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Sample records for 6-month treatment period

  1. Differential efficacy of treatment with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in patients with mild and moderate Alzheimer's disease over a 6-month period.

    PubMed

    López-Pousa, S; Turon-Estrada, A; Garre-Olmo, J; Pericot-Nierga, I; Lozano-Gallego, M; Vilalta-Franch, M; Hernández-Ferràndiz, M; Morante-Muñoz, V; Isern-Vila, A; Gelada-Batlle, E; Majó-Llopart, J

    2005-01-01

    There are various anticholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) for the symptomatic treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). All AChEIs have shown greater efficacy than placebo in randomized, double-blind, parallel-group clinical trials. No differential studies have yet been made of the efficacy between all AChEIs. The study aims to determine the differential efficacy of the AChEIs with respect to a historical sample of patients with AD that were not treated with AChEIs. An open-label, prospective, observational study with a retrospective control group was undertaken to examine the evolution of the cognitive function over a 6-month period. The patients were assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at study entry and at 6 months. A general linear model was applied for repeated measurements with the MMSE score as the dependent variable, treatment type as an independent variable and the severity of the deterioration, age and the MMSE baseline score as covariables. Of the sample of 147 patients, 40 initiated treatment with donepezil, 32 with galantamine, 30 with rivastigmine and 45 were part of a historical sample of the memory clinic patients between 1991 and 1996 that had not been treated with AChEIs. The average age was 73.7 years (SD = 6.9; range = 52-86), 67.3% were women, 78.2% of the cases were mild and the MMSE baseline score was 18.1 points (range = 11-27). No significant intergroup differences were observed in these variables. The average doses of donepezil, galantamine and rivastigmine were 5.87 mg/day (SD = 1.92), 14.81 mg/day (SD = 6.25) and 6.41 mg/day (SD = 1.82), respectively. At 6 months, the difference in the MMSE score with respect to the untreated group was 1.6 points for donepezil (95% CI 0.79-2.37; p < 0.001), 0.99 points for galantamine (95% CI 0.14-1.85; p = 0.01) and 0.90 points for rivastigmine (95% CI 0.05-1.74; p = 0.03). No significant differences were observed in the efficacy among the groups treated with AChEIs (p

  2. Data analysis of 87 tic patients for 6 months' treatment in a Korean medicine clinic.

    PubMed

    Chun, Young-Ho; Kim, Won-Ill; Kim, Bo-Kyung

    2013-10-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the relationship between the therapeutic effects of treatment for tic disorder and Korean medicine clinical tests, including body mass index (BMI) and heart variability rate (HRV). This study was not a clinical trial, but a data analysis of 87 tic patients who were treated for 6 months during the time period from Nov. 2010 to Jan. 2012. The clinical evaluation of the symptoms was recorded using the Korean version of the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS). The BMI and the HRV were measured according to a schedule, and various kinds of statistical methods were used. Among the 87 patients, the number of males was 3.34 times the number of females, and 58 patients (66.7%) had been suffering for more than 12 months. The onset age of the males was significantly lower than that of the females, and males had the symptoms longer than females had. Also, males with a family history of tics were 2.5 times as many as females, and their onset ages were substantially lower. At the first medical examinations, the average score on the YGTSS was 34.08, and it decreased linearly as the treatment progressed. After 4 and 6 months of treatment, it had decreased significantly. The YGTSS score and the period of suffering correlated positively. At the first visit, each HRV datum was in the normal range. After the 6 months' treatment, Ln (TP), Ln (LF), and Ln (HF) had dropped substantially in the normal range while Ln (VLF) and the LF/HF ratio had not changed in a meaningful way. During the treatment period, the BMI stayed relatively constant without any meaningful changes.

  3. Exenatide Treatment for 6 Months Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Adults With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Gayatri; Alattar, May; Brown, Rebecca J.; Quon, Michael J.; Harlan, David M.; Rother, Kristina I.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Exenatide treatment improves glycemia in adults with type 2 diabetes and has been shown to reduce postprandial hyperglycemia in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. We studied the effects of exenatide on glucose homeostasis in adults with long-standing type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Fourteen patients with type 1 diabetes participated in a crossover study of 6 months' duration on exenatide (10 μg four times a day) and 6 months off exenatide. We assessed changes in fasting and postprandial blood glucose and changes in insulin sensitivity before and after each study period. RESULTS High-dose exenatide therapy reduced postprandial blood glucose but was associated with higher fasting glucose concentrations without net changes in hemoglobin A1c. Exenatide increased insulin sensitivity beyond the effects expected as a result of weight reduction. CONCLUSIONS Exenatide is a promising adjunctive agent to insulin therapy because of its beneficial effects on postprandial blood glucose and insulin sensitivity in patients with type 1 diabetes. PMID:24194508

  4. Effects of a 6-month infliximab treatment on plasma levels of leptin and adiponectin in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Derdemezis, Christos S; Filippatos, Theodosios D; Voulgari, Paraskevi V; Tselepis, Alexandros D; Drosos, Alexandros A; Kiortsis, Dimitrios N

    2009-10-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) appear to have increased plasma levels of leptin and adiponectin. These adipokines may be implicated in the pathophysiology of RA. Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is a potential modulator of adipokines. The effects of long-term anti-TNF treatment on plasma levels of leptin and adiponectin are not clear. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of 6-month anti-TNF treatment (infliximab) on leptin and adiponectin plasma levels in RA patients. Thirty women with RA were included in the study. Patients with diabetes mellitus, any endocrine disorder or receiving any hypolipidemic or antidiabetic medication were not included. Thirty healthy age- and body mass index-matched women served as controls. Plasma levels of leptin and adiponectin were measured with enzyme immunoassay methods prior to and after the 6-month treatment with infliximab. Mean age and disease duration of patients were 51.8 +/- 14.4 and 12.2 +/- 6.7 years, respectively. Body weight did not change significantly over the 6-month period. Plasma levels of leptin and adiponectin were higher in patients than controls and did not change significantly after 6-month treatment. Interestingly, in the tertile of patients with the highest baseline adiponectin concentrations, adiponectin levels were significantly reduced (P < 0.05). Infliximab treatment did not change plasma levels of leptin and adiponectin after 6-month treatment in the whole study population. However, a reduction of adiponectin levels was observed in patients with higher baseline adiponectin levels. PMID:19563510

  5. Repairing the Brain by SCF+G-CSF Treatment at 6 Months Postexperimental Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Lili; Wang, Dandan; McGillis, Sandra; Kyle, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Stroke, a leading cause of adult disability in the world, is a severe medical condition with limited treatment. Physical therapy, the only treatment available for stroke rehabilitation, appears to be effective within 6 months post-stroke. Here, we have mechanistically determined the efficacy of combined two hematopoietic growth factors, stem cell factor (SCF) and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF; SCF + G-CSF), in brain repair 6 months after cortical infarct induction in the transgenic mice carrying yellow fluorescent protein in Layer V pyramidal neurons (Thy1-YFP-H). Using a combination of live brain imaging, whole brain imaging, molecular manipulation, synaptic and vascular assessments, and motor function examination, we found that SCF + G-CSF promoted mushroom spine formation, enlarged postsynaptic membrane size, and increased postsynaptic density-95 accumulation and blood vessel density in the peri-infarct cavity cortex; and that SCF + G-CSF treatment improved motor functional recovery. The SCF + G-CSF-enhanced motor functional recovery was dependent on the synaptic and vascular regeneration in the peri-infarct cavity cortex. These data suggest that a stroke-damaged brain is repairable by SCF + G-CSF even 6 months after the lesion occurs. This study provides novel insights into the development of new restorative strategies for stroke recovery. PMID:27511907

  6. A Study of the Sexual Function, Sleep, and Weight Status of Patients after 6 Months of Methadone Maintenance Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Parvaresh, Noushin; Sabahi, Abdol Reza; Mazhari, Shahrzad; Gilani, Hoda

    2015-01-01

    Background Methadone is a synthetic opioid and receptor agonist morphine; thus, its consumption has the effects and side effects of opioid. Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is used as an alternative treatment for people who are suffering from substance abuse and do not have the ability to withdraw. Despite its benefits, this drug also has side effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of methadone treatment on sexual function, sleep, and weight after 6 months. Methods The study subjects consisted of 200 patients who had referred to the Methadone Clinic of Shahid Beheshti Training Hospital, Kerman, Iran, during a 6-month period and were treated using MMT. Data collection tools consisted of the demographic questionnaire, Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), and Arizona sexual experience scale (ASEX). The questionnaires were completed by the participants before and 6 months after the treatment. Findings The results of this study showed that methadone consumption has significant effects on sexual dysfunction, sleep disorders, and weight gain. Conclusion The consideration of the side effects of MMT can result in consumers’ commitment to the treatment. PMID:26322207

  7. Activation of 5-HT3 receptors leads to altered responses 6 months after MDMA treatment.

    PubMed

    Gyongyosi, Norbert; Balogh, Brigitta; Katai, Zita; Molnar, Eszter; Laufer, Rudolf; Tekes, Kornelia; Bagdy, Gyorgy

    2010-03-01

    The recreational drug "Ecstasy" [3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)] has a well-characterised neurotoxic effect on the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neurons in animals. Despite intensive studies, the long-term functional consequencies of the 5-HT neurodegeneration remains elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate whether any alteration of 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT(3)) receptor functions on the sleep-wake cycle, motor activity, and quantitative EEG could be detected 6 months after a single dose of 15 mg/kg of MDMA. The selective 5-HT(3) receptor agonist m-chlorophenylbiguanide (mCPBG; 1 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle was administered to freely moving rats pre-treated with MDMA (15 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle 6 months earlier. Polysomnographic and motor activity recordings were performed. Active wake (AW), passive wake (PW), light slow wave sleep (SWS-1), deep slow wave sleep (SWS-2), and paradoxical sleep were classified. In addition, EEG power spectra were calculated for the second hour after mCPBG treatment for each stage. AW increased and SWS-1 decreased in the second hour after mCPBG treatment in control animals. mCPBG caused significant changes in the EEG power in states with cortical activation (AW, PW, paradoxical sleep). In addition, mCPBG had a biphasic effect on hippocampal theta power in AW with a decrease in 7 Hz and a stage-selective increase in the upper range (8-9 Hz). Effects of mCPBG on the time spent in AW and SWS-1 were eliminated or reduced in MDMA-treated animals. In addition, mCPBG did not increase the upper theta power of AW in rats pre-treated with MDMA. These data suggest long-term changes in 5-HT(3) receptor function after MDMA. PMID:20052506

  8. Safety and efficacy of oral slow release morphine for maintenance treatment in heroin addicts: a 6-month open noncomparative study.

    PubMed

    Vasilev, Georgi N; Alexieva, Daniela Z; Pavlova, Rositsa Z

    2006-01-01

    This open-label, noncomparative, single-center trial evaluated the safety and efficacy of once-daily treatment with slow release oral morphine (SROM) capsules for the maintenance treatment of 20 outpatients with heroin dependency over 6 months at the National Institute for Addictions in Sofia, Bulgaria. Doses were individually titrated up to a mean daily maintenance dose of 760 mg (range 440-1,200 mg). SROM was effective in significantly reducing the signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal and craving for heroin, with stabilization generally evident within two weeks. Nineteen patients completed 6 months of treatment and illicit opioid use was virtually eliminated. One patient withdrew voluntarily at 22 weeks. Validated questionnaires and tests indicated improvements in patients' well-being from baseline assessments. These included significant improvements with regard to suicidal depression (85%), anxiety and dysphoria (66%), general illness (58%), social dysfunction (54%), sense of hopelessness (34%), attention (25%), and self-reported typical depressive (27%) and disease-related (11%) symptoms. No deaths, serious adverse events, or withdrawals due to adverse events occurred. Five episodes of constipation and one episode of sweating (all nonserious and of mild or moderate severity) were reported. Vital signs were unaffected by SROM and no weight change was evident over the study period. The observations made in this study indicate a promising role for once-daily treatment with SROM in the clinical management of heroin dependency.

  9. Intensive Rehabilitation Treatment in Parkinsonian Patients with Dyskinesias: A Preliminary Study with 6-Month Followup

    PubMed Central

    Frazzitta, Giuseppe; Morelli, Micaela; Bertotti, Gabriella; Felicetti, Guido; Pezzoli, Gianni; Maestri, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    A major adverse effect of levodopa therapy is the development of dyskinesia, which affects 30–40% of chronically treated Parkinsonian patients. We hypothesized that our rehabilitation protocol might allow a reduction in levodopa dosage without worsening motor performances, thus reducing frequency and severity of dyskinesias. Ten Parkinsonian patients underwent a 4-week intensive rehabilitation treatment (IRT). Patients were evaluated at baseline, at the end of the rehabilitation treatment and at 6-month followup. Outcome measures were the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Sections II, III, and IV (UPDRS II, III, IV) and the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS). At the end of the IRT, levodopa dosage was significantly reduced (P = 0.0035), passing from 1016 ± 327 to 777 ± 333 mg/day. All outcome variables improved significantly (P < 0.0005 all) by the end of IRT. At followup, all variables still maintained better values with respect to admission (P < 0.02 all). In particular AIMS score improved passing from 11.90 ± 6.5 at admission to 3.10 ± 2.3 at discharge and to 4.20 ± 2.7 at followup. Our results suggest that it is possible to act on dyskinesias in Parkinsonian patients with properly designed rehabilitation protocols. Intensive rehabilitation treatment, whose acute beneficial effects are maintained over time, might be considered a valid noninvasive therapeutic support for Parkinsonian patients suffering from diskinesia, allowing a reduction in drugs dosage and related adverse effects. PMID:22701812

  10. Antiphospholipid antibodies during 6-month treatment with infliximab: A preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Kolarz, Bogdan; Majdan, Maria; Darmochwał-Kolarz, Dorota A.; Dryglewska, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Background The introduction of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists (adalimumab, infliximab, and etanercept) was a major advance and was highly important and beneficial in most rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. The adverse effects of this treatment are infrequent, but include opportunistic intracellular infection (especially the reactivation of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis); exacerbation of demyelinating disorders; and the production of various types of antibodies such as antinuclear antibodies (ANA) or double-stranded DNA autoantibodies (dsDNA) and antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) such as anti-cardiolipin antibodies (aCL) and anti-B2GP-I antibodies (B2GP-I). The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of aCL and B2GP-I in IgM and IgG classes, using ELISA tests, during 6 months of follow-up in patients with refractory RA successfully treated with infliximab. Material/Methods We determined the prevalence of aCL and B2GP-I in IgM and IgG classes, using ELISA tests, during 6 months of follow-up in patients with refractory RA successfully treated with infliximab. Results We observed a statistically important increase only in the group of B2GP-I IgM (p<0.05). There are contradictory results concerning the ability of infliximab to induce aPL, but most authors confirm this phenomenon. Conclusions Further investigations are needed to determine if the new aPL appears in patients with β2-GPI gene polymorphisms such as leucine-to-valine substitution at position 247, which can lead to a conformational changes in β2-GPI protein, leading to aPL synthesis. The role of aPL in pathogenesis of APS is still unclear, but we should remember the immunogenic aspect of TNF antagonist treatment. Therefore, we recommend early detection of aPL and observation of the patient, paying special attention to signs and symptoms of thromboembolism. PMID:25027437

  11. [Treatment of bipolar disorder with lamotrigine -- relapse rate and suicidal behaviour during 6 month follow-up].

    PubMed

    Rihmer, Zoltán; Gonda, Xénia; Kálmán, János

    2015-03-01

    The present paper describes a 8-month prospective, observational, non-intervention multicentric study in 969 bipolar patients, where data were obtained on changes during lamotrigine treatment with special focus rates of relapse, suicidal behaviour and adverse events. 969 patients entered the study and 961 patients (99%) completed the study. Patients received lamotrigine mostly as an add-on treatment in addition to ongoing antidepressant and/or antipsychotic medication. By the end of the six-month treatment period 38% of patients achieved remission and rate of relapse after three months was 24%. Rate of adverse events was very low (1%) and they in no case led o termination of therapy. At baseline 17% of patients had clinically significant suicide risk which gradually decreased to 2.1% during the 6-month study period. No suicide attempt or completed suicide occurred during the study period. Results indicate that lamotrigine is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for the acute and long-term treatment of bipolar patients.

  12. Effects of fixed orthodontic treatment on hair nickel and chromium levels: a 6-month prospective preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Amini, Fariborz; Mollaei, Mobina; Harandi, Saghar; Rakhshan, Vahid

    2015-03-01

    Although nickel and chromium are known as allergen and cytotoxic orthodontic metals, very few and controversial studies have assessed the effect of orthodontic treatment on their systemic levels reflected by their best biomarker of exposure, hair. This prospective preliminary study was conducted to evaluate hair nickel and chromium levels in fixed orthodontic patients. Scalp hair nickel/chromium concentrations of 12 female and 12 male fixed orthodontic patients were measured before treatment and 6 months later, using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The effects of treatment, gender, and age on hair ions were analyzed statistically (α = 0.05). The patients' mean age was 18.38 ± 3.98 years. The mean nickel levels were 0.1380 ± 0.0570 and 0.6715 ± 0.1785 μg/g dry hair mass, respectively, in the baseline and sixth month of treatment. Chromium concentrations were 0.1455 ± 0.0769 and 0.1683 ± 0.0707 μg/g dry hair mass, respectively. After 6 months, nickel increased for 387 % (paired t test P = 0.0000) and chromium increased for 16 % (P = 0.0002). No significant correlations were observed between any ion levels with age or gender (Spearman P > 0.2). Within the limitations of this preliminary study, it seems that 6 months of fixed orthodontic treatment might increase levels of hair nickel and chromium. Future larger studies are necessary to validate these results.

  13. Effects of fixed orthodontic treatment on hair nickel and chromium levels: a 6-month prospective preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Amini, Fariborz; Mollaei, Mobina; Harandi, Saghar; Rakhshan, Vahid

    2015-03-01

    Although nickel and chromium are known as allergen and cytotoxic orthodontic metals, very few and controversial studies have assessed the effect of orthodontic treatment on their systemic levels reflected by their best biomarker of exposure, hair. This prospective preliminary study was conducted to evaluate hair nickel and chromium levels in fixed orthodontic patients. Scalp hair nickel/chromium concentrations of 12 female and 12 male fixed orthodontic patients were measured before treatment and 6 months later, using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The effects of treatment, gender, and age on hair ions were analyzed statistically (α = 0.05). The patients' mean age was 18.38 ± 3.98 years. The mean nickel levels were 0.1380 ± 0.0570 and 0.6715 ± 0.1785 μg/g dry hair mass, respectively, in the baseline and sixth month of treatment. Chromium concentrations were 0.1455 ± 0.0769 and 0.1683 ± 0.0707 μg/g dry hair mass, respectively. After 6 months, nickel increased for 387 % (paired t test P = 0.0000) and chromium increased for 16 % (P = 0.0002). No significant correlations were observed between any ion levels with age or gender (Spearman P > 0.2). Within the limitations of this preliminary study, it seems that 6 months of fixed orthodontic treatment might increase levels of hair nickel and chromium. Future larger studies are necessary to validate these results. PMID:25503776

  14. Initial experience with linear focused shockwave treatment for erectile dysfunction: a 6-month follow-up pilot study.

    PubMed

    Reisman, Y; Hind, A; Varaneckas, A; Motil, I

    2015-01-01

    Low-intensity shockwaves (LISW) are known to produce revascularization and have been in evaluation and in use to treat erectile dysfunction (ED). The present single-arm pilot study is aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of a dedicated shockwave device (Renova) on vasculogenic ED patients. Fifty-eight patients with mild to severe ED were treated by LISW and their erectile function was evaluated by the International Index of Erectile Function-Erectile Function Domain (IIEF-EF), Sexual Encounter Profile and Global Assessment Questions questionnaires, at baseline and at 1, 3 and 6 months post treatment. The average IIEF-EF increased significantly from 14.78 at baseline to 21.93 at 3 months post treatment and stabilized at 22.26 at 6 months post treatment. Out of 58 patients, 47 (81%) had a successful treatment. No adverse events were reported during the treatment and the follow-up duration. In conclusion, it suggests that the performance of LISW could add a new advanced treatment for ED.

  15. Treatment of the Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip with an Abduction Brace in Children up to 6 Months Old

    PubMed Central

    Wahlen, Raphaël; Zambelli, Pierre-Yves

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Use of Pavlik harness for the treatment of DDH can be complicated for parents. Any misuse or failure in the adjustments may lead to significant complications. An abduction brace was introduced in our institution, as it was thought to be easier to use. Aim. We assess the results for the treatment of DDH using our abduction brace in children of 0–6 months old and compare these results with data on treatments using the Pavlik harness. Method. Retrospective analysis of patients with DDH from 0 to 6 months old at diagnosis, performed from 2004 to 2009. Outcomes were rates of reduction of the hip and avascular necrosis of the femoral head (AVN). Follow-up was at one year and up to 4 years old. Results. Hip reduction was successful in 28 of 33 patients (85%), with no AVN. Conclusion. Our results in terms of hip reduction rate and AVN rate are similar to those found in literature assessing Pavlik harness use, with a simpler and comfortable treatment procedure. PMID:25815214

  16. Incidence and Determinants of Endophthalmitis within 6 Months of Surgeries over a 2-Year Period at King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Saudi Arabia: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Khandekar, Rajiv; Al-Motowa, Saeed; Alkatan, Hind M.; Karaoui, Mohammed; Ortiz, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background: We present the incidence and determinants of endophthalmitis between July 2010 and June 2012 at King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. On its basis, we recommended recommendations to strengthen the infection prevention and control strategies. Methods: This is a retrospective review of health records type of study. The details of cases reported having endophthalmitis among those operated in 2 years of study period were studied. The incidence of endophthalmitis was calculated for different eye surgeries and epidemiological variables. The causative organisms in vitreous tap were reviewed. The visual outcomes 6 weeks following intervention/treatment of endophthalmmitis were also studied. Results: Of the 22,554 cases operated, 17 developed endophthalmitis. The incidence was 0.08% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.04–0.11). The incidence of endophthlamitis among cataract surgeries was 0.12% (95% CI 0.04–0.21). Five specimens did not show any bacteria or fungus. Staphylococcus epidermis (3 cases) was the main pathogen identified. In 8 (47%) eyes, vision deteriorated in spite of treatment. In 5 (29%) eyes, it became stable and in 4 (23.5%) eyes, it improved following treatment. Signs of infection were noted in 1st week, 3 weeks and 12 weeks in 4, 6 and 5 eyes respectively. Late presentation of infection (6 months postoperatively) was reported in two eyes. Conclusions: A vigilant infection control unit in a large eye hospital helps in monitoring endophthalmitis related catastrophes and suggests timely preventive measures to reduce the occurrence and appropriate measures to limit visual disabilities following eye surgery related endophthalmitis. PMID:25949078

  17. Antidiabetic effects and gene expression profiling in obese mice treated with Isaria sinclairii over a 6-month period.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Mi Young; Jee, Sang Duck; Lee, Byung Mu; Yeon, Ji-Hye; Park, Kun-Koo; Hwang, Jae Sam; Yun, Eun Young

    2010-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the glucose-lowering effects of Isaria sinclairii (Cicada Dongchunghacho), a fungus cultured on silkworm, are not fully elucidated. Thus the glucose-lowering effects of I. sinclairii as potential an antidiabetic agent were investigated in C57BL/6 obese (ob/ob) mice over a 6-mo period. For a period of 26 wk, ob mice were administered either 5 or 10% (w/w) I. sinclairii powder (IS), 10% dry mulberry leaf powder (ML), or 10% silkworm (SW) powder in the standard diet while a control group received only standard diet. The ML and SW preparations served as positive controls. Isaria sinclairii at 10% in the diet was more effective in reducing body weight compared to 10% ML, 10% SW, or 5% I. sinclairii. The fall in blood glucose levels in the groups treated for 26 wk was greater in both IS groups at 1 mo compared to ML or SW but equal in all groups at 6 mo. Microarray analyses were performed with a mouse 7.4K cDNA clone set array to identify the gene-expression profiles for the IS-, ML-, and SW-exposed ob mouse liver. The 10% IS group, compared to control, showed that 15 genes including glucokinase (Gk-rs1) and LDL receptor relating protein 1 were upregulated and 12 genes including cell translocation gene2 (antiproliferative) and hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (Hpgd 15) were downregulated. Upregulation of Gk-rs 1 and downregulation of Hpgd 15 were previously shown to occur in drug-induced suppression of diabetes. With ML, Lepr (leptin receptor), Pik3cb (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase), and Prodh (proline dehydrogenase), related to suppression of diabetes, were upregulated. In the case of SW, the enzymes (G2an, alpha glucosidase 2) and Mmp9 (matrix metalloproteinase 9) involved in elevation of blood glucose levels were both downregulated. Data suggest that I. sinclarii is effective in lowering blood glucose due to the upregulation of glucokinase (Gk-rs1) and downregulation of hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (Hpgd 15), both associated

  18. Risks and realities: dyadic interaction between 6-month-old infants and their mothers in opioid maintenance treatment.

    PubMed

    Sarfi, Monica; Smith, Lars; Waal, Helge; Sundet, Jon Martin

    2011-12-01

    A number of studies point to methadone exposure in utero as a possible risk factor in the developing mother-infant relationship in the first year of life. This study is part of a larger, national follow-up of 38 infants prenatally exposed to methadone or buprenorphine and 36 comparison, low-risk infants. The aim of the present paper is to assess the quality of mother-infant relationship when the infants are 6 months old. Videotaped mother-infant interactions were rated in a global scale (NICHD). Maternal and infant contributions collapsed into the variables "infant style" and "maternal style" showed that the only factor making significant contribution to the outcome measure "dyadic mutuality" was maternal style. The importance of group membership (exposed versus non-exposed), was reduced when controlling for maternal drug use prior to opioid maintenance treatment (OMT), maternal depression and parenting stress as well as infants' developmental status and sensory-integrative functions. This suggests that prediction of dyadic mutuality should be based on individual characteristics rather than group characteristics. These results support previous research findings that methadone and buprenorphine use per se does not have direct influence on the quality of early mother-infant relationship, but tailored follow-up procedures targeting drug-free pregnancies and parenting support are beneficial for women in OMT and their children.

  19. The effect of aging on the specialized conducting system: a telemetry ECG study in rats over a 6 month period.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Stefano; Fortunati, Ilaria; Carnevali, Luca; Baruffi, Silvana; Mastorci, Francesca; Trombini, Mimosa; Sgoifo, Andrea; Corradi, Domenico; Callegari, Sergio; Miragoli, Michele; Macchi, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Advanced age alone appears to be a risk factor for increased susceptibility to cardiac arrhythmias. We previously observed in the aged rat heart that sinus rhythm ventricular activation is delayed and characterized by abnormal epicardial patterns although conduction velocity is normal. While these findings relate to an advanced stage of aging, it is not yet known when and how ventricular electrical impairment originates and which is the underlying substrate. To address these points, we performed continuous telemetry ECG recordings in freely moving rats over a six-month period to monitor ECG waveform changes, heart rate variability and the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias. At the end of the study, we performed in-vivo multiple lead epicardial recordings and histopathology of cardiac tissue. We found that the duration of ECG waves and intervals gradually increased and heart rate variability gradually decreased with age. Moreover, the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias gradually increased, with atrial arrhythmias exceeding ventricular arrhythmias. Epicardial multiple lead recordings confirmed abnormalities in ventricular activation patterns, likely attributable to distal conducting system dysfunctions. Microscopic analysis of aged heart specimens revealed multifocal connective tissue deposition and perinuclear myocytolysis in the atria. Our results demonstrate that aging gradually modifies the terminal part of the specialized cardiac conducting system, creating a substrate for increased arrhythmogenesis. These findings may open new therapeutic options in the management of cardiac arrhythmias in the elderly population.

  20. Exploratory study describing 6 month outcomes for young children with autism who receive treatment as usual in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Muratori, Filippo; Narzisi, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Background In the last few years, the results of different studies have confirmed, in different ways, the importance of early intervention for autism. This study aims to evaluate the role of early “as usual” interventions in the outcome of toddlers diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method Seventy children with ASD aged between 24 and 48 months were recruited at different centers in Italy. They were evaluated by blind researchers at baseline and after 6 months of using Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G), Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales, and Vineland Adaptive Behavior scales. Parents filled out the MacArthur Inventory, Social Communication Questionnaire, and Child Behavior Check List. All children were referred to community providers for available interventions. Results At the endpoint, most of the children were still classified as having an ADOS-G classification of ASD. However, 21 (34.2%) passed from autism to autism spectrum, and 3 (4.2%) passed from autism spectrum to no spectrum. Treatment effects were obtained for cognitive functioning, language, adaptive behavior, and child behavior without differences between development-oriented and behavior-oriented interventions. Parent involvement was a mediator for the best clinical outcome. Baseline low impairments of communication, language comprehension, and gesture were predictors of positive outcome. Conclusion Treatment as usual, composed of individual therapy plus school-supported inclusion, may be an effective intervention in ASD. Better initial levels of communication in child and parent involvement during treatment have an important role for a positive outcome. PMID:24748794

  1. Effects of Concurrent Topotecan and Radiation on 6-Month Progression-Free Survival in the Primary Treatment of Glioblastoma Multiforme

    SciTech Connect

    Grabenbauer, Gerhard G. Gerber, Klaus-Dieter; Ganslandt, Oliver; Richter, Andrea M.S.; Klautke, Gunther; Birkmann, Josef; Meyer, Martin

    2009-09-01

    Purpose: To report a prospective, randomized, Phase II trial of radiotherapy with and without topotecan for the treatment of glioblastoma. Patients and Methods: Inclusion criteria were histology of glioblastoma, age <60 years, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group status 0-2. Patients were stratified according to recursive partitioning analysis class, center, and enzyme-inducing antiepileptic medication. Magnetic resonance imaging scans, neurologic examinations, and quality of life assessments were done every 3 months. The primary endpoint was the progression-free survival rate at 6 months (6-m-PFS). This trial was designed as an exploratory, randomized, Phase II trial with an accrual of 140 patients to detect a difference of 15-20% in 6-m-PFS. An interim analysis was scheduled after 60 patients. Median follow-up was 14 months (range, 1-50 months). Results: The 6-m-PFS was 56% and 40% for patients with and without topotecan, respectively. This benefit disappeared within 2 months. Mean (range) progression-free survival time was 8 (5-10.9) months and 6.7 (4-9.5) months for patients with and without topotecan, respectively. The corresponding 2-year-overall survival rates were 28% vs. 22% (nonsignificant difference), and mean (range) survival time was 20.7 (13.9-27.5) months vs. 18.9 (13.5-24.4) months (nonsignificant difference). Conclusions: A slight but measurable increase of 16% was detected in 6-m-PFS for patients receiving topotecan with radiation as compared with patients having radiotherapy alone. These data might support further investigations into topotecan for the treatment of glioblastoma.

  2. Developmental milestones record - 6 months

    MedlinePlus

    Normal childhood growth milestones - 6 months; Childhood growth milestones - 6 months; Growth milestones for children - 6 months ... the weight on hands (often occurs by 4 months) Able to pick up a dropped object Able ...

  3. Summary of Sonic Boom Rise Times Observed During FAA Community Response Studies over a 6-Month Period in the Oklahoma City Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maglieri, Domenic J.; Sothcott, Victor E.

    1990-01-01

    The sonic boom signature data acquired from about 1225 supersonic flights, over a 6-month period in 1964 in the Oklahoma City area, was enhanced with the addition of data relating to rise times and total signature duration. These later parameters, not available at the time of publication of the original report on the Oklahoma City sonic boom exposures, are listed in tabular form along with overpressure, positive impulse, positive duration, and waveform category. Airplane operating information along with the surface weather observations are also included. Sonic boom rise times include readings to the 1/2, 3/4, and maximum overpressure values. Rise time relative probabilities for various lateral locations from the ground track of 0, 5, and 10 miles are presented along with the variation of rise times with flight altitude. The tabulated signature data, along with corresponding airplane operating conditions and surface and upper level atmospheric information, are also available on electronic files to provide it in the format for more efficient and effective utilization.

  4. Comparative clinical evaluation of laterally positioned pedicle graft and subepithelial connective tissue graft in the treatment of Miller's Class I and II gingival recession: A 6 months study

    PubMed Central

    Dulani, Kirti Satish; Bhavsar, Neeta Vijay; Trivedi, Sakshee Rahul; Trivedi, Rahul Anil

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of the study was to compare clinical outcomes of laterally positioned pedicle graft (LPPG) and subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG) for treatment of Miller's Class I and II gingival recession defects, at the end of 6 months. Materials and Methods: Sixty Miller's Class I or II gingival recession defects (≥3 mm) (n = 30 each) on the labial aspect of anterior teeth were treated by either of the above techniques. Clinical parameters including recession depth (RD), width of keratinized gingiva (WKG), percentage of root coverage (%RC), and complete RC were recorded at baseline and 6 months postoperatively. Data were recorded and statistical analysis was done for both intergroup and intragroup. Statistical Analysis Used: Paired t-test intragroup and Student's t-test intergroup. Results: In LPPG, RD decreased from 4.9 ± 0.99 mm to 1.1 ± 0.3 mm and WKG increased from 0.7 ± 0.87 to 4.5 ± 0.86 mm at 6 months, while in SCTG, RD decreased from 4.67 ± 1.12 mm to 0.46 ± 0.68 mm and WKG increased from 1.1 ± 0.99 to 5.33 ± 0.72 mm at 6 months postoperatively. The values of the soft tissue coverage remained stable for 6 months. Conclusions: Highly significant and effective soft tissue coverage was obtained by both techniques. LPPG resulted in effective soft tissue coverage for isolated deep narrow defects while SCTG in isolated and multiple, deep narrow and wide defects. PMID:26941517

  5. Repairing the Brain by SCF+G-CSF Treatment at 6 Months Postexperimental Stroke: Mechanistic Determination of the Causal Link Between Neurovascular Regeneration and Motor Functional Recovery.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lili; Wang, Dandan; McGillis, Sandra; Kyle, Michele; Zhao, Li-Ru

    2016-06-01

    Stroke, a leading cause of adult disability in the world, is a severe medical condition with limited treatment. Physical therapy, the only treatment available for stroke rehabilitation, appears to be effective within 6 months post-stroke. Here, we have mechanistically determined the efficacy of combined two hematopoietic growth factors, stem cell factor (SCF) and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF; SCF + G-CSF), in brain repair 6 months after cortical infarct induction in the transgenic mice carrying yellow fluorescent protein in Layer V pyramidal neurons (Thy1-YFP-H). Using a combination of live brain imaging, whole brain imaging, molecular manipulation, synaptic and vascular assessments, and motor function examination, we found that SCF + G-CSF promoted mushroom spine formation, enlarged postsynaptic membrane size, and increased postsynaptic density-95 accumulation and blood vessel density in the peri-infarct cavity cortex; and that SCF + G-CSF treatment improved motor functional recovery. The SCF + G-CSF-enhanced motor functional recovery was dependent on the synaptic and vascular regeneration in the peri-infarct cavity cortex. These data suggest that a stroke-damaged brain is repairable by SCF + G-CSF even 6 months after the lesion occurs. This study provides novel insights into the development of new restorative strategies for stroke recovery. PMID:27511907

  6. Exercise, character strengths, well-being, and learning climate in the prediction of performance over a 6-month period at a call center

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Saleh; Nima, Ali A.; Rapp Ricciardi, Max; Archer, Trevor; Garcia, Danilo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Performance monitoring might have an adverse influence on call center agents' well-being. We investigate how performance, over a 6-month period, is related to agents' perceptions of their learning climate, character strengths, well-being (subjective and psychological), and physical activity. Method: Agents (N = 135) self-reported perception of the learning climate (Learning Climate Questionnaire), character strengths (Values In Action Inventory Short Version), well-being (Positive Affect, Negative Affect Schedule, Satisfaction With Life Scale, Psychological Well-Being Scales Short Version), and how often/intensively they engaged in physical activity. Performance, “time on the phone,” was monitored for 6 consecutive months by the same system handling the calls. Results: Performance was positively related to having opportunities to develop, the character strengths clusters of Wisdom and Knowledge (e.g., curiosity for learning, perspective) and Temperance (e.g., having self-control, being prudent, humble, and modest), and exercise frequency. Performance was negatively related to the sense of autonomy and responsibility, contentedness, the character strengths clusters of Humanity and Love (e.g., helping others, cooperation) and Justice (e.g., affiliation, fairness, leadership), positive affect, life satisfaction and exercise Intensity. Conclusion: Call centers may need to create opportunities to develop to increase agents' performance and focus on individual differences in the recruitment and selection of agents to prevent future shortcomings or worker dissatisfaction. Nevertheless, performance measurement in call centers may need to include other aspects that are more attuned with different character strengths. After all, allowing individuals to put their strengths at work should empower the individual and at the end the organization itself. Finally, physical activity enhancement programs might offer considerable positive work outcomes. PMID:25002853

  7. Calcium supplementation, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. Predictors of bone mass changes in adolescent mothers during the 6-month postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Malpeli, Agustina; Apezteguia, María; Mansur, José L; Armanini, Alicia; Macías Couret, Melisa; Villalobos, Rosa; Kuzminczuk, Marta; Gonzalez, Horacio F

    2012-03-01

    We determined the effect of calcium supplementation on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) and identified predictors of bone mass changes in adolescent mothers 6 months postpartum. A prospective, analytical, clinical study was performed in adolescent mothers (< or = 19 years old; n = 37) from La Plata, Argentina. At 15 days postpartum, mothers were randomly assigned into one of two groups and started with calcium supplementation; one group received dairy products (932 mg Ca; n = 19) and the other calcium citrate tablets (1000 mg calcium/day; n = 18). Weight, height and dietary intake were measured and BMD was determined by DEXA at 15 days (baseline) and 6 months postpartum. BMC, total body BMD and BMD were assessed in lumbar spine, femoral neck, trochanter and total hip. Regression models were used to identify the relationship of total body BMD and BMC with independent variables (calcium supplementation, months of lactation, weight at 6 months, percent weight change, lean mass at 6 months, percent lean mass change, total calcium intake). Results showed that changes in BMD and BMC at the different sites were similar in both groups, and changes in percent body weight and total calcium intake were the main predictive factors. In conclusion, the effect of calcium was similar with either form of supplementation, i.e., dairy products or tablets, and changes in percent body weight and total calcium intake were predictors of total body BMD and BMC changes. PMID:23477205

  8. The volume of nipple aspirate fluid is not affected by 6 months of treatment with soy foods in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Morimoto, Yukiko; Conroy, Shannon M; Pagano, Ian S; Franke, Adrian A

    2011-04-01

    Based on the hypothesis that soy food consumption may influence breast tissue activity, we examined its effect on the production of nipple aspirate fluid (NAF), a possible indicator of breast cancer risk. Of 310 premenopausal women screened, 112 (36%) produced at least 10 μL of NAF, the minimum for study participation. In a crossover design, we randomized 96 women to 2 groups who, in reverse order, consumed a high-soy diet with 2 soy servings/d (1 serving = 177 mL soy milk, 126 g tofu, or 23 g soy nuts) and a low-soy diet with <3 servings/wk of soy for 6 mo each separated by a 1-mo washout period. During each diet period, 3 NAF samples were obtained (baseline and 3 and 6 mo) using a FirstCyte Aspirator and 4 urine samples (baseline and 1, 3, and 6 mo) were analyzed for isoflavonoids by liquid chromatography tandem MS. Adherence to the study protocol according to 24-h dietary recalls and urinary isoflavonoid excretion was high. The drop-out rate was 15% (n = 14); 82 women completed the intervention. The 2 groups produced similar mean NAF volumes at baseline (P = 0.95) but differed in age and previous soy intake and in their response to the intervention (P = 0.03). In both groups, NAF volume decreased during the first 3 mo of the high-soy diet period and returned to baseline at 6 mo, but there was no effect of the high-soy diet on NAF volume (P = 0.50 for diet; P-interaction = 0.21 for diet with time). Contrary to an earlier report, soy foods in amounts consumed by Asians did not increase breast tissue activity as assessed by NAF volume.

  9. Long-term oxandrolone treatment increases muscle protein net deposition via improving amino acid utilization in pediatric patients 6 months after burn injury

    PubMed Central

    Tuvdendorj, D.; Chinkes, DL.; Zhang, XJ.; Suman, OE.; Aarsland, A.; Ferrando, A.; Kulp, GA; Jeschke, MG.; Wolfe, RR.; Herndon, DN.

    2011-01-01

    Background We recently showed that mechanisms of protein turnover in skeletal muscle are unresponsive to amino acid (AA) infusion in severely burned pediatric patients at 6 months postinjury. In the current study, we evaluated if oxandrolone treatment affects mechanisms of protein turnover in skeletal muscle and whole-body protein breakdown in pediatric burn patients 6 months postinjury. Methods At the time of admission, patients were randomized to control or oxandrolone treatments. The treatment regimens were continued until 6 months postinjury, at which time patients (n = 26) underwent study with a stable isotope tracer infusion to measure muscle and whole-body protein turnover. Results Protein kinetics in leg muscle were expressed in nmol/min/100 ml leg volume (mean±SE). During AA infusion, rates of protein synthesis in leg muscle were increased (p < .05) in both groups (Basal vs. AA: control, 51±8 vs. 86±21; oxandrolone, 56±7 vs. 96±12). In the control group, there was also a simultaneous increase in breakdown (Basal vs. AA: 65±10 vs. 89±25), which resulted in no change in the net balance of leg muscle protein (Basal vs. AA: − 15±4 vs. − 2±10). In the oxandrolone group, protein breakdown did not change (Basal vs. AA: 80±12 vs. 77±9), leading to increased net balance (Basal vs. AA: − 24±7 vs. 19±7, p < .05). Protein breakdown at the whole-body level was not different between the groups. Conclusion Long-term oxandrolone treatment increased net deposition of leg muscle protein during AA infusion by attenuating protein breakdown, but did not affect whole-body protein breakdown. PMID:21333314

  10. Efficacy of memantine in the treatment of fibromyalgia: A double-blind, randomised, controlled trial with 6-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Olivan-Blázquez, Bárbara; Herrera-Mercadal, Paola; Puebla-Guedea, Marta; Pérez-Yus, Mari-Cruz; Andrés, Eva; Fayed, Nicolas; López-Del-Hoyo, Yolanda; Magallon, Rosa; Roca, Miquel; Garcia-Campayo, Javier

    2014-12-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a prevalent and disabling chronic disease. Recent studies have found elevated levels of glutamate in several brain regions, leading to hypotheses about the usefulness of glutamate-blocking drugs such as memantine in the treatment of FM. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of memantine in the treatment of pain and other clinical variables (global function, clinical impression, depression, anxiety, quality of life) in FM patients. A double-blind, parallel randomised controlled trial was developed. A total of 63 patients diagnosed with FM were recruited from primary health care centres in Zaragoza, Spain. Memantine was administered at doses of 20mg/d after 1 month of titration. Assessments were carried out at baseline, posttreatment, and 3- and 6-month follow-up. Compared with a placebo group, memantine significantly decreased ratings on a pain visual analogue scale (Cohen's d=1.43 at 6 months) and pain measured with a sphygmomanometer (d=1.05). All other secondary outcomes except anxiety also improved, with moderate-to-large effect sizes at 6 months. Compared with placebo, the absolute risk reduction obtained with memantine was 16.13% (95% confidence interval=2.0% to 32.6%), and the number needed to treat was 6.2 (95% confidence interval=3 to 47). Tolerance was good, with dizziness (8 patients) and headache (4 patients) being the most frequent side effects of memantine. Although additional studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up times are needed, this study provides preliminary evidence of the utility of memantine for the treatment of FM.

  11. A preliminary 6-month prospective study examining self-reported religious preference, religiosity/spirituality, and retention at a Jewish residential treatment center for substance-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Parhami, Iman; Davtian, Margarit; Collard, Michael; Lopez, Jean; Fong, Timothy W

    2014-07-01

    Although there is a substantial amount of research suggesting that higher levels of religiosity/spirituality (R/S) are associated with better treatment outcomes of substance-related disorders, no studies have explored this relationship at a faith-based residential treatment center. The objective of this prospective study is to explore the relationship between R/S, self-reported religious preference, and retention at a Jewish residential treatment center for substance-related disorders. Using the Daily Spiritual Experience Scale, R/S levels were assessed for 33 subjects at baseline, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months. Results demonstrated a significant relationship between baseline R/S level and retention at 6 months, while R/S levels were unchanged during the course of treatment. Notably, no relationship was found between self-reported religious affiliation and retention. This study demonstrates that patients' R/S level, rather than religious affiliation, is a possible predictor for better outcome at faith-based residential centers for substance-related disorders.

  12. A Preliminary 6-Month Prospective Study Examining Self-reported Religious Preference, Religiosity/Spirituality, and Retention at a Jewish Residential Treatment Center for Substance-Related Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Davtian, Margarit; Collard, Michael; Lopez, Jean; Fong, Timothy W.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is a substantial amount of research suggesting that higher levels of religiosity/spirituality (R/S) are associated with better treatment outcomes of substance-related disorders, no studies have explored this relationship at a faith-based residential treatment center. The objective of this prospective study is to explore the relationship between R/S, self-reported religious preference, and retention at a Jewish residential treatment center for substance-related disorders. Using the Daily Spiritual Experience Scale, R/S levels were assessed for 33 subjects at baseline, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months. Results demonstrated a significant relationship between baseline R/S level and retention at 6 months, while R/S levels were unchanged during the course of treatment. Notably, no relationship was found between self-reported religious affiliation and retention. This study demonstrates that patients’ R/S level, rather than religious affiliation, is a possible predictor for better outcome at faith-based residential centers for substance-related disorders. PMID:22460083

  13. 14-day prulifloxacin treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis in women with recurrent urinary tract infections: a prospective, open-label, pilot trial with 6-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Cai, T; Mazzoli, S; Nesi, G; Boddi, V; Mondaini, N; Bartoletti, R

    2009-11-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) are very common in otherwise healthy young women, and can have a very negative social and economic impact. In order to evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of a 14-day course of prulifloxacin orally administered once daily, 51 young female patients, attending the same STD center between may and June 2007 for symptoms of cystitis, with a history of recurrent UTI and urine culture positive for uropathogens, were enrolled in this prospective study. Microbiological and clinical efficacy was tested over three follow-up visits at 1, 3 and 6 months. Quality of life (QoL) was measured and the impact of prulifloxacin in modifying the Lactobacillus vaginal flora was also evaluated. At baseline, the pathogens most commonly isolated were Enterococcus faecalis (43.2%) and Escherichia coli (27.5%). 41 of the 51 women, (80.3%) had Lactobacillus spp. in vaginal samples at baseline. microbiological results at follow-up examinations were as follows: after 1 month, 47 patients were recurrence-free and 4 had recurrence; after 3 months, 41 were recurrence-free, while 6 reported recurrence; finally, after 6 months, 36 were recurrence-free and 5 had recurrence. A statistically significant difference was reported between the QoL questionnaire mean scores at baseline (0.63), 1 (0.77), 3 (0.77) and 6 months (0.78) after treatment (all p<0.001). the vaginal swab cultures demonstrated that Lactobacillus spp. flora was maintained in 38 out of the 41 (92.6%) patients who had positive vaginal swab sample at baseline. in conclusion, a 14-day administration of prulifloxacin 600 mg is a safe, well tolerated and effective treatment for the management of UTI in young women. PMID:19933045

  14. Percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion – treatment outcomes and 6 months of follow-up – a single-center experience

    PubMed Central

    Karczewski, Michał; Skowronek, Radomir; Burysz, Marian; Fischer, Marcin; Anisimowicz, Lech; Demkow, Marcin; Konka, Marek; Ogorzeja, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Aim To present the results of treatment and evaluate 6 months of follow-up in a group of patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation, who underwent the procedure of percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion (PLAAO). Material and methods Percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion was performed in 34 patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and contraindications for oral anticoagulation therapy. The risk of thromboembolic and bleeding complications was determined based on the CHA2DS2VASc and HAS-BLED scales. The Amplatzer Amulet system from St. Jude Medical was used. On the first postoperative day, all patients were started on double antiplatelet therapy with 75 mg/day of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and 75 mg/day of clopidogrel (CLO). On the 30th postoperative day, the efficacy of the antiplatelet therapy was assessed with impedance aggregometry using a Multiplate analyzer (Roche). Echocardiographic examinations were performed intraoperatively and on the first postoperative day; subsequently, follow-up examinations were conducted 1 and 6 months after the implantation. Results In all patients, proper occluder position was observed throughout the follow-up. No leakage or thrombi around the implants were found. No strokes or bleeding complications associated with the antiplatelet therapy were observed. Multiplate assessment of platelet activity was conducted in 20 out of 34 patients. The efficacy of ASA treatment was demonstrated in all patients; no response to clopidogrel treatment was observed in 5 out of 20 patients. One patient suffered from cardiac tamponade, which required the performance of full sternotomy. Local complications (hematomas of the inguinal region) were observed in 3 patients. One of the patients died for reasons unrelated to the procedure. Conclusions Percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion is an effective procedure in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and contraindications for chronic anticoagulation therapy. Further

  15. [The morphofunctional cellular evaluation of liver and kidney in rats in dynamics of 6-month consumption of water produced with the use of noncontact activation after electrochemical treatment].

    PubMed

    Beliaeva, N N; Rakhmanin, Iu A; Mikhailova, R I; Savostikova, O N; Gasimova, Z M; Kamenetskaia, D B; Alekseeva, A V; Vasina, D A; Ryzhova, I N

    2015-01-01

    There were investigated morphofunctional indices of liver and kidney in male outbred rats in the dynamics of the 6-months consumption of water after its noncontact activation. There were studied 4 experimental groups of animals consumed waters named as "Anolyte" and in dependence on the activation time, 3 types of catholyte water ("Catholyte--5", "Catholyte--25", "Catholyte--40"). Moscow tap water settled for a week served as control. "Anolyte" water was found to increase in the kidney the number of hypertrophied gromeruli only in 6 months, while the consumption of "Catholyte--25" water and especially, "Catholyte--40" in 1 and 6 months caused the damage of liver and kidney, and for the index of alteration of renal glomeruli after 6 months of water consumption there was revealed the dependence on the activation time of "Catalytes".

  16. PTH(1-84) replacement therapy in hypoparathyroidism: a randomized controlled trial on pharmacokinetic and dynamic effects after 6 months of treatment.

    PubMed

    Sikjaer, Tanja; Amstrup, Anne Kristine; Rolighed, Lars; Kjaer, Soren Geill; Mosekilde, Leif; Rejnmark, Lars

    2013-10-01

    Untreated, hypoparathyroidism (hypoPT) is a state of hypocalcemia with inappropriately low plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and hyperphosphatemia. PTH administration normalizes plasma calcium and phosphate levels and reduces the doses of calcium and active vitamin D analogues needed. To develop an evidence-based clinical algorithm to monitor hypoPT patients treated with recombinant human PTH (rhPTH[1-84]) injected subcutaneously in the thigh, we performed a 24-hour monitoring study of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in a group of 38 patients who had completed a 6-month randomized study on effects of treatment with a fixed rhPTH(1-84) dose of 100 µg/d or similar placebo as an add-on to conventional treatment. PTH levels rose immediately, reaching a median peak level of 26.5 (interquartile range [IQR], 20.1-42.5) pmol/L 15 minutes following injection. Thereafter, levels gradually decreased until reaching predosing levels after 16 hours, with a plasma half-life of 2.2 (1.7-2.5) hours. rhPTH(1-84) changed the diurnal rhythms of ionized calcium levels and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2 D) levels, with rising levels following injection. Ionized calcium peaked after 7.0 (5.0-10.0) hours. Asymptomatic hypercalcemia was present in 71% of the rhPTH(1-84)-treated patients. Compared with placebo, 24-hour urinary calcium, phosphate, and magnesium did not change, although the diurnal variation in renal excretion rates changed significantly in response to treatment. In conclusion, as a safety precaution, we recommend occasionally measuring calcium levels at approximately 7 hours after administration in order to reveal episodes of hypercalcemia. A 100-µg daily dose of rhPTH(1-84) appears to be too high in some patients, suggesting a need for a device allowing for individual dose adjustments.

  17. In Alzheimer's Disease, 6-Month Treatment with GLP-1 Analog Prevents Decline of Brain Glucose Metabolism: Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Gejl, Michael; Gjedde, Albert; Egefjord, Lærke; Møller, Arne; Hansen, Søren B; Vang, Kim; Rodell, Anders; Brændgaard, Hans; Gottrup, Hanne; Schacht, Anna; Møller, Niels; Brock, Birgitte; Rungby, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    In animal models, the incretin hormone GLP-1 affects Alzheimer's disease (AD). We hypothesized that treatment with GLP-1 or an analog of GLP-1 would prevent accumulation of Aβ and raise, or prevent decline of, glucose metabolism (CMRglc) in AD. In this 26-week trial, we randomized 38 patients with AD to treatment with the GLP-1 analog liraglutide (n = 18), or placebo (n = 20). We measured Aβ load in brain with tracer [(11)C]PIB (PIB), CMRglc with [(18)F]FDG (FDG), and cognition with the WMS-IV scale (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01469351). The PIB binding increased significantly in temporal lobe in placebo and treatment patients (both P = 0.04), and in occipital lobe in treatment patients (P = 0.04). Regional and global increases of PIB retention did not differ between the groups (P ≥ 0.38). In placebo treated patients CMRglc declined in all regions, significantly so by the following means in precuneus (P = 0.009, 3.2 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 5.45; 0.92), and in parietal (P = 0.04, 2.1 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 4.21; 0.081), temporal (P = 0.046, 1.54 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 3.05; 0.030), and occipital (P = 0.009, 2.10 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 3.61; 0.59) lobes, and in cerebellum (P = 0.04, 1.54 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 3.01; 0.064). In contrast, the GLP-1 analog treatment caused a numerical but insignificant increase of CMRglc after 6 months. Cognitive scores did not change. We conclude that the GLP-1 analog treatment prevented the decline of CMRglc that signifies cognitive impairment, synaptic dysfunction, and disease evolution. We draw no firm conclusions from the Aβ load or cognition measures, for which the study was underpowered. PMID:27252647

  18. In Alzheimer’s Disease, 6-Month Treatment with GLP-1 Analog Prevents Decline of Brain Glucose Metabolism: Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gejl, Michael; Gjedde, Albert; Egefjord, Lærke; Møller, Arne; Hansen, Søren B.; Vang, Kim; Rodell, Anders; Brændgaard, Hans; Gottrup, Hanne; Schacht, Anna; Møller, Niels; Brock, Birgitte; Rungby, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    In animal models, the incretin hormone GLP-1 affects Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We hypothesized that treatment with GLP-1 or an analog of GLP-1 would prevent accumulation of Aβ and raise, or prevent decline of, glucose metabolism (CMRglc) in AD. In this 26-week trial, we randomized 38 patients with AD to treatment with the GLP-1 analog liraglutide (n = 18), or placebo (n = 20). We measured Aβ load in brain with tracer [11C]PIB (PIB), CMRglc with [18F]FDG (FDG), and cognition with the WMS-IV scale (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01469351). The PIB binding increased significantly in temporal lobe in placebo and treatment patients (both P = 0.04), and in occipital lobe in treatment patients (P = 0.04). Regional and global increases of PIB retention did not differ between the groups (P ≥ 0.38). In placebo treated patients CMRglc declined in all regions, significantly so by the following means in precuneus (P = 0.009, 3.2 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 5.45; 0.92), and in parietal (P = 0.04, 2.1 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 4.21; 0.081), temporal (P = 0.046, 1.54 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 3.05; 0.030), and occipital (P = 0.009, 2.10 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 3.61; 0.59) lobes, and in cerebellum (P = 0.04, 1.54 μmol/hg/min, 95% CI: 3.01; 0.064). In contrast, the GLP-1 analog treatment caused a numerical but insignificant increase of CMRglc after 6 months. Cognitive scores did not change. We conclude that the GLP-1 analog treatment prevented the decline of CMRglc that signifies cognitive impairment, synaptic dysfunction, and disease evolution. We draw no firm conclusions from the Aβ load or cognition measures, for which the study was underpowered. PMID:27252647

  19. Predictors of remission in the treatment of major depressive disorder: real-world evidence from a 6-month prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Novick, Diego; Hong, Jihyung; Montgomery, William; Dueñas, Héctor; Gado, Magdy; Haro, Josep Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examined potential predictors of remission among patients treated for major depressive disorder (MDD) in a naturalistic clinical setting, mostly in the Middle East, East Asia, and Mexico. Methods Data for this post hoc analysis were taken from a 6-month prospective, noninterventional, observational study that involved 1,549 MDD patients without sexual dysfunction at baseline in 12 countries worldwide. Depression severity was measured using the Clinical Global Impression of Severity and the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report (QIDS-SR16). Depression-related pain was measured using the pain-related items of the Somatic Symptom Inventory. Remission was defined as a QIDS-SR16 score ≤5. Generalized estimating equation regression models were used to examine baseline factors associated with remission during follow-up. Results Being from East Asia (odds ratio [OR] 0.48 versus Mexico; P<0.001), a higher level of depression severity at baseline (OR 0.77, P=0.003, for Clinical Global Impression of Severity; OR 0.92, P<0.001, for QIDS-SR16), more previous MDD episodes (OR 0.92, P=0.007), previous treatments/therapies for depression (OR 0.78, P=0.030), and having any significant psychiatric and medical comorbidity at baseline (OR 0.60, P<0.001) were negatively associated with remission, whereas being male (OR 1.29, P=0.026) and treatment with duloxetine (OR 2.38 versus selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, P<0.001) were positively associated with remission. However, the association between Somatic Symptom Inventory pain scores and remission no longer appeared to be significant in this multiple regression (P=0.580), (P=0.008 in descriptive statistics), although it remained significant in a subgroup of patients treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (OR 0.97, P=0.023), but not in those treated with duloxetine (P=0.182). Conclusion These findings are largely consistent with previous reports from the USA and

  20. The Maintenance Effect of Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment Groups for the Chinese Parents of Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Melbourne, Australia: A 6-Month Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, D. F. K.; Poon, A.; Kwok, Y. C. Lai

    2011-01-01

    Background: Caring for a child with intellectual disability can be stressful. No data on the longer-term effects of cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) on parents from a Chinese-speaking background who have children with intellectual disabilities are available in the literature. This study attempted to fill this research gap by examining the…

  1. Mental Health Treatment Barriers among Racial/Ethnic Minority versus White Young Adults 6 Months after Intake at a College Counseling Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Regina; Soffer, Ariella; Polanco-Roman, Lillian; Wheeler, Alyssa; Moore, Alyssa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examined mental health treatment barriers following intake at a counseling center among racially/ethnically diverse college students. Methods: College students (N = 122) seen for intake at a college counseling center in 2012-2013 completed self-reports of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and mental health treatment…

  2. Remission Rate and Functional Outcomes During a 6-Month Treatment With Osmotic-Release Oral-System Methylphenidate in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Su, Yi; Li, Haibo; Chen, Yixin; Fang, Fang; Xu, Tong; Lu, Haiping; Xie, Ling; Zhuo, Jianmin; Qu, Jiazhi; Yang, Li; Wang, Yufeng

    2015-10-01

    Many definitions have been used to evaluate remission in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in different studies resulting with varied remission rates. This open-label, multicenter study investigated the remission rate in Chinese children (n = 239; aged 6-16 years) with a diagnosis of ADHD (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition), treated with osmotic-release oral-system methylphenidate at doses of 18, 36, and 54 mg, once daily. Two definitions of remission were used: (1) (primary end point): average scores of SNAP-IV (Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, Fourth Edition) items of 1 or less (0-3 rating scale for each item) according to the subtype of ADHD (inattentive [1-9], hyperactive-impulsive [10-18], and combined type [1-18]), and (2) total score of SNAP-IV items 1 to 18 of 18 or less, at week 8. The study consisted of screening/baseline, titration/open-label treatment (8 weeks), and extended observation (up to 24 weeks) phases. Secondary efficacy assessments were Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (clinical efficacy), Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Scale (BRIEF; executive function behaviors), and Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale (social function). Validity of remission was assessed by comparing the function measures (BRIEF and Weiss's) between patients who achieved remission and those who did not. At week 8, 69.3% (151/218) of patients achieved remission by definition 1, and 73.2% (161/220) by definition 2. At weeks 8 and 24, the remission group had significantly lower BRIEF, Weiss's, and Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scores (P < 0.001 for all) compared with the nonremission group. Overall, treatment with osmotic-release oral-system methylphenidate was well tolerated, with increased remission rates in children with ADHD.

  3. Remission Rate and Functional Outcomes During a 6-Month Treatment With Osmotic-Release Oral-System Methylphenidate in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Su, Yi; Li, Haibo; Chen, Yixin; Fang, Fang; Xu, Tong; Lu, Haiping; Xie, Ling; Zhuo, Jianmin; Qu, Jiazhi; Yang, Li; Wang, Yufeng

    2015-10-01

    Many definitions have been used to evaluate remission in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in different studies resulting with varied remission rates. This open-label, multicenter study investigated the remission rate in Chinese children (n = 239; aged 6-16 years) with a diagnosis of ADHD (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition), treated with osmotic-release oral-system methylphenidate at doses of 18, 36, and 54 mg, once daily. Two definitions of remission were used: (1) (primary end point): average scores of SNAP-IV (Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, Fourth Edition) items of 1 or less (0-3 rating scale for each item) according to the subtype of ADHD (inattentive [1-9], hyperactive-impulsive [10-18], and combined type [1-18]), and (2) total score of SNAP-IV items 1 to 18 of 18 or less, at week 8. The study consisted of screening/baseline, titration/open-label treatment (8 weeks), and extended observation (up to 24 weeks) phases. Secondary efficacy assessments were Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (clinical efficacy), Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Scale (BRIEF; executive function behaviors), and Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale (social function). Validity of remission was assessed by comparing the function measures (BRIEF and Weiss's) between patients who achieved remission and those who did not. At week 8, 69.3% (151/218) of patients achieved remission by definition 1, and 73.2% (161/220) by definition 2. At weeks 8 and 24, the remission group had significantly lower BRIEF, Weiss's, and Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scores (P < 0.001 for all) compared with the nonremission group. Overall, treatment with osmotic-release oral-system methylphenidate was well tolerated, with increased remission rates in children with ADHD. PMID:26267421

  4. Anti-Drug Antibodies, Drug Levels, Interleukin-6 and Soluble TNF Receptors in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients during the First 6 Months of Treatment with Adalimumab or Infliximab: A Descriptive Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bouchelouche, Pierre; Bartels, Else Marie; Bliddal, Henning; Bendtzen, Klaus; Stoltenberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objectives With the present study we wanted to explore the impact of treatment with a tumor necrosis factor-α -inhibitor (TNFi) on levels of soluble biomarkers in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and to identify predictors of impaired drug levels and development of anti-TNFi antibodies (anti-TNFi Abs). Methods Blood samples from 26 patients with established RA were taken at baseline and following 6 months of treatment with adalimumab or infliximab. Samples were analyzed for levels of TNFi, interleukin (IL)-6, and soluble TNF-receptors 1 and -2 (sTNF-R1 and -2) and for presence of anti-TNFi Abs. Clinical and demographic data were recorded as well. Results During the initial 6 months treatment, DAS28(CRP) (Disease activity score in 28 joints using C-reactive protein) and levels of IL-6 and sTNF-R2 decreased significantly in patients without anti-TNFi Abs and in patients retaining detectable drug levels. The levels of other tested cytokines (TNF-α, TNF-β, IL-1ra, IL-1b, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12(p70), IL-13, IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-33) were generally below detection limits. Higher baseline levels of IL-6 associated with undetectable levels of TNFi at follow-up. Anti-TNFi Abs were associated with decreased drug levels, but no predictors for anti-TNFi Ab development could be found. Conclusion The effect of treatment with TNFi on RA disease activity depends on levels of active drug, and by presence of anti-TNFi Abs. In patients who retain detectable drug levels, and in the absence of anti-TNFi Abs, clinical outcome is improved during treatment, and circulating levels of IL-6 and sTNF-R2 decrease. Baseline levels of IL-6 may predict depletion of TNFi and may identify patients at risk of treatment failure. PMID:27606615

  5. Patients with Persistently Elevated PSA and Negative Results of TRUS-Biopsy: Does 6-Month Treatment with Dutasteride can Indicate Candidates for Re-Biopsy. What is the Best of Saturation Schemes: Transrectal or Transperineal Approach?

    PubMed

    Kravchick, Sergey; Lobik, Leonid; Cytron, Shmuel; Kravchenko, Yakov; Dor, David Ben; Peled, Ronit

    2015-09-01

    To identify patients who actually need a re - biopsy, based on alterations in PSA readings after 6-month treatment with Dutasteride. We also sought to bring out the most beneficial re-biopsy scheme. We have reviewed the records of patients with persistently elevated PSA and at least one set of TRUS biopsies. Patients who were treated with alpha -blockers/Dutasteride combination were considered as the study group, while patients in control received alpha-blockers alone. Patients in both groups underwent re-biopsy 6 months later. The two protocols of re-biopsies were used at that time: 20-24 cores saturation transrectal (ST)) and ≥ 40 cores saturation transperineal template-guided (STT) biopsies. One hundred thirty-three patients were included in this study. In 86.7 % of the patients in the study group mean PSA decreased from 7.4 ± 2.69 to 4.037 ± 1.53 (p-0.001). The overall cancer detection rate was 29 % (n-39: 19 v/s 20, control and study groups, respectively). In the study group PSA decreased to 26.73 ± 11.26 % in patients with cancer, compared with 40.54 ± 13.3 % in patients without. It must be emphasized that STT-biopsies detected significantly more cancers (38.46 v/s 20.59 %, p- 0.005). Mean cores number got to 21 ± 2.45 and 45 ± 5.65 in ST and STT biopsies, respectively. Six-month treatment with Dutasteride decreases PSA readings in 86.7 % of the patients. A PSA decline of less than 40% (cutoff) should be considered as an indicator for re-biopsy. Transperineal template-guided biopsies had a higher cancer detection rate. PMID:25753982

  6. Retrieval Protracts Deferred Imitation by 6-Month-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Rachel; Rovee-Collier, Carolyn; Campanella, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Past research using a deferred imitation task has shown that 6-month-olds remember a 3-part action sequence for only 1 day. The concept of a time window suggests that there is a limited period within which additional information can be integrated with a prior memory. Its width tracks the forgetting function of the memory. This study asked if…

  7. [A phase II pharmacological study of leuprolide acetate 6-month depot, TAP-144-SR (6M), in treatment-Nazve patients with prostatic cancer who received a single subcutaneous or intramuscular injection].

    PubMed

    Komura, Emiko; Fujimoto, Tsukasa; Takabayashi, Nobuyoshi; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Akaza, Hideyuki

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this phase II study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficacy, and safety of a 6- month depot formulation of a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonist, TAP-144-SR (6M), in Japanese treatment-naÏve patients with prostatic cancer. Each subject received a single subcutaneous or intramuscular injection of TAP- 144-SR (6M) and was monitored for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was the change in serum testosterone levels. The serum testosterone level in six subjects who received 22.5 mg of TAP-144 (SR) subcutaneously decreased below the castrate level after 4 weeks and remained suppressed during the 24 weeks of follow-up. With regard to safety, TAP-144-SR (6M)was not associated with any additional concerns compared to those reported for the approved 1-month and 3-month depot formulations of TAP-144-SR. In addition, 30 mg of TAP-144-SR (6M) was administered subcutaneously to six subjects, and, on the basis of the results, the optimal clinical dosage of TAP-144-SR (6M) in Japan was considered to be 22.5 mg. Outcomes with 22.5mg TAP-144-SR (6M) administered intramuscularly were similar to those with TAP-144-SR (6M) administered subcutaneously.

  8. Malignant hyperthermia in a 6-month-old infant.

    PubMed

    Mathur, P R; Rundla, M; Jain, N; Mathur, V

    2016-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a rare hypermetabolic disorder of skeletal muscles that manifests as a life-threatening crisis in susceptible individuals, after exposure to triggering agents, most commonly halothane and succinylcholine. MH presents with multiple nonspecific signs and laboratory findings such as tachycardia, hyperthermia, hypercarbia, acidosis, and muscle rigidity. Caffeine halothane contracture test is not available at most centers in India. Larach et al. have described a clinical grading scale for determining the MH raw score based on clinical findings and biochemical tests. The high degree of suspicion, early recognition and aggressive treatment should commence immediately. It is imperative to avoid triggering agents, such as volatile anesthetics and succinylcholine, and promote the use of total intravenous anesthesia in MH susceptible patients. We report a case of 6-month-old child undergoing laparotomy under general anesthesia, who presented with signs and symptoms of MH, had MH rank 5 and raw score 36. PMID:27375398

  9. Malignant hyperthermia in a 6-month-old infant

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, PR; Rundla, M; Jain, N; Mathur, V

    2016-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a rare hypermetabolic disorder of skeletal muscles that manifests as a life-threatening crisis in susceptible individuals, after exposure to triggering agents, most commonly halothane and succinylcholine. MH presents with multiple nonspecific signs and laboratory findings such as tachycardia, hyperthermia, hypercarbia, acidosis, and muscle rigidity. Caffeine halothane contracture test is not available at most centers in India. Larach et al. have described a clinical grading scale for determining the MH raw score based on clinical findings and biochemical tests. The high degree of suspicion, early recognition and aggressive treatment should commence immediately. It is imperative to avoid triggering agents, such as volatile anesthetics and succinylcholine, and promote the use of total intravenous anesthesia in MH susceptible patients. We report a case of 6-month-old child undergoing laparotomy under general anesthesia, who presented with signs and symptoms of MH, had MH rank 5 and raw score 36. PMID:27375398

  10. A clinical and radiological evaluation of the relative efficacy of demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft versus anorganic bovine bone xenograft in the treatment of human infrabony periodontal defects: A 6 months follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Blaggana, Vikram; Gill, Amarjit Singh; Blaggana, Anshu

    2014-01-01

    Background: The ultimate goal of periodontal therapy entails regeneration of the periodontal tissues lost as a consequence of periodontitis. Predictable correction of vertical osseous defects has however posed as a constant therapeutic challenge. The aim of our present study is to evaluate the relative efficacy of demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA) vs anorganic bovine bone xenograft (ABBX) in the treatment of human infrabony periodontal defects. Materials and Methods: 15 patients with 30 bilaterally symmetrical defect sites in either of the arches, in the age group of 25-50 years were selected as part of split-mouth study design. Defect-A (right side) was grafted with DFDBA while Defect-B (left side) was grafted with ABBX. Various clinical and radiographic parameters viz. probing depth(PD), clinical attachment level(CAL) and linear bone fill were recorded preoperatively, 12- & 24-weeks postoperatively. Results: Both defect-A & defect-B sites exhibited a highly significant reduction in probing depth, and gain in clinical attachment level and linear bone fill at 12-weeks & at the end of 24-weeks. Comparative evaluation between the study groups revealed a statistically non-significant reduction in probing depth (P<0.1) and mean gain in linear bone fill (P<0.1). However, there was a statistically significant gain in clinical attachment level (P<0.05) in Defect-A (CD=0.356) as compared to Defect-B (CD=0.346). Conclusions: Within the limits of this study, both the materials viz. ABBX and DFDBA are beneficial for the treatment of periodontal infrabony defects. Both the materials were found to be equally effective in all respects except the gain in attachment level, which was found to be more with DFDBA. Long-term studies are suggested to evaluate further the relative efficacy of the two grafts. PMID:25425822

  11. Mediated Imitation in 6-Month-Olds: Remembering by Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Rachel; Vieira, Aurora; Rovee-Collier, Carolyn

    2001-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether associating an imitation task with an operant task affected 6-month-olds' memory for either task. Results indicated that infants successfully imitated a puppet's action for up to 2 weeks only if the associated operant task (pressing a lever to activate a miniature train) was retrieved first. Follow-up study…

  12. Maternal Regulation of Infant Reactivity From 2 to 6 Months.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahromi, Laudan B.; Putnam, Samuel P.; Stifter, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    Previous research has investigated the effect of maternal soothing behaviors on reducing infant reactivity but not the differential effects of specific maternal behaviors on infant stress responses. The present study investigated maternal regulation of 2- and 6-month-olds' responses to an inoculation and found a significant decline with age in…

  13. Influence of growth during infancy on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation at the age of 6 months.

    PubMed

    Touwslager, Robbert N H; Gerver, Willem-Jan M; Tan, Frans E S; Gielen, Marij; Zeegers, Maurice P; Zimmermann, Luc J; Houben, Alfons J H M; Blanco, Carlos E; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Mulder, Antonius L M

    2012-11-01

    Low birth weight and accelerated infant growth are associated with cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Endothelial dysfunction is regarded as a precursor of atherosclerosis and is also related to infant growth. We aimed to examine whether an association between infant growth and endothelial function is already present during discrete periods of growth during the first 6 months of life in healthy term infants. A cohort of 104 newborns was studied in the first week after birth and reexamined at the age of 6 months. Maximum vasodilatation in response to acetylcholine (endothelium dependent) and nitroprusside (endothelium independent) was measured in the vasculature of the forearm skin, using laser Doppler flowmetry and iontophoresis. Growth was calculated as difference in Z scores for weight, length, weight-for-length, and head circumference. Multivariable multilevel linear regression was used for the analysis. Growth from 0 to 1 month (calculated as difference in weight) was the only window in the first 6 months of life that was significantly and inversely associated with endothelium-dependent vasodilatation at 6 months (b=-11.72 perfusion units per Z score, P=0.01 in multivariable analysis). Birth size was not important when considered simultaneously with infant growth. Maximum endothelium-independent vasodilatation was not associated with birth size or growth parameters. We conclude that growth in the first month of life is inversely associated with endothelium-dependent vasodilatation at the age of 6 months in healthy term infants, regardless of birth size.

  14. [Twelve cases of total arthroplasty of lumbar disc. Preliminary results at 6 months].

    PubMed

    Morales, José Fernando Ramos; Palacios, Jesús López; Soriano, Juan Carlos Alvarado

    2008-01-01

    Lumbar pathology is a problem with growing incidence in developed countries. Lumbar pain caused by disc degeneration is the most frequently cause of functional restriction in patients under 45 years old. Discectomy, laminectomy and posterior spinal fusion have been the traditional surgery treatment. Many patients continue with pain as a consequence of mechanical damage at the functional unit, with different degrees of instability and adjacent disc damage. There are two types of strategies for disc replacement: disc nucleus arthroplasty and total disc arthroplasty. A clinical essay was made in Angeles Mocel Hospital during the period between October 2003 to March 2005. Eight patients with degenerative lumbar disc disease or contained disc herniation, were treated with 12 disc prosthesis, previously they showed no improvement with conservative treatment at minimum 4 months. Preoperative and postoperative pain was reported with the analogue visual score and the Oswestry score. Eighty percent presented immediate postoperative improvement and 100% after 6 months using Oswestry score. This procedure offers good outcome at short term, when its well indicated. This treatment requires a multidisciplinary team and elevates the costs. We need long term follow up results.

