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Sample records for 6-sulphatoxymelatonin urinary excretion

  1. Urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin excretion is increased in rats after 24 hours of exposure to vertical 50 Hz, 100 {micro}T magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Bakos, J.; Nagy, N.; Thuroczy, G.; Szabo, L.D.

    1997-05-01

    The effect of exposure to a 50 Hz, vertical magnetic field on the excretion of urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) of rats was studied in a self-controlled experiment. Ten male Wistar rats were kept under 9:15 h light:dark conditions in metabolic cages. The rats were exposed to 1.0 or 100 {micro}T flux density for 24 h. The excretion of aMT6s, which is the primary metabolite of melatonin in the urine, did not show a statistically significant decrease, as measured by {sup 125}I radioimmunoassay, during or after magnetic field exposure of rats to either flux density. At 100 {micro}T flux density, the increase of aMT6s excretion on the day after exposure was statistically significant (P < .02), compared with the value under exposure, but was not significant compared with the baseline values before exposure.

  2. Effects of temazepam on sleep, performance, and rhythmic 6-sulphatoxymelatonin and cortisol excretion after transmeridian travel.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, E; Kennaway, D J

    1991-07-01

    The effects of 20-mg doses of the short-acting benzodiazepine, temazepam, on sleep, performance and pineal, adrenal and temperature rhythms were investigated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study. Ten healthy males were studied 4 d prior to flying from Sydney to London via Tokyo and Anchorage (11 time zones). Temazepam or placebo were administered at 2300 hours (local time) during the flight and for 4 d after arrival. After a 7-d recreation break in London, the subjects returned to Sydney via Moscow and Tokyo and again took five doses of temazepam or placebo. During the 5 d following their arrival in London or Sydney, the subjects collected urine, had rectal temperature monitored, performed a battery of performance tests and filled out questionnaires. Temazepam significantly improved various subjective sleep characteristics, particularly on the first few nights. Performance (choice reaction time, critical flicker fusion threshold and pencil and paper tests) was not impaired by temazepam treatment. The pineal rhythm was assessed by urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin excretion rate determinations. The time of peak 6-sulphatoxymelatonin excretion (acrophase) occurred progressively later each day after arrival in London and Sydney, however the rate of adjustment of the rhythm was not affected by temazepam. Similarly, the urinary cortisol and temperature rhythms adjusted to the new environments by progressive delay with no drug effect being evident. Administration of temazepam clearly had a beneficial effect on sleep and alertness following transmeridian travel, without detrimental effects on performance. There was no evidence to suggest that temazepam altered the rates of entrainment of physiological rhythms to the new environments.

  3. Day and nighttime excretion of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin in adolescents and young adults with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Tordjman, Sylvie; Anderson, George M; Bellissant, Eric; Botbol, Michel; Charbuy, Henriette; Camus, Françoise; Graignic, Rozenn; Kermarrec, Solenn; Fougerou, Claire; Cohen, David; Touitou, Yvan

    2012-12-01

    Several reports indicate that nocturnal production of melatonin is reduced in autism. Our objective was to examine whether melatonin production is decreased during the whole 24-h cycle, whether the melatonin circadian rhythm is inverted, and whether the reduction in melatonin production is related to the severity of autistic behavioral impairments. Day and nighttime urinary excretion of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (6-SM) was examined during a 24-h period in post-pubertal individuals with autism (N=43) and typically developing controls (N=26) matched for age, sex and pubertal stage. Low 6-SM excretion (mean ± SEM) was observed in autism, both at daytime (0.16 ± 0.03 vs. 0.36 ± 0.05 μg/h, p<0.01), nighttime (0.52 ± 0.07 vs. 1.14 ± 0.23 μg/h, p<0.05), and during 24h (8.26 ± 1.27 vs. 18.00 ± 3.43 μg/24-h collection, p<0.001). Intra-individual nighttime-daytime differences (delta values) in 6-SM excretion were smaller in individuals with autism than in controls (0.36 ± 0.07 vs. 0.79 ± 0.23 μg/h, p<0.05). Nocturnal excretion of 6-SM was negatively correlated with autism severity in the overall level of verbal language (Spearman ρ=-0.30, p<0.05), imitative social play (Spearman ρ=-0.42, p<0.05), and repetitive use of objects (Spearman ρ=-0.36, p<0.05). A deficit in melatonin production is present both at daytime and at nighttime in individuals with autism, particularly in the most severely affected individuals. These results highlight interest in potential therapeutic uses of melatonin in autistic disorder, especially in individuals with severe autistic impairment and/or low urinary 6-SM excretion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin levels and sleep disorders in children with migraine.

    PubMed

    Abou-Khadra, Maha K; Kishk, Nirmeen A; Shaker, Olfat G; Hassan, Amr

    2014-07-01

    We conducted the present study to assess melatonin secretion in a sample of children with migraine, to describe their sleep patterns and problems, and to examine the impact of sleep problems on migraine disability. The parents of 18 children with migraine completed the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire and Pediatric Migraine Disability Assessment Score in Arabic. The parents of 18 healthy controls also completed the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire. Urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin levels were determined with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. There was no significant difference in urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin between the migraine and control groups (Z = -0.127, P = .889). There were no significant differences between groups in Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire subscales or total scores. There were significant correlations between bedtime resistance, parasomnias subscales, and migraine disability. Our findings indicate that nocturnal production of melatonin is not reduced in children with migraine, and sleep disturbances impact the degree of migraine disability.

  5. Sinusoidal 50 Hz, 500 {micro}T magnetic field has no acute effect on urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin in Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Bakos, J.; Nagy, N.; Thuroczy, G.; Szabo, L.D.

    1995-12-31

    The effect of a 50 Hz, vertical magnetic field on the excretion of urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) of male and female Wistar rats was studied in a self-controlled experiment. Twenty rats were kept in metabolic cages under 9:15 h light:dark conditions. The urine of the animals was collected twice per day for 5 consecutive days. The concentration of aMT6s in the rat urine was measured by {sup 125}I radioimmunoassay. The rats were exposed to 5 and 500 {micro}T flux density for 24 h. The excretion of urinary aMT6s did not show significant changes during or after magnetic field exposure.

  6. Hypoxia-induced changes in recovery sleep, core body temperature, urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin and free cortisol after a simulated long-duration flight.

    PubMed

    Coste, Olivier; Van Beers, Pascal; Touitou, Yvan

    2009-12-01

    Fatigue and sleep disorders often occur after long-haul flights, even when no time zones are crossed. In this controlled study, we assessed the effects of two levels of hypoxia (at 8000 ft and 12 000 ft) on recovery sleep. Core body temperature (CBT), a circadian marker, urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin and free cortisol were studied in 20 young healthy male volunteers exposed for 8 h (08:00-16:00 hours) in a hypobaric chamber to a simulated cabin altitude of 8000 ft and, 4 weeks later, 12 000 ft. Each subject served as his own control. Sleep was recorded by polysomnography for three consecutive nights for each exposure. CBT was monitored by telemetry during the three 24-h cycles (control, hypoxic exposure and recovery). Free urinary cortisol and 6-sulphatoxymelatonin levels were assayed twice daily between 08:00 and 20:00 hours (day) and between 20:00 and 08:00 hours (night). We showed significant changes in circadian patterns of CBT at both altitudes, suggesting a phase delay, and changes in recovery sleep but only at 12 000 ft. We observed an increase in sleep onset latency which correlated positively with the increase in CBT levels during the first recovery night and a decrease in the duration of stage N(2) (formerly S(2)), which correlated negatively with the mid-range crossing time, a reliable phase marker of CBT rhythm. This study shows clearly the impact of hypobaric hypoxia on circadian time structure during air flights leading to a phase delay of CBT, independent of jet lag and consequences on sleep during recovery.

  7. Urinary zinc excretion in infancy.

    PubMed

    Sievers, E; Oldigs, H D; Dörner, K; Schaub, J

    1990-03-01

    In view of the conflicting data on urinary Zn excretion in infancy we investigated the possible influence of contamination, collecting methods, nutrition (human milk versus formula) and longitudinal changes during the first 16 weeks of life. Methodical investigation showed that special attention is necessary to avoid contamination due to the use of Zn-containing baby creams in the genital region. The sampling device for collection should include the smallest area of skin possible and the use of Zn-containing baby creams has to be avoided both during the collection and at least 24 hours prior to urine collection. Previous fractional urine sampling of the collecting method to be evaluated proves that erroneously high values are not obtained at the beginning of collection. Midstream urinary samples reduce the possibility of contamination. Increased urinary excretion was shown in pre-term infants under theophylline or coffeine medication. The median daily urinary Zn excretion in healthy breast-fed term infants declined significantly from 0.063 (0.027-0.111) mg per kg body weight at the age of 2 weeks to 0.018 (0.004-0.059) mg per kg body weight at the age of 16 weeks. Comparable values for formula-fed term infants were 0.029 (0.025-0.063) mg per kg body weight initially and 0.025 (0.007-0.059) mg per kg body weight at the end of the study. These values can be used as reference values for the urinary Zn excretion of healthy infants.

  8. Clinical study of urinary excretion of Ga-67

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Ibuka, K.; Hashizume, T.; Noguchi, A.; Kojima, J.; Sasakuma, F.; Ishigami, S. )

    1990-04-01

    Ga-67 urinary excretion was examined in 59 patients. The 72-hour urinary excretion rate ranged from 4.3 to 67.8% of the injected dose. Within the first 24 hours, 60.9% of the 72-hour urinary excretion was excreted. There was no significant difference in the Ga-67 urinary excretion rate between males and females, nor between the Ga-67 positive and negative cases. A significant negative correlation was found between the 72-hour Ga-67 urinary excretion rate and the unsaturated iron binding capacity. Notably, four patients with hyperferremia, which was considered secondary to leukemia and/or chemotherapy or liver cirrhosis, excreted more than 46.8% of Ga-67 within 72 hours. A significant negative correlation was also found between the 72-hour Ga-67 urinary excretion rate and age. Urinary excretion of Ga-67 may be related to the glomerular filtration rate, which decreases with age.

  9. Urinary Excretion of Antidiuretic Hormone in Man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M.

    1972-01-01

    It is shown that urinary excretion of ADH can be detected readily and quantitated accurately. The ADH excretion in normal subjects is inhibited following the administration of a water load and stimulated following water deprivation. It appears that measurement of ADH excretion in man provides a means of quantitating alterations in neurohypophyseal ADH secretion. By determining not only the basal excretion of ADH but also the response to such physiological influences as water loading and dehydration, it becomes possible to study the dynamics of ADH release. Thus, the ability to extract ADH efficiently from urine combined with a sensitive and specific technique for determination of ADH concentration allows the exploration of regulatory systems for ADH control in the normal state as well as the etiological role of altered ADH secretion in clinical disorders of water balance.

  10. Urinary excretion of arsenic following rice consumption.

    PubMed

    Meharg, A A; Williams, P N; Deacon, C M; Norton, G J; Hossain, M; Louhing, D; Marwa, E; Lawgalwi, Y; Taggart, M; Cascio, C; Haris, P

    2014-11-01

    Patterns of arsenic excretion were followed in a cohort (n = 6) eating a defined rice diet, 300 g per day d.wt. where arsenic speciation was characterized in cooked rice, following a period of abstinence from rice, and other high arsenic containing foods. A control group who did not consume rice were also monitored. The rice consumed in the study contained inorganic arsenic and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) at a ratio of 1:1, yet the urine speciation was dominated by DMA (90%). At steady state (rice consumption/urinary excretion) ∼40% of rice derived arsenic was excreted via urine. By monitoring of each urine pass throughout the day it was observed that there was considerable variation (up to 13-fold) for an individual's total arsenic urine content, and that there was a time dependent variation in urinary total arsenic content. This calls into question the robustness of routinely used first pass/spot check urine sampling for arsenic analysis.

  11. Urinary oxalate excretion in urolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis

    PubMed Central

    Neuhaus, T.; Belzer, T.; Blau, N.; Hoppe, B.; Sidhu, H.; Leumann, E.

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—To investigate urinary oxalate excretion in children with urolithiasis and/or nephrocalcinosis and to classify hyperoxaluria (HyOx).
METHODS—A total of 106 patients were screened. In those in whom the oxalate: creatinine ratio was increased, 24 hour urinary oxalate excretion was measured. Liver biopsy and/or genomic analysis was performed if primary hyperoxaluria (PH) was suspected. Stool specimens were examined for Oxalobacter formigenes in HyOx not related to PH type 1 or 2 (PH1, PH2) and in controls.
RESULTS—A total of 21 patients screened had HyOx (>0.5 mmol/24 h per 1.73 m2); they were classified into five groups. Eleven had PH (PH1 in nine and neither PH1 nor PH2 in two). Six had secondary HyOx: two enteric and four dietary. Four could not be classified. Seven patients had concomitant hypercalciuria. Only one of 12 patients was colonised with O formigenes compared to six of 13controls.
CONCLUSIONS—HyOx is an important risk factor for urolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis in children, and can coexist with hypercalciuria. A novel type of PH is proposed. Absence of O formigenes may contribute to HyOx not related to PH1.

 PMID:10735843

  12. Roles and mechanisms of urinary buffer excretion.

    PubMed

    Hamm, L L; Simon, E E

    1987-10-01

    Excretion of acid (or generation of bicarbonate) by the kidneys is necessary for acid-base homeostasis. Most of this acid is excreted in the form of ammonia and titratable acid, the latter representing the amount of acid required to titrate the urine buffers from the plasma pH to urine pH. The transport of ammonia in the kidney is now recognized to entail more than simple nonionic diffusion of NH3 and trapping of NH4+. NH4+ transport in the kidney probably occurs by passive diffusion and by transport on the Na+-H+ exchanger, the Na+-K+-2Cl- transporter and on Na+-K+-ATPase. NH3 diffusion is stimulated by an acid disequilibrium pH in various nephron segments. Also, diffusion equilibrium of NH3 in various regions of the kidney has now been disproved. These various mechanisms of ammonia transport are considered in terms of their possible changes with acid-base disturbances. Phosphate is the most predominant urine buffer; its urinary excretion increases with acidosis. The mechanisms probably involve a decrease in the preferentially transported species, HPO4(2-), and a direct effect of pH on proximal tubule apical phosphate transport. With chronic acidosis, changes in the activity of the apical Na+-phosphate transporter occur. These effects of systemic acid-base balance interact with parathyroid hormone and dietary phosphate status to alter phosphate reabsorption. Citrate transport in the kidney is analyzed because of its sensitivity to systemic pH and because of the possible influence on systemic acid-base status in certain circumstances. Alterations in citrate excretion with acid-base disturbances depend on changes in the concentration of the transported species, citrate2-, and on changes in renal metabolism.

  13. Carbonated beverages and urinary calcium excretion.

    PubMed

    Heaney, R P; Rafferty, K

    2001-09-01

    Intake of carbonated beverages has been associated with increased fracture risk in observational studies. The usual explanation given is that one or more of the beverage constituents increase urinary calcium. We assessed the short-term effects on urinary calcium excretion of carbonated beverages of various compositions. An incomplete random block design was used to study 20-40-y-old women who customarily consumed > or =680 mL carbonated beverages daily. Four carbonated beverages were tested: 2 with caffeine and 2 without. Two contained phosphoric acid as the acidulant and 2 contained citric acid. The study included one neutral control (water) and one positive control (skim or chocolate milk). Serving size was 567 mL for the carbonated beverages and water and 340 mL for the milks. Beverages were consumed with a light breakfast after an overnight fast; no other foods were ingested until urine collection was complete. pH, titratable and total acidity, sodium, creatinine, and calcium were measured in 2-h (morning) fasting and 5-h postbeverage urine specimens. Relative to water, urinary calcium rose significantly only with the milks and the 2 caffeine-containing beverages. The excess calciuria was approximately 0.25 mmol, about the same as previously reported for caffeine alone. Phosphoric acid without caffeine produced no excess calciuria; nor did it augment the calciuria of caffeine. The excess calciuria associated with consumption of carbonated beverages is confined to caffeinated beverages. Acidulant type has no acute effect. Because the caffeine effect is known to be compensated for by reduced calciuria later in the day, we conclude that the net effect of carbonated beverage constituents on calcium economy is negligible. The skeletal effects of carbonated beverage consumption are likely due primarily to milk displacement.

  14. Urinary beta-aminoisobutyric acid excretion in thalassaemia

    PubMed Central

    Fessas, Ph.; Koniavitis, A.; Zeis, P. M.

    1969-01-01

    The quantity of beta-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIB) excreted in the urine of patients with an intact spleen suffering from thalassaemia major appears to be proportional to the number of the circulating normoblasts and inversely proportional to the haemoglobin level. After splenectomy only minute amounts of BAIB are excreted. Transfusion constantly, but temporarily, reduces urinary excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid. Other anaemic but non-thalassaemic patients may excrete low levels. Images PMID:5776546

  15. Urinary beta-aminoisobutyric acid excretion in thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Fessas, P; Koniavitis, A; Zeis, P M

    1969-03-01

    The quantity of beta-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIB) excreted in the urine of patients with an intact spleen suffering from thalassaemia major appears to be proportional to the number of the circulating normoblasts and inversely proportional to the haemoglobin level. After splenectomy only minute amounts of BAIB are excreted. Transfusion constantly, but temporarily, reduces urinary excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid. Other anaemic but non-thalassaemic patients may excrete low levels.

  16. Dietary intake and urinary excretion of lignans in Finnish men.

    PubMed

    Nurmi, Tarja; Mursu, Jaakko; Peñalvo, José L; Poulsen, Henrik E; Voutilainen, Sari

    2010-03-01

    Intake of lignans has been assessed in different study populations, but so far none of the studies has compared the daily intake of lignans and the urinary excretion of plant and enterolignans. We assessed the intake of lariciresinol, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol in 100 Finnish men consuming their habitual omnivorous diet, and measured the 24 h urinary excretion of plant and enterolignans to compare the intake and metabolism. Dietary determinants of lignan intake and their urinary excretion were also determined. The mean intake of lignans was 1224 (sd 539) mug/d, of which lariciresinol and pinoresinol covered 78 %. Almost half (47 %) of the intake of lignans was explained by the intake of rye products, berries, coffee, tea and roots. The urinary excretion of plant lignans corresponded to 17 % and enterolignans to 92 % of the intake of lignans. The urinary excretion of plant lignans was explained 14 % by the intake of rye products and intake of coffee, and consequently 3-7 % by the intake of water-insoluble fibre. The urinary excretion of enterolactone was explained 11 % by the intake of vegetables and rye products, 14 % by the intake of water-soluble fibre and only 4 % by the intake of lariciresinol. Although the assessed intake of lignans corresponded well with the urinary excretion of lignans, the enterolactone production in the human body depended more on the dietary sources of lignans than the absolute intake of lignans.

  17. Relation of Urinary Calcium and Magnesium Excretion to Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Kesteloot†, Hugo; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Brown, Ian J.; Chan, Queenie; Wijeyesekera, Anisha; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Zhao, Liancheng; Dyer, Alan R.; Unwin, Robert J.; Stamler, Jeremiah; Elliott, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Data indicate an inverse association between dietary calcium and magnesium intakes and blood pressure (BP); however, much less is known about associations between urinary calcium and magnesium excretion and BP in general populations. The authors assessed the relation of BP to 24-hour excretion of calcium and magnesium in 2 cross-sectional studies. The International Study of Macro- and Micro-Nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) comprised 4,679 persons aged 40–59 years from 17 population samples in China, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and the International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure (INTERSALT) comprised 10,067 persons aged 20–59 years from 52 samples around the world. Timed 24-hour urine collections, BP measurements, and nutrient data from four 24-hour dietary recalls (INTERMAP) were collected. In multiple linear regression analyses, urinary calcium excretion was directly associated with BP. After adjustment for multiple confounders (including weight, height, alcohol intake, calcium intake, urinary sodium level, and urinary potassium intake), systolic BP was 1.9 mm Hg higher per each 4.1 mmol per 24 hours (2 standard deviations) of higher urinary calcium excretion (associations were smaller for diastolic BP) in INTERMAP. Qualitatively similar associations were observed in INTERSALT analyses. Associations between magnesium excretion and BP were small and nonsignificant for most of the models examined. The present data suggest that altered calcium homoeostasis, as exhibited by increased calcium excretion, is associated with higher BP levels. PMID:21624957

  18. Increased urinary excretion of thioether in new rubber workers

    PubMed Central

    Kilpikari, I; Savolainen, H

    1982-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urinary excretion of thioether before starting work and in the early work period in a rubber factory was measured in urine samples collected after one, two to four, and five or more months of starting work. The study population consisted of 84 new workers. The urinary excretion of thioether decreased after one month's exposure and increased thereafter up to five months. Measurement of urinary thioethers in groups of new workers is therefore informative of exposure to alkylating agents only after several months from starting work. This effect may be mediated by the induction of the pertinent metabolic pathway. PMID:7138800

  19. Reduction in urinary prostaglandin excretion in the premenstrual syndrome.

    PubMed

    Piccoli, A; Modena, F; Calò, L; Cantaro, S; Avogadro, A; Nardo, G; Cerutti, R

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of the present work was to study some factors involved in renal handling of salt and water in the premenstrual syndrome (PMS), in which salt and water retention is frequently observed. In 18 women with PMS and in 18 healthy women we studied the levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate, aldosterone, prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin F2 alpha and kallikrein in urinary samples collected during the luteal phase. There was no difference between the two groups regarding sodium, aldosterone and kallikrein urinary excretion. In the PMS group there was a significant reduction in urinary excretion of cyclic adenosine monophosphate, prostaglandin E2 and prostaglandin F2 alpha with respect to the control group. At multivariate analysis sodium urinary excretion proved not to be the same as the model validated in healthy women. There may be different renal handling of water and electrolytes during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle in women with PMS.

  20. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and CKD Progression.

    PubMed

    He, Jiang; Mills, Katherine T; Appel, Lawrence J; Yang, Wei; Chen, Jing; Lee, Belinda T; Rosas, Sylvia E; Porter, Anna; Makos, Gail; Weir, Matthew R; Hamm, L Lee; Kusek, John W

    2016-04-01

    CKD is a major risk factor for ESRD, cardiovascular disease, and premature death. Whether dietary sodium and potassium intake affect CKD progression remains unclear. We prospectively studied the association of urinary sodium and potassium excretion with CKD progression and all-cause mortality among 3939 patients with CKD in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study. Urinary sodium and potassium excretion were measured using three 24-hour urine specimens, and CKD progression was defined as incident ESRD or halving of eGFR. During follow-up, 939 CKD progression events and 540 deaths occurred. Compared with the lowest quartile of urinary sodium excretion (<116.8 mmol/24 h), hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the highest quartile of urinary sodium excretion (≥194.6 mmol/24 h) were 1.54 (1.23 to 1.92) for CKD progression, 1.45 (1.08 to 1.95) for all-cause mortality, and 1.43 (1.18 to 1.73) for the composite outcome of CKD progression and all-cause mortality after adjusting for multiple covariates, including baseline eGFR. Additionally, compared with the lowest quartile of urinary potassium excretion (<39.4 mmol/24 h), hazard ratios for the highest quartile of urinary potassium excretion (≥67.1 mmol/24 h) were 1.59 (1.25 to 2.03) for CKD progression, 0.98 (0.71 to 1.35) for all-cause mortality, and 1.42 (1.15 to 1.74) for the composite outcome. These data indicate that high urinary sodium and potassium excretion are associated with increased risk of CKD progression. Clinical trials are warranted to test the effect of sodium and potassium reduction on CKD progression.

  1. Quantitative studies of human urinary excretion of uropontin.

    PubMed

    Min, W; Shiraga, H; Chalko, C; Goldfarb, S; Krishna, G G; Hoyer, J R

    1998-01-01

    Uropontin is the urinary form of osteopontin, an aspartic acid-rich phosphorylated glycoprotein. Uropontin has been previously shown to be a potent inhibitor of the nucleation, growth and aggregation of calcium oxalate crystals and the binding of these crystals to renal epithelial cells. Quantitative data defining the excretion of this protein are necessary to determine its role in urinary stone formation. In the present studies, we determined uropontin excretion rates of normal humans. Urine samples were obtained under conditions of known dietary intake from young adult human volunteers with no history, radiographic or laboratory evidence of renal disease. Urinary concentrations of uropontin were measured by a sensitive ELISA employing an affinity purified polyclonal antiserum to uropontin. Thirteen normal subjects ingested a constant diet providing 1 gram of calcium, 1 gram of phosphorus, 150 mEq of sodium and 1 gram of protein per kilogram of body wt per day during an eight day study period. The relationship of urinary volume to uropontin excretion was assessed by varying fluid intake on the last four days of the study to change the mean urine volume/24 hr by > 500 ml. Urine collected in six hour aliquots for eight days was analyzed for uropontin by ELISA, and for calcium, and creatinine. Daily uropontin excretion of 13 individual subjects was 3805 +/- 1805 micrograms/24 hr (mean +/- 1 SD). The mean urinary levels (1.9 micrograms/ml) detected in the present study are sufficient for inhibition of crystallization; our previous studies have demonstrated that the nucleation, growth and aggregation of calcium oxalate crystals and their binding to renal cells in vitro are inhibited by this concentration of purified uropontin. In contrast to the regular pattern of diurnal variation of calcium excretion seen in most subjects, uropontin excretion showed no regularity of diurnal variation and was not directly related to either calcium or creatinine excretion or changes in

  2. [Fluoride urinary excretion in Mexico City's preschool children].

    PubMed

    Juárez-López, María Lilia Adriana; Hernández-Guerrero, Juan Carlos; Jiménez-Farfán, Dolores; Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Murrieta-Pruneda, Francisco; López-Jiménez, Georgina

    2008-01-01

    The assessment of urinary fluoride excretion during dental developing stage has been reported for different countries with community fluoride programs. Also, one of the factors that could influence on retention and excretion of fluoride is the deficient nutrition so the aim of this study was to determine fluoride urinary excretion by a group of preschool children with and without malnutrition. Urinary samples from 24 hours were collected from 60 preschool children selected by convenience from Iztapalapa area of Mexico City, 30 with malnutrition and 30 with standard nutritrional status by weight for age. The samples were analyzed by fluoride especific electrode. Orion 720A. The average concentration of fluoride in urine from preschool children with and without malnutrition were 0.89 +/- 0.4 mg/L and 0.80 +/- 0.3 mg/L, respectively. The mean of 24 hours total fluoride excreted were 367 +/- 150 microg/24 hrs. in malnutrition children and 355 +/- 169 microg/24 hrs. for those with standard nutritional status. There were no differences statistically significant between groups. The urinary fluoride excretion for children with and without malnutrition were in the optimal range of fluoridation for the prevention of caries decay. Malnutrition was no associated with changes on fluoride orine concentration and excretion rates.

  3. Dietary influence on the urinary excretion of polyamines.

    PubMed

    Marko, P; Löser, C H; Flückiger, H; Davies, P M

    1998-07-01

    The amino groups of amino acids, the constituents of proteins, are catabolized in the urea cycle. One intermediate of this cycle, ornithine, is a precursor molecule of polyamines. The influence of dietary protein intake on the production and excretion of polyamines in the urine is yet unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the excretion of polyamines in the urine following three days of creatine-free, creatine-free and low-polyamine diet in four persons. On the fourth day they were loaded with creatine-free, creatinine-free and low-polyamine high-protein diet (80 g/70 kg body weight). High-protein diet resulted in no increase of urinary polyamine excretion. The low-polyamine diet caused a non-significant decrease in urinary polyamine excretion (by 15%).

  4. Contribution of dietary oxalate to urinary oxalate excretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R. P.; Goodman, H. O.; Assimos, D. G.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The amount of oxalate excreted in urine has a significant impact on calcium oxalate supersaturation and stone formation. Dietary oxalate is believed to make only a minor (10 to 20%) contribution to the amount of oxalate excreted in urine, but the validity of the experimental observations that support this conclusion can be questioned. An understanding of the actual contribution of dietary oxalate to urinary oxalate excretion is important, as it is potentially modifiable. METHODS: We varied the amount of dietary oxalate consumed by a group of adult individuals using formula diets and controlled, solid-food diets with a known oxalate content, determined by a recently developed analytical procedure. Controlled solid-food diets were consumed containing 10, 50, and 250 mg of oxalate/2500 kcal, as well as formula diets containing 0 and 180 mg oxalate/2500 kcal. Changes in the content of oxalate and other ions were assessed in 24-hour urine collections. RESULTS: Urinary oxalate excretion increased as dietary oxalate intake increased. With oxalate-containing diets, the mean contribution of dietary oxalate to urinary oxalate excretion ranged from 24.4 +/- 15.5% on the 10 mg/2500 kcal/day diet to 41.5 +/- 9.1% on the 250 mg/2500 kcal/day diet, much higher than previously estimated. When the calcium content of a diet containing 250 mg of oxalate was reduced from 1002 mg to 391 mg, urinary oxalate excretion increased by a mean of 28.2 +/- 4.8%, and the mean dietary contribution increased to 52.6 +/- 8.6%. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that dietary oxalate makes a much greater contribution to urinary oxalate excretion than previously recognized, that dietary calcium influences the bioavailability of ingested oxalate, and that the absorption of dietary oxalate may be an important factor in calcium oxalate stone formation.

  5. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion: Insights from Genetic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine; Dimke, Henrik; Eladari, Dominique

    2016-12-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone and inhibition of calcium transport processes within the renal tubule. The mechanisms whereby acid alters the integrity and stability of bone have been examined extensively in the published literature. Here, after briefly reviewing this literature, we consider the effects of acid on calcium transport in the renal tubule and then discuss why not all gene defects that cause renal tubular acidosis are associated with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  6. Effect of high-calcium diet on urinary oxalate excretion in urinary stone formers.

    PubMed

    Nakada, T; Sasagawa, I; Furuta, H; Katayama, T; Shimazaki, J

    1988-01-01

    The effect of mild high-calcium diet or regular-calcium diet on urinary calcium excretion, urinary oxalate excretion, urinary calcium/creatinine ratio, urinary oxalate/creatinine ratio, and the probability of being a stone former (PSF) were studied in 85 patients with idiopathic urolithiasis. Intake of high-calcium diet for 5-6 days reduced (p less than 0.01-p less than 0.001) urinary oxalate excretion, urinary oxalate/creatine ratio and PSF in patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria. Under the regular-calcium diet, administration of 60 mg/day of pyridoxal phosphate for 3 months lowered (p less than 0.05-p less than 0.01) urinary oxalate excretion, urinary oxalate/creatinine ratio and PSF in patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria alone. From these findings, intake of mild high-calcium diet appears to be beneficial to decrease the urinary oxalate excretion and PSF in patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria. Pyridoxal phosphate has all the features of suppressing such risk factors for stone formation in patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria.

  7. Monitoring salt fluoridation programs through urinary excretion studies.

    PubMed

    Marthaler, Thomas M; Schulte, Andreas G

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews problems associated with urinary collection for the estimation of fluoride exposure and recent findings in this context. After intake of a salted meal at noon, children aged 9 to 14 excreted on average 45 microgF/h. Morning and nocturnal excretions were only 16 microgF/h with the exception of those children who ate bread made with fluoridated salt (25 microF/h). Fluoride excretions in children consuming drinking water with 0.6 to 0.8 ppmF were similar, but the variations within the 24 h period were smaller. When it is not feasible to obtain reliable 24 h urinary collections, fairly precise extrapolations of 24 h excretions can be obtained from three separate collections lasting about 16 hours, which should cover morning, early afternoon and the whole night. Three- to six-year-old children benefitting from optimal fluoride supply through water or milk excreted approximately 0.35 to 0.40 mgF/24 h; this range seems to correspond to an optimal usage of fluorides. Studies on urinary fluoride excretion, like those on total fluoride intake, cannot be carried out on random samples. Due to the necessity of close cooperation of parents and children, such studies were done with "convenience" samples. In westernized countries with now low caries prevalence, intermittent high urinary excretions occur frequently. Possible sources are fluoride intake from concentrated oral care products (fluoride gels, fluoride chewing gums) or from dentifrices (containing 1000 to 1500 ppmF), mineral waters, industrial tea preparation or fluoride tablets (or other supplements). These problems do not affect the amount of fluoride in fingernail clippings which appear to be suitable for the routine monitoring of fluoride exposure.

  8. Urinary Albumin Excretion and Vascular Function in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with significant cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Increased urinary albumin excretion is a marker of CV risk. There are only few data on urinary albumin excretion in RA patients. Aim of the present study was to investigate urinary albumin excretion in RA patients and analyze, whether there is an association between urinary albumin excretion and vascular function as measured by the augmentation index (AIx). In a total of 341 participants (215 with RA, 126 without RA) urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) was determined and the AIx was measured. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov-test was used to cluster patient groups whose distributions of ACR can be considered to be equal. A crude analysis showed a median ACR of 6.6 mg/g in the RA group and 5.7 mg/g in patients without RA (P > 0.05). In order to account for diabetes (DM) we formed 4 distinct patient groups. Group 1: RA-/DM- (n = 74); group 2: RA+/DM- (n = 195); group 3: RA-/DM+ (n = 52); group 4: RA+/DM+ (n = 20). Clustering of these groups revealed two distinct patient groups: those without RA and DM, and those with either RA or DM or both. The latter group showed statistically significant higher ACR (median 8.1 mg/g) as the former (median 4.5 mg/g). We found no significant correlation between AIx and ACR. Urinary albumin excretion in patients with RA or DM or both is higher than in subjects without RA and DM. This can be seen as a sign of vascular alteration and increased CV risk in these patients. PMID:26955238

  9. INFLUENCE OF DIETARY ARSENIC ON URINARY ARSENIC METABOLITE EXCRETION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Influence of Dietary Arsenic on Urinary Arsenic Metabolite Excretion

    Cara L. Carty, M.S., Edward E. Hudgens, B.Sc., Rebecca L. Calderon, Ph.D., M.S.P.H., Richard Kwok, M.S.P.H., Epidemiology and Biomarkers Branch/HSD, NHEERL/US EPA; David J. Thomas, Ph.D., Pharmacokinetics...

  10. INFLUENCE OF DIETARY ARSENIC ON URINARY ARSENIC METABOLITE EXCRETION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Influence of Dietary Arsenic on Urinary Arsenic Metabolite Excretion

    Cara L. Carty, M.S., Edward E. Hudgens, B.Sc., Rebecca L. Calderon, Ph.D., M.S.P.H., Richard Kwok, M.S.P.H., Epidemiology and Biomarkers Branch/HSD, NHEERL/US EPA; David J. Thomas, Ph.D., Pharmacokinetics...

