1979 (the pre-screening period; 8.6 per million). Age-standardized mortality rates tended to decrease from 1975–1979 (4.0 per million) to 2005–2009 (2.7 per million) in parallel with the improvement in survival. Analysis by birth cohort indicated that the mortality rates in 2004–2005 (after cessation) for children 0–4 years of age were lower than those in 1975–1979 (O:E ratio 0.25; 95% confidence interval, 0.03–0.90). For children 1–9 years of age, there was a not significant difference in the distribution of stage, MYCN oncogene status, and DNA ploidy between 1991–2003 (the mass screening period) and 2004–2008 (after cessation). Conclusions The cessation of mass screening for neuroblastoma does not appear to have increased mortality due to this disease or incidence of advanced-stage disease among older children. PMID:26548355

  20. Study of psychosocial parameters related to the survival rate of renal transplantation in children.

    PubMed

    Mongeau, J G; Clermont, M J; Robitaille, P; Plante, A; Jéquier, J C; Godbout, C; Guertin, M C; Beaulieu, M A; Sarrazin, F

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of intelligence, schooling, psychomotor, emotional, and social status on renal graft survival in children. Sixty-two cadaver renal transplant recipients were evaluated retrospectively and the influence of sex, age, weight, and the use of cyclosporin A (CyA) on the success rate of the graft from 1 to 5 years later was analyzed. Psychological and social scores were devised and included as factors predictive of survival of the graft. Univariate analysis showed that the following variables predicted renal graft survival: the use of CyA (P = 0.0002), pre-transplant dialysis (P = 0.04), weight at the time of transplantation (P = 0.072), and psychological scores (P = 0.064). Association analysis demonstrated that pre-transplantation dialysis was only a chance association and therefore the parameter was discarded. Multivariate analysis showed that the predictive parameters were the use of CyA, sex, weight in kilograms, and the psychological score. An equation was then derived from variables that predict the probability that a specific patient's graft will survive more than t months. This equation is the estimated survival distribution function and is as follow: S (t) = Exp {-Exp[-(0.8882x1 - 1.827x2 + 0.037x3 - 0.1746x4) + ln t - 4.7862]} where S (t) = the survival at t months post transplantation, x1 = sex (male 1, female 2), x2 = CyA (yes 1, no 2), x3 = weight in kilograms, and x4 = psychological score. The major impact of psychological factors on renal graft survival was surprising.

  1. Investigating Rates of Hunting and Survival in Declining European Lapwing Populations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Understanding effects of harvest on population dynamics is of major interest, especially for declining species. European lapwing Vanellus vanellus populations increased from the 1960s until the 1980s and declined strongly thereafter. About 400,000 lapwings are harvested annually and it is thus of high conservation relevance to assess whether hunting was a main cause for the observed changes in lapwing population trends. We developed a multi-event cause-specific mortality model which we applied to a long-term ring-recovery data set (1960–2010) of > 360,000 records to estimate survival and cause-specific mortalities. We found no temporal change in survival over the last 50 years for first-year (FY) and older birds (after first-year; AFY) originating from different ringing areas. Mean survival was high, around 0.60 and 0.80 for FY and AFY individuals, respectively. The proportion of total mortality due to hunting was <0.10 over the study period and the estimated proportion of harvested individuals (kill rate) was <0.05 in each year. Our result of constant survival indicates that demographic processes other than survival were responsible for the pronounced change in lapwing population trends in the 1980s. Our findings lend support to the hypothesis that hunting was not a significant contributor to the large-scale decline of lapwing populations. To halt the ongoing decline of European lapwing populations management should focus on life history stages other than survival (e.g. productivity). Further analyses are required to investigate the contribution of other demographic rates to the decline of lapwings and to identify the most efficient conservation actions. PMID:27685660

  2. Environmental effects on survival rates: robust regression, recovery planning and endangered Atlantic salmon

    PubMed Central

    Bowlby, Heather D; Gibson, A Jamie F

    2015-01-01

    Describing how population-level survival rates are influenced by environmental change becomes necessary during recovery planning to identify threats that should be the focus for future remediation efforts. However, the ways in which data are analyzed have the potential to change our ecological understanding and thus subsequent recommendations for remedial actions to address threats. In regression, distributional assumptions underlying short time series of survival estimates cannot be investigated a priori and data likely contain points that do not follow the general trend (outliers) as well as contain additional variation relative to an assumed distribution (overdispersion). Using juvenile survival data from three endangered Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. populations in response to hydrological variation, four distributions for the response were compared using lognormal and generalized linear models (GLM). The influence of outliers as well as overdispersion was investigated by comparing conclusions from robust regressions with these lognormal models and GLMs. The analyses strongly supported the use of a lognormal distribution for survival estimates (i.e., modeling the instantaneous rate of mortality as the response) and would have led to ambiguity in the identification of significant hydrological predictors as well as low overall confidence in the predicted relationships if only GLMs had been considered. However, using robust regression to evaluate the effect of additional variation and outliers in the data relative to regression assumptions resulted in a better understanding of relationships between hydrological variables and survival that could be used for population-specific recovery planning. This manuscript highlights how a systematic analysis that explicitly considers what monitoring data represent and where variation is likely to come from is required in order to draw meaningful conclusions when analyzing changes in survival relative to environmental

  3. Temperament, personality, and treatment outcome in major depression: a 6-month preliminary prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Kudo, Yuka; Nakagawa, Atsuo; Wake, Taisei; Ishikawa, Natsumi; Kurata, Chika; Nakahara, Mizuki; Nojima, Teruo; Mimura, Masaru

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite available treatments, major depression is a highly heterogeneous disorder, which leads to problems in classification and treatment specificity. Previous studies have reported that personality traits predict and influence the course and treatment response of depression. The Temperament and Personality Questionnaire (T&P) assesses eight major constructs of personality traits observed in those who develop depression. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of T&P’s eight constructs on the treatment outcome of depressed patients. Patients and methods A preliminary 6-month prospective study was conducted with a sample of 51 adult patients with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) without remarkable psychomotor disturbance using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition. All patients received comprehensive assessment including the T&P at baseline. We compared each T&P construct score between patients who achieved remission and those who did not achieve remission after 6 months of treatment for depression using both subjective and objective measures. All 51 (100%) patients received the 6-month follow-up assessment. Results This study demonstrated that higher scores on T&P personal reserve predicted poorer treatment outcome in patients with MDD. Higher levels of personal reserve, rejection sensitivity, and self-criticism correlated with higher levels of depression. Higher levels of rejection sensitivity and self-criticism were associated with non-remitters; however, when we controlled for baseline depression severity, this relationship did not show significance. Conclusion Although the results are preliminary, this study suggests that high scores on T&P personal reserve predict poorer treatment outcome and T&P rejection sensitivity and self-criticism correlate with the severity of depression. Longer follow-up studies with large sample sizes are required to improve the understanding of these

  4. Association between depression in carers and malnutrition in children aged 6 months to 5 years

    PubMed Central

    Ganiyu, Adewale B.; Firth, Jacqueline A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Childhood malnutrition is an important risk factor for child mortality and underlies close to 50% of child deaths worldwide. Previous studies have found an association between maternal depression and child malnutrition, but it is not known whether this association exists in Botswana. In addition, previous studies excluded non-maternal primary caregivers (PCGs). It is unclear whether the association between primary caregiver depression and child malnutrition remains when non-maternal PCGs are included. Aim The aim of this study was to determine if there is an association between PCG depression and malnutrition in children aged between 6 months and 5 years in Mahalapye, Botswana. Setting The study was conducted in the child welfare clinics of Xhosa and Airstrip clinics, two primary health care facilities in Mahalapye, Botswana. Methods This was a case control study. Cases were malnourished children aged between 6 months and 5 years, and controls were non-malnourished children matched for age and gender. The outcome of interest was depression in the PCGs of the cases and controls, which was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ 9), a depression screening tool. Results From a sample of 171 children, 84 of whom were malnourished, we found that the malnourished children were significantly more likely to have depressed PCGs (odds ratio = 4.33; 95% CI: 1.89, 9.89) than non-malnourished children in the 6-month to 5-year age group; the PCGs of malnourished children also had lower educational status. Conclusion This study found a significant association between PCG depression and child malnutrition. PMID:28155288

  5. Prenatal maternal depression alters amygdala functional connectivity in 6-month-old infants

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, A; Anh, T T; Li, Y; Chen, H; Rifkin-Graboi, A; Broekman, B F P; Kwek, K; Saw, S-M; Chong, Y-S; Gluckman, P D; Fortier, M V; Meaney, M J

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal maternal depression is associated with alterations in the neonatal amygdala microstructure, shedding light on the timing for the influence of prenatal maternal depression on the brain structure of the offspring. This study aimed to examine the association between prenatal maternal depressive symptomatology and infant amygdala functional connectivity and to thus establish the neural functional basis for the transgenerational transmission of vulnerability for affective disorders during prenatal development. Twenty-four infants were included in this study with both structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) at 6 months of age. Maternal depression was assessed at 26 weeks of gestation and 3 months after delivery using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Linear regression was used to identify the amygdala functional networks and to examine the associations between prenatal maternal depressive symptoms and amygdala functional connectivity. Our results showed that at 6 months of age, the amygdala is functionally connected to widespread brain regions, forming the emotional regulation, sensory and perceptual, and emotional memory networks. After controlling for postnatal maternal depressive symptoms, infants born to mothers with higher prenatal maternal depressive symptoms showed greater functional connectivity of the amygdala with the left temporal cortex and insula, as well as the bilateral anterior cingulate, medial orbitofrontal and ventromedial prefrontal cortices, which are largely consistent with patterns of connectivity observed in adolescents and adults with major depressive disorder. Our study provides novel evidence that prenatal maternal depressive symptomatology alters the amygdala's functional connectivity in early postnatal life, which reveals that the neuroimaging correlates of the familial transmission of phenotypes associated with maternal mood are apparent in infants at 6 months of age. PMID:25689569

  6. Infants, mothers, and dyadic contributions to stability and prediction of social stress response at 6 months.

    PubMed

    Provenzi, Livio; Olson, Karen L; Montirosso, Rosario; Tronick, Ed

    2016-01-01

    The study of infants' interactive style and social stress response to repeated stress exposures is of great interest for developmental and clinical psychologists. Stable maternal and dyadic behavior is critical to sustain infants' development of an adaptive social stress response, but the association between infants' interactive style and social stress response has received scant attention in previous literature. In the present article, overtime stability of infant, maternal, and dyadic behaviors was measured across 2 social stress (i.e., Face-to-Face Still-Face, FFSF) exposures, separated by 15 days. Moreover, infant, maternal, and dyadic behaviors were simultaneously assessed as predictors of infants' social stress to both FFSF exposures. Eighty-one mother-infant dyads underwent the FFSF twice, at 6 months (Exposure 1: the first social stress) and at 6 months and 15 days (Exposure 2: repeated social stress). Infant and mother behavior and dyadic synchrony were microanalytically coded. Overall, individual behavioral stability emerged between FFSF exposures. Infants' response to the first stress was predicted by infant behavior during Exposure 1 Play. Infants' response to the repeated social stress was predicted by infants' response to the first exposure to the Still-Face and by infants' behavior and dyadic synchrony during Exposure 2 Play. Findings reveal stability for individual, but not for dyadic, behavior between 2 social stress exposures at 6 months. Infants' response to repeated social stress was predicted by infants' earlier stress response, infants' own behavior in play, and dyadic synchrony. No predictive effects of maternal behavior were found. Insights for research and clinical work are discussed.

  7. Strategy training shows promise for addressing disability in the first 6 months after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Skidmore, Elizabeth R.; Dawson, Deirdre R.; Butters, Meryl A.; Grattan, Emily S.; Juengst, Shannon B.; Whyte, Ellen M.; Begley, Amy; Holm, Margo B.; Becker, James T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cognitive impairments occur frequently after stroke and contribute to significant disability. Strategy training shows promise but has not been examined in the acute phase of recovery. Objective We conducted a single-blind randomized pilot study estimating the effect of strategy training, relative to reflective listening (attention control), for reducing disability and executive cognitive impairments. Methods Thirty participants with acute stroke who were enrolled in inpatient rehabilitation and had cognitive impairments were randomized to receive strategy training (n=15, 10 sessions as adjunct to usual inpatient rehabilitation) or reflective listening (n=15, same dose). The Functional Independence Measure assessed disability at baseline, rehabilitation discharge, 3 and 6 months. The Color Word Interference Test of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System assessed selected executive cognitive impairments (inhibition, flexibility) at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Results Changes in Functional Independence Measure scores for the two groups over 6 months showed significant effects of group (F1,27=9.25, p=0.005), time (F3.74=96.00, p<0.001), and group*time interactions (F3,74=4.37, p<0.007) after controlling for baseline differences in stroke severity (F1,27=6.74, p=0.015). Color Word Interference Inhibition scores showed significant effects of group (F1,26=6.50, p=0.017), and time (F2,34=4.74, p=0.015), but the group*time interaction was not significant (F2,34=2.55, p=0.093). Color Word Interference Cognitive Flexibility scores showed significant effects of group (F1,26=23.41, p<0.001), and time (F2,34=12.77, p<0.001), and group*time interactions (F2,34=7.83, p<0.002). Interaction effects suggested greater improvements were associated with strategy training. Conclusions Strategy training shows promise for addressing disability in the first 6 months after stroke. Lessons from this pilot study may inform future clinical trials. PMID:25505221

  8. Statistics of hematologic malignancies in Korea: incidence, prevalence and survival rates from 1999 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyeon Jin; Park, Eun-Hye; Jung, Kyu-Won; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Won, Young-Joo; Lee, Joo Young; Yoon, Jong Hyung; Park, Byung-Kiu; Lee, Hyewon; Eom, Hyeon-Seok

    2012-01-01

    Background The nationwide statistical analysis of hematologic malignancies in Korea has not been reported yet. Methods The Korea Central Cancer Registry and the Korean Society of Hematology jointly investigated domestic incidence rates and prevalence of hematologic malignancies occurred between 1999 and 2008, and analyzed survival rates of patients who were diagnosed between 1993 and 2008. Data of hematologic malignancies from 1993 to 2008 were obtained from the Korean National Cancer Incidence Data base. The crude incidence rates, age-specific incidence rates, age-standardized incidence rates, annual percentage change of incidence, and prevalence from 1999-2008 were calculated. Survival rates for patients diagnosed in 1993-2008 were estimated. Results In 2008, a total of 8,006 cases of hematologic malignancies were occurred, which comprised 4.5% of all malignancies. In all genders, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, myeloid leukemia, and multiple myeloma were most frequent diseases. In terms of age, ages between 60 and 69 were most prevalent. From 1999 to 2008, the age-standardized incidence rates increased from 10.2 to 13.7, and the annual percentage change was 3.9%. The 5-year survival rate increased from 38.2% during 1993-1995 to 55.2% during 2004-2008. As of January 2009, number of patients with 10-year prevalence was 33,130, and with 5- to 10-year prevalence was 10,515. Conclusion This is the first nationwide statistical report of hematologic malignancies in Korea. It could be used as the basic information to help investigate epidemiologic characteristics, evaluate progress during the past years, and establish future strategies for hematologic malignancies. Periodic statistical analysis of hematologic malignancies in Korea should be continued. PMID:22479275

  9. Annual survival rates of adult and immature eastern population tundra swans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Bart, J.; Limpert, R.J.; Sladen, William J. L.; Hines, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus ) of the eastern population were neckbanded in Maryland, North Carolina, and Alaska from 1966 through 1990. These swans were resighted and recaptured during autumn, winter, and spring, 1966-1990. Although the original motivation for this study involved swan movements, we wanted to use the resulting data to test hypotheses about sources of variation in swan survival rates. Recaptures of legbanded and neckbanded swans permitted us to estimate neckband loss rates, which were found to vary with age and sex of swans, and number of years since initial application. Estimates of annual neckband retention rate ranged from about 0.50 for adult male swans greater than or equal to 2 years after initial neckbanding to > 0.96 for immature swans and adult females the first year following neckbanding. This variation in neckband loss rates prevented the simple correction of survival estimates to account for such loss. Consequently, we developed a series of multinomial models parameterized with survival, sighting, and neckband retention probabilities for use with the recapture and resighting data.

  10. Responses of juvenile European flounder (Platichthys flesus) to multistress in the Vilaine estuary, during a 6-month survey.

    PubMed

    Evrard, Estérine; Devaux, Alain; Bony, Sylvie; Cachot, Jérôme; Charrier, Grégory; Quiniou, Louis; Laroche, Jean

    2013-02-01

    Physiological and genetic responses of age 0+ Platichthys flesus were investigated in the eutrophicated and moderately contaminated Vilaine estuary, during a 6-month survey. The main objective of this study was to explore the biological responses of fishes during their juvenile period in an estuarine system in order to detect a possible selective pressure induced by the environmental stress. Our results showed a general convergence in physiological responses along the survey: an increase in genotoxicity was associated with an increase in mRNA expression of ATPase and betaine homocysteine methyltransferase. These results could suggest an increase of cellular damage, energetic request, and detoxification rate related to the growing exposure time to stress. Considering the aging of the cohort, the genetic characteristics of the Vilaine flounder cohort came closer to the one observed in a highly stressed system, the Seine estuary, suggesting a potential selective pressure mainly induced by the chemical stress.

  11. Emotional Experiences Predict the Conversion of Individuals with Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome to Psychosis: A 6-Month Follow up Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fa Zhan; Wang, Yi; Sun, Xi Rong; Yao, Yu Hong; Zhang, Ning; Qiao, Hui Fen; Zhang, Lan; Li, Zhan Jiang; Lin, Hong; Lu, Zheng; Li, Jing; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Zhao, Xu Dong

    2016-01-01

    The present study explored the conversion rate in individuals with Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome (APS) and potential predictor for transition in mainland China. Sixty-three participants identified as APS were followed up 6 months later. The results showed that 17% of individuals with APS converted to full-blown psychosis. The converters exhibited significantly poorer emotional experience and expression than the non-converters at baseline. A further binary logistic regression analysis showed that emotional experience could predict the transition (Wald = 4.18, p = 0.041, 95% CI = 1.04~6.82). The present study suggests an important role of emotional processing in the prediction of the development of full-blown psychosis. PMID:27313553

  12. Simultaneous use of mark-recapture and radiotelemetry to estimate survival, movement, and capture rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, L.A.; Conroy, M.J.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Krementz, D.G.

    2000-01-01

    Biologists often estimate separate survival and movement rates from radio-telemetry and mark-recapture data from the same study population. We describe a method for combining these data types in a single model to obtain joint, potentially less biased estimates of survival and movement that use all available data. We furnish an example using wood thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) captured at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge in central Georgia in 1996. The model structure allows estimation of survival and capture probabilities, as well as estimation of movements away from and into the study area. In addition, the model structure provides many possibilities for hypothesis testing. Using the combined model structure, we estimated that wood thrush weekly survival was 0.989 ? 0.007 ( ?SE). Survival rates of banded and radio-marked individuals were not different (alpha hat [S_radioed, ~ S_banded]=log [S hat _radioed/ S hat _banded]=0.0239 ? 0.0435). Fidelity rates (weekly probability of remaining in a stratum) did not differ between geographic strata (psi hat=0.911 ? 0.020; alpha hat [psi11, psi22]=0.0161 ? 0.047), and recapture rates ( = 0.097 ? 0.016) banded and radio-marked individuals were not different (alpha hat [p_radioed, p_banded]=0.145 ? 0.655). Combining these data types in a common model resulted in more precise estimates of movement and recapture rates than separate estimation, but ability to detect stratum or mark-specific differences in parameters was week. We conducted simulation trials to investigate the effects of varying study designs on parameter accuracy and statistical power to detect important differences. Parameter accuracy was high (relative bias [RBIAS] <2 %) and confidence interval coverage close to nominal, except for survival estimates of banded birds for the 'off study area' stratum, which were negatively biased (RBIAS -7 to -15%) when sample sizes were small (5-10 banded or radioed animals 'released' per time interval). To provide

  13. Survival rates of porcelain laminate restoration based on different incisal preparation designs: An analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Ashish; Kaiwar, Anjali; Shubhashini, N; Ashwini, P; Naveen, DN; Adarsha, MS; Shetty, Mitha; Meena, N

    2011-01-01

    Background: Veneer restorations provide a valid conservative alternative to complete coverage as they avoid aggressive dental preparation; thus, maintaining tooth structure. Initially, laminates were placed on the unprepared tooth surface. Although there is as yet no consensus as to whether or not teeth should be prepared for laminate veneers, currently, more conservative preparations have been advocated. Because of their esthetic appeal, biocompatibility and adherence to the physiology of minimal-invasive dentistry, porcelain laminate veneers have now become a restoration of choice. Currently, there is a lack of clinical consensus regarding the type of design preferred for laminates. Widely varying survival rates and methods for its estimation have been reported for porcelain veneers over approximately 2–10 years. Relatively few studies have been reported in the literature that use survival estimates, which allow for valid study comparisons between the types of preparation designs used. No survival analysis has been undertaken for the designs used. The purpose of this article is to attempt to review the survival rates of veneers based on different incisal preparation designs from both clinical and non-clinical studies. Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this study is to review both clinical and non-clinical studies to determine the survival rates of veneers based on different incisal preparation designs. A further objective of the study is to understand which is the most successful design in terms of preparation. Materials and Methods This study evaluated the existing literature – survival rates of veneers based on incisal preparation designs. The search strategy involved MEDLINE, BITTORRENT and other databases. Statistical Analysis Data were tabulated. Because of variability in the follow-up period in different studies, the follow-up period was extrapolated to 10 years in common for all of them. Accordingly, the failure rate was then estimated and The

  14. A Cornea Substitute Derived from Fish Scale: 6-Month Followup on Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Fei; Wang, Liyan; Lin, Chien-Chen; Chou, Cheng-Hung; Li, Lei

    2014-01-01

    A fish scale-derived cornea substitute (Biocornea) is proposed as an alternative for human donor corneal tissue. We adopt a regenerative medicine approach to design a primary alternative to the use of fish scale for restoring sight by corneal replacement. Biocornea with corneal multilayer arrangement collagen was implanted to rabbits by pocket implantation. Our study demonstrated the safety and detailed morphologic and physiologic results from the 6 months of followup of rabbit model. In the peripheral Biocornea, the collagen fibrils were arranged in reticular fashion. Slit lamp examination showed that haze and an ulcer were not observed in all groups at 3 months postoperatively while all corneas with Biocornea were clear at both 3 months and 6 months postoperatively. The interface of Biocornea and stromal tissue were filled successfully and without observable immune cells at postoperative day 180. Moreover, the Biocornea was not dissolved and degenerated but remained transparent and showed no apparent fragmentation. Our study demonstrated that the Biocornea derived from fish scale as a good substitute had high biocompatibility and support function after a long-term evaluation. This revealed that the new approach of using Biocornea may yield an ideal artificial cornea substitute for long-term inlay placement. PMID:25089206

  15. Replicating ¡Cuídate!: 6-Month Impact Findings of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Layzer, Carolyn; Layzer, Jean; Price, Cristofer; Juras, Randall; Blocklin, Michelle; Mendez, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To test whether ¡Cuídate!, a program culturally adapted for Hispanic youths, affects sexual risk behavior. Methods. We evaluated 3 replications of ¡Cuídate! in California, Arizona, and Massachusetts in a randomized controlled trial (registry no. NCT02540304) in which 2169 primarily Hispanic participants were randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 1326) or a control (n = 870) group. Youths were surveyed at baseline (September 2012–April 2014) and 6 months postbaseline (March 2013–October 2014). We estimated pooled and subgroup impacts using a regression framework with baseline covariates to increase statistical precision (1216 youths analyzed in the treatment group, 806 analyzed in the control group). Results. We found no impacts on the study’s primary outcomes of recent sexual activity or recent unprotected sexual activity. However, ¡Cuídate! improved knowledge (10%–20% increase; P < .001), attitudes (effect size = .24; P < .001), and skills (effect size = .14; P = .002). Exploratory subgroup analyses suggest potentially problematic effects for some groups. Conclusions. Findings suggest that ¡Cuídate! was effective in improving youths’ knowledge and attitudes. However, after 6 months, these changes did not translate to improvements in reported sexual risk behaviors. PMID:27689498

  16. Implications of newborn amygdala connectivity for fear and cognitive development at 6-months-of-age

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Alice M.; Buss, Claudia; Rasmussen, Jerod M.; Rudolph, Marc D.; Demeter, Damion V.; Gilmore, John H.; Styner, Martin; Entringer, Sonja; Wadhwa, Pathik D.; Fair, Damien A.

    2015-01-01

    The first year of life is an important period for emergence of fear in humans. While animal models have revealed developmental changes in amygdala circuitry accompanying emerging fear, human neural systems involved in early fear development remain poorly understood. To increase understanding of the neural foundations of human fear, it is important to consider parallel cognitive development, which may modulate associations between typical development of early fear and subsequent risk for fear-related psychopathology. We, therefore, examined amygdala functional connectivity with rs-fcMRI in 48 neonates (M=3.65 weeks, SD=1.72), and measured fear and cognitive development at 6-months-of-age. Stronger, positive neonatal amygdala connectivity to several regions, including bilateral anterior insula and ventral striatum, was prospectively associated with higher fear at 6-months. Stronger amygdala connectivity to ventral anterior cingulate/anterior medial prefrontal cortex predicted a specific phenotype of higher fear combined with more advanced cognitive development. Overall, findings demonstrate unique profiles of neonatal amygdala functional connectivity related to emerging fear and cognitive development, which may have implications for normative and pathological fear in later years. Consideration of infant fear in the context of cognitive development will likely contribute to a more nuanced understanding of fear, its neural bases, and its implications for future mental health. PMID:26499255

  17. In Vivo Remodeling of Fibroblast-Derived Vascular Scaffolds Implanted for 6 Months in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tondreau, Maxime Y.; Laterreur, Véronique; Vallières, Karine; Gauvin, Robert; Bourget, Jean-Michel; Tremblay, Catherine; Lacroix, Dan; Germain, Lucie; Ruel, Jean

    2016-01-01

    There is a clinical need for tissue-engineered small-diameter (<6 mm) vascular grafts since clinical applications are halted by the limited suitability of autologous or synthetic grafts. This study uses the self-assembly approach to produce a fibroblast-derived decellularized vascular scaffold (FDVS) that can be available off-the-shelf. Briefly, extracellular matrix scaffolds were produced using human dermal fibroblasts sheets rolled around a mandrel, maintained in culture to allow for the formation of cohesive and three-dimensional tubular constructs, and decellularized by immersion in deionized water. The FDVSs were implanted as an aortic interpositional graft in six Sprague-Dawley rats for 6 months. Five out of the six implants were still patent 6 months after the surgery. Histological analysis showed the infiltration of cells on both abluminal and luminal sides, and immunofluorescence analysis suggested the formation of neomedia comprised of smooth muscle cells and lined underneath with an endothelium. Furthermore, to verify the feasibility of producing tissue-engineered blood vessels of clinically relevant length and diameter, scaffolds with a 4.6 mm inner diameter and 17 cm in length were fabricated with success and stored for an extended period of time, while maintaining suitable properties following the storage period. This novel demonstration of the potential of the FDVS could accelerate the clinical availability of tissue-engineered blood vessels and warrants further preclinical studies. PMID:27999795

  18. A 6-month analysis of training-intensity distribution and physiological adaptation in Ironman triathletes.

    PubMed

    Neal, Craig M; Hunter, Angus M; Galloway, Stuart D R

    2011-11-01

    In the present study, we analysed the training-intensity distribution and physiological adaptations over a 6-month period preceding an Ironman triathlon race. Ten athletes (mean ± s: age 43 ± 3 years, mass 78.3 ± 10.3 kg, stature 1.79 ± 0.05 m) participated in the study. The study consisted of three training periods (A, B, C), each of approximately 2 months' duration, and four testing weeks. Testing consisted of incremental tests to exhaustion for swimming, cycling and running, and assessments for anthropometry plus cardiovascular and pulmonary measures. The lactate threshold and the lactate turnpoint were used to demarcate three discipline-specific, exercise-intensity zones. The mean percentage of time spent in zones 1, 2, and 3 was 69 ± 9%, 25 ± 8%, and 6 ± 2% for periods A-C combined. Only modest physiological adaptation occurred throughout the 6-month period, with small to moderate effect sizes at best. Relationships between the training volume/training load and the training-intensity distribution with the changes in key measures of adaptation were weak and probably reflect differences in initial training status. Our results suggest that the effects of intensity distribution are small over short-term training periods and future experimental research is needed to clarify the potential impact of intensity distribution on physiological adaptation.

  19. Practice effects on the WAIS-III across 3- and 6-month intervals.

    PubMed

    Basso, Michael R; Carona, Francine D; Lowery, Natasha; Axelrod, Bradley N

    2002-02-01

    Fifty-one participants (age M = 24.6; education M = 14.4 years) were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Third Edition (WAIS-III) at baseline and at an interval of either 3 or 6 months later. Full Scale IQ (FSIQ), Verbal IQ (VIQ), Performance IQ (PIQ), Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI), Perceptual Organization Index (POI), and Processing Speed Index (PSI) scores improved significantly across time, whereas no significant change occurred on the Working Memory Index. Specifically, test scores increased approximately 3, 11, 6, 4, 8, and 7 points, respectively on the VIQ, PIQ, FSIQ, VCI, POI, and PSI for both groups. Notably, the degree of improvement was similar regardless of whether the inter-test interval was 3 or 6 months. These findings suggest that prior exposure to the WAIS-III yields considerable increases in test scores. Reliable change indices indicated that large confidence intervals might be expected. As such, users of the WAIS-III should interpret reevaluations across these intervals cautiously.

  20. Bone Formation in Maxillary Sinus Lift Using Autogenous Bone Graft at 2 and 6 Months.

    PubMed

    Netto, Henrique Duque; Miranda Chaves, Maria das Graças Alfonso; Aatrstrup, Beatriz; Guerra, Renata; Olate, Sergio

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the bone formation in maxillary sinus lift with an autogenous bone graft in histological evaluation at 2 or 6 months. A comparative study was designed where 10 patients with missing teeth bilaterally in the posterior zone of the maxilla were selected. Patients received a particulate autogenous bone graft under the same surgical conditions, selecting a site to collect a biopsy and histological study at two months and another at six months postoperatively. Histomorphometry was performed and were used Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, student's t-test and Spearman's correlation coefficient, considering a value of p<0.05. Differences were observed in inflammatory infiltrate and vascularization characteristics; however, the group analyzed at two months presented 38.12% ± 6.64 % of mineralized tissue, whereas the group studied at 6 months presented an average of 38.45 ± 9.27 %. There were no statistical differences between the groups. It is concluded that the bone formation may be similar in intrasinus particulate autogenous bone grafts in evaluations at two or six months; under these conditions, early installation of implants is viable.

  1. Infant Humor Perception from 3- to 6-months and Attachment at One Year

    PubMed Central

    Mireault, Gina; Sparrow, John; Poutre, Merlin; Perdue, Brittany; Macke, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Infancy is a critical time for the development of secure attachment, which is facilitated by emotionally synchronous interactions with parents. Humor development, which includes shared laughter and joint attention to an event, emerges concurrently with attachment, but little is known regarding the relationship, if any, between humor development and attachment in the first year. Thirty 3-month-old infants were videoed at home each month until they were 6-months old while their parents attempted to amuse them. Frequency of infants’ smiles and laughs served as a measure of “state humor”, and the smiling/laughing subscale of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised served as a measure of “trait humor”. State and trait humor were not correlated. Lower trait humor as 6 months predicted higher attachment security on the Attachment Q-sort at 12-months (r=. 46), suggesting that less good-humored infants elicit greater parental engagement, which works to the benefit of attachment, or vice versa. Future studies should examine the importance of smiling and laughter as they relate to other developmental phenomena in the first year. PMID:22982281

  2. Implications of newborn amygdala connectivity for fear and cognitive development at 6-months-of-age.

    PubMed

    Graham, Alice M; Buss, Claudia; Rasmussen, Jerod M; Rudolph, Marc D; Demeter, Damion V; Gilmore, John H; Styner, Martin; Entringer, Sonja; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Fair, Damien A

    2016-04-01

    The first year of life is an important period for emergence of fear in humans. While animal models have revealed developmental changes in amygdala circuitry accompanying emerging fear, human neural systems involved in early fear development remain poorly understood. To increase understanding of the neural foundations of human fear, it is important to consider parallel cognitive development, which may modulate associations between typical development of early fear and subsequent risk for fear-related psychopathology. We, therefore, examined amygdala functional connectivity with rs-fcMRI in 48 neonates (M=3.65 weeks, SD=1.72), and measured fear and cognitive development at 6-months-of-age. Stronger, positive neonatal amygdala connectivity to several regions, including bilateral anterior insula and ventral striatum, was prospectively associated with higher fear at 6-months. Stronger amygdala connectivity to ventral anterior cingulate/anterior medial prefrontal cortex predicted a specific phenotype of higher fear combined with more advanced cognitive development. Overall, findings demonstrate unique profiles of neonatal amygdala functional connectivity related to emerging fear and cognitive development, which may have implications for normative and pathological fear in later years. Consideration of infant fear in the context of cognitive development will likely contribute to a more nuanced understanding of fear, its neural bases, and its implications for future mental health.

  3. 6-month evaluation of JinHuang Chinese herbal medicine study in asymptomatic HIV infected Thais.

    PubMed

    Maek-a-nantawat, Wirach; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Bussaratid, Valai; Chamnachanan, Supat; Naksrisook, Supa; Peonim, Wantanee; Thantamnu, Narumon; Muanaum, Rungrapat; Ngamdee, Vatcharachai

    2003-06-01

    Good results of in vitro study of anti-HIV effects of JinHuang, a Chinese herbal medicine led to in vivo study of safety and efficacy among asymptomatic HIV infected individuals. It was a prospective open study of 21 asymptomatic HIV infected Thai volunteers. Twelve and 9 were female and male, respectively, with mean age of 29.24 +/- 3.94 years. JinHuang preparation, 6 capsules and 2 bottles of liquid formula orally three times a day, was given on an outpatient basis initially for 6 months. Regular close monitoring and follow-up were done. The side effects reported included : increased bowel movements (81%), vague taste, and smell of drug after initiation (52%). No serious adverse event related to JinHuang was detected during study. No significant changes in terms of log viral load and CD4 count were observed after 6-months' duration. Most of the patients felt that the quality of life was better in terms of better appetite, good sleep and healthy during study participation, however, these were subjective.

  4. Ultrasonographic features of vascular closure devices: initial and 6-month follow-up results

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the ultrasonographic findings for various types of vascular closure devices (VCDs) immediately after the angiographic procedure and at 6-month follow-up. Methods: We included 18 VCDs including Angio-Seal (n=4), FemoSeal (n=8), ExoSeal (n=3), Perclose (n=2), and StarClose (n=1) in this study. Four patients were implanted with 2 VCDs at the each side of bilateral femoral arteries, while the remaining 8 patients were inserted 1 VCD at the right femoral artery. Ultrasonography was performed within 10 days and at approximately 6 months after the angiographic procedure. Ultrasonographic morphology of the attached VCD and its relationship with the arterial wall were analyzed. Results: Initial ultrasonography revealed the attached VCD as the relevant unique structure with successful deployment and hemostasis. Follow-up ultrasonography demonstrated partial absorption of hemostatic materials in cases of Angio-Seal (n=3), FemoSeal (n=5), and ExoSeal (n=3), changes in the soft tissue surrounding the femoral artery in case of Angio-Seal (n=1), arterial intimal hyperplasia in cases of FemoSeal (n=3), and no gross changes as compared with the initial ultrasonographic findings in cases of Perclose (n=2) and StarClose (n=1). Conclusion: Initial ultrasonographic evaluation reflected the unique structure of each VCD, with most of them being easily distinguishable. Follow-up ultrasonography revealed various changes in the affected vessels. PMID:25145584

  5. Increases in kidney volume in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease can be detected within 6 months.

    PubMed

    Kistler, Andreas D; Poster, Diane; Krauer, Fabienne; Weishaupt, Dominik; Raina, Shagun; Senn, Oliver; Binet, Isabelle; Spanaus, Katharina; Wüthrich, Rudolf P; Serra, Andreas L

    2009-01-01

    Kidney volume growth is considered the best surrogate marker predicting the decline of renal function in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. To assess the therapeutic benefit of new drugs more rapidly, changes in kidney volume need to be determined over a short time interval. Here we measured renal volume changes by manual segmentation volumetry applied to magnetic resonance imaging scans obtained with an optimized T1-weighted acquisition protocol without gadolinium-based contrast agents. One hundred young patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and preserved renal function had a significant increase in total kidney volume by 2.71+/-4.82% in 6 months. Volume measurements were highly reproducible and accurate, as indicated by correlation coefficients of 1.000 for intra-observer and 0.996 for inter-observer agreement, with acceptable within-subject standard deviations. The change in renal volume correlated with baseline total kidney volume in all age subgroups. Total kidney volume positively correlated with male gender, hypertension, albuminuria and a history of macrohematuria but negatively with creatinine clearance. Albuminuria was associated with accelerated volume progression. Our study shows that increases in kidney volume can be reliably measured over a 6 month period in early autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease using unenhanced magnetic resonance imaging sequences.

  6. Bone Formation in Maxillary Sinus Lift Using Autogenous Bone Graft at 2 and 6 Months

    PubMed Central

    Netto, Henrique Duque; Miranda Chaves, Maria das Graças Alfonso; Aatrstrup, Beatriz; Guerra, Renata; Olate, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this study is to compare the bone formation in maxillary sinus lift with an autogenous bone graft in histological evaluation at 2 or 6 months. A comparative study was designed where 10 patients with missing teeth bilaterally in the posterior zone of the maxilla were selected. Patients received a particulate autogenous bone graft under the same surgical conditions, selecting a site to collect a biopsy and histological study at two months and another at six months postoperatively. Histomorphometry was performed and were used Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, student’s t-test and Spearman’s correlation coefficient, considering a value of p<0.05. Differences were observed in inflammatory infiltrate and vascularization characteristics; however, the group analyzed at two months presented 38.12% ± 6.64 % of mineralized tissue, whereas the group studied at 6 months presented an average of 38.45 ± 9.27 %. There were no statistical differences between the groups. It is concluded that the bone formation may be similar in intrasinus particulate autogenous bone grafts in evaluations at two or six months; under these conditions, early installation of implants is viable. PMID:27867255

  7. Sleep and physical growth in infants during the first 6 months.

    PubMed

    Tikotzky, Liat; DE Marcas, Gali; Har-Toov, Joseph; Dollberg, Shaul; Bar-Haim, Yair; Sadeh, Avi

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between infant sleep patterns and infant physical growth (weight for length ratio) using both objective and subjective sleep measures. Ninety-six first-born, healthy 6-month-old infants and their parents participated in the study. Infant sleep was assessed by actigraphy for four consecutive nights and by the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire (BISQ). In addition, parents were asked to complete background and developmental questionnaires. Questions about feeding methods were included in the developmental questionnaire. Infants' weight and length were assessed during a standard checkup at the infant-care clinic when the infants were 6 months old. Significant correlations were found between infant sleep and growth after controlling for potential infant and family confounding factors. Actigraphic sleep percentage and reported sleep duration were correlated negatively with the weight-to-length ratio measures. Sex-related differences in the associations between sleep and physical growth were found. Breast feeding at night was correlated with a more fragmented sleep, but not with physical growth. These findings suggest that sleep is related significantly to physical growth as early as in the first months of life. The study supports increasing evidence from recent studies demonstrating a link between short sleep duration and weight gain and obesity in young children.

  8. Sitting equilibrium 2 weeks after a stroke can predict the walking ability after 6 months.

    PubMed

    Feigin, L; Sharon, B; Czaczkes, B; Rosin, A J

    1996-01-01

    The prediction of mobility soon after a stroke should allow proper selection for rehabilitation and suggest the long-term prognosis of gait ability. Stable gait is related to midline body orientation and equilibrium mechanisms. We proposed that the sitting balance during the 1st, 2nd, or 3rd weeks after a hemiplegia could be a prognostic indicator for gait at 6 and 12 months. Sitting equilibrium measured in hospital was correlated with gait at the time of discharge and after 6 and 12 months, assessed by standing up, walking, and climbing stairs. The power in the affected limbs in hospital was also correlated with gait at those times. In the 134 patients followed up at 6 months, the correlation of equilibrium with gait at 6 months was r = 0.675 (p < 0.0001), and that of arm power with gait was r = 0.551 (p < 0.0001). Correlations with gait at 12 months were smaller and less meaningful. Assessment of sitting balance, even before the patient can stand, forms an important part of early management of the stroke patient.

  9. Optimizing parent-infant sleep from birth to 6 months: a new paradigm.

    PubMed

    Whittingham, Koa; Douglas, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the dominant paradigm for infant sleep from birth to 6 months is behavioral sleep interventions that aim to entrain the infant's biological patterns of sleep using techniques such as delayed response to cues, feed-play-sleep routines, sleep algorithms, and education of parents about "tired cues" and "overstimulation." A recent systematic literature review has identified that while behavioral sleep interventions may modestly increase the length of time an infant sleeps at night without signaling, they are not associated with improved infant or maternal outcomes and may have unintended negative consequences (Douglas & Hill, 2013). This article reviews the empirical literature on behavioral infant sleep interventions, sleep regulation, and sleep disturbance. Based on the available scientific literature, a new paradigm for infant sleep intervention, from birth to 6 months of age, is proposed. This new approach, the Possums Sleep Intervention, integrates interdisciplinary knowledge from developmental psychology, medical science, lactation science, evolutionary science, and neuroscience with third-wave contextual behaviorism, acceptance and commitment therapy, to create a unique, new intervention that supports parental flexibility, cued care, and the establishment of healthy biopsychosocial rhythms.

  10. Modeling the effect of temperature on survival rate of Listeria monocytogenes in yogurt.

    PubMed

    Szczawiński, J; Szczawińska, M E; Łobacz, A; Jackowska-Tracz, A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to (i) evaluate the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes in a commercially produced yogurt, (ii) determine the survival/inactivation rates of L. monocytogenes during cold storage of yogurt and (iii) to generate primary and secondary mathematical models to predict the behavior of these bacteria during storage at different temperatures. The samples of yogurt were inoculated with the mixture of three L. monocytogenes strains and stored at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15°C for 16 days. The number of listeriae was determined after 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 14 and 16 days of storage. From each sample a series of decimal dilutions were prepared and plated onto ALOA agar (agar for Listeria according to Ottaviani and Agosti). It was found that applied temperature and storage time significantly influenced the survival rate of listeriae (p<0.01). The number of L. monocytogenes in all the samples decreased linearly with storage time. The slowest decrease in the number of the bacteria was found in the samples stored at 6°C (D-10 value = 243.9 h), whereas the highest reduction in the number of the bacteria was observed in the samples stored at 15°C (D-10 value = 87.0 h). The number of L. monocytogenes was correlated with the pH value of the samples (p<0.01). The natural logarithm of the mean survival/inactivation rates of L. monocytogenes calculated from the primary model was fitted to two secondary models, namely linear and polynomial. Mathematical equations obtained from both secondary models can be applied as a tool for the prediction of the survival/inactivation rate of L. monocytogenes in yogurt stored under temperature range from 3 to 15°C, however, the polynomial model gave a better fit to the experimental data.

  11. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the people's Republic of China: incidence, treatment, and survival rates

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, H.N.

    1983-10-01

    The incidence, treatment regimens, and survival rates for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in China, one of the most common cancers in that country, are reviewed. Although treated almost exclusively with megavoltage photon therapy, in some cancer centers intracavitary radium insertions are used to increase the radiation dose to the primary tumor site. A histological study of these tumors shows that patients whose tumors are well-differentiated and contain an abundance of lymphocytes have the best prognosis.

  12. [Survival rate and complications of stemmed shoulder prostheses in primary osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Irlenbusch, U

    2013-07-01

    Survivorship and survival rate of shoulder prostheses can be affected by a large number of possible complications. An evaluation of the current literature and the prosthesis register, however, shows an overall low revision (1.39 revisions per 100 observation years) and loosening rates (implant-related 10-year survival rate up to 99%), comparable to that of hip and knee endoprostheses. It must be emphasized that cementless stems more often cause problems than cemented components (4.34 compared to 0.77 revisions per 100 observation years) and that secondary rotator cuff rupture (4.6%; functional deficit up to 30%) occurs more frequently than was generally assumed and is often not diagnosed or treated adequately. The infection rate amounts to approximately 1% and according to latest literature the dislocation rate is regressive and is estimated to be approximately 5%.The low complication and revision rates do not justify the replacement of stemmed prostheses by stemless implants and short stem prostheses and the preference given to the new implants is attributed more to the better revision possibilities and easier convertibility into inverse prostheses.

  13. Survival rates of radio-collared female polar bears and their dependent young

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Durner, G.M.

    1995-01-01

    Polar bears are hunted throughout most of their range. In addition to hunting, polar bears of the Beaufort Sea region are exposed to mineral and hydrocarbon extraction and related human activities such as shipping, road building, and seismic testing. As human populations increase and demands for polar bears and other arctic resources escalate, reliable estimates of survivorship of polar bears are needed to predict and manage the impacts of those activities. We used the Kaplan-Meier model to estimate annual survival (with 95% confidence intervals) for radio-collared female polar bears and their dependent young that were followed during a 12-year study in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. Survival of adult female polar bears was higher than had been previously thought: S = 0.969 (range 0.952-0.983). If human-caused mortalities were deleted, the computed survival rate was 0.996 (0.990-1.002). Survival of young from den exit to weaning was 0.676 (0.634-0.701). Survival during the second year of life, 0.860 (0.751-0.903), was substantially higher than during the first year, 0.651 (0.610-0.675). Shooting by local hunters accounted for 85% of the documented deaths of adult female polar bears. Conversely, 90% of documented losses of young were independent of litter size (P = 0.36), indicating that parental investment in single cubs was not different from investment in litters of two or more. Precise estimates of the survival of independent juveniles and adult males still need to be developed.