  15. Prognostic Factors for Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria: A 6-Month Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Young-Min; Park, Jung-Won; Kim, Sang-Ha; Ban, Ga-Young; Kim, Ji-Hye; Shin, Yoo-Seob; Lee, Hyun-Young

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Chronic urticaria (CU) has a substantial impact on the quality of life. Little clinical data on the prognosis of CU has been reported. This study aimed to investigate the control status and remission rate of CU and to explore potential predictors of good responses to the treatment during a 6-month treatment period. Methods A total of 75 patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) were enrolled from 3 university hospitals in Korea. Urticaria control state was classified into 2 groups: group I (remission and well-controlled) and group II (partly and uncontrolled). CU-specific quality of life (CU-QoL) and the urticaria activity score (UAS) were measured before and after the treatment. Autologous serum skin test (ASST), and anti-nuclear and anti-thyroid antibodies were measured at the enrollment into the study. Aspirin intolerance was confirmed by an oral provocation test. Results Of 59 patients completing the study, 21 (35.6%) arrived at well-controlled status and only 2 (3.4%) achieved remission, whereas 26 (44.1%) remained at partly controlled status and 10 (16.9%) were at uncontrolled status. Mean changes in CU-QoL (36.5±2.7 vs 20.6±4.3, P=0.017) and UAS (-7.9±0.8 vs -3.0±1.0, P=0.001) were significantly different between groups I and II. The presence of serum autoantibodies and aspirin intolerance had no influence on the control of urticaria in this study. However, ASST positivity was identified as a significant predictor of CU control in multivariate analysis (OR=6.106, P=0.017). Conclusions The proportion of CSU patients that achieved remission or a well-controlled state was 39% for the 6 months of stepwise treatment. Longer observations are necessary to assess the exact prognosis of CSU. ASST results may be a useful parameter for predicting a better response to treatment and both UAS and CU-QoL are helpful to monitor therapeutic response. PMID:26739404

  16. Congenital Panfollicular Nevus in a 6-Month-Old Girl.

    PubMed

    Duan, Linna; Antaya, Richard J; Ko, Christine J; Narayan, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    A 6-month-old girl presented with an irregular nodule on the right lateral neck. The lesion, which superficially resembled a lymphangioma or mastocytoma, had been present since birth but had recently been growing. The patient was referred for surgical resection. Microscopic findings were compatible with a recently described rare hamartoma termed "panfollicular nevus," which is a well-circumscribed lesion containing aberrantly differentiated, clustered hair follicles in high density. PMID:26822169

  17. Times to Discontinue Antidepressants Over 6 Months in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Woo-Young; Jang, Sae-Heon; Jae, Young-Myo; Kong, Bo-Geum; Kim, Ho-Chan; Choe, Byeong-Moo; Kim, Jeong-Gee; Kim, Choong-Rak

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate differences in discontinuation time among antidepressants and total antidepressant discontinuation rate of patients with depression over a 6 month period in a naturalistic treatment setting. Methods We reviewed the medical records of 900 patients with major depressive disorder who were initially prescribed only one kind of antidepressant. The prescribed antidepressants and the reasons for discontinuation were surveyed at baseline and every 4 weeks during the 24 week study. We investigated the discontinuation rate and the mean time to discontinuation among six antidepressants groups. Results Mean and median overall discontinuation times were 13.8 and 12 weeks, respectively. Sertraline and escitalopram had longer discontinuation times than that of fluoxetine, and patients who used sertraline discontinued use significantly later than those taking mirtazapine. No differences in discontinuation rate were observed after 24 weeks among these antidepressants. About 73% of patients discontinued antidepressant treatment after 24 weeks. Conclusion Sertraline and escitalopram tended to have longer mean times to discontinuation, although no difference in discontinuation rate was detected between antidepressants after 24 weeks. About three-quarters of patients discontinued antidepressant maintenance therapy after 24 weeks. PMID:27482246

  18. Gesture Performance in Schizophrenia Predicts Functional Outcome After 6 Months

    PubMed Central

    Walther, Sebastian; Eisenhardt, Sarah; Bohlhalter, Stephan; Vanbellingen, Tim; Müri, René; Strik, Werner; Stegmayer, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The functional outcome of schizophrenia is heterogeneous and markers of the course are missing. Functional outcome is associated with social cognition and negative symptoms. Gesture performance and nonverbal social perception are critically impaired in schizophrenia. Here, we tested whether gesture performance or nonverbal social perception could predict functional outcome and the ability to adequately perform relevant skills of everyday function (functional capacity) after 6 months. In a naturalistic longitudinal study, 28 patients with schizophrenia completed tests of nonverbal communication at baseline and follow-up. In addition, functional outcome, social and occupational functioning, as well as functional capacity at follow-up were assessed. Gesture performance and nonverbal social perception at baseline predicted negative symptoms, functional outcome, and functional capacity at 6-month follow-up. Gesture performance predicted functional outcome beyond the baseline measure of functioning. Patients with gesture deficits at baseline had stable negative symptoms and experienced a decline in social functioning. While in patients without gesture deficits, negative symptom severity decreased and social functioning remained stable. Thus, a simple test of hand gesture performance at baseline may indicate favorable outcomes in short-term follow-up. The results further support the importance of nonverbal communication skills in subjects with schizophrenia. PMID:27566843

  19. An unusual form of localized papulonodular cutaneous histiocytosis in a 6-month-old boy.

    PubMed

    van Haselen, C W; Toonstra, J; den Hengst, C W; van Vloten, W A

    1995-09-01

    We report a 6-month-old boy with an unusual form of cutaneous histiocytosis. The lesions were noticed shortly after birth, and there was no evidence of systemic disease. This histiocytic disorder could not be classified according to the Histiocyte Society classification, and was therefore designated an 'unclassified' group II histiocytic disorder. The clinical picture was characterized by dark-red papulonodules with a tendency to coalesce into plaques. Histologically, the infiltrate was characterized by non-epidermotropic histiocytes showing varying degrees of differentiation, eosinophils and lymphocytes, and by the absence of foamy cells and Touton giant cells. As a most conspicuous feature, electron microscopic examination revealed laminated dense bodies, whereas Birbeck granules and comma-shaped bodies were absent. This further distinguished this uncommon variant from the well-known class II histiocytoses. During a 6-month follow-up period all the lesions showed marked regression.

  20. Treatment with an orthopedic appliance system in relation to treatment intensity and growth periods. A study of initial effects.

    PubMed

    Malmgren, O; Omblus, J; Hägg, U; Pancherz, H

    1987-02-01

    The study comprises an analysis of the effect of treatment with a modified activator combined with a high-pull headgear during a standardized observation period of the initial 6 months of treatment. All patients (24 girls and 32 boys, aged 8.5 to 15 years) had severe skeletal Class II malocclusion. In the first part of the study, the effect of treatment with the appliance both day and night is compared with the effect when it was worn only at night. Only a small and nonsignificant difference was found, but the patients tended to cooperate better if they were instructed to wear the appliance continuously. In the second part of the study, the effect of treatment is related to the somatic maturation of the patients. Longitudinal records of standing height were used to assess whether treatment had been performed before maximal pubertal growth (prepeak period), during maximal pubertal growth (peak period), or after maximal pubertal growth (postpeak period). The skeletal effect was significantly greater in boys treated during the peak period than in those treated during the prepeak period and a similar tendency, although not significant, was found among girls. The number of patients treated during the postpeak period was too small for statistical analysis.

  1. Audiovisual temporal fusion in 6-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Franziska

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate neural dynamics of audiovisual temporal fusion processes in 6-month-old infants using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). In a habituation-test paradigm, infants did not show any behavioral signs of discrimination of an audiovisual asynchrony of 200 ms, indicating perceptual fusion. In a subsequent EEG experiment, audiovisual synchronous stimuli and stimuli with a visual delay of 200 ms were presented in random order. In contrast to the behavioral data, brain activity differed significantly between the two conditions. Critically, N1 and P2 latency delays were not observed between synchronous and fused items, contrary to previously observed N1 and P2 latency delays between synchrony and perceived asynchrony. Hence, temporal interaction processes in the infant brain between the two sensory modalities varied as a function of perceptual fusion versus asynchrony perception. The visual recognition components Pb and Nc were modulated prior to sound onset, emphasizing the importance of anticipatory visual events for the prediction of auditory signals. Results suggest mechanisms by which young infants predictively adjust their ongoing neural activity to the temporal synchrony relations to be expected between vision and audition.

  2. Exclusive or Partial Breastfeeding for 6 Months Is Associated With Reduced Milk Sensitization and Risk of Eczema in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chih-Yung; Liao, Sui-Ling; Su, Kuan-Wen; Tsai, Ming-Han; Hua, Man-Chin; Lai, Shen-Hao; Chen, Li-Chen; Yao, Tsung-Chieh; Yeh, Kuo-Wei; Huang, Jing-Long

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There is insufficient evidence to confirm the association between breastfeeding and allergic outcomes later in life. This study aimed to determine the relationships between different breastfeeding patterns and allergen sensitizations and risk of developing atopic diseases in early childhood. A total of 186 children from a birth cohort in the Prediction of Allergies in Taiwanese Children study for a 4-year follow-up period were enrolled. Total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and specific IgE antibodies against food and inhalant allergens were measured sequentially at 6 months as well as at 1, 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 years of age. A significantly lower prevalence of milk sensitization was found in children at ages 1 and 1.5 years who were exclusively or partially breastfed for ≥6 months. Breastfeeding ≥6 months was significantly associated with a reduced risk of developing eczema but not allergic rhinitis and asthma at ages 1 and 2 years. Compared with exclusive breastfeeding ≥6 months, partial breastfeeding <6 months was significantly associated with an increased risk of developing eczema at ages 1 and 2 years. As with exclusive breastfeeding, partial breastfeeding for at least 6 months appears to be associated with a reduced prevalence of milk sensitization as well as a reduced risk of developing eczema in early childhood. PMID:27082611

  3. Perceived stress among a workforce 6 months following hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Leon, Kyla A; Hyre, Amanda D; Ompad, Danielle; Desalvo, Karen B; Muntner, Paul

    2007-12-01

    To determine stress levels among a workforce 6 months after hurricane Katrina made landfall, a web-based survey that included the four-item Perceived Stress Scale was administered to employees of the largest employer in New Orleans. An overall Perceived Stress Scale score was obtained by pooling responses for the four items. Among 1,542 adult respondents, 24.1% stated they felt that they were "fairly often" or "very often" unable to control the important things in their life and 21.4% considered that their difficulties were "fairly often" or "very often" piling up so high that they could not overcome them. Also, 6.1% reported that they "almost never" or "never" felt confident about their ability to handle their personal problems and 15.2% indicated that things were "almost never" or "never" going their way. The overall mean Perceived Stress Scale score was 6.3 (standard deviation = 3.1; range = 0-16). Higher stress scale scores, indicating more stress, were present for women, and for participants with lower income, displaced longer than 3 months, who were more afraid of losing their life during hurricane Katrina and its immediate aftermath, and who knew someone that died during the storm. Additionally, participants who were living in a relative of friend's house or in a temporary trailer at the time of the survey had higher stress scores compared to their counterparts who had returned to live in their pre-hurricane residence. There was a direct association between higher stress scores and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. Employers and health care providers should be apprised of the need for monitoring stress and offering counseling opportunities for returning workforces following future large-scale disasters. PMID:17932611

  4. Local cytokine changes in complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I) resolve after 6 months.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Melanie; Uçeyler, Nurcan; Frettlöh, Jule; Höffken, Oliver; Krumova, Elena K; Lissek, Silke; Reinersmann, Annika; Sommer, Claudia; Stude, Philipp; Waaga-Gasser, Ana M; Tegenthoff, Martin; Maier, Christoph

    2013-10-01

    There is evidence that inflammatory processes are involved in at least the early phase of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). We compared a panel of pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines in skin blister fluids and serum from patients with CRPS and patients with upper-limb pain of other origin (non-CRPS) in the early stage (< 1 year) and after 6 months of pain treatment. Blister fluid was collected from the affected and contralateral nonaffected side. We used a multiplex-10 bead array cytokine assay and Luminex technology to measure protein concentrations of the cytokines interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p40, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and the chemokines eotaxin, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β (MIP-1β). We found bilaterally increased proinflammatory TNF-α and MIP-1β and decreased antiinflammatory IL-1RA protein levels in CRPS patients compared to non-CRPS patients. Neither group showed side differences. After 6 months under analgesic treatment, protein levels of all measured cytokines in CRPS patients, except for IL-6, significantly changed bilaterally to the level of non-CRPS patients. These changes were not related to treatment outcome. In serum, only IL-8, TNF-α, eotaxin, MCP-1, and MIP-1β were detectable without intergroup differences. Blister fluid of CRPS patients showed a bilateral proinflammatory cytokine profile. This profile seems to be relevant only at the early stage of CRPS. Almost all measured cytokine levels were comparable to those of non-CRPS patients after 6 months of analgesic treatment and were not related to treatment outcome.

  5. Cognitive-Behaviorally-Oriented Group Rehabilitation of Adults with ADHD: Results of a 6-Month Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salakari, Anita; Virta, Maarit; Gronroos, Nina; Chydenius, Esa; Partinen, Markku; Vataja, Risto; Kaski, Markus; Iivanainen, Matti

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Recently, novel psychological treatments for adult ADHD have been reported with promising results. However, studies about long-term treatment effects are scanty. The authors study effects of cognitive-behaviorally-oriented group rehabilitation during a 6-month follow-up. Method: Participating in the rehabilitation were 29 adults, of…

  6. Implications of newborn amygdala connectivity for fear and cognitive development at 6-months-of-age.

    PubMed

    Graham, Alice M; Buss, Claudia; Rasmussen, Jerod M; Rudolph, Marc D; Demeter, Damion V; Gilmore, John H; Styner, Martin; Entringer, Sonja; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Fair, Damien A

    2016-04-01

    The first year of life is an important period for emergence of fear in humans. While animal models have revealed developmental changes in amygdala circuitry accompanying emerging fear, human neural systems involved in early fear development remain poorly understood. To increase understanding of the neural foundations of human fear, it is important to consider parallel cognitive development, which may modulate associations between typical development of early fear and subsequent risk for fear-related psychopathology. We, therefore, examined amygdala functional connectivity with rs-fcMRI in 48 neonates (M=3.65 weeks, SD=1.72), and measured fear and cognitive development at 6-months-of-age. Stronger, positive neonatal amygdala connectivity to several regions, including bilateral anterior insula and ventral striatum, was prospectively associated with higher fear at 6-months. Stronger amygdala connectivity to ventral anterior cingulate/anterior medial prefrontal cortex predicted a specific phenotype of higher fear combined with more advanced cognitive development. Overall, findings demonstrate unique profiles of neonatal amygdala functional connectivity related to emerging fear and cognitive development, which may have implications for normative and pathological fear in later years. Consideration of infant fear in the context of cognitive development will likely contribute to a more nuanced understanding of fear, its neural bases, and its implications for future mental health.

  7. [Inconsolable crying revealing primary erythermalgia in a 6-month-old infant].

    PubMed

    Ahogo, K-C; Menet, V; Modiano, P; Lasek, A

    2014-03-01

    Erythermalgia is a peripheral vascular disease triggered by exposure to heat. The primary infantile form is rare. No cases have been described in infants. We report a case in a 6-month-old child revealed by crying bouts associated with erythema of the lower limbs. A 6-month-old child was brought in for consultation for daily crying bouts, occurring six times a day, associated with erythema of the lower limbs. Blood count, abdominal ultrasound and endoscopy were normal, excluding gastroesophageal reflux and intussusception. Attacks disappeared during winter but recurred at high temperatures. The diagnosis was primary infant erythemalgia. Treatment with analgesics and ice packs was established. Erythermalgia is a rare peripheral vascular disease characterized by paroxysmal pain triggered by heat and relieved by cold. The primary form occurs in childhood but has never been reported in infants. The pathophysiology is based on an alteration of sodium channels inducing neuropathy in small-caliber fibers. Genetic mutations have been found in the SNC9 gene on chromosome 2q, with autosomal dominant transmission. Support of this condition is difficult due to resistance to conventional analgesics. The prognosis is sometimes poor with a significant death rate in the pediatric population. PMID:24468061

  8. Effect of testosterone supplementation on sexual functioning in aging men: a 6-month randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Emmelot-Vonk, M H; Verhaar, H J J; Nakhai-Pour, H R; Grobbee, D E; van der Schouw, Y T

    2009-01-01

    Serum testosterone levels decline significantly with aging and this has been associated with reduced sexual function. We have conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effect of testosterone supplementation on sexual function in 237 elderly men with a testosterone level <13.7 nmol l(-1). Participants were randomly assigned to receive oral testosterone undecanoate or a placebo for 6 months. A total of 207 men completed the study. After treatment, there were no differences in scores on sexual function between the groups. Subanalysis showed that although a baseline testosterone level in the lowest tertile was associated with significantly lower scores for sexual fantasies, desire of sexual contact and frequency of sexual contact, supplementation of testosterone did not result in improvement on any of these items in this group. In conclusion, the findings do not support the view that testosterone undecanoate supplementation for 6 months to elderly men with low-normal testosterone concentrations favorably affects sexual function. PMID:19225466

  9. Replicating ¡Cuídate!: 6-Month Impact Findings of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Layzer, Carolyn; Layzer, Jean; Price, Cristofer; Juras, Randall; Blocklin, Michelle; Mendez, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To test whether ¡Cuídate!, a program culturally adapted for Hispanic youths, affects sexual risk behavior. Methods. We evaluated 3 replications of ¡Cuídate! in California, Arizona, and Massachusetts in a randomized controlled trial (registry no. NCT02540304) in which 2169 primarily Hispanic participants were randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 1326) or a control (n = 870) group. Youths were surveyed at baseline (September 2012–April 2014) and 6 months postbaseline (March 2013–October 2014). We estimated pooled and subgroup impacts using a regression framework with baseline covariates to increase statistical precision (1216 youths analyzed in the treatment group, 806 analyzed in the control group). Results. We found no impacts on the study’s primary outcomes of recent sexual activity or recent unprotected sexual activity. However, ¡Cuídate! improved knowledge (10%–20% increase; P < .001), attitudes (effect size = .24; P < .001), and skills (effect size = .14; P = .002). Exploratory subgroup analyses suggest potentially problematic effects for some groups. Conclusions. Findings suggest that ¡Cuídate! was effective in improving youths’ knowledge and attitudes. However, after 6 months, these changes did not translate to improvements in reported sexual risk behaviors. PMID:27689498

  10. A 6-month dermal toxicity test with dithranol and butantrone in miniature swine.

    PubMed

    Männistö, P T; Hanhijärvi, H; Kosma, V M; Collan, Y

    1986-07-01

    Continuous topical administration of dithranol and butantrone for 6 months caused different irritation profiles in miniature swine. In paraffin wax sticks in white petrolatum, butantrone gave rise to much less initial irritation than dithranol, but after 2-3 weeks the situation had equalized. In gel formulations, butantrone was initially more irritant than dithranol. The vehicles themselves induced significant irritation. Signs of skin hyperplasia (parakeratosis and acanthosis) and inflammation were frequent histopathological findings at the end of the study, but no malignant changes were found. Dithranol and butantrone did not produce any chemical, hematological or serious histological abnormalities during the treatment, suggesting a lack of systemic toxicity. No evidence of systemic absorption was found. This long-term study did not predict delayed irritation of butantrone observed in about 1/3 of the psoriatic patients after treatment for 1-2 months.

  11. [Severe megaloblastic anemia in 6-month-old girl breast-fed by a vegetarian mother].

    PubMed

    Cheron, G; Girot, R; Zittoun, J; Mouy, R; Schmitz, J; Rey, J

    1989-03-01

    The case of a young girl, born to a woman who was a vegetarian for 18 years, is presented. She had been exclusively breast-fed until the age of 6 months when a severe anemia was discovered with an extremely low hemoglobin level (1.9 g/100 ml). Her physical growth and psychomotor development had been normal until 3 months of age. Bone marrow showed megaloblastosis and the serum B12 level was low (45 ng/l). B12 levels were also decreased in both parents (110 and 105 ng/l) and in the mother's milk (12 ng/l). Treatment with parenteral B12 was successful. The importance of a careful dietetic inquiry in the case of an infant with megaloblastic anemia is stressed and likewise, as a preventive measure during all normal pregnancies.

  12. Comparison of methods to diagnose lymphoedema among breast cancer survivors: 6-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Sandi; Cornish, Bruce; Newman, Beth

    2005-02-01

    One of the more problematic and dreaded complications of breast cancer is lymphoedema. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of lymphoedema 6-months following breast cancer treatment and to examine potential risk factors among a population-based sample of women residing in South-East Queensland (n = 176). Women were defined as having lymphoedema if the difference between the sum of arm circumferences (SOAC) of the treated and untreated sides was >5 cm (prevalence = 11.9%) or >10% (prevalence = 0.6%), their multi- frequency bioelectrical impedance (MFBIA) score was > or =3 standard deviations above the reference impedance score (prevalence = 11.4%), or they reported 'yes' when asked if arm swelling had been present in the previous 6 months (prevalence = 27.8%). Of those with lymphoedema defined by MFBIA, only 35% were detected using the SOAC method (difference > 5 cm), while 65% were identified via the self-report method (i.e., respective sensitivities). Specificities for SOAC (difference > 5 cm) and self-report were 88.5% and 76.9%, respectively. When examining associations between presence of lymphoedema and a range of characteristics, findings also varied depending on the method used to assess lymphoedema. Nevertheless, one of the more novel and significant findings was that being treated on the non-dominant, compared to dominant, side was associated with an 80% increased risk of having lymphoedema (MFBIA). Our work raises questions about the use of circumferences as the choice of measurement for lymphoedema in both research and clinical settings, and assesses MFBIA as a potential alternative. PMID:15754119

  13. A cohort study of developmental polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in relation to post-vaccination antibody response at 6-months of age

    SciTech Connect

    Jusko, Todd A.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Paige Lawrence, B.; Palkovicova, Lubica; Nemessanyi, Tomas; Drobna, Beata; Fabisikova, Anna; Kocan, Anton; Sonneborn, Dean; Jahnova, Eva; Kavanagh, Terrance J.; Trnovec, Tomas; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2010-05-15

    Background: Extensive experimental data in animals indicate that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy leads to changes in offspring immune function during the postnatal period. Whether developmental PCB exposure influences immunologic development in humans has received little study. Methods: The study population was 384 mother-infant pairs recruited from two districts of eastern Slovakia for whom prospectively collected maternal, cord, and 6-month infant blood specimens were available. Several PCB congeners were measured in maternal, cord, and 6-month infant sera by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Concentrations of IgG-specific anti-haemophilus influenzae type b, tetanus toxoid, and diphtheria toxoid were assayed in 6-month infant sera using ELISA methods. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the relation between maternal, cord, and 6-month infant PCB concentrations and the antibody concentrations evaluated at 6-months of age. Results: Overall, there was little evidence of an association between infant antibody concentrations and PCB measures during the pre- and early postnatal period. In addition, our results did not show specificity in terms of associations limited to a particular developmental period (e.g. pre- vs. postnatal), a particular antibody, or a particular PCB congener. Conclusions: At the PCB concentrations measured in this cohort, which are high relative to most human populations today, we did not detect an association between maternal or early postnatal PCB exposure and specific antibody responses at 6-months of age.

  14. Idiosyncratic Drug-Induced Liver Injury Is Associated With Substantial Morbidity and Mortality Within 6 Months From Onset

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Robert J.; Hayashi, Paul H.; Gu, Jiezhun; Reddy, K. Rajender; Barnhart, Huiman; Watkins, Paul B.; Serrano, Jose; Lee, William M.; Chalasani, Naga; Stolz, Andrew; Davern, Timothy; Talwakar, Jayant A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Little is known about the incidence of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and risk factors for adverse outcomes. We evaluated short-term outcomes of a large cohort of patients with DILI enrolled in an ongoing multicenter prospective study. METHODS Data were collected from 660 adults with definite, highly likely, or probable DILI. Regression methods were used to identify risk factors for early liver-related death or liver transplantation and chronic liver injury. RESULTS Patients’ median age was 51.4 years; 59.5% were female and 59.1% required hospitalization. Within 6 months of DILI onset, 30 patients received liver transplants (4.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.0%–6.1%) and 32 died (5%; 95% CI, 3.2%–6.5%); 53% of the deaths were liver related. Asian race, itching, lung disease, low serum albumin levels, low platelet counts, and high serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and total bilirubin at presentation were independent risk factors for reduced times to liver-related death or liver transplantation (C-statistic = 0.87). At 6 months after DILI onset, 18.9% of the 598 evaluable subjects had persistent liver damage. African-American race, higher serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, and earlier heart disease or malignancy requiring treatment were independent risk factors for chronic DILI (C-statistic = 0.71). CONCLUSIONS Nearly 1 in 10 patients die or undergo liver transplantation within 6 months of DILI onset and nearly 1 in 5 of the remaining patients have evidence of persistent liver injury at 6 months. The profile of liver injury at presentation, initial severity, patient’s race, and medical comorbidities are important determinants of the likelihood of death/transplantation or persistent liver injury within 6 months. PMID:24681128

  15. A 6 month evaluation of a non-powered hybrid mattress replacement system.

    PubMed

    Newton, Heather

    2015-11-11

    In 2013, the Royal Cornwall Hospitals NHS Trust undertook a 6-week evaluation of the AtmosAir 4000 non-powered reactive pressure redistribution mattress replacement system to determine its suitability in supporting the prevention of pressure ulcers in high-risk patients (phase one). The results demonstrated that the AtmosAir 4000 mattress system, together with skin assessment and repositioning regimes, met the pressure ulcer preventative needs of patients at high and very high risk of developing pressure ulcers. It also resulted in a notable reduction in the use of dynamic air mattresses. Consequently, 50 AtmosAir 4000 mattresses were purchased for two acute medical wards in the evaluation site, where the majority of patients are elderly with an acute medical condition. This article discusses the second phase where an audit compares the number of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers reported over a 6-month period with the equivalent time period in 2014. Results show that the number of pressure ulcers reduced by 65% and 50% in the two wards. The number of dynamic mattresses used on the two wards reduced significantly from 28 to 7, which represents a 75% reduction in usage.

  16. Becoming a role model: the breastfeeding trajectory of Hong Kong women breastfeeding longer than 6 months.

    PubMed

    Tarrant, Marie; Dodgson, Joan E; Choi, Vinkline Wing Kay

    2004-07-01

    While a substantial proportion of breastfeeding women stop early in the postpartum period, some women are able to breastfeed for longer periods. The aim of this research was to explore the experience of breastfeeding with a subsample of Hong Kong women who have breastfed for longer than 6 months. Participants (n=17) were recruited from a larger infant-feeding study (n=360) conducted in tertiary-care hospitals in Hong Kong. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted and content analysis was used to analyse the data. Data analysis revealed four themes that encompassed the women's experiences: (1) making the decision, (2) maintaining family harmony, (3) overcoming barriers, and (4) sustaining lactation. Antenatally, participants anticipated that breastfeeding would be very 'difficult' and described how the practice did not fit with the image of a professional woman in Hong Kong. Despite family opposition, frequently from their mother-in-law, and lack of societal acceptance, difficulties were overcome by what the Chinese people call hung-sum or determination. This study highlights unique cultural and social findings affecting breastfeeding women in Hong Kong which may be useful to health-care providers working with Chinese women locally and internationally. PMID:15120982

  17. Development of Specific Aspects of Spirituality during a 6-Month Intensive Yoga Practice.

    PubMed

    Büssing, Arndt; Hedtstück, Anemone; Khalsa, Sat Bir S; Ostermann, Thomas; Heusser, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The majority of research on yoga focuses on its psychophysiological and therapeutic benefits, while the spiritual aspects are rarely addressed. Changes of specific aspects of spirituality were thus investigated among 160 individuals (91% women, mean age 40.9 ± 8.3 years; 57% Christians) starting a 2-year yoga teacher training. We used standardized questionnaires to measure aspects of spirituality (ASP), mindfulness (FMI-Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory), life satisfaction (BMLSS-Brief Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale), and positive mood (lightheartedness/relief). At the start of the course, scores of the respective ASP subscales for search for insight/wisdom, transcendence conviction, and conscious interactions/compassion were high, while those for religious orientation were low. Within the 6 month observation period, both conscious interactions/compassion (effect size, Cohen's d = .33), Religious orientation (d = .21), Lightheartedness/Relief (d = .75) and mindfulness (d = .53) increased significantly. Particularly non-religious/non-spiritual individuals showed moderate effects for an increase of conscious interactions/compassion. The results from this study suggest that an intensive yoga practice (1) may significantly increase specific aspects of practitioners' spirituality, mindfulness, and mood, (2) that these changes are dependent in part on their original spiritual/religious self-perception, and (3) that there are strong correlations amongst these constructs (i.e., conscious interactions/compassion, and mindfulness). PMID:22852023

  18. Development of Specific Aspects of Spirituality during a 6-Month Intensive Yoga Practice

    PubMed Central

    Büssing, Arndt; Hedtstück, Anemone; Khalsa, Sat Bir S.; Ostermann, Thomas; Heusser, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The majority of research on yoga focuses on its psychophysiological and therapeutic benefits, while the spiritual aspects are rarely addressed. Changes of specific aspects of spirituality were thus investigated among 160 individuals (91% women, mean age 40.9 ± 8.3 years; 57% Christians) starting a 2-year yoga teacher training. We used standardized questionnaires to measure aspects of spirituality (ASP), mindfulness (FMI—Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory), life satisfaction (BMLSS—Brief Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale), and positive mood (lightheartedness/relief). At the start of the course, scores of the respective ASP subscales for search for insight/wisdom, transcendence conviction, and conscious interactions/compassion were high, while those for religious orientation were low. Within the 6 month observation period, both conscious interactions/compassion (effect size, Cohen's d = .33), Religious orientation (d = .21), Lightheartedness/Relief (d = .75) and mindfulness (d = .53) increased significantly. Particularly non-religious/non-spiritual individuals showed moderate effects for an increase of conscious interactions/compassion. The results from this study suggest that an intensive yoga practice (1) may significantly increase specific aspects of practitioners' spirituality, mindfulness, and mood, (2) that these changes are dependent in part on their original spiritual/religious self-perception, and (3) that there are strong correlations amongst these constructs (i.e., conscious interactions/compassion, and mindfulness). PMID:22852023

  19. Differential brain shrinkage over 6 months shows limited association with cognitive practice.

    PubMed

    Raz, Naftali; Schmiedek, Florian; Rodrigue, Karen M; Kennedy, Kristen M; Lindenberger, Ulman; Lövdén, Martin

    2013-07-01

    The brain shrinks with age, but the timing of this process and the extent of its malleability are unclear. We measured changes in regional brain volumes in younger (age 20-31) and older (age 65-80) adults twice over a 6 month period, and examined the association between changes in volume, history of hypertension, and cognitive training. Between two MRI scans, 49 participants underwent intensive practice in three cognitive domains for 100 consecutive days, whereas 23 control group members performed no laboratory cognitive tasks. Regional volumes of seven brain structures were measured manually and adjusted for intracranial volume. We observed significant mean shrinkage in the lateral prefrontal cortex, the hippocampus, the caudate nucleus, and the cerebellum, but no reliable mean change of the prefrontal white matter, orbital-frontal cortex, and the primary visual cortex. Individual differences in change were reliable in all regions. History of hypertension was associated with greater cerebellar shrinkage. The cerebellum was the only region in which significantly reduced shrinkage was apparent in the experimental group after completion of cognitive training. Thus, in healthy adults, differential brain shrinkage can be observed in a narrow time window, vascular risk may aggravate it, and intensive cognitive activity may have a limited effect on it.

  20. Quit rates at 6 months in a pharmacist-led smoking cessation service in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Fai, Sui Chee; Yen, Gan Kim; Malik, Nurdiyana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Smoking cessation clinics have been established in Malaysia since 2004, but wide variations in success rates have been observed. This study aimed to evaluate the proposed pharmacist-led Integrated Quit Smoking Service (IQSS) in Sabah, Malaysia, and identify factors associated with successful smoking cessation. Methods: Data from 176 participants were collected from one of the quit-smoking centres in Sabah, Malaysia. Pharmacists, doctors and nurses were involved throughout the study. Any health care provider can refer patients for smoking cessation, and free pharmacotherapy and counselling was provided during the cessation period for up to 3 months. Information on demographic characteristics, smoking behaviours, follow-up and pharmacotherapy were collected. The main outcome measure was the abstinence from smoking, which was verified through carbon monoxide in expired air during the 6-month follow-up. Results: A 42.6% success rate was achieved in IQSS. Smoking behaviour such as lower cigarette intake and lower Fagerström score were identified as factors associated with success. On top of that, a longer duration of follow-up and more frequent visits were significantly associated with success in quitting smoking. Conclusion: Collaboration among health care practitioners should be the main focus, and we need a combination of proven effective modalities in order to create an ideal smoking cessation module. PMID:27708676

  1. Legal medical consideration of Alzheimer’s disease patients’ dysgraphia and cognitive dysfunction: a 6 month follow up

    PubMed Central

    Onofri, Emanuela; Mercuri, Marco; Archer, Trevor; Rapp-Ricciardi, Max; Ricci, Serafino

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients to express intentions and desires, and their decision-making capacity. This study examines the findings from a 6-month follow-up of our previous results in which 30 patients participated. Materials and methods The patient’s cognition was examined by conducting the tests of 14 questions and letter-writing ability over a period of 19 days, and it was repeated after 6 months. The difference between these two cognitive measures (PQ1 before–PQ2 before), tested previously and later the writing test, was designated DΔ before. The test was repeated after 6 months, and PQ1 after–PQ2 after was designated DΔ after. Results Several markedly strong relationships between dysgraphia and other measures of cognitive performance in AD patients were observed. The most aged patients (over 86 years), despite less frequency, maintain the cognitive capacity manifested in the graphic expressions. A document, written by an AD patient presents an honest expression of the patient’s intention if that document is legible, clear, and comprehensive. Conclusion The identification of impairment/deficits in writing and cognition during different phases of AD may facilitate the understanding of disease progression and identify the occasions during which the patient may be considered sufficiently lucid to make decisions. PMID:27022252

  2. Vitamin A supplementation every 6 months with retinol in 1 million pre-school children in north India: DEVTA, a cluster-randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Awasthi, Shally; Peto, Richard; Read, Simon; Clark, Sarah; Pande, Vinod; Bundy, Donald; the DEVTA (Deworming and Enhanced Vitamin A) team

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background In north India, vitamin A deficiency (retinol <0·70 μmol/L) is common in pre-school children and 2–3% die at ages 1·0–6·0 years. We aimed to assess whether periodic vitamin A supplementation could reduce this mortality. Methods Participants in this cluster-randomised trial were pre-school children in the defined catchment areas of 8338 state-staffed village child-care centres (under-5 population 1 million) in 72 administrative blocks. Groups of four neighbouring blocks (clusters) were cluster-randomly allocated in Oxford, UK, between 6-monthly vitamin A (retinol capsule of 200 000 IU retinyl acetate in oil, to be cut and dripped into the child's mouth every 6 months), albendazole (400 mg tablet every 6 months), both, or neither (open control). Analyses of retinol effects are by block (36 vs 36 clusters). The study spanned 5 calendar years, with 11 6-monthly mass-treatment days for all children then aged 6–72 months. Annually, one centre per block was randomly selected and visited by a study team 1–5 months after any trial vitamin A to sample blood (for retinol assay, technically reliable only after mid-study), examine eyes, and interview caregivers. Separately, all 8338 centres were visited every 6 months to monitor pre-school deaths (100 000 visits, 25 000 deaths at ages 1·0–6·0 years [the primary outcome]). This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00222547. Findings Estimated compliance with 6-monthly retinol supplements was 86%. Among 2581 versus 2584 children surveyed during the second half of the study, mean plasma retinol was one-sixth higher (0·72 [SE 0·01] vs 0·62 [0·01] μmol/L, increase 0·10 [SE 0·01] μmol/L) and the prevalence of severe deficiency was halved (retinol <0·35 μmol/L 6% vs 13%, decrease 7% [SE 1%]), as was that of Bitot's spots (1·4% vs 3·5%, decrease 2·1% [SE 0·7%]). Comparing the 36 retinol-allocated versus 36 control blocks in analyses of the primary outcome, deaths per child

  3. Prospective predictors of adolescent suicidality: 6-month post-hospitalization follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Yen, S.; Weinstock, L. M.; Andover, M. S.; Sheets, E. S.; Selby, E. A.; Spirito, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine prospective predictors of suicide events, defined as suicide attempts or emergency interventions to reduce suicide risk, in 119 adolescents admitted to an in-patient psychiatric unit for suicidal behaviors and followed naturalistically for 6 months. Method Structured diagnostic interviews and self-report instruments were administered to adolescent participants and their parent(s) to assess demographic variables, history of suicidal behavior, psychiatric disorders, family environment and personality/temperament. Results Baseline variables that significantly predicted time to a suicide event during follow-up were Black race, high suicidal ideation in the past month, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), childhood sexual abuse (CSA), borderline personality disorder (BPD), low scores on positive affectivity, and high scores on aggression. In a multivariate Cox regression analysis, only Black race, CSA, positive affect intensity and high aggression scores remained significant. Conclusions Our findings suggest the following for adolescent populations: (1) in a very high-risk population, risk factors for future attempts may be more difficult to ascertain and some established risk factors (e.g. past suicide attempt) may not distinguish as well; and (2) cross-cutting constructs (e.g. affective and behavioral dysregulation) that underlie multiple psychiatric disorders may be stronger predictors of recurrent suicide events than psychiatric diagnoses. Our finding with respect to positive affect intensity is novel and may have practical implications for the assessment and treatment of adolescent suicide attempters. PMID:22932393

  4. Exclusive or Partial Breastfeeding for 6 Months Is Associated With Reduced Milk Sensitization and Risk of Eczema in Early Childhood: The PATCH Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chih-Yung; Liao, Sui-Ling; Su, Kuan-Wen; Tsai, Ming-Han; Hua, Man-Chin; Lai, Shen-Hao; Chen, Li-Chen; Yao, Tsung-Chieh; Yeh, Kuo-Wei; Huang, Jing-Long

    2016-04-01

    There is insufficient evidence to confirm the association between breastfeeding and allergic outcomes later in life. This study aimed to determine the relationships between different breastfeeding patterns and allergen sensitizations and risk of developing atopic diseases in early childhood. A total of 186 children from a birth cohort in the Prediction of Allergies in Taiwanese Children study for a 4-year follow-up period were enrolled. Total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and specific IgE antibodies against food and inhalant allergens were measured sequentially at 6 months as well as at 1, 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 years of age. A significantly lower prevalence of milk sensitization was found in children at ages 1 and 1.5 years who were exclusively or partially breastfed for ≥6 months. Breastfeeding ≥6 months was significantly associated with a reduced risk of developing eczema but not allergic rhinitis and asthma at ages 1 and 2 years. Compared with exclusive breastfeeding ≥6 months, partial breastfeeding <6 months was significantly associated with an increased risk of developing eczema at ages 1 and 2 years. As with exclusive breastfeeding, partial breastfeeding for at least 6 months appears to be associated with a reduced prevalence of milk sensitization as well as a reduced risk of developing eczema in early childhood.

  5. Exclusive or Partial Breastfeeding for 6 Months Is Associated With Reduced Milk Sensitization and Risk of Eczema in Early Childhood: The PATCH Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chih-Yung; Liao, Sui-Ling; Su, Kuan-Wen; Tsai, Ming-Han; Hua, Man-Chin; Lai, Shen-Hao; Chen, Li-Chen; Yao, Tsung-Chieh; Yeh, Kuo-Wei; Huang, Jing-Long

    2016-04-01

    There is insufficient evidence to confirm the association between breastfeeding and allergic outcomes later in life. This study aimed to determine the relationships between different breastfeeding patterns and allergen sensitizations and risk of developing atopic diseases in early childhood. A total of 186 children from a birth cohort in the Prediction of Allergies in Taiwanese Children study for a 4-year follow-up period were enrolled. Total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and specific IgE antibodies against food and inhalant allergens were measured sequentially at 6 months as well as at 1, 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 years of age. A significantly lower prevalence of milk sensitization was found in children at ages 1 and 1.5 years who were exclusively or partially breastfed for ≥6 months. Breastfeeding ≥6 months was significantly associated with a reduced risk of developing eczema but not allergic rhinitis and asthma at ages 1 and 2 years. Compared with exclusive breastfeeding ≥6 months, partial breastfeeding <6 months was significantly associated with an increased risk of developing eczema at ages 1 and 2 years. As with exclusive breastfeeding, partial breastfeeding for at least 6 months appears to be associated with a reduced prevalence of milk sensitization as well as a reduced risk of developing eczema in early childhood. PMID:27082611

  6. Periodic mass treatment with diethylcarbamazine for the control of filariasis in American Samoa

    PubMed Central

    Kessel, John F.; Siliga, Nofo; Tompkins, Harry; Jones, Kenneth

    1970-01-01

    Filariasis surveys made during 1962-63 in 5 villages in American Samoa among persons over 5 years of age gave an elephantiasis rate of 3.4%, a microfilarial rate of 26% and a median microfilarial rate (MfD50) of 29. These rates were somewhat higher than those found in surveys made in the same villages among villagers of the same ages some 20 years previously. A mass treatment programme with diethylcarbamazine was then decided on. Preliminary treatment with a single total regimen of 72 mg of the drug per kg of body weight, given in 12 doses of 6 mg/kg, was administered in several villages over a period of 6 months. Among villagers of all ages at the end of 3 years, the microfilarial rate was 7.3% and the MfD50 value was 2. These results appeared to be inadequate for a successful control programme and a periodic mass treatment project of 2 or more regimens of 72 mg/kg to be administered every 2 years was instituted on the Island of Tutuila, to be continued until considered no longer necessary. Surveys made 2 years after the second mass treatment in the villages of Amouli, Amanave, Onenoa, Tula, Alao, Utumea and Alofau, in which 1407 persons were examined, showed that 3 villages were negative for microfilariae, that the average microfilarial rate in all 7 villages was 0.4% and that the MfD50 was 1. These villages were also negative in intensive mosquito surveys for infective-stage larvae of Wuchereria bancrofti. It is suggested that interruption of transmission has been observed in the 3 villages negative for both microfilariae and infective-stage larvae and that, if favourable surveys continue, eradication programmes should be established. PMID:4396819

  7. Infant sleep development from 3 to 6 months postpartum: links with maternal sleep and paternal involvement.

    PubMed

    Tikotzky, Liat; Sadeh, Avi; Volkovich, Ella; Manber, Rachel; Meiri, Gal; Shahar, Golan

    2015-03-01

    The aims of this longitudinal study were to examine (a) development of infant sleep and maternal sleep from 3 to 6 months postpartum; (b) concomitant and prospective links between maternal sleep and infant sleep; and (c) triadic links between paternal involvement in infant caregiving and maternal and infant sleep. The study included 57 families that were recruited during pregnancy. Maternal and infant sleep was assessed using actigraphy and sleep diaries for 5 nights. Both fathers and mothers completed a questionnaire assessing the involvement of fathers relative to mothers in infant caregiving. The results demonstrated moderate improvement in infant and maternal sleep percent between 3 and 6 months. Maternal sleep percent at 3 months significantly predicted infant sleep percent at 6 months. Greater paternal involvement in infant daytime and nighttime caregiving at 3 months significantly predicted more consolidated maternal and infant sleep at 6 months. These findings suggest that maternal sleep is an important predictor of infant sleep and that increased involvement of fathers in infant caregiving responsibilities may contribute to improvements in both maternal and infant sleep during the first 6 months postpartum.

  8. A model to examine the validity of the 6-month abstinence criterion for liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yates, W R; Martin, M; LaBrecque, D; Hillebrand, D; Voigt, M; Pfab, D

    1998-04-01

    Six months of abstinence from alcohol is a commonly used criterion for liver transplantation eligibility for patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. There is limited evidence to document the validity of this criterion with regard to risk of alcoholism relapse. Ninety-one patients with alcoholic cirrhosis were interviewed for relapse risk using the High Risk Alcoholism Relapse (HRAR) Scale. The HRAR model can be used to predict relapse risk independent of duration of sobriety and therefore can be used to examine the validity of the 6 months of abstinence criteria in this clinical population. The two methods demonstrated poor to fair agreement. Agreement was highest with a cutoff allowing a 5% 6-month relapse risk when 79% agreement (c = 0.56) was demonstrated between the two methods. Using the 6-month abstinence criterion alone disallows a significant number of candidates who have a low relapse risk based on their HRAR score. The validity of the 6-month abstinence criterion is supported somewhat by comparison with the HRAR model. However, use of the 6-month abstinence criterion alone forces a significant number of patients with a low relapse risk by HRAR to wait for transplant listing. A relapse risk model based on an estimate of alcoholism severity in addition to duration of sobriety may more accurately select patients who are most likely to benefit from liver transplantation. PMID:9581661

  9. Infant sleep development from 3 to 6 months postpartum: links with maternal sleep and paternal involvement.

    PubMed

    Tikotzky, Liat; Sadeh, Avi; Volkovich, Ella; Manber, Rachel; Meiri, Gal; Shahar, Golan

    2015-03-01

    The aims of this longitudinal study were to examine (a) development of infant sleep and maternal sleep from 3 to 6 months postpartum; (b) concomitant and prospective links between maternal sleep and infant sleep; and (c) triadic links between paternal involvement in infant caregiving and maternal and infant sleep. The study included 57 families that were recruited during pregnancy. Maternal and infant sleep was assessed using actigraphy and sleep diaries for 5 nights. Both fathers and mothers completed a questionnaire assessing the involvement of fathers relative to mothers in infant caregiving. The results demonstrated moderate improvement in infant and maternal sleep percent between 3 and 6 months. Maternal sleep percent at 3 months significantly predicted infant sleep percent at 6 months. Greater paternal involvement in infant daytime and nighttime caregiving at 3 months significantly predicted more consolidated maternal and infant sleep at 6 months. These findings suggest that maternal sleep is an important predictor of infant sleep and that increased involvement of fathers in infant caregiving responsibilities may contribute to improvements in both maternal and infant sleep during the first 6 months postpartum. PMID:25704738

  10. Perception of neon color spreading in 3-6-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiale; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K

    2009-12-01

    Although lots of studies about neon color spreading have been reported, few of these studies have focused on the perceptual development of it in human infants. Therefore, this study explores the perceptual development of neon color spreading in infants. In experiment 1, we examined 3-6-month-olds' perception of neon color spreading in static conditions. In experiment 2, we examined 3-6-month-olds' perception of neon color spreading in moving conditions. Our results suggest that while only 5-6-month-old infants show a preference for neon color spreading in the static condition, 3-4-month-old infants also prefer neon color spreading if motion information is available.

  11. Surgical Retrieval of Tooth Fragment from Lower Lip and Reattachment after 6 Months of Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Kalpana; Srivastava, Ankit; Maheshwari, Neha

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dental traumas are one of the most frequent facial traumas especially in children. Maxillary incisors are the most frequently involved teeth. Here we present, a report of a child who sustained a crown fracture with lost portion of tooth embedded in her lower lip for 6 months. The fragment was surgically retrieved and successfully reattached to the fractured 21 using acid-etch resin technique. How to cite this article: Marwaha M, Bansal K, Srivastava A, Maheshwari N. Surgical Retrieval of Tooth Fragment from Lower Lip and Reattachment after 6 Months of Trauma. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(2):145-148. PMID:26379385

  12. Defaulting from tuberculosis treatment in The Netherlands: rates, risk factors and trend in the period 1993-1997.

    PubMed

    Borgdorff, M W; Veen, J; Kalisvaart, N A; Broekmans, J F; Nagelkerke, N J

    2000-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the rate of defaulting from treatment among tuberculosis patients diagnosed in the Netherlands in the period 1993-1997, whether risk groups for defaulting can be identified at the start of treatment and the trend of defaulting over time. The Netherlands Tuberculosis Register provided data on all patients diagnosed in the Netherlands during the period 1993-1997. Defaulting probabilities were determined using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and risk factors were identified with Cox's proportional hazard analysis. Of 7,529 patients with reported treatment outcome, 718 (10%) defaulted or left the country within 1 yr after starting treatment. Defaulting probabilities were 9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 8-10%) among 5,256 patients in low-risk groups, 17% (95% CI 14-19%) among 1,437 asylum seekers and 29% (95% CI 24-34%) among 836 patients in other high-risk groups (other recent immigrants, illegal immigrants, the homeless, prisoners and nationals from Eastern Europe). Defaulting probabilities decreased over time from 12% in 1993 to 7% in 1997. Risk groups for defaulting can be recognized at the start of treatment. The decreasing defaulting probabilities were probably due in part to shortening treatment from 9 to 6 months and improved follow-up of asylum seekers. However, additional measures are needed to reduce defaulting among the homeless, recent immigrants, illegal immigrants and prisoners.

  13. Mississippi Communities for Healthy Living: Results of a 6-month nutrition education comparative effectiveness trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region suffers from high prevalence of chronic health conditions with nutritional etiologies, including obesity, high cholesterol, hypertension, and diabetes. Responding to the need for effective nutrition interventions in the LMD, a 2-arm, 6-month, n...

  14. Conditioning 1-6 Month Old Infants by Means of Myoelectrically Controlled Reinforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Dale M.; McDonnell, Paul M.

    1995-01-01

    In order to evaluate possibilities of fitting myoelectrically controlled prosthetic arms on infants, this study examined whether 32 infants (1-6 months) could learn to control environmental contingencies by means of contracting the forearm flexor muscle group. Results indicated that older subjects (age greater than 104 days) demonstrated learning,…

  15. Relationship between Visual and Tactual Exploration by 6-Month-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushnell, Emily W.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Investigating relationship between infants' visual and tactual exploration, looking and touching responses of 6-month-olds to objects only visually or tactually novel were observed. Results indicated infants were capable of tactual recognition memory, that temperature was salient object property, and that visual and tactual exploration are not…

  16. Infant and Maternal Behaviors Regulate Infant Reactivity to Novelty at 6 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockenberg, Susan C.; Leerkes, Esther M.

    2004-01-01

    Three issues were investigated: (a) the regulatory effects of presumed infant and maternal regulation behaviors on infant distress to novelty at 6 months, (b) stability of infant regulatory effects across contexts that vary in maternal involvement, and (c) associations and temporal dynamics between infant and maternal regulation behaviors.…

  17. Determining the Impact of Prenatal Tobacco Exposure on Self-Regulation at 6 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebe, Sandra A.; Fang, Hua; Johnson, Craig; James, Karen E.; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2014-01-01

    Our goal in the present study was to examine the effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy on infant self-regulation, exploring birth weight as a mediator and sex as a moderator of risk. A prospective sample of 218 infants was assessed at 6 months of age. Infants completed a battery of tasks assessing working memory/inhibition, attention, and…

  18. Night Waking in 6-Month-Old Infants and Maternal Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karraker, Katherine Hildebrandt; Young, Marion

    2007-01-01

    Relations between night waking in infants and depressive symptoms in their mothers at 6 months postpartum were examined using the data from the National Institute for Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. Although more depressive symptoms were only weakly correlated with a higher frequency of infant waking, longer wake…

  19. Child-Parent Psychotherapy: 6-Month Follow-up of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Alicia F.; Ippen, Chandra Ghosh; Van Horn, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the durability of improvement in child and maternal symptoms 6 months after termination of child-parent psychotherapy (CPP). Method: Seventy-five multiethnic preschool-age child-mother dyads from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds were randomly assigned to (1) CPP or (2) case management plus community referral for individual…

  20. The Impact of SNAP-ED and EFNEP on Program Graduates 6 Months after Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koszewski, Wanda; Sehi, Natalie; Behrends, Donnia; Tuttle, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Research was conducted to determine if graduates from either the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education or Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program maintained behavioral changes 6 months after completing the program. Staff asked graduates to complete a 10- or 15-question behavior checklist that was identical to the entry and exit…

  1. Perception of Speech Modulation Cues by 6-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrera, Laurianne; Bertoncini, Josiane; Lorenzi, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The capacity of 6-month-old infants to discriminate a voicing contrast (/aba/--/apa/) on the basis of "amplitude modulation (AM) cues" and "frequency modulation (FM) cues" was evaluated. Method: Several vocoded speech conditions were designed to either degrade FM cues in 4 or 32 bands or degrade AM in 32 bands. Infants…

  2. Influenza vaccination during the first 6 months after solid organ transplantation is efficacious and safe.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Romero, P; Bulnes-Ramos, A; Torre-Cisneros, J; Gavaldá, J; Aydillo, T A; Moreno, A; Montejo, M; Fariñas, M C; Carratalá, J; Muñoz, P; Blanes, M; Fortún, J; Suárez-Benjumea, A; López-Medrano, F; Barranco, J L; Peghin, M; Roca, C; Lara, R; Cordero, E

    2015-11-01

    Preventing influenza infection early after transplantation is essential, given the disease's high mortality. A multicentre prospective cohort study in adult solid organ transplant recipients (SOTR) receiving the influenza vaccine during four consecutive influenza seasons (2009-2013) was performed to assess the immunogenicity and safety of influenza vaccination in SOTR before and 6 months after transplantation. A total of 798 SOTR, 130 of them vaccinated within 6 months of transplantation and 668 of them vaccinated more than 6 months since transplantation. Seroprotection was similar in both groups: 73.1% vs. 76.5% for A/(H1N1)pdm (p 0.49), 67.5% vs. 74.1% for A/H3N2 (p 0.17) and 84.2% vs. 85.2% for influenza B (p 0.80), respectively. Geometric mean titres after vaccination did not differ among groups: 117.32 (95% confidence interval (CI) 81.52, 168.83) vs. 87.43 (95% CI 72.87, 104.91) for A/(H1N1)pdm, 120.45 (95% CI 82.17, 176.57) vs. 97.86 (95% CI 81.34, 117.44) for A/H3N2 and 143.32 (95% CI 103.46, 198.53) vs. 145.54 (95% CI 122.35, 174.24) for influenza B, respectively. After adjusting for confounding factors, time since transplantation was not associated with response to vaccination. No cases of rejection or severe adverse events were detected in patients vaccinated within the first 6 months after transplantation. In conclusion, influenza vaccination within the first 6 months after transplantation is as safe and immunogenic as vaccination thereafter. Thus, administration of the influenza vaccine can be recommended as soon as 1 month after transplantation.

  3. Optimizing the treatment of mood disorders in the perinatal period.

    PubMed

    Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Jones, Ian

    2015-06-01

    The perinatal period is a time of high risk for women with unipolar and bipolar mood disorders. We discuss treatment considerations for perinatal mood disorders, including unipolar and bipolar depression as well as postpartum psychosis. We further explore the unique issues faced by women and their families across the full trajectory of the perinatal period from preconception planning through pregnancy and following childbirth. Treatment of perinatal mood disorders requires a collaborative care approach between obstetrics practitioners and mental health providers, to ensure that a thoughtful risk : benefit analysis is conducted. It is vital to consider the risks of the underlying illness versus risks of medication exposure during pregnancy or lactation. When considering medication treatment, attention must be paid to prior medication trials that were most efficacious and best tolerated. Lastly, it is important to assess the impact of individual psychosocial stressors and lifestyle factors on treatment response.

  4. Zebra mussel control using periodic chlorine dioxide treatments. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mussalli, Y.G.; Martin, P.D.

    1995-11-01

    Chlorine dioxide was injected into the water intakes at two power plants in Illinois and one in Indiana in an effort to eradicate the existing population of zebra mussels and mitigate further settlement in station river water cooling systems. Results of the treatments at Illinois Power Company`s Wood River Station on the Mississippi River, Central Illinois Public Service`s Meredosia Station on the Illinois River, and SI Energy`s Gallagher Station on the Ohio River are reported. Treatments were performed on a turnkey basis, with three treatments performed at Meredosia Station in 1994, six treatments performed at Wood River Station between July 1993 and September 1994, and 2 treatments performed at Gallagher Station in 1994. For each treatment, a contractor installed and operated a portable chlorine dioxide generator, monitored water quality and oxidant levels, and provided and monitored bioboxes containing test mussels. Results of the treatments were very favorable, indicating a good potential for periodic treatments with chlorine dioxide to control zebra mussel infestations in the raw water systems of power plants and other industrial facilities. Some difficulties with the chlorine dioxide generation system and cold temperature effects reduced the treatment effectiveness, particularly the second treatment at Gallagher Station. Average induced mortalities ranged from 70 to 100% at Wood River, 87 to 92% at Meredosia, and 30 to 100% at Gallagher for native mussels. Dechlorination successfully kept total oxidant residual levels at or below 0.05 ppM during all treatments at all stations.

  5. Is surgery at progression a prognostic marker for improved 6-month progression-free survival or overall survival for patients with recurrent glioblastoma?

    PubMed

    Clarke, Jennifer L; Ennis, Michele M; Yung, W K Alfred; Chang, Susan M; Wen, Patrick Y; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Deangelis, Lisa M; Robins, H Ian; Lieberman, Frank S; Fine, Howard A; Abrey, Lauren; Gilbert, Mark R; Mehta, Minesh; Kuhn, John G; Aldape, Kenneth D; Lamborn, Kathleen R; Prados, Michael D

    2011-10-01

    Historically, the North American Brain Tumor Consortium used 6-month progression-free survival (PFS6) as the primary outcome for recurrent glioma phase II clinical trials. In some trials, a subset of patients received the trial treatment before surgery to assess tumor uptake and biological activity. We compared PFS6 and overall survival (OS) for patients with glioblastoma undergoing surgery at progression to results for those without surgery to evaluate the impact of surgical intervention on these outcomes. Two data sets were analyzed. The first included 511 patients enrolled during the period 1998-2005, 105 of whom had surgery (excluding biopsies) during the study or ≤ 30 days prior to registration. Analysis was stratified on the basis of whether temozolomide was part of the protocol treatment regimen. The second data set included 247 patients enrolled during 2005-2008, 103 of whom underwent surgery during the clinical trial or immediately prior to study registration. A combined data set consisting of all patients who did not receive temozolomide was also compiled. No statistically significant difference in PFS6 or OS was found between the surgery and nonsurgery groups in either data set alone or in the combined data set (P > .45). We conclude that PFS6 and OS results for patients with and without surgical intervention at the time of progression are similar, allowing data from these patients to be combined in assessing the benefit of new treatments without the need for stratification or other statistical adjustment.

  6. Is surgery at progression a prognostic marker for improved 6-month progression-free survival or overall survival for patients with recurrent glioblastoma?

    PubMed Central

    Clarke†, Jennifer L.; Ennis†, Michele M.; Yung, W. K. Alfred; Chang, Susan M.; Wen, Patrick Y.; Cloughesy, Timothy F.; DeAngelis, Lisa M.; Robins, H. Ian; Lieberman, Frank S.; Fine, Howard A.; Abrey, Lauren; Gilbert, Mark R.; Mehta, Minesh; Kuhn, John G.; Aldape, Kenneth D.; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Prados, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Historically, the North American Brain Tumor Consortium used 6-month progression-free survival (PFS6) as the primary outcome for recurrent glioma phase II clinical trials. In some trials, a subset of patients received the trial treatment before surgery to assess tumor uptake and biological activity. We compared PFS6 and overall survival (OS) for patients with glioblastoma undergoing surgery at progression to results for those without surgery to evaluate the impact of surgical intervention on these outcomes. Two data sets were analyzed. The first included 511 patients enrolled during the period 1998–2005, 105 of whom had surgery (excluding biopsies) during the study or ≤30 days prior to registration. Analysis was stratified on the basis of whether temozolomide was part of the protocol treatment regimen. The second data set included 247 patients enrolled during 2005–2008, 103 of whom underwent surgery during the clinical trial or immediately prior to study registration. A combined data set consisting of all patients who did not receive temozolomide was also compiled. No statistically significant difference in PFS6 or OS was found between the surgery and nonsurgery groups in either data set alone or in the combined data set (P > .45). We conclude that PFS6 and OS results for patients with and without surgical intervention at the time of progression are similar, allowing data from these patients to be combined in assessing the benefit of new treatments without the need for stratification or other statistical adjustment. PMID:21813511

  7. Hardwood smoke alters murine splenic T cell responses to mitogens following a 6-month whole body inhalation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Burchiel, Scott W. . E-mail: Sburchiel@salud.unm.edu; Lauer, Fredine T.; Dunaway, Sandy L.; Zawadzki, Jerome; McDonald, Jacob D.; Reed, Matthew D.

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of these studies was to assess the effects of hardwood smoke (HWS) inhalation (30-1000 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) on the systemic immune responses of A/J mice evaluated after 6 months of daily exposures. Spleen cells obtained from mice were assessed for changes in cell number, cell surface marker expression [B, T, macrophage, and natural killer (NK) cells], and responses to B cell (LPS, endotoxin) and T cell (Con A) mitogens. Results showed that HWS smoke increased T cell proliferation in the 100 {mu}g/m{sup 3} exposure group and produced a concentration-dependent suppression of T cell proliferation at concentrations >300 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. There were no effects on B cell proliferation or in spleen cell surface marker expression. Analyses of the exposure atmospheres revealed the presence of significant levels of naphthalene and methylated napthalenes, fluorene, phenanthrene, and anthracene in the exposure chambers, as well as low concentrations of several metals (K, Ca, and Fe). Our results demonstrate that environmentally relevant concentrations of HWS may be immunosuppressive to the immune system of mice exposed during a 6-month period.

  8. A 6-month supervised employer-based minimal exercise program for police officers improves fitness.

    PubMed

    Rossomanno, Colleen I; Herrick, Jeffery E; Kirk, Stacie M; Kirk, Erik P

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of a 6-month supervised, job-specific moderate exercise program in police officers on body composition, cardiovascular and muscular fitness. Body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), and cardiovascular and muscular fitness were assessed at baseline, after a 6-month supervised fitness program and at 12-month follow-up (18 months). One hundred sixty-five (n = 131 men and n = 34 women) young (mean ± SEM, 26.4 ± 1.9 years), overweight (BMI = 26.2 ± 1.2 kg·m) police officers participated. Aerobic exercise progressed from 3 d·wk, 20 minutes per session at 60% of the heart rate reserve (HRR) to 5 d·wk, 30 minutes per session at 75% of HRR at 3 months, and this level was maintained until 6 months. Muscular strength training progressed using 8 different calisthenics exercises from 3 d·wk, 2 sets of 5 repetitions using the participant's own BW to 5 d·wk, 3 sets of 15 repetitions of the participant's own BW at 3 months, and this level was maintained until 6 months. Cardiovascular and muscular fitness was measured using a 0.25-mile obstacle course incorporating various job-specific exercises and expressed as the physical abilities test (PAT) time. There was a significant reduction in BMI (-0.6 ± 0.2 kg·m, p < 0.001) and BW (-2.8 ± 2.3 kg) and reduction in PAT time (-11.9 ± 2.1%, p < 0.01) from baseline to 6 months. However, BMI (1.4 ± 1.1 kg·m, p < 0.001), BW (5.1 ± 3.0 kg, p < 0.01), and PAT time significantly increased (12.8 ± 2.2%, p < 0.01) from 6 to 18 months. There were no sex by time differences. The practical applications of this study indicate that a supervised, job-specific exercise program for police officers improves fitness and body composition after 6 months in both men and women, but continued supervision of exercise program may be necessary for maintenance of health benefits.

  9. Injectable Chemically Crosslinked Hydrogel for the Controlled Release of Bevacizumab in Vitreous: A 6-Month In Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yu; Lau, Laurence Chi Ming; Lo, Amy Cheuk-yin; Chau, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the biocompatibility and 6-month in vivo release of bevacizumab from a hyaluronic acid/dextran-based in situ hydrogel after intravitreal injection in rabbit eye. Methods The in situ hydrogel was formed by the catalyst-free chemical crosslinking between vinylsulfone functionalized hyaluronic acid (HA-VS) and thiolated dextran (Dex-SH) at physiological condition. The pH 7.4 buffered mixture containing HA-VS, Dex-SH, and bevacizumab were injected into the vitreous of rabbit eyes by a 30-G needle. The biocompatibility was evaluated by intraocular pressure measurement, binocular indirect ophthalmoscope (BIO), full-field electroretinogram (ERG), and histology. The concentrations of both total and active bevacizumab in rabbit vitreous were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The concentration of bevacizumab in rabbit vitreous after bolus injection was simulated by one-compartment first order elimination model. Results A transparent gel was seen in the vitreous after injection. BIO images, ERG, and histology showed that the gel does not induce hemorrhage, retinal detachment, inflammation, or other gross pathological changes in rabbit eyes after injection. While the bolus intravitreal injected bevacizumab follows the first order elimination kinetics in rabbit eye, the in situ gel formation was able to prolong the retention of bevacizumab in rabbit eye at therapeutic relevant concentration for at least 6 months. The concentration of bevacizumab 6 months after injection was about 107 times higher than bolus injection. Conclusions The new in situ hydrogel formulation of bevacizumab was biocompatible and able to prolong the retention of drug in rabbit eyes in vivo at therapeutic relevant concentration for at least 6 months. Translational Relevance Although proven to be effective, monthly intravitreal injection of bevacizumab or other protein drugs may cause various complications. Extending the residence time of protein therapeutics in the eye

  10. Death of a 6-month-old due to a tracheal bronchus.

    PubMed

    Hansen-Welches, Lauren; Slabach, Rachel; Landrum, Jeffry E; Prahlow, Joseph A

    2011-09-01

    The death of an infant younger than 1 year requires a thorough scene investigation and autopsy. Most infant deaths investigated by forensic pathologists can be placed into 2 general categories: sudden infant death syndrome and accidental asphyxial deaths. Despite the fact that most infant deaths occur within these 2 categories, it is important to remember that other entities may be responsible for death. In this report, we present a developmental pulmonary abnormality that was ultimately responsible for the death of an infant. A 6-month-old male infant with a prior history of pneumonia was brought to an emergency department for evaluation of fever. Antibiotics were prescribed, and the child was discharged and sent home with instructions to his mother to follow up with his pediatrician. Later that evening, the infant seemed to be in respiratory distress. His mother again transported him to the emergency department, where, on arrival, he became apneic. Despite vigorous resuscitative efforts, the infant died. Of note at autopsy was the presence of low-set abnormal ears and bilateral inward-turning ankles. Internally, an abnormality of the tracheobronchial tree was evident, with the right upper lobe bronchus arising from the distal trachea, proximal to the carina. In addition, the right upper lobe was discolored and firm. Microscopically, pneumonia was present. The cause of death was pneumonia due to a right tracheal bronchus. Childhood pneumonia is a known cause of childhood hospitalization, morbidity, and mortality. Identifying the causes of recurrent pneumonia, be it structural, metabolic, or syndromic, aids in preventing recurrent infections and reducing the incidence of childhood mortality. A tracheal bronchus, also known as bronchus suis or "pig bronchus," is an anatomic variant of the tracheobronchial tree in which a bronchus arises proximal to the carina, most commonly on the right and predominantly in males. The incidence is around 0.2%. Although the tracheal

  11. Crown lengthening in the maxillary anterior region: a 6-month prospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Deas, David E; Mackey, Scott A; Sagun, Ruben S; Hancock, Raymond H; Gruwell, Scott F; Campbell, Casey M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess osseous parameters and stability of maxillary anterior teeth following crown lengthening surgery. Thirty-six patients requiring facial crown lengthening of 277 maxillary anterior and first premolar teeth were included. Presurgical and intraoperative clinical measurements were recorded at baseline and 1, 3, and 6 months postsurgery at midfacial, mesiofacial, and distofacial line angles. The data presented here suggest that when crown lengthening anterior maxillary teeth, the distance between the desired gingival margin and alveolar crest is usually insufficient to allow for biologic width. In addition, there is significant tissue rebound that may stabilize by 6 months. Tissue rebound appears related to flap position relative to the alveolar crest at suturing. These findings suggest that clinicians should establish proper anterior crown length with osseous resection.

  12. Predicting sights from sounds: 6-month old infants’ intermodal numerical abilities

    PubMed Central

    Feigenson, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Although the psychophysics of infants’ non-symbolic number representations has been well studied, less is known about other characteristics of the Approximate Number System (ANS) in young children. Here, 3 experiments explored the extent to which the ANS yields abstract representations by testing infants’ ability to transfer approximate number representations across sensory modalities. These experiments showed that 6-month old infants matched the approximate number of sounds they heard to the approximate number of sights they saw, looking longer at visual arrays that numerically mis-matched a previously heard auditory sequence. This looking preference was observed when sights and sounds mismatched by 1:3 and 1:2 ratios, but not by a 2:3 ratio. These findings suggest that infants can compare numerical information obtained in different modalities using representations stored in memory. Furthermore, the acuity of 6-month old infants’ comparisons of intermodal numerical sequences appears to parallel that of their comparisons of unimodal sequences. PMID:21616502

  13. Prevention of Traumatic Stress in Mothers of Preterms: 6-Month Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    St John, Nick; Lilo, Emily; Jo, Booil; Benitz, William; Stevenson, David K.; Horwitz, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder are a well-recognized phenomenon in mothers of preterm infants, with implications for maternal health and infant outcomes. This randomized controlled trial evaluated 6-month outcomes from a skills-based intervention developed to reduce symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression. METHODS: One hundred five mothers of preterm infants were randomly assigned to (1) a 6- or 9-session intervention based on principles of trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy with infant redefinition or (2) a 1-session active comparison intervention based on education about the NICU and parenting of the premature infant. Outcome measures included the Davidson Trauma Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory II, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Participants were assessed at baseline, 4 to 5 weeks after birth, and 6 months after the birth of the infant. RESULTS: At the 6-month assessment, the differences between the intervention and comparison condition were all significant and sizable and became more pronounced when compared with the 4- to 5-week outcomes: Davidson Trauma Scale (Cohen's d = −0.74, P < .001), Beck Anxiety Inventory (Cohen's d = −0.627, P = .001), Beck Depression Inventory II (Cohen's d = −0.638, P = .002). However, there were no differences in the effect sizes between the 6- and 9-session interventions. CONCLUSIONS: A brief 6-session intervention based on principles of trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy was effective at reducing symptoms of trauma, anxiety, and depression in mothers of preterm infants. Mothers showed increased benefits at the 6-month follow-up, suggesting that they continue to make use of techniques acquired during the intervention phase. PMID:25049338

  14. Internalized stigma of mental illness and depressive and psychotic symptoms in homeless veterans over 6 months.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Jennifer E; Hayward, H'Sien; Bassett, Elena D; Hoff, Rani

    2016-06-30

    We investigated the relationship between internalized stigma of mental illness at baseline and depressive and psychotic symptoms 3 and 6 months later, controlling for baseline symptoms. Data on homeless veterans with severe mental illness (SMI) were provided by the Northeast Program Evaluation Center (NEPEC) Special Needs-Chronic Mental Illness (SN-CMI) study (Kasprow and Rosenheck, 2008). The study used the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale to measure internalized stigma at baseline and the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) to measure depressive and psychotic symptoms at baseline and 3 and 6 month follow-ups. Higher levels of internalized stigma were associated with greater levels of depressive and psychotic symptoms 3 and 6 months later, even controlling for symptoms at baseline. Alienation and Discrimination Experience were the subscales most strongly associated with symptoms. Exploratory analyses of individual items yielded further insight into characteristics of potentially successful interventions that could be studied. Overall, our findings show that homeless veterans with SMI experiencing higher levels of internalized stigma are likely to experience more depression and psychosis over time. This quasi-experimental study replicates and extends findings of other studies and has implications for future controlled research into the potential long-term effects of anti-stigma interventions on mental health recovery.

  15. Neck strain in car occupants: injury status after 6 months and crash-related factors.

    PubMed

    Ryan, G A; Taylor, G W; Moore, V M; Dolinis, J

    1994-10-01

    In this study, 29 individuals who sustained a neck strain as a result of a car crash were drawn from a group of physiotherapy and general practices and were followed up after 6 months. The aim was to examine relationships between the state of the neck injury at the time of follow up and crash-related factors, notably crash severity and occupant awareness. Crash severity was assessed by measurement of damage to the involved vehicles, while 6-month injury status was established through physical examinations and interviews. No statistically significant associations between crash severity and 6-month injury status were found, but subjects who were unaware of the impending collision had a greatly increased likelihood of experiencing persisting symptoms of and/or signs of neck strain, compared with those who were aware (odds ratio = 15.0; 95 per cent confidence limits: 1.8, 178). While the role of crash severity in the production and duration of neck strains remains unclear, awareness appears to have a strong protective influence and may prove to be a useful prognostic indicator in clinical settings.

  16. Curcumin effects on blood lipid profile in a 6-month human study.

    PubMed

    Baum, Larry; Cheung, Stanley K K; Mok, Vincent C T; Lam, Linda C W; Leung, Vivian P Y; Hui, Elsie; Ng, Chelsia C Y; Chow, Moses; Ho, Ping C; Lam, Sherry; Woo, Jean; Chiu, Helen F K; Goggins, William; Zee, Benny; Wong, Adrian; Mok, Hazel; Cheng, William K F; Fong, Carmen; Lee, Jenny S W; Chan, Ming-Houng; Szeto, Samuel S L; Lui, Victor W C; Tsoh, Joshua; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Chan, Iris H S; Lam, Christopher W K

    2007-12-01

    Studies in animals and a short-term human study have suggested that curcumin, a polyphenolic compound concentrated in the curry spice turmeric, decreases serum cholesterol concentration. However, no controlled human trials have examined the effect of curcumin on cholesterol. This study investigated the effects of consuming curcumin on the serum lipid profile in men and women. Elderly subjects (n=36) consumed 4 g/d curcumin, 1g/d curcumin, or placebo in a 6-month, randomized, double-blind trial. Plasma curcumin and its metabolites were measured at 1 month, and the serum lipid profile was measured at baseline, 1 month, and 6 months. The plasma curcumin concentration reached a mean of 490 nmol/L. The curcumin concentration was greater after capsule than powder administration. Consumption of either dose of curcumin did not significantly affect triacylglycerols, or total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol over 1 month or 6 months. However, the concentrations of plasma curcumin and serum cholesterol were positively and significantly correlated. Curcumin consumption does not appear to have a significant effect on the serum lipid profile, unless the absorbed concentration of curcumin is considered, in which case curcumin may modestly increase cholesterol.