  11. Urinary potassium excretion and risk of cardiovascular events.

    PubMed

    Kieneker, Lyanne M; Gansevoort, Ron T; de Boer, Rudolf A; Brouwers, Frank P; Feskens, Edith Jm; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan Jl; Joosten, Michel M

    2016-05-01

    Observational studies on dietary potassium and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have reported weak-to-modest inverse associations. Long-term prospective studies with multiple 24-h urinary samples for accurate estimation of habitual potassium intake, however, are scarce. We examined the association between urinary potassium excretion and risk of blood pressure-related cardiovascular outcomes. We studied 7795 subjects free of cardiovascular events at baseline in the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-stage Disease study, a prospective, observational cohort with oversampling of subjects with albuminuria at baseline. Main cardiovascular outcomes were CVD [including ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and vascular interventions], IHD, stroke, and new-onset heart failure (HF). Potassium excretion was measured in two 24-h urine specimens at the start of the study (1997-1998) and midway through follow-up (2001-2003). Baseline median urinary potassium excretion was 70 mmol/24 h (IQR: 56-84 mmol/24 h). During a median follow-up of 10.5 y (IQR: 9.9-10.8 y), a total of 641 CVD, 465 IHD, 172 stroke, and 265 HF events occurred. After adjustment for age and sex, inverse associations were observed between potassium excretion and risk [HR per each 26-mmol/24-h (1-g/d) increase; 95% CI] of CVD (0.87; 0.78, 0.97) and IHD (0.86; 0.75, 0.97), as well as nonsignificant inverse associations for risk of stroke (0.85; 0.68, 1.06) and HF (0.94; 0.80, 1.10). After further adjustment for body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, education, and urinary sodium and magnesium excretion, urinary potassium excretion was not statistically significantly associated with risk (multivariable-adjusted HR per 1-g/d increment; 95% CI) of CVD (0.96; 0.85, 1.09), IHD (0.90; 0.81, 1.04), stroke (1.09; 0.86, 1.39), or HF (0.99; 0.83, 1.18). No associations were observed between the sodium-to-potassium excretion ratio and risk of CVD, IHD, stroke, or HF. In this cohort with oversampling of subjects

  12. Lowering urinary oxalate excretion to decrease calcium oxalate stone disease

    PubMed Central

    Knight, John; Assimos, Dean G.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary modifications should be considered as a first line approach in the treatment of idiopathic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. The amounts of oxalate and calcium consumed in the diet are significant factors in the development of the disease due to their impact on urinary oxalate excretion. There are a number of strategies that can be employed to reduce oxalate excretion. The consumption of oxalate-rich foods should be avoided and calcium intake adjusted to 1000–1200 mg/day. To encourage compliance it should be emphasized to patients that they be vigilant with this diet as a deviation in any meal or snack could potentially result in significant stone growth. The evidence underlying these two modifications is outlined and other strategies to reduce urinary oxalate excretion are reviewed. PMID:26614109

  13. Sodium loading changes urinary protein excretion: a proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Thongboonkerd, Visith; Klein, Jon B; Pierce, William M; Jevans, Anthony W; Arthur, John M

    2003-06-01

    Plasma sodium concentration is maintained even when sodium intake is altered. Sodium homeostasis may involve changes in renal tubular protein expression that are reflected in the urine. We used proteomic analysis to investigate changes in urinary protein excretion in response to acute sodium loading. Rats were given deionized water followed by hypertonic (2.7%) saline for 28 h each. Urinary protein expression was determined during the final 4 h of each treatment. Acute sodium loading increased urinary sodium excretion (4.53 +/- 1.74 vs. 1.70 +/- 0.27 mmol/day, P = 0.029). Urinary proteins were separated by two-dimensional PAGE and visualized by Sypro ruby staining. Differentially expressed proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry followed by peptide mass fingerprinting. The abundance of a total of 45 protein components was changed after acute sodium loading. Neutral endopeptidase, solute carrier family 3, meprin 1alpha, diphor-1, chaperone heat shock protein 72, vacuolar H(+)-ATPase, ezrin, ezrin/radixin/moesin-binding protein, glutamine synthetase, guanine nucleotide-binding protein, Rho GDI-1, and chloride intracellular channel protein 1 were decreased, whereas albumin and alpha-2u globulin were increased. Some of these proteins have previously been shown to be associated with tubular transport. These data indicate that alterations in the excretion of several urinary proteins occur during acute sodium loading.

  14. Low urinary albumin excretion in astronauts during space missions.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina; Norsk, Peter; Elmann-Larsen, Benny; Bellini, Luigi; Stellato, Davide; Drummer, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Physiological changes occur in man during space missions also at the renal level. Proteinuria was hypothesized for space missions but research data are missing. Urinary albumin, as an index of proteinuria, and other variables were analyzed in 4 astronauts during space missions onboard the MIR station and on the ground (control). Mission duration before first urine collection in the four astronauts was 4, 26, 26, and 106 days, respectively. On the ground, data were collected 2 months before mission in two astronauts, 6 months after in the other astronauts. A total of twenty-two 24-hour urine collections were obtained in space (n per astronaut = 1-14) and on the ground (n per astronaut = 2-12). Urinary albumin was measured by radioimmunoassay. For each astronaut, mean of data in space and on the ground was defined as individual average. The individual averages of 24 h urinary albumin were lower in space than on the ground in all astronauts; the difference was significant (mean +/- SD, space and on the ground = 3.41 +/- 0.56 and 4.70 +/- 1.20 mg/24 h, p = 0.017). Dietary protein intake and 24-hour urinary urea were not significantly different between space and on the ground. Urinary albumin excretion is low during space mission compared to data on the ground before or after mission. Low urinary albumin excretion could be another effect of exposure to weightlessness (microgravity). Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  15. Iron deficiency anemia and increased urinary norepinephrine excretion.

    PubMed

    Voorhess, M L; Stuart, M J; Stockman, J A; Oski, F A

    1975-04-01

    Chronic iron deficiency in rats resulted in decreased MAO activity both in vitro and in vivo. Since MAO is an important enzyme in inactivation of catecholamines, urinary excretion of DA, NE, E, MN-NMN, and VMA was measured in 24-hour samples from 11 iron-deficient children before and after treatment with intramuscular iron. Pretreatment NE excretion was abnormally high and returned to normal (P=0.001) within one week of therapy. VMA excretion also was higher before than after treatment (P greater than 0.05), but most values were within the normal range for healthy children of comparable size. There was no significant difference between DA, E, and MN-NMN excretion before and after iron therapy. Anemic, non-iron-deficient children had normal urinary NE, E, and VMA excretion before and after transfusion. These findings suggest that the irritability, lack of attentiveness, and low performance scores of iron-deficient children may be related to alterations in catecholamine metabolic pathways secondary to dependence of MAO on adequate iron stores.

  16. Exposure and urinary excretion of aluminum during welding.

    PubMed

    Sjögren, B; Lidums, V; Håkansson, M; Hedström, L

    1985-02-01

    The exposure and urinary excretion of aluminum was studied among three previously unexposed volunteers and six welders exposed to welding fumes containing aluminum. The aluminum concentrations in air and urine were determined. The urinary aluminum concentrations rose rapidly in volunteers exposed only for 1 d and returned to the preexposure levels with an estimated half-time of about 8 h. The welders were monitored for one workweek. During the subsequent weekend a decrease in the urinary concentrations occurred in the three welders exposed for two years or less, but such a decrease was not observed among welders exposed for more than 15 years. The urinary concentrations of aluminum were dependent partly on the level of current exposure and partly on the duration of exposure. The data suggest that welders exposed to welding fumes containing aluminum may retain some of the inhaled metal fume for extended periods of time.

  17. Urinary excretion of dietary contaminants in horses.

    PubMed

    Respondek, F; Lallemand, A; Julliand, V; Bonnaire, Y

    2006-08-01

    Presence of drugs is completely prohibited in post racing urine samples by most of racing and competition authorities, even if environmental contamination might occur. To assess the daily dose of several contaminants absorbed through the diet that would result in detectable concentrations in urine. Caffeine, theobromine, theophylline, atropine, scopolamine, bufotenine, DMT or morphine were administered orally to 6 horses, in different dosages, for 3 days before their urine was sampled for regular anti-doping tests. Theobromine, theophylline, bufotenine and morphine daily intake >10 mg, 2 mg, 10 mg and 200 microg, respectively, by a performance horse, were found to result in detectable urinary concentrations. At the 2 tested doses, atropine (5 and 15 mg) and dimethyltryptamine (3 and 10 mg) were not detected in urine. For caffeine and scopolamine, even the lowest dosage tested (5 mg/horse/day and 2 mg/horse/day respectively) induced detectable concentrations of the molecule in urine. Horses fed dietary contaminants, even at level much below the effective dosage, may be positive to antidoping urine analysis. Further research is needed to gain more confident results on a daily safe intake for caffeine and scopolamine. Selection of feed materials appears to be of great importance to prevent non voluntary positive result to anti-doping tests.

  18. Urinary selenium excretion in patients with cervical uterine cancer.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, M; Gaudry, A; Revel, G; Martínez, T; Cabrera, L

    2001-02-01

    In this work, we report on a relationship between urinary selenium and the development of cervical uterine cancer. A simple chemical method was developed to concentrate trace amounts of selenium from relatively large urine samples by use of small activated carbon filters. When these filters are irradiated with thermal neutrons, selenium can be determined either by 77mSe (t1/2 = 17.5 s) or 75Se (t1/2 = 120 d). In this article, we report the results for 82 urine samples from women with cervical uterine cancer in several stages of development and from healthy controls. These results show a statistically significant increase of selenium excretion in cancer patients as compared to controls. Urinary selenium excretion is highest for patients in the intermediate stages of the disease.

  19. Fecal and urinary excretion of six iodothyronines in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    DiStefano, J.J. III; Sapin, V.

    1987-11-01

    Fecal and urinary excretion rates of six iodothyronines were assessed in the rat maintained under normal steady state physiological conditions, to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of control of normal thyroid hormone economy and metabolism. Groups of young adult male rats were injected with trace doses of T4, T3, rT3, 3,3'-diiodothyronine (T2), 3',5'-T2, or 3'-monoiodothyronine, each labeled with /sup 125/I, and feces and urine were collected separately for up to 10 days. Pooled fecal pellets were homogenized in saline, extracted in ethanol, evaporated under vacuum, and reconstituted in NaOH. Fecal extracts and urine were chromatographed on Sephadex G25 columns under conditions providing quantitative separations of components of interest. A new technique was also developed, based on a model of the in vitro extraction and measurement process, to correct chromatographic results for possible variable recoveries and possible artifactious degradation of radioactively labeled components. No iodothyronines or their conjugates were excreted in urine; all radioactivity was in the form of iodide. In feces, about 30% of the (/sup 125/I)T3 injected was excreted as T3; and 24% of the (/sup 125/I)T4 injected was excreted as T4, plus 4% as T3. Together, these results imply that about 24% of endogenous T4 production is excreted as T4 and 76% is irreversibly metabolized; and for T3, about 30% of endogenous T3 production is excreted as T3 and 70% is degraded. For the nonhormonal iodothyronines, about 6% of injected monoiodothyronine, 3% of injected 3',5'-T2, 2% of injected 3,3'-T2, and less than 1% of injected rT3 were excreted in feces as such, indicating that these substances are nearly completely deiodinated in vivo. Very little (1-7%) iodide was excreted as such in feces, which also were devoid of measurable conjugates.

  20. Validation of diet and urinary excretion derived estimates of sodium excretion against 24-h urine excretion in a worksite sample.

    PubMed

    Kelly, C; Geaney, F; Fitzgerald, A P; Browne, G M; Perry, I J

    2015-08-01

    To validate diet and urinary excretion derived estimates of sodium intake against those derived from 24-h urine collections in an Irish manufacturing workplace sample. We have compared daily sodium (Na) excretion from PABA validated 24-h urine collections with estimated daily sodium excretion derived from the following methods: a standard Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), a modified 24-h dietary recall method, arithmetic extrapolations from morning and evening spot urine samples, predicted sodium excretion from morning and evening spot urine samples using Tanaka's, Kawasaki's and the INTERSALT formula. All were assessed using mean differences (SD), Bland-Altman plots, correlation coefficients and ROC Area under the Curve (AUC) for a cut off of ≥100 mmol of Na/day. The Food Choice at Work study recruited 802 participants aged 18-64 years, 50 of whom formed the validation sample. The mean measured 24-h urinary sodium (gold standard) was 138 mmol/day (8.1 g salt). At the group level, mean differences were small for both dietary methods and for the arithmetic extrapolations from morning urine samples. The Tanaka, Kawasaki and INTERSALT methods provided biased estimates of 24-h urinary sodium. R(2) values for all methods ranged from 0.1 to 0.48 and AUC findings from 0.57 to 0.76. Neither dietary nor spot urine sample methods provide adequate validity in the estimation of 24-h urinary sodium at the individual level. However, group mean errors from dietary methods are small and random and compare favourably with those from spot urine samples in this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Urinary excretion and metabolism of procyanidins in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Rzeppa, Sebastian; Bittner, Katharina; Döll, Susanne; Dänicke, Sven; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Scope Aim of this study was to investigate urinary excretion and metabolism of procyanidins a group of secondary plant metabolites with many beneficial health effects described in literature. Methods and results To investigate the metabolism of procyanidins in the absence of flavan-3-ols, centrifugal partition chromatography was used for their reduction in a grape seed extract to a level of almost zero. After administration of the monomer reduced grape seed extract (mredGSE) containing procyanidins B1, B2, B3, B4, C1 to pigs flavan-3-ols, their methyl derivatives, dimeric and trimeric procyanidins were determined in urine by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Maximal concentrations of procyanidins 6 h after administration vary from 5 to 30 ng/mg creatinine. Total excretion of flavan-3-ols and their methyl derivatives indicates an increasing trend for pigs given mredGSE in comparison to pigs of the control group. Flavan-3-ols were conjugated and methylated to a great extent in comparison to dimeric and trimeric procyanidins. In the case of low molecular weight metabolites, an increasing trend was observed for hippuric acid, not for phenolic acids. Conclusions Ratios of total excretion of procyanidins to administrated amounts between 0.004% (C1) and 0.019% (B4) suggest a poor urinary excretion by pigs. A transfer of these results to humans is possible due to their similar gastrointestinal tract. PMID:22495989

  2. Urinary calcium excretion in postmenopausal African American women

    PubMed Central

    Aloia, John F.; Shieh, Albert; Mikhail, Mageda; Islam, Shahidul

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to develop a reference range for urine calcium excretion (both 24-hour and fasting) for African American women compared to White women. In addition, the variables that determine urine calcium excretion were identified. Material: Data were analyzed for baseline studies of healthy postmenopausal volunteers who participated in seven separate studies conducted at one site. Methods: Some studies included fasting urine Ca/Cr and others 24-hour urine calcium excretion. 24-hour urine calcium was considered with and without correction for urinary creatinine excretion. Calcium was measured initially by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and more recently by an automated method (ADVIA 2400 Chemistry System). Results: Participants were considered healthy based on history and physical and routine laboratory studies. Those screened who had a history of nephrolithiasis were excluded. A reference range for 24-hour urine calcium and fasting urine calcium/creatinine was developed. Reference intervals of 11 – 197 mg/24-hour urine calcium excretion and of 0.007 – 0.222 of fasting Ca/Cr were found for African American women compared to 21 – 221 mg/24 hours and 0.019 – 0.264 in White women, respectively. Urine creatinine excretion was higher in African Americans consistent with their higher muscle mass. Conclusion: Urine calcium excretion is lower in postmenopausal African American than White women. The reference range developed should be considered in the diagnosis of hypocalciuric states and may also be useful in the diagnosis of hypercalciuria. PMID:26226948

  3. Demographic, Dietary, and Urinary Factors and 24-h Urinary Calcium Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Curhan, Gary C.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: Higher urinary calcium is a risk factor for nephrolithiasis. This study delineated associations between demographic, dietary, and urinary factors and 24-h urinary calcium. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Cross-sectional studies were conducted of 2201 stone formers (SF) and 1167 nonstone formers (NSF) in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (men) and Nurses' Health Studies I and II (older and younger women). Results: Median urinary calcium was 182 mg/d in men, 182 mg/d in older women, and 192 mg/d in younger women. Compared with NSF, urinary calcium as a fraction of calcium intake was 33 to 38% higher in SF (P values ≤0.01). In regression analyses, participants were combined because associations with urinary calcium were similar in each cohort and in SF and NSF. After multivariate adjustment, participants in the highest quartile of calcium intake excreted 18 mg/d more urinary calcium than those in the lowest (P trend =0.01). Caffeine and family history of nephrolithiasis were positively associated, whereas urinary potassium, thiazides, gout, and age were inversely associated, with urinary calcium. After multivariate adjustment, participants in the highest quartiles of urinary magnesium, sodium, sulfate, citrate, phosphorus, and volume excreted 71 mg/d, 37 mg/d, 44 mg/d, 61 mg/d, 37 mg/d, and 24 mg/d more urinary calcium, respectively, than participants in the lowest (P values trend ≤0.01). Conclusions: Intestinal calcium absorption and/or negative calcium balance is greater in SF than NSF. Higher calcium intakes at levels typically observed in free-living individuals are associated with only small increases in urinary calcium. PMID:19820135

  4. Demographic, dietary, and urinary factors and 24-h urinary calcium excretion.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Eric N; Curhan, Gary C

    2009-12-01

    Higher urinary calcium is a risk factor for nephrolithiasis. This study delineated associations between demographic, dietary, and urinary factors and 24-h urinary calcium. Cross-sectional studies were conducted of 2201 stone formers (SF) and 1167 nonstone formers (NSF) in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (men) and Nurses' Health Studies I and II (older and younger women). Median urinary calcium was 182 mg/d in men, 182 mg/d in older women, and 192 mg/d in younger women. Compared with NSF, urinary calcium as a fraction of calcium intake was 33 to 38% higher in SF (P values < or =0.01). In regression analyses, participants were combined because associations with urinary calcium were similar in each cohort and in SF and NSF. After multivariate adjustment, participants in the highest quartile of calcium intake excreted 18 mg/d more urinary calcium than those in the lowest (P trend =0.01). Caffeine and family history of nephrolithiasis were positively associated, whereas urinary potassium, thiazides, gout, and age were inversely associated, with urinary calcium. After multivariate adjustment, participants in the highest quartiles of urinary magnesium, sodium, sulfate, citrate, phosphorus, and volume excreted 71 mg/d, 37 mg/d, 44 mg/d, 61 mg/d, 37 mg/d, and 24 mg/d more urinary calcium, respectively, than participants in the lowest (P values trend < or =0.01). Intestinal calcium absorption and/or negative calcium balance is greater in SF than NSF. Higher calcium intakes at levels typically observed in free-living individuals are associated with only small increases in urinary calcium.

  5. Urinary excretion of indolyl-3-acryloylglycine in some skin affections.

    PubMed

    Marklová, E; Malina, L; Hais, I M

    1975-11-03

    1. Urinary excretion of indolyl-3-acryloylglycine (chromogen of the so-called Kimmig's light band) in 15 normal subjects was highly significantly increased in June-September ("summer") against the November-April ("winter") collection in the same subjects. Possible explanation of this phenomenon is discussed. 2. In the "winter" period, the mean of 23 patients with chronic polymorphous light eruption was significantly higher than the mean of the 29 controls. In the "summer" period, though an increaes of the average against "winter" was also noted, this difference against the control group (29) disappeared. 3. In 24 patients with skin tuberculosis the mean excretion in "winter" was significantly higher than in controls. This increase cannot be simply attributed to heliotherapy. 4. In "winter", there was no significant difference between the normal subjects and 12 patients with lupus erythematosus and 10 patients with porphyria cutanea tarda. In both these groups there was marked "summer" increase in excretion, though in the case of porphyria cutanea tarda, the "summer" mean was significantly lower than that of the controls. 5. All results were expressed on creatinine basis. In part of the subjects it was possible to calculate the excretion per unit time. Identical conclusions could be drawn.

  6. Urinary nitrite excretion after prophylactic intravenous immunoglobulin in premature infants.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, H; Uzuner, N; Oren, H; Cabuk, N; Işlekel, H

    2000-02-01

    To investigate the correlation between the prophylactic administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) to preterm infants and urinary nitrite levels, which can be utilized as an index of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) formation, and to determine if NO formation plays a role in both therapeutic and adverse effects of IVIG. 28 healthy preterm infants were included in this prospective study. They had a mean gestational age of 29.4 +/- 2.2 weeks and weight of 1,387 +/- 371 g. Prophylactic IVIG infusion at a dose of 0.5 g/kg/day was administered when they were 3-10 days old. Urine samples of the neonates were obtained for analysis on days 1, 2 and 3 after IVIG administration as well as 1 day before. Urinary nitrite levels obtained in the subjects were normalized for urinary creatinine concentrations. The mean urinary nitrite levels were: 2.77 +/- 1.66 micromol/mmol creatinine before IVIG administration; 4.33 +/- 3.88 micromol/mmol creatinine on the 1st day of IVIG; 3.77 +/- 2.73 micromol/mmol creatinine on the 2nd day, and 3.64 +/- 3.28 micromol/mmol creatinine on the 3rd day. There was a significant increase in urinary nitrite levels between before and after IVIG administration. There was no statistical difference in urinary nitrate levels between days 1, 2 and 3 after IVIG administration. We demonstrated that urinary nitrite excretion is significantly elevated in preterm infants after prophylactic IVIG administration and this result suggests that endogenous NO formation may play an important role in both the therapeutic and adverse effects of IVIG. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. Intake and urinary excretion of sodium chloride under varying conditions of effort and environment heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zohar, E.; Adar, R.; Tennenbaum, J.; Kesten, M.

    1982-01-01

    Intake and urinary excretion of sodium were investigated in a group of young, healthy and acclimated men. The sodium excretions of workers and of machinists in the engine rooms of a ship were also investigated.

  8. Plasma pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion of hexamethylene bisacetamide metabolites.

    PubMed

    Egorin, M J; Zuhowski, E G; Cohen, A S; Geelhaar, L A; Callery, P S; Van Echo, D A

    1987-11-15

    In order to further understand the clinical toxicities of hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA) and to allow appropriate in vitro studies, we developed a suitable gas chromatographic assay and quantified plasma concentrations and urinary excretion of four metabolites which we had previously identified in urine of patients receiving 5-day HMBA infusions at 4.8-43.2 g/m2/day. 6-Acetamidohexanoic acid (AcHA) was the major plasma metabolite and reached steady state concentration (Css) by 24 h. AcHA Css increased from 0.12 +/- 0.02 (SD) mM at 4.8 g/m2/day to 0.72 mM at 43.2 g/m2/day. The Css AcHA:Css HMBA ratio decreased with increasing HMBA dosage. At dosages below 24 g/m2/day plasma Css of N-acetyl-1,6-diaminohexane (NADAH), the initial metabolite of HMBA, were below the limit of detection of our assay. With HMBA infusions of 24, 33.6, and 43.2 g/m2/day, Css of NADAH were 0.16 +/- 0.05, 0.14 +/- 0.06, and 0.19 +/- 0.04 mM, respectively. Css NADAH:Css HMBA ratios at 24, 33.6, and 43.2 g/m2/day were 0.18 +/- 0.06, 0.08 +/- 0.02, and 0.31 +/- 0.05, respectively. Plasma Css of 1,6-diaminohexane and 6-aminohexanoic acid were below the limit of detection of our assay. Each patient's urinary excretion of NADAH, AcHA, and 1,6-diaminohexane was consistent from day to day. The fraction of dose excreted in urine as AcHA was not affected by HMBA dosage and accounted for 12.7 +/- 3.9% of the daily dose. The percentage of daily HMBA dose accounted for by excretion of NADAH decreased with increasing HMBA dosage (10.8 +/- 6.0% at 4.8 g/m2/day to 4.2 +/- 1.2% at 33.6 g/m2/day). Urinary excretion of 1,6-diaminohexane always accounted for less than 3% of the daily dose. Our results indicate that: (a) plasma concentrations of AcHA alone cannot explain the degree of acidosis observed with toxic doses of HMBA; (b) NADAH is present in plasma at concentrations that we have found to cause differentiation in vitro; and (c) the probable rate-limiting step in HMBA metabolism is the initial

  9. Determination of bioequivalence of lomefloxacin tablets using urinary excretion data.

    PubMed

    Shah, Shailesh A; Rathod, Ishwarsinh S; Savale, Shrinivas S; Patel, Dharmesh B

    2002-11-07

    The present study describes development of a sensitive and simple HPTLC method for estimation of lomefloxacin (LMF) in human urine. The drug was extracted using chloroform after adjusting the pH of urine to 7.0. Chloroform extract was spotted on silica gel 60 F(254) TLC plate and was developed in a mixture of n-butanol-methanol-ethyl acetate-6 M ammonia (4:2:3:2, v/v/v/v) as the mobile phase and scanned at 290 nm. The peak for LMF resolved at R(F) of 0.40+/-0.02. The method was validated in terms of linearity (50-600 microgram/ml), precision, specificity and accuracy. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for LMF in urine were found to be 20 and 50 microgram/ml, respectively. The average recovery of LMF from urine was 91.93%. The proposed method was applied to generate urinary excretion data for LMF after administration of two market LMF tablet formulations (400 mg, Formulation R and Formulation T) to six healthy human volunteers in a two-treatment, open, crossover design. Various pharmacokinetic parameters like peak excretion rate ((dAU/dt)(max)), time for peak excretion rate (t(max)), AUC(0-48), AUC(0- infinity ), cumulative amount and % cumulative amount of LMF excreted, elimination half-life (t(1/2)), terminal elimination rate constant (k(el)) and overall elimination rate constant (K), were calculated for both the formulations. The average cumulative amounts of LMF excreted in urine after administration of Formulation R and Formulation T were found to be 321.60 mg (80.40% of dose) and 296.51 mg (74.13% of dose), respectively. The urinary excretion profiles of LMF upto 48 h for both the formulations were found to be similar. Statistical comparison (90% confidence intervals of ratio) of various pharmacokinetic parameters of Formulation T with that of Formulation R revealed that Formulation T is bioequivalent with Formulation R.

  10. The effect of garlic powder on human urinary cytokine excretion.

    PubMed

    Alma, Ergun; Eken, Alper; Ercil, Hakan; Yelsel, Kazim; Daglioglu, Nebile

    2014-03-04

    To evaluate the effects of orally administered dehydrated garlic powder on cytokine excretion in the urinary tract. A total of 60 healthy volunteers, randomized into 3 groups, were given a single oral dose of 1 g or 3 g of dehydrated garlic powder or placebo. Urine samples were obtained 6.0 and 24.0 h after garlic intake and assayed for interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin- 12 (IL-12), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), diallyl disulfide (DADS) and diallyl sulfide (DAS). Significant increases in IL-12 levels over baseline were noted in urine samples obtained after oral intake of 1 g and 3 g of garlic powder (P < .001). In the 1 g and 3 g garlic powder treatment groups, time-dependent variations in IL-12 levels over the study period were significantly different from the placebo group (P < .001). In both garlic treatment groups, urinary levels of IL-8 and TNF-α were not significantly different from baseline and placebo levels (P > .017). DADS and DAS were not detected in the urine samples at any time after garlic powder intake. Oral intake of doses of garlic traditionally used for daily supplementation increases urinary levels of IL-12, which is a potent stimulator of T helper cell 1 (Th-1) immune responses. This observation encourages further studies investigating the immunostimulatory role of garlic in the urinary tract.

  11. Urinary Iodine Excretion among Nepalese School Children in Terai Region.

    PubMed

    Khatiwada, Saroj; Gelal, Basanta; Shakya, Prem Raj; Lamsal, Madhab; Baral, Nirmal

    2016-01-01

    To assess the current iodine status among school children in Terai region of Nepal. A cross sectional study was conducted in 2012 among the school children aged 6-12y in three Terai districts (Siraha, Saptari and Jhapa) of eastern Nepal. A total of 1105 casual urine samples were collected from children of different schools of above districts. Urinary iodine excretion was estimated using ammonium persulphate digestion method. The median urinary iodine excretion in school children was 226.33μg/L (234.16μg/L, 229.25μg/L and 210.67μg/L in Siraha, Saptari and Jhapa districts respectively). About 12.7% (n = 140) children were found to be iodine deficient and 34.2% (n = 378) children had excessive iodine nutrition. There was good improvement in iodine nutrition among children in Terai region, with a large part of population showing excessive iodine nutrition.

  12. Urinary excretion profile of torasemide and its diuretic action in dogs.

    PubMed

    Sogame, Y; Okano, K; Hayashi, K; Uchida, T; Tsuda, Y

    1996-04-01

    The plasma concentration profile, urinary excretion rate and diuretic response were studied in anaesthetized dogs after an intravenous administration of torasemide or furosemide. The urinary excretion rate of furosemide decreased rapidly after administration. The plasma concentration, which is related to the urinary excretion profile, also decreased rapidly. The diuretic response, which reflected the excretion rate, occurred rapidly after administration but lasted for a short time. The urinary excretion rate of torasemide was much lower than that of furosemide and decreased slowly after administration. The plasma concentration also decreased slowly. The diuretic response to torasemide occurred more slowly but lasted longer than the response to furosemide. These results suggest that the diuretic response profile of either diuretic depends on their urinary excretion rate, and that the difference in the diuretic response between torasemide and furosemide may be explained by the different transfer rate of the drugs from the plasma to the nephron.

  13. Reduction of urinary uric acid excretion in patients with proteinuria.

    PubMed

    Zou, Huiqing; Xiang, Mingfeng; Ye, Xinming; Xiong, Yuanzhen; Xie, Baogang; Shao, Jianghua

    2015-12-01

    Serum uric acid (UA) concentration is positively associated with proteinuria. However, the relationship between proteinuria and urinary metabolites of purine metabolism remains unknown. This study developed a hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC)-based HPLC method with ultraviolet detection (UV) to quantify creatinine (Cr), UA, xanthine, and hypoxanthine in human urine simultaneously. The urinary concentrations of UA and Cr obtained by our method are consistent with those measured by an autoanalyzer. The HPLC-HILIC-UV method was validated as selective and robust with simple sample preparation for measuring UA, xanthine, hypoxanthine and Cr, which is suitable for large clinical studies. The UA/Cr ratios in random urine samples were 5.5 times lower in proteinuria patients (0.077±0.008) than in healthy individuals (0.424±0.037). Moreover, the UA/hypoxanthine ratio in proteinuria patients was approximately 10 times lower than that in healthy individuals. Our findings revealed a reduced urinary UA excretion, which is one of the factors leading to increased serum UA in proteinuria patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Elevated urinary excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid and exposure to inorganic lead.

    PubMed

    Farkas, W R; Fischbein, A; Solomon, S; Buschman, F; Borek, E; Sharma, O K

    1987-01-01

    beta-Aminoisobutyric acid (beta-AIB), a normal degradation product of thymine, a constituent of DNA and, to a lesser extent, of transfer RNA, is excreted in low levels in human urine. We found that a group of iron workers occupationally exposed to inorganic lead excreted high levels of urinary beta-AIB. Elevated urinary excretion of beta-AIB was also observed in marmosets, Callithrix jacchus, that received lead acetate in drinking water. Our results suggest that increased urinary excretion of beta-AIB could stem from damage to DNA on exposure to lead.

  15. Urinary albumin excretion in patients with renovascular hypertension.

    PubMed

    Růzicka, M; Stríbrná, J; Englis, M; Lánská, V; Skibová, J; Peregrin, J

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-four hour urinary excretion of albumin (UEalb), IgG and beta-2 microglobulin was investigated at a 3 hour-interval in a control group (C) of healthy subjects, in 30 patients with renovascular hypertension (RVH), and in 16 patients with essential hypertension (EH). Mean UEalb in RVH was significantly higher than in C. A significant direct correlation was demonstrated between diastolic blood pressure and UEalb (p < 0.01). Microalbuminuria (MA) > or = 30 micrograms.min-1 was found in about 18% of RVH patients; it was higher than 16.7 micrograms.min-1 in approx. 31%. These results did not substantially differ from those obtained in patients with EH. The cause for increased UEalb in hypertensive patients may be functional, haemodynamic changes, or structural ones. In either case, MA indicates renal injury, and these patients should be given increased attention when monitoring their blood pressure and when selecting antihypertensive drugs.

  16. Urinary excretion of parabens in pregnant Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Sayaka; Suzuki, Yayoi; Yoshinaga, Jun; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Mizumoto, Yoshifumi

    2013-01-01

    Urinary excretion of free and total (free plus conjugated) forms of methyl, ethyl, n-propyl and n-butyl parabens (MP, EP, PP and BP, respectively) and their metabolite p-hydroxybenzoic acid were measured for 111 pregnant Japanese women. Frequent detection of parabens and their metabolite indicated that exposure takes place daily for pregnant Japanese women. The estrogenic potency of PP was 20 times higher than those of the other 3 parabens for the present subjects when both abundance in the urine and the relative estrogenic activity of each compound was considered. Detection of free parabens suggested dermal exposure, probably from their inclusion in personal care products. No statistical association was found between the anogenital index (birth weight-adjusted AGD) of male offspring and the concentrations of any parabens in the urine of the mothers suggesting that the parabens were not apparently estrogenically active at the exposure level of the present subjects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Urinary potassium excretion and sodium sensitivity in blacks.

    PubMed

    Aviv, Abraham; Hollenberg, Norman K; Weder, Alan

    2004-04-01

    Based on racial differences in urinary potassium excretion and responses to diuretics, we present a model suggesting that a major cause of sodium sensitivity in blacks is an augmented activity of the Na-K-2Cl cotransport in the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop. This would result in an increased ability to conserve not only sodium but also water, and an upward and rightward shift in the operating point of tubuloglomerular feedback, which may cause an increase in the glomerular capillary hydraulic pressure and predilection to glomerular injury with and without hypertension. In this sense, the biological implication of sodium sensitivity in blacks and in humans in general has ramifications above and beyond salt-evoked increase in blood pressure.