  14. Survival rate of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Wakayama Prefecture, Japan, 1966 to 2005.

    PubMed

    Kihira, Tameko; Yoshida, Sohei; Okamoto, Kazusi; Kazimoto, Yoshinori; Ookawa, Masae; Hama, Kiwa; Miwa, Hideto; Kondo, Tomoyoshi

    2008-05-15

    To investigate longitudinal changes in the survival rate of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Wakayama Prefecture, Japan, we made a retrospective hospital-based study of 454 patients diagnosed with motor neuron disease (MND) at Wakayama Medical University (WMU) Hospital between 1966 and 2005. Of the 454 patients, 240 who were born and who lived in Wakayama Prefecture were diagnosed with definite or probable ALS during this period, according to the El Escorial criteria. The clinical data of the 240 patients, including sex, birth date, birthplace, address, age at onset, initial symptoms, date when respiratory support was applied (tracheostomy, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation, or mandatory artificial ventilation), and date of death were reviewed retrospectively. The age at onset of patients who developed initial symptoms before 1990 was 53.4+/-10.6 (mean+/-S.D.) and that in 1990 or thereafter was 64.8+/-10.3, respectively, showing a significant difference (p<0.0001). Clinical duration was determined from onset to either date of death or initiation of respiratory support in this study. Survival rate was compared using the Kaplan-Meier method according to age at onset, sex, initial symptoms and year of onset. Mean age at onset shifted towards older age according to a later year of onset, due to the overwhelming senility rate in Wakayama Prefecture. Older onset patients had a significantly poorer survival rate than younger onset patients when it was compared based on 10-year age groups (log rank, p<0.0001). Male patients had a poorer survival rate than female patients (p<0.0001). ALS patients with bulbar palsy onset showed shorter clinical durations than those with lower leg onset (p<0.0071, Breslow-Gehan-Wilcoxon test). Patients over 70 years old more frequently showed bulbar palsy onset compared to those younger than 69 (p=0.003). In a comparison of year of onset before and after 1990, ALS patients after 1990 had characteristics of older age

  15. Temperature dependence of metabolic rates for microbial growth, maintenance, and survival

    PubMed Central

    Price, P. Buford; Sowers, Todd

    2004-01-01

    Our work was motivated by discoveries of prokaryotic communities that survive with little nutrient in ice and permafrost, with implications for past or present microbial life in Martian permafrost and Europan ice. We compared the temperature dependence of metabolic rates of microbial communities in permafrost, ice, snow, clouds, oceans, lakes, marine and freshwater sediments, and subsurface aquifer sediments. Metabolic rates per cell fall into three groupings: (i) a rate, μg(T), for growth, measured in the laboratory at in situ temperatures with minimal disturbance of the medium; (ii) a rate, μm(T), sufficient for maintenance of functions but for a nutrient level too low for growth; and (iii) a rate, μs(T), for survival of communities imprisoned in deep glacial ice, subsurface sediment, or ocean sediment, in which they can repair macromolecular damage but are probably largely dormant. The three groups have metabolic rates consistent with a single activation energy of ≈110 kJ and that scale as μg(T):μm(T):μs(T) ≈ 106:103:1. There is no evidence of a minimum temperature for metabolism. The rate at -40°C in ice corresponds to ≈10 turnovers of cellular carbon per billion years. Microbes in ice and permafrost have metabolic rates similar to those in water, soil, and sediment at the same temperature. This finding supports the view that, far below the freezing point, liquid water inside ice and permafrost is available for metabolism. The rate μs(T) for repairing molecular damage by means of DNA-repair enzymes and protein-repair enzymes such as methyltransferase is found to be comparable to the rate of spontaneous molecular damage. PMID:15070769

  16. Effect of 6-months of physical exercise on the nitrate/nitrite levels in hypertensive postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Zaros, Pedro R; Pires, Carla EM Romero; Bacci, Mauricio; Moraes, Camila; Zanesco, Angelina

    2009-01-01

    Background Evidences have showed that the incidence of arterial hypertension is greater in postmenopausal women as compared to premenopausal. Physical inactivity has been implicated as a major contributor to weight gain and abdominal obesity in postmenopausal women and the incidence of cardiovascular disease increases dramatically after menopause. Additionally, more women than men die each year of coronary heart disease and are twice as likely as men to die within the first year after a heart attack. A healthy lifestyle has been strongly associated with the regular physical activity and evidences have shown that physically active subjects have more longevity with reduction of morbidity and mortality. Nitric oxide (NO) produced by endothelial cells has been implicated in this beneficial effect with improvement of vascular relaxing and reduction in blood pressure in both laboratory animals and human. Although the effect of exercise training in the human cardiovascular system has been largely studied, the majority of these studies were predominantly conducted in men or young volunteers. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the effects of 6 months of dynamic exercise training (ET) on blood pressure and plasma nitrate/nitrite concentration (NOx-) in hypertensive postmenopausal women. Methods Eleven volunteers were submitted to the ET consisting in 3 days a week, each session of 60 minutes during 6 months at moderate intensity (50% of heart rate reserve). Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, NOx- concentration were measured at initial time and after ET. Results A significant reduction in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure values was seen after ET which was accompanied by markedly increase of NOx- levels (basal: 10 ± 0.9; ET: 16 ± 2 μM). Total cholesterol was significantly reduced (basal: 220 ± 38 and ET: 178 ± 22 mg/dl), whereas triglycerides levels were not modified after ET (basal: 141 ± 89 and ET: 147 ± 8 mg/dl). Conclusion Our study

  17. Changes in Survival Rate for Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants in Korea: Comparison with Other Countries

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Jae Won; Jin, Hyun-Seung

    2015-01-01

    Recently the Korean Neonatal Network (KNN) was established in order to enhance treatment outcomes further through the registration of very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWI) data. The present study was conducted on 2,606 VLBWI, 2,386 registered and 220 un-registered, in the KNN participating centers, with the objective of reporting on recent survival rates of VLBWI in Korea and verifying the changing trends in survival rates with data from the 1960s and beyond. The study also aimed to compare the premature infants' survival rate in Korea with those reported in neonatal networks of other countries. The recent survival rate of VLBWI increased more than twice from 35.6% in the 1960s to 84.8%, and the survival rate of the extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWI) increased by more than 10 times, indicating improvement of the survival rate in premature infants with lower birth weight and gestational age. Comparison of VLBWI between countries showed improved survival rates according to each birth weight group in Canada, Australia-New Zealand, and European countries with Japan at the head, but in terms of comparison based on gestational age, differences, except for Japan, have been reduced. Efforts to increase the survival rate of premature infants in Korea with low birth rate are inevitable, and they should be the foundation of academic and clinical development based on its network with advanced countries. PMID:26566354

  18. Effects of perioperative factors and hip geometry on hip abductor muscle strength during the first 6 months after anterolateral total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Takashi; Jinno, Tetsuya; Aizawa, Junya; Masuda, Tadashi; Hirakawa, Kazuo; Ninomiya, Kazunari; Suzuki, Kouji; Morita, Sadao

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The importance and effect of hip joint geometry on hip abductor muscle strength are well known. In addition, other perioperative factors are also known to affect hip abductor muscle strength. This study examined the relative importance of factors affecting hip abductor muscle strength after total hip arthroplasty. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 97 females with osteoarthritis scheduled for primary unilateral THA. The following variables were assessed preoperatively and 2 and 6 months after surgery: isometric hip abductor strength, radiographic analysis (Crowe class, postoperative femoral offset (FO)), Frenchay Activities Index, compliance rate with home exercise, Japanese Orthopaedic Association Hip-Disease Evaluation Questionnaire (JHEQ), and demographic data. Factors related to isometric hip abductor muscle strength 2 and 6 months after surgery were examined. [Results] Significant factors related to isometric hip abductor muscle strength at 2 and 6 months after surgery were, in extraction order: 1. isometric hip abductor muscle strength in the preoperative period; 2. BMI; and 3. the JHEQ mental score at 2 and 6 months after surgery. [Conclusion] Preoperative factors and postoperative mental status were related to postoperative isometric hip abductor strength. FO was not extracted as a significant factor related to postoperative isomeric hip abductor strength. PMID:28265161

  19. Effects of perioperative factors and hip geometry on hip abductor muscle strength during the first 6 months after anterolateral total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Takashi; Jinno, Tetsuya; Aizawa, Junya; Masuda, Tadashi; Hirakawa, Kazuo; Ninomiya, Kazunari; Suzuki, Kouji; Morita, Sadao

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] The importance and effect of hip joint geometry on hip abductor muscle strength are well known. In addition, other perioperative factors are also known to affect hip abductor muscle strength. This study examined the relative importance of factors affecting hip abductor muscle strength after total hip arthroplasty. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 97 females with osteoarthritis scheduled for primary unilateral THA. The following variables were assessed preoperatively and 2 and 6 months after surgery: isometric hip abductor strength, radiographic analysis (Crowe class, postoperative femoral offset (FO)), Frenchay Activities Index, compliance rate with home exercise, Japanese Orthopaedic Association Hip-Disease Evaluation Questionnaire (JHEQ), and demographic data. Factors related to isometric hip abductor muscle strength 2 and 6 months after surgery were examined. [Results] Significant factors related to isometric hip abductor muscle strength at 2 and 6 months after surgery were, in extraction order: 1. isometric hip abductor muscle strength in the preoperative period; 2. BMI; and 3. the JHEQ mental score at 2 and 6 months after surgery. [Conclusion] Preoperative factors and postoperative mental status were related to postoperative isometric hip abductor strength. FO was not extracted as a significant factor related to postoperative isomeric hip abductor strength.

  20. Mathematical Modeling of Therapy-induced Cancer Drug Resistance: Connecting Cancer Mechanisms to Population Survival Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaoqiang; Bao, Jiguang; Shao, Yongzhao

    2016-03-01

    Drug resistance significantly limits the long-term effectiveness of targeted therapeutics for cancer patients. Recent experimental studies have demonstrated that cancer cell heterogeneity and microenvironment adaptations to targeted therapy play important roles in promoting the rapid acquisition of drug resistance and in increasing cancer metastasis. The systematic development of effective therapeutics to overcome drug resistance mechanisms poses a major challenge. In this study, we used a modeling approach to connect cellular mechanisms underlying cancer drug resistance to population-level patient survival. To predict progression-free survival in cancer patients with metastatic melanoma, we developed a set of stochastic differential equations to describe the dynamics of heterogeneous cell populations while taking into account micro-environment adaptations. Clinical data on survival and circulating tumor cell DNA (ctDNA) concentrations were used to confirm the effectiveness of our model. Moreover, our model predicted distinct patterns of dose-dependent synergy when evaluating a combination of BRAF and MEK inhibitors versus a combination of BRAF and PI3K inhibitors. These predictions were consistent with the findings in previously reported studies. The impact of the drug metabolism rate on patient survival was also discussed. The proposed model might facilitate the quantitative evaluation and optimization of combination therapeutics and cancer clinical trial design.

  1. Mathematical Modeling of Therapy-induced Cancer Drug Resistance: Connecting Cancer Mechanisms to Population Survival Rates.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoqiang; Bao, Jiguang; Shao, Yongzhao

    2016-03-01

    Drug resistance significantly limits the long-term effectiveness of targeted therapeutics for cancer patients. Recent experimental studies have demonstrated that cancer cell heterogeneity and microenvironment adaptations to targeted therapy play important roles in promoting the rapid acquisition of drug resistance and in increasing cancer metastasis. The systematic development of effective therapeutics to overcome drug resistance mechanisms poses a major challenge. In this study, we used a modeling approach to connect cellular mechanisms underlying cancer drug resistance to population-level patient survival. To predict progression-free survival in cancer patients with metastatic melanoma, we developed a set of stochastic differential equations to describe the dynamics of heterogeneous cell populations while taking into account micro-environment adaptations. Clinical data on survival and circulating tumor cell DNA (ctDNA) concentrations were used to confirm the effectiveness of our model. Moreover, our model predicted distinct patterns of dose-dependent synergy when evaluating a combination of BRAF and MEK inhibitors versus a combination of BRAF and PI3K inhibitors. These predictions were consistent with the findings in previously reported studies. The impact of the drug metabolism rate on patient survival was also discussed. The proposed model might facilitate the quantitative evaluation and optimization of combination therapeutics and cancer clinical trial design.

  2. Mathematical Modeling of Therapy-induced Cancer Drug Resistance: Connecting Cancer Mechanisms to Population Survival Rates

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoqiang; Bao, Jiguang; Shao, Yongzhao

    2016-01-01

    Drug resistance significantly limits the long-term effectiveness of targeted therapeutics for cancer patients. Recent experimental studies have demonstrated that cancer cell heterogeneity and microenvironment adaptations to targeted therapy play important roles in promoting the rapid acquisition of drug resistance and in increasing cancer metastasis. The systematic development of effective therapeutics to overcome drug resistance mechanisms poses a major challenge. In this study, we used a modeling approach to connect cellular mechanisms underlying cancer drug resistance to population-level patient survival. To predict progression-free survival in cancer patients with metastatic melanoma, we developed a set of stochastic differential equations to describe the dynamics of heterogeneous cell populations while taking into account micro-environment adaptations. Clinical data on survival and circulating tumor cell DNA (ctDNA) concentrations were used to confirm the effectiveness of our model. Moreover, our model predicted distinct patterns of dose-dependent synergy when evaluating a combination of BRAF and MEK inhibitors versus a combination of BRAF and PI3K inhibitors. These predictions were consistent with the findings in previously reported studies. The impact of the drug metabolism rate on patient survival was also discussed. The proposed model might facilitate the quantitative evaluation and optimization of combination therapeutics and cancer clinical trial design. PMID:26928089

  3. Estimating annual survival and movement rates of adults within a metapopulation of roseate terns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spendelow, J.A.; Nichols, J.D.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; Hays, H.; Cormons, G.D.; Burger, J.; Safina, C.; Hines, J.E.; Gochfeld, M.

    1995-01-01

    Several multistratum capture-recapture models were used to test various hypotheses about possible geographic and temporal variation in survival, movement, and recapture/resighting probabilities of 2399 adult Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii) color-banded from 1988 to 1992 at the sites of the four largest breeding colonies of this species in the northeastern USA. Linear-logistic ultrastructural models also were developed to investigate possible correlates of geographic variation in movement probabilities. Based on goodness-of-fit tests and comparisons of Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) values, the fully parameterized model (Model A) with time- and location-specific survival, movement, and capture probabilities, was selected as the most appropriate model for this metapopulation structure. With almost all movement accounted for, on average gt 90% of the surviving adults from each colony site returned to the same site the following year. Variations in movement probabilities were more closely associated with the identity of the destination colony site than with either the identity of the colony site of origin or the distance between colony sites. The average annual survival estimates (0.740.84) of terns from all four sites indicate a high rate of annual mortality relative to that of other species of marine birds.

  4. ISSR and RAPD based evaluation of genetic stability of encapsulated micro shoots of Glycyrrhiza glabra following 6 months of storage.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Shakti; Khwaja, O; Kukreja, A K; Rahman, L

    2012-11-01

    In vitro grown axillary micro shoots of Glycyrrhiza glabra were encapsulated in alginate beads. Following 6 months of normal storage at 25 ± 2°C the re growth of encapsulated G. glabra micro shoots, reached 98% within 30 days of incubation on MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/l IAA. Re growth was characterized by the development of both shoot and root from single encapsulated micro shoot. Healthy plants were established to glass house with 95% survival. The genetic fidelity of plants obtained after conversion of alginate beads was ascertained through 10 RAPD and 13 ISSR primers. Of the 10 RAPD primers tested, 6 of them produced 14 clear and reproducible amplicons with an average of 2.3 bands per primer out of which 28.57% were polymorphic generated by only two primers. Eight ISSR primers produced total 37 bands ranging between 300 and 3,500 bp length. Number of scorable bands for each primer varied from 3 to 8 with an average of 4.6 bands per primer. Cluster analysis from ISSR and RAPD showed that all the tested plants including the mother plant distributed in two major groups with similarity coefficient ranging from 0.91 to 0.96 for RAPD and 0.89 to 0.97 for ISSR.

  5. Increased survival rate by local release of diclofenac in a murine model of recurrent oral carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Will, Olga Maria; Purcz, Nicolai; Chalaris, Athena; Heneweer, Carola; Boretius, Susann; Purcz, Larissa; Nikkola, Lila; Ashammakhi, Nureddin; Kalthoff, Holger; Glüer, Claus-Christian; Wiltfang, Jörg; Açil, Yahya; Tiwari, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Despite aggressive treatment with radiation and combination chemotherapy following tumor resection, the 5-year survival rate for patients with head and neck cancer is at best only 50%. In this study, we examined the therapeutic potential of localized release of diclofenac from electrospun nanofibers generated from poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) polymer. Diclofenac was chosen since anti-inflammatory agents that inhibit cyclooxygenase have shown great potential in their ability to directly inhibit tumor growth as well as suppress inflammation-mediated tumor growth. A mouse resection model of oral carcinoma was developed by establishing tumor growth in the oral cavity by ultrasound-guided injection of 1 million SCC-9 cells in the floor of the mouth. Following resection, mice were allocated into four groups with the following treatment: 1) no treatment, 2) implanted scaffolds without diclofenac, 3) implanted scaffolds loaded with diclofenac, and 4) diclofenac given orally. Small animal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging were utilized for longitudinal determination of tumor recurrence. At the end of 7 weeks following tumor resection, 33% of mice with diclofenac-loaded scaffolds had a recurrent tumor, in comparison to 90%–100% of the mice in the other three groups. At this time point, mice with diclofenac-releasing scaffolds showed 89% survival rate, while the other groups showed survival rates of 10%–25%. Immunohistochemical staining of recurrent tumors revealed a near 10-fold decrease in the proliferation marker Ki-67 in the tumors derived from mice with diclofenac-releasing scaffolds. In summary, the local application of diclofenac in an orthotopic mouse tumor resection model of oral cancer reduced tumor recurrence with significant improvement in survival over a 7-week study period following tumor resection. Local drug release of anti-inflammatory agents should be investigated as a therapeutic option in the prevention of tumor recurrence in oral squamous

  6. Increased survival rate by local release of diclofenac in a murine model of recurrent oral carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Will, Olga Maria; Purcz, Nicolai; Chalaris, Athena; Heneweer, Carola; Boretius, Susann; Purcz, Larissa; Nikkola, Lila; Ashammakhi, Nureddin; Kalthoff, Holger; Glüer, Claus-Christian; Wiltfang, Jörg; Açil, Yahya; Tiwari, Sanjay

    Despite aggressive treatment with radiation and combination chemotherapy following tumor resection, the 5-year survival rate for patients with head and neck cancer is at best only 50%. In this study, we examined the therapeutic potential of localized release of diclofenac from electrospun nanofibers generated from poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) polymer. Diclofenac was chosen since anti-inflammatory agents that inhibit cyclooxygenase have shown great potential in their ability to directly inhibit tumor growth as well as suppress inflammation-mediated tumor growth. A mouse resection model of oral carcinoma was developed by establishing tumor growth in the oral cavity by ultrasound-guided injection of 1 million SCC-9 cells in the floor of the mouth. Following resection, mice were allocated into four groups with the following treatment: 1) no treatment, 2) implanted scaffolds without diclofenac, 3) implanted scaffolds loaded with diclofenac, and 4) diclofenac given orally. Small animal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging were utilized for longitudinal determination of tumor recurrence. At the end of 7 weeks following tumor resection, 33% of mice with diclofenac-loaded scaffolds had a recurrent tumor, in comparison to 90%-100% of the mice in the other three groups. At this time point, mice with diclofenac-releasing scaffolds showed 89% survival rate, while the other groups showed survival rates of 10%-25%. Immunohistochemical staining of recurrent tumors revealed a near 10-fold decrease in the proliferation marker Ki-67 in the tumors derived from mice with diclofenac-releasing scaffolds. In summary, the local application of diclofenac in an orthotopic mouse tumor resection model of oral cancer reduced tumor recurrence with significant improvement in survival over a 7-week study period following tumor resection. Local drug release of anti-inflammatory agents should be investigated as a therapeutic option in the prevention of tumor recurrence in oral squamous

  7. SU-E-T-352: Why Is the Survival Rate Low in Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma?

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Z; Feng, Y; Rasmussen, K; Rice, J; Stephenson, S; Ferreira, Maria C; Liu, T; Yuh, K; Wang, R; Grecula, J; Lo, S; Mayr, N; Yuh, W

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Tumors are composed of a large number of clonogens that have the capability of indefinite reproduction. Even when there is complete clinical or radiographic regression of the gross tumor mass after treatment, tumor recurrence can occur if the clonogens are not completely eradicated by radiotherapy. This study was to investigate the colonogen number and its association with the tumor control probability (TCP) in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCCA). Methods: A literature search was conducted to collect clinical information of patients with OSCCA, including the prescription dose, tumor volume and survival rate. The linear-quadratic (LQ) model was incorporated into TCP model for clinical data analysis. The total dose ranged from 60 to 70 Gy and tumor volume ranged from 10 to 50 cc. The TCP was calculated for each group according to tumor size and dose. The least χ{sup 2} method was used to fit the TCP calculation to clinical data while other LQ model parameters (α, β) were adopted from the literature, due to the limited patient data. Results: A total of 190 patients with T2–T4 OSCCA were included. The association with HPV was not available for all the patients. The 3-year survival rate was about 82% for T2 squamous cell carcinoma and 40% for advanced tumors. Fitting the TCP model to the survival data, the average clonogen number was 1.56×10{sup 12}. For the prescription dose of 70 Gy, the calculated TCP ranged from 40% to 90% when the tumor volume varied from 10 to 50 cc. Conclusion: Our data suggests variation between the clonogen number and TCP in OSCCA. Tumors with larger colonogen number tend to have lower TCP and therefore dose escalation above 70 Gy may be indicated in order to improve the TCP and survival rate. Our result will require future confirmation with a large number of patients.

  8. Effect of Admission Hyperglycemia on 6-Month Functional Outcome in Patients with Spontaneous Cerebellar Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Chuanyuan; Hu, Xin; Wang, Jiajing; You, Chao

    2017-01-01

    Background Cerebellar hemorrhage (CH) has a quite different treatment strategy and prognostic factors compared with supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The prognostic role of hyperglycemia has been discussed mainly in cases of supratentorial hemorrhage; it remains to be elucidated following CH. We aimed to determine the association of hyperglycemia on admission with 6-month functional outcome in CH patients. Material/Methods We retrospectively analyzed 77 patients with acute CH between September 2010 and April 2015 in West China Hospital. Blood glucose level was measured when the patients were admitted. Primary outcome was 6-month functional outcome, which could comprehensively reflect the patient’s recovery of physical and social ability after stroke and was assessed by the modified Rankin scale (mRS). Association of hyperglycemia with functional outcome was identified in logistic regression models. Results There were 50 (64.9%) patients with poor functional outcomes. Patients with poor outcome were much older (P<0.001) and had a significantly higher glucose level on admission (P<0.001), a lower Glasgow Coma Scale score (P<0.001), a larger hematoma (P=0.003), and a higher incidence of intraventricular extension (P=0.002), brainstem compression (P=0.013), and hydrocephalus (P=0.023). Multivariate analysis showed that hyperglycemia (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.07–2.08, P=0.017 when glucose level was analyzed as a continuous variable; OR 7.46, 95% CI 1.41–39.51, P=0.018 when glucose level was dichotomized by the critical threshold of 6.78 mmol/L) emerged as an independent predictor for adverse functional outcome at 6 months. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study focusing on the relationship between hyperglycemia and long-term functional outcome after CH. The study combined with previous pertinent reports definitely indicates the poor effect of hyperglycemia on both supra- and infratentorial ICH independent of hemorrhage site

  9. Effect of Admission Hyperglycemia on 6-Month Functional Outcome in Patients with Spontaneous Cerebellar Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Tao, Chuanyuan; Hu, Xin; Wang, Jiajing; You, Chao

    2017-03-08

    BACKGROUND Cerebellar hemorrhage (CH) has a quite different treatment strategy and prognostic factors compared with supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The prognostic role of hyperglycemia has been discussed mainly in cases of supratentorial hemorrhage; it remains to be elucidated following CH. We aimed to determine the association of hyperglycemia on admission with 6-month functional outcome in CH patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS We retrospectively analyzed 77 patients with acute CH between September 2010 and April 2015 in West China Hospital. Blood glucose level was measured when the patients were admitted. Primary outcome was 6-month functional outcome, which could comprehensively reflect the patient's recovery of physical and social ability after stroke and was assessed by the modified Rankin scale (mRS). Association of hyperglycemia with functional outcome was identified in logistic regression models. RESULTS There were 50 (64.9%) patients with poor functional outcomes. Patients with poor outcome were much older (P<0.001) and had a significantly higher glucose level on admission (P<0.001), a lower Glasgow Coma Scale score (P<0.001), a larger hematoma (P=0.003), and a higher incidence of intraventricular extension (P=0.002), brainstem compression (P=0.013), and hydrocephalus (P=0.023). Multivariate analysis showed that hyperglycemia (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.07-2.08, P=0.017 when glucose level was analyzed as a continuous variable; OR 7.46, 95% CI 1.41-39.51, P=0.018 when glucose level was dichotomized by the critical threshold of 6.78 mmol/L) emerged as an independent predictor for adverse functional outcome at 6 months. CONCLUSIONS To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study focusing on the relationship between hyperglycemia and long-term functional outcome after CH. The study combined with previous pertinent reports definitely indicates the poor effect of hyperglycemia on both supra- and infratentorial ICH independent of hemorrhage site

  10. Skeletal Muscle Is Anabolically Unresponsive to an Amino Acid Infusion in Pediatric Burn Patients 6 Months Postinjury

    PubMed Central

    Tuvdendorj, Demidmaa; Chinkes, David L.; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Sheffield-Moore, Melinda; Herndon, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate leg muscle, whole-body muscle, and whole-body non-muscle protein response to anabolic signaling of amino acids in pediatric burn patients at 6 months after injury. Background Burn injury is associated with a catabolic state persisting years after the injury. The tissue response to nutritional signaling (eg, amino acids) plays a critical role in tissue protein net balance via coordination of protein synthesis and breakdown mechanisms. Methods A total of 10 patients (7.4 ± 3.8 years; 27.4 ± 14.7 kg) and 5 healthy young males (22 ± 3 years; 76 ± 15 kg) underwent an 8-hour stable isotope infusion study. During the last 3 hours, an amino acid solution (10% Travasol, Clintec Nutrition, Deerfield, IL) was infused. Femoral arterial and venous blood samples and muscle biopsy samples were collected throughout the study. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically different. Results During amino acid infusion, leg muscle protein synthesis rate significantly increased (P < 0.05) in both groups, however, in the burn group, protein breakdown also increased, although nonsignificantly. As a result, protein net balance remained negative. In the control group, breakdown nonsignificantly decreased resulting in a significant increase (P < 0.05) in muscle protein net balance. Whole-body protein breakdown was significantly higher in the burn patients. Conclusion In pediatric burn patients at 6 months postinjury, leg muscle protein net deposition is unresponsive to amino acid infusion; and whole-body protein breakdown is significantly higher than in the control group. PMID:21263308

  11. The influence of disturbance events on survival and dispersal rates of Florida box turtles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dodd, C.K.; Ozgul, A.; Oli, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Disturbances have the potential to cause long-term effects to ecosystem structure and function, and they may affect individual species in different ways. Long-lived vertebrates such as turtles may be at risk from such events, inasmuch as their life histories preclude rapid recovery should extensive mortality occur. We applied capture–mark–recapture models to assess disturbance effects on a population of Florida box turtles (Terrapene carolina bauri) on Egmont Key, Florida, USA. Near the midpoint of the study, a series of physical disturbances affected the island, from salt water overwash associated with several tropical storms to extensive removal of nonindigenous vegetation. These disturbances allowed us to examine demographic responses of the turtle population and to determine if they affected dispersal throughout the island. Adult survival rates did not vary significantly either between sexes or among years of the study. Survival rates did not vary significantly between juvenile and adult turtles, or among years of the study. Furthermore, neither adult nor juvenile survival rates differed significantly between pre- and post-disturbance. However, dispersal rates varied significantly among the four major study sites, and dispersal rates were higher during the pre-disturbance sampling periods compared to post-disturbance. Our results suggest few long-term effects on the demography of the turtle population. Florida box turtles responded to tropical storms and vegetation control by moving to favorable habitats minimally affected by the disturbances and remaining there. As long as turtles and perhaps other long-lived vertebrates can disperse to non-disturbed habitat, and high levels of mortality do not occur in a population, a long life span may allow them to wait out the impact of disturbance with potentially little effect on long-term population processes.

  12. Survival, Recruitment, and Population Growth Rate of an Important Mesopredator: The Northern Raccoon

    PubMed Central

    Troyer, Elizabeth M.; Cameron Devitt, Susan E.; Sunquist, Melvin E.; Goswami, Varun R.; Oli, Madan K.

    2014-01-01

    Populations of mesopredators (mid-sized mammalian carnivores) are expanding in size and range amid declining apex predator populations and ever-growing human presence, leading to significant ecological impacts. Despite their obvious importance, population dynamics have scarcely been studied for most mesopredator species. Information on basic population parameters and processes under a range of conditions is necessary for managing these species. Here we investigate survival, recruitment, and population growth rate of a widely distributed and abundant mesopredator, the northern raccoon (Procyon lotor), using Pradel’s temporal symmetry models and >6 years of monthly capture-mark-recapture data collected in a protected area. Monthly apparent survival probability was higher for females (0.949, 95% CI = 0.936–0.960) than for males (0.908, 95% CI = 0.893–0.920), while monthly recruitment rate was higher for males (0.091, 95% CI = 0.078–0.106) than for females (0.054, 95% CI = 0.042–0.067). Finally, monthly realized population growth rate was 1.000 (95% CI = 0.996–1.004), indicating that our study population has reached a stable equilibrium in this relatively undisturbed habitat. There was little evidence for substantial temporal variation in population growth rate or its components. Our study is one of the first to quantify survival, recruitment, and realized population growth rate of raccoons using long-term data and rigorous statistical models. PMID:24901349

  13. Improvement in physiological and psychological parameters after 6 months of yoga practice.

    PubMed

    Rocha, K K F; Ribeiro, A M; Rocha, K C F; Sousa, M B C; Albuquerque, F S; Ribeiro, S; Silva, R H

    2012-06-01

    Yoga is believed to have beneficial effects on cognition, attenuation of emotional intensity and stress reduction. Previous studies were mainly performed on eastern experienced practitioners or unhealthy subjects undergoing concomitant conventional therapies. Further investigation is needed on the effects of yoga per se, as well as its possible preventive benefits on healthy subjects. We investigated the effects of yoga on memory and psychophysiological parameters related to stress, comparing yoga practice and conventional physical exercises in healthy men (previously yoga-naïve). Memory tests, salivary cortisol levels and stress, anxiety, and depression inventories were assessed before and after 6 months of practice. Yoga practitioners showed improvement of the memory performance, as well as improvements in psychophysiological parameters. The present results suggest that regular yoga practice can improve aspects of cognition and quality of life for healthy individuals. An indirect influence of emotional state on cognitive improvement promoted by yoga practice can be proposed.

  14. Determining the impact of prenatal tobacco exposure on self-regulation at 6 months.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, Sandra A; Fang, Hua; Johnson, Craig; James, Karen E; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2014-06-01

    Our goal in the present study was to examine the effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy on infant self-regulation, exploring birth weight as a mediator and sex as a moderator of risk. A prospective sample of 218 infants was assessed at 6 months of age. Infants completed a battery of tasks assessing working memory/inhibition, attention, and emotional reactivity and regulation. Propensity scores were used to statistically control for confounding risk factors associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy. After prenatal and postnatal confounds were controlled, prenatal tobacco exposure was related to reactivity to frustration and control of attention during stimulus encoding. Birth weight did not mediate the effect of prenatal exposure but was independently related to reactivity and working memory/inhibition. The effect of tobacco exposure was not moderated by sex.

  15. A 6-Month-Old Infant With Different Capnography Values in Polysomnography.

    PubMed

    DelRosso, Lourdes M; Palacay, Pacifico; Ly, Ngoc P

    2017-02-01

    A 6-month-old infant with a past medical history of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy was referred for evaluation of snoring. She was born at 41 weeks' gestational age to a 25-year-old gravida 1, para 1 mother via vacuum-assisted delivery due to cardiac decelerations. The infant's Apgar scores were 1, 4, and 6 with nuchal cord and meconium at delivery. She was started on positive-pressure ventilation but eventually required intubation at approximately 40 minutes of life. Brain MRI showed abnormal areas of restricted diffusion, involving the corpus callosum, bilateral posterior limb of the internal capsules, and possible scattered areas of frontal and occipital lobe cortices.

  16. December 2000: 6 month old boy with 2 week history of progressive lethargy.

    PubMed

    Fan, X; Larson, T C; Jennings, M T; Tulipan, N B; Toms, S A; Johnson, M D

    2001-04-01

    This 6-month-old Caucasian boy presented with a 10-day history of lethargy, obtundation, inability to hold his head up and mild torticollis. MRI and CT scans showed a large solid and cystic mass involving the right temporal, parietal and occipital lobes, pineal, superior pons, mesencephalon and posterior right thalamus. He underwent craniotomy initially for a partial tumor resection with an intraoperative diagnosis of desmoplastic astrocytoma. With immunohistochemistry and special stains the diagnosis of desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma (DIG) was made. A near total resection was performed a week after initial resection.The patient then was treated with chemotherapy. Two months later an MRI showed tumor growth. Following additional aggressive chemotherapy, an MRI at 5 months post-resection indicated further tumor progression. This case illustrates that some DIGs may behave more aggressively than typical WHO grade I lesions.

  17. [Myocardiosis in a 6-month-old Lawson's Dragon (Pogona henrylawsonii)].

    PubMed

    Günther, P; Wohlsein, P; Junginger, J; Dziallas, P; Fehr, M; Mathes, K

    2013-01-01

    In a 6-month-old, chronically inappetent Lawsons's Dragon (Pogona henrylawsonii) with stunted growth a hyperdense cardiac region was found using radiology and computed tomography. At necropsy a profound necrosis of the myocardium with dystrophic calcification was diagnosed. In contrast to the frequently seen metastatic mineralisation of soft tissues, mainly due to poor husbandry, primary tissue destruction is the cause for dystrophic calcification. In reptiles, this is a rarely described form of calcification. Possible causes are infectious processes, nutritional or metabolic insufficiencies, intoxications or genetic components. In the presented case the aetiology could not be determined. In conclusion, dystrophic calcifications should be considered as a differential diagnosis in reptiles with soft tissue mineralisation.

  18. Changing central Pacific El Niños reduce stability of North American salmon survival rates.

    PubMed

    Kilduff, D Patrick; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Botsford, Louis W; Teo, Steven L H

    2015-09-01

    Pacific salmon are a dominant component of the northeast Pacific ecosystem. Their status is of concern because salmon abundance is highly variable--including protected stocks, a recently closed fishery, and actively managed fisheries that provide substantial ecosystem services. Variable ocean conditions, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), have influenced these fisheries, while diminished diversity of freshwater habitats have increased variability via the portfolio effect. We address the question of how recent changes in ocean conditions will affect populations of two salmon species. Since the 1980s, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have been more frequently associated with central tropical Pacific warming (CPW) rather than the canonical eastern Pacific warming ENSO (EPW). CPW is linked to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), whereas EPW is linked to the PDO, different indicators of northeast Pacific Ocean ecosystem productivity. Here we show that both coho and Chinook salmon survival rates along western North America indicate that the NPGO, rather than the PDO, explains salmon survival since the 1980s. The observed increase in NPGO variance in recent decades was accompanied by an increase in coherence of local survival rates of these two species, increasing salmon variability via the portfolio effect. Such increases in coherence among salmon stocks are usually attributed to controllable freshwater influences such as hatcheries and habitat degradation, but the unknown mechanism underlying the ocean climate effect identified here is not directly subject to management actions.

  19. Changing central Pacific El Niños reduce stability of North American salmon survival rates

    PubMed Central

    Kilduff, D. Patrick; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Botsford, Louis W.; Teo, Steven L. H.

    2015-01-01

    Pacific salmon are a dominant component of the northeast Pacific ecosystem. Their status is of concern because salmon abundance is highly variable—including protected stocks, a recently closed fishery, and actively managed fisheries that provide substantial ecosystem services. Variable ocean conditions, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), have influenced these fisheries, while diminished diversity of freshwater habitats have increased variability via the portfolio effect. We address the question of how recent changes in ocean conditions will affect populations of two salmon species. Since the 1980s, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have been more frequently associated with central tropical Pacific warming (CPW) rather than the canonical eastern Pacific warming ENSO (EPW). CPW is linked to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), whereas EPW is linked to the PDO, different indicators of northeast Pacific Ocean ecosystem productivity. Here we show that both coho and Chinook salmon survival rates along western North America indicate that the NPGO, rather than the PDO, explains salmon survival since the 1980s. The observed increase in NPGO variance in recent decades was accompanied by an increase in coherence of local survival rates of these two species, increasing salmon variability via the portfolio effect. Such increases in coherence among salmon stocks are usually attributed to controllable freshwater influences such as hatcheries and habitat degradation, but the unknown mechanism underlying the ocean climate effect identified here is not directly subject to management actions. PMID:26240365

  20. Patient Relocation in the 6 Months After Hip Fracture: Risk Factors for Fragmented Care

    PubMed Central

    Boockvar, Kenneth S.; Litke, Ann; Penrod, Joan D.; Halm, Ethan A.; Morrison, R. Sean; Silberzweig, Stacey B.; Magaziner, Jay; Koval, Kenneth; Siu, Albert L.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To describe the incidence and patterns of patient relocation after hip fracture, identify factors associated with relocation, and examine effect of relocation on outcomes. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SETTING Four hospitals in the New York metropolitan area. PARTICIPANTS A total of 562 patients hospitalized for hip fracture discharged alive in 1997 to 1998. MEASUREMENTS Patient characteristics and hospital course were ascertained using patient or surrogate interview, research nurse assessment, and medical record review. Patient location was ascertained at five time points using patient or surrogate interview, and hospital readmissions were identified using New York state and hospital admission databases. Mobility was measured using patient or surrogate report using the Functional Independence Measure. RESULTS During 6 months of follow-up, the mean number of relocations per patient ± standard deviation was 3.5 ± 1.5 (range 2–10). Forty-one percent of relocations were between home and hospital, 36% between rehabilitation or nursing facility and hospital, 17% between rehabilitation or nursing facility and home, and 4% between two rehabilitation/nursing facilities. In a Poisson regression model that controlled for patient characteristics, hospital course, and length of follow-up, factors associated with relocation (P <.05) were absence of dementia, in-hospital delirium, one or more new impairments at hospital discharge, hospital discharge other than to home, and not living at home alone prefracture. Relocation was not significantly associated with immobility or mortality at 6 months (odds ratio = 1.14, 95% confidence interval = 0.97–1.35). CONCLUSION Subgroups of patients with elevated risk of relocation after hip fracture may be target groups for intensive care coordination and care planning interventions. PMID:15507058

  1. Investigating fatigue of less than 6 months' duration. Guidelines for family physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Godwin, M.; Delva, D.; Miller, K.; Molson, J.; Hobbs, N.; MacDonald, S.; MacLeod, C.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop an evidence-based systematic approach to assessment of adult patients who present to family physicians complaining of fatigue of less than 6 months' duration. The guidelines present investigative options, making explicit what should be considered in all cases and what should be considered only in specific situations. They aim to provide physicians with an approach that, to the extent possible, is based on evidence so that time and cost are minimized and detection and management of the cause of the fatigue are optimized. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: MEDLINE was searched from 1966 to 1997 using the key words "family practice" and "fatigue." Articles about chronic fatigue syndrome were excluded. Articles with level 3 evidence were found, but no randomized trials, cohort studies, or case-control studies were found. Articles looking specifically at the epidemiology, demographics, investigations, and diagnoses of patients with fatigue were chosen. Articles based on studies at referral and specialty centres were given less weight than those based on studies in family physicians' offices. MAIN MESSAGE: Adherence to these guidelines will decrease the cost of investigating the symptom of fatigue and optimize diagnosis and management. This needs to be proved in practice, however, and with research that produces level 1 and 2 evidence. CONCLUSIONS: Adults presenting with fatigue of less than 6 months' duration should be assessed for psychosocial causes and should have a focused history and physical examination to determine whether further investigations should be done. The guidelines outline investigations to be considered. The elderly require special consideration. These guidelines have group validation, but they need to be tested by more physicians in various locations and types of practices. PMID:10065311

  2. Long-term outcome of 6-month maintenance chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children.

    PubMed

    Kato, M; Ishimaru, S; Seki, M; Yoshida, K; Shiraishi, Y; Chiba, K; Kakiuchi, N; Sato, Y; Ueno, H; Tanaka, H; Inukai, T; Tomizawa, D; Hasegawa, D; Osumi, T; Arakawa, Y; Aoki, T; Okuya, M; Kaizu, K; Kato, K; Taneyama, Y; Goto, H; Taki, T; Takagi, M; Sanada, M; Koh, K; Takita, J; Miyano, S; Ogawa, S; Ohara, A; Tsuchida, M; Manabe, A

    2017-03-01

    In the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), excess shortening of maintenance therapy resulted in high relapse rate, as shown by our previous trial, TCCSG L92-13, in which maintenance therapy was terminated at 1 year from initiation of treatment. In this study, we aimed to confirm the long-term outcome of L92-13, and to identify who can or cannot be cured by shorter duration of maintenance therapy. To obtain sentinel cytogenetics information that had been missed before, we performed genetic analysis with genomic microarray and target intron-capture sequencing from diagnostic bone marrow smear. Disease-free survival (DFS) at 10 years from the end of therapy was 66.0±2.8%. Females (n=138) had better DFS (74.6±3.7%) than males (n=142, 57.5±4.2%, P=0.002). Patients with TCF3-PBX1 (n=11) and ETV6-RUNX1 (n=16) had excellent DFS (90.9±8.7% and 93.8±6.1%, respectively), whereas high hyperdiploidy (n=23) was the most unfavorable subgroup, with 56.6±10.3% of DFS. Short duration of therapy can cure more than half of pediatric ALL, especially females, TCF3-PBX1 and ETV6-RUNX1. Our retrospective observations suggest a gender/karyotype inhomogeneity on the impact of brief therapy.

  3. Changes in Gait Symmetry After Training on a Treadmill with Biofeedback in Chronic Stroke Patients: A 6-Month Follow-Up from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Drużbicki, Mariusz; Guzik, Agnieszka; Przysada, Grzegorz; Kwolek, Andrzej; Brzozowska-Magoń, Agnieszka; Sobolewski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Background One of the most significant challenges for patients who survive a stroke is relearning basic motor tasks such as walking. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether training on a treadmill with visual biofeedback improves gait symmetry, as well as spatiotemporal and kinematic gait parameters, in stroke patients. Material/Methods Thirty patients in the chronic phase after a stroke were randomly allocated into groups with a rehabilitation program of treadmill training with or without visual biofeedback. The training program lasted 10 days. Spatiotemporal and kinematic gait parameters were evaluated. For all parameters analyzed, a symmetrical index was calculated. Follow-up studies were performed 6 months after completion of the program. Results The symmetrical index had significantly normalized in terms of the step length (p=0.006), stance phase time, and inter-limb ratio in the intervention group. After 6 months, the improvement in the symmetry of the step length had been maintained. In the control group, no statistically significant change was observed in any of the parameters tested. There was no significant difference between the intervention group and the control group on completion of the program or at 6 months following the completion of the program. Conclusions Training on a treadmill has a significant effect on the improvement of spatiotemporal parameters and symmetry of gait in patients with chronic stroke. In the group with the treadmill training using visual biofeedback, no significantly greater improvement was observed. PMID:27941712

  4. High-dose nimotuzumab improves the survival rate of esophageal cancer patients who underwent radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunyu; Fu, Xiaolong; Cai, Xuwei; Wu, Xianghua; Hu, Xichun; Fan, Min; Xiang, Jiaqing; Zhang, Yawei; Chen, Haiquan; Jiang, Guoliang; Zhao, Kuaile

    2016-01-01

    Nimotuzumab (h-R3) is a humanized monoclonal antibody that is safe to use against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). However, the available information is insufficient about the dose effect of monoclonal antibody against epidermal growth factor receptor for the treatment of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We retrospectively recruited 66 patients with ESCC who were treated with h-R3 and chemoradiotherapy/radiotherapy. Patients who received more than 1,200 mg of h-R3 were classified as the high-dose group, and the remaining patients were classified as the low-dose group. The endpoint for efficacy was the overall survival. Differences in survival between the groups were analyzed using the log-rank test. The Cox proportional hazards model was used in multivariate analysis to identify independent prognostic factors. The low-dose and high-dose groups comprised 55 and eleven patients, respectively. The median follow-up time in the final analysis was 46 months. The high-dose group showed no increased incidence of toxicities compared to the low-dose group. The 1-, 2-, and 5-year overall survival rates in the low-dose and high-dose groups were 66.9%, 50.0%, 31.5% and 90.0%, 80.0%, 66.7%, respectively (P=0.04). Multivariate analyses showed that the high-dose group had better survival than the low-dose group (hazard ratio 0.28, 95% confidence interval 0.09–0.94, P=0.039). Taken together, high-dose h-R3 showed limited toxicity and improved survival in patients with ESCC. PMID:26766917

  5. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on survival rate and growth performance of Convict Cichlid (Amatitlania nigrofasciata)

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, F; Mousavi, S. M.; Ahmadmoradi, E.; Zakeri, M.; Jahedi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Using probiotics can control pathogens by a variety of mechanisms. Probiotics can promote growth performance and have, therefore, become increasingly important in the aquaculture industry. Convict Cichlid belongs to the family of Cichlidae and is known for its rapid development in laboratory conditions and is suitable for behavioral examinations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on growth performance, survival rate and body composition of Convict Cichlids (Amatitlania nigrofasciata). One hundred sixty eight Convict Cichlids (mean weight: 2.1 ± 0.12 g and mean length: 2.2 ± 0.05 cm) were fed by commercial diets with different concentrations of S. cerevisiae (0, 0.5%, 1%, 2%). At the end of the experiment, survival rate and growth indices were measured. Based on the results, growth performance significantly increased with probiotic, S. cerevisiae, specially, at the 2% probiotic level of concentration. In the present study, the best FCR (feed conversion rate), SGR (specific growth rate), CF (condition factor) and BWG (body weight gain) values were observed in a 2% concentration of S. cerevisiae. The results suggest that this yeast could improve feed utilization in this fish species. PMID:27175152

  6. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on survival rate and growth performance of Convict Cichlid (Amatitlania nigrofasciata).

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, F; Mousavi, S M; Ahmadmoradi, E; Zakeri, M; Jahedi, A

    2015-01-01

    Using probiotics can control pathogens by a variety of mechanisms. Probiotics can promote growth performance and have, therefore, become increasingly important in the aquaculture industry. Convict Cichlid belongs to the family of Cichlidae and is known for its rapid development in laboratory conditions and is suitable for behavioral examinations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on growth performance, survival rate and body composition of Convict Cichlids (Amatitlania nigrofasciata). One hundred sixty eight Convict Cichlids (mean weight: 2.1 ± 0.12 g and mean length: 2.2 ± 0.05 cm) were fed by commercial diets with different concentrations of S. cerevisiae (0, 0.5%, 1%, 2%). At the end of the experiment, survival rate and growth indices were measured. Based on the results, growth performance significantly increased with probiotic, S. cerevisiae, specially, at the 2% probiotic level of concentration. In the present study, the best FCR (feed conversion rate), SGR (specific growth rate), CF (condition factor) and BWG (body weight gain) values were observed in a 2% concentration of S. cerevisiae. The results suggest that this yeast could improve feed utilization in this fish species.

  7. Analysis of recurrence and survival rates in grade 3 endometrioid endometrial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jieyu; Jia, Nan; Li, Qing; Wang, Chao; Tao, Xiang; Hua, Keqin; Feng, Weiwei

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine risk factors associated with recurrence and survival in patients with grade 3 endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (G3EEC). A retrospective analysis of 117 patients with G3EEC, who were admitted to the Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University between January 2000 and December 2011, was performed. The χ2 test or Fisher's exact test were used for the comparison of categorical variables. Kaplan-Meier method was used for estimating recurrence-free survival (RFS), disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS) rates. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model were used to assess the prognostic significance of various patient characteristics. In 117 patients, 16 patients (13.7%) had tumor recurrence, of which 6 (37.5%) developed local-regional recurrence and 10 (62.5%) developed distant recurrence. Out of the 16 patients with tumor recurrence, 14 (87.5%) had a recurrence within 3 years of surgery. Statistically significant characteristics affecting RFS, DSS and OS rates were outer half myometrial invasion (MI ≥50%), advanced International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, positive lymph node metastasis (PLNM), lymph vascular space invasion, adnexal involvement and characterization as a high-risk group, according to the Gynecologic Oncology Group 99 stratification algorithm. RFS was associated with the depth of cervical mucosa (stromal) involvement. Furthermore, in the multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, significant independent adverse factors for RFS and DSS included MI ≥50% and adnexal involvement. For OS, there were no statistically significant prognostic factors. In conclusion, MI ≥50% and adnexal involvement are independent prognostic factors for RFS and DSS in G3EEC patients. PMID:27698871

  8. Study of Survival Rate After Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) in Hospitals of Kermanshah in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Goodarzi, Afshin; Jalali, Amir; Almasi, Afshin; Naderipour, Arsalan; Kalhori, Reza Pourmirza; Khodadadi, Amineh

    2015-01-01

    Background: After CPR, the follow-up of survival rate and caused complications are the most important practices of the medical group. This study was performed aimed at determining the follow-up results after CPR in patients of university hospitals in Kermanshah in 2014. Methods: In this prospective study, 320 samples were examined. A purposive sampling method was used, and data was collected using a researcher-made information form with content and face validity and reliability of r= 0.79. Data was analyzed with STATA9 software and statistical tests, including calculation of the success rate, relative risk (RR), chi-square and Fisher at significance level of P < 0.05. Results: The initial success rate of cardiopulmonary resuscitation was equal to 15.3%, while the ultimate success rate (discharged alive from the hospital) was as 10.6%. The six-month success rate after resuscitation was 8.78% than those who were discharged alive. There were no significant statistical differences between different age groups regarding the initial success rate of resuscitation (P = 0.14), and the initial resuscitation success rate was higher in patients in morning shift (P = 0.02). Conclusion: By the results of study, it is recommended to increase the medical - nursing knowledge and techniques for personnel in the evening and night shifts. Also, an appropriate dissemination of health care staff in working shifts should be done to increase the success rate of CPR procedure. PMID:25560341

  9. Total Ankle Replacement Survival Rates Based on Kaplan-Meier Survival Analysis of National Joint Registry Data.

    PubMed

    Bartel, Annette F P; Roukis, Thomas S

    2015-10-01

    National joint registry data provides unique information about primary total ankle replacement (TAR) survival. We sought to recreate survival curves among published national joint registry data sets using the Kaplan-Meier estimator. Overall, 5152 primary and 591 TAR revisions were included over a 2- to 13-year period with prosthesis survival for all national joint registries of 0.94 at 2-years, 0.87 at 5-years and 0.81 at 10-years. National joint registry datasets should strive for completion of data presentation including revision definitions, modes and time of failure, and patients lost to follow-up or death for complete accuracy of the Kaplan-Meier estimator.