  17. Reversal of functional changes in the brain associated with obstructive sleep apnoea following 6 months of CPAP.

    PubMed

    Fatouleh, Rania H; Lundblad, Linda C; Macey, Paul M; McKenzie, David K; Henderson, Luke A; Macefield, Vaughan G

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is associated with an increase in the number of bursts of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), leading to neurogenic hypertension. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the most effective and widely used treatment for preventing collapse of the upper airway in OSA. In addition to improving sleep, CPAP decreases daytime MSNA towards control levels. It remains unknown how this restoration of MSNA occurs, in particular whether CPAP treatment results in a simple readjustment in activity of those brain regions responsible for the initial increase in MSNA or whether other brain regions are recruited to over-ride aberrant brain activity. By recording MSNA concurrently with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), we aimed to assess brain activity associated with each individual subject's patterns of MSNA prior to and following 6 months of CPAP treatment. Spontaneous fluctuations in MSNA were recorded via tungsten microelectrodes inserted into the common peroneal nerve in 13 newly diagnosed patients with OSA before and after 6 months of treatment with CPAP and in 15 healthy control subjects while lying in a 3 T MRI scanner. Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) contrast gradient echo, echo-planar images were continuously collected in a 4 s ON, 4 s OFF (200 volumes) sampling protocol. MSNA was significantly elevated in newly diagnosed OSA patients compared to control subjects (55 ± 4 vs 26 ± 2 bursts/min). Fluctuations in BOLD signal intensity in multiple regions covaried with the intensity of the concurrently recorded bursts of MSNA. There was a significant fall in MSNA after 6 months of CPAP (39 ± 2 bursts/min). The reduction in resting MSNA was coupled with significant falls in signal intensity in precuneus bilaterally, the left and right insula, right medial prefrontal cortex, right anterior cingulate cortex, right parahippocampus and the left and right retrosplenial cortices. These data support our contention that

  18. Reversal of functional changes in the brain associated with obstructive sleep apnoea following 6 months of CPAP.

    PubMed

    Fatouleh, Rania H; Lundblad, Linda C; Macey, Paul M; McKenzie, David K; Henderson, Luke A; Macefield, Vaughan G

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is associated with an increase in the number of bursts of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), leading to neurogenic hypertension. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the most effective and widely used treatment for preventing collapse of the upper airway in OSA. In addition to improving sleep, CPAP decreases daytime MSNA towards control levels. It remains unknown how this restoration of MSNA occurs, in particular whether CPAP treatment results in a simple readjustment in activity of those brain regions responsible for the initial increase in MSNA or whether other brain regions are recruited to over-ride aberrant brain activity. By recording MSNA concurrently with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), we aimed to assess brain activity associated with each individual subject's patterns of MSNA prior to and following 6 months of CPAP treatment. Spontaneous fluctuations in MSNA were recorded via tungsten microelectrodes inserted into the common peroneal nerve in 13 newly diagnosed patients with OSA before and after 6 months of treatment with CPAP and in 15 healthy control subjects while lying in a 3 T MRI scanner. Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) contrast gradient echo, echo-planar images were continuously collected in a 4 s ON, 4 s OFF (200 volumes) sampling protocol. MSNA was significantly elevated in newly diagnosed OSA patients compared to control subjects (55 ± 4 vs 26 ± 2 bursts/min). Fluctuations in BOLD signal intensity in multiple regions covaried with the intensity of the concurrently recorded bursts of MSNA. There was a significant fall in MSNA after 6 months of CPAP (39 ± 2 bursts/min). The reduction in resting MSNA was coupled with significant falls in signal intensity in precuneus bilaterally, the left and right insula, right medial prefrontal cortex, right anterior cingulate cortex, right parahippocampus and the left and right retrosplenial cortices. These data support our contention that

  19. Treatment delay period: the case of arsenicosis in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Paul, Bimal Kanti; Brock, Vicki L Tinnon

    2006-12-01

    Arsenic concentrations of tubewell water that exceed acceptable limits poses a serious health problem in Bangladesh. Many Bangladeshis are now suffering from arsenic-related diseases. The objectives of this paper are to examine the extent of delay in seeking medical treatment by victims of arsenic poisoning and to identify factors contributing to this delay. Questionnaire survey successfully administered to 663 victims living in two rural areas of Bangladesh provided the major data source for this study. Analysis of survey data reveal that median delay period was 12 months, but the delay period ranged from 1 month to 18 years. Because of this extremely large range, the mean delay period was about 22 months. The study identified time of identification of symptoms of arsenicosis as the most significant determinant of treatment delay followed by treatment sought from members of mobile medical teams, perceived threat, and level of education. Based on the study findings, it is recommended that the Bangladesh government and NGOs involved in arsenic mitigation and prevention efforts should educate individuals at risk for arsenic poisoning about the benefits of seeking early treatment. This study also recommends to continue to dispatch mobile medical teams to the arsenic-impacted areas.

  20. Neuromuscular Evaluation With Single-Leg Squat Test at 6 Months After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Michael P.; Paik, Ronald S.; Ware, Anthony J.; Mohr, Karen J.; Limpisvasti, Orr

    2015-01-01

    Background: Criteria for return to unrestricted activity after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction varies, with some using time after surgery as the sole criterion—most often at 6 months. Patients may have residual neuromuscular deficits, which may increase the risk of ACL injury. A single-leg squat test (SLST) can dynamically assess for many of these deficits prior to return to unrestricted activity. Hypothesis: A significant number of patients will continue to exhibit neuromuscular deficits with SLST at 6 months after ACL reconstruction. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Patients using a standardized accelerated rehabilitation protocol at their 6-month follow-up after primary ACL reconstruction were enrolled. Evaluation included bilateral SLST, single-leg hop distance, hip abduction strength, and the subjective International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score. Results: Thirty-three patients were enrolled. Poor performance of the operative leg SLST was found in 15 of 33 patients (45%). Of those 15 patients, 7 (45%) had concomitant poor performance of the nonoperative leg compared with 2 of 18 patients (11%) in those who demonstrated good performance in the operative leg. The poor performers were significantly older (33.6 years) than the good performers (24.2 years) (P = .007). Those with poor performance demonstrated decreased hip abduction strength (17.6 kg operative leg vs 20.5 kg nonoperative leg) (P = .024), decreased single-leg hop distance (83.3 cm operative leg vs 112.3 cm nonoperative leg) (P = .036), and lower IKDC scores (67.9 vs 82.3) (P = .001). Conclusion: Nearly half of patients demonstrated persistent neuromuscular deficits on SLST at 6 months, which is when many patients return to unrestricted activity. Those with poor performance were of a significantly older age, decreased hip abduction strength, decreased single-leg hop distance, and lower IKDC subjective scores. Clinical Relevance: The SLST

  1. Cortisol Reactivity, Maternal Sensitivity, and Infant Preference for Mother's Familiar Face and Rhyme in 6-Month-Old Infants

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Laura A.; Trevathan, Wenda R.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated how cortisol (stress) reactivity and mothers' behavioral sensitivity affect familiarity preferences in 6-month-old infants. Relations between sensitivity and stress were explored using saliva samples taken from mothers and infants before, and 20-min after, two preferential looking experiments. Photographs and voice recordings from infants' mothers were incorporated into standard visual preference tasks. Sensitivity was assessed by determining the degree of behavioral synchrony between mother and infant from a 10-min interaction period preceding the preferential looking experiments. Results showed that decreasing infant cortisol reactivity and greater maternal sensitivity were associated with familiarity preferences for mother's face stimuli. For the experiment with voice stimuli, a sex difference was obtained in the relationship between the directionality of cortisol reactivity and familiarity preferences. Results are related to a parallel study with 3-month-old infants (Thompson & Trevathan, 2008), and issues are discussed in terms of infants' developing emotional independence from mother. PMID:20046939

  2. Immunoglobulin G2 deficiency with transient hypogammaglobulinemia and chronic respiratory disease in a 6-month-old Holstein heifer.

    PubMed

    Francoz, David; Lapointe, Jean-Martin; Wellemans, Vincent; Desrochers, André; Caswell, Jeff L; Stott, Jeff L; Dubreuil, Pascal

    2004-09-01

    A 6-month-old Holstein heifer that was nonresponsive to medical treatment was evaluated for chronic respiratory disease. Complete blood count and serum chemistry revealed neutrophilic leukocytosis and low globulin levels. Assays for bovine leukemia virus, bovine virus diarrhea, and bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency were negative. Serum globulin subclass assays revealed transient low concentrations of immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 and IgA, persistent low IgG2, and subnormal IgM. Vaccination with 2 doses of multiple, inactived viruses induced seroconversion for most viruses. Flow cytometric analysis of blood lymphocyte subpopulation demonstrated an increase in CD5+ B-cells. Blood lymphocyte proliferation and neutrophil function tests were normal. Results of immunologic assays indicated IgG2 deficiency with transient hypogammaglobulinemia. PMID:15460327

  3. Infants, mothers, and dyadic contributions to stability and prediction of social stress response at 6 months.

    PubMed

    Provenzi, Livio; Olson, Karen L; Montirosso, Rosario; Tronick, Ed

    2016-01-01

    The study of infants' interactive style and social stress response to repeated stress exposures is of great interest for developmental and clinical psychologists. Stable maternal and dyadic behavior is critical to sustain infants' development of an adaptive social stress response, but the association between infants' interactive style and social stress response has received scant attention in previous literature. In the present article, overtime stability of infant, maternal, and dyadic behaviors was measured across 2 social stress (i.e., Face-to-Face Still-Face, FFSF) exposures, separated by 15 days. Moreover, infant, maternal, and dyadic behaviors were simultaneously assessed as predictors of infants' social stress to both FFSF exposures. Eighty-one mother-infant dyads underwent the FFSF twice, at 6 months (Exposure 1: the first social stress) and at 6 months and 15 days (Exposure 2: repeated social stress). Infant and mother behavior and dyadic synchrony were microanalytically coded. Overall, individual behavioral stability emerged between FFSF exposures. Infants' response to the first stress was predicted by infant behavior during Exposure 1 Play. Infants' response to the repeated social stress was predicted by infants' response to the first exposure to the Still-Face and by infants' behavior and dyadic synchrony during Exposure 2 Play. Findings reveal stability for individual, but not for dyadic, behavior between 2 social stress exposures at 6 months. Infants' response to repeated social stress was predicted by infants' earlier stress response, infants' own behavior in play, and dyadic synchrony. No predictive effects of maternal behavior were found. Insights for research and clinical work are discussed.

  4. Prenatal maternal depression alters amygdala functional connectivity in 6-month-old infants

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, A; Anh, T T; Li, Y; Chen, H; Rifkin-Graboi, A; Broekman, B F P; Kwek, K; Saw, S-M; Chong, Y-S; Gluckman, P D; Fortier, M V; Meaney, M J

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal maternal depression is associated with alterations in the neonatal amygdala microstructure, shedding light on the timing for the influence of prenatal maternal depression on the brain structure of the offspring. This study aimed to examine the association between prenatal maternal depressive symptomatology and infant amygdala functional connectivity and to thus establish the neural functional basis for the transgenerational transmission of vulnerability for affective disorders during prenatal development. Twenty-four infants were included in this study with both structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) at 6 months of age. Maternal depression was assessed at 26 weeks of gestation and 3 months after delivery using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Linear regression was used to identify the amygdala functional networks and to examine the associations between prenatal maternal depressive symptoms and amygdala functional connectivity. Our results showed that at 6 months of age, the amygdala is functionally connected to widespread brain regions, forming the emotional regulation, sensory and perceptual, and emotional memory networks. After controlling for postnatal maternal depressive symptoms, infants born to mothers with higher prenatal maternal depressive symptoms showed greater functional connectivity of the amygdala with the left temporal cortex and insula, as well as the bilateral anterior cingulate, medial orbitofrontal and ventromedial prefrontal cortices, which are largely consistent with patterns of connectivity observed in adolescents and adults with major depressive disorder. Our study provides novel evidence that prenatal maternal depressive symptomatology alters the amygdala's functional connectivity in early postnatal life, which reveals that the neuroimaging correlates of the familial transmission of phenotypes associated with maternal mood are apparent in infants at 6 months of age. PMID:25689569

  5. Infants, mothers, and dyadic contributions to stability and prediction of social stress response at 6 months.

    PubMed

    Provenzi, Livio; Olson, Karen L; Montirosso, Rosario; Tronick, Ed

    2016-01-01

    The study of infants' interactive style and social stress response to repeated stress exposures is of great interest for developmental and clinical psychologists. Stable maternal and dyadic behavior is critical to sustain infants' development of an adaptive social stress response, but the association between infants' interactive style and social stress response has received scant attention in previous literature. In the present article, overtime stability of infant, maternal, and dyadic behaviors was measured across 2 social stress (i.e., Face-to-Face Still-Face, FFSF) exposures, separated by 15 days. Moreover, infant, maternal, and dyadic behaviors were simultaneously assessed as predictors of infants' social stress to both FFSF exposures. Eighty-one mother-infant dyads underwent the FFSF twice, at 6 months (Exposure 1: the first social stress) and at 6 months and 15 days (Exposure 2: repeated social stress). Infant and mother behavior and dyadic synchrony were microanalytically coded. Overall, individual behavioral stability emerged between FFSF exposures. Infants' response to the first stress was predicted by infant behavior during Exposure 1 Play. Infants' response to the repeated social stress was predicted by infants' response to the first exposure to the Still-Face and by infants' behavior and dyadic synchrony during Exposure 2 Play. Findings reveal stability for individual, but not for dyadic, behavior between 2 social stress exposures at 6 months. Infants' response to repeated social stress was predicted by infants' earlier stress response, infants' own behavior in play, and dyadic synchrony. No predictive effects of maternal behavior were found. Insights for research and clinical work are discussed. PMID:26569560

  6. Quadriceps neural alterations in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed patients: A 6-month longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Lepley, A S; Gribble, P A; Thomas, A C; Tevald, M A; Sohn, D H; Pietrosimone, B G

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate differences in quadriceps corticospinal excitability, spinal-reflexive excitability, strength, and voluntary activation before, 2 weeks post and 6 months post-anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLr). This longitudinal, case-control investigation examined 20 patients scheduled for ACLr (11 females, 9 males; age: 20.9 ± 4.4 years; height:172.4 ± 7.5 cm; weight:76.2 ± 11.8 kg) and 20 healthy controls (11 females, 9 males; age:21.7 ± 3.7 years; height: 173.7 ± 9.9 cm; weight: 76.1 ± 19.7 kg). Maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC), central activation ratio (CAR), normalized Hoffmann spinal reflexes, active motor threshold (AMT), and normalized motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes at 120% of AMT were measured in the quadriceps muscle at the specific time points. ACLr patients demonstrated bilateral reductions in spinal-reflexive excitability compared with controls before surgery (P = 0.02) and 2 weeks post-surgery (P ≤ 0.001). ACLr patients demonstrated higher AMT at 6 months post-surgery (P ≤ 0.001) in both limbs. No MEP differences were detected. Quadriceps MVIC and CAR were lower in both limbs of the ACLr group before surgery and 6 months post-surgery (P ≤ 0.05) compared with controls. Diminished excitability of spinal-reflexive and corticospinal pathways are present at different times following ACLr and occur in combination with clinical deficits in quadriceps strength and activation. Early rehabilitation strategies targeting spinal-reflexive excitability may help improve postoperative outcomes, while later-stage rehabilitation may benefit from therapeutic techniques aimed at improving corticospinal excitability.

  7. A Prospective Controlled Study of Kidney Donors: Baseline and 6-Month Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Kasiske, Bertram L.; Anderson-Haag, Teresa; Ibrahim, Hassan N.; Pesavento, Todd E.; Weir, Matthew R.; Nogueira, Joseph M.; Cosio, Fernando G.; Kraus, Edward S.; Rabb, Hamid H.; Kalil, Roberto S.; Posselt, Andrew A.; Kimmel, Paul L.; Steffes, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Most previous studies of living kidney donors have been retrospective and have lacked suitable healthy controls. Needed are prospective controlled studies to better understand the effects of a mild reduction in kidney function from kidney donation in otherwise normal individuals. Study Design Prospective, controlled, observational cohort study. Setting & Participants Consecutive patients approved for donation at 8 transplant centers in the US were asked to participate. For every donor enrolled, an equally healthy control with 2 kidneys who theoretically would have been suitable to donate a kidney was also enrolled. Predictor Kidney donation. Measurements At baseline pre-donation and at 6 months after donation, a medical history, vital signs, measured (iohexol) glomerular filtration rate and other measurements were collected. There were 201 donors and 198 controls that completed both baseline and 6 month visits and form the basis of this report. Results Compared to controls, donors had 28% lower glomerular filtration rate at 6 months (94.6±15.1 [SD] v. 67.6±10.1 mL/min/1.73m2; P<0.001), associated with a 23% greater parathyroid hormone (42.8±15.6 v. 52.7±20.9 pg/mL; P<0.001), 5.4% lower serum phosphate (3.5±0.5 v. 3.3±0.5 mg/dL; P<0.001), 3.7% lower hemoglobin (13.6±1.4 v. 13.1±1.2 g/dL; P<0.001), 8.2% greater uric acid (4.9±1.2 v. 5.3±1.1 mg/dL; P<0.001), 24% greater homocysteine (1.20±0.34 v. 1.49±0.43 mg/L; P<0.001), and 1.5% lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol (54.9±16.4 v. 54.1±13.9 mg/dL; P=0.03) level. There were no differences in albumin-creatinine ratios (5.0 [IQR, 4.0-6.6] v. 5.0 [IQR, 3.3-5.4] mg/g; P=0.5), office blood pressure, or glucose homeostasis. Limitations Short duration of follow-up and possible bias resulting from an inability to screen controls with kidney and vascular imaging performed in donors. Conclusions Kidney donors have some, but not all, abnormalities typically associated with mild chronic kidney

  8. A near fatality in a 6-month-old boy from an aspirated toy.

    PubMed

    Dorfman, Annette; Pauze, Denis; Tilney, Pete

    2011-01-01

    At 6:27 p.m., a local flight team was activated for an interfacility transfer of a 6-month-old boy with a foreign body aspiration. The child was reportedly playing with an older sibling at home. According to the patient's mother, she stepped out of the room briefly and returned to find the child coughing and mildly cyanotic. The older sibling reported that the baby had ingested an object that was likely a plastic toy. Ground 911 EMS was called, and the child was transported to a local community hospital without any change in his respiratory status. PMID:21382562

  9. Pertussis in infants less than 6 months of age and household contacts, Italy, April 2014.

    PubMed

    Sali, Michela; Buttinelli, Gabriele; Fazio, Cecilia; Vacca, Paola; La Sorda, Marilena; Carannante, Anna; Spanu, Teresa; Valentini, Piero; Stefanelli, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We report pertussis cases in 4 infants less than 6 months admitted with symptoms compatible with pertussis to the intensive care unit of the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore in Rome, April 2014. Realtime PCR confirmed pertussis diagnosis for the 4 infants, 2 of them were cousins, and for the household contacts of 1 of them. Analysis of pertussis toxin, its promoter and pertactin was also performed. First of all, this report emphasizes the need to investigate household contact of infants with pertussis; secondly, to evaluate the selective vaccination of household members of newborns as an effective program to reduce pertussis in infants.

  10. Tibial bone responses to 6-month calcium and vitamin D supplementation in young male jockeys: A randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Silk, Leslie N; Greene, David A; Baker, Michael K; Jander, Caron B

    2015-12-01

    Young male jockeys compromise bone health by engaging in caloric restriction and high volumes of physical activity during periods of musculoskeletal growth and development. The aim of this randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was to establish whether calcium and vitamin D supplementation would improve bone properties of young male jockeys. We conducted a 6-month trial with two groups of weight-, height- and age-matched apprentice male jockeys (age=20.2 ± 3.2 yrs). Participants were supplemented with 800 mg of calcium and 400 IU of vitamin D (S, n=8) or a placebo (cellulose) (P, n=9) daily for 6-months. Baseline calcium intake was (669.7 ± 274.3 (S) vs 790.4 ± 423.9 (P) and vitamin D 64.6 ± 19.5 (S) vs 81.2 ± 24.4 (P) with no statistical differences. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) measured ultra-distal (4%) and proximal (66%) tibial bone properties at baseline and 6 months. Blood-borne markers of bone turnover, P1NP and CTX and vitamin D concentration were assessed. After co-varying for height, weight and baseline bone measurements, the supplemented group displayed greater post-intervention bone properties at the 66% proximal site with cortical content (mgmm) 6.6% greater (p<0.001), cortical area (mm(2)) 5.9% larger (p<0.001), cortical density (mgcm(2)) 1.3% greater (p=0.001), and total area (mm(2)) 4% larger (p=0.003). No other between group differences in bone variables were observed. Blood analysis indicated higher vitamin D levels (18.1%, p=0.014) and lower CTx (ng/L) (-24.8%, p=0.011) in the supplemented group with no differences observed in P1NP. This is the first randomised controlled trial to examine the efficacy of calcium and vitamin D supplementation in improving bone properties in a highly vulnerable, young athletic, weight-restricted population. Results using pQCT indicate beneficial effects of supplementation on bone properties in as little as six months. Although the study size is small, this intervention

  11. Remineralization of demineralized bone matrix in critical size cranial defects in rats: A 6-month follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Horváthy, Dénes B; Vácz, Gabriella; Toró, Ildikó; Szabó, Tamás; May, Zoltán; Duarte, Miguel; Hornyák, István; Szabó, Bence T; Dobó-Nagy, Csaba; Doros, Attila; Lacza, Zsombor

    2016-10-01

    The key drawback of using demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is its low initial mechanical stability due to the severe depletion of mineral content. In the present study, we investigated the long-term regeneration of DBM in a critical size bone defect model and investigated the remineralization after 6 months. Bone defects were created in the cranium of male Wistar rats which were filled with DBM or left empty as negative control. In vivo bone formation was monitored with computed tomography after 11, 19, and 26 weeks postoperatively. After 6 months, parietal bones were subjected to micro-CT. Mineral content was determined with spectrophotometric analysis. After 11 weeks the DBM-filled bone defects were completely closed, while empty defects were still open. Density of the DBM-treated group increased significantly while the controls remained unchanged. Quantitative analysis by micro-CT confirmed the in vivo results, bone volume/tissue volume was significantly lower in the controls than in the DBM group. The demineralization procedure depleted the key minerals of the bone to a very low level. Six months after implantation Ca, P, Na, Mg, Zn, and Cr contents were completely restored to the normal level, while K, Sr, and Mn were only partially restored. The remineralization process of DBM is largely complete by the 6th month after implantation in terms of bone density, structure, and key mineral levels. Although DBM does not provide sufficient sources for any of these minerals, it induces a faster and more complete regeneration process. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1336-1342, 2016.

  12. Infant Humor Perception from 3- to 6-months and Attachment at One Year

    PubMed Central

    Mireault, Gina; Sparrow, John; Poutre, Merlin; Perdue, Brittany; Macke, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Infancy is a critical time for the development of secure attachment, which is facilitated by emotionally synchronous interactions with parents. Humor development, which includes shared laughter and joint attention to an event, emerges concurrently with attachment, but little is known regarding the relationship, if any, between humor development and attachment in the first year. Thirty 3-month-old infants were videoed at home each month until they were 6-months old while their parents attempted to amuse them. Frequency of infants’ smiles and laughs served as a measure of “state humor”, and the smiling/laughing subscale of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised served as a measure of “trait humor”. State and trait humor were not correlated. Lower trait humor as 6 months predicted higher attachment security on the Attachment Q-sort at 12-months (r=. 46), suggesting that less good-humored infants elicit greater parental engagement, which works to the benefit of attachment, or vice versa. Future studies should examine the importance of smiling and laughter as they relate to other developmental phenomena in the first year. PMID:22982281

  13. A cornea substitute derived from fish scale: 6-month followup on rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Fei; Wang, Liyan; Lin, Chien-Chen; Chou, Cheng-Hung; Li, Lei

    2014-01-01

    A fish scale-derived cornea substitute (Biocornea) is proposed as an alternative for human donor corneal tissue. We adopt a regenerative medicine approach to design a primary alternative to the use of fish scale for restoring sight by corneal replacement. Biocornea with corneal multilayer arrangement collagen was implanted to rabbits by pocket implantation. Our study demonstrated the safety and detailed morphologic and physiologic results from the 6 months of followup of rabbit model. In the peripheral Biocornea, the collagen fibrils were arranged in reticular fashion. Slit lamp examination showed that haze and an ulcer were not observed in all groups at 3 months postoperatively while all corneas with Biocornea were clear at both 3 months and 6 months postoperatively. The interface of Biocornea and stromal tissue were filled successfully and without observable immune cells at postoperative day 180. Moreover, the Biocornea was not dissolved and degenerated but remained transparent and showed no apparent fragmentation. Our study demonstrated that the Biocornea derived from fish scale as a good substitute had high biocompatibility and support function after a long-term evaluation. This revealed that the new approach of using Biocornea may yield an ideal artificial cornea substitute for long-term inlay placement. PMID:25089206

  14. A Cornea Substitute Derived from Fish Scale: 6-Month Followup on Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Fei; Wang, Liyan; Lin, Chien-Chen; Chou, Cheng-Hung; Li, Lei

    2014-01-01

    A fish scale-derived cornea substitute (Biocornea) is proposed as an alternative for human donor corneal tissue. We adopt a regenerative medicine approach to design a primary alternative to the use of fish scale for restoring sight by corneal replacement. Biocornea with corneal multilayer arrangement collagen was implanted to rabbits by pocket implantation. Our study demonstrated the safety and detailed morphologic and physiologic results from the 6 months of followup of rabbit model. In the peripheral Biocornea, the collagen fibrils were arranged in reticular fashion. Slit lamp examination showed that haze and an ulcer were not observed in all groups at 3 months postoperatively while all corneas with Biocornea were clear at both 3 months and 6 months postoperatively. The interface of Biocornea and stromal tissue were filled successfully and without observable immune cells at postoperative day 180. Moreover, the Biocornea was not dissolved and degenerated but remained transparent and showed no apparent fragmentation. Our study demonstrated that the Biocornea derived from fish scale as a good substitute had high biocompatibility and support function after a long-term evaluation. This revealed that the new approach of using Biocornea may yield an ideal artificial cornea substitute for long-term inlay placement. PMID:25089206

  15. Prognostic utility of routine chimerism testing at 2 to 6 months after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mossallam, Ghada I; Kamel, Azza M; Storer, Barry; Martin, Paul J

    2009-03-01

    The utility of routine chimerism analysis as a prognostic indicator of subsequent outcomes after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) with myeloablative conditioning regimens remains controversial. To address this controversy, routine chimerism test results at 2 to 6 months after HCT with myeloablative conditioning regimens were evaluated for association with subsequent risk of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), nonrelapse mortality (NRM), relapse, and overall mortality. Only 70 of 1304 patients (5%) had < 95% donor-derived cells in the marrow. Low donor chimerism in the marrow occurred more often in patients with low-risk diseases compared with those with higher-risk diseases and was significantly associated with a reduced risk of chronic GVHD. Among 673 patients evaluated, 164 (24%) had < 85% donor-derived T cells in the blood. Low donor T cell chimerism was more frequent in patients with low-risk diseases compared with those with higher-risk diseases, in those who received conditioning with busulfan compared with those who received conditioning with total body irradiation, and in those with lower-grade acute GVHD. Low donor T cell chimerism in the blood was significantly associated with a reduced risk of chronic GVHD but not with a reduced risk of relapse, NRM, or overall mortality. Routine testing of chimerism in the marrow and blood at 2 to 6 months after HCT with myeloablative conditioning regimens may be helpful in documenting engraftment in clinical trials, but provides only limited prognostic information in clinical practice.

  16. Optimizing parent-infant sleep from birth to 6 months: a new paradigm.

    PubMed

    Whittingham, Koa; Douglas, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the dominant paradigm for infant sleep from birth to 6 months is behavioral sleep interventions that aim to entrain the infant's biological patterns of sleep using techniques such as delayed response to cues, feed-play-sleep routines, sleep algorithms, and education of parents about "tired cues" and "overstimulation." A recent systematic literature review has identified that while behavioral sleep interventions may modestly increase the length of time an infant sleeps at night without signaling, they are not associated with improved infant or maternal outcomes and may have unintended negative consequences (Douglas & Hill, 2013). This article reviews the empirical literature on behavioral infant sleep interventions, sleep regulation, and sleep disturbance. Based on the available scientific literature, a new paradigm for infant sleep intervention, from birth to 6 months of age, is proposed. This new approach, the Possums Sleep Intervention, integrates interdisciplinary knowledge from developmental psychology, medical science, lactation science, evolutionary science, and neuroscience with third-wave contextual behaviorism, acceptance and commitment therapy, to create a unique, new intervention that supports parental flexibility, cued care, and the establishment of healthy biopsychosocial rhythms. PMID:25798510

  17. Origins of a stereotype: categorization of facial attractiveness by 6-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Jennifer L; Langlois, Judith H; Hoss, Rebecca A; Rubenstein, Adam J; Griffin, Angela M

    2004-04-01

    Like adults, young infants prefer attractive to unattractive faces (e.g. Langlois, Roggman, Casey, Ritter, Rieser-Danner & Jenkins, 1987; Slater, von der Schulenburg, Brown, Badenoch, Butterworth, Parsons & Samuels, 1998). Older children and adults stereotype based on facial attractiveness (Eagly, Ashmore, Makhijani & Longo, 1991; Langlois, Kalakanis, Rubenstein, Larson, Hallam & Smooth, 2000). How do preferences for attractive faces develop into stereotypes? Several theories of stereotyping posit that categorization of groups is necessary before positive and negative traits can become linked to the groups (e.g. Taifel, Billig, Bundy & Flament, 1971; Zebrowitz-McArthur, 1982). We investigated whether or not 6-month-old infants can categorize faces as attractive or unattractive. In Experiment 1, we familiarized infants to unattractive female faces; in Experiment 2, we familiarized infants to attractive female faces and tested both groups of infants on novel faces from the familiar or novel attractiveness category. Results showed that 6-month-olds categorized attractive and unattractive female faces into two different groups of faces. Experiments 3 and 4 confirmed that infants could discriminate among the faces used in Experiments 1 and 2, and therefore categorized the faces based on their similarities in attractiveness rather than because they could not differentiate among the faces. These findings suggest that categorization of facial attractiveness may underlie the development of the 'beauty is good' stereotype. PMID:15320380

  18. Origins of a stereotype: categorization of facial attractiveness by 6-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Jennifer L; Langlois, Judith H; Hoss, Rebecca A; Rubenstein, Adam J; Griffin, Angela M

    2004-04-01

    Like adults, young infants prefer attractive to unattractive faces (e.g. Langlois, Roggman, Casey, Ritter, Rieser-Danner & Jenkins, 1987; Slater, von der Schulenburg, Brown, Badenoch, Butterworth, Parsons & Samuels, 1998). Older children and adults stereotype based on facial attractiveness (Eagly, Ashmore, Makhijani & Longo, 1991; Langlois, Kalakanis, Rubenstein, Larson, Hallam & Smooth, 2000). How do preferences for attractive faces develop into stereotypes? Several theories of stereotyping posit that categorization of groups is necessary before positive and negative traits can become linked to the groups (e.g. Taifel, Billig, Bundy & Flament, 1971; Zebrowitz-McArthur, 1982). We investigated whether or not 6-month-old infants can categorize faces as attractive or unattractive. In Experiment 1, we familiarized infants to unattractive female faces; in Experiment 2, we familiarized infants to attractive female faces and tested both groups of infants on novel faces from the familiar or novel attractiveness category. Results showed that 6-month-olds categorized attractive and unattractive female faces into two different groups of faces. Experiments 3 and 4 confirmed that infants could discriminate among the faces used in Experiments 1 and 2, and therefore categorized the faces based on their similarities in attractiveness rather than because they could not differentiate among the faces. These findings suggest that categorization of facial attractiveness may underlie the development of the 'beauty is good' stereotype.

  19. A Pilot Prospective Randomized Control Trial Comparing Exercises Using Videogame Therapy to Standard Physical Therapy: 6 Months Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Parry, Ingrid; Painting, Lynda; Bagley, Anita; Kawada, Jason; Molitor, Fred; Sen, Soman; Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2015-01-01

    Commercially available, interactive videogames that use body movements for interaction are used clinically in burn rehabilitation and have been shown to facilitate functional range of motion (ROM) but their efficacy with burn patients has not yet been proven. The purpose of this pilot randomized control study was to prospectively compare planar and functional ROM, compliance, pain, enjoyment, and exertion in pediatric burn patients receiving two types of rehabilitation therapy. Seventeen school-aged children with 31 affected limbs who demonstrated limited shoulder ROM from burn injury were randomized to receive exercises using either standard therapy ROM activities (ST) or interactive videogame therapy (VGT). Patients received 3 weeks of the designated therapy intervention twice daily. They were then given a corresponding home program of the same type of therapy to perform regularly for 6 months. Standard goniometry and three-dimensional motion analysis during functional tasks were used to assess ROM. Measures were taken at baseline, 3 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. Pain was measured before and after each treatment session during the 3-week intervention. There was no difference in compliance, enjoyment, or exertion between the groups. Patients in both the ST and VGT groups showed significant improvement in shoulder flexion (P < .001), shoulder abduction (P <.001), shoulder external rotation (P = .01), and elbow flexion (P = .004) ROM from baseline to 6 months as measured with goniometry. Subjects also showed significant gains in elbow flexion (P = .04) during hand to head and shoulder flexion (P = .04) during high reach. There was no difference in ROM gains between the groups. Within group comparison showed that the VGT group had significantly more recovery of ROM during the first 3 weeks than any other timeframe in the study, whereas ST had most gains at 3 months. There was a significant difference between the groups in the subjects' pain response. ST subjects

  20. Poorer functionality is related to better quality of life response following the use of biological drugs: 6-month outcomes in a prospective cohort from the Public Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde), Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Junior, Haliton Alves; dos Santos, Jéssica Barreto; Acurcio, Francisco Assis; Almeida, Alessandra Maciel; Kakehasi, Adriana Maria; Alvares, Juliana; de Carvalho, Luis Fernando Duarte; Cherchiglia, Mariangela Leal

    2015-06-01

    We aim to analyze factors associated with the quality of life (QOL) response of individuals with rheumatic diseases treated by the Public Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde) with biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs). Data from 428 patients using bDMARDs were collected using a standardized form at baseline and 6 months after the onset of treatment. The average reduction of the scores on EuroQol-five dimension was 0.11 ± 0.18 6 months after the onset of treatment with bDMARDs, denoting significant improvement of the participants' QOL. All the investigated types of disease exhibited significant improvement at the 6-month assessment, without any difference among them (p = 0.965). The participants with baseline poorest functionality and best QOL exhibited the best QOL outcomes after 6 months of treatment. Our study showed that the use of biological drugs induced considerable improvement in the participants' QOL.

  1. Immunosuppressive therapy of cyclosporin A for severe benzene-induced haematopoietic disorders and a 6-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Song, Yuguo; Du, Xuqin; Hao, Fentong; Gu, Xiaoxin; Zhang, Zhenghua; Zhang, Songquan; Li, Chunsheng; Li, Huiling; Ma, Jing

    2010-06-01

    Long-term exposure to benzene can potentially result in severe haematotoxicities, including pancytopaenia, aplastic anaemia and myelodysplastic syndrome, which are often accompanied by life-threatening symptoms and high mortality. Previous studies demonstrate that benzene-induced haematotoxicities are immune-mediated and that cyclosporin A is a prominent treatment in acquired aplastic anaemia. This study aims to evaluate the potential role of cyclosporin A immunosuppressive therapy for severe benzene-induced haematotoxicity. Between January 2002 and December 2008, 41 patients with severe benzene-induced haematopoietic disorders from five hospitals were enrolled in the study, 22 patients received cyclosporin A, supportive treatments and/or oral testosterone undecanoate, 19 patients were treated with supportive treatments and/or oral testosterone undecanoate as the control group, and a 6-month follow-up was conducted. The results showed that in the cyclosporin A group, 19 of 22 patients (86.36%) had responded to the treatments completely or partially with increased platelets, white blood cells and hemoglobulin counts by the fourth week (P=0.005), the sixth week (P=0.001) and the third month post-treatment (P=0.034), respectively. However, in the control group treated by supportive methods, only 5 of 19 patients (26.32%) responded to the treatments partially (P<0.001). Cyclosporin A in conjunction with supportive treatments may be an effective treatment modality for patients with severe benzene-induced haematopoietic disorders, which in turn implies that these haematotoxicities are immune-mediated. PMID:20381478

  2. [TESTING STABILITY OF TABLETED ACETAMINOPHEN AND FUROSEMIDE AFTER 6-MONTH STORAGE IN SPACE FLIGHT].

    PubMed

    Bogomolov, V V; Kondratenko, S N; Kovachevich, I V

    2015-01-01

    It was shown that multiple spaceflight factors (i.e., acceleration, overvibration, microgravity etc.) do not impact stability of acetaminophen and furosemide tablets stored onboard the International space station over 6 months. Acetaminophen dose in a tablet was 496.44 ± 6.88 mg (99.29 ± 1.38%) before spaceflight (SF) and 481.77 ± 1 2.40 mg (96.35 ± 0.48%) after 6 mos. of storage; furosemide dose in a tablet was 40.19 ± 0.28 mg (100.47 ± 0.71%) before and 39.24 ± 0.72 mg (98.105 ± 1.80%) after SF remaining within the established limits.

  3. [Acute enteritis and dietetic errors in the first 6 months of life].

    PubMed

    Cataldo, F; Violante, M; Bellia, L; Traverso, M G; Ruggeri, G; Romano, G

    1989-01-01

    The dietary habits of 174 infants under 6 months old and suffering from enteritis were analysed revealing a high incidence of feeding errors (almost always feeding with artificial formulas, wrong concentration of milk powder, failure to sterilise the bottle and the water used to dilute the milk, too early administration of undiluted, unboiled bottled cow's milk, too early and incorrect weaning). Such mistakes appeared to be linked to the poor economic and sociocultural conditions of the families concerned. It is claimed that dietary errors conditioned by the poor economic and sociocultural conditions encountered may have favoured the onset of enteritis and that the adequate prophylaxis of acute infantile enteritis will depend on improving people's dietary habits and living conditions.

  4. [TESTING STABILITY OF TABLETED ACETAMINOPHEN AND FUROSEMIDE AFTER 6-MONTH STORAGE IN SPACE FLIGHT].

    PubMed

    Bogomolov, V V; Kondratenko, S N; Kovachevich, I V

    2015-01-01

    It was shown that multiple spaceflight factors (i.e., acceleration, overvibration, microgravity etc.) do not impact stability of acetaminophen and furosemide tablets stored onboard the International space station over 6 months. Acetaminophen dose in a tablet was 496.44 ± 6.88 mg (99.29 ± 1.38%) before spaceflight (SF) and 481.77 ± 1 2.40 mg (96.35 ± 0.48%) after 6 mos. of storage; furosemide dose in a tablet was 40.19 ± 0.28 mg (100.47 ± 0.71%) before and 39.24 ± 0.72 mg (98.105 ± 1.80%) after SF remaining within the established limits. PMID:26087581

  5. Investigating fatigue of less than 6 months' duration. Guidelines for family physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Godwin, M.; Delva, D.; Miller, K.; Molson, J.; Hobbs, N.; MacDonald, S.; MacLeod, C.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop an evidence-based systematic approach to assessment of adult patients who present to family physicians complaining of fatigue of less than 6 months' duration. The guidelines present investigative options, making explicit what should be considered in all cases and what should be considered only in specific situations. They aim to provide physicians with an approach that, to the extent possible, is based on evidence so that time and cost are minimized and detection and management of the cause of the fatigue are optimized. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: MEDLINE was searched from 1966 to 1997 using the key words "family practice" and "fatigue." Articles about chronic fatigue syndrome were excluded. Articles with level 3 evidence were found, but no randomized trials, cohort studies, or case-control studies were found. Articles looking specifically at the epidemiology, demographics, investigations, and diagnoses of patients with fatigue were chosen. Articles based on studies at referral and specialty centres were given less weight than those based on studies in family physicians' offices. MAIN MESSAGE: Adherence to these guidelines will decrease the cost of investigating the symptom of fatigue and optimize diagnosis and management. This needs to be proved in practice, however, and with research that produces level 1 and 2 evidence. CONCLUSIONS: Adults presenting with fatigue of less than 6 months' duration should be assessed for psychosocial causes and should have a focused history and physical examination to determine whether further investigations should be done. The guidelines outline investigations to be considered. The elderly require special consideration. These guidelines have group validation, but they need to be tested by more physicians in various locations and types of practices. PMID:10065311

  6. Integrating Vitamin A Supplementation at 6 months into the Expanded Program of Immunization in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Mary H; Sesay, Fatmata F; Kamara, Habib I; Nyorkor, Emmanuel D; Bah, Mariama; Koroma, Aminata S; Kandeh, Joseph N; Ouédraogo, Rasmata; Wolfe, Adam C; Katcher, Heather I; Blankenship, Jessica L; Baker, Shawn K

    2015-09-01

    Since 2004, twice-yearly mass vitamin A supplementation (VAS) has equitably reached over 85% of children 6-59 months old in Sierra Leone. However infants who turn 6 months after the event may wait until they are 11 months old to receive their first dose. The effectiveness of integrating VAS at 6 months into the Expanded Program of Immunization (EPI) in a revised child health card was studied. Health facilities matched according to staff cadre and work load were assigned to provide either a 'mini package' of VAS and infant and young child feeding (IYCF), a 'full package' of VAS, IYCF and family planning (FP), or 'child health card' only. 400 neonates were enrolled into each group, caregivers given the new child health card and followed until they were 12 months old. More infants in the full: 74.5% and mini: 71.7% group received VAS between 6 and 7 months of age compared with the new CH card only group: 60.2% (p = 0.002, p < 0.001 respectively). FP commodities were provided to 44.5% of caregivers in the full compared with <2.5% in the mini and new child health card only groups (p < 0.0001). Integration of VAS within the EPI schedule achieved >60% coverage for infants between 6 and 7 months of age. Provision of FP and/or IYCF further improved coverage. Funding was provided by the Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development who had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript.

  7. A Prognostic Model for 6-Month Mortality in Elderly Survivors of Critical Illness

    PubMed Central

    Narain, Wazim R.; Wunsch, Hannah; Schluger, Neil W.; Cooke, Joseph T.; Maurer, Mathew S.; Rowe, John W.; Lederer, David J.; Bach, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although 1.4 million elderly Americans survive hospitalization involving intensive care annually, many are at risk for early mortality following discharge. No models that predict the likelihood of death after discharge exist explicitly for this population. Therefore, we derived and externally validated a 6-month postdischarge mortality prediction model for elderly ICU survivors. Methods: We derived the model from medical record and claims data for 1,526 consecutive patients aged ≥ 65 years who had their first medical ICU admission in 2006 to 2009 at a tertiary-care hospital and survived to discharge (excluding those patients discharged to hospice). We then validated the model in 1,010 patients from a different tertiary-care hospital. Results: Six-month mortality was 27.3% and 30.2% in the derivation and validation cohorts, respectively. Independent predictors of mortality (in descending order of contribution to the model’s predictive power) were a do-not-resuscitate order, older age, burden of comorbidity, admission from or discharge to a skilled-care facility, hospital length of stay, principal diagnoses of sepsis and hematologic malignancy, and male sex. For the derivation and external validation cohorts, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.80 (SE, 0.01) and 0.71 (SE, 0.02), respectively, with good calibration for both (P = 0.31 and 0.43). Conclusions: Clinical variables available at hospital discharge can help predict 6-month mortality for elderly ICU survivors. Variables that capture elements of frailty, disability, the burden of comorbidity, and patient preferences regarding resuscitation during the hospitalization contribute most to this model’s predictive power. The model could aid providers in counseling elderly ICU survivors at high risk of death and their families. PMID:23632902

  8. Integrating Vitamin A Supplementation at 6 months into the Expanded Program of Immunization in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Mary H; Sesay, Fatmata F; Kamara, Habib I; Nyorkor, Emmanuel D; Bah, Mariama; Koroma, Aminata S; Kandeh, Joseph N; Ouédraogo, Rasmata; Wolfe, Adam C; Katcher, Heather I; Blankenship, Jessica L; Baker, Shawn K

    2015-09-01

    Since 2004, twice-yearly mass vitamin A supplementation (VAS) has equitably reached over 85% of children 6-59 months old in Sierra Leone. However infants who turn 6 months after the event may wait until they are 11 months old to receive their first dose. The effectiveness of integrating VAS at 6 months into the Expanded Program of Immunization (EPI) in a revised child health card was studied. Health facilities matched according to staff cadre and work load were assigned to provide either a 'mini package' of VAS and infant and young child feeding (IYCF), a 'full package' of VAS, IYCF and family planning (FP), or 'child health card' only. 400 neonates were enrolled into each group, caregivers given the new child health card and followed until they were 12 months old. More infants in the full: 74.5% and mini: 71.7% group received VAS between 6 and 7 months of age compared with the new CH card only group: 60.2% (p = 0.002, p < 0.001 respectively). FP commodities were provided to 44.5% of caregivers in the full compared with <2.5% in the mini and new child health card only groups (p < 0.0001). Integration of VAS within the EPI schedule achieved >60% coverage for infants between 6 and 7 months of age. Provision of FP and/or IYCF further improved coverage. Funding was provided by the Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development who had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript. PMID:25665894

  9. Virtual Reality Job Interview Training and 6-Month Employment Outcomes for Individuals with Schizophrenia Seeking Employment

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Matthew J.; Fleming, Michael F.; Wright, Michael A.; Roberts, Andrea G.; Humm, Laura Boteler; Olsen, Dale; Bell, Morris D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Individuals with schizophrenia have low employment rates and the job interview presents a critical barrier for them to obtain employment. Virtual reality training has demonstrated efficacy at improving interview skills and employment outcomes among multiple clinical populations. However, the effects of this training on individuals with schizophrenia are unknown. This study evaluated the efficacy of virtual reality job interview training (VR-JIT) at improving job interview skills and employment outcomes among individuals with schizophrenia in a small randomized controlled trial (n=21 VR-JIT trainees, n=11 waitlist controls). METHODS Trainees completed up to 10 hours of virtual interviews using VR-JIT, while controls received services as usual. Primary outcome measures included two pre-test and two post-test video-recorded role-play interviews scored by blinded human resource experts and self-reported interviewing self-confidence. Six-month follow-up data on employment outcomes were collected. RESULTS Trainees reported the intervention was easy-to-use, helpful, and prepared them for future interviews. Trainees demonstrated increased role-play scores between pre-test and post-test while controls did not (p=0.001). After accounting for neurocognition and months since prior employment, trainees had greater odds of receiving a job offer by 6 month follow-up compared to controls (OR: 8.73, p=0.04) and more training was associated with fewer weeks until receiving a job offer (r=−0.63, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS Results suggest VR-JIT is acceptable to trainees and may be efficacious for improving job interview skills in individuals with schizophrenia. Moreover, trainees had greater odds of receiving a job offer by 6-month follow-up. Future studies could evaluate the effectiveness of VR-JIT within community-based services. PMID:26032567

  10. Effectiveness of group acceptance and commitment therapy for fibromyalgia: a 6-month randomized controlled trial (EFFIGACT study).

    PubMed

    Luciano, Juan V; Guallar, José A; Aguado, Jaume; López-Del-Hoyo, Yolanda; Olivan, Bárbara; Magallón, Rosa; Alda, Marta; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Gili, Margalida; Garcia-Campayo, Javier

    2014-04-01

    In the last decade, there has been burgeoning interest in the effectiveness of third-generation psychological therapies for managing fibromyalgia (FM) symptoms. The present study examined the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) on functional status as well as the role of pain acceptance as a mediator of treatment outcomes in FM patients. A total of 156 patients with FM were enrolled at primary health care centers in Zaragoza, Spain. The patients were randomly assigned to a group-based form of ACT (GACT), recommended pharmacological treatment (RPT; pregabalin + duloxetine), or wait list (WL). The primary end point was functional status (measured with the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, FIQ). Secondary end points included pain catastrophizing, pain acceptance, pain, anxiety, depression, and health-related quality of life. The differences between groups were calculated by linear mixed-effects (intention-to-treat approach) and mediational models through path analyses. Overall, GACT was statistically superior to both RPT and WL immediately after treatment, and improvements were maintained at 6months with medium effect sizes in most cases. Immediately after treatment, the number needed to treat for 20% improvement compared to RPT was 2 (95% confidence interval 1.2-2.0), for 50% improvement 46, and for achieving a status of no worse than mild impaired function (FIQ total score <39) also 46. Unexpectedly, 4 of the 5 tested path analyses did not show a mediation effect. Changes in pain acceptance only mediated the relationship between study condition and health-related quality of life. These findings are discussed in relation to previous psychological research on FM treatment.

  11. Benefits of Diabetes Self-Management for Health Plan Members: A 6-Month Translation Study

    PubMed Central

    Lorig, Kate; Turner, Ralph M; English, Kathleen; Laurent, Diana D; Greenberg, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes self-management education has been shown to be effective in controlled trials. However, few programs that meet American Association of Diabetes Educators standards have been translated into widespread practice. Objective This study examined the translation of the evidence-based Better Choices, Better Health-Diabetes program in both Internet and face-to-face versions. Methods We administered the Internet program nationally in the United States (n=1010). We conducted face-to-face workshops in Atlanta, Georgia; Indianapolis, Indiana; and St. Louis, Missouri (n=232). Self-report questionnaires collected health indicator, health behavior, and health care utilization measures. Questionnaires were administered on the Web or by mail. We determined hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) from blood samples collected via mailed kits. Paired t tests determined whether changes between baseline and 6 months differed significantly from no change. Subgroup analyses determined whether participants with specific conditions benefited (high HbA1c, depression, hypoglycemia, nonadherence to medication taking, and no aerobic exercise). We calculated the percentage of participants with improvements of at least 0.4 effect size in at least one of the 5 above measures. Results Of the 1242 participants, 884 provided 6-month follow-up questionnaires. There were statistically significant improvements in 6 of 7 health indicators (including HbA1c) and in 7 of 7 behaviors. For each of the 5 conditions, there were significant improvements among those with the condition (effect sizes 0.59–1.1). A total of 662 (75.0%) of study participants improved at least 0.4 effect size in at least one criterion, and 327 (37.1%) improved in 2 or more. Conclusions The Diabetes Self-Management Program, offered in two modes, was successfully disseminated to a heterogeneous national population of members of either insured or administered health plans. Participants had small but significant benefits in multiple

  12. [Infant nutrition in Switzerland 1978. A prospective study on the nutritional habits during the first 6 months of life. I. Natural nutrition: breast feeding].

    PubMed

    Tönz, O; Schwaninger, U; Holzherr, E; Schafroth, M

    1980-06-14

    With the help of 55 nurses counseling young mothers in northern, central and eastern Switzerland the feeding habits of 371 infants born in March and April 1978 were studied during the first 6 months of life. Infants who were still breastfed at the end of the observation period were monitored for another 6 months. 92% of all infants were breastfed during the puerperium (62% receiving exclusively mother's milk). At the end of the second month some 60% of the infants were breast-fed (40% exclusively). At the end of the fourth month the numbers were 30% (15%) and after 6 months 18% (2%). The "mean corrected nursing period" was 10.25 weeks. The length of this period showed a direct correlation with the socioeconomic class of the family and especially with the educational status of the mother. A small difference in duration of the nursing period between male and female infants was not statistically significant, although during childbed there was a significant difference in favour of boys. There appeared to be a relationship between duration of nursing and age, parity and bodyweight of the mother. There were marked differences in frequency and duration of breast-feeding according to whether rooming-in was practiced during childbed or not. At the end of the first half year of life babies with a long nursing period had a significantly lower body weight than those with partial or no breastfeeding. A much smaller difference in body length resulted in a lower and probably more favourable weight/length ratio. There was no difference in head circumference. As compared with other industralized European countries, the authors regard current nursing habits in Switzerland as satisfactory.

  13. Chronic Uterine Inversion Presenting as a Painless Vaginal Mass at 6 Months Post Partum: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ali, Eram; Kumar, Manisha

    2016-05-01

    Uterine inversion is an abnormal protrusion of internal surface of relaxed uterus through the vaginal orifice. Its causes can be broadly classified as puerperal and non-puerperal with puerperal uterine inversion more common than non-puerperal uterine inversion. Acute inversions occurring immediately, or within 24 hours post-partum are the most common type. Chronic Uterine Inversions (CUI) occurring more than four weeks after the delivery are rare identities. There differential diagnosis includes prolapsed fibroids and endometrial polyp. Chronic nature of these inversions makes the restoration of the normal position of the uterus per vaginal difficult contrary to acute inversions which can be reposited more easily. We hereby present a case of 28-year-old lady who presented with a painless vaginal mass at 6 months post-partum. She was diagnosed as a case of CUI based on clinical and sonographic examination. Inverted uterus was successfully restored through per abdominal approach. The presentation of CUI as a painless vaginal mass at delayed post-partum period is rare and therefore reported. PMID:27437313

  14. Chronic Uterine Inversion Presenting as a Painless Vaginal Mass at 6 Months Post Partum: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Manisha

    2016-01-01

    Uterine inversion is an abnormal protrusion of internal surface of relaxed uterus through the vaginal orifice. Its causes can be broadly classified as puerperal and non-puerperal with puerperal uterine inversion more common than non-puerperal uterine inversion. Acute inversions occurring immediately, or within 24 hours post-partum are the most common type. Chronic Uterine Inversions (CUI) occurring more than four weeks after the delivery are rare identities. There differential diagnosis includes prolapsed fibroids and endometrial polyp. Chronic nature of these inversions makes the restoration of the normal position of the uterus per vaginal difficult contrary to acute inversions which can be reposited more easily. We hereby present a case of 28-year-old lady who presented with a painless vaginal mass at 6 months post-partum. She was diagnosed as a case of CUI based on clinical and sonographic examination. Inverted uterus was successfully restored through per abdominal approach. The presentation of CUI as a painless vaginal mass at delayed post-partum period is rare and therefore reported. PMID:27437313

  15. Predominance and persistence of a single clone of Listeria ivanovii in a Manchego cheese factory over 6 months.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Villanueva, J; Orgaz, B; Ortiz, S; López, V; Martínez-Suárez, J V; SanJose, C

    2010-09-01

    In an attempt to study the diversity and persistence of molecular subtypes of pathogenic Listeria spp. in a cheese factory at the La Mancha region of Spain, 43 samples were taken from incoming raw milk (cow's, ewe's, goat's and mixed species) and from certain food-contact and environmental surfaces before and/or after sanitation. Of these samples, 12 contained pathogenic Listeria. From the chromogenic agar plates corresponding to those, 46 phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C-positive isolates were randomly taken for further analysis, including biochemical tests and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). They coincided in identifying all the 46 as Listeria ivanovii subsp. ivanovii, apparently a single PFGE type. Both ewe's and goat's raw milk batches from asymptomatic animals tested along the 6-month period persistently carried the same strain, which was also obtained from inner surfaces of raw milk truck tanks and the milk dump tank at the cheese factory. Biofilm-forming abilities of this L. ivanovii clone and interference against L. monocytogenes Scott A reference strain were tested, but failed to account for the clone's apparent pervasive presence. PMID:19486491

  16. [The effects of rape 6 months after the attack and factors associated with recovery].

    PubMed

    Streit-Forest, U; Goulet, M

    1987-02-01

    In this study a group of 27 victims seen approximately 6 months after the assault was compared to a matched control group. The results show significantly higher scores on two subscales of IPAT ("ego weakness" and "disposition to guilt") and on 4 scales of the MMPI ("denial", "hypochondriasis", "depression" and "conversion hysteria"); also, the victims' social adjustment seems inferior and the frequency of sexual relations has been reduced considerably for them. The following factors have been evaluated in order to test their relation to the adjustment to the assault: rape by a stranger versus someone known, degree of violence, feelings of self-blame, problems during the crisis, predominant thoughts, professional help, social support, stable relationship, allusion to victim's responsibility for rape and conviction or not of the aggressor. Even though most of these variables show a significant simple correlation with adjustment to rape only four among them remain significantly associated when sociodemographic variables, pre-rape psycho-social problems and life stressors are controlled; the very subjective variable "predominant thoughts" seems to best explain differences in adjustment. The importance of pre-assault variables and of the subjective reaction to rape is discussed.

  17. Object engagement and manipulation in extremely preterm and full term infants at 6 months of age.

    PubMed

    Zuccarini, Mariagrazia; Sansavini, Alessandra; Iverson, Jana M; Savini, Silvia; Guarini, Annalisa; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo; Aureli, Tiziana

    2016-08-01

    Delays in the motor domain have been frequently observed in preterm children, especially those born at an extremely low gestational age (ELGA;<28 weeks GA). However, early motor exploration has received relatively little attention despite its relevance for object knowledge and its impact on cognitive and language development. The present study aimed at comparing early object exploration in 20 ELGA and 20 full-term (FT) infants at 6 months of age during a 5-minute mother-infant play interaction. Object engagement (visual vs manual), visual object engagement (no act vs reach), manual object engagement (passive vs active), and active object manipulation (mouthing, transferring, banging, turn/rotating, shaking, fingering) were analyzed. Moreover, the Griffiths Mental Development Scales 0-2 years (1996) were administered to the infants. Relative to FT peers, ELGA infants spent more time in visual engagement, and less time in manual engagement, active manipulation, mouthing, and turning/rotating. Moreover, they had lower scores on general psychomotor development, eye & hand coordination, and performance abilities. Close relationships emerged between manual object engagement and psychomotor development. Clinical implications of these results in terms of early evaluation of action schemes in ELGA infants and the provision of intervention programs for supporting these abilities are discussed.

  18. Individual experiences following a 6-month exercise intervention: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Kerkelä, Ellen Staveborg; Jonsson, Linus; Lindwall, Magnus; Strand, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Dropout is a common problem in various exercise interventions. The individual's experience is believed to greatly impact dropout, yet little is known about the individual experiences of taking part in exercise interventions. The aim of this study was to examine individuals’ experiences following a self-determination theory–based exercise intervention in order to gain understanding of how standardized interventions can be adjusted to fit individuals’ specific needs, capacities, and circumstances. Methods A qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews was conducted with eight informants (three male and five female) aged between 26 and 47 years, whom all had participated in a 6-month exercise intervention with individual coaching based on self-determination theory and motivational interviewing. The interviews were analyzed thematically with an inductive approach. Results Aspects that influenced the informants’ motivation and participation in the exercise intervention were linked to three themes: the frames of the intervention, measurable changes, and the individual's context. The themes present information about the process and to what extent the informants felt that the intervention was adapted to fit their lives and needs. Conclusions This study emphasizes the importance of individualizing exercise interventions to support individuals’ diverse capacities and psychological needs. PMID:26282865

  19. Femoral Arteriovenous Fistula Associated With Leg Swelling 6 Months After Removal of a Hemodialysis Catheter

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Lie; Wang, Jian; Wu, Chuifen; shao, Chuxiao; Yu, Xueping; Lei, Wenhui

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Double-lumen catheters have been used widely to obtain temporary access in patients who are in need of acute hemodialysis (HD) because of acute renal failure. Several complications are associated with the insertion of these catheters, including bleeding, infection, injuries to arteries, and deep venous thrombosis. An arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is a rare but significant complication following catheterization for temporary HD. Herein, we present a case of AVF associated with leg swelling 6 months after the removal of a double-lumen HD catheter. We describe a special case of a 42-year-old man who experienced acute renal failure secondary to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). A 12-Fr dialysis catheter was inserted in the right femoral vein. Six months after catheter removal, the patient was admitted for pain and swelling in the right leg. Color Doppler ultrasound and three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) revealed an AVF between the right femoral vein and the right femoral superficial artery. The fistula was repaired successfully by vascular surgeons. This case highlights that an AVF is a rare but significant complication after catheterization for temporary HD. The nephrologist should be wary of the potential of this complication and perform clinical and medical examinations at the insertion and removal of temporary HD catheters. PMID:26448032

  20. Periodization

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Walker, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Clinicians are constantly faced with the challenge of designing training programs for injured and noninjured athletes that maximize healing and optimize performance. Periodization is a concept of systematic progression—that is, resistance training programs that follow predictable patterns of change in training variables. The strength training literature is abundant with studies comparing periodization schemes on uninjured, trained, and untrained athletes. The rehabilitation literature, however, is scarce with information about how to optimally design resistance training programs based on periodization principles for injured athletes. The purpose of this review is to discuss relevant training variables and methods of periodization, as well as periodization program outcomes. A secondary purpose is to provide an anecdotal framework regarding implementation of periodization principles into rehabilitation programs. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from 1979 to 2009 was implemented with the keywords periodization, strength training, rehabilitation, endurance, power, hypertrophy, and resistance training with the Boolean term AND in all possible combinations in the English language. Each author also undertook independent hand searching of article references used in this review. Results: Based on the studies researched, periodized strength training regimens demonstrate improved outcomes as compared to nonperiodized programs. Conclusions: Despite the evidence in the strength training literature supporting periodization programs, there is a considerable lack of data in the rehabilitation literature about program design and successful implementation of periodization into rehabilitation programs. PMID:23015982

  1. Greater weight loss and hormonal changes after 6 months diet with carbohydrates eaten mostly at dinner.

    PubMed

    Sofer, Sigal; Eliraz, Abraham; Kaplan, Sara; Voet, Hillary; Fink, Gershon; Kima, Tzadok; Madar, Zecharia

    2011-10-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of a low-calorie diet with carbohydrates eaten mostly at dinner on anthropometric, hunger/satiety, biochemical, and inflammatory parameters. Hormonal secretions were also evaluated. Seventy-eight police officers (BMI >30) were randomly assigned to experimental (carbohydrates eaten mostly at dinner) or control weight loss diets for 6 months. On day 0, 7, 90, and 180 blood samples and hunger scores were collected every 4 h from 0800 to 2000 hours. Anthropometric measurements were collected throughout the study. Greater weight loss, abdominal circumference, and body fat mass reductions were observed in the experimental diet in comparison to controls. Hunger scores were lower and greater improvements in fasting glucose, average daily insulin concentrations, and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)), T-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were observed in comparison to controls. The experimental diet modified daily leptin and adiponectin concentrations compared to those observed at baseline and to a control diet. A simple dietary manipulation of carbohydrate distribution appears to have additional benefits when compared to a conventional weight loss diet in individuals suffering from obesity. It might also be beneficial for individuals suffering from insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. Further research is required to confirm and clarify the mechanisms by which this relatively simple diet approach enhances satiety, leads to better anthropometric outcomes, and achieves improved metabolic response, compared to a more conventional dietary approach.

  2. Systemic immunotoxicity in AJ mice following 6-month whole body inhalation exposure to diesel exhaust.

    PubMed

    Burchiel, Scott W; Lauer, Fredine T; McDonald, Jacob D; Reed, Matthew D

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of these studies was to determine the effects of subchronic diesel exposure on indicators of systemic immunity in mice. AJ mice were exposed daily for 6 months (6 h/day) to atmospheres containing one of four concentrations (30, 100, 300, and 1000 microg/m(3)) of diluted diesel exhaust (DE) in whole body exposure chambers. The effects of DE were compared to chamber exposure controls receiving fresh air. DE was assessed for effects on systemic immunity by measuring the proliferative response of spleen cells following stimulation with T cell (phytohemagglutinin, or PHA) or B cell (lipopolysaccharide, or LPS) mitogens. The results showed that DE at all exposure levels suppressed the proliferative response of T cells. B cell proliferation was increased at 30 microg/m(3) and was unaffected at the 100, 300, and 1000 microg/m(3) exposures. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known to suppress spleen cell mitogenic responses, and it has been hypothesized by several groups that PAHs and perhaps benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)-quinones (BPQs) may be responsible for the effects of DE or diesel exhaust particles (DEP). Therefore, a second purpose of these studies was to determine the effects of in vitro BPQs on AJ mouse spleen cell mitogenic responses and compare to DE in preliminary studies. Unlike DE, BPQs were found to increase T cell proliferation. In addition, analysis of chamber atmospheres showed that there was little if any PAH and BPQs in DE. Therefore, these results demonstrate that because of the absence of BPQs in DE, they are likely not responsible for the immunosuppressive effect of DE on murine spleen cell responses.

  3. Antimicrobial comparison on effectiveness of endodontic therapy and endodontic therapy combined with photo-disinfection on patients with periapical lesion: a 6 month follow-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcez, Aguinaldo S.; Núñez, Silvia C.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Ribeiro, Martha S.

    2008-03-01

    This study compares the antimicrobial effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) combined to endodontic treatment with conventional endodontic treatment alone in patients with necrotic pulp and has a 6-month radiographic follow up comparing the healing of periapical lesions. Fifteen patients with periapical lesion and requiring root canal treatment were selected. Microbiological samples were taken after accessing the root canal, conventional manual endodontic therapy (group 1 n=5) and after accessing the canal, endodontic therapy and PDT (group 2 n=10). All the root canals were filled with a calcium hydroxide paste for 1 week. Radiographs were taken after obturation and following 6 months. Endodontic therapy alone presented an 87% reduction in microorganisms while the combination with PDT had a 95% reduction. Radiographic follow up showed 32% higher reduction in the lesion area in PDT group. Results suggest that the use of PDT added to conventional endodontic treatment leads to a further major reduction of microbial load. PDT is an efficient alternative to chemical antimicrobial agents. It is a non-cumulative local treatment, which may be an appropriate approach for the treatment of infections in the oral cavity.

  4. Comparison of Physical Examination and Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography 4-6 Months After Radiotherapy to Assess Residual Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Zundel, M. Tracy; Michel, Michelle A.; Schultz, Christopher J.; Maheshwari, Mohit; Wong, Stuart J.; Campbell, Bruce H.; Massey, Becky L.; Blumin, Joel; Wilson, J. Frank; Wang, Dian

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively compare fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and physical examination 4-6 months after radiotherapy for assessing residual head-and-neck cancer (HNC). Methods and Materials: From July 2002 through March 2006, 52 HNC patients underwent definitive radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Categoric assessments of residual tumor by PET/CT and physical examination 4-6 months after therapy were correlated and compared with clinical outcomes. Pretreatment data, including tumor stage and primary site standardized uptake value, were also gathered retrospectively and correlated with clinical outcomes. Median follow-up time was 58 months. Results: Twenty-one patients had either locoregionally 'positive' (17 of 21) or 'equivocal' (4 of 21) PET/CT scans, whereas 31 patients had locoregionally negative scans. Four patients failed treatment and had biopsy-confirmed residual or recurrent local disease. All patients, including patients with locally suspicious scans or examinations who refused biopsies, were followed clinically for a minimum of 29 months after therapy, with no other cases of treatment failure detected during this time. No patient had residual nodal disease after therapy. Sensitivities of PET/CT vs. physical examination for early detection of treatment failure were 100% vs. 50%, whereas the specificities of the two modalities were 64.6% vs. 89.6%, respectively. Higher initial T stage and American Joint Commission on Cancer stage correlated with increased incidence of positive/equivocal PET/CT results and treatment failure. Maximal standardized uptake value was not predictive of any clinical outcome. Conclusions: A negative result on PET/CT obtained 4-6 months after radiotherapy is highly sensitive and correlates with successful locoregional control. Patients with negative scans may reasonably be spared invasive diagnostic procedures, such as biopsy and neck dissection, unless recurrent disease is suspected

  5. Maternal fatty acid desaturase genotype correlates with infant immune responses at 6 months.

    PubMed

    Muc, Magdalena; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Larsen, Jeppe M; Birch, Sune; Brix, Susanne; Bisgaard, Hans; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2015-09-28

    Breast milk long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) have been associated with changes in early life immune responses and may modulate T-cell function in infancy. We studied the effect of maternal fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genotype and breast milk LCPUFA levels on infants' blood T-cell profiles and ex vivo-produced cytokines after anti-CD3/CD28 stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in 6-month-old infants from the Copenhagen Prospective Study of Asthma in Childhood birth cohort. LCPUFA concentrations of breast milk were assessed at 4 weeks of age, and FADS SNP were determined in both mothers and infants (n 109). In general, breast milk arachidonic acid (AA) levels were inversely correlated with the production of IL-10 (r -0.25; P=0.004), IL-17 (r -0.24; P=0.005), IL-5 (r -0.21; P=0.014) and IL-13 (r -0.17; P=0.047), whereas EPA was positively correlated with the counts of blood regulatory T-cells and cytotoxic T-cells and decreased T-helper cell counts. The minor FADS alleles were associated with lower breast milk AA and EPA, and infants of mothers carrying the minor allele of FADS SNP rs174556 had higher production of IL-10 (r -0.23; P=0.018), IL-17 (r -0.25; P=0.009) and IL-5 (r -0.21; P=0.038) from ex vivo-activated immune cells. We observed no association between T-cell distribution and maternal or infant FADS gene variants. We conclude that increased maternal LCPUFA synthesis and breast milk AA are associated with decreased levels of IL-5, IL-13 (type-2 related), IL-17 (type-17 related) and IL-10 (regulatory immune responses), but not with interferon-γ and TNF-α, which could be due to an effect of the maternal FADS variants on the offspring immune response transferred via breast milk LCPUFA. PMID:26283408

  6. Dynamic relation between working memory capacity and speech recognition in noise during the first 6 months of hearing aid use.

    PubMed

    Ng, Elaine H N; Classon, Elisabet; Larsby, Birgitta; Arlinger, Stig; Lunner, Thomas; Rudner, Mary; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the changing relationship between aided speech recognition and cognitive function during the first 6 months of hearing aid use. Twenty-seven first-time hearing aid users with symmetrical mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss were recruited. Aided speech recognition thresholds in noise were obtained in the hearing aid fitting session as well as at 3 and 6 months postfitting. Cognitive abilities were assessed using a reading span test, which is a measure of working memory capacity, and a cognitive test battery. Results showed a significant correlation between reading span and speech reception threshold during the hearing aid fitting session. This relation was significantly weakened over the first 6 months of hearing aid use. Multiple regression analysis showed that reading span was the main predictor of speech recognition thresholds in noise when hearing aids were first fitted, but that the pure-tone average hearing threshold was the main predictor 6 months later. One way of explaining the results is that working memory capacity plays a more important role in speech recognition in noise initially rather than after 6 months of use. We propose that new hearing aid users engage working memory capacity to recognize unfamiliar processed speech signals because the phonological form of these signals cannot be automatically matched to phonological representations in long-term memory. As familiarization proceeds, the mismatch effect is alleviated, and the engagement of working memory capacity is reduced. PMID:25421088

  7. Dynamic relation between working memory capacity and speech recognition in noise during the first 6 months of hearing aid use.

    PubMed

    Ng, Elaine H N; Classon, Elisabet; Larsby, Birgitta; Arlinger, Stig; Lunner, Thomas; Rudner, Mary; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2014-11-23

    The present study aimed to investigate the changing relationship between aided speech recognition and cognitive function during the first 6 months of hearing aid use. Twenty-seven first-time hearing aid users with symmetrical mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss were recruited. Aided speech recognition thresholds in noise were obtained in the hearing aid fitting session as well as at 3 and 6 months postfitting. Cognitive abilities were assessed using a reading span test, which is a measure of working memory capacity, and a cognitive test battery. Results showed a significant correlation between reading span and speech reception threshold during the hearing aid fitting session. This relation was significantly weakened over the first 6 months of hearing aid use. Multiple regression analysis showed that reading span was the main predictor of speech recognition thresholds in noise when hearing aids were first fitted, but that the pure-tone average hearing threshold was the main predictor 6 months later. One way of explaining the results is that working memory capacity plays a more important role in speech recognition in noise initially rather than after 6 months of use. We propose that new hearing aid users engage working memory capacity to recognize unfamiliar processed speech signals because the phonological form of these signals cannot be automatically matched to phonological representations in long-term memory. As familiarization proceeds, the mismatch effect is alleviated, and the engagement of working memory capacity is reduced.

  8. Dynamic Relation Between Working Memory Capacity and Speech Recognition in Noise During the First 6 Months of Hearing Aid Use

    PubMed Central

    Classon, Elisabet; Larsby, Birgitta; Arlinger, Stig; Lunner, Thomas; Rudner, Mary; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the changing relationship between aided speech recognition and cognitive function during the first 6 months of hearing aid use. Twenty-seven first-time hearing aid users with symmetrical mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss were recruited. Aided speech recognition thresholds in noise were obtained in the hearing aid fitting session as well as at 3 and 6 months postfitting. Cognitive abilities were assessed using a reading span test, which is a measure of working memory capacity, and a cognitive test battery. Results showed a significant correlation between reading span and speech reception threshold during the hearing aid fitting session. This relation was significantly weakened over the first 6 months of hearing aid use. Multiple regression analysis showed that reading span was the main predictor of speech recognition thresholds in noise when hearing aids were first fitted, but that the pure-tone average hearing threshold was the main predictor 6 months later. One way of explaining the results is that working memory capacity plays a more important role in speech recognition in noise initially rather than after 6 months of use. We propose that new hearing aid users engage working memory capacity to recognize unfamiliar processed speech signals because the phonological form of these signals cannot be automatically matched to phonological representations in long-term memory. As familiarization proceeds, the mismatch effect is alleviated, and the engagement of working memory capacity is reduced. PMID:25421088

  9. Energy expenditure, nutritional status, body composition and physical fitness of Royal Marines during a 6-month operational deployment in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Fallowfield, Joanne L; Delves, Simon K; Hill, Neil E; Cobley, Rosalyn; Brown, Pieter; Lanham-New, Susan A; Frost, Gary; Brett, Stephen J; Murphy, Kevin G; Montain, Scott J; Nicholson, Christopher; Stacey, Michael; Ardley, Christian; Shaw, Anneliese; Bentley, Conor; Wilson, Duncan R; Allsopp, Adrian J

    2014-09-14

    Understanding the nutritional demands on serving military personnel is critical to inform training schedules and dietary provision. Troops deployed to Afghanistan face austere living and working environments. Observations from the military and those reported in the British and US media indicated possible physical degradation of personnel deployed to Afghanistan. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the changes in body composition and nutritional status of military personnel deployed to Afghanistan and how these were related to physical fitness. In a cohort of British Royal Marines (n 249) deployed to Afghanistan for 6 months, body size and body composition were estimated from body mass, height, girth and skinfold measurements. Energy intake (EI) was estimated from food diaries and energy expenditure measured using the doubly labelled water method in a representative subgroup. Strength and aerobic fitness were assessed. The mean body mass of volunteers decreased over the first half of the deployment ( - 4·6 (sd 3·7) %), predominately reflecting fat loss. Body mass partially recovered (mean +2·2 (sd 2·9) %) between the mid- and post-deployment periods (P< 0·05). Daily EI (mean 10 590 (sd 3339) kJ) was significantly lower than the estimated daily energy expenditure (mean 15 167 (sd 1883) kJ) measured in a subgroup of volunteers. However, despite the body mass loss, aerobic fitness and strength were well maintained. Nutritional provision for British military personnel in Afghanistan appeared sufficient to maintain physical capability and micronutrient status, but providing appropriate nutrition in harsh operational environments must remain a priority.