  18. Urinary excretion of pentoxifylline and its metabolites by standardbred mares.

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, E C; Chen, F C; Young, L M

    1989-01-01

    The urinary excretion of a sustained-release formulation of pentoxifylline was studied in the horse after the oral administration of 4.0 grams of Trental tablets. Urine samples were collected for 24 hours after dosing and analyzed for pentoxifylline and its metabolites using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with an ultraviolet detector. Six metabolites of pentoxifylline were identified in horse urine in addition to less than 0.2% of unchanged drug. Concomitant use of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry allowed for the elucidation of the chemical structures of the metabolites. Metabolism of pentoxifylline yields one demethylated derivative, four hydroxylated metabolites and a conjugate of one of the hydroxymetabolites as urine products. The demethylated derivative, 3-methyl-1-(5-oxohexyl)-xanthine, was found to be the predominant metabolite in the urine. PMID:2713780

  19. Effect of chloroquine on the urinary excretion of ciprofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Ilo, Cajetan E; Ezejiofor, Ndidi A; Agbakoba, Nneka; Brown, Sinye A; Maduagwuna, Chinonye A; Agbasi, Patrick U; Orisakwe, Orish E; Orisakweph, Orish E

    2008-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin is an inexpensive antibacterial, whereas chloroquine is an inexpensive antimalarial. The coadministration of chloroquine and ciprofloxacin is easily encountered because both drugs are commonly prescribed to patients in the tropics. Five healthy male volunteers aged 19 to 31 years who were not taking any of the prescribed medications and who had no sensitivity to either ciprofloxacin or chloroquine each received 500 mg ciprofloxacin orally with 250 mL of water, and after a 2-week washout period, 500 mg ciprofloxacin plus 600 mg chloroquine was administered orally with 250 mL of water after providing informed consent. A urine sample (7 mL) was collected just before taking the drug at 8:00 AM representing 0 hour and continued afterward at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours the next day. The samples were stored at -20 degrees C until analyzed. The minimum inhibitory concentrations by diffusion through agar technique were used for the assay of urine ciprofloxacin. The rate of ciprofloxacin excretion and cumulative urine ciprofloxacin were significantly increased. The coadministration of chloroquine increased the cumulative urinary concentration and excretion rate of ciprofloxacin.

  20. High urinary excretion of adrenaline in insulin dependent diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Del Rio, G; Marrama, P; Della Casa, L

    1992-01-01

    In view of the hyperglycemic and ketogenic actions of catecholamines, studies on the adrenergic pattern in diabetic patients are relevant to the management of diabetes. We have studied urinary adrenaline and noradrenaline excretion in 4-hour collections in 16 type I diabetic male patients without signs of autonomic or peripheral neuropathy and 11 age-weight matched controls. In diabetic patients adrenaline levels were higher than control subjects (26.8 +/- 3.9 vs 10.7 +/- 3.0 nmol/4h; p < 0.003) but did not differ in respect of noradrenaline (62.6 +/- 6.8 vs 59.6 +/- 10.8 nmol/4h) and creatinine excretion. This finding demonstrates a hyperactivity of the adrenal medulla in diabetic patients without concomitant elevations of noradrenaline. This occurred in absence of hypoglycemia and seems to be a common feature of type I diabetics without complications. Since these levels of adrenaline are sufficient to stimulate both lypolysis and glycogenolysis a previous characterization of adrenomedullary activity may help to better define insulin demands in diabetic patients.

  1. Estimating 24-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion From Casual Urinary Sodium Concentrations in Western Populations

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ian J.; Dyer, Alan R.; Chan, Queenie; Cogswell, Mary E.; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Stamler, Jeremiah; Elliott, Paul

    2013-01-01

    High intakes of dietary sodium are associated with elevated blood pressure levels and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. National and international guidelines recommend reduced sodium intake in the general population, which necessitates population-wide surveillance. We assessed the utility of casual (spot) urine specimens in estimating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion as a marker of sodium intake in the International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure. There were 5,693 participants recruited in 1984–1987 at the ages of 20–59 years from 29 North American and European samples. Participants were randomly assigned to test or validation data sets. Equations derived from casual urinary sodium concentration and other variables in the test data were applied to the validation data set. Correlations between observed and estimated 24-hour sodium excretion were 0.50 for individual men and 0.51 for individual women; the values were 0.79 and 0.71, respectively, for population samples. Bias in mean values (observed minus estimated) was small; for men and women, the values were −1.6 mmol per 24 hours and 2.3 mmol per 24 hours, respectively, at the individual level and −1.8 mmol per 24 hours and 2.2 mmol per 24 hours, respectively, at the population level. Proportions of individuals with urinary 24-hour sodium excretion above the recommended levels were slightly overestimated by the models. Casual urine specimens may be a useful, low-burden, low-cost alternative to 24-hour urine collections for estimation of population sodium intakes; ongoing calibration with study-specific 24-hour urinary collections is recommended to increase validity. PMID:23673246

  2. Reliability of Urinary Excretion Rate Adjustment in Measurements of Hippuric Acid in Urine

    PubMed Central

    Nicolli, Annamaria; Chiara, Federica; Gambalunga, Alberto; Carrieri, Mariella; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista; Trevisan, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The urinary excretion rate is calculated based on short-term, defined time sample collections with a known sample mass, and this measurement can be used to remove the variability in urine concentrations due to urine dilution. Adjustment to the urinary excretion rate of hippuric acid was evaluated in 31 healthy volunteers (14 males and 17 females). Urine was collected as short-term or spot samples and tested for specific gravity, creatinine and hippuric acid. Hippuric acid values were unadjusted or adjusted to measurements of specific gravity, creatinine or urinary excretion rate. Hippuric acid levels were partially independent of urinary volume and urinary flow rate, in contrast to specific gravity and creatinine, which were both highly dependent on the hippuric acid level. Accordingly, hippuric acid was independent on urinary specific gravity and creatinine excretion. Unadjusted and adjusted values for specific gravity or creatinine were generally closely correlated, especially in spot samples. Values adjusted to the urinary excretion rate appeared well correlated to those unadjusted and adjusted to specific gravity or creatinine values. Thus, adjustment of crude hippuric acid values to the urinary excretion rate is a valid procedure but is difficult to apply in the field of occupational medicine and does not improve the information derived from values determined in spot urine samples, either unadjusted or adjusted to specific gravity and creatinine. PMID:25019265

  3. The Reduction in Urinary Glutamate Excretion Is Responsible for Lowering Urinary pH in Pink Urine Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Susumu; Takiguchi, Junko; Shimizu, Manami; Nako, Kazuhiro; Okamura, Masashi; Kinouchi, Yoshitaka; Ito, Sadayoshi

    2016-06-01

    We frequently encounter brownish-red, cloudy urine in some obese subjects, which occurs due to pink urine syndrome (PUS). PUS is a phenomenon in which uric acid precipitates into the urine due to reduced urinary pH (UpH). The mechanism underlying urinary acidification has not been elucidated so far. UpH level is adjusted by urinary excretion of ammonia synthesized from glutamate or glutamine, suggesting that renal synthesis of ammonia from glutamate or glutamine is decreased in PUS. However, this hypothesis has not been examined yet. We therefore examined the changes in the urinary excretion of these amino acids in PUS. One-hundred-fifty male students who had undergone a physical examination were enrolled. To determine the presence [PUS (+), n = 72] or absence [PUS (-), n = 78] of PUS, urinary amino acid excretion and UpH were evaluated. Independent risk factors of lower UpH were determined using multiple regression analyses. The PUS (+) subjects, who had lower UpH values than PUS (-) subjects, showed lower urinary excretion of glutamate and some other glucogenic amino acids. Thus, UpH correlated positively with the urinary excretion of glutamate in the PUS (+) subjects. A reduction in urinary glutamate but not in glutamine excretion proved to be an independent risk factor for reduced UpH. In conclusion, PUS appears to occur when a reduction in the synthesis of ammonia from glutamate causes a decrease in UpH. Our results showed that urinary glutamate excretion was reduced in PUS because renal glutamate was consumed by a reaction different from ammonia production.

  4. High sodium intake increases the urinary excretion of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine but fails to alter the urinary excretion of dopamine and amine metabolites in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Vieira-Coelho, M A; Pestana, M; Soares-da-Silva, P

    1996-12-01

    1. The present study has examined the daily urinary excretion of L-DOPA, dopamine and its metabolites (DOPAC, 3-MT and HVA) during normal salt (NS) and high salt(HS) diets. 2. Daily urinary excretion of L-DOPA, DA, DOPAC, 3-MT and HVA during the 4-day period of NS diet averaged, respectively, 7.6 +/- 0.4, 71 +/- 5, 217 +/- 22, 570 +/- 90 and 1217 +/- 110 nmol/kg/day. The slight increase in the urinary excretion of DA, DOPAC and 3-MT (16% to 42% increase), when rats were fed a HS diet, did not achieve statistical significance. 3. In contrast, the urinary levels of L-DOPA during the HS diet period (11 +/- 1 nmol/kg/day) were found to be significantly higher than during the NS diet period; the maximal increase in the urinary excretion of L-DOPA (93% increase) was observed in the first day and then a progressive decline was observed towards the end of the HS intake period. 4. During the first 5 days of the HS intake period, the urine output of noradrenaline (NA) was found to increase (27% to 83%) and then to progressively decline to baseline values (13.5 +/- 0.7 nmol/ kg/day). Urinary excretion of adrenaline (AD) during the HS intake period was found to increase (72% to 146%); the mean daily urinary excretion of AD during the NS diet period averaged 2.5 +/- 0.4 nmol/ kg/day. NS and DA contents in the kidney of rats on a NS diet were not significantly different from that of rats in a HS diet. 6. It is concluded that long-term HS intake in Wistar rats fail to change the urinary excretion of DA and of its metabolites (DOPAC, 3-MT and HVA). Furthermore, the discrepant profile in the urinary excretion of L-DOPA and DA during HS intake might be related to a reduction in the tubular uptake of the amino acid, rather than reflecting a decrease in its decarboxylation.

  5. Nitrogen dioxide exposure and urinary excretion of hydroxyproline and desmosine.

    PubMed

    Adgate, J L; Reid, H F; Morris, R; Helms, R W; Berg, R A; Hu, P C; Cheng, P W; Wang, O L; Muelenaer, P A; Collier, A M

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between average and peak personal exposure to nitrogen dioxide and urinary excretion of hydroxyproline and desmosine was investigated in a population of preschool children and their mothers. Weekly average personal nitrogen dioxide exposures for subjects who resided in homes with one or more potential nitrogen dioxide source (e.g., a kerosene space heater, gas stove, or tobacco smoke) ranged between 16.3 and 50.6 ppb (30.6 and 95.1 micrograms/m3) for children and between 16.9 and 44.1 ppb (12.8 and 82.9 micrograms/m3) for mothers. In these individuals, the hydroxyproline-to-creatinine and desmosine-to-creatinine ratios were unrelated to personal nitrogen dioxide exposure--even though continuous monitoring documented home nitrogen dioxide concentration peaks of 100-475 ppb lasting up to 100 h in duration. Significantly higher hydroxyproline-to-creatinine and desmosine-to-creatinine ratios were observed in children, compared with mothers (p < .001 and .003, respectively).

  6. Nitrogen dioxide exposure and urinary excretion of hydroxyproline and desmosine

    SciTech Connect

    Adgate, J.L.; Reid, H.F.; Morris, R.; Helms, R.W.; Berg, R.A.; Hu, P.C.; Cheng, P.W.; Wang, O.L.; Muelenaer, P.A.; Collier, A.M. )

    1992-09-01

    The relationship between average and peak personal exposure to nitrogen dioxide and urinary excretion of hydroxyproline and desmosine was investigated in a population of preschool children and their mothers. Weekly average personal nitrogen dioxide exposures for subjects who resided in homes with one or more potential nitrogen dioxide source (e.g., a kerosene space heater, gas stove, or tobacco smoke) ranged between 16.3 and 50.6 ppb (30.6 and 95.1 micrograms/m3) for children and between 16.9 and 44.1 ppb (12.8 and 82.9 micrograms/m3) for mothers. In these individuals, the hydroxyproline-to-creatinine and desmosine-to-creatinine ratios were unrelated to personal nitrogen dioxide exposure--even though continuous monitoring documented home nitrogen dioxide concentration peaks of 100-475 ppb lasting up to 100 h in duration. Significantly higher hydroxyproline-to-creatinine and desmosine-to-creatinine ratios were observed in children, compared with mothers (p < .001 and .003, respectively).

  7. Persistence of urinary excretion products of benzo(a)pyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Uziel, M.; Haglund, R.; White, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Persistence of DNA-adducts has been observed in a variety of experimental circumstances and has been suggested as one potential mechanism for explaining the long-term delay before expression of proliferative disease. In this concept, a stable DNA-adduct, which is a remnant of a prior exposure in a nondividing cell, would not express the genotoxic effect until the cells were stimulated to divide, and thus explain the long-term delay in expression of cancer. An alternative view of the observation of persistent DNA-adducts, described in this communication, is the continuing replenishment of DNA adducts by formation and turnover of these adducts from exposure to a constant supply of the ultimate carcinogenic species derived from a prior exposure. It is of interest to note that virtually all experiments where ''persistent'' adducts have been observed have been high dose exposures. During the course of experiments designed to develop improved methods for detection of DNA adducts and related derivatives derived from polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), we observed that there was a continuous excretion of urinary derivatives of the injected benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) beyond the initial burst of detoxification. This report describes the time dependent distribution of those derivatives in blood, urine, feces, and at the site of injection. 11 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Measurement of urinary mercury excretion by atomic absorption in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Andrew; Marks, Vincent

    1973-01-01

    Taylor, A., and Marks, V. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 293-296. Measurement of urinary excretion by atomic absorption in health and disease. Excretion of mercury was measured by a cold-vapour atomic absorption technique on samples of urine from five groups of people having varying exposure to mercury. Serial investigations of up to 14 days were carried out on eight subjects to determine the temporal relationship between exposure and excretion. Subjects with no exposure excreted 0-10 μg mercury per gramme creatinine. Similar values were found in laboratory staff and men assembling hollow cathode lamps. Excretion of mercury by dental workers was significantly increased. No correlation between exposure and excretion of mercury was seen in the subjects investigated. The significance of measuring urinary excretion in the detection of mercury intoxication is discussed. The suggestion is made that urinary mercury excretion of more than 20 μg/g creatinine or 40 μg mercury per 24 hours should be considered evidence of recent or remote exposure to mercury. It is concluded that measurement of urinary mercury excretion is important in revealing those persons who may ultimately develop symptoms of toxicity. PMID:4723792

  9. D-penicillamine does not increase urinary bismuth excretion in patients treated with tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate.

    PubMed

    Nwokolo, C U; Pounder, R E

    1990-10-01

    Twenty-four urinary bismuth excretion was measured in five patients who had been treated with tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate, before and after single 1 g oral dose of D-penicillamine. Before dosing with D-penicillamine, the median 24 h urinary bismuth output was 55 micrograms 24 h-1 (range 17-156 micrograms 24 h-1) and following dosing with D-penicillamine the median 24 h urinary bismuth output was 53 micrograms 24 h-1 (range 12-156 micrograms 24 h-1). D-penicillamine does not facilitate the urinary excretion of bismuth, hence it is unsuitable for use as an oral chelator in patients with bismuth intoxication.

  10. Relationships between urinary electrolytes excretion and central hemodynamics, and arterial stiffness in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Han, Weizhong; Han, Xiao; Sun, Ningling; Chen, Yunchao; Jiang, Shiliang; Li, Min

    2017-08-01

    High sodium intake plays an important role in the onset and exacerbation of hypertension. However, the relationships between urinary electrolytes excretion and central hemodynamics and between urinary electrolyte excretion and arterial stiffness are still the subject of debate. This study sought to clarify the associations of salt intake with central aortic pressure and arterial stiffness indicators. A total of 431 untreated hypertensive individuals were recruited into the study. Twenty-four-hour urinary samples were collected to measure the excretion of urinary electrolytes. Central hemodynamics parameters and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) were measured. We evaluated the independent relationship between urinary sodium or potassium excretion and the abovementioned indices. The mean 24-h urinary sodium of all subjects was 166.6±70.0 mmol/24 h. With increases in urinary sodium excretion, central blood pressure and baPWV values markedly increased. Multiple regression analysis showed that urinary sodium was independently associated with increases in central systolic blood pressure, central diastolic blood pressure, the augmentation index, and baPWV. Significant correlations were identified between high dietary sodium and central hemodynamics and between high dietary sodium and arterial elasticity. Prospective interventional studies in hypertensive patients may be required to determine the effect of salt intake on central hemodynamics.

  11. Effect of demographics on excretion of key urinary factors related to kidney stone risk

    PubMed Central

    Perinpam, Majuran; Ware, Erin B.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Turner, Stephen T.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Lieske, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of demographics including age and sex on excretion of four key urinary factors (calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), oxalate (Ox) and uric acid (UA)) related to kidney stone risk. Methods Twenty-four hour urine samples were collected from non-Hispanic white sibships in Rochester, MN. Height, weight, blood pressure, serum creatinine and cystatin C (CC) were measured. Diet was assessed using the Viocare food frequency questionnaire. Effects of demographics and dietary elements on urinary excretions were evaluated in univariate, multivariate, and interaction models that included age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Results Samples were available from 709 individuals. In multivariate models, sex was a significant predictor of all four urinary factors, age was significant for all but UA excretion, and serum creatinine was significant only for Ca and Mg excretion (p<0.05). BMI or weight positively correlated with Mg, Ox and UA excretion (p<0.05). Use of a thiazide diuretic (lower) and dietary protein (higher) were associated with Ca excretion, while dietary Ca was associated with higher Mg excretion. Urinary UA excretion increased with animal protein intake and CC estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and was lower with concurrent loop diuretic use. Significant interaction effects on urinary UA excretion were observed for loop diuretic use and sex, eGFR and sex, age and animal protein intake, and BMI and eGFR (p<0.05). Conclusions Age and sex influence excretion of key urinary factors related to kidney stone risk, and should be taken into account when evaluating kidney stone patients. PMID:26206452

  12. Association between 24-h urinary sodium excretion and obesity in Korean adults: A multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ga Eun; Kim, Seon Mee; Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Heo, Young-Ran; Hyun, Tai-Sun; Lyu, Eun-Soon; Oh, Se-Young; Park, Hae-Ryun; Ro, Hee-Kyong; Han, Kyungdo; Lee, Yeon Kyung

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between sodium intake, as assessed by 24-h urinary sodium excretion, and various obesity parameters among South Korean adults. The associations of 24-h urinary sodium excretion and sodium intake calculated from the dietary questionnaire with obesity parameters also were compared. This multicenter, cross-sectional study analyzed data of 640 healthy adults from eight provinces in South Korea. Obesity was assessed by body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Mean 24-h urinary sodium excretion was calculated from repeatedly collected 24-h urine samples. Participants' dietary intake was assessed by 24-h dietary recall interview on the days before 24-h urine collection. In both sexes, the means of all anthropometric measurements tended to increase proportionally with 24-h urinary sodium excretion quartiles, regardless of adjustment. Men in the highest quartile (Q4) of 24-h urinary sodium excretion had increased odds of obesity (as assessed by BMI, WC, WHR, and WHtR) compared with men in the three lower quartiles (Q1-Q3) of 24-h urinary sodium excretion. Women in Q4 of 24-h urinary sodium excretion exhibited a higher chance of general obesity and abdominal obesity. Sodium intake calculated from the dietary questionnaire was not significantly associated with obesity in either sex. In Korean adults, there was a positive association between higher sodium intake as assessed by 24-h urinary sodium excretion and obesity independent of energy intake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of urinary excretion characteristics of ethanol and ethyl glucuronide.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Helen; Stephanson, Nikolai; Beck, Olof; Helander, Anders

    2002-01-01

    This study compared the urinary excretion characteristics of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) with that of ethanol, with focus on the effect of water-induced diuresis. Six healthy volunteers ingested an ethanol dose of 0.5 g/kg (range 25.0-41.5 g) as 5% (v/v) beer in 30 min and the same volume of water after 3 h. Urine collections were made before starting the experiment and at timed intervals over 31.5 h. The concentration of EtG was determined by an LC-MS method (LOQ = 0.1 mg/L). The urine samples collected immediately before starting drinking were all negative for ethanol and EtG, thus confirming that the participants had not recently ingested alcohol. Intake of beer resulted in a marked increase in excreted urine volume and a concomitant drop in creatinine concentration. The concentration of ethanol peaked at a mean value of 17 mmol/L in the 1.5-h urine collection. Except for one subject, EtG was first detectable (range 0.9-5.5 mg/L) at 1 h. Intake of water at 3 h produced another increase in urine volume and a drop in creatinine. The ethanol concentration curve was not influenced by the water diuresis, whereas this caused a distinct drop in the EtG concentration. When EtG was expressed relative to the creatinine value, this ratio was seemingly not affected by the intake of water. The ethanol concentration returned to zero at 6.5 h, whereas EtG was still detectable for up to 22.5-31.5 h, albeit at low levels in the end (< 1 mg/l). Only about 0.02% of the administered dose of ethanol (on a molar basis) was recovered in the urine as EtG. The results demonstrated that EtG remains detectable in the urine for many hours after the ethanol itself has been eliminated. Moreover, it was possible to lower the concentration of EtG by drinking large amounts of water prior to voiding, whereas this strategy did not influence the EtG/creatinine ratio or the concentration of ethanol.

  14. Urinary excretion of orally administered oxalic acid in saccharin and o-phenylphenol-fed NMRI mice.

    PubMed

    Salminen, E; Salminen, S

    1986-01-01

    Both saccharin and o-phenylphenol have been suggested to be carcinogenic to the urinary bladder in experimental animals, but the mechanism has remained unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary saccharin and o-phenylphenol on the urinary excretion of dietary oxalic acid. Male NMRI mice were gradually adapted to either 3% o-phenylphenol or 5% saccharin in their diet. Having being adapted to these diets for 1 week or after consuming them for 3 months, the animals were fasted for 6 h and given a 2.5-microCi oral dose of U-14C-oxalic acid. Dosed animals were kept in metabolism cages for 48 h to monitor urinary and fecal excretion of the label. Adaptation to dietary o-phenylphenol appeared to increase the urinary excretion of orally administered U-14C-oxalic acid when food and water were available during urinary and fecal collections. Adaptation to dietary saccharin had little effect on urinary oxalate levels when compared to control animals. These results indicate that changes in urinary oxalate levels should be more carefully studied in connection with potential urinary bladder carcinogens to avoid the possibility of bladder irritation by increased urinary oxalate excretion.

  15. The urinary excretion of pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline during rheumatoid arthritis therapy with infliximab.

    PubMed

    Ostanek, Lidia; Pawlik, Andrzej; Brzosko, Iwona; Brzosko, Marek; Sterna, Rozalia; Droździk, Marek; Gawrońska-Szklarz, Barbara

    2004-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic disease that causes inflammation and joint destruction. As a result of pathological destruction in bone and cartilage, crosslinks in collagen are resorbed more rapidly. This causes a rise in circulating collagen crosslink levels and their urinary excretion. In RA, apart from the crosslink resorption at the site of inflamed joints, there may be increased resorption due to general bone loss associated with disease activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of therapy with infliximab on urinary excretion of pyridinoline (PYD) and deoxypyridinoline (DPYR) as a markers of collagen degradation and its correlation with clinical and biochemical parameters of disease activity. Seventeen patients with active rheumatoid arthritis treated with infliximab were recruited into the study. The therapy resulted in the reduction in the symptoms of RA and urinary excretion of PYD and DPYR. The urinary excretion of PYD correlated with a number of swollen joints, morning stiffness, CRP and ESR. The urinary excretion of DPYR correlated during infliximab therapy with the number of swollen and tender joints and morning stiffness. The measurement of urinary excretion of PYR and DPYR may give insight into bone metabolism and help us to better understand the actual changes in bone and cartilage caused by RA and its treatment.

  16. Comparison and validation of two analytical methods for measurement of urinary sucrose and fructose excretion

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiaoling; Navarro, Sandi L.; Diep, Pho; Thomas, Wendy K.; Razmpoosh, Elena C.; Schwarz, Yvonne; Wang, Ching-Yun; Kratz, Mario; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2013-01-01

    Urinary sugars excretion has been proposed as a potential biomarker for intake of sugars. In this study we compared two analytical methods [gas chromatography (GC) and enzymatic reactions – UV absorption] for quantifying urinary fructose and sucrose using 24-hour urine samples from a randomized cross-over controlled feeding study. All samples were successfully quantified by the GC method; however 21% and 1.9% of samples were below the detection limit of the enzymatic method for sucrose and fructose, respectively. While the correlation between the two methods was good for fructose (Pearson correlation 0.71), the correlation was weak for sucrose (Pearson correlation 0.27). We favor the GC method due to its better sensitivity, simplicity, and the ability to quantify fructose and sucrose directly in the same run. Of the 106 samples from 53 participants with complete urine collection after two study diets, 24-hour urinary fructose excretion was significantly associated with fructose intake. The sum of 24-hour urinary fructose and sucrose was significantly associated with total sugars consumption. However, variation in intakes of sugars explained only a modest amount of variation in urinary sugars excretion. In the unadjusted models, fructose intake explained 24.3% of urinary fructose excretion; and intake of total sugars 16.3% of the sum of urinary fructose and sucrose. The adjusted models explained 44.3% of urinary fructose excretion and 41.7% of the sum of urinary fructose and sucrose. Therefore, we caution using these biomarkers to predict sugars consumption before other factors that determine urinary sugars excretion are understood. PMID:24034568

  17. Short communication: Individual cow variation in urinary excretion of phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Løvendahl, Peter; Sehested, Jakob

    2016-06-01

    Some dairy cows excrete large amounts of P through their urine; thus, it was speculated that a genetic defect related to their efficiency in uptake of P or recirculation of P could cause such an effect. This speculation was pursued in a cross sectional study on 139 cows (103 Holstein and 36 Jersey) from an experimental herd using repeated sampling of urine (301 samples) to investigate sources of variation in urinary P concentration (Pu). Urine samples were taken on 6 testing sessions spread over 2 mo. Each sample was obtained by mild manual stimulation of the rear udder escutcheon area. The samples were immediately assayed for pH, stored frozen, and assayed for inorganic P and creatinine. Concentrations of P and creatinine in urine, the ratio of Pu to creatinine, and pH were analyzed using a linear mixed model. The model included fixed effects of breed, parity number, and sampling session. Stage of lactation was fitted as Wilmink-type lactation curves. Random effects included additive polygenic ancestry, permanent animal effects, and residual. The distribution of Pu approximated normality except for a single sample with very high Pu and very low pH. This sample came from a cow diagnosed independently with ketosis. For the remaining samples, it was shown that Pu has low to moderate heritability (0.12) and is only moderately repeatable (0.21). Based on a small data set, it is tentatively concluded that individual differences between cows exist in their Pu, and individual differences presumably result from genetic differences. However, it remains unclear if cows with genetically lower or higher Pu will perform better on a low-P diet. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The effects of water restriction and water loading on urinary excretion of lead, delta-aminolevulinic acid and coproporphyrin.

    PubMed Central

    Araki, S

    1978-01-01

    Alterations in daily urinary excretion of lead, delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), coproporphyrin, creatinine and total solutes following water restriction and water loading were examined in nine lead workers. Excretion of lead, ALA and total solutes was significantly decreased when urinary volume was reduced, showing that these values are dependent on urinary volume: conversely, excretion of coproporphyrin and creatinine was independent of urinary volume. Excretion of lead and total solutes was also dependent on creatinine excretion. The renal excretory mechanism of lead, ALA and coproporphyrin is discussed in the light of these findings. PMID:737138

  19. Associations of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolite excretions.

    PubMed

    Guessous, Idris; Pruijm, Menno; Ponte, Belén; Ackermann, Daniel; Ehret, Georg; Ansermot, Nicolas; Vuistiner, Philippe; Staessen, Jan; Gu, Yumei; Paccaud, Fred; Mohaupt, Markus; Vogt, Bruno; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Pechère-Berstchi, Antoinette; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Burnier, Michel; Eap, Chin B; Bochud, Murielle

    2015-03-01

    Intake of caffeinated beverages might be associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality possibly via the lowering of blood pressure. We estimated the association of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolites in a population-based sample. Families were randomly selected from the general population of Swiss cities. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was conducted using validated devices. Urinary caffeine, paraxanthine, theophylline, and theobromine excretions were measured in 24 hours urine using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We used mixed models to explore the associations of urinary excretions with blood pressure although adjusting for major confounders. The 836 participants (48.9% men) included in this analysis had mean age of 47.8 and mean 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 120.1 and 78.0 mm Hg. For each doubling of caffeine excretion, 24-hour and night-time systolic blood pressure decreased by 0.642 and 1.107 mm Hg (both P values <0.040). Similar inverse associations were observed for paraxanthine and theophylline. Adjusted night-time systolic blood pressure in the first (lowest), second, third, and fourth (highest) quartile of paraxanthine urinary excretions were 110.3, 107.3, 107.3, and 105.1 mm Hg, respectively (P trend <0.05). No associations of urinary excretions with diastolic blood pressure were generally found, and theobromine excretion was not associated with blood pressure. Anti-hypertensive therapy, diabetes mellitus, and alcohol consumption modify the association of caffeine urinary excretion with systolic blood pressure. Ambulatory systolic blood pressure was inversely associated with urinary excretions of caffeine and other caffeine metabolites. Our results are compatible with a potential protective effect of caffeine on blood pressure.

  20. Urinary zinc excretion and zinc status of patients with beta-thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Aydinok, Y; Coker, C; Kavakli, K; Polat, A; Nisli, G; Cetiner, N; Kantar, M; Cetingül, N

    1999-11-01

    In this study, zinc status and urinary zinc excretion with and without desferrioxamine (DFO) infusion and the relationship between urinary zinc excretion and renal tubular dysfunction in thalassemia major (TM) patients were investigated. Forty TM patients were given four DFO infusions on alternate days over a 1-wk period prior to the transfusion. On each day that DFO was given, a 24-h urine collection initiated. DFO was omitted for 1-wk before the following transfusion and during the period four 24-h urine collections were performed. Twenty healthy children provided 24-h urine collection as controls. Blood samples were taken on each of two consecutive transfusion days of the patients and from the controls. Urinary zinc excretion was measured and plasma and red blood cell (RBC) zinc analysis were performed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrophotometry. Urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity and creatinine were determined in morning urine specimens. The mean plasma zinc concentration was significantly lower in the patients not given DFO compared to the values of the patients given DFO and the control group. The mean RBC zinc concentration (micromol/g Hb) in the patients (with and without DFO) and the control group were similar. Urinary zinc excretion was significantly higher in the patients receiving DFO compared to the control group, whereas urinary zinc excretion in the patients not given DFO was not different from the controls. Urinary NAG indices (U/g Cr) were significantly higher in the patients compared to controls. Urinary zinc excretion was correlated with the urinary NAG indices.

  1. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium in Maputo, Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz, Ana; Damasceno, Albertino; Jessen, Neusa; Novela, Célia; Moreira, Pedro; Lunet, Nuno

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the urinary excretion of sodium and potassium, and to estimate the main food sources of sodium in Maputo dwellers. A cross-sectional evaluation of a sample of 100 hospital workers was conducted between October 2012 and May 2013. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion was assessed in a 24-h urine sample; creatinine excretion was used to exclude unlikely urine values. Food intake in the same period of urine collection was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. The Food Processor Plus® was used to estimate sodium intake corresponding to naturally occurring sodium and sodium added to processed foods (non-discretionary sodium). Salt added during culinary preparations (discretionary sodium) was computed as the difference between urinary sodium excretion and non-discretionary sodium. The mean (standard deviation) urinary sodium excretion was 4220 (1830) mg/day, and 92% of the participants were above the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Discretionary sodium contributed 60.1% of total dietary sodium intake, followed by sodium from processed foods (29.0%) and naturally occurring sodium (10.9%). The mean (standard deviation) urinary potassium excretion was 1909 (778) mg/day, and 96% of the participants were below the WHO potassium intake recommendation. The mean (standard deviation) sodium to potassium molar ratio was 4.2 (2.4). Interventions to decrease sodium and increase potassium intake are needed in Mozambique. PMID:28771193

  2. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium in Maputo, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Ana; Damasceno, Albertino; Jessen, Neusa; Novela, Célia; Moreira, Pedro; Lunet, Nuno; Padrão, Patrícia

    2017-08-03

    This study aimed to evaluate the urinary excretion of sodium and potassium, and to estimate the main food sources of sodium in Maputo dwellers. A cross-sectional evaluation of a sample of 100 hospital workers was conducted between October 2012 and May 2013. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion was assessed in a 24-h urine sample; creatinine excretion was used to exclude unlikely urine values. Food intake in the same period of urine collection was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. The Food Processor Plus(®) was used to estimate sodium intake corresponding to naturally occurring sodium and sodium added to processed foods (non-discretionary sodium). Salt added during culinary preparations (discretionary sodium) was computed as the difference between urinary sodium excretion and non-discretionary sodium. The mean (standard deviation) urinary sodium excretion was 4220 (1830) mg/day, and 92% of the participants were above the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Discretionary sodium contributed 60.1% of total dietary sodium intake, followed by sodium from processed foods (29.0%) and naturally occurring sodium (10.9%). The mean (standard deviation) urinary potassium excretion was 1909 (778) mg/day, and 96% of the participants were below the WHO potassium intake recommendation. The mean (standard deviation) sodium to potassium molar ratio was 4.2 (2.4). Interventions to decrease sodium and increase potassium intake are needed in Mozambique.