  10. A prospective study of iron status in exclusively breastfed term infants up to 6 months of age

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Shashi; Faridi, MMA; Rusia, Usha; Singh, Om

    2008-01-01

    Background Can exclusive breastfeeding until six months of age maintain optimum iron status in term babies? We evaluated iron status of exclusively breastfed term infants in relation to breast milk iron and lactoferrin. Methods In this prospective study in Delhi, India, during the period 2003–2004 normally delivered babies of non-anemic [(Hemoglobin (Hb) = 11 g/dl, n = 68] and anemic (Hb 7 – 10.9 g/dl, n = 61) mothers were followed until 6 months of age. Iron parameters were measured in the cord blood at 14 weeks and 6 months. Breast milk iron and lactoferrin were measured at the same intervals. Results Iron parameters in babies of both groups were within normal limits at birth, 14 weeks and 6 months. Mean breast milk iron and lactoferrin in non-anemic (day 1: 0.89, 6 months: 0.26 mg/l; day 1: 12.02, 6 months: 5.85 mg/ml) and anemic mothers (day 1: 0.86, 6 months: 0.27 mg/l; day 1: 12.91, 6 months: 6.37 mg/ml) were not different on day one or at other times. No relationship was found between breast milk iron, lactoferrin and iron status of the babies. Conclusion Exclusively breastfed infants of non-anemic and anemic mothers did not develop iron deficiency or iron deficiency anemia by six months of age. PMID:18312681

  11. Local annual survival and seasonal residency rates of semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) in Puerto rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, S.M.; Collazo, J.A.; Alldredge, M.W.; Harrington, B.A.; Lewis, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    We report seasonal residency and local annual survival rates of migratory Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) at the Cabo Rojo salt flats, Puerto Rico. Residency rate (daily probability of remaining on the flats) was 0.991 ?? 0.001 (x?? ?? SE), yielding a mean length of stay of 110 days. This finding supports the inclusion of the Caribbean as part of the species' winter range. Average estimated percentage of fat was low but increased throughout the season, which suggests that birds replenish some spent fat reserves and strive for energetic maintenance. Local annual survival rate was 0.62 ?? 0.04, within the range of values reported for breeding populations at Manitoba and Alaska (0.53-0.76). The similarity was not unexpected because estimates were obtained annually but at opposite sites of their annual migratory movements. Birds captured at the salt flats appeared to be a mix of birds from various parts of the breeding range, judging from morphology (culmen's coefficient of variation = 9.1, n = 106). This suggested that origin (breeding area) of birds and their proportion in the data should be ascertained and accounted for in analyses to glean the full conservation implications of winter-based annual survival estimates. Those data are needed to unravel the possibility that individuals of distinct populations are affected by differential mortality factors across different migratory routes. Mean length of stay strongly suggested that habitat quality at the salt flats was high. Rainfall and tidal flow combine to increase food availability during fall. The salt flats dry up gradually toward late January, at the onset of the dry season. Semipalmated Sandpipers may move west to other Greater Antilles or south to sites such as coastal Surinam until the onset of spring migration. They are not an oversummering species at the salt flats. Conservation efforts in the Caribbean region require understanding the dynamics of this species throughout winter to protect

  12. Haptoglobin expression correlates with tumor differentiation and five-year overall survival rate in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Tsung-Han; Lin, Ping-Yi; Tu, Siang-Jyun; Chou, Chih-Hung; Huang, Ya-Rong; Huang, Wei-Chih; Weng, Shun-Long; Huang, Hsien-Da; Chen, Yao-Li

    2017-01-01

    Elevated serum haptoglobin (Hp) is identified as a prognostic marker in multiple types of solid tumors, which is correlated with poor prognosis. HCC is one of the major causes of cancer deaths in worldwide, which remains poor prognosis and is clinically urgent for discovering early diagnostic markers. However, except for serum Hp, the correlation of tumor Hp expression with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression is still unclear. In this study, we evaluated and identified the tissue Hp expression as a prognostic marker to predict the survival rate of HCC patients. To evaluate the prognostic value of Hp expression for HCC, two cohorts were enrolled in our study, including total 130 matched pair tissue sections (both adjacent non-tumorous and tumor tissue derived from same patient) of HCC patients from Changhua Christian Hospital (CCH) and total 316 RNA-seq data with clinical information of HCC patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. In contrast to other types of cancers, HCC tumor tissues have lower Hp protein expression in CCH cohort and have lower Hp mRNA expression in TCGA cohort as compared with adjacent non-tumorous tissues (p < 0.001). Moreover, lower Hp expression is significantly correlated with different stages of HCC cancer differentiation in CCH cohort (one-way ANOVA, p < 0.001). Most importantly, lower Hp expression is highly correlated with poor five-year overall survival rate in TCGA cohort (p < 0.01). Based on our data, we conclude that tissue Hp expression positively correlates with better HCC tumor differentiation and increased five-year overall survival rate of HCC patients. The results indicated that tissue Hp is potentially a prognostic marker for HCC patients. Our findings may further provide a new insight of effective treatments along with biopsy diagnosis of HCC patients. PMID:28158312

  13. Diabetic foot reconstruction using free flaps increases 5-year-survival rate.

    PubMed

    Oh, Tae Suk; Lee, Ho Seung; Hong, Joon Pio

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of the diabetic foot reconstructed with free flaps and analyse the preoperative risk factors. This study reviews 121 cases of reconstructed diabetic foot in 113 patients over 9 years (average follow-up of 53.2 months). Patients' age ranged from 26 to 78 years (average, 54.6 years). Free flaps used were anterolateral thigh (ALT, 90), superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator (SCIP, 20), anteromedial thigh (AMT, 5), upper medial thigh (UMT, 3), and other perforator free flaps (3). Correlation between the surgical outcome and preoperative risk factors were analysed using logistic regression model. Total loss was seen in 10 cases and 111 free-tissue transfers were successful (flap survival rate of 91.7%). During follow-up, limb was eventually lost in 17 patients and overall limb salvage rate was 84.9% and the 5-year survival was 86.8%. Correlation between flap loss and 14 preoperative risk factors (computed tomography (CT) angiogram showing intact numbers of major vessels, history of previous angioplasty, peripheral arterial disease (PAD), heart problem, chronic renal failure (CRF), American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification system, smoking, body mass index (BMI), HBA1c, lymphocyte count, ankle-brachial index (ABI), osteomyelitis, C-reactive protein (CRP) level and whether taking immunosuppressive agents) were analysed. Significant odds ratio were seen in patients who underwent lower extremity angioplasties (odds ratio: 17.590, p<0.001), with PAD (odds ratio: 10.212, p=0.032) and taking immunosuppressive agents after kidney transplantation (odds ratio: 4.857, p<0.041). Diabetic foot reconstruction using free flaps has a high chance for success and significantly increases the 5-year survival rate. Risk factors such as PAD, history of angioplasties in the extremity and using immunosuppressive agents after transplant may increase the chance for flap loss.

  14. [Survival and success rate of dental implants treated with high intensity laser].

    PubMed

    Joób-Fancsaly, Arpád; Divinyi, Tamás; Karacs, Albert; Koncz, Szilvia; Pető, Gábor; Sulyok, Lili

    2015-09-01

    Clinical and radiological evaluations were conducted in patients with high energy Nd : glass laser-treated dental implants. These patients underwent dental implantation surgery between 1997 and 2006. Strict success criteria were used for the examination and analysis of implants. Based on clinical and radiological evaluation, success and survival rates of laser surface treated dental implants were similar to those of sandblasted, acid-etched surface implants frequently reported in the literature. Specific surface morphology and high degree of purity of laser surface treated dental implants ensure excellent osseointegration and a good clinical performance also on the long-term.

  15. Decreased serum hepcidin and improved functional iron status 6 months after restrictive bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Fantuzzi, Giamila; Freels, Sally; Holterman, Ai-xuan L; Galvani, Carlos; Ayloo, Subhashini; Vitello, Joseph; Braunschweig, Carol

    2010-10-01

    Excess adiposity is associated with low-grade inflammation and decreased iron status. Iron depletion in obesity is thought to be mediated by an inflammation-induced increase in the body's main regulator of iron homeostasis, hepcidin. Elevated hepcidin can result in iron depletion as it prevents the release of dietary iron absorbed into the enterocytes, limiting replenishment of body iron losses. Weight reduction is associated with decreased inflammation; however, the impact of reduced inflammation on iron status and systemic hepcidin in obese individuals remains unknown. We determined prospectively the impact of weight loss on iron status parameters, serum hepcidin, inflammation, and dietary iron in 20 obese premenopausal females 6 months after restrictive bariatric surgery. At baseline, the presence of iron depletion was high with 45% of the women having serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) >28.1 nmol/l. Differences between baseline and 6 months after surgery for BMI (47.56 vs. 39.55 kg/m(2); P < 0.0001), C-reactive protein (CRP) (10.83 vs. 5.71 mg/l; P < 0.0001), sTfR (29.97 vs. 23.08 nmol/l; P = 0.001), and serum hepcidin (111.25 vs. 31.35 ng/ml; P < 0.0001) were significantly lower, whereas hemoglobin (Hb) (12.10 vs. 13.30 g/dl; P < 0.0001) and hematocrit (Hct) (36.58 vs. 38.78%; P = 0.001) were significantly higher. Ferritin and transferrin saturation (Tsat) showed minimal improvement at follow-up. At baseline, hepcidin was not correlated with sTfR (r = 0.02); however, at follow-up, significant correlations were found (r = -0.58). Change in interleukin-6 (IL-6) from baseline was marginally associated with decreased log serum hepcidin (Δ IL-6: β = -0.22; P = 0.15), whereas change in BMI or weight was not. No significant difference in dietary iron was noted after surgery. Weight loss in obese premenopausal women is associated with reduced serum hepcidin and inflammation. Reduction in inflammation and hepcidin likely allow for enhanced dietary iron

  16. Hamsters chewing betel quid or areca nut directly show a decrease in body weight and survival rates with concomitant epithelial hyperplasia of cheek pouch.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chun-Pin; Chang, Mei-Chi; Lee, Jang-Jaer; Chang, Julia Yu-Fong; Lee, Po-Hsuen; Hahn, Liang-Jiunn; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei

    2004-08-01

    Betel quid (BQ) chewing is strongly associated with the occurrence of oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral cancer. There are about 200-600 million BQ chewers in the world. Previous animal studies support the potential carcinogenicity of BQ in different test systems. However, little animal experiment has let hamsters or rats to chew BQ directly, similar to that in humans. In the present study, we established a hamster model of chewing BQ or areca nut (AN). A total of 81 2-week-old hamsters were randomly divided into three groups: 25 for control group, 28 for BQ-chewing group, and 28 for AN-chewing group. These animals were fed with powdered diet with/without BQ or AN for 18 months. Although the consumption of BQ or AN showed some variations, hamsters fed with powdered diet could chew and grind AN or BQ into small pieces of coarse fibers during the entire experimental period. The survival rate of AN-chewing hamsters decreased significantly after 6 months of exposure. The mean survival time was 15.6 +/- 0.9 months for control animals, 13.6 +/- 0.98 months for AN-chewing animals, and 15.7 +/- 0.55 months for BQ-chewing animals. The body weight of BQ- or AN-chewing animals also decreased after 4-13 months. Hamsters fed with AN for 18 months showed hyperkeratosis in 80% and acanthosis in 50% of cheek pouches. Animals fed with BQ for 18 months also showed hyperkeratosis in 93% and acanthosis in 14% of cheek pouches. These results indicate that AN and BQ components may induce alterations in proliferation and differentiation of oral epithelial cells. Animal model of chewing BQ or AN can be useful for future tumor initiation, promotion and chemoprevention experiments simulating the condition of BQ chewing in humans.

  17. High Survival Rates and Associated Factors Among Ebola Virus Disease Patients Hospitalized at Donka National Hospital, Conakry, Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Adnan I.; Chughtai, Morad; Bah, Elhadj Ibrahima; Barry, Moumié; Béavogui, Kézély; Loua, Tokpagnan Oscar; Malik, Ahmed A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Anecdotal reports suggesting that survival rates among hospitalized patients with Ebola virus disease in Guinea are higher than the 29.2% rate observed in the current epidemic in West Africa. Methods Survival after symptom onset was determined using Kaplan Meier survival methods among patients with confirmed Ebola virus disease treated in Conakry, Guinea from March 25, 2014, to August 5, 2014. We analyzed the relationship between survival and patient factors, including demographics and clinical features. Results Of the 70 patients analyzed [mean age ± standard deviation (SD), 34 ± 14.1; 44 were men], 42 were discharged alive with a survival rate among hospitalized patients of 60% (95% confidence interval, 41.5–78.5%). The survival rate was 28 (71.8%) among 39 patients under 34 years of age, and 14 (46.7%) among 30 patients aged 35 years or greater (p = 0.034). The rates of myalgia (3 of 42 versus 7 of 28, p = 0.036) and hiccups (1 of 42 versus 5 of 28, p = 0.023) were significantly lower among patients who survived. Conclusions Our results provide insights into a cohort of hospitalized patients with Ebola virus disease in whom survival is prominently higher than seen in other cohorts of hospitalized patients. PMID:25992182

  18. A 6 month evaluation of a non-powered hybrid mattress replacement system.

    PubMed

    Newton, Heather

    2015-11-11

    In 2013, the Royal Cornwall Hospitals NHS Trust undertook a 6-week evaluation of the AtmosAir 4000 non-powered reactive pressure redistribution mattress replacement system to determine its suitability in supporting the prevention of pressure ulcers in high-risk patients (phase one). The results demonstrated that the AtmosAir 4000 mattress system, together with skin assessment and repositioning regimes, met the pressure ulcer preventative needs of patients at high and very high risk of developing pressure ulcers. It also resulted in a notable reduction in the use of dynamic air mattresses. Consequently, 50 AtmosAir 4000 mattresses were purchased for two acute medical wards in the evaluation site, where the majority of patients are elderly with an acute medical condition. This article discusses the second phase where an audit compares the number of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers reported over a 6-month period with the equivalent time period in 2014. Results show that the number of pressure ulcers reduced by 65% and 50% in the two wards. The number of dynamic mattresses used on the two wards reduced significantly from 28 to 7, which represents a 75% reduction in usage.

  19. In vivo response of AZ31 alloy as biliary stents: a 6 months evaluation in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Zheng, Shengmin; Li, Nan; Guo, Huahu; Zheng, Yufeng; Peng, Jirun

    2017-01-01

    Mg-based metallic materials have been making continuing progress as vascular stents. However, the research of Mg-based materials as non-vascular stents is still at its primary stage. AZ31 stents hereby were implanted into the common bile duct of rabbits for 6 months. The results revealed an existence of 93.82 ± 1.36% and 30.89 ± 2.46% of the original volume after 1 and 3 month, respectively. Whole blood tests indicated an inflammation decreasing to normal level after 3 month implantation. A benign host response was observed via H&E staining. Nonuniform corrosion at the two ends of the stents was observed and considered the results of flow or local inflammation. Moreover, the application of Mg-based materials for different stenting treatment were reviewed and compared. Esophagus was hypothesized most destructive, whilst blood vessel and bile duct considered similar and less destructive. Trachea and nasal cavity were thought to be mildest. PMID:28084306

  20. Differential brain shrinkage over 6 months shows limited association with cognitive practice.

    PubMed

    Raz, Naftali; Schmiedek, Florian; Rodrigue, Karen M; Kennedy, Kristen M; Lindenberger, Ulman; Lövdén, Martin

    2013-07-01

    The brain shrinks with age, but the timing of this process and the extent of its malleability are unclear. We measured changes in regional brain volumes in younger (age 20-31) and older (age 65-80) adults twice over a 6 month period, and examined the association between changes in volume, history of hypertension, and cognitive training. Between two MRI scans, 49 participants underwent intensive practice in three cognitive domains for 100 consecutive days, whereas 23 control group members performed no laboratory cognitive tasks. Regional volumes of seven brain structures were measured manually and adjusted for intracranial volume. We observed significant mean shrinkage in the lateral prefrontal cortex, the hippocampus, the caudate nucleus, and the cerebellum, but no reliable mean change of the prefrontal white matter, orbital-frontal cortex, and the primary visual cortex. Individual differences in change were reliable in all regions. History of hypertension was associated with greater cerebellar shrinkage. The cerebellum was the only region in which significantly reduced shrinkage was apparent in the experimental group after completion of cognitive training. Thus, in healthy adults, differential brain shrinkage can be observed in a narrow time window, vascular risk may aggravate it, and intensive cognitive activity may have a limited effect on it.

  1. Short-burst oxygen therapy for COPD patients: a 6-month randomised, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Eaton, T; Fergusson, W; Kolbe, J; Lewis, C A; West, T

    2006-04-01

    Short-burst oxygen therapy (SBOT) remains widely advocated for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), despite a lack of supporting evidence. The aim of this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study was to determine whether SBOT improves health-related quality of life (HRQL) or reduces acute healthcare utilisation in patients discharged following an acute exacerbation of COPD. Consecutive patients were screened; 78 of 331 were eligible for randomisation to cylinder oxygen, cylinder air or usual care following discharge. Patients were elderly with high acute healthcare utilisation, forced expiratory volume in one second of <1 L and had dyspnoea limiting daily activity but were not hypoxaemic at rest. Over the 6-month study period, there were no significant differences between patient groups in HRQL (Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire (CRQ), 36-item Short-Form Health Survey, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) except for CRQ emotion domain. There were no significant differences in acute healthcare utilisation. Time to readmission was greatest in the usual care group. Cylinder use was high initially, but rapidly fell to very low levels within weeks in both cylinder oxygen and air groups. In conclusion, the availability of short-burst oxygen therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients discharged from hospital following an acute exacerbation did not improve health-related quality of life or reduce acute healthcare utilisation. These results provide no support for the widespread use of short-burst oxygen therapy.

  2. Object engagement and manipulation in extremely preterm and full term infants at 6 months of age.

    PubMed

    Zuccarini, Mariagrazia; Sansavini, Alessandra; Iverson, Jana M; Savini, Silvia; Guarini, Annalisa; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo; Aureli, Tiziana

    2016-08-01

    Delays in the motor domain have been frequently observed in preterm children, especially those born at an extremely low gestational age (ELGA;<28 weeks GA). However, early motor exploration has received relatively little attention despite its relevance for object knowledge and its impact on cognitive and language development. The present study aimed at comparing early object exploration in 20 ELGA and 20 full-term (FT) infants at 6 months of age during a 5-minute mother-infant play interaction. Object engagement (visual vs manual), visual object engagement (no act vs reach), manual object engagement (passive vs active), and active object manipulation (mouthing, transferring, banging, turn/rotating, shaking, fingering) were analyzed. Moreover, the Griffiths Mental Development Scales 0-2 years (1996) were administered to the infants. Relative to FT peers, ELGA infants spent more time in visual engagement, and less time in manual engagement, active manipulation, mouthing, and turning/rotating. Moreover, they had lower scores on general psychomotor development, eye & hand coordination, and performance abilities. Close relationships emerged between manual object engagement and psychomotor development. Clinical implications of these results in terms of early evaluation of action schemes in ELGA infants and the provision of intervention programs for supporting these abilities are discussed.

  3. Prospective predictors of adolescent suicidality: 6-month post-hospitalization follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Yen, S.; Weinstock, L. M.; Andover, M. S.; Sheets, E. S.; Selby, E. A.; Spirito, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine prospective predictors of suicide events, defined as suicide attempts or emergency interventions to reduce suicide risk, in 119 adolescents admitted to an in-patient psychiatric unit for suicidal behaviors and followed naturalistically for 6 months. Method Structured diagnostic interviews and self-report instruments were administered to adolescent participants and their parent(s) to assess demographic variables, history of suicidal behavior, psychiatric disorders, family environment and personality/temperament. Results Baseline variables that significantly predicted time to a suicide event during follow-up were Black race, high suicidal ideation in the past month, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), childhood sexual abuse (CSA), borderline personality disorder (BPD), low scores on positive affectivity, and high scores on aggression. In a multivariate Cox regression analysis, only Black race, CSA, positive affect intensity and high aggression scores remained significant. Conclusions Our findings suggest the following for adolescent populations: (1) in a very high-risk population, risk factors for future attempts may be more difficult to ascertain and some established risk factors (e.g. past suicide attempt) may not distinguish as well; and (2) cross-cutting constructs (e.g. affective and behavioral dysregulation) that underlie multiple psychiatric disorders may be stronger predictors of recurrent suicide events than psychiatric diagnoses. Our finding with respect to positive affect intensity is novel and may have practical implications for the assessment and treatment of adolescent suicide attempters. PMID:22932393

  4. In vivo response of AZ31 alloy as biliary stents: a 6 months evaluation in rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Zheng, Shengmin; Li, Nan; Guo, Huahu; Zheng, Yufeng; Peng, Jirun

    2017-01-01

    Mg-based metallic materials have been making continuing progress as vascular stents. However, the research of Mg-based materials as non-vascular stents is still at its primary stage. AZ31 stents hereby were implanted into the common bile duct of rabbits for 6 months. The results revealed an existence of 93.82 ± 1.36% and 30.89 ± 2.46% of the original volume after 1 and 3 month, respectively. Whole blood tests indicated an inflammation decreasing to normal level after 3 month implantation. A benign host response was observed via H&E staining. Nonuniform corrosion at the two ends of the stents was observed and considered the results of flow or local inflammation. Moreover, the application of Mg-based materials for different stenting treatment were reviewed and compared. Esophagus was hypothesized most destructive, whilst blood vessel and bile duct considered similar and less destructive. Trachea and nasal cavity were thought to be mildest.

  5. Development of Specific Aspects of Spirituality during a 6-Month Intensive Yoga Practice

    PubMed Central

    Büssing, Arndt; Hedtstück, Anemone; Khalsa, Sat Bir S.; Ostermann, Thomas; Heusser, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The majority of research on yoga focuses on its psychophysiological and therapeutic benefits, while the spiritual aspects are rarely addressed. Changes of specific aspects of spirituality were thus investigated among 160 individuals (91% women, mean age 40.9 ± 8.3 years; 57% Christians) starting a 2-year yoga teacher training. We used standardized questionnaires to measure aspects of spirituality (ASP), mindfulness (FMI—Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory), life satisfaction (BMLSS—Brief Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale), and positive mood (lightheartedness/relief). At the start of the course, scores of the respective ASP subscales for search for insight/wisdom, transcendence conviction, and conscious interactions/compassion were high, while those for religious orientation were low. Within the 6 month observation period, both conscious interactions/compassion (effect size, Cohen's d = .33), Religious orientation (d = .21), Lightheartedness/Relief (d = .75) and mindfulness (d = .53) increased significantly. Particularly non-religious/non-spiritual individuals showed moderate effects for an increase of conscious interactions/compassion. The results from this study suggest that an intensive yoga practice (1) may significantly increase specific aspects of practitioners' spirituality, mindfulness, and mood, (2) that these changes are dependent in part on their original spiritual/religious self-perception, and (3) that there are strong correlations amongst these constructs (i.e., conscious interactions/compassion, and mindfulness). PMID:22852023

  6. Neural Dynamics of Audiovisual Synchrony and Asynchrony Perception in 6-Month-Old Infants

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, Franziska; Dietrich, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Young infants are sensitive to multisensory temporal synchrony relations, but the neural dynamics of temporal interactions between vision and audition in infancy are not well understood. We investigated audiovisual synchrony and asynchrony perception in 6-month-old infants using event-related brain potentials (ERP). In a prior behavioral experiment (n = 45), infants were habituated to an audiovisual synchronous stimulus and tested for recovery of interest by presenting an asynchronous test stimulus in which the visual stream was delayed with respect to the auditory stream by 400 ms. Infants who behaviorally discriminated the change in temporal alignment were included in further analyses. In the EEG experiment (final sample: n = 15), synchronous and asynchronous stimuli (visual delay of 400 ms) were presented in random order. Results show latency shifts in the auditory ERP components N1 and P2 as well as the infant ERP component Nc. Latencies in the asynchronous condition were significantly longer than in the synchronous condition. After video onset but preceding the auditory onset, amplitude modulations propagating from posterior to anterior sites and related to the Pb component of infants’ ERP were observed. Results suggest temporal interactions between the two modalities. Specifically, they point to the significance of anticipatory visual motion for auditory processing, and indicate young infants’ predictive capacities for audiovisual temporal synchrony relations. PMID:23346071

  7. Atypical cry acoustics in 6-month-old infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Sheinkopf, Stephen J; Iverson, Jana M; Rinaldi, Melissa L; Lester, Barry M

    2012-10-01

    This study examined differences in acoustic characteristics of infant cries in a sample of babies at risk for autism and a low-risk comparison group. Cry samples derived from vocal recordings of 6-month-old infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 21) and low-risk infants (n = 18) were subjected to acoustic analyses using analysis software designed for this purpose. Cries were categorized as either pain-related or non-pain-related based on videotape coding. At-risk infants produced pain-related cries with higher and more variable fundamental frequency (F (0) ) than low-risk infants. At-risk infants later classified with ASD at 36 months had among the highest F (0) values for both types of cries and produced cries that were more poorly phonated than those of nonautistic infants, reflecting cries that were less likely to be produced in a voiced mode. These results provide preliminary evidence that disruptions in cry acoustics may be part of an atypical vocal signature of autism in early life.

  8. Borderline personality disorder in major depression: symptomatology, temperament, character, differential drug response, and 6-month outcome.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Peter R; Mulder, Roger T; Luty, Suzanne E; McKenzie, Janice M; Sullivan, Patrick F; Cloninger, Robert C

    2003-01-01

    Among 183 depressed patients participating in a randomized long-term treatment trial of fluoxetine and nortriptyline, 30 patients had borderline personality disorder (BPD), 53 had other personality disorders (OPD), and 100 had no personality disorders (NPD). The borderline depressed patients had earlier age of onset of their depressions, more chronic depressions, more alcohol and cannabis comorbidity, and were more likely to have histories of suicide attempts and of self-mutilation. On self-report, patients with BPD and OPD reported more phobic symptoms, greater interpersonal sensitivity, and more paranoid ideation. Uniquely, BPD patients were more angry than OPD patients. BPD patients had high novelty seeking, high harm avoidance, low self-directedness, and low cooperativeness. Depressed patients with BPD did poorly in the short term if treated with nortriptyline rather than fluoxetine. After 6 months, those with BPD had a favorable outcome in regard to depressive symptoms, social adjustment, and even improvement in the character measure of self-directedness. Those with the poorest outcome were those with OPD.

  9. Individual experiences following a 6-month exercise intervention: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Kerkelä, Ellen Staveborg; Jonsson, Linus; Lindwall, Magnus; Strand, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Dropout is a common problem in various exercise interventions. The individual's experience is believed to greatly impact dropout, yet little is known about the individual experiences of taking part in exercise interventions. The aim of this study was to examine individuals’ experiences following a self-determination theory–based exercise intervention in order to gain understanding of how standardized interventions can be adjusted to fit individuals’ specific needs, capacities, and circumstances. Methods A qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews was conducted with eight informants (three male and five female) aged between 26 and 47 years, whom all had participated in a 6-month exercise intervention with individual coaching based on self-determination theory and motivational interviewing. The interviews were analyzed thematically with an inductive approach. Results Aspects that influenced the informants’ motivation and participation in the exercise intervention were linked to three themes: the frames of the intervention, measurable changes, and the individual's context. The themes present information about the process and to what extent the informants felt that the intervention was adapted to fit their lives and needs. Conclusions This study emphasizes the importance of individualizing exercise interventions to support individuals’ diverse capacities and psychological needs. PMID:26282865

  10. Egg Hatch Rate and Nymphal Survival of the Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) After Exposure to Insecticide Sprays.

    PubMed

    Hinson, K R; Benson, E P; Zungoli, P A; Bridges, W C; Ellis, B R

    2016-12-01

    Few studies have addressed the efficacy of insecticides used against eggs and first-instar nymphs of the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). Insect eggs are often resistant to insecticides; therefore, information on which products are effective is important. We evaluated the efficacy of four commonly used insecticide sprays applied directly to bed bug eggs. We also evaluated the efficacy of these insecticides to first-instar nymphs exposed to residuals resulting from directly spraying eggs. Temprid SC (beta-cyfluthrin, imidacloprid) was the most effective insecticide at preventing egg hatch (13% hatch rate) for pyrethroid-resistant, field-strain (Jersey City) bed bugs compared with a control (water [99% hatch rate]), Bedlam (MGK-264, sumithrin [84% hatch rate]), Demand CS (lambda-cyhalothrin [91% hatch rate]), and Phantom SC (chlorfenapyr [95% hatch rate]). Demand CS and Temprid SC were most effective at preventing egg hatch (0%) for an insecticide-susceptible (Harold Harlan) strain, followed by Bedlam (28%). Phantom SC produced a hatch rate similar to the control (97% and 96%, respectively). Harold Harlan-strain nymphs showed 100% survival for the control but 0% survival for Bedlam and Phantom SC. Jersey City-strain nymphs showed 100% survival for the control, 99% survival for Bedlam, 0% survival for Demand CS, 4% survival for Phantom SC, and 38% survival for Temprid SC. Demand CS was less effective at preventing hatch (91% hatch rate) of Jersey City-strain nymphs but was the only product to kill all nymphs (0% survival). One of the least effective products for preventing Jersey City-strain egg hatch (Phantom SC, 95% hatch rate) was the second most effective at killing nymphs, leaving only six of 141 alive. These findings indicate that survival of directly sprayed eggs and residually exposed, first-instar nymphs varies by strain, life stage, and product used.

  11. Comparing measurement error correction methods for rate-of-change exposure variables in survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, Giovanni; Ferrario, Marco M; Chambless, Lloyd E

    2013-12-01

    In this article we focus on comparing measurement error correction methods for rate-of-change exposure variables in survival analysis, when longitudinal data are observed prior to the follow-up time. Motivational examples include the analysis of the association between changes in cardiovascular risk factors and subsequent onset of coronary events. We derive a measurement error model for the rate of change, estimated through subject-specific linear regression, assuming an additive measurement error model for the time-specific measurements. The rate of change is then included as a time-invariant variable in a Cox proportional hazards model, adjusting for the first time-specific measurement (baseline) and an error-free covariate. In a simulation study, we compared bias, standard deviation and mean squared error (MSE) for the regression calibration (RC) and the simulation-extrapolation (SIMEX) estimators. Our findings indicate that when the amount of measurement error is substantial, RC should be the preferred method, since it has smaller MSE for estimating the coefficients of the rate of change and of the variable measured without error. However, when the amount of measurement error is small, the choice of the method should take into account the event rate in the population and the effect size to be estimated. An application to an observational study, as well as examples of published studies where our model could have been applied, are also provided.

  12. Modeling the effect of temperature on survival rate of Salmonella Enteritidis in yogurt.

    PubMed

    Szczawiński, J; Szczawińska, M E; Łobacz, A; Jackowska-Tracz, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the inactivation rates of Salmonella Enteritidis in commercially produced yogurt and to generate primary and secondary mathematical models to predict the behaviour of these bacteria during storage at different temperatures. The samples were inoculated with the mixture of three S. Enteritidis strains and stored at 5 degrees C, 10 degrees C, 15 degrees C, 20 degrees C and 25 degrees C for 24 h. The number of salmonellae was determined every two hours. It was found that the number of bacteria decreased linearly with storage time in all samples. Storage temperature and pH of yogurt significantly influenced survival rate of S. Enteritidis (p < 0.05). In samples kept at 5 degrees C the number of salmonellae decreased at the lowest rate, whereas at 25 degrees C the reduction in number of bacteria was the most dynamic. The natural logarithm of mean inactivation rates of Salmonella calculated from primary model was fitted to two secondary models: linear and polynomial. Equations obtained from both secondary models can be applied as a tool for prediction of inactivation rate of Salmonella in yogurt stored under temperature range from 5 to 25 degrees C; however, polynomial model gave the better fit to the experimental data.

  13. Comparable Renal Function at 6 Months with Tacrolimus Combined with Fixed-Dose Sirolimus or MMF: Results of a Randomized Multicenter Trial in Renal Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Van Gurp, Eveline; Bustamante, Jesus; Franco, Antonio; Rostaing, Lionel; Becker, Thomas; Rondeau, Eric; Czajkowski, Zenon; Rydzewski, Andrzej; Alarcon, Antonio; Bachleda, Petr; Samlik, Jiri; Burmeister, Dirk; Pallardo, Luis; Moal, Marie-Christine; Rutkowski, Boleslaw; Wlodarczyk, Zbigniew

    2010-01-01

    In a multicenter trial, renal transplant recipients were randomized to tacrolimus with fixed-dose sirolimus (Tac/SRL, N = 318) or tacrolimus with MMF (Tac/MMF, N = 316). Targeted tacrolimus trough levels were lower in the Tac/SRL group after day 14. The primary endpoint was renal function at 6 months using creatinine clearance (Cockcroft-Gault) and was comparable at 66.4 mL/min (SE 1.4) with Tac/SRL and at 65.2mL/min (SE 1.3) with Tac/MMF (completers). Biopsy-confirmed acute rejection was 15.1% (Tac/SRL) and 12.3% (Tac/MMF). In both groups, graft survival was 93% and patient survival was 99.0%. Premature withdrawal due to an adverse event was twice as high in the Tac/SRL group, 15.1% versus 6.3%. Hypercholesterolemia incidence was higher with Tac/SRL (P < .05) while CMV, leukopenia, and diarrhea incidences were higher with Tac/MMF (P < .05). The incidence of any antidiabetic treatment for >30 consecutive days in previously nondiabetic patients was 17.8%, Tac/SRL, and 24.8%, Tac/MMF. Evaluation at 6 months showed comparable renal function using tacrolimus/sirolimus and tacrolimus/MMF regimens.

  14. Tidal and seasonal effects on survival rates of the endangered California clapper rail: does invasive Spartina facilitate greater survival in a dynamic environment?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Overton, Cory T.; Casazza, Michael L.; Takekawa, John Y.; Strong, Donald R.; Holyoak, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species frequently degrade habitats, disturb ecosystem processes, and can increase the likelihood of extinction of imperiled populations. However, novel or enhanced functions provided by invading species may reduce the impact of processes that limit populations. It is important to recognize how invasive species benefit endangered species to determine overall effects on sensitive ecosystems. For example, since the 1990s, hybrid Spartina (Spartina foliosa × alterniflora) has expanded throughout South San Francisco Bay, USA, supplanting native vegetation and invading mudflats. The endangered California clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) uses the tall, dense hybrid Spartina for cover and nesting, but the effects of hybrid Spartina on clapper rail survival was unknown. We estimated survival rates of 108 radio-marked California clapper rails in South San Francisco Bay from January 2007 to March 2010, a period of extensive hybrid Spartina eradication, with Kaplan–Meier product limit estimators. Clapper rail survival patterns were consistent with hybrid Spartina providing increased refuge cover from predators during tidal extremes which flood native vegetation, particularly during the winter when the vegetation senesces. Model averaged annual survival rates within hybrid Spartina dominated marshes before eradication (Ŝ = 0.466) were greater than the same marshes posttreatment (Ŝ = 0.275) and a marsh dominated by native vegetation (Ŝ = 0.272). However, models with and without marsh treatment as explanatory factor for survival rates had nearly equivalent support in the observed data, lending ambiguity as to whether hybrid Spartina facilitated greater survival rates than native marshland. Conservation actions to aid in recovery of this endangered species should recognize the importance of available of high tide refugia, particularly in light of invasive species eradication programs and projections of future sea-level rise.

  15. Myasthenia gravis in patients with thymoma affects survival rate following extended thymectomy

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, ZHEFENG; CUI, YOUBIN; JIA, RUI; XUE, LEI; LIANG, HUAGANG

    2016-01-01

    Thymomas are the most common adult tumors in the anterior mediastinal compartment, and a significant amount of thymomas are complicated by myasthenia gravis (MG). Extended thymectomy (ET) is the primary treatment method for thymomas and is used to completely resect possible ectopic thymus to avoid recurrence. Studies on the effect of MG in thymoma patients following ET are limited. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the presence of MG affects the prognosis of patients with thymoma. The present study consisted of 104 patients with thymoma that underwent ET; 61 men (58.7%) and 43 women (41.3%) (mean age, 54.6 years). In total, 38 patients had MG (36.5%). MG was most frequently observed in World Health Organization (WHO) classification type B2 thymoma compared with other types of thymoma. During the 5-year follow-up period, 11 patients succumbed to a recurrence of thymoma or respiratory failure due to MG. The overall 5-year survival rate in patients without MG or with MG was 89.1 and 76.0%, respectively. The overall survival (OS) rate in patients with Masaoka stages I + II and III + IV was 90.0 and 68.0%, respectively. The OS rate in patients with WHO type A + AB + B1 and type B2 + B3 was 96.9 and 76.8%, respectively. The patients with MG (P=0.026), Masaoka stages III + IV (P=0.008) and WHO type B2 + B3 (P=0.032) had a poorer prognosis compared with patients without these characteristics. Furthermore, multivariate analysis by Cox regression revealed that age [P=0.032; relative risk (RR)=1.097; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.097–1.192] and MG (P=0.042; RR=0.167; 95% CI=0.037–0.940) significantly affected OS rate. In summary, ET is a reliable method for the treatment of thymoma. Long-term survival is expected for patients at early Masaoka stages, and for patients without MG. The prognosis of patients with thymomas with MG is poorer compared with patients without MG. The present findings provide useful information for the future management of

  16. Olfactory function following open rhinoplasty: A 6-month follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Shemshadi, Hashem; Azimian, Mojtaba; Onsori, Mohammad Ali; AzizAbadi Farahani, Mahdi

    2008-01-01

    Background Patients undergoing any type of nasal surgery may experience degrees of postoperative olfactory dysfunction. We sought to investigate "when" the olfactory function recovers to its preoperative levels. Methods In this cohort design, 40 of 65 esthetic open rhinoplasty candidates with equal gender distribution, who met the inclusion criteria, were assessed for their olfactory function using the Smell Identification Test (SIT) with 40 familiar odors in sniffing bottles. All the patients were evaluated for the SIT scores preoperatively and postoperatively (at week 1, week 6, and month 6). Results At postoperative week one, 87.5% of the patients had anosmia, and the rest exhibited at least moderate levels of hyposmia. The anosmia, which was the dominant pattern at postoperative week 1, resolved and converted to various levels of hyposmia, so that no one at postoperative week 6 showed any such complain. At postoperative week six, 85% of the subjects experienced degrees of hyposmia, almost all being mild to moderate. At postoperative six month, the olfactory function had already reverted to the preoperative levels: no anosmia or moderate to severe hyposmia. A repeated ANOVA was indicative of significant differences in the olfactory function at the different time points. According to our post hoc Benfronney, the preoperative scores had a significant difference with those at postoperative week 1, week 6, but not with the ones at month 6. Conclusion Esthetic open rhinoplasty may be accompanied by some degrees of postoperative olfactory dysfunction. Patients need a time interval of 6 weeks to 6 months to fully recover their baseline olfactory function. PMID:18831771

  17. Greater weight loss and hormonal changes after 6 months diet with carbohydrates eaten mostly at dinner.

    PubMed

    Sofer, Sigal; Eliraz, Abraham; Kaplan, Sara; Voet, Hillary; Fink, Gershon; Kima, Tzadok; Madar, Zecharia

    2011-10-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of a low-calorie diet with carbohydrates eaten mostly at dinner on anthropometric, hunger/satiety, biochemical, and inflammatory parameters. Hormonal secretions were also evaluated. Seventy-eight police officers (BMI >30) were randomly assigned to experimental (carbohydrates eaten mostly at dinner) or control weight loss diets for 6 months. On day 0, 7, 90, and 180 blood samples and hunger scores were collected every 4 h from 0800 to 2000 hours. Anthropometric measurements were collected throughout the study. Greater weight loss, abdominal circumference, and body fat mass reductions were observed in the experimental diet in comparison to controls. Hunger scores were lower and greater improvements in fasting glucose, average daily insulin concentrations, and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)), T-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were observed in comparison to controls. The experimental diet modified daily leptin and adiponectin concentrations compared to those observed at baseline and to a control diet. A simple dietary manipulation of carbohydrate distribution appears to have additional benefits when compared to a conventional weight loss diet in individuals suffering from obesity. It might also be beneficial for individuals suffering from insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. Further research is required to confirm and clarify the mechanisms by which this relatively simple diet approach enhances satiety, leads to better anthropometric outcomes, and achieves improved metabolic response, compared to a more conventional dietary approach.

  18. Perfectionism, neuroticism, and daily stress reactivity and coping effectiveness 6 months and 3 years later.

    PubMed

    Dunkley, David M; Mandel, Tobey; Ma, Denise

    2014-10-01

    The present study addressed a fundamental gap between research and clinical work by advancing longitudinal explanatory conceptualizations of stress and coping processes that trigger daily affect in the short- and long-term for individuals with higher levels of personality vulnerability. Community adults completed measures of 2 higher order dimensions of perfectionism (personal standards [PS], self-criticism [SC]), neuroticism, and conscientiousness. Then, 6 months later and again 3 years later, participants completed daily questionnaires of stress, coping, and affect for 14 consecutive days. PS was associated with aggregated daily problem-focused coping and positive reinterpretation, whereas SC was uniquely associated with daily negative social interactions, avoidant coping, negative affect, and sadness at Month 6 and Year 3. Multilevel modeling results demonstrated that both individuals with higher PS and those with higher SC were emotionally reactive to event stress, negative social interactions, and avoidant coping at Month 6 and Year 3 and to less perceived control at Year 3. Positive reinterpretation was especially effective for individuals with higher SC at Month 6 and Year 3. The effects of PS on daily stress reactivity and coping (in)effectiveness were clearly distinguished from the effects of neuroticism and conscientiousness, whereas the SC effects were due to shared overlap with PS and neuroticism. The present findings demonstrate the promise of using repeated daily diary methodologies to help therapists and clients reliably predict future client reactions to daily stressors, which, in turn, could help guide interventions to break apart dysfunctional patterns connected to distress and build resilience for vulnerable individuals.

  19. Effect of nitric oxide on spinal evoked potentials and survival rate in rats with decompression sickness.

    PubMed

    Randsoe, T; Meehan, C F; Broholm, H; Hyldegaard, O

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) releasing agents have, in experimental settings, been shown to decrease intravascular nitrogen bubble formation and to increase the survival rate during decompression sickness (DCS) from diving. The effect has been ascribed to a possible removal of preexisting micronuclei or an increased nitrogen washout on decompression through augmented blood flow rate. The present experiments were conducted to investigate whether a short- or long-acting NO donor [glycerol trinitrate (GTN) or isosorbide-5-mononitrate (ISMN), respectively] would offer the same protection against spinal cord DCS evaluated by means of spinal evoked potentials (SEPs). Anesthetized rats were decompressed from a 1-h hyperbaric air dive at 506.6 kPa (40 m of seawater) for 3 min and 17 s, and spinal cord conduction was studied by measurements of SEPs. Histological samples of the spinal cord were analyzed for lesions of DCS. In total, 58 rats were divided into 6 different treatment groups. The first three received either saline (group 1), 300 mg/kg iv ISMN (group 2), or 10 mg/kg ip GTN (group 3) before compression. The last three received either 300 mg/kg iv ISMN (group 4), 1 mg/kg iv GTN (group 5), or 75 μg/kg iv GTN (group 6) during the dive, before decompression. In all groups, decompression caused considerable intravascular bubble formation. The ISMN groups showed no difference compared with the control group, whereas the GTN groups showed a tendency toward faster SEP disappearance and shorter survival times. In conclusion, neither a short- nor long-acting NO donor had any protective effect against fatal DCS by intravenous bubble formation. This effect is most likely due to a fast ascent rate overriding the protective effects of NO, rather than the total inert tissue gas load.

  20. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for adult Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphocytic leukemia: comparable survival rates but different risk factors between related and unrelated transplantation in first complete remission.

    PubMed

    Nishiwaki, Satoshi; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Sakamaki, Hisashi; Kurokawa, Mineo; Iida, Hiroatsu; Ogawa, Hiroyasu; Fukuda, Takahiro; Ozawa, Yukiyasu; Kobayashi, Naoki; Kasai, Masanobu; Mori, Takehiko; Iwato, Koji; Yoshida, Takashi; Onizuka, Makoto; Kawa, Keisei; Morishima, Yasuo; Suzuki, Ritsuro; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Miyamura, Koichi

    2010-11-18

    To identify factors to improve the outcomes of related and unrelated allogeneic stem cell transplantations (allo-SCT) for Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphocytic leukemia (Ph(-) ALL) in the first complete remission (CR1), we retrospectively analyzed 1139 Ph(-) ALL patients using the registry data, particularly the details of 641 patients transplanted in CR1. Overall survival was significantly superior among patients transplanted in CR1, but no significant difference was observed between related and unrelated allo-SCTs (related vs unrelated: 65% vs 62% at 4 years, respectively; P = .19). Among patients transplanted in CR1, relapse rates were significantly higher in related allo-SCT compared with unrelated allo-SCT, and multivariate analysis demonstrated that less than 6 months from diagnosis to allo-SCT alone was associated with relapse. On the other hand, nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was significantly higher in unrelated allo-SCT compared with related allo-SCT, and multivariate analysis demonstrated that 10 months or longer from diagnosis to allo-SCT, human leukocyte antigen mismatch, and abnormal karyotype were associated with NRM. In conclusion, our study showed comparable survival rates but different relapse rates, NRM rates, and risk factors between related and unrelated allo-SCTs. After a close consideration of these factors, the outcome of allo-SCT for adult Ph(-) ALL in CR1 could be improved.

  1. Radiocesium concentrations in epigeic earthworms at various distances from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant 6 months after the 2011 accident.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Motohiro; Ito, Masamichi T; Kaneko, Shinji; Kiyono, Yoshiyuki; Ikeda, Shigeto; Makino, Shun'ichi

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the concentrations of radiocesium in epigeic earthworms, litter, and soil samples collected from forests in Fukushima Prefecture 6 months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011. Radiocesium concentrations in litter accumulated on the forest floor were higher than those in the soil (0-5 cm depth). The highest average (134+137)Cs concentrations in earthworms (approximately 19 Bq g(-1) of wet weight with gut contents and 108 Bq g(-1) of dry weight without gut contents) were recorded from a plot that experienced an air dose rate of 3.1 μSv h(-1), and earthworm concentrations were found to increase with litter and/or soil concentrations. Average (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentrations (with or without gut contents) were intermediate between accumulated litter and soil. Different species in the same ecological groups on the same plots had similar concentrations because of their use of the same habitats or their similar physiological characteristics. The contribution of global fallout (137)Cs to earthworms with gut contents was calculated to be very low, and most (137)Cs in earthworms was derived from the Fukushima accident. Transfer factors from accumulated litter to earthworms, based on their dry weights, ranged from 0.21 to 0.35, in agreement with previous field studies.

  2. Attack-Related Life Disruption and Child Psychopathology in New York City Public Schoolchildren 6-Months Post-9/11

    PubMed Central

    Comer, Jonathan S.; Fan, Bin; Duarte, Cristiane S.; Wu, Ping; Musa, George J.; Mandell, Donald J.; Albano, Anne Marie; Hoven, Christina W.

    2014-01-01

    In the aftermath of disasters, understanding relationships between disaster-related life disruption and children’s functioning is key to informing future postdisaster intervention efforts. The present study examined attack-related life disruptions and psychopathology in a representative sample (N = 8,236) of New York City public schoolchildren (Grades 4–12) surveyed 6 months after September 11, 2001. One in 5 youth reported a family member lost their job because of the attacks, and 1 in 3 reported their parents restricted their postattack travel. These forms of disruption were, in turn, associated with elevated rates of probable posttraumatic stress disorder and other anxiety disorders (and major depressive disorder in the case of restricted travel). Results indicate that adverse disaster-related experiences extend beyond traumatic exposure and include the prolonged ripple of postdisaster life disruption and economic hardship. Future postdisaster efforts must, in addition to ensuring the availability of mental health services for proximally exposed youth, maintain a focus on youth burdened by disaster-related life disruption. PMID:20589558

  3. Age specific survival rates of Steller sea lions at rookeries with divergent population trends in the Russian Far East.