  10. Effects of growth hormone administration for 6 months on bone turnover and bone marrow fat in obese premenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Bredella, Miriam A.; Gerweck, Anu V.; Barber, Lauren A.; Breggia, Anne; Rosen, Clifford J.; Torriani, Martin; Miller, Karen K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Abdominal adiposity is associated with low BMD and decreased growth hormone (GH) secretion, an important regulator of bone homeostasis. The purpose of our study was to determine the effects of a short course of GH on markers of bone turnover and bone marrow fat in premenopausal women with abdominal adiposity. Materials and Methods In a 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial we studied 79 abdominally obese premenopausal women (21–45y) who underwent daily sc injections of GH vs. placebo. Main outcome measures were body composition by DXA and CT, bone marrow fat by proton MR spectroscopy, P1NP, CTX, 25(OH)D, hsCRP, undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC), preadipocyte factor 1 (Pref 1), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), and IGF-1. Results GH increased IGF-1, P1NP, 25(OH)D, ucOC, bone marrow fat and lean mass, and decreased abdominal fat, hsCRP, and ApoB compared with placebo (p<0.05). There was a trend toward an increase in CTX and Pref-1. Among all participants, 6-month increase in IGF-1 correlated with 6-month increase in P1NP (p=0.0005), suggesting that subjects with the greatest increases in IGF-1 experienced the greatest increases in bone formation. Six-month decrease in abdominal fat, hsCRP, and ApoB inversely predicted 6-month change in P1NP, and 6-month increase in lean mass and 25(OH)D positively predicted 6-month change in P1NP (p≤0.05), suggesting that subjects with greatest decreases in abdominal fat, inflammation and ApoB, and the greatest increases in lean mass and 25(OH)D experienced the greatest increases in bone formation. Six-month increase in bone marrow fat correlated with 6-month increase in P1NP (trend), suggesting that subjects with the greatest increases in bone formation experienced the greatest increases in bone marrow fat. Forward stepwise regression analysis indicated that increase in lean mass and decrease in abdominal fat were positive predictors of P1NP. When IGF-1 was added to the model, it became the only predictor

  11. Correlation between vestibular and autonomous function after 6 months of spaceflight: Data of the SPIN and GAZE-SPIN experiments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuyts, Floris; Clement, Gilles; Naumov, Ivan; Kornilova, Ludmila; Glukhikh, Dmitriy; Hallgren, Emma; MacDougall, Hamish; Migeotte, Pierre-Francois; Delière, Quentin; Weerts, Aurelie; Moore, Steven; Diedrich, Andre

    In 13 cosmonauts, the vestibulo-autonomic reflex was investigated before and after 6 months duration spaceflight. Cosmonauts were rotated on the mini-centrifuge VVIS, which is installed in Star City. Initially, this mini-centrifuge flew on board of the Neurolab mission (STS-90), and served to generate intermittent artificial gravity during that mission, with apparent very positive effects on the preservation of the orthostatic tolerance upon return to earth in the 4 crew members that were subjected to the rotations in space. The current experiments SPIN and GAZE-SPIN are control experiments to test the hypothesis that intermittent artificial gravity in space can serve as a counter measure against several deleterious effects of microgravity. Additionally, the effect of microgravity on the gaze holding system is studied as well. Cosmonauts from a long duration stay in the International Space Station were tested on the VVIS (1 g centripetal interaural acceleration; consecutive right-ear-out anti-clockwise and left-ear-out clockwise measurement) on 5 different days. Two measurements were scheduled about one month and a half prior to launch and the remaining three immediately after their return from space (typically on R+2, R+4, R+9; R = return day from space). The ocular counter roll (OCR) as a measure of otolith function was measured on before, during and after the rotation in the mini centrifuge, using infrared video goggles. The perception of verticality was monitored using an ultrasound system. Gaze holding was tested before, during and after rotation. After the centrifugation part, the crew was installed on a tilt table, and instrumented with several cardiovascular recording equipment (ECG, continuous blood pressure monitoring, respiratory monitoring), as well as with impedance measurement devices to investigate fluid redistribution throughout the operational tilt test. To measure heart rate variability parameters, imposed breathing periods were included in the

  12. Frontolimbic Neural Circuitry at 6 Months Predicts Individual Differences in Joint Attention at 9 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elison, Jed T.; Wolff, Jason J.; Heimer, Debra C.; Paterson, Sarah J.; Gu, Hongbin; Hazlett, Heather C.; Styner, Martin; Gerig, Guido; Piven, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Elucidating the neural basis of joint attention in infancy promises to yield important insights into the development of language and social cognition, and directly informs developmental models of autism. We describe a new method for evaluating responding to joint attention performance in infancy that highlights the 9- to 10-month period as a time…

  13. Physical Exercise with Multicomponent Cognitive Intervention for Older Adults with Alzheimer's Disease: A 6-Month Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Ji; Han, Chang-Wan; Min, Kyoung-Youn; Cho, Chae-Yoon; Lee, Chae-Won; Ogawa, Yoshiko; Mori, Etsuro; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Aims This study aimed to investigate the effect of 6-month physical exercise with a multicomponent cognitive program (MCP) on the cognitive function of older adults with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods We included 33 participants with AD in a 6-month randomized controlled trial. The intervention group participated in physical exercise and received a MCP. The control group received only the MCP. Before and after the intervention, cognitive outcomes were assessed using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-cog), Mini-Mental State Examination, and the Clock Drawing Test. Physical performance was evaluated by exercise time, the number of pedal rotation, total load, grip strength, and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Results In all cognitive measures, there were no significant improvements between the two groups after 6 months in the baseline value-adjusted primary analysis. However, the ADAS-cog score was significantly lower between the two groups in secondary analysis adjusted for baseline value, age, sex, and education years. All physical outcomes were significantly higher in the intervention group except for total load compared with baseline measurements. Conclusion This study indicates that it is possible to improve cognitive function in older adults with moderate to severe AD through 6-month physical exercise with a multicomponent cognitive intervention. PMID:27403134

  14. Stability and Transitions in Mother-Infant Face-to-Face Communication during the First 6 Months: A Microhistorical Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Hui-Chin; Fogel, Alan

    2003-01-01

    In this study the authors attempted to unravel the relational, dynamical, and historical nature of mother-infant communication during the first 6 months. Thirteen mothers and their infants were videotaped weekly from 4 to 24 weeks during face-to-face interactions. Three distinct patterns of mother-infant communication were identified: symmetrical,…

  15. Compliance and acceptability of maintaining a 6-month pedometer diary in a rural, African American community-based walking intervention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited research has been done on the compliance and acceptability of maintaining the pedometer diaries for an extensive time frame in community-based interventions targeting minority populations. Community "coaches" led participants in a 6-month community-based walking intervention that included we...

  16. Touching up Mental Rotation: Effects of Manual Experience on 6-Month-Old Infants' Mental Object Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Möhring, Wenke; Frick, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In this study, 6-month-olds' ability to mentally rotate objects was investigated using the violation-of-expectation paradigm. Forty infants watched an asymmetric object being moved straight down behind an occluder. When the occluder was lowered, it revealed the original object (possible) or its mirror image (impossible) in one of five…

  17. 6-Month Outcomes from a Randomized Controlled Trial to Prevent Perinatal Depression in Low-Income Home Visiting Clients

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, S. Darius; Leis, Julie A.; Mendelson, Tamar; Perry, Deborah F.; Kemp, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Perinatal depression (PD) has negative consequences for mothers and children and is more prevalent among women of low socioeconomic status. Home visitation programs serve low-income pregnant women at risk for PD. This study tested the efficacy of a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention (Mothers and Babies Course; MB) in reducing depressive symptoms and preventing the onset of perinatal depression among low-income women enrolled in home visitation. Methods A randomized controlled trial was conducted. Seventy-eight women who were pregnant or had a child less than 6 months of age and who were assessed as at risk for PD were randomized to the MB intervention or usual home visiting services. Depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline and 1-week, 3- and 6-months post-intervention; depressive episodes were assessed with a clinical interview at the 6-month follow-up. Results Depressive symptoms declined at a significantly greater rate for intervention participants than usual care participants between baseline and 1-week, 3 months, and 6 months post-intervention. At the six-month follow-up, 15% of women who received the MB intervention had experienced a major depressive episode as compared with 32% of women receiving usual care. Conclusions Integrating mental health interventions into home visitation appears to be a promising approach for preventing PD. Cognitive behavioral techniques can be effective in preventing depression in perinatal populations and treating it. PMID:23793487

  18. Relationship of cravings with weight loss and hunger: results from a 6 month worksite weight loss intervention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the association of food cravings with weight loss and eating behaviors in a 6 month worksite lifestyle weight loss program. This randomized controlled trial of the intervention versus a wait-listed control was conducted at 4 worksites, and 95 participants completed outcome assessments ...

  19. A Longitudinal Investigation of the Still-Face Effect at 6 Months and Joint Attention at 12 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazbek, Aimee; D'Entremont, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    An understanding of intentionality is thought to underlie developing joint attention. Similarly, early social-communicative behaviours have been argued to reflect an appreciation of adult intentionality. This study explored the relation between social-communicative behaviours during the still-face effect at 6 months and joint attention at 12…

  20. Evaluation of the teratological and dominant lethal potential of N,N-bis-(2-hydroxyethyl)-p-phenylenediamine sulphate in a 6-month feeding study in rats.

    PubMed

    Burnett, C M; Re, T A; Loehr, R F; Rodriguez, S C; Corbett, J F

    1986-08-01

    N,N-Bis-(2-hydroxyethyl)-p-phenylenediamine sulphate (N,N-Bis) was administered to 40 male and 45 female Sprague-Dawley rats per group by admixture with their diets at levels of 0.03, 0.1 and 0.3% for periods up to 6 months. Methaemoglobin levels were determined at wk 6. After 90 days ten animals/sex/group were killed for studies of possible target organs, haematology and blood chemistry. After 90 days, 25 females in each group were mated to untreated males in a teratology study. At wk 20, 20 males in each group were transferred from the test diets containing N,N-Bis to the control diet and were mated to untreated females in a dominant lethal study. The remaining animals were killed after 6 months for terminal studies (gross examination of organs, haematology and blood chemistry). The males used in the dominant lethal study were also killed at month 6, to serve as a comparison recovery group (gross examination of organs). Feeding of N,N-Bis at levels up to 0.3% in the diet caused a significant reduction in the body weight of male rats. The only signs of gross pathology after either 3 or 6 months of N,N-Bis feeding were darkened thyroids. This effect was noted in the high-dose group at both time intervals and, to a lesser extent, in the mid-dose group at month 6, and it was also seen in most of the high-dose recovery males and in a small number of mid-dose recovery males. No pathological effects were detected microscopically after the feeding of N,N-Bis for 90 days. N,N-Bis was not teratogenic, nor did it induce a dominant lethal effect in this study when administered to rats at levels including those causing borderline toxicity. PMID:3781436

  1. [Familial gastric cancer: diagnosis, treatment and periodic surveillance].

    PubMed

    Kluijt, Irma; Sijmons, Rolf H; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Vasen, Hans F A; Cats, Anemieke

    2011-01-01

    The only known genetic causes of hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) are germline mutations in the CDH1 gene.- CDH1 mutation carriers have a lifetime risk of 70-80% of developing diffuse gastric cancer. As periodic gastric surveillance is of limited value in detecting early stages of HDGC, prophylactic gastrectomy is advised for this patient group. This group is small and little is known about other types of familial gastric cancer. The Dutch Working Group on Hereditary Gastric Cancer has formulated criteria for various aspects of medical care for families and individuals at high risk of developing gastric cancer, including criteria for diagnostics and periodic gastric surveillance. In order to optimize the care and increase the knowledge on hereditary gastric cancer it is important to centralize medical care for these patients.

  2. Energy intake from human milk covers the requirement of 6-month-old Senegalese exclusively breast-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Agne-Djigo, Anta; Kwadjode, Komlan M; Idohou-Dossou, Nicole; Diouf, Adama; Guiro, Amadou T; Wade, Salimata

    2013-11-01

    Exclusive breast-feeding until 6 months is advised by the WHO as the best practice to feed infants. Yet, some studies have suggested a gap between energy requirements and the energy provided by human milk for many infants at 6 months. In order to assess the adequacy of WHO recommendations in 6-month-old Senegalese lactating infants, a comprehensive study was designed to measure human milk intake by the dose-to-the mother 2H2O turnover method. Infants’ energy intakes were calculated using daily breast milk intake and the energy content of milk was estimated on the basis of creamatocrit. Of the fifty-nine mother–infant pairs enrolled, fifteen infants were exclusively breast-fed (Ex) while forty-four were partially breast-fed (Part). Infants’ breast milk intake was significantly higher in the Ex group (993 (SD 135) g/d, n 15) compared with the Part group (828 (SD 222) g/d, n 44, P¼0·009). Breast milk energy content as well as infants' growth was comparable in both groups. However, infants’ energy intake from human milk was significantly higher (364 (SD 50) kJ/kg per d (2586 (SD 448) kJ/d)) in the Ex group than in the Part group (289 (SD 66) kJ/kg per d (2150 (SD 552) kJ/d), P,0·01). Compared with WHO recommendations, the results demonstrate that energy intake from breast milk was low in partially breast-fed infants while exclusively breast-fed 6-month-old Senegalese infants received adequate energy from human milk alone, the most complete food for infants. Therefore, advocacy of exclusive breast-feeding until 6 months should be strengthened.

  3. Population deworming every 6 months with albendazole in 1 million pre-school children in north India: DEVTA, a cluster-randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Awasthi, Shally; Peto, Richard; Read, Simon; Richards, Susan M; Pande, Vinod; Bundy, Donald; the DEVTA (Deworming and Enhanced Vitamin A) team

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background In north India many pre-school children are underweight, many have intestinal worms, and 2–3% die at ages 1·0–6·0 years. We used the state-wide Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS) infrastructure to help to assess any effects of regular deworming on mortality. Methods Participants in this cluster-randomised study were children in catchment areas of 8338 ICDS-staffed village child-care centres (under-5 population 1 million) in 72 administrative blocks. Groups of four neighbouring blocks were cluster-randomly allocated in Oxford between 6-monthly vitamin A (retinol capsule of 200 000 IU retinyl acetate in oil, to be cut and dripped into the child's mouth every 6 months), albendazole (400 mg tablet every 6 months), both, or neither (open control). Analyses of albendazole effects are by block (36 vs 36 clusters). The study spanned 5 calendar years, with 11 6-monthly mass-treatment days for all children then aged 6–72 months. Annually, one centre per block was randomly selected and visited by a study team 1–5 months after any trial deworming to sample faeces (for presence of worm eggs, reliably assessed only after mid-study), weigh children, and interview caregivers. Separately, all 8338 centres were visited every 6 months to monitor pre-school deaths (100 000 visits, 25 000 deaths at age 1·0–6·0 years [the primary outcome]). This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00222547. Findings Estimated compliance with 6-monthly albendazole was 86%. Among 2589 versus 2576 children surveyed during the second half of the study, nematode egg prevalence was 16% versus 36%, and most infection was light. After at least 2 years of treatment, weight at ages 3·0–6·0 years (standardised to age 4·0 years, 50% male) was 12·72 kg albendazole versus 12·68 kg control (difference 0·04 kg, 95% CI −0·14 to 0·21, p=0·66). Comparing the 36 albendazole-allocated versus 36 control blocks in analyses of the primary outcome, deaths

  4. Treatment of Anxiety and Depression in the Preschool Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luby, Joan L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Empirical studies have established that clinical anxiety and depressive disorders may arise in preschool children as young as 3.0 years. Because empirical studies validating and characterizing these disorders in preschoolers are relatively recent, less work has been done on the development and testing of age-appropriate treatments.…

  5. Differential Gene Expression in the Liver of the African Lungfish, Protopterus annectens, after 6 Months of Aestivation in Air or 1 Day of Arousal from 6 Months of Aestivation

    PubMed Central

    Hiong, Kum C.; Ip, Yuen K.; Wong, Wai P.; Chew, Shit F.

    2015-01-01

    The African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, can undergo aestivation during drought. Aestivation has three phases: induction, maintenance and arousal. The objective of this study was to examine the differential gene expression in the liver of P. annectens after 6 months (the maintenance phase) of aestivation as compared with the freshwater control, or after 1 day of arousal from 6 months aestivation as compared with 6 months of aestivation using suppression subtractive hybridization. During the maintenance phase of aestivation, the mRNA expression of argininosuccinate synthetase 1 and carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III were up-regulated, indicating an increase in the ornithine-urea cycle capacity to detoxify ammonia to urea. There was also an increase in the expression of betaine homocysteine-S-transferase 1 which could reduce and prevent the accumulation of hepatic homocysteine. On the other hand, the down-regulation of superoxide dismutase 1 expression could signify a decrease in ROS production during the maintenance phase of aestivation. In addition, the maintenance phase was marked by decreases in expressions of genes related to blood coagulation, complement fixation and iron and copper metabolism, which could be strategies used to prevent thrombosis and to conserve energy. Unlike the maintenance phase of aestivation, there were increases in expressions of genes related to nitrogen, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and fatty acid transport after 1 day of arousal from 6 months aestivation. There were also up-regulation in expressions of genes that were involved in the electron transport system and ATP synthesis, indicating a greater demand for metabolic energy during arousal. Overall, our results signify the importance of sustaining a low rate of waste production and conservation of energy store during the maintenance phase, and the dependence on internal energy store for repair and structural modification during the arousal phase, of aestivation in the liver

  6. Differential gene expression in the liver of the African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, after 6 months of aestivation in air or 1 day of arousal from 6 months of aestivation.

    PubMed

    Hiong, Kum C; Ip, Yuen K; Wong, Wai P; Chew, Shit F

    2015-01-01

    The African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, can undergo aestivation during drought. Aestivation has three phases: induction, maintenance and arousal. The objective of this study was to examine the differential gene expression in the liver of P. annectens after 6 months (the maintenance phase) of aestivation as compared with the freshwater control, or after 1 day of arousal from 6 months aestivation as compared with 6 months of aestivation using suppression subtractive hybridization. During the maintenance phase of aestivation, the mRNA expression of argininosuccinate synthetase 1 and carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III were up-regulated, indicating an increase in the ornithine-urea cycle capacity to detoxify ammonia to urea. There was also an increase in the expression of betaine homocysteine-S-transferase 1 which could reduce and prevent the accumulation of hepatic homocysteine. On the other hand, the down-regulation of superoxide dismutase 1 expression could signify a decrease in ROS production during the maintenance phase of aestivation. In addition, the maintenance phase was marked by decreases in expressions of genes related to blood coagulation, complement fixation and iron and copper metabolism, which could be strategies used to prevent thrombosis and to conserve energy. Unlike the maintenance phase of aestivation, there were increases in expressions of genes related to nitrogen, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and fatty acid transport after 1 day of arousal from 6 months aestivation. There were also up-regulation in expressions of genes that were involved in the electron transport system and ATP synthesis, indicating a greater demand for metabolic energy during arousal. Overall, our results signify the importance of sustaining a low rate of waste production and conservation of energy store during the maintenance phase, and the dependence on internal energy store for repair and structural modification during the arousal phase, of aestivation in the liver

  7. Chronic Alcohol Treatment in Rats Alters Sleep by Fragmenting Periods of Vigilance Cycling in the Light Period with Extended Wakenings

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Sanjib; Simasko, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Studies have shown that disturbed sleep produced by chronic alcohol abuse in humans can predict relapse drinking after periods of abstinence. How alcohol produces disturbed sleep remains unknown. In this study we used a novel analysis of sleep to examine the effects of alcohol on sleep patterns in rats. This analysis separates waking into multiple components and defines a period labeled vigilance cycling (VC) in which the rat rapidly cycles through various vigilance states. These VC episodes are separated by long duration wake periods (LDW). We find that 6 weeks of alcohol (6% in a liquid diet) caused fragmentation of extended VC episodes that normally occur in the light period. However, total daily amounts of slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid-eye movement sleep (REMS) remained constant. The daily amount of wake, SWS, and REMS remained constant because the alcohol treated rats increased the amount of VC in the dark period, and the sleep nature of VC in the dark period became more intense. In addition, we observed more wake and less REMS early in the light period in alcohol treated rats. All effects completely reversed by day 16 of alcohol withdrawal. Comparison of the effects of chronic alcohol to acute alcohol exposure demonstrated the effects of chronic alcohol are due to adaptation and not the acute presence of alcohol. The effects of chronic alcohol treatment in rats mimic the effects reported in humans (REMS suppression, difficulty falling asleep, and difficulty remaining asleep). PMID:19014977

  8. The use of a virtual reality surgical simulator for cataract surgical skill assessment with 6 months of intervening operating room experience

    PubMed Central

    Sikder, Shameema; Luo, Jia; Banerjee, P Pat; Luciano, Cristian; Kania, Patrick; Song, Jonathan C; Kahtani, Eman S; Edward, Deepak P; Towerki, Abdul-Elah Al

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate a haptic-based simulator, MicroVisTouch™, as an assessment tool for capsulorhexis performance in cataract surgery. The study is a prospective, unmasked, nonrandomized dual academic institution study conducted at the Wilmer Eye Institute at Johns Hopkins Medical Center (Baltimore, MD, USA) and King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia). Methods This prospective study evaluated capsulorhexis simulator performance in 78 ophthalmology residents in the US and Saudi Arabia in the first round of testing and 40 residents in a second round for follow-up. Results Four variables (circularity, accuracy, fluency, and overall) were tested by the simulator and graded on a 0–100 scale. Circularity (42%), accuracy (55%), and fluency (3%) were compiled to give an overall score. Capsulorhexis performance was retested in the original cohort 6 months after baseline assessment. Average scores in all measured metrics demonstrated statistically significant improvement (except for circularity, which trended toward improvement) after baseline assessment. A reduction in standard deviation and improvement in process capability indices over the 6-month period was also observed. Conclusion An interval objective improvement in capsulorhexis skill on a haptic-enabled cataract surgery simulator was associated with intervening operating room experience. Further work investigating the role of formalized simulator training programs requiring independent simulator use must be studied to determine its usefulness as an evaluation tool. PMID:25653496

  9. Histological and Histomorphometric Human Results of HA-Beta-TCP 30/70 Compared to Three Different Biomaterials in Maxillary Sinus Augmentation at 6 Months: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Annibali, Susanna; Iezzi, Giovanna; Sfasciotti, Gian Luca; Cristalli, Maria Paola; Vozza, Iole; Mangano, Carlo; La Monaca, Gerardo; Polimeni, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this investigation was to examine the bone regenerative potential of newly biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics (HA-β-TCP 30/70), by assessing histological and histomorphometric results of human specimens retrieved from sinuses augmented with HA-β-TCP 30/70, and comparing them to anorganic bovine bone (ABB), mineralized solvent-dehydrated bone allograft (MSDBA), and equine bone (EB), after a healing period of 6 months. Materials and Methods. Four consecutive patients with edentulous atrophic posterior maxilla were included in this report. A two-stage procedure was carried out for sinus augmentation with HA-β-TCP 30/70, ABB, MSDBA, and EB. After 6 months, specimens were retrieved at the time of implant placement and processed for histological and histomorphometric analyses. Results. At histological examination, all biomaterials were in close contact with the newly formed bone and showed the same pattern of bone formation; the grafted granules were surrounded by a bridge-like network of newly formed bone. A limited number of ABB particles were partially covered by connective tissue. The histomorphometric analysis revealed 30.2% newly formed bone for Ha-β-TCP 30/70, 20.1% for ABB, 16.4% for MSDBA, and 21.9% for EB. Conclusions. Within the limitations of the present investigation, these results support the successful use of HA-β-TCP 30/70 for sinus augmentation. PMID:26273589

  10. Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin or Dual Antiplatelet Therapy Is More Effective Than Aspirin Alone in Preventing Early Neurological Deterioration and Improving the 6-Month Outcome in Ischemic Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Xingyang; Wang, Chun; Zhang, Biao; Lin, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAT) with clopidogrel and aspirin has been shown to confer greater protection against early neurological deterioration (END) and early recurrent ischemic stroke (ERIS) than aspirin alone in patients who have experienced an acute ischemic stroke. However, few studies have compared the effects of anticoagulation therapy with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), DAT, and aspirin. Methods Patients with acute ischemic stroke (n=1,467) were randomized to therapy groups receiving aspirin (200 mg daily for 14 days, followed by 100 mg daily for 6 months), DAT (200 mg of aspirin and 75 mg of clopidogrel daily for 14 days, then 100 mg of aspirin daily for 6 months), or LMWH (4,000 antifactor Xa IU of enoxaparin in 0.4 mL subcutaneously twice daily for 14 days, followed by 100 mg of aspirin daily for 6 months). The effects of these treatment strategies on the incidence of END, ERIS, and deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) were observed for 10-14 days after treatment, and their impacts on a good outcome were evaluated at 6 months. Results The DAT and LMWH were associated with a more significant reduction of END and ERIS within 14 days compared with aspirin-alone therapy. In addition, LMWH was associated with a significantly lower incidence of DVT within 14 days. At 6 months, DAT or LMWH improved the outcome among patients aged >70 years and those with symptomatic stenosis in the posterior circulation or basilar artery compared with aspirin. Conclusions LMWH or DAT may be more effective than aspirin alone for reducing the incidence of END and ERIS within 14 days, and is associated with improved outcomes in elderly patients and those with stenosis in the posterior circulation or basilar artery at 6 months poststroke. PMID:25628738

  11. INSIG2 is Associated with Lower Gain in Weight-for-Length Between Birth and Age 6 Months

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ann Chen; Gillman, Matthew W.; Taveras, Elsie M.; Litonjua, Augusto A.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have described the association of a common DNA polymorphism, rs7566605, near INSIG2 (insulin-induced gene 2) with obesity in multiple independent populations that include subjects ages 11–60 years.1 To our knowledge, no studies have examined the association of this polymorphism with weight status during early childhood. We explored the association of the rs7566605 polymorphism with weight-for-length among 319 children at 6 months and 3 years participating in Project Viva, a pre-birth cohort study. In contrast to studies of older individuals, CC homozygosity was associated with lower gain in weight-for-length z-score between birth and age 6 months than GG homozygosity or GC heterozygosity. At age 3, we did not find an association. The association of INSIG2 gene with obesity may change direction with age. PMID:20354568

  12. Importance of back blow maneuvers in a 6 month old patient with sudden upper airway obstruction.

    PubMed

    Gencpinar, Pinar; Duman, Murat

    2015-12-01

    Foreign body aspiration in children under four years old is one of the most frequently observed reasons for accident related deaths. It is more common in this age group due to inadequate swallowing functions and exploration of objects with the mouth. The most frequently encountered foreign bodies are food and toy parts. Life threatening complete laryngeal obstruction is rarely observed. Dyspnea, hypersalivation, cough and cyanosis can be seen. The basic and life-saving treatment approach is complete removal of foreign body maneuvers in the sudden onset of total obstruction. Here we report a six-month old male, who ingested a foreign body and was treated with back blow maneuvers successfully. In this case we emphasized the importance of back blow maneuvers. PMID:27239623

  13. Distinguishing Mother-Infant Interaction from Stranger-Infant Interaction at 2, 4, and 6 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Ann E.; Power, Michelle; Mcquaid, Nancy; Ward, Ashley; Rochat, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Observers watched videotaped face-to-face mother-infant and stranger-infant interactions of 12 infants at 2, 4, or 6 months of age. Half of the observers saw each mother paired with her own infant and another infant of the same age (mother tapes) and half saw each infant paired with his or her mother and with a stranger (infant tapes). Observers…

  14. MRI Assessment of Uterine Artery Patency and Fibroid Infarction Rates 6 Months after Uterine Artery Embolization with Nonspherical Polyvinyl Alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Raj Gonsalves, Michael; Vlahos, Ioannis; Manyonda, Issac; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: We have observed significant rates of uterine artery patency after uterine artery embolization (UAE) with nonspherical polyvinyl alcohol (nsPVA) on 6 month follow-up MR scanning. The study aim was to quantitatively assess uterine artery patency after UAE with nsPVA and to assess the effect of continued uterine artery patency on outcomes. Methods: A single centre, retrospective study of 50 patients undergoing bilateral UAE for uterine leiomyomata was undertaken. Pelvic MRI was performed before and 6 months after UAE. All embolizations were performed with nsPVA. Outcome measures included uterine artery patency, uterine and dominant fibroid volume, dominant fibroid percentage infarction, presence of ovarian arterial collaterals, and symptom scores assessed by the Uterine Fibroid Symptom and Quality of Life questionnaire (UFS-QOL). Results: Magnetic resonance angiographic evidence of uterine artery recanalization was demonstrated in 90 % of the patients (64 % bilateral, 26 % unilateral) at 6 months. Eighty percent of all dominant fibroids demonstrated >90 % infarction. The mean percentage reduction in dominant fibroid volume was 35 %. No significant difference was identified between nonpatent, unilateral, and bilateral recanalization of the uterine arteries with regard to percentage dominant fibroid infarction or dominant fibroid volume reduction. The presence of bilaterally or unilaterally patent uterine arteries was not associated with inferior clinical outcomes (symptom score or UFS-QOL scores) at 6 months. Conclusion: The high rates of uterine artery patency challenge the current paradigm that nsPVA is a permanent embolic agent and that permanent uterine artery occlusion is necessary to optimally treat uterine fibroids. Despite high rates of uterine artery recanalization in this cohort, satisfactory fibroid infarction rates and UFS-QOL scores were achieved.

  15. The non-thyroidal illness syndrome after coronary artery bypass grafting: a 6-month follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Cerillo, Alfredo Giuseppe; Storti, Simona; Mariani, Massimiliano; Kallushi, Enkel; Bevilacqua, Stefano; Parri, Maria Serena; Clerico, Aldo; Glauber, Mattia

    2005-01-01

    The non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) is considered a transient and completely reversible phenomenon, but it has been shown that it may last for several days postoperatively after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. This study was undertaken to assess thyroid function 6 months after uncomplicated CABG. The thyroid profile was evaluated in 40 consecutive patients undergoing CABG preoperatively, at 0, 12, 48, and 120 h postoperatively, and at 6-month follow-up. Triiodothyronine (T3), free T3 (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were assayed using a microparticle enzyme immunoassay. T4 and total serum thyroid hormone-binding capacity (T-uptake) were measured on the same samples using a fluorescence polarization immunoassay. Patients with severe systemic illness and patients treated with amiodarone were excluded. All patients were euthyroid at admission. Mean age was 67.4+/-9.0 years. There were 31 (77.5%) men. Typical NTIS was observed in all patients, and the FT3 concentration was still reduced by postoperative day 5 (p<0.0001). At 6-month follow-up, all patients were free from cardiac symptoms, and no new cardiac events were recorded. The thyroid profile was normal in 35 patients (87.5%). One patient (4.5%) had developed overt hypothyroidism. Two patients had isolated low T3 and FT3 levels with normal TSH. Two patients had moderately increased FT3 levels with suppressed TSH. In most uncomplicated patients, thyroid function returns to normal 6 months after CABG. However, we observed significant alterations of the thyroid profile in 5 out of 40 patients. Further studies are needed to define the long-term consequences of postoperative NTIS.

  16. Global and local processing of incidental information and memory retrieval at 6 months.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, R S; Rovee-Collier, C; Shyi, G C

    1994-04-01

    In five experiments, we examined the role of global and local cues in memory retrieval in infancy. Six-month-old infants were trained at home in a distinctive context (playpen liner) to kick to move a mobile. The liners were yellow and displayed either green stripes, green squares aligned vertically in stripe-like columns, or green squares in a grid pattern. The stripes and columns liners had a similar global configuration but different local components; the columns and grid liners had identical local components but different global configurations. When infants were tested 24 h after training in the presence of context liners that differed from the training context in either global configurations or local features, their memory retrieval was disrupted (Experiments 1 and 2). However, a change from stripes to columns failed to disrupt memory retrieval, even though the reverse change, from columns to stripes, did. Experiments 3, 4, and 5 revealed that this asymmetry was due to the fact that, when discriminative local information is not directly associated with training, a postperceptual strategy enables infants to disregard a mismatch in local information between training and test contexts and to generalize on the basis of a match in global information during the 24-h retention test. Thus, infants encode and remember for substantial periods of time both global configuration information and local component information in the incidental context in which an event occurs and flexibly utilize this information when responding to new events. PMID:8169579

  17. Effect of 6 months use of a dentifrice and oral rinse containing sanguinaria extract and zinc chloride upon the microflora of the dental plaque and oral soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Harper, D S; Mueller, L J; Fine, J B; Gordon, J; Laster, L L

    1990-06-01

    This study documented the effect upon the oral flora of twice daily brushing with a dentifrice containing 0.075% sanguinaria extract and 2% zinc chloride, followed by use of a mouthrinse containing 0.03% sanguinaria extract and 0.2% zinc chloride. Sixty subjects were randomly assigned to treatment or placebo groups and monitored in a 6-month double-blind clinical trial. Bacteriological samples from the tongue, buccal mucosa, and supra- and subgingival plaque were characterized at 0, 14, and 28 weeks. Microbiological monitoring showed no increases in populations of yeast, staphylococci, coliform organisms, or Pseudomonas. Total Gram-negative counts in supragingival plaque samples decreased 83% in the active group compared to a 232% increase for the control group. Populations of B. intermedius in supragingival plaque were significantly lower in the active group at 3 months and significantly lower counts of Fusobacterium sp. were observed at 3 and 6 months. Results indicate that use of the test products did not promote opportunistic overgrowth of pathogens in the oral flora. Additionally, the alterations in organisms associated with gingivitis may account for reductions in gingivitis seen in the active group.

  18. Closure of oroantral communication with buccal fat pad after removing bilateral failed zygomatic implants: A case report and 6-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Alonso-González, Rocio; Pellicer-Chover, Hilario; Aloy-Prósper, Amparo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the use of buccal fat pad (BFP) technique as an option to close oroantral communications (OAC) after removing failed zygomatic implants in a patient with a severely resorbed maxilla, and to determine the degree of patient satisfaction. A 64-year-old woman presented recurrent sinusitis and permanent oroantral communication caused by bilateral failed zygomatic implants, 3 years after prosthetic loading. Zygomatic implants were removed previous antibiotic treatment and the BFP flap technique was used to treat the OAC and maxillary defect. The degree of patient satisfaction after treatment was assessed through a visual analogue scale (VAS). At 6-months follow-up, patient showed complete healing and good function and the results in terms of phonetics, aesthetics and chewing were highly rated by the patient. Key words:Bichat fat pad, buccal fat pad, zygomatic implants, oroantral communication. PMID:25810829

  19. Total hip arthroplasty in a 6-month-old acetabulum fracture-dislocation of the hip: an 8-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Khan, Kashif Mahmood; Bhatti, Anisuddin; Rasheed, Khurram

    2013-06-01

    Old unreduced acetabulum fracture-dislocation is common in developing countries due to various factors. Different options including arthrodesis, Girdlestone arthroplasty and total hip replacement (THR) are used for its treatment. THR with reconstruction of the acetabulum is recommended, but not much work has been reported so far in our country. Till date, arthrodesis in youngsters and resection arthroplasty in the elders has been the treatment of choice.THR, however, is being done by a few, but the experience has not been published. We are reporting a case of a middle-aged woman, who had a 6-month-old acetabulum dislocation of the hip with fracture of the posterior wall of the acetabulum. It was treated by THR and acetabulum reconstruction and had good functional result 8 years after the surgery.

  20. Coordination and symmetry patterns during the drop vertical jump, 6-months after first-time lateral ankle sprain.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Cailbhe; Bleakley, Chris; Hertel, Jay; Caulfield, Brian; Ryan, John; Sweeney, Kevin; Patterson, Matthew R; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the adaptive movement and motor control patterns of a group with a 6-month history of first-time lateral ankle sprain (LAS) injury during a drop vertical jump (DVJ) task. Fifty-one participants with a 6-month history of first-time acute LAS injury and twenty controls performed a DVJ task. 3D kinematic and sagittal plane kinetic profiles were plotted for the lower extremity joints of both limbs for the drop jump (phase 1) and drop landing (phase 2) phases of the DVJ. Inter-limb symmetry and the rate of impact modulation (RIM) relative to bodyweight (BW) during both phases of the DVJ were also determined. LAS participants displayed bilateral increases in knee flexion and an increase in ankle inversion during phases 1 and 2, respectively. They also displayed reduced ankle plantar flexion on their injured limb during both phases of the DVJ (p < 0.05); increased inter-limb asymmetry of RIM was noted for both phases of the DVJ, while the moment-of-force profile exhibited bilaterally greater hip extensor dominance during phase 1. Participants with a 6-month history of first-time LAS display some movement patterns consistent with those observed in chronic ankle instability populations during similar tasks. PMID:25940807

  1. Coordination and symmetry patterns during the drop vertical jump, 6-months after first-time lateral ankle sprain.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Cailbhe; Bleakley, Chris; Hertel, Jay; Caulfield, Brian; Ryan, John; Sweeney, Kevin; Patterson, Matthew R; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the adaptive movement and motor control patterns of a group with a 6-month history of first-time lateral ankle sprain (LAS) injury during a drop vertical jump (DVJ) task. Fifty-one participants with a 6-month history of first-time acute LAS injury and twenty controls performed a DVJ task. 3D kinematic and sagittal plane kinetic profiles were plotted for the lower extremity joints of both limbs for the drop jump (phase 1) and drop landing (phase 2) phases of the DVJ. Inter-limb symmetry and the rate of impact modulation (RIM) relative to bodyweight (BW) during both phases of the DVJ were also determined. LAS participants displayed bilateral increases in knee flexion and an increase in ankle inversion during phases 1 and 2, respectively. They also displayed reduced ankle plantar flexion on their injured limb during both phases of the DVJ (p < 0.05); increased inter-limb asymmetry of RIM was noted for both phases of the DVJ, while the moment-of-force profile exhibited bilaterally greater hip extensor dominance during phase 1. Participants with a 6-month history of first-time LAS display some movement patterns consistent with those observed in chronic ankle instability populations during similar tasks.

  2. Zebra mussel control using periodic chlorine dioxide treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, J.; Coyle, J.; Crone, D.

    1996-08-01

    This paper summarizes the EPRI report (TR-105202) on the same topic as well as presents changes in current thinking on the suitability (applicability) of chlorine dioxide for fouling control. Chlorine dioxide was tested as a zebra mussel biocide at two steam electric generating stations in Illinois and one in Indiana. The purpose of these studies was to determine the efficacy of chlorine dioxide in killing zebra mussels and to develop site specific treatment programs for the three utilities. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Zebra Mussel Consortium sponsored the testing of this recent use of chlorine dioxide. The raw water system at Central Illinois Public Service`s Meredosia Station, on the Illinois River, received applications of chlorine dioxide in April, July, and September 1994. The raw water system at Illinois Power Company`s Wood River Station, on the Mississippi River, received applications in July 1993, January, April, May, July, and September 1994. The Gallagher Station, on the Ohio River, was treated in July and October 1994. Chlorine dioxide was generated on-site and injected into the water intake structure. Both cooling and service water systems were treated at the facilities. 6 refs., 13 figs.

  3. Accurate prediction of kidney allograft outcome based on creatinine course in the first 6 months posttransplant.

    PubMed

    Fritsche, L; Hoerstrup, J; Budde, K; Reinke, P; Neumayer, H-H; Frei, U; Schlaefer, A

    2005-03-01

    Most attempts to predict early kidney allograft loss are based on the patient and donor characteristics at baseline. We investigated how the early posttransplant creatinine course compares to baseline information in the prediction of kidney graft failure within the first 4 years after transplantation. Two approaches to create a prediction rule for early graft failure were evaluated. First, the whole data set was analysed using a decision-tree building software. The software, rpart, builds classification or regression models; the resulting models can be represented as binary trees. In the second approach, a Hill-Climbing algorithm was applied to define cut-off values for the median creatinine level and creatinine slope in the period between day 60 and 180 after transplantation. Of the 497 patients available for analysis, 52 (10.5%) experienced an early graft loss (graft loss within the first 4 years after transplantation). From the rpart algorithm, a single decision criterion emerged: Median creatinine value on days 60 to 180 higher than 3.1 mg/dL predicts early graft failure (accuracy 95.2% but sensitivity = 42.3%). In contrast, the Hill-Climbing algorithm delivered a cut-off of 1.8 mg/dL for the median creatinine level and a cut-off of 0.3 mg/dL per month for the creatinine slope (sensitivity = 69.5% and specificity 79.0%). Prediction rules based on median and slope of creatinine levels in the first half year after transplantation allow early identification of patients who are at risk of loosing their graft early after transplantation. These patients may benefit from therapeutic measures tailored for this high-risk setting. PMID:15848516

  4. No significant steady state surface creep along the North Anatolian Fault offshore Istanbul: Results of 6 months of seafloor acoustic ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakic, P.; Piété, H.; Ballu, V.; Royer, J.-Y.; Kopp, H.; Lange, D.; Petersen, F.; Özeren, M. S.; Ergintav, S.; Geli, L.; Henry, P.; Deschamps, A.

    2016-07-01

    The submarine Istanbul-Silivri fault segment, within 15 km of Istanbul, is the only portion of the North Anatolian Fault that has not ruptured in the last 250 years. We report first results of a seafloor acoustic ranging experiment to quantify current horizontal deformation along this segment and assess whether the segment is creeping aseismically or accumulating stress to be released in a future event. Ten transponders were installed to monitor length variations along 15 baselines. A joint least squares inversion for across-fault baseline changes, accounting for sound speed drift at each transponder, precludes fault displacement rates larger than a few millimeters per year during the 6 month observation period. Forward modeling shows that the data better fit a locked state or a very moderate surface creep—less than 6 mm/yr compared to a far-field slip rate of over 20 mm/yr—suggesting that the fault segment is currently accumulating stress.

  5. Dental auscultation for nursing personnel as a model of oral health care education: development, baseline, and 6-month follow-up assessments.

    PubMed

    Wårdh, Inger; Berggren, Ulf; Hallberg, Lillemor R M; Andersson, Lars; Sörensen, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    Oral health care has been shown to have low priority in nursing and has been only partly successful. To create more positive effects than those achieved through traditional oral health care education, this project tested an educational model for nursing staff personnel. In addition to traditional oral health care education, some of the nursing staff members passed an additional dental auscultation period and served as oral care aides. The aides were responsible for the oral health care of the residents at their nursing facilities (intervention group). The intervention nursing facilities were compared with facilities where nursing personnel only received a traditional oral health care education program. Assessments were made at baseline and at a 6-month follow-up. At follow-up it was shown that the nursing staff in the intervention group gave higher priority to the oral health care work than the nursing staff in the control group. PMID:11905448

  6. Blood lipids and adipokines concentrations during a 6-month nutritional and physical activity intervention for metabolic syndrome treatment

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To report changes in body weight, total and central fat mass, metabolic, hormonal and inflammatory parameters in overweight people who participated in a six months weight loss intervention associating diet management and exercise. Subjects and Methods Fourteen subjects (10 M, 4 F, mean age 62.9 ± 6.9 years, BMI 30.4+/- 3.8 kg/m2) presenting the characteristics of the Metabolic Syndrome (MS) were included in the survey. They followed a three weeks (D0 to D20) cure in a medical establishment and a six months (D20 to M3 and M6) follow up at home. During the cure, they receive a balanced diet corresponding to 500 Kcal deficit vs their dayly energy expenditure (DEE) and they exercised 2 to 3 hours per day. At D0, D20, M3 and M6, body composition (lean mass, total and central fat mass) was analyzed with DEXA, blood pressure was taken and blood was collected to evaluate glycaemia, triglycerides, total, LDL and HDL cholesterol, insulin, leptin and adiponectin levels, CRP and pro-inflammatory interleukines IL1, IL.6 and TNFalpha. Results All parameters listed above except the cytokine were improved at D20, so that 4 subjects among 14 still presented the MS. After returning to home, these parameters remained stable. Conclusion The efficacy of therapeutic lifestyle modifications with education and exercise and diet was demonstrated, but the compliance to the new healthy lifestyle initiated during the cure was not optimal. PMID:21194421

  7. Percutaneous ultrasound-guided treatment of shoulder tendon calcifications: Clinical and radiological follow-up at 6 months().

    PubMed

    De Conti, G; Marchioro, U; Dorigo, A; Boscolo, N; Vio, S; Trevisan, M; Meneghini, A; Baldo, V; Angelini, F

    2010-12-01

    Sommario INTRODUZIONE: La tendinopatia calcifica di spalla è una condizione relativamente frequente caratterizzata, quando sintomatica, da dolore cronico e da fasi di dolore acuto molto intenso. MATERIALI E METODI: Da ottobre 2006 a marzo 2008 abbiamo trattato 126 spalle di 125 pazienti consecutivi. Tutti hanno eseguito Rx ed ecografia prima del trattamento ed il test di Constant prima del trattamento e a 6 mesi di distanza. 55 pazienti su 123 (42%) sono stati trattati due o più volte con infiltrazione intrabursale di corticosteroide. Tre pazienti hanno rifiutato altri trattamenti dopo il primo. Sono stati quindi raccolti i dati complessivamente di 123 spalle. È stata eseguita RM di controllo a sei mesi. RISULTATI: Incremento del Constant Score dopo la procedura in tutti i pazienti trattati una sola volta ed in quasi tutti i pazienti trattati due volte; i pazienti sono stati divisi in due classi, rispettivamente trattati una o due (o più) volte. In ciascuna delle due classi c’è stato un significativo incremento (p < 0,0001)delle medie dei Cs pre e post trattamento; nella classe dei pazienti trattati due volte significatività statistica (p < 0,0001) tra le medie dei Cs rispettivamente prima del trattamento iniziale e dopo il primo trattamento, e tra la media Cs di quest’ultimo e quella dopo 6 mesi dal primo trattamento. Il Cs dopo il trattamento è significativamente diverso nei pazienti con impingement (p < 0,001). CONCLUSION: Incremento del Cs, in più del 95% dei pazienti. Non lesioni tendinee ai controlli ecografici/RM. L’impingement è risultato un fattore di rischio per il risultato finale.

  8. Pain-related avoidance versus endurance in primary care patients with subacute back pain: psychological characteristics and outcome at a 6-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Hasenbring, Monika I; Hallner, Dirk; Klasen, Bernhard; Streitlein-Böhme, Irmgard; Willburger, Roland; Rusche, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has found individual differences in back pain patients due to behavioral avoidance vs persistence. However, there is a lack of prospective studies of nonspecific low back pain patients. The avoidance-endurance model (AEM) suggests at least 3 pathways leading to chronic pain: fear-avoidance response, distress-endurance response, and eustress-endurance response. We sought to compare these 3 maladaptive subgroups with an adaptive group using a classification tool that included the following scales: the thought suppression and behavioral endurance subscale of the Avoidance-Endurance Questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory. The psychological characteristics, and pain and disability of the AEM subgroups were investigated. We report results from 177 patients with subacute nonspecific low back pain at the start of outpatient treatment and at follow-up after 6 months. At baseline, a multivariate analysis of variance found that the fear-avoidance patients scored higher in pain catastrophizing than the other groups. The distress-endurance patients displayed elevated anxiety/depression and helplessness/hopelessness accompanied with the highest scores in the classification variables thought suppression and persistence behavior. The eustress-endurance patients had the highest humor/distraction scores, pain persistence, and positive mood despite pain. All 3 maladaptive groups revealed a higher pain intensity than the adaptive patients at follow-up after 6 months; however, disability at follow-up was elevated only in the fear-avoidance and distress-endurance patients. The study provides preliminary evidence for the construct and prospective validity of AEM-based subgroups of subacute, nonspecific back pain patients. The results suggest the need for individually targeted cognitive behavioral treatments in the maladaptive groups.

  9. Independent development of the Reach and the Grasp in spontaneous self-touching by human infants in the first 6 months

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Brittany L.; Karl, Jenni M.; Whishaw, Ian Q.

    2015-01-01

    The Dual Visuomotor Channel Theory proposes that visually guided reaching is a composite of two movements, a Reach that advances the hand to contact the target and a Grasp that shapes the digits for target purchase. The theory is supported by biometric analyses of adult reaching, evolutionary contrasts, and differential developmental patterns for the Reach and the Grasp in visually guided reaching in human infants. The present ethological study asked whether there is evidence for a dissociated development for the Reach and the Grasp in nonvisual hand use in very early infancy. The study documents a rich array of spontaneous self-touching behavior in infants during the first 6 months of life and subjected the Reach movements to an analysis in relation to body target, contact type, and Grasp. Video recordings were made of resting alert infants biweekly from birth to 6 months. In younger infants, self-touching targets included the head and trunk. As infants aged, targets became more caudal and included the hips, then legs, and eventually the feet. In younger infants hand contact was mainly made with the dorsum of the hand, but as infants aged, contacts included palmar contacts and eventually grasp and manipulation contacts with the body and clothes. The relative incidence of caudal contacts and palmar contacts increased concurrently and were significantly correlated throughout the period of study. Developmental increases in self-grasping contacts occurred a few weeks after the increase in caudal and palmar contacts. The behavioral and temporal pattern of these spontaneous self-touching movements suggest that the Reach, in which the hand extends to make a palmar self-contact, and the Grasp, in which the digits close and make manipulatory movements, have partially independent developmental profiles. The results additionally suggest that self-touching behavior is an important developmental phase that allows the coordination of the Reach and the Grasp prior to and

  10. Clinical efficacy of a dentifrice and oral rinse containing sanguinaria extract and zinc chloride during 6 months of use.

    PubMed

    Harper, D S; Mueller, L J; Fine, J B; Gordon, J; Laster, L L

    1990-06-01

    The efficacy of combined use of toothpaste and oral rinse containing sanguinaria extract and zinc chloride was compared to placebo products in a 6-month clinical trial. Sixty subjects with moderate levels of plaque and gingivitis were randomly assigned to active and placebo groups. Noninvasive measures of plaque and gingivitis were assessed at baseline and at 2, 6, 8, 14, 20, and 28 weeks. Bleeding on probing was measured at baseline and 6, 14, and 28 weeks. Active group scores were significantly lower (P less than .0001) than placebo scores at each post-baseline time point for all indices, with the exception of plaque at 2 weeks. The 28 week active group scores were 21% lower than the placebo group for plaque, 25% lower for gingivitis, and 43% lower for bleeding on probing. No dental staining or taste alteration was reported in the active group. Three of 30 active group subjects exhibited minor soft tissue irritations that resolved spontaneously without discontinuation of product use. Results indicate that the test products showed good levels of safety and efficacy when administered in a combined use regimen for 6 months.

  11. Sensor-augmented pump therapy for A1C reduction (STAR 3) study: results from the 6-month continuation phase.

    PubMed

    Bergenstal, Richard M; Tamborlane, William V; Ahmann, Andrew; Buse, John B; Dailey, George; Davis, Stephen N; Joyce, Carol; Perkins, Bruce A; Welsh, John B; Willi, Steven M; Wood, Michael A

    2011-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the effects of crossing over from optimized multiple daily injection (MDI) therapy to sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy for 6 months, and the effects of 18 months' sustained use of SAP. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The 6-month, single-crossover continuation phase of Sensor-Augmented Pump Therapy for A1C Reduction (STAR 3) provided SAP therapy to 420 subjects who completed the 1-year randomized study. The primary outcome was change in A1C in the crossover group. RESULTS A1C values were initially lower in the continuing-SAP group than in the crossover group (7.4 vs. 8.0%, P < 0.001). A1C values remained reduced in the SAP group. After 3 months on the SAP system, A1C decreased to 7.6% in the crossover group (P < 0.001); this was a significant and sustained decrease among both adults and children (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Switching from optimized MDI to SAP therapy allowed for rapid and safe A1C reductions. Glycemic benefits of SAP therapy persist for at least 18 months.

  12. Sexual victimization history, depression, and task physiology as predictors of sexual revictimization: results from a 6-month prospective pilot study.

    PubMed

    Waldron, Jonathan C; Wilson, Laura C; Patriquin, Michelle A; Scarpa, Angela

    2015-02-01

    The current study examined depression and physiological reactivity to a sexual threat task as longitudinal predictors of sexual revictimization in women with sexual victimization histories. The sample included 14 young adult women (M(age) = 19.15) who reported child sexual abuse. Heart rate and root mean square of the successive differences were measured at baseline and during the presentation of sexual victimization-related words during an Emotional Stroop task. Results indicated that women who reported a greater history of childhood sexual abuse and adult sexual victimization were at increased risk for sexual revictimization 6 months after initial data collection. Furthermore, even after accounting for their childhood and adult sexual victimization histories and depression symptoms, women who exhibited reduced, or blunted, physiological activity during the sexual victimization stimuli of the Stroop task were more likely to report sexual revictimization during the 6-month follow-up. The findings suggest that sexual victimization survivors may benefit from interventions that address physiological blunting and the recognition of sexual threat cues in their environment. PMID:24923892

  13. Community Partners in Care (CPIC): Video Summary of Rationale, Study Approach / Implementation, and Client 6-month Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mango, Joseph; Cabiling, Eileen; Jones, Loretta; Lucas-Wright, Aziza; Williams, Pluscedia; Wells, Kenneth; Pulido, Esmeralda; Meldrum, Marcia; Ramos, Ana; Chung, Bowen

    2014-01-01

    “Community Partners in Care (CPIC): Video Summary of Rationale, Study Approach / Implementation, and Client 6-month Outcomes” is a 2 minute, 46 second video summarizing the study rationale, study approach, and the 6-month outcomes. The video was produced by four agencies: Healthy African American Families II, a health advocacy organization in South Los Angeles; Behavioral Health Services, the largest substance/alcohol abuse service provider in LA County; UCLA; and RAND Health; contract filmmakers Eileen Cabiling and Joe Mango handled cinematography, editing, and video support. The individuals appearing in the video are key CPIC community and academic partners. The celebratory tone of the video is consistent with a Community Partnered Participatory Research approach, a local variant of participatory action research, where study findings are celebrated by the partners, and dissemination efforts include approaches intended for general audiences, especially from low-income, low-literacy, minority communities, in addition to traditional academic products like peer-reviewed scientific manuscripts. The CPIC video offers a community perspective on the study results to our partners, the general public, other scientists and policy makers. We designed the video to teach community and healthcare partners how to adapt and implement the CPIC depression care model and to offer other community –academic partnerships an example of a non-traditional product developed for dissemination from an NIH-funded research study. PMID:25364622

  14. Community Partners in Care (CPIC): Video Summary of Rationale, Study Approach / Implementation, and Client 6-month Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mango, Joseph; Cabiling, Eileen; Jones, Loretta; Lucas-Wright, Aziza; Williams, Pluscedia; Wells, Kenneth; Pulido, Esmeralda; Meldrum, Marcia; Ramos, Ana; Chung, Bowen

    2014-02-25

    "Community Partners in Care (CPIC): Video Summary of Rationale, Study Approach / Implementation, and Client 6-month Outcomes" is a 2 minute, 46 second video summarizing the study rationale, study approach, and the 6-month outcomes. The video was produced by four agencies: Healthy African American Families II, a health advocacy organization in South Los Angeles; Behavioral Health Services, the largest substance/alcohol abuse service provider in LA County; UCLA; and RAND Health; contract filmmakers Eileen Cabiling and Joe Mango handled cinematography, editing, and video support. The individuals appearing in the video are key CPIC community and academic partners. The celebratory tone of the video is consistent with a Community Partnered Participatory Research approach, a local variant of participatory action research, where study findings are celebrated by the partners, and dissemination efforts include approaches intended for general audiences, especially from low-income, low-literacy, minority communities, in addition to traditional academic products like peer-reviewed scientific manuscripts. The CPIC video offers a community perspective on the study results to our partners, the general public, other scientists and policy makers. We designed the video to teach community and healthcare partners how to adapt and implement the CPIC depression care model and to offer other community -academic partnerships an example of a non-traditional product developed for dissemination from an NIH-funded research study. PMID:25364622

  15. Periodicity in cell dynamics in some mathematical models for the treatment of leukemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halanay, A.

    2012-11-01

    A model for the evolution of short-term hematopoietic stem cells and of leukocytes in leucemia under periodic treatment is introduced. It consists of a system of periodic delay differential equations and takes into consideration the asymmetric division. A guiding function is used, together with a theorem of Krasnoselskii, to prove the existence of a strictly positive periodic solution and its stability is investigated.

  16. Cognitive and affective changes in mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease patients undergoing switch of cholinesterase inhibitors: a 6-month observational study.

    PubMed

    Spalletta, Gianfranco; Caltagirone, Carlo; Padovani, Alessandro; Sorbi, Sandro; Attar, Mahmood; Colombo, Delia; Cravello, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease after an initial response to cholinesterase inhibitors may complain a later lack of efficacy. This, in association with incident neuropsychiatric symptoms, may worsen patient quality of life. Thus, the switch to another cholinesterase inhibitor could represent a valid therapeutic strategy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the switch from one to another cholinesterase inhibitor on cognitive and affective symptoms in mild to moderate Alzheimer disease patients. Four hundred twenty-three subjects were included from the EVOLUTION study, an observational, longitudinal, multicentre study conducted on Alzheimer disease patients who switched to different cholinesterase inhibitor due either to lack/loss of efficacy or response, reduced tolerability or poor compliance. All patients underwent cognitive and neuropsychiatric assessments, carried out before the switch (baseline), and at 3 and 6-month follow-up. A significant effect of the different switch types was found on Mini-Mental State Examination score during time, with best effectiveness on mild Alzheimer's disease patients switching from oral cholinesterase inhibitors to rivastigmine patch. Depressive symptoms, when measured using continuous Neuropsychiatric Inventory values, decreased significantly, while apathy symptoms remained stable over the 6 months after the switch. However, frequency of both depression and apathy, when measured categorically using Neuropsychiatric Inventory cut-off scores, did not change significantly during time. In mild to moderate Alzheimer disease patients with loss of efficacy and tolerability during cholinesterase inhibitor treatment, the switch to another cholinesterase inhibitor may represent an important option for slowing cognitive deterioration. The evidence of apathy stabilization and the positive tendency of depressive symptom improvement should definitively be confirmed in double-blind controlled studies.

  17. Cognitive and Affective Changes in Mild to Moderate Alzheimer’s Disease Patients Undergoing Switch of Cholinesterase Inhibitors: A 6-Month Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Spalletta, Gianfranco; Caltagirone, Carlo; Padovani, Alessandro; Sorbi, Sandro; Attar, Mahmood; Colombo, Delia; Cravello, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Patients with Alzheimer’s disease after an initial response to cholinesterase inhibitors may complain a later lack of efficacy. This, in association with incident neuropsychiatric symptoms, may worsen patient quality of life. Thus, the switch to another cholinesterase inhibitor could represent a valid therapeutic strategy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the switch from one to another cholinesterase inhibitor on cognitive and affective symptoms in mild to moderate Alzheimer disease patients. Four hundred twenty-three subjects were included from the EVOLUTION study, an observational, longitudinal, multicentre study conducted on Alzheimer disease patients who switched to different cholinesterase inhibitor due either to lack/loss of efficacy or response, reduced tolerability or poor compliance. All patients underwent cognitive and neuropsychiatric assessments, carried out before the switch (baseline), and at 3 and 6-month follow-up. A significant effect of the different switch types was found on Mini-Mental State Examination score during time, with best effectiveness on mild Alzheimer’s disease patients switching from oral cholinesterase inhibitors to rivastigmine patch. Depressive symptoms, when measured using continuous Neuropsychiatric Inventory values, decreased significantly, while apathy symptoms remained stable over the 6 months after the switch. However, frequency of both depression and apathy, when measured categorically using Neuropsychiatric Inventory cut-off scores, did not change significantly during time. In mild to moderate Alzheimer disease patients with loss of efficacy and tolerability during cholinesterase inhibitor treatment, the switch to another cholinesterase inhibitor may represent an important option for slowing cognitive deterioration. The evidence of apathy stabilization and the positive tendency of depressive symptom improvement should definitively be confirmed in double-blind controlled studies. PMID

  18. Enhanced midbrain response at 6-month follow-up in cocaine addiction, association with reduced drug-related choice: Midbrain in drug choice

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, Scott J.; Tomasi, Dardo; Woicik, Patricia A.; Maloney, Thomas; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Honorio, Jean; Telang, Frank; Wang, Gene-Jack; Wang, Ruiliang; Sinha, Rajita; Carise, Deni; Astone-Twerell, Janetta; Bolger, Joy; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2012-03-28

    Drug addiction is characterized by dysregulated dopamine neurotransmission. Although dopamine functioning appears to partially recover with abstinence, the specific regions that recover and potential impact on drug seeking remain to be determined. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study an ecologically valid sample of 15 treatment-seeking cocaine addicted individuals at baseline and 6-month follow-up. At both study sessions, we collected fMRI scans during performance of a drug Stroop task, clinical self-report measures of addiction severity and behavioral measures of cocaine seeking (simulated cocaine choice); actual drug use in between the two study sessions was also monitored. At 6-month follow-up (compared with baseline), we predicted functional enhancement of dopaminergically innervated brain regions, relevant to the behavioral responsiveness toward salient stimuli. Consistent with predictions, whole-brain analyses revealed responses in the midbrain (encompassing the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra complex) and thalamus (encompassing the mediodorsal nucleus) that were higher (and more positively correlated) at follow-up than baseline. Increased midbrain activity from baseline to follow-up correlated with reduced simulated cocaine choice, indicating that heightened midbrain activations in this context may be marking lower approach motivation for cocaine. Normalization of midbrain function at follow-up was also suggested by exploratory comparisons with active cocaine users and healthy controls (who were assessed only at baseline). Enhanced self-control at follow-up was suggested by a trend for the commonly hypoactive dorsal anterior cingulate cortex to increase response during a drug-related context. Together, these results suggest that fMRI could be useful in sensitively tracking follow-up outcomes in drug addiction.

  19. Tolerability and efficacy of newly developed penile injection of cross-linked dextran and polymethylmethacrylate mixture on penile enhancement: 6 months follow-up.

    PubMed

    Yang, D Y; Lee, W K; Kim, S C

    2013-05-01

    Cross-linked dextran and polymethylmethacrylate mixture (Lipen-10) is newly developed tissue filler. The purpose of this study was to evaluate tolerability and efficacy of Lipen-10 on penile enhancement. Twenty adult males were included in this study. Lipen-10 was injected into the subcutaneous tissue of the penile shaft. The penile girth and length were measured in the flaccid state, before and 1, 3 and 6 months after the injection. The circumference increased by 3.7±1.2 cm (50.8%, P<0.0001) at penile base, 4.2±0.9 cm (59.0%, P<0.001) at mid-shaft, and 3.8±1.0 cm (53.2%, P<0.0001) at distal shaft and the length increased by 2.3±1.4 cm (63.2%, P<0.001). There was, however, no significant difference between 3 and 6 months post-treatment in girth and length (P-values: 0.796, 0.498, 0.600 and 0.084 for penile base, mid- and distal-shaft and length, respectively). The complications were only one mild asymmetry of penile shape and one 5-mm-sized nodule in the injected site. There were no clinically significant adverse events in all subjects. Penile injection of Lipen-10 led to a significant increase in penile size, showed a good durability and was well-tolerated, without serious adverse events. These results suggest that penile injection of Lipen-10 may be a new effective method for penile enhancement. PMID:23171980

  20. Effect of 6-months of physical exercise on the nitrate/nitrite levels in hypertensive postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Zaros, Pedro R; Pires, Carla EM Romero; Bacci, Mauricio; Moraes, Camila; Zanesco, Angelina

    2009-01-01

    Background Evidences have showed that the incidence of arterial hypertension is greater in postmenopausal women as compared to premenopausal. Physical inactivity has been implicated as a major contributor to weight gain and abdominal obesity in postmenopausal women and the incidence of cardiovascular disease increases dramatically after menopause. Additionally, more women than men die each year of coronary heart disease and are twice as likely as men to die within the first year after a heart attack. A healthy lifestyle has been strongly associated with the regular physical activity and evidences have shown that physically active subjects have more longevity with reduction of morbidity and mortality. Nitric oxide (NO) produced by endothelial cells has been implicated in this beneficial effect with improvement of vascular relaxing and reduction in blood pressure in both laboratory animals and human. Although the effect of exercise training in the human cardiovascular system has been largely studied, the majority of these studies were predominantly conducted in men or young volunteers. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the effects of 6 months of dynamic exercise training (ET) on blood pressure and plasma nitrate/nitrite concentration (NOx-) in hypertensive postmenopausal women. Methods Eleven volunteers were submitted to the ET consisting in 3 days a week, each session of 60 minutes during 6 months at moderate intensity (50% of heart rate reserve). Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, NOx- concentration were measured at initial time and after ET. Results A significant reduction in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure values was seen after ET which was accompanied by markedly increase of NOx- levels (basal: 10 ± 0.9; ET: 16 ± 2 μM). Total cholesterol was significantly reduced (basal: 220 ± 38 and ET: 178 ± 22 mg/dl), whereas triglycerides levels were not modified after ET (basal: 141 ± 89 and ET: 147 ± 8 mg/dl). Conclusion Our study

  1. Validation of CRASH Model in Prediction of 14-day Mortality and 6-month Unfavorable Outcome of Head Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Behrooz; Amanat, Mahnaz; Baratloo, Alireza; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Mehdi; Rahmati, Farhad; Motamedi, Maryam; Safari, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: To date, many prognostic models have been proposed to predict the outcome of patients with traumatic brain injuries. External validation of these models in different populations is of great importance for their generalization. The present study was designed, aiming to determine the value of CRASH prognostic model in prediction of 14-day mortality (14-DM) and 6-month unfavorable outcome (6-MUO) of patients with traumatic brain injury. Methods: In the present prospective diagnostic test study, calibration and discrimination of CRASH model were evaluated in head trauma patients referred to the emergency department. Variables required for calculating CRASH expected risks (ER), and observed 14-DM and 6-MUO were gathered. Then ER of 14-DM and 6-MUO were calculated. The patients were followed for 6 months and their 14-DM and 6-MUO were recorded. Finally, the correlation of CRASH ER and the observed outcome of the patients was evaluated. The data were analyzed using STATA version 11.0. Results: In this study, 323 patients with the mean age of 34.0 ± 19.4 years were evaluated (87.3% male). Calibration of the basic and CT models in prediction of 14-day and 6-month outcome were in the desirable range (P < 0.05). Area under the curve in the basic model for prediction of 14-DM and 6-MUO were 0.92 (95% CI: 0.89-0.96) and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.90-0.95), respectively. In addition, area under the curve in the CT model for prediction of 14-DM and 6-MUO were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.91-0.97) and 0.93 (95% CI: 0.91-0.96), respectively. There was no significant difference between the discriminations of the two models in prediction of 14-DM (p = 0.11) and 6-MUO (p = 0.1). Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that CRASH prediction model has proper discrimination and calibration in predicting 14-DM and 6-MUO of head trauma patients. Since there was no difference between the values of the basic and CT models, using the basic model is recommended to simplify the risk

  2. Limited fine motor and grasping skills in 6-month-old infants at high risk for autism.

    PubMed

    Libertus, Klaus; Sheperd, Kelly A; Ross, Samuel W; Landa, Rebecca J

    2014-01-01

    Atypical motor behaviors are common among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, little is known about onset and functional implications of differences in early motor development among infants later diagnosed with ASD. Two prospective experiments were conducted to investigate motor skills among 6-month-olds at increased risk (high risk) for ASD (N1  = 129; N2  = 46). Infants were assessed using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL) and during toy play. Across both experiments, high-risk infants exhibited less mature object manipulation in a highly structured (MSEL) context and reduced grasping activity in an unstructured (free-play) context than infants with no family history of ASD. Longitudinal assessments suggest that between 6 and 10 months, grasping activity increases in high-risk infants.

  3. Relationships between regulatory temperament dimensions and self-regulatory behaviors at 4 and 6 months of age.

    PubMed

    Aureli, Tiziana; Coppola, Gabrielle; Picconi, Laura; Grazia, Annalisa; Ponzetti, Silvia

    2015-02-01

    The present study focused on relationships between temperament and behavior in early regulation development. Unlike most studies on the topic, we observed infant behavior in a naturalistic playful situation rather than in experimental stressful procedure, and employed temperament measures uniquely reflecting regulatory dispositions rather than a global measure of reactivity. The infant's self-regulatory behaviors were observed at 4 and 6 months during face-to-face interactions and regulatory dimensions were assessed at 4 months. We found that low intensity pleasure and soothability dimensions, related to the infant physical and social experience, respectively, significantly affected regulatory behavior and their influence showed to depend on the infant's age, with the former dimension being influential at the earlier age and the latter being influential when the behavior was observed at the later age. Results are interpreted on the light of a dynamic view of regulation development.

  4. Stability and transitions in mother-infant face-to-face communication during the first 6 months: a microhistorical approach.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hui-Chin; Fogel, Alan

    2003-11-01

    In this study the authors attempted to unravel the relational, dynamical, and historical nature of mother-infant communication during the first 6 months. Thirteen mothers and their infants were videotaped weekly from 4 to 24 weeks during face-to-face interactions. Three distinct patterns of mother-infant communication were identified: symmetrical, asymmetrical, and unilateral. Guided by a dynamic systems perspective, the authors explored the stability of and transitions between these communication patterns. Findings from event history analysis showed that (a) there are regularly recurring dyadic communication patterns in early infancy, (b) these recurring patterns show differential stabilities and likelihoods of transitions, (c) dynamic stability in dyadic communication is shaped not only by individual characteristics (e.g., infant sex and maternal parity) but also by the dyad's communication history, and (d) depending on their recency, communication histories varying in temporal proximity exert differential effects on the self-organization processes of a dyadic system. PMID:14584985

  5. Emotional Experiences Predict the Conversion of Individuals with Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome to Psychosis: A 6-Month Follow up Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fa Zhan; Wang, Yi; Sun, Xi Rong; Yao, Yu Hong; Zhang, Ning; Qiao, Hui Fen; Zhang, Lan; Li, Zhan Jiang; Lin, Hong; Lu, Zheng; Li, Jing; Chan, Raymond C. K.; Zhao, Xu Dong

    2016-01-01

    The present study explored the conversion rate in individuals with Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome (APS) and potential predictor for transition in mainland China. Sixty-three participants identified as APS were followed up 6 months later. The results showed that 17% of individuals with APS converted to full-blown psychosis. The converters exhibited significantly poorer emotional experience and expression than the non-converters at baseline. A further binary logistic regression analysis showed that emotional experience could predict the transition (Wald = 4.18, p = 0.041, 95% CI = 1.04~6.82). The present study suggests an important role of emotional processing in the prediction of the development of full-blown psychosis. PMID:27313553

  6. The Rhythmic, Sonorous and Melodic Components of Adult-Child-Object Interactions Between 2 and 6 Months Old.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Núñez, Ana; Rodríguez, Cintia; Del Olmo, María Jesús

    2015-12-01

    Adults mediate the relationship between material reality and children, according to functional units of cultural relevance. This paper explores early development of semiotic systems in infants, analyzing rhythmic, sonorous and melodic components, which enable adult-child interaction with and about objects. The triads (with sonorous and non-sonorous objects) was studied longitudinally at age 2, 4 and 6 months. We propose that rhythmic, sonorous and melodic components conformed one of the basic semiotic systems upon the adult's action relies (through gestures and uses of objects) in order to segment and organize objects in the world. Likewise, children actively respond to these presentations and seek sounds for themselves when they are able to interact with the object more autonomously. PMID:25715826

  7. The Rhythmic, Sonorous and Melodic Components of Adult-Child-Object Interactions Between 2 and 6 Months Old.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Núñez, Ana; Rodríguez, Cintia; Del Olmo, María Jesús

    2015-12-01

    Adults mediate the relationship between material reality and children, according to functional units of cultural relevance. This paper explores early development of semiotic systems in infants, analyzing rhythmic, sonorous and melodic components, which enable adult-child interaction with and about objects. The triads (with sonorous and non-sonorous objects) was studied longitudinally at age 2, 4 and 6 months. We propose that rhythmic, sonorous and melodic components conformed one of the basic semiotic systems upon the adult's action relies (through gestures and uses of objects) in order to segment and organize objects in the world. Likewise, children actively respond to these presentations and seek sounds for themselves when they are able to interact with the object more autonomously.

  8. Effect of a 6-month vegan low-carbohydrate (‘Eco-Atkins’) diet on cardiovascular risk factors and body weight in hyperlipidaemic adults: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, David J A; Wong, Julia M W; Kendall, Cyril W C; Esfahani, Amin; Ng, Vivian W Y; Leong, Tracy C K; Faulkner, Dorothea A; Vidgen, Ed; Paul, Gregory; Mukherjea, Ratna; Krul, Elaine S; Singer, William

    2014-01-01

    Objective Low-carbohydrate diets may be useful for weight loss. Diets high in vegetable proteins and oils may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. The main objective was to determine the longer term effect of a diet that was both low-carbohydrate and plant-based on weight loss and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Design, setting, participants A parallel design study of 39 overweight hyperlipidaemic men and postmenopausal women conducted at a Canadian university-affiliated hospital nutrition research centre from April 2005 to November 2006. Intervention Participants were advised to consume either a low-carbohydrate vegan diet or a high-carbohydrate lacto-ovo vegetarian diet for 6 months after completing 1-month metabolic (all foods provided) versions of these diets. The prescribed macronutrient intakes for the low-carbohydrate and high-carbohydrate diets were: 26% and 58% of energy from carbohydrate, 31% and 16% from protein and 43% and 25% from fat, respectively. Primary outcome Change in body weight. Results 23 participants (50% test, 68% control) completed the 6-month ad libitum study. The approximate 4 kg weight loss on the metabolic study was increased to −6.9 kg on low-carbohydrate and −5.8 kg on high-carbohydrate 6-month ad libitum treatments (treatment difference (95% CI) −1.1 kg (−2.1 to 0.0), p=0.047). The relative LDL-C and triglyceride reductions were also greater on the low-carbohydrate treatment (treatment difference (95% CI) −0.49 mmol/L (−0.70 to −0.28), p<0.001 and −0.34 mmol/L (−0.57 to −0.11), p=0.005, respectively), as were the total cholesterol:HDL-C and apolipoprotein B:A1 ratios (−0.57 (−0.83, −0.32), p<0.001 and −0.05 (−0.09, −0.02), p=0.003, respectively). Conclusions A self-selected low-carbohydrate vegan diet, containing increased protein and fat from gluten and soy products, nuts and vegetable oils, had lipid lowering advantages over a high-carbohydrate, low-fat weight loss

  9. Stochastic extinction of tumor cells due to synchronization effect through time periodic treatment in a tumor-immune interaction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aisu, Ryota; Horita, Takehiko

    The response to a time periodic treatment of the immunotherapy in a stochastic model of tumor-immune interaction is numerically investigated. Due to the effect of synchronization among the intrinsic oscillation and the treatment, an enhanced extinction of the tumor cells is observed. It suggests that compared with the static treatment, by controlling the period of the treatment, the time periodic treatment could be an effective way of treatment leading to tumor extinction.

  10. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the pancreatic head – a case report of a 6 months old child and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Tomazic, Ales; Gvardijancic, Diana; Maucec, Joze; Homan, Matjaz

    2015-01-01

    Background Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors are rare in the pediatric population. Most common localizations were reported in the lungs. A localization in the pancreas needs differentiation from other tumors and chronic pancreatitis. Treatment is surgical resection, although there are reports of treatment with oral steroids and radiation therapy. Case report. A 6-month-old child was treated due to a tumor in the head of the pancreas. On admission he was jaundiced with pruritus. US and MRI confirmed pancreatic tumor. Preoperative biopsy wasn’t conclusive regarding the nature of the tumor. Duodenopancreatectomy was performed. Postoperative course was uneventful. Histologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. On follow up, he remained with no evidence of recurrence. Conclusions A literature review revealed 10 cases of pancreatic inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors in the pediatric age group. Our patient is the youngest reported. Despite major resection, there were no complications. However, management of this child might be possible with steroids, but conservative treatment might be insufficient, especially in aggressive forms of tumors. PMID:26401132

  11. Radiation With or Without 6 Months of Androgen Suppression Therapy in Intermediate- and High-Risk Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer: A Postrandomization Analysis by Risk Group

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Paul L.; Chen, Ming-Hui; Beard, Clair J.; Suh, W. Warren

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: Six months of androgen suppression therapy (AST) plus radiation (RT) prolongs survival vs. RT alone in men with unfavorable risk localized prostate cancer (PCa), but it is unknown if this benefit applies to all risk subgroups and, in particular, the intermediate-risk group. Methods and Materials: Among 206 men with stages T1b to T2b PCa and either a prostate-specific antigen level of >10 or a Gleason score of {>=}7 or MRI evidence of T3 disease randomized to receive 70 Gy of RT with or without 6 months of AST, Cox multivariable analysis was used to assess the impact of AST on overall survival in intermediate- and high-risk localized PCa, adjusting for age, Adult Comorbidity Evaluation 27 comorbidity score, interaction between comorbidity and treatment, and known prognostic factors. Survival estimates were compared using a two-sided log-rank test. Results: After an 8.2-year median follow-up, 74 men died. Compared to treatment with AST plus RT, treatment with RT alone was associated with an increased risk of death in intermediate-risk (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.0 [95% confidence interval, 1.3-7.2]; p = 0.01) and high-risk PCa (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.3 [95% confidence interval, 0.94-11.3]; p = 0.06). The survival benefit of adding AST was restricted to men with no or mild comorbidity in both the intermediate-risk (90.9% vs. 85.8% survival, respectively, at 7 years for AST plus RT vs. RT alone; p = 0.009) and high-risk (88.9% vs. 51.2% survival, respectively, at 7 years for AST plus RT vs. RT alone; p = 0.007) subgroups. Conclusions: In men with localized PCa who have no or mild comorbidity, adding 6 months of AST to RT was associated with improved survival for those with both intermediate-risk and high-risk disease, but in men with moderate to severe comorbidity, no benefit was observed in either risk group.