  3. Diet, but not oral probiotics, effectively reduces urinary oxalate excretion and calciumoxalate supersaturation

    PubMed Central

    Lieske, John C.; Tremaine, William J.; De Simone, Claudio; O’Connor, Helen M.; Li, Xujian; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Goldfarb, David S.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effect of a controlled diet and two probiotic preparations on urinary oxalate excretion, a risk factor for calcium oxalate kidney stone formation, in patients with mild hyperoxaluria. Patients were randomized to a placebo, a probiotic, or a synbiotic preparation. This tested whether these probiotic preparations can increase oxalate metabolism in the intestine and/or decrease oxalate absorption from the gut. Patients were maintained on a controlled diet to remove the confounding variable of differing oxalate intake from food. Urinary oxalate excretion and calcium oxalate supersaturation on the controlled diet were significantly lower compared with baseline on a free-choice diet. Neither study preparation reduced urinary oxalate excretion nor calcium oxalate supersaturation. Fecal lactobacilli colony counts increased on both preparations, whereas enterococcal and yeast colony counts were increased on the synbiotic. Total urine volume and the excretion of oxalate and calcium were all strong independent determinants of urinary calcium oxalate supersaturation. Hence, dietary oxalate restriction reduced urinary oxalate excretion, but the tested probiotics did not influence urinary oxalate levels in patients on a restricted oxalate diet. However, this study suggests that dietary oxalate restriction is useful for kidney stone prevention. PMID:20736987

  4. Measuring Morbidity Associated with Urinary Schistosomiasis: Assessing Levels of Excreted Urine Albumin and Urinary Tract Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Sousa-Figueiredo, José C.; Basáñez, María-Gloria; Khamis, I. Simba; Garba, Amadou; Rollinson, David; Stothard, J. Russell

    2009-01-01

    Background Urinary schistosomiasis is responsible for a variety of debilitating conditions; foremost perhaps are urinary tract pathologies (UTPs). Although portable ultrasonography can be used to detect UTPs visually, there is still a need for rapid morbidity assessment (henceforth referred to as RaMA) tools that can be deployed in the field during implementation, monitoring and evaluation of control programmes. We therefore aimed to determine associations between excreted urine-albumin, as measured using a HemoCue photometer, and UTPs, as detected by ultrasonography, in children and adults from an urinary schistosomiasis endemic area in Zanzibar. Methodology/Principal Findings In a survey of 140 school-children of both sexes (aged 9 to 15 yr) and 47 adult males (≥16 yr) on the island of Unguja, the prevalence of egg-patent urinary schistosomiasis was 36.4% (CI95 28.5–45.0%) and 46.8% (CI95 32.1–61.9%) (P = 0.14), and that of UTPs was 39.4% (CI95 31.0–48.3%) and 64.4% (CI95 48.8–78.1%) (P = 0.006), respectively. In school-children, raised urine-albumin concentrations (>40 mg/L) were associated, albeit non-significantly, with prevalence of infection (OR = 3.1, P = 0.070), but more specifically and significantly with the prevalence of micro-haematuria (OR = 76.7, P<0.0001). In adults, elevated urine-albumin excretion was associated with UTPs, particularly lesions of the bladder wall (OR = 8.4, P = 0.013). Albuminuria showed promising diagnostic performance, especially in school-aged children with sensitivity of 63.3% and specificity of 83.1% at detecting lower UTPs, i.e. bladder-wall lesions (ultrasonography as ‘gold standard’). Conclusion/Significance This study indicates that albuminuria assays could be used as a RaMA tool for monitoring UTP prevalence during control programmes, as well as a tool for selecting those with more chronic bladder-wall lesions without resorting to ultrasonography. PMID:19806223

  5. Measuring morbidity associated with urinary schistosomiasis: assessing levels of excreted urine albumin and urinary tract pathologies.

    PubMed

    Sousa-Figueiredo, José C; Basáñez, María-Gloria; Khamis, I Simba; Garba, Amadou; Rollinson, David; Stothard, J Russell

    2009-10-06

    Urinary schistosomiasis is responsible for a variety of debilitating conditions; foremost perhaps are urinary tract pathologies (UTPs). Although portable ultrasonography can be used to detect UTPs visually, there is still a need for rapid morbidity assessment (henceforth referred to as RaMA) tools that can be deployed in the field during implementation, monitoring and evaluation of control programmes. We therefore aimed to determine associations between excreted urine-albumin, as measured using a HemoCue photometer, and UTPs, as detected by ultrasonography, in children and adults from an urinary schistosomiasis endemic area in Zanzibar. In a survey of 140 school-children of both sexes (aged 9 to 15 yr) and 47 adult males (> or =16 yr) on the island of Unguja, the prevalence of egg-patent urinary schistosomiasis was 36.4% (CI(95) 28.5-45.0%) and 46.8% (CI(95) 32.1-61.9%) (P = 0.14), and that of UTPs was 39.4% (CI(95) 31.0-48.3%) and 64.4% (CI(95) 48.8-78.1%) (P = 0.006), respectively. In school-children, raised urine-albumin concentrations (>40 mg/L) were associated, albeit non-significantly, with prevalence of infection (OR = 3.1, P = 0.070), but more specifically and significantly with the prevalence of micro-haematuria (OR = 76.7, P<0.0001). In adults, elevated urine-albumin excretion was associated with UTPs, particularly lesions of the bladder wall (OR = 8.4, P = 0.013). Albuminuria showed promising diagnostic performance, especially in school-aged children with sensitivity of 63.3% and specificity of 83.1% at detecting lower UTPs, i.e. bladder-wall lesions (ultrasonography as 'gold standard'). This study indicates that albuminuria assays could be used as a RaMA tool for monitoring UTP prevalence during control programmes, as well as a tool for selecting those with more chronic bladder-wall lesions without resorting to ultrasonography.

  6. The effect of ethanol on the urinary excretion and differential metabolism of folate compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenga, B.H.

    1989-01-01

    In rats chronically fed ethanol and folate-containing diets for 12 weeks, urinary folate excretion was increased. However, no significant tissue depletion was noted unless rats were fed folate deficient diets. In rats fed folate-deficient diets urinary folate excretion was dramatically decreased at two weeks, when tissue folate stores were replete. After 16 weeks of diet treatment, the urinary excretion of an intraperitoneal dose of {sup 3}H-PteGlu was not altered in folate-deficient rats. Although acute ethanol administration (oral or intravenous) increased endogenous folate excretion that of {sup 3}H-PteGlu was not significantly altered, nor was the fractional excretion of {sup 3}H-label. To clarify this effect, the metabolism of {sup 3}H-PteGlu was studied. HPLC analysis of urine showed extensive metabolism of {sup 3}H-PteGlu to other folate substrates. Oral ethanol-treatment increased the fractional excretion of endogenous 5-CH{sub 3}-H{sub 4}PteGlu with no increase in urinary excretion or fractional excretion of other {sup 3}H-labeled derivatives. After infusion of tritium labeled 5-CH{sub 3}-H{sub 4}PteGlu, ethanol treatment increased the fractional excretion of endogenous and {sup 3}H-5-CH{sub 3}-H{sub 4}PteGlu, but not that of other folates. There was rapid uptake of {sup 3}H-label by the kidney with only 10% of the urinary {sup 3}H-label as {sup 3}H-5-CH{sub 3}-H{sub 4}PteGlu.

  7. Increasing alkali supplementation decreases urinary nitrogen excretion when adjusted for same day nitrogen intake.

    PubMed

    Ceglia, L; Dawson-Hughes, B

    2017-08-25

    We examined whether escalating doses of potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3) supplements alter urinary nitrogen excretion expressed as a ratio to same day nitrogen intake (measure of muscle-protein breakdown). The ratio declined significantly from placebo to low to high dose of KHCO3 supplementation in older adults over 3 months, suggesting muscle-sparing. Neutralization of dietary acid load with alkali supplementation (i.e., KHCO3) has been hypothesized to have muscle protein-sparing effects. In controlled feeding studies with fixed nitrogen (N) intake/day, 24-h urinary N excretion is a good marker of muscle breakdown. However, in studies with self-selected diets, changes in 24-h urinary N excretion can be influenced by shifts in N intake. We evaluated changes in 24-h total urinary N excretion as a ratio of N excretion to concurrent N intake in 233 older men and women who participated in an 84-day KHCO3 supplementation randomized placebo-controlled trial. After adjustment for relevant cofactors, escalating doses of KHCO3 (1 mmol/kg/day [low] or 1.5 mmol/kg/day [high]) resulted in a progressive decline in urinary N excretion/N intake compared to placebo (overall P for trend = 0.042). The 84-day change in urinary N excretion/N intake in the high-dose KHCO3 group was statistically significantly lower compared to placebo (P = 0.012) but not compared to the low-dose KHCO3 group (P = 0.276). The 84-day change in urinary N excretion/N intake in the low-dose KHCO3 group did not differ significantly from placebo (P = 0.145). Urinary N excretion expressed as ratio to same day N intake declined steadily with increasing doses of KHCO3 supplementation from low 1 mmol/kg/day to high 1.5 mmol/kg/day, suggesting a nitrogen-sparing effect. Compared to urinary N excretion alone, this ratio could be a more reasonable measure of muscle protein metabolism in large-scale long-term human studies. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT1475214.

  8. The relationship between daily urinary sodium excretion and metabolic syndrome in patients with kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Unal, Aydin; Kocyigit, Ismail; Sipahioglu, Murat Hahri; Tokgoz, Bulent; Oymak, Oktay

    2014-08-12

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a relationship between daily urinary sodium excretion and metabolic syndrome in kidney transplantation patients. This cross-sectional study included 76 adult renal transplantation recipients. To calculate urinary sodium excretion, 24-h urine samples were collected. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria updated in a statement from the American Heart Association (AHA)/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) in 2005. Mean age of the 76 patients was 38 ± 10 years; 21 of the 76 patients were female. Metabolic syndrome was found in 52 (68.4%) of the 76 renal transplantation patients. Mean daily urinary sodium excretion was 190 ± 102 mmol/day, which is equal to a salt intake of 11.1 g/day. Daily urinary sodium excretion was significantly higher in patients with metabolic syndrome compared to those without metabolic syndrome (209 ± 112 mmol/day and 150 ± 62 mmol/day, respectively, p: 0.005). Daily urinary sodium excretion correlated with diastolic blood pressure (r: 0.254, p: 0.028), serum glucose concentration (r: 0.446, p: <0.001), and creatinine clearance (r: 478, p: <0.001). In addition, although there was no significant correlation between daily urinary sodium excretion and systolic blood pressure, the statistical significance was borderline (r: 0.221, p: 0.056). There is a significant relationship between daily urinary sodium excretion and metabolic syndrome in renal transplant recipients. The Turkish kidney transplantation patients consume a great amount of salt and salt intake is positively correlated with blood pressure.

  9. Evaluation of urinary porphyrin excretion in neonates born to mothers exposed to airborne hexachlorobenzene.

    PubMed Central

    Ozalla, Dolores; Herrero, Carmen; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; To-Figueras, Jordi; Toll, Agustí; Sala, Maria; Grimalt, Joan; Basagaña, Xavier; Lecha, Màrius; Sunyer, Jordi

    2002-01-01

    The existence of a link between hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and porphyria cutanea tarda has been known for a long time. However, the epidemiologic data on effects on health caused by prenatal exposure have not provided convincing evidence that HCB alters porphyrin metabolism. Our objectives were to analyze urinary porphyrin excretion and HCB in maternal serum and fetal cord blood in neonates born in a village (Flix) near a chlorinated solvent factory, to detect possible adverse effects in urinary porphyrin excretion caused by prenatal exposure, and to assess their relationship with HCB blood levels. We conducted a cross-sectional study in the Porphyria Unit at a tertiary care facility in Barcelona, Spain, and the Pediatric Unit of the Móra d'Ebre Hospital, the reference hospital of the study area. We included in the study all neonates (n = 68) born in Móra d'Ebre Hospital 1997-1999 and their mothers. We obtained 68 urine specimens of singleton neonates on the third day after birth to test for urinary porphyrin excretion. We obtained 52 fetal cord blood and 56 maternal serum samples for HCB analysis. Total urinary porphyrins were quantified using spectrofluorometry. Porphyrin profile was determined by HPLC. Serum HCB was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detection. In total population, median HCB levels were 1.08 ng/mL in cord blood and 3.31 ng/mL in maternal serum. Total urinary porphyrin concentration was 37.87 micromol/mol creatinine. Coproporphyrin I and coproporphyrin III were the major porphyrins excreted. We found no positive relationship between urinary porphyrin excretion and HCB levels. However, we observed an association between maternal smoking and coproporphyrin excretion. Although high environmental levels of HCB are reported in the town of Flix, we found no alteration in urinary porphyrin excretion. PMID:11836151

  10. Excessive urinary excretion of isopropyl glucuronide after isopropanol abuse.

    PubMed

    Arndt, Torsten; Beyreiß, Reinhild; Hartmann, Werner; Schröfel, Stefanie; Stemmerich, Karsten

    2016-09-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in urine is considered a marker of alcohol consumption. We present a case of a false-positive immunological EtG screening result due to excessive isopropyl glucuronide excretion in urine of an alcohol-dependent patient with a history of industrial cleaning fluid abuse. EtG screening was done with the Microgenics DRI EtG enzyme immunoassay on a Beckman Coulter AU680 analyzer according to the testkit instructions. Confirmatory analysis was done by LC-MS/MS for EtG, 1-propyl (syn. n-propyl), 2-propyl (syn. isopropyl), 1-butyl, 2-butyl, and tert-butyl glucuronide. Both methods were validated according to the Guidelines of the Society of Toxicological and Forensic Chemistry (GTFCh, Germany). EtG screening by immunoassay was positive, approx. 860mg/L or approx. 1540mg/g creatinine (forensic cut-off 0.1mg/L, clinical cut-off 0.5mg/L). LC-MS/MS confirmatory analysis was negative for EtG (<0.05mg/L; forensic cut-off 0.1mg/L), but strongly positive for 2-propyl glucuronide (approx. 1100mg/L or 2000mg/g creatinine; cut-off 0.1mg/L). 1-propyl, 1-butyl, and tert-butyl glucuronide were negative (<0.05mg/L; cut-off 0.1mg/L), 2-butyl glucuronide was 0.1mg/L (cut-off 0.1mg/L). Consumption of household and industrial chemicals with short chain aliphatic alcohols should be considered a rare but potential source of false-positive EtG immunoassay results. Glucuronides from frequently used short chain aliphatic alcohols, like 1-propanol (syn. n-propanol) and 2-propanol (syn. isopropanol) as the most important disinfectant components, should be included into EtG confirmatory analysis. This will be helpful not only for the assessment of the source for remarkable EtG immunoassay results, it can also contribute to a more specific diagnosis in cases with suspected intoxication by consumer or industrial chemical products. Excessive urinary 2-propyl glucuronide (syn. isopropyl glucuronide) concentrations should be considered a marker of isopropanol intoxication

  11. Organic Anion Transporter 5 Renal Expression and Urinary Excretion in Rats with Vascular Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Hazelhoff, María Herminia; Bulacio, Romina Paula; Torres, Adriana Mónica

    2013-01-01

    It has been described renal damage in rats with vascular calcification. The organic anion transporter 5 (Oat5) is only expressed in kidney, and its urinary excretion was proposed as potential early biomarker of renal injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Oat5 renal expression and its urinary excretion in an experimental model of vascular calcification in comparison with traditional markers of renal injury. Vascular calcification was obtained by the administration of an overdose of vitamin D3 (300,000 IU/kg, b.w., i.m.) to male Wistar rats. Oat5 urinary abundance was evaluated by Western blotting. Traditional markers of renal injury, such as creatinine and urea plasma levels, urinary protein levels, and urinary alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity, were determined using commercial kits. Histology was assessed by hematoxylin/eosin staining. Oat5 renal expression was evaluated by Western blotting and by immunohistochemistry. An increased expression of Oat5 in renal homogenates, in apical membranes, and in its urinary excretion was observed in rats with vascular calcification. The traditional parameters used to evaluate renal function were not modified, with the exception of histology. It is possible to postulate the urinary excretion of Oat5 as a potential noninvasive biomarker of renal injury associated with vascular calcification. PMID:24199190

  12. Association between Urinary Sodium Excretion and Bone Health in Male and Female Adults.

    PubMed

    Park, Yongsoon; Kwon, Soo Jung; Ha, Yong Chan

    2016-01-01

    High salt intake is a well-known risk factor for osteoporosis, but the association between bone mass and urinary sodium excretion has not been studied as yet. This study investigates the hypothesis that urinary sodium excretion is negatively associated with bone mass and the risk of osteoporosis. This cross-sectional study was performed using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2011. Participants (n = 16,279) were divided into age groups; men were categorized as younger than 50 years of age or 50 years or greater, women were categorized as pre- or post-menopausal. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that urinary sodium excretion was negatively associated with bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Sodium excretion was negatively associated with BMC and BMD of the lumbar spine in women with normal bone health, osteopenia and osteoporosis, but there was no association in men. Increased sodium excretion was significantly associated with risk for osteoporosis/osteopenia in premenopausal women. This study demonstrates that urinary sodium excretion is negatively associated with bone health, suggesting that high salt intake could be a possible risk factor for osteoporosis in Korean women, but not in men. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Relationship Between Urinary Nitrate Excretion and Blood Pressure in the InChianti Cohort.

    PubMed

    Smallwood, Miranda J; Ble, Alessandro; Melzer, David; Winyard, Paul G; Benjamin, Nigel; Shore, Angela C; Gilchrist, Mark

    2017-07-01

    Inorganic nitrate from the oxidation of endogenously synthesized nitric oxide (NO) or consumed in the diet can be reduced to NO via a complex enterosalivary circulation pathway. The relationship between total nitrate exposure by measured urinary nitrate excretion and blood pressure in a large population sample has not been assessed previously. For this cross-sectional study, 24-hour urinary nitrate excretion was measured by spectrophotometry in the 919 participants from the InChianti cohort at baseline and blood pressure measured with a mercury sphygmomanometer. After adjusting for age and sex only, diastolic blood pressure was 1.9 mm Hg lower in subjects with ≥2 mmol urinary nitrate excretion compared with those excreting <1 mmol nitrate in 24 hours: systolic blood pressure was 3.4 mm Hg (95% confidence interval (CI): -3.5 to -0.4) lower in subjects for the same comparison. Effect sizes in fully adjusted models (for age, sex, potassium intake, use of antihypertensive medications, diabetes, HS-CRP, or current smoking status) were marginally larger: systolic blood pressure in the ≥2 mmol urinary nitrate excretion group was 3.9 (CI: -7.1 to -0.7) mm Hg lower than in the comparison <1 mmol excretion group. Modest differences in total nitrate exposure are associated with lower blood pressure. These differences are at least equivalent to those seen from substantial (100 mmol) reductions in sodium intake.

  14. Impact of water-induced diuresis on excretion profiles of ethanol, urinary creatinine, and urinary osmolality.

    PubMed

    Bendtsen, P; Jones, A W

    1999-01-01

    This article reports the impact of diuresis on urinary excretion of ethanol in seven healthy volunteers who drank 1000 mL of export beer (44 g ethanol) in 30 min and, 120 min later, ingested 500 or 1000 mL of water within 5 min. Urine was voided before drinking started and every 30-60 min for 360 min after the start of drinking. The concentration of ethanol in urine (UAC) was determined by headspace gas chromatography, the creatinine content was determined by Jaffe's method, and osmolality was measured by freezing point depression. Maximum diuresis coincided with the peak UAC and was reached 60-90 min after the end of drinking. The urinary creatinine and osmolality dropped appreciably after drinking beer, and the lowest values coincided with peak diuresis. Creatinine was < 0.2 g/L in 22% of urine specimens, and osmolality was < 200 mOsm/kg in 31% of specimens. Production of urine decreased as UAC entered the postabsorptive phase but increased again after the subjects drank water 120 min after alcohol consumption. The amount of ethanol recovered in urine was 681 mg (standard deviation [SD] 203 mg) corresponding to 1.5% (SD 0.46%) of the dose administered. The concentrations of ethanol in successive voids during the postabsorptive phase were not influenced after subjects drank 500 or 1000 mL of water although diuresis increased and urinary creatinine and osmolality decreased. Measuring UAC provides a reliable way to monitor recent drinking, and unlike the analysis of illicit drugs in urine, the concentrations of ethanol are not influenced by diuresis.

  15. Validation of a self-monitoring device for estimating 24-hour urinary salt excretion.

    PubMed

    Yasutake, Kenichiro; Sawano, Kayoko; Shono, Naoko; Tsuchihashi, Takuya

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between salt intake and urinary salt excretion and to examine the validity of a self-monitoring device for estimating 24-h urinary salt excretion from overnight urine samples. Twelve young, healthy female volunteers consumed test meals from days 1 to 14 and estimated urinary salt excretion on days 2-15 by using a self-monitoring device. The salt content of the test meals was as follows: 10 g (days 1-5), 6 g (days 6-8), 13 g (days 9-11), 6 g (day 12), 13 g (day 13), and 6 g (day 14). The average 24-h urinary salt excretion (the ratio of urinary salt excretion to salt intake of the previous day) estimated from the overnight urine samples was as follows: 8.01±1.15 g (0.73±0.11) on days 2-6, 5.86±0.85 g (1.01±0.15) on days 7-9, 9.69±1.64 g (0.74±0.13) on days 10-12, 6.51±1.56 g (1.03±0.25) on day 13, 8.60±3.25 g (0.71±0.14) on day 14, and 6.28±1.31 (1.05±0.22) on day 15. Thus, the salt excretion/salt intake ratio was approximately 0.8 during the high-salt phase and 1.0 during the low-salt phase. The estimation of 24-h urinary salt excretion from overnight urine samples by using a self-monitoring device is a reasonably valid method in this young and healthy female population for detecting daily changes in salt intake.

  16. Renal Expression and Urinary Excretion of Na-K-2Cl Cotransporter in Obstructive Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Renal damage due to urinary tract obstruction accounts for up to 30% of acute kidney injury in paediatrics and adults. Bilateral ureteral obstruction (BUO) is associated with polyuria and reduced urinary concentrating capacity. We investigated the renal handling of water and electrolytes together with the renal expression and the urinary excretion of the Na-K-Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) after 1 (BUO-1), 2 (BUO-2), and 7 (BUO-7) days of release of BUO. Immunoblotting and immunohistochemical studies showed that NKCC2 expression was upregulated in apical membranes both from BUO-2 and from BUO-7 rats. The apical membrane expression, where NKCC2 is functional, may be sufficient to normalize water, potassium, sodium, and osmolytes tubular handling. NKCC2 abundance in homogenates and mRNA levels of NKCC2 was significantly decreased in almost all groups suggesting a decrease in the synthesis of the transporter. Urinary excretion of NKCC2 was increased in BUO-7 groups. These data suggest that the upregulation in the expression of NKCC2 in apical membranes during the postobstructive phase of BUO could contribute to improving the excretion of sodium and consequently also the excretion of potassium, osmolytes, and water. Moreover, the increase in urinary excretion of NKCC2 in BUO-7 group could be a potential additional biomarker of renal function recovery. PMID:28164127

  17. Dietary and Lifestyle Factors and Medical Conditions Associated with Urinary Citrate Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Eric N.; Curhan, Gary C.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Lower urinary citrate excretion is a risk factor for nephrolithiasis and associated with metabolic acidosis and higher prevalence of hypertension and insulin resistance. This study sought to quantify the independent predictors of urinary citrate excretion in population-based cohorts. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A cross-sectional study of 2561 individuals from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study and Nurses’ Health Studies I and II who provided two 24-hour urine collections was conducted. Dietary data were ascertained from the semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Lifestyle and disease data were derived from responses to biennial questionnaires. Multivariable linear regression was used to quantify the predictors of urinary citrate excretion. Results After adjusting for age, urinary creatinine, dietary, and other factors, higher intake of nondairy animal protein (per 10 g/d; −20 mg/d; 95% confidence interval [−29 to −11]), higher body mass index (per 1 kg/m2; −4 mg/d; [−6 to −2]), and history of nephrolithiasis (−57 mg/d; [−79 to −36]), hypertension (−95 mg/d; [−119 to −71]), gout (−104 mg/d; [−155 to −54]), and thiazide use (−34 mg/d; [−68 to −1]) were independently associated with lower 24-hour urinary citrate excretion. Higher intake of potassium (per 1000 mg/d; 53 mg/d; [33 to 74]), higher urinary sodium (per 100 mEq/d; 56 mg/d; [31 to 80]), and history of diabetes (61 mg/d; [21 to 100]) were independently associated with higher citrate excretion. Conclusions Several dietary and lifestyle factors and medical conditions are independently associated with urinary citrate excretion. PMID:23449767

  18. Decrease in Urinary Creatinine Excretion in Early Stage Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tynkevich, Elena; Flamant, Martin; Haymann, Jean-Philippe; Metzger, Marie; Thervet, Eric; Boffa, Jean-Jacques; Vrtovsnik, François; Houillier, Pascal; Froissart, Marc; Stengel, Bénédicte

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about muscle mass loss in early stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). We used 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rate to assess determinants of muscle mass and its evolution with kidney function decline. We also described the range of urinary creatinine concentration in this population. Methods We included 1072 men and 537 women with non-dialysis CKD stages 1 to 5, all of them with repeated measurements of glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) by 51Cr-EDTA renal clearance and several nutritional markers. In those with stage 1 to 4 at baseline, we used a mixed model to study factors associated with urinary creatinine excretion rate and its change over time. Results Baseline mean urinary creatinine excretion decreased from 15.3±3.1 to 12.1±3.3 mmol/24 h (0.20±0.03 to 0.15±0.04 mmol/kg/24 h) in men, with mGFR falling from ≥60 to <15 mL/min/1.73 m2, and from 9.6±1.9 to 7.6±2.5 (0.16±0.03 to 0.12±0.03) in women. In addition to mGFR, an older age, diabetes, and lower levels of body mass index, proteinuria, and protein intake assessed by urinary urea were associated with lower mean urinary creatinine excretion at baseline. Mean annual decline in mGFR was 1.53±0.12 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year and that of urinary creatinine excretion rate, 0.28±0.02 mmol/24 h per year. Patients with fast annual decline in mGFR of 5 mL/min/1.73 m2 had a decrease in urinary creatinine excretion more than twice as big as in those with stable mGFR, independent of changes in urinary urea as well as of other determinants of low muscle mass. Conclusions Decrease in 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rate may appear early in CKD patients, and is greater the more mGFR declines independent of lowering protein intake assessed by 24-hour urinary urea. Normalizing urine analytes for creatininuria may overestimate their concentration in patients with reduced kidney function and low muscle mass. PMID:25401694

  19. [Modification of GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 gene polymorphisms on urinary 1-hydroxypyrene excretions].

    PubMed

    Gao, Qiang; Xu, Zhi-yin; Li, Shu-guang; Jin, Tai-guang; Chen, Bo

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the modification of GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 gene polymorphisms on urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) excretions in workers under different exposure levels. Four hundred and forty-seven occupationally exposed workers from two coking plants and 220 control workers from a wire rod plant were genotyped to analyze the modification of GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 gene polymorphisms on urinary 1-OHP excretions. The urinary 1-OHP concentration in exposed group was much higher than that in control group (4.61 vs 0.34 µmol/mol Cr, P < 0.05). Occupational exposure levels and cigarette smoking were of the dominating factors affecting 1-OHP excretions in urine. After controlling potential confounders, decreased excretion of urinary 1-OHP was associated with GSTP1 I105V AG + GG genotype in coke oven workers (single-gene model, P = 0.012; multi-gene model, P = 0.011) and with GSTT1 null type in the analysis including all subjects (P = 0.055 in both single-gene and multi-gene models). GSTT1 and GSTP1 were interacted on the urinary concentrations of 1-OHP. Urinary 1-OHP concentrations can be modified by GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 gene polymorphisms, indicating that these genes are involved in the metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  20. The quantitative relationship of urinary peptide hydroxyproline excretion to collagen degradation

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Phillip H.; Klein, LeRoy

    1969-01-01

    To determine the quantitative relationship of urinary hydroxyproline peptide excretion to collagen breakdown, known quantities of radioactive hydroxyproline peptides were administered to unlabeled animals and excertion of radioactivity in respiratory carbon dioxide, urine, and feces was measured. The major routes of excretion of collagen peptide metabolites were respiratory carbon dioxide (75%) and urine, as hydroxyproline-containing peptides (25%). Since the predominant urine hydroxyproline peptide linkage is proly-hydroxyproline, L-prolyl-L-hydroxyproline-3H was administered to unlabeled animals. Greater than 80% of the administered dipeptide was excreted in urine, suggesting that this peptide linkage is not hydrolyzed to a significant extent in vivo. These data suggest that urinary hydroxyproline excretion is a “fairly” sensitive indicator of collagen breakdown and can be used at the clinical level to quantitate changes in collagen breakdown. PMID:5765022

  1. Increased Klk9 Urinary Excretion Is Associated to Hypertension-Induced Cardiovascular Damage and Renal Alterations

    PubMed Central

    Blázquez-Medela, Ana M.; García-Sánchez, Omar; Quirós, Yaremi; Blanco-Gozalo, Victor; Prieto-García, Laura; Sancho-Martínez, Sandra M.; Romero, Miguel; Duarte, Juan M.; López-Hernández, Francisco J.; López-Novoa, José M.; Martínez-Salgado, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Early detection of hypertensive end-organ damage and secondary diseases are key determinants of cardiovascular prognosis in patients suffering from arterial hypertension. Presently, there are no biomarkers for the detection of hypertensive target organ damage, most outstandingly including blood vessels, the heart, and the kidneys. We aimed to validate the usefulness of the urinary excretion of the serine protease kallikrein-related peptidase 9 (KLK9) as a biomarker of hypertension-induced target organ damage. Urinary, plasma, and renal tissue levels of KLK9 were measured by the Western blot in different rat models of hypertension, including angiotensin-II infusion, DOCA-salt, L-NAME administration, and spontaneous hypertension. Urinary levels were associated to cardiovascular and renal injury, assessed by histopathology. The origin of urinary KLK9 was investigated through in situ renal perfusion experiments. The urinary excretion of KLK9 is increased in different experimental models of hypertension in rats. The ACE inhibitor trandolapril significantly reduced arterial pressure and the urinary level of KLK9. Hypertension did not increase kidney, heart, liver, lung, or plasma KLK9 levels. Hypertension-induced increased urinary excretion of KLK9 results from specific alterations in its tubular reabsorption, even in the absence of overt nephropathy. KLK9 urinary excretion strongly correlates with cardiac hypertrophy and aortic wall thickening. KLK9 appears in the urine in the presence of hypertension as a result of subtle renal handling alterations. Urinary KLK9 might be potentially used as an indicator of hypertensive cardiac and vascular damage. PMID:26469898

  2. PLasma half-life and urinary excretion of cyclophosphamide in children.

    PubMed

    Sladek, N E; Priest, J; Doeden, D; Mirocha, C J; Pathre, S; Krivit, W

    1980-01-01

    The plasma half-life and urinary excretion of cyclophosphamide were determined in 13 children who had various malignancies and/or who were being prepared for bone marrow transplantation. Disappearance from the plasma following iv infusion over a 1-2 hour period was first-order. Urinary excretion was maximal during the first 8 hours after administration and was essentially complete in 24 hours. The plasma half-life in children not receiving known inducers of hepatic microsomal mixed-function oxygenase activity or cyclophosphamide in the 3-week period prior to each determination ranged from 145 to 390 minutes. These values are lower than those ordinarily found in adult patients. The fraction of the total dose excreted in the urine as the parent compound ranged from 4% to 27%. Repeated administration of cyclophosphamide at approximately 30-60 day intervals did not appear to alter its plasma half-life but did appear to increase its urinary excretion. Daily administration of cyclophosphamide (approximately 50 mg/kg/day x 2 or 4) significantly decreased its plasma half-life and urinary excretion suggesting that it may reversibly induce its own metabolism.

  3. Increased protein intake on controlled oxalate diets does not increase urinary oxalate excretion

    PubMed Central

    Easter, Linda H.; Neiberg, Rebecca; Assimos, Dean G.; Holmes, Ross P.

    2009-01-01

    High animal protein intake is a risk factor for calcium oxalate stone disease. The effect of dietary protein on the urinary excretion of calcium, acid and citrate is well established. However, its effect on oxalate excretion is unclear, due in part to an inadequate control of dietary oxalate intake in previous studies. This relationship warrants clarification due to the proposed important role of the metabolism of amino acids in endogenous oxalate synthesis. In this study, 11 normal subjects consumed controlled oxalate diets containing 0.6, 1.2 and 1.8 g protein/kg body weight/day. The analysis of 24 h urine collections confirmed that as protein intake increased, urinary calcium and glycolate increased and urinary pH and citrate decreased. The increased glycolate excretion was due in part to an increased hydroxyproline, but not glycolate consumption. Total daily urinary oxalate excretion did not change. When indexed to creatinine there was a small but significant decrease in oxalate excretion. This is most likely due to hyperfiltration. These results indicate that as dietary protein intake increases, the catabolism of diet-derived amino acids is not associated with an increased endogenous oxalate synthesis in normal subjects. PMID:19183980

  4. The effect of modified citrus pectin on urinary excretion of toxic elements.

    PubMed

    Eliaz, Isaac; Hotchkiss, Arland T; Fishman, Marshall L; Rode, Dorena

    2006-10-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of modified citrus pectin (MCP) on the urinary excretion of toxic elements in healthy individuals. MCP is a reduced molecular weight pectin (weight-average molar mass = 15,400) that is mostly linear homogalacturonan with a 3.8% degree of esterification and approximately 10% rhamnogalacturonan II based on the presence of 2-keto-3-deoxy-octonic acid. Subjects ingested 15 g of MCP (PectaSol, EcoNugenics Inc., Santa Rosa, California 95407) each day for 5 days and 20 g on day 6. Twenty-four hour urine samples were collected on day 1 and day 6 for comparison with baseline. The urine samples were analysed for toxic and essential elements. In the first 24 h of MCP administration the urinary excretion of arsenic increased significantly (130%, p < 0.05). On day 6, urinary excretion was increased significantly for cadmium (150%, p < 0.05). In addition, lead showed a dramatic increase in excretion (560%, p < 0.08). This pilot trial provides the first evidence that oral administration of MCP increases significantly the urinary excretion of toxic metals in subjects with a 'normal' body load of metals. It is suggested that systemic chelation of toxic metals by MCP may in part be attributable to the presence of rhamnogalacturonan II, which has been shown previously to chelate metals.

  5. Single dose povidone-iodine on thyroid functions and urinary iodine excretion.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Deniz; Teziç, H Tahsin; Zorlu, Pelin; Firat, Serap; Bilaloğlu, Eriş; Kutlu, Alev Oğuz

    2003-08-01

    The effect of single dose povidone-iodine on serum thyrotropin and thyroxine levels and urinary iodine excretion in 30 preterm, 40 full-term newborns and 50 infants at Dr. Sami Ulus Children's Hospital was studied. There was no significant change of thyroid function in any of the groups (p>0.05). Urinary iodine excretion in preterm and full-term groups elevated significantly (p<0.05). The authors conclude that patients who receive single dose povidone-iodine for skin disinfection are not at risk for thyroid disorders.

  6. Abnormal urinary excretion of polyamines in HHH syndrome (hyperornithinemia associated with hyperammonemia and homocitrullinuria).