    PubMed

    Altukhov, Alexey V; Andrews, Russel D; Calkins, Donald G; Gelatt, Thomas S; Gurarie, Eliezer D; Loughlin, Thomas R; Mamaev, Evgeny G; Nikulin, Victor S; Permyakov, Peter A; Ryazanov, Sergey D; Vertyankin, Vladimir V; Burkanov, Vladimir N

    2015-01-01

    After a dramatic population decline, Steller sea lions have begun to recover throughout most of their range. However, Steller sea lions in the Western Aleutians and Commander Islands are continuing to decline. Comparing survival rates between regions with different population trends may provide insights into the factors driving the dynamics, but published data on vital rates have been extremely scarce, especially in regions where the populations are still declining. Fortunately, an unprecedented dataset of marked Steller sea lions at rookeries in the Russian Far East is available, allowing us to determine age and sex specific survival in sea lions up to 22 years old. We focused on survival rates in three areas in the Russian range with differing population trends: the Commander Islands (Medny Island rookery), Eastern Kamchatka (Kozlov Cape rookery) and the Kuril Islands (four rookeries). Survival rates differed between these three regions, though not necessarily as predicted by population trends. Pup survival was higher where the populations were declining (Medny Island) or not recovering (Kozlov Cape) than in all Kuril Island rookeries. The lowest adult (> 3 years old) female survival was found on Medny Island and this may be responsible for the continued population decline there. However, the highest adult survival was found at Kozlov Cape, not in the Kuril Islands where the population is increasing, so we suggest that differences in birth rates might be an important driver of these divergent population trends. High pup survival on the Commander Islands and Kamchatka Coast may be a consequence of less frequent (e.g. biennial) reproduction there, which may permit females that skip birth years to invest more in their offspring, leading to higher pup survival, but this hypothesis awaits measurement of birth rates in these areas.

  4. Age Specific Survival Rates of Steller Sea Lions at Rookeries with Divergent Population Trends in the Russian Far East

    PubMed Central

    Altukhov, Alexey V.; Andrews, Russel D.; Calkins, Donald G.; Gelatt, Thomas S.; Gurarie, Eliezer D.; Loughlin, Thomas R.; Mamaev, Evgeny G.; Nikulin, Victor S.; Permyakov, Peter A.; Ryazanov, Sergey D.; Vertyankin, Vladimir V.; Burkanov, Vladimir N.

    2015-01-01

    After a dramatic population decline, Steller sea lions have begun to recover throughout most of their range. However, Steller sea lions in the Western Aleutians and Commander Islands are continuing to decline. Comparing survival rates between regions with different population trends may provide insights into the factors driving the dynamics, but published data on vital rates have been extremely scarce, especially in regions where the populations are still declining. Fortunately, an unprecedented dataset of marked Steller sea lions at rookeries in the Russian Far East is available, allowing us to determine age and sex specific survival in sea lions up to 22 years old. We focused on survival rates in three areas in the Russian range with differing population trends: the Commander Islands (Medny Island rookery), Eastern Kamchatka (Kozlov Cape rookery) and the Kuril Islands (four rookeries). Survival rates differed between these three regions, though not necessarily as predicted by population trends. Pup survival was higher where the populations were declining (Medny Island) or not recovering (Kozlov Cape) than in all Kuril Island rookeries. The lowest adult (> 3 years old) female survival was found on Medny Island and this may be responsible for the continued population decline there. However, the highest adult survival was found at Kozlov Cape, not in the Kuril Islands where the population is increasing, so we suggest that differences in birth rates might be an important driver of these divergent population trends. High pup survival on the Commander Islands and Kamchatka Coast may be a consequence of less frequent (e.g. biennial) reproduction there, which may permit females that skip birth years to invest more in their offspring, leading to higher pup survival, but this hypothesis awaits measurement of birth rates in these areas. PMID:26016772

  5. Size-sex variation in survival rates and abundance of pig frogs, Rana grylio, in northern Florida wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, K.V.; Nichols, J.D.; Percival, H.F.; Hines, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    During 1991-1993, we conducted capture-recapture studies on pig frogs, Rana grylio, in seven study locations in northcentral Florida. Resulting data were used to test hypotheses about variation in survival probability over different size-sex classes of pig frogs. We developed multistate capture-recapture models for the resulting data and used them to estimate survival rates and frog abundance. Tests provided strong evidence of survival differences among size-sex classes, with adult females showing the highest survival probabilities. Adult males and juvenile frogs had lower survival rates that were similar to each other. Adult females were more abundant than adult males in most locations at most sampling occasions. We recommended probabilistic capture-recapture models in general, and multistate models in particular, for robust estimation of demographic parameters in amphibian populations.

  6. Assessment of survival rates and reproductive success of captive bred milky stork released at Kuala Gula Bird Sanctuary, Perak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faiq, H.; Safie, M. Y.; Shukor, M. N.

    2016-11-01

    A release programme of captive bred Milky Storks was initiated to increase population size in the wild. Population size depends on the survival rate and breeding success of individuals in the population. Among factors that affect survival rate and breeding success are population age class and sex ratio. The main objective of this study was to estimate the survival rate of Mycteria cinerea that has been released in Kuala Gula Bird Sanctuary since 2007. The estimation of the survival rate was done across gender and age class. This study was conducted in 2012 at Kuala Gula Bird Sanctuary. The presence of M. cinerea individuals were recorded at the sanctuary and identified to background information, such as date of birth, gender and date of release. Females of M. cinerea were estimated to have a higher survival rate (30.0%) than male (16.7%). Across gender, each individual was assigned into 4 different age classes, namely less than 1 year, between 1 and 2 years, between 2 and 3 years, and more than 3 years. The survival rate of individuals less than 1 year was about 50%, between 1 and 2 years was 25%, between 2 and 3 years was 9.1%, and more than 3 years was 0%. This study was intended to facilitate future release programmeme on which gender and age class to emphasize.

  7. Capture-recapture estimation of prebreeding survival rate for birds exhibiting delayed maturation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Spendelow, J.A.; Hines, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    Many species of seabirds exhibit delayed maturity and do not return to the natal colony to breed for several years after fledging. Capture-recapture studies are frequently conducted at such breeding colonies and often include marking of young birds. However, because of the absence of these birds from the natal colony during the first few years after banding, the data do not fit neatly into existing capture-recapture models. Here we present a method for estimating prebreeding survival rate from capture-recapture studies on species exhibiting such patterns of delayed maturation. We illustrate the method using data from a capture-recapture study of Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii ) on Falkner Island, Connecticut. The method appears to work well and emphasizes the potential to tailor capture-recapture models to specific field situations.

  8. To Compare the Microleakage Among Experimental Adhesives Containing Nanoclay Fillers after the Storages of 24 Hours and 6 Months

    PubMed Central

    Mousavinasab, Seyed Mostafa; Atai, Mohammad; Alavi, Bagher

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the microleakage among experimental adhesives containing nanoclay fillers after the storages of 24 hours and 6 months. Materials and Methods: Class V cavities were prepared on extracted human molars with the occlusal margins located in enamel and the cervical margins in cementum. Phosphoric acid was applied to the enamel and dentin margins.Subsequently, the cavities were treated using four groups of experimental adhesive systems and restored with a resin composite. Adper Single Bond® was used as control group. After 24- hour and 6- month storages, the samples were subjected to thermocycling shocks and then immersed in silver nitrate as well as developer solution and finally evaluated for leakage. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Based on Kruskal –Wallis test, significant differences were found between groups regarding microleakage. The Mann- Whitney test showed that Leakage was significantly lower in Adper Single Bond® compared to the other groups in dentinal margins after 24 hours and 6 months and in enamel margins after 6 months. The Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test showed that the enamel leakage in experimental adhesives was significantly lower than dentinal leakage after 24 hours as well as enamel leakage in Adper Single Bond and adhesive with 0.5% PMAA-g-nanoclay was significantly lower than dentinal margins after storage period of 6 months. Conclusion: All the experimental adhesives were effective in reducing enamel leakage after 24 hours, but were not effective in reducing dentinal leakage after 24 hours as well as in enamel and dentinal leakage after a 6-month storage. No improvement was observed in the microleakage in dentin in both short (24 hrs) and long times (6 months). The high microleakage in the adhesives is probably attributed to the high concentration of HEMA in the recipe of the bonding agent. PMID:21566692

  9. High survival and homing rate of hand-reared wild-strain mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, F.B.; Kruse, A.D.

    1973-01-01

    In the summer of 1970, 648 (329 males and 319 females) hand-reared wild-strain mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were banded and released at the Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge, Edmunds, North Dakota. The females were also marked with numbered nasal saddles. Liberation was by the gentle release method, and no special effort was made to isolate or condition the ducklings prior to release. Ducklings were placed in an enclosed pond area at 25 to 45 days of age. Altogether, 627 (97 percent) ducklings reached flight age and dispersed gradually into the wild. All had left the release area by 25 November. First-year band recovery reports indicated that 68 (11 percent) of the birds were shot in 15 states. Their migration pattern was similar to that for immature wild mallards banded in North Dakota in 1970.Eighty-nine (33 percent) of a possible 270 marked females returned to Arrowwood Refuge during 1971. When consideration is given to assumed normal natural mortality and crippling loss, an estimated minimum of 43 percent of the surviving females returned to the release area. Returning birds not observed would raise this figure even higher. This potential homing rate is considerably higher than rates reported for other studies using various strains of mallards. Numerous observations of nests and broods indicated that breeding behavior and nesting success were similar to those of wild mallards in the area. The success of this release is attributed to the inherent capability of hand-reared, wild-strain mallards to revert to their wild behavior, and to the high survival to flight age and first fall migration afforded by the gentle release in a sanctuary area. Indications are that releases of this type under the described conditions can be used to increase the breeding population of mallards in a local area.

  10. Improving Functional Performance and Muscle Power 4-to-6 Months After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Souissi, Sabrine; Wong, Del P.; Dellal, Alexandre; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Ellouze, Zied; Chamari, Karim

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 8-week retraining programs, with either two or three training sessions per week, on measures of functional performance and muscular power in athletes with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Sixteen male athletes were randomly assigned to two groups after ACLR: a functional training group (FTG, n = 8) training 2 intense sessions per week (4hrs/week), and a control group (CG, n = 8) training 3 sessions per week with moderate intensity (6hrs/week). The two groups were assessed at four and six months post-ACLR and the effects of retraining were measured using the following assessments: the functional and the muscular power tests, and the agility T-test. After retraining, the FTG had improved more than the CG in the operated leg in the single leg hop test (+34.64% vs. +10.92%; large effect), the five jump test (+8.87% vs. +5.03%; medium effect), and single leg triple jump (+32.15% vs. +16.05%; medium effect). For the agility T-test, the FTG had larger improvements (+17.26% vs. +13.03%, medium effect) as compared to the CG. For the bilateral power tests, no significant training effects were shown for the two groups in the squat jump (SJ), the counter movement jump (CMJ) and the free arms CMJ (Arm CMJ). On the other hand, the unilateral CMJ test with the injured and the uninjured legs showed a significant increase for the FTG with respect to CG (p < 0.05). The present study introduces a new training modality in rehabilitation after ACLR that results in good recovery of the operated limb along with the contra-lateral leg. This may allow the athletes to reach good functional and strength performance with only two physical training sessions per week, better preparing them for a return to sport activity at 6 months post- ACLR and eventually sparing time for a possible progressive introduction of the sport specific technical training. Key points Functional training (plyometrics, neuromuscular

  11. Chloroquine improves survival and hematopoietic recovery following lethal low dose- rate radiation

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Yiting; Hedayati, Mohammad; Merchant, Akil A.; Zhang, Yonggang; Yu, Hsiang-Hsuan M; Kastan, Michael B.; Matsui, William; DeWeese, Theodore L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We have previously shown that the anti-malarial agent chloroquine can abrogate the lethal cellular effects of low dose-rate (LDR) radiation in vitro, most likely by activating the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein. Here, we demonstrate that chloroquine treatment also protects against lethal doses of LDR radiation in vivo. Methods and Materials C57BL/6 mice were irradiated with total of 12.8 Gy delivered at 9.4 cGy/hr. ATM null mice from the same background were used to determine the influence of ATM. Chloroquine was administered by two intraperitoneal injections of 59.4 μg per 17 g of body weight, 24 hrs and 4 hrs before irradiation. Bone marrow cells isolated from tibia, fibula and vertebral bones were transplanted into lethally irradiated CD45 congenic recipient mice by retro orbital injection. Chimerism was assessed by flow cytometry. In vitro methyl cellulose colony forming assay of whole bone marrow cells as well as FACS analysis of lineage depleted cells was used to assess the effect of chloroquine on progenitor cells. Results Mice pretreated with chloroquine prior to radiation exhibited a significantly higher survival rate compared to mice treated with radiation alone (80 vs.31 percent, p=0.0026). Chloroquine administration prior to radiation did not impact the survival of ATM null mice (p=0.86). Chloroquine also had a significant effect on the early engraftment of bone marrow cells from the irradiated donor mice 6 weeks after the transplantation (4.2 percent vs. 0.4 percent, p=0.015). Conclusion Chloroquine administration prior to radiation had a significant effect on the survival of normal but not ATM null mice strongly suggesting that the in vivo effect like the in vitro effect is also ATM dependent. Chloroquine improved the early engraftment of bone marrow cells from LDR irradiated mice, presumably by protecting the progenitor cells from radiation injury. Chloroquine thus could serve as a very useful drug for protection against the

  12. Chloroquine Improves Survival and Hematopoietic Recovery After Lethal Low-Dose-Rate Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lim Yiting; Hedayati, Mohammad; Merchant, Akil A.; Zhang Yonggang; Yu, Hsiang-Hsuan M.; Kastan, Michael B.; Matsui, William; DeWeese, Theodore L.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: We have previously shown that the antimalarial agent chloroquine can abrogate the lethal cellular effects of low-dose-rate (LDR) radiation in vitro, most likely by activating the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein. Here, we demonstrate that chloroquine treatment also protects against lethal doses of LDR radiation in vivo. Methods and Materials: C57BL/6 mice were irradiated with a total of 12.8 Gy delivered at 9.4 cGy/hour. ATM null mice from the same background were used to determine the influence of ATM. Chloroquine was administered by two intraperitoneal injections of 59.4 {mu}g per 17 g of body weight, 24 hours and 4 hours before irradiation. Bone marrow cells isolated from tibia, fibula, and vertebral bones were transplanted into lethally irradiated CD45 congenic recipient mice by retroorbital injection. Chimerism was assessed by flow cytometry. In vitro methylcellulose colony-forming assay of whole bone marrow cells and fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis of lineage depleted cells were used to assess the effect of chloroquine on progenitor cells. Results: Mice pretreated with chloroquine before radiation exhibited a significantly higher survival rate than did mice treated with radiation alone (80% vs. 31%, p = 0.0026). Chloroquine administration before radiation did not affect the survival of ATM null mice (p = 0.86). Chloroquine also had a significant effect on the early engraftment of bone marrow cells from the irradiated donor mice 6 weeks after transplantation (4.2% vs. 0.4%, p = 0.015). Conclusion: Chloroquine administration before radiation had a significant effect on the survival of normal but not ATM null mice, strongly suggesting that the in vivo effect, like the in vitro effect, is also ATM dependent. Chloroquine improved the early engraftment of bone marrow cells from LDR-irradiated mice, presumably by protecting the progenitor cells from radiation injury. Chloroquine thus could serve as a very useful drug for protection

  13. Radiation With or Without 6 Months of Androgen Suppression Therapy in Intermediate- and High-Risk Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer: A Postrandomization Analysis by Risk Group

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Paul L.; Chen, Ming-Hui; Beard, Clair J.; Suh, W. Warren

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: Six months of androgen suppression therapy (AST) plus radiation (RT) prolongs survival vs. RT alone in men with unfavorable risk localized prostate cancer (PCa), but it is unknown if this benefit applies to all risk subgroups and, in particular, the intermediate-risk group. Methods and Materials: Among 206 men with stages T1b to T2b PCa and either a prostate-specific antigen level of >10 or a Gleason score of {>=}7 or MRI evidence of T3 disease randomized to receive 70 Gy of RT with or without 6 months of AST, Cox multivariable analysis was used to assess the impact of AST on overall survival in intermediate- and high-risk localized PCa, adjusting for age, Adult Comorbidity Evaluation 27 comorbidity score, interaction between comorbidity and treatment, and known prognostic factors. Survival estimates were compared using a two-sided log-rank test. Results: After an 8.2-year median follow-up, 74 men died. Compared to treatment with AST plus RT, treatment with RT alone was associated with an increased risk of death in intermediate-risk (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.0 [95% confidence interval, 1.3-7.2]; p = 0.01) and high-risk PCa (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.3 [95% confidence interval, 0.94-11.3]; p = 0.06). The survival benefit of adding AST was restricted to men with no or mild comorbidity in both the intermediate-risk (90.9% vs. 85.8% survival, respectively, at 7 years for AST plus RT vs. RT alone; p = 0.009) and high-risk (88.9% vs. 51.2% survival, respectively, at 7 years for AST plus RT vs. RT alone; p = 0.007) subgroups. Conclusions: In men with localized PCa who have no or mild comorbidity, adding 6 months of AST to RT was associated with improved survival for those with both intermediate-risk and high-risk disease, but in men with moderate to severe comorbidity, no benefit was observed in either risk group.

  14. Dynamic relation between working memory capacity and speech recognition in noise during the first 6 months of hearing aid use.

    PubMed

    Ng, Elaine H N; Classon, Elisabet; Larsby, Birgitta; Arlinger, Stig; Lunner, Thomas; Rudner, Mary; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2014-11-23

    The present study aimed to investigate the changing relationship between aided speech recognition and cognitive function during the first 6 months of hearing aid use. Twenty-seven first-time hearing aid users with symmetrical mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss were recruited. Aided speech recognition thresholds in noise were obtained in the hearing aid fitting session as well as at 3 and 6 months postfitting. Cognitive abilities were assessed using a reading span test, which is a measure of working memory capacity, and a cognitive test battery. Results showed a significant correlation between reading span and speech reception threshold during the hearing aid fitting session. This relation was significantly weakened over the first 6 months of hearing aid use. Multiple regression analysis showed that reading span was the main predictor of speech recognition thresholds in noise when hearing aids were first fitted, but that the pure-tone average hearing threshold was the main predictor 6 months later. One way of explaining the results is that working memory capacity plays a more important role in speech recognition in noise initially rather than after 6 months of use. We propose that new hearing aid users engage working memory capacity to recognize unfamiliar processed speech signals because the phonological form of these signals cannot be automatically matched to phonological representations in long-term memory. As familiarization proceeds, the mismatch effect is alleviated, and the engagement of working memory capacity is reduced.

  15. 38 CFR 3.10 - Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (1) Increase for children. If the surviving spouse has one or more children under the age of 18 of... indemnity compensation paid monthly to a surviving spouse with one or more children below the age of 18... after the month in which all children of the surviving spouse have attained the age of 18. (f)...

  16. 38 CFR 3.10 - Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (1) Increase for children. If the surviving spouse has one or more children under the age of 18 of... indemnity compensation paid monthly to a surviving spouse with one or more children below the age of 18... after the month in which all children of the surviving spouse have attained the age of 18. (f)...

  17. 38 CFR 3.24 - Improved pension rates-Surviving children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Surviving children. 3.24 Section 3.24 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... rates—Surviving children. (a) General. The provisions of this section apply to children of a deceased.... Children in custody of a surviving spouse who has basic eligibility to receive improved pension do not...

  18. 38 CFR 3.24 - Improved pension rates-Surviving children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Surviving children. 3.24 Section 3.24 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... rates—Surviving children. (a) General. The provisions of this section apply to children of a deceased.... Children in custody of a surviving spouse who has basic eligibility to receive improved pension do not...

  19. 38 CFR 3.24 - Improved pension rates-Surviving children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Surviving children. 3.24 Section 3.24 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... rates—Surviving children. (a) General. The provisions of this section apply to children of a deceased.... Children in custody of a surviving spouse who has basic eligibility to receive improved pension do not...

  20. Estimating the effect of hunting on annual survival rates of adult mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnham, Kenneth P.; White, Gary C.; Anderson, David R.

    1984-01-01

    Management programs for waterfowl populations include rationale for, and establishment of, hunting regulations. These programs rest partially on the results of scientific studies on the effect of harvest rates on annual survival rates. The evidence of this relationship has changed markedly since the mid-1970's, and it is not widely believed that a largely compensatory relationship exists between hunting mortality and other forms of mortality for the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). This paper employs a general probabilistic model formulated to include a parameter (b) representing a continuum between complete compensation (b=0) and total additivity (b=1). Maximum likelihood estimates of this parameter were computer for 47 data sets of adult mallards banded throughout North American before hunting commenced. We found additional evidence of a highly compensatory mortality process for adult male mallards, while the evidence for adults female mallards remains inconclusive. Effective harvest, land acquisition, and land management programs depend upon additional information on the chronology and mechanisms underlying a compensatory mortality process.

  1. Effects of pond salinization on survival rate of amphibian hosts infected with the chytrid fungus.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Michelle Pirrie; Storrie, Lachlan James; Pollard, Carla Jean; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael Joseph

    2015-04-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been implicated in the decline and extinction of amphibian populations worldwide, but management options are limited. Recent studies show that sodium chloride (NaCl) has fungicidal properties that reduce the mortality rates of infected hosts in captivity. We investigated whether similar results can be obtained by adding salt to water bodies in the field. We increased the salinity of 8 water bodies to 2 or 4 ppt and left an additional 4 water bodies with close to 0 ppt and monitored salinity for 18 months. Captively bred tadpoles of green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea) were released into each water body and their development, levels of B. dendrobatidis infection, and survival were monitored at 1, 4, and 12 months. The effect of salt on the abundance of nontarget organisms was also investigated in before and after style analyses. Salinities remained constant over time with little intervention. Hosts in water bodies with 4 ppt salt had a significantly lower prevalence of chytrid infection and higher survival, following metamorphosis, than hosts in 0 ppt salt. Tadpoles in the 4 ppt group were smaller in length after 1 month in the release site than those in the 0 and 2 ppt groups, but after metamorphosis body size in all water bodies was similar . In water bodies with 4 ppt salt, the abundance of dwarf tree frogs (Litoria fallax), dragonfly larvae, and damselfly larvae was lower than in water bodies with 0 and 2 ppt salt, which could have knock-on effects for community structure. Based on our results, salt may be an effective field-based B. dendrobatidis mitigation tool for lentic amphibians that could contribute to the conservation of numerous susceptible species. However, as in all conservation efforts, these benefits need to be weighed against negative effects on both target and nontarget organisms.

  2. Abundance and Survival Rates of the Hawai’i Island Associated Spinner Dolphin (Stenella longirostris) Stock

    PubMed Central

    Tyne, Julian A.; Pollock, Kenneth H.; Johnston, David W.; Bejder, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Reliable population estimates are critical to implement effective management strategies. The Hawai’i Island spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) is a genetically distinct stock that displays a rigid daily behavioural pattern, foraging offshore at night and resting in sheltered bays during the day. Consequently, they are exposed to frequent human interactions and disturbance. We estimated population parameters of this spinner dolphin stock using a systematic sampling design and capture–recapture models. From September 2010 to August 2011, boat-based photo-identification surveys were undertaken monthly over 132 days (>1,150 hours of effort; >100,000 dorsal fin images) in the four main resting bays along the Kona Coast, Hawai’i Island. All images were graded according to photographic quality and distinctiveness. Over 32,000 images were included in the analyses, from which 607 distinctive individuals were catalogued and 214 were highly distinctive. Two independent estimates of the proportion of highly distinctive individuals in the population were not significantly different (p = 0.68). Individual heterogeneity and time variation in capture probabilities were strongly indicated for these data; therefore capture–recapture models allowing for these variations were used. The estimated annual apparent survival rate (product of true survival and permanent emigration) was 0.97 SE±0.05. Open and closed capture–recapture models for the highly distinctive individuals photographed at least once each month produced similar abundance estimates. An estimate of 221±4.3 SE highly distinctive spinner dolphins, resulted in a total abundance of 631±60.1 SE, (95% CI 524–761) spinner dolphins in the Hawai’i Island stock, which is lower than previous estimates. When this abundance estimate is considered alongside the rigid daily behavioural pattern, genetic distinctiveness, and the ease of human access to spinner dolphins in their preferred resting habitats, this

  3. Abundance and survival rates of the Hawai'i Island associated spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) stock.

    PubMed

    Tyne, Julian A; Pollock, Kenneth H; Johnston, David W; Bejder, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Reliable population estimates are critical to implement effective management strategies. The Hawai'i Island spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) is a genetically distinct stock that displays a rigid daily behavioural pattern, foraging offshore at night and resting in sheltered bays during the day. Consequently, they are exposed to frequent human interactions and disturbance. We estimated population parameters of this spinner dolphin stock using a systematic sampling design and capture-recapture models. From September 2010 to August 2011, boat-based photo-identification surveys were undertaken monthly over 132 days (>1,150 hours of effort; >100,000 dorsal fin images) in the four main resting bays along the Kona Coast, Hawai'i Island. All images were graded according to photographic quality and distinctiveness. Over 32,000 images were included in the analyses, from which 607 distinctive individuals were catalogued and 214 were highly distinctive. Two independent estimates of the proportion of highly distinctive individuals in the population were not significantly different (p = 0.68). Individual heterogeneity and time variation in capture probabilities were strongly indicated for these data; therefore capture-recapture models allowing for these variations were used. The estimated annual apparent survival rate (product of true survival and permanent emigration) was 0.97 SE ± 0.05. Open and closed capture-recapture models for the highly distinctive individuals photographed at least once each month produced similar abundance estimates. An estimate of 221 ± 4.3 SE highly distinctive spinner dolphins, resulted in a total abundance of 631 ± 60.1 SE, (95% CI 524-761) spinner dolphins in the Hawai'i Island stock, which is lower than previous estimates. When this abundance estimate is considered alongside the rigid daily behavioural pattern, genetic distinctiveness, and the ease of human access to spinner dolphins in their preferred resting habitats, this Hawai'i Island

  4. Daily nest survival rates of Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus): assessing local- and landscape-scale drivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Thomas R.; Cameron Aldridge,; Joanne Saher,; Theresa Childers,

    2015-01-01

    The Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus) is a species of conservation concern and is a candidate for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act because of substantial declines in populations from historic levels. It is thought that loss, fragmentation, and deterioration of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitat have contributed to the decline and isolation of this species into seven geographically distinct subpopulations. Nest survival is known to be a primary driver of demography of Greater Sage-Grouse (C. urophasianus), but no unbiased estimates of daily nest survival rates (hereafter nest survival) exist for Gunnison Sage-Grouse or published studies identifying factors that influence nest survival. We estimated nest survival of Gunnison Sage-Grouse for the western portion of Colorado's Gunnison Basin subpopulation, and assessed the effects and relative importance of local- and landscape-scale habitat characteristics on nest survival. Our top performing model was one that allowed variation in nest survival among areas, suggesting a larger landscape-area effect. Overall nest success during a 38-day nesting period (egg-laying plus incubation) was 50% (daily survival rate; SE  =  0.982 [0.003]), which is higher than previous estimates for Gunnison Sage-Grouse and generally higher than published for the closely related Greater Sage-Grouse. We did not find strong evidence that local-scale habitat variables were better predictors of nest survival than landscape-scale predictors, nor did we find strong evidence that any of the habitat variables we measured were good predictors of nest survival. Nest success of Gunnison Sage-Grouse in the western portion of the Gunnison Basin was higher than previously believed.

  5. Safety and efficacy of a 6-month home-based exercise program in patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Bankolé, Landry-Cyrille; Millet, Guillaume Y.; Temesi, John; Bachasson, Damien; Ravelojaona, Marion; Wuyam, Bernard; Verges, Samuel; Ponsot, Elodie; Antoine, Jean-Christophe; Kadi, Fawzi; Féasson, Léonard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Previous randomized controlled trials investigating exercise training programs in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) patients are scarce and of short duration only. This study assessed the safety and efficacy of a 6-month home-based exercise training program on fitness, muscle, and motor function in FSHD patients. Methods: Sixteen FSHD patients were randomly assigned to training (TG) and control (CG) groups (both n = 8) in a home-based exercise intervention. Training consisted of cycling 3 times weekly for 35 minutes (combination of strength, high-intensity interval, and low-intensity aerobic) at home for 24 weeks. Patients in CG also performed an identical training program (CTG) after 24 weeks. The primary outcome was change in peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) measured every 6 weeks. The principal secondary outcomes were maximal quadriceps strength (MVC) and local quadriceps endurance every 12 weeks. Other outcome measures included maximal aerobic power (MAP) and experienced fatigue every 6 weeks, 6-minute walking distance every 12 weeks, and muscle characteristics from vastus lateralis biopsies taken pre- and postintervention. Results: The compliance rate was 91% in TG. Significant improvements with training were observed in the VO2 peak (+19%, P = 0.002) and MAP by week 6 and further to week 24. Muscle endurance, MVC, and 6-minute walking distance increased and experienced fatigue decreased. Muscle fiber cross-sectional area and citrate synthase activity increased by 34% (P = 0.008) and 46% (P = 0.003), respectively. Dystrophic pathophysiologic patterns were not exacerbated. Similar improvements were experienced by TG and CTG. Conclusions: A combined strength and interval cycling exercise-training program compatible with patients’ daily professional and social activities leads to significant functional benefits without compromising muscle tissue. PMID:27495097

  6. Changes in the management and survival rates of patients with oral cancer: a 30-year single-institution study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in the management and 5-year survival rates of patients with oral cancer in our department over a 30-year period. Materials and Methods We investigated the patient distributions, treatment methods, method of neck dissection according to cancer stage, and 5-year survival rates for 700 oral cancer patients over the periods of 1982–1996 (256 patients), 1999–2006 (248 patients), and 2007–2011 (196 patients). Results Stage IV patients were the largest group in all of the time periods evaluated. Although surgery and radiotherapy were the most common methods in all periods (over 50%), the prevalence of patients who underwent concomitant chemoradiotherapy increased from 7.0% to 16.2%. The use of radical neck dissection decreased from 43.0% to 5.3%, while conservative surgical methods increased from 24.1% to 76.3%. Lastly, the overall 5-year survival rate increased from 31.6% to 63.5% during the study period. Conclusion Although the 5-year survival rate reached the same level as that of other developed countries during the course of our study, most patients continue to come to the hospital with stage IV disease. In order to increase the 5-year survival rate of oral carcinoma, it may be necessary to improve public education and social efforts relevant to early diagnosis. PMID:26904492

  7. Survival Rates of Juvenile Salmonids Passing Through the Bonneville Dam and Spillway in 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Faber, Derrek M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Johnson, Gary E.; Hughes, James S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Wilberding, Matthew C.; Durham, Robin E.; Townsend, R. L.; Skalski, J. R.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Kim, Jina; Fischer, Eric S.; Meyer, Matthew M.; McComas, Roy L.; Everett, Jason

    2009-12-28

    This report describes a 2008 acoustic telemetry survival study conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The study estimated the survival of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead passing Bonneville Dam (BON) and its spillway. Of particular interest was the relative survival of smolts detected passing through end spill bays 1-3 and 16-18, which had deep flow deflectors immediately downstream of spill gates, versus survival of smolts passing middle spill bays 4-15, which had shallow flow deflectors.

  8. Correlation between vestibular and autonomous function after 6 months of spaceflight: Data of the SPIN and GAZE-SPIN experiments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuyts, Floris; Clement, Gilles; Naumov, Ivan; Kornilova, Ludmila; Glukhikh, Dmitriy; Hallgren, Emma; MacDougall, Hamish; Migeotte, Pierre-Francois; Delière, Quentin; Weerts, Aurelie; Moore, Steven; Diedrich, Andre

    In 13 cosmonauts, the vestibulo-autonomic reflex was investigated before and after 6 months duration spaceflight. Cosmonauts were rotated on the mini-centrifuge VVIS, which is installed in Star City. Initially, this mini-centrifuge flew on board of the Neurolab mission (STS-90), and served to generate intermittent artificial gravity during that mission, with apparent very positive effects on the preservation of the orthostatic tolerance upon return to earth in the 4 crew members that were subjected to the rotations in space. The current experiments SPIN and GAZE-SPIN are control experiments to test the hypothesis that intermittent artificial gravity in space can serve as a counter measure against several deleterious effects of microgravity. Additionally, the effect of microgravity on the gaze holding system is studied as well. Cosmonauts from a long duration stay in the International Space Station were tested on the VVIS (1 g centripetal interaural acceleration; consecutive right-ear-out anti-clockwise and left-ear-out clockwise measurement) on 5 different days. Two measurements were scheduled about one month and a half prior to launch and the remaining three immediately after their return from space (typically on R+2, R+4, R+9; R = return day from space). The ocular counter roll (OCR) as a measure of otolith function was measured on before, during and after the rotation in the mini centrifuge, using infrared video goggles. The perception of verticality was monitored using an ultrasound system. Gaze holding was tested before, during and after rotation. After the centrifugation part, the crew was installed on a tilt table, and instrumented with several cardiovascular recording equipment (ECG, continuous blood pressure monitoring, respiratory monitoring), as well as with impedance measurement devices to investigate fluid redistribution throughout the operational tilt test. To measure heart rate variability parameters, imposed breathing periods were included in the

  9. Effect of Coating Method on the Survival Rate of L. plantarum for Chicken Feed

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Yoon; Jo, Yeon-Ji; Choi, Mi-Jung; Lee, Boo-Yong; Han, Jong-Kwon; Lim, Jae Kag

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to find the most suitable method and wall material for microencapsulation of the Lactobacillus plantarum to maintain cell viability in different environmental conditions. To improve the stability of L. plantarum, we developed an encapsulation system of L. plantarum, using water-in-oil emulsion system. For the encapsulation of L. plantarum, corn starch and glyceryl monostearate were selected to form gel beads. Then 10% (w/v) of starch was gelatinized by autoclaving to transit gel state, and cooled down at 60ºC and mixed with L. plantarum to encapsulate it. The encapsulated L. plantarum was tested for the tolerance of acidic conditions at different temperatures to investigate the encapsulation ability. The study indicated that the survival rate of the microencapsulated cells in starch matrix was significantly higher than that of free cells in low pH conditions with relatively higher temperature. The results showed that corn starch as a wall material and glycerol monostearate as a gelling agent in encapsulation could play a role in the viability of lactic acid bacteria in extreme conditions. Using the current study, it would be possible to formulate a new water-in-oil system as applied in the protection of L. plantarum from the gastric conditions for the encapsulation system used in chicken feed industry. PMID:26760943

  10. Effect of Coating Method on the Survival Rate of L. plantarum for Chicken Feed.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Yoon; Jo, Yeon-Ji; Choi, Mi-Jung; Lee, Boo-Yong; Han, Jong-Kwon; Lim, Jae Kag; Oh, Jae-Wook

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to find the most suitable method and wall material for microencapsulation of the Lactobacillus plantarum to maintain cell viability in different environmental conditions. To improve the stability of L. plantarum, we developed an encapsulation system of L. plantarum, using water-in-oil emulsion system. For the encapsulation of L. plantarum, corn starch and glyceryl monostearate were selected to form gel beads. Then 10% (w/v) of starch was gelatinized by autoclaving to transit gel state, and cooled down at 60ºC and mixed with L. plantarum to encapsulate it. The encapsulated L. plantarum was tested for the tolerance of acidic conditions at different temperatures to investigate the encapsulation ability. The study indicated that the survival rate of the microencapsulated cells in starch matrix was significantly higher than that of free cells in low pH conditions with relatively higher temperature. The results showed that corn starch as a wall material and glycerol monostearate as a gelling agent in encapsulation could play a role in the viability of lactic acid bacteria in extreme conditions. Using the current study, it would be possible to formulate a new water-in-oil system as applied in the protection of L. plantarum from the gastric conditions for the encapsulation system used in chicken feed industry.

  11. HUB city steps: a 6-month lifestyle intervention improves blood pressure among a primarily African American community

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of community-based participatory research (CBPR) efforts to address the disproportionate burden of hypertension among African Americans remains largely untested. The objective of this 6-month, non-controlled, pre- post-experimental intervention was to examine the effectiveness of ...

  12. Physical Exercise with Multicomponent Cognitive Intervention for Older Adults with Alzheimer's Disease: A 6-Month Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Ji; Han, Chang-Wan; Min, Kyoung-Youn; Cho, Chae-Yoon; Lee, Chae-Won; Ogawa, Yoshiko; Mori, Etsuro; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Aims This study aimed to investigate the effect of 6-month physical exercise with a multicomponent cognitive program (MCP) on the cognitive function of older adults with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods We included 33 participants with AD in a 6-month randomized controlled trial. The intervention group participated in physical exercise and received a MCP. The control group received only the MCP. Before and after the intervention, cognitive outcomes were assessed using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-cog), Mini-Mental State Examination, and the Clock Drawing Test. Physical performance was evaluated by exercise time, the number of pedal rotation, total load, grip strength, and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Results In all cognitive measures, there were no significant improvements between the two groups after 6 months in the baseline value-adjusted primary analysis. However, the ADAS-cog score was significantly lower between the two groups in secondary analysis adjusted for baseline value, age, sex, and education years. All physical outcomes were significantly higher in the intervention group except for total load compared with baseline measurements. Conclusion This study indicates that it is possible to improve cognitive function in older adults with moderate to severe AD through 6-month physical exercise with a multicomponent cognitive intervention. PMID:27403134

  13. Touching up Mental Rotation: Effects of Manual Experience on 6-Month-Old Infants' Mental Object Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Möhring, Wenke; Frick, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In this study, 6-month-olds' ability to mentally rotate objects was investigated using the violation-of-expectation paradigm. Forty infants watched an asymmetric object being moved straight down behind an occluder. When the occluder was lowered, it revealed the original object (possible) or its mirror image (impossible) in one of five…

  14. Relationship of cravings with weight loss and hunger: results from a 6 month worksite weight loss intervention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the association of food cravings with weight loss and eating behaviors in a 6 month worksite lifestyle weight loss program. This randomized controlled trial of the intervention versus a wait-listed control was conducted at 4 worksites, and 95 participants completed outcome assessments ...

  15. Cognitive-Behaviorally-Oriented Group Rehabilitation of Adults with ADHD: Results of a 6-Month Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salakari, Anita; Virta, Maarit; Gronroos, Nina; Chydenius, Esa; Partinen, Markku; Vataja, Risto; Kaski, Markus; Iivanainen, Matti

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Recently, novel psychological treatments for adult ADHD have been reported with promising results. However, studies about long-term treatment effects are scanty. The authors study effects of cognitive-behaviorally-oriented group rehabilitation during a 6-month follow-up. Method: Participating in the rehabilitation were 29 adults, of…

  16. Relation of prenatal diagnosis with one-year survival rate for infants with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Wright, Lydia K; Ehrlich, Alexandra; Stauffer, Nanci; Samai, Cyrus; Kogon, Brian; Oster, Matthew E

    2014-03-15

    Prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart defects (CHDs) is increasingly common, but it is still unclear whether it translates to improved postoperative outcomes. We performed a retrospective cohort study of all infants (aged <1 year) who underwent surgery for CHDs from 2006 to 2011 at a single institution. Primary outcomes were in-hospital and 1-year mortality rates. Secondary outcomes were readmission within 30 days of discharge, postoperative length of intensive care unit and hospital stay, unplanned reoperation, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use. We used chi-square analyses, Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, Kaplan-Meier survival curves, and adjusted Cox proportional hazards models to compare outcomes. Of the 1,642 patients with CHDs, 539 (33%) were diagnosed prenatally. Patients with prenatal diagnoses were of a younger age and less weight at the time of surgery, had greater Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery scores, and were more likely to be white, to have an identified syndrome, or to be born at term. Compared with those diagnosed postnatally, those diagnosed prenatally had a significantly higher unadjusted 1-year mortality rate (11% vs 5.5%, respectively, p = 0.03). Controlling for weight, surgical severity, race, age at surgery, prematurity, and the presence or absence of genetic syndrome, patients with prenatal diagnoses had significantly greater mortality at 1 year (adjusted hazard ratio 1.5, p = 0.03), as well as significantly longer intensive care unit and hospital stays. Infants with CHDs diagnosed prenatally had worse outcomes compared with those diagnosed postnatally. Prenatal diagnosis likely captures patients with more severe phenotypes within given surgical risk categories and even within diagnoses and thus may be an important prognostic factor when counseling families.

  17. Long-term analysis of survival, fertility, and population growth rate of black bears in North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brongo, L.L.; Mitchell, M.S.; Grand, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    We estimated survival, fertility, and realized and asymptotic population growth rates from 1981 to 2002 for a protected population of black bears (Ursus americanus) in the southern Appalachian Mountains. We used Akaike's information criterion to assess the time interval for averaging observations that was best for estimating vital rates for our study, given our yearly sample sizes. The temporal symmetry approach allowed us to directly assess population growth and to address all losses and gains to the population by using only capture data, offering an alternative to the logistically intensive collection of reproductive data. Models that averaged survival and fertility across 5- and 7-year time intervals were best supported by our data. Studies of black bear populations with annual sample sizes similar to ours should be of at least 5 years in duration to estimate vital rates reliably, and at least 10 years in duration to evaluate changes in population growth rate (??). We also hypothesized that survival would not track changes in ?? because ?? is influenced by both survival and fertility. The 5-year model supported our hypothesis, but the 7-year model did not. Where long-term dynamics of large, relatively stable bear populations are of interest, monitoring survival is likely to be sufficient for evaluating trends in ??. For rapidly changing, small populations, however, failure to incorporate fertility into assessments of ?? could be misleading. ?? 2005 American Society of Mammalogists.

  18. Early marine growth in relation to marine-stage survival rates for Alaska sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farley, Edward V.; Murphy, J.M.; Adkison, Milo D.; Eisner, L.B.; Helle, J.H.; Moss, J.H.; Nielsen, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that larger juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Bristol Bay, Alaska, have higher marine-stage survival rates than smaller juvenile salmon. We used scales from returning adults (33 years of data) and trawl samples of juveniles (n = 3572) collected along the eastern Bering Sea shelf during August through September 2000-02. The size of juvenile sockeye salmon mirrored indices of their marine-stage survival rate (e.g., smaller fish had lower indices of marine-stage survival rate). However, there was no relationship between the size of sockeye salmon after their first year at sea, as estimated from archived scales, and brood-year survival size was relatively uniform over the time series, possibly indicating size-selective mortality on smaller individuals during their marine residence. Variation in size, relative abundance, and marine-stage survival rate of juvenile sockeye salmon is likely related to ocean conditions affecting their early marine migratory pathways along the eastern Bering Sea shelf.

  19. Behavioral Hypervolumes of Predator Groups and Predator-Predator Interactions Shape Prey Survival Rates and Selection on Prey Behavior.

    PubMed

    Pruitt, Jonathan N; Howell, Kimberly A; Gladney, Shaniqua J; Yang, Yusan; Lichtenstein, James L L; Spicer, Michelle Elise; Echeverri, Sebastian A; Pinter-Wollman, Noa

    2017-03-01

    Predator-prey interactions often vary on the basis of the traits of the individual predators and prey involved. Here we examine whether the multidimensional behavioral diversity of predator groups shapes prey mortality rates and selection on prey behavior. We ran individual sea stars (Pisaster ochraceus) through three behavioral assays to characterize individuals' behavioral phenotype along three axes. We then created groups that varied in the volume of behavioral space that they occupied. We further manipulated the ability of predators to interact with one another physically via the addition of barriers. Prey snails (Chlorostome funebralis) were also run through an assay to evaluate their predator avoidance behavior before their use in mesocosm experiments. We then subjected pools of prey to predator groups and recorded the number of prey consumed and their behavioral phenotypes. We found that predator-predator interactions changed survival selection on prey traits: when predators were prevented from interacting, more fearful snails had higher survival rates, whereas prey fearfulness had no effect on survival when predators were free to interact. We also found that groups of predators that occupied a larger volume in behavioral trait space consumed 35% more prey snails than homogeneous predator groups. Finally, we found that behavioral hypervolumes were better predictors of prey survival rates than single behavioral traits or other multivariate statistics (i.e., principal component analysis). Taken together, predator-predator interactions and multidimensional behavioral diversity determine prey survival rates and selection on prey traits in this system.

  20. Depression and Anxiety Following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Are Associated With Higher Six-Month Unemployment Rates.

    PubMed

    Al Yassin, Altaib; Ouyang, Bichun; Temes, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Although survival has dramatically improved following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), the reasons for persistent high rates of unemployment in this population remain unknown. Retrospective review for medical records of patients with aSAH admitted to Rush University Medical Center was undertaken. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to test the association of either depression or anxiety with the 6-month employment status. Among the 29 patients who developed depression or anxiety, 86.2% were unemployed at 6 months following their aSAH. After controlling for confounding factors, anxiety and depression were significantly associated with higher 6-month unemployment rates (odds ratio [OR]=0.08, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.02-0.3, p=0.0002). Depression and anxiety are common following aSAH and are associated with increased unemployment rates 6 months post aSAH.

  1. Comparative Survival [Rate] Study (CSS); Design and Analysis, 2002 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bouwes, Nick; Petrosky, Charlie; Schaller, Howard

    2002-04-01

    Fisheries agencies and tribes have developed a multi-year program, the Comparative Survival Study (CSS), to obtain information to be used in monitoring and evaluating the impacts of the mitigation measures and actions (e.g., flow augmentation, spill, and transportation) under NMFS' Biological Opinion to recover listed stocks. Through 2001, the CSS has utilized PIT tagged yearling hatchery chinook that were tagged specifically for the CSS and PIT tagged wild chinook from all available marking efforts in the Snake River basin above Lower Granite Dam. We selected hatchery programs that would allow the opportunity to mark sufficient numbers of smolts to give enough returning adult fish that statistically rigorous smolt-to-adult survival rates could be computed. Since the CSS inception, hatchery fish that have consistently been used include spring/summer chinook tagged at McCall, Rapid River, Dworshak, and Lookingglass (Imnaha stock) hatcheries. The CSS has also included a group of spring chinook from Carson Hatchery in the lower Columbia River for planned upstream/downstream comparison. The wild stocks included chinook PIT tagged as parr (summer/fall tagging season) and smolts (spring tagging season) in each major tributary above Lower Granite Dam. Future years will see the CSS add wild and hatchery steelhead in the Snake River basin, hatchery steelhead in the Mid-Columbia River basin, hatchery yearling chinook in the Mid-Columbia River basin, and wild chinook in John Day River in the lower Columbia River. Each PIT (passive integrated transponder) tag has a unique code. The tags are glass encapsulated, 11 mm in length, and implanted into the fish's underbelly by a syringe. All attempts are made to make the PIT tagged fish as representative of their untagged cohorts as possible. At trapping sites, sampling and tagging occur over the entire migration season. At hatcheries, fish to tag are obtained across as wide a set of ponds and raceways as possible to allow effective

  2. FDG-PET in Semantic Dementia after 6 Months of Memantine: an Open-Label Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Tiffany W.; Fam, David; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel; Verhoeff, Nicolaas P. G.; Tang-Wai, David F.; Masellis, Mario; Black, Sandra E.; Wilson, Alan A.; Houle, Sylvain; Pollock, Bruce G.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To follow up on the increases we reported in normalized metabolic activity in salience network hubs from a 2-month open label study of memantine in frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Methods We repeated fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) after 6 months of drug use and subjected the data to an SPM analysis to reveal clusters of significant change from baseline. We also sought correlations between changes in behavioral disturbances on the Frontal Behavioral Inventory (FBI). Results Recruitment of one progressive nonfluent aphasia and one behavioral variant FTD precluded statistical analysis for any FTD subtype other than semantic dementia. The baseline-to-6-month interval showed increased normalized metabolic activity in the left orbitofrontal cortex (p<0.002) for 5 participants with semantic dementia. The 2–6 month interval revealed a late increase in normalized metabolic activity in the left insula (p<0.013), right insula (p<0.009), and left anterior cingulate (p<0.005). The right anterior cingulate showed both an initial increase and a delayed, further increase (2–6 month, p<0.016). FBI scores worsened by 43.3%. One participant with semantic dementia opted not to continue memantine beyond 2 months yet showed similar FDG-PET increases. Conclusions Increases in normalized cortical metabolic activity in salience network hubs were sustained in SD over a 6-month period. Since one participant without medication also showed these changes, further investigation is recommended through a double-blind, placebo-controlled study with FDG-PET as an outcome measure. PMID:22674572

  3. Energy intake from human milk covers the requirement of 6-month-old Senegalese exclusively breast-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Agne-Djigo, Anta; Kwadjode, Komlan M; Idohou-Dossou, Nicole; Diouf, Adama; Guiro, Amadou T; Wade, Salimata

    2013-11-01

    Exclusive breast-feeding until 6 months is advised by the WHO as the best practice to feed infants. Yet, some studies have suggested a gap between energy requirements and the energy provided by human milk for many infants at 6 months. In order to assess the adequacy of WHO recommendations in 6-month-old Senegalese lactating infants, a comprehensive study was designed to measure human milk intake by the dose-to-the mother 2H2O turnover method. Infants’ energy intakes were calculated using daily breast milk intake and the energy content of milk was estimated on the basis of creamatocrit. Of the fifty-nine mother–infant pairs enrolled, fifteen infants were exclusively breast-fed (Ex) while forty-four were partially breast-fed (Part). Infants’ breast milk intake was significantly higher in the Ex group (993 (SD 135) g/d, n 15) compared with the Part group (828 (SD 222) g/d, n 44, P¼0·009). Breast milk energy content as well as infants' growth was comparable in both groups. However, infants’ energy intake from human milk was significantly higher (364 (SD 50) kJ/kg per d (2586 (SD 448) kJ/d)) in the Ex group than in the Part group (289 (SD 66) kJ/kg per d (2150 (SD 552) kJ/d), P,0·01). Compared with WHO recommendations, the results demonstrate that energy intake from breast milk was low in partially breast-fed infants while exclusively breast-fed 6-month-old Senegalese infants received adequate energy from human milk alone, the most complete food for infants. Therefore, advocacy of exclusive breast-feeding until 6 months should be strengthened.