  12. Maternal Nutrition and Glycaemic Index during Pregnancy Impacts on Offspring Adiposity at 6 Months of Age—Analysis from the ROLO Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Horan, Mary K.; McGowan, Ciara A.; Gibney, Eileen R.; Byrne, Jacinta; Donnelly, Jean M.; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of adult obesity and metabolic disease. Diet and lifestyle in pregnancy influence fetal programming; however the influence of specific dietary components, including low glycaemic index (GI), remains complex. We examined the effect of a maternal low GI dietary intervention on offspring adiposity at 6 months and explored the association between diet and lifestyle factors in pregnancy and infant body composition at 6 months. 280 6-month old infant and mother pairs from the control (n = 142) and intervention group (n = 138), who received low GI dietary advice in pregnancy, in the ROLO study were analysed. Questionnaires (food diaries and lifestyle) were completed during pregnancy, followed by maternal lifestyle and infant feeding questionnaires at 6 months postpartum. Maternal anthropometry was measured throughout pregnancy and at 6 months post-delivery, along with infant anthropometry. No difference was found in 6 months infant adiposity between control and intervention groups. Maternal trimester three GI, trimester two saturated fats and trimester one and three sodium intake were positively associated with offspring adiposity, while trimester two and three vitamin C intake was negatively associated. In conclusion associations were observed between maternal dietary intake and GI during pregnancy and offspring adiposity at 6 months of age. PMID:26742066

  13. Maternal Nutrition and Glycaemic Index during Pregnancy Impacts on Offspring Adiposity at 6 Months of Age--Analysis from the ROLO Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Horan, Mary K; McGowan, Ciara A; Gibney, Eileen R; Byrne, Jacinta; Donnelly, Jean M; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2016-01-04

    Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of adult obesity and metabolic disease. Diet and lifestyle in pregnancy influence fetal programming; however the influence of specific dietary components, including low glycaemic index (GI), remains complex. We examined the effect of a maternal low GI dietary intervention on offspring adiposity at 6 months and explored the association between diet and lifestyle factors in pregnancy and infant body composition at 6 months. 280 6-month old infant and mother pairs from the control (n = 142) and intervention group (n = 138), who received low GI dietary advice in pregnancy, in the ROLO study were analysed. Questionnaires (food diaries and lifestyle) were completed during pregnancy, followed by maternal lifestyle and infant feeding questionnaires at 6 months postpartum. Maternal anthropometry was measured throughout pregnancy and at 6 months post-delivery, along with infant anthropometry. No difference was found in 6 months infant adiposity between control and intervention groups. Maternal trimester three GI, trimester two saturated fats and trimester one and three sodium intake were positively associated with offspring adiposity, while trimester two and three vitamin C intake was negatively associated. In conclusion associations were observed between maternal dietary intake and GI during pregnancy and offspring adiposity at 6 months of age.

  14. A prospective randomized longitudinal study involving 6 months of endurance or resistance exercise. Conduit artery adaptation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Angela L; Carter, Howard H; Naylor, Louise H; Green, Daniel J

    2013-01-01

    This randomized trial evaluated the impact of different exercise training modalities on the function and size of conduit arteries in healthy volunteers. Young (27 ± 5 years) healthy male subjects were randomized to undertake 6 months of either endurance training (ET; n= 10) or resistance training (RT; n= 13). High-resolution ultrasound was used to determine brachial, femoral and carotid artery diameter and wall thickness (IMT) and femoral and brachial flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and glyceryl trinitrate (GTN)-mediated dilatation. Improvements in peak oxygen uptake occurred with ET (from 3.6 ± 0.7 to 3.8 ± 0.6 l min−1, P= 0.024) but not RT. Upper body muscular strength increased following RT (from 57.8 ± 17.7 to 69.0 ± 19.5 kg, P < 0.001), but not ET. Both groups exhibited increases in lean body mass (ΔET, 1.4 ± 1.8 kg and ΔRT, 2.3 ± 1.3 kg, P < 0.05). Resistance training increased brachial artery resting diameter (from 3.8 ± 0.5 to 4.1 ± 0.4 mm, P < 0.05), peak FMD diameter (+0.2 ± 0.2 mm, P < 0.05) and GTN-mediated diameter (+0.3 ± 0.3 mm, P < 0.01), as well as brachial FMD (from 5.1 ± 2.2 to 7.0 ± 3.9%, P < 0.05). No improvements in any brachial parameters were observed following ET. Conversely, ET increased femoral artery resting diameter (from 6.2 ± 0.7 to 6.4 ± 0.6 mm, P < 0.05), peak FMD diameter (+0.4 ± 0.4 mm, P < 0.05) and GTN-induced diameter (+0.3 ± 0.3 mm, P < 0.05), as well as femoral FMD-to-GTN ratio (from 0.6 ± 0.3 to 1.1 ± 0.8, P < 0.05). Resistance training did not induce changes in femoral artery parameters. Carotid artery IMT decreased in response to both forms of training. These findings indicate that 6 months of supervised exercise training induced changes in brachial and femoral artery size and function and decreased carotid artery IMT. These impacts of both RT and ET would be expected to translate to decreased cardiovascular risk. PMID:23247114

  15. Effects of the Cessation of Mass Screening for Neuroblastoma at 6 Months of Age: A Population-Based Study in Osaka, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ioka, Akiko; Inoue, Masami; Yoneda, Akihiro; Nakamura, Tetsuro; Hara, Junichi; Hashii, Yoshiko; Sakata, Naoki; Yamato, Kazumi; Tsukuma, Hideaki; Kawa, Keisei

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2004, the Japanese government halted the 6-month mass screening program for neuroblastoma. We investigated whether its cessation had led to an increase not only in mortality due to this disease but also in the incidence of advanced-stage disease among older children. Methods Study subjects were neuroblastoma patients retrieved from the population-based Osaka Cancer Registry. Trends of incidence and mortality from neuroblastoma were analyzed by calendar year and birth cohort. Prognostic factors, including stage and v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene neuroblastoma derived homolog (MYCN) oncogene status, were compared before and after the cessation of mass screening. Results Age-standardized incidence rates in 2005–2009 (the cessation period of mass screening; 11.1 per million) were similar to those in 1975–1979 (the pre-screening period; 8.6 per million). Age-standardized mortality rates tended to decrease from 1975–1979 (4.0 per million) to 2005–2009 (2.7 per million) in parallel with the improvement in survival. Analysis by birth cohort indicated that the mortality rates in 2004–2005 (after cessation) for children 0–4 years of age were lower than those in 1975–1979 (O:E ratio 0.25; 95% confidence interval, 0.03–0.90). For children 1–9 years of age, there was a not significant difference in the distribution of stage, MYCN oncogene status, and DNA ploidy between 1991–2003 (the mass screening period) and 2004–2008 (after cessation). Conclusions The cessation of mass screening for neuroblastoma does not appear to have increased mortality due to this disease or incidence of advanced-stage disease among older children. PMID:26548355

  16. Evaluation of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of two leuprolide acetate 45 mg 6-month depot formulations in patients with prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Nael M; Chwalisz, Kristof; Larsen, Lois; Mattia-Goldberg, Cynthia; Spitz, Aaron; Pradhan, Rajendra S

    2014-07-01

    The pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics of two leuprolide acetate (LA) 45 mg 6-month depot formulations were characterized in prostate cancer patients. Subjects (planned N = 150 in each cohort) received two intramuscular injections of LA Formulation-A or Formulation-B administered 24 weeks apart. Samples were collected for the measurement of testosterone, LH (all subjects) and leuprolide (in a subset of subjects approximately N = 24 in each cohort) at the same time points. Leuprolide PK profile showed an initial peak followed by a rapid decline over the first week post-dose, with mean leuprolide concentrations staying relatively constant through the end of 24-week period. Mean testosterone and LH serum concentrations showed initial increases above baseline values after the first dose and then decreased to 16.0 ng/dL and 0.6 mIU/mL by Week 4 for Formulation-A and were maintained at ≤14.3 ng/dL and 0.4 mIU/mL, thereafter, with negligible mean increases after the second dose. Formulation-A showed a lower initial peak and higher leuprolide concentration during the sustained release phase which may explain higher testosterone suppression rates for Formulation-A compared to Formulation-B. Differences in PK between LA depot formulations were reflected in pharmacodynamic responses, with a higher rate of testosterone suppression and less escapes and acute-on-chronic responses for Formulation-A.

  17. Proliferation enhancement of budding yeast and mammalian cells with periodic oxygen radical treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Jun; Murata, Tomiyasu; Hahizume, Hiroshi; Hori, Masaru; Ito, Masafumi

    2015-09-01

    Recently, nonequilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasmas have been intensively studied for biological applications. However, the each effect of species in plasmas to biological tissue has not been clarified yet because various factors exist in the plasmas. Accordingly, we have studied effects of atomic oxygen dose on cell growth such as budding yeast and mouse NIH3T3 fibroblasts of mammalian cells. Both of cells were suspended with PBS, and treated using oxygen radical source. In order to prevent the radicals from reacting with the ambient air, the treatment region was surrounded by a plastic cover and purged with Ar. The proliferative effect of 15 % was observed at the O3Pj dose of around 1 . 0 ×1017 cm-3 in NIH3T3 cells as well as in yeast cells. Moreover, periodic oxygen treatment enhanced the effect in budding yeast cells. The best interval of periodic oxygen radical treatment was around 2 hours, which is almost the same period as that of their cell cycle. With the optimum interval time, we have investigated the effect of the number of the treatments. As the number of treatments increases, the growth rate of budding yeast cells was gradually enhanced and saturated at thrice treatments. This work was partly supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 26286072 and project for promoting Research Center in Meijo University.

  18. Undersea acoustic telemetry across the North Anatolian Fault, Marmara Sea: results from the first 6 months of monitoring of the fault displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, J. Y.; Deschamps, A.; Piete, H.; Sakic, P.; Ballu, V.; Apprioual, R.; Kopp, H.; Lange, D.; Ruffine, L.; Géli, L.

    2015-12-01

    Located in the Marmara Sea, the Istanbul-Silivri segment of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) is known to be a seismic gap since 1766, although, in the last century, the NAF has caused major devastating earthquakes over most of its extent. This fault segment, void of seismicity, may be either creeping aseismically or blocked and accumulating enough strain to produce an earthquake of magnitude 7 or greater. This section of the NAF may thus represent a major seismic and tsunamigenic hazard for the Istanbul megalopolis, located only 40 km away. The objective of the MARSITE project, funded by the European Union and coordinated by the Observatory of the University of Kandilli (KOERI), is to determine the blocking state of the Istanbul-Silivri fault segment. In this context, an array of 10 acoustic transponders has been deployed on either sides of the fault, in the eastern part of the Kumburgaz Basin, to measure the displacements of the fault over a period of 3 to 5 years. The telemetric beacons (4 from the University of Brest and 6 from the GEOMAR Institute in Kiel) form two arrays fitted in one another. The principle of the experiment is to repeatedly measure the distance (ie two-way-travel time of acoustic pings) between pairs of beacons and thus to monitor the deformation of an array of 9 baselines, 500m to 3000m long, of which 5 cross obliquely the assumed fault trace. The French and German arrays are independent but ensure a redundancy of rangings along common baselines. Each acoustic transponder also monitors the temperature, pressure, sound-velocity and attitude (tiltmeters), every one or two hours. Data are stored in each beacon and can be downloaded from the surface using an acoustic modem. We present here the first 6 months of recording by the French array, from November 1st, 2014 to April 25, 2015. All acoustic transponders worked nominally for 6 months and appear to have remained stable on the seafloor. Recorded sea-bottom temperatures provide evidence for

  19. Prevalence of Corneal Astigmatism in Tohono O'odham Native American Children 6 Months to 8 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Velma; Miller, Joseph M.; Schwiegerling, Jim; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E.; Green, Tina K.; Messer, Dawn H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To describe the prevalence of corneal astigmatism in infants and young children who are members of a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of refractive astigmatism. Methods. The prevalence of corneal astigmatism was assessed by obtaining infant keratometer (IK4) measurements from 1235 Tohono O'odham children, aged 6 months to 8 years. Results. The prevalence of corneal astigmatism >2.00 D was lower in the 1- to <2-year-old age group when compared with all other age groups, except the 6- to <7-year-old group. The magnitude of mean corneal astigmatism was significantly lower in the 1- to <2-year age group than in the 5- to <6-, 6- to <7-, and 7- to <8-year age groups. Corneal astigmatism was with-the-rule (WTR) in 91.4% of astigmatic children (≥1.00 D). Conclusions. The prevalence and mean amount of corneal astigmatism were higher than reported in non–Native American populations. Mean astigmatism increased from 1.43 D in 1-year-olds to nearly 2.00 D by school age. PMID:21460261

  20. No harmful effect of different Coca-cola beverages after 6 months of intake on rat testes.

    PubMed

    Tóthová, Lubomíra; Hodosy, Július; Mettenburg, Kathryn; Fábryová, Helena; Wagnerová, Alexandra; Bábíčková, Janka; Okuliarová, Monika; Zeman, Michal; Celec, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Our laboratory recently reported that a 3-month exposure of rats to cola-like beverages induced sex hormone changes. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of various types of Coca-cola intake with different composition for 6 months on oxidative status in testes and testosterone in adult male rats. Fifty adult male Wistar rats were divided into control group drinking water, and groups drinking different Coca-cola beverages (regular Coca-cola, Coca-cola caffeine-free, Coca-cola Light and Coca-cola Zero). Oxidative and carbonyl stress markers were measured in the testicular tissue to assess oxidative status together with testicular and plasma testosterone. StAR expression in testes as a marker of steroidogenesis was quantified. No significant differences were found between the groups in any of the measured parameters. In conclusion, oxidative and carbonyl stress in testicular tissue were not influenced by drinking any type of Coca-cola. Additionally, testosterone in testes and in plasma, as well as testicular StAR expression were comparable among the groups.

  1. Top-down modulation in the infant brain: Learning-induced expectations rapidly affect the sensory cortex at 6 months

    PubMed Central

    Emberson, Lauren L.; Richards, John E.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    Recent theoretical work emphasizes the role of expectation in neural processing, shifting the focus from feed-forward cortical hierarchies to models that include extensive feedback (e.g., predictive coding). Empirical support for expectation-related feedback is compelling but restricted to adult humans and nonhuman animals. Given the considerable differences in neural organization, connectivity, and efficiency between infant and adult brains, it is a crucial yet open question whether expectation-related feedback is an inherent property of the cortex (i.e., operational early in development) or whether expectation-related feedback develops with extensive experience and neural maturation. To determine whether infants’ expectations about future sensory input modulate their sensory cortices without the confounds of stimulus novelty or repetition suppression, we used a cross-modal (audiovisual) omission paradigm and used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to record hemodynamic responses in the infant cortex. We show that the occipital cortex of 6-month-old infants exhibits the signature of expectation-based feedback. Crucially, we found that this region does not respond to auditory stimuli if they are not predictive of a visual event. Overall, these findings suggest that the young infant’s brain is already capable of some rudimentary form of expectation-based feedback. PMID:26195772

  2. Manual exploration of consistency (soft vs hard) and handedness in infants from 4 to 6 months old.

    PubMed

    Morange-Majoux, Francoise

    2011-05-01

    In infants the developmental course of haptic perception is constrained by the development of attention to object properties and of the ability to execute various movements with the hands. The purpose of this study is to consider how infants, aged 4 to 6 months, become able to use their hands to assess qualities of objects such as consistency (softness vs hardness). The object that the infants explored was a cylinder, divided into four equal parts that were alternately hard and soft. It was tactually heterogeneous but visually homogeneous. Two aspects of exploration according to age, hand used, and consistency touched were considered: (1) the mode of exploration, contact, pressure, and tapping; and (2) the means of exploration, whole hand or fingers. The results show that infants adjust their movements to the quality of the object they are testing. That is, the infant varies the distribution of investigative and manipulative behaviours according to the nature of the specific object being explored. Pressure movements were the predominant exploratory procedures used for the soft parts, whereas passive contacts were the predominant movements for the hard parts. Concerning manual laterality, the results show that the left hand is used for touching objects (passive contact) more than the right one, whereas the right hand is used to press the soft parts and tap the hard parts more than the left hand.

  3. Predicting mothers' decisions to introduce complementary feeding at 6 months. An investigation using an extended theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Kyra; Daniels, Lynne; White, Katherine M; Murray, Nicole; Walsh, Anne

    2011-06-01

    In Australia and other developed countries there is poor adherence to guidelines recommending the introduction of complementary feeding to infants at 6 months of age. We aimed to investigate, via adopting a theory of planned behaviour framework and incorporating additional normative and demographic influences, mothers' complementary feeding intentions and behaviour. Participants were 375 primiparas who completed an initial questionnaire (infant age 13±3 weeks) that assessed the theory of planned behaviour constructs of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control, as well as group norm and additional maternal and infant variables of mothers' age, education level, weight status perception, current maternal feeding practices, and infant birth weight. Approximately, 3 months after completion of the main questionnaire, mothers completed a follow-up questionnaire that assessed the age in months at which the infant was first introduced to solids. The theory of planned behaviour variables of attitude and subjective norm, along with group norm, predicted intentions, with intention, mothers' age (older more likely), and weight status perception (overweight less likely) predicting behaviour. Overall, the results highlight the importance of attitudes, normative influences, and individual characteristics in complementary feeding decision-making which should be considered when designing interventions aimed at improving adherence to current maternal feeding guidelines.

  4. A Comparison of Endothelial Cell Loss in Combined Cataract and MIGS (Hydrus) Procedure to Phacoemulsification Alone: 6-Month Results

    PubMed Central

    Fea, Antonio M.; Consolandi, Giulia; Pignata, Giulia; Cannizzo, Paola Maria Loredana; Lavia, Carlo; Billia, Filippo; Rolle, Teresa; Grignolo, Federico M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the corneal endothelial cell loss after phacoemulsification, alone or combined with microinvasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS), in nonglaucomatous versus primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) eyes affected by age-related cataract. Methods. 62 eyes of 62 patients were divided into group 1 (n = 25, affected by age-related cataract) and group 2 (n = 37, affected by age-related cataract and POAG). All patients underwent cataract surgery. Group 2 was divided into subgroups A (n = 19, cataract surgery alone) and B (n = 18, cataract surgery and MIGS). Prior to and 6 months after surgery the patients' endothelium was studied. Main outcomes were CD (cell density), SD (standard deviation), CV (coefficient of variation), and 6A (hexagonality coefficient) variations after surgeries. Results. There were no significant differences among the groups concerning preoperative endothelial parameters. The differences in CD before and after surgery were significant in all groups: 9.1% in group 1, 17.24% in group 2A, and 11.71% in group 2B. All endothelial parameters did not significantly change after surgery. Conclusions. Phacoemulsification determined a loss of endothelial cells in all groups. After surgery the change in endothelial parameters after MIGS was comparable to the ones of patients who underwent cataract surgery alone. PMID:26664740

  5. A Comparison of Endothelial Cell Loss in Combined Cataract and MIGS (Hydrus) Procedure to Phacoemulsification Alone: 6-Month Results.

    PubMed

    Fea, Antonio M; Consolandi, Giulia; Pignata, Giulia; Cannizzo, Paola Maria Loredana; Lavia, Carlo; Billia, Filippo; Rolle, Teresa; Grignolo, Federico M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the corneal endothelial cell loss after phacoemulsification, alone or combined with microinvasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS), in nonglaucomatous versus primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) eyes affected by age-related cataract. Methods. 62 eyes of 62 patients were divided into group 1 (n = 25, affected by age-related cataract) and group 2 (n = 37, affected by age-related cataract and POAG). All patients underwent cataract surgery. Group 2 was divided into subgroups A (n = 19, cataract surgery alone) and B (n = 18, cataract surgery and MIGS). Prior to and 6 months after surgery the patients' endothelium was studied. Main outcomes were CD (cell density), SD (standard deviation), CV (coefficient of variation), and 6A (hexagonality coefficient) variations after surgeries. Results. There were no significant differences among the groups concerning preoperative endothelial parameters. The differences in CD before and after surgery were significant in all groups: 9.1% in group 1, 17.24% in group 2A, and 11.71% in group 2B. All endothelial parameters did not significantly change after surgery. Conclusions. Phacoemulsification determined a loss of endothelial cells in all groups. After surgery the change in endothelial parameters after MIGS was comparable to the ones of patients who underwent cataract surgery alone.

  6. Psychosocial sequelae of the 1989 Newcastle earthquake: I. Community disaster experiences and psychological morbidity 6 months post-disaster.

    PubMed

    Carr, V J; Lewin, T J; Webster, R A; Hazell, P L; Kenardy, J A; Carter, G L

    1995-05-01

    A stratified random sample of 3007 Australian adults completed a screening questionnaire 6 months after the 1989 Newcastle earthquake. Information was obtained on initial earthquake experiences and reactions, use of specific services, social support, coping strategies and psychological morbidity. This questionnaire was the first phase of the Quake Impact Study, a longitudinal project investigating the psychosocial impact of the earthquake. Two weighted indices of exposure were developed: a threat index, which measured exposure to injury or the possibility of injury; and a disruption index, which measured experiences of property damage, displacement and other losses. Levels of exposure to threat and disruption events were significant predictors of morbidity on both the General Health Questionnaire and Impact of Event Scale, as were coping style and gender. Effects of exposure to threat and disruption were largely additive, with higher exposure being associated with greater use of support services, higher perceived stressfulness and more severe psychological morbidity. Use of avoidance as a coping strategy, female gender, lower social support and being older were also associated with higher post-disaster psychological distress. It was estimated that 14.8% of the population was exposed to high levels of threat or disruption, of whom approximately 25% experienced moderate to severe psychological distress as a direct result of the disaster. It was further estimated that 18.3% of those exposed to high levels of threat were at risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder, representing approximately 2% of the city's adult population.

  7. Impaired word stress pattern discrimination in very-low-birthweight infants during the first 6 months of life.

    PubMed

    Herold, Birgit; Höhle, Barbara; Walch, Elisabeth; Weber, Tanja; Obladen, Michael

    2008-09-01

    Prosodic information, such as word stress and speech rhythm, is important in language acquisition, and sensitivity to stress patterns is present from birth onwards. Exposure to prosodic properties of the native language occurs prenatally. Preterm birth and an associated lack of exposure to prosodic information are suspected to affect language acquisition in preterm infants. Fifty healthy very low birthweight (<1500 g) preterm German infants (24 males, 26 females; mean gestational age [GA] 27.6 wks, range 26.4-29.9) and 103 comparison term infants (48 males, 55 females; mean GA 40 wks, range 39.4-40.8) were recruited. Prosodic discrimination performance was assessed using the head-turn preference paradigm, an objective behavioural psycholinguistic test for measuring orientation time (OT) to auditory stress patterns. Among matched preterm and term infants, preterm infants (n=30) did not differentiate stress patterns at the corrected age of 4 or 6 months. In term infants (n=30), the OT was longer towards the trochaic (stress on first syllable, characteristic for German) than the iambic (second syllable) stress patterns (11.64 vs 9.18s, p<0.001, and 11.02 vs 8.32s, p<0.001, at 4 and 6 mo respectively). Neurodevelopmental scores (Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edn) were not different from reference values in both groups of infants. Preterm birth and deficient early prosodic information affect prosodic processing during the first half year of life.

  8. Mean Length of Utterance Levels in 6-month Intervals for Children 3 to 9 Years with and without Language Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Mabel L.; Smolik, Filip; Perpich, Denise; Thompson, Travis; Rytting, Nathan; Blossom, Megan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The mean length of children’s utterances is a valuable estimate of their early language acquisition. The available normative data lacks documentation of language and nonverbal intelligence levels of the samples. This study reports age-referenced MLU data from children with specific language impairment and children without language impairments. Method 306 child participants were drawn from a data archive, ages 2;6–9;0 years, 170 with SLI and 136 control children. 1564 spontaneous language samples were collected, transcribed and analyzed for sample size and MLU in words and morphemes. Means, standard deviations, and effect sizes for group differences are reported for MLUs, along with concurrent language and nonverbal intelligence assessments, per 6-month intervals. Results The results document an age progression in MLU words and morphemes, and a persistent lower level of performance for children with SLI. Conclusions The results support the reliability and validity of MLU as an index of normative language acquisition and a marker of language impairment. The findings can be used for clinical benchmarking of deficits and language intervention outcomes, as well as comparisons across research samples. PMID:20360460

  9. ISSR and RAPD based evaluation of genetic stability of encapsulated micro shoots of Glycyrrhiza glabra following 6 months of storage.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Shakti; Khwaja, O; Kukreja, A K; Rahman, L

    2012-11-01

    In vitro grown axillary micro shoots of Glycyrrhiza glabra were encapsulated in alginate beads. Following 6 months of normal storage at 25 ± 2°C the re growth of encapsulated G. glabra micro shoots, reached 98% within 30 days of incubation on MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/l IAA. Re growth was characterized by the development of both shoot and root from single encapsulated micro shoot. Healthy plants were established to glass house with 95% survival. The genetic fidelity of plants obtained after conversion of alginate beads was ascertained through 10 RAPD and 13 ISSR primers. Of the 10 RAPD primers tested, 6 of them produced 14 clear and reproducible amplicons with an average of 2.3 bands per primer out of which 28.57% were polymorphic generated by only two primers. Eight ISSR primers produced total 37 bands ranging between 300 and 3,500 bp length. Number of scorable bands for each primer varied from 3 to 8 with an average of 4.6 bands per primer. Cluster analysis from ISSR and RAPD showed that all the tested plants including the mother plant distributed in two major groups with similarity coefficient ranging from 0.91 to 0.96 for RAPD and 0.89 to 0.97 for ISSR.

  10. Radiocesium concentrations in epigeic earthworms at various distances from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant 6 months after the 2011 accident.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Motohiro; Ito, Masamichi T; Kaneko, Shinji; Kiyono, Yoshiyuki; Ikeda, Shigeto; Makino, Shun'ichi

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the concentrations of radiocesium in epigeic earthworms, litter, and soil samples collected from forests in Fukushima Prefecture 6 months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011. Radiocesium concentrations in litter accumulated on the forest floor were higher than those in the soil (0-5 cm depth). The highest average (134+137)Cs concentrations in earthworms (approximately 19 Bq g(-1) of wet weight with gut contents and 108 Bq g(-1) of dry weight without gut contents) were recorded from a plot that experienced an air dose rate of 3.1 μSv h(-1), and earthworm concentrations were found to increase with litter and/or soil concentrations. Average (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentrations (with or without gut contents) were intermediate between accumulated litter and soil. Different species in the same ecological groups on the same plots had similar concentrations because of their use of the same habitats or their similar physiological characteristics. The contribution of global fallout (137)Cs to earthworms with gut contents was calculated to be very low, and most (137)Cs in earthworms was derived from the Fukushima accident. Transfer factors from accumulated litter to earthworms, based on their dry weights, ranged from 0.21 to 0.35, in agreement with previous field studies.

  11. A 6-month home usage trial of a 1% chlorhexidine toothpaste (1). Effects on plaque, gingivitis, calculus and toothstaining.

    PubMed

    Yates, R; Jenkins, S; Newcombe, R; Wade, W; Moran, J; Addy, M

    1993-02-01

    Research and development has been aimed towards the development of toothpastes for oral hygiene and gingival health benefits. The most effective antiplaque agent to date, chlorhexidine, is difficult to formulate into active toothpaste products. Despite some encouraging findings for experimental chlorhexidine toothpastes, there are to date no commercially available products. Based on positive findings from an experimental gingivitis study, this investigation evaluated 2 chlorhexidine toothpastes, one with fluoride, as adjuncts to oral hygiene. The study was a double-blind controlled, parallel, balanced group design, extending over 6 months. A total of 297 volunteers commenced the study after screening for a minimum acceptance level of gingivitis. At baseline, 6, 12 and 24 weeks, stain, gingival, bleeding and plaque indices were recorded, together with a calculus index at 6, 12 and 24 weeks. After a baseline prophylaxis, volunteers used the allocated product 2 x per day, with no other oral hygiene instructions given. Plaque, gingival and bleeding scores improved in all 3 groups, but to an overall significantly greater extent in the active groups. However, staining and calculus indices were significantly increased in the active compared to the control group. If the local side-effects of chlorhexidine are considered to be acceptable, these chlorhexidine toothpastes could be recommended for the same clinical applications as other chlorhexidine products. The apparent compatibility of fluoride with chlorhexidine in the one product may be pertinent to caries prevention.

  12. Evaluation of lactation support in the workplace or school environment on 6-month breastfeeding outcomes in Yolo County, California.

    PubMed

    Dabritz, Haydee A; Hinton, Bette G; Babb, Jan

    2009-05-01

    Six-month breastfeeding outcomes (almost exclusive breastfeeding, partial breastfeeding, and not breastfeeding) were analyzed for 201 infants born to Yolo County, California, mothers who returned to work or school. Twenty-two percent of workplaces and 17% of schools did not provide a lactation room. Although part- or full-time status, knowledge of breastfeeding rules, and support from colleagues were independently associated with the outcome, they were not significant in the multivariate analysis. In the selected model, maternal age (odds ratio [OR] = 2.3; 1.3-3.9 for a 10-year difference), college or above versus 6 months postpartum. Receipt of discharge gift packs containing formula (OR = 0.5; 0.3-1.0) was inversely associated with the degree of breastfeeding exclusivity. The 2 latter findings underscore the importance of hospitals adhering to specific guidelines of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative. PMID:19088250

  13. Attention to Eyes is Present But in Decline in 2–6 Month-Olds Later Diagnosed with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Warren; Klin, Ami

    2014-01-01

    Deficits in eye contact have been a hallmark of autism1,2 since the condition’s initial description3. They are cited widely as a diagnostic feature4 and figure prominently in clinical instruments5; however, the early onset of these deficits has not been known. Here we show in a prospective longitudinal study that infants later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) exhibit mean decline in eye fixation within the first 2 to 6 months of life, a pattern not observed in infants who do not develop ASD. These observations mark the earliest known indicators of social disability in infancy, but also falsify a prior hypothesis: in the first months of life, this basic mechanism of social adaptive action—eye looking—is not immediately diminished in infants later diagnosed with ASD; instead, eye looking appears to begin at normative levels prior to decline. The timing of decline highlights a narrow developmental window and reveals the early derailment of processes that would otherwise play a key role in canalizing typical social development. Finally, the observation of this decline in eye fixation—rather than outright absence—offers a promising opportunity for early intervention, one that could build on the apparent preservation of mechanisms subserving reflexive initial orientation towards the eyes. PMID:24196715

  14. PERIODS OF VERTEBRAL COLUMN SENSITIVITY TO BORIC ACID TREATMENT IN CD-1 MICE IN UTERO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Periods of vertebral column sensitivity to boric acid treatment in CD-1 mice in utero.

    Cherrington JW, Chernoff N.

    Department of Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA. jana_cherrington@hotmail.com

    Boric acid (BA) has many uses as...

  15. Marketing EPSDT to Clients: A Self-Instructional Module for Early Periodic Screening Diagnosis Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, John L.; McArdle, Patricia

    Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) is a program of preventive health services available to individuals under 21 years of age who are eligible for Medicaid benefits. As of July 1, 1973, all states operating a Medicaid program were required to provide EPSDT services to all those eligible. The purpose of this module is to…

  16. Bergamot Reduces Plasma Lipids, Atherogenic Small Dense LDL, and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Subjects with Moderate Hypercholesterolemia: A 6 Months Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Peter P.; Patti, Angelo M.; Nikolic, Dragana; Giglio, Rosaria V.; Castellino, Giuseppa; Biancucci, Teresa; Geraci, Fabiana; David, Sabrina; Montalto, Giuseppe; Rizvi, Ali; Rizzo, Manfredi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Some patients experience statin-induced side effects or prefer nutraceutical approaches for the treatment of dyslipidemia. This has led to a search for alternative therapeutic approaches for dyslipidemia management. In recent studies Citrus bergamia (known as Bergamot) juice was able to reduce serum levels of lipids. Such benefit may be attributed to high amounts of flavonoids contained in Bergamot fruit juice (neoeriocitrin, neohesperidin, naringin). The aim of the present study was to fully investigate the effects of a Bergamot extract on cardio-metabolic parameters, including plasma lipids, atherogenic lipoproteins and subclinical atherosclerosis. Methods: Eighty subjects (42 men and 38 women, mean age: 55 ± 13 years) with moderate hypercholesterolemia [e.g., with plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations between 160 and 190 mg/dl (between 4.1 and 4.9 mmol/l)] were included. A Bergamot-derived extract (Bergavit R®) was given at a fixed dose daily (150 mg of flavonoids, with 16% of neoeriocitrin, 47% of neohesperidin and 37% of naringin) for 6 months. Lipoprotein subfractions were assessed by gel electrophoresis. With this methodology low density lipoprotein (LDL) subclasses are distributed as seven bands (LDL-1 and -2 as large LDL, and LDL-3 to -7 as atherogenic small, dense LDL). Subclinical atherosclerosis was assessed by carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) using B-mode ultrasound. Results: After 6 months, Bergavit R® reduced total cholesterol (from 6.6 ± 0.4 to 5.8 ± 1.1 mmol/l, p < 0.0001), triglycerides (from 1.8 ± 0.6 to 1.5 ± 0.9 mmol/l, p = 0.0020), and LDL-cholesterol (from 4.6 ± 0.2 to 3.7 ± 1.0 mmol/l, p < 0.0001), while HDL- cholesterol increased (from 1.3 ± 0.2 to 1.4 ± 0.4 mmol/l, p < 0.0007). In addition, a significant increase in LDL-1 (from 41.2 ± 0.2 to 49.6 ± 0.2%, p < 0.0001) was accompanied by decreased small, dense LDL-3, -4, and 5 particles (from 14.5 ± 0.1 to 9.0 ± 0.1% p < 0.0001; 3.2 ± 0.1 to 1.5 ± 0.1% p = 0

  17. Effect of 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine Inoculated During Anti-Cancer Treatment Period in Elderly Lung Cancer Patients on Community-Acquired Pneumonia Hospitalization

    PubMed Central

    Chiou, Wen-Yen; Hung, Shih-Kai; Lai, Chun-Liang; Lin, Hon-Yi; Su, Yu-Chieh; Chen, Yi-Chun; Shen, Bing-Jie; Chen, Liang-Cheng; Tsai, Shiang-Jiun; Lee, Moon-Sing; Li, Chung-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate effectiveness of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) inoculated during defined “vaccination period,” first 6 months post cancer diagnosis (ie, an anti-cancer treatment period), in elderly lung cancer patients on community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) hospitalization incidence. This was a nationwide population-based cohort study of 157 newly diagnosed elderly lung cancer patients receiving PPSV23 during “vaccination period”, and 628 age and sex one-to-one matched controls enrolled in the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan between 2007 and 2010. All patients were ≥75 years old and still survival post “vaccination period.” Incidence density (ID) of all-cause inpatient CAP and cumulative survival risk were analyzed by multivariate Poisson regression and Kaplan–Meier method, respectively. After a 4-year follow-up, IDs of all-cause inpatient CAP for vaccination and control cohorts were 297 and 444 per 1000 PYs, respectively. Less vaccinated patients had CAP incidence density >1 time per PY (12.7% vs 21.2%) than non-vaccinated patients. After adjusting for potential confounding variables, like influenza vaccination, comorbidities, cancer treatment modalities, and socioeconomic status, adjusted inpatient CAP incidence rate in PPSV23 vaccination cohort was 0.74 times lower than control cohort (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.740, P = 0.0339). Two-year cumulative CAP hospitalization rates and overall survival rates were 37.1% vs. 55.4%, and 46.6% vs. 26.2%, respectively, for lung cancer patients with and without PPSV23 (both P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed that for elderly lung cancer patients not ever receiving influenza vaccine, PPSV23 still had trend to reduce all-cause inpatient CAP. For elderly lung cancer patients aged ≥75 years, PPSV23 inoculated during anti-cancer treatment period could reduce CAP hospitalizations and improve survival. PMID:26131806

  18. Lessons learned from muscle fatigue: implications for treatment of patients with hyperkalemic periodic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Jean-Marc; Hayward, Lawrence J

    2012-12-01

    Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HyperKPP) is a disease characterized by periods of myotonic discharges and paralytic attacks causing weakness, the latter associated with increases in plasma [K(+)]. The myotonic discharge is due to increased Na(+) influx through defective Na(+) channels that triggers generation of several action potentials. The subsequent increase in extracellular K(+) concentration causes excessive membrane depolarization that inactivates Na(+) channels triggering the paralysis. None of the available treatments is fully effective. This paper reviews the capacity of Na(+) K(+)ATPase pumps, KATP and ClC-1 Cl(-) channels in improving membrane excitability during muscle activity and how using these three membrane components we can study future and more effective treatments for HyperKPP patients. The review of current patents related to HyperKPP reinforces the need of novel approaches for the treatment of this channelopathy.

  19. Immunotoxicological Evaluation of Genetically Modified Rice Expressing Cry1Ab/Ac Protein (TT51-1) by a 6-Month Feeding Study on Cynomolgus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Xiaobing; Tang, Yao; Lv, Jianjun; Zhang, Lin; Sun, Li; Yang, Yanwei; Miao, Yufa; Jiang, Hua; Chen, Gaofeng; Huang, Zhiying; Wang, Xue

    2016-01-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the food safety of TT51-1, a new type of genetically modified rice that expresses the Cry1Ab/Ac protein (Bt toxin) and is highly resistant to most lepidopteran pests. Sixteen male and 16 female cynomolgus monkeys were randomly divided into four groups: conventional rice (non-genetically modified rice, non-GM rice), positive control, 17.5% genetically modified rice (GM rice) and 70% GM rice. Monkeys in the non-GM rice, positive control, and GM rice groups were fed on diets containing 70% non-GM rice, 17.5% GM rice or 70% GM rice, respectively, for 182 days, whereas animals in the positive group were intravenously injected with cyclophosphamide every other day for a total of four injections before the last treatment. Six months of treatment did not yield abnormal observations. Specifically, the following parameters did not significantly differ between the non-GM rice group and GM rice groups: body weight, food consumption, electrocardiogram, hematology, immuno-phenotyping of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood, mitogen-induced peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation, splenocyte proliferation, KLH-T cell-dependent antibody response, organ weights and ratios, and histological appearance (p>0.05). Animals from the GM rice group differed from animals in the non-GM rice group (p<0.05) in several parameters: specifically, their body temperatures and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were higher, whereas their levels of serum K+, Cl- and cytokines (IL-2, IL-4 and IL-5) were lower. Because dose- or time-dependent changes were not observed in this study and animals appeared histologically normal, the aforementioned differences were not considered to be adverse or related to the treatment with GM rice. In conclusion, a 6-month feeding study of TT51-1 did not show adverse immunotoxicological effects on cynomolgus monkeys. PMID:27684490

  20. Association of Daytime Somnolence With Executive Functioning in the First 6 Months After Adolescent Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, Marisa B.; Kurowski, Brad G.; Beebe, Dean; Taylor, H. Gerry; Brown, Tanya M.; Kirkwood, Michael W.; Wade, Shari L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between severity of injury and self-reports and parent reports of daytime somnolence in adolescents after traumatic brain injury (TBI), and to determine the relationship between daytime somnolence and self-report and parent report of executive functioning in daily life. Design Cross-sectional study conducted within the first 6 months (mean ± standard deviation 14.97 ± 7.51 weeks) after injury. Partial correlation controlling for injury severity was used to examine the associations of TBI severity with daytime somnolence and the association of daytime somnolence with executive functioning. Setting Outpatient visits at 3 children’s hospitals and 2 general hospitals with pediatric trauma commitment. Participants A total of 102 adolescents, 12–18 years old, who sustained moderate-to-severe TBI (n = 60) or complicated mild TBI (n = 42). Main Outcome Measurements Parent-report Sleepiness Scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (youth report), Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) (self-report and maternal report). Results Adolescents who sustained moderate-to-severe TBI had increased daytime somnolence compared with those with complicated mild injuries in the parent report but not in the youth report. Based on the parent report, 51% of adolescents with moderate-to-severe TBI showed significant daytime somnolence compared with 22% of those with complicated mild TBI. The parent report of daytime somnolence was associated with executive dysfunction on both the BRIEF self-report and parent report; however, the youth report of daytime somnolence was associated only with the BRIEF self-report. Conclusions The parent report of daytime somnolence correlated with TBI severity and predicted executive functioning difficulties of the teens in everyday circumstances. Although a correlation between daytime somnolence and executive dysfunction were also apparent on self-report, this did not differ based on injury severity. Teens

  1. Sex-Related Differences in Pulmonary Function following 6 Months of Cigarette Exposure: Implications for Sexual Dimorphism in Mild COPD

    PubMed Central

    Churg, Andrew; Wright, Joanne L.; Man, S. F. Paul; Sin, Don D.

    2016-01-01

    Female smokers have increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) compared with male smokers who have a similar history of cigarette smoke exposure. We have shown previously that chronic smoke exposure for 6 months leads to increased airway wall remodeling in female C57BL/6 mice compared with male C57BL/6 mice. These differences, however, were not evident in female ovariectomized mice exposed to cigarette smoke. Herein, we report on the pulmonary function test results from the flexiVent system, which was used to determine the potential functional consequences of the histologic changes observed in these mice. We found that tissue damping (G) was increased in female compared to male or ovariectomized female mice after smoke exposure. At low oscillating frequencies, complex input resistance (Zrs) and impedance (Xrs) of the respiratory system was increased and decreased, respectively, in female but not in male or ovariectomized female mice after smoke exposure. Quasistatic pressure-volume curves revealed a reduction in inspiratory capacity in female mice but not in male or ovariectomized female mice after smoke exposure. The remaining lung function measurements including quasistatic compliance were similar amongst all groups. This is the first study characterizing a sexual dimorphism in respiratory functional properties in a mouse model of COPD. These findings demonstrate that increased airway remodeling in female mice following chronic smoke exposure is associated with increased tissue resistance in the peripheral airways. These data may explain the importance of female sex hormones and the increased risk of airway disease in female smokers. PMID:27788167

  2. A 6-month randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of a lifestyle intervention for weight gain management in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with schizophrenia have lower longevity than the general population as a consequence of a combination of risk factors connected to the disease, lifestyle and the use of medications, which are related to weight gain. Methods A multicentric, randomized, controlled-trial was conducted to test the efficacy of a 12-week group Lifestyle Wellness Program (LWP). The program consists of a one-hour weekly session to discuss topics like dietary choices, lifestyle, physical activity and self-esteem with patients and their relatives. Patients were randomized into two groups: standard care (SC) and standard care plus intervention (LWP). Primary outcome was defined as the weight and body mass index (BMI). Results 160 patients participated in the study (81 in the intervention group and 79 in the SC group). On an intent to treat analysis, after three months the patients in the intervention group presented a decrease of 0.48 kg (CI 95% -0.65 to 1.13) while the standard care group showed an increase of 0.48 kg (CI 95% 0.13 to 0.83; p=0.055). At six-month follow-up, there was a significant weight decrease of −1.15 kg, (CI 95% -2.11 to 0.19) in the intervention group compared to a weight increase in the standard care group (+0.5 kg, CI 95% -0.42–1.42, p=0.017). Conclusion In conclusion, this was a multicentric randomized clinical trial with a lifestyle intervention for individuals with schizophrenia, where the intervention group maintained weight and presented a tendency to decrease weight after 6 months. It is reasonable to suppose that lifestyle interventions may be important long-term strategies to avoid the tendency of these individuals to increase weight. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01368406 PMID:23418863

  3. Safety and efficacy of a 6-month home-based exercise program in patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Bankolé, Landry-Cyrille; Millet, Guillaume Y.; Temesi, John; Bachasson, Damien; Ravelojaona, Marion; Wuyam, Bernard; Verges, Samuel; Ponsot, Elodie; Antoine, Jean-Christophe; Kadi, Fawzi; Féasson, Léonard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Previous randomized controlled trials investigating exercise training programs in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) patients are scarce and of short duration only. This study assessed the safety and efficacy of a 6-month home-based exercise training program on fitness, muscle, and motor function in FSHD patients. Methods: Sixteen FSHD patients were randomly assigned to training (TG) and control (CG) groups (both n = 8) in a home-based exercise intervention. Training consisted of cycling 3 times weekly for 35 minutes (combination of strength, high-intensity interval, and low-intensity aerobic) at home for 24 weeks. Patients in CG also performed an identical training program (CTG) after 24 weeks. The primary outcome was change in peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) measured every 6 weeks. The principal secondary outcomes were maximal quadriceps strength (MVC) and local quadriceps endurance every 12 weeks. Other outcome measures included maximal aerobic power (MAP) and experienced fatigue every 6 weeks, 6-minute walking distance every 12 weeks, and muscle characteristics from vastus lateralis biopsies taken pre- and postintervention. Results: The compliance rate was 91% in TG. Significant improvements with training were observed in the VO2 peak (+19%, P = 0.002) and MAP by week 6 and further to week 24. Muscle endurance, MVC, and 6-minute walking distance increased and experienced fatigue decreased. Muscle fiber cross-sectional area and citrate synthase activity increased by 34% (P = 0.008) and 46% (P = 0.003), respectively. Dystrophic pathophysiologic patterns were not exacerbated. Similar improvements were experienced by TG and CTG. Conclusions: A combined strength and interval cycling exercise-training program compatible with patients’ daily professional and social activities leads to significant functional benefits without compromising muscle tissue. PMID:27495097

  4. The 6-Month Prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Syndrome (PTSS) Among Older Adults: Validity and Reliability of the PTSS Scale

    PubMed Central

    Préville, Michel; Lamoureux-Lamarche, Catherine; Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Grenier, Sébastien; Potvin, Olivier; Quesnel, Louise; Gontijo-Guerra, Samantha; Mechakra-Tahiri, Samia Djemaa; Berbiche, Djamal

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To document the 6-month prevalence of posttraumatic stress syndrome (PTSS) in the older adult population and the validity of a PTSS Scale in an epidemiologic setting. Method: Data came from the Enquête sur la santé des aînés et l’utilisation des services de santé (ESA Services Study) conducted during 2012–2013 using a probability sample of older adults seeking medical services in primary health clinics. Results: Results showed that a first-order PTSS measurement model consisting of 3 indicators—the number of lifetime traumatic events, the frequency of reactions and symptoms of distress associated with the traumatic events, and the presence of consequences on the social functioning—was plausible. Reliability of the PTSS was 0.82. According to the PTSS, 11.1% of the older adult patients presented with PTSS, but only 21.7% of them reported an impact of their symptoms on their social functioning. The prevalence of older adults meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria for full posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) reached 1.8%, and 1.8% of older adults reached criteria for partial PTSD. Our results also showed that women were more at risk to report PTSS than men and that older adults aged 75 years and older were less likely to report these symptoms than those aged between 65 and 74 years. Conclusions: PTSS is a common mental health problem among adults aged 65 and older and seeking health services in the general medical sector. PMID:25565688

  5. Lactation and appetite-regulating hormones: increased maternal plasma peptide YY concentrations 3-6 months postpartum.

    PubMed

    Vila, Greisa; Hopfgartner, Judith; Grimm, Gabriele; Baumgartner-Parzer, Sabina M; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Clodi, Martin; Luger, Anton

    2015-10-28

    Breast-feeding is associated with maternal hormonal and metabolic changes ensuring adequate milk production. In this study, we investigate the impact of breast-feeding on the profile of changes in maternal appetite-regulating hormones 3-6 months postpartum. Study participants were age- and BMI-matched lactating mothers (n 10), non-lactating mothers (n 9) and women without any history of pregnancy or breast-feeding in the previous 12 months (control group, n 10). During study sessions, young mothers breast-fed or bottle-fed their babies, and maternal blood samples were collected at five time points during 90 min: before, during and after feeding the babies. Outcome parameters were plasma concentrations of ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), leptin, adiponectin, prolactin, cortisol, insulin, glucose and lipid values. At baseline, circulating PYY concentrations were significantly increased in lactating mothers (100·3 (se 6·7) pg/ml) v. non-lactating mothers (73·6 (se 4·9) pg/ml, P=0·008) and v. the control group (70·2 (se 9) pg/ml, P=0·021). We found no differences in ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin values. Baseline prolactin concentrations were over 4-fold higher in lactating mothers (P<0·001). Lactating women had reduced TAG levels and LDL-cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio, but increased waist circumference, when compared with non-lactating women. Breast-feeding sessions further elevated circulating prolactin (P<0·001), but induced no acute effects on appetite-regulating hormones. In summary, one single breast-feeding session did not acutely modulate circulating appetite-regulating hormones, but increased baseline PYY concentrations are associated with prolonged lactation. PYY might play a role in the coordination of energy balance during lactation, increasing fat mobilisation from maternal depots and ensuring adequate milk production for the demands of the growing infant.

  6. Preschool Children’s Memory for Word Forms Remains Stable Over Several Days, but Gradually Decreases after 6 Months

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Katherine R.; McGregor, Karla K.; Waldier, Brigitte; Curran, Maura K.; Gomez, Rebecca L.; Samuelson, Larissa K.

    2016-01-01

    Research on word learning has focused on children’s ability to identify a target object when given the word form after a minimal number of exposures to novel word-object pairings. However, relatively little research has focused on children’s ability to retrieve the word form when given the target object. The exceptions involve asking children to recall and produce forms, and children typically perform near floor on these measures. In the current study, 3- to 5-year-old children were administered a novel test of word form that allowed for recognition memory and manual responses. Specifically, when asked to label a previously trained object, children were given three forms to choose from: the target, a minimally different form, and a maximally different form. Children demonstrated memory for word forms at three post-training delays: 10 mins (short-term), 2–3 days (long-term), and 6 months to 1 year (very long-term). However, children performed worse at the very long-term delay than the other time points, and the length of the very long-term delay was negatively related to performance. When in error, children were no more likely to select the minimally different form than the maximally different form at all time points. Overall, these results suggest that children remember word forms that are linked to objects over extended post-training intervals, but that their memory for the forms gradually decreases over time without further exposures. Furthermore, memory traces for word forms do not become less phonologically specific over time; rather children either identify the correct form, or they perform at chance. PMID:27729880

  7. Early end-tidal carbon monoxide levels and neurodevelopmental outcome at 3 years 6 months of age in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Blok, Cornelie A; Krediet, Tannette G; Kavelaars, Annemiek; Koopman-Esseboom, Corine; Vreman, Hendrik J; Van Bel, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Aim Increased end-tidal carbon monoxide (ETCOc) and cytokines in preterm infants are related to bronchopulmonary dysplasia and intraventricular haemorrhages. The aim was to study the predictive value of ETCOc and cytokine levels for long-term outcome. Methods This study comprised 105 very preterm infants (57 males, 48 females; gestational age range 25wk 5d–31wk 4d; birthweight 610–2100g) who were admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit between 1 February and 31 December 2002. ETCOc, plasma tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukins (IL) 6 and 8, and malondialdehyde (MDA, a marker of lipid peroxidation), were measured at days 1, 3, and 5 of life and related to outcome at 3 years 6 months of age (Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales). Results Of the 105 infants, 69 were eligible for follow-up (37 male; 32 female; bronchopulmonary dysplasia, n=12). ETCOc at 0 to 24 hours was higher in infants with adverse outcome (Griffiths developmental quotient <85, n=15) compared with favourable outcome (2.7 SD 0.7 vs 2.0 SD 0.5; p<0.05). MDA and cytokines did not differ between groups. Regression analysis with bootstrapping of independent variables (gestational age, birthweight, ETCOc, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia) showed that ETCOc was the only parameter that correlated with outcome. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of ETCOc for adverse outcome were 93% and 85% respectively. Interpretation Adverse neurodevelopmental outcome is associated with increased endogenous carbon monoxide. ETCOc less than 2.0ppm during the first day indicates a favourable outcome. PMID:21933176

  8. 6-month aortic valve implantation of an off-the-shelf tissue-engineered valve in sheep.

    PubMed

    Syedain, Zeeshan; Reimer, Jay; Schmidt, Jillian; Lahti, Matthew; Berry, James; Bianco, Richard; Tranquillo, Robert T

    2015-12-01

    Diseased aortic valves often require replacement, with over 30% of the current aortic valve surgeries performed in patients who will outlive a bioprosthetic valve. While many promising tissue-engineered valves have been created in the lab using the cell-seeded polymeric scaffold paradigm, none have been successfully tested long-term in the aortic position of a pre-clinical model. The high pressure gradients and dynamic flow across the aortic valve leaflets require engineering a tissue that has the strength and compliance to withstand high mechanical demand without compromising normal hemodynamics. A long-term preclinical evaluation of an off-the-shelf tissue-engineered aortic valve in the sheep model is presented here. The valves were made from a tube of decellularized cell-produced matrix mounted on a frame. The engineered matrix is primarily composed of collagen, with strength and organization comparable to native valve leaflets. In vitro testing showed excellent hemodynamic performance with low regurgitation, low systolic pressure gradient, and large orifice area. The implanted valves showed large-scale leaflet motion and maintained effective orifice area throughout the duration of the 6-month implant, with no calcification. After 24 weeks implantation (over 17 million cycles), the valves showed no change in tensile mechanical properties. In addition, histology and DNA quantitation showed repopulation of the engineered matrix with interstitial-like cells and endothelialization. New extracellular matrix deposition, including elastin, further demonstrates positive tissue remodeling in addition to recellularization and valve function. Long-term implantation in the sheep model resulted in functionality, matrix remodeling, and recellularization, unprecedented results for a tissue-engineered aortic valve. PMID:26409002

  9. Intrastromal Corneal Ring Segment Implantation (Keraring 355°) in Patients with Central Keratoconus: 6-Month Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Jadidi, Khosrow; Mosavi, Seyed Aliasghar; Nejat, Farhad; Naderi, Mostafa; Janani, Leila; Serahati, Sara

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate the efficacy and safety of Keraring 355° intrastromal corneal ring segment (ICRS) implantation aided by PocketMaker microkeratome for the correction of keratoconus. Patients underwent ICRS insertion using mechanical dissection with PocketMaker microkeratome and completed 6 months of follow-up. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), refraction, topographic findings, safety, efficacy index, and adverse events were reported for six months postoperatively. We evaluated 15 eyes of 15 patients (12 men) with a mean age of 28.87 ± 6.94 years (range 21–49 years). At final postoperative examination, there was a statistically significant reduction in the spherical equivalent refractive error compared to preoperative measurements (−5.46 ± 1.52 to −2.01 ± 1.63 D, P < 0.001). Mean preoperative UCVA (logMAR) before implantation was 0.79 ± 0.48, and postoperative UCVA was 0.28 ± 0.15, P = 0.001. Mean preoperative BSCVA (logMAR) before implantation was 0.36 ± 0.21; at final follow-up examination BSCVA was 0.18 ± 0.9, P = 0.009. Mean K decreased from 48.33 to 43.31 D, P < 0.001. All patients were satisfied with ICRS implantation; 86.7% were moderately to very happy with the results. No intraoperative or postoperative complications were demonstrated. This preliminary study shows that ICRS (Keraring 355°) implantation is an efficient, cost-effective, and minimally invasive procedure for improving visual acuity in nipple type keratoconic corneas. PMID:25685395

  10. Lactation and appetite-regulating hormones: increased maternal plasma peptide YY concentrations 3-6 months postpartum.

    PubMed

    Vila, Greisa; Hopfgartner, Judith; Grimm, Gabriele; Baumgartner-Parzer, Sabina M; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Clodi, Martin; Luger, Anton

    2015-10-28

    Breast-feeding is associated with maternal hormonal and metabolic changes ensuring adequate milk production. In this study, we investigate the impact of breast-feeding on the profile of changes in maternal appetite-regulating hormones 3-6 months postpartum. Study participants were age- and BMI-matched lactating mothers (n 10), non-lactating mothers (n 9) and women without any history of pregnancy or breast-feeding in the previous 12 months (control group, n 10). During study sessions, young mothers breast-fed or bottle-fed their babies, and maternal blood samples were collected at five time points during 90 min: before, during and after feeding the babies. Outcome parameters were plasma concentrations of ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), leptin, adiponectin, prolactin, cortisol, insulin, glucose and lipid values. At baseline, circulating PYY concentrations were significantly increased in lactating mothers (100·3 (se 6·7) pg/ml) v. non-lactating mothers (73·6 (se 4·9) pg/ml, P=0·008) and v. the control group (70·2 (se 9) pg/ml, P=0·021). We found no differences in ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin values. Baseline prolactin concentrations were over 4-fold higher in lactating mothers (P<0·001). Lactating women had reduced TAG levels and LDL-cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio, but increased waist circumference, when compared with non-lactating women. Breast-feeding sessions further elevated circulating prolactin (P<0·001), but induced no acute effects on appetite-regulating hormones. In summary, one single breast-feeding session did not acutely modulate circulating appetite-regulating hormones, but increased baseline PYY concentrations are associated with prolonged lactation. PYY might play a role in the coordination of energy balance during lactation, increasing fat mobilisation from maternal depots and ensuring adequate milk production for the demands of the growing infant. PMID:26299586

  11. Regeneration of Aqueous Periodate Solutions by Ozone Treatment: A Sustainable Approach for Dialdehyde Cellulose Production.

    PubMed

    Koprivica, Slavica; Siller, Martin; Hosoya, Takashi; Roggenstein, Walter; Rosenau, Thomas; Potthast, Antje

    2016-04-21

    A method for easy and fast regeneration of aqueous periodate solutions from dialdehyde cellulose (DAC) production by ozone treatment is presented, along with a direct and reliable simultaneous quantification of iodate and periodate by reversed-phase HPLC. The influence of iodate and ozone concentration, solution pH, and reaction time on the regeneration efficiency was studied, as well as the reaction kinetics. Regeneration of spent periodate solutions by ozone was successfully performed in alkaline medium, which favors the formation of free (.) OH radicals, as supported by the addition of radical scavengers and quantum mechanical calculations. At pH 13 and an ozone concentration of approximately 150 mg L(-1) , periodate was completely regenerated from a 100 mm solution of iodate within 1 h at room temperature. A cyclic process of cellulose oxidation and subsequent regeneration of spent periodate with 90 % efficiency has been developed. So far, commercial applications of DAC have been hampered by difficulties in reusing the costly periodate. This work overcomes this hurdle and presents a highly efficient, clean, and low-cost protocol for the preparation of DAC with integrated periodate recycling, with the possibility of scaling the process up.

  12. Is psychotherapy mandatory during the acute refeeding period in the treatment of anorexia nervosa?

    PubMed

    Danziger, Y; Carel, C A; Tyano, S; Mimouni, M

    1989-07-01

    Forty-five adolescent and preadolescent patients (42 females, three males) with anorexia nervosa (AN) were treated in a pediatric day care unit of a large urban hospital by a multidisciplinary team. In our treatment model, the pediatrician has the responsibility for the initial evaluation and physical rehabilitation while the pediatric psychiatrist does the initial evaluation of the patient and family and is available for intervention in an emergency. Parents are actively involved in the treatment program. Family psychotherapy is recommended for each patient and his or her family. Among 45 patients, 24 did not enter psychotherapy during the first 2 months of the refeeding period, while the remaining 21 patients started psychotherapy (family and/or individual) during this period. Weight gain was higher in the group without formal psychotherapy during the initial period of refeeding (7.3 +/- 3.1 kg versus 5 +/- 2.5 kg; p less than 0.01). It is suggested that the initiation of structured psychotherapy is not mandatory and does not contribute to treatment effectiveness in the acute phase when emaciation and negativism may hinder the psychotherapeutic process. We believe a multidisciplinary team, together with the parents, is the treatment of choice during the acute phase of AN.

  13. Social-Cognitive Behaviors and Playmate Preferences in Same-Age and Mixed-Age Classrooms over a 6-Month Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roopnarine, Jaipaul L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Observations of mixed-age classrooms of three and four year olds (n=36), of three year olds (n=27), and four year olds (n=31) found significant age differences in social and cognitive play for same-age, but not mixed-age, classes. Implications for early childhood education are discussed. (SLD)

  14. Study of Platelet-Rich Plasma Injections in the Treatment of Androgenetic Alopecia Through an One-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Gkini, Maria-Angeliki; Kouskoukis, Alexandros-Efstratios; Tripsianis, Gregory; Rigopoulos, Dimitris; Kouskoukis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Background: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is defined as an autologous concentration of plasma with a greater count of platelets than that of whole blood. Its action depends on the released growth factors from platelets. It has been investigated and used in numerous fields of medicine. Recently, PRP has received growing attention as a potential therapeutic tool for hair loss. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of PRP injections in the scalp of patients with androgenetic alopecia. Settings and Design: Prospective cohort study. Materials and Methods: 20 patients, 18 males and 2 females, with androgenetic alopecia were enrolled in the study. PRP was prepared using a single spin method (Regenlab SA). Upon activation, it was injected in the androgen-related areas of scalp. Three treatment sessions were performed with an interval of 21 days and a booster session at 6 months following the onset of therapy. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis of the data was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 19.0 (IBM, NY, USA). Results: Hair loss reduced and at 3 months it reached normal levels. Hair density reached a peak at 3 months (170.70 ± 37.81, P < 0.001). At 6 months and at 1 year, it was significantly increased, 156.25 ± 37.75 (P < 0.001) and 153.70 ± 39.92 (P < 0.001) respectively, comparing to baseline. Patients were satisfied with a mean result rating of 7.1 on a scale of 1-10. No remarkable adverse effects were noted. Conclusions: Our data suggest that PRP injections may have a positive therapeutic effect on male and female pattern hair loss without remarkable major side effects. Further studies are needed to confirm its efficacy. PMID:25722600

  15. Projected outcomes of 6-month delay in exception points versus an equivalent Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score for hepatocellular carcinoma liver transplant candidates.

    PubMed

    Alver, Sarah K; Lorenz, Douglas J; Marvin, Michael R; Brock, Guy N

    2016-10-01

    The United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) recently implemented a 6-month delay before granting exception points to liver transplantation candidates with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to address disparity in transplantation access between HCC and non-HCC patients. An HCC-specific scoring scheme, the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease equivalent (MELDEQ ), has also been developed. We compared projected dropout and transplant probabilities and posttransplant survival for HCC and non-HCC patients under the 6-month delay and the MELDEQ using UNOS data from October 1, 2009, to June 30, 2014, and multistate modeling. Overall (combined HCC and non-HCC) wait-list dropout was similar under both schemes and slightly improved (though not statistically significant) compared to actual data. Projected HCC wait-list dropout was similar between the MELDEQ and 6-month delay at 6 months but thereafter started to differ, with the 6-month delay eventually favoring HCC patients (3-year dropout 10.0% [9.0%-11.0%] for HCC versus 14.1% [13.6%-14.6%]) for non-HCC) and the MELDEQ favoring non-HCC patients (3-year dropout 16.0% [13.2%-18.8%] for HCC versus 12.3% [11.9%-12.7%] for non-HCC). Projected transplant probabilities for HCC patients were substantially lower under the MELDEQ compared to the 6-month delay (26.6% versus 83.8% by 3 years, respectively). Projected HCC posttransplant survival under the 6-month delay was similar to actual, but slightly worse under the MELDEQ (2-year survival 82.9% [81.7%-84.2%] versus actual of 85.5% [84.3%-86.7%]). In conclusion, although the 6-month delay improves equity in transplant and dropout between HCC and non-HCC candidates, disparity between the 2 groups may still exist after 6 months of wait-list time. Projections under the MELDEQ , however, appear to disadvantage HCC patients. Therefore, modification to the exception point progression or refinement of an HCC prioritization score may be warranted. Liver Transplantation 22 1343-1355 2016 AASLD.

  16. Is 6 months still the best for exclusive breastfeeding and introduction of solids? A literature review with consideration to the risk of the development of allergies.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Joy; Malley, Kathryn; Snell, Robynne

    2009-07-01

    Health professionals advising mothers on the introduction of solid foods to infants need evidence-based guidelines. A literature review on this topic was undertaken to examine the current international recommendations of expert bodies and evidence-based research published since 2003. Particular reference in this review is made to the timing of introducing food allergens and the risk of development of allergy in the child. Recommendations in developed countries of reducing this risk by avoidance of allergenic foods until the child is of varying ages past 6 months have been challenged by recent population studies. Where the risk of allergy is a key consideration, currently-available research suggests that introducing solids at 4-6 months may result in the lowest allergy risk. When all aspects of health are taken into account, the recommended duration of exclusive breastfeeding and age of introduction of solids were confirmed to be 6 months, but no later.

  17. [The treatment of bipolar disorder during pregnancy and the postpartum period].

    PubMed

    Gülöksüz, Sinan; Akdeniz, Fisun; Ince, Bahri; Oral, Esat Timuçin

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of bipolar disorder (BD) in males and females is almost equal. The onset of BD in females typically occurs during the reproductive years, complicating its treatment. Although it was once believed that pregnancy prevents recurrence, studies have shown that recurrence is common and severe during pregnancy. On the other hand, the effects of pharmacological treatment on obstetrical outcome are not well known and some of these agents are considered teratogenic. Thus, the decision to treat pregnant patients with psychotropic agents requires solving an ethical dilemma. Risk-benefit decisions should be made while considering both the risk of relapse of BD and its morbidity, and the risk of fetal exposure to psychotropic medications. Moreover, the risk of recurrence increases dramatically in the postpartum period. It is well known that all of the psychotropic medications studied enter the breast milk. Thus, their effects on infants should be considered while prescribing for a breastfeeding mother. The aim of this review was to discuss the safety profiles of the treatment options for pregnant and breastfeeding BD patients. Firstly, each medication's effects on organ dysgenesis, neonatal toxicity, and neurobehavioral development, and their associated adverse events during pregnancy and the postpartum period are discussed, with a focus on the emerging literature. Given this background, practical suggestions on tailoring treatment in BD patients, from preconception to breastfeeding are highlighted.

  18. Treatment of Class II, Division 2 in the late growth period.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, H; Hirschfelder, U

    1998-01-01

    The "Deckbiss" with skeletal Class II jaw relationship sometimes presents a considerable therapeutic problem, particularly in the late growth period (DP3U), as regards the coordination of dental and skeletal treatment objectives. An effective treatment approach was demonstrated: a modified Herbst appliance used simultaneously with fixed appliances in the maxilla. The sample comprised 12 male (14.0 +/- 0.9 years old) and 10 female (12.3 +/- 0.4 years old) patients. Correction of the distal occlusion was achieved in all patients by means of the Herbst appliance, which was removed after an average time period of 6.4 +/- 0.2 months. In the mandible the multibracket appliances were then immediately inserted, and Class II elastics were used for retention. Maximum anchorage was required in the maxilla as well as in the mandible. Complete diagnostic records were made at the beginning of the treatment as well as 6 and 12 months later, in order to document skeletal and dental changes. A dental and skeletal Class I relationship was achieved in all cases. A significant improvement was recorded in the vertical jaw base relationship; this was still stable after a period of 12 months. In the dental area in particular, a so-called high-pull headgear effect (intrusion and distalization 16, 26) and intrusion of teeth 34, 44 were registered. Only a minor protrusion of the mandibular incisors was observed. Reinforcement of the bands reduced the failure rate significantly. The Herbst appliance does not represent a standard treatment for Class II. Its indication range is limited.

  19. Formation of nanoporous structures in metallic materials by pulse-periodic laser treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murzin, Serguei P.

    2015-09-01

    A method of the formation of nanoporous structures in metallic materials by pulse-periodic laser treatment was developed. In this study, the multicomponent aluminum-iron brass was considered and the nanoporous structure across the entire cross section of the material with a thickness of 50 μm was formed. The method was implemented using a CO2 laser processing unit. The pulse-periodic laser treatment of the Cu-Zn-Al-Fe alloy with pulse frequency of 5 Hz has led to the formation of nanosized cavities due to accumulation of internal stresses during cyclic heating and cooling at high speeds. It was determined that the pores of a channel type with average widths of 80-100 nm are formed in the central region of the heat-affected zone during laser action with thermocycling. When implementing the chosen conditions of the pulse-periodic laser processing, the localness in depth and area of the physical processes occurring in the heat-affected zone is ensured, while maintaining the original properties of the material and the absence of significant deformations in the rest of the volume. This patented process is perspective for the production not only catalysts for chemical reactions, but for ultrafiltration and microfiltration membranes as well.

  20. Persistent fear of aftershocks, impairment of working memory, and acute stress disorder predict post-traumatic stress disorder: 6-month follow-up of help seekers following the L'Aquila earthquake.

    PubMed

    Roncone, Rita; Giusti, Laura; Mazza, Monica; Bianchini, Valeria; Ussorio, Donatella; Pollice, Rocco; Casacchia, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our 6-month follow-up study was to assess predictors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among individuals seeking treatment at the General Hospital Psychiatric Unit within the first month following the L'Aquila earthquake. Clinical, trauma-related and neurocognitive variables were considered. At the 6-month follow-up, 91 (74.5%) out of 122 subjects were re-assessed and administered the Impact of Events Scale-revised (IES-R) for the detection of PTSD according to DSM-IV criteria. Within 4 weeks following the earthquake, patients were assessed with a checklist of traumatic-event-related variables, along with the Stanford Acute Stress Disorder Questionnaire (SASDQ) for the detection of ASD, with a short battery on working (Wechler Memory Scale-R, Digit Forward and Backward) and verbal memory (subtest of Milan Overall Dementia Assessment, MODA). A statistically significant higher proportion of subjects affected by 'partial' ASD showed a PTSD diagnosis (80.6%, N = 29) compared to not diagnosed subjects (40%, N = 22) and a PTSD diagnosis was shown by all the 4 subjects (4.4%) affected by 'full' ASD at the entry in the study. At the 6-month follow-up 56% of the sample could be considered affected by PTSD on the IES-R scale. The results of the logistic regression analysis on our selected predictors indicated that the persistent fear of aftershocks seemed to increase by over 57 times the likelihood of positive estimate of PTSD, followed by impairment of working memory backward (OR 48.2), and having being diagnosed as ASD case in the first 4 week after the earthquake (OR 17.4). This study underlines the importance of identifying PTSD predictors, in order to planning early treatment interventions after natural disasters. PMID:24324929

  1. 78 FR 54218 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 6-Month Extension of Final Determination for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... that are not only important for airport safety, agricultural use, and restoration activities, but also... Mazama Pocket Gopher as Threatened On December 11, 2012, we published a proposed rule (77 FR 73770) to... comment period for an additional 30 days to accept additional public comments (78 FR 20074; April 3,...

  2. 76 FR 75858 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 6-Month Extension of Final Determination for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... published a proposed rule (75 FR 77801) to list the dunes sagebrush lizard, a lizard known from southeastern... the dunes sagebrush lizard that was published in the Federal Register on December 14, 2010 (75 FR... public meetings in April 2011 and reopened the comment period to accept additional public comments (76...

  3. Gaze Behavior and Affect at 6-Months: Predicting Clinical Outcomes and Language Development in Typically Developing Infants and Infants At-Risk for Autism

    PubMed Central

    Young, Gregory S.; Merin, Noah; Rogers, Sally J.; Ozonoff, Sally

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents follow-up longitudinal data to research that previously suggested the possibility of abnormal gaze behavior marked by decreased eye contact in a subgroup of 6-month-old infants at risk for autism (Merin et al., 2007). Using eye-tracking data and behavioral data recorded during a live mother-infant interaction involving the still-face procedure, the predictive utility of gaze behavior and affective behaviors at 6 months was examined using diagnostic outcome data obtained longitudinally over the following 18 months. Results revealed that none of the infants previously identified as showing lower rates of eye-contact had any signs of autism at outcome. In contrast, three infants who were diagnosed with autism demonstrated consistent gaze to the eye region and typical affective responses at 6 months. Individual differences in face scanning and affective responsivity during the live interaction were not related to any continuous measures of symptom frequency or symptom severity. In contrast, results of growth curve models for language development revealed significant relationships between face scanning and expressive language. Greater amounts of fixation to the mother’s mouth during live interaction predicted higher levels of expressive language at outcome and greater rates of growth. These findings suggest that although gaze behavior at 6 months may not provide early markers for autism as initially conceived, gaze to the mouth in particular may be useful in predicting individual differences in language development. PMID:19702771

  4. Effect of a 6-month school-based physical activity program on body composition and physical fitness in lean and obese schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Thivel, David; Isacco, Laurie; Lazaar, Nordine; Aucouturier, Julien; Ratel, Sébastien; Doré, Eric; Meyer, Martine; Duché, Pascale

    2011-11-01

    Few studies have investigated the impact of school-based physical activity interventions on anthropometric characteristics concomitantly with aerobic and anaerobic capacities in young children. The present study aimed to assess the effect of a 6-month physical activity program on body composition and physical fitness among primary schoolchildren. Four hundred fifty-seven children aged 6 to 10 years were randomly assigned to the intervention group (229 children) or observational group (228 children). Participants' height and weight were assessed, and obesity was determined using French reference curves for BMI. The sum of the four skinfolds and fat-free mass were determined. Ground tests were used to assess aerobic (20-m shuttle run test) and anaerobic (cycling peak power) fitness before and after a 6-month physical activity intervention. The anthropometric modifications obtained over the 6 months cannot be attributed to the intervention as the ANOVA revealed no group effect (intervention vs. group). However, anaerobic and aerobic fitness were significantly improved, thanks to the program in both lean and obese children. A 6-month school-based physical activity intervention in 6- to 10-year-old children did not yield positive anthropometric improvements, but appears effective in terms of aerobic and anaerobic physical fitness. Two physical activity sessions per week in addition to standard physical education classes in primary schoolchildren bring effective results for the prevention of childhood obesity. PMID:21475968

  5. Health Status, Cognitive and Motor Development of Young Children Adopted from China, East Asia, and Russia across the First 6 Months after Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerleau, Andree; Malcuit, Gerard; Chicoine, Jean-Francois; Seguin, Renee; Belhumeur, Celine; Germain, Patricia; Amyot, Isabelle; Jeliu, Gloria

    2005-01-01

    We compared health status, anthropometric and psychological development of 123 children adopted before 18 months of age from China, East Asia (Vietnam, Taiwan, Thailand, South Korea, Cambodia), and Eastern Europe (mostly Russia). Data were collected close to the time of arrival, and 3 and 6 months later. Anthropometric measures included weight,…

  6. Effects of breast milk and milk formula on synthesized speech sound-induced event-related potentials at 3 and 6 months of age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of breast milk and milk formula supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid on speech processing were investigated by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) to synthesized /pa/ and /ba/ (oddball paradigm, 80%:20%) at 3 and 6 months of age. Behavioral assessment was also ob...

  7. Emerging Perception of Causality in Action-and-Reaction Sequences from 4 to 6 Months of Age: Is It Domain-Specific?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlottmann, Anne; Ray, Elizabeth D.; Surian, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments (N=136) studied how 4- to 6-month-olds perceive a simple schematic event, seen as goal-directed action and reaction from 3 years of age. In our causal reaction event, a red square moved toward a blue square, stopping prior to contact. Blue began to move away before red stopped, so that both briefly moved simultaneously at a…

  8. Effect of a 6-month school-based physical activity program on body composition and physical fitness in lean and obese schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Thivel, David; Isacco, Laurie; Lazaar, Nordine; Aucouturier, Julien; Ratel, Sébastien; Doré, Eric; Meyer, Martine; Duché, Pascale

    2011-11-01

    Few studies have investigated the impact of school-based physical activity interventions on anthropometric characteristics concomitantly with aerobic and anaerobic capacities in young children. The present study aimed to assess the effect of a 6-month physical activity program on body composition and physical fitness among primary schoolchildren. Four hundred fifty-seven children aged 6 to 10 years were randomly assigned to the intervention group (229 children) or observational group (228 children). Participants' height and weight were assessed, and obesity was determined using French reference curves for BMI. The sum of the four skinfolds and fat-free mass were determined. Ground tests were used to assess aerobic (20-m shuttle run test) and anaerobic (cycling peak power) fitness before and after a 6-month physical activity intervention. The anthropometric modifications obtained over the 6 months cannot be attributed to the intervention as the ANOVA revealed no group effect (intervention vs. group). However, anaerobic and aerobic fitness were significantly improved, thanks to the program in both lean and obese children. A 6-month school-based physical activity intervention in 6- to 10-year-old children did not yield positive anthropometric improvements, but appears effective in terms of aerobic and anaerobic physical fitness. Two physical activity sessions per week in addition to standard physical education classes in primary schoolchildren bring effective results for the prevention of childhood obesity.