    PubMed

    Shimizu, H; Maekawa, K; Eto, Y

    1990-01-01

    The HHH syndrome (hyperornithinemia associated with hyperammonemia and homocitrullinuria) is characterized by a very rare genetic defect of ornithine transport in mitochondrial membrane. We first demonstrated that a patient with HHH syndrome excreted about 6 times higher amount of polyamines in urine than the control when supplemented with high protein diets and ornithine loading. Each urinary polyamine fraction measured by HPLC method in HHH syndrome appears to be increased, as compared with those of the control. These data suggest that increased urinary excretion of polyamines in this syndrome is closely related to overflowing of plasma polyamine due to an ornithine transport defect in the mitochondrial membrane.

  7. Assessment of urinary excretion of antimalarial drugs in large-scale chemotherapeutic eradication projects

    PubMed Central

    Bruce-Chwatt, L. J.

    1959-01-01

    Assessment of the urinary excretion of an antimalarial drug is a useful means of checking the amount of drug administered and the regularity of intake. The author describes the various methods available for the qualitative and quantitative estimation of antimalarial drugs in urine and discusses their relative merits, with special reference to their suitability for use in the field. He points out the difficulties involved in estimating the urinary excretion of antimalarials in large-scale chemotherapeutic eradication projects and stress the importance of simplifying testing techniques as far as possible. PMID:13805135

  8. Sodium-bicarbonated mineral water decreases aldosterone levels without affecting urinary excretion of bone minerals.

    PubMed

    Schoppen, Stefanie; Pérez-Granados, Ana M; Carbajal, Angeles; Sarriá, Beatriz; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Pilar Vaquero, M

    2008-06-01

    AIM To assess in healthy postmenopausal women the influence of consuming sodium-bicarbonated mineral water on postprandial evolution of serum aldosterone and urinary electrolyte excretion. Eighteen postmenopausal women consumed 500 ml of two sodium-bicarbonated mineral waters (sodium-bicarbonated mineral water 1 and sodium-bicarbonated mineral water 2) and a low-mineral water with a standard meal. Postprandial blood samples were taken at 60, 120, 240, 360 and 420 min and aldosterone concentrations were measured. Postprandial urinary minerals were determined. Urinary and total mineral excretion and urinary mineral concentrations did not differ except for sodium concentration, which was significantly higher with sodium-bicarbonated mineral water 1 than with low-mineral water (P = 0.005). There was a time effect (P = 0.003) on the aldosterone concentration. At 120 min, aldosterone concentrations were lower with sodium-bicarbonated mineral water 1 (P = 0.021) and sodium-bicarbonated mineral water 2 (P = 0.030) compared with low-mineral water. Drinking a sodium-rich bicarbonated mineral water with a meal increases urinary sodium concentration excretion without changes in the excretion of potassium and bone minerals.

  9. Effect of vitamin A supplementation on the urinary retinol excretion in very low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Schmiedchen, Bettina; Longardt, Ann Carolin; Loui, Andrea; Bührer, Christoph; Raila, Jens; Schweigert, Florian J

    2016-03-01

    Despite high-dose vitamin A supplementation of very low birth weight infants (VLBW, <1500 g), their vitamin A status does not improve substantially. Unknown is the impact of urinary retinol excretion on the serum retinol concentration in these infants. Therefore, the effect of high-dose vitamin A supplementation on the urinary vitamin A excretion in VLBW infants was investigated. Sixty-three VLBW infants were treated with vitamin A (5000 IU intramuscular, 3 times/week for 4 weeks); 38 untreated infants were classified as control group. On days 3 and 28 of life, retinol, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), glomerular filtration rate, proteinuria, and Tamm-Horsfall protein were quantified in urine. On day 3 of life, substantial retinol and RBP4 losses were found in both groups, which significantly decreased until day 28. Notwithstanding, the retinol excretion was higher (P < 0.01) under vitamin A supplementation as compared to infants of the control group. On day 28 of life, the urinary retinol concentrations were predictive for serum retinol concentrations in the vitamin A treated (P < 0.01), but not in the control group (P = 0.570). High urinary retinol excretion may limit the vitamin A supplementation efficacy in VLBW infants. Advanced age and thus postnatal kidney maturation seems to be an important contributor in the prevention of urinary retinol losses.

  10. Urinary excretion of furosemide in rats with HgCl sub 2 -induced acute renal damage

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimura, Akio; Sudoh, Toshiaki; Ohashi, Kyoichi; Ebihara, Akio )

    1992-01-01

    To examine the influence of mercuric chloride (HgCl{sub 2})-induced acute renal damage on urinary excretion of furosemide, HgCl{sub 2} or its vehicle along was given intraperitoneally to Wistar rats. The following two experiments were done. Study 1: three percent body weight (b.w.) of 1% NaCl solution or furosemide in 3% b.w. of 1% NaCl solution was given orally before and after HgCl{sub 2} treatment, and an 8-hour urine was collected. Study 2: furosemide was given orally, and blood samples were obtained at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 hours after administration. Urinary excretion of N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase increased, and urine volume and urinary excretions of furosemide and sodium decreased in the HgCl{sub 2}-treated rats. There were significant correlations between the urinary furosemide and its diuretic effects. Regression lines after HgCl{sub 2} were significantly different from those before treatment. The values of absorption as well as elimination rate constant were smaller, while the time to maximum concentration and the elimination half-life were longer in the HgCl{sub 2}-treated rats compared to vehicle-treated animals. These results suggest that the urinary excretion of furosemide and the responsiveness of renal tubular cells to this agent are impaired in rats with HgCl{sub 2}-induced acute renal damage.

  11. Urinary folate excretion in chronic ethanol- and diet-treated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, T.D.; McMartin, K.E.; Bairnsfather, L.

    1986-03-05

    Acute ethanol treatment of rats produces a marked increase in urinary folate excretion, which accumulates in correlation with the duration of ethanol treatment. In order to study the role of excess urinary folate excretion in the development of folate deficiency by chronic ethanol feeding, groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained for four months on one of the following liquid diets: ethanol, pair-fed control, ethanol minus folic acid, and pair-fed control minus folic acid. A fifth group was provided a control chow diet ad libitum. Blood ethanol levels were generally maintained between 80-150 mg/dl at various times of the day. Decrease in plasma and tissue folate levels occurred within four weeks in all liquid diet groups compared to chow rats and within two weeks for urinary folate levels. Greater effects were generally observed in both folate-deficient groups than in the control or ethanol group. Acute ethanol treatment of rats from the various diet groups produced increases in urinary folate excretion in all groups except the ethanol minus folic acid diet group. When the folate system of rats are compromised by dietary deprivation and/or chronic ethanol treatment, these results suggest that urinary folate excretion is greatly reduced as a conservation measure.

  12. Effect of fasting on the urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins in humans and rats.

    PubMed

    Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Yoshida, Erina; Takahashi, Kei; Shibata, Katsumi

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies showed that the urinary excretion of the water-soluble vitamins can be useful as a nutritional index. To determine how fasting affects urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins, a human study and an animal experiment were conducted. In the human study, the 24-h urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins in 12 healthy Japanese adults fasting for a day was measured. One-day fasting drastically decreased urinary thiamin content to 30%, and increased urinary riboflavin content by 3-fold. Other water-soluble vitamin contents did not show significant change by fasting. To further investigate the alterations of water-soluble vitamin status by starvation, rats were starved for 3 d, and water-soluble vitamin contents in the liver, blood and urine were measured during starvation. Urinary excretion of thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B(6) metabolite 4-pyridoxic acid, nicotinamide metabolites and folate decreased during starvation, but that of vitamin B(12), pantothenic acid and biotin did not. As for blood vitamin levels, only blood vitamin B(1), plasma PLP and plasma folate levels decreased with starvation. All water-soluble vitamin contents in the liver decreased during starvation, whereas vitamin concentrations in the liver did not decrease. Starvation decreased only concentrations of vitamin B(12) and folate in the skeletal muscle. These results suggest that water-soluble vitamins were released from the liver, and supplied to the peripheral tissues to maintain vitamin nutrition. Our human study also suggested that the effect of fasting should be taken into consideration for subjects showing low urinary thiamin and high urinary riboflavin.

  13. Urinary excretion of dietary Maillard reaction products in healthy adult female cats.

    PubMed

    van Rooijen, C; Bosch, G; Butré, C I; van der Poel, A F B; Wierenga, P A; Alexander, L; Hendriks, W H

    2016-01-01

    During processing of foods, the Maillard reaction occurs, resulting in the formation of advanced Maillard reaction products (MRP). Varying amounts of MRP have been found in commercially processed pet foods. Dietary MRP can be absorbed and contribute to the endogenous pool of MRP and possibly the etiology of age-related diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine urinary excretion of dietary MRP in cats fed commercial moist and dry foods. A pilot study with 10 cats, conducted to determine the adaptation time required for stable urinary excretion of MRP when changing to a diet with contrasting MRP content, showed an adaptation time of 1 d for all components. In the main study, 6 commercially processed dry and 6 moist diets were fed to 12 adult female cats in 2 parallel randomized, 36-d Latin square designs. The 24-h urine was collected quantitatively using modified litter boxes, and fructoselysine (FL), carboxymethyllysine (CML), and lysinoalanine (LAL) were analyzed using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) - mass spectrometer. Daily urinary excretion of FL and CML showed a positive relationship with daily intake in the dry ( = 0.03 and < 0.01, respectively) and moist ( < 0.01) foods. For LAL, no significant relationship was observed. Urinary recovery (% ingested) showed a negative relationship with daily intake for FL, CML, and LAL in the dry foods ( < 0.01, < 0.01, and = 0.08, respectively) and for CML and LAL in the moist foods ( < 0.01). The observed increase in urinary excretion with increasing dietary intake indicates that dietary MRP were absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract of cats and excreted in the urine. The adaptation time with change in diet indicates a likely effective excretion of MRP. Minimum apparent absorption of FL, CML, and LAL was found to range between 8% and 23%, 25% and 73%, and 6% and 19%, respectively. The observed decrease in urinary recovery suggests a limiting factor in digestion, absorption, metabolism

  14. Work stress and recovery measured by urinary catecholamines and cortisol excretion in long distance coach drivers

    PubMed Central

    Sluiter, J. K.; van der Beek, A. J.; Frings-Dresen, M. H.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate coach drivers' work stress during work and in the course of recovery from work by measurement of urinary catecholamines and cortisol. METHODS: The urinary excretion rate of adrenaline, noradrenaline, and cortisol of 10 coach drivers was studied during a long distance trip of three days and two consecutive days off. Each driver was asked to provide seven urine samples on the working days and six urine samples on the days off. The second day off was considered as the baseline. RESULTS: An occupationally induced disturbance of the circadian rhythmicity was found for adrenaline and noradrenaline but not for cortisol. The mean excretion rates of adrenaline on the first working day and most samples on all working days were higher than the baseline. For both adrenaline and noradrenaline the mean excretion rates on the first day off were lower than the baseline. For cortisol, the mean excretion rate on all working days was higher than the baseline. A trend towards accumulation of cortisol excretion from the first working day to the third working day was found. A backward shift in peak concentrations was found for adrenaline and noradrenaline on the second working day, as was a forward shift in peak concentration of cortisol on both days off. CONCLUSIONS: Long distance coach drivers showed occupationally induced reactivity in rates of urinary excretion of adrenaline, noradrenaline, and cortisol. After the outward journey the rates of excretion of catecholamines did not return to baseline values. The course of recovery in adrenaline excretion after the journey showed a new phenomenon, which has been called "fatigue debt". It is recommended that longer resting times in shuttle bus trips and fixed days off after these kind of trips should be planned. Extensive future research should be focused on the additional relations between fatigue debt and health complaints.   PMID:9764101

  15. Moderate alcohol consumption and urinary excretion of magnesium and calcium.

    PubMed

    Rylander, R; Mégevand, Y; Lasserre, B; Amstutz, W; Granbom, S

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the magnesium (Mg) status of male subjects consuming moderate amounts of alcohol (n = 14) in comparison with that of a group of non-consumers of alcohol (n = 10). Plasma ionized Mg levels and total erythrocyte Mg content were determined as well as the excretion of Mg in urine before and after an oral loading test. Intake of Mg via food and water was estimated using a one-week dietary records. The results showed a significantly higher, alcohol dose-related excretion of Mg and Ca (calcium) in the urine after the oral Mg load among consumers of alcohol. Although the study is based on a small number of subjects with differences in smoking habits, it is suggested that alcohol consumption even in moderate amounts could contribute to Mg deficiency.

  16. Results of a quality assurance exercise for urinary glycosaminoglycan excretion.

    PubMed

    Brimble, A; Pennock, C; Stone, J

    1990-03-01

    Urine samples collected from four patients with a mucopolysaccharide storage disease (MPS) and two non-MPS patients were distributed to up to 33 laboratories as a test of their ability to detect abnormal glycosaminoglycan excretion. Seven national reference laboratories made a correct diagnostic assignment to all samples analysed. Qualitative turbidity and spot tests were shown to be unreliable. Failure to identify the excretion pattern occurred when reliance was placed on one-dimensional electrophoresis or thin layer chromatography as the sole method for glycosaminoglycan identification. Two-dimensional electrophoresis appeared to be the method of choice provided that staff had adequate experience in interpretation. Clinically unacceptable delays in analysis were common, with 80% of laboratories taking longer than 10 days to issue a report.

  17. Urinary excretion of morphine and biosynthetic precursors in mice

    PubMed Central

    Grobe, Nadja; Lamshöft, Marc; Orth, Robert G.; Dräger, Birgit; Kutchan, Toni M.; Zenk, Meinhart H.; Spiteller, Michael

    2010-01-01

    It has been firmly established that humans excrete a small but steady amount of the isoquinoline alkaloid morphine in their urine. It is unclear whether it is of dietary or endogenous origin. There is no doubt that a simple isoquinoline alkaloid, tetrahydropapaveroline (THP), is found in human and rodent brain as well as in human urine. This suggests a potential biogenetic relationship between both alkaloids. Unlabeled THP or [1,3,4-D3]-THP was injected intraperitoneally into mice and the urine was analyzed. This potential precursor was extensively metabolized (96%). Among the metabolites found was the phenol-coupled product salutaridine, the known morphine precursor in the opium poppy plant. Synthetic [7D]-salutaridinol, the biosynthetic reduction product of salutaridine, injected intraperitoneally into live animals led to the formation of [7D]-thebaine, which was excreted in urine. [N-CD3]-thebaine was also administered and yielded [N-CD3]-morphine and the congeners [N-CD3]-codeine and [N-CD3]-oripavine in urine. These results show for the first time that live animals have the biosynthetic capability to convert a normal constituent of rodents, THP, to morphine. Morphine and its precursors are normally not found in tissues or organs, presumably due to metabolic breakdown. Hence, only that portion of the isoquinoline alkaloids excreted in urine unmetabolized can be detected. Analysis of urine by high resolution-mass spectrometry proved to be a powerful method for tracking endogenous morphine and its biosynthetic precursors. PMID:20421505

  18. Urinary Excretion of Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Arellano-Buendía, Abraham Said; García-Arroyo, Fernando Enrique; Cristóbal-García, Magdalena; Loredo-Mendoza, María Lilia; Tapia-Rodríguez, Edilia; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura Gabriela; Osorio-Alonso, Horacio

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that tubular damage precedes glomerular damage in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Therefore, we evaluated oxidative stress and urinary excretion of tubular proteins as markers of tubular dysfunction. Methods. Diabetes was induced in rats by streptozotocin administration (50 mg/kg). Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring the activity of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD); additionally, expression levels of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), and oxidized protein (OP) were quantified. Whole glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured. Urinary excretion of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL), osteopontin (uOPN), and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (uNAG) was also determined. Results. Diabetic rats showed an increase in uNGAL excretion 7 days following induction of diabetes. Diuresis, proteinuria, albuminuria, creatinine clearance, and GFR were significantly increased by 30 days after induction. Furthermore, there was an increase in both CAT and SOD activity, in addition to 3-NT, 4-HNE, and OP expression levels. However, GPx activity was lower. Serum levels of NGAL and OPN, as well as excretion levels of uNGAL, uOPN, and uNAG, were increased in diabetics. Tubular damage was observed by 7 days after diabetes induction and was further aggravated by 30 days after induction. Conclusion. The tubular dysfunction evidenced by urinary excretion of NGAL precedes oxidative stress during diabetes. PMID:25243053

  19. Urinary trimethylselenonium excretion by the rat: effect of level and source of selenium-75

    SciTech Connect

    Nahapetian, A.T.; Janghorbani, M.; Young, V.R.

    1983-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore in rats the urinary metabolites of selenium (Se), by using (/sup 75/Se)selenomethionine, (/sup 75/Se)selenocystine, and (/sup 75/Se)selenite, and to assess the effects of low and high levels of Se intake on trimethylselenonium ion (TMSe) excretion in urine. Male adult rats were adapted for 6 weeks to a commercial rat laboratory stock diet (0.25 ppm Se). They were then starved for 24 hours and given an oral dose of either low (16 micrograms Se/kg body weight) or high (1500 micrograms Se/kg body weight) Se as the test Se compounds. Appearance of radioactivity in TMSe and non-TMSe Se metabolites in urine was monitored for 48 hours. About 40% of the /sup 75/Se dose was excreted in urine. TMSe was the major urinary Se metabolite at high, and a minor urinary Se metabolite at low dose levels of Se and for all three Se test compounds. At least 80% of urinary /sup 75/Se and 26-42% of the orally administered /sup 75/Se were excreted as non-TMSe Se metabolites in urine under the latter condition. It is hypothesized that at a requirement intake of Se either a trace or no TMSe is excreted in urine, and it becomes a major excretory metabolite of Se when the dietary trace mineral intake exceeds a requirement level, probably serving as a means of detoxification.

  20. Increased urinary excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid in a Danish family.

    PubMed

    Sjølin, K E

    1988-08-01

    During collection of a control material for determination of urinary excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid (beta-AIB), female high excretors were found in four generations in a Danish family. The heredity seemed to be sex related and dominant, unlike previous communications about genetically conditioned high excretors of beta-AIB.

  1. [Urinary excretion of proinflammatory cytokines and transforming growth factor beta at early stages of diabetic nephropathy].

    PubMed

    Bondar', I A; Klimontov, V V; Nadeev, A P

    2008-01-01

    To examine correlations between urine excretion of proinflammatory cytokines, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-b) and changes in renal structure and function, quality of glycemia control in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Urinary excretion of interleukine 1-beta (IL-1b), monocytic chemoattractive protein-1 (MCP-1), RANTES and TGF-b was measured with enzyme immunoassay in 57 patients including 22 patients with normal albuminuria, 23--with microalbuminuria, 12--with macroalbuminuria. Creatinine clearance was subnormal in 8 patients with macroalbuminuria. The control group consisted of 10 healthy persons. Morphological examination of renal biopsies was performed in 8 patients with normoalbuminuria and 10 patients with microalbuminuria. Patients with normoalbuminuria had excretion of MCP-1 significantly higher than in controls. Microalbuminuria patients showed high excretion of IL-1b, MCP-1 and TGF-b. Excretion of IL-1b, MCP-1, RANTES and TGF-b in patients with macroalbuminuria was higher than in controls and other groups of patients. Excretion of cytokines and TGFb correlated inversely with glomerular filtration rate and hemoglobin level. Positive correlations were detected between excretion of IL-1b, MCP-1, TGFb and glycated hemoglobin A(1c). In patients with normo- and microalbuminuria cytokine and TGFb excretion correlated with thickness of glomerular and glomerular basal membrane. CD68-positive macrophages were detected in the intersticium of 1 patient with normoalbuminuria and 6 patients with microalbuminuria. Urinary excretion of proinflammatory cytokines and TGF-b was elevated in patients with DM-1 having micro- and macroalbuminuria suggesting participation of inflammation in development of diabetic nephropathy.

  2. Fish Oil Supplementation and Urinary Oxalate Excretion in Normal Subjects on a Low-oxalate Diet

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Jessica N.; Mufarrij, Patrick W.; Easter, Linda; Knight, John; Holmes, Ross P.; Assimos, Dean G.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine if fish oil supplementation reduces endogenous oxalate synthesis in healthy subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifteen healthy non–stone-forming adults participated in this study. Subjects first abstained from using vitamins, medications, or foods enriched in omega-3 fatty acids for 30 days. Next, they collected two 24-hour urine specimens while consuming a self-selected diet. Subjects consumed an extremely low-oxalate and normal-calcium diet for 5 days and collected 24-hour urine specimens on the last 3 days of this diet. Next, the subjects took 2 fish oil capsules containing 650-mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 450-mg docosahexaenoic acid twice daily for 30 days. They consumed a self-selected diet on days 1–25 and the controlled diet on days 26–30. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected on days 28–30. Excretion levels of urinary analytes including oxalate and glycolate were analyzed. RESULTS Although there was a significant reduction in urinary oxalate, magnesium, and potassium excretions and an increase in uric acid excretion during the controlled dietary phases compared with the self-selected diet, there were no significant differences in their excretion during controlled diet phases with and without fish oil supplementation. CONCLUSION These results suggest that fish oil supplementation does not reduce endogenous oxalate synthesis or urinary oxalate excretion in normal adults during periods of extremely low oxalate intake. However, these results do not challenge the previously described reduction in urinary oxalate excretion demonstrated in normal subjects consuming a moderate amount of oxalate in conjunction with fish oil. PMID:25102784

  3. The effect of sodium bicarbonate upon urinary citrate excretion in calcium stone formers.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Vivian Barbosa; Baxmann, Alessandra Calábria; Tiselius, Hans-Göran; Heilberg, Ita Pfeferman

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of oral sodium bicarbonate (NaBic) supplementation upon urinary citrate excretion in calcium stone formers (CSFs). Sixteen adult calcium stone formers with hypocitraturia were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, crossover protocol using 60 mEq/day of NaBic during 3 days compared to the same period and doses of potassium citrate (KCit) supplementation. Blood and 24-hour urine samples were collected at baseline and during the third day of each alkali salt. NaBic, similarly to KCit supplementation, led to an equivalent and significant increase in urinary citrate and pH. Compared to baseline, NaBic led to a significant increase in sodium excretion without concomitant increases in urinary calcium excretion, whereas KCit induced a significant increase in potassium excretion coupled with a significant reduction in urinary calcium. Although NaBic and KCit both reduced calcium oxalate supersaturation (CaOxSS) significantly vs baseline, KCit reduced calcium oxalate supersaturation significantly further vs NaBic. Both KCit and NaBic significantly reduced urinary phosphate and increased calcium phosphate supersaturation (CaPSS) compared to baseline. Finally, a significantly higher sodium urate supersaturation (NaUrSS) was observed after the use of the 2 drugs. This short-term study suggests that NaBic represents an effective alternative for the treatment of hypocitraturic calcium oxalate stone formers who cannot tolerate or afford the cost of KCit. In view of the increased sodium urate supersaturation, patients with pure uric acid stones and high urate excretion may be less suited for treatment with NaBic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Testosterone urinary excretion rate increases during hypergravity in male monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strollo, F.; Barger, L.; Fuller, C.

    2000-01-01

    Real and simulated microgravity impairs T secretion both in animals and in the human. To verify whether hypergravity might enhance T secretion as a consequence of an opposite mechanical effect, 6 male monkeys were centrifuged at 2 G for 3 weeks after a 1 G stabilization period lasting 3 weeks and then taken back to 1 G for 1 week and urine were collected daily for T excretion measurement. Significantly higher level were observed during the initial 2 G phase as compared to pre- and post centrifugation periods and the trend was the same during the remaining 2 G period. This may reflect changes in testicular perfusion rather than endocrine adaptation per se.

  5. Clinical features of two cases of Legionnaires' disease with persistence of Legionella urinary antigen excretion.

    PubMed

    Higa, Futoshi; Fujita, Jiro; Koide, Michio; Haranaga, Shusaku; Tateyama, Masao

    2008-01-01

    The advantages of diagnosing legionellosis by urinary antigen detection are widely recognized, and include early detection, rapidity of testing, and ease of specimen collection. However, the persistence of Legionella urinary antigen excretion has been suggested in some selected patients, although the clinical features of these patients have not yet been clearly described. Here, we describe the clinical features of two patients with Legionnaires' disease with persistence of Legionella urinary antigen excretion (117 days and 247 days). One patient had an underlying disease, adult T-cell leukemia, and the other patient had ulcerative colitis and was receiving oral corticosteroids. Unusual clinical and radiological findings as well as a review of the literature are presented.

  6. Urinary Porphyrin Excretion in Neurotypical and Autistic Children

    PubMed Central

    Woods, James S.; Armel, Sarah E.; Fulton, Denise I.; Allen, Jason; Wessels, Kristine; Simmonds, P. Lynne; Granpeesheh, Doreen; Mumper, Elizabeth; Bradstreet, J. Jeffrey; Echeverria, Diana; Heyer, Nicholas J.; Rooney, James P.K.

    2010-01-01

    Background Increased urinary concentrations of pentacarboxyl-, precopro- and copro-porphyrins have been associated with prolonged mercury (Hg) exposure in adults, and comparable increases have been attributed to Hg exposure in children with autism (AU). Objectives This study was designed to measure and compare urinary porphyrin concentrations in neurotypical (NT) children and same-age children with autism, and to examine the association between porphyrin levels and past or current Hg exposure in children with autism. Methods This exploratory study enrolled 278 children 2–12 years of age. We evaluated three groups: AU, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and NT. Mothers/caregivers provided information at enrollment regarding medical, dental, and dietary exposures. Urine samples from all children were acquired for analyses of porphyrin, creatinine, and Hg. Differences between groups for mean porphyrin and Hg levels were evaluated. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine whether porphyrin levels were associated with increased risk of autism. Results Mean urinary porphyrin concentrations are naturally high in young children and decline by as much as 2.5-fold between 2 and 12 years of age. Elevated copro- (p < 0.009), hexacarboxyl- (p < 0.01) and pentacarboxyl- (p < 0.001) porphyrin concentrations were significantly associated with AU but not with PDD-NOS. No differences were found between NT and AU in urinary Hg levels or in past Hg exposure as determined by fish consumption, number of dental amalgam fillings, or vaccines received. Conclusions These findings identify disordered porphyrin metabolism as a salient characteristic of autism. Hg exposures were comparable between diagnostic groups, and a porphyrin pattern consistent with that seen in Hg-exposed adults was not apparent. PMID:20576582

  7. Urinary porphyrin excretion in neurotypical and autistic children.

    PubMed

    Woods, James S; Armel, Sarah E; Fulton, Denise I; Allen, Jason; Wessels, Kristine; Simmonds, P Lynne; Granpeesheh, Doreen; Mumper, Elizabeth; Bradstreet, J Jeffrey; Echeverria, Diana; Heyer, Nicholas J; Rooney, James P K

    2010-10-01

    Increased urinary concentrations of pentacarboxyl-, precopro- and copro-porphyrins have been associated with prolonged mercury (Hg) exposure in adults, and comparable increases have been attributed to Hg exposure in children with autism (AU). This study was designed to measure and compare urinary porphyrin concentrations in neurotypical (NT) children and same-age children with autism, and to examine the association between porphyrin levels and past or current Hg exposure in children with autism. This exploratory study enrolled 278 children 2-12 years of age. We evaluated three groups: AU, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and NT. Mothers/caregivers provided information at enrollment regarding medical, dental, and dietary exposures. Urine samples from all children were acquired for analyses of porphyrin, creatinine, and Hg. Differences between groups for mean porphyrin and Hg levels were evaluated. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine whether porphyrin levels were associated with increased risk of autism. Mean urinary porphyrin concentrations are naturally high in young children and decline by as much as 2.5-fold between 2 and 12 years of age. Elevated copro- (p < 0.009), hexacarboxyl- (p < 0.01) and pentacarboxyl- (p < 0.001) porphyrin concentrations were significantly associated with AU but not with PDD-NOS. No differences were found between NT and AU in urinary Hg levels or in past Hg exposure as determined by fish consumption, number of dental amalgam fillings, or vaccines received. These findings identify disordered porphyrin metabolism as a salient characteristic of autism. Hg exposures were comparable between diagnostic groups, and a porphyrin pattern consistent with that seen in Hg-exposed adults was not apparent.

  8. The pharmacokinetics, urinary and biliary excretion of pipecuronium bromide.

    PubMed

    Wierda, J M; Szenohradszky, J; De Wit, A P; Zentai, G; Agoston, S; Kakas, M; Kleef, U W; Meijer, D K

    1991-11-01

    The pharmacodynamics and -kinetics of pipecuronium were studied in 12 patients, six of whom received 100 micrograms kg-1 for laryngectomy (Group L), and six who underwent choledochotomy after insertion of the T-drain and were given 50 micrograms kg-1 (Group C). Onset time and clinical duration were 2.3 and 109 min and 2.8 and 39 min in Groups L and C, respectively. All patients could be sufficiently reversed with neostigmine. Terminal half-lives were 101.5 min (Group L) and 179 min (Group C) in a three-exponent decay; the distribution volumes at steady state 0.339 l kg-1 (Group L) and 0.506 l kg-1 (Group C); the plasma clearance 3.4 ml kg-1 min-1 (Group L) and 2.5 ml kg-1 min-1 (Group C). Within 24 h, 38.6% and 37% were excreted unchanged in the urine and 4.4% and 1% as 3-desacetyl pipecuronium in Groups L and C, respectively. Within 24 h only 2% was excreted into the bile in Group C. Distribution volume and terminal half-life in Group C were positively correlated with pre-operative serum aminotransferase levels (P less than 0.005).

  9. Possible parameters in the urinary excretion of tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Cawley, C.N.; Lewis, B.A.; Cannon, L.A.

    1985-11-01

    Because of its mobility in both physical and biological systems, tritium is interesting both as a tracer and as an issue in health physics. Because tritium is extremely difficult to contain, it is one of the major radionuclides of concern if released to the environment from nuclear facilities. Relatively very large releases are tolerated because the beta particle has low energy and, therefore, the radioisotope is not a health hazard unless deposited internally. Moreover, on release to the environment, tritium enters the hydrologic cycle and is diluted and dispersed widely through the hydrosphere. It is likely that tritium uptake and loss in humans is more complex than generally believed and may be more functionally related to physiological processes, such as the bicarbonate and electrolyte balances, than to ambient environmental conditions such as temperature. Despite the many uncertainties in the analyses of experimental data on tritium contamination and excretion, it is likely that further investigations will establish both a better understanding of the tritium health hazard and the physiological processes governing excretion and, perhaps, its indefinite recycling through metabolic pools.

  10. Urinary trimethylselenonium excretion by the rat: effect of level and source of /sup 75/Se

    SciTech Connect

    Nahapetian, A.T.; Janghorbani, M.; Young, V.R.

    1983-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore in rats the urinary metabolites of selenium (Se), by using (/sup 75/Se)selenomethionine, (/sup 75/Se)selenocystine, and (/sup 75/Se)selenite, and to assess the effects of low and high levels of Se intake on trimethylselenonium ion (TMSe) excretion in urine. Male adult rats were adapted for 6 weeks to a commercial rat laboratory stock diet (0.25 ppm Se). They were then starved for 24 hours and given an oral dose of either low (16 micrograms Se/kg body weight) or high (1500 micrograms Se/kg body weight) Se as the test Se compounds. Appearance of radioactivity in TMSe and non-TMSe Se metabolites in urine was monitored for 48 hours. About 40% of the /sup 75/Se dose was excreted in urine. TMSe was the major urinary Se metabolite (57-69% of urinary /sup 75/Se and 16-25% of oral /sup 75/Se dose) at high, and a minor urinary Se metabolite (10% of urinary /sup 75/Se and 3-4% of oral /sup 75/Se dose) at low dose levels of Se and for all three Se test compounds. At least 80% of urinary /sup 75/Se and 26-42% of the orally administered /sup 75/Se were excreted as non-TMSe Se metabolites in urine under the latter condition. It is hypothesized that at a requirement intake of Se either a trace or no TMSe is excreted in urine, and it becomes a major excretory metabolite of Se when the dietary trace mineral intake exceeds a requirement level, probably serving as a means of detoxification.

  11. Urinary excretion of phytoestrogens and risk of breast cancer among Chinese women in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Dai, Qi; Franke, Adrian A; Jin, Fan; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Hebert, James R; Custer, Laurie J; Cheng, Jiarong; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2002-09-01

    Although the majority of ecological and experimental studies have suggested a potential role of phytoestrogens in breast cancer prevention, findings from epidemiological studies have been inconsistent. Part of the inconsistencies may be attributable to the difficulty in measuring intake levels of phytoestrogens. Overnight urine samples from 250 incident breast cancer cases and their individually matched controls were analyzed for urinary excretion rates of isoflavonoids, mammalian lignans, and citrus flavonoids. The study subjects were a subset of the participants in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study, a large population-based case-control study conducted in Shanghai from 1996-1998. To minimize potential influence of treatment on the exposure of interest, urine samples from breast cancer cases were collected before cancer therapy. Urinary excretion of total isoflavonoids and mammalian lignans was substantially lower in breast cancer cases than in controls. The median excretion rate of total isoflavonoids was 13.97 nmol/mg creatinine in cases and 23.09 in controls (P = 0.01), and the median excretion rate of total lignans was 1.77 in cases and 4.16 in controls (P < 0.01). The risk of breast cancer was reduced with increasing excretion of total isoflavonoids (P for trend, 0.04) and total lignans (P for trend, <0.01), with adjusted odds ratios of 0.62 (95% confidence interval, 0.39-0.99) and 0.40 (95% confidence interval, 0.24-0.64) observed for the highest versus the lowest tertile of total isoflavonoid and lignan excretion, respectively. The adjusted odds ratio was 0.28 (95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.50) for women who had a high excretion rate of both total lignans and isoflavonoids compared with those with a low excretion of both groups of phytoestrogens. No association was observed with citrus flavonoids. The results from this study suggest that high intake of certain phytoestrogens may reduce the risk of breast cancer.