  4. The effect of risedronate treatment on serum cytokines in postmenopausal osteoporosis: a 6-month randomized and controlled study.

    PubMed

    Dundar, Umit; Kavuncu, Vural; Ciftci, Ihsan H; Evcik, Deniz; Solak, Ozlem; Cakir, Tuncay

    2009-01-01

    There is much evidence suggesting that the decline in ovarian function after menopause is associated with spontaneous increases in proinflammatory cytokines. Treatment with risedronate is accompanied by significant changes in bone turnover and bone mineral density. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of risedronate treatment on the level of serum cytokines including receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin among postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. The study group consisted of 61 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Patients were randomly divided in two groups: In group 1 (n = 41) postmenopausal women received oral risedronate (35 mg/week), calcium (1,000 mg/day), and vitamin D (400 IU/day) for 12 months. In group 2 (control group; n = 20) patients received only oral calcium (1,000 mg/day) and vitamin D (400 IU/day). Bone mineral density (BMD) of lumbar spine (L1-L4) and proximal femur were determined using dual X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and after one year. Venous blood samples were obtained for determination of serum cytokines including interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), RANKL, osteoprotegerin, and markers of bone formation and resorption. Levels of serum cytokines were measured before therapy and after three and 6 months. Markers of bone metabolism were studied before therapy and after 6 months. In group 1 (risedronate plus calcium/vitamin D-treated patients), serum levels of RANKL and IL-1beta significantly decreased and the level of osteoprotegerin significantly increased after three and 6 months, but no significant difference was found in TNF-alpha level. In group 2, however, the level of serum cytokines did not change after three and 6 months. In cases of bone turnover, both markers of bone resorption and formation significantly decreased after 6 months in group 1. In conclusion risedronate could improve osteoporosis by increasing osteoprotegerin and

  5. Planetary quarantine in the solar system. Survival rates of some terrestrial organisms under simulated space conditions by proton irradiation.

    PubMed

    Koike, J; Oshima, T

    1993-08-01

    We have been studying the survival rates of some species of terrestrial unicellular and multicellular organism (viruses, bacteria, yeasts, fungi, algae, etc.) under simulated interstellar conditions, in connection with planetary quarantine. The interstellar environment in the solar system has been simulated by low temperature, high vacuum (77 K, 4 x 10(-8) torr), and proton irradiation from a Van de Graaff generator. After exposure to a barrage of protons corresponding to about 250 years of irradiation in solar space, tobacco mosaic virus, Bacillus subtilis spores, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus flavus, Aspergillus niger spores, and Clostridium mangenoti spores showed survival rates of 82, 45, 74, 13, 28, and 25%, respectively.

  6. Planetary quarantine in the solar system. Survival rates of some terrestrial organisms under simulated space conditions by proton irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, J.; Oshima, T.

    We have been studying the survival rates of some species of terrestrial unicellular and multicellular organism (viruses, bacteria, yeasts, fungi, algae, etc.) under simulated interstellar conditions, in connection with planetary quarantine. The interstellar environment in the solar system has been simulated by low temperature, high vacuum (77 K, 4 × 10 -8 torr), and proton irradiation from a Van de Graaff generator. After exposure to a barrage of protons corresponding to about 250 years of irradiation in solar space, tobacco mosaic virus, Bacillus subtilis spores, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus flavus, Aspergillus niger spores, and Clostridium mangenoti spores showed survival rates of 82, 45, 74, 13, 28, and 25%, respectively.

  7. Population ecology of the mallard VIII: Winter distribution patterns and survival rates of winter-banded mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, James D.; Hines, James E.

    1987-01-01

    In the present report we address questions about winter distribution patterns and survival rates of North American mallards Anas platyrhynchos. Inferences are based on analyses of banding and recovery data from both winter and preseason banding period. The primary wintering range of the mallard was dividded into 45 minor reference areas and 15 major reference areas which were used to summarize winter banding data. Descriptive tables and figures on the recovery distributions of winter-banded mallards are presented. Using winter recoveries of preseason-banded mallards, we found apparent differences between recovery distribution of young versus adult birds from the same breeding ground reference areas. However, we found no sex-specific differences in winter recovery distribution patterns. Winter recovery distributions of preseason-banded birds also provided evidence that mallards exhibited some degree of year-to-year variation in wintering ground location. The age- and sex-specificity of such variation was tested using winter recoveries of winter-banded birds, and results indicated that subadult (first year) birds were less likely to return to the same wintering grounds the following year than adults. Winter recovery distributions of preseason-banded mallards during 1950-58 differed from distributions in 1966-76. These differences could have resulted from either true distributional shifts or geographic changes in hunting pressure. Survival and recovery rates were estimated from winter banding data. We found no evidence of differences in survival or recovery rates between subadult and adult mallards. Thus, the substantial difference between survival rates of preseason-banded young and adult mallards must result almost entirely from higher mortality of young birds during the approximate period, August-January. Male mallards showed higher survival than females, corroborating inferences based on preseason data. Tests with winter banding and band recovery data indicated

  8. Relationship between prenatal survival rate at 70 days of gestation and morphometric parameters of vagina, uterus and placenta in gilts.

    PubMed

    Vianna, W L; Pinese, M E; de Campos Rosseto, A; Bombonato, P P; Rodrigues, P H M; de Sant'Anna Moretti, A

    2004-12-01

    Swine uterine capacity affects litter size, and it could be used as a selection parameter of reproductive performance. Although there are some controversial results, evidences show that the catheter penetration length is positively correlated with litter size, and it could be used as a tool for predicting selection methods. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is any association between the prenatal survival rate and placental size at 70 days of gestation, the vaginal length [catheter penetration length during artificial insemination (AI)] and the uterine capacity in a homogeneous group of gilts. Sixty-six commercial-line gilts in pre-pubertal phase had their oestrus induced by hormonal treatment [600 UI of Equine Chorionic Gonadtrophin (eCG) i.m. and after a 72-h period 5 mg of luteinizing hormone (LH) i.m.], but only 40 gilts showed cyclicity after induction. The AI catheter penetration length was tested on these 40 gilts at the moment of AI using a calibrated AI catheter. Four gilts returned to oestrus and the other 36 were killed at around day 69 of pregnancy. The uterine length and weight showed a significant and positive correlation with the prenatal survival rate (p <0.05). The catheter penetration length was unable to predict the conceptus survival rate on 70 days of gestation; however, the uterine size influenced the survival rate positively. The mean placental area was positively correlated with the mean placental weight (p <0.0001), and both with the mean foetal weight (p <0.0001 and p <0.001, respectively). The analysis of the results obtained showed that neither did the catheter penetration length measurement during AI, nor the prenatal survival rate on day 70 of pregnancy predict the uterine capacity, but the uterine and placental size had a significant influence on the prenatal survival and foetus weight, respectively.

  9. Apparent Survival Rates of Forest Birds in Eastern Ecuador Revisited: Improvement in Precision but No Change in Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Blake, John G.; Loiselle, Bette A.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of survival rates of Neotropical landbirds remains limited, with estimates of apparent survival available from relatively few sites and species. Previously, capture-mark-recapture models were used to estimate apparent survival of 31 species (30 passerines, 1 Trochilidae) from eastern Ecuador based on data collected from 2001 to 2006. Here, estimates are updated with data from 2001-2012 to determine how additional years of data affect estimates; estimates for six additional species are provided. Models assuming constant survival had highest support for 19 of 31 species when based on 12 years of data compared to 27 when based on six; models incorporating effects of transients had the highest support for 12 of 31 species compared to four when based on 12 and six years, respectively. Average apparent survival based on the most highly-supported model (based on model averaging, when appropriate) was 0.59 (± 0.02 SE) across 30 species of passerines when based on 12 years and 0.57 (± 0.02) when based on six. Standard errors of survival estimates based on 12 years were approximately half those based on six years. Of 31 species in both data sets, estimates of apparent survival were somewhat lower for 13, somewhat higher for 17, and remained unchanged for one; confidence intervals for estimates based on six and 12 years of data overlapped for all species. Results indicate that estimates of apparent survival are comparable but more precise when based on longer-term data sets; standard error of the estimates was negatively correlated with numbers of captures (rs = −0.72) and recaptures (rs = −0.93, P<0.001 in both cases). Thus, reasonable estimates of apparent survival may be obtained with relatively few years of data if sample sizes are sufficient. PMID:24312519

  10. Apparent survival rates of forest birds in eastern Ecuador revisited: improvement in precision but no change in estimates.

    PubMed

    Blake, John G; Loiselle, Bette A

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of survival rates of Neotropical landbirds remains limited, with estimates of apparent survival available from relatively few sites and species. Previously, capture-mark-recapture models were used to estimate apparent survival of 31 species (30 passerines, 1 Trochilidae) from eastern Ecuador based on data collected from 2001 to 2006. Here, estimates are updated with data from 2001-2012 to determine how additional years of data affect estimates; estimates for six additional species are provided. Models assuming constant survival had highest support for 19 of 31 species when based on 12 years of data compared to 27 when based on six; models incorporating effects of transients had the highest support for 12 of 31 species compared to four when based on 12 and six years, respectively. Average apparent survival based on the most highly-supported model (based on model averaging, when appropriate) was 0.59 (± 0.02 SE) across 30 species of passerines when based on 12 years and 0.57 (± 0.02) when based on six. Standard errors of survival estimates based on 12 years were approximately half those based on six years. Of 31 species in both data sets, estimates of apparent survival were somewhat lower for 13, somewhat higher for 17, and remained unchanged for one; confidence intervals for estimates based on six and 12 years of data overlapped for all species. Results indicate that estimates of apparent survival are comparable but more precise when based on longer-term data sets; standard error of the estimates was negatively correlated with numbers of captures (rs  = -0.72) and recaptures (rs  = -0.93, P<0.001 in both cases). Thus, reasonable estimates of apparent survival may be obtained with relatively few years of data if sample sizes are sufficient.

  11. Efficacy of memantine in the treatment of fibromyalgia: A double-blind, randomised, controlled trial with 6-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Olivan-Blázquez, Bárbara; Herrera-Mercadal, Paola; Puebla-Guedea, Marta; Pérez-Yus, Mari-Cruz; Andrés, Eva; Fayed, Nicolas; López-Del-Hoyo, Yolanda; Magallon, Rosa; Roca, Miquel; Garcia-Campayo, Javier

    2014-12-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a prevalent and disabling chronic disease. Recent studies have found elevated levels of glutamate in several brain regions, leading to hypotheses about the usefulness of glutamate-blocking drugs such as memantine in the treatment of FM. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of memantine in the treatment of pain and other clinical variables (global function, clinical impression, depression, anxiety, quality of life) in FM patients. A double-blind, parallel randomised controlled trial was developed. A total of 63 patients diagnosed with FM were recruited from primary health care centres in Zaragoza, Spain. Memantine was administered at doses of 20mg/d after 1 month of titration. Assessments were carried out at baseline, posttreatment, and 3- and 6-month follow-up. Compared with a placebo group, memantine significantly decreased ratings on a pain visual analogue scale (Cohen's d=1.43 at 6 months) and pain measured with a sphygmomanometer (d=1.05). All other secondary outcomes except anxiety also improved, with moderate-to-large effect sizes at 6 months. Compared with placebo, the absolute risk reduction obtained with memantine was 16.13% (95% confidence interval=2.0% to 32.6%), and the number needed to treat was 6.2 (95% confidence interval=3 to 47). Tolerance was good, with dizziness (8 patients) and headache (4 patients) being the most frequent side effects of memantine. Although additional studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up times are needed, this study provides preliminary evidence of the utility of memantine for the treatment of FM.

  12. Long-term oxandrolone treatment increases muscle protein net deposition via improving amino acid utilization in pediatric patients 6 months after burn injury

    PubMed Central

    Tuvdendorj, D.; Chinkes, DL.; Zhang, XJ.; Suman, OE.; Aarsland, A.; Ferrando, A.; Kulp, GA; Jeschke, MG.; Wolfe, RR.; Herndon, DN.

    2011-01-01

    Background We recently showed that mechanisms of protein turnover in skeletal muscle are unresponsive to amino acid (AA) infusion in severely burned pediatric patients at 6 months postinjury. In the current study, we evaluated if oxandrolone treatment affects mechanisms of protein turnover in skeletal muscle and whole-body protein breakdown in pediatric burn patients 6 months postinjury. Methods At the time of admission, patients were randomized to control or oxandrolone treatments. The treatment regimens were continued until 6 months postinjury, at which time patients (n = 26) underwent study with a stable isotope tracer infusion to measure muscle and whole-body protein turnover. Results Protein kinetics in leg muscle were expressed in nmol/min/100 ml leg volume (mean±SE). During AA infusion, rates of protein synthesis in leg muscle were increased (p < .05) in both groups (Basal vs. AA: control, 51±8 vs. 86±21; oxandrolone, 56±7 vs. 96±12). In the control group, there was also a simultaneous increase in breakdown (Basal vs. AA: 65±10 vs. 89±25), which resulted in no change in the net balance of leg muscle protein (Basal vs. AA: − 15±4 vs. − 2±10). In the oxandrolone group, protein breakdown did not change (Basal vs. AA: 80±12 vs. 77±9), leading to increased net balance (Basal vs. AA: − 24±7 vs. 19±7, p < .05). Protein breakdown at the whole-body level was not different between the groups. Conclusion Long-term oxandrolone treatment increased net deposition of leg muscle protein during AA infusion by attenuating protein breakdown, but did not affect whole-body protein breakdown. PMID:21333314

  13. Short implants had lower survival rates in posterior jaws compared to standard implants.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Gary L

    2016-12-01

    Data sourcesPubMed/Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library databases supplemented by searches of the journals; Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, Clinical Oral Implants Research, International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants, International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Journal of Clinical Periodontology, Journal of Dentistry, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Journal of Oral Implantology, Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, Journal of Periodontology, Periodontology 2000.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective studies with at least ten patients, published in the last ten years that compared short and standard implants and published in English were considered.Data extraction and synthesisA single author abstracted data with checking by a second reviewer. Methodological quality was assessed using the Jadad Scale and the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Risk ratios (RR) were calculated for implant survival rates, complications and prostheses failures and marginal bone loss was evaluated using mean difference (MD).ResultsThirteen studies consisting of ten RCTs and three prospective studies were included. The ten RCTs were considered to be of high quality. Two thousand six hundred and thirty-one implants were placed in 1269 patients (981 short and 1650 standard implants). Thirty-eight short implants failed (3.87%) and 45 standard implants (2.72%). Random effects meta-analysis found no statistically significant difference between standard implants and short implants placed in the posterior regions; RR =1.35 (95% CI; 0.82-2.22: P=0.24). Marginal bone loss was evaluated in nine studies and no differences in marginal bone loss were observed. Complications were reported by seven studies and no significant difference was seen between standard and short implants; RR= 0.54 (95% CI; 0.27-1.09: P = 0.08). There was also no significant difference in prosthesis failures between standard and short implants; RR= 0.96 (95

  14. Influence of Referral Pathway on Ebola Virus Disease Case-Fatality Rate and Effect of Survival Selection Bias

    PubMed Central

    Damkjær, Mads; Lunding, Suzanne; Dornonville de la Cour, Kenn; Young, Alyssa; Brooks, Tim; Sesay, Tom; Salam, Alex P.; Mishra, Sharmistha; Storgaard, Merete

    2017-01-01

    Case-fatality rates in Ebola treatment centers (ETCs) varied widely during the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa. We assessed the influence of referral pathway on ETC case-fatality rates with a retrospective cohort of 126 patients treated at the Mathaska ETC in Port Loko, Sierra Leone. The patients consisted of persons who had confirmed EVD when transferred to the ETC or who had been diagnosed onsite. The case-fatality rate for transferred patients was 46% versus 67% for patients diagnosed onsite (p = 0.02). The difference was mediated by Ebola viral load at diagnosis, suggesting a survival selection bias. Comparisons of case-fatality rates across ETCs and clinical management strategies should account for potential survival selection bias. PMID:28322693

  15. Randomized controlled trial of primary care physician motivational interviewing versus brief advice to engage adolescents with an Internet-based depression prevention intervention: 6-month outcomes and predictors of improvement.

    PubMed

    Hoek, Willemijn; Marko, Monika; Fogel, Joshua; Schuurmans, Josien; Gladstone, Tracy; Bradford, Nathan; Domanico, Rocco; Fagan, Blake; Bell, Carl; Reinecke, Mark A; Van Voorhees, Benjamin W

    2011-12-01

    We believe that primary care physicians could play a key role in engaging youth with a depression prevention intervention. We developed CATCH-IT (Competent Adulthood Transition with Cognitive Behavioral and Interpersonal Training), which is an adolescent Internet-based behavior change model. We conducted a randomized comparison of two approaches in engaging adolescents with the Internet intervention: primary care physician (PCP) motivational interview + CATCH-IT Internet program (MI) vs PCP brief advice + CATCH-IT Internet program (BA). The participants (N = 84) were recruited by screening for risk of depression in 13 primary care practices. We compared depressive disorder outcomes between groups and within groups over 6 months and examined the potential predictors and moderators of outcomes across both study arms. Depressive symptom scores declined from baseline to 6 weeks with these statistically significant reductions sustained at the 6 months follow-up in both groups. No significant interactions with treatment condition were found. However, by 6 months, the MI group demonstrated significantly fewer depressive episodes and reported less hopelessness as compared with the BA group. Hierarchical linear modeling regressions showed higher ratings of ease of use of the Internet program predicting lower depressive symptom levels over 6 months. In conclusion, a primary care/Internet-based intervention model among adolescents demonstrated reductions in depressed mood over 6 months and may result in fewer depressive episodes.

  16. How the probability of presentation to a primary care clinician correlates with cancer survival rates: a European survey using vignettes

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Michael; Frey, Peter; Esteva, Magdalena; Gašparović Babić, Svjetlana; Marzo-Castillejo, Mercè; Petek, Davorina; Petek Ster, Marija; Thulesius, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Objective European cancer survival rates vary widely. System factors, including whether or not primary care physicians (PCPs) are gatekeepers, may account for some of these differences. This study explores where patients who may have cancer are likely to present for medical care in different European countries, and how probability of presentation to a primary care clinician correlates with cancer survival rates. Design Seventy-eight PCPs in a range of European countries assessed four vignettes representing patients who might have cancer, and consensus groups agreed how likely those patients were to present to different clinicians in their own countries. These data were compared with national cancer survival rates. Setting A total of 14 countries. Subjects Consensus groups of PCPs. Main outcome measures Probability of initial presentation to a PCP for four clinical vignettes. Results There was no significant correlation between overall national 1-year relative cancer survival rates and the probability of initial presentation to a PCP (r  = −0.16, 95% CI −0.39 to 0.08). Within that there was large variation depending on the type of cancer, with a significantly poorer lung cancer survival in countries where patients were more likely to initially consult a PCP (lung r = −0.57, 95% CI −0.83 to −0.12; ovary: r = −0.13, 95% CI −0.57 to 0.38; breast r = 0.14, 95% CI −0.36 to 0.58; bowel: r = 0.20, 95% CI −0.31 to 0.62). Conclusions There were wide variations in the degree of gatekeeping between countries, with no simple binary model as to whether or not a country has a “PCP-as-gatekeeper” system. While there was case-by-case variation, there was no overall evidence of a link between a higher probability of initial consultation with a PCP and poorer cancer survival. Key points European cancer survival rates vary widely, and health system factors may account for some of these differences. The data from 14 European

  17. Developmentally Delayed Male with Mincer Blade Obstructing the Oesophagus for a Period of Time Suspected to Be 6 Months

    PubMed Central

    Grønhøj Larsen, Christian; Charabi, Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Sharp, retained foreign bodies in the oesophagus are associated with severe complications. Developmentally delayed patients are especially subject to foreign objects. We describe a 37-year-old, developmentally delayed male with a mincer blade obstructing the oesophagus. Six months prior to surgical intervention, the patient was hospitalized in a condition of sepsis and pneumonia where the thoracic X-ray reveals a foreign body in the proximal oesophagus. When rehospitalized 6 months later, a mincer blade of the type used in immersion blenders was surgically removed. During these 6 months the patient's main symptoms were dysphagia, weight loss, and diarrhoea. When developmentally delayed patients present with dysphagia, we strongly encourage the awareness of the possible presence of foreign bodies. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of a mincer blade in the oesophagus. PMID:26236532

  18. A case of intracranial arterial dolichoectasia with 4 repeated cerebral infarctions in 6 months and enlargement of basilar artery.

    PubMed

    Moriyoshi, Hideyuki; Furukawa, Soma; Iwata, Mai; Suzuki, Junichiro; Nakai, Noriyoshi; Nishida, Suguru; Ito, Yasuhiro

    2017-03-28

    A 78-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of sudden right hemiparesis and dysarthria. His cranial MRI showed an area of hyperintensity in left pons on DWI and MRA revealed dilated, elongated and tortuous intracranial artery. We diagnosed as acute phase ischemic stroke and intracranial arterial dolichoectasia (IADE). Intravenous infusion of rt-PA was performed 157 minutes after the onset of symptoms, and his hemiparesis improved. However, he subsequently suffered from cerebral infarction 4 times in 6 months, and we treated him twice with thrombolytic therapy. Although thrombolytic therapy was effective in the short term and antithrombotic therapy was continued, he had bilateral hemiplegia and severe dysphagia because of repeated cerebral infarctions. Hence basilar artery was dilated with intramural hemorrhage over 6 months, and we discontinued antithrombolytic therapy. It is possible that antithrombolytic therapy affects enlargement of IADE. Antithrombolytic therapy for IADE should be done carefully.

  19. The non-thyroidal illness syndrome after coronary artery bypass grafting: a 6-month follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Cerillo, Alfredo Giuseppe; Storti, Simona; Mariani, Massimiliano; Kallushi, Enkel; Bevilacqua, Stefano; Parri, Maria Serena; Clerico, Aldo; Glauber, Mattia

    2005-01-01

    The non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) is considered a transient and completely reversible phenomenon, but it has been shown that it may last for several days postoperatively after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. This study was undertaken to assess thyroid function 6 months after uncomplicated CABG. The thyroid profile was evaluated in 40 consecutive patients undergoing CABG preoperatively, at 0, 12, 48, and 120 h postoperatively, and at 6-month follow-up. Triiodothyronine (T3), free T3 (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were assayed using a microparticle enzyme immunoassay. T4 and total serum thyroid hormone-binding capacity (T-uptake) were measured on the same samples using a fluorescence polarization immunoassay. Patients with severe systemic illness and patients treated with amiodarone were excluded. All patients were euthyroid at admission. Mean age was 67.4+/-9.0 years. There were 31 (77.5%) men. Typical NTIS was observed in all patients, and the FT3 concentration was still reduced by postoperative day 5 (p<0.0001). At 6-month follow-up, all patients were free from cardiac symptoms, and no new cardiac events were recorded. The thyroid profile was normal in 35 patients (87.5%). One patient (4.5%) had developed overt hypothyroidism. Two patients had isolated low T3 and FT3 levels with normal TSH. Two patients had moderately increased FT3 levels with suppressed TSH. In most uncomplicated patients, thyroid function returns to normal 6 months after CABG. However, we observed significant alterations of the thyroid profile in 5 out of 40 patients. Further studies are needed to define the long-term consequences of postoperative NTIS.

  20. A Population-Based Study of the Association of Prenatal Diagnosis With Survival Rate for Infants With Congenital Heart Defects

    PubMed Central

    Oster, Matthew E.; Kim, Christopher H.; Kusano, Aaron S.; Cragan, Janet D.; Dressler, Paul; Hales, Alice R.; Mahle, William T.; Correa, Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal diagnosis has been shown to improve preoperative morbidity in newborns with congenital heart defects (CHDs), but there are conflicting data as to the association with mortality. We performed a population-based, retrospective, cohort study of infants with prenatally versus postnatally diagnosed CHDs from 1994 to 2005 as ascertained by the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program. Among infants with isolated CHDs, we estimated 1-year Kaplan-Meier survival probabilities for prenatal versus postnatal diagnosis and estimated Cox proportional hazard ratios adjusted for critical CHD status, gestational age, and maternal race/ethnicity. Of 539,519 live births, 4,348 infants had CHDs (411 prenatally diagnosed). Compared with those with noncritical defects, those with critical defects were more likely to be prenatally diagnosed (58% vs 20%, respectively, p <0.001). Of the 3,146 infants with isolated CHDs, 1-year survival rate was 77% for those prenatally diagnosed (n = 207) versus 96% for those postnatally diagnosed (n = 2,939, p <0.001). Comparing 1-year survival rate among those with noncritical CHDs alone (n = 2,455) showed no difference between prenatal and postnatal diagnoses (96% vs 98%, respectively, p = 0.26), whereas among those with critical CHDs (n = 691), prenatally diagnosed infants had significantly lower survival rate (71% vs 86%, respectively, p <0.001). Among infants with critical CHDs, the adjusted hazard ratio for 1-year mortality rate for those prenatally versus postnatally (reference) diagnosed was 2.51 (95% confidence interval 1.72 to 3.66). In conclusion, prenatal diagnosis is associated with lower 1-year survival rate for infants with isolated critical CHDs but shows no change for those with isolated noncritical CHDs. More severe disease among the critical CHD subtypes diagnosed prenatally might explain these findings. PMID:24472597

  1. The influence of printing parameters on cell survival rate and printability in microextrusion-based 3D cell printing technology.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; Li, Yang; Mao, Shuangshuang; Sun, Wei; Yao, Rui

    2015-11-02

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell printing technology has provided a versatile methodology to fabricate cell-laden tissue-like constructs and in vitro tissue/pathological models for tissue engineering, drug testing and screening applications. However, it still remains a challenge to print bioinks with high viscoelasticity to achieve long-term stable structure and maintain high cell survival rate after printing at the same time. In this study, we systematically investigated the influence of 3D cell printing parameters, i.e. composition and concentration of bioink, holding temperature and holding time, on the printability and cell survival rate in microextrusion-based 3D cell printing technology. Rheological measurements were utilized to characterize the viscoelasticity of gelatin-based bioinks. Results demonstrated that the bioink viscoelasticity was increased when increasing the bioink concentration, increasing holding time and decreasing holding temperature below gelation temperature. The decline of cell survival rate after 3D cell printing process was observed when increasing the viscoelasticity of the gelatin-based bioinks. However, different process parameter combinations would result in the similar rheological characteristics and thus showed similar cell survival rate after 3D bioprinting process. On the other hand, bioink viscoelasticity should also reach a certain point to ensure good printability and shape fidelity. At last, we proposed a protocol for 3D bioprinting of temperature-sensitive gelatin-based hydrogel bioinks with both high cell survival rate and good printability. This research would be useful for biofabrication researchers to adjust the 3D bioprinting process parameters quickly and as a referable template for designing new bioinks.

  2. Esophageal cancer epidemiology in blacks and whites: racial and gender disparities in incidence, mortality, survival rates and histology.

    PubMed Central

    Baquet, Claudia R.; Commiskey, Patricia; Mack, Kelly; Meltzer, Stephen; Mishra, Shiraz I.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Esophageal cancer rate disparities are pronounced for blacks and whites. This study presents black-white esophageal cancer incidence, mortality, relative survival rates, histology and trends for two five-year time periods--1991-1995 and 1996-2000--and for the time period 1991-2000. METHODS: The study used data from the National Cancer Institute's population-based Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (SEER) program with submission dates 1991-2000. Age-adjusted incidence, mortality, relative survival rates and histology for esophageal carcinoma were calculated for nine SEER cancer registries for 1991-2000. Rates were analyzed by race and gender for changes over specified time periods. RESULTS: Esophageal cancer age-adjusted incidence of blacks was about twice that of whites (8.63 vs. 4.39/100,000, p < 0.05). Age-adjusted mortality for blacks, although showing a declining trend, was nearly twice that of whites (7.79 vs. 3.96, p < 0.05). Although survival was poor for all groups, it was significantly poorer in blacks than in whites. Squamous cell carcinoma was more commonly diagnosed in blacks and white females, whereas adenocarcinoma was more common among white males (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Racial disparities in esophageal cancer incidence, mortality, survival and histology exist. Survival rates from this disease have not significantly improved over the decade. These data support the need for advances in prevention, early detection biomarker research and research on new, more effective treatment modalities for this disease. Images Figure 1 PMID:16334494

  3. Infants' exposure to aluminum from vaccines and breast milk during the first 6 months.

    PubMed

    Dórea, José G; Marques, Rejane C

    2010-11-01

    The success of vaccination programs in reducing and eliminating infectious diseases has contributed to an ever-increasing number of vaccines given at earlier ages (newborns and infants). Exposure to low levels of environmental toxic substances (including metals) at an early age raises plausible concerns over increasingly lower neuro-cognitive rates. Current immunization schedules with vaccines containing aluminum (as adjuvant) are given to infants, but thimerosal (as preservative) is found mostly in vaccines used in non-industrialized countries. Exclusively, breastfed infants (in Brazil) receiving a full recommended schedule of immunizations showed an exceedingly high exposure of Al (225 to 1750 μg per dose) when compared with estimated levels absorbed from breast milk (2.0 μg). This study does not dispute the safety of vaccines but reinforces the need to study long-term effects of early exposure to neuro-toxic substances on the developing brain. Pragmatic vaccine safety needs to embrace conventional toxicology, addressing especial characteristics of unborn fetuses, neonates and infants exposed to low levels of aluminum, and ethylmercury traditionally considered innocuous to the central nervous system.

  4. Feasibility and acceptance of a home telemanagement system in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a 6-month pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cross, Raymond K; Finkelstein, Joseph

    2007-02-01

    Our purpose was to assess the acceptance and feasibility of a home telemanagement system (HAT) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The HAT consists of a laptop and a scale. Subjects were required to complete weekly self-testing for 6 months. Disease activity, quality of life, and knowledge were assessed at baseline and 6 months. Attitudinal surveys were completed at 6 months. Twenty-five subjects completed the study. Ninety-one percent of patients thought that self-testing was not complicated. Eighty-six percent said that self-testing did not interfere with their usual activities. Ninety-one percent of patients would consider using a HAT in the future. Adherence with self-testing was 91%. Improvements in disease activity and quality of life, and significant improvements in knowledge, were observed after implementation of the HAT. The HAT is feasible and accepted in IBD. We predict that the HAT will positively affect adherence, monitoring, and patient education, resulting in improved disease activity and quality of life.

  5. Prevalence and factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months of life in Tehran: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Noughabi, Z S; Tehrani, S Golian; Foroushani, A R; Nayeri, F; Baheiraei, A

    2014-02-11

    Exclusive breastfeeding is the best form of nutrition for infants in the first 6 months of life. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran in the first 6 months of life, and the factors that influence it. In a population-based, cross-sectional study 538 mothers with children aged 6-24 months completed an interview questionnaire. Only 46.5% of mothers exclusively breastfed their infant in the first 6 months of life. In multivariate analysis formula supplementation in the hospital (OR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.17-0.95) and mother receiving conflicting infant feeding advice (OR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.37-0.78) had a negative effect on exclusive breastfeeding. Mother's intention to exclusively breastfeed (OR = 5.85, 95% CI: 2.88-11.9) and infant having first breast contact 6-30 minutes after delivery (OR = 2.35, 95% CI: 1.17-4.72) had positive effects on exclusive breastfeeding.

  6. Rivastigmine patch ameliorates depression in mild AD: preliminary evidence from a 6-month open-label observational study.

    PubMed

    Spalletta, Gianfranco; Gianni, Walter; Giubilei, Franco; Casini, Anna R; Sancesario, Giuseppe; Caltagirone, Carlo; Cravello, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Here we investigated the effect of the rivastigmine patch alone on depression in 50 mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients with comorbid major depressive episode (MDE). First diagnosis acetyl-cholinesterase inhibitor and psychoactive drug-free outpatients (n=50) were recruited in memory clinics and reassessed after 3 and 6 months. Global cognitive functioning, depressive symptoms and MDE frequency were evaluated with the Mini Mental State Examination, the CERAD Dysphoria scale and the modified DSM-IV criteria for MDE in AD. MDE frequency reduced significantly from the first diagnostic visit (100%) to the 6-month follow-up (62%). We also found a significant reduction in CERAD Dysphoria scores that decreased from 6.2±3.9 mean±standard deviation to 4.9±4.5 at the 6-month follow-up. In AD patients with MDE rivastigmine alone can have a positive impact on depressive phenomena. Thus, future controlled study are justified to definitively verify if rivastigmine alone may improve depression in AD.

  7. Effects of fixed orthodontic treatment on hair nickel and chromium levels: a 6-month prospective preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Amini, Fariborz; Mollaei, Mobina; Harandi, Saghar; Rakhshan, Vahid

    2015-03-01

    Although nickel and chromium are known as allergen and cytotoxic orthodontic metals, very few and controversial studies have assessed the effect of orthodontic treatment on their systemic levels reflected by their best biomarker of exposure, hair. This prospective preliminary study was conducted to evaluate hair nickel and chromium levels in fixed orthodontic patients. Scalp hair nickel/chromium concentrations of 12 female and 12 male fixed orthodontic patients were measured before treatment and 6 months later, using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The effects of treatment, gender, and age on hair ions were analyzed statistically (α = 0.05). The patients' mean age was 18.38 ± 3.98 years. The mean nickel levels were 0.1380 ± 0.0570 and 0.6715 ± 0.1785 μg/g dry hair mass, respectively, in the baseline and sixth month of treatment. Chromium concentrations were 0.1455 ± 0.0769 and 0.1683 ± 0.0707 μg/g dry hair mass, respectively. After 6 months, nickel increased for 387 % (paired t test P = 0.0000) and chromium increased for 16 % (P = 0.0002). No significant correlations were observed between any ion levels with age or gender (Spearman P > 0.2). Within the limitations of this preliminary study, it seems that 6 months of fixed orthodontic treatment might increase levels of hair nickel and chromium. Future larger studies are necessary to validate these results.

  8. Long-term survival rates of gravity-assisted, adjustable differential pressure valves in infants with hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Gebert, Anna-Felicitas; Schulz, Matthias; Schwarz, Karin; Thomale, Ulrich-Wilhelm

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE The use of adjustable differential pressure valves with gravity-assisted units in shunt therapy of children with hydrocephalus was reported to be feasible and promising as a way to avoid chronic overdrainage. In this single-center study, the authors' experiences in infants, who have higher rates of shunt complications, are presented. METHODS All data were collected from a cohort of infants (93 patients [37 girls and 56 boys], less than 1 year of age [mean age 4.1 ± 3.1 months]) who received their first adjustable pressure hydrocephalus shunt as either a primary or secondary implant between May 2007 and April 2012. Rates of valve and shunt failure were recorded for a total of 85 months until the end of the observation period in May 2014. RESULTS During a follow-up of 54.2 ± 15.9 months (range 26-85 months), the Kaplan-Meier rate of shunt survival was 69.2% at 1 year and 34.1% at 85 months; the Kaplan-Meier rate of valve survival was 77.8% at 1 year and 56% at 85 months. Survival rates of the shunt were significantly inferior if the patients had previous shunt surgery. During follow-up, 44 valves were exchanged in cases of infection (n = 19), occlusion (n = 14), dysfunction of the adjustment unit (n = 10), or to change the gravitational unit (n = 1). CONCLUSIONS Although a higher shunt complication rate is observed in infant populations compared with older children, reasonable survival rates demonstrate the feasibility of using this sophisticated valve technology. The gravitational unit of this valve is well tolerated and its adjustability offers the flexible application of opening pressure in an unpredictable cohort of patients. This may adequately address overdrainage-related complications from early in treatment.

  9. High rates of long-term survival of deep-sea infauna in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, James R.

    1990-08-01

    Living bivalves ( Nucula, Thyasira), a gastropod ( Frigidoalvania brychia) and a calcareous foraminiferan ( Laticarinina pauperata), from 775 m depth in the northwest Atlantic, were maintained in the laboratory for 772 days to measure their survival. The organisms, <4 mm in size, were maintained at 1 atm and at 5°C in cups containing sediment and seawater. Over the 772 day period, 46% of all bivalves and one of two gastropods survived. Minimum estimates for survival of L. pauperata in six containers ranged from 0 to 67% for a 1-2 year period. This study demonstrates that it is feasible to maintain continental slope infauna in the laboratory for long periods of time. Such organisms could be used in experiments that examine their mobility, responses to different sediments and foods, and sizes and shapes of biogenic structures produced in sediments.

  10. Successful immunization of infants at 6 months of age with high dose Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine. Cite Soleil/JHU Project Team.

    PubMed

    Job, J S; Halsey, N A; Boulos, R; Holt, E; Farrell, D; Albrecht, P; Brutus, J R; Adrien, M; Andre, J; Chan, E

    1991-04-01

    A group of 2097 Haitian infants 6 to 11 months of age were randomized to receive Schwarz or Edmonston-Zagreb strain measles vaccines containing 10- to 500-fold more vaccine viral particles than standard potency vaccines. No unusual adverse reactions were noted. Edmonston-Zagreb vaccines were more effective than equivalent doses of Schwarz vaccines as measured by the proportion of vaccinated children with measles antibody concentrations greater than or equal to 200 mIU/ml 2 months after vaccination and the persistence of antibody at 18 to 24 months of age. High titer Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine administered at 6 months of age induced antibody concentrations greater than or equal to 200 mIU/ml in 83% of infants by plaque reduction neutralization and 93% of infants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with high rates of antibody persistence at 12 to 24 months of age. The World Health Organization recommends high titer Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccines for routine use at 6 months of age in areas where measles is an important cause of mortality in young infants.

  11. Predictive value of the fragmented QRS complex in 6-month mortality and morbidity following acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Akbarzadeh, Fariborz; Pourafkari, Leili; Ghaffari, Samad; Hashemi, Mohammad; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun

    2013-01-01

    Background Fragmented QRS encompasses different RSR’ patterns showing various morphologies of the QRS complexes with or without the Q wave on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram. It has been shown possibly to cause adverse cardiac outcomes in patients with some heart diseases, including coronary artery disease. In view of the need for risk stratification of patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome in the most efficacious and cost-effective way, we conducted this study to clarify the value of developing fragmented QRS in a cohort of patients presenting with their first acute coronary syndrome in predicting 6-month mortality and morbidity. Methods One hundred consecutive patients admitted to the coronary care unit at Shahid Madani Heart Center in Tabriz from December 2008 to March 2009 with their first acute coronary syndrome were enrolled in this prospective study. Demographic and electrocardiographic data on admission, inhospital mortality, and need for revascularization were recorded. Electrocardiography performed 2 months after the index event was examined for development of fragmented QRS. Mortality and morbidity was evaluated at 6-month follow-up in all patients. Results The patients were of mean age 57.7 ± 12.8 years, and 84% were men. The primary diagnosis was unstable angina in 17 (17%) patients, non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (MI) in 11 (11%), anterior or inferior ST elevation MI in 66 (66%), and postero-inferior MI in six (6%). Fragmented QRS was present in 30 (30%) patients during the first admission, which increased to 44% at the 2-month follow-up and to 53% at the 6-month follow-up. The presence of various coronary risk factors and drug therapy given, including fibrinolytic agents, had no effect on development of fragmented QRS. Mortality was significantly higher (P = 0.032) and left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly lower (P = 0.001) in the fragmented QRS group at the 6-month follow-up. Conclusion This study strongly

  12. Precise calculation of a bond percolation transition and survival rates of nodes in a complex network.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Hirokazu; Takayasu, Hideki; Jensen, Henrik Jeldtoft; Takayasu, Misako

    2015-01-01

    Through precise numerical analysis, we reveal a new type of universal loopless percolation transition in randomly removed complex networks. As an example of a real-world network, we apply our analysis to a business relation network consisting of approximately 3,000,000 links among 300,000 firms and observe the transition with critical exponents close to the mean-field values taking into account the finite size effect. We focus on the largest cluster at the critical point, and introduce survival probability as a new measure characterizing the robustness of each node. We also discuss the relation between survival probability and k-shell decomposition.

  13. A comparison of injectable fluorescent marks in two genera of darters: Effects on survival and retention rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, J.H.; Angermeier, P.L.

    2004-01-01

    Visible implant elastomer (VIE) and injectable photonic dye (IPD), two types of injectable fluorescent marks, have shown promise in previous applications in a variety of fishes but have not been extensively tested on darters. We marked a species from each of two genera of darters, Percina and Etheostoma, in a laboratory experiment to determine the influence of VIE and IPD marks on survival and the influences of mark type, location, and color on mark retention. Short-term (???80-d) survival was similar between marked and control specimens for both marks in both species. Over the long term (200-240 d), however, the survival rate for IPD-marked Roanoke darters P. roanoka was significantly lower than that for controls (50% versus 80%), whereas VIE-marked Roanoke darters had a survival rate (88%) similar to that of controls. Long-term survival of riverweed darters E. podostemone did not differ among groups. In Roanoke darters, the mark retention rate for IPD was significantly lower than that for VIE by day 80 of the experiment (80% versus 94%), and ventral IPD marks were retained with greater frequency than were dorsal IPD marks. In riverweed darters, retention was similar for VIE and IPD (79% versus 83%) in all body locations through day 240. In both species, yellow IPD marks exhibited higher retention rates than did green IPD marks, whereas the reverse was true for yellow and green VIE marks. Overall, VIE was a superior mark in the Percina representative but performed similarly to IPD in Etheostoma. Because of interspecific and intraspecific variability in mark performance, we recommend a pilot study before initiating field use of injectable marks in untested species.

  14. No significant steady state surface creep along the North Anatolian Fault offshore Istanbul: Results of 6 months of seafloor acoustic ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakic, P.; Piété, H.; Ballu, V.; Royer, J.-Y.; Kopp, H.; Lange, D.; Petersen, F.; Özeren, M. S.; Ergintav, S.; Geli, L.; Henry, P.; Deschamps, A.

    2016-07-01

    The submarine Istanbul-Silivri fault segment, within 15 km of Istanbul, is the only portion of the North Anatolian Fault that has not ruptured in the last 250 years. We report first results of a seafloor acoustic ranging experiment to quantify current horizontal deformation along this segment and assess whether the segment is creeping aseismically or accumulating stress to be released in a future event. Ten transponders were installed to monitor length variations along 15 baselines. A joint least squares inversion for across-fault baseline changes, accounting for sound speed drift at each transponder, precludes fault displacement rates larger than a few millimeters per year during the 6 month observation period. Forward modeling shows that the data better fit a locked state or a very moderate surface creep—less than 6 mm/yr compared to a far-field slip rate of over 20 mm/yr—suggesting that the fault segment is currently accumulating stress.

  15. Smolt Monitoring Program Comparative Survival Rate Study (CSS); Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Jonasson, Brian; Carmichael, Richard

    2003-05-01

    We PIT-tagged juvenile spring chinook salmon reared at Lookingglass Hatchery in October 2001 as part of the Comparative Survival Rate Study (CSS) for migratory year (MY) 2002. We tagged 20,998 Imnaha stock spring chinook salmon, and after mortality and tag loss, we allowed the remaining 20,920 fish to leave the acclimation pond at our Imnaha River satellite facility beginning 21 March 2002 to begin their seaward migration. The fish remaining in the pond were forced out on 17 April 2002. We tagged 20,973 Catherine Creek stock captive brood progeny spring chinook salmon, and after mortality and tag loss, we allowed the remaining 20,796 fish to leave the acclimation ponds at our Catherine Creek satellite facility beginning 1 April 2001 to begin their seaward migration. The fish remaining in the ponds were forced out on 15 April 2001. We estimated survival rates, from release to Lower Granite Dam in MY 2002, for three stocks of hatchery spring chinook salmon tagged at Lookingglass Hatchery to determine their relative migration performance. Imnaha River stock and Lostine River stock survival rates were similar and were higher than the survival rate of Catherine Creek stock. We PIT-tagged 20,950 BY 2001 Imnaha River stock and 20,820 BY 2001 Catherine Creek stock captive brood progeny in October 2002 as part of the CSS for MY 2003. At the time the fish were transferred from Lookingglass Hatchery to the acclimation site, the rates of mortality and tag loss for Imnaha River stock were 0.14% and 0.06%, respectively. Catherine Creek stock, during the same period, had rates of mortality and tag loss of 0.57% and 0.31%, respectively. There was slightly elevated mortality, primarily from BKD, in one raceway of Catherine Creek stock at Lookingglass Hatchery for BY 2001.

  16. Comparison of in vivo and in vitro survival and fecundity rates of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae.

    PubMed

    Arkle, S; George, D R; Guy, J H; Sparagano, O A E

    2010-04-01

    To assist in the testing of possible antigens in developing a vaccine against the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae De Geer), a rapid and reliable in vitro screening method is critical. This short paper describes how D. gallinae survival and fecundity rates in an in vivo feeding device compared to that of mites fed using an in vitro method. Results showed that survival of fed D. gallinae females and mites overall was greater in vitro, although there was no difference between male survival and fecundity between in vivo and in vitro designs. The in vitro feeding device described therefore has the potential to provide reliable results, comparable to those obtained by in vivo testing, to allow for the rapid screening of D. gallinae antigens.

  17. Understanding the Patterns and Causes of Variability in Distribution, Habitat Use, Abundance, Survival and Reproductive Rates of Three Species of Cetacean in the Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    Distribution, Habitat Use, Abundance, Survival and Reproductive Rates of Three Species of Cetacean in the Alborán Sea, Western Mediterranean...changes in distribution, habitat use, abundance, survival and reproductive rates of three species of cetacean in the Alborán Sea (western Mediterranean...to environmental change, particularly climate change, focusing on distribution, abundance and estimated reproductive and survival rates. The two

  18. Stable and fluctuating temperature effects on the development rate and survival of two malaria vectors, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding the biology of malaria vector mosquitoes is crucial to understanding many aspects of the disease, including control and future outcomes. The development rates and survival of two Afrotropical malaria vectors, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus, are investigated here under conditions of constant and fluctuating temperatures. These data can provide a good starting point for modelling population level consequences of temperature change associated with climate change. For comparative purposes, these data were considered explicitly in the context of those available for the third African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae. Methods Twenty five replicates of 20–30 eggs were placed at nine constant and two fluctuating temperatures for development rate experiments and survival estimates. Various developmental parameters were estimated from the data, using standard approaches. Results Lower development threshold (LDT) for both species was estimated at 13-14°C. Anopheles arabiensis developed consistently faster than An. funestus. Optimum temperature (Topt) and development rate at this temperature (μmax) differed significantly between species for overall development and larval development. However, Topt and μmax for pupal development did not differ significantly between species. Development rate and survival of An. funestus was negatively influenced by fluctuating temperatures. By contrast, development rate of An. arabiensis at fluctuating temperatures either did not differ from constant temperatures or was significantly faster. Survival of this species declined by c. 10% at the 15°C to 35°C fluctuating temperature regime, but was not significantly different between the constant 25°C and the fluctuating 20°C to 30°C treatment. By comparison, previous data for An. gambiae indicated fastest development at a constant temperature of 28°C and highest survival at 24°C. Conclusions The three most important African malaria vectors all differ

  19. Hazard regression model and cure rate model in colon cancer relative survival trends: are they telling the same story?