  9. Face Detection in Complex Visual Displays: An Eye-Tracking Study with 3- and 6-Month-Old Infants and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Giorgio, Elisa; Turati, Chiara; Altoe, Gianmarco; Simion, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    The ability to detect and prefer a face when embedded in complex visual displays was investigated in 3- and 6-month-old infants, as well as in adults, through a modified version of the visual search paradigm and the recording of eye movements. Participants "(N" = 43) were shown 32 visual displays that comprised a target face among 3 or 5…

  10. Sustained efficacy of agomelatine 10 mg, 25 mg, and 25-50 mg on depressive symptoms and functional outcomes in patients with major depressive disorder. A placebo-controlled study over 6 months.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Sidney H; Avedisova, Alla; Belaïdi, Carole; Picarel-Blanchot, Françoise; de Bodinat, Christian

    2016-02-01

    agomelatine. The threshold dose of 25 mg for initiating treatment can be maintained over 6 months in depressed patients. PMID:26708320

  11. The effects of a mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction program on mood and symptoms of stress in cancer outpatients: 6-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Carlson, L E; Ursuliak, Z; Goodey, E; Angen, M; Speca, M

    2001-03-01

    The goals of this work were to assess the effects of participation in a mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction program on mood disturbance and symptoms of stress in cancer outpatients immediately after and 6 months after program completion. A convenience sample of eligible cancer patients were enrolled after they had given informed consent. All patients completed the Profile of Mood States (POMS) and Symptoms of Stress Inventory (SOSI) both before and after the intervention and 6 months later. The intervention consisted of a mindfulness meditation group lasting 1.5 h each week for 7 weeks, plus daily home meditation practice. A total of 89 patients, average age 51, provided pre-intervention data. Eighty patients provided post-intervention data, and 54 completed the 6-month follow-up The participants were heterogeneous with respect to type and stage of cancer. Patients' scores decreased significantly from before to after the intervention on the POMS and SOSI total scores and most subscales, indicating less mood disturbance and fewer symptoms of stress, and these improvements were maintained at the 6-month follow-up. More advanced stages of cancer were associated with less initial mood disturbance, while more home practice and higher initial POMS scores predicted improvements on the POMS between the pre- and post-intervention scores. Female gender and more education were associated with higher initial SOSI scores, and improvements on the SOSI were predicted by more education and greater initial mood disturbance. This program was effective in decreasing mood disturbance and stress symptoms for up to 6 months in both male and female patients with a wide variety of cancer diagnoses, stages of illness, and educational background, and with disparate ages.

  12. The evolution of untreated borderline and subclinical rejections at first month kidney allograft biopsy in comparison with histological changes at 6 months protocol biopsies.

    PubMed

    Masin-Spasovska, J; Spasovski, G; Dzikova, S; Petrusevska, G; Dimova, B; Lekovski, Lj; Popov, Z; Ivanovski, N; Polenakovic, M

    2005-08-01

    Our study sought to identify the possible implications of histological findings of borderline and subclinical rejections as well as histological markers of chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) in protocol biopsies at 1 and 6 months after living-related kidney transplantation. Twenty-eight paired allograft biopsies were blindly reviewed using Banff '97 criteria, among which only 10.7% (6/56) showed no histopathological lesions. BR was found in 9/28 (32.1%) and 6/28 (21.4%), and SR in 3/28 (10.7%) and 10/28 (35.7%) of the patients, in the 1 and 6 month biopsies, respectively. The mean CAN score (sum of histological markers for chronicity) increased significantly at 6 months biopsy, 1.57 +/- 1.36 vs. 4.36 +/- 2.32 (p < 0.01). When compared according to chronicity index (CI < 5 >), the high CI group had a mean CAN score of 2.36 +/- 1.15 at 1 month, which increased to 5.14 +/- 1.99 at 6 months biopsy (188.9%). The proportion of these changes in low CI group were also increased from 0.79 +/- 1.12 to 3.57 +/- 2.38 (451.9%). In conclusion, a protocol 1 month biopsy may uncover a high prevalence of BR or SR in stable allografts. The presence of an untreated BR or SR in biopsies with low chronicity index showed greater susceptibility to histological deterioration on the 6 month biopsy, associated with rapid impairment of graft function and chronic allograft nephropathy.

  13. An immersive “simulation week” enhances clinical performance of incoming surgical interns improved performance persists at 6 months follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pritam; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Pucher, Philip H.; Hashimoto, Daniel A.; Beyer-Berjot, Laura; Bharathan, Rasiah; Middleton, Katherine E.; Jones, Joanne; Darzi, Ara

    2015-01-01

    Background The transition from student to intern can be challenging. The “August” or “July effect” describes increased errors and reduced patient safety during this transition. The study objectives were to develop, pilot, and evaluate clinical performance after an immersive simulation course for incoming interns. Methods Graduating students were recruited for a 1-week immersive simulation course. Controls received no simulation training. Primary outcome (at baseline, and 1 and 6 months) was clinical performance on Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCE) of clinical procedures and surgical technical skills. Secondary outcomes were self-reported confidence and clinical procedure logbook data. Results Nineteen students were recruited. Sixteen completed the 6-month follow-up, 10 in the intervention group and 6 in the control group. No differences were demonstrated between interventions and controls at baseline (OSCE [median, 66 vs 78; P = .181], technical skills [48 vs 52.5; P = .381], and confidence [101 vs 96; P = .368]). Interventions outperformed controls at 1 month (OSCE [111 vs 82; P = .001], technical skills [78.5 vs 63; P = .030], and confidence [142 vs 119; P < .001]), and 6 months (OSCE [107 vs 93; P = .007], technical skills [92.5 vs 69; P = .044], and confidence [148 vs 129; P = .022]). No differences were observed in numbers of clinical procedures performed at 1 (P = .958), 4 (P = .093), or 6 months (P = .713). Conclusion The immersive simulation course objectively improved subjects’ clinical skills, technical skills, and confidence. Despite similar clinical experience as controls, the intervention group’s improved performance persisted at 6 months follow-up. This feasible and effective intervention to ease transition from student to intern could reduce errors and enhance patient safety. PMID:25633735

  14. A Prospective Multi-center Trial of Escherichia coli Extract for the Prophylactic Treatment of Patients with Chronically Recurrent Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kun Suk; Kim, Ji-Yoon; Jeong, In Gab; Paick, Jae-Seung; Son, Hwancheol; Lim, Dae Jung; Shim, Hong Bang; Park, Won Hee; Jung, Hee Chang

    2010-01-01

    We have assessed the efficacy and safety of Escherichia coli extract (ECE; Uro-Vaxom®) which contains active immunostimulating fractions, in the prophylactic treatment of chronically recurrent cystitis. Forty-two patients with more than 2 episodes of cystitis in the proceeding 6 months were treated for 3 months with one capsule daily of ECE and observed for a further 6 months. The primary efficacy criterion was the number of episodes of recurrent cystitis during the 6 months after treatment compared to those during the 6 months before treatment. At the end of the 9-month trial, 34 patients (all women) were eligible for statistical analysis. Their mean age was 56.4 yr (range, 34-75 yr), and they had experienced recurrent urinary tract infections for 7.2±5.2 yr. The number of recurrences was significantly lower during the 6-month follow-up period than during the 6 months preceding the trial (0.35 vs. 4.26, P<0.001). During the follow-up, 28 (82.4%) patients had no recurrences and 4 (11.8%) had 1 each. In patients who relapsed, ECE alleviated cystitis symptoms, including painful voiding, frequency and urgency. There were no serious adverse events related to the study drug. Our study demonstrates the efficacy and safety of ECE in the prophylactic treatment of chronically recurrent cystitis. PMID:20191044

  15. Treatment of bronchial asthma with low-level laser in attack-free period at children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ailioaie, C.; Ailioaie, Laura

    2000-06-01

    Bronchial asthma is a common disease in both the pediatric and adult populations, characterized by wide variations over short periods of time in resistance to airflow in intrapulmonary airways. A primary goal in the use of low- level laser therapy (LLLT) was the safe, effective and rapid palliation of symptoms owing to tracheal or bronchial obstruction. We have investigated the effects of LLLT comparatively with other modality trials in children's asthma. In the study were included 98 patients aged 10-18 years diagnosed with moderate or severe asthma, in attack- free period. The patients were divided into 3 groups. Group 1 received only laser therapy using extra meridian acupuncture points and scanning technique. Group 2 was treated only with inhaled Serevent 2 X 25 micrometers , two times daily, 3 months. Group 3 was tread with Theophylline retard in dosage of 15-mg/kg/12 h, 3 months. At the end of treatment we remarked a noticeable improvement of the clinical, functional and immunological characteristics at 83 percent of patients in group 1, comparatively with only 70 percent (group 2) and 53 percent (group 3). The LLLT had a very good action on bronchial patency , displayed an immunocorrecting action and is recommended in attack-free periods at children.

  16. Change of Serum BNP Between Admission and Discharge After Acute Decompensated Heart Failure Is a Better Predictor of 6-Month All-Cause Mortality Than the Single BNP Value Determined at Admission

    PubMed Central

    De Vecchis, Renato; Ariano, Carmelina; Giandomenico, Giuseppe; Di Maio, Marco; Baldi, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    Background B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is regarded as a reliable predictor of outcome in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). However, according to some scholars, a single isolated measurement of serum BNP at the time of hospital admission would not be sufficient to provide reliable prognostic information. Methods A retrospective study was carried out on patients hospitalized for ADHF, who had then undergone follow-up of at least 6 months, in order to see if there was any difference in midterm mortality among patients with rising BNP at discharge as compared to those with decreasing BNP at discharge. Medical records had to be carefully examined to divide the case records into two groups, the former characterized by an increase in BNP during hospitalization, and the latter showing a decrease in BNP from the time of admission to the time of discharge. Results Ultimately, 177 patients were enrolled in a retrospective study. Among them, 53 patients (29.94%) had increased BNPs at the time of discharge relative to admission, whereas 124 (70.06%) exhibited decreases in serum BNP during their hospital stay. The group with patients who exhibited BNP increases at the time of discharge had higher degree of congestion evident in the higher frequency of persistent jugular venous distention (odds ratio: 3.72; P = 0.0001) and persistent orthopnea at discharge (odds ratio: 2.93; P = 0.0016). Moreover, patients with increased BNP at the time of discharge had a lower reduction in inferior vena cava maximum diameter (1.58 ± 2.2 mm vs. 6.32 ± 1.82 mm; P = 0.001 (one-way ANOVA)). In contrast, there was no significant difference in weight loss when patients with increased BNP at discharge were compared to those with no such increase. A total of 14 patients (7.9%) died during the 6-month follow-up period. Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed that BNP increase at the time of discharge was an independent predictor of 6-month all-cause mortality after

  17. Change of Serum BNP Between Admission and Discharge After Acute Decompensated Heart Failure Is a Better Predictor of 6-Month All-Cause Mortality Than the Single BNP Value Determined at Admission

    PubMed Central

    De Vecchis, Renato; Ariano, Carmelina; Giandomenico, Giuseppe; Di Maio, Marco; Baldi, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    Background B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is regarded as a reliable predictor of outcome in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). However, according to some scholars, a single isolated measurement of serum BNP at the time of hospital admission would not be sufficient to provide reliable prognostic information. Methods A retrospective study was carried out on patients hospitalized for ADHF, who had then undergone follow-up of at least 6 months, in order to see if there was any difference in midterm mortality among patients with rising BNP at discharge as compared to those with decreasing BNP at discharge. Medical records had to be carefully examined to divide the case records into two groups, the former characterized by an increase in BNP during hospitalization, and the latter showing a decrease in BNP from the time of admission to the time of discharge. Results Ultimately, 177 patients were enrolled in a retrospective study. Among them, 53 patients (29.94%) had increased BNPs at the time of discharge relative to admission, whereas 124 (70.06%) exhibited decreases in serum BNP during their hospital stay. The group with patients who exhibited BNP increases at the time of discharge had higher degree of congestion evident in the higher frequency of persistent jugular venous distention (odds ratio: 3.72; P = 0.0001) and persistent orthopnea at discharge (odds ratio: 2.93; P = 0.0016). Moreover, patients with increased BNP at the time of discharge had a lower reduction in inferior vena cava maximum diameter (1.58 ± 2.2 mm vs. 6.32 ± 1.82 mm; P = 0.001 (one-way ANOVA)). In contrast, there was no significant difference in weight loss when patients with increased BNP at discharge were compared to those with no such increase. A total of 14 patients (7.9%) died during the 6-month follow-up period. Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed that BNP increase at the time of discharge was an independent predictor of 6-month all-cause mortality after

  18. Safety and trough concentrations of nevirapine prophylaxis given daily, twice weekly, or weekly in breast-feeding infants from birth to 6 months.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Avinash K; Coovadia, Hoosen M; Mirochnick, Mark M; Maldonado, Yvonne; Mofenson, Lynne M; Eshleman, Susan H; Fleming, Thomas; Emel, Lynda; George, Kathy; Katzenstein, David A; Wells, Jennifer; Maponga, Charles C; Mwatha, Anthony; Jones, Samuel Adeniyi; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Bassett, Mary T

    2003-12-15

    Despite the success of antiretroviral prophylaxis in reducing mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission, postpartum transmission through breast milk remains a problem. Antiretroviral administration to the infant during the period of breast-feeding could protect against postnatal transmission. An open-label phase 1/2 study was designed to assess the safety and trough concentrations of nevirapine (NVP) given once weekly (OW), twice weekly (TW), or once daily (OD) to HIV-exposed breast-feeding infants for 24 weeks. Following maternal dosing with 200 mg NVP orally at onset of labor, breast-feeding infants were randomized within 48 hours of birth to 1 of 3 regimens: arm 1, NVP given OW (4 mg/kg from birth to 14 days, upward arrow to 8 mg/kg from 15 days to 24 weeks), arm 2, NVP given TW (4 mg/kg from birth to 14 days, upward arrow to 8 mg/kg from 15 days to 24 weeks), and arm 3, NVP given OD (2 mg/kg from birth to 14 days, upward arrow to 4 mg/kg from 15 days to 24 weeks). Trough NVP concentrations and clinical and laboratory abnormalities were monitored. Of the 75 infants randomized (26 to OW, 25 to TW, and 24 to OD dosing), 63 completed the 32-week follow-up visit. No severe skin, hepatic, or renal toxicity related to NVP was observed. Neutropenia occurred in 8 infants. Trough NVP levels were lower than the therapeutic target (100 ng/mL) in 48 of 75 (64.0%) samples from infants in the OW arm, 3 of 65 (4.6%) samples in the TW arm, and 0 of 72 samples in the OD arm. Median (range) trough NVP concentrations were 64 ng/mL (range: <25-1519 ng/mL) with OW dosing; 459 (range: <25-1386 ng/mL) with TW dosing; and 1348 (range: 108-4843 ng/ml) with OD dosing. Our data indicate that NVP prophylaxis for 6 months was safe and well tolerated in infants. OD NVP dosing resulted in all infants with trough concentration greater than the therapeutic target and maintenance of high drug concentrations. A phase 3 study is planned to assess the efficacy of OD infant NVP regimen to prevent breast

  19. Fusion and failure following anterior cervical plating with dynamic or rigid plates: 6-months results of a multi-centric, prospective, randomized, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Stulik, Jan; Chrobok, Jan; Ruffing, Sabine; Drumm, Jörg; Sova, Laurentius; Kucera, Ravel; Vyskocil, Tomas; Steudel, Wolf Ingo

    2007-01-01

    Anterior cervical plate fixation is an approved surgical technique for cervical spine stabilization in the presence of anterior cervical instability. Rigid plate design with screws rigidly locked to the plate is widely used and is thought to provide a better fixation for the treated spinal segment than a dynamic design in which the screws may slide when the graft is settling. Recent biomechanical studies showed that dynamic anterior plates provide a better graft loading possibly leading to accelerated spinal fusion with a lower incidence of implant complications. This, however, was investigated in vitro and does not necessarily mean to be the case in vivo, as well. Thus, the two major aspects of this study were to compare the speed of bone fusion and the rate of implant complications using either rigid- or dynamic plates. The study design is prospective, randomized, controlled, and multi-centric, having been approved by respective ethic committees of all participating sites. One hundred and thirty-two patients were included in this study and randomly assigned to one of the two groups, both undergoing routine level-1- or level-2 anterior cervical discectomy with autograft fusion receiving either a dynamic plate with screws being locked in ap - position (ABC, Aesculap, Germany), or a rigid plate (CSLP, Synthes, Switzerland). Segmental mobility and implant complications were compared after 3- and 6 months, respectively. All measurements were performed by an independent radiologist. Mobility results after 6 months were available for 77 patients (43 ABC/34 CSLP). Mean segmental mobility for the ABC group was 1.7 mm at the time of discharge, 1.4 mm after 3 months, and 0.8 mm after 6 months. For the CSLP- group the measurements were 1.0, 1.8, and 1.7 mm, respectively. The differences of mean segmental mobility were statistically significant between both groups after 6 months (P = 0.02). Four patients of the CSLP-group demonstrated surgical hardware complications

  20. Comparing different treatment modalities for partial nephrectomies without ischemic period: laser, Hydro-Jet and RF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boorder, Tjeerd; Boeken Kruger, Arto; Klaessens, John; Grimbergen, Matthijs; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf

    2008-02-01

    The treatment of partial nefrectomies is usually performed under a warm ischemic period. Recently, various treatment modalities have become available to perform a partial nefrectomy without clamping off the blood circulation. We have studied three devices in laboratory setting, investigating the thermal and high speed imaging techniques in tissue models and consequently, applying the instruments in the clinic during open procedures especially looking at efficacy and blood loss. The continuous wave 2.0 micron laser of 70 W (Revolix, LISA laser) is used as a fiber delivered knife cutting through circulated tissue with controlled hemostasis for vessels up to 3 mm diameter. The 2 μm wavelength effectively vaporizes tissue water and coagulates the smaller vessels. The Hydro-Jet (ERBE, Germany) uses high pressure (20-80 bar) to ejects a water jet of 40 um diameter at high velocity (10-30 m/s). The parenchyma is resected while vessels are preserved. Consequently, the exposed vessels can be coagulated in a controlled way with minimal blood loss. The water jet showed to induce cavitation bubbles that resect the soft tissue from the matrix leaving the elastic microvessels intact. Various systems are based on bipolar RF technology. We are using the Habib device (Rita 1500X RF generator) to create a coagulation zone around the tumor. Subsequently, the tumor can be resected along the coagulation zone with minimal bleeding. The treatment modalities investigated, have their own advantages and, stand-alone or in combination, can facilitate laparoscopic partial nephrectomies without an ischemic period.

  1. Linear-scaling explicitly correlated treatment of solids: Periodic local MP2-F12 method

    SciTech Connect

    Usvyat, Denis

    2013-11-21

    Theory and implementation of the periodic local MP2-F12 method in the 3*A fixed-amplitude ansatz is presented. The method is formulated in the direct space, employing local representation for the occupied, virtual, and auxiliary orbitals in the form of Wannier functions (WFs), projected atomic orbitals (PAOs), and atom-centered Gaussian-type orbitals, respectively. Local approximations are introduced, restricting the list of the explicitly correlated pairs, as well as occupied, virtual, and auxiliary spaces in the strong orthogonality projector to the pair-specific domains on the basis of spatial proximity of respective orbitals. The 4-index two-electron integrals appearing in the formalism are approximated via the direct-space density fitting technique. In this procedure, the fitting orbital spaces are also restricted to local fit-domains surrounding the fitted densities. The formulation of the method and its implementation exploits the translational symmetry and the site-group symmetries of the WFs. Test calculations are performed on LiH crystal. The results show that the periodic LMP2-F12 method substantially accelerates basis set convergence of the total correlation energy, and even more so the correlation energy differences. The resulting energies are quite insensitive to the resolution-of-the-identity domain sizes and the quality of the auxiliary basis sets. The convergence with the orbital domain size is somewhat slower, but still acceptable. Moreover, inclusion of slightly more diffuse functions, than those usually used in the periodic calculations, improves the convergence of the LMP2-F12 correlation energy with respect to both the size of the PAO-domains and the quality of the orbital basis set. At the same time, the essentially diffuse atomic orbitals from standard molecular basis sets, commonly utilized in molecular MP2-F12 calculations, but problematic in the periodic context, are not necessary for LMP2-F12 treatment of crystals.

  2. Activated sludge wastewater treatment plants optimisation to face pollution overloads during grape harvest periods.

    PubMed

    Beck, C; Prades, G; Sadowski, A G

    2005-01-01

    The principal objective of our study was to optimise a municipal activated sludge wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to face high organic flows due to viticulture effluents inputs. Treatment file optimization consisted in testing different treatment lines, changing the number and volume of biological basins and clarifiers, with or without a buffer basin upstream, with a view to achieving a better reduction of COD. The actual WWTP biological stage is composed of two aerated basins whose total volume is 1365 m3. The studied cases are successively, the installation of a single basin of 1365 m3, then of several basins whose total volume remains constant and equal to 1365 m3. Another case was also considered, that of an aerated basin followed by a first clarifier and then, by another aerated basin and a second clarifier. All scenarios presented below were evaluated, for standard dry weather conditions and for high organic load conditions, as encountered during the grape harvest period. The method used was to carry out various simulations, using numerical modelling, and to compare the impact of different process line scenarios and management strategies on the activated sludge WWTP efficiencies.

  3. Seismic monitoring results from the first 6 months of CO2 injection at the Aquistore geological storage site, Saskatchewan, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daley, T. M.; White, D. J.; Stork, A.; Schmitt, D. R.; Worth, K.; Harris, K.; Roberts, B.; Samson, C.; Kendal, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Aquistore Project, located in SE Saskatchewan, Canada, is a demonstration project for CO2 storage in a deep saline aquifer. CO2 captured from a nearby coal-fired power plant is being injected into a brine-filled sandstone formation at 3100-3300 m depth. CO2 injection commenced in April, 2015, at initial rates of up to 250 tonnes per day. Seismic monitoring methods have been employed to track the subsurface CO2 plume and to record any injection-induced microseismicity. Active seismic methods utilized include 4D surface seismics using a sparse permanent array, 4D vertical seismic profiles (VSP) with both downhole geophones and a fiber optic distributed acoustic sensor (DAS) system. Pre-injection baseline seismic surveys have established very good repeatability with NRMS values as low as 0.07. 3D finite-difference seismic modelling of fluid flow simulations is used with the repeatability estimates to determine the appropriate timing for the first CO2 monitor surveys. Time-lapse logging is being conducted on a regular basis to provide in situ measurement of the change in seismic velocity associated with changes in CO2 saturation. Continuous passive seismic recording has been ongoing since the summer of 2012 to establish background local seismicity prior to the start of CO2 injection. Passive monitoring is being conducted using two, 2.5 km long, orthogonal linear arrays of surface geophones.with 3-component short-period geophones, 3 broadband surface seismometers, and an array of 3-component short-period geophones in an observation well. No significant injection-related seismicity (Mw > -1) has been detected at the surface during the first 4 months of CO2 injection. On-going analysis of the downhole passive data will provide further information as to the occurrence of lower magnitude microseismicity (Mw of -1 to -3).

  4. Comparison of AIK-C measles vaccine in infants at 6 months with Schwarz vaccine at 9 months: a randomized controlled trial in Ghana.

    PubMed Central

    Nkrumah, F. K.; Osei-Kwasi, M.; Dunyo, S. K.; Koram, K. A.; Afari, E. A.

    1998-01-01

    In a randomized controlled trial in a measles endemic area, standard-dose (4.0 log10pfu) AIK-C measles vaccine administered at 6 months of age was compared to standard-dose Schwarz vaccine (3.7log10pfu) given at 9 months. Seroconversion rates at 3 and 6 months after immunization in the two groups were comparable and similar. The geometric mean titres achieved were, however, significantly higher in the Schwarz group (P < 0.05). No immediate serious side-effects were observed with either vaccine. We conclude that standard-dose AIK-C measles vaccine can be recommended for measles immunization in children below 9 months of age, especially in highly endemic and high-risk areas in developing countries. PMID:9803586

  5. Reference datasets for 2-treatment, 2-sequence, 2-period bioequivalence studies.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Helmut; Labes, Detlew; Fuglsang, Anders

    2014-11-01

    It is difficult to validate statistical software used to assess bioequivalence since very few datasets with known results are in the public domain, and the few that are published are of moderate size and balanced. The purpose of this paper is therefore to introduce reference datasets of varying complexity in terms of dataset size and characteristics (balance, range, outlier presence, residual error distribution) for 2-treatment, 2-period, 2-sequence bioequivalence studies and to report their point estimates and 90% confidence intervals which companies can use to validate their installations. The results for these datasets were calculated using the commercial packages EquivTest, Kinetica, SAS and WinNonlin, and the non-commercial package R. The results of three of these packages mostly agree, but imbalance between sequences seems to provoke questionable results with one package, which illustrates well the need for proper software validation.

  6. Clinical and microbiological effects of a sanguinaria-containing mouthrinse and dentifrice with and without fluoride during 6 months of use.

    PubMed

    Kopczyk, R A; Abrams, H; Brown, A T; Matheny, J L; Kaplan, A L

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy and safety of sanguinaria-containing regimens with and without fluoride using the American Dental Association guidelines for evaluating chemotherapeutic agents. The study was a 6-month, double-blind, 4-cell, placebo-controlled, parallel investigation involving 120 subjects. Following screening procedures, subjects were randomly assigned to 4 groups. Group 1 received a dentifrice containing 0.075% sanguinaria extract (SaE) and 2.0% zinc chloride (ZnCl2) in a dicalcium phosphate base, plus an oral rinse containing 0.03% SaE and 0.2% ZnCl2. Group 2 received identical products without SaE or ZnCl2. Group 3 received a dentifrice containing 0.8% sodium monofluorophosphate, 0.075% SaE, and 0.05% ZnCl2 in a silica base, plus an oral rinse containing 0.03% SaE and 0.2% ZnCl2. Group 4 products were identical to those of Group 3 but without SaE and ZnCl2. Supragingival plaque and gingival inflammation were scored at 0, 1, 2, 1.5, 3, 4.5, and 6 months; bleeding upon probing was measured at 1, 1.5, 3, and 6 months. Microbiological samples were taken from plaque, tongue, and cheek areas. The active products produced statistically significantly lower scores than the placebo agents for all indices (P less than .0001). Six-month plaque scores were 13.1% lower for Group 1 and 17.4% lower for Group 3 compared to placebo products. When the Plaque Severity Index was applied, the percentage reductions were 33% for Group 1 and 41% for Group 3 compared to placebos. Gingival inflammation scores were 16.7% lower for Group 1 and 18.1% lower for Group 3 at 6 months compared to placebo scores.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Risk and Protective Factors for Suicidality at 6-Month Follow-up in Adolescent Inpatients Who Attempted Suicide: An Exploratory Model

    PubMed Central

    Consoli, Angèle; Cohen, David; Bodeau, Nicolas; Guilé, Jean-Marc; Mirkovic, Bojan; Knafo, Alexandra; Mahé, Vincent; Laurent, Claudine; Renaud, Johanne; Labelle, Réal; Breton, Jean-Jacques; Gérardin, Priscille

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess risk and protective factors for suicidality at 6-month follow-up in adolescent inpatients after a suicide attempt. Methods: One hundred seven adolescents from 5 inpatient units who had a suicide attempt were seen at 6-month follow-up. Baseline measures included sociodemographics, mood and suicidality, dependence, borderline symptomatology, temperament and character inventory (TCI), reasons for living, spirituality, and coping scores. Results: At 6-month follow-up, 41 (38%) subjects relapsed from suicidal behaviours. Among them, 15 (14%) had repeated a suicide attempt. Higher depression and hopelessness scores, the occurrence of a new suicide attempt, or a new hospitalization belonged to the same factorial dimension (suicidality). Derived from the best-fit structural equation modelling for suicidality as an outcome measure at 6-month follow-up, risk factors among the baseline variables included: major depressive disorder, high depression scores, and high scores for TCI self-transcendence. Only one protective factor emerged: coping–hard work and achievement. Conclusion: In this very high-risk population, some established risk factors (for example, a history of suicide attempts) may not predict suicidality. Our results suggest that adolescents who retain high scores for depression or hopelessness, who remain depressed, or who express a low value for life or an abnormally high connection with the universe are at higher risk for suicidality and should be targeted for more intense intervention. Improving adolescent motivation in school and in work may be protective. Given the sample size, the model should be regarded as exploratory. PMID:25886668

  8. Patients in a depression collaborative care model of care: comparison of 6-month cost utilization data with usual care.

    PubMed

    Angstman, Kurt B; Williams, Mark D

    2010-04-01

    A collaborative care model (CCM) has been implemented for management of depression. This paper studies the impact that the CCM had on cost measures for the period of six months after initial diagnosis of depression compared to patients receiving usual care (UC). There was a significant increase in the CPT costs for the six months following diagnosis in the CCM group ($451.35 vs. $323.50, P < 0.001). The average CPT cost rank and CPT cost differential were also significantly increased in the CCM group. The adjusted means of the CPT costs were (when controlling for prior utilization) $452.11 for the CCM group and $322.09 for UC (P < 0.001). In the CCM group; there were 161 patients (73.5%) that achieved a clinical response for their depression compared to the UC group, which had a 15.1% (18/119) response rate (P < 0.001). There also was a significant difference between the groups in those who were symptoms free of their depression (PHQ-9 score < 5), with the CCM having 59.4% of the patients symptom-free compared to 10.9% of the UC group (P < 0.001). In this group of patients, CCM is associated with markedly improved clinical outcomes for depression, however with a modest short-term increase in CPT costs. PMID:23804062

  9. Personality profile among symptomatic and recovered patients with neck sprain injury, measured by MCMI-I acutely and 6 months after car accidents.

    PubMed

    Borchgrevink, G E; Stiles, T C; Borchgrevink, P C; Lereim, I

    1997-04-01

    The relationships between personality and psychiatric symptoms and long-lasting physical symptoms were assessed in 88 neck sprain patients injured in car accidents. The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-I) was completed at time of occurrence (intake) and 6 months after the injury. The neck sprain patients were divided into three subgroups according to symptoms 6 months after the accident. In addition, the total neck sprain group was compared with three other subject groups. The results indicated that the three neck sprain subgroups did not differ on the MCMI-I neither at intake nor 6 months later. The total neck sprain patients group was significantly different from patients with major depression on all scales of the MCMI-I, but not significantly different compared to patients with localized musculoskeletal pain. Compared to a group of health personnel, there were only a few significant differences. The study does not support the view that premorbid personality traits can predict outcome for neck sprain patients.

  10. Health Care Utilisation and Transitions between Health Care Settings in the Last 6 Months of Life in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Bähler, Caroline; Signorell, Andri; Reich, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Background Many efforts are undertaken in Switzerland to enable older and/or chronically ill patients to stay home longer at the end-of-life. One of the consequences might be an increased need for hospitalisations at the end-of-life, which goes along with burdensome transitions for patients and higher health care costs for the society. Aim We aimed to examine the health care utilisation in the last six months of life, including transitions between health care settings, in a Swiss adult population. Methods The study population consisted of 11'310 decedents of 2014 who were insured at the Helsana Group, the leading health insurance in Switzerland. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the health care utilisation by age group, taking into account individual and regional factors. Zero-inflated Poisson regression model was used to predict the number of transitions. Results Mean age was 78.1 in men and 83.8 in women. In the last six months of life, 94.7% of the decedents had at least one consultation; 61.6% were hospitalised at least once, with a mean length of stay of 28.3 days; and nursing home stays were seen in 47.4% of the decedents. Over the same time period, 64.5% were transferred at least once, and 12.9% experienced at least one burdensome transition. Main predictors for transitions were age, sex and chronic conditions. A high density of home care nurses was associated with a decrease, whereas a high density of ambulatory care physicians was associated with an increase in the number of transitions. Conclusions Health care utilisation was high in the last six months of life and a considerable number of decedents were being transferred. Advance care planning might prevent patients from numerous and particularly from burdensome transitions. PMID:27598939

  11. Disposable diaper use promotes consolidated nighttime sleep and positive mother-infant interactions in Chinese 6-month-olds.

    PubMed

    Lukowski, Angela F; Liu, Xicheng; Peirano, Patricio; Odio, Mauricio; Bauer, Patricia J

    2015-06-01

    The emergence of consolidated nighttime sleep and the formation and maintenance of parent-infant relationships are 2 primary developmental achievements of the infancy period. Despite the development of a transactional model that links parenting behaviors to infant sleep, limited attention has been devoted to examining experimental manipulations of infant sleep that may impact the discrete parent-infant interactions that may form the foundation for emerging attachment relationships. In the present study, infants were randomly assigned to wear high-absorbency disposable diapers or to continue using traditional low-absorbency cloth diapers that necessitate frequent changes and associated disruptions of nighttime sleep. Parents reported on infant sleep before and during the 6-week experimental manipulation; a subset of infants also wore actigraphs. Parents and infants also participated in a parent-infant interaction task both before and near the end of the experimental manipulation. Infants who wore cloth diapers experienced more frequent sleep disruptions overall as well as a greater number of disruptions that did and did not wake the infant from sleep. Infants who wore disposable diapers were rated as experiencing more engagement and positive affect near the end of the intervention relative to infants who wore cloth diapers; mothers of infants who wore disposable diapers were rated as more engaged and sensitive near the end of the intervention relative to mothers of infants who wore cloth diapers. These findings suggest that the disposable diaper manipulation was causally related to characteristics of mother-infant interactions that may form the foundation for emerging attachment relationships.

  12. Disposable diaper use promotes consolidated nighttime sleep and positive mother-infant interactions in Chinese 6-month-olds.

    PubMed

    Lukowski, Angela F; Liu, Xicheng; Peirano, Patricio; Odio, Mauricio; Bauer, Patricia J

    2015-06-01

    The emergence of consolidated nighttime sleep and the formation and maintenance of parent-infant relationships are 2 primary developmental achievements of the infancy period. Despite the development of a transactional model that links parenting behaviors to infant sleep, limited attention has been devoted to examining experimental manipulations of infant sleep that may impact the discrete parent-infant interactions that may form the foundation for emerging attachment relationships. In the present study, infants were randomly assigned to wear high-absorbency disposable diapers or to continue using traditional low-absorbency cloth diapers that necessitate frequent changes and associated disruptions of nighttime sleep. Parents reported on infant sleep before and during the 6-week experimental manipulation; a subset of infants also wore actigraphs. Parents and infants also participated in a parent-infant interaction task both before and near the end of the experimental manipulation. Infants who wore cloth diapers experienced more frequent sleep disruptions overall as well as a greater number of disruptions that did and did not wake the infant from sleep. Infants who wore disposable diapers were rated as experiencing more engagement and positive affect near the end of the intervention relative to infants who wore cloth diapers; mothers of infants who wore disposable diapers were rated as more engaged and sensitive near the end of the intervention relative to mothers of infants who wore cloth diapers. These findings suggest that the disposable diaper manipulation was causally related to characteristics of mother-infant interactions that may form the foundation for emerging attachment relationships. PMID:25938711

  13. Handgrip strength is an independent predictor of functional outcome in hip-fracture women: a prospective study with 6-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Di Monaco, Marco; Castiglioni, Carlotta; De Toma, Elena; Gardin, Luisa; Giordano, Silvia; Tappero, Rosa

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of handgrip strength in predicting the functional outcome after hip fracture in women.We prospectively investigated white women (N = 193 of 207) who were consecutively admitted to a rehabilitation hospital after a hip fracture. We measured handgrip strength with a Jamar dynamometer (Lafayette Instrument Co, Lafayette, IN), on admission to rehabilitation. Ability to function in activities of daily living was assessed by the Barthel index both on discharge from rehabilitation and at a 6-month follow-up.We found significant correlations between handgrip strength measured before rehabilitation and Barthel index scores assessed both on discharge from rehabilitation (ρ = 0.52, P < 0.001) and after 6 months (ρ = 0.49, P < 0.001). Significant associations between handgrip strength and Barthel index scores persisted after adjustment for age, comorbidities, pressure ulcers, medications in use, concomitant infections, body mass index, hip-fracture type, and Barthel index scores assessed both preinjury and on admission to rehabilitation (P = 0.001). Further adjustments for both Barthel index scores and Timed Up-and-Go test assessed at rehabilitation ending did not erase the significant association between handgrip strength and the Barthel index scores at the 6-month evaluation (P = 0.007). To define successful rehabilitation, we categorized the Barthel index scores as either high (85 or higher) or low (<85). The adjusted odds ratio for 1 SD increase in grip strength was 1.73 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-2.84, P = 0.032) for having a high Barthel index score at the end of inpatient rehabilitation and 2.24 (95% CI 1.06-5.18) for having a high Barthel index score at the 6-month follow-up.Handgrip strength assessed before rehabilitation independently predicted the functional outcome both after inpatient rehabilitation and at a 6-month follow-up in hip-fracture women.

  14. Randomized Controlled Trial: 4 Month versus 6 Month Monitoring of HIV-infected Patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Weissman, Sharon; Singh, Sarah; Dykema, Shana; Parker, R David

    2016-10-01

    As HIV treatment becomes more widely available and efficacious, and persons with HIV live longer, considerations for the financial and healthcare impact are of important. The best interval for routine HIV monitoring has been identified as area in which gaps in knowledge exist. The goal of this study is to determine the impact of changing scheduled follow up care for persons with HIV from a 4 to 6 months interval. HIV infected adults with a CD4 count ≥250 cells/μl, and an undetectable HIV viral load (VL) by an ultrasensitive assay for at least 1 year were randomized to routine HIV care at either a 4 or 6 months interval. Subjects were monitored for virological failure, adherence and quality of life (QOL). 142 subjects were enrolled and completed study protocol. Two subjects in the 6 months arm developed virological failure, p value = 0.5. There was no difference in adherence, or QOL scores. Subjects in the 4 months arm had higher rates of HIV visits (8.5/100 vs. 5.2/100 person months, p = 0.01) and non-HIV related visits (9.4/100 vs. 6.0/100 person months, p = 0.01) and were more likely to change antiretroviral regimen (34.8 vs. 15.8 %, p = 0.01). Despite strict inclusion criteria in this relatively short follow up time, 2/142 (1.4 %) subjects developed virological failure and many more had transient detectable VL. While not statistically significant a larger study with longer follow up is needed.

  15. The Relationship Between Balance Measured With a Modified Bathroom Scale and Falls and Disability in Older Adults: A 6-Month Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background There are indications that older adults who suffer from poor balance have an increased risk for adverse health outcomes, such as falls and disability. Monitoring the development of balance over time enables early detection of balance decline, which can identify older adults who could benefit from interventions aimed at prevention of these adverse outcomes. An innovative and easy-to-use device that can be used by older adults for home-based monitoring of balance is a modified bathroom scale. Objective The objective of this paper is to study the relationship between balance scores obtained with a modified bathroom scale and falls and disability in a sample of older adults. Methods For this 6-month follow-up study, participants were recruited via physiotherapists working in a nursing home, geriatricians, exercise classes, and at an event about health for older adults. Inclusion criteria were being aged 65 years or older, being able to stand on a bathroom scale independently, and able to provide informed consent. A total of 41 nursing home patients and 139 community-dwelling older adults stepped onto the modified bathroom scale three consecutive times at baseline to measure their balance. Their mean balance scores on a scale from 0 to 16 were calculated—higher scores indicated better balance. Questionnaires were used to study falls and disability at baseline and after 6 months of follow-up. The cross-sectional relationship between balance and falls and disability at baseline was studied using t tests and Spearman rank correlations. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to study the relationship between balance measured at baseline and falls and disability development after 6 months of follow-up. Results A total of 128 participants with complete datasets—25.8% (33/128) male—and a mean age of 75.33 years (SD 6.26) were included in the analyses of this study. Balance scores of participants who reported at baseline that

  16. APACHE II scoring system on a general intensive care unit: audit of daily APACHE II scores and 6-month survival of 691 patients admitted to a general intensive care unit between May 1990 and December 1991.

    PubMed

    Campbell, N N; Tooley, M A; Willatts, S M

    1994-02-01

    In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the use of the APACHE II (acute physiological and chronic health evaluation) scoring system on all of the patients admitted to the general intensive care unit at the Bristol Royal Infirmary over a 20-month period. The 6-month survival of 691 adult medical and surgical patients following intensive care was recorded and this data was analysed with admission and daily APACHE II scores using a relational database. Our data confirms the relationship between admission APACHE II scores and outcome, with mean scores decreasing as duration of survival increases. We also demonstrate that the best day one scores are approximately 50% less than the admission score, irrespective of outcome, indicating the benefit of intensive care. By contrast, however, the scores on day one have either not improved or have worsened since admission, reflecting the importance of the pre-morbid health status of the patient in determining outcome from intensive care.

  17. APACHE II scoring system on a general intensive care unit: audit of daily APACHE II scores and 6-month survival of 691 patients admitted to a general intensive care unit between May 1990 and December 1991.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, N N; Tooley, M A; Willatts, S M

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the use of the APACHE II (acute physiological and chronic health evaluation) scoring system on all of the patients admitted to the general intensive care unit at the Bristol Royal Infirmary over a 20-month period. The 6-month survival of 691 adult medical and surgical patients following intensive care was recorded and this data was analysed with admission and daily APACHE II scores using a relational database. Our data confirms the relationship between admission APACHE II scores and outcome, with mean scores decreasing as duration of survival increases. We also demonstrate that the best day one scores are approximately 50% less than the admission score, irrespective of outcome, indicating the benefit of intensive care. By contrast, however, the scores on day one have either not improved or have worsened since admission, reflecting the importance of the pre-morbid health status of the patient in determining outcome from intensive care. PMID:8196033

  18. APACHE II scoring system on a general intensive care unit: audit of daily APACHE II scores and 6-month survival of 691 patients admitted to a general intensive care unit between May 1990 and December 1991.

    PubMed

    Campbell, N N; Tooley, M A; Willatts, S M

    1994-02-01

    In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the use of the APACHE II (acute physiological and chronic health evaluation) scoring system on all of the patients admitted to the general intensive care unit at the Bristol Royal Infirmary over a 20-month period. The 6-month survival of 691 adult medical and surgical patients following intensive care was recorded and this data was analysed with admission and daily APACHE II scores using a relational database. Our data confirms the relationship between admission APACHE II scores and outcome, with mean scores decreasing as duration of survival increases. We also demonstrate that the best day one scores are approximately 50% less than the admission score, irrespective of outcome, indicating the benefit of intensive care. By contrast, however, the scores on day one have either not improved or have worsened since admission, reflecting the importance of the pre-morbid health status of the patient in determining outcome from intensive care. PMID:8196033

  19. Pomeroy House: A Residential Treatment Program for Recovering Alcoholic Mothers and Their Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norwood, Lucille

    Pomeroy House, a long-term residential treatment program in San Francisco, California, was created to help recovering alcoholic mothers and their children. Eight to 10 families stay at Pomeroy House for a minimum period of 6 months with extensions of up to 9 or 12 months, and the alcoholic mothers care for their children while recovering from…

  20. Interleukin-1 antagonists in the treatment of autoinflammatory syndromes, including cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Quartier, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) include a group of rare autoinflammatory disorders, the spectrum of which ranges from the mildest form, ie, familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome to more severe phenotypes, ie, Muckle-Wells syndrome, and chronic infantile neurological cutaneous and articular syndrome, also known as neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease. Three interleukin (IL)-1 antagonists have been tested in adults and children with CAPS, ie, anakinra, a recombinant homolog of the human IL-1 receptor antagonist; rilonacept, a fusion protein comprising the extracellular domains of IL-1 receptor I and the IL-1 adaptor protein, IL-1RAcP, attached to a human immunoglobulin G molecule; and canakinumab, the anti-IL-1β monoclonal antibody. Following rapid clinical development, rilonacept and canakinumab were approved by both the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for use in adults and children. This review describes how the study of CAPS has helped us to understand better the way the innate immune system works, the pathogenesis of autoinflammatory syndromes, and the key role of IL-1. It also reviews the effects of IL-1 blockade in CAPS and other disorders, in particular systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, adult-onset Still’s disease, and gout. Finally, this review covers some issues addressed by very recent and ongoing work regarding treatment indications, from orphan diseases to common disorders, continuous versus intermittent treatment, the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and optimal dosages of the different drugs, as well as the need for Phase IV trials, exhaustive registries, and long-term follow-up of several patient cohorts.

  1. Anakinra and related drugs targeting interleukin-1 in the treatment of cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Bachove, Inessa; Chang, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Anakinra is an interleukin (IL) receptor antagonist that works by blocking the biological activity of IL-1 by competitively inhibiting binding of IL-1 to the type 1 interleukin receptor. IL-1 production is induced in response to inflammatory stimuli and mediates various physiological mechanisms, including inflammation and immunological reactions. Patients with neonatal onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID) produce excess IL-1β, a major proinflammatory cytokine that regulates innate immune responses. Anakinra binds competitively and this results in a rapid reduction in disease severity. NOMID, also known as chronic infantile neurologic, cutaneous, articular syndrome, is the most severe clinical phenotype in the spectrum of cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes. It is characterized by cutaneous symptoms, arthropathy, and central nervous system involvement. Extensive studies in patients with NOMID have led to advances in characterizing the extent of organ-specific involvement and damage that occurs with chronic overproduction of IL-1β. NOMID is caused predominantly by mutations in the NLRP3/CIAS1 gene that encodes for the protein cryopyrin, leading to activation of the “NLRP3 inflammasome complex”. This in turn regulates the maturation and secretion of the inflammatory cytokine, IL-1β. The clinical value of IL-1β has been demonstrated by the positive response of patients after treatment with anakinra, with rapid improvement in clinical symptoms, markers of inflammation, and a significant decrease in major organ manifestations.

  2. [The prevalence, prevention and treatment of cattle epidemic during the Han-Tang Period].

    PubMed

    Han, Yi

    2013-03-01

    About 21 times of cattle epidemic with rather strong infectivity happened during the Han-Tang Period, including 6 in the Eastern Han Dynasty, 2 in the Jin Dynasty, 4 in the Southern and Northern Dynasties, 8 in the Tang Dynasty and 1in the Five Dynasty. Most of them were spread along the Yellow River and the northern region of the Huai River. The type of cattle epidemic included the acute cattle plague, cattle bovine mange, cattle yellow fever and cattle rotten hoof disease, etc. Its occurrence and prevalence brought a serious influentce on the society of the Han and Tang Dynasties, causing massive mortality of farm cattle, and then the shortage of animal power, and threatening the agriculture, which drew the attention of the governments, physicians, agriculturists, astrologists and Taoists. The medical measures and economic measures were adopted for the prevention and treatment of cattle epidemic. Especially, prescriptions in the books of medicine and agriculture exerted positive effects on the containment of cattle epidemic. On the other hand, its prevalence and the mass mortality of farm cattle, in a way, promoted, to certain extent, the improvement of the government's function of relief, the updating of the methods of agriculture and the creation of new farm tools, and being regarded as a main cause for the technological innovation of agriculture.

  3. Reliability of ACR criteria over time to differentiate classic fibromyalgia from nonspecific widespread pain syndrome: a 6-month prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bidari, Ali; Ghavidel-Parsa, Banafsheh; Ghalehbaghi, Babak

    2009-01-01

    American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 1990 criteria, initially introduced to classify fibromyalgia (FM) syndrome, has gained popularity in research and clinical grounds for diagnostic purposes. The objectives of this study were designed to assess the consistency of ACR criteria against the time in classifying FM. This was a prospective cohort study performed in a multidisciplinary pain clinic from October 2002 to June 2005. Patients who were clinically suspected of having FM and had a normal screening laboratory evaluation were scheduled for dolorimetry. Those found to have 6 or more tender points were considered eligible and labeled as either classic or atypical FM if they did or did not, respectively, fulfil ACR criteria. The 2 groups were assessed using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and compared using baseline characteristics. We reassessed dolorimetric exam and FIQ 6 months later. Of 91 patients who participated in this study,70 completed the follow-up. Of them, 34 (49%) patients were identified as atypical, and 36 (51%) were labeled as classic FM. At first visit, the classic FM group had higher scores on sleep quality, stiffness, anxiety, depression, and total FIQ score (p\\0.05) but not for other variables. At 6 months, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups in all measured variables. Labeling shift from classic to atypical FM and vice versa occurred at a rate of 36.1 and 32.4%, respectively. This study showed the ACR 1990 criteria was not able to consistently classify affected patients with FM syndrome within a group of patients having nonspecific body pain and multiple tender points over 6 months of follow-up.

  4. Oxidoreductive homeostasis in alcohol-dependent male patients and the risk of alcohol drinking relapse in a 6-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Budzyński, Jacek; Ziółkowski, Marcin; Kłopocka, Maria; Czarnecki, Damian

    2016-02-01

    Disturbances in the central signaling of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to energy intake are recognized as taking part in appetitive and consummative phases of eating disorders. This study aimed to verify the hypothesis that blood oxidoreductive balance can also affect demand for energy substances, such as alcoholic beverages in alcohol-dependent individuals, as well as the severity of their alcohol dependence and risk of drinking relapse. The following values were determined in the blood of 54 alcohol-dependent male patients after alcohol withdrawal, again after 4 weeks and after 6 months: the aldehyde products of lipid peroxidation (malonyl dialdehyde [MDA] and 4-hydroxynonenal [4-HNE]), nitric oxide (NO) metabolites, total antioxidant status (TAS), the blood activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GSHred), blood glucose, and lipids. Alcoholics who relapsed during 6 months of observation (n = 31, 57%) compared with patients who maintained alcohol abstinence for 6 months (n = 23, 43%) differed only in relation to initial and final NO metabolite serum concentrations. The risk of alcohol drinking relapse was lower in patients with an above-median initial blood concentration of NO metabolites and TAS. The oxidative stress parameters correlated with alcohol-dependence severity markers. No significant correlations between the studied antioxidant balance parameters and markers of nutritional status, including blood glucose and lipids, were found. Although the results of our study have some limitations and require further investigation, they suggest the role of oxidoreductive balance in the pathomechanisms of alcohol dependence and drinking relapse. In addition, due to a lack of association found between blood oxidative stress parameters and BMI, blood glucose, and lipid concentrations, they show the presence of disturbances in systemic ROS signaling in response to energy availability in alcoholics after

  5. Emerging perception of causality in action-and-reaction sequences from 4 to 6 months of age: is it domain-specific?

    PubMed

    Schlottmann, Anne; Ray, Elizabeth D; Surian, Luca

    2012-06-01

    Two experiments (N=136) studied how 4- to 6-month-olds perceive a simple schematic event, seen as goal-directed action and reaction from 3 years of age. In our causal reaction event, a red square moved toward a blue square, stopping prior to contact. Blue began to move away before red stopped, so that both briefly moved simultaneously at a distance. Primarily, our study sought to determine from what age infants see the causal structure of this reaction event. In addition, we looked at whether this causal percept depends on an animate style of motion and whether it correlates with tasks assessing goal perception and goal-directed action. Infants saw either causal reactions or noncausal delayed control events in which blue started some time after red stopped. These events involved squares that moved either rigidly or nonrigidly in an apparently animate manner. After habituation to one of the four events, infants were tested on reversal of the habituation event. Spatiotemporal features reversed for all events, but causal roles changed only in reversed reactions. The 6-month-olds dishabituated significantly more to reversal of causal reaction events than to noncausal delay events, whereas younger infants reacted similarly to reversal of both. Thus, perceptual causality for reaction events emerges by 6 months of age, a younger age than previously reported but, crucially, the same age at which perceptual causality for launch events has emerged in prior research. On our second question, animate/inanimate motion had no effect at any age, nor did significant correlations emerge with our additional tasks assessing goal perception or goal-directed object retrieval. Available evidence, here and elsewhere, is as compatible with a view that infants initially see A affecting B, without differentiation into physical or psychological causality, as with the standard assumption of distinct physical/psychological causal perception.

  6. Increased cancer awareness among British adolescents after a school-based educational intervention: a controlled before-and-after study with 6-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a lack of evidence around the effectiveness of school-based interventions designed to raise adolescents’ cancer awareness. To address this deficit this study assessed the impact of an intervention delivered in the United Kingdom by Teenage Cancer Trust on: recall (open question) and recognition (closed question) of cancer warning signs; knowledge of common childhood, teenage, male and female cancers; awareness of the relationship between cancer and age; anticipated medical help-seeking delay; perceived barriers to seeking medical advice about cancer; and examined variation of intervention effect by gender and whether adolescents reported that they knew someone with cancer. Methods The Cancer Awareness Measure (CAM) was completed by 422 adolescents (male: 221, 52.4%) aged 11-17 years old (mean age=13.8, standard deviation=1.26) two weeks before and two weeks after the intervention in three schools, and on two occasions four weeks apart in a fourth (control) school. Intervention schools were followed-up 6-months post-intervention. Results Recognition of nine common cancer warning signs significantly increased two weeks after the intervention (4.6 to 6.8, p<0.001) and was maintained at 6-month follow-up (6.2, p<0.001). Endorsement of emotional barriers to help-seeking ‘not confident to talk about symptoms’ (53% to 45%, p=0.021) and ‘worried about what the doctor might find’ (70% to 63%, p=0.021) significantly decreased two weeks after the intervention but changes were not maintained at 6-months. The intervention had a greater impact on females and those who knew someone with cancer. Conclusions The intervention is an effective way to raise adolescents’ cancer awareness, especially of cancer symptoms. Further development and evaluation is required to maximise intervention impact, particularly on barriers to help-seeking behaviour. PMID:23496855

  7. A 6-month follow-up study of the randomized controlled Ma-Pi macrobiotic dietary intervention (MADIAB trial) in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Soare, A; Del Toro, R; Khazrai, Y M; Di Mauro, A; Fallucca, S; Angeletti, S; Skrami, E; Gesuita, R; Tuccinardi, D; Manfrini, S; Fallucca, F; Pianesi, M; Pozzilli, P

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the MADIAB trial (a 21-day randomized, controlled trial in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D)), intervention with the Ma-Pi 2 macrobiotic diet resulted in significantly greater improvements in metabolic control compared with a standard recommended diet for patients with T2D. We report on a 6-month follow-up study, which investigated, whether these benefits extended beyond the 21-day intensive dietary intervention, in real-world conditions. Subjects: At the end of the MADIAB trial (baseline of this follow-up study), all participants continued their assigned diet (Ma-Pi or control) for 6 months. The Ma-Pi 2 group followed the Ma-Pi 4 diet during this follow-up study. Forty of the original 51 subjects (78.4%) participated in the follow-up (body mass index, 27–45 kg m−2; age, 40–75 years). Primary outcome was percentage change from baseline in HbA1c; secondary outcomes were anthropometric data and lipid panel. Results: A significantly greater median percentage reduction was observed for HbA1c in the Ma-Pi group (−11.27% (95% confidence interval (CI): −10.17; −12.36)) compared with the control group (−5.88% (95% CI: −3.79; −7.98)) (P < 0.001). Total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol increased in both groups with no differences between groups (P=0.331 and P=0.082, respectively). After correcting for age and gender, the Ma-Pi diet was associated with a higher percentage reduction in HbA1c (95% CI: 2.56; 7.61) and body weight (95% CI: 0.40; 3.99), and a higher percentage increase in LDL cholesterol (95% CI: −1.52; −33.16). However, all participants' total and LDL cholesterol levels remained within recommended ranges (<200 mg dl−1 and <100 mg dl−1, respectively). The Ma-Pi diet group achieved the target median HbA1c value (<5.7% (39 mmol mol−1)) at 6 months. Conclusions: Both the Ma-Pi and control diets maintained their benefits beyond the 21-day intensive monitored intervention over a 6-month follow

  8. Unusual pediatric co-morbility: autoimmune thyroiditis and cortico-resistant nephrotic syndrome in a 6-month-old Italian patient.

    PubMed

    Urbano, Flavia; Acquafredda, Angelo; Aceto, Gabriella; Penza, Rosa; Cavallo, Luciano

    2012-10-23

    We report on a case of autoimmune thyroiditis in a 6-month-old patient with cortico-resistant nephrotic syndrome. Normal serum levels of thyroid hormons and thyroid-stimulating hormone were detected with high titers of circulant antithyroid antibodies and a dysomogeneous ultrasound appearance of the gland, typical of autoimmune thyroiditis. The research of maternal thyroid antibodies was negative. This is the first case of autoimmune thyroiditis found in such a young patient with pre-existing nephrotic syndrome ever described in literature. This association is random because nephrotic syndrome does not have an autoimmune pathogenesis and the genes involved in autoimmune thyroiditis are not related to those of nephrotic syndrome.

  9. Verapamil-sensitive idiopathic left ventricular tachycardia in a 6-month-old: unique considerations in diagnosis and management in an infant.

    PubMed

    Hiremath, Gurumurthy; Li, Walter; Foltz, Rhonda; Roy-Burman, Arup; Cocalis, Mark; Tanel, Ronn E

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic left ventricular tachycardia of the Belhassen type is rare in infants. We present a 6-month-old infant girl with a wide-complex tachycardia with right bundle branch block QRS morphology, a superior axis, and atrioventricular dissociation, consistent with a left anterior fascicular tachycardia. Initial echocardiogram revealed depressed ventricular function. The tachycardia was unresponsive to therapeutic trials of adenosine, esmolol, procainamide, and lidocaine. There was brief conversion of the tachycardia to sinus rhythm with transesophageal atrial overdrive pacing, suggesting a reentrant mechanism of the arrhythmia. Ultimately, the judicious administration of intravenous verapamil resulted in termination of the arrhythmia, which has been sustained on oral therapy. PMID:25526021

  10. Determination of rifaximin treatment period according to lactulose breath test values in nonconstipated irritable bowel syndrome subjects.

    PubMed

    Bae, Suhyun; Lee, Kwang Jae; Kim, Young-Sang; Kim, Kyu-Nam

    2015-06-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) can partly explain irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and rifaximin has been observed to improve abdominal symptoms in nonconstipated IBS patients. However, there are few reports on the association of the rifaximin treatment periods with the results of a lactulose breath test (LBT). Therefore, we performed a retrospective review of patient charts to investigate the relation between the rifaximin treatment periods with LBT results in nonconstipated IBS patients. We also evaluated the time to achieve a symptomatic improvement in the IBS patients as compared to the changes in the LBT. We reviewed the charts for patients who showed IBS symptoms with documented positive results for LBT during their initial visit and who had a follow-up LBT after treatment with rifaximin. The LBT values were compared to the subjects' symptom scores. A total of 102 subjects had a follow-up LBT to assess LBT normalization. The subjects were divided into groups according to treatment periods of 4 weeks (n = 36), 8 weeks (n = 43), and 12 weeks (n = 23). The groups with a longer treatment exhibited an increase in the hydrogen gas value at 90 min and its sum during 90 min at the initial LBT. There were significant differences in hydrogen gas value at 90 min and in its sum during 90 min at the initial LBT between the groups treated for 4 and 12 weeks. The most significant treatment response was observed during the first 4 weeks for all treatment groups. Symptomatic improvement occurred earlier than LBT normalization in the treatment period over 4 weeks. The results indicate that different rifaximin treatment periods are needed in accordance with LBT levels to effectively eradicate SIBO. PMID:26028929

  11. The stage of offspring of female rats after treatment with cytostatics of various groups.

    PubMed

    Borovskaya, T G; Perova, A V; Pachomova, A V; Poluektova, M E; Gol'dberg, V E

    2008-10-01

    We examined the offspring of female rats that were mated with intact males in the delayed period after administration of cytostatic drugs Farmorubicin, platidiam, carboplatin, etoposide, and paclitaxel (1, 3, and 6 months post-treatment). Toxicity of these drugs in the offspring decreased in the following order: paclitaxel > etoposide > carboplatin > platidiam > Farmorubicin. The toxic effect depended not only on the type of cytostatic treatment, but also on the period of conception.

  12. Permanent, sex-selective effects of prenatal or adolescent nicotine exposure, separately or sequentially, in rat brain regions: indices of cholinergic and serotonergic synaptic function, cell signaling, and neural cell number and size at 6 months of age.

    PubMed

    Slotkin, Theodore A; MacKillop, Emiko A; Rudder, Charles L; Ryde, Ian T; Tate, Charlotte A; Seidler, Frederic J

    2007-05-01

    Nicotine is a neuroteratogen that disrupts neurodevelopment and synaptic function, with vulnerability extending into adolescence. We assessed the permanence of effects in rats on indices of neural cell number and size, and on acetylcholine and serotonin (5HT) systems, conducting assessments at 6 months of age, after prenatal nicotine exposure, adolescent exposure, or sequential exposure in both periods. For prenatal nicotine, indices of cell number and size showed few abnormalities by 6 months, but there were persistent deficits in cerebrocortical choline acetyltransferase activity and hemicholinium-3 binding to the presynaptic choline transporter, a pattern consistent with cholinergic hypoactivity; these effects were more prominent in males than females. The expression of 5HT receptors also showed permanent effects in males, with suppression of the 5HT(1A) subtype and upregulation of 5HT(2) receptors. In addition, cell signaling through adenylyl cyclase showed heterologous uncoupling of neurotransmitter responses. Nicotine exposure in adolescence produced lasting effects that were similar to those of prenatal nicotine. However, when animals were exposed to prenatal nicotine and received nicotine subsequently in adolescence, the adverse effects then extended to females, whereas the net effect in males was similar to that of prenatal nicotine by itself. Our results indicate that prenatal or adolescent nicotine exposure evoke permanent changes in synaptic function that transcend the recovery of less-sensitive indices of structural damage; further, prenatal exposure sensitizes females to the subsequent adverse effects of adolescent nicotine, thus creating a population that may be especially vulnerable to the lasting behavioral consequences of nicotine intake in adolescence.

  13. Infant feeding practices in the first 6 months and associated factors in a rural and semiurban community in Mangochi District, Malawi.

    PubMed

    Kamudoni, Penjani; Maleta, Kenneth; Shi, Zumin; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd

    2007-11-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed at investigating infant feeding practices and their sociodemographic correlates in Mangochi District, Malawi. Questionnaire data from 157 rural and 192 semiurban mother-infant pairs were obtained. Early breastfeeding (< 1 hour after delivery) was practiced among 68.2% of the rural and 63% of the semiurban mothers. Colostrum was given by 96% of the sampled mothers. Exclusive breastfeeding rates in the sample at 2, 4, and 6 months were 39.1%, 27.5%, and 7.5%, respectively. At 4 months, exclusive breastfeeding was significantly higher in the semiurban (46.8%) than in the rural (4.7%) group. Living in the rural area (OR = 1.87; 95% CI 1.26-2.76) and giving birth outside a health facility (OR = 1.36; 95% CI 1.00-1.85) were risk factors for stopping exclusive breastfeeding before 6 months. The results suggest that semiurban mothers are more likely to practice optimum breastfeeding and that health facilities have an important role in its promotion.

  14. Stability, survival, and tolerability of a 4.5-mm-wide bone-anchored hearing implant: 6-month data from a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Nelissen, Rik C; den Besten, Christine A; Mylanus, Emmanuel A M; Hol, Myrthe K S

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the stability, survival, and tolerability of 2 percutaneous osseointegrated titanium implants for bone conduction hearing: a 4.5-mm diameter implant (test) and a 3.75-mm diameter implant (control). Fifty-seven adult patients were included in this randomized controlled clinical trial. Sixty implants were allocated in a 2:1 (test-control) ratio. Follow-up visits were scheduled at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days; 6 and 12 weeks; and 6 months. At every visit, implant stability quotient (ISQ) values were recorded by means of resonance frequency analysis (RFA) and skin reactions were evaluated according to the Holgers classification. Implants were loaded with the bone conduction device at 3 weeks. Hearing-related quality of life was evaluated using the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB), the Glasgow Benefit Inventory (GBI), and the Glasgow Health Status Inventory (GHSI). ISQ values were statistically significantly higher for the test implant compared to the control implant. No implants were lost and soft tissue reactions were comparable for both implants. Positive results were reported in the hearing-related quality of life questionnaires. These 6-month results indicate that both implants and their corresponding hearing devices are safe options for hearing rehabilitation in patients with the appropriate indications. Loading at 3 weeks did not affect the stability of either implant.

  15. 26 CFR 1.1092(b)-2T - Treatment of holding periods and losses with respect to straddle positions (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., A acquires gold. On January 1, 1985, A enters into an offsetting short gold forward contract. On April 1, 1985, A disposes of the short gold forward contract at no gain or loss. On April 10, 1985, A sells the gold at a gain. Since the gold had not been held for more than 6 months before the...

  16. Effects on outpatient and emergency mental health care of strict Medicaid early periodic screening, diagnosis, and treatment enforcement.

    PubMed

    Snowden, Lonnie R; Masland, Mary C; Wallace, Neal T; Evans-Cuellar, Allison

    2007-11-01

    We investigated enforcement of mental health benefits provided by California Medicaid's Early Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT) program. Enforcement, compelled by a consumer-driven lawsuit, resulted in an almost 4-fold funding increase over a 5-year period. We evaluated the impact of enforcement on outpatient treatment intensity (number of visits per child) and rates of emergency care treatment. Using fixed-effects regression, we examined the number of outpatient mental health visits per client and the percentage of all clients using crisis care across 53 autonomous California county mental health plans over 32 three-month periods (quarters; emergency crisis care rates) and 36 quarters (out-patient mental health visits). Enforcement of EPSDT benefits in accordance with federal law produced favorable changes in patterns of mental health service use, consistent with policy aims.

  17. Effectiveness of 6 Months of Tailored Text Message Reminders for Obese Male Participants in a Worksite Weight Loss Program: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sohee; Steinhubl, Steven; Kim, Sohye; Bae, Woo Kyung; Han, Jong Soo; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Lee, Keehyuck; Kim, Mi Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background Worksite nutrition and physical activity interventions are important to help overweight and obese employees lose weight, but costs and insufficient sustained motivation prevent the majority of these programs from succeeding. Tailored text messaging in aiding weight management has been effective in several studies, but no studies have evaluated the effect of a tailored text message service on weight loss in a worksite health promotion program. Objective We studied the efficacy of a tailored text-messaging intervention for obese male participants in a worksite weight loss program of 6 months duration. Methods The study was an unblinded, randomized controlled trial. Men with a body mass index greater than 25 kg/m2 were recruited from the Korea District Heating Corporation, the Korea Expressway Corporation, and the Korea Gas Corporation. The participants were identified by nurse managers. Participants were randomly allocated to 1 of the following 2 groups for 24 weeks: (1) intervention group, which received tailored text message reminders every other day plus 4 offline education sessions and brief counseling with monthly weight check by nurses for weight control over 6 months and (2) control group, which received the 4 offline education sessions and brief counseling with monthly weight check by nurses about weight control over 6 months. The primary outcome was the difference in weight loss at 6 months. A mixed-model repeated-measures analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of the intervention group’s weight loss compared with the control group. Results A total of 205 obese men were randomized into either the intervention (n=104) or the control group (n=101). At the end of 6 months, the intervention group (n=63) had lost 1.71 kg (95% CI –2.53 to –0.88) and the control group (n=59) had lost 1.56 kg (95% CI –2.45 to –0.66); the difference between the 2 groups was not significant (mean difference –0.15, 95% CI –1.36 to 1.07). At the end of

  18. Theoretical treatment of the interaction between two-level atoms and periodic waveguides.

    PubMed

    Zang, Xiaorun; Lalanne, Philippe

    2015-08-15

    Light transport in periodic waveguides coupled to two-level atoms is investigated theoretically. By using optical Bloch equations and a photonic modal formalism, we derive a convenient semi-analytical expression for calculating the scattering matrix of single atoms trapped in periodic waveguides. The expression that holds for both photonic and plasmonic waveguides represents a basic building block toward the study of collective effects arising from photon-mediated multi-atom interactions in periodic waveguides. PMID:26274681

  19. From methadone to buprenorphine: changes during a 10 year period within a national opioid maintenance treatment programme.

    PubMed

    Riksheim, Marianne; Gossop, Michael; Clausen, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) is the most widely used treatment for opioid dependence. Maintenance programmes differ in various aspects and may also change over time. This paper investigates the changes in treatment practices within a national OMT programme during a 10 year period (2002-2011), especially with regard to the prescribing of methadone and buprenorphine. Data (n=34,001) were collected by annual assessments questionnaires. In 2002, only 16% of the OMT patients received buprenorphine as their maintenance medication. By 2011 this percentage had increased significantly (p<.001) to 50.3%. In the same period the number of patients more than tripled (from 1,984 to 6,640, p<.001), and programme attrition rates decreased (p=.020). This relatively rapid shift is a part of the increasing reliance of addiction medicine upon a range of medications administered by different routes which has not been previously charted within a national treatment programme.

  20. Use of antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder in primary care during a period of economic crisis

    PubMed Central

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe antidepressant (AD) use in the treatment of major depressive disorder during a period of economic crisis. Patients and methods This was a retrospective, observational study using population-based databases. Two periods were considered: 1) 2008–2009, precrisis, and 2) 2012–2013, economic crisis. Certain inclusion/exclusion criteria were taken into account for the study (initiation of AD treatment). Patients were followed up for 12 months. The main measures were use (defined daily doses), epidemiologic measures, strategies used and treatment persistence, referrals, and use of resources. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Results In the precrisis period, 3,662 patients were enrolled, and 5,722 were enrolled in the period of economic crisis. Average age was 58.8 years and 65.4% were women. Comparing the two periods, major depressive disorder prevalence was 5.4% vs 8.1%, P<0.001. During the period of economic crisis, AD use rose by 35.2% and drug expenditures decreased by 38.7%. Defined daily dose per patient per day was 10.0 mg vs 13.5 mg, respectively, P<0.001. At 12-month follow-up, the majority of patients (60.8%) discontinued the treatment or continued on the same medication as before, and in 23.3% a change of AD was made. Conclusion Primary health care professionals are highly involved in the management of the illness; in addition, during the period of economic crisis, patients with major depressive disorder showed higher rates of prevalence of the illness, with increased use of AD drugs. PMID:26766910

  1. Knee Contact Force Asymmetries in Patients Who Failed Return-to-Sport Readiness Criteria 6 Months After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Gardinier, Emily S.; Di Stasi, Stephanie; Manal, Kurt; Buchanan, Thomas S.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Background After anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, contact forces are decreased in the injured knee when compared with the uninjured knee. The persistence of contact force asymmetries after ACL reconstruction may increase the risk of reinjury and may play an important role in the development of knee osteoarthritis in these patients. Functional performance may also be useful in identifying patients who demonstrate potentially harmful joint contact force asymmetries after ACL reconstruction. Hypothesis Knee joint contact force asymmetries would be present during gait after ACL reconstruction, and performance on a specific set of validated return-to-sport (RTS) readiness criteria would discriminate between those who demonstrated contact force asymmetries and those who did not. Study Design Descriptive laboratory study. Methods A total of 29 patients with ACL ruptures participated in gait analysis and RTS readiness testing 6 months after reconstruction. Muscle and joint contact forces were estimated using an electromyography (EMG)–driven musculoskeletal model of the knee. The magnitude of typical limb asymmetry in uninjured controls was used to define limits of meaningful limb asymmetry in patients after ACL reconstruction. The RTS testing included isometric quadriceps strength testing, 4 unilateral hop tests, and 2 self-report questionnaires. Paired t tests were used to assess limb symmetry for peak medial and tibiofemoral contact forces in all patients, and a mixed-design analysis of variance was used to analyze the effect of passing or failing RTS testing on contact force asymmetry. Results Among all patients, neither statistically significant nor meaningful contact force asymmetries were identified. However, patients who failed RTS testing exhibited meaningful contact force asymmetries, with tibiofemoral contact force being significantly lower for the involved knee. Conversely, patients who passed RTS testing exhibited neither significant nor meaningful

  2. Association between cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and respiratory tract infections in the first 6 months of age in a Korean population: a birth cohort study (COCOA)

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Youn Ho; Yu, Jinho; Kim, Kyung Won; Ahn, Kangmo; Hong, Seo-Ah; Lee, Eun; Yang, Song-I; Jung, Young-Ho; Kim, Hyung Young; Seo, Ju-Hee; Kwon, Ji-Won; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Kim, Hyo-Bin; Shim, Jung Yeon; Kim, Woo Kyung; Song, Dae Jin; Lee, So-Yeon; Lee, Soo Young; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Suh, Dong In; Yang, Hyeon-Jong; Kim, Bong Sung; Choi, Suk-Joo; Oh, Soo-Young; Kwon, Ja-Young; Lee, Kyung-Ju; Park, Hee Jin; Lee, Pil Ryang; Won, Hye-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies suggest that the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in cord blood may show an inverse association with respiratory tract infections (RTI) during childhood. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of 25(OH)D concentrations in cord blood on infant RTI in a Korean birth cohort. Methods The levels of 25(OH)D in cord blood obtained from 525 Korean newborns in the prospective COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases were examined. The primary outcome variable of interest was the prevalence of RTI at 6-month follow-up, as diagnosed by pediatricians and pediatric allergy and pulmonology specialists. RTI included acute nasopharyngitis, rhinosinusitis, otitis media, croup, tracheobronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia. Results The median concentration of 25(OH)D in cord blood was 32.0 nmol/L (interquartile range, 21.4 to 53.2). One hundred and eighty neonates (34.3%) showed 25(OH)D concentrations less than 25.0 nmol/L, 292 (55.6%) showed 25(OH)D concentrations of 25.0-74.9 nmol/L, and 53 (10.1%) showed concentrations of ≥75.0 nmol/L. Adjusting for the season of birth, multivitamin intake during pregnancy, and exposure to passive smoking during pregnancy, 25(OH)D concentrations showed an inverse association with the risk of acquiring acute nasopharyngitis by 6 months of age (P for trend=0.0004). Conclusion The results show that 89.9% of healthy newborns in Korea are born with vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency (55.6% and 34.3%, respectively). Cord blood vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency in healthy neonates is associated with an increased risk of acute nasopharyngitis by 6 months of age. More time spent outdoors and more intensified vitamin D supplementation for pregnant women may be needed to prevent the onset of acute nasopharyngitis in infants. PMID:24244212

  3. A Guide to Dental Care for the Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment Program (EPSDT) Under Medicaid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindahl, Roy L.; Young, Wesley O.

    This guide has been developed to assist administrators, providers of dental care, and others involved in carrying out the dental care provisions of the EPSDT program (Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment Program). It is intended to assist in the development of programs concerned with the unique characteristics of dental diseases…

  4. EPSDT: Child Health. Child Health Information for Workers in the Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening Diagnosis and Treatment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manela, Roger; And Others

    One of six information booklets with accompanying training materials for the Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) program, this booklet describes the stages of child growth and development and some of the health problems which EPSDT clients might have. Section I describes tests commonly included in an EPSDT…

  5. Improvements Needed to Speed Implementation of Medicaid's Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment Program...Report to the Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    Congressman Ralph H. Metcalfe asked the General Accounting Office (GAO) to review implementation of the Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT) program administered by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare's (HEW's) Social and Rehabilitation Service (SRS). An estimated 10 million children under age 21 are…

  6. A Guide to Screening for the Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment Program (EPSDT) Under Medicaid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenburg, William K.; North, A. Frederick, Jr.