  12. Evolution of urinary iodine excretion over eleven years in an adult population.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Repiso, Carolina; Colomo, Natalia; Rojo-Martinez, Gemma; Valdés, Sergio; Tapia, Maria J; Esteva, Isabel; Ruiz de Adana, Maria S; Rubio-Martin, Elehazara; Lago-Sampedro, Ana; Santiago, Piedad; Velasco, Ines; Garcia-Fuentes, Eduardo; Moreno, Jose C; Soriguer, Federico

    2015-08-01

    Few prospective cohort studies have evaluated dietary iodine intake and urinary iodine concentrations in the general adult population. We assess the evolution of urinary iodine excretion and factors that may influence it in an adult population followed for 11 years. A population-based cohort study was undertaken in Pizarra (Spain). In the three study phases (baseline (n = 886), and 6 (n = 788) and 11 years later (n = 501)), participants underwent an interview and a standardized clinical examination that included a food questionnaire, and thyroid hormone and urinary iodine determinations. Subjects with thyroid dysfunction, palpable goiter or urinary iodine excretion >400 μg/L were excluded. Urinary iodine increased over the years (100.6 ± 70.0 μg/L at baseline vs. 125.4 ± 95.2 μg/L at 6 years and 141.6 ± 81.4 μg/L at 11 years; p < 0.0001). Urinary iodine was significantly higher in subjects who reported iodized salt consumption and in subjects with a higher intake of dairy products (p < 0.05). Consumption of iodized salt (Risk ratio (RR) = 1.23, 95% CI [1.01-2.05]) and dairy products (RR = 2.07, 95% CI [1.01-4.23]), and a baseline urinary iodine concentration ≥100 μg/L (RR = 1.26, 95% CI [1.04-1.53]) were significantly associated with urinary iodine concentrations ≥100 μg/L at 11 years. There is no correlation between thyroid function (TSH, free triiodothyronine or free thyroxine levels) and urinary iodine concentrations in conditions of iodine sufficiency. The increase in urinary iodine concentrations over eleven years is associated with an increase in iodized salt intake and with the dairy products intake, and possibly with a higher iodine content of dairy products. However, individual variability in urinary iodine excretion was not fully explained by dietary iodine intake alone; previous urinary iodine concentrations were also important. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  13. Increased urinary excretion of platelet activating factor in mice with lupus nephritis

    SciTech Connect

    Macconi, D.; Noris, M.; Benfenati, E.; Quaglia, R.; Pagliarino, G. ); Remuzzi, G. Ospedali Riuniti di Bergamo )

    1991-01-01

    Platelet activating factor (PAF) is present in urine from humans and experimental animals in normal conditions. Very little is known about changes in PAF urinary excretion under pathologic conditions and no data are available about the origin of PAF in the urine. In the present study we explored the possibility that immunologic renal disease is associated with an increase in PAF urinary excretion using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. To clarify the renal or extrarenal origin of urinary PAF we evaluated whether exogenously administered PAF (1-(1{prime},2{prime}-{sup 3}H)alkyl) is filtered through the glomerulus and excreted in the urine. The results show that: (1) urine from mice with lupus nephritis in the early phase of the disease contained amounts of PAF comparable to those excreted in normal mouse urine, (2) PAF levels increased when animals started to develop high grade proteinuria, (3) after intravenous injection of ({sup 3}H) PAF In nephritic mice, a negligible amount of ({sup 3}H) ether lipid, corresponding to ({sup 3}H)1-alkyl -2-acyl-3-phosphocholine (alkyl-2-acyl-GPC), was recovered from the 24 h urine extract.

  14. Impact of Dietary Calcium and Oxalate, and Oxalobacter Formigenes Colonization on Urinary Oxalate Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Juquan; Knight, John; Easter, Linda H.; Neiberg, Rebecca; Holmes, Ross P.; Assimos, Dean G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Enteric colonization with Oxalobacter formigenes, a bacterium whose main energy source is oxalate, has been demonstrated to decrease the risk of recurrent calcium oxalate kidney stone formation. We assessed the impact of diets controlled in calcium and oxalate contents on urinary and fecal analytes in healthy subjects who were naturally colonized with O. formigenes or not colonized with O. formigenes. Materials and Methods A total of 11 O. formigenes colonized and 11 noncolonized subjects were administered diets controlled in calcium and oxalate contents. We assayed 24-hour urine collections and stool samples obtained on the last 4 days of each 1-week diet for stone risk parameters and O. formigenes levels. Mixed model analysis was used to determine the effects of colonization status on these variables. Results Urinary calcium and oxalate excretion were significantly altered by the dietary changes in O. formigenes colonized and noncolonized individuals. Mixed model analysis showed significant interaction between colonization status and oxalate excretion on a low calcium (400 mg daily)/moderate oxalate (250 mg daily) diet (p = 0.026). Urinary oxalate excretion was 19.5% lower in O. formigenes colonized subjects than in noncolonized subjects on the low calcium/moderate oxalate diet (mean ± SE 34.9 ± 2.6 vs 43.6 ± 2.6 mg, p = 0.031). Conclusions Results suggest that O. formigenes colonization decreases oxalate excretion during periods of low calcium and moderate oxalate intake. PMID:21575973

  15. [Influence of topically applied iodides on urinary iodine excretion and thyroid function].

    PubMed

    Stankiewicz, Andrzej; Siekierzyński, Maksymilian; Wierzbowska, Joanna

    2003-01-01

    The present study was undertaken, to evaluate whether ophthalmic drug, containing iodine applied to conjunctival sac might result in a significant increase of urine iodine excretion and thus might be indirectly associated with the risk of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism. The aim of the study was to examine the occurrence of biochemically relevant changes in urine iodine excretion and in thyroid function after topical administration of ophthalmic drug containing iodine. In the study twenty-two patients without a history of thyroid disease were examined. The Vitreolent (Ciba Vision) was applied topically to conjunctival sac four times a day for one month. The urinary iodine excretion, using "Rapid Urinary Iodine Test" (Merck KgaA) and parameters of thyroid function (TSH, FT3, FT4) were measured before starting and after therapy. The data showed, that was a significant increase in urinary iodine excretion at the end of therapy; as far as thyroid function was concerned, neither changes in level of TSH nor thyroid hormones were observed.

  16. [Assessment of dietary intake and urinary excretion of sodium and potassium in adults].

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Karen; Pizarro, Fernando; Atalah, Eduardo; Galgani, José E

    2014-06-01

    Hypertension is associated with elevated sodium and low potassium intakes. The determination of sodium and potassium intake by dietary records is inaccurate, being its measurement from 24-h urine collection the reference method. To determine urinary sodium and potassium excretion in adults. To compare dietary sodium and potassium intake and their excretion from an isolated urine sample against the reference method. Seventy healthy adults aged 35 ± 8 years with a body mass index 25 ± 2 kg/m² (36 women) were studied. Urine was collected over 24 h, including an isolated urine sample taken in fasting conditions. Additionally, three 24-h dietary records were performed. Reported sodium and potassium intake was 2,720 ± 567 and 1,068 ± 433 mg/day, respectively. In turn, urinary excretion of sodium and potassium was 4,770 ± 1,532 and 1,852 ± 559 mg/day, respectively. These latter values were significantly higher than those obtained by dietary records. Furthermore, the urinary sodium and potassium excretion estimated from an isolated urine sample was 4,839 ± 1,355 and 1,845 ± 494 mg/day, respectively. These values were similar to those obtained with a 24 h urine collection. Dietary records underestimated electrolyte intake when compared with the reference method. Using an isolated urine sample to estimate electrolyte intake may be a reliable alternative.

  17. Evaluation of urinary excretion of androgens conjugated to cysteine in human pregnancy by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fabregat, Andreu; Marcos, Josep; Garrostas, Lorena; Segura, Jordi; Pozo, Oscar J; Ventura, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in the maternal excretion of steroids during pregnancy are not restricted to the production of progesterone and estriol by the fetoplacental unit. Although there is a lack of longitudinal data on urinary androgen concentrations during pregnancy, some studies revealed that modifications in the excretions of androgens might be significant. Recently, several testosterone metabolites excreted as cysteine conjugates have been reported in human urine. We conducted a longitudinal study on androgens conjugated with cysteine and major androgens and estrogens excreted as glucuronides in three pregnant women by mass spectrometric techniques. The urinary concentrations obtained in samples weekly collected during each of the three trimesters and samples collected before pregnancy were compared. Results showed a significant increase in urinary estrogens and norandrosterone and a moderate decrease in the urinary concentrations for most of the androgens. The most significant exception to this behavior was the rise observed for epitestosterone glucuronide when comparing basal levels with the first trimester. Cysteinyl conjugates of testosterone metabolites showed a different behavior. Whereas 4,6-androstanedione remained almost constant through the three trimesters, and Δ(6)-testosterone decreased as the majority of androgens, the excretion profile of 1,4-androstanedione notably increased, reaching a maximum at the third trimester. Alterations in the steroid profile are used in doping control analysis for the screening of endogenous anabolic androgenic steroid misuse. In this study, the main parameters proposed for doping control have been determined for basal samples and samples collected in the first trimester and they have been compared. In spite of the limited number of cases, significant variations have been found in all pregnancies studied. These alterations have to be taken into consideration if anabolic steroids are included into the Athlete Biological Passport

  18. 24h urinary sodium excretion and subsequent change in weight, waist circumference and body composition.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Sofus C; Ängquist, Lars; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Heitmann, Berit L

    2013-01-01

    In the same period as the increasing obesity epidemic, there has been an increased consumption of highly processed foods with a high salt content, and a few studies have suggested that a diet with a high salt content may be associated with obesity. To investigate the association between 24 h urinary sodium excretion and subsequent change in body weight (BW), waist circumference (WC), body fat (BF) and fat free mass (FFM) among adults. A longitudinal population study based on the Danish part of the MONICA project, with examinations in 1987-1988 and 1993-1994. Complete information on 24 h urinary sodium excretion along with repeated measures of obesity, as well as on potential confounders, was obtained from 215 subjects. Linear regression was used to examine the association between sodium excretion, as a measure of salt consumption, and subsequent changes in BW, WC, BF and FFM, and further evaluated by restricted cubic splines. Stepwise adjustments were made for selected covariates. Neither the crude nor the adjusted models showed any statistically significant associations between sodium excretion and change in BW or WC. Likewise, we found no significant association between sodium excretion and change in BF and FFM in the unadjusted models. However, after adjusting for potential baseline confounders and the concurrent BW change, we found a significant increase in BF of 0.24 kg (P = 0.015, CI: 0.05 to 0.43) per 100 mmol increase in 24 h urinary sodium excretion (equivalent to 6 g of salt), during the 6-year study period. Moreover, during the same period, we found a significant association with FFM of -0.21 kg (P = 0.041, CI: -0.40 to -0.01). These results suggest that a diet with a high salt content may have a negative influence on development in body composition by expanding BF and reducing FFM.

  19. Alkali replacement raises urinary citrate excretion in patients with topiramate-induced hypocitraturia.

    PubMed

    Jhagroo, R Allan; Wertheim, Margaret L; Penniston, Kristina L

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess (1) the magnitude and temporality of decreased urinary citrate excretion in patients just starting topiramate and (2) the effect of alkali replacement on topiramate-induced hypocitraturia. Study 1 was a prospective, non-intervention study in which patients starting topiramate for headache remediation provided pre- and post-topiramate 24 h urine collections for measurement of urine citrate. Study 2 was a clinical comparative effectiveness study in which patients reporting to our stone clinic for kidney stones and who were treated with topiramate were prescribed alkali therapy. Pre- and post-alkali 24 h urinary citrate excretion was compared. Data for 12 and 22 patients (studies 1 and 2 respectively) were evaluated. After starting topiramate, urinary citrate excretion dropped significantly by 30 days (P = 0.016) and 62% of patients had hypocitraturia (citrate <320 mg day(-1) ). At 60 days, urine citrate was even lower than at baseline (P = 0.0032) and 86% of patients had developed hypocitraturia. After starting alkali, urine citrate increased in stone-forming patients on topiramate (198 ± 120 to 408 ± 274 mg day(-1) ; P = 0.042 for difference). 85% of patients were hypocitraturic on topiramate alone vs. 40% after adding alkali. The increase in urinary citrate was greater in patients provided ≥ 90 mEq potassium citrate. Our study is the first to provide clinical evidence that alkali therapy can raise urinary citrate excretion in patients who form kidney stones while being treated with topiramate. Clinicians should consider alkali therapy for reducing the kidney stone risk of patients benefitting from topiramate treatment for migraine headaches or other conditions. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  20. Secretion of melatonin and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin urinary excretion in functional dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Chojnacki, Cezary; Poplawski, Tomasz; Klupinska, Grażyna; Blasiak, Janusz; Chojnacki, Jan; Reiter, Russel J

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate blood concentration of melatonin and urinary excretion of its metabolite, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (6-OHMS), in functional dyspepsia (FD). METHODS: Ninety individuals were enrolled in the study: 30 in each study group: patients with postprandial distress syndrome (PDS), epigastric pain syndrome (EPS), and controls. Blood samples were drawn at 02:00 and 09:00 h and 24-h urine collection was performed. Serum melatonin and urinary 6-OHMS concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Serum melatonin concentration at night and in the morning was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in PDS patients [at 02:00 h-93.3 pg/mL, quartile range (QR): 79.8-116.2; at 09.00 h-14.3 pg/mL, QR: 7.06-19.0] than in EPS (57.2 pg/mL, QR: 42.6-73.1; 8.1 pg/mL, QR: 4.1-9.3) and control patients (57.7 pg/mL, QR: 51.2-62.5; 8.1 pg/mL, QR: 5.4-10.3). A similar relationship was observed for urinary 6-OHMS excretion. Patients with severe PDS symptoms had a higher melatonin concentration than these with moderate syndromes, whereas patients with severe EPS had a lower urinary 6-OHMS excretion than patients with moderate symptoms. CONCLUSION: Evaluation of melatonin serum concentrations and 24-h urinary 6-OHMS excretion are useful methods for differential diagnosis of various clinical forms of FD. PMID:21677834

  1. Ethnic differences in urinary calcium and phosphate excretion between Gambian and British older adults.

    PubMed

    Redmond, J; Palla, L; Yan, L; Jarjou, L M A; Prentice, A; Schoenmakers, I

    2015-03-01

    Ethnic differences in renal calcium and phosphate excretion exist, which may depend on differences in their dietary intakes and regulatory factors. We report highly significant differences in urinary calcium and phosphate excretion between white British and Gambian adults after statistical adjustment for mineral intakes, indicating an independent effect of ethnicity. Populations vary in their risk of age-related osteoporosis. There are racial or ethnic differences in the metabolism of the bone-forming minerals calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P), with a lower renal Ca and P excretion in African-Americans compared to white counterparts, even at similar intakes and rates of absorption. Also, Africans in The Gambia have a lower Ca excretion compared to white British subjects, groups known to differ in their dietary Ca intake. Here, we report on differences in urinary Ca and P excretion between Gambian and white British adults while allowing for known predictors, including dietary intakes. Participants were healthy white British (n = 60) and Gambian (n = 61) men and women aged 60-75 years. Fasting blood and 2-h urine samples were collected. Markers of Ca and P metabolism were analysed. Dietary intake was assessed with country-specific methods. White British older adults had higher creatinine-corrected urinary Ca and P excretion (uCa/uCr, uP/uCr) and lower tubular maximum of Ca and P compared to Gambian counterparts. The predictors of urinary Ca and P differed between groups. Multiple regression analysis showed that dietary Ca and Ca/P were predictors of uCa/uCr and uP/uCr, respectively. Ethnicity remained a significant predictor of uCa/uCr and uP/uCr after adjustment for diet and other factors. Gambian older adults have higher renal Ca conservation than British counterparts. Dietary mineral intakes were predictors of the differences in urinary Ca and P excretion, but ethnicity remained a highly significant predictor after statistical adjustment. This suggests that ethnicity

  2. Relative bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate to the lung following inhalation, using urinary excretion

    PubMed Central

    Aswania, O A; Corlett, S A; Chrystyn, H

    1999-01-01

    Aims To determine if a urinary excretion method, previously described for salbutamol, could also indicate the relative bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate to the lung following inhalation from a metered dose inhaler. Method Inhaled (INH), inhaled+oral charcoal (INHC), oral (ORAL) and oral+oral charcoal (ORALC) 20 mg doses of sodium cromoglycate were given via a randomised cross-over design to 11 healthy volunteers trained on how to use a metered dose inhaler. Urine samples were collected at 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and up to 24 h post dosing and the sodium cromoglycate urinary concentration was measured using a high performance liquid chromatographic method. Results No sodium cromoglycate was detected in the urine up to 24 h following ORALC dosing. A mean (s.d.) of 3.6 (4.3) μg, 10.4 (10.9) μg and 83.7 (71.1) μg of the ORAL dose was excreted, in the urine, during the 0.5, 1.0 and 24 h post dose collection periods, respectively. Following INH dosing, the renal excretion was significantly higher (P < 0.01) with 32.9 (14.5) μg, 61.2 (28.3) μg and 305.6 (82.3) μg excreted, respectively. The SCG excreted at 0.5, 1.0 and 24 h collection periods following INHC dosing were 26.3 (8.4) μg, 49.3 (18.1) μg and 184.9 (98.4) μg, respectively. There was no significant difference between the excretion rate of sodium cromoglycate following INHC when compared with INH dosing in the first 0.5 and 1.0 h. Conclusions The urinary excretion of sodium cromoglycate in the first 0.5 h post inhalation can be used to compare the relative lung deposition of two inhaled products or of the same product using different inhalation techniques. This represents the relative bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate to the lung following inhalation. Similar 24 h urinary excretion of sodium cromoglycate can be use to compare the total dose delivered to the body from two different inhalation products/inhalation methods. This represents the relative bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate to the body

  3. Urinary excretion patterns of pseudouridine and beta-aminoisobutyric acid in patients with tumours of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Kvist, E; Sjølin, K E; Iversen, J; Nyholm, K

    1993-01-01

    The preoperative and postoperative values of urinary pseudouridine:creatinine (phi:C) and beta-aminoisobutyric acid:creatinine (beta AIB:C) were estimated, in 192 patients with urothelial tumours of the bladder, 92 of whom had not previously been diagnosed. Urinary phi:C ratio correlated with the grade of tumour cell dysplasia (being highest in dysplasia grade 3), and to a lesser extent with the clinical stage. The treatment had no major influence on the excretion ratios. Decreased ratios, or those within the reference range, were associated with a better prognosis than increased ratios, and if both were increased at the same time the risk for progression of the disease was high. The biological tumour markers pseudouridine and beta-aminoisobutyric acid may be helpful in the diagnosis of tumours in the upper urinary tract, and in the follow-up of patients with tumours of the bladder.

  4. Urinary excretion of toluene diisocyanates in rats following dermal exposure.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Hui-Jung; Lin, Wei-Chao; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Wang, Shan-Tair; Chang, Ho-Yuan

    2008-03-01

    Toluene diisocyanates (TDI) are commonly used in polyurethane (PU)-related products. TDIs have been documented as the leading cause of occupational asthma. Skin exposure to TDI in the workplace is common. However, no studies in the literature have investigated the exact biomarker concentration profile for skin TDI absorption through any in vivo animal studies. In this study a rat model was used to evaluate the TDI skin absorption to explore the dose-response pattern and to determine the kinetic characteristics of urinary toluene diamine (U-TDA) during skin exposure. TDIs were topically exposed on the dorsum of rat skin at 0.2%, 1% and 5%. Consecutive urine samples were collected for 6 days and U-TDA were analysed using GC/ECD. It was demonstrated in this rat study that absorption of 2,4- and 2,6-TDI through skin contact is possible. A clear dose-dependent skin absorption relationship for 2,4- and 2,6-TDI was demonstrated by the AUC, Cmax findings and accumulative amounts (r > or = 0.968). U-TDA concentration profiles in 6-day consecutive urine samples fit well in the first-order kinetics, although higher order kinetics could not be excluded for the high dose. The apparent half-lives for excretory urinary TDA were about 20 h consistent at various skin exposures. It is concluded that skin absorption of TDI was confirmed in a rat model and a clear dose-dependent skin absorption relationship for 2,4- and 2,6-TDI was demonstrated. Excretory U-TDA concentrations in 6-day consecutive urine samples via skin exposure reveal the first-order kinetics and the half-lives were about 20 h.

  5. Conjugated bile acid replacement therapy reduces urinary oxalate excretion in short bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Emmett, Michael; Guirl, Michael J; Santa Ana, Carol A; Porter, Jack L; Neimark, Sidney; Hofmann, Alan F; Fordtran, John S

    2003-01-01

    Patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS) have steatorrhea, in part because of bile acid malabsorption that causes decreased bile acid secretion into the duodenum and consequent fat maldigestion. In SBS patients with colon in continuity, luminal calcium forms calcium fatty acid soaps rather than precipitating as insoluble calcium oxalate. Soluble oxalate is hyperabsorbed by the colon leading to hyperoxaluria and an increased risk for renal calcium oxalate stones and deposits. The authors hypothesized that oral ingestion of conjugated bile acids would increase fat absorption and thereby decrease calcium fatty acid soap formation and oxalate hyperabsorption. The effect of conjugated bile acid replacement therapy (9 g/d) on fecal fat excretion and urine oxalate excretion was measured in an appropriate patient, utilizing the metabolic balance technique. The effects of chronic bile acid replacement therapy on oxalate excretion and nutritional status also were measured in a 3-month outpatient study. Natural conjugated bile acid replacement therapy reduced fecal fat excretion from 119 to 79 g/d (Delta40 g/d), and urinary oxalate excretion from 87 to 64 mg/d (966 to 710 micromol/d; Delta23 mg/d). Cholylsarcosine, a synthetic conjugated bile acid, had similar but less powerful effects. During a 3-month outpatient trial of natural conjugated bile acids (9 g/d), urine oxalate decreased to normal levels (27 mg/d) in association with weight gain, decreased hunger, and decreased hyperphagia. Conjugated bile acid replacement therapy reduced fecal fat excretion, reduced urinary oxalate excretion, and improved nutritional status in a patient with SBS with colon in continuity, hyperoxaluria, and oxalate nephrolithiasis. Copyright 2003 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.

  6. Pharmacokinetics, urinary and mammary excretion of ceftriaxone in lactating goats.

    PubMed

    Ismail, M M

    2005-09-01

    The pharmacokinetic properties of ceftriaxone were investigated in 10 goats following a single intravenous (i.v.) and intramuscular (i.m.) administration of 20 mg kg(-1) body weight. After i.v. injection, ceftriaxone serum concentration-time curves were characteristic of a two-compartment open model. The distribution and elimination half-lives (t(1/2alpha), t(1/2beta)) were 0.12 and 1.44 h respectively. Following i.m. injection, peak serum concentration (C(max)) of 23.6 microg ml(-1) was attained at 0.70 h. The absorption and elimination half-lives (t(1/2ab), t(1/2el)) were 0.138 and 1.65 h respectively. The systemic bioavailability of the i.m. administration (F %) was 85%. Following i.v. and i.m. administration, the drug was excreted in high concentrations in urine for 24 h post-administration. The drug was detected at low concentrations in milk of lactating goats. A recommended dosage of 20 mg kg(-1) injected i.m. every 12 h could be expected to provide a therapeutic serum concentration exceeding the minimal inhibitory concentrations for different susceptible pathogens.

  7. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Carotid Atherosclerosis in Chinese Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Cheng; Xu, Ying; Guan, Ke; Su, Yi-Xiang; Chen, Yu-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Limited studies have examined the association between sodium (Na) and potassium (K) levels and the risk of atherosclerosis. This study examined whether higher Na and Na/K levels and low K levels were independent risk factors for atherosclerosis. This community-based cross-sectional study included 3290 subjects (1067 men and 2223 women) 40 to 75 years of age in Guangzhou, China, between 2011 and 2013. Urinary excretion of Na and K were measured from the first morning void, and creatinine-adjusted values were used. The intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid common artery and the carotid bifurcation was measured with high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography. Dietary K and Na intake and other covariates were obtained by face-to-face interviews. A significant positive association was seen between urinary Na excretion and carotid atherosclerosis after adjustment for age, sex, and other lifestyle covariates. The odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the highest (vs. lowest) quartile of urinary Na were 1.32 (1.04–1.66) for carotid plaques, 1.48 (1.18–1.87) for increased common carotid artery IMT, and 1.55 (1.23–1.96) for increased carotid bifurcation IMT (all p-trend < 0.01). A similar positive association was observed between urinary Na/K levels and carotid plaque and increased IMT, and between dietary Na intake and increased bifurcation IMT. Regarding potassium data, we only found a significantly lower presence of carotid plaque (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.57–0.91) for quartile 2 (vs. 1) of urinary K. Our findings suggest that higher levels of urinary excretion Na and Na/K are significantly associated with greater presence of carotid atherosclerosis in Chinese adults. PMID:27706075

  8. Daily urinary urea excretion to guide intermittent hemodialysis weaning in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Aniort, Julien; Ait Hssain, Ali; Pereira, Bruno; Coupez, Elisabeth; Pioche, Pierre Antoine; Leroy, Christophe; Heng, Anne Elisabeth; Souweine, Bertrand; Lautrette, Alexandre

    2016-02-19

    There are no easily available markers of renal recovery to guide intermittent hemodialysis (IHD) weaning. The aim of this study was to identify markers for IHD weaning in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). We performed a retrospective single-center cohort study of patients treated with IHD for at least 7 days and four dialysis sessions for AKI between 2006 and 2011 in an intensive care unit (ICU) of a French university hospital. Blood and urinary markers were recorded on the day of the last IHD in the ICU for unweaned patients and 2 days after the last IHD for weaned patients. Factors associated with IHD weaning were identified by multiple logistic regression. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and the characteristics of the best diagnostic thresholds were compared. Sixty-seven patients were analyzed, including thirty-seven IHD-weaned patients. Urine output [odds ratio (OR) 1.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20-2.10 (per ml/kg/24 h increase); P = 0.01] and urinary urea concentration [OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.01-1.64 (per 10 mmol/L increase); P = 0.04] were both associated with IHD weaning. The optimal diagnostic thresholds for IHD weaning were urine output greater than 8.5 ml/kg/24 h, urinary urea concentration greater than 148 mmol/L, and daily urea excretion greater than 1.35 mmol/kg/24 h, with accuracy of 82.1%, 76.1%, and 92.5% (P = 0.03), respectively. The AUROC of daily urinary urea excretion (0.96) was greater than the AUROC of urine output (0.86) or the AUROC of urinary urea concentration (0.83) (P < 0.001). A daily urinary urea excretion greater than 1.35 mmol/kg/24 h was found to be the best marker for weaning ICU patients with AKI from IHD.

  9. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Carotid Atherosclerosis in Chinese Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Cheng; Xu, Ying; Guan, Ke; Su, Yi-Xiang; Chen, Yu-Ming

    2016-10-01

    Limited studies have examined the association between sodium (Na) and potassium (K) levels and the risk of atherosclerosis. This study examined whether higher Na and Na/K levels and low K levels were independent risk factors for atherosclerosis. This community-based cross-sectional study included 3290 subjects (1067 men and 2223 women) 40 to 75 years of age in Guangzhou, China, between 2011 and 2013. Urinary excretion of Na and K were measured from the first morning void, and creatinine-adjusted values were used. The intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid common artery and the carotid bifurcation was measured with high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography. Dietary K and Na intake and other covariates were obtained by face-to-face interviews. A significant positive association was seen between urinary Na excretion and carotid atherosclerosis after adjustment for age, sex, and other lifestyle covariates. The odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the highest (vs. lowest) quartile of urinary Na were 1.32 (1.04-1.66) for carotid plaques, 1.48 (1.18-1.87) for increased common carotid artery IMT, and 1.55 (1.23-1.96) for increased carotid bifurcation IMT (all p-trend < 0.01). A similar positive association was observed between urinary Na/K levels and carotid plaque and increased IMT, and between dietary Na intake and increased bifurcation IMT. Regarding potassium data, we only found a significantly lower presence of carotid plaque (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.57-0.91) for quartile 2 (vs. 1) of urinary K. Our findings suggest that higher levels of urinary excretion Na and Na/K are significantly associated with greater presence of carotid atherosclerosis in Chinese adults.

  10. Estimating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion from casual urinary sodium concentrations in Western populations: the INTERSALT study.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ian J; Dyer, Alan R; Chan, Queenie; Cogswell, Mary E; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Stamler, Jeremiah; Elliott, Paul

    2013-06-01

    High intakes of dietary sodium are associated with elevated blood pressure levels and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. National and international guidelines recommend reduced sodium intake in the general population, which necessitates population-wide surveillance. We assessed the utility of casual (spot) urine specimens in estimating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion as a marker of sodium intake in the International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure. There were 5,693 participants recruited in 1984-1987 at the ages of 20-59 years from 29 North American and European samples. Participants were randomly assigned to test or validation data sets. Equations derived from casual urinary sodium concentration and other variables in the test data were applied to the validation data set. Correlations between observed and estimated 24-hour sodium excretion were 0.50 for individual men and 0.51 for individual women; the values were 0.79 and 0.71, respectively, for population samples. Bias in mean values (observed minus estimated) was small; for men and women, the values were -1.6 mmol per 24 hours and 2.3 mmol per 24 hours, respectively, at the individual level and -1.8 mmol per 24 hours and 2.2 mmol per 24 hours, respectively, at the population level. Proportions of individuals with urinary 24-hour sodium excretion above the recommended levels were slightly overestimated by the models. Casual urine specimens may be a useful, low-burden, low-cost alternative to 24-hour urine collections for estimation of population sodium intakes; ongoing calibration with study-specific 24-hour urinary collections is recommended to increase validity.

  11. Air pollution and urinary thioether excretion in children of Barcelona

    SciTech Connect

    Mallol, J.; Nogues, M.R. )

    1991-06-01

    The polluted environment found in highly industrialized areas and in big cities contains a great quantity of electrophilic (EC) and proelectrophilic (PEC) compounds, which largely contribute to the development of several pathological processes in humans. EC and PEC can be coupled to the cysteine moiety of glutathione spontaneously or by the glutathione S-transferase system (GST), giving nontoxic metabolites that can be eliminated as urinary thioethers (UT). Therefore one approach to establishing the degree of impact of EC and PEC on the human body is the analysis of UT in the population living in polluted environments. The work presented here has been carried out in the city of Barcelona with a group of 50 children living in a polluted area, over a 12-mo period. Our results demonstrate that UT are significantly higher when the amounts of air pollutants (AP) increase; although the level of contamination never exceeded the established safe limits, UT reached values similar to those found in people smoking more than 10 cigarettes/d. These results may contribute to establishing the maximal levels of contamination compatible with a healthy life, on the basis of patterns of true salubrity rather than on political and economic criteria.

  12. Urinary excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid in hematological diseases.

    PubMed

    Enkhjargal, Ts; Tserennadmid, Ch

    2004-01-01

    The level of beta-aminoisobutyric acid (beta-AIB), a thymine catabolite, has been measured in urine samples of 160 healthy individuals, 28 patients with renal, 27 patients with cardiovascular and 27 patients with hematological diseases and of 36 tumor patients. No significant difference in the prevalence of high excretors of beta-AIB between patients with cancer, renal and cardiovascular diseases and the healthy group was found, whereas all but two patients with hematological diseases were high excretors. Urinary beta-AIB shows a reverse correlation with the hemoglobin level and erythrocyte count in the cases of anemia, and appears to be directly correlated with the leukocyte count and blast cell content in the cases of leukemia, with its amount decreasing two to five-fold with the return of the hematological markers to normal levels after medicinal treatment. Therefore the beta-AIB concentration in urine may be used in combination with hematological indicators in assessing the disease status and in monitoring of the treatment response.

  13. Selective enhancement of urinary organic mercury excretion by D-penicillamine

    PubMed Central

    Ishihara, Nobuo; Shiojima, Shoji; Suzuki, Tsuguyoshi

    1974-01-01

    Ishihara, N., Shiojima, S., and Suzuki, T. (1974).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,31, 245-249. Selective enhancement of urinary organic mercury excretion by D-penicillamine. This report deals with the study of a patient who was suspected of having mercury vapour poisoning and was treated with D-penicillamine. D-penicillamine by mouth enhanced the urinary excretion of organic but not inorganic mercury. It was considered that D-penicillamine was ineffective because at a relatively low dose level of inorganic mercury exposure most inorganic mercury was tightly bound to sites of great affinity for mercury in tissues and resistant to replacement with D-penicillamine. On the contrary, organic mercury was considered to be easily replaced with D-penicillamine. The need to study further the different nature of tissue binding between inorganic and organic mercury is discussed. PMID:4415712

  14. Urinary ortho-tyrosine excretion in diabetes mellitus and renal failure: evidence for hydroxyl radical production.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Gergõ A; Wagner, Zoltán; Markó, Lajos; Kó Szegi, Tamás; Mohás, Márton; Kocsis, Béla; Matus, Zoltán; Wagner, László; Tamaskó, Mónika; Mazák, István; Laczy, Boglárka; Nagy, Judit; Wittmann, István

    2005-11-01

    Phenylalanine is converted to para- and ortho-tyrosine by hydroxyl free radical, or to para-tyrosine by the phenylalanine hydroxylase enzyme. The aim of this study was to measure para- and ortho-tyrosine in the urine and plasma of patients with chronic renal disease and/or diabetes, to obtain information on the renal handling of the different tyrosine isomers and, furthermore, to measure urinary levels of 8-epi-prostaglandin-F(2alpha), a marker of lipid peroxidation. In our cross-sectional study we measured para-, ortho-tyrosine, and phenylalanine levels, using high performance liquid chromatography and 8-epi-prostaglandin-F(2alpha) with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We compared 4 groups: (1) controls (CONTR, N = 14), (2) patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, N = 12), (3) patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DIAB, N = 17), (4) patients with chronic kidney disease and type 2 diabetes (DIAB-CKD, N = 19). We found a decreased plasma para-tyrosine level and decreased urinary para-tyrosine excretion in CKD patients, while the fractional excretion of para-tyrosine was similar in all 4 groups, approximately 1%. There was no difference in the plasma ortho-tyrosine levels between the groups. However, urinary ortho-tyrosine excretion was higher in all 3 groups of patients than in the CONTR group, and higher in DIAB and in DIAB-CKD patients than in CKD patients. The fractional excretion of ortho-tyrosine was significantly higher in DIAB and in DIAB-CKD patients than in the CONTR group. The fractional excretion of ortho-tyrosine exceeded 100% in the 2 diabetic groups. Urinary 8-epi-prostaglandin-F(2alpha)/creatinine ratio did not correlate with urinary ortho-tyrosine excretion. The difference between para-tyrosine levels of the groups is probably due to renal impairment, while there is indirect evidence for an increased tubular secretion or production of ortho-tyrosine in the kidney in diabetic patients with or without CKD.