    PubMed

    Bejan-Angoulvant, Theodora; Bouvier, Anne-Marie; Bossard, Nadine; Belot, Aurelien; Jooste, Valérie; Launoy, Guy; Remontet, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    Hazard regression models and cure rate models can be advantageously used in cancer relative survival analysis. We explored the advantages and limits of these two models in colon cancer and focused on the prognostic impact of the year of diagnosis on survival according to the TNM stage at diagnosis. The analysis concerned 9,998 patients from three French registries. In the hazard regression model, the baseline excess death hazard and the time-dependent effects of covariates were modelled using regression splines. The cure rate model estimated the proportion of 'cured' patients and the excess death hazard in 'non-cured' patients. The effects of year of diagnosis on these parameters were estimated for each TNM cancer stage. With the hazard regression model, the excess death hazard decreased significantly with more recent years of diagnoses (hazard ratio, HR 0.97 in stage III and 0.98 in stage IV, P < 0.001). In these advanced stages, this favourable effect was limited to the first years of follow-up. With the cure rate model, recent years of diagnoses were significantly associated with longer survivals in 'non-cured' patients with advanced stages (HR 0.95 in stage III and 0.97 in stage IV, P < 0.001) but had no significant effect on cure (odds ratio, OR 0.99 in stages III and IV, P > 0.5). The two models were complementary and concordant in estimating colon cancer survival and the effects of covariates. They provided two different points of view of the same phenomenon: recent years of diagnosis had a favourable effect on survival, but not on cure.

  20. Limnology of nine small lakes, Matanuska-Susitna Borough, Alaska, and the survival and growth rates of rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woods, P.F.

    1985-01-01

    The survival and growth rates of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnieri) were concurrently measured with selected limnological characteristics in nine small (surface area < 25 sq hectometers) lakes in the Matanuska-Susitna Borough. The project goal was to develop empirical models for predicting rainbow trout growth rates from the following variables: total phosphorus concentration, chlorophyll a concentration, Secchi disc transparency, or the morphoedaphic index--a means of characterizing potential biological productivity. No suitable model could be developed from the data collected during 1982 and 1983. The lack of significant correlation was attributed in part to the wide variation in survival of rainbow trout. Winterkills, caused by severe depletion of dissolved oxygen, were suspected in four of the lakes. Varied levels of fishing pressure and competition with threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) also influenced survival of rainbow trout but their effects were overshadowed by winterkill. Predictive capability was also reduced because of inconsistencies in rankings generated by each of the four limnological variables chosen as indicators of potential biological productivity. A lake ranked low in productivity by one variable was commonly ranked high in productivity by another variable. The survivability of rainbow trout stocked in lakes such as these nine may be a more important indicator of potential biomass production than are indicators of lake fertility. Assessments of a lake 's susceptibility to winterkill and the degree of competition with threespine stickleback are suggested as important topics for additional research. (Author 's abstract)

  1. Effects of 6 months yoga program on renal functions and quality of life in patients suffering from chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Rajendra Kumar; Arya, Tung Vir Singh; Kumar, Amit; Yadav, Ashish

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of 6 months yoga program in patients suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD). Materials and Methods: Fifty-four patients with CKD were studied and divided into two groups (yoga group and control group) to see the effect of yoga in CKD. Patients in the yoga group were offered yoga therapy along with other conventional treatment modalities, while the control group was only on conventional treatment. Subjects in yoga group were trained to perform specific yogic asanas for at least 5 days a week for 40–60 min a day. Regular monitoring of blood pressure, renal function, requirement of a number of dialysis, and quality of life (QOL) indicators were done. Fifty patients (yoga – 25; control-25) completed 6 months follow-up. Results: In yoga group, a significant reduction of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, significant reduction in blood urea and serum creatinine levels, and significant improvement in physical and psychological domain of the World Health Organization QOL (as assessed by BREF QOL scores) were seen after 6 months. In control group, rise of blood pressure, deterioration of renal function, and QOL were observed. Poststudy comparison between the two groups showed a statistically significant reduction of blood pressure, nonsignificant reduction in blood urea and serum creatinine, and significant improvement in physical and psychological domain of QOL in yoga group as compared to control group. For subjects in yoga group, the need for dialysis was less when compared to control group although this difference was statistically insignificant. Except for inability of some patients to perform certain yogic asanas no adverse effect was found in the study. Conclusion: Six months yoga program is safe and effective as an adjuvant therapy in improving renal functions and QOL of CKD patients. PMID:28149061

  2. Feasibility of a 6-month exercise and recreation program to improve executive functioning and memory of individuals with chronic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Rand, Debbie; Eng, Janice J.; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Tawashy, Amira E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical activity has been shown to be beneficial for improving cognitive function in healthy older adults. However there is limited research on the benefits of physical activity on cognitive performance after stroke. Objective To determine if a combined exercise and recreation program can improve the executive functioning and memory in individuals with chronic stroke. Methods 11 ambulatory subjects with chronic stroke (mean age 67±10.8 years) participated in a 6 month program of exercise for 2 hours and recreation for 1 hour weekly. Executive functions and memory were assessed at baseline, 3, and 6 months by a battery of standard neuropsychological tests including response inhibition, cognitive flexibility, dual task (motor plus cognitive) and memory. Motor ability was also assessed. Non-parametric statistics were used to assess the differences between the three assessments. Results At baseline, substantial deficits in all aspects of executive functioning were revealed. From baseline to 3 mo, the mean improvement was 10±14% (χ2=9.3, p=0.0025) for the dual task (Walking while Talking), −3±22% (χ2=2.4, p>0.05) for response inhibition (Stroop test) and 61±69% (χ2=8.0, p=0.04) for memory (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test - long delay). From baseline to 6 months, the mean improvement was 7±7.5% (χ2=12.0, p=0.007) for response inhibition (Stroop Test). In addition, knee strength and walking speed improved significantly at 3 months. Conclusions This pilot study suggests that exercise and recreation may improve memory and executive functions of community dwelling individuals with stroke. Further studies require a larger sample size and a control group. PMID:20460494

  3. Juvenile traumatic brain injury evolves into a chronic brain disorder: behavioral and histological changes over 6 Months

    PubMed Central

    Kamper, Joel E.; Pop, Viorela; Fukuda, Andrew; Ajao, David; Hartman, Richard; Badaut, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) refers to physical trauma to the brain that can lead to motor and cognitive dysfunctions. TBI is particularly serious in infants and young children, often leading to long-term functional impairments. Although clinical research is useful for quantifying and observing the effects of these injuries, few studies have empirically assessed the long-term effects of juvenile TBI (jTBI) on behavior and histology. After a controlled cortical impact delivered to postnatal 17d rats, functional abilities were measured after 3, 5, and 6 months using open field (activity levels), zero maze (anxiety-like behaviors), rotarod (sensorimotor abilities, coordination, and balance), and water maze (spatial learning and memory, swim speed, turn bias). Sensorimotor function was impaired for up to 6 months in jTBI animals, which showed no improvement from repeated test exposure. Although spatial learning was not impaired, spatial memory deficits were observed in jTBI animals starting at 3 months after injury. Magnetic resonance imaging and histological data revealed that the effects of jTBI were evolving for up to 6 months post-injury, with reduced cortical thickness, decreased corpus callosum area and CA1 neuronal cell death in jTBI animals distant of the impact site. These findings suggest that this model of jTBI produces long-term impairments comparable to those reported clinically. Although some deficits were stable over time, the variable nature of other deficits (e.g., memory) as well as changing properties of the lesion itself, suggest that the effects of a single jTBI produce a chronic brain disorder with long-term complications. PMID:24076005

  4. White Matter Integrity Declined Over 6-Months, but Dance Intervention Improved Integrity of the Fornix of Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Burzynska, Agnieszka Z; Jiao, Yuqin; Knecht, Anya M; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth A; Chen, Tammy; Gothe, Neha; Voss, Michelle W; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

    2017-01-01

    Degeneration of cerebral white matter (WM), or structural disconnection, is one of the major neural mechanisms driving age-related decline in cognitive functions, such as processing speed. Past cross-sectional studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of greater cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, cognitive training, social engagement, and nutrition on cognitive functioning and brain health in aging. Here, we collected diffusion magnetic resonance (MRI) imaging data from 174 older (age 60-79) adults to study the effects of 6-months lifestyle interventions on WM integrity. Healthy but low-active participants were randomized into Dance, Walking, Walking + Nutrition, and Active Control (stretching and toning) intervention groups (NCT01472744 on ClinicalTrials.gov). Only in the fornix there was a time × intervention group interaction of change in WM integrity: integrity declined over 6 months in all groups but increased in the Dance group. Integrity in the fornix at baseline was associated with better processing speed, however, change in fornix integrity did not correlate with change in processing speed. Next, we observed a decline in WM integrity across the majority of brain regions in all participants, regardless of the intervention group. This suggests that the aging of the brain is detectable on the scale of 6-months, which highlights the urgency of finding effective interventions to slow down this process. Magnitude of WM decline increased with age and decline in prefrontal WM was of lesser magnitude in older adults spending less time sedentary and more engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. In addition, our findings support the anterior-to-posterior gradient of greater-to-lesser decline, but only in the in the corpus callosum. Together, our findings suggest that combining physical, cognitive, and social engagement (dance) may help maintain or improve WM health and more physically active lifestyle is associated with slower WM decline

  5. White Matter Integrity Declined Over 6-Months, but Dance Intervention Improved Integrity of the Fornix of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Burzynska, Agnieszka Z.; Jiao, Yuqin; Knecht, Anya M.; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth A.; Chen, Tammy; Gothe, Neha; Voss, Michelle W.; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2017-01-01

    Degeneration of cerebral white matter (WM), or structural disconnection, is one of the major neural mechanisms driving age-related decline in cognitive functions, such as processing speed. Past cross-sectional studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of greater cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, cognitive training, social engagement, and nutrition on cognitive functioning and brain health in aging. Here, we collected diffusion magnetic resonance (MRI) imaging data from 174 older (age 60–79) adults to study the effects of 6-months lifestyle interventions on WM integrity. Healthy but low-active participants were randomized into Dance, Walking, Walking + Nutrition, and Active Control (stretching and toning) intervention groups (NCT01472744 on ClinicalTrials.gov). Only in the fornix there was a time × intervention group interaction of change in WM integrity: integrity declined over 6 months in all groups but increased in the Dance group. Integrity in the fornix at baseline was associated with better processing speed, however, change in fornix integrity did not correlate with change in processing speed. Next, we observed a decline in WM integrity across the majority of brain regions in all participants, regardless of the intervention group. This suggests that the aging of the brain is detectable on the scale of 6-months, which highlights the urgency of finding effective interventions to slow down this process. Magnitude of WM decline increased with age and decline in prefrontal WM was of lesser magnitude in older adults spending less time sedentary and more engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. In addition, our findings support the anterior-to-posterior gradient of greater-to-lesser decline, but only in the in the corpus callosum. Together, our findings suggest that combining physical, cognitive, and social engagement (dance) may help maintain or improve WM health and more physically active lifestyle is associated with slower WM decline

  6. Development of Computer-Aided Cognitive Training Program for Elderly and Its Effectiveness through a 6 Months Group Intervention Study.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Tsunehiro; Tanemura, Rumi; Noda, Kazue; Nagao, Toru; Sakai, Hiroshi; Luo, Zhi-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Since the increasing population of aging, cognitive training is focused as one of the non-pharmacological preventive approach of cognitive decline. Although the accumulation of the knowledge, they hardly reflect to the programs for clinical use. We developed a task set named "Atama-no-dojo," designed to activate multiple cognitive functions and enhance motivational incentives. The objective of our study is to confirm the effect of our program through a 6 months group intervention program. The intervention program conducted in a day service center for 6 months in the duration of 45 minutes per day, 4 days per month for a total of 25 sessions. Participants worked to the tasks on the screen all together with filling in the answering sheet. Neuropsychological tests, SF36 and GDS were assessed at pre-/post-intervention periods. Participants filled in a questionnaire about impression to the program at the last training session. Fourteen women (82.2 ± 2.9 years old) were analyzed and significant changes were found in the improvement of memory, attention, inhibition, GDS and some items of SF36. All participants recognized the program as fun and wanted to continue. Some of the participants' positive impressions to the program correlated to cognitive improvement. The improved cognitive functions by 6 months intervention of "Atama-no-dojo" were mainly related to prefrontal cortex and the motivational incentives seemed supported the effect of task contents. We recognized the importance of task difficulty setting and motivational incentives to reduce frustration from working on difficult tasks and enhance the effects of improvement from activating brain function.

  7. Controls on Arctic sea ice from first-year and multi-year survival rates

    SciTech Connect

    Hunke, Jes

    2009-01-01

    The recent decrease in Arctic sea ice cover has transpired with a significant loss of multi year ice. The transition to an Arctic that is populated by thinner first year sea ice has important implications for future trends in area and volume. Here we develop a reduced model for Arctic sea ice with which we investigate how the survivability of first year and multi year ice control the mean state, variability, and trends in ice area and volume.

  8. Injectable Chemically Crosslinked Hydrogel for the Controlled Release of Bevacizumab in Vitreous: A 6-Month In Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yu; Lau, Laurence Chi Ming; Lo, Amy Cheuk-yin; Chau, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the biocompatibility and 6-month in vivo release of bevacizumab from a hyaluronic acid/dextran-based in situ hydrogel after intravitreal injection in rabbit eye. Methods The in situ hydrogel was formed by the catalyst-free chemical crosslinking between vinylsulfone functionalized hyaluronic acid (HA-VS) and thiolated dextran (Dex-SH) at physiological condition. The pH 7.4 buffered mixture containing HA-VS, Dex-SH, and bevacizumab were injected into the vitreous of rabbit eyes by a 30-G needle. The biocompatibility was evaluated by intraocular pressure measurement, binocular indirect ophthalmoscope (BIO), full-field electroretinogram (ERG), and histology. The concentrations of both total and active bevacizumab in rabbit vitreous were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The concentration of bevacizumab in rabbit vitreous after bolus injection was simulated by one-compartment first order elimination model. Results A transparent gel was seen in the vitreous after injection. BIO images, ERG, and histology showed that the gel does not induce hemorrhage, retinal detachment, inflammation, or other gross pathological changes in rabbit eyes after injection. While the bolus intravitreal injected bevacizumab follows the first order elimination kinetics in rabbit eye, the in situ gel formation was able to prolong the retention of bevacizumab in rabbit eye at therapeutic relevant concentration for at least 6 months. The concentration of bevacizumab 6 months after injection was about 107 times higher than bolus injection. Conclusions The new in situ hydrogel formulation of bevacizumab was biocompatible and able to prolong the retention of drug in rabbit eyes in vivo at therapeutic relevant concentration for at least 6 months. Translational Relevance Although proven to be effective, monthly intravitreal injection of bevacizumab or other protein drugs may cause various complications. Extending the residence time of protein therapeutics in the eye

  9. Pelvic Floor Disorders 6 Months after Attempted Operative Vaginal Delivery According to the Fetal Head Station: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ducarme, Guillaume; Hamel, Jean-François; Brun, Stéphanie; Madar, Hugo; Merlot, Benjamin; Sentilhes, Loïc

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of the fetal head station at attempted operative vaginal delivery (aOVD), and specifically midpelvic or low aOVD, on urinary incontinence (UI), anal incontinence (AI), and perineal pain at 6 months. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting 1941 women with singleton term fetuses in vertex presentation with midpelvic or low aOVD between 2008 and 2013 in a tertiary care university hospital. Methods Symptoms of urinary incontinence (UI) using the Bristol Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms questionnaire, and symptoms of anal incontinence (AI) severity using Fecal Incontinence Severity Index (FISI) were assessed 6 months after aOVD. We measured the association between midpelvic or low aOVD and symptoms of UI, AI, and perineal pain at 6 months using multiple regression and adjusting for demographics, and risk factors of UI and AI, with adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results The study included 907 women (46.7%) who responded to the questionnaire; 18.4% (167/907) had midpelvic aOVD, and 81.6% (740/907) low; and none of women with symptoms of UI (26.6%, and 22.4%, respectively; p = 0.31), AI (15.9%, and 21.8%; p = 0.09), the FISI score, and perineal pain (17.2%, and 12.7%; p = 0.14) differed significantly between groups. The same was true for stress, urge, and mixed-type UI, severe UI and difficulty voiding. Compared with low pelvic aOVD, the aORs for symptoms of UI in midpelvic aOVD were 0.70 (0.46–1.05) and AI 1.42 (0.85–2.39). Third- and fourth-degree tears were a major risk factor of symptoms of UI (aOR 3.08, 95% CI 1.35–7.00) and AI (aOR 3.47, 95% CI 1.43–8.39). Conclusion Neither symptoms of urinary nor anal incontinence differed at 6 months among women who had midpelvic and low pelvic aOVD. These findings are reassuring and need further studies at long-term to confirm these short-term data. PMID:27992558

  10. [Nicolau syndrome induced by intramuscular injection of a hexavalent vaccine in a 6-month-old girl].

    PubMed

    Stefano, Paola C; Garello, Mónica; Nolte, María F; Lamy, Patricia; Giglio, Norberto; Castellano, Vanesa; Gentile, Ángela

    2017-02-01

    Nicolau syndrome, also known as embolia cutis medicamentosa or livedo-like dermatitis, is a sudden tissue necrosis, a rare complication of intramuscular injection of some drugs. We report a case of a 6-month-old girl who received intramuscularly the third dose of hexavalent vaccine (DTaP- HVB-IPV/HIb), and immediately presented a livedoid lesion around the injection site, progressing to necrosis. We reinforce the importance of early diagnosis to perform a suitable treatment and clinical follow-up to avoid ischemic secondary complications.

  11. Effect of silver nanoparticles on the metabolic rate, hematological response, and survival of juvenile white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Juarez-Moreno, Karla; Mejía-Ruiz, Claudio Humberto; Díaz, Fernando; Reyna-Verdugo, Horacio; Re, Ana Denisse; Vazquez-Felix, Edgar F; Sánchez-Castrejón, Edna; Mota-Morales, Josué D; Pestryakov, Alexey; Bogdanchikova, Nina

    2017-02-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is highly lethal and contagious in shrimps; its outbreaks causes an economic crisis for aquaculture. Several attempts have been made to treat this disease; however, to date, there is no effective cure. Because of their antimicrobial activities, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the most studied nanomaterial. Although the antiviral properties of AgNPs have been studied, their antiviral effect against viral infection in aquaculture has not been reported. The AgNPs tested herein are coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and possess multiple international certifications for their use in veterinary and human applications. The aim of this work was to evaluate the survival rate of juvenile white shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei) after the intramuscular administration of AgNPs. For this, different concentrations of metallic AgNPs and PVP alone were injected into the organisms. After 96 h of administration, shrimp survival was more than 90% for all treatments. The oxygen consumption routine rate and total hemocyte count remained unaltered after AgNP injection, reflecting no stress caused. We evaluated whether AgNPs had an antiviral effect in shrimps infected with WSSV. The results revealed that the survival rate of WSSV-infected shrimps after AgNP administration was 80%, whereas the survival rate of untreated organisms was only 10% 96 h after infection. These results open up the possibility to explore the potential use of AgNPs as antiviral agents for the treatment of diseases in aquaculture organisms, particularly the WSSV in shrimp culture.

  12. Correlation of Survival Rates of Anopheles dirus A (Diptera: Culicidae) with Different Infection Densities of Plasmodium cynomolgi

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    Jones (2), and Molineaux (3) assumed that the longevity and daily survival rates of infected mosquitos are unaffected by malarial parasites. However...significantly higher for infected than for non-infected mosquitos . Also, Hacker (5) reported a significant reduction in the fecundity of mosquitos infected... longevity * Fig. 1. Schematic representation of the events for each replicate of mosquitos . sequence of a 5% solution of multivitamin syrup for the

  13. Effects of Cryptocaryon irritans infection on the survival, feeding, respiratory rate and ionic regulation of the marbled rockfish Sebastiscus marmoratus.

    PubMed

    Yin, Fei; Gong, Qiyang; Li, Yanwei; Dan, Xueming; Sun, Peng; Gao, Quanxin; Shi, Zhaohong; Peng, Shiming; Li, Anxing

    2014-02-01

    To clarify the effects of a Cryptocaryon irritans infection on the physiological functions of the marbled rockfish Sebastiscus marmoratus, this study utilized C. irritans at concentrations of 2500; 5000; 7500; 10,000; 20,000; and 30,000 theronts/fish to infect marbled rockfish weighing 45 ± 3 g. The survival rate, food intake, respiratory rate, serum ion concentrations and gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity were determined. With the increase of the infection concentration and the passage of time, the survival rate of the rockfish gradually decreased. The groups infected with more than 5000 theronts/fish had stopped feeding within 4 days. The respiratory rates of the fish in the groups infected with 2500 and 5000 theronts/fish initially increased and then decreased. In contrast, the respiratory rate of the fish in the groups infected with more than 7500 theronts/fish was elevated to levels significantly higher than the control group after 12 h. The Na+/K+-ATPase activity and serum Na+ and Cl- concentrations increased with increasing infection concentration. In conclusion, the physiological functions of the fish infected with low concentrations of C. irritans can be effectively restored, whereas a high concentration infection induced severe stress. The declined food intake and accelerated respiratory rate could be useful for an early warning system as important indicators.

  14. Comparing the survival rate of juvenile Chinook salmon migrating through hydropower systems using injectable and surgical acoustic transmitters

    DOE PAGES

    Deng, Zhiqun D.; Martinez, J. J.; Li, H.; ...

    2017-02-21

    Acoustic telemetry is one of the primary technologies for studying the behavior and survival of fishes throughout the world. The size and performance of the transmitters is still the key limiting factor despite that considerable effort has been expended to understand the biological effects of implantation of acoustic transmitters in yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon. The newly developed injectable transmitter is the first active acoustic tag that can be implanted via injection instead of surgery. It also lasts more than four times longer than the commercially-available transmitters. A two-part field study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the injectablemore » transmitter and its effect on the survival of implanted fish. The injectable transmitter performed well and similarly to the other commercially-available transmitters tested. Snake River subyearling Chinook salmon smolts implanted with the injectable tag had a higher survival probability from release to each of 11 downstream detection arrays than concurrent releases of fish surgically implanted with commercially-available tags. In addition, reach-specific survival estimates were significantly higher for the injectable group in three of the eleven reaches examined. Overall, the injectable group had a 0.263 (SE = 0.017) survival probability over the entire 500 km study area compared to 0.199 (0.012) for the surgically implanted group. The differences in survival may have been caused by warm water temperatures and higher rates of infection experienced by the surgically implanted group due to the presence of sutures acting as an attachment site for pathogens. The reduction in size and ability to implant the new transmitter via injection has further reduced the tag or tagging effect bias associated with studying small fishes. As a result, the information gathered with this new technology is helping minimize the impact of dams on fish, leading to more environmentally sustainable energy systems.« less

  15. Effects of scaffold surface morphology on cell adhesion and survival rate in vitreous cryopreservation of tenocyte-scaffold constructs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi; Qing, Quan; Chen, Xi; Liu, Cheng-Jun; Luo, Jing-Cong; Hu, Jin-Lian; Qin, Ting-Wu

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of scaffold surface morphology on cell adhesion and survival rate in vitreous cryopreservation of tenocyte-scaffold constructs. Tenocytes were obtained from tail tendons of rats. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used to fabricate three types of scaffolds with varying surface morphological characteristics, i.e., smooth, micro-grooved, and porous surfaces, respectively. The tenocytes were seeded on the surfaces of the scaffolds to form tenocyte-scaffold constructs. The constructs were cryopreserved in a vitreous cryoprotectant (CPA) with a multi-step protocol. The cell adhesion to scaffolds was observed with electronic scanning microscopy (SEM). The elongation index of the living tenocytes and ratio of live/dead cell number were examined based on a live/dead dual fluorescent staining technique, and the survival rate of tenocytes was studied with flow cytometry (FC). The results showed the shapes of tenocytes varied between the different groups: flat or polygonal (on smooth surface), spindle (on micro-grooved surface), and spindle or ellipse (on porous surface). After thawing, the porous surface got the most living tenocytes and a higher survival rate, suggesting its potential application for vitreous cryopreservation of engineered tendon constructs.

  16. Closure of oroantral communication with buccal fat pad after removing bilateral failed zygomatic implants: A case report and 6-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Alonso-González, Rocio; Pellicer-Chover, Hilario; Aloy-Prósper, Amparo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the use of buccal fat pad (BFP) technique as an option to close oroantral communications (OAC) after removing failed zygomatic implants in a patient with a severely resorbed maxilla, and to determine the degree of patient satisfaction. A 64-year-old woman presented recurrent sinusitis and permanent oroantral communication caused by bilateral failed zygomatic implants, 3 years after prosthetic loading. Zygomatic implants were removed previous antibiotic treatment and the BFP flap technique was used to treat the OAC and maxillary defect. The degree of patient satisfaction after treatment was assessed through a visual analogue scale (VAS). At 6-months follow-up, patient showed complete healing and good function and the results in terms of phonetics, aesthetics and chewing were highly rated by the patient. Key words:Bichat fat pad, buccal fat pad, zygomatic implants, oroantral communication. PMID:25810829

  17. Recurrent neonatal herpes simplex virus infection with central nervous system disease after completion of a 6-month course of suppressive therapy: Case report.

    PubMed

    Kato, Koji; Hara, Shinya; Kawada, Jun-Ichi; Ito, Yoshinori

    2015-12-01

    A boy at 12 days of age developed neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 infection with central nervous system (CNS) disease. After a 21-day course of high-dose intravenous acyclovir, the patient recovered with negative results for HSV DNA in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Two weeks after a 6-month course of oral valacyclovir suppressive therapy with negative virological assessment, the disease recurred. Another 21-day course of intravenous acyclovir and subsequent 1-year course of oral suppressive therapy were completed. He showed mild developmental delay in language-social skills at 18 months of age. Although recurrences of neonatal HSV infection with CNS disease after suppressive therapy are uncommon, both clinical and virological assessments at the end of the suppressive therapy may be required. Administration of extended long-term suppressive ACV therapy should be considered to reduce the rate of recurrence.

  18. Breast preservation versus mastectomy--recurrence and survival rates of primary breast cancer patients treated at the UFK Bonn.

    PubMed

    Schmolling, J; Maus, B; Rezek, D; Fimmers, R; Höller, T; Schüller, H; Krebs, D

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective long-term analysis was to evaluate the approach of breast conservation in the light of the results obtained, on the basis of mastectomy, in patients with early breast carcinoma. Additionally, the effect of internal mammary and supraclavicular radiotherapy was analyzed. Therefore, local-regional recurrence (LRR) and survival rates were examined in 411 patients with T1 and T2 stages who had undergone either breast-preserving surgery with radiation or mastectomy. Individual risk factors such as nodal status, lymphangiosis carcinomatosa and age of the patients were evaluated, too. The rate of local-regional recurrence in patients who were treated by mastectomy and conservative surgery was 9.2% and 11.0%, respectively, with relapse happening earlier in the latter group (median of 16 vs. 24 months). Survival rates, however, were not different in the two groups. Tumour stage and nodal status had no influence on the local-regional recurrence rate in either group. In connection with lymphangiosis carcinomatosa, however, the rate increased to 14.5% (mastectomy) and 19.0% (breast-preserving surgery), respectively. Patients < or = 40 years had an even higher risk of LRR, with 20.6% when they underwent mastectomy and 30.8% following breast conservation. Internal mammary and supraclavicular radiotherapy had no positive effect on the survival rates, neither in the mastectomy nor in the breast conservation group. As a conclusion, in more than 60% of all T1 stages. and more than 50% of all T2 stages, the therapeutic concept of breast preservation seems to be justified.

  19. Community Partners in Care (CPIC): Video Summary of Rationale, Study Approach / Implementation, and Client 6-month Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mango, Joseph; Cabiling, Eileen; Jones, Loretta; Lucas-Wright, Aziza; Williams, Pluscedia; Wells, Kenneth; Pulido, Esmeralda; Meldrum, Marcia; Ramos, Ana; Chung, Bowen

    2014-02-25

    "Community Partners in Care (CPIC): Video Summary of Rationale, Study Approach / Implementation, and Client 6-month Outcomes" is a 2 minute, 46 second video summarizing the study rationale, study approach, and the 6-month outcomes. The video was produced by four agencies: Healthy African American Families II, a health advocacy organization in South Los Angeles; Behavioral Health Services, the largest substance/alcohol abuse service provider in LA County; UCLA; and RAND Health; contract filmmakers Eileen Cabiling and Joe Mango handled cinematography, editing, and video support. The individuals appearing in the video are key CPIC community and academic partners. The celebratory tone of the video is consistent with a Community Partnered Participatory Research approach, a local variant of participatory action research, where study findings are celebrated by the partners, and dissemination efforts include approaches intended for general audiences, especially from low-income, low-literacy, minority communities, in addition to traditional academic products like peer-reviewed scientific manuscripts. The CPIC video offers a community perspective on the study results to our partners, the general public, other scientists and policy makers. We designed the video to teach community and healthcare partners how to adapt and implement the CPIC depression care model and to offer other community -academic partnerships an example of a non-traditional product developed for dissemination from an NIH-funded research study.

  20. Community Partners in Care (CPIC): Video Summary of Rationale, Study Approach / Implementation, and Client 6-month Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mango, Joseph; Cabiling, Eileen; Jones, Loretta; Lucas-Wright, Aziza; Williams, Pluscedia; Wells, Kenneth; Pulido, Esmeralda; Meldrum, Marcia; Ramos, Ana; Chung, Bowen

    2014-01-01

    “Community Partners in Care (CPIC): Video Summary of Rationale, Study Approach / Implementation, and Client 6-month Outcomes” is a 2 minute, 46 second video summarizing the study rationale, study approach, and the 6-month outcomes. The video was produced by four agencies: Healthy African American Families II, a health advocacy organization in South Los Angeles; Behavioral Health Services, the largest substance/alcohol abuse service provider in LA County; UCLA; and RAND Health; contract filmmakers Eileen Cabiling and Joe Mango handled cinematography, editing, and video support. The individuals appearing in the video are key CPIC community and academic partners. The celebratory tone of the video is consistent with a Community Partnered Participatory Research approach, a local variant of participatory action research, where study findings are celebrated by the partners, and dissemination efforts include approaches intended for general audiences, especially from low-income, low-literacy, minority communities, in addition to traditional academic products like peer-reviewed scientific manuscripts. The CPIC video offers a community perspective on the study results to our partners, the general public, other scientists and policy makers. We designed the video to teach community and healthcare partners how to adapt and implement the CPIC depression care model and to offer other community –academic partnerships an example of a non-traditional product developed for dissemination from an NIH-funded research study. PMID:25364622

  1. First report of c. 1499G>C mutation in a 6-month-child with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Sahami, Abbas; Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda; Monsef, Alireza; Peyman, Hadi

    2014-04-01

    So far, more than 1800 mutations identified in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. In this case report, we presented first report of c. 1499G>C mutation in a 6-month-old girl with cystic fibrosis (CF) diagnosis. A 6-month-old girl with weakness and meconium Ileus referred to the pediatric clinic in Ilam, in the west of Iran. Patient's skin was dark and suffered from bronchiectasis. The sweat test was performed, and the concentration of chloride and sodium in patient's sweat was 130-135 mmol/L and 125-128 mmol/L, respectively. The exon 10 mutation analysis of a CF patient was performed. CFTR mutation analysis revealed the identification of 2 mutations in patient, the mutations were p.F508del (ΔF508) and c. 1499G>C (cd500), respectively. The mutation c. 1499G>C (cd500) were found for the first time in the world. Assessing this mutation in future study and genetic investigation is recommended.

  2. Women's experiences of their osteoporosis diagnosis at the time of diagnosis and 6 months later: A phenomenological hermeneutic study

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Carrinna; Konradsen, Hanne; Abrahamsen, Bo; Pedersen, Birthe D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a phenomenological hermeneutic study of experiences of women who were recently diagnosed with osteoporosis. The research objective was to investigate women's experiences of living with osteoporosis during the first 6 months after diagnosis when treatment was first prescribed. Fifteen women were included in the study. The inclusion criteria were a DXA scan at one of the two hospitals showing a T-score below −2.5 (lower back or hip), age 65 years or older; no previous known osteoporotic fracture; at least one of the known risk factors for osteoporosis; and prescription of anti-osteoporotic treatment. Exclusion criteria were previous diagnosis of osteoporosis or previous treatment with anti-osteoporotic medication. Data were collected through in-depth interviews shortly after diagnosis and 6 months later. The performed analyses were inspired by Paul Ricoeur's theory of interpretation of texts comprising three levels: naïve reading, structural analysis, and critical interpretation and discussion. Three key themes emerged: 1) being diagnosed, 2) being prescribed medical treatment, and 3) being on the path of learning to live with osteoporosis. The findings suggest a need for improved support for the patients to gain understanding of their diagnosis and the risk of osteoporotic fracture as well as to learn to live with osteoporosis. The study highlights new health promotion areas for targeting interventions at newly diagnosed patients, helping them accept and interpret the diagnosis, and the medical treatment. PMID:24559545

  3. Relationship of cravings with weight loss and hunger. Results from a 6 month worksite weight loss intervention.

    PubMed

    Batra, Payal; Das, Sai Krupa; Salinardi, Taylor; Robinson, Lisa; Saltzman, Edward; Scott, Tammy; Pittas, Anastassios G; Roberts, Susan B

    2013-10-01

    We examined the association of food cravings with weight loss and eating behaviors in a lifestyle intervention for weight loss in worksites. This research was part of a randomized controlled trial of a 6-month weight loss intervention versus a wait-listed control in 4 Massachusetts worksites. The intervention emphasized reducing energy intake by adherence to portion-controlled menu suggestions, and assessments were obtained in 95 participants at baseline and 6 months including non-fasting body weight, food cravings (Craving Inventory and Food Craving Questionnaire for state and trait) and the eating behavior constructs restraint, disinhibition and hunger (Eating Inventory). There were statistically significant reductions in all craving variables in the intervention group compared to the controls. Within the intervention group, changes in craving-trait were significantly associated with weight loss after controlling for baseline weight, age, gender and worksite. However, in a multivariate model with craving-trait and eating behaviors (restraint, disinhibition and hunger), hunger was the only significant predictor of weight change. In contrast to some previous reports of increased food cravings with weight loss in lifestyle interventions, this study observed a broad reduction in cravings associated with weight loss. In addition, greater reductions in craving-trait were associated with greater weight change, but craving-trait was not a significant independent correlate of weight change when hunger was included in statistical models. Studies are needed to examine the effectiveness of hunger suppressing versus craving-suppressing strategies in lifestyle interventions for obesity.

  4. Relationship between neurocognitive functioning and medication management ability over the first 6 months following allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mayo, S; Messner, H A; Rourke, S B; Howell, D; Victor, J C; Kuruvilla, J; Lipton, J H; Gupta, V; Kim, D D; Piescic, C; Breen, D; Lambie, A; Loach, D; Michelis, F V; Alam, N; Uhm, J; McGillis, L; Metcalfe, K

    2016-06-01

    Although neurocognitive impairment has been established as a major issue among cancer survivors, the real-world consequences of this impairment are unclear. This study investigated the relationship between neurocognitive functioning and medication management ability over time among 58 patients treated with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). Participants completed a neuropsychological test battery and a simulated medication management task at three time points: pre-transplant (T0), Day 100 (T1) and 6 months post transplant (T2). Neurocognitively impaired participants performed worse on the medication management task than neurocognitively normal participants at each time point, and were more likely to score in the impaired range of medication management ability post transplant (72% vs 20%, P<0.001 at T1; 67% vs 23%, P=0.013 at T2). In multivariate analyses, worse performance in executive functioning/working memory consistently predicted impaired medication management ability, even when controlling for sociodemographic and clinical confounders (odds ratio=0.89, 95% confidence interval (0.80, 0.98), P=0.023). Lower physical symptom distress also predicted impaired medication management ability, but this effect decreased over time. Self-reported cognitive problems were not correlated with medication management ability at any time point. Findings suggest that poor neurocognitive functioning, particularly in the domain of executive functioning/working memory, is associated with worse medication management ability within the first 6 months after allogeneic HCT.

  5. Weight changes in obese adults 6-months after discontinuation of double-blind zonisamide or placebo treatment

    PubMed Central

    Shin, J.H.; Gadde, K.M.; Øtbye, T.; Bray, Bray

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated weight changes in obese patients at 6-months after they ended participation in a 12-month randomized controlled trial in which they received daily placebo, zonisamide 200 mg, or zonisamide 400 mg, in addition to lifestyle counseling. Of the originally randomized 225 patients, 218 completed month-12 when study interventions were discontinued. For the 154 patients who returned for 6-month follow-up off-treatment, weight changes between month-12 and month-18 for placebo (n=53), zonisamide 200 mg (n=49), and zonisamide 400 mg groups (n=52) were 0.5 kg (95% CI, −0.8 to 1.8; 0.7%), 1.5 kg (0.2 to 2.8; 1.6%; p=0.26 vs placebo) and 2.4 kg (1.1 to 3.7; 2.6%; p=0.04 vs placebo), respectively. Our results suggest that although zonisamide 400 mg daily for 12-months resulted in greater weight loss than with placebo, weight regain after discontinuation of interventions was greater in the zonisamide 400 mg group than placebo group. PMID:25123600

  6. Hardwood smoke alters murine splenic T cell responses to mitogens following a 6-month whole body inhalation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Burchiel, Scott W. . E-mail: Sburchiel@salud.unm.edu; Lauer, Fredine T.; Dunaway, Sandy L.; Zawadzki, Jerome; McDonald, Jacob D.; Reed, Matthew D.

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of these studies was to assess the effects of hardwood smoke (HWS) inhalation (30-1000 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) on the systemic immune responses of A/J mice evaluated after 6 months of daily exposures. Spleen cells obtained from mice were assessed for changes in cell number, cell surface marker expression [B, T, macrophage, and natural killer (NK) cells], and responses to B cell (LPS, endotoxin) and T cell (Con A) mitogens. Results showed that HWS smoke increased T cell proliferation in the 100 {mu}g/m{sup 3} exposure group and produced a concentration-dependent suppression of T cell proliferation at concentrations >300 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. There were no effects on B cell proliferation or in spleen cell surface marker expression. Analyses of the exposure atmospheres revealed the presence of significant levels of naphthalene and methylated napthalenes, fluorene, phenanthrene, and anthracene in the exposure chambers, as well as low concentrations of several metals (K, Ca, and Fe). Our results demonstrate that environmentally relevant concentrations of HWS may be immunosuppressive to the immune system of mice exposed during a 6-month period.

  7. Comparison of drug survival rates for tumor necrosis factor antagonists in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Santana, Virginia; González-Sarmiento, E; Calleja-Hernández, MA; Sánchez-Sánchez, T

    2013-01-01

    Background Persistence of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an overall marker of treatment success. Objective To assess the survival of anti-TNF treatment and to define the potential predictors of drug discontinuation in RA, in order to verify the adequacy of current practices. Design An observational, descriptive, longitudinal, retrospective study. Setting The Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain. Patients RA patients treated with anti-TNF therapy between January 2011 and January 2012. Measurements Demographic information and therapy assessments were gathered from medical and pharmaceutical records. Data is expressed as means (standard deviations) for quantitative variables and frequency distribution for qualitative variables. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis was used to assess persistence, and Cox multivariate regression models were used to assess potential predictors of treatment discontinuation. Results In total, 126 treatment series with infliximab (n = 53), etanercept (n = 51) or adalimumab (n = 22) were administered to 91 patients. Infliximab has mostly been used as a first-line treatment, but it was the drug with the shortest time until a change of treatment. Significant predictors of drug survival were: age; the anti-TNF agent; and the previous response to an anti-TNF drug. Limitation The small sample size. Conclusion The overall efficacy of anti-TNF drugs diminishes with time, with infliximab having the shortest time until a change of treatment. The management of biologic therapy in patients with RA should be reconsidered in order to achieve disease control with a reduction in costs. PMID:24023512

  8. Survival thresholds and mortality rates in adaptive dynamics: conciliating deterministic and stochastic simulations.

    PubMed

    Perthame, Benoît; Gauduchon, Mathias

    2010-09-01

    Deterministic population models for adaptive dynamics are derived mathematically from individual-centred stochastic models in the limit of large populations. However, it is common that numerical simulations of both models fit poorly and give rather different behaviours in terms of evolution speeds and branching patterns. Stochastic simulations involve extinction phenomenon operating through demographic stochasticity, when the number of individual 'units' is small. Focusing on the class of integro-differential adaptive models, we include a similar notion in the deterministic formulations, a survival threshold, which allows phenotypical traits in the population to vanish when represented by few 'individuals'. Based on numerical simulations, we show that the survival threshold changes drastically the solution; (i) the evolution speed is much slower, (ii) the branching patterns are reduced continuously and (iii) these patterns are comparable to those obtained with stochastic simulations. The rescaled models can also be analysed theoretically. One can recover the concentration phenomena on well-separated Dirac masses through the constrained Hamilton-Jacobi equation in the limit of small mutations and large observation times.

  9. Increased dietary protein in the second trimester of gestation increases live weight gain and carcass composition in weaner calves to 6 months of age.

    PubMed

    Miguel-Pacheco, G G; Curtain, L D; Rutland, C; Knott, L; Norman, S T; Phillips, N J; Perry, V E A

    2016-11-08

    Genetically similar nulliparous Polled Hereford heifers from a closed pedigree herd were used to evaluate the effects of dietary protein during the first and second trimester of gestation upon foetal, placental and postnatal growth. Heifers were randomly allocated into two groups at 35 days after artificial insemination (35 days post conception (dpc)) to a single bull and fed high (15.7% CP) or low (5.9% CP) protein in the first trimester (T1). At 90 dpc, half of each nutritional treatment group changed to a high- or low-protein diet for the second trimester until 180 dpc (T2). High protein intake in the second trimester increased birth weight in females (P=0.05), but there was no effect of treatment upon birth weight when taken over both sexes. Biparietal diameter was significantly increased by high protein in the second trimester with the effect being greater in the female (P=0.02), but also significant overall (P=0.05). Placental weight was positively correlated with birth weight, fibroblast volume and relative blood vessel volume (P<0.05). Placental fibroblast density was increased and trophoblast volume decreased in the high-protein first trimester treatment group (P<0.05). There was a trend for placental weight to be increased by high protein in the second trimester (P=0.06). Calves from heifers fed the high-protein treatment in the second trimester weighed significantly more on all occasions preweaning (at 1 month (P=0.0004), 2 months (P=0.006), 3 months (P=0.002), 4 months (P=0.01), 5 months (P=0.03), 6 months (P=0.001)), and grew at a faster rate over the 6-month period. By 6 months of age, the calves from heifers fed high nutrition in the second trimester weighed 33 kg heavier than those fed the low diet in the second trimester. These results suggest that dietary protein in early pregnancy alters the development of the bovine placenta and calf growth to weaning.

  10. Evaluation of ultrastructure and random effects band recovery models for estimating relationships between survival and harvest rates in exploited populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otis, D.L.; White, Gary C.

    2004-01-01

    Increased population survival rate after an episode of seasonal exploitation is considered a type of compensatory population response. Lack of an increase is interpreted as evidence that exploitation results in added annual mortality in the population. Despite its importance to management of exploited species, there are limited statistical techniques for comparing relative support for these two alternative models. For exploited bird species, the most common technique is to use a fixed effect, deterministic ultrastructure model incorporated into band recovery models to estimate the relationship between harvest and survival rate. We present a new likelihood-based technique within a framework that assumes that survival and harvest are random effects that covary through time. We conducted a Monte Carlo simulation study under this framework to evaluate the performance of these two techniques. The ultrastructure models performed poorly in all simulated scenarios, due mainly to pathological distributional properties. The random effects estimators and their associated estimators of precision had relatively small negative bias under most scenarios, and profile likelihood intervals achieved nominal coverage. We suggest that the random effects estimation method approach has many advantages compared to the ultrastructure models, and that evaluation of robustness and generalization to more complex population structures are topics for additional research. ?? 2004 Museu de Cie??ncies Naturals.

  11. Estimating Survival Rates in Engineering for Community College Transfer Students Using Grades in Calculus and Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laugerman, Marcia; Shelley, Mack; Rover, Diane; Mickelson, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This study uses a unique synthesized set of data for community college students transferring to engineering by combining several cohorts of longitudinal data along with transcript-level data, from both the Community College and the University, to measure success rates in engineering. The success rates are calculated by developing Kaplan-Meier…

  12. Factors affecting sperm recovery rates and survival after centrifugation of equine semen.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, M S; Lyle, S K; Eilts, B E; Eljarrah, A H; Paccamonti, D L

    2012-11-01

    Conventional centrifugation protocols result in important sperm losses during removal of the supernatant. In this study, the effect of centrifugation force (400 or 900 × g), duration (5 or 10 min), and column height (20 or 40 mL; Experiment 1); sperm concentration (25, 50, and 100 × 10(6)/mL; Experiment 2), and centrifugation medium (EZ-Mixin CST [Animal Reproduction Systems, Chino, CA, USA], INRA96 [IMV Technologies, Maple Grove, MN, USA], or VMDZ [Partnar Animal Health, Port Huron, MI, USA]; Experiment 3) on sperm recovery and survival after centrifugation and cooling and storage were evaluated. Overall, sperm survival was not affected by the combination of centrifugation protocol and cooling. Total sperm yield was highest after centrifugation for 10 min at 400 × g in 20-mL columns (95.6 ± 5%, mean ± SD) or 900 × g in 20-mL (99.2 ± 0.8%) or 40-mL (91.4 ± 4.5%) columns, and at 900 × g for 5 min in 20-mL columns (93.8 ± 8.9%; P < 0.0001). Total (TMY) and progressively motile sperm yield followed a similar pattern (P < 0.0001). Sperm yields were not significantly different among samples centrifuged at various sperm concentrations. However, centrifugation at 100 × 10(6)/mL resulted in significantly lower total sperm yield (83.8 ± 10.7%) and TMY (81.7 ± 6.8%) compared with noncentrifuged semen. Centrifugation in VMDZ resulted in significantly lower TMY (69.3 ± 22.6%), progressively motile sperm yield (63.5 ± 18.2%), viable yield (60.9 ± 36.5%), and survival of progressively motile sperm after cooling (21 ± 10.8%) compared with noncentrifuged semen. In conclusion, centrifuging volumes of ≤ 20 mL minimized sperm losses with conventional protocols. With 40-mL columns, it may be recommended to increase the centrifugal force to 900 × g for 10 min and dilute the semen to a sperm concentration of 25 to 50 × 10(6)/mL in a milk- or fractionated milk-based medium. The semen extender VMDZ did not seem well suited for centrifugation of equine semen.

  13. Bladder Preservation for Localized Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: The Survival Impact of Local Utilization Rates of Definitive Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kozak, Kevin R.; Hamidi, Maryam; Manning, Matthew; Moody, John S.

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: This study examines the management and outcomes of muscle-invasive bladder cancer in the United States. Methods and Materials: Patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer diagnosed between 1988 and 2006 were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Patients were classified according to three mutually exclusive treatment categories based on the primary initial treatment: no local management, radiotherapy, or surgery. Overall survival was assessed with Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox models based on multiple factors including treatment utilization patterns. Results: The study population consisted of 26,851 patients. Age, sex, race, tumor grade, histology, and geographic location were associated with differences in treatment (all p < 0.01). Patients receiving definitive radiotherapy tended to be older and have less differentiated tumors than patients undergoing surgery (RT, median age 78 years old and 90.6% grade 3/4 tumors; surgery, median age 71 years old and 77.1% grade 3/4 tumors). No large shifts in treatment were seen over time, with most patients managed with surgical resection (86.3% for overall study population). Significant survival differences were observed according to initial treatment: median survival, 14 months with no definitive local treatment; 17 months with radiotherapy; and 43 months for surgery. On multivariate analysis, differences in local utilization rates of definitive radiotherapy did not demonstrate a significant effect on overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.002; 95% confidence interval, 0.999-1.005). Conclusions: Multiple factors influence the initial treatment strategy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer, but definitive radiotherapy continues to be used infrequently. Although patients who undergo surgery fare better, a multivariable model that accounted for patient and tumor characteristics found no survival detriment to the utilization of definitive radiotherapy. These results support continued

  14. Estimation of Flattened Musk Turtle (Sternotherus depressus) survival, recapture, and recovery rate during and after a disease outbreak

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fonnesbeck, C.J.; Dodd, C.K.