    The manual was designed to help public officials, physicians, nurses, and others to plan and implement an Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT) program under Medicaid. Procedures for carrying out components of an EPSDT program are recommended. Part 1 discusses organization and administration of screening, diagnosis, and…

  7. Rural N(SO) and German middle-class mothers' interaction with their 3- and 6-month-old infants: A longitudinal cross-cultural analysis.

    PubMed

    Lamm, Bettina; Gudi, Helene; Fassbender, Ina; Freitag, Claudia; Graf, Frauke; Goertz, Claudia; Spangler, Sibylle; Teubert, Manuel; Knopf, Monika; Lohaus, Arnold; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Keller, Heidi

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to analyze culture-specific development of maternal interactional behavior longitudinally. Rural Cameroonian Nso mothers (n = 72) and German middle-class mothers (n = 106) were observed in free-play interactions with their 3- and 6-month-old infants. Results reveal the expected shift from a social to a nonsocial focus only in the German middle-class mothers' play interactions but not the rural Nso mothers' play. Nso mothers continue their proximal interactional style with a focus on body contact and body stimulation, whereas German middle-class mothers prefer a distal style of interaction with increasing object-centeredness. These cultural differences are in line with broader cultural models and become more accentuated as the infants grow older.

  8. High resolution imaging science experiment (HiRISE) images of volcanic terrains from the first 6 months of the Mars reconnaissance orbiter primary science phase

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keszthelyi, L.; Jaeger, W.; McEwen, A.; Tornabene, L.; Beyer, R.A.; Dundas, C.; Milazzo, M.

    2008-01-01

    In the first 6 months of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Primary Science Phase, the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera has returned images sampling the diversity of volcanic terrains on Mars. While many of these features were noted in earlier imaging, they are now seen with unprecedented clarity. We find that some volcanic vents produced predominantly effusive products while others generated mostly pyroclastics. Flood lavas were emplaced in both turbulent and gentle eruptions, producing roofed channels and inflation features. However, many areas on Mars are too heavily mantled to allow meter-scale volcanic features to be discerned. In particular, the major volcanic edifices are extensively mantled, though it is possible that some of the mantle is pyroclastic material rather than atmospheric dust. Support imaging by the Context Imager (CTX) and topographic information derived from stereo imaging are both invaluable in interpreting the HiRISE data. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Reduced platelet deposition on seeded versus unseeded segments of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene grafts: Clinical observations after a 6-month follow-up

    SciTech Connect

    Ortenwall, P.; Wadenvik, H.; Risberg, B. )

    1989-10-01

    The concept of autologous endothelial cell seeding has proved successful in animal models with respect to decrease of graft thrombogenicity and increase in patency. In the present study, application of this method in humans was explored. In 23 patients, random halves of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene grafts, used for lower limb arterial reconstructions, were seeded with endothelial cells at a seeding density of 3500 cells/cm{sup 2}. These cells were derived from the saphenous vein by enzymatic harvesting. The other half was sham seeded with culture medium. Graft thrombogenicity was estimated by measuring platelet deposition on graft surface 1 and 6 months after surgery, with indium 111-labeled platelets and external gamma-camera imaging. Seeded graft segments accumulated significantly (p less than 0.03) fewer platelets at all imaging times. It is concluded that seeding of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene vascular grafts in humans reduces graft surface thrombogenicity. The clinical implications of this remain to be demonstrated.

  10. Rural N(SO) and German middle-class mothers' interaction with their 3- and 6-month-old infants: A longitudinal cross-cultural analysis.

    PubMed

    Lamm, Bettina; Gudi, Helene; Fassbender, Ina; Freitag, Claudia; Graf, Frauke; Goertz, Claudia; Spangler, Sibylle; Teubert, Manuel; Knopf, Monika; Lohaus, Arnold; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Keller, Heidi

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to analyze culture-specific development of maternal interactional behavior longitudinally. Rural Cameroonian Nso mothers (n = 72) and German middle-class mothers (n = 106) were observed in free-play interactions with their 3- and 6-month-old infants. Results reveal the expected shift from a social to a nonsocial focus only in the German middle-class mothers' play interactions but not the rural Nso mothers' play. Nso mothers continue their proximal interactional style with a focus on body contact and body stimulation, whereas German middle-class mothers prefer a distal style of interaction with increasing object-centeredness. These cultural differences are in line with broader cultural models and become more accentuated as the infants grow older. PMID:26075741

  11. Recurrent neonatal herpes simplex virus infection with central nervous system disease after completion of a 6-month course of suppressive therapy: Case report.

    PubMed

    Kato, Koji; Hara, Shinya; Kawada, Jun-Ichi; Ito, Yoshinori

    2015-12-01

    A boy at 12 days of age developed neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 infection with central nervous system (CNS) disease. After a 21-day course of high-dose intravenous acyclovir, the patient recovered with negative results for HSV DNA in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Two weeks after a 6-month course of oral valacyclovir suppressive therapy with negative virological assessment, the disease recurred. Another 21-day course of intravenous acyclovir and subsequent 1-year course of oral suppressive therapy were completed. He showed mild developmental delay in language-social skills at 18 months of age. Although recurrences of neonatal HSV infection with CNS disease after suppressive therapy are uncommon, both clinical and virological assessments at the end of the suppressive therapy may be required. Administration of extended long-term suppressive ACV therapy should be considered to reduce the rate of recurrence. PMID:26390826

  12. Comparative effectiveness of a fixed-dose combination of losartan + HCTZ versus bisoprolol + HCTZ in patients with moderate-to-severe hypertension: results of the 6-month ELIZA trial

    PubMed Central

    Radchenko, GD; Sirenko, YM; Kushnir, SM; Torbas, OO; Dobrokhod, AS

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare the antihypertensive efficacy of losartan 100 mg + hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 25 mg versus bisoprolol 10 mg + HCTZ 25 mg and their influence on arterial stiffness and central blood pressure (BP). Methods Of 60 patients with a mean BP of 173.3 ± 1.7/98.4 ± 1.2 mmHg, 59 were random-ized to losartan + HCTZ (n = 32) or bisoprolol + HCTZ (n = 27). Amlodipine was added if target BP was not achieved at 1 month, and doxazosin was added if target BP was not achieved after 3 months. Body mass index, office and 24-hour ambulatory BP, pulse wave velocity (carotid-femoral [PWVE] and radial [PWVM]), noninvasive central systolic BP, augmentation index (AIx), laboratory investigations, and electrocardiography were done at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. Results Losartan + HCTZ was as effective as bisoprolol + HCTZ, with target office BP achieved in 96.9% and 92.6% of patients and target 24-hour BP in 75% and 66.7% of patients, respectively, after 6 months. Effective treatment of BP led to significant lowering of central systolic BP, but this was decreased to a significantly (P < 0.05) greater extent by losartan + HCTZ (−23.0 ± 2.3 mmHg) than by bisoprolol + HCTZ (−15.4 ± 2.9 mmHg) despite equal lowering of brachial BP. Factors correlated with central systolic BP and its lowering differed between the treatment groups. Losartan + HCTZ did not alter arterial stiffness patterns significantly, but bisoprolol + HCTZ significantly increased AIx. We noted differences in ΔPWVE, ΔPWVM, and ΔAIx between the groups in favor of losartan + HCTZ. Decreased heart rate was associated with higher central systolic BP and AIx in the bisoprolol + HCTZ group, but was not associated with increased AIx in the losartan + HCTZ group. Conclusion Although both treatments decreased both office and 24-hour BP, losartan + HCTZ significantly decreased central systolic BP and had a more positive influence on pulse wave velocity, with a less

  13. No difference indicated in electroencephalographic power spectral analysis in 3- and 6-month-old infants fed soy- or milk-based formula.

    PubMed

    Jing, Hongkui; Pivik, R T; Gilchrist, Janet M; Badger, Thomas M

    2008-04-01

    Increasing concern has been recently raised on the possible effects of soy-derived phyto-oestrogens on the development of cognitive functions in infants. However, limited studies have been conducted to date, and no data have been made available for determining whether infant soy formula can affect normal development of the human brain. We compared electroencephalographic (EEG) spectral power derived from high-density recordings of infants fed milk-based or soy formula (46 fed milk-based formula and 39 fed soy formula) at 3 and 6 months of age. The spectral parameters included absolute power, relative power and spectral edge frequency (SEF) at 85%, 90% and 95% levels. The frequency domain contained four bands (0.1-3, 3-6, 6-9 and 9-12 Hz). EEG signals were collected from eight brain areas in each hemisphere. The results showed that the highest spectral power was mainly distributed in the low-frequency bands and was predominant in the frontal and anterior temporal areas. None of the spectral variables significantly differed between the soy- and milk-fed infants (anova, all P > 0.2). However, significant effects were indicated on the SEFs for factors of sex, age and brain area (all P < 0.01). Hemispheric differences in the absolute and relative power were also indicated. Our results suggest that the EEG power spectral development of soy-fed infants does not differ from that of infants fed milk-based formula. In addition, EEG spectral development appears more advanced in female than in male infants at 6 months.

  14. The association between maternal-reported responses to infant crying at 4 weeks and 6 months and offspring depression at 18: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Catherine J; Kessler, David; Fernyhough, Charles; Lewis, Glyn; Pearson, Rebecca M

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the association between maternal response to infant crying and the psychological health of the child in later life. Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort, consisting of 15,247 pregnancies, 10,278 with exposure variables and 3201 complete cases were identified as having exposure, covariate and outcome data. Using a postal questionnaire, mothers were asked regarding their infant at 4 weeks and 6 months, 'If they cry what do you do?': (a) pick them up immediately; (b) if they cry, leave them for a while, and if they do not stop, pick them up; or (c) never pick them up until you are ready. Outcome was an International Statistical Classification-10th revision criteria (ICD-10) diagnosis of depression at 18 years for the infant. Offspring of mothers who at 4 weeks reported that they never picked their infants up until they were ready were more likely to have depression at 18 years (OR = 2.06, CI 0.95-4.47, adjusted for sociodemographic confounding variables). There was no evidence for an association at 6 months. Including adjustment variables reduced the strength of our association; an observed objective measure of maternal response rather than a self-report may have more accurately determined the mother's actual responses. There is some evidence for an association between maternal reporting of responses to infant crying at 4 weeks and risk of developing depression at 18 years. If this association is found to be causal, interventions encouraging mothers to represent and respond to their infants' emotional states may help prevent offspring depression. PMID:26837614

  15. Weight-Loss Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Intermittent Energy Restriction Trials Lasting a Minimum of 6 Months.

    PubMed

    Headland, Michelle; Clifton, Peter M; Carter, Sharayah; Keogh, Jennifer B

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to summarise the effects of intermittent energy restriction on weight and biological markers in long term intervention studies of >6 months duration. An electronic search was performed using the MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library databases for intervention trials lasting 6 months or longer investigating the effects of intermittent energy restriction. A total of nine studies were identified as meeting the pre-specified criteria. All studies included an intermittent energy restriction arm, with six being directly compared to continuous energy restriction. A total of 981 subjects were enrolled and randomised, with weight loss observed in all intermittent energy restriction arms regardless of study duration or follow up length. Eight interventions in six trials were used for the meta-analyses, with results indicating neither intermittent or continuous energy restriction being superior with respect to weight loss, 0.084 ± 0.114 (overall mean difference between groups ± standard error; p = 0.458). The effects of intermittent energy restriction in the long term remain unclear. The number of long term studies conducted is very limited, and participant numbers typically small (less than 50 completers), indicating the need for larger, long term trials of 12 months or more, to be conducted in order to understand the impact of intermittent energy restriction on weight loss and long term weight management. Blood lipid concentrations, glucose, and insulin were not altered by intermittent energy expenditure in values greater than those seen with continuous energy restriction. PMID:27338458

  16. Family Perception and 6-Month Symptomatic and Functioning Outcomes in Young Adolescents at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis in a General Population in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Shi, JingYu; Chen, FaZhan; Yao, YuHong; Zhan, ChenYu; Yin, XiaoWen; Fang, XiaoYan; Wang, HaoJie; Yuan, JiaBei; Zhao, XuDong

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Given the difficulty of treating schizophrenia and other forms of psychosis, researchers have shifted focus to early detection and intervention of individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis. Previous studies have shown that elements in family functioning could predict symptom outcome in CHR individuals. However, associations between self reported family functioning and symptom or functioning outcome of CHR individuals was rarely reported. Our study aimed to investigate the characteristics and the role of family functioning in the development of CHR individuals among young adolescents. Methods A sample of 32 CHR individuals was recruited from 2800 university students. The characteristics of family perception were evaluated by both Family Assessment Device (FAD) and Family cohesion and adaptability evaluation Scale II (FACES II). 6 month follow up data was available with 25 of the recruited CHR individuals. Baseline socio-demographic characteristics and family functioning were compared between CHR and control group. We also measured the associations between different dimensions of perceived family functioning and both severity of prodromal symptoms and global functioning at baseline and 6-month follow up. Results CHR individuals showed more maladaptive family functioning compared to control in nearly all of the dimensions of FAD and FACES II except for Affective Involvement. Better Problem Solving and Affective Responsiveness predicted less severe positive and negative symptoms respectively. Family cohesion and adaptability were not only correlated with the baseline severity of general symptoms, but also positively associated with the general and disorganized symptom outcome. Conclusions This study contributed preliminary evidence towards the associations between family perception and symptom outcome of CHR individuals. It also provided evidence for the importance of family interventions on CHR individuals. PMID:26394221

  17. Rehabilitation of Patellar Tendinopathy Using Hip Extensor Strengthening and Landing-Strategy Modification: Case Report With 6-Month Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Scattone Silva, Rodrigo; Ferreira, Ana Luisa G; Nakagawa, Theresa H; Santos, José E M; Serrão, Fábio V

    2015-11-01

    Study Design Case report. Background Although eccentric exercises have been a cornerstone of the rehabilitation of athletes with patellar tendinopathy, the effectiveness of this intervention is sometimes less than ideal. Athletes with patellar tendinopathy have been shown to have different jump-landing patterns and lower hip extensor strength compared to asymptomatic athletes. To our knowledge, the effectiveness of an intervention addressing these impairments has not yet been investigated. Case Description The patient was a 21-year-old male volleyball athlete with a 9-month history of patellar tendon pain. Pain was measured with a visual analog scale. Disability was measured with the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-patella questionnaire. These assessments were conducted before and after an 8-week intervention, as well as at 6 months after the intervention. Hip and knee kinematics and kinetics during drop vertical jump and isometric strength were also measured before and after the 8-week intervention. The intervention consisted of hip extensor muscle strengthening and jump landing strategy modification training. The patient did not interrupt volleyball practice/competition during rehabilitation. Outcomes After the 8-week intervention and at 6 months postintervention, the athlete was completely asymptomatic during sports participation. This favorable clinical outcome was accompanied by a 50% increase in hip extensor moment, a 21% decrease in knee extensor moment, and a 26% decrease in patellar tendon force during jump landing measured at 8 weeks. Discussion This case report provides an example of how an 8-week intervention of hip muscle strengthening and jump-landing modification decreased pain and disability and improved jump-landing biomechanics in an athlete with patellar tendinopathy. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2015;45(11):899-909. Epub 21 Sep 2015. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.6242. PMID:26390271

  18. Perinatal Parenting Stress, Anxiety, and Depression Outcomes in First-Time Mothers and Fathers: A 3- to 6-Months Postpartum Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Vismara, Laura; Rollè, Luca; Agostini, Francesca; Sechi, Cristina; Fenaroli, Valentina; Molgora, Sara; Neri, Erica; Prino, Laura E.; Odorisio, Flaminia; Trovato, Annamaria; Polizzi, Concetta; Brustia, Piera; Lucarelli, Loredana; Monti, Fiorella; Saita, Emanuela; Tambelli, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although there is an established link between parenting stress, postnatal depression, and anxiety, no study has yet investigated this link in first-time parental couples. The specific aims of this study were 1) to investigate whether there were any differences between first-time fathers’ and mothers’ postnatal parenting stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms and to see their evolution between three and 6 months after their child’s birth; and 2) to explore how each parent’s parenting stress and anxiety levels and the anxiety levels and depressive symptoms of their partners contributed to parental postnatal depression. Method: The sample included 362 parents (181 couples; mothers’ MAge = 35.03, SD = 4.7; fathers’ MAge = 37.9, SD = 5.6) of healthy babies. At three (T1) and 6 months (T2) postpartum, both parents filled out, in a counterbalanced order, the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Results: The analyses showed that compared to fathers, mothers reported higher scores on postpartum anxiety, depression, and parenting stress. The scores for all measures for both mothers and fathers decreased from T1 to T2. However, a path analysis suggested that the persistence of both maternal and paternal postnatal depression was directly influenced by the parent’s own levels of anxiety and parenting stress and by the presence of depression in his/her partner. Discussion: This study highlights the relevant impact and effects of both maternal and paternal stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms during the transition to parenthood. Therefore, to provide efficacious, targeted, early interventions, perinatal screening should be directed at both parents. PMID:27445906

  19. Weight-Loss Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Intermittent Energy Restriction Trials Lasting a Minimum of 6 Months

    PubMed Central

    Headland, Michelle; Clifton, Peter M.; Carter, Sharayah; Keogh, Jennifer B.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to summarise the effects of intermittent energy restriction on weight and biological markers in long term intervention studies of >6 months duration. An electronic search was performed using the MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library databases for intervention trials lasting 6 months or longer investigating the effects of intermittent energy restriction. A total of nine studies were identified as meeting the pre-specified criteria. All studies included an intermittent energy restriction arm, with six being directly compared to continuous energy restriction. A total of 981 subjects were enrolled and randomised, with weight loss observed in all intermittent energy restriction arms regardless of study duration or follow up length. Eight interventions in six trials were used for the meta-analyses, with results indicating neither intermittent or continuous energy restriction being superior with respect to weight loss, 0.084 ± 0.114 (overall mean difference between groups ± standard error; p = 0.458). The effects of intermittent energy restriction in the long term remain unclear. The number of long term studies conducted is very limited, and participant numbers typically small (less than 50 completers), indicating the need for larger, long term trials of 12 months or more, to be conducted in order to understand the impact of intermittent energy restriction on weight loss and long term weight management. Blood lipid concentrations, glucose, and insulin were not altered by intermittent energy expenditure in values greater than those seen with continuous energy restriction. PMID:27338458

  20. Does multicomponent physical exercise with simultaneous cognitive training boost cognitive performance in older adults? A 6-month randomized controlled trial with a 1-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Eggenberger, Patrick; Schumacher, Vera; Angst, Marius; Theill, Nathan; de Bruin, Eling D

    2015-01-01

    Background Cognitive impairment is a health problem that concerns almost every second elderly person. Physical and cognitive training have differential positive effects on cognition, but have been rarely applied in combination. This study evaluates synergistic effects of multicomponent physical exercise complemented with novel simultaneous cognitive training on cognition in older adults. We hypothesized that simultaneous cognitive–physical components would add training specific cognitive benefits compared to exclusively physical training. Methods Seniors, older than 70 years, without cognitive impairment, were randomly assigned to either: 1) virtual reality video game dancing (DANCE), 2) treadmill walking with simultaneous verbal memory training (MEMORY), or 3) treadmill walking (PHYS). Each program was complemented with strength and balance exercises. Two 1-hour training sessions per week over 6 months were applied. Cognitive performance was assessed at baseline, after 3 and 6 months, and at 1-year follow-up. Multiple regression analyses with planned comparisons were calculated. Results Eighty-nine participants were randomized to the three groups initially, 71 completed the training, while 47 were available at 1-year follow-up. Advantages of the simultaneous cognitive–physical programs were found in two dimensions of executive function. “Shifting attention” showed a time×intervention interaction in favor of DANCE/MEMORY versus PHYS (F[2, 68] =1.95, trend P=0.075, r=0.17); and “working memory” showed a time×intervention interaction in favor of DANCE versus MEMORY (F[1, 136] =2.71, trend P=0.051, R2=0.006). Performance improvements in executive functions, long-term visual memory (episodic memory), and processing speed were maintained at follow-up in all groups. Conclusion Particular executive functions benefit from simultaneous cognitive–physical training compared to exclusively physical multicomponent training. Cognitive–physical training programs

  1. The association between maternal-reported responses to infant crying at 4 weeks and 6 months and offspring depression at 18: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Catherine J; Kessler, David; Fernyhough, Charles; Lewis, Glyn; Pearson, Rebecca M

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the association between maternal response to infant crying and the psychological health of the child in later life. Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort, consisting of 15,247 pregnancies, 10,278 with exposure variables and 3201 complete cases were identified as having exposure, covariate and outcome data. Using a postal questionnaire, mothers were asked regarding their infant at 4 weeks and 6 months, 'If they cry what do you do?': (a) pick them up immediately; (b) if they cry, leave them for a while, and if they do not stop, pick them up; or (c) never pick them up until you are ready. Outcome was an International Statistical Classification-10th revision criteria (ICD-10) diagnosis of depression at 18 years for the infant. Offspring of mothers who at 4 weeks reported that they never picked their infants up until they were ready were more likely to have depression at 18 years (OR = 2.06, CI 0.95-4.47, adjusted for sociodemographic confounding variables). There was no evidence for an association at 6 months. Including adjustment variables reduced the strength of our association; an observed objective measure of maternal response rather than a self-report may have more accurately determined the mother's actual responses. There is some evidence for an association between maternal reporting of responses to infant crying at 4 weeks and risk of developing depression at 18 years. If this association is found to be causal, interventions encouraging mothers to represent and respond to their infants' emotional states may help prevent offspring depression.

  2. Effectiveness of Periodic Treatment of Quercetin against Influenza A Virus H1N1 through Modulation of Protein Expression.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Bipin; Cho, Se-Young; Oh, Kyung-Seo; Kim, Song Hak; Kim, Yeong O; Jeong, Eun-Hye; Nguyen, Thoa Thi; Kim, Sung Hyun; Kim, In Seon; Kwon, Joseph; Kim, Duwoon

    2016-06-01

    Kimchi, a traditional fermented food regularly consumed in Korea, contains various types of antimicrobial compounds. Among the tested compounds present in common spices used in Kimchi, quercetin showed the highest selectivity index against influenza A virus (IAV) H1N1. In this study, the effect of pretreatment and periodic treatment with quercetin against IAV in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells was observed. Compared to pretreatment, periodic treatment resulted in significantly higher cell viability but lower relative expression of the IAV PA gene and total apoptosis and cell death. To explain the mechanisms underlying the antiviral effects of quercetin treatment, a comparative proteomic analysis was performed in four samples (mock, quercetin-treated, IAV-infected, and quercetin-treated IAV-infected). Among the 220 proteins, 56 proteins were classified nonhierarchically into three clusters and were differentially modulated by quercetin treatment in IAV-infected cells. Post-translational modifications were identified in 68 proteins. In conclusion, periodic treatment with quercetin is effective in reducing IAV infection, and differentially regulates the expression of key proteins, including heat shock proteins, fibronectin 1, and prohibitin to reduce IAV replication.

  3. Effectiveness of Periodic Treatment of Quercetin against Influenza A Virus H1N1 through Modulation of Protein Expression.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Bipin; Cho, Se-Young; Oh, Kyung-Seo; Kim, Song Hak; Kim, Yeong O; Jeong, Eun-Hye; Nguyen, Thoa Thi; Kim, Sung Hyun; Kim, In Seon; Kwon, Joseph; Kim, Duwoon

    2016-06-01

    Kimchi, a traditional fermented food regularly consumed in Korea, contains various types of antimicrobial compounds. Among the tested compounds present in common spices used in Kimchi, quercetin showed the highest selectivity index against influenza A virus (IAV) H1N1. In this study, the effect of pretreatment and periodic treatment with quercetin against IAV in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells was observed. Compared to pretreatment, periodic treatment resulted in significantly higher cell viability but lower relative expression of the IAV PA gene and total apoptosis and cell death. To explain the mechanisms underlying the antiviral effects of quercetin treatment, a comparative proteomic analysis was performed in four samples (mock, quercetin-treated, IAV-infected, and quercetin-treated IAV-infected). Among the 220 proteins, 56 proteins were classified nonhierarchically into three clusters and were differentially modulated by quercetin treatment in IAV-infected cells. Post-translational modifications were identified in 68 proteins. In conclusion, periodic treatment with quercetin is effective in reducing IAV infection, and differentially regulates the expression of key proteins, including heat shock proteins, fibronectin 1, and prohibitin to reduce IAV replication. PMID:27157719

  4. Effects of different doses of nandrolone decanoate on estrous cycle and ovarian tissue of rats after treatment and recovery periods.

    PubMed

    Simão, Vinícius Augusto; Berloffa Belardin, Larissa; Araújo Leite, Gabriel Adan; de Almeida Chuffa, Luiz Gustavo; Camargo, Isabel Cristina Cherici

    2015-10-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that different doses of nandrolone decanoate (ND) will cause changes in the estrous cycle and ovarian tissue of adult rats; and investigated the duration of the recovery period that is sufficient to restore the damage in the animals treated with different doses. Wistar rats were treated with ND at doses of 1.87, 3.75, 7.5 and 15 mg/kg body weight, or received mineral oil (control group) for 15 days, subcutaneously. All animals were divided into three groups according to the treatment periods: (i) ND treatment for 15 days; (ii) ND treatment followed by a 30-day recovery; and (iii) ND treatment followed by a 60-day recovery. Estrous cycle was monitored daily, and at the end of each period, the animals were euthanized for histopathological analysis. During ND treatment and after 30-day recovery, all animals exhibited persistent diestrus. After a 60-day recovery, persistent diestrus was only maintained in the group that had received the highest dose. Ovarian weight was decreased significantly after the 30-day recovery, regardless of ND doses, compared with the control group. There was a reduction (P < 0.05) in the number of corpora lutea and antral and growing follicles, in contrast to an increase (P < 0.05) in atretic follicles in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Remarkable histopathological changes occurred in the ovaries of all ND-treated groups. In conclusion, the different doses of ND caused changes in the estrous cycle and ovarian tissue of rats, and recovery periods (30 and 60 days) were insufficient to completely restore the damage in the animals treated with the highest dose. PMID:26575430

  5. Successful treatment of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) with tocilizumab: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Akasbi, Nessrine; Soyfoo, Muhammad S.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) is an autosomal dominant autoinflammatory disease linked to chromosome 12p13 and, more specifically, with mutations within the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 1A gene (TNFRSF1A gene). It is characterized by the presence of fever, abdominal pain, myalgia, arthralgia or arthritis, and skin rash. In this report, we describe the case of a patient with tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) treated successfully with the anti-interleukin-6 (anti-IL-6) receptor monoclonal antibody tocilizumab, while treatment with anti-TNF α etanercept and infliximab had both failed.

  6. Anaerobic treatment of tequila vinasses under seasonal operating conditions: start-up, normal operation and restart-up after a long stop and starvation period.

    PubMed

    Jáuregui-Jáuregui, J A; Méndez-Acosta, H O; González-Álvarez, V; Snell-Castro, R; Alcaraz-González, V; Godon, J J

    2014-09-01

    This study examines the performance of an anaerobic fixed-film bioreactor under seasonal operating conditions prevailing in medium and small size Tequila factories: start-up, normal operation and particularly, during the restart-up after a long stop and starvation period. The proposed start-up procedure attained a stable biofilm in a rather short period (28 days) despite unbalanced COD/N/P ratio and the use of non-acclimated inoculum. The bioreactor was restarted-up after being shut down for 6 months during which the inoculum starved. Even when biofilm detachment and bioreactor clogging were detected at the very beginning of restart-up, results show that the bioreactor performed better as higher COD removal and methane yield were attained. CE-SSCP and Q-PCR analyses, conducted on the biofilm prokaryotic communities for each operating condition, confirmed that the high COD removal results after the bioreactor clogging and the severe starvation period were mainly due to the stable archaeal and resilient bacterial populations.

  7. 48 CFR 9.407-4 - Period of suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 9.407-4 Period of..., in which case it may be extended for an additional 6 months. In no event may a suspension...

  8. Spectroscopic characterization of bone tissue of experimental animals after glucocorticoid treatment and recovery period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitić, Žarko J.; Najman, Stevo J.; Cakić, Milorad D.; Ajduković, Zorica R.; Ignjatović, Nenad L.; Nikolić, Ružica S.; Nikolić, Goran M.; Stojanović, Sanja T.; Vukelić, Marija Đ.; Trajanović, Miroslav D.

    2014-09-01

    The influence of glucocorticoids on the composition and mineral/organic content of the mandible in tested animals after recovery and healing phase was investigated in this work. The results of FTIR analysis demonstrated that bone tissue composition was changed after glucocorticoid treatment. The increase of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus content and mineral part of bones was statistically significant in recovery phase and in treatment phase that included calcitonin and thymus extract. Some changes also happened in the organic part of the matrix, as indicated by intensity changes for already present IR bands and the appearance of new IR bands in the region 3500-1300 cm-1.

  9. CRYSCOR: a program for the post-Hartree-Fock treatment of periodic systems.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Cesare; Schütz, Martin; Casassa, Silvia; Usvyat, Denis; Maschio, Lorenzo; Lorenz, Marco; Erba, Alessandro

    2012-06-01

    Cryscor is a periodic post-Hartree-Fock program based on local functions in direct space, i.e., Wannier functions and projected atomic orbitals. It uses atom centered Gaussians as basis functions. The Hartree-Fock reference, as well as symmetry information, is provided by the Crystal program. Cryscor presently features an efficient and parallel implementation of periodic local second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), which allows us to study 1D-, 2D- and 3D-periodic systems beyond 1000 basis functions per unit cell. Apart from the correlation energy also the MP2 density matrix, and from that the Compton profile, are available. Very recently, a new module for calculating excitonic band gaps at the uncorrelated Configuration-Interaction-Singles (CIS) level has been added. Other advancements include new extrapolation techniques for calculating surface adsorption on semi-infinite solids. In this paper the diverse features and recent advances of the present Cryscor version are illustrated by exemplary applications to various systems: the adsorption of an argon monolayer on the MgO (100) surface, the rolling energy of a boron nitride nanoscroll, the relative stability of different aluminosilicates, the inclusion energy of methane in methane-ice-clathrates, and the effect of electron correlation on charge and momentum density of α-quartz. Furthermore, we present some first tentative CIS results for excitonic band gaps of simple 3D-crystals, and their dependence on the diffuseness of the basis set. PMID:22334044

  10. Recidivism among Juvenile Offenders over Periods Ranging from One to Twenty Years following Residential Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMackin, Robert A.; Tansi, Robert; Lafratta, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the recidivism data for juvenile offenders discharged from a Massachusetts residential treatment center between 1976 and 1995. The criminal histories, juvenile and adult, of 162 delinquent youth referred through the Massachusetts Department of Youth Services who left the program were reviewed. Recidivism was defined as any…

  11. [Clinical and pharmacoeconomic peculiarities of the treatment with cerebrolysin in the period of rehabilitation of is ischemic stroke.].

    PubMed

    Gusev, E I; Gekht, A B; Belousov, Iu B; Pavlov, N A; Galanov, D V; Popov, G R; Mil'chakova, L E

    2007-01-01

    The results of the clinical and pharmacoeconomic study of cerebrolysin in the rehabilitative therapy of ischemic stroke presented in the paper revealed the statistically significant regress of neurological disturbances in patients receiving cerebrolysin in daily dosages of 10 and 20 ml as compared to the control group. The rehabilitation of motor functions was more rapid than sensitive ones in patients receiving cerebrolysin comparing to those switched to the basic antihypertensive and antiaggregate therapy. The positive dynamics of speech rehabilitation was observed, the regress of aphatic disturbances being more significant for daily dosage of 20 ml. Rehabilitation rate in the period of treatment with cerebrolysin was higher for daily dosage of 20 ml than that of 10 ml. A prolonged effect of the drug during the long period after its withdrawal was found that resulted in higher rates of rehabilitation to the 11th week in patients receiving cerebrolysin as compared to the control group. Average total cost of direct medical expenses per a patient estimated in the pharmacoeconomic analysis for the groups receiving cerebrolysin and the control group was higher in the former groups, in particular in that with 20 ml dosage of cerebrolysin. A cost-efficacy analysis revealed that the cost of cerebrolysin treatment per effective unit (a cost of one score on the Lindmark scale and the Barthel scale) was less or comparable in patients receiving cerebrolysin comparing to the control group. The study suggests clinical and pharmacoeconomic expediency of cerebrolysin treatment in rehabilitative period of ischemic stroke.

  12. Evaluation of Vipassana Meditation Course Effects on Subjective Stress, Well-being, Self-kindness and Mindfulness in a Community Sample: Post-course and 6-month Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Szekeres, Roberta A; Wertheim, Eleanor H

    2015-12-01

    Residential Vipassana meditation courses, which teach mindfulness skills, are widely available globally but under-evaluated. This study examined effects of a standardized, community-based Vipassana course, on subjective stress, well-being, self-kindness and trait mindfulness in a community sample. Participants completed self-report measures of these variables at pre-course and post-course (n = 122), and outcomes were compared to a control group of early enrollers (EEs) (n = 50) who completed measures at parallel time points before course commencement. Six-month follow-up was undertaken in the intervention group (n = 90). Findings, including intention-to-complete analyses, suggested positive effects of the Vipassana course in reducing subjective stress and increasing well-being, self-kindness and overall mindfulness (present-moment awareness and non-reaction). Although some reductions in post-course gains were found at follow-up, particularly in stress, follow-up scores still showed improvements compared to pre-course scores. Mindfulness change scores between pre-course and 6-month follow-up were moderately to highly correlated with outcome variable change scores, consistent with the idea that effects of the Vipassana course on stress and well-being operate, at least partially, through increasing mindfulness. The present research underscores the importance of undertaking further investigations into Vipassana courses' effects and applications.

  13. The Effect of Exclusive Breastfeeding on Hospital Stay and Morbidity due to Various Diseases in Infants under 6 Months of Age: A Prospective Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Amarpreet; Singh, Karnail; Pannu, M S; Singh, Palwinder; Sehgal, Neeraj; Kaur, Rupinderjeet

    2016-01-01

    Background. Mother's milk is the best for the babies. Protective and preventive role of breast milk was evaluated in this study by assessing the relation of type of feeding and duration of hospital stay or morbidity. Methods. This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital and 232 infants in the age group of 14 weeks to 6 months formed the sample. There are two groups of infants, that is, one for breastfed and one for top fed infants. Statistical analysis was done and results were calculated up to 95% to 99% level of significance to find effect of feeding pattern on hospital stay due to various diseases and morbidity. Results. Prolonged hospital stay, that is, >7 days, was lesser in breastfed infants and results were statistically significant in case of gastroenteritis (p value < 0.001), bronchopneumonia (p value = 0.0012), bronchiolitis (p value = 0.005), otitis media (p value = 0.003), and skin diseases (p value = 0.047). Lesser morbidity was seen in breastfed infants with gastroenteritis (p value 0.0414), bronchopneumonia (p value 0.03705), bronchiolitis (p value 0.036706), meningitis (p value 0.043), and septicemia (p value 0.04). Conclusions. Breastfed infants have shorter hospital stay and lesser morbidity in regard to various diseases as compared to top fed infants.

  14. Prospective comparative study of tapered implants with SLA surfaces in the maxillary posterior area according to 3- and 6-month loading time.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Kyun; Kim, Jong-Hwa; Yi, Yang-Jin; Kwon, Min-Jung; Yun, Pil-Young

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate clinical outcomes of sandblasted, large-grit, acid-etched (SLA)-surfaced tapered implants when early loaded in partially edentulous spaces in the maxilla. SLA-surfaced implants were placed in participants in the maxillary posterior edentulous area. At the time of definitive restoration, participants were allocated either to group 1 (3-month loading group) or group 2 (6-month loading group). A total of 36 participants (18 people [35 implants] in group 1 and 18 [33 implants] in group 2) were analyzed. Clinical outcomes, including survival rate and peri-implant parameters such as marginal bone loss were measured 1 year after loading. The survival rate was 97.0% in group 1 and 100% in group 2. Marginal bone loss was 0.22 ± 0.34 mm in group 1 and 0.17 ± 0.25 mm in group 2 at 1 year after loading (P = .488). There were no significant differences between groups in keratinized mucosal width (P = .206), Plaque Index (P = .677), or Gingival Index (P = .558). With adequate remaining bone height and primary implant stability achieved, the 3-month early loading of SLA-surface tapered implants may be a viable choice when restoring posterior maxillary edentulous areas.

  15. The acceptance and feasibility of replacement feeding at 6 months as an HIV prevention method in Lilongwe, Malawi: Results from the BAN Study

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Megan E.; Bentley, Margaret E.; Chasela, Charles; Adair, Linda; Piwoz, Ellen G.; Jamieson, Denise J.; Ellington, Sascha; Kayira, Dumbani; Soko, Alice; Mkhomawanthu, Chimwemwe; Tembo, Martin; Martinson, Francis; van der Horst, Charles M.

    2011-01-01

    International guidelines recommend exclusive breastfeeding to 6 months among HIV-infected mothers choosing to breastfeed and cessation thereafter if replacement feeding is acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable and safe. When mothers wean they are challenged to provide an adequate replacement diet. This study investigates the use and acceptability of a lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) as a breastmilk substitute when provided to infants (6-12mo) of HIV-positive mothers, as part of the Breastfeeding, Antiretroviral, and Nutrition (BAN) Study. A sub-sample of mothers (n=45) participated in interviews that explored exclusive breastfeeding, weaning, and strategies to feed LNS. Mothers reported several weaning strategies, including gradual reduction of breastfeeding, expressing breastmilk into a cup, and separation of mother and child. LNS, a peanut-based micronutrient fortified paste, was highly accepted and incorporated into the traditional diet. Weaning is a feasible HIV prevention method among this population in Malawi when supported by the provision of LNS as a breastmilk substitute. PMID:21696245

  16. Are you talking to me? Neural activations in 6-month-old infants in response to being addressed during natural interactions

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd-Fox, S.; Széplaki-Köllőd, B.; Yin, J.; Csibra, G.

    2015-01-01

    Human interactions are guided by continuous communication among the parties involved, in which verbal communication plays a primary role. However, speech does not necessarily reveal to whom it is addressed, especially for young infants who are unable to decode its semantic content. To overcome such difficulty, adults often explicitly mark their communication as infant-directed. In the present study we investigated whether ostensive signals, which would disambiguate the infant as the addressee of a communicative act, would modulate the brain responses of 6-month-old infants to speech and gestures in an ecologically valid setting. In Experiment 1, we tested whether the gaze direction of the speaker modulates cortical responses to infant-direct speech. To provide a naturalistic environment, two infants and their parents participated at the same time. In Experiment 2, we tested whether a similar modulation of the cortical response would be obtained by varying the intonation (infant versus adult directed speech) of the speech during face-to-face communication, one on one. The results of both experiments indicated that only the combination of ostensive signals (infant directed speech and direct gaze) led to enhanced brain activation. This effect was indicated by responses localized in regions known to be involved in processing auditory and visual aspects of social communication. This study also demonstrated the potential of fNIRS as a tool for studying neural responses in naturalistic scenarios, and for simultaneous measurement of brain function in multiple participants. PMID:25891796

  17. The Effect of Exclusive Breastfeeding on Hospital Stay and Morbidity due to Various Diseases in Infants under 6 Months of Age: A Prospective Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Amarpreet; Singh, Karnail; Pannu, M S; Singh, Palwinder; Sehgal, Neeraj; Kaur, Rupinderjeet

    2016-01-01

    Background. Mother's milk is the best for the babies. Protective and preventive role of breast milk was evaluated in this study by assessing the relation of type of feeding and duration of hospital stay or morbidity. Methods. This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital and 232 infants in the age group of 14 weeks to 6 months formed the sample. There are two groups of infants, that is, one for breastfed and one for top fed infants. Statistical analysis was done and results were calculated up to 95% to 99% level of significance to find effect of feeding pattern on hospital stay due to various diseases and morbidity. Results. Prolonged hospital stay, that is, >7 days, was lesser in breastfed infants and results were statistically significant in case of gastroenteritis (p value < 0.001), bronchopneumonia (p value = 0.0012), bronchiolitis (p value = 0.005), otitis media (p value = 0.003), and skin diseases (p value = 0.047). Lesser morbidity was seen in breastfed infants with gastroenteritis (p value 0.0414), bronchopneumonia (p value 0.03705), bronchiolitis (p value 0.036706), meningitis (p value 0.043), and septicemia (p value 0.04). Conclusions. Breastfed infants have shorter hospital stay and lesser morbidity in regard to various diseases as compared to top fed infants. PMID:27190526

  18. The Effect of Exclusive Breastfeeding on Hospital Stay and Morbidity due to Various Diseases in Infants under 6 Months of Age: A Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Amarpreet; Singh, Karnail; Pannu, M. S.; Singh, Palwinder; Sehgal, Neeraj; Kaur, Rupinderjeet

    2016-01-01

    Background. Mother's milk is the best for the babies. Protective and preventive role of breast milk was evaluated in this study by assessing the relation of type of feeding and duration of hospital stay or morbidity. Methods. This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital and 232 infants in the age group of 14 weeks to 6 months formed the sample. There are two groups of infants, that is, one for breastfed and one for top fed infants. Statistical analysis was done and results were calculated up to 95% to 99% level of significance to find effect of feeding pattern on hospital stay due to various diseases and morbidity. Results. Prolonged hospital stay, that is, >7 days, was lesser in breastfed infants and results were statistically significant in case of gastroenteritis (p value < 0.001), bronchopneumonia (p value = 0.0012), bronchiolitis (p value = 0.005), otitis media (p value = 0.003), and skin diseases (p value = 0.047). Lesser morbidity was seen in breastfed infants with gastroenteritis (p value 0.0414), bronchopneumonia (p value 0.03705), bronchiolitis (p value 0.036706), meningitis (p value 0.043), and septicemia (p value 0.04). Conclusions. Breastfed infants have shorter hospital stay and lesser morbidity in regard to various diseases as compared to top fed infants. PMID:27190526

  19. Are you talking to me? Neural activations in 6-month-old infants in response to being addressed during natural interactions.

    PubMed

    Lloyd-Fox, Sarah; Széplaki-Köllőd, Borbála; Yin, Jun; Csibra, Gergely

    2015-09-01

    Human interactions are guided by continuous communication among the parties involved, in which verbal communication plays a primary role. However, speech does not necessarily reveal to whom it is addressed, especially for young infants who are unable to decode its semantic content. To overcome such difficulty, adults often explicitly mark their communication as infant-directed. In the present study we investigated whether ostensive signals, which would disambiguate the infant as the addressee of a communicative act, would modulate the brain responses of 6-month-old infants to speech and gestures in an ecologically valid setting. In Experiment 1, we tested whether the gaze direction of the speaker modulates cortical responses to infant-direct speech. To provide a naturalistic environment, two infants and their parents participated at the same time. In Experiment 2, we tested whether a similar modulation of the cortical response would be obtained by varying the intonation (infant versus adult directed speech) of the speech during face-to-face communication, one on one. The results of both experiments indicated that only the combination of ostensive signals (infant directed speech and direct gaze) led to enhanced brain activation. This effect was indicated by responses localized in regions known to be involved in processing auditory and visual aspects of social communication. This study also demonstrated the potential of fNIRS as a tool for studying neural responses in naturalistic scenarios, and for simultaneous measurement of brain function in multiple participants. PMID:25891796

  20. Classical swine fever virus infection modulates serum levels of INF-α, IL-8 and TNF-α in 6-month-old pigs.

    PubMed

    von Rosen, T; Lohse, L; Nielsen, J; Uttenthal, Å

    2013-12-01

    Several studies have highlighted the important role of cytokines in disease development of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) infection. In the present study, we examined the kinetics of 7 porcine cytokines in serum from pigs infected with 3 different CSFV strains. Based on the clinical picture in 6-month-old Danish pigs, the strains used for inoculation were classified as being of low (Bergen), low to moderate (Eystrup) and moderate to high (Lithuania) virulence. The cytokines interferon-alpha (INF-α), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) showed increased levels after CSFV infection with more or less comparable course in the 3 groups. However, the cytokine level peaked with a 2-3 days delay in pigs infected with the low virulent strain compared to those infected with a moderately or highly virulent strain. These findings may indicate that INF-α, IL-8 and TNF-α are involved in the immune response during CSFV infection with strains of different virulence.

  1. Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative Strategies for Annual Influenza Vaccination among Children Aged 6 Months to 14 Years in Four Provinces in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lei; Situ, Sujian; Feng, Zijian; Atkins, Charisma Y.; Fung, Isaac Chun-Hai; Xu, Zhen; Huang, Ting; Hu, Shixiong; Wang, Xianjun; Meltzer, Martin I.

    2014-01-01

    Background To support policy making, we developed an initial model to assess the cost-effectiveness of potential strategies to increase influenza vaccination rates among children in China. Methods We studied on children aged 6 months to 14 years in four provinces (Shandong, Henan, Hunan, and Sichuan), with a health care system perspective. We used data from 2005/6 to 2010/11, excluding 2009/10. Costs are reported in 2010 U.S. dollars. Results In comparison with no vaccination, the mean (range) of Medically Attended Cases averted by the current self-payment policy for the two age groups (6 to 59 months and 60 months to 14 years) was 1,465 (23∼11,132) and 792 (36∼4,247), and the cost effectiveness ratios were $ 0 (-11-51) and $ 37 (6-125) per case adverted, respectively. In comparison with the current policy, the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) of alternative strategies, OPTION One-reminder and OPTION Two-comprehensive package, decreased as vaccination rate increased. The ICER for children aged 6 to 59 months was lower than that for children aged 60 months to 14 years. Conclusions The model is a useful tool in identifying elements for evaluating vaccination strategies. However, more data are needed to produce more accurate cost-effectiveness estimates of potential vaccination policies. PMID:24498145

  2. Clitoria ternatea (Linn) root extract treatment during growth spurt period enhances learning and memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Rai, K S; Murthy, K D; Karanth, K S; Rao, M S

    2001-07-01

    Neonatal rat pups (7 days old) were intubated with either 50 mg/kg body weight or 100 mg/kg body weight of aqueous root extract of Clitoria ternatea (CTR) for 30 days. These rats were then subjected to open field, two compartment passive avoidance and spatial learning (T-Maze) tests (i) immediately after the treatment and (ii) 30 days after the treatment, along with age matched normal and saline control rats. Results showed no change in open field behaviour, but showed improved retention and spatial learning performance at both time points of behavioural tests, indicating the memory enhancing property of CTR which implicates a permanent change in the brain of CTR treated rats. PMID:11881569

  3. A Case Report on Juvenile Neuromyelitis Optica: Early Onset, Long Remission Period, and Atypical Treatment Response.

    PubMed

    Elpers, Christiane; Gross, Catharina C; Fiedler, Barbara; Meuth, Sven G; Kurlemann, Gerhard

    2015-08-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a severe inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and preferentially targets the optic nerves and spinal cord. NMO is rare in children and clinical course of the disease is highly variable as described in studies. Here, we present a case report of a young girl presenting with a rare course of pediatric NMO with an early disease onset at the age of 12 years, a relapse free interval of 4 years, evidence of NMO immunoglobulin G (IgG) and an unusual response against immunosuppressive therapy. The aim of this report is to highlight the potentially long remission period between relapses complicating proper diagnosis despite well defined diagnostic criteria. In addition, we want to encourage the use of rituximab in pediatric NMO, although larger cohorts are warranted to establish B cell depleting therapies in juvenile NMO.

  4. Current treatment recommendations and considerations for cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Koné-Paut, Isabelle; Galeotti, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) encompasses a spectrum of three phenotypes of increasing severity. The syndrome is due to dominant mutations in NLRP3, which encodes a key component of the innate immunity that regulates the secretion of IL-1β. CAPS manifests as systemic inflammation, which compromises quality of life and leads to serious complications and handicap. Anti-IL-1 drugs have shown remarkable efficacy in treating CAPS symptoms and have significantly changed patients' lives. They have acceptable safety profiles but do have some differences. We review three drugs that are currently marketed for CAPS, give additional information for the practical use of these drugs, and provide some recommendations for management. PMID:26312542

  5. Consumption of low-fat dairy foods for 6 months improves insulin resistance without adversely affecting lipids or bodyweight in healthy adults: a randomized free-living cross-over study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Given the highly debated role of dairy food consumption in modulating biomarkers of metabolic syndrome, this study was conducted to examine the influence of long-term (6 month) dairy consumption on metabolic parameters in healthy volunteers under free-living conditions without energy restriction. Methods Twenty-three healthy subjects completed a randomized, crossover trial of 12 months. Participants consumed their habitual diets and were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: a high dairy supplemented group instructed to consume 4 servings of dairy per day (HD); or a low dairy supplemented group limited to no more than 2 servings of dairy per day (LD). Baseline, midpoint, and endpoint metabolic responses were examined. Results Endpoint measurements of body weight and composition, energy expenditure, blood pressure, blood glucose, and blood lipid and lipoprotein responses did not differ (p > 0.05) between the LD and HD groups. HD consumption improved (p < 0.05) plasma insulin (-9%) and insulin resistance (-11%, p = 0.03) as estimated by HOMA-IR compared with the LD group. Conclusions Study results suggest that high dairy consumption (4 servings/d) may improve insulin resistance without negatively impacting bodyweight or lipid status under free-living conditions. Trial registration Trial registration: NCT01761955 PMID:23638799

  6. Dark Period Following UV-C Treatment Enhances Killing of Botrytis cinerea Conidia and Controls Gray Mold of Strawberries.

    PubMed

    Janisiewicz, Wojciech J; Takeda, Fumiomi; Glenn, D Michael; Camp, Mary J; Jurick, Wayne M

    2016-04-01

    Strawberries are available throughout the year either from production in the field or from high and low tunnel culture. Diversity of production conditions results in new challenges in controlling diseases before and after harvest. Fungicides have traditionally been used to control these diseases; however, their limitations necessitate a search for new approaches. We found that UV-C irradiation of Botrytis cinerea, a major pathogen of strawberry, can effectively kill this fungus if a dark period follows the treatment. The inclusion of a 4-h dark period resulted in almost complete kill of B. cinerea conidia on agar media at a dose of 12.36 J/m2. The UV-C dose did not cause a reduction in photosynthesis in strawberry leaves or discoloration of sepals, even after exposing plants repeatedly (twice a week) for 7 weeks. Although irradiation of dry conidia of B. cinerea with this dose resulted in some survival, the conidia were not infective and not able to cause decay even when inoculated onto a highly susceptible mature apple fruit. Irradiation of strawberry pollen at 12.36 J/m2 did not affect pollen germination, tube growth and length in vitro, or germination and tube growth in the style of hand-pollinated emasculated strawberry flowers. No negative effect of the UV-C treatment was observed on fruit yield and quality in high tunnel culture. In the fruit and flower petal inoculation tests, the UV-C treatment was highly effective in reducing fruit decay and petal infection. This UV-C treatment with an exposure time of 60 s may be useful in controlling gray mold in tunnel production of strawberries and may also have the potential for use in intensive field and indoor production of other fruits and vegetables providing that a 4-h dark period follows the irradiation.

  7. Dark Period Following UV-C Treatment Enhances Killing of Botrytis cinerea Conidia and Controls Gray Mold of Strawberries.

    PubMed

    Janisiewicz, Wojciech J; Takeda, Fumiomi; Glenn, D Michael; Camp, Mary J; Jurick, Wayne M

    2016-04-01

    Strawberries are available throughout the year either from production in the field or from high and low tunnel culture. Diversity of production conditions results in new challenges in controlling diseases before and after harvest. Fungicides have traditionally been used to control these diseases; however, their limitations necessitate a search for new approaches. We found that UV-C irradiation of Botrytis cinerea, a major pathogen of strawberry, can effectively kill this fungus if a dark period follows the treatment. The inclusion of a 4-h dark period resulted in almost complete kill of B. cinerea conidia on agar media at a dose of 12.36 J/m2. The UV-C dose did not cause a reduction in photosynthesis in strawberry leaves or discoloration of sepals, even after exposing plants repeatedly (twice a week) for 7 weeks. Although irradiation of dry conidia of B. cinerea with this dose resulted in some survival, the conidia were not infective and not able to cause decay even when inoculated onto a highly susceptible mature apple fruit. Irradiation of strawberry pollen at 12.36 J/m2 did not affect pollen germination, tube growth and length in vitro, or germination and tube growth in the style of hand-pollinated emasculated strawberry flowers. No negative effect of the UV-C treatment was observed on fruit yield and quality in high tunnel culture. In the fruit and flower petal inoculation tests, the UV-C treatment was highly effective in reducing fruit decay and petal infection. This UV-C treatment with an exposure time of 60 s may be useful in controlling gray mold in tunnel production of strawberries and may also have the potential for use in intensive field and indoor production of other fruits and vegetables providing that a 4-h dark period follows the irradiation. PMID:26714103

  8. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder and Comorbid Affective Disorder: A Pilot Matched Control Trial.

    PubMed

    Thekiso, Thekiso B; Murphy, Philip; Milnes, Jennie; Lambe, Kathryn; Curtin, Aisling; Farren, Conor K

    2015-11-01

    This study examined whether acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) enhances treatment as usual (TAU) in improving treatment outcomes in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and comorbid affective disorder. Fifty-two participants were included in the study, of whom 26 were patients with AUD and either depression or bipolar disorder treated with ACT group therapy in parallel with TAU (inpatient integrated treatment) and 26 were matched controls who had received TAU alone. Drinking and craving outcomes were total alcohol abstinence, cumulative abstinence duration (CAD) and Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) scores at 3 and 6 months postintervention. Affective and anxiety outcomes were Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) scores at these follow-ups. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Retention rates were high: 100% of the ACT group were followed up at 3 and 6 months; 92.3% and 84.6% of the TAU alone group were followed up at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Patients in the ACT group reported significantly higher CAD at 3 and 6 months, significantly lower BDI and BAI scores at 3 and 6 months, and significantly lower OCDS scores at 3 months, than those who received only TAU. No other significant differences in treatment outcomes were found between the groups. ACT provides added benefit to TAU in improving drinking, craving, depression and anxiety outcomes in patients with AUD and comorbid affective disorder. Most treatment improvements were sustained over a 6-month follow-up period. PMID:26520216

  9. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder and Comorbid Affective Disorder: A Pilot Matched Control Trial.

    PubMed

    Thekiso, Thekiso B; Murphy, Philip; Milnes, Jennie; Lambe, Kathryn; Curtin, Aisling; Farren, Conor K

    2015-11-01

    This study examined whether acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) enhances treatment as usual (TAU) in improving treatment outcomes in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and comorbid affective disorder. Fifty-two participants were included in the study, of whom 26 were patients with AUD and either depression or bipolar disorder treated with ACT group therapy in parallel with TAU (inpatient integrated treatment) and 26 were matched controls who had received TAU alone. Drinking and craving outcomes were total alcohol abstinence, cumulative abstinence duration (CAD) and Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) scores at 3 and 6 months postintervention. Affective and anxiety outcomes were Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) scores at these follow-ups. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Retention rates were high: 100% of the ACT group were followed up at 3 and 6 months; 92.3% and 84.6% of the TAU alone group were followed up at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Patients in the ACT group reported significantly higher CAD at 3 and 6 months, significantly lower BDI and BAI scores at 3 and 6 months, and significantly lower OCDS scores at 3 months, than those who received only TAU. No other significant differences in treatment outcomes were found between the groups. ACT provides added benefit to TAU in improving drinking, craving, depression and anxiety outcomes in patients with AUD and comorbid affective disorder. Most treatment improvements were sustained over a 6-month follow-up period.

  10. Factors that influence fatigue status in patients with severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and good disease outcome following 6 months of TNF inhibitor therapy: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Minnock, Patricia; Veale, Douglas J; Bresnihan, Barry; FitzGerald, Oliver; McKee, Gabrielle

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the present study is to determine the factors associated with persistent fatigue in patients with severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and good disease response to 6 months of tumour necrosis factor inhibitor therapy. Eligible patients with either persistent (PF) or no fatigue (NF) were compared. Using validated questionnaires and bivariate analysis, this cross-sectional survey explored if clinical characteristics, pain, self-efficacy, sleep and mood/depression differed between groups. Patients with PF (PF; NF) (n = 28; 28) reported significantly more overall pain (11.3 ± 9.4 (0-33); 6.9 ± 8.9 (0-33)), more recent and current pain intensity (41.4 ± 26.6 (0-80) 24.4 ± 26.6 (0-100) and depression (11.8 ± 7.5 (1-35); 8.2 ± 6.6 (0-26)), than the NF group. There was no significant difference between groups in self-efficacy and both groups experienced poor sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index >5). Despite having good disease response, the PF group had significantly higher rheumatoid factor incidence, disease activity score-28, early morning stiffness duration and lower incidence of ever-failing disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs than the NF group. These findings enhance the fatigue literature in patients with RA prescribed tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibition therapy, identifying the potentially modifiable factors of pain and depression, previously demonstrated to be strongly associated with fatigue in non-biologic populations. In addition, this study highlights the association between persistent fatigue and an on-going state of low disease activity. This infers that more judicious disease management could minimise the symptom burden of pain and depression and consequentially fatigue. PMID:26453249

  11. 2011 Joplin, Missouri Tornado Experience, Mental Health Reactions, and Service Utilization: Cross-Sectional Assessments at Approximately 6 Months and 2.5 Years Post-Event.

    PubMed

    Houston, J Brian; Spialek, Matthew L; Stevens, Jordan; First, Jennifer; Mieseler, Vicky L; Pfefferbaum, Betty

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. On May 22, 2011 the deadliest tornado in the United States since 1947 struck Joplin, Missouri killing 161 people, injuring approximately 1,150 individuals, and causing approximately $2.8 billion in economic losses. Methods. This study examined the mental health effects of this event through a random digit dialing sample (N = 380) of Joplin adults at approximately 6 months post-disaster (Survey 1) and a purposive convenience sample (N = 438) of Joplin adults at approximately 2.5 years post-disaster (Survey 2). For both surveys we assessed tornado experience, posttraumatic stress, depression, mental health service utilization, and sociodemographics. For Survey 2 we also assessed social support and parent report of child strengths and difficulties. Results. Probable PTSD relevance was 12.63% at Survey 1 and 26.74% at Survey 2, while current depression prevalence was 20.82% at Survey 1 and 13.33% at Survey 2. Less education and more tornado experience was generally related to greater likelihood of experiencing probable PTSD and current depression for both surveys. Men and younger participants were more likely to report current depression at Survey 1. Low levels of social support (assessed only at Survey 2) were related to more probable PTSD and current depression. For both surveys, we observed low rates of mental health service utilization, and these rates were also low for participants reporting probable PTSD and current depression. At Survey 2 we assessed parent report of child (ages 4 to 17) strengths and difficulties and found that child difficulties were more frequent for younger children (ages 4 to 10) than older children (ages 11 to 17), and that parents reporting probable PTSD reported a greater frequency of children with borderline or abnormal difficulties. Discussion. Overall our results indicate that long-term (multi-year) community disaster mental health monitoring, assessment, referral, outreach, and services are needed following a major

  12. Nutritional status and dietary intakes of children aged 6 months to 12 years: findings of the Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children (SEANUTS Malaysia).

    PubMed

    Poh, Bee Koon; Ng, Boon Koon; Siti Haslinda, Mohd Din; Nik Shanita, Safii; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Budin, Siti Balkis; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Ng, Lai Oon; Khouw, Ilse; Norimah, A Karim

    2013-09-01

    The dual burden of malnutrition reportedly coexists in Malaysia; however, existing data are scarce and do not adequately represent the nutritional status of Malaysian children. The Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children was carried out with the aim of assessing the nutritional status in a sample of nationally representative population of children aged 6 months to 12 years. A total of 3542 children were recruited using a stratified random sampling method. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, and waist and hip circumferences. Blood biochemical assessment involved analyses of Hb, serum ferritin, and vitamins A and D. Dietary intake was assessed using semi-quantitative FFQ, and nutrient intakes were compared with the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI). The prevalence of overweight (9·8%) and obesity (11·8%) was higher than that of thinness (5·4%) and stunting (8·4%). Only a small proportion of children had low levels of Hb (6·6%), serum ferritin (4·4%) and vitamin A (4·4%), but almost half the children (47·5%) had vitamin D insufficiency. Dietary intake of the children was not compatible with the recommendations, where more than one-third did not achieve the Malaysian RNI for energy, Ca and vitamin D. The present study revealed that overnutrition was more prevalent than undernutrition. The presence of high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and the inadequate intake of Ca and vitamin D are of concern. Hence, strategies for improving the nutritional status of Malaysian children need to consider both sides of malnutrition and also put emphasis on approaches for the prevention of overweight and obesity as well as vitamin D insufficiency.

  13. A case-control study of the effectiveness of tissue plasminogen activator on 6 month patients--reported outcomes and health care utilization.

    PubMed

    Lang, Catherine E; Bland, Marghuretta D; Cheng, Nuo; Corbetta, Maurizio; Lee, Jin-Moo

    2014-01-01

    We examined the benefit of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), delivered as part of usual stroke management, on patient-reported outcomes and health care utilization. Using a case control design, patients who received tPA as part of usual stroke management were compared with patients who would have received tPA had they arrived to the hospital within the therapeutic time window. Data were collected from surveys 6 months after stroke using standardized patient-reported outcome measures and questions about health care utilization. Demographic and medical data were acquired from hospital records. Patients were matched on stroke severity, age, race, and gender. Matching was done with 1:2 ratio of tPA to controls. Results were compared between groups with 1-tailed tests because of a directionally specific hypothesis in favor of the tPA group. The tPA (n = 78) and control (n = 156) groups were matched across variables, except for stroke severity, which was better in the control group; subsequent analyses controlled for this mismatch. The tPA group reported better physical function, communication, cognitive ability, depressive symptomatology, and quality of life/participation compared with the control group. Fewer people in the tPA group reported skilled nursing facility stays, emergency department visits, and rehospitalizations after their stroke compared with controls. Reports of other postacute services were not different between groups. Although it is known that tPA reduces disability, this is the first study to demonstrate the effectiveness of tPA in improving meaningful, patient-reported outcomes. Thus, use of tPA provides a large benefit to the daily lives of people with ischemic stroke.

  14. Effects on weight gain and gut microbiota in rats given bacterial supplements and a high-energy-dense diet from fetal life through to 6 months of age.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Caroline L J; Molin, Göran; Fåk, Frida; Johansson Hagslätt, Marie-Louise; Jakesevic, Maja; Håkansson, Åsa; Jeppsson, Bengt; Weström, Björn; Ahrné, Siv

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the long-term effects of a high-energy-dense diet, supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum (Lp) or Escherichia coli (Ec), on weight gain, fattening and the gut microbiota in rats. Since the mother's dietary habits can influence offspring physiology, dietary regimens started with the dams at pregnancy and throughout lactation and continued with the offspring for 6 months. The weight gain of group Lp was lower than that of groups C (control) and Ec (P = 0·086). More retroperitoneal adipose tissue (P = 0·030) and higher plasma leptin (P = 0·035) were observed in group Ec compared with group Lp. The viable count of Enterobacteriaceae was higher in group Ec than in group Lp (P = 0·019), and when all animals were compared, Enterobacteriaceae correlated positively with body weight (r 0·428, P = 0·029). Bacterial diversity was lower in group Ec than in groups C (P ≤ 0·05) and Lp (P ≤ 0·05). Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia dominated in all groups, but Bacteroidetes were more prevalent in group C than in groups Lp (P = 0·036) and Ec (P = 0·056). The same five bacterial families dominated the microbiota of groups Ec and C, and four of these were also present in group Lp. The other five families dominating in group Lp were not found in any of the other groups. Multivariate data analysis pointed in the same directions as the univariate statistics. The present results suggest that supplementation of L. plantarum or E. coli can have long-term effects on the composition of the intestinal microbiota, as well as on weight gain and fattening.

  15. The impact of 6-month training preparation for an Ironman triathlon on the proportions of naïve, memory and senescent T cells in resting blood.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Cormac; Galloway, Stuart D R; Neal, Craig; Hunter, Angus M; McFarlin, Brian K; Spielmann, Guilllaume; Simpson, Richard J

    2012-08-01

    Athletes appear to be at a greater risk of illness while undertaking arduous training regimens in preparation for endurance events. As infection susceptibility has been linked with increased proportions of differentiated and senescent T cells in the periphery, changes in the proportions of these cell types due to long-term high-volume exercise training could have important implications for athlete infection risk. This study examined the effects of 6-month training preparation for an Ironman triathlon on the proportions of naïve, memory and senescent T cells in resting blood. Ten club-level triathletes (9 males; 1 female: 43 ± 3 years) were sampled at 27 (December), 21 (January), 15 (March), 9 (May) and 3 (June) weeks before an Ironman Triathlon. An additional sample was collected 2-week post-competition (August). Four-colour flow cytometry was used for the phenotypic analysis of CD4+ and CD8+ blood T cells. Proportions of differentiated (KLRG1+/CD57-) CD8+ T cells and "transitional" (CD45RA+/CD45RO+) CD4+ and CD8+ T cells increased with training, as the values in June were elevated 37, 142 and 116%, respectively, from those observed in December. Proportions of senescent (KLRG1+/CD57+) CD4+ or CD8+ T cells did not change during the training phase. Two weeks post-race, proportions of differentiated CD8+ T cells had returned to baseline values, while the proportions of senescent CD4+ T cells increased 192% alongside a 31% reduction in naïve (CD45RA+/CD45RO-) cells. In conclusion, increases in differentiated and "transitional" T cells due to arduous exercise training could compromise host protection to novel pathogens and increase athlete infection risk, although whether or not the composition of naïve and differentiated T cells in blood can serve as prognostic biomarkers in athletes remains to be established.

  16. The risk of fever following one dose of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in children aged ≥6 months to <36 months: a comparison of published and unpublished studies.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, Marlena C; Duong, Uyen T; Ware, Robert S; Lambert, Stephen B; Kelly, Heath A

    2013-11-01

    There are limited summary data published on the risk of fever and febrile seizures in children following influenza vaccination. We performed a review of the risk of fever and febrile seizures following receipt of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) in children aged ≥6 months to <36 months, searching PubMED and Google Scholar for English language articles from 2000 onwards, and initiated or ongoing unpublished studies since September 2007 using Clinicaltrials.gov. Exclusions included other vaccine co-administration, missing ages or participant numbers, or unmeasured fever. We reviewed articles and collated results using a standard data extraction template. We identified a total of 909 published papers and unpublished trials from a search conducted on 23 January 2013, 669 from Google Scholar, 114 from PubMed and 126 from the Clinicaltrials.gov online database. After excluding 890 published papers or unpublished trials, 5 published papers and 14 unpublished trials were included in this review. Extracted data on number of events, children at risk and time of follow-up were converted to the risk of fever, which was averaged per week of follow-up (referred to as 'averaged weekly risk'). Following one dose of TIV, the median averaged weekly risk of any fever (≥37.5°C) was 26.0% (range 10.3-70.0%) in unpublished trials compared to 8.2% (range 5.3-28.3%) in published papers (p=0.04). The median averaged weekly risk of severe fever (≥39.0°C) was 3.2% (range 0-10.0%) and 2.0% (range 0.6-17.0%), respectively (p=0.91). Variation in the reporting of fever by participant age groups, time since vaccination and the definition or measurement of fever resulted in a wide range of risk estimates. Reporting of febrile reactions should be standardised to allow comparison between manufacturers and influenza seasons.

  17. 2011 Joplin, Missouri Tornado Experience, Mental Health Reactions, and Service Utilization: Cross-Sectional Assessments at Approximately 6 Months and 2.5 Years Post-Event

    PubMed Central

    Houston, J. Brian; Spialek, Matthew L.; Stevens, Jordan; First, Jennifer; Mieseler, Vicky L.; Pfefferbaum, Betty

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. On May 22, 2011 the deadliest tornado in the United States since 1947 struck Joplin, Missouri killing 161 people, injuring approximately 1,150 individuals, and causing approximately $2.8 billion in economic losses. Methods. This study examined the mental health effects of this event through a random digit dialing sample (N = 380) of Joplin adults at approximately 6 months post-disaster (Survey 1) and a purposive convenience sample (N = 438) of Joplin adults at approximately 2.5 years post-disaster (Survey 2). For both surveys we assessed tornado experience, posttraumatic stress, depression, mental health service utilization, and sociodemographics. For Survey 2 we also assessed social support and parent report of child strengths and difficulties. Results. Probable PTSD relevance was 12.63% at Survey 1 and 26.74% at Survey 2, while current depression prevalence was 20.82% at Survey 1 and 13.33% at Survey 2. Less education and more tornado experience was generally related to greater likelihood of experiencing probable PTSD and current depression for both surveys. Men and younger participants were more likely to report current depression at Survey 1. Low levels of social support (assessed only at Survey 2) were related to more probable PTSD and current depression. For both surveys, we observed low rates of mental health service utilization, and these rates were also low for participants reporting probable PTSD and current depression. At Survey 2 we assessed parent report of child (ages 4 to 17) strengths and difficulties and found that child difficulties were more frequent for younger children (ages 4 to 10) than older children (ages 11 to 17), and that parents reporting probable PTSD reported a greater frequency of children with borderline or abnormal difficulties. Discussion. Overall our results indicate that long-term (multi-year) community disaster mental health monitoring, assessment, referral, outreach, and services are needed following a major

  18. Development/global validation of a 6-month-old pediatric head finite element model and application in investigation of drop-induced infant head injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhigang; Luo, Xiao; Zhang, Jinhuan

    2013-12-01

    Drop is a frequent cause for infant head injury. To date, finite element (FE) modeling was gradually used to investigate child head dynamic response under drop impact conditions, however, two shortages still exist on this topic: (1) due to ethical reasons, none of developed 6-month-old (6MO) head FE model was found to be quantitatively validated against child cadaver tests at similar age group; (2) drop height and impact surface stiffness effects on infant head responses were not comprehensively investigated. In this study, motivated by the recently published material properties of soft tissues (skull and suture, etc.) and reported pediatric head global cadaver tests, a 6MO child head FE model was developed and simulated results compared with the child cadaver experimental data under compression and drop conditions. Comparison of results indicated that the FE model showed a fairly good biofidelic behavior in most dynamic responses. The validated FE model was further used to investigate effects of different drop heights and impact surface stiffness on the head dynamic responses. Numerical results show that the pediatric head mechanical parameters (peak acceleration, HIC, maximal vonMises stress and maximal first principal strain of skull) keep increasing with the increase in drop height, and exhibit "logarithmic function" shapes at "fast-slow" trends with increase in impact surface stiffness. Based on above analysis, the regressions were conducted to describe the relationship between drop height and impact surface stiffness and head global injury predictors (head peak acceleration, HIC, etc.). This paper provides a fundamental study of child head injury mechanism and protection under drop conditions. PMID:24008251

  19. Effects of 6-month soccer and traditional physical activity programmes on body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory, oxidative stress markers and cardiorespiratory fitness in obese boys.

    PubMed

    Seabra, André; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Carvalho, Maria José; Seabra, Ana; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel; Abreu, Sandra; Vale, Susana; Póvoas, Susana; Nascimento, Henrique; Belo, Luís; Torres, Sandra; Oliveira, José; Mota, Jorge; Santos-Silva, Alice; Rêgo, Carla; Malina, Robert M

    2016-10-01

    Physical activity is important in obesity prevention, but the effectiveness of different physical activity modalities remains to be determined among children. The main purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a 6-month soccer programme and a traditional physical activity programme on changes in body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory and oxidative markers, cardiorespiratory fitness and perceived psychological status in obese boys. Eighty-eight boys (8-12 years; BMI > +2 standard deviations of WHO reference values) participated in one of three groups: soccer, traditional activity and control. Soccer and traditional activity programmes involved 3 sessions per week for 60-90 min at an average intensity of 70-80% of maximal heart rate. Control group participated in activities of normal daily living. All boys participated in school physical education, two sessions per week of 45-90-min. Measurements were taken at baseline and after 6 months, and included body size and composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory and oxidative markers, cardiorespiratory fitness and perceived psychological status. Physical activity and dietary intake were assessed before and immediately following the intervention. The three groups had similar characteristics at baseline. After 6 months, both intervention groups had significantly lower relative fatness (% fat), waist circumference and total cholesterol, and higher cardiorespiratory fitness, self-esteem, perceived physical competence and attraction to physical activity compared with control group. In conclusion, physical activity interventions over 6 months positively influenced several indicators of health status among obese boys. The results also suggested that soccer has the potential as an effective tool for the prevention and reduction of childhood obesity and associated consequences.

  20. 2011 Joplin, Missouri Tornado Experience, Mental Health Reactions, and Service Utilization: Cross-Sectional Assessments at Approximately 6 Months and 2.5 Years Post-Event.

    PubMed

    Houston, J Brian; Spialek, Matthew L; Stevens, Jordan; First, Jennifer; Mieseler, Vicky L; Pfefferbaum, Betty

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. On May 22, 2011 the deadliest tornado in the United States since 1947 struck Joplin, Missouri killing 161 people, injuring approximately 1,150 individuals, and causing approximately $2.8 billion in economic losses. Methods. This study examined the mental health effects of this event through a random digit dialing sample (N = 380) of Joplin adults at approximately 6 months post-disaster (Survey 1) and a purposive convenience sample (N = 438) of Joplin adults at approximately 2.5 years post-disaster (Survey 2). For both surveys we assessed tornado experience, posttraumatic stress, depression, mental health service utilization, and sociodemographics. For Survey 2 we also assessed social support and parent report of child strengths and difficulties. Results. Probable PTSD relevance was 12.63% at Survey 1 and 26.74% at Survey 2, while current depression prevalence was 20.82% at Survey 1 and 13.33% at Survey 2. Less education and more tornado experience was generally related to greater likelihood of experiencing probable PTSD and current depression for both surveys. Men and younger participants were more likely to report current depression at Survey 1. Low levels of social support (assessed only at Survey 2) were related to more probable PTSD and current depression. For both surveys, we observed low rates of mental health service utilization, and these rates were also low for participants reporting probable PTSD and current depression. At Survey 2 we assessed parent report of child (ages 4 to 17) strengths and difficulties and found that child difficulties were more frequent for younger children (ages 4 to 10) than older children (ages 11 to 17), and that parents reporting probable PTSD reported a greater frequency of children with borderline or abnormal difficulties. Discussion. Overall our results indicate that long-term (multi-year) community disaster mental health monitoring, assessment, referral, outreach, and services are needed following a major

  1. Factors that influence fatigue status in patients with severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and good disease outcome following 6 months of TNF inhibitor therapy: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Minnock, Patricia; Veale, Douglas J; Bresnihan, Barry; FitzGerald, Oliver; McKee, Gabrielle

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the present study is to determine the factors associated with persistent fatigue in patients with severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and good disease response to 6 months of tumour necrosis factor inhibitor therapy. Eligible patients with either persistent (PF) or no fatigue (NF) were compared. Using validated questionnaires and bivariate analysis, this cross-sectional survey explored if clinical characteristics, pain, self-efficacy, sleep and mood/depression differed between groups. Patients with PF (PF; NF) (n = 28; 28) reported significantly more overall pain (11.3 ± 9.4 (0-33); 6.9 ± 8.9 (0-33)), more recent and current pain intensity (41.4 ± 26.6 (0-80) 24.4 ± 26.6 (0-100) and depression (11.8 ± 7.5 (1-35); 8.2 ± 6.6 (0-26)), than the NF group. There was no significant difference between groups in self-efficacy and both groups experienced poor sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index >5). Despite having good disease response, the PF group had significantly higher rheumatoid factor incidence, disease activity score-28, early morning stiffness duration and lower incidence of ever-failing disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs than the NF group. These findings enhance the fatigue literature in patients with RA prescribed tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibition therapy, identifying the potentially modifiable factors of pain and depression, previously demonstrated to be strongly associated with fatigue in non-biologic populations. In addition, this study highlights the association between persistent fatigue and an on-going state of low disease activity. This infers that more judicious disease management could minimise the symptom burden of pain and depression and consequentially fatigue.