  15. Urinary excretion of low molecular weight proteins in goats during the neonatal period.

    PubMed

    Ozgo, M; Skrzypczak, W; Drzezdzon, D; Lepczynski, A; Dratwa-Chalupnik, A; Michalek, K; Herosimczyk, A

    2009-10-01

    Urinary protein excretion occurs in neonates of many animal species, as well as in human neonates. However, the incidence, dynamics, and mechanism of proteinuria have not been unambiguously explained. The aims of this study were to investigate into excretion of selected protein fractions of molecular weight less than 69 kDa (LMW), evaluation of intensity and dynamics of changes during the first month of kids' life, and an attempt to explain the causes of neonatal proteinuria. The analysis were carried out on 16 kids of White Improved goats, over the period from birth until 30 days of age, using clearance methods. Urine proteins were separated electrophoretically (SDSPAGE), and their concentration and percentage content was determined by densitometric method with the use of archiving and image analysis software. The proteins found in the urine were grouped as HMW, LMW and albumin. For six fractions of LMW proteins, excretion rates and percentage content of the urinary total LMW protein pool were calculated. It has been demonstrated that neonatal proteinuria in goat kids is associated with a high level of excretion of proteins of lower molecular weight than albumin (69 kDa). A strong dynamics of changes in excretion of particular LMW protein fractions with age was observed, which may imply not only an increased permeability of glomerular filtration barrier, especially over the first days of life, but also a selectivity of reabsorption mechanisms in the nephrons. An increased permeability of glomerular filtration barrier for proteins during the first days of life may represent the adaptive mechanism for removal of protein excess from the organism. The urinary LMW protein pool may also contain proteins resulting from the hydrolysis in the tubular cells.

  16. Urinary sodium excretion and cardiovascular mortality in Finland: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Tuomilehto, J; Jousilahti, P; Rastenyte, D; Moltchanov, V; Tanskanen, A; Pietinen, P; Nissinen, A

    2001-03-17

    The evidence that high salt intake increases the risk of cardiovascular disease has been challenged. We aimed to find out whether salt intake, measured by 24 h urinary sodium excretion, is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease frequency and mortality, and all-cause mortality. We prospectively followed 1173 Finnish men and 1263 women aged 25-64 years with complete data on 24 h urinary sodium excretion and cardiovascular risk factors. The endpoints were an incident coronary and stroke event, and death from coronary heart disease, cardiovascular disease, and any cause. Each endpoint was analysed separately with the Cox proportional hazards model. The hazards ratios for coronary heart disease, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality, associated with a 100 mmol increase in 24 h urinary sodium excretion, were 1.51 (95% CI 1.14-2.00), 1.45 (1.14-1.84), and 1.26 (1.06-1.50), respectively, in both men and women. The frequency of acute coronary events, but not acute stroke events, rose significantly with increasing sodium excretion. When analyses were done separately for each sex, the risk ratios were significant in men only. There was a significant interaction between sodium excretion and body mass index for cardiovascular and total mortality; sodium predicted mortality in men who were overweight. Correction for the regression dilution bias increased the hazards ratios markedly. High sodium intake predicted mortality and risk of coronary heart disease, independent of other cardiovascular risk factors, including blood pressure. These results provide direct evidence of the harmful effects of high salt intake in the adult population.

  17. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion and dietary intake: a cross-sectional analysis in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Carla; Abreu, Sandra; Padrão, Patrícia; Pinho, Olívia; Graça, Pedro; Breda, João; Santos, Rute; Moreira, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertension is the leading cause for heart disease and stroke, for mortality and morbidity worldwide, and a high sodium-to-potassium intake ratio is considered a stronger risk factor for hypertension than sodium alone. Objective This study aims to evaluate sodium and potassium urinary excretion, and assess the food sources of these nutrients in a sample of Portuguese adolescents. Design A cross-sectional study with a sample of 250 Portuguese adolescents. Sodium and potassium excretion were measured by one 24-h urinary collection, and the coefficient of creatinine was used to validate completeness of urine collections. Dietary sources of sodium and potassium were assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Results Valid urine collections were provided by 200 adolescents (118 girls) with a median age of 14.0 in both sexes (p=0.295). Regarding sodium, the mean urinary excretion was 3,725 mg/day in boys and 3,062 mg/day in girls (p<0.01), and 9.8% of boys and 22% of girls met the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for sodium intake. Concerning potassium, the mean urinary excretion was 2,237 mg/day in boys and 1,904 mg/day in girls (p<0.01), and 6.1% of boys and 1.7% of girls met the WHO recommendations for potassium intake. Major dietary sources for sodium intake were cereal and cereal products (41%), meat products (16%), and milk and milk products (11%); and for potassium intake, main sources were milk and milk products (21%), meat products (17%), and vegetables (15%). Conclusions Adolescents had a high-sodium and low-potassium diet, well above the WHO recommendations. Health promotion interventions are needed in order to decrease sodium and increase potassium intake. PMID:27072344

  18. Behavioral and Perceived Stressor Effects on Urinary Catecholamine Excretion in Adult Samoans

    PubMed Central

    Bergey, Meredith R.; Steele, Matthew S.; Bereiter, David A.; Viali, Satupaitea; McGarvey, Stephen T.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The effects of perceptions and behaviors related to culturally-patterned socioeconomic obligations on catecholamine excretion rates were studied in a cross-sectional sample of Samoan adults. Methods 378 participants, ages 29-62 years, from 9 villages throughout Samoa, provided timed overnight urine specimens, and self-reported perceptions and behaviors associated with contributions to one's family, aiga, and chief, matai, and communal gift exchanges, fa'alavelave. Urinary norepinephrine and epinephrine excretion rates were measured by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Age (≤40 vs. >40 years) and gender-specific regression models were estimated to detect associations with catecholamine excretion. Results Young women who contribute more to their matai, who consider fa'alavelave to be a financial strain, and who view their contribution to their matai to be ‘just right’, had significantly higher residence-adjusted norepinephrine excretion. Young women who contribute more to their matai, who consider fa'alavelave to be a financial strain, and who consider their contribution to their aiga not to be a burden, had higher epinephrine excretion. Older men who contribute more to their aiga and who perceive their contribution to their aiga to be ‘just right’ had increased residence-adjusted epinephrine excretion. Conclusions Individual-level perceptions and behaviors related to traditional socioeconomic obligations are a significant correlate of increased overnight catecholamine excretion rates. Higher excretion rates may be attributed to psychosocial stress arousal associated with a discordance between personal desires for upward social mobility, and family and community-based socioeconomic obligations. Changes in patterns of individual-level psychosocial stress arousal may contribute to cardiovascular disease risk in modernizing Samoans. PMID:21793091

  19. Behavioral and perceived stressor effects on urinary catecholamine excretion in adult Samoans.

    PubMed

    Bergey, Meredith R; Steele, Matthew S; Bereiter, David A; Viali, Satupaitea; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2011-01-01

    The effects of perceptions and behaviors related to culturally patterned socioeconomic obligations on catecholamine excretion rates were studied in a cross-sectional sample of Samoan adults. A total of 378 participants, ages 29-62 years, from 9 villages throughout Samoa, provided timed overnight urine specimens, and self-reported perceptions and behaviors associated with contributions to one's family, aiga, and chief, matai, and communal gift exchanges, fa'alavelave. Urinary norepinephrine and epinephrine excretion rates were measured by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Age (≤40 vs. >40 years) and gender-specific regression models were estimated to detect associations with catecholamine excretion. Young women who contribute more to their matai, who consider fa'alavelave to be a financial strain, and who view their contribution to their matai to be "just right," had significantly higher residence-adjusted norepinephrine excretion. Young women who contribute more to their matai, who consider fa'alavelave to be a financial strain, and who consider their contribution to their aiga not to be a burden, had higher epinephrine excretion. Older men who contribute more to their aiga and who perceive their contribution to their aiga to be "just right" had increased residence-adjusted epinephrine excretion. Individual-level perceptions and behaviors related to traditional socioeconomic obligations are a significant correlate of increased overnight catecholamine excretion rates. Higher excretion rates may be attributed to psychosocial stress arousal associated with a discordance between personal desires for upward social mobility, and family and community-based socioeconomic obligations. Changes in patterns of individual-level psychosocial stress arousal may contribute to cardiovascular disease risk in modernizing Samoans. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Salt usage behaviors are related to urinary sodium excretion in normotensive Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Ju; Paik, Hee Young; Lee, Sim Yeol; Shim, Jae Eun; Kim, Young Sik

    2007-01-01

    High sodium intake is considered to be the major risk factor for hypertension but studies about sodium intake on prevention and management of hypertension is limited due to the difficulties in assessment of sodium intake. Dietary sodium comes not only from naturally occurring sodium in foods but also from the added sodium during processing, cooking and at the table. Present study was conducted to identify salt usage behavior questions related to urinary sodium excretion among normotensive adult Koreans. The test version of the salt usage questionnaire included six items of salt usage behaviors and nine items of high salt containing foods. A survey was conducted in 189 adults over 18 years of age in three age groups in both genders. Each participant answered the questionnaire and collected one 24-hour urine and urine samples were analyzed for sodium contents. Correlation analyses between scores of the questions and sodium excretion in 24-hour urine were performed to identify question items related to sodium excretion. Among fifteen questions, scores of three questions on salt usage behaviors were significantly correlated to urinary sodium excretion (r=0.17~0.19; p <0.05) and the sum of scores of the three questions showed higher correlation coefficients. (r=0.26, p <0.001) The salt usage behavior questions developed in this study would be useful in predicting sodium intake and in studying the relationship between sodium intake and health among Korean adults.

  1. Oral intake of ranitidine increases urinary excretion of N-nitrosodimethylamine.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Teng; Mitch, William A

    2016-06-01

    The H2-receptor antagonist, ranitidine, is among the most widely used pharmaceuticals to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease and peptic ulcers. While previous studies have demonstrated that amines can form N-nitrosamines when exposed to nitrite at stomach-relevant pH, N-nitrosamine formation from ranitidine, an amine-based pharmaceutical, has not been demonstrated under these conditions. In this work, we confirmed the production of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), a potent carcinogen, by nitrosation of ranitidine under stomach-relevant pH conditions in vitro We also evaluated the urinary NDMA excretion attributable to ingestion of clinically used ranitidine doses. Urine samples collected from five female and five male, healthy adult volunteers over 24-h periods before and after consumption of 150mg ranitidine were analyzed for residual ranitidine, ranitidine metabolites, NDMA, total N-nitrosamines and dimethylamine. Following ranitidine intake, the urinary NDMA excreted over 24h increased 400-folds from 110 to 47 600ng, while total N-nitrosamines increased 5-folds. NDMA excretion rates after ranitidine intake equaled or exceeded those observed previously in patients with schistosomiasis, a disease wherein N-nitrosamines are implicated as the etiological agents for bladder cancer. Due to metabolism within the body, urinary NDMA measurements represent a lower-bound estimate of systemic NDMA exposure. Our results suggest a need to evaluate the risks attributable to NDMA associated with chronic consumption of ranitidine, and to identify alternative treatments that minimize exposure to N-nitrosamines.

  2. Organic Anion Transporter 5 (Oat5) Urinary Excretion Is a Specific Biomarker of Kidney Injury: Evaluation of Urinary Excretion of Exosomal Oat5 after N-Acetylcysteine Prevention of Cisplatin Induced Nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Bulacio, Romina Paula; Anzai, Naohiko; Ouchi, Motoshi; Torres, Adriana Mónica

    2015-08-17

    Cisplatin is a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent. Its main side-effect is nephrotoxicity. It was reported that the organic anion transporter 5 (Oat5) urinary excretion is elevated, implying renal perturbation, when no modifications of traditional markers of renal damage are still observed in cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). It was also demonstrated that Oat5 is excreted in urine by the exosomal pathway. This study was designated to demonstrate the specific response of the urinary excretion of exosomal Oat5 to kidney injury independently of other cisplatin toxic effects, in order to strengthen Oat5 urinary levels as a specific biomarker of AKI. To accomplish that aim, we evaluated if urinary excretion of exosomal Oat5 returns to its basal levels when cisplatin renal damage is prevented by the coadministration of the renoprotective compound N-acetylcysteine. Four days after cisplatin administration, AKI was induced in cisplatin-treated male Wistar rats (Cis group), as it was corroborated by increased urea and creatinine plasma levels. Tubular damage was also observed. In cotreated animals (Cis + NAC group), plasma urea and creatinine concentrations tended to return to their basal values, and tubular damage was improved. Urinary excretion of exosomal Oat5 was notably increased in the Cis group, but when renal injury was ameliorated by N-acetylcysteine coadministration, that increase was undetected. So, in this work we observed that urinary excretion of exosomal Oat5 was only increased if renal insult is produced, demonstrating its specificity as a renal injury biomarker.

  3. Evaluation of Salt Intake, Urinary Sodium Excretion and Their Relationship to Overhydration in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Hallvass, Andrea E C; Claro, Lígia Maria; Gonçalves, Simone; Olandoski, Márcia; Nerbass, Fabiana Baggio; Aita, Carlos Alberto Mayora; de Moraes, Thyago Proença; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate sodium intake in a group of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and to correlate the results with the urinary excretion values of sodium and signs of fluid overload. We included patients with CKD in different stages. Urinary sodium was measured in 24 h urine samples. Body composition monitor (BCM) was used to estimate the hydration status. Sixty patients (38 ± 15 ml/min of GFR) presented 4.14 ± 1.71 g/24 h of urinary sodium excretion. Overhydration was detected in 50% of the patients by the BCM. There was a positive correlation between the measured sodium excretion values and BCM, ICW, ECW and TBW. In conclusion, markers of overhydration evaluated by BCM were positively correlated with urinary sodium excretion. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Increasing urinary calcium excretion after ceftriaxone and cephalothin therapy in adults: possible association with urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Otunctemur, Alper; Ozbek, Emin; Polat, Emre Can; Cekmen, Mustafa; Dursun, Murat; Cakir, Suleyman Sami

    2014-04-01

    In children, stone formation after ceftriaxone (CTRX) therapy by increasing calcium excretion was showed in the literature. In this study, we investigated the effect of CTRX, cephalothin (CP) and ampicillin (AS) therapy on urinary calcium excretion in adults. 180 participants included in the study who divided into six equal groups. The groups were; (1) CTRX therapy in stone free patients, (2) CTRX therapy in patients who have urinary stone; (3) CP therapy in stone free patients, (4) CP therapy in patients with urinary stone, (5) AS therapy in stone free patients, (6) AS therapy in patients with urinary stone. The patients received 2 g/day intravenous CTRX, CP and AS for 5 days in all groups respectively. There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics and blood biochemistry between the groups. Before and 5 days after the antibiotic therapies, the participants were evaluated by 24-h urinary calcium to creatinine ratio. Results were compared between the groups statistically by ANOVA and Tukey test. After drug therapies in group 2 and 4, the excretion of calcium to creatinine ratio in 24-h urine was more than the other groups. We found that both groups of two drugs therapy with or without stones (groups 1, 2, 3, 4), have significantly increased calcium to creatinine ratio in 24-h urine (p < 0.05). We did not find statistically difference in groups 5 and 6, after AS therapy. As a result of the study, we suggest that the patients who have taken antibiotic therapy with CTRX or CP, have an increased risk for the urolithiasis. In addition, we think that these drugs should be used carefully especially in patients with urolithiasis.

  5. Validation and Assessment of Three Methods to Estimate 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion from Spot Urine Samples in Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yaguang; Li, Wei; Wang, Yang; Chen, Hui; Bo, Jian; Wang, Xingyu; Liu, Lisheng

    2016-01-01

    24-h urinary sodium excretion is the gold standard for evaluating dietary sodium intake, but it is often not feasible in large epidemiological studies due to high participant burden and cost. Three methods—Kawasaki, INTERSALT, and Tanaka—have been proposed to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion from a spot urine sample, but these methods have not been validated in the general Chinese population. This aim of this study was to assess the validity of three methods for estimating 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urine samples against measured 24-h urinary sodium excretion in a Chinese sample population. Data are from a substudy of the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study that enrolled 120 participants aged 35 to 70 years and collected their morning fasting urine and 24-h urine specimens. Bias calculations (estimated values minus measured values) and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess the validity of the three estimation methods. 116 participants were included in the final analysis. Mean bias for the Kawasaki method was -740 mg/day (95% CI: -1219, 262 mg/day), and was the lowest among the three methods. Mean bias for the Tanaka method was -2305 mg/day (95% CI: -2735, 1875 mg/day). Mean bias for the INTERSALT method was -2797 mg/day (95% CI: -3245, 2349 mg/day), and was the highest of the three methods. Bland-Altman plots indicated that all three methods underestimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion. The Kawasaki, INTERSALT and Tanaka methods for estimation of 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urines all underestimated true 24-h urinary sodium excretion in this sample of Chinese adults. Among the three methods, the Kawasaki method was least biased, but was still relatively inaccurate. A more accurate method is needed to estimate the 24-h urinary sodium excretion from spot urine for assessment of dietary sodium intake in China. PMID:26895296

  6. The Kinetics of Urinary Fumonisin B1 Excretion in Humans Consuming Maize-Based Diets

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Ronald T.; Torres, Olga; Showker, Jency L.; Zitomer, Nicholas C.; Matute, Jorge; Voss, Kenneth A.; Gelineau-van Waes, Janee; Maddox, Joyce R.; Gregory, Simon G.; Ashley-Koch, Allison E.

    2013-01-01

    Fumonisins (FB) are mycotoxins found in maize. The purpose of this study was to 1) determine the relationship between FB1, FB2 and FB3 intake and urinary excretion in humans, 2) validate a method to isolate urinary FB on C18-SPE cartridges for international shipment, and 3) test the method using samples from Guatemala. Volunteers (n=10) consumed 206 grams/day of tortillas and biscuits prepared from masa flour and a product containing maize flour. Volunteers estimated their daily urine output and samples were analyzed for FB1, FB2 and FB3 and hydrolyzed FB1. Only FB1 was detected in urine suggesting lower absorption of FB2 and FB3. Excretion was highly variable peaking soon after consumption began and decreasing rapidly after consumption stopped. Within five days after consumption ended FB1 was not detected in urine. In a study with eight volunteers, the average total urinary FB1 was 0.5% of the intake. FB1 was detected in 61% (107/177) of the samples collected in Guatemala. The results support the use of urinary FB1 to assess ongoing exposure in population based studies. However, relating the FB1 concentration in urine to dietary intake of FB by individual subjects will be complicated due to inter-individual variability and the rapidity of clearance. PMID:22815244

  7. Daily Intake of Magnesium and its Relation to Urinary Excretion in Korean Healthy Adults Consuming Self-Selected Diets.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Weaver, Connie M

    2017-03-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is an essential nutrient as a structural constituent of bone and regulator of >300 enzymes. However, studies on intake and urinary excretion of Mg are limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate Mg intake and its relation to 24-h urinary excretion in healthy adults. Anthropometric measurements and dietary intake by the 24-h recall method were conducted in 80 adults aged 21-69 (average 44.3) years. Urine was collected for 24 h on the day following the dietary survey. Dietary assessment and 24-h urine collection were repeated 3 days later. Daily intake and urinary excretion of Mg were analyzed using Can-Pro and ICP-OES, respectively. The statistical analysis was conducted using SAS program. Mg intake of the subjects was 319 ± 129 mg/day for men and 277 ± 94 mg/day for women and the proportion of subjects who did not meet the estimated average requirement was 50 and 67.5 % for men and women, respectively. Urinary Mg excretion was 30.3 % of the daily Mg intake. Urinary Mg excretion was not significantly correlated with the daily Mg intake. Korean adults are not meeting the recommended intake of Mg, but its urinary excretion suggests homeostasis is not compromised.

  8. Ecological and sociodemographic effects on urinary catecholamine excretion in adult Samoans.

    PubMed

    Bergey, Meredith R; Steele, Matthew S; Bereiter, David A; Viali, Satupaitea; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2011-03-01

    Ecological and sociodemographic correlates of stress may contribute to cardiovascular disease risk in modernizing Samoans. The effects of peri-urban vs rural residence, education, occupation, caffeine intake and cigarette consumption on urinary catecholamine excretion were studied in Samoan adults. Five hundred and seven participants, aged 29-69 years, were randomly selected from nine villages throughout Samoa. Sociodemographic and lifestyle factors were assessed by questionnaire. Epinephrine and norepinephrine excretion rates were measured by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection in overnight urine samples. Age ( ≤ 40 vs >40 years) and gender-specific regression models were estimated to detect associations with BMI-adjusted catecholamine excretion. Norepinephrine was significantly higher in peri-urban young men and older women. Epinephrine was significantly higher in peri-urban older men. Adjustment for caffeine attenuated the relationship between residence and norepinephrine in young women. General residential exposure to modernization in urban villages is a significant correlate of increased overnight catecholamine excretion rates and is consistent with past studies. Caffeine consumption in younger women plays a complex role in stress-related catecholamine excretion. Further studies of individual level attitudinal and behavioural factors in Samoans are needed to understand psychosocial stress, physiologic arousal and health.

  9. Ecological and sociodemographic effects on urinary catecholamine excretion in adult Samoans

    PubMed Central

    Bergey, Meredith R.; Steele, Matthew S.; Bereiter, David A.; Viali, Satupaitea; McGarvey, Stephen T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Ecological and sociodemographic correlates of stress may contribute to cardiovascular disease risk in modernizing Samoans. Aim The effects of peri-urban vs rural residence, education, occupation, caffeine intake and cigarette consumption on urinary catecholamine excretion were studied in Samoan adults. Subjects and methods Five hundred and seven participants, aged 29–69 years, were randomly selected from nine villages throughout Samoa. Sociodemographic and lifestyle factors were assessed by questionnaire. Epinephrine and norepinephrine excretion rates were measured by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection in overnight urine samples. Age (≤40 vs >40 years) and gender-specific regression models were estimated to detect associations with BMI-adjusted catecholamine excretion. Results Norepinephrine was significantly higher in peri-urban young men and older women. Epinephrine was significantly higher in peri-urban older men. Adjustment for caffeine attenuated the relationship between residence and norepinephrine in young women. Conclusion General residential exposure to modernization in urban villages is a significant correlate of increased overnight catecholamine excretion rates and is consistent with past studies. Caffeine consumption in younger women plays a complex role in stress-related catecholamine excretion. Further studies of individual level attitudinal and behavioural factors in Samoans are needed to understand psychosocial stress, physiologic arousal and health. PMID:20836724

  10. Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis decreases urinary oxalate excretion in a mouse model of primary hyperoxaluria

    PubMed Central

    Whittamore, Jonathan M.; Hatch, Marguerite

    2015-01-01

    Hyperoxaluria significantly increases the risk of calcium oxalate kidney stone formation. Since several bacteria have been shown to metabolize oxalate in vitro, including probiotic bifidobacteria, we focused on the efficiency and possible mechanisms by which bifidobacteria can infuence oxalate handling in vivo, especially in the intestines, and compared these results with the reported effects of Oxalobacter formigenes. Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis DSM 10140 and B. adolescentis ATCC 15703 were administered to wild-type (WT) mice and to mice defcient in the hepatic enzyme alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (Agxt−/−, a mouse model of Primary Hyperoxaluria) that were fed an oxalate-supplemented diet. The administration of B. animalis subsp. lactis led to a significant decrease in urinary oxalate excretion in WT and Agxt−/− mice when compared to treatment with B. adolescent-is. Detection of B. animalis subsp. lactis in feces revealed that 3 weeks after oral gavage with the bacteria 64 % of WT mice, but only 37 % of Agxt−/− mice were colonized. Examining intestinal oxalate fuxes showed there were no significant changes to net oxalate secretion in colonized animals and were therefore not associated with the changes in urinary oxalate excretion. These results indicate that colonization with B. animalis subsp. lactis decreased urinary oxalate excretion by degrading dietary oxalate thus limiting its absorption across the intestine but it did not promote enteric oxalate excretion as reported for O. formigenes. Preventive or therapeutic administration of B. animalis subsp. lactis appears to have some potential to beneficially infuence dietary hyperoxaluria in mice. PMID:25269440

  11. Urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins in pregnant and lactating women in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Satoshi; Sano, Mitsue; Suzuki, Kahoru; Hiratsuka, Chiaki; Aoki, Asami; Nagai, Chiharu

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins can be used as biomarkers for the nutritional status of these vitamins. To determine changes in the urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins during pregnant and lactating stages, we surveyed and compared levels of nine water-soluble vitamins in control (non-pregnant and non-lactating women), pregnant and lactating women. Control women (n=37), women in the 2nd (16-27 wk, n=24) and 3rd trimester of pregnancy (over 28 wk, n=32), and early- (0-5 mo, n=54) and late-stage lactating (6-11 mo, n=49) women took part in the survey. The mean age of subjects was ~30 y, and mean height was ~160 cm. A single 24-h urine sample was collected 1 d after the completion of a validated, self-administered comprehensive diet history questionnaire to measure water-soluble vitamins or metabolites. The average intake of each water-soluble vitamin was ≍ the estimated average requirement value and adequate intake for the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes in all life stages, except for vitamin B6 and folate intakes during pregnancy. No change was observed in the urinary excretion levels of vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, biotin or vitamin C among stages. Urine nicotinamide and folate levels were higher in pregnant women than in control women. Urine excretion level of vitamin B1 decreased during lactation and that of pantothenic acid decreased during pregnancy and lactation. These results provide valuable information for setting the Dietary Reference Intakes of water-soluble vitamins for pregnant and lactating women.

  12. Vitamin D repletion does not alter urinary calcium excretion in healthy postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Penniston, Kristina L.; Jones, Andrea N.; Nakada, Stephen Y.; Hansen, Karen E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate, in a posthoc analysis of a previous study, whether vitamin D repletion in postmenopausal women with insufficient vitamin D increases urinary calcium excretion, as vitamin D therapy might contribute to hypercalciuria and calcium stones in susceptible individuals, and the effect of vitamin D on the risk of urolithiasis warrants attention. Subjects and methods We recruited 18 women at ≥ 5 years after menopause who had vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25(OH)-vitamin D, 16–24 mg/dL). We excluded women with a history of urolithiasis and kidney disease. Women had one calcium absorption study when vitamin D-insufficient, received vitamin D therapy, and completed a second calcium absorption study when vitamin D-replete. We fed subjects meals that mirrored the nutrient composition from self-reported 7-day diet diaries. To measure calcium absorption, we collected urine for 24 h during both visits. Results We achieved vitamin D repletion in all women (25(OH)-vitamin D before and after treatment, 22 and 63 mg/dL, respectively; P < 0.001). The mean calcium intake was 832 mg/day. Residual urine specimens were available for 16 women, allowing a measurement of 24-h urinary calcium. Calcium excretion did not change after vitamin D therapy (212 before vs 195 mg/day after; P = 0.60). Of four women with hypercalciuria (> 247 mg/day), calcium excretion decreased in three (377–312 mg/day, not significant). Conclusion Vitamin D supplementation did not increase the urinary calcium excretion in healthy postmenopausal women. Many stone formers are at risk of premature bone loss, vitamin D insufficiency, or both. Based on the present results we suggest a study of patients with hypercalciuria and nephrolithiasis to determine the risks of vitamin D therapy. PMID:19389005

  13. Urinary excretion of uranium in adult inhabitants of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Malátová, Irena; Bečková, Věra; Kotík, Lukáš

    2016-02-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine and evaluate urinary excretion of uranium in the general public of the Czech Republic. This value should serve as a baseline for distinguishing possible increase in uranium content in population living near legacy sites of mining and processing uranium ores and also to help to distinguish the proportion of the uranium content in urine among uranium miners resulting from inhaled dust. The geometric mean of the uranium concentration in urine of 74 inhabitants of the Czech Republic was 0.091 mBq/L (7.4 ng/L) with the 95% confidence interval 0.071-0.12 mBq/L (5.7-9.6 ng/L) respectively. The geometric mean of the daily excretion was 0.15 mBq/d (12.4 ng/d) with the 95% confidence interval 0.12-0.20 mBq/d (9.5-16.1 ng/d) respectively. Despite the legacy of uranium mines and plants processing uranium ore in the Czech Republic, the levels of uranium in urine and therefore, also human body content of uranium, is similar to other countries, esp. Germany, Slovenia and USA. Significant difference in the daily urinary excretion of uranium was found between individuals using public supply and private water wells as a source of drinking water. Age dependence of daily urinary excretion of uranium was not found. Mean values and their range are comparable to other countries, esp. Germany, Slovenia and USA.

  14. Urinary corticosteroid excretion predicts left ventricular mass and proteinuria in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    McQuarrie, Emily P; Freel, E Marie; Mark, Patrick B; Fraser, Robert; Patel, Rajan K; Dargie, Henry G; Connell, John M C; Jardine, Alan G

    2012-09-01

    Blockade of the MR (mineralocorticoid receptor) in CKD (chronic kidney disease) reduces LVMI [LV (left ventricular) mass index] and proteinuria. The MR can be activated by aldosterone, cortisol and DOC (deoxycorticosterone). The aim of the present study was to explore the influence of mineralocorticoids on LVMI and proteinuria in patients with CKD. A total of 70 patients with CKD and 30 patients with EH (essential hypertension) were recruited. Patients underwent clinical phenotyping; biochemical assessment and 24 h urinary collection for THAldo (tetrahydroaldosterone), THDOC (tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone), cortisol metabolites (measured using GC-MS), and urinary electrolytes and protein [QP (proteinuira quantification)]. LVMI was measured using CMRI (cardiac magnetic resonance imaging). Factors that correlated significantly with LVMI and proteinuria were entered into linear regression models. In patients with CKD, significant predictors of LVMI were male gender, SBP (systolic blood pressure), QP, and THAldo and THDOC excretion. Significant independent predictors on multivariate analysis were THDOC excretion, SBP and male gender. In EH, no association was seen between THAldo or THDOC and LVMI; plasma aldosterone concentration was the only significant independent predictor. Significant univariate determinants of proteinuria in patients with CKD were THAldo, THDOC, USod (urinary sodium) and SBP. Only THAldo excretion and SBP were significant multivariate determinants. Using CMRI to determine LVMI we have demonstrated that THDOC is a novel independent predictor of LVMI in patients with CKD, differing from patients with EH. Twenty-four hour THAldo excretion is an independent determinant of proteinuria in patients with CKD. These findings emphasize the importance of MR activation in the pathogenesis of the adverse clinical phenotype in CKD.

  15. Urinary 2,5-hexanedione excretion in cryptogenic polyneuropathy compared to the general Swedish population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background 2,5-hexanedione (2,5-HD) is the main neurotoxic metabolite of methyl-n-butyl ketone (MBK) and n-hexane, and known to cause polyneuropathy. The aim of our study was to compare the urinary levels of 2,5-HD between cases with cryptogenic polyneuropathy and the general Swedish population, and to elucidate the role of certain external factors. Methods Morning urine samples were collected from 114 cases with cryptogenic polyneuropathy (77 men and 37 women) and 227 referents (110 men and 117 women) randomly selected from the population registry. None had any current occupational exposure to n-hexane or MBK. The urine samples were analysed by a gas chromatographic method based on acidic hydrolysis. Results Cases had statistically higher urinary levels of 2,5-HD (0.48 mg/L) than the general population (0.41 mg/L) and men higher excretion than women (0.48 mg/L and 0.38 mg/L, respectively). There was no difference in 2,5-HD levels between current smokers and non-smokers. Occupational exposure to xylene, alcohol consumption and ever exposed to general anaesthesia were associated with lower excretion in men while for occupational exposure to nitrous oxide in women higher excretion was seen. Higher excretion of 2,5 HD was inversely related to increasing age. Conclusions Significantly higher levels of urinary 2,5-HD were seen in men and cryptogenic polyneuropathy cases seemingly unexposed to n-hexane. Hypothetically, this might be due to either differences in metabolic patterns or some concealed exposure. The difference in means between cases and the general population is small and can therefore not allow any firm conclusions of the causality, however. PMID:23898939

  16. Population-based association between urinary excretion of sodium, potassium and its ratio with albuminuria in Chinese.

    PubMed

    Yan, Liuxia; Guo, Xiaolei; Wang, Huicheng; Zhang, Jiyu; Tang, Junli; Lu, Zilong; Cai, Xiaoning; Liu, Longjian; Gracely, Edward J; Ma, Jixiang

    2016-12-01

    Albuminuria is a risk factor for cardiovascular and renal disease. However, little is known about the association of 24 h urinary sodium and potassium excretion with albuminuria in China. The aim of this study was to examine this association by analyzing the data from 1,975 Chinese adults living in north China. Excretion of urinary sodium, potassium and albumin was assessed in a single 24-h urine sample for each participant. Height, weight, waist circumference and blood pressure were measured and body mass index was determined as weight divided by square height. Fasting blood sample was collected and fasting glucose was measured. The average 24-h urinary sodium and potassium excretion were 232 mmol and 40.8 mmol, resulting a mean sodium to potassium ratio of 6.7. The median (Q1-Q3) 24-h urinary albuminuria excretion was 6.1 mg (4.5-8.7 mg). Overall, urinary sodium excretion was positively associated with albumin excretion (β=0.029, p<0.001). This association was independent of major cardiovascular risk factors including age, gender, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, fasting glucose, waist circumference, hypertensive drug treatment, and smoking. Moreover, the relation of sodium and albumin was similar in the subgroups stratified by gender, adiposity and diabetic status. No significant associations of potassium excretion or sodium to potassium ratio with urinary albumin excretion were observed. In cross-sectional analyses, high sodium intake was shown to be associated with increased urinary albuminuria in the general Chinese adult population, supporting salt restriction for renal and cardiovascular health benefit.

  17. Impact of supervised cardiac rehabilitation on urinary albumin excretion in patients with cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Sahika; Ueda, Yuka; Ise, Takayuki; Yagi, Shusuke; Iwase, Takashi; Nishikawa, Koji; Yamaguchi, Koji; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Soeki, Takeshi; Wakatsuki, Tetsuzo; Katoh, Shinsuke; Akaike, Masashi; Yasui, Natsuo; Sata, Masataka

    2015-01-01

    Urinary albumin excretion is a predictor of cardiovascular death. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) with exercise training (ET) has been shown to improve exercise capacity and prognosis in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, it remains unclear whether CR reduces urinary albumin excretion in CVD patients. We performed a retrospective, observational study using data obtained from 98 male CVD patients without macroalbuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 30 mL/minute/1.73 m(2) who participated in CR with ET during hospitalization. Twenty-three patients continued supervised ET for 6 months (supervised group) and 75 patients quit supervised ET (non-supervised group). The supervised ET program consisted of 60 minutes of supervised sessions 1-3 times a week and 30-60 minutes of home exercise at least twice a week. Urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) was significantly decreased in the supervised group at 6 months after enrollment (43 ± 71 mg/g to 17 ± 20 mg/g creatinine, P < 0.05) but not in the non-supervised group. eGFR was unchanged in the supervised group but was significantly decreased in the non-supervised group (72 ± 18 mL/minute/1.73 m(2) to 67 ± 17 mL/minute/1.73 m(2), P < 0.001). The results of multiple regression analysis showed that only supervised ET was an independent contributor to ΔACR. CR with supervised ET decreased urinary albumin excretion without deterioration of renal function. These findings suggest that continuation of a supervised ET program is associated with reduction in the development of CVD and reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in CVD patients.