    2003-01-01

    We estimated survivorship, recapture probabilities and recovery rates in a threatened population of Flattened Musk Turtles (Sternotherus depressus) through a disease outbreak in Alabama in 1985. We evaluated a set of models for the demographic effects of disease by analyzing recaptures and recoveries simultaneously. Multiple-model inference suggested survival was temporally dynamic, whereas recapture probability was sex- and age-specifc. Biweekly survivorship declined from 98-99% before to 82-88% during the outbreak. Live recapture was twice as likely for male turtles relative to juveniles or females, whereas dead recoveries varied only slightly by sex and age. Our results suggest modest reduction in survival over a relatively short time period may severely affect population status.

  15. Effective Treatment for Improving the Survival Rate of Raccoon Dogs Infected with Sarcoptes scabiei

    PubMed Central

    KIDO, Nobuhide; OMIYA, Tomoko; KAMEGAYA, Chihiro; WADA, Yuko; TAKAHASHI, Maya; YAMAMOTO, Yasuhiko

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sarcoptes scabiei is one of the important external parasites. Although ivermectin is the recommended treatment, many raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) that were rescued and brought to the Kanazawa Zoological Gardens (Yokohama, Japan) have died because of S. scabiei, even after receiving single ivermectin treatment. Therefore, supportive treatment should be required. The present study revealed the number of animals that survived was greater after the administration of ivermectin along with an antibiotic for all raccoon dogs, as well as following the administration of fluid therapy to the debilitated raccoon dogs infected with S. scabiei, immediately after the rescue. During the initial period, treatment to improve the general clinical condition was required prior to deworming treatment for S. scabiei. PMID:24813465

  16. Unchanged survival rates of Shadoo knockout mice after infection with mouse-adapted scrapie

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sha; Ju, Chuanjing; Han, Chao; Li, Zhongyi; Liu, Wensen; Ye, Xuemin; Xu, Jing; Xulong, Liang; Wang, Xiong; Chen, Zhibao; Meng, Keyin; Wan, Jiayu

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Shadoo (Sho), a GPI-linked glycoprotein encoded by the Sprn gene with a membrane localization similar to PrPC, is reduced in the brains of rodents with terminal prion disease. To determine the functional significance of Sho in prion disease pathogenesis, Sho-deficient mice were generated by gene targeting. Sho knockout and control wild-type (WT) mice were infected with themouse-adapted scrapie strains 22L or RML. No significant differences in survival, the incubation period of prion disease or other disease features were observed between Sho mutant and WT mice. In this model of prion disease, Sho removal had no effect on disease pathogenesis. PMID:25495671

  17. Visual and Optical Performances of Multifocal Intraocular Lenses with Three Different Near Additions: 6-Month Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mengmeng; Corpuz, Christine Carole C; Fujiwara, Megumi; Tomita, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Purpose : To compare the visual and optical outcomes of four multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs) with three different near additions of +3.00 diopters (D), +3.75 D and +4.00 D. Methods : In this prospective study, 133 eyes of 88 patients were implanted with one of the following IOLs: AcrySof® ReSTOR® SN6AD1 (+3.00 D) for Group A, AcrivaUD Reviol BB MF 613 or BB MFM 611 (+3.75 D) for Group B, and AcrySof® ReSTOR® SN6AD3 (+4.00 D) for Group C. The visual acuity, refraction, intraocular pressure, tomography and corneal endothelial cell density (ECD) were compared between the three groups preoperatively and at 6 month postoperatively. Defocus curve, contrast sensitivity and higher order aberrations (HOAs) at 6 month postoperative visit were measured and compared. Results : There were no statistically significant differences in distance visual acuity, refraction, intraocular pressure or ECD among the three groups after 6 months (P > 0.05). The photopic contrast sensitivity in Group C was statistically better than in Group A (P < 0.05). The scotopic ocular aberration in Group B was statistically greater compared to that in Group A (P < 0.05). The highest near-visual peaks were -0.06 logMAR at a -2.50 D (40 cm) in Group A, -0.07 logMAR at -3.00D (33 cm) in Group B, and -0.06 logMAR at -3.50 D (29 cm) in Group C. Statistically significant differences in near and intermediate visual acuities were observed among the three groups at -2.00 D (50 cm), -2.50 D (40 cm), -3.50 D (29 cm) and -4.00 D (25 cm) (P < 0.01). Conclusion : AcrySof® ReSTOR® SN6AD1 IOLs (+3.00 D) and SN6AD3 (+4.00 D) IOLs provided the best intermediate and near vision, respectively. Both intermediate and near vision were comparatively better in the eyes with AcrivaUD Reviol BB MFM 611 IOLs or BB MF 613 IOLs (+3.75 D). PMID:25674189

  18. A Pilot Prospective Randomized Control Trial Comparing Exercises Using Videogame Therapy to Standard Physical Therapy: 6 Months Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Parry, Ingrid; Painting, Lynda; Bagley, Anita; Kawada, Jason; Molitor, Fred; Sen, Soman; Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2015-01-01

    Commercially available, interactive videogames that use body movements for interaction are used clinically in burn rehabilitation and have been shown to facilitate functional range of motion (ROM) but their efficacy with burn patients has not yet been proven. The purpose of this pilot randomized control study was to prospectively compare planar and functional ROM, compliance, pain, enjoyment, and exertion in pediatric burn patients receiving two types of rehabilitation therapy. Seventeen school-aged children with 31 affected limbs who demonstrated limited shoulder ROM from burn injury were randomized to receive exercises using either standard therapy ROM activities (ST) or interactive videogame therapy (VGT). Patients received 3 weeks of the designated therapy intervention twice daily. They were then given a corresponding home program of the same type of therapy to perform regularly for 6 months. Standard goniometry and three-dimensional motion analysis during functional tasks were used to assess ROM. Measures were taken at baseline, 3 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. Pain was measured before and after each treatment session during the 3-week intervention. There was no difference in compliance, enjoyment, or exertion between the groups. Patients in both the ST and VGT groups showed significant improvement in shoulder flexion (P < .001), shoulder abduction (P <.001), shoulder external rotation (P = .01), and elbow flexion (P = .004) ROM from baseline to 6 months as measured with goniometry. Subjects also showed significant gains in elbow flexion (P = .04) during hand to head and shoulder flexion (P = .04) during high reach. There was no difference in ROM gains between the groups. Within group comparison showed that the VGT group had significantly more recovery of ROM during the first 3 weeks than any other timeframe in the study, whereas ST had most gains at 3 months. There was a significant difference between the groups in the subjects' pain response. ST subjects

  19. Validation of CRASH Model in Prediction of 14-day Mortality and 6-month Unfavorable Outcome of Head Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Behrooz; Amanat, Mahnaz; Baratloo, Alireza; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Mehdi; Rahmati, Farhad; Motamedi, Maryam; Safari, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: To date, many prognostic models have been proposed to predict the outcome of patients with traumatic brain injuries. External validation of these models in different populations is of great importance for their generalization. The present study was designed, aiming to determine the value of CRASH prognostic model in prediction of 14-day mortality (14-DM) and 6-month unfavorable outcome (6-MUO) of patients with traumatic brain injury. Methods: In the present prospective diagnostic test study, calibration and discrimination of CRASH model were evaluated in head trauma patients referred to the emergency department. Variables required for calculating CRASH expected risks (ER), and observed 14-DM and 6-MUO were gathered. Then ER of 14-DM and 6-MUO were calculated. The patients were followed for 6 months and their 14-DM and 6-MUO were recorded. Finally, the correlation of CRASH ER and the observed outcome of the patients was evaluated. The data were analyzed using STATA version 11.0. Results: In this study, 323 patients with the mean age of 34.0 ± 19.4 years were evaluated (87.3% male). Calibration of the basic and CT models in prediction of 14-day and 6-month outcome were in the desirable range (P < 0.05). Area under the curve in the basic model for prediction of 14-DM and 6-MUO were 0.92 (95% CI: 0.89-0.96) and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.90-0.95), respectively. In addition, area under the curve in the CT model for prediction of 14-DM and 6-MUO were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.91-0.97) and 0.93 (95% CI: 0.91-0.96), respectively. There was no significant difference between the discriminations of the two models in prediction of 14-DM (p = 0.11) and 6-MUO (p = 0.1). Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that CRASH prediction model has proper discrimination and calibration in predicting 14-DM and 6-MUO of head trauma patients. Since there was no difference between the values of the basic and CT models, using the basic model is recommended to simplify the risk

  20. ENDOSCOPIC ULTRASONOGRAPHY IN ESOPHAGEAL CANCER LEADS TO IMPROVED SURVIVAL RATES: RESULTS FROM A POPULATION-BASED STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Sachin; Das, Ananya; Rastogi, Amit; Drahos, Jennifer; Ricker, Winifred; Parsons, Ruth; Bansal, Ajay; Yen, Roy; Hosford, Lindsay; Jankowski, Meghan; Sharma, Prateek; Cook, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The advantages of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and computed tomography-positron emission tomography (CT-PET) in relation to survival in esophageal cancer (EC) patients are unclear. This study aimed to assess the effect of EUS, CT-PET and its combination on overall survival relative to cases not receiving these procedures. Methods Patients aged ≥ 66 years diagnosed with EC were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare linked database. Cases were split into four analytic groups: EUS only (n=318), CT-PET only (853), EUS+CT-PET (189) and “no EUS or CT-PET” (2,439). Survival times were estimated by Kaplan-Meier method and compared by using log-rank test for each group versus the “no EUS or CT-PET” group. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare 1, 3 and 5-year survival rates. Results Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that patients undergoing EUS, CT-PET and EUS+CT-PET had improved survival for all stages, all compared with “no EUS or CT-PET”, with the exception of stage 0 disease. Receipt of EUS increased the likelihood of receiving endoscopic therapies, esophagectomy and chemoradiation. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models showed that receipt of EUS was a significant predictor for improved 1-year (HR 0.49, 95% CI 0.39–0.59, p<0.0001), 3-year (HR 0.57, 95% CI 0.48–0.66, p<0.0001) and 5-year (HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.50–0.68) survival. Similar results were noted when results were stratified based on histology, as well as for CT-PET and EUS+CT-PET groups. Conclusions Receipt of either EUS or CT-PET alone in EC patients is associated with improved 1, 3 and 5-year survival. Future studies should identify barriers to dissemination of these staging modalities. PMID:25236485

  1. Examining mortality risk and rate of ageing among Polish Olympic athletes: a survival follow-up from 1924 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yuhui; Gajewski, Antoni; Poznańska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Population-based studies have shown that an active lifestyle reduces mortality risk. Therefore, it has been a longstanding belief that individuals who engage in frequent exercise will experience a slower rate of ageing. It is uncertain whether this widely-accepted assumption holds for intense wear-and-tear. Here, using the 88 years survival follow-up data of Polish Olympic athletes, we report for the first time on whether frequent exercise alters the rate of ageing. Design Longitudinal survival data of male elite Polish athletes who participated in the Olympic Games from year 1924 to 2010 were used. Deaths occurring before the end of World War II were excluded for reliable estimates. Setting and participants Recruited male elite athletes N=1273 were preassigned to two categorical birth cohorts—Cohort I 1890–1919; Cohort II 1920–1959—and a parametric frailty survival analysis was conducted. An event-history analysis was also conducted to adjust for medical improvements from year 1920 onwards: Cohort II. Results Our findings suggest (1) in Cohort I, for every threefold reduction in mortality risk, the rate of ageing decelerates by 1%; (2) socioeconomic transitions and interventions contribute to a reduction in mortality risk of 29% for the general population and 50% for Olympic athletes; (3) an optimum benefit gained for reducing the rate of ageing from competitive sports (Cohort I 0.086 (95% CI 0.047 to 0.157) and Cohort II 0.085 (95% CI 0.050 to 0.144)). Conclusions This study further suggests that intensive physical training during youth should be considered as a factor to improve ageing and mortality risk parameters. PMID:27091824

  2. 41 CFR 302-3.407 - What is the effect on my TCS reimbursement if my assignment lasts less than 6 months?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the effect on my TCS reimbursement if my assignment lasts less than 6 months? 302-3.407 Section 302-3.407 Public... the effect on my TCS reimbursement if my assignment lasts less than 6 months? Your agency...

  3. Migratory behaviour and survival rates of wild northern Atlantic salmon Salmo salar post-smolts: Effects of environmental factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davidsen, J.G.; Rikardsen, A.H.; Halttunen, E.; Thorstad, E.B.; Okland, F.; Letcher, B.H.; Skarhamar, J.; Naesje, T.F.

    2009-01-01

    To study smolt behaviour and survival of a northern Atlantic salmon Salmo salar population during river descent, sea entry and fjord migration, 120 wild S. salar were tagged with acoustic tags and registered at four automatic listening station arrays in the mouth of the north Norwegian River Alta and throughout the Alta Fjord. An estimated 75% of the post-smolts survived from the river mouth, through the estuary and the first 17 km of the fjord. Survival rates in the fjord varied with fork length (LF), and ranged from 97??0 to 99??5% km-1. On average, the post-smolts spent 1??5 days (36 h, range 11-365 h) travelling from the river mouth to the last fjord array, 31 km from the river mouth. The migratory speed was slower (1??8 LF s-1) in the first 4 km after sea entry compared with the next 27 km (3??0 LF s-1). Post-smolts entered the fjord more often during the high or ebbing tide (70%). There was no clear diurnal migration pattern within the river and fjord, but most of the post-smolts entered the fjord at night (66%, 2000-0800 hours), despite the 24 h daylight at this latitude. The tidal cycle, wind-induced currents and the smolts' own movements seemed to influence migratory speeds and routes in different parts of the fjord. A large variation in migration patterns, both in the river and fjord, might indicate that individuals in stochastic estuarine and marine environments are exposed to highly variable selection regimes, resulting in different responses to environmental factors on both temporal and spatial scales. Post-smolts in the northern Alta Fjord had similar early marine survival rates to those observed previously in southern fjords; however, fjord residency in the north was shorter. ?? 2009 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  4. Efficacy and safety of piascledine 300 versus chondroitin sulfate in a 6 months treatment plus 2 months observation in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.

    PubMed

    Pavelka, Karel; Coste, Philippe; Géher, Pál; Krejci, Gerhard

    2010-06-01

    To investigate that a 6-month treatment with avocado soybean unsaponifiable (Piascledine 300 mg) once daily is as effective as with chondroitin sulfate 400 mg three times daily in femorotibial gonarthrosis, and also the carry-over effect for two more months is comparable. Patients were randomized (1:1) to the treatment groups. They received for 6 months 3 capsules chondroitin sulfate per day or one capsule of avocado soybean unsaponifiable (ASU) in a double-dummy technique. A 2-month post-treatment period followed to determine the carry-over effect. Primary efficacy criterion was the change of the WOMAC-index from study begin to end of treatment. Secondary criteria were the changes in Lequesne-index, pain on active movement and at rest, global assessment of efficacy. Three hundred sixty-four patients have been taken up into the trial. Three hundred sixty one patients were eligible for evaluation. One hundred eighty three received ASU 300 mg once daily, one hundred seventy eight chondroitin sulfate three times daily. The WOMAC-index decreased in both groups for approx. 50% to the end of therapy. During the post-treatment observation there was a further slight improvement. There was no statistical significant difference between the treatment groups during the entire observation. All other observed parameters showed the same pattern. The daily intake of rescue medication was reduced continuously. Overall efficacy has been rated excellent and good in more than 80% of the patients in both groups. Both drugs were safe and well tolerated. The first direct comparison between avocado soybean unsaponifiable 300 mg once daily and chondroitin sulfate three times daily reveiled no difference in efficacy or safety aspects between 1 capsule ASU 300 mg per day and 3 capsules chondroitin sulfate per day. It can be assumed that the once daily intake of ASU will lead to a better compliance in routine therapy.

  5. The 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) Pandemic: What Have We Learned in the Past 6 Months

    PubMed Central

    del Rio, Carlos; Guarner, Jeannette

    2010-01-01

    The present review describes how the first influenza pandemic of the XXI century occurred, the characteristics of the virus that produced it, its epidemiology, clinical and pathological presentation, and the treatment and prevention methods that have been instituted. The lessons that have been learned in the first 6 months of the pandemic include: 1) predictions were not fulfilled (it was not an avian virus but a swine virus that caused the pandemic, it started in the American continent not in Asia), 2) international cooperation was critical, 3) mass media played a key role communicating to the public and health care professionals about this evolving, and 4) preparedness plans were very important to confront the pandemic. PMID:20697556

  6. The Rhythmic, Sonorous and Melodic Components of Adult-Child-Object Interactions Between 2 and 6 Months Old.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Núñez, Ana; Rodríguez, Cintia; Del Olmo, María Jesús

    2015-12-01

    Adults mediate the relationship between material reality and children, according to functional units of cultural relevance. This paper explores early development of semiotic systems in infants, analyzing rhythmic, sonorous and melodic components, which enable adult-child interaction with and about objects. The triads (with sonorous and non-sonorous objects) was studied longitudinally at age 2, 4 and 6 months. We propose that rhythmic, sonorous and melodic components conformed one of the basic semiotic systems upon the adult's action relies (through gestures and uses of objects) in order to segment and organize objects in the world. Likewise, children actively respond to these presentations and seek sounds for themselves when they are able to interact with the object more autonomously.

  7. [Symptomatic and asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infection in children from 6 months to 6 years old in the Abobo general hospital (Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire)].

    PubMed

    Assoumou, A; Adoubryn, K D; Aboum, K S; Kouadio-Yapo, C G; Ouhon, J

    2008-02-01

    It is commonly admitted that people living in malarial zone are carrying asymptomatic Plasmodium. Côte d'Ivoire is one of these zones. The studies carried out on malaria in these areas have focused mainly on the clinical forms of the disease and effectiveness of the antimalarial drugs. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of the symptomatic and asymptomatic carriage of Plasmodium falciparum in children of 6 months to 180 months old in the Abidjan area. Over a period of twelve months, 902 feverish subjects and 681 non-feverish subjects were selected among the 7,017 people admitted in the paediatrics service of the Abobo general hospital for detection of malaria parasite. Among 1,583 selected subjects, 358 were carrying Plasmodium falciparum implying a total prevalence rate of 22.6%. The prevalence rate was 13.5% and 29.5% respectively in the asymptomatic subjects and symptomatic subjects. The highest proportions of positive thick smears were observed during the long rainy and dry seasons but, parasitaemia was the highest during the short dry season. In 31.5% of the cases, the asymptomatic carriers had a parasitic density higher or equal to 10,000 trophozoites/microl of blood and fever was not related to parasitic load. The prevalence rates of Plasmodium carriage and malaria were higher during the long rainy season. This study highlighted a considerable proportion of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum carriers. Improving environmental conditions should help to reduce this rate of carriage.

  8. HUB city steps: a 6-month lifestyle intervention improves blood pressure among a primarily African-American community.

    PubMed

    Zoellner, Jamie; Connell, Carol; Madson, Michael B; Thomson, Jessica L; Landry, Alicia S; Fontenot Molaison, Elaine; Blakely Reed, Vickie; Yadrick, Kathleen

    2014-04-01

    The effectiveness of community-based participatory research (CBPR) efforts to address the disproportionate burden of hypertension among African Americans remains largely untested. The objective of this 6-month, noncontrolled, pre-/post-experimental intervention was to examine the effectiveness of a CBPR intervention in achieving improvements in blood pressure, anthropometric measures, biological measures, and diet. Conducted in 2010, this multicomponent lifestyle intervention included motivational enhancement, social support provided by peer coaches, pedometer diary self-monitoring, and monthly nutrition and physical activity education sessions. Of 269 enrolled participants, 94% were African American and 85% were female. Statistical analysis included generalized linear mixed models using maximum likelihood estimation. From baseline to 6 months, blood pressure decreased significantly: mean (± standard deviation) systolic blood pressure decreased from 126.0 ± 19.1 to 119.6 ± 15.8 mm Hg, P=0.0002; mean diastolic blood pressure decreased from 83.2 ± 12.3 to 78.6 ± 11.1 mm Hg, P<0.0001). Sugar intake also decreased significantly as compared with baseline (by approximately 3 tsp; P<0.0001). Time differences were not apparent for any other measures. Results from this study suggest that CBPR efforts are a viable and effective strategy for implementing nonpharmacologic, multicomponent, lifestyle interventions that can help address the persistent racial and ethnic disparities in hypertension treatment and control. Outcome findings help fill gaps in the literature for effectively translating lifestyle interventions to reach and engage African-American communities to reduce the burden of hypertension.

  9. Remineralization of demineralized bone matrix in critical size cranial defects in rats: A 6-month follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Horváthy, Dénes B; Vácz, Gabriella; Toró, Ildikó; Szabó, Tamás; May, Zoltán; Duarte, Miguel; Hornyák, István; Szabó, Bence T; Dobó-Nagy, Csaba; Doros, Attila; Lacza, Zsombor

    2016-10-01

    The key drawback of using demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is its low initial mechanical stability due to the severe depletion of mineral content. In the present study, we investigated the long-term regeneration of DBM in a critical size bone defect model and investigated the remineralization after 6 months. Bone defects were created in the cranium of male Wistar rats which were filled with DBM or left empty as negative control. In vivo bone formation was monitored with computed tomography after 11, 19, and 26 weeks postoperatively. After 6 months, parietal bones were subjected to micro-CT. Mineral content was determined with spectrophotometric analysis. After 11 weeks the DBM-filled bone defects were completely closed, while empty defects were still open. Density of the DBM-treated group increased significantly while the controls remained unchanged. Quantitative analysis by micro-CT confirmed the in vivo results, bone volume/tissue volume was significantly lower in the controls than in the DBM group. The demineralization procedure depleted the key minerals of the bone to a very low level. Six months after implantation Ca, P, Na, Mg, Zn, and Cr contents were completely restored to the normal level, while K, Sr, and Mn were only partially restored. The remineralization process of DBM is largely complete by the 6th month after implantation in terms of bone density, structure, and key mineral levels. Although DBM does not provide sufficient sources for any of these minerals, it induces a faster and more complete regeneration process. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1336-1342, 2016.

  10. Visual and optical performance of diffractive multifocal intraocular lenses with different haptic designs: 6 month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mengmeng; Corpuz, Christine Carole C; Fujiwara, Megumi; Tomita, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate and compare the visual acuity outcomes and optical performances of eyes implanted with two diffractive multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) models with either a plate haptic design or a modified-C design. Methods This retrospective study comprised cataract patients who were implanted with either a plate haptic multifocal IOL model (AcrivaUD Reviol BB MFM 611 [VSY Biotechnology, Amsterdam, the Netherlands], group 1) or a modified-C haptic multifocal IOL model (AcrivaUD Reviol BB MF 613 [VSY Biotechnology, Amsterdam, the Netherlands], group 2) between June 2012 and May 2013. The 6 month postoperative visual acuity, refraction, defocus curve, contrast sensitivity, and wave-front aberration were evaluated and compared between these eyes, using different IOL models. Results One hundred fifty-eight eyes of 107 patients were included in this study. Significant improvement in visual acuities and refraction was found in both groups after cataract surgery (P<0.01). The visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were statistically better in group 1 than in group 2 (P<0.01). No statistically significant difference in the corneal higher-order aberrations was found between the two groups (P>0.05). However, the ocular higher-order aberrations in group 2 were significantly greater than in group 1 (P<0.05). Conclusion At 6 months postoperatively, both AcrivaUD Reviol BB MFM 611 IOL and AcrivaUD Reviol BB MF 613 IOL achieved excellent visual and refractive outcomes. The multifocal IOL model with plate haptic design resulted in better optical performances than that with the modified-C haptic design. PMID:24868143

  11. Changes of quality of life and cognitive function in individuals with Internet gaming disorder: A 6-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jae-A; Lee, Jun-Young; Jung, Hee Yeon; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Choi, Sam-Wook; Kim, Yeon Jin; Kim, Dai-Jin; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2016-12-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) contributes to poor quality of life (QOL) and cognitive dysfunction and is increasingly recognized as a social problem in various countries. However, no evidence exists to determine whether QOL and cognitive dysfunction stabilize after appropriate management. The present study addressed improvement in QOL and cognitive functioning associated with changes in addiction symptoms following outpatient management for IGD. A total of 84 young males (IGD group: N = 44, mean age: 19.159 ± 5.216 years; healthy control group: N = 40, mean age: 21.375 ± 6.307 years) participated in this study. We administered self-report questionnaires at baseline to assess clinical and psychological characteristics, and conducted traditional and computerized neuropsychological tests. Nineteen patients with IGD completed follow-up tests in the same manner after 6 months of outpatient treatment, which included pharmacotherapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. A baseline comparison of patients with IGD against the healthy control group showed that the IGD patients had more symptoms of depression and anxiety, higher degrees of impulsiveness and anger/aggression, higher levels of distress, poorer QOL, and impaired response inhibition. After 6 months of treatment, patients with IGD showed significant improvements in the severity of IGD, as well as in QOL, response inhibition, and executive functioning. Additionally, a stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed a favorable prognosis for IGD patients with low working memory functioning and high executive functioning at baseline. These results provide evidence regarding longitudinal changes in QOL and cognitive function following psychiatric intervention for IGD. Furthermore, it appears that response inhibition may be an objective state marker underlying the pathophysiology of IGD.

  12. Body composition at 6 months of life: comparison of air displacement plethysmography and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Fields, David A; Demerath, Ellen W; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Chandler-Laney, Paula C

    2012-11-01

    Body composition assessment during infancy is important because it is a critical period for obesity risk development, thus valid tools are needed to accurately, precisely, and quickly determine both fat and fat-free mass. The purpose of this study was to compare body composition estimates using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) at 6 months old. We assessed the agreement between whole body composition using DXA and ADP in 84 full-term average-for-gestational-age boys and girls using DXA (Lunar iDXA v11-30.062; Infant whole body analysis enCore 2007 software, GE, Fairfield, CT) and ADP (Infant Body Composition System v3.1.0, COSMED USA, Concord, CA). Although the correlations between DXA and ADP for %fat (r = 0.925), absolute fat mass (r = 0.969), and absolute fat-free mass (r = 0.945) were all significant, body composition estimates by DXA were greater for both %fat (31.1 ± 3.6% vs. 26.7 ± 4.7%; P < 0.001) and absolute fat mass (2,284 ± 449 vs. 1,921 ± 492 g; P < 0.001), and lower for fat-free mass (5,022 ± 532 vs. 5,188 ± 508 g; P < 0.001) vs. ADP. Inter-method differences in %fat decreased with increasing adiposity and differences in fat-free mass decreased with increasing infant age. Estimates of body composition determined by DXA and ADP at 6 months of age were highly correlated, but did differ significantly. Additional work is required to identify the technical basis for these rather large inter-method differences in infant body composition.

  13. Effects of growth hormone in women with abdominal adiposity: a 6-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Bredella, Miriam A.; Lin, Eleanor; Brick, Danielle J.; Gerweck, Anu V.; Harrington, Lindsey M.; Torriani, Martin; Thomas, Bijoy J.; Schoenfeld, David A.; Breggia, Anne; Rosen, Clifford J.; Hemphill, Linda C.; Wu, Zida; Rifai, Nader; Utz, Andrea L.; Miller, Karen K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Abdominal adiposity is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and decreased growth hormone (GH) secretion. The objective of our study was to determine the effects of GH in abdominally obese women on body composition and cardiovascular risk markers. Materials and Methods In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 79 obese premenopausal women received GH vs. placebo for six months. Primary endpoints were: 1) total abdominal (TAT) fat by CT (body composition) and 2) high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) (cardiovascular risk marker). Body composition was assessed by CT, DXA and proton MR spectroscopy. Serum cardiovascular risk markers, carotid intima-media thickness and endothelial function were measured. Results Mean 6-month GH dose was 1.7±0.1 mg/day, resulting in a mean IGF-1 SDS increase from −1.7±0.08 to −0.1±0.3 in the GH group. GH administration decreased TAT and hsCRP compared with placebo. In addition, it increased thigh muscle mass and lean body mass, and decreased subcutaneous abdominal and trunk fat, tPA, apoB, and apoB/LDL compared with placebo. Visceral adipose tissue decreased and IMCL increased within the GH group. Six-month change in IGF-1 levels was negatively associated with 6-month decrease in TAT and VAT. One subject had a 2-hour glucose >200 mg/mL at 3 months; four subjects, three of whom were randomized to GH, had 2-hour glucose levels >200 mg/mL at study end. Conclusion GH administration in abdominally obese premenopausal women exerts beneficial effects on body composition and cardiovascular risk markers, but is associated with a decrease in glucose tolerance in a minority of women. PMID:22275471

  14. Possible natural hybridization of two morphologically distinct species of Acropora (Cnidaria, Scleractinia) in the Pacific: fertilization and larval survival rates.

    PubMed

    Isomura, Naoko; Iwao, Kenji; Fukami, Hironobu

    2013-01-01

    Natural hybridization of corals in the Indo-Pacific has been considered rather rare. However, field studies have observed many corals with intermediate interspecific or unusual morphologies. Given that the existence of F1 hybrids with intermediate interspecific morphologies has been proven in the Caribbean, hybrids may also inhabit the Indo-Pacific and occur more frequently than expected. In this study, we focused on two morphologically different species, Acropora florida and A. intermedia, and performed crossing experiments at Akajima Island, Japan. Results showed that these species could hybridize in both directions via eggs and sperm, but that fertilization rates significantly differed according to which species provided eggs. These results are similar to those reported from the Caribbean. Although all embryos developed normally to the planular larval stage, the developmental processes of some hybrid embryos were delayed by approximately 1 h compared with conspecific embryos, suggesting that fertilization occurred 1 h later in interspecific crosses than in intraspecific crosses. More successful hybridization could occur under conditions with low numbers of conspecific colonies. Additionally, a comparison of survival rates between hybrid and intraspecific larvae revealed that intra- and interspecific larvae produced from eggs of A. florida survived for significantly longer than those produced from eggs of A. intermedia. Considering these data, under specific conditions, hybrids can be expected to be produced and survive in nature in the Pacific. Furthermore, we identified one colony with intermediate morphology between A. florida and A. intermedia in the field. This colony was fertilized only by eggs of A. florida, with high fertilization rates, suggesting that this colony would be a hybrid of these two species and might be backcrossed.

  15. Survival rates and lifetime reproduction of breeding male Cooper’s Hawks in Wisconsin, 1980-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenfield, Robert N.; Bielefeldt, John; Rosenfield, Laura J.; Booms, Travis L.; Bozek, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    There are few published data on annual survival and no reports of lifetime reproduction for breeding Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperii). Breeding males (n  =  105) in central and southeastern Wisconsin had an annual mortality rate of 19%, or a survival rate of 81% for birds ≤10 years of age. We did not detect significant differences in mortality rates between urban and rural habitats, nor between the earlier 13 years and later 13 years of this study. Male Cooper's Hawks produced from zero to 32 nestlings during their lifetimes. Body mass or size appeared unrelated to annual survivorship and lifetime reproduction, although lifetime reproduction was correlated strongly with longevity of breeding males. Fifteen of 66 males (23%) produced most (53%) of the nestlings. Our studies occurred in an area where breeding populations may be increasing with some of the highest reported productivity indices and nesting densities for this species. Habitat used for nesting on our Wisconsin study areas may be less important for survivorship and lifetime reproduction than acquisition of a nesting area in which a male will breed throughout his life.

  16. Sulfide toxicity: Mechanical ventilation and hypotension determine survival rate and brain necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Baldelli, R.J.; Green, F.H.Y.; Auer, R.N. )

    1993-09-01

    Occupational exposure to hydrogen sulfide is one of the leading causes of sudden death in the workplace, especially in the oil and gas industry. High-dose exposure causes immediate neurogenic apnea and death; lower doses cause [open quotes]knockdown[close quotes] (transient loss of consciousness, with apnea). Because permanent neurological sequelae have been reported, the authors sought to determine whether sulfide can directly kill central nervous system neurons. Ventilated and unventilated rats were studied to allow administration of higher doses of sulfide and to facilitate physiological monitoring. It was extremely difficult to produce cerebral necrosis with sulfide. Only one of eight surviving unventilated rats given high-dose sulfide (a dose that was lethal in [ge]50% of animals) showed cerebral necrosis. Mechanical ventilation shifted the dose that was lethal in 50% of the animals to 190 mg/kg from 94 mg/kg in the unventilated rats. Sulfide was found to potently depress blood pressure. Cerebral necrosis was absent in the ventilated rats (n = 11), except in one rat that showed profound and sustained hypotension to [le]35 Torr. Electroencephalogram activity ceased during exposure but recovered when the animals regained consciousness. The authors conclude that very-high-dose sulfide is incapable of producing cerebral necrosis by a direct histotoxic effect. 32 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Temperature- and Age-Dependent Survival, Development, and Oviposition Rates of the Pupal Parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Skovgård, Henrik; Nachman, Gösta

    2016-08-01

    The combined effect of temperature and age on development, survival, attack rate, and oviposition of the parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Perkins) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) exploiting house fly pupae was investigated by conducting life-table experiments at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35°C. Temperature had a pronounced effect on survival and development of the immature stages. Survival was highest at 25°C, where 88.5% of the parasitized host pupae resulted in adult parasitoids, and lowest at 35°C when only 3.78% emerged. Females constituted between 50% (at 20°C) and 100% (at 35°C) of the surviving immatures. Males developed faster than females, with the shortest developmental times at 30°C (18.18 d for males and 19.41 d for females). Longevity of adult females decreased with temperature from 80 d at 15°C to 18 d at 35°C. Total attack rate of female parasitoids was highest at 20°C (106 hosts per female), and life-time reproduction highest at 20°C and 25°C (about 60 offspring per female). Sex ratio was female biased (65% females). A generic model was used to estimate and predict the temperature effect on the intrinsic rate of increase (rm), the net reproduction rate (R0), and the generation time (G). The model predicted that rm peaks at 33.5°C (rm = 0.182 d(-1)), that maximum R0 is reached at 27.2°C (R0 = 50.2), and that the shortest generation time occurs at 34.5°C (G = 21.1 d). Doubling time was 4.19 d at 33°C. In the temperature range between 20°C and 30°C, S. cameroni has the potential to be an efficient control agent against nuisance flies.

  18. Daily survival rates for nests of Black Skimmers from a core breeding area of the Southeastern USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Gillian L.; Sanders, Felicia J.; Gerard, Patrick D.; Jodice, Patrick G.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the reproductive success of Black Skimmers (Rynchops niger) throughout the southeastern USA where availability of undisturbed beaches for nesting is limited. Daily survival rates (DSR) of nests were examined at three nesting sites in Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge (CRNWR), South Carolina, USA, 2009–2010. The percent of successful nests (n  =  346 nests) ranged from 42–69% among colony sites when data were pooled across both years. The DSR of nests was primarily related to colony site, predation risk, height of high tide, and clutch size. Predation and overwash were the principal causes of identifiable nest loss, each accounting for ∼33% of nest failures during the two study years. Because of the challenges of resighting skimmer chicks, we were not able to measure chick survival effectively and therefore accurate measures of productivity remain elusive. High variability in nest success among sites within close proximity to each other (<20 km) suggests factors at local scales such as disturbance, predation, and overwash events strongly influenced nest success of Black Skimmers during these 2 years as opposed to more region-wide stressors such as tropical storms or food availability. Although time-intensive techniques to control predators do exist, management options to limit flooding and overwash are far more limited. Conservation of Black Skimmers in the southeastern USA would benefit from coordinated, multi-state efforts to measure nest and chick survival.

  19. Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Improves Survival in Patients With Hypopharyngeal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Paximadis, Peter; Yoo, George; Lin, Ho-Sheng; Jacobs, John; Sukari, Ammar; Dyson, Greg; Christensen, Michael; Kim, Harold

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively review our institutional experience with hypopharyngeal carcinoma with respect to treatment modality. Methods and Materials: A total of 70 patients with hypopharyngeal cancer treated between 1999 and 2009 were analyzed for functional and survival outcomes. The treatments included surgery alone (n = 5), surgery followed by radiotherapy (RT) (n = 3), surgery followed by chemoradiotherapy (CRT) (n = 13), RT alone (n = 2), CRT alone (n = 22), induction chemotherapy followed by RT (n = 3), and induction chemotherapy followed by CRT (n = 22). Results: The median follow-up was 18 months. The median overall survival and disease-free survival for all patients was 28.3 and 17.6 months, respectively. The 1- and 2-year local control rate for all patients was 87.1% and 80%. CRT, given either as primary therapy or in the adjuvant setting, improved overall survival and disease-free survival compared with patients not receiving CRT. The median overall survival and disease-free survival for patients treated with CRT was 36.7 and 17.6 months vs. 14.0 and 8.0 months, respectively (p < .01). Of the patients initially treated with an organ-preserving approach, 4 (8.2%) required salvage laryngectomy for local recurrence or persistent disease; 8 (16.3%) and 12 (24.5%) patients were dependent on a percutaneous gastrostomy and tracheostomy tube, respectively. The 2-year laryngoesophageal dysfunction-free survival rate for patients treated with an organ-preserving approach was estimated at 31.7%. Conclusions: Concurrent CRT improves survival in patients with hypopharyngeal cancer. CRT given with conventional radiation techniques yields poor functional outcomes, and future efforts should be directed at determining the feasibility of pharyngeal-sparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy in patients with hypopharyngeal tumors.

  20. Does Habitat Heterogeneity in a Multi-Use Landscape Influence Survival Rates and Density of a Native Mesocarnivore?

    PubMed Central

    Gese, Eric M.; Thompson, Craig M.

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between predators, prey, and habitat have long been of interest to applied and basic ecologists. As a native Great Plains mesocarnivore of North America, swift foxes (Vulpes velox) depended on the historic disturbance regime to maintain open grassland habitat. With a decline in native grasslands and subsequent impacts to prairie specialists, notably the swift fox, understanding the influence of habitat on native predators is paramount to future management efforts. From 2001 to 2004, we investigated the influence of vegetation structure on swift fox population ecology (survival and density) on and around the Piñon Canyon Maneuver Site, southeastern Colorado, USA. We monitored 109 foxes on 6 study sites exposed to 3 different disturbance regimes (military training, grazing, unused). On each site we evaluated vegetation structure based on shrub density, basal coverage, vegetation height, and litter. Across all sites, annual fox survival rates ranged from 0.50 to 0.92 for adults and 0.27 to 0.78 for juveniles. Among sites, population estimates ranged from 1 to 7 foxes per 10 km transect. Fox density or survival was not related to the relative abundance of prey. A robust model estimating fox population size and incorporating both shrub density and percent basal cover as explanatory variables far outperformed all other models. Our results supported the idea that, in our region, swift foxes were shortgrass prairie specialists and also indicated a relationship between habitat quality and landscape heterogeneity. We suggest the regulation of swift fox populations may be based on habitat quality through landscape-mediated survival, and managers may effectively use disturbance regimes to create or maintain habitat for this native mesocarnivore. PMID:24963713

  1. 38 CFR 3.23 - Improved pension rates-Veterans and surviving spouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 5312. Each time there is an increase under 38 U.S.C. 5312, the actual rates will be published in the...), as increased from time to time under 38 U.S.C 5312. Each time there is an increase under 38 U.S.C... Veterans Affairs to do so would work a hardship on the veteran.) There is a rebuttable presumption that...

  2. Effects of slow freezing procedure on late blastocyst gene expression and survival rate in rabbit.

    PubMed

    Saenz-de-Juano, Maria Desemparats; Marco-Jiménez, Francisco; Peñaranda, David S; Joly, Thierry; Vicente, José S

    2012-10-01

    Studies of embryo cryopreservation efficiency have focused mainly on technical and embryo factors. To determine how a slow freezing process affects embryo and fetal development, we studied in vivo development ability after the freezing procedure by assessing blastocyst development at Day 6, implantation, and birth rates. A transcriptional microarray study was also performed to compare gene expression of 6-day-old rabbit embryos previously frozen and transferred into recipient rabbit females to their in vivo counterparts. Our goal was to study which alteration caused by the freezing procedure still remained in late blastocyst stage just at the time when the implantation process began. A microarray specifically designed to study rabbit gene expression profiling was used in this study. Lower implantation and birth rates were obtained in frozen embryos than in the control group (29.9% and 25.7% vs 88.5% and 70.8% for frozen and control embryos, respectively). Likewise, differences were also observed in gene expression profiles. Compared to 6-day-old in vivo-derived embryos, viable frozen embryos presented 70 differentially expressed genes, 24 upregulated and 46 downregulated. In conclusion, our findings showed that the slow freezing process affected late blastocyst development, implantation, and birth rates and that the gene expression alterations identified at late blastocyst stage could be useful in understanding the differences in developmental potential observed and the deficiencies that might hinder implantation and fetal development.

  3. Maternal Nutrition and Glycaemic Index during Pregnancy Impacts on Offspring Adiposity at 6 Months of Age—Analysis from the ROLO Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Horan, Mary K.; McGowan, Ciara A.; Gibney, Eileen R.; Byrne, Jacinta; Donnelly, Jean M.; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of adult obesity and metabolic disease. Diet and lifestyle in pregnancy influence fetal programming; however the influence of specific dietary components, including low glycaemic index (GI), remains complex. We examined the effect of a maternal low GI dietary intervention on offspring adiposity at 6 months and explored the association between diet and lifestyle factors in pregnancy and infant body composition at 6 months. 280 6-month old infant and mother pairs from the control (n = 142) and intervention group (n = 138), who received low GI dietary advice in pregnancy, in the ROLO study were analysed. Questionnaires (food diaries and lifestyle) were completed during pregnancy, followed by maternal lifestyle and infant feeding questionnaires at 6 months postpartum. Maternal anthropometry was measured throughout pregnancy and at 6 months post-delivery, along with infant anthropometry. No difference was found in 6 months infant adiposity between control and intervention groups. Maternal trimester three GI, trimester two saturated fats and trimester one and three sodium intake were positively associated with offspring adiposity, while trimester two and three vitamin C intake was negatively associated. In conclusion associations were observed between maternal dietary intake and GI during pregnancy and offspring adiposity at 6 months of age. PMID:26742066

  4. Metabolic and protein interaction sub-networks controlling the proliferation rate of cancer cells and their impact on patient survival.

    PubMed

    Feizi, Amir; Bordel, Sergio

    2013-10-24

    Cancer cells can have a broad scope of proliferation rates. Here we aim to identify the molecular mechanisms that allow some cancer cell lines to grow up to 4 times faster than other cell lines. The correlation of gene expression profiles with the growth rate in 60 different cell lines has been analyzed using several genome-scale biological networks and new algorithms. New possible regulatory feedback loops have been suggested and the known roles of several cell cycle related transcription factors have been confirmed. Over 100 growth-correlated metabolic sub-networks have been identified, suggesting a key role of simultaneous lipid synthesis and degradation in the energy supply of the cancer cells growth. Many metabolic sub-networks involved in cell line proliferation appeared also to correlate negatively with the survival expectancy of colon cancer patients.

  5. Survival Rate and Hematological Responses with Temperature Changes of Red Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus akaara in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Youn; Han, Kyeong Ho; Cho, Jae Kwon; Kim, Kyong Min; Son, Maeng Hyun; Park, Jae Min; Kang, Hee Woong

    2016-01-01

    The effect of sudden changes of water temperature (WT) on the survival rate and physiological responses of the red spotted grouper (Epinephelus akaara) were examined by manipulating WT control system for 9 days. Experimental condition was divided in two different regimes at low (from 10°C to 4°C, decreased 1℃/d) and high (from 28°C to 34°C, increased 1°C/d) WT. Survival rate of experimental fishes were observed, and determined the changes of hematological characteristics by analyzing plasma levels of cortisol, glucose, total protein, and electrolytes (Na+, Cl–, K+). No mortality was observed until low WT 6°C (144 h) and high WT 32°C (96 h), and 100% mortality was observed at low WT 4°C (216 h) and high WT 35°C (171 h). Plasma levels of cortisol and glucose increased rapidly as decreasing WT, and the loss of swimming ability and respiration response was observed at low WT 7°C and high WT 34°C conditions. PMID:27660825

  6. BubR1 as a prognostic marker for recurrence-free survival rates in epithelial ovarian cancers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Y-K; Choi, E; Kim, M A; Park, P-G; Park, N-H; Lee, H

    2009-01-01

    Background: Epithelial ovarian cancer is one of the most lethal malignancies, and has a high recurrence rate. Thus, prognostic markers for recurrence are crucial for the care of ovarian cancer. As ovarian cancers frequently exhibit chromosome instability, we aimed at assessing the prognostic significance of two key mitotic kinases, BubR1 and Aurora A. Methods: We analysed paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 160 ovarian cancer patients whose clinical outcomes had been tracked after first-line treatment. Results: The median recurrence-free survival in patients with a positive and negative expression of BubR1 was 27 and 83 months, respectively (P<0.001). A positive BubR1 expression was also associated with advanced stage, serous histology and high grade. In contrast, Aurora A immunostaining did not correlate with any of the clinical parameters analysed. Conclusion: BubR1, but not Aurora A, is a prognostic marker for recurrence-free survival rates in epithelial ovarian cancers. PMID:19603021

  7. Comparison of Survival Rates, Tumor Stages, and Localization in between Obese and Nonobese Patients with Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, Hakan; Oguz, Basak; Ocak Serin, Sibel; Okuturlar, Yildiz; Gunaldi, Meral; Erismis, Betul; Ozdemir, Bahar; Tural, Deniz; Hursitoglu, Mehmet; Harmankaya, Ozlem; Kumbasar, Abdulbaki

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. In this study we tried to determine the association between body-mass index (BMI), survival rate, and the stage of tumor at the time of diagnosis in patients with gastric cancer. Methods. A total of 270 gastric cancer patients' hospital records were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were grouped according to their BMI at the time of tumor diagnosis. Tumor stages at admission were compared according to their BMI values. Results. There were no differences in OS among BMI subgroups (p = 0.230). The percent of patients with stage III tumor was significantly higher in nonobese while the percent of stage IV tumor was surprisingly higher in obese patients (p was 0.011 and 0.004, resp.). Percent of patients who did not have any surgical intervention was significantly lower in overweight and obese patients than normal and/or underweight patients. Conclusions. At the time of diagnosis, obese patients had significantly higher percent of stage IV tumor than nonobese patients. Despite of that, there were no differences in survival rates among BMI subgroups. Our study results are consistent with “obesity paradox” in gastric cancer patients. We also did not find any relationship between BMI and localization of gastric tumor. PMID:27418926

  8. Dose-rate models for human survival after exposure to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.D.; Morris, M.D.; Young, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews new estimates of the L/sub 50/ in man by Mole and by Rotblat, the biological processes contributing to hematologic death, the collection of animal experiments dealing with hematologic death, and the use of regression analysis to make new estimates of human mortality based on all relevant animal studies. Regression analysis of animal mortality data has shown that mortality is dependent strongly on dose rate, species, body weight, and time interval over which the exposure is delivered. The model has predicted human LD/sub 50/s of 194, 250, 310, and 360 rad to marrow when the exposure time is a minute, an hour, a day, and a week, respectively.

  9. [Efficacy of a program for tobacco use cessation with a combined substitution treatment of nicotine (patches plus chewing gum) at 6 months of follow-up].

    PubMed

    Toral, J; Ortega, F; Cejudo, P; Güalberto, M R; Sánchez, H; Montemayor, T

    1998-06-01

    Our aim was to assess the efficacy after 6 months of combined smoking cessation therapy using nicotine substitution with both chewing gum and patches. Sixty-six (25 women, 41 men) heavy smokers (38.04 packs/year and 8.42 mean score on Fagerström test) were followed between September 1995 and March 1997. Most patients were referred by respiratory, cardiology or ear-nose-and-throat outpatient clinics. The patients were prescribed 24-hour nicotine substitution therapy with 21 mg patches, plus chewing gum providing 2 mg of nicotine (3 to 10 per day) for a minimum of 8 weeks and a maximum of 12, with gradually decreasing doses. The patients were checked 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 weeks after enrollment. Expired air carbon monoxide was measured to confirm abstinence at each checkup and a simple questionnaire was filled in to assess abstinence syndrome and detect the presence of treatment side effects. Rate of abstinence achieved with this protocol after six months of follow-up was 37.9%. The failure rate was highest in the first week (33%) but gradually decreased until week 12. No patients had to abandon treatment due to side effects.

  10. Attention to eyes is present but in decline in 2-6-month-old infants later diagnosed with autism.

    PubMed

    Jones, Warren; Klin, Ami

    2013-12-19

    Deficits in eye contact have been a hallmark of autism since the condition's initial description. They are cited widely as a diagnostic feature and figure prominently in clinical instruments; however, the early onset of these deficits has not been known. Here we show in a prospective longitudinal study that infants later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) exhibit mean decline in eye fixation from 2 to 6 months of age, a pattern not observed in infants who do not develop ASD. These observations mark the earliest known indicators of social disability in infancy, but also falsify a prior hypothesis: in the first months of life, this basic mechanism of social adaptive action--eye looking--is not immediately diminished in infants later diagnosed with ASD; instead, eye looking appears to begin at normative levels prior to decline. The timing of decline highlights a narrow developmental window and reveals the early derailment of processes that would otherwise have a key role in canalizing typical social development. Finally, the observation of this decline in eye fixation--rather than outright absence--offers a promising opportunity for early intervention that could build on the apparent preservation of mechanisms subserving reflexive initial orientation towards the eyes.