  2. Nutritional status and dietary intakes of children aged 6 months to 12 years: findings of the Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children (SEANUTS Malaysia).

    PubMed

    Poh, Bee Koon; Ng, Boon Koon; Siti Haslinda, Mohd Din; Nik Shanita, Safii; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Budin, Siti Balkis; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Ng, Lai Oon; Khouw, Ilse; Norimah, A Karim

    2013-09-01

    The dual burden of malnutrition reportedly coexists in Malaysia; however, existing data are scarce and do not adequately represent the nutritional status of Malaysian children. The Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children was carried out with the aim of assessing the nutritional status in a sample of nationally representative population of children aged 6 months to 12 years. A total of 3542 children were recruited using a stratified random sampling method. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, and waist and hip circumferences. Blood biochemical assessment involved analyses of Hb, serum ferritin, and vitamins A and D. Dietary intake was assessed using semi-quantitative FFQ, and nutrient intakes were compared with the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI). The prevalence of overweight (9·8%) and obesity (11·8%) was higher than that of thinness (5·4%) and stunting (8·4%). Only a small proportion of children had low levels of Hb (6·6%), serum ferritin (4·4%) and vitamin A (4·4%), but almost half the children (47·5%) had vitamin D insufficiency. Dietary intake of the children was not compatible with the recommendations, where more than one-third did not achieve the Malaysian RNI for energy, Ca and vitamin D. The present study revealed that overnutrition was more prevalent than undernutrition. The presence of high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and the inadequate intake of Ca and vitamin D are of concern. Hence, strategies for improving the nutritional status of Malaysian children need to consider both sides of malnutrition and also put emphasis on approaches for the prevention of overweight and obesity as well as vitamin D insufficiency. PMID:24016764

  3. Effects of 6-month soccer and traditional physical activity programmes on body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory, oxidative stress markers and cardiorespiratory fitness in obese boys.

    PubMed

    Seabra, André; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Carvalho, Maria José; Seabra, Ana; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel; Abreu, Sandra; Vale, Susana; Póvoas, Susana; Nascimento, Henrique; Belo, Luís; Torres, Sandra; Oliveira, José; Mota, Jorge; Santos-Silva, Alice; Rêgo, Carla; Malina, Robert M

    2016-10-01

    Physical activity is important in obesity prevention, but the effectiveness of different physical activity modalities remains to be determined among children. The main purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a 6-month soccer programme and a traditional physical activity programme on changes in body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory and oxidative markers, cardiorespiratory fitness and perceived psychological status in obese boys. Eighty-eight boys (8-12 years; BMI > +2 standard deviations of WHO reference values) participated in one of three groups: soccer, traditional activity and control. Soccer and traditional activity programmes involved 3 sessions per week for 60-90 min at an average intensity of 70-80% of maximal heart rate. Control group participated in activities of normal daily living. All boys participated in school physical education, two sessions per week of 45-90-min. Measurements were taken at baseline and after 6 months, and included body size and composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory and oxidative markers, cardiorespiratory fitness and perceived psychological status. Physical activity and dietary intake were assessed before and immediately following the intervention. The three groups had similar characteristics at baseline. After 6 months, both intervention groups had significantly lower relative fatness (% fat), waist circumference and total cholesterol, and higher cardiorespiratory fitness, self-esteem, perceived physical competence and attraction to physical activity compared with control group. In conclusion, physical activity interventions over 6 months positively influenced several indicators of health status among obese boys. The results also suggested that soccer has the potential as an effective tool for the prevention and reduction of childhood obesity and associated consequences. PMID:26890580

  4. [Asthenic syndrome in clinical course of acute period of brain concussion during complex treatment using nootropic agents].

    PubMed

    Tkachov, A V

    2008-01-01

    The comparative analysis of a complex examination of 108 persons aged from 16 till 60 years in acute period of closed craniocerebral injury (CCCT) has been done. Every participants have been divided into 2 groups depending on a nootrop medication they receive in a complex treatment. A control group consisted of 30 practically healthy people. Objective examination by means of tests was done on the 1-st, 10-th that 30-th day of treatment. Patients of 1-st (37 persons) group received piracetam in complex treatment and patients of the 2-nd group (71 persons) pramistar. Patients of the first group received a base treatment (analgetics, tranquilizers, vitamins of group B, magnesium sulfate, diuretic preparations) as well as piracetam at dosage 0.2, two tablets three times per day. The Patients of the 2-nd group received a base treatment as well as pramistar at dosage 0.6, one tablet 2 times per day. Specially developed multiaspects scales and questionnaires, MRT of the brain and EEG have been used for objectification of patient, complaints. During a complex clinico-neuropsychological examination it was found that all cases of concussion of the brain are accompanied by those or other asthenic disorders.

  5. Metformin effects on clinical features, endocrine and metabolic profiles, and insulin sensitivity in polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 6-month trial, followed by open, long-term clinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Moghetti, P; Castello, R; Negri, C; Tosi, F; Perrone, F; Caputo, M; Zanolin, E; Muggeo, M

    2000-01-01

    In the last few years some studies assessed the effects of attenuation of hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, obtained by insulin sensitizing agents, in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), suggesting potential scope for these drugs in treating the whole spectrum of reproductive, endocrine, and metabolic abnormalities found in such subjects. However, the results of these studies, mostly uncontrolled and short-term, are still inconclusive, and there is no long-term follow-up. In the present study, 23 PCOS subjects [mean (+/- SE) body mass index 30.0+/-1.1 kg/m2] were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment with metformin (500 mg tid) or placebo for 6 months, while maintaining their usual eating habits. Before and after treatment, menstrual history, endocrine and metabolic profiles, serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone response to GnRH-agonist testing, and insulin sensitivity measured by the glucose clamp technique were assessed. Eighteen of these women, as well as 14 additional PCOS patients, were subsequently given metformin in an open trial for 11.0+/-1.3 months (range 4-26), to assess long-term effects of treatment and baseline predictors of metformin efficacy on reproductive abnormalities. After metformin treatment, mean frequency of menstruation improved (P = 0.002), due to striking amelioration of menstrual abnormalities in about 50% of subjects. Women given metformin showed reduced plasma insulin (at fasting: P = 0.057; during the clamp studies: P<0.01) and increased insulin sensitivity (P<0.05). Concurrently, ovarian hyperandrogenism was attenuated, as indicated by significant reductions in serum free testosterone (P<0.05) and in the 17-hydroxyprogesterone response to GnRH-agonist testing (P<0.05). No changes were found in the placebo group. Only comparable minor changes in body mass index were found both in the metformin group and in the placebo group. In the open, long-term trial 17 women (54.8%) showed striking improvements of their menstrual

  6. Cutting-Balloon Angioplasty in Transplant Renal Artery Stenosis as First-Line Treatment in the Early Postoperative Period

    SciTech Connect

    Ucar, Adem; Yahyayev, Aghakishi; Bakkaloglu, Huseyin; Agayev, Ayaz; Aydin, Ali Emin; Rozanes, Izzet

    2011-02-15

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty has been successfully used for the treatment of transplant renal artery stenosis (RAS). Cutting-balloon angioplasty (CBA) is being used as a second option in pressure-resistant stenosis. It is thought that CBA is less traumatic and therefore restenosis occurs less frequently than in conventional angioplasty. This case report describes the unusual use of a cutting balloon in transplant RAS as a first option in the early postoperative period. Long-term follow-up data are also presented.

  7. [Complex pathogenetic treatment schemes of vascular dyscirculatory disorders in the remote period after exposure to low dose radiation].

    PubMed

    Holodova, N B; Zhavoronkova, L A; Ryzhov, B N

    2013-01-01

    Complex studies including modern methods of investigation of structures and functions of nervous system: electroencephalograsphy (EEG), coherent analysis, neuropsychological study and methods of neuroimaging were performed in 517 participants in liquidation of consequences of the accident (LCA) at the Chernobyl NPP in 1986-1987. Dyscirculatory metabolic encephalopathy was revealed to be the main pathology with the etiological mechanism based on dyscirculatorhypoxic and metabolic disorders. Complexity of the revealed symptoms testified to an early organism aging in remote periods after exposure to low dose radiation. Pathogenetic schemes were developed for treatment of dyscirculatory encephalopathy in liquidators, which include drugs improving blood supply, antiaggregants, antioxidants and metabolites of the brains in various combinations. Taking into consideration that early appearance of vascular dyscirculatory disorders observed in liquidators is the sign of early aging of the organism, geroprotectors were added to treatment schemes.

  8. [Experience of systematization on the treatment of patients with upper jaws fractures, during the period 1991-2000].

    PubMed

    Khinkov, D

    2005-01-01

    A retrospecive analysis was done of the 128 patients with fractures in a upper jaw, treated during the period 1991-2000. The treatment of the patients with partial fractures in a alveolar part of maxilla and frontal wall of maxillary sinus, consist of debridement on the open wound, primery stiched and stabilization by arch bar of perspective teeth. In the cases with fractures of tuber maxilla and opening of maxillary sinus they tray to clouse it by Rhermann technique, with or without radical antrothomy by Caldwell-Luc technique. On the patients by total upper jaw fractures they try lead by princip of duble stage fixation: from one side-of intact upper bone structures and the other side-on a mandible. On the cases of upper jaw fractures, combine with barain traums. was treated conservativly - the specialize treatment of facial injures was postpoun until stabilization of brain status.

  9. Efficacy of As-Needed Nalmefene in Alcohol-Dependent Patients with at Least a High Drinking Risk Level: Results from a Subgroup Analysis of Two Randomized Controlled 6-Month Studies

    PubMed Central

    van den Brink, Wim; Aubin, Henri-Jean; Bladström, Anna; Torup, Lars; Gual, Antoni; Mann, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of as-needed use of nalmefene 18 mg versus placebo in reducing alcohol consumption in patients who did not reduce their alcohol consumption after an initial assessment, i.e. the pooled subgroup of patients with at least a high drinking risk level (men: >60 g/day; women: >40 g/day) at both screening and randomization from the two randomized controlled 6-month studies ESENSE 1 (NCT00811720) and ESENSE 2 (NCT00812461). Methods: Nalmefene 18 mg and placebo were taken on an as-needed basis. All the patients also received a motivational and adherence-enhancing intervention (BRENDA). The co-primary outcomes were number of heavy drinking days (HDDs) and mean total alcohol consumption (g/day) in Month 6 measured using the Timeline Follow-back method. Additionally, data on clinical improvement, liver function and safety were collected throughout the study. Results: The pooled population consisted of 667 patients: placebo n = 332; nalmefene n = 335. There was a superior effect of nalmefene compared with placebo in reducing the number of HDDs [treatment difference: −3.2 days (95% CI: −4.8; −1.6); P < 0.0001] and total alcohol consumption [treatment difference: −14.3 g/day (−20.8; −7.8); P < 0.0001] at Month 6. Improvements in clinical status and liver parameters were greater in the nalmefene group compared with the placebo group. Adverse events and adverse events leading to dropout were more common with nalmefene than placebo. Conclusion: As-needed nalmefene was efficacious in reducing alcohol consumption in patients with at least a high drinking risk level at both screening and randomization, and the effect in this subgroup was larger than in the total population. PMID:23873853

  10. The optimal period of Ca-EDTA treatment for parthenogenetic activation of porcine oocytes during maturation culture

    PubMed Central

    MORITA, Yasuhiro; TANIGUCHI, Masayasu; TANIHARA, Fuminori; ITO, Aya; NAMULA, Zhao; DO, Lanh Thi Kim; TAKAGI, Mitsuhiro; TAKEMOTO, Tatsuya; OTOI, Takeshige

    2016-01-01

    The changes triggered by sperm-induced activation of oocytes, which are required for normal oocyte development, can be mediated by other agents, thereby inducing the parthenogenesis. In this study, we exposed porcine oocytes to 1 mM Ca-EDTA, a metal-ion chelator, at various intervals during 48 hr of in vitro maturation to determine the optimum period of Ca-EDTA treatment for parthenogenetic activation. When the oocytes were cultured with or without Ca-EDTA from 36 hr (post-12), 24 hr (post-24), 12 hr (post-36) and 0 hr (post-48) after the start of maturation culture, the blastocyst formation rates were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the post-24, post-36 and post-48 groups (3.3%, 4.0% and 2.6%, respectively) than those in the control group without treatment (0%). Furthermore, when the oocytes were cultured with Ca-EDTA for 0 hr (control), 12 hr (pre-12), 24 hr (pre-24), 36 hr (pre-36) and 48 hr (pre-48) from the start of maturation culture, the oocytes formed blastocysts only in the pre-36 and pre-48 groups (0.4% or 0.8%, respectively). Pronuclei (<66.7%) were observed only when the periods of Ca-EDTA treatment were more than 12 hr during maturation culture. In the control group, no pronuclei were detected. Our findings demonstrate that porcine immature oocytes can be parthenogenetically activated by Ca-EDTA treatment for at least 24 hr to 36 hr during maturation culture, leading to pronucleus formation followed by the formation of blastocysts. PMID:26947170

  11. The effects of a 6-month resistance training and dried plum consumption intervention on strength, body composition, blood markers of bone turnover, and inflammation in breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Simonavice, Emily; Liu, Pei-Yang; Ilich, Jasminka Z; Kim, Jeong-Su; Arjmandi, Bahram; Panton, Lynn B

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of resistance training (RT) and dried plum (DP) consumption on strength, body composition, blood markers of bone, and inflammation in breast cancer survivors (BCS). Twenty-three BCS (RT, n = 12; RT+DP, n = 11), aged 64 ± 7 years, were evaluated at baseline and after 6 months of intervention on the following: muscular strength (chest press and leg extension) via 1-repetition maximums (1RMs); body composition, specifically bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry; biochemical markers of bone turnover (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP-5b)); and inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP)). Target RT prescription was 2 days/week of 10 exercises, including 2 sets of 8-12 repetitions at ∼60%-80% of 1RM. RT+DP also consumed 90 g of DP daily. There were no baseline differences between groups or any group-by-time interactions for any of the variables. BCS increased upper (p < 0.05) (RT: 64 ± 14 to 80 ± 17 kg; RT+DP: 72 ± 23 to 91 ± 20 kg) and lower (p < 0.05) (RT: 69 ± 20 to 87 ± 28 kg; RT+DP: 78 ± 19 to 100 ± 21 kg) body strength. Body composition and BMD improvements were not observed. TRAP-5b decreased in the RT group (p < 0.05) (4.55 ± 1.57 to 4.04 ± 1.63 U/L) and the RT+DP group (p = 0.07) (5.10 ± 2.75 to 4.27 ± 2.03 U/L). Changes in BAP and CRP were not observed. RT was effective for improving biochemical markers of bone turnover and muscular strength in BCS. A longer and higher intensity intervention may be needed to reveal the true effects of RT and DP on body composition and biochemical markers of inflammation.

  12. Identifying factors related to Achilles tendon stress, strain, and stiffness before and after 6 months of growth in youth 10-14 years of age.

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, Jennifer M; Hawkins, David A

    2012-09-21

    The purposes of this study were (1) determine if youth peak Achilles tendon (AT) strain, peak AT stress, and AT stiffness, measured during an isometric plantar flexion, differed after six months (mos) of growth, and (2) determine if sex, physical activity level (Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ-C)), and/or growth rate (GR) were related to these properties. AT stress, strain, and stiffness were quantified in 20 boys (13.47±0.81 years) and 22 girls (11.18±0.82 years) at 2 times (0 and 6 mos). GR (change in height in 6 mos) was not significantly different between boys and girls (3.5±1.4 and 3.4±1.1cm/6 mos respectively). Peak AT strain and stiffness (mean 3.8±0.4% and 128.9±153.6N/mm, respectively) did not differ between testing sessions or sex. Peak AT stress (22.1±2.4 and 24.0±2.1MPa at 0 and 6 mos, respectively) did not differ between sex and increased significantly at 6 mos due to a significant decrease in AT cross-sectional area (40.6±1.3 and 38.1±1.6mm(2) at 0 and 6 mos, respectively) with no significant difference in peak AT force (882.3±93.9 and 900.3± 65.5N at 0 and 6 mos, respectively). Peak AT stress was significantly greater in subjects with greater PAQ-C scores (9.1% increase with 1 unit increase in PAQ-C score) and smaller in subjects with faster GRs (13.8% decrease with 1cm/6 mos increase in GR). These results indicate that of the AT mechanical properties quantified, none differed between sex, and only peak AT stress significantly differed after 6 months and was related to GR and physical activity.

  13. Burden of Influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Pregnant Women and Infants Under 6 Months in Mongolia: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chaw, Liling; Kamigaki, Taro; Burmaa, Alexanderyn; Urtnasan, Chuluunbatiin; Od, Ishiin; Nyamaa, Gunregjaviin; Nymadawa, Pagbajabyn; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Pregnant women and infants under 6 months are at risk of influenza-related complications. Limited information exists on their community burden of respiratory viruses. Methods and Findings This prospective, observational open cohort study was conducted in Baganuur district, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia during 2013/14 and 2014/15 influenza seasons. Influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe acute respiratory infection (sARI) were identified by follow-up calls twice a week. For those identified, influenza and respiratory syncytical virus (RSV) were tested by point-of-care test kits. We calculated overall and stratified (by trimester or age group) incidence rates (IR) and used Cox proportional hazard regression for risk factor analyses. Among 1260 unvaccinated pregnant women enrolled, overall IRs for ILI, sARI and influenza A were 11.8 (95% confidence interval (C.I):11.2–12.4), 0.1 (95%C.I:0.0–0.4), and 1.7 (95%C.I:1.5–1.9) per 1,000person-days, respectively. One sARI case was influenza A positive. IRs and adjusted hazard ratios (Adj.HR) for ILI and influenza A were lowest in the third trimester. Those with co-morbidity were 1.4 times more likely to develop ILI [Adj.HR:1.4 (95%C.I:1.1–1.9)]. Among 1304 infants enrolled, overall ILI and sARI IRs were 15.2 (95%C.I:14.5–15.8) and 20.5 (95%C.I:19.7–21.3) per 1,000person-days, respectively. From the tested ILI (77.6%) and sARI (30.6%) cases, the overall positivity rates were 6.3% (influenza A), 1.1% (influenza B) and 9.3% (RSV). Positivity rates of influenza A and RSV tend to increase with age. sARI cases were 1.4 times more likely to be male [Adj.HR:1.4 (95%C.I:1.1–1.8)]. Among all influenza A and RSV positive infants, 11.8% and 68.0% were respectively identified among sARI hospitalized cases. Conclusion We observed low overall influenza A burden in both groups, though underestimation was likely due to point-of-care tests used. For infants, RSV burden was more significant than influenza A. These findings

  14. LH peak and ovulation after two different estrus synchronization treatments in buffalo cows in the daylight-lengthening period.

    PubMed

    Barile, V L; Terzano, G M; Pacelli, C; Todini, L; Malfatti, A; Barbato, O

    2015-07-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the timing of ovulation in relation to the LH peak after synchronization using PRID or Ovsynch protocols, to assess the effects of the period of treatment on these parameters and to provide information concerning how to use the two main protocols for fixed-time artificial insemination in buffalo. Forty-eight lactating Italian Mediterranean buffalo cows were used. The buffaloes were treated in various periods as follows: February to March (n = 12 PRID, n = 12 Ovsynch), end of the breeding season, May to June (n = 12 PRID, n = 12 Ovsynch), beginning of low-breeding season according to Italian environmental conditions. To determine the LH, blood samples were taken at 4-hour intervals, starting 24 hours from PRID removal (PRID group) or 12 hours from (PGF2α) injection (Ovsynch group) up to 108 hours. The ovaries were monitored by transrectal ultrasonography to verify ovulation. The LH-ovulation interval was similar in both groups (30.10 ± 1.05 and 32.77 ± 1.15 hours, respectively, in PRID and Ovsynch group). In the PRID group, the timing of ovulation in relation to device removal was 76.83 ± 3.65 hours with a high level of variability among the animals. In the Ovsynch group, we observed a better synchronization of LH peaks and ovulations, and the timing of ovulation in relation to the last GnRH injection was 35.67 ± 1.15 hours. The percentage of animals reaching the LH peak and ovulation was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in May to June (respectively 75.0% and 54.1%) compared to February to March (respectively 95.8% and 83.3%), indicating a reduction of hypothalamus-pituitary responsiveness to the synchronization treatments in the daylight-lengthening period. PMID:25958084

  15. LH peak and ovulation after two different estrus synchronization treatments in buffalo cows in the daylight-lengthening period.

    PubMed

    Barile, V L; Terzano, G M; Pacelli, C; Todini, L; Malfatti, A; Barbato, O

    2015-07-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the timing of ovulation in relation to the LH peak after synchronization using PRID or Ovsynch protocols, to assess the effects of the period of treatment on these parameters and to provide information concerning how to use the two main protocols for fixed-time artificial insemination in buffalo. Forty-eight lactating Italian Mediterranean buffalo cows were used. The buffaloes were treated in various periods as follows: February to March (n = 12 PRID, n = 12 Ovsynch), end of the breeding season, May to June (n = 12 PRID, n = 12 Ovsynch), beginning of low-breeding season according to Italian environmental conditions. To determine the LH, blood samples were taken at 4-hour intervals, starting 24 hours from PRID removal (PRID group) or 12 hours from (PGF2α) injection (Ovsynch group) up to 108 hours. The ovaries were monitored by transrectal ultrasonography to verify ovulation. The LH-ovulation interval was similar in both groups (30.10 ± 1.05 and 32.77 ± 1.15 hours, respectively, in PRID and Ovsynch group). In the PRID group, the timing of ovulation in relation to device removal was 76.83 ± 3.65 hours with a high level of variability among the animals. In the Ovsynch group, we observed a better synchronization of LH peaks and ovulations, and the timing of ovulation in relation to the last GnRH injection was 35.67 ± 1.15 hours. The percentage of animals reaching the LH peak and ovulation was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in May to June (respectively 75.0% and 54.1%) compared to February to March (respectively 95.8% and 83.3%), indicating a reduction of hypothalamus-pituitary responsiveness to the synchronization treatments in the daylight-lengthening period.

  16. [Establishment of the intestinal microflora and regulation of bacterial translocation after caffeine citrate treatment during postnatal period in rat].

    PubMed

    Moumen Chentouf, W; Tir Touil Meddah, A; Léké, A; Mullié, C; Krim, G; Canarelli, J-P; Meddah, B

    2012-10-01

    To relieve respiratory problems such as apnea in newborns, caffeine citrate is the drug of choice because of its good tolerance and therapeutic index. However, its impact on the intestinal microbial ecosystem and on bacterial translocation in the neonatal period remains insufficiently investigated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine citrate on the establishment of the intestinal microflora and bacterial translocation in rats from birth to the 30th day of life. Newborn Wistar rats were divided into four groups of 14 animals, each subdivided into a control group receiving a placebo (12mL tap water/kg/day) and another treated with caffeine citrate (12mg/kg/day). The animals were nursed by their mothers and weighed daily. A group of 14 rats was killed at birth and after 10, 20, or 30 days of life. Organs in which translocation was assessed (liver, lungs, spleen, and kidneys) and various fragments of intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon) were surgically removed. The bacteriological analysis performed involved enumeration of the total microflora, staphylococci, enterobacteria, and lactobacilli. From the 10th day, caffeine was shown to significantly decrease the weight of treated animals as compared with controls (P<0.05). However, caffeine treatment did not drastically alter the kinetics of establishment of the intestinal microflora as only enterobacteria were found to be significantly lower in any intestinal segment of the treated group (P<0.05). Moreover, from the 20th day of life, caffeine citrate significantly downregulated bacterial translocation of both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria (P<0.05). This preliminary study on the effects of treatment with caffeine citrate may open opportunities in clinical pediatrics; the treatment will remain partially effective in preventing bacterial translocation in the neonatal period. PMID:22920890

  17. Planetary populations in the mass-period diagram: A statistical treatment of exoplanet formation and the role of planet traps

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Pudritz, Ralph E. E-mail: pudritz@physics.mcmaster.ca

    2013-11-20

    The rapid growth of observed exoplanets has revealed the existence of several distinct planetary populations in the mass-period diagram. Two of the most surprising are (1) the concentration of gas giants around 1 AU and (2) the accumulation of a large number of low-mass planets with tight orbits, also known as super-Earths and hot Neptunes. We have recently shown that protoplanetary disks have multiple planet traps that are characterized by orbital radii in the disks and halt rapid type I planetary migration. By coupling planet traps with the standard core accretion scenario, we showed that one can account for the positions of planets in the mass-period diagram. In this paper, we demonstrate quantitatively that most gas giants formed at planet traps tend to end up around 1 AU, with most of these being contributed by dead zones and ice lines. We also show that a large fraction of super-Earths and hot Neptunes are formed as 'failed' cores of gas giants—this population being constituted by comparable contributions from dead zone and heat transition traps. Our results are based on the evolution of forming planets in an ensemble of disks where we vary only the lifetimes of disks and their mass accretion rates onto the host star. We show that a statistical treatment of the evolution of a large population of planetary cores caught in planet traps accounts for the existence of three distinct exoplanetary populations—the hot Jupiters, the more massive planets around r = 1 AU, and the short-period super-Earths and hot Neptunes. There are very few populations that feed into the large orbital radii characteristic of the imaged Jovian planet, which agrees with recent surveys. Finally, we find that low-mass planets in tight orbits become the dominant planetary population for low-mass stars (M {sub *} ≤ 0.7 M {sub ☉}).

  18. Fall in incidence of guinea-worm infection in western Nigeria after periodic treatment of infected persons.

    PubMed

    Kale, O O

    1982-01-01

    Between 1971 and 1974 a series of drug trials was conducted in 17 rural communities in western Nigeria where guinea-worm is endemic. During these trials and in subsequent years treatment, in the form of chemotherapy and/or dressing of ulcers, was given to all infected persons. A longitudinal study of infection in these villages showed a marked fall in the annual incidence over an 8-year period. The aggregate reduction in incidence in the three sectors surveyed was from 15.5% to 0.5% in sector 1, 29.8% to 0.4% in sector 2, and 20.3% to 0.0% in sector 3. The change appeared to be partly due to the treatment, which reduced the reservoir of infection and the rate of pollution of the water supply. Most of the sources of water continued to harbour Cyclops, none of which was found to be infected with Dracunculus, but which were shown experimentally to be capable of sustaining infection. The study demonstrates the potential role of therapeutic measures in controlling guinea-worm infection. It is suggested that the satisfactory measure of control that has been achieved could be increased by elimination of the Cyclops, with a view to total eradication of the disease from affected communities. Attention is drawn to the relevance of the findings for the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade.

  19. 34 CFR Appendix E to Part 674 - Examples for Computing Maximum Penalty Charges (6 Months Unpaid Overdue Payments) on Direct Loans...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Months Unpaid Overdue Payments) on Direct Loans Made for Periods of Enrollment Before January 1, 1986 E Appendix E to Part 674 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Pt. 674, App....

  20. 34 CFR Appendix E to Part 674 - Examples for Computing Maximum Penalty Charges (6 Months Unpaid Overdue Payments) on Direct Loans...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Months Unpaid Overdue Payments) on Direct Loans Made for Periods of Enrollment Before January 1, 1986 E Appendix E to Part 674 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Pt. 674, App....

  1. 34 CFR Appendix E to Part 674 - Examples for Computing Maximum Penalty Charges (6 Months Unpaid Overdue Payments) on Direct Loans...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Months Unpaid Overdue Payments) on Direct Loans Made for Periods of Enrollment Before January 1, 1986 E Appendix E to Part 674 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Pt. 674, App....

  2. Effects of Diet on Early Stage Cortical Perception and Discrimination of Syllables Differing in Voice-Onset Time: A Longitudinal ERP Study in 3 and 6 Month Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pivik, R. T.; Andres, Aline; Badger, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of diet on cortical processing of syllables was examined at 3 and 6 months in 239 infants who were breastfed or fed milk or soy-based formula. Event-related potentials to syllables differing in voice-onset-time were recorded from placements overlying brain areas specialized for language processing. P1 component amplitude and latency…

  3. Changes in physical activity, physical fitness, self-perception and quality of life following a 6-month physical activity counseling and cognitive behavioral therapy program in outpatients with binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Vancampfort, Davy; Probst, Michel; Adriaens, An; Pieters, Guido; De Hert, Marc; Stubbs, Brendon; Soundy, Andy; Vanderlinden, Johan

    2014-10-30

    The aim of the current study was to explore the associations between changes in the number of binges, physical activity participation, physical fitness, physical self-perception and quality of life following a 6-month physical activity counseling and cognitive behavioral program in patients with binge eating disorder (BED). In total 34 (31 women) outpatients with BED (38.5±10.7 years) completed a 6-month 1-day per week group-based program. Participants completed the 36-item Short Form Health Survey, the Baecke Physical Activity questionnaire, the Physical Self Perception Profile and performed a 6-min walk test (6MWT) at baseline, after 3 and 6 months. Except for physical activity at work, physical strength and self-worth perception, all parameters significantly improved after 6 months. The effect sizes ranged from -0.33 for the number of binges to 1.67 for participation in sports activities. Significant increases in leisure time physical activity were associated with significant improvements in physical health related quality of life, perceived sports competence and physical fitness and in perceived body attractiveness. The significant reduction in the number of binges was associated with significant improvements in physical health related quality of life. Future research should focus on detailing which techniques can stimulate physical activity participation in patients with BED.

  4. A conditional analysis for two-treatment multiple-period crossover designs with binomial or poisson outcomes and subjects who drop out.

    PubMed

    McKnight, B; Van den Eeden, S K

    1993-05-15

    We propose a conditional analysis for outcome data on numbers of recurrent symptoms arising in a two-treatment, multiple-period crossover trial. Conditioning on subject-specific totals removes any dependence on mean subject-specific symptom rates and permits the use of standard software to perform regression analysis to examine treatment, period, carryover and interaction effects. The addition of offsets to the regression equations allows the incorporation of data from subjects who do not complete all periods in the trial. We apply the proposed method to data from a crossover trial and discuss its advantages and disadvantages.

  5. Forecasting Flooding in the Brahmaputra and Ganges Delta of Bangladesh on Short (1-10 days), Medium (20-30 days) and Seasonal Time Scales (1-6 months)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, P. J.; Hoyos, C. D.; Hopson, T. M.; Chang, H.; Jian, J.

    2007-12-01

    Following the devastating flood years of 1998 during which 60% of Bangladesh was under water for a period of 3 months, the Climate Forecast Applications in Bangladesh (CFAB) project was formed with funding by USAID and NSF which eventually resulted in a joint project with the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF), the Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre (ADPC) and the Bangladesh Flood Forecasting and Warning Centre. The project was organized and developed through the Georgia Institute of Technology. The aim of CFAB was to develop innovative methods of extending the warning of flooding in Bangladesh noting that there was a unique problem: India provided no upstream discharge data to Bangladesh so that before CFAB the maximum lead time of a forecast was that given by measuring river discharge at the India-Bangladesh border: no lead-time at the border and 2 days in the southern parts of the country. Given that the Brahmaputra and Ganges catchment areas had to be regarded as essentially unguaged, it was clear that innovative techniques had to be developed. On of the basic criterion was that the system should provide probabilistic forecasts in order for the Bangladeshis to assess risk. A three-tier system was developed to allow strategic and tactical decisions to be made for agricultural purposes and disaster mitigation: seasonal (1-6 months: strategic), medium range (20-30 days: strategic/tactical) and short range (1-10 days: tactical). The system that has been developed brings together for the first time operational meteorological forecasts (ensemble forecasts from ECMWF), with satellite and discharge data and a suite of hydrological models. In addition, with ADPC and FFWC we have developed an in-country forecast dispersion system that allows a rapid dissemination. The system has proven to be rather successful, especially in the short range. The flooding events of 2004 were forecast with all forecasting tiers at the respective lead time. In

  6. The comparative effectiveness of anti‐TNF therapy and methotrexate in patients with psoriatic arthritis: 6 month results from a longitudinal, observational, multicentre study

    PubMed Central

    Heiberg, M S; Kaufmann, C; Rødevand, E; Mikkelsen, K; Koldingsnes, W; Mowinckel, P; Kvien, T K

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To compare the response to treatment with tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors and methotrexate (MTX) monotherapy in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) within a real‐life clinical setting. Methods We analysed data from an ongoing longitudinal, observational multicentre study in Norway. Our data comprised 526 cases of patients with PsA who received either anti‐TNF treatment (n = 146) or MTX monotherapy (n = 380) and were followed for at least 6 months with measures of disease activity, health status and utility scores. A propensity score was computed to adjust for channelling bias. The changes in measures of disease activity and health‐related quality of life from baseline to 3‐ and 6‐month follow‐up were compared between the groups with adjustments for the baseline value of the dependent variable and the propensity score (analyses of covariance (ANCOVA)). Results The groups were significantly different at baseline with respect to demographic and disease activity measures. The variables included in the propensity score were age, sex, number of previous disease modifying anti‐rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), presence of erosive disease, treatment centre and investigator's global assessment. The adjusted changes at 6 months were significantly larger in the anti‐TNF group for ESR, DAS‐28, M‐HAQ, patient's assessments of pain, fatigue and global disease activity on a visual analogue scale (VAS) and 4 out of 8 SF‐36 dimensions. Conclusions Clinical improvement was superior with TNF inhibitors compared to MTX monotherapy in patients with PsA, when assessed in this setting of daily clinical practice. PMID:17213251

  7. Treatment outcome and long-term stability of skeletal changes following maxillary distraction in adult subjects of cleft lip and palate

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Satinder Pal; Jena, Ashok Kumar; Rattan, Vidya; Utreja, Ashok Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the treatment outcome and long-term stability of skeletal changes following maxillary advancement with distraction osteogenesis in adult subjects of cleft lip and palate. Materials and Methods: Total 12 North Indian adult patients in the age range of 17-34 years with cleft lip and palate underwent advancement of maxilla by distraction osteogenesis. Lateral cephalograms recorded prior to distraction, at the end of distraction, 6 months after distraction, and at least 24 months (mean 25.5 ± 1.94 months) after distraction osteogenesis were used for the evaluation of treatment outcome and long-term stability of the skeletal changes. Descriptive analysis, ANOVA, and post-hoc test were used, and P-value 0.05 was considered as a statistically significant level. Results: Maxillary distraction resulted in significant advancement of maxilla (P<0.001). Counterclockwise rotation of the palatal plane took place after maxillary distraction. The position of the mandible and facial heights were stable during distraction. During the first 6 months of the post-distraction period, the maxilla showed relapse of approximately 30%. However, after 6 months post distraction, the relapse was very negligible. Conclusions: Successful advancement of maxilla was achieved by distraction osteogenesis in adult subjects with cleft lip and palate. Most of the relapse occurred during the first 6 months of post-distraction period, and after that the outcomes were stable. PMID:22919221

  8. Familial Periodic Paralyses

    MedlinePlus

    ... NINDS NINDS Familial Periodic Paralyses Information Page Synonym(s): Periodic Paralyses Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What are Familial Periodic Paralyses? Is there any treatment? What is the ...

  9. A standardized randomized 6-month aerobic exercise-training down-regulated pro-inflammatory genes, but up-regulated anti-inflammatory, neuron survival and axon growth-related genes.

    PubMed

    Iyalomhe, Osigbemhe; Chen, Yuanxiu; Allard, Joanne; Ntekim, Oyonumo; Johnson, Sheree; Bond, Vernon; Goerlitz, David; Li, James; Obisesan, Thomas O

    2015-09-01

    There is considerable support for the view that aerobic exercise may confer cognitive benefits to mild cognitively impaired elderly persons. However, the biological mechanisms mediating these effects are not entirely clear. As a preliminary step towards informing this gap in knowledge, we enrolled older adults confirmed to have mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in a 6-month exercise program. Male and female subjects were randomized into a 6-month program of either aerobic or stretch (control) exercise. Data collected from the first 10 completers, aerobic exercise (n=5) or stretch (control) exercise (n=5), were used to determine intervention-induced changes in the global gene expression profiles of the aerobic and stretch groups. Using microarray, we identified genes with altered expression (relative to baseline values) in response to the 6-month exercise intervention. Genes whose expression were altered by at least two-fold, and met the p-value cutoff of 0.01 were inputted into the Ingenuity Pathway Knowledge Base Library to generate gene-interaction networks. After a 6-month aerobic exercise-training, genes promoting inflammation became down-regulated, whereas genes having anti-inflammatory properties and those modulating immune function or promoting neuron survival and axon growth, became up-regulated (all fold change≥±2.0, p<0.01). These changes were not observed in the stretch group. Importantly, the differences in the expression profiles correlated with significant improvement in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in the aerobic program as opposed to the stretch group. We conclude that three distinct cellular pathways may collectively influence the training effects of aerobic exercise in MCI subjects. We plan to confirm these effects using rt-PCR and correlate such changes with the cognitive phenotype.

  10. A Standardized Randomized 6-Month Aerobic Exercise-Training Down-regulated Pro-inflammatory Genes, but Up-regulated Anti-inflammatory, Neuron Survival and Axon Growth-Related Genes

    PubMed Central

    Iyalomhe, Osigbemhe; Chen, Yuanxiu; Allard, Joanne; Ntekim, Oyonumo; Johnson, Sheree; Bond, Vernon; Goerlitz, David; Li, James; Obisesan, Thomas O.

    2015-01-01

    There is considerable support for the view that aerobic exercise may confer cognitive benefits to mild cognitively impaired elderly persons. However, the biological mechanisms mediating these effects are not entirely clear. As a preliminary step towards informing this gap in knowledge, we enrolled older adults confirmed to have mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in a 6-month exercise program. Male and female subjects were randomized into a 6-month program of either aerobic or stretch (control) exercise. Data collected from the first 10 completers, aerobic exercise (n=5) or stretch (control) exercise (n=5), were used to determine intervention-induced changes in the global gene expression profiles of the aerobic and stretch groups. Using microarray, we identified genes with altered expression (relative to baseline values) in response to the 6-month exercise intervention. Genes whose expression were altered by at least two-fold, and met the p-value cutoff of 0.01 were inputted into the Ingenuity Pathway Knowledge Base library to generate gene-interaction networks. After a 6-month aerobic exercise-training, genes promoting inflammation became down-regulated, whereas genes having anti-inflammatory properties and those modulating immune function or promoting neuron survival and axon growth, became up-regulated (all fold change ≥ ± 2.0, p < 0.01). These changes were not observed in the stretch group. Importantly, the differences in the expression profiles correlated with significant improvement in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in the aerobic program as opposed to the stretch group. We conclude that three distinct cellular pathways may collectively influence the training effects of aerobic exercise in MCI subjects. We plan to confirm these effects using rt-PCR and correlate such changes with the cognitive phenotype. PMID:25981742

  11. Breakfast and Energy Drink Consumption in Secondary School Children: Breakfast Omission, in Isolation or in Combination with Frequent Energy Drink Use, is Associated with Stress, Anxiety, and Depression Cross-Sectionally, but not at 6-Month Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Richards, Gareth; Smith, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    A considerable amount of research suggests that breakfast omission and the frequent use of caffeinated energy drinks may be associated with undesirable effects, and particularly so in children and adolescents. The current paper presents cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the Cornish Academies Project to investigate the effects of consuming energy drinks and missing breakfast on stress, anxiety, and depression in a cohort of secondary school children from the South West of England. Questionnaires were administered at two time-points (spaced 6 months apart) to collect information relating to diet and lifestyle over the previous 6 months. Demographic and school data were acquired through the School Information Management System, and single-item measures of stress, anxiety, and depression were administered at the second time-point only. Associations between breakfast and energy drink consumption and stress, anxiety, and depression were investigated, and a multivariate approach was taken so that additional variance from diet, demography, and lifestyle could be controlled for statistically. Cross-sectional analyses showed that breakfast omission was consistently associated with negative outcomes, and that this was largely observed for both those who frequently consumed energy drinks and those who did not. However, cross-lag analyses showed that neither breakfast omission or energy drink consumption, alone or in combination, was predictive of stress, anxiety, or depression at 6-month follow-up. This suggests that associations between breakfast and mental health may be bi-directional rather than breakfast being the causal factor. PMID:26903914

  12. Breakfast and Energy Drink Consumption in Secondary School Children: Breakfast Omission, in Isolation or in Combination with Frequent Energy Drink Use, is Associated with Stress, Anxiety, and Depression Cross-Sectionally, but not at 6-Month Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Richards, Gareth; Smith, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    A considerable amount of research suggests that breakfast omission and the frequent use of caffeinated energy drinks may be associated with undesirable effects, and particularly so in children and adolescents. The current paper presents cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the Cornish Academies Project to investigate the effects of consuming energy drinks and missing breakfast on stress, anxiety, and depression in a cohort of secondary school children from the South West of England. Questionnaires were administered at two time-points (spaced 6 months apart) to collect information relating to diet and lifestyle over the previous 6 months. Demographic and school data were acquired through the School Information Management System, and single-item measures of stress, anxiety, and depression were administered at the second time-point only. Associations between breakfast and energy drink consumption and stress, anxiety, and depression were investigated, and a multivariate approach was taken so that additional variance from diet, demography, and lifestyle could be controlled for statistically. Cross-sectional analyses showed that breakfast omission was consistently associated with negative outcomes, and that this was largely observed for both those who frequently consumed energy drinks and those who did not. However, cross-lag analyses showed that neither breakfast omission or energy drink consumption, alone or in combination, was predictive of stress, anxiety, or depression at 6-month follow-up. This suggests that associations between breakfast and mental health may be bi-directional rather than breakfast being the causal factor.

  13. Breakfast and Energy Drink Consumption in Secondary School Children: Breakfast Omission, in Isolation or in Combination with Frequent Energy Drink Use, is Associated with Stress, Anxiety, and Depression Cross-Sectionally, but not at 6-Month Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Gareth; Smith, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    A considerable amount of research suggests that breakfast omission and the frequent use of caffeinated energy drinks may be associated with undesirable effects, and particularly so in children and adolescents. The current paper presents cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the Cornish Academies Project to investigate the effects of consuming energy drinks and missing breakfast on stress, anxiety, and depression in a cohort of secondary school children from the South West of England. Questionnaires were administered at two time-points (spaced 6 months apart) to collect information relating to diet and lifestyle over the previous 6 months. Demographic and school data were acquired through the School Information Management System, and single-item measures of stress, anxiety, and depression were administered at the second time-point only. Associations between breakfast and energy drink consumption and stress, anxiety, and depression were investigated, and a multivariate approach was taken so that additional variance from diet, demography, and lifestyle could be controlled for statistically. Cross-sectional analyses showed that breakfast omission was consistently associated with negative outcomes, and that this was largely observed for both those who frequently consumed energy drinks and those who did not. However, cross-lag analyses showed that neither breakfast omission or energy drink consumption, alone or in combination, was predictive of stress, anxiety, or depression at 6-month follow-up. This suggests that associations between breakfast and mental health may be bi-directional rather than breakfast being the causal factor. PMID:26903914

  14. Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Farchione, Todd J.; Fairholme, Christopher P.; Ellard, Kristen K.; Boisseau, Christina L.; Thompson-Hollands, Johanna; Carl, Jenna R.; Gallagher, Matthew W.; Barlow, David H.

    2012-01-01

    This study further evaluates the efficacy of the Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders (UP). A diagnostically heterogeneous clinical sample of 37 patients with a principal anxiety disorder diagnosis was enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) involving up to 18 sessions of treatment and a 6-month follow-up period. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either immediate treatment with the UP (n=26) or delayed treatment, following a 16-week wait-list control period (WLC; n= 11). The UP resulted in significant improvement on measures of clinical severity, general symptoms of depression and anxiety, levels of negative and positive affect, and a measure of symptom interference in daily functioning across diagnoses. In comparison, participants in the WLC condition exhibited little to no change following the 16-week wait-list period. The effects of UP treatment were maintained over the 6-month follow-up period. Results from this RCT provide additional evidence for the efficacy of the UP in the treatment of anxiety and comorbid depressive disorders, and provide additional support for a transdiagnostic approach to the treatment of emotional disorders. PMID:22697453

  15. Unified protocol for transdiagnostic treatment of emotional disorders: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Farchione, Todd J; Fairholme, Christopher P; Ellard, Kristen K; Boisseau, Christina L; Thompson-Hollands, Johanna; Carl, Jenna R; Gallagher, Matthew W; Barlow, David H

    2012-09-01

    This study further evaluates the efficacy of the Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders (UP). A diagnostically heterogeneous clinical sample of 37 patients with a principal anxiety disorder diagnosis was enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) involving up to 18 sessions of treatment and a 6-month follow-up period. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either immediate treatment with the UP (n=26) or delayed treatment, following a 16-week wait-list control period (WLC; n=11). The UP resulted in significant improvement on measures of clinical severity, general symptoms of depression and anxiety, levels of negative and positive affect, and a measure of symptom interference in daily functioning across diagnoses. In comparison, participants in the WLC condition exhibited little to no change following the 16-week wait-list period. The effects of UP treatment were maintained over the 6-month follow-up period. Results from this RCT provide additional evidence for the efficacy of the UP in the treatment of anxiety and comorbid depressive disorders, and provide additional support for a transdiagnostic approach to the treatment of emotional disorders.

  16. Psychiatric medevacs during a 6-month aircraft carrier battle group deployment to the Persian Gulf: a Navy Force Health Protection preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Wood, Dennis Patrick; Koffman, Robert L; Arita, Anthony A

    2003-01-01

    When a U.S. Navy Aircraft Carrier battle group deploys overseas, the aircraft carrier's medical department is responsible for the medical needs of over 12,000 personnel with their indigenous developmental, stress, family, alcohol, drug, and interpersonal and intrapersonal relationship difficulties. This article reviews the effectiveness of having a U.S. Navy clinical psychologist and a psychiatric technician onboard the USS Carl Vinson, the flag ship of Vinson's battle group, during this battle group's 1998/1999 Persian Gulf deployment (i.e., Western Pacific Deployment). Importantly, these two individuals reported to the USS Vinson as permanent members of the ship's company. The clinical psychologist logged 448 individual outpatient-care consults and 79 individual consults with sailors who had a history of overusing or abusing alcohol. Additionally, nine sailors with acute disabling psychiatric diagnoses were hospitalized on the ship's medical ward, and four sailors were medically evacuated (medevaced), by fixed wing aircraft, from USS Vinson to a Navy Hospital in the United States for definitive evaluation, treatment, and disposition. These four medevacs were less than the number of medevacs from two previous Aircraft Carrier Battle Group Persian Gulf deployments. Importantly, these two previous WESTPAC deployments were made without having a clinical psychologist as a full-time member of the respective aircraft carrier's medical department. Providing clinical psychology/mental health services at the "tip of the spear" is an effective, beneficial, and cost-saving landmark improvement in providing quality medical care to the fleet.

  17. Psychiatric medevacs during a 6-month aircraft carrier battle group deployment to the Persian Gulf: a Navy Force Health Protection preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Wood, Dennis Patrick; Koffman, Robert L; Arita, Anthony A

    2003-01-01

    When a U.S. Navy Aircraft Carrier battle group deploys overseas, the aircraft carrier's medical department is responsible for the medical needs of over 12,000 personnel with their indigenous developmental, stress, family, alcohol, drug, and interpersonal and intrapersonal relationship difficulties. This article reviews the effectiveness of having a U.S. Navy clinical psychologist and a psychiatric technician onboard the USS Carl Vinson, the flag ship of Vinson's battle group, during this battle group's 1998/1999 Persian Gulf deployment (i.e., Western Pacific Deployment). Importantly, these two individuals reported to the USS Vinson as permanent members of the ship's company. The clinical psychologist logged 448 individual outpatient-care consults and 79 individual consults with sailors who had a history of overusing or abusing alcohol. Additionally, nine sailors with acute disabling psychiatric diagnoses were hospitalized on the ship's medical ward, and four sailors were medically evacuated (medevaced), by fixed wing aircraft, from USS Vinson to a Navy Hospital in the United States for definitive evaluation, treatment, and disposition. These four medevacs were less than the number of medevacs from two previous Aircraft Carrier Battle Group Persian Gulf deployments. Importantly, these two previous WESTPAC deployments were made without having a clinical psychologist as a full-time member of the respective aircraft carrier's medical department. Providing clinical psychology/mental health services at the "tip of the spear" is an effective, beneficial, and cost-saving landmark improvement in providing quality medical care to the fleet. PMID:12546245

  18. Long-term treatment with probiotics in primary care patients with irritable bowel syndrome--a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Begtrup, Luise Mølenberg; de Muckadell, Ove B Schaffalitzky; Kjeldsen, Jens; Christensen, René Depont; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg

    2013-10-01

    OBJECTIVE. Meta-analyses have indicated effect of probiotics on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, few long-term trials have been conducted and uncertainty remains as to effectiveness and long-term effect in a primary care setting. We aimed to investigate the effect of probiotics compared with placebo in the management of IBS in primary care during a 6-month treatment period and with a 6-month follow-up. MATERIAL AND METHODS. We randomized IBS patients fulfilling Rome III criteria to receive two capsules twice daily either containing placebo or a probiotic mixture of Lactobacillus paracasei ssp paracasei F19, Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium Bb12 in an amount of 1.3 × 10(10) CFU per capsule. Primary endpoint was proportion of responders defined as patients reporting adequate relief (AR) at least 50% of the time in the 6-month treatment period. Secondary outcomes were proportions of patients reporting AR at different time points, and change in gastrointestinal symptoms and health-related quality of life (HrQOL) from baseline to 6 and 12 months. RESULTS. A total of 131 patients were included in this study. The proportion of responders in the treatment period was 52% (35/67) in the probiotic group versus 41% (26/64) in the placebo group, p = 0.18. Overall we found no difference between the groups in change in gastrointestinal symptoms after treatment. Patients improved in HrQOL, but with no statistically significant difference between the groups. CONCLUSION. During a 6-month treatment period, we were not able to detect a positive effect of probiotic when compared with placebo. PMID:23957590

  19. Cryptosporidium Prevalence and Risk Factors among Mothers and Infants 0 to 6 Months in Rural and Semi-Rural Northwest Tanzania: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Sarah H.; Wilkinson, Amanda L.; Andreasen, Aura; Warhurst, David C.; Kinung'hi, Safari M.; Urassa, Mark; Mkwashapi, Denna M.; Todd, Jim; Changalucha, John; McDermid, Joann M.

    2014-01-01

    ineffective treatment in young infants, minimizing the overall environmental burden (e.g. contaminated water) and particularly, maternal Cryptosporidium infection burden as a means to protect against early infant infection needs prioritization. PMID:25275519

  20. ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF CONTINUOUS BACTERIAL TREATMENTS OVER A TWO-WEEK PERIOD ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2001-07-17

    These experiments indicated that in waters at 23 C the window of opportunity to kill zebra mussels with bacterial strain CL0145A is limited to the first two days of treatment. Treatments beyond two days will not increase mortality.

  1. Visual Field Outcomes for the Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial (IIHTT)

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Michael; Johnson, Chris A.; Cello, Kimberly E.; Zamba, K. D.; McDermott, Michael P.; Keltner, John L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial (IIHTT) showed that acetazolamide provided a modest, significant improvement in mean deviation (MD). Here, we further analyze visual field changes over the 6-month study period. Methods Of 165 subjects with mild visual loss in the IIHTT, 125 had perimetry at baseline and 6 months. We evaluated pointwise linear regression of visual sensitivity versus time to classify test locations in the worst MD (study) eye as improving or not; pointwise changes from baseline to month 6 in decibels; and clinical consensus of change from baseline to 6 months. Results The average study eye had 36 of 52 test locations with improving sensitivity over 6 months using pointwise linear regression, but differences between the acetazolamide and placebo groups were not significant. Pointwise results mostly improved in both treatment groups with the magnitude of the mean change within groups greatest and statistically significant around the blind spot and the nasal area, especially in the acetazolamide group. The consensus classification of visual field change from baseline to 6 months in the study eye yielded percentages (acetazolamide, placebo) of 7.2% and 17.5% worse, 35.1% and 31.7% with no change, and 56.1% and 50.8% improved; group differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions In the IIHTT, compared to the placebo group, the acetazolamide group had a significant pointwise improvement in visual field function, particularly in the nasal and pericecal areas; the latter is likely due to reduction in blind spot size related to improvement in papilledema. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01003639.) PMID:26934136

  2. Post-treatment Effects of Topiramate Treatment for Heavy Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Kranzler, Henry R.; Wetherill, Reagan; Feinn, Richard; Pond, Timothy; Gelernter, Joel; Covault, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Background We examined whether the effects of topiramate and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs2832407) in GRIK1, which encodes a kainate receptor subunit, persisted following a 12-week, placebo-controlled trial in 138 heavy drinkers with a treatment goal of reduced drinking. During treatment, topiramate 200 mg/day significantly reduced heavy drinking days and increased the frequency of abstinent days (Kranzler et al. 2014a). In the European-American (EA) subsample (n=122), rs2832407 moderated the treatment effect on heavy drinking. Methods Patients were re-interviewed 3 and 6 months after the end of treatment. During treatment, we obtained 92.4% of drinking data, with 89.1% and 85.5% complete data at the 3- and 6-month follow-up visits, respectively. We examined four outcomes over time in the overall sample and the EA subsample: percent heavy drinking days (PHDD), percent days abstinent (PDA), serum γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP) concentration, and a measure of alcohol-related problems. Results In the full sample, the lower PHDD and higher PDA seen with topiramate treatment were no longer significant during follow-up. Nonetheless, the topiramate-treated patients had lower alcohol-related problem scores during treatment and both follow-up periods. Further, in the EA subsample, the greater reduction in PHDD seen during treatment in rs2832407*C-allele homozygotes persisted throughout follow-up, with no significant effects in A-allele carriers. A reduction in GGTP concentration was consistent with the reduction in heavy drinking, but did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion There are persistent therapeutic effects of topiramate in heavy drinkers, principally in rs2832407*C-allele homozygotes. PMID:25581656

  3. Renewable Energy in Water and Wastewater Treatment Applications; Period of Performance: April 1, 2001--September 1, 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Argaw, N.

    2003-06-01

    This guidebook will help readers understand where and how renewable energy technologies can be used for water and wastewater treatment applications. It is specifically designed for rural and small urban center water supply and wastewater treatment applications. This guidebook also provides basic information for selecting water resources and for various kinds of commercially available water supply and wastewater treatment technologies and power sources currently in the market.

  4. Association of salivary dehydroepiandrosterone levels and symptoms in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during six months of treatment with methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang-Jen; Hsiao, Cheng-Cheng; Huang, Yu-Shu; Chiang, Yuan-Lin; Ree, Shao-Chun; Chen, Yi-Chih; Wu, Ya-Wen; Wu, Chih-Ching; Shang, Zong-Yi; Chen, Chih-Ken

    2011-09-01

    This prospective study aimed to determine whether salivary levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) change significantly during 6 months of treatment with methylphenidate (MPH), and to investigate long-term relationship between these levels and ADHD symptoms. Fifty ADHD patients aged between 6 and 12 years, and 50 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects were recruited. ADHD patients were prescribed oral MPH with a dose range of 5-15 mg/day at the discretion of the psychiatrist. DHEA levels were determined from saliva samples collected from both ADHD patients and healthy subjects at pretreatment and 1, 3, and 6 months from pretreatment visit. ADHD symptoms were evaluated with the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, Version IV Scale for ADHD and the ADHD Rating Scale, and computerized Continuous Performance Test (CPT). The results showed that salivary DHEA levels significantly increased in ADHD patients during the 6-month course of methylphenidate treatment, but the DHEA levels did not significantly change in the untreated healthy group during the 6-month period of natural observation. For the longitudinal observation, among ADHD patients, the salivary DHEA levels were independently correlated with distraction and impulsivity performance in the CPT, but not correlated with inattention and hyperactivity in the clinical ADHD symptoms. Whether DHEA exerts effects on neurocognitive functions as mediators or independently of MPH warrants further investigation.

  5. Crying - excessive (0 to 6 months)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Discomfort or irritation from a wet or dirty diaper, excessive gas, or feeling cold Hunger or thirst ... or discomfort in a crying baby. When cloth diapers are used, look for diaper pins that have ...

  6. Swashzone Fellowships: a 6-month research experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raubenheimer, B.

    2011-12-01

    The Swashzone Fellowships funded by the CAREER program were designed to provide sufficient time for undergraduates with little knowledge of ocean processes and minimal prior research experience to participate in observational nearshore oceanographic studies. The fellows learned background material, developed hypotheses, planned field experiments, designed sensor arrays, tested and debugged instrumentation, collected and analyzed data, and communicated the results through oral and written presentations. The program funded 12 undergraduate student fellows (4 male and 8 female), with backgrounds in math (3 students), physics (4), geology (1), and environmental sciences (4). Preference was given to applicants who had not taken oceanography classes and who were unsure of career plans. All the students presented their results at department seminars, and most presented their results at a professional conference (eg, AGU or Ocean Sciences). The results often were incorporated in peer-reviewed manuscripts. Evaluations conducted following the fellowships and again several years after each fellowship indicated that many of the students pursued STEM careers: 5 are pursuing PhD degrees, including bio-mathematics, physics, atmospheric physics, and ocean physics; 2 are employed at environmental engineering and consulting firms; 4 are employed as research technicians at WHOI; and 1 is a lawyer (currently being considered as a clerk for the Supreme Court). Many of the students were excited to learn about the range of oceanographic career options, including engineering and technical staff, as well as science research. The graduating seniors expressed their appreciation for the fellowship opportunity, stating that there were few science positions available to students without significant prior research experience. Several students noted that the fellowships were critical to their later employment and to their decisions to pursue careers in science. In particular, the students noted that the computer skills, the oral presentation experiences, and the data analysis techniques were important to obtaining and conducting their current jobs.

  7. [Possibilities of magnetic-laser therapy in comprehensive treatment of patients with brain concussion in acute period].

    PubMed

    Zubkova, O V; Samosiuk, I Z; Polishchuk, O V; Shul'ga, N M; Samosiuk, N I

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of magnetic-laser therapy used according to the method developed by us was studied in patients having the brain concussion (BC) in an acute period. The study was based on the dynamics of values of the evoked vestibular potentials and the disease clinical course. It was shown that following the magnetic-laser therapy in combination with traditional pharmacotherapy in BC acute period, the statistically significant positive changes were registered in the quantitative characteristics of the evoked vestibular brain potentials that correlated with the dynamics of the disease clinical course. The data obtained substantiate the possibility of using the magnetic-laser therapy in patients with a mild craniocereblal injury in an acute period.

  8. A Collaborative Care Telemedicine Intervention to Overcome Treatment Barriers for Latina Women with Depression during the Perinatal Period

    PubMed Central

    Baker-Ericzén, Mary J.; Connelly, Cynthia D.; Hazen, Andrea L.; Dueñas, Cecilia; Landsverk, John A.; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

    2013-01-01

    Maternal depression is highly prevalent (10 to 20%) during the perinatal period with rates as high as 35 to 40% for Latinas. However, few Latinas are either identified or treated during the perinatal period. To address these disparities, the Perinatal Mental Health Model (PMH) was designed to ameliorate the barriers that prevent adequate diagnoses and intervention. The PMH is a culturally sensitive, short-term telemedicine, and collaborative care intervention for addressing depression among Mexican American mothers. It attends to sociocultural and socioeconomic dimensions and is delivered by trained mental health advisors within obstetric care settings. This article describes the feasibility and acceptability of utilizing the PMH. Participants (n=79) were selected from a first year ongoing randomized trial in community obstetric clinics. The intervention seems feasible and acceptable; low-income Latinas, identified as depressed during the perinatal period, reported having access to a range of appropriate community services and high satisfaction. PMID:22709321

  9. High-Dose Glycine Treatment of Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Body Dysmorphic Disorder in a 5-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, W. Louis; DeLaPaz, Robert L.; Fawwaz, Rashid A.; Challop, Roger S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an individual who was diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) at age 17 when education was discontinued. By age 19, he was housebound without social contacts except for parents. Adequate trials of three selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, two with atypical neuroleptics, were ineffective. Major exacerbations following ear infections involving Group A β-hemolytic streptococcus at ages 19 and 20 led to intravenous immune globulin therapy, which was also ineffective. At age 22, another severe exacerbation followed antibiotic treatment for H. pylori. This led to a hypothesis that postulates deficient signal transduction by the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). Treatment with glycine, an NMDAR coagonist, over 5 years led to robust reduction of OCD/BDD signs and symptoms except for partial relapses during treatment cessation. Education and social life were resumed and evidence suggests improved cognition. Our findings motivate further study of glycine treatment of OCD and BDD. PMID:20182547

  10. 26 CFR 1.852-11 - Treatment of certain losses attributable to periods after October 31 of a taxable year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., assume that X is a regulated investment company that computes its income on a calendar year basis, and that no election is in effect under section 4982(e)(4). Example 1. X has a $25 net foreign currency... period of 1988. X has no post-October currency loss and no post-October capital loss for 1988, and...

  11. The use of immersive virtual reality (VR) to predict the occurrence 6 months later of paranoid thinking and posttraumatic stress symptoms assessed by self-report and interviewer methods: a study of individuals who have been physically assaulted.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Daniel; Antley, Angus; Ehlers, Anke; Dunn, Graham; Thompson, Claire; Vorontsova, Natasha; Garety, Philippa; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Glucksman, Edward; Slater, Mel

    2014-09-01

    Presentation of social situations via immersive virtual reality (VR) has the potential to be an ecologically valid way of assessing psychiatric symptoms. In this study we assess the occurrence of paranoid thinking and of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in response to a single neutral VR social environment as predictors of later psychiatric symptoms assessed by standard methods. One hundred six people entered an immersive VR social environment (a train ride), presented via a head-mounted display, 4 weeks after having attended hospital because of a physical assault. Paranoid thinking about the neutral computer-generated characters and the occurrence of PTSD symptoms in VR were assessed. Reactions in VR were then used to predict the occurrence 6 months later of symptoms of paranoia and PTSD, as assessed by standard interviewer and self-report methods. Responses to VR predicted the severity of paranoia and PTSD symptoms as assessed by standard measures 6 months later. The VR assessments also added predictive value to the baseline interviewer methods, especially for paranoia. Brief exposure to environments presented via virtual reality provides a symptom assessment with predictive ability over many months. VR assessment may be of particular benefit for difficult to assess problems, such as paranoia, that have no gold standard assessment method. In the future, VR environments may be used in the clinic to complement standard self-report and clinical interview methods.

  12. The Use of Immersive Virtual Reality (VR) to Predict the Occurrence 6 Months Later of Paranoid Thinking and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Assessed by Self-Report and Interviewer Methods: A Study of Individuals Who Have Been Physically Assaulted

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Presentation of social situations via immersive virtual reality (VR) has the potential to be an ecologically valid way of assessing psychiatric symptoms. In this study we assess the occurrence of paranoid thinking and of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in response to a single neutral VR social environment as predictors of later psychiatric symptoms assessed by standard methods. One hundred six people entered an immersive VR social environment (a train ride), presented via a head-mounted display, 4 weeks after having attended hospital because of a physical assault. Paranoid thinking about the neutral computer-generated characters and the occurrence of PTSD symptoms in VR were assessed. Reactions in VR were then used to predict the occurrence 6 months later of symptoms of paranoia and PTSD, as assessed by standard interviewer and self-report methods. Responses to VR predicted the severity of paranoia and PTSD symptoms as assessed by standard measures 6 months later. The VR assessments also added predictive value to the baseline interviewer methods, especially for paranoia. Brief exposure to environments presented via virtual reality provides a symptom assessment with predictive ability over many months. VR assessment may be of particular benefit for difficult to assess problems, such as paranoia, that have no gold standard assessment method. In the future, VR environments may be used in the clinic to complement standard self-report and clinical interview methods. PMID:24708073

  13. Treatment Outcomes of Transurethral Macroplastique Injection for Postprostatectomy Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sin Woo; Kang, Jung Hun; Sung, Hyun Hwan; Jeong, U-Seok; Lee, Young-Suk; Baek, Minki

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the efficacy of transurethral injection of Macroplastique bulking agent (Uroplasty) for male stress urinary incontinence (SUI) after prostate surgery. Materials and Methods This retrospective review included men with SUI treated by transurethral injection for symptoms resulting from prostate surgery. Patients were evaluated at 1 month and 6 months after injection by determining the number of pads used per day and changes in incontinence symptoms. Treatment success was defined as use of 1 pad or fewer per day combined with subjective symptom improvement. Results The study population comprised 30 men with a mean age of 66.1±5.3 years. Of the 30 patients, 24 (80.0%) underwent prostate cancer surgery and the remaining 6 (20.0%) underwent surgery for benign prostatic hyperplasia. The preinjection pad number was 2.9±1.9 pads per day. After injection treatment, the mean follow-up period was 9.3±12.7 months and the success rate was 43% (13/30) at 1 month and 32% (6/19) at 6 months. Injection was more likely to result in a successful outcome in patients with no preinjection radiation treatment history and higher abdominal leak point pressure (ALPP) than in those with a previous history of radiation treatment and lower ALPP, although this result was not statistically significant. Acute urinary retention occurred in 5 patients (17%). Conclusions Transurethral Macroplastique injection treatment is a relatively non-invasive treatment method for male SUI with a success rate of 43% at 1 month and 32% at 6 months. Patients with a higher ALPP and no previous history of radiation therapy may experience better treatment outcomes. PMID:24648873

  14. Correlates of satisfaction with pain treatment in the acute postoperative period: results from the international PAIN OUT registry.

    PubMed

    Schwenkglenks, Matthias; Gerbershagen, Hans J; Taylor, Rod S; Pogatzki-Zahn, Esther; Komann, Marcus; Rothaug, Judith; Volk, Thomas; Yahiaoui-Doktor, Maryam; Zaslansky, Ruth; Brill, Silviu; Ullrich, Kristin; Gordon, Debra B; Meissner, Winfried

    2014-07-01

    Patient ratings of satisfaction with their postoperative pain treatment tend to be high even in those with substantial pain. Determinants are poorly understood and have not previously been studied in large-scale, international datasets. PAIN OUT, a European Union-funded acute pain registry and research project, collects patient-reported outcome data on postoperative day 1 using the self-reported International Pain Outcome Questionnaire (IPO), and patient, clinical, and treatment characteristics. We investigated correlates of satisfaction and consistency of effects across centres and countries using multilevel regression modelling. Our sample comprised 16,868 patients (median age 55 years; 55% female) from 42 centres in 11 European countries plus Israel, USA, and Malaysia, who underwent a wide range of surgical procedures, for example, joint, limb, and digestive tract surgeries. Median satisfaction was 9 (interquartile range 7-10) on a 0-10 scale. Three IPO items showed strong associations and explained 35% of the variability present in the satisfaction variable: more pain relief received, higher allowed participation in pain treatment decisions, and no desire to have received more pain treatment. Patient factors and additional IPO items reflecting pain experience (eg, worst pain intensity), pain-related impairment, and information on pain treatment added little explanatory value, partially due to covariate correlations. Effects were highly consistent across centres and countries. We conclude that satisfaction with postoperative pain treatment is associated with the patients' actual pain experience, but more strongly with impressions of improvement and appropriateness of care. To the degree they desire, patients should be provided with information and involved in pain treatment decisions. PMID:24785269

  15. 26 CFR 1.852-11 - Treatment of certain losses attributable to periods after October 31 of a taxable year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Treatment of certain losses attributable to... that no election is in effect under section 4982(e)(4). Example 1. X has a $25 net foreign currency...) 100 01/01 to 10/31/89 30 40 (5) (20) 25 20 11/01 to 12/31/89 35 100 (0) (50) 35 50 X has a...

  16. 26 CFR 1.852-11 - Treatment of certain losses attributable to periods after October 31 of a taxable year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Treatment of certain losses attributable to... that no election is in effect under section 4982(e)(4). Example 1. X has a $25 net foreign currency...) 100 01/01 to 10/31/89 30 40 (5) (20) 25 20 11/01 to 12/31/89 35 100 (0) (50) 35 50 X has a...

  17. Homeopathic treatment of elderly patients - a prospective observational study with follow-up over a two year period

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Very little is known about the range of diagnoses, course of treatment and long-term outcome in elderly patients who choose to receive homeopathic medical treatment. We investigated homeopathic practice in an industrialised country under everyday conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the spectrum of diagnoses and treatments, as well as to describe the course of illness over time among older patients who chose to receive homeopathic treatment. Methods In this subgroup analysis of a prospective, multicentre cohort study totally including 3981 patients treated by homeopathic physicians in primary care practices in Germany and Switzerland, data was analysed from all patients > 70 years consulting the physician for the first time. The main outcome measures were: assessment by patient of the severity of complaints (numeric rating scales) and quality of life (SF-36) and by the physician of the severity of diagnoses (numeric rating scales) at baseline, and after 3, 12, and 24 months. Results A total of 83 patients were included in the subgroup analysis (41% men, mean age 73.2 ± (SD) 3.1 years; 59% women, 74.3 ± 3.8 years). 98.6 percent of all diagnoses were chronic with an average duration of 11.5 ± 11.5 years. 82 percent of the patients were taking medication at baseline. The most frequent diagnoses were hypertension (20.5%, 11.1 ± 7.5 years) and sleep disturbances (15.7%, 22.1 ± 25.8 years). The severity of complaints decreased significantly between baseline and 24 months in both patients (from 6.3 (95%CI: 5.7-6.8) to 4.6 (4.0-5.1), p < 0.001) and physicians' assessments (from 6.6 (6.0-7.1) to 3.7 (3.2-4.3), p < 0.001); quality of life (SF 36) and the number of medicines taken did not significantly change. Conclusion The severity of disease showed marked and sustained improvements under homeopathic treatment, but this did not lead to an improvement of quality of life. Our findings might indicate that homeopathic medical therapy may play a

  18. The treatment with pasireotide in Cushing's disease: effects of long-term treatment on tumor mass in the experience of a single center.

    PubMed

    Simeoli, Chiara; Auriemma, Renata Simona; Tortora, Fabio; De Leo, Monica; Iacuaniello, Davide; Cozzolino, Alessia; De Martino, Maria Cristina; Pivonello, Claudia; Mainolfi, Ciro Gabriele; Rossi, Riccardo; Cirillo, Sossio; Colao, Annamaria; Pivonello, Rosario

    2015-12-01

    Pasireotide is the first medical therapy officially approved for the treatment of adult patients with Cushing's disease (CD) who experienced a failure of pituitary surgery or are not candidates for surgery and require medical therapeutic intervention. The current study aimed at investigating the effects of long-term treatment with pasireotide (up to 24 months) on tumor mass in a group of patients with CD, participating to a phase III study. Fourteen CD patients entered the phase III clinical trial CSOM230B2305 at Naples Center, and eight (seven women, one man, aged 38.9 ± 17.6 years), including seven with a microadenoma and one with a macroadenoma, received treatment with pasireotide at the dose of 600-1200 µg bid for at least 6 months, and were considered for the analysis of the study. These eight patients were subjected to the evaluation of pituitary tumor volume by pituitary MRI, together with the evaluation of urinary cortisol levels, at baseline and every 6 months for the entire period of treatment. Pasireotide treatment induced full disease control in 37.5 % and partial disease control in 37.5 % after 6 months, whereas full and partial disease control after 12 months was obtained in 28.6 % and in 57.1 % of patients, respectively. A significant (>25 %) reduction in tumor volume was found in 62.5 % and in 100 % of patients, after 6 and 12 months, respectively. In particular, after 6 months, a slight tumor shrinkage (between 25.1 and 50 %) was observed in 25 %, moderate (50.1-75 %) in 25 %, and marked (>75 %) in 12.5 % of patients, whereas after 12 months, a slight tumor shrinkage was observed in 43 %, moderate in 14 %, and marked in 43 % of patients. In 25 % of patients (two patients), a marked tumor shrinkage was recorded, with tumor mass disappearance in one case; this tumor shrinkage was associated to rapid and sustained biochemical remission up to 24 months of continuous pasireotide treatment. These two cases represent the first cases with a documentation

  19. Unsuccessful treatment of acromegaly with medroxyprogesterone acetate.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, R L; Dimond, R C; Howard, W J; Earll, J M

    1974-09-01

    6 patients with active acromegaly were treated with 10 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) every 6 hours daily for 2 weeks to 6 months. Oral glucose tolerance tests, growth hormone (GH) levels, and insulin tolerance tests (ITT) were done before and during MPA treatment. Basal GH levels varied widely during control and therapy periods; no significant lowering of GH levels occurred during treatment. Carbohydrate tolerance was not significantly affected by MPA therapy, although 5 out of 6 patients had deterioration at least once during treatment. Blood glucose response to ITT was unchanged by MPA. MPA did not affect the clinical features of acromegaly. There was no consistent effect of MPA on insulin-induced or arginine-induced GH secretion. It is concluded that MPA is not an effective agent for treating acromegaly.

  20. [Prevention and treatment of pressure sores--a neglected research subject? An overview of clinically controlled studies in the period 1987-91].

    PubMed

    Tewes, M

    1993-01-01

    Pressure sores are frequently seen in elderly hospitalized patients and leads to prolonged hospitalization and increased morbidity and mortality. The object of this paper was to retrieve the last five years literature regarding prevention and treatment of pressure sores. During the period 1987-1991, 751 papers on this topic were published and indexed in Medline. Only 9 of these papers represented controlled clinical trials. Three of them dealt with prevention, and the remaining 6 with treatment. Although 4 of 9 studies showed statistically significant differences between the actively treated group and the placebo group, none of the studies showed convincing clinical differences. Serious methodological flaws with respect to design, blinding, randomisation, sample size and statistical analysis were found in 8 of 9 studies. None of the clinical controlled studies on prevention of pressure sores showed any statistically significant differences between the control group and treatment with, respectively Prevasore lotion, Foam cushion and Silicore mattress. In the 6 trials on treatment of pressure sores, respectively mucopolysaccharide polysulphate creme, ketanserin creme and air-fluidized beds showed statistically better results than control treatment. We conclude that well-designed controlled clinical trials are needed to establish rational routines for prevention and treatment of pressure sores.

  1. Time Trends of Cannabis Use Among Treatment-seeking Individuals at Government De-addiction Centers Across India Over a Period of 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Mishra, Ashwani; Sethi, Hem; Singh, Shalini; Khandelwal, Sudhir Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cannabis continues to be the most commonly used illicit psychoactive substance globally. The National Survey in India conducted in the year 2004 also reported it to be the most commonly used illicit substance in the country. Furthermore, it was reported to be the second most commonly used psychoactive substance by the treatment seekers at de-addiction centers in the country. Objectives: To assess time trends of cannabis use among treatment-seeking individuals at government de-addiction centers across India over a period of 7 years. Materials and Methods: The study utilized data collected through Drug Abuse Monitoring System across India. The data of treatment seekers from de-addiction centers established under the Drug De-addiction Program, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India and supported by the Ministry of Social Justic