  11. A Comparison of Endothelial Cell Loss in Combined Cataract and MIGS (Hydrus) Procedure to Phacoemulsification Alone: 6-Month Results

    PubMed Central

    Fea, Antonio M.; Consolandi, Giulia; Pignata, Giulia; Cannizzo, Paola Maria Loredana; Lavia, Carlo; Billia, Filippo; Rolle, Teresa; Grignolo, Federico M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the corneal endothelial cell loss after phacoemulsification, alone or combined with microinvasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS), in nonglaucomatous versus primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) eyes affected by age-related cataract. Methods. 62 eyes of 62 patients were divided into group 1 (n = 25, affected by age-related cataract) and group 2 (n = 37, affected by age-related cataract and POAG). All patients underwent cataract surgery. Group 2 was divided into subgroups A (n = 19, cataract surgery alone) and B (n = 18, cataract surgery and MIGS). Prior to and 6 months after surgery the patients' endothelium was studied. Main outcomes were CD (cell density), SD (standard deviation), CV (coefficient of variation), and 6A (hexagonality coefficient) variations after surgeries. Results. There were no significant differences among the groups concerning preoperative endothelial parameters. The differences in CD before and after surgery were significant in all groups: 9.1% in group 1, 17.24% in group 2A, and 11.71% in group 2B. All endothelial parameters did not significantly change after surgery. Conclusions. Phacoemulsification determined a loss of endothelial cells in all groups. After surgery the change in endothelial parameters after MIGS was comparable to the ones of patients who underwent cataract surgery alone. PMID:26664740

  12. Efficacy of a single computer-tailored e-mail for smoking cessation: results after 6 months.

    PubMed

    Te Poel, Fam; Bolman, Catherine; Reubsaet, Astrid; de Vries, Hein

    2009-12-01

    To date, few Internet-delivered smoking cessation interventions have been tested. This study tested the efficacy, understandability, credibility and personal relevance of an e-mail-delivered computer-tailored smoking cessation intervention. It included tailored action plan feedback, as recent studies have demonstrated the importance of planning in facilitating quitting smoking. Participants (Dutch adults) were randomly assigned to the intervention (computer-tailored e-mail; N = 224) or the control group (generic, non-tailored e-mail; N = 234). The results 6 months after baseline (N = 195) showed that significantly more participants in the intervention group reported not having smoked in the last 24 hours (21.5%) and 7 days (20.4%) in contrast with participants in the control group (9.8 and 7.8%, respectively). Intention-to-treat analyses revealed similar results, though overall lower quitting percentages. Furthermore, participants in the intervention group appreciated the computer-tailored e-mail significantly more in terms of understandability, credibility and personal relevance. Hence, the computer-tailored intervention is effective for the Dutch smoking population motivated to quit smoking. Further research is needed into the efficacy of the intervention for smokers who are not motivated to quit smoking and into the benefits of (multiple) e-mail-delivered tailored letters with tailored action plan feedback over and above tailoring without action plan feedback.

  13. Recovery from visual neglect after right hemisphere stroke: does starting point in cancellation tasks change after 6 months?

    PubMed

    Kettunen, J E; Nurmi, M; Dastidar, P; Jehkonen, M

    2012-01-01

    In the acute phase of stroke, patients with left visual neglect (VN) automatically orient to the right hemispace. This study examined the presence of rightward bias after right hemisphere stroke within 10 days of stroke onset and after 6 months. Our sample comprised 43 patients and 49 healthy controls. Presence of VN was evaluated with the six conventional subtests of the Behavioral Inattention Test (BITC). Starting points were determined in three BITC cancellation tasks by measuring the distance between the starting point and the median line of the stimulus sheet in centimeters. Activities of daily living (ADL) were assessed with the Barthel Index. At baseline VN patients showed more robust rightward bias than patients without VN. The magnitude of rightward bias decreased clearly in the VN patients at follow-up. A favorable ADL outcome was observed in 90% of the patients with VN and in all of the patients without VN. The magnitude of rightward bias differed clearly between the patient groups and controls. Our result implies that VN was likely to have improved as measured by BITC sum scores, but symptoms of rightward attention bias were still detected. We therefore suggest that, for clinical purposes, it is important that attention bias is measured accurately after right hemisphere stroke.

  14. Carbon-dioxide laser-assisted tonsil ablation for adults with chronic tonsillitis: a 6-month follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Remacle, Marc; Keghian, Jerome; Lawson, Georges; Jamart, Jacques

    2003-09-01

    Sixty-six adult patients with a mean age of 44 years (range: 16-78) with chronic tonsillitis underwent laser-assisted tonsil ablation between January 1998 and January 2002. Instead of vaporization of the tonsil surface, extended serial tonsillectomy was performed, namely, vaporizing 80-90% of the palatine lymphoid tissue. Of the 66 patients, 49 (74%) underwent local anesthesia (LA group) and 17 (26%) general anesthesia (GA group). In the LA group, one surgical session sufficed for 40 patients (82%); two sessions were required for seven patients (14%) and three sessions for two patients (4%). Monopolar electrocautery was necessary to ensure hemostasis in two patients (3%). Median value results revealed a pain-intensity score of 4.5 (range: 0-10) for the GA group and 5 (range: 0-10) for the LA group. Pain lasted for 3 days (range: 0-15) in both groups (nonsignificant difference). A satisfaction score of 10 (range: 1-10) was recorded for the GA group and 8 (range: 1-10) for the LA group (P=0.029). The minimum follow-up was 6 months. Forty of the 49 LA group patients (82%) and 16 of the 17 GA group patients (94%) would recommend the surgical procedure and would accept undergoing the same operation again (nonsignificant difference).

  15. Factors influencing breastfeeding exclusivity during the first 6 months of life in developing countries: a quantitative and qualitative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Balogun, Olukunmi Omobolanle; Dagvadorj, Amarjagal; Anigo, Kola Mathew; Ota, Erika; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2015-10-01

    Breastfeeding is the most advantageous feeding option for infants, and epidemiological studies provide evidence for its promotion. The objective of this review was to comprehensively delineate the barriers and facilitators of exclusive breastfeeding of infants aged 0-6 months old by mothers in developing countries. A search of CINAHL, MEDLINE and PsycINFO was carried out to retrieve studies from January 2001 to January 2014. Using our inclusion criteria, we selected studies that described barriers and facilitators of exclusive breastfeeding. Qualitative and quantitative studies were considered. Twenty-five studies involving 11 025 participants from 19 countries were included. Barriers and facilitators of exclusive/full breastfeeding were identified, analysed tabulated and summarised in this review. Maternal employment was the most frequently cited barrier to exclusive breastfeeding. Maternal perceptions of insufficient breast milk supply was pervasive among studies while medical barriers related to illness of mothers and/or infants as well as breast problems, rather than health care providers. Socio-cultural factors such as maternal and significant other's beliefs about infant nutrition also often constitute strong barriers to exclusive breastfeeding. Despite these barriers, mothers in developing countries often possess certain personal characteristics and develop strategic plans to enhance their success at breastfeeding. Health care providers should be informed about the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding and provide practical anticipatory guidance targeted at overcoming these barriers. In so doing, health care providers in developing countries can contribute to improving maternal and child health outcomes.

  16. Prevalence of Corneal Astigmatism in Tohono O'odham Native American Children 6 Months to 8 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Velma; Miller, Joseph M.; Schwiegerling, Jim; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E.; Green, Tina K.; Messer, Dawn H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To describe the prevalence of corneal astigmatism in infants and young children who are members of a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of refractive astigmatism. Methods. The prevalence of corneal astigmatism was assessed by obtaining infant keratometer (IK4) measurements from 1235 Tohono O'odham children, aged 6 months to 8 years. Results. The prevalence of corneal astigmatism >2.00 D was lower in the 1- to <2-year-old age group when compared with all other age groups, except the 6- to <7-year-old group. The magnitude of mean corneal astigmatism was significantly lower in the 1- to <2-year age group than in the 5- to <6-, 6- to <7-, and 7- to <8-year age groups. Corneal astigmatism was with-the-rule (WTR) in 91.4% of astigmatic children (≥1.00 D). Conclusions. The prevalence and mean amount of corneal astigmatism were higher than reported in non–Native American populations. Mean astigmatism increased from 1.43 D in 1-year-olds to nearly 2.00 D by school age. PMID:21460261

  17. Psychosocial sequelae of the 1989 Newcastle earthquake: I. Community disaster experiences and psychological morbidity 6 months post-disaster.

    PubMed

    Carr, V J; Lewin, T J; Webster, R A; Hazell, P L; Kenardy, J A; Carter, G L

    1995-05-01

    A stratified random sample of 3007 Australian adults completed a screening questionnaire 6 months after the 1989 Newcastle earthquake. Information was obtained on initial earthquake experiences and reactions, use of specific services, social support, coping strategies and psychological morbidity. This questionnaire was the first phase of the Quake Impact Study, a longitudinal project investigating the psychosocial impact of the earthquake. Two weighted indices of exposure were developed: a threat index, which measured exposure to injury or the possibility of injury; and a disruption index, which measured experiences of property damage, displacement and other losses. Levels of exposure to threat and disruption events were significant predictors of morbidity on both the General Health Questionnaire and Impact of Event Scale, as were coping style and gender. Effects of exposure to threat and disruption were largely additive, with higher exposure being associated with greater use of support services, higher perceived stressfulness and more severe psychological morbidity. Use of avoidance as a coping strategy, female gender, lower social support and being older were also associated with higher post-disaster psychological distress. It was estimated that 14.8% of the population was exposed to high levels of threat or disruption, of whom approximately 25% experienced moderate to severe psychological distress as a direct result of the disaster. It was further estimated that 18.3% of those exposed to high levels of threat were at risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder, representing approximately 2% of the city's adult population.

  18. Chronic Uterine Inversion Presenting as a Painless Vaginal Mass at 6 Months Post Partum: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ali, Eram; Kumar, Manisha

    2016-05-01

    Uterine inversion is an abnormal protrusion of internal surface of relaxed uterus through the vaginal orifice. Its causes can be broadly classified as puerperal and non-puerperal with puerperal uterine inversion more common than non-puerperal uterine inversion. Acute inversions occurring immediately, or within 24 hours post-partum are the most common type. Chronic Uterine Inversions (CUI) occurring more than four weeks after the delivery are rare identities. There differential diagnosis includes prolapsed fibroids and endometrial polyp. Chronic nature of these inversions makes the restoration of the normal position of the uterus per vaginal difficult contrary to acute inversions which can be reposited more easily. We hereby present a case of 28-year-old lady who presented with a painless vaginal mass at 6 months post-partum. She was diagnosed as a case of CUI based on clinical and sonographic examination. Inverted uterus was successfully restored through per abdominal approach. The presentation of CUI as a painless vaginal mass at delayed post-partum period is rare and therefore reported.

  19. Predicting mothers' decisions to introduce complementary feeding at 6 months. An investigation using an extended theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Kyra; Daniels, Lynne; White, Katherine M; Murray, Nicole; Walsh, Anne

    2011-06-01

    In Australia and other developed countries there is poor adherence to guidelines recommending the introduction of complementary feeding to infants at 6 months of age. We aimed to investigate, via adopting a theory of planned behaviour framework and incorporating additional normative and demographic influences, mothers' complementary feeding intentions and behaviour. Participants were 375 primiparas who completed an initial questionnaire (infant age 13±3 weeks) that assessed the theory of planned behaviour constructs of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control, as well as group norm and additional maternal and infant variables of mothers' age, education level, weight status perception, current maternal feeding practices, and infant birth weight. Approximately, 3 months after completion of the main questionnaire, mothers completed a follow-up questionnaire that assessed the age in months at which the infant was first introduced to solids. The theory of planned behaviour variables of attitude and subjective norm, along with group norm, predicted intentions, with intention, mothers' age (older more likely), and weight status perception (overweight less likely) predicting behaviour. Overall, the results highlight the importance of attitudes, normative influences, and individual characteristics in complementary feeding decision-making which should be considered when designing interventions aimed at improving adherence to current maternal feeding guidelines.

  20. Walking direction triggers visuo-spatial orienting in 6-month-old infants and adults: An eye tracking study.

    PubMed

    Bardi, Lara; Di Giorgio, Elisa; Lunghi, Marco; Troje, Nikolaus F; Simion, Francesca

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigates whether the walking direction of a biological motion point-light display can trigger visuo-spatial attention in 6-month-old infants. A cueing paradigm and the recording of eye movements in a free viewing condition were employed. A control group of adults took part in the experiment. Participants were presented with a central point-light display depicting a walking human, followed by a single peripheral target. In experiment 1, the central biological motion stimulus depicting a walking human could be upright or upside-down and was facing either left or right. Results revealed that the latency of saccades toward the peripheral target was modulated by the congruency between the facing direction of the cue and the position of the target. In infants, as well as in adults, saccade latencies were shorter when the target appeared in the position signalled by the facing direction of the point-light walker (congruent trials) than when the target appeared in the contralateral position (incongruent trials). This cueing effect was present only when the biological motion cue was presented in the upright condition and not when the display was inverted. In experiment 2, a rolling point-light circle with unambiguous direction was adopted. Here, adults were influenced by the direction of the central cue. However no effect of congruency was found in infants. This result suggests that biological motion has a priority as a cue for spatial attention during development.

  1. Top-down modulation in the infant brain: Learning-induced expectations rapidly affect the sensory cortex at 6 months

    PubMed Central

    Emberson, Lauren L.; Richards, John E.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    Recent theoretical work emphasizes the role of expectation in neural processing, shifting the focus from feed-forward cortical hierarchies to models that include extensive feedback (e.g., predictive coding). Empirical support for expectation-related feedback is compelling but restricted to adult humans and nonhuman animals. Given the considerable differences in neural organization, connectivity, and efficiency between infant and adult brains, it is a crucial yet open question whether expectation-related feedback is an inherent property of the cortex (i.e., operational early in development) or whether expectation-related feedback develops with extensive experience and neural maturation. To determine whether infants’ expectations about future sensory input modulate their sensory cortices without the confounds of stimulus novelty or repetition suppression, we used a cross-modal (audiovisual) omission paradigm and used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to record hemodynamic responses in the infant cortex. We show that the occipital cortex of 6-month-old infants exhibits the signature of expectation-based feedback. Crucially, we found that this region does not respond to auditory stimuli if they are not predictive of a visual event. Overall, these findings suggest that the young infant’s brain is already capable of some rudimentary form of expectation-based feedback. PMID:26195772

  2. No harmful effect of different Coca-cola beverages after 6 months of intake on rat testes.

    PubMed

    Tóthová, Lubomíra; Hodosy, Július; Mettenburg, Kathryn; Fábryová, Helena; Wagnerová, Alexandra; Bábíčková, Janka; Okuliarová, Monika; Zeman, Michal; Celec, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Our laboratory recently reported that a 3-month exposure of rats to cola-like beverages induced sex hormone changes. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of various types of Coca-cola intake with different composition for 6 months on oxidative status in testes and testosterone in adult male rats. Fifty adult male Wistar rats were divided into control group drinking water, and groups drinking different Coca-cola beverages (regular Coca-cola, Coca-cola caffeine-free, Coca-cola Light and Coca-cola Zero). Oxidative and carbonyl stress markers were measured in the testicular tissue to assess oxidative status together with testicular and plasma testosterone. StAR expression in testes as a marker of steroidogenesis was quantified. No significant differences were found between the groups in any of the measured parameters. In conclusion, oxidative and carbonyl stress in testicular tissue were not influenced by drinking any type of Coca-cola. Additionally, testosterone in testes and in plasma, as well as testicular StAR expression were comparable among the groups.

  3. A randomized, double-blind trial comparing sertraline and fluoxetine 6-month treatment in obese patients with Binge Eating Disorder.

    PubMed

    Leombruni, Paolo; Pierò, Andrea; Lavagnino, Luca; Brustolin, Annalisa; Campisi, Stefania; Fassino, Secondo

    2008-08-01

    Previous studies support the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), in overweight patients with Binge Eating Disorder (BED), but results are far from conclusive. Sertraline has been studied less extensively, and there have been a few studies concerning SSRIs that report follow-up data at more than 12 weeks of follow-up. The present study assesses the effectiveness of sertraline and fluoxetine over a period of 24 weeks in obese patients with BED (DSM-IV-TR). Forty-two obese outpatients were randomized and assigned to one of two different drug treatments: 22 were treated with sertraline (dose range: 100-200 mg/day) and 20 with fluoxetine (dose range: 40-80 mg/day). Subjects were assessed at baseline and at 8, 12, and 24 weeks of treatment for binge frequency, weight loss, and severity of psychopathology. No significant differences were found between the two treatments. After 8 weeks of treatment a significant improvement in the Binge Eating Scale score and a significant weight loss emerged. These results were maintained by responders (weigh loss of at least 5% of baseline weight) over 24 weeks. The results suggest that a 6-month treatment with SSRI may be an effective option to treat patients with BED.

  4. Impaired word stress pattern discrimination in very-low-birthweight infants during the first 6 months of life.

    PubMed

    Herold, Birgit; Höhle, Barbara; Walch, Elisabeth; Weber, Tanja; Obladen, Michael

    2008-09-01

    Prosodic information, such as word stress and speech rhythm, is important in language acquisition, and sensitivity to stress patterns is present from birth onwards. Exposure to prosodic properties of the native language occurs prenatally. Preterm birth and an associated lack of exposure to prosodic information are suspected to affect language acquisition in preterm infants. Fifty healthy very low birthweight (<1500 g) preterm German infants (24 males, 26 females; mean gestational age [GA] 27.6 wks, range 26.4-29.9) and 103 comparison term infants (48 males, 55 females; mean GA 40 wks, range 39.4-40.8) were recruited. Prosodic discrimination performance was assessed using the head-turn preference paradigm, an objective behavioural psycholinguistic test for measuring orientation time (OT) to auditory stress patterns. Among matched preterm and term infants, preterm infants (n=30) did not differentiate stress patterns at the corrected age of 4 or 6 months. In term infants (n=30), the OT was longer towards the trochaic (stress on first syllable, characteristic for German) than the iambic (second syllable) stress patterns (11.64 vs 9.18s, p<0.001, and 11.02 vs 8.32s, p<0.001, at 4 and 6 mo respectively). Neurodevelopmental scores (Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edn) were not different from reference values in both groups of infants. Preterm birth and deficient early prosodic information affect prosodic processing during the first half year of life.

  5. Chronic Uterine Inversion Presenting as a Painless Vaginal Mass at 6 Months Post Partum: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Manisha

    2016-01-01

    Uterine inversion is an abnormal protrusion of internal surface of relaxed uterus through the vaginal orifice. Its causes can be broadly classified as puerperal and non-puerperal with puerperal uterine inversion more common than non-puerperal uterine inversion. Acute inversions occurring immediately, or within 24 hours post-partum are the most common type. Chronic Uterine Inversions (CUI) occurring more than four weeks after the delivery are rare identities. There differential diagnosis includes prolapsed fibroids and endometrial polyp. Chronic nature of these inversions makes the restoration of the normal position of the uterus per vaginal difficult contrary to acute inversions which can be reposited more easily. We hereby present a case of 28-year-old lady who presented with a painless vaginal mass at 6 months post-partum. She was diagnosed as a case of CUI based on clinical and sonographic examination. Inverted uterus was successfully restored through per abdominal approach. The presentation of CUI as a painless vaginal mass at delayed post-partum period is rare and therefore reported. PMID:27437313

  6. Reactive oxygen species in plasma against E. coli cells survival rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ren-Wu; Zhang, Xian-Hui; Zong, Zi-Chao; Li, Jun-Xiong; Yang, Zhou-Bin; Liu, Dong-Ping; Yang, Si-Ze

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we report on the contrastive analysis of inactivation efficiency of E. coli cells in solution with different disinfection methods. Compared with the hydrogen peroxide solution and the ozone gas, the atmospheric-pressure He plasma can completely kill the E. coli cells in the shortest time. The inactivation efficiency of E. coli cells in solution can be well described by using the chemical reaction rate model. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis shows that the C-O or C=O content of the inactivated E. coli cell surface by plasma is predominantly increased, indicating the quantity of oxygen-containing species in plasma is more than those of two other methods, and then the C-C or C-H bonds can be broken, leading to the etching of organic compounds. Analysis also indicates that plasma-generated species can play a crucial role in the inactivation process by their direct reactions or the decompositions of reactive species, such as ozone into OH radicals in water, then reacting with E. coli cells. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Fujian Province, China (Grant No. 2014J01025), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11275261), and the Funds from the Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory for Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, China.

  7. [The morphofunctional cellular evaluation of liver and kidney in rats in dynamics of 6-month consumption of water produced with the use of noncontact activation after electrochemical treatment].

    PubMed

    Beliaeva, N N; Rakhmanin, Iu A; Mikhailova, R I; Savostikova, O N; Gasimova, Z M; Kamenetskaia, D B; Alekseeva, A V; Vasina, D A; Ryzhova, I N

    2015-01-01

    There were investigated morphofunctional indices of liver and kidney in male outbred rats in the dynamics of the 6-months consumption of water after its noncontact activation. There were studied 4 experimental groups of animals consumed waters named as "Anolyte" and in dependence on the activation time, 3 types of catholyte water ("Catholyte--5", "Catholyte--25", "Catholyte--40"). Moscow tap water settled for a week served as control. "Anolyte" water was found to increase in the kidney the number of hypertrophied gromeruli only in 6 months, while the consumption of "Catholyte--25" water and especially, "Catholyte--40" in 1 and 6 months caused the damage of liver and kidney, and for the index of alteration of renal glomeruli after 6 months of water consumption there was revealed the dependence on the activation time of "Catalytes".

  8. Rapid wetland expansion during European settlement and its implication for marsh survival under modern sediment delivery rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirwan, Matthew L.; Murray, A. Brad; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Corbett, D. Reide

    2011-01-01

    Fluctuations in sea-level rise rates are thought to dominate the formation and evolution of coastal wetlands. Here we demonstrate a contrasting scenario in which land-use-related changes in sediment delivery rates drive the formation of expansive marshland, and vegetation feedbacks maintain their morphology despite recent sediment supply reduction. Stratigraphic analysis and radiocarbon dating in the Plum Island Estuary (Massachusetts, United States) suggest that salt marshes expanded rapidly during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries due to increased rates of sediment delivery following deforestation associated with European settlement. Numerical modeling coupled with the stratigraphic observations suggests that existing marshland could survive, but not form under the low suspended sediment concentrations observed in the estuary today. These results suggest that many of the expansive marshes that characterize the modern North American coast are metastable relicts of high nineteenth century sediment delivery rates, and that recent observations of degradation may represent a slow return to pre-settlement marsh extent. In contrast to ecosystem management practices in which restoring pre-anthropogenic conditions is seen as a way to increase ecosystem services, our results suggest that widespread efforts to restore valuable coastal wetlands actually prevent some systems from returning to a natural state.

  9. Effect of Clearcutting Operations on the Survival Rate of a Small Mammal

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, Martín A. H.; Uribe, Sandra V.; Chiappe, Romina; Estades, Cristián F.

    2015-01-01

    Clearcutting is a common timber harvesting technique that represents a significant and abrupt change in habitat conditions for wildlife living in industrial forests. Most research on this type of impact has focused on comparing populations or communities in mature forests/plantations and the resulting clearcut stands. However, this approach does not separate the effect of changes in habitat attributes from direct mortality produced by the intensive use of heavy machinery required for cutting down trees and dragging them to a road. Because knowing the fate of individuals after a disturbance is important for modelling landscape-scale population dynamics in industrial forests, we conducted a study in South-Central Chile to understand the short-term response to clearcutting operations of the long-haired Akodont (Abrothrix longipillis), a forest specialist mouse. Between 2009 and 2013 we radiotracked a total of 51 adult male Akodonts, before, during and after the clearcutting of the pine plantations in which they lived. A minimum of 52.4% of the individuals died as a direct cause of the timbering operations, being crushed by vehicles or logs during logging operations. Our observations suggest that, instead of fleeing the area, the response of long-haired Akodonts to the approaching machinery is to hide under the forest litter or in burrows, which exposes them to a serious risk of death. The real mortality rate associated to clearcutting may be higher than that estimated by us because of some methodological biases (i.e. individuals with crushed radiotransmitters not recorded) and the fact that additional mortality sources may affect the population in the weeks following logging operations (e.g. higher exposure to predation, effects of site preparation for the new plantation, etc). PMID:25748217

  10. Effect of clearcutting operations on the survival rate of a small mammal.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Martín A H; Uribe, Sandra V; Chiappe, Romina; Estades, Cristián F

    2015-01-01

    Clearcutting is a common timber harvesting technique that represents a significant and abrupt change in habitat conditions for wildlife living in industrial forests. Most research on this type of impact has focused on comparing populations or communities in mature forests/plantations and the resulting clearcut stands. However, this approach does not separate the effect of changes in habitat attributes from direct mortality produced by the intensive use of heavy machinery required for cutting down trees and dragging them to a road. Because knowing the fate of individuals after a disturbance is important for modelling landscape-scale population dynamics in industrial forests, we conducted a study in South-Central Chile to understand the short-term response to clearcutting operations of the long-haired Akodont (Abrothrix longipillis), a forest specialist mouse. Between 2009 and 2013 we radiotracked a total of 51 adult male Akodonts, before, during and after the clearcutting of the pine plantations in which they lived. A minimum of 52.4% of the individuals died as a direct cause of the timbering operations, being crushed by vehicles or logs during logging operations. Our observations suggest that, instead of fleeing the area, the response of long-haired Akodonts to the approaching machinery is to hide under the forest litter or in burrows, which exposes them to a serious risk of death. The real mortality rate associated to clearcutting may be higher than that estimated by us because of some methodological biases (i.e. individuals with crushed radiotransmitters not recorded) and the fact that additional mortality sources may affect the population in the weeks following logging operations (e.g., higher exposure to predation, effects of site preparation for the new plantation, etc).

  11. Clopidogrel use After Myocardial Revascularization: Prevalence, Predictors, and One-Year Survival Rate

    PubMed Central

    Prates, Paulo Roberto L.; Williams, Judson B.; Mehta, Rajendra H.; Stevens, Susanna R.; Thomas, Laine; Smith, Peter K.; Newby, L. Kristin; Kalil, Renato A. K.; Alexander, John H.; Lopes, Renato D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Antiplatelet therapy after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) has been used. Little is known about the predictors and efficacy of clopidogrel in this scenario. Objective Identify predictors of clopidogrel following CABG. Methods We evaluated 5404 patients who underwent CABG between 2000 and 2009 at Duke University Medical Center. We excluded patients undergoing concomitant valve surgery, those who had postoperative bleeding or death before discharge. Postoperative clopidogrel was left to the discretion of the attending physician. Adjusted risk for 1-year mortality was compared between patients receiving and not receiving clopidogrel during hospitalization after undergoing CABG. Results At hospital discharge, 931 (17.2%) patients were receiving clopidogrel. Comparing patients not receiving clopidogrel at discharge, users had more comorbidities, including hyperlipidemia, hypertension, heart failure, peripheral arterial disease and cerebrovascular disease. Patients who received aspirin during hospitalization were less likely to receive clopidogrel at discharge (P≤0.0001). Clopidogrel was associated with similar 1-year mortality compared with those who did not use clopidogrel (4.4% vs. 4.5%, P=0.72). There was, however, an interaction between the use of cardiopulmonary bypass and clopidogrel, with lower 1-year mortality in patients undergoing off-pump CABG who received clopidogrel, but not those undergoing conventional CABG (2.6% vs 5.6%, P Interaction = 0.032). Conclusion Clopidogrel was used in nearly one-fifth of patients after CABG. Its use was not associated with lower mortality after 1 year in general, but lower mortality rate in those undergoing off-pump CABG. Randomized clinical trials are needed to determine the benefit of routine use of clopidogrel in CABG. PMID:27556308

  12. Enhanced cardiac TBC1D10C expression lowers heart rate and enhances exercise capacity and survival

    PubMed Central

    Volland, Cornelia; Bremer, Sebastian; Hellenkamp, Kristian; Hartmann, Nico; Dybkova, Nataliya; Khadjeh, Sara; Kutschenko, Anna; Liebetanz, David; Wagner, Stefan; Unsöld, Bernhard; Didié, Michael; Toischer, Karl; Sossalla, Samuel; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Seidler, Tim

    2016-01-01

    TBC1D10C is a protein previously demonstrated to bind and inhibit Ras and Calcineurin. In cardiomyocytes, also CaMKII is inhibited and all three targeted enzymes are known to promote maladaptive cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Here, in accordance with lack of Calcineurin inhibition in vivo, we did not observe a relevant anti-hypertrophic effect despite inhibition of Ras and CaMKII. However, cardiomyocyte-specific TBC1D10C overexpressing transgenic mice exhibited enhanced longevity. Ejection fraction and exercise capacity were enhanced in transgenic mice, but shortening of isolated cardiomyocytes was not increased. This suggests longevity resulted from enhanced cardiac performance but independent of cardiomyocyte contractile force. In further search for mechanisms, a transcriptome-wide analysis revealed expressional changes in several genes pertinent to control of heart rate (HR) including Hcn4, Scn10a, Sema3a and Cacna2d2. Indeed, telemetric holter recordings demonstrated slower atrial conduction and significantly lower HR. Pharmacological reduction of HR was previously demonstrated to enhance survival in mice. Thus, in addition to inhibition of stress signaling, TBC1D10C economizes generation of cardiac output via HR reduction, enhancing exercise capacity and survival. TBC1D10C may be a new target for HR reduction and longevity. PMID:27667030

  13. Mandible-Powered Escape Jumps in Trap-Jaw Ants Increase Survival Rates during Predator-Prey Encounters

    PubMed Central

    Larabee, Fredrick J.; Suarez, Andrew V.

    2015-01-01

    Animals use a variety of escape mechanisms to increase the probability of surviving predatory attacks. Antipredator defenses can be elaborate, making their evolutionary origin unclear. Trap-jaw ants are known for their rapid and powerful predatory mandible strikes, and some species have been observed to direct those strikes at the substrate, thereby launching themselves into the air away from a potential threat. This potential escape mechanism has never been examined in a natural context. We studied the use of mandible-powered jumping in Odontomachus brunneus during their interactions with a common ant predator: pit-building antlions. We observed that while trap-jaw ant workers escaped from antlion pits by running in about half of interactions, in 15% of interactions they escaped by mandible-powered jumping. To test whether escape jumps improved individual survival, we experimentally prevented workers from jumping and measured their escape rate. Workers with unrestrained mandibles escaped from antlion pits significantly more frequently than workers with restrained mandibles. Our results indicate that some trap-jaw ant species can use mandible-powered jumps to escape from common predators. These results also provide a charismatic example of evolutionary co-option, where a trait that evolved for one function (predation) has been co-opted for another (defense). PMID:25970637

  14. Increased drying rate lowers the critical water content for survival in embryonic axes of English oak (Quercus robur L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Ntuli, Tobias M; Finch-Savage, William E; Berjak, Patricia; Pammenter, Norman W

    2011-04-01

    The potential to cryopreserve embryonic axes of desiccation-sensitive (recalcitrant) seeds is limited by damage during the desiccation necessary for low temperature survival, but the basis of this injury and how to reduce it is not well understood. The effects of drying rate on the viability, respiratory metabolism and free radical-mediated processes were therefore investigated during dehydration of Quercus robur L. embryonic axes. Viability, assessed by evidence of germination and tetrazolium staining, showed a sharp decline at 0.27 and 0.8 g/g during rapid (<12 h) or slow (3 d) dehydration, respectively. Rapid dehydration therefore lowered the critical water content for survival. At any given water content rapid dehydration was associated with higher activities of the free radical processing enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase and lower levels of hydroperoxide and membrane damage. Rapid dehydration was also associated with lower malate dehydrogenase activity, and a reduced decline in phosphofructokinase activity and in levels of the oxidized form of nicotinamide dinucleotide. Ageing may have contributed to increased damage during slow dehydration, since viability declined even in hydrated storage after 3 d. The results presented are consistent with rapid dehydration reducing the accumulation of damage resulting from desiccation induced aqueous-based deleterious reactions.

  15. A cohort study of developmental polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in relation to post-vaccination antibody response at 6-months of age

    SciTech Connect

    Jusko, Todd A.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Paige Lawrence, B.; Palkovicova, Lubica; Nemessanyi, Tomas; Drobna, Beata; Fabisikova, Anna; Kocan, Anton; Sonneborn, Dean; Jahnova, Eva; Kavanagh, Terrance J.; Trnovec, Tomas; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2010-05-15

    Background: Extensive experimental data in animals indicate that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy leads to changes in offspring immune function during the postnatal period. Whether developmental PCB exposure influences immunologic development in humans has received little study. Methods: The study population was 384 mother-infant pairs recruited from two districts of eastern Slovakia for whom prospectively collected maternal, cord, and 6-month infant blood specimens were available. Several PCB congeners were measured in maternal, cord, and 6-month infant sera by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Concentrations of IgG-specific anti-haemophilus influenzae type b, tetanus toxoid, and diphtheria toxoid were assayed in 6-month infant sera using ELISA methods. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the relation between maternal, cord, and 6-month infant PCB concentrations and the antibody concentrations evaluated at 6-months of age. Results: Overall, there was little evidence of an association between infant antibody concentrations and PCB measures during the pre- and early postnatal period. In addition, our results did not show specificity in terms of associations limited to a particular developmental period (e.g. pre- vs. postnatal), a particular antibody, or a particular PCB congener. Conclusions: At the PCB concentrations measured in this cohort, which are high relative to most human populations today, we did not detect an association between maternal or early postnatal PCB exposure and specific antibody responses at 6-months of age.

  16. A cohort study of developmental polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in relation to post-vaccination antibody response at 6-months of age

    PubMed Central

    Jusko, Todd A.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Lawrence, B. Paige; Palkovicova, Lubica; Nemessanyi, Tomas; Drobna, Beata; Fabisikova, Anna; Kocan, Anton; Sonneborn, Dean; Jahnova, Eva; Kavanagh, Terrance J.; Trnovec, Tomas; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2010-01-01

    Background Extensive experimental data in animals indicate that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy leads to changes in offspring immune function during the postnatal period. Whether developmental PCB exposure influences immunologic development in humans has received little study. Methods The study population was 384 mother-infant pairs recruited from two districts of eastern Slovakia for whom prospectively collected maternal, cord, and 6-month infant blood specimens were available. Several PCB congeners were measured in maternal, cord, and 6-month infant sera by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Concentrations of IgG-specific anti-haemophilus influenzae type b, tetanus toxoid, and diphtheria toxoid were assayed in 6-month infant sera using ELISA methods. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the relation between maternal, cord, and 6-month infant PCB concentrations and the antibody concentrations evaluated at 6-months of age. Results Overall, there was little evidence of an association between infant antibody concentrations and PCB measures during the pre- and early postnatal period. In addition, our results did not show specificity in terms of associations limited to a particular developmental period (e.g. pre- vs. postnatal), a particular antibody, or a particular PCB congener. Conclusions At the PCB concentrations measured in this cohort, which are high relative to most human populations today, we did not detect an association between maternal or early postnatal PCB exposure and specific antibody responses at 6-months of age. PMID:20378105

  17. Exclusive or Partial Breastfeeding for 6 Months Is Associated With Reduced Milk Sensitization and Risk of Eczema in Early Childhood: The PATCH Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chih-Yung; Liao, Sui-Ling; Su, Kuan-Wen; Tsai, Ming-Han; Hua, Man-Chin; Lai, Shen-Hao; Chen, Li-Chen; Yao, Tsung-Chieh; Yeh, Kuo-Wei; Huang, Jing-Long

    2016-04-01

    There is insufficient evidence to confirm the association between breastfeeding and allergic outcomes later in life. This study aimed to determine the relationships between different breastfeeding patterns and allergen sensitizations and risk of developing atopic diseases in early childhood. A total of 186 children from a birth cohort in the Prediction of Allergies in Taiwanese Children study for a 4-year follow-up period were enrolled. Total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and specific IgE antibodies against food and inhalant allergens were measured sequentially at 6 months as well as at 1, 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 years of age. A significantly lower prevalence of milk sensitization was found in children at ages 1 and 1.5 years who were exclusively or partially breastfed for ≥6 months. Breastfeeding ≥6 months was significantly associated with a reduced risk of developing eczema but not allergic rhinitis and asthma at ages 1 and 2 years. Compared with exclusive breastfeeding ≥6 months, partial breastfeeding <6 months was significantly associated with an increased risk of developing eczema at ages 1 and 2 years. As with exclusive breastfeeding, partial breastfeeding for at least 6 months appears to be associated with a reduced prevalence of milk sensitization as well as a reduced risk of developing eczema in early childhood.

  18. The 6-Month Prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Syndrome (PTSS) Among Older Adults: Validity and Reliability of the PTSS Scale

    PubMed Central

    Préville, Michel; Lamoureux-Lamarche, Catherine; Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Grenier, Sébastien; Potvin, Olivier; Quesnel, Louise; Gontijo-Guerra, Samantha; Mechakra-Tahiri, Samia Djemaa; Berbiche, Djamal

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To document the 6-month prevalence of posttraumatic stress syndrome (PTSS) in the older adult population and the validity of a PTSS Scale in an epidemiologic setting. Method: Data came from the Enquête sur la santé des aînés et l’utilisation des services de santé (ESA Services Study) conducted during 2012–2013 using a probability sample of older adults seeking medical services in primary health clinics. Results: Results showed that a first-order PTSS measurement model consisting of 3 indicators—the number of lifetime traumatic events, the frequency of reactions and symptoms of distress associated with the traumatic events, and the presence of consequences on the social functioning—was plausible. Reliability of the PTSS was 0.82. According to the PTSS, 11.1% of the older adult patients presented with PTSS, but only 21.7% of them reported an impact of their symptoms on their social functioning. The prevalence of older adults meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria for full posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) reached 1.8%, and 1.8% of older adults reached criteria for partial PTSD. Our results also showed that women were more at risk to report PTSS than men and that older adults aged 75 years and older were less likely to report these symptoms than those aged between 65 and 74 years. Conclusions: PTSS is a common mental health problem among adults aged 65 and older and seeking health services in the general medical sector. PMID:25565688

  19. Sex-Related Differences in Pulmonary Function following 6 Months of Cigarette Exposure: Implications for Sexual Dimorphism in Mild COPD

    PubMed Central

    Churg, Andrew; Wright, Joanne L.; Man, S. F. Paul; Sin, Don D.

    2016-01-01

    Female smokers have increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) compared with male smokers who have a similar history of cigarette smoke exposure. We have shown previously that chronic smoke exposure for 6 months leads to increased airway wall remodeling in female C57BL/6 mice compared with male C57BL/6 mice. These differences, however, were not evident in female ovariectomized mice exposed to cigarette smoke. Herein, we report on the pulmonary function test results from the flexiVent system, which was used to determine the potential functional consequences of the histologic changes observed in these mice. We found that tissue damping (G) was increased in female compared to male or ovariectomized female mice after smoke exposure. At low oscillating frequencies, complex input resistance (Zrs) and impedance (Xrs) of the respiratory system was increased and decreased, respectively, in female but not in male or ovariectomized female mice after smoke exposure. Quasistatic pressure-volume curves revealed a reduction in inspiratory capacity in female mice but not in male or ovariectomized female mice after smoke exposure. The remaining lung function measurements including quasistatic compliance were similar amongst all groups. This is the first study characterizing a sexual dimorphism in respiratory functional properties in a mouse model of COPD. These findings demonstrate that increased airway remodeling in female mice following chronic smoke exposure is associated with increased tissue resistance in the peripheral airways. These data may explain the importance of female sex hormones and the increased risk of airway disease in female smokers. PMID:27788167

  20. Energy expenditure, nutritional status, body composition and physical fitness of Royal Marines during a 6-month operational deployment in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Fallowfield, Joanne L; Delves, Simon K; Hill, Neil E; Cobley, Rosalyn; Brown, Pieter; Lanham-New, Susan A; Frost, Gary; Brett, Stephen J; Murphy, Kevin G; Montain, Scott J; Nicholson, Christopher; Stacey, Michael; Ardley, Christian; Shaw, Anneliese; Bentley, Conor; Wilson, Duncan R; Allsopp, Adrian J

    2014-09-14

    Understanding the nutritional demands on serving military personnel is critical to inform training schedules and dietary provision. Troops deployed to Afghanistan face austere living and working environments. Observations from the military and those reported in the British and US media indicated possible physical degradation of personnel deployed to Afghanistan. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the changes in body composition and nutritional status of military personnel deployed to Afghanistan and how these were related to physical fitness. In a cohort of British Royal Marines (n 249) deployed to Afghanistan for 6 months, body size and body composition were estimated from body mass, height, girth and skinfold measurements. Energy intake (EI) was estimated from food diaries and energy expenditure measured using the doubly labelled water method in a representative subgroup. Strength and aerobic fitness were assessed. The mean body mass of volunteers decreased over the first half of the deployment ( - 4·6 (sd 3·7) %), predominately reflecting fat loss. Body mass partially recovered (mean +2·2 (sd 2·9) %) between the mid- and post-deployment periods (P< 0·05). Daily EI (mean 10 590 (sd 3339) kJ) was significantly lower than the estimated daily energy expenditure (mean 15 167 (sd 1883) kJ) measured in a subgroup of volunteers. However, despite the body mass loss, aerobic fitness and strength were well maintained. Nutritional provision for British military personnel in Afghanistan appeared sufficient to maintain physical capability and micronutrient status, but providing appropriate nutrition in harsh operational environments must remain a priority.

  1. Preschool Children’s Memory for Word Forms Remains Stable Over Several Days, but Gradually Decreases after 6 Months

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Katherine R.; McGregor, Karla K.; Waldier, Brigitte; Curran, Maura K.; Gomez, Rebecca L.; Samuelson, Larissa K.

    2016-01-01

    Research on word learning has focused on children’s ability to identify a target object when given the word form after a minimal number of exposures to novel word-object pairings. However, relatively little research has focused on children’s ability to retrieve the word form when given the target object. The exceptions involve asking children to recall and produce forms, and children typically perform near floor on these measures. In the current study, 3- to 5-year-old children were administered a novel test of word form that allowed for recognition memory and manual responses. Specifically, when asked to label a previously trained object, children were given three forms to choose from: the target, a minimally different form, and a maximally different form. Children demonstrated memory for word forms at three post-training delays: 10 mins (short-term), 2–3 days (long-term), and 6 months to 1 year (very long-term). However, children performed worse at the very long-term delay than the other time points, and the length of the very long-term delay was negatively related to performance. When in error, children were no more likely to select the minimally different form than the maximally different form at all time points. Overall, these results suggest that children remember word forms that are linked to objects over extended post-training intervals, but that their memory for the forms gradually decreases over time without further exposures. Furthermore, memory traces for word forms do not become less phonologically specific over time; rather children either identify the correct form, or they perform at chance. PMID:27729880

  2. A 6-month randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of a lifestyle intervention for weight gain management in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with schizophrenia have lower longevity than the general population as a consequence of a combination of risk factors connected to the disease, lifestyle and the use of medications, which are related to weight gain. Methods A multicentric, randomized, controlled-trial was conducted to test the efficacy of a 12-week group Lifestyle Wellness Program (LWP). The program consists of a one-hour weekly session to discuss topics like dietary choices, lifestyle, physical activity and self-esteem with patients and their relatives. Patients were randomized into two groups: standard care (SC) and standard care plus intervention (LWP). Primary outcome was defined as the weight and body mass index (BMI). Results 160 patients participated in the study (81 in the intervention group and 79 in the SC group). On an intent to treat analysis, after three months the patients in the intervention group presented a decrease of 0.48 kg (CI 95% -0.65 to 1.13) while the standard care group showed an increase of 0.48 kg (CI 95% 0.13 to 0.83; p=0.055). At six-month follow-up, there was a significant weight decrease of −1.15 kg, (CI 95% -2.11 to 0.19) in the intervention group compared to a weight increase in the standard care group (+0.5 kg, CI 95% -0.42–1.42, p=0.017). Conclusion In conclusion, this was a multicentric randomized clinical trial with a lifestyle intervention for individuals with schizophrenia, where the intervention group maintained weight and presented a tendency to decrease weight after 6 months. It is reasonable to suppose that lifestyle interventions may be important long-term strategies to avoid the tendency of these individuals to increase weight. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01368406 PMID:23418863

  3. Exploratory study describing 6 month outcomes for young children with autism who receive treatment as usual in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Muratori, Filippo; Narzisi, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Background In the last few years, the results of different studies have confirmed, in different ways, the importance of early intervention for autism. This study aims to evaluate the role of early “as usual” interventions in the outcome of toddlers diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method Seventy children with ASD aged between 24 and 48 months were recruited at different centers in Italy. They were evaluated by blind researchers at baseline and after 6 months of using Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G), Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales, and Vineland Adaptive Behavior scales. Parents filled out the MacArthur Inventory, Social Communication Questionnaire, and Child Behavior Check List. All children were referred to community providers for available interventions. Results At the endpoint, most of the children were still classified as having an ADOS-G classification of ASD. However, 21 (34.2%) passed from autism to autism spectrum, and 3 (4.2%) passed from autism spectrum to no spectrum. Treatment effects were obtained for cognitive functioning, language, adaptive behavior, and child behavior without differences between development-oriented and behavior-oriented interventions. Parent involvement was a mediator for the best clinical outcome. Baseline low impairments of communication, language comprehension, and gesture were predictors of positive outcome. Conclusion Treatment as usual, composed of individual therapy plus school-supported inclusion, may be an effective intervention in ASD. Better initial levels of communication in child and parent involvement during treatment have an important role for a positive outcome. PMID:24748794

  4. Effectiveness of group acceptance and commitment therapy for fibromyalgia: a 6-month randomized controlled trial (EFFIGACT study).

    PubMed

    Luciano, Juan V; Guallar, José A; Aguado, Jaume; López-Del-Hoyo, Yolanda; Olivan, Bárbara; Magallón, Rosa; Alda, Marta; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Gili, Margalida; Garcia-Campayo, Javier

    2014-04-01

    In the last decade, there has been burgeoning interest in the effectiveness of third-generation psychological therapies for managing fibromyalgia (FM) symptoms. The present study examined the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) on functional status as well as the role of pain acceptance as a mediator of treatment outcomes in FM patients. A total of 156 patients with FM were enrolled at primary health care centers in Zaragoza, Spain. The patients were randomly assigned to a group-based form of ACT (GACT), recommended pharmacological treatment (RPT; pregabalin + duloxetine), or wait list (WL). The primary end point was functional status (measured with the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, FIQ). Secondary end points included pain catastrophizing, pain acceptance, pain, anxiety, depression, and health-related quality of life. The differences between groups were calculated by linear mixed-effects (intention-to-treat approach) and mediational models through path analyses. Overall, GACT was statistically superior to both RPT and WL immediately after treatment, and improvements were maintained at 6months with medium effect sizes in most cases. Immediately after treatment, the number needed to treat for 20% improvement compared to RPT was 2 (95% confidence interval 1.2-2.0), for 50% improvement 46, and for achieving a status of no worse than mild impaired function (FIQ total score <39) also 46. Unexpectedly, 4 of the 5 tested path analyses did not show a mediation effect. Changes in pain acceptance only mediated the relationship between study condition and health-related quality of life. These findings are discussed in relation to previous psychological research on FM treatment.

  5. Role of radium implants in cancer of the oral cavity and oral pharynx. [Control and survival rates and complications

    SciTech Connect

    Fayos, J.V.

    1980-04-01

    Eighty-five patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity tonsillar region or base of the tongue received a radium implant. Implants were done as a supplement to external irradiation except in three patients in whom it was the sole form of treatment. The median dose was 8500 rad given in about 8 weeks, 6000 to 6500 rad given by opposing lateral fields using /sup 60/Co radiation; 25% of the patients received doses higher than 8600 rad. The implant boosted the dose to the primary. Most of the patients who had radium implants had advanced disease. The overall control rate of the primary was 45.9%, the highest control achieved with smaller lesions. Surgery was performed in 26 patients for recurrence at the primary; five developed osteonecrosis of the jaw bone. The survival at 4 and 5 years was approximately equal for Stages I and II (80%); it was 40% for Stages II