  18. Effects of profuse sweating induced by exercise on urinary uric acid excretion in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Ling; Huang, Chien-Tsai; Chen, Mei-Lien; Mao, I-Fang

    2010-08-31

    In order to determine whether exercise-induced profuse sweating could reduce urinary uric acid excretion, we simulated badminton players training and measured their uric acid in urine, sweat and blood during the training period. Thirteen male volunteers who were well-trained badminton players were recruited in this study. On the first 2 days and the last 2 days of the study period none of the subjects engaged in any intense exercise- or activity-inducing profuse sweat, but they accepted routine training 2 h per day during the middle 3 days. The results show that mean serum urate levels of thirteen volunteers rose significantly on day 4, when the concentrations increased by 18.2% over day 2 (P < 0.05). The mean ten-hour urinary uric acid excretion of seven volunteers on the 3 training days was significantly less at 178.5 micromol/day and 118.3 micromol/day than those on the preceding and subsequent days of the training days, respectively (P < 0.05). Furthermore, for six volunteers, the mean ratio of clearance of uric acid to creatinine was 6.6% on day 2, which significantly decreased to 5.4% on day 4 (P < 0.05). It is concluded profuse sweating exercise results in a decrease of urinary uric acid excretion amounts and leads to increased serum uric acid after the exercise. We suggest that persons who take vigorous exercise or are exposed to hot environments need drinking enough fluids to prevent dehydration and maintain adequate urinary output. People with profuse sweat after rigorous exercise are recommended taking sports drinks containing abundant sodium in order to decrease serum uric acid.

  19. Comparative microRNA profiling in relation to urinary albumin excretion in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Parthenakis, F I; Marketou, M E; Kontaraki, J E; Maragoudakis, F; Maragkoudakis, S; Nakou, H; Roufas, K; Patrianakos, A; Chlouverakis, G; Malliaraki, N; Vardas, P E

    2016-11-01

    Microalbuminuria is an established early marker of endothelial dysfunction and damage. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as essential modulators of cardiovascular physiology and disease. In the present study, we sought an association between the differential expression of related miRNAs in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of untreated patients with newly diagnosed essential hypertension and the levels of urinary albumin excretion. We assessed the expression of the miRNAs miRNA-1, miRNA-133a, miRNA-26b, miRNA-208b, miRNA-499 and miRNA-21 in consecutive subjects with untreated newly diagnosed essential hypertension (aged 62.5±9.7 years) and with no indications of other organic heart disease. MiRNA expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were quantified by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The prevalence of microalbuminuria was 9.8%. miRNA-208b and miRNA-133a were independently correlated with 24-h urinary albumin excretion. More specifically, a strong association was found between the gene expression levels of miRNA-208b in our patients' peripheral blood cells and urinary albumin (r=0.72, P<0.001). A similar association was found for miRNA-133a (r=0.372, P<0.001). In conclusion, miRNA-208b and miRNA-133a show distinct profiling in peripheral blood cells isolated from untreated patients with recently diagnosed essential hypertension. Their gene expression levels reveal a strong correlation with urinary albumin excretion levels. Our findings provide new perspectives on the development of a new generation of biomarkers for the better monitoring of end-organ damage in hypertension.

  20. Urinary C-peptide excretion: a novel alternate measure of insulin sensitivity in physiological conditions.

    PubMed

    Galgani, Jose E; de Jonge, Lilian; Rood, Jennifer C; Smith, Steven R; Young, Andrew A; Ravussin, Eric

    2010-09-01

    Insulin sensitivity (IS) is measured by the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp under a nonphysiological condition. Daily C-peptide urinary excretion may be a physiological index of IS, because C-peptide is co-secreted with insulin as a function of nutrient intake and IS. The amount of (2)H(2)O released from glycolytic glucose metabolism after [6,6-(2)H(2)]-glucose ingestion was recently proposed as a physiological measure of IS. We compared these IS surrogates to the gold standard (euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp). Thirty (15 male/15 female) sedentary, nondiabetic participants (27.2 +/- 4.0 (s.d.) kg/m(2), 35 +/- 12 years) were admitted for 3 days to our in-patient unit. After a 10-h fast, they received 60 g of glucose and 15 g of [6,6-(2)H(2)]-glucose. Before glucose ingestion and hourly thereafter for 4 h, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, and plasma deuterium enrichment were determined. Plasma (2)H(2)O production divided by insulin response was used as the glycolytic index. On day 2, subjects spent 23 h in a metabolic chamber (eucaloric diet, 50% carbohydrate, 30% fat). Urinary C-peptide excretion was divided by energy intake yielding the C-peptide to energy intake ratio (CPEP/EI). After leaving the chamber (day 3, 10-h fast), IS was measured by a 2-h clamp (120 mU/m(2)/min). Average IS (clamp) was 7.3 +/- 2.6 mg glucose/kg estimated metabolic body size/min (range: 3.6-13.2). These values were inversely correlated with CPEP/EI (r = -0.62; P < 0.01) and positively with the glycolytic rate (r = 0.60; P < 0.01). In nondiabetic subjects, two novel estimates of IS--daily urinary C-peptide urinary excretion and glycolytic rate during an oral glucose tolerance test --were related to IS by a clamp.

  1. Urinary isothiocyanate excretion, brassica consumption, and gene polymorphisms among women living in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Fowke, Jay H; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Dai, Qi; Shintani, Ayumi; Conaway, C Clifford; Chung, Fung-Lung; Cai, Qiuyin; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2003-12-01

    Alternative measures of Brassica vegetable consumption (e.g., cabbage) may clarify the association between Brassica and cancer risk. Brassica isothiocyanates (ITCs) are excreted in urine and may provide a sensitive and food-specific dietary biomarker. However, the persistence of ITCs in the body may be brief and dependent on the activity of several Phase II enzymes, raising questions about the relationship between a single ITC measure and habitual dietary patterns. This study investigates the association between urinary ITC excretion and habitual Brassica consumption, estimated by a food frequency questionnaire, among healthy Chinese women enrolled in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study. Participants (n = 347) completed a validated food frequency questionnaire querying habitual dietary intake during the prior 5 years and provided a fasting first-morning urine specimen. Genetic deletion of glutathione S-transferases (GSTM1/GSTT1), and single nucleotide substitutions in GSTP1 (A313G) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1: C609T), were identified from blood DNA. Urinary ITC excretion levels were marginally higher with the GSTT1-null or GSTP1-G/G genotypes (P = 0.07, P = 0.05, respectively). Mean habitual Brassica intake was 98.3 g/day, primarily as bok choy, and Brassica intake significantly increased across quartile categories of ITC levels. The association between habitual Brassica intake and urinary ITC levels was stronger among women with GSTT1-null or GSTP1-A/A genotypes, or NQO1 T-allele, and the interaction was statistically significant across GSTP1 genotype. In conclusion, a single urinary ITC measure, in conjunction with markers of Phase II enzyme activity, provides a complementary measure of habitual Brassica intake among Shanghai women.

  2. Response of urinary purine derivatives excretion to different levels of ruminal glucose infusion in heifers.

    PubMed

    Dickhoefer, Uta; Ahnert, Sandra; Schoof, Hartwig; Moritz, Niels; Susenbeth, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the response of urinary purine derivatives (PD) excretion to increasing levels of intraruminal glucose infusion to evaluate how well this indicator reflects induced changes in microbial crude protein flow. Four rumen-cannulated heifers (482 ± 25 kg body weight) were fed at maintenance energy level with a basal diet (on fresh matter basis) of 4 kg/d hay, 1.5 kg/d concentrate and 60 g/d minerals in two equal meals. The trial comprised a control period (Control I) without glucose infusion followed by four consecutive periods in which all animals received 125 g, 250 g, 500 g or 1000 g/d of glucose, respectively. For this, daily dosages of glucose and urea (90 g/d during all periods) were divided into three portions that were dissolved in water and directly administered into the rumen during morning and afternoon feedings and once during noon. After the highest glucose dosage, a second control period was carried out (Control II). Urinary PD excretion increased with glucose infusion of 125 g/d (71.4 mmol/d) and 1000 g/d (74.2 mmol/d) over the level at Control I (53.9 mmol/d (standard error of the mean (SEM) 3.4; p = 0.012). After withdrawing glucose infusion, PD excretion (79.0 mmol/d) did not return to Control I level (p = 0.001). In contrast, faecal nitrogen (N) excretions linearly increased with incremental glucose infusion (p < 0.001) from 33.9 g/d at Control I to 39.7 g/d (SEM 0.5) at 1000 g/d of glucose and were similar in Control I and II (p = 0.086). The contradicting responses in the excretions of faecal N and urinary PD to increasing glucose infusions highlight the limited accuracy of the PD excretion as a non-invasive indicator when incremental dosages of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates are supplied.

  3. Changes in urinary total metanephrine excretion in recurrent and malignant pheochromocytomas and secreting paragangliomas.

    PubMed

    Amar, Laurence; Peyrard, Séverine; Rossignol, Patrick; Zinzindohoue, Franck; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne-Paule; Plouin, Pierre-François

    2006-08-01

    We quantified urinary excretion of total metanephrines (metanephrine plus normetanephrine) (UETM) in 261 patients with pheochromocytoma (PH) or secreting paraganglioma, before primary tumor resection. We then determined UETM 2 weeks after primary tumor resection and once per year thereafter. The tumor was considered benign in 242 patients and malignant in 19 patients. Patients with malignant tumors had higher UETM and tumor diameters, lower plasma epinephrine concentrations, and were more likely to have secreting paragangliomas than patients with benign tumors. In the 215 patients with a single-benign primary tumor, preoperative UETM and tumor diameter were significantly correlated. Thirty-six patients subsequently developed recurrences or new tumors, which were malignant in 18 cases. All recurrent or new tumors could be detected before the onset of symptoms, on the basis of an increase in metanephrine concentration. We followed one patient with von Hippel-Lindau disease and a new tumor for 50 months before reoperation and found that UETM and tumor diameter were significantly correlated. In patients with malignant tumors, the logarithm of UETM was significantly correlated with time, suggesting an exponential increase in tumor activity and, presumably, tumor burden. Urinary metanephrine excretion is a marker of tumor activity and a surrogate of tumor burden in patients with pheochromocytoma or secreting paraganglioma. UETM excretion could be used to assess treatment response in malignant cases.

  4. Cortisol-mediated synchronization of circadian rhythm in urinary potassium excretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore-Ede, M. C.; Schmelzer, W. S.; Kass, D. A.; Herd, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Conscious chair-acclimatized squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) studied with lights on (600 lx) from 0800 to 2000 hr daily (LD 12:12) display a prominent circadian rhythm in renal potassium excretion. The characteristics of this rhythm were reproduced in adrenalectomized monkeys by infusing 5 mg cortisol and 0.001 mg aldosterone, or 5 mg cortisol alone, between 0800 and 0900 kr daily. When the timing of cortisol administration (with or without aldosterone) was phase-delayed by 8 hr, the urinary potassium rhythm resynchronized by 80% of the cortisol phase shift, but only after a transient response lasting 3-4 days. With the same daily dose of adrenal steroids given as a continuous infusion throughout each 24 hr, urinary potassium excretion showed free-running oscillations no longer synchronized to the light-dark cycle. These results indicate that the circadian rhythm of plasma cortisol concentration acts as an internal mediator in the circadian timing system, synchronizing a potentially autonomous oscillation in renal potassium excretion to environmental time cues and to other circadian rhythms within the animal.

  5. Protein intake and urinary excretion of protein-derived metabolites in aging female vegetarians and nonvegetarians.

    PubMed

    Kunkel, M E; Beauchene, R E

    1991-08-01

    Relationships among age, protein intake, and urinary excretion of protein-derived metabolites were studied in 125 vegetarian and nonvegetarian women ages 40-92. There were 63 women in the vegetarian (AV) group and 62 women in the nonvegetarian (NV) group. Average daily intakes of energy and total animal and vegetable protein were calculated from 7-day dietary records. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were analyzed for total nitrogen, urea, creatinine, hydroxyproline, and inorganic sulfate. Energy intakes for the two groups were similar. AVs consumed less total and animal protein and more vegetable protein than NVs, even though both groups consumed more than the RDA for protein. No significant differences existed between the groups in the urinary excretion of total nitrogen, urea nitrogen, hydroxyproline, or inorganic sulfate. Energy and protein intakes and total nitrogen excretion were lower in older AVs than in younger AVs, while those of NVs increased between 40 and 55 years of age, and decreased among the older NV women. The relationship between these variables and age in NVs was more accurately described by polynomial rather than linear regression models.

  6. Cortisol-mediated synchronization of circadian rhythm in urinary potassium excretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore-Ede, M. C.; Schmelzer, W. S.; Kass, D. A.; Herd, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Conscious chair-acclimatized squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) studied with lights on (600 lx) from 0800 to 2000 hr daily (LD 12:12) display a prominent circadian rhythm in renal potassium excretion. The characteristics of this rhythm were reproduced in adrenalectomized monkeys by infusing 5 mg cortisol and 0.001 mg aldosterone, or 5 mg cortisol alone, between 0800 and 0900 kr daily. When the timing of cortisol administration (with or without aldosterone) was phase-delayed by 8 hr, the urinary potassium rhythm resynchronized by 80% of the cortisol phase shift, but only after a transient response lasting 3-4 days. With the same daily dose of adrenal steroids given as a continuous infusion throughout each 24 hr, urinary potassium excretion showed free-running oscillations no longer synchronized to the light-dark cycle. These results indicate that the circadian rhythm of plasma cortisol concentration acts as an internal mediator in the circadian timing system, synchronizing a potentially autonomous oscillation in renal potassium excretion to environmental time cues and to other circadian rhythms within the animal.

  7. Urinary chromium excretion in response to an insulin challenge is not a biomarker for chromium status.

    PubMed

    Love, Sharifa T; Di Bona, Kristin R; Sinha, Sarmistha Halder; McAdory, DeAna; Skinner, Brittany R; Rasco, Jane F; Vincent, John B

    2013-04-01

    Over 50 years ago, chromium (Cr) was proposed to be an essential trace element; however, recent studies indicate that this status should be removed as the effects of Cr supplementation appear to be pharmacological rather than nutritional. The pharmacological basis for Cr's effects can explain the inability of investigators to discover a biomarker for Cr status. One potential biomarker has not been examined to date. Cr is known to be mobilized in the body in response to insulin (or insulin release in response to a glucose challenge), resulting in an increase in urinary Cr excretion. The magnitude of increase in urinary Cr loss as a function of dietary Cr intake was tested as a potential biomarker for Cr. Zucker lean rats housed in carefully controlled metal-free conditions were provided a series of purified diets containing variable Cr contents (from 16 μg/kg diet to 2,000 μg/kg) for 23 weeks. The 16 μg/kg diet contained less Cr than any diet examined to date. Urine samples were collected before and after insulin and glucose challenges (0, 2, 6, and 12 h postinjection). Urinary Cr levels were analyzed by the standard method of addition using graphite furnace atomic absorption. The rate of urinary Cr loss after a glucose or insulin challenge was found to not be dependent on the Cr content of the rats' diets. Blood iron levels of the rats were also measured to determine if the addition of Cr to the diet altered iron status. The Cr content of the diet was found to have no affect on blood iron levels. Overall, the study demonstrated that insulin-stimulated urinary Cr excretion cannot be used as a biomarker for Cr status.

  8. Dynamics of pregnancy-associated polyomavirus urinary excretion: a prospective longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    McClure, Gloria B; Gardner, J Suzette; Williams, Jason T; Copeland, Christina M; Sylvester, Sarah K; Garcea, Robert L; Meinerz, Natalie M; Groome, Lynn J; Vanchiere, John A

    2012-08-01

    Asymptomatic polyomaviruria of pregnancy has been documented in point prevalence studies, but little attention has been given to the dynamics of polyomavirus excretion during pregnancy because of its benign course. We tested the hypothesis that the frequency and/or magnitude of polyomavirus excretion would increase as pregnancy progresses. Urine specimens were obtained prospectively from 179 healthy women during uncomplicated pregnancies and 37 healthy non-pregnant women. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine BK virus (BKV) and JC virus (JCV) viral loads in urine, blood, and rectal and vaginal swabs collected during routine obstetric and gynecologic clinic visits. Asymptomatic urinary shedding of BKV and/or JCV was observed in 384 (48.0%) of 800 specimens from 100 (55.8%) pregnant women. BKV excretion was more common in pregnant than non-pregnant women (41.3% vs. 13.5%, P = 0.0026). The frequency of JCV excretion was no different in pregnant compared to non-pregnant women. The frequency and magnitude of polyomavirus shedding did not vary with gestational age. Post-partum shedding of BKV, but not JCV, rapidly decreased to undetectable levels. Pregnancy-associated BKV excretion begins early in pregnancy and terminates rapidly post-partum. Neither the frequency nor magnitude of BKV or JCV shedding increased with pregnancy progression. Further study into the host factors that regulate pregnancy-associated BKV excretion may allow identification of the host factors that predict susceptibility to BKV-associated diseases in immune compromised patients.

  9. Detection of Urinary Excreted Fungal Galactomannan-like Antigens for Diagnosis of Invasive Aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinming; Dadachova, Ekaterina; Staab, Janet F.; Patterson, Thomas F.; Feldmesser, Marta; Marr, Kieren A.

    2012-01-01

    Mortality associated with invasive aspergillosis (IA) remains high, partly because of delayed diagnosis. Detection of microbial exoantigens, released in serum and other body fluids during infection, may help timely diagnosis. In course of IA, Aspergillus galactomannan (GM), a well established polysaccharide biomarker, is released in body fluids including urine. Urine is an abundant, safely collected specimen, well-suited for point-of-care (POC) testing, which could play an increasing role in screening for early disease. Our main objective was to demonstrate GM antigenuria as a clinically relevant biological phenomenon in IA and establish proof-of-concept that it could be translated to POC diagnosis. Utilizing a novel IgM monoclonal antibody (MAb476) that recognizes GM-like antigens from Aspergillus and other molds, we demonstrated antigenuria in an experimental animal IA model (guinea pig), as well as in human patients. In addition, we investigated the chemical nature of the urinary excreted antigen in human samples, characterized antigen detection in urine by immunoassays, described a putative assay inhibitor in urine, and indicated means of alleviation of the inhibition. We also designed and used a lateral flow immunochromatographic assay to detect urinary excreted antigen in a limited number of IA patient urine samples. In this study, we establish that POC diagnosis of IA based on urinary GM detection is feasible. Prospective studies will be necessary to establish the performance characteristics of an optimized device and define its optimal clinical use. PMID:22900046

  10. The Effect of Glucose on Urinary Cation Excretion during Chronic Extracellular Volume Expansion in Normal Man

    PubMed Central

    Lennon, Edward J.; Lemann, J.; Piering, W. F.; Larson, L. S.

    1974-01-01

    Both glucose administration and extracellular volume expansion augment urinary calcium and magnesium excretion. While volume expansion also augments sodium excretion, glucose induces an antinatriuresis. To examine the interrelationships of volume expansion and of glucose administration on sodium, calcium, and magnesium excretion, the effects of glucose were evaluated during clearance studies in the same subjects before and after chronic extracellular volume expansion produced by desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) and a normal dietary sodium intake. The augmentation of UCaV and UMgV by glucose was simply additive to the increments in divalent cation excretion caused by “escape” from the sodium-retaining effects of DOCA. Glucose administration reduced UNaV, an effect exaggerated after DOCA escape and associated with reductions in volume/glomerular filtration rate (V/GFR) and CNa + CH2O/GFR, suggesting augmented proximal tubular reabsorption. Before glucose, UNa was inversely correlated with UG, and after glucose administration CNa/GFR was inversely correlated with TG/GFR. We propose that the availability of glucose in the proximal tubule stimulates Na reabsorption while delaying development of a chloride diffusion potential, thereby inhibiting tubular reabsorption of Ca and Mg. PMID:4825233

  11. Iron and Zinc Supplementation Does Not Impact Urinary Arsenic Excretion in Mexican School Children.

    PubMed

    Kordas, Katarzyna; Roy, Aditi; López, Patricia; García-Vargas, Gonzalo; Cebrián, Mariano E; Vera-Aguilar, Eunice; Rosado, Jorge L

    2017-06-01

    To examine the role of iron and zinc in arsenic excretion and metabolism in children. An analysis of urinary arsenic (UAs) concentrations from a double-blind randomized trial originally testing the efficacy of iron and zinc for lowering blood lead levels in children. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used, with children randomized individually, stratified by sex and classroom, to receive 30?mg ferrous fumarate (n?=?148), 30?mg zinc oxide (n?=?144), iron and zinc together (n?=?148), or placebo (n?=?151). Of the 602 children enrolled, 527 completed the 6-month treatment, and 485 had both baseline and final UAs values. The baseline total UAs concentration ranged from 3.2 to 215.9?µg/L. At baseline, children in the highest tertile of serum ferritin concentration had higher excretion of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA; 1.93?±?0.86%; P?excretion of monomethylarsonic acid (-0.91?±?0.39%; P?excretion, but children receiving zinc had lower %DMA in urine (-1.7?±?0.8; P?

  12. Urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion for the evaluation of bone turnover in chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Coen, G; Mantella, D; Calabria, S; Sardella, D; Manni, M; Fassino, V; D'Anello, E; Giustini, M; Taggi, F

    2000-01-01

    The urinary excretion of deoxypyridinoline (DPD) was evaluated in predialysis chronic renal failure (CRF), together with intact PTH and several classic markers of bone turnover in order to assess whether urine free and total DPD excretion are equivalent parameters of bone turnover in CRF, and to evaluate the relationship between urine DPD excretion, PTH and the other bone markers. The study was carried out in 94 patients with different degrees of renal failure due to various kidney diseases. Besides urinary DPD expressed as free DPD, total DPD, free/total DPD, free DPD/Cr and total DPD/Cr, the following determinations were made: intact PTH, bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), total alkaline phosphatase (AP), osteocalcin (BGP), serum C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (ICTP) and hydroxyproline (OHpro). The patients were divided into 3 groups according to the increasing severity of renal failure (Ccr >40, 40-20, <20 ml/min). The ratio free/total DPD decreased (NS) with advancing renal failure, and was inversely correlated with total DPD excretion. While PTH increased progressively to about four times the values observed in the Ccr >40 group, there was a parallel increase only in BGP and ICTP, parameters retained in the serum with decreasing renal function, while AP, BALP, total DPD and OHpro did not change. However, significant correlations between total DPD/Cr and PTH, BALP, BGP and ICTP were also found. In CRF free DPD is an unreliable index of bone turnover due to a probable interference in its production from the peptide-bound DPD. Total DPD or total DPD/Cr are better used. In spite of the significant correlations observed in advanced renal failure between PTH and most of the parameters examined, a resistance of bone tissue to PTH action in CRF must be considered. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. Effect of urinary excretion on the bladder tissue distribution of fluoroquinolones in rats.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Shigeru; Yamaoka, Makiko; Deguchi, Takashi

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate which of blood or urine has the greater effect on bladder tissue concentrations of fluoroquinolones important for the treatment of urinary tract infections by measuring concentrations of fluoroquinolones in the vesical tissue (chemically and immunohistochemically) and intravesical space (chemically). Thirty-minute incubation of isolated rat bladders with fluoroquinolones showed only a 1.9-fold difference in transferability among norfloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and sparfloxacin. Intravesical instillation of norfloxacin and sparfloxacin in rats yielded similar vesical tissue distributions. Thus, there were no large differences in vesical tissue transfer among the four fluoroquinolones. The bladder tissue/plasma concentration ratios of norfloxacin (high urinary excretion-type) and sparfloxacin (low urinary excretion-type) at 1 h after a single oral dose (10 mg/kg) to rats were 15.4 and 1.3, respectively. The bladder tissue/plasma concentration ratios of norfloxacin after an intravenous injection (10 mg/kg) to ureter-catheterized and sham-operated rats were 1.36 and 57.8. Thus the bladder tissue distribution was significantly higher in the urine-exposed bladder. Immunohistochemical examination of the vesical tissue localization of norfloxacin in rats given a single intravenous dose revealed the presence of the drug-positive image in the cytoplasm of surface layer cells (both in umbrella and cover cells) of the bladder transitional epithelium. In conclusion, the results suggest that norfloxacin and other fluoroquinolones are excreted into urine and then transferred to the surface layer of the bladder transitional epithelium. Therefore, the urine levels have a greater effect on the vesicle tissue distribution of fluoroquinolones than the plasma levels in rats. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Increased urinary excretion of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in engine room personnel exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, R; Nordlinder, R; Moen, B; Ovrebo, S; Bleie, K; Skorve, A; Hollund, B; Tagesson, C

    2004-01-01

    Background: Previous investigations indicate that engine room personnel on ships are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from oil and oil products, with dermal uptake as the major route of exposure. Several PAH are known carcinogens and mutagens. Aims: To investigate the urinary excretion of a marker for oxidative DNA damage, 8-hydroxydeoxy-guanosine (8OHdG), in engine room personnel, and to study the association between 8OHdG and 1-hydroxypyrene (1OHP), a biological marker for PAH exposure. Methods: Urine samples were collected from engine room personnel (n = 36) on 10 Swedish and Norwegian ships and from unexposed controls (n = 34) with similar age and smoking habits. The exposure to oils, engine exhaust, and tobacco smoke 24 hours prior to sampling was estimated from questionnaires. The urinary samples were frozen for later analyses of 8OHdG and 1OHP by high performance liquid chromatography. Results: Excretion in urine of 8OHdG (adjusted to density 1.022) was similar for controls (mean 18.0 nmol/l, n = 33), and for those who had been in the engine room without skin contact with oils (mean 18.7 nmol/l, n = 15). Engine room personnel who reported skin contact with oil had increased excretion of 8OHdG (mean 23.2 nmol/l, n = 19). The difference between this group and the unexposed controls was significant. The urinary levels of ln 1OHP and ln 8OHdG were significantly correlated, and the association was still highly significant when the effects of smoking and age were accounted for in a multiple regression analysis. Conclusion: Results indicate that exposure to PAH or possibly other compounds from skin contact with oils in engine rooms may cause oxidative DNA damage. PMID:15258276

  15. Hypertension aggregates in families of kidney stone patients with high urinary excretion of uric acid.

    PubMed

    Tisler, A; Pierratos, A; Honey, J D; Bull, S B; Logan, A G

    1999-12-01

    To determine whether kidney stone disease (KSD) and hypertension (HTN) share a common familial component that is determined by a specific urinary biochemical abnormality. Familial aggregation study. Two hundred and twelve KSD patients, aged 18-50 years, collected a 24-h urine sample to measure the urinary excretion of uric acid, calcium, oxalate, magnesium and citrate, and were interviewed about the occurrence of HTN among first-degree relatives. Positive family history (FHx) of HTN defined as two or more relatives with HTN, and HTN occurring in the fathers, mothers and siblings. Positive FHx of HTN was significantly associated with increasing urinary excretion of uric acid (P = 0.03) but not with the excretion of the other substances. When the patients were divided into those with and without hyperuricosuria, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for positive FHx of HTN in a hyperuricosuric KSD patient was 3.8 (95% CI, 1.22-11.66). Separate analysis on the occurrence of HTN in the fathers, mothers and siblings of the probands indicated that hyperuricosuria is positively related to HTN occurring in the siblings of the patients (P < 0.001) but not in the fathers or in the mothers. The adjusted OR for HTN occurring in siblings of hyperuricosuric patients compared with siblings of non-hyperuricosuric patients was 3.8 (2.12-6.67). Siblings of KSD patients with hyperuricosuria had a significantly increased prevalence of HTN that could not be accounted for by age, family size, body-mass index and personal history of HTN of the probands. Additional studies need to be undertaken to determine whether this familial clustering has a genetic or environmental origin.

  16. [A case of adrenal pheochromocytoma with normotention and normal levels of urinary excretion of catecholamines].

    PubMed

    Motomura, K; Okano, J; Sasaki, I; Ogihara, T; Ishii, H; Tanaka, A; Ibayashi, H; Abe, Y; Kuramoto, H; Yanase, T

    1994-09-01

    A 62-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for further examination of right adrenal mass accidentally pointed out by ultrasonogram. He had no symptoms and no physiological abnormalities. Endcrinological examinations revealed normal adrenocortical function, excluding the possibility of functioning adrenocortical adenoma. Pheochromocytoma seemed to be also unlikely since 24-hr urinary excretion of catecholamines were within normal limits. The tumor was surgically removed and histopathologically diagnosed as pheochromocytoma. This case of adrenal incidentaloma is unique in that little sign of pheochromocytoma was presented before operation. The reasons were discussed especially in respect of tissue contents of catecholamines and opioid peptide in comparison with other cases with pheochromocytoma we had experienced.

  17. Urinary excretion values in 2-day food-deprived, unrestrained chimpanzees.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnew, J. J.; Sabbot, I. M.; Hoshizaki, T.; Mandell, A. J.; Spooner, C. E.; Marcus, I.; Adey, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the baseline 24-hr urinary excretion values in the young, unrestrained chimpanzee, and also changes in urinary values, if any, induced by the two-day food deprivation stress. Urine was analyzed for volume, osmolarity, creatinine, creatine, urea nitrogen, 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-OHCS), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxymandelic acid (VMA), calcium, and inorganic phosphorus. Significant increases due to food deprivation stress were observed for volume, creatine, urea nitrogen, 17-OHCS, VMA, and phosphorus values, with significant decreases in osmolarity and calcium. All values approached normal levels by the second poststress day. No significant changes were observed in creatinine. A comparison is drawn between human and chimpanzee adaptation to stress.

  18. Urinary fluoride excretion after application of fluoride varnish and use of fluoride toothpaste in young children.

    PubMed

    Lockner, Frida; Twetman, Svante; Stecksén-Blicks, Christina

    2017-01-20

    The efficacy and safety of combined use of topical fluoride products are essential issues that must be monitored. To assess urinary excretion of fluoride after application of two different dental varnishes containing 2.26% fluoride in 3- to 4-year-old children and to compare the levels with and without parallel use of fluoride toothpaste. Fifteen healthy children were enrolled to a randomized crossover trial that was performed in two parts: Part I with twice-daily tooth brushing with fluoride toothpaste and Part II with twice-daily brushing with a non-fluoride toothpaste. After a 1-week run-in period, 0.1 mL of the two fluoride varnishes (Duraphat and Profluorid Varnish) was topically applied in a randomized order. Baseline and experimental urine was collected during 6-h periods. The fluoride content was determined with an ion-sensitive electrode. There was a statistically significant increase in the 6-h fluoride excretion after application of both experimental varnishes, with and without parallel use of fluoride toothpaste (P < 0.01). When fluoridated toothpaste was used, the mean fluoride excretion was 0.20 mg/6 h after application of Duraphat and 0.29 mg/6 h after application of Profluorid Varnish (P = 0.18). Topical applications of 0.1 mL of fluoride varnish significantly increased the 6-h fluoride excretion. As some individuals displayed excretion levels exceeding the optimal fluoride exposure, a restricted use of fluoride toothpaste in connection with the varnish applications would decrease fluoride exposure. © 2017 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Sex-related differences in urinary excretion of egualen sodium in rats.

    PubMed

    Sato, M; Suzaka, H; Miyazaki, H

    2000-01-01

    Egualen sodium (sodium 3-ethyl-7-isopropyl-1-azulenesulfonate 1/3 hydrate) is a new antiulcer drug. There has been no difference observed in absorption between male and female rats, the relative amount of metabolites in male plasma has been higher than that in females, and the excretion ratios of metabolites in males have been significantly higher than those in females. However, the plasma concentration profile of total radioactivity in males has been higher than that in females. To clarify this discrepancy, the renal clearances and plasma concentrations of the unchanged drug and its metabolites were determined. The renal clearance of the unchanged drug in males was 21 times lower than that in females, and the urinary excretions in males and females were 2.1 and 39.5% of dose, respectively. This indicates that the major factor in the sex-related difference observed in the plasma concentration of total radioactivity is due to the difference in the renal clearance of the unchanged drug between the sexes. The results of treatments with probenecid in normal and gonadectomized rats revealed that egualen sodium was mainly excreted into urine by secretion through the renal tubule. Furthermore, the results of treatments with testosterone in rats revealed that the excretion of egualen sodium was highly affected by androgens. These facts indicated that the sex-related difference observed in the plasma concentration of total radioactivity can be attributed to the inhibition of renal tubular secretion of the unchanged drug by androgens. This is the first example of sex-related differences in both metabolism and excretion.

  20. Urinary magnesium excretion and risk of hypertension: the prevention of renal and vascular end-stage disease study.

    PubMed

    Joosten, Michel M; Gansevoort, Ron T; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Kootstra-Ros, Jenny E; Feskens, Edith J M; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J L

    2013-06-01

    Observational studies on dietary or circulating magnesium and risk of hypertension have reported weak-to-modest inverse associations, but have lacked measures of actual dietary uptake. Urinary magnesium excretion, an indicator of intestinal magnesium absorption, may provide a better insight in this association. We examined 5511 participants aged 28 to 75 years free of hypertension in the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease (PREVEND) study, a prospective population-based cohort study. Circulating magnesium was measured in plasma and urinary magnesium in two 24-hour urine collections, both at baseline. Incident hypertension was defined as blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg systolic or ≥90 mm Hg diastolic, or initiation of antihypertensive medication. During a median follow-up of 7.6 years (interquartile range, 5.0-9.3 years), 1172 participants developed hypertension. The median urinary magnesium excretion was 3.8 mmol/24 hour (interquartile range, 2.9-4.8 mmol/24 hour). Urinary magnesium excretion was associated with risk of hypertension in an inverse log-linear fashion, and this association remained after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake, parental history of hypertension, and urinary excretion of sodium, potassium, and calcium. Each 1-unit increment in ln-transformed urinary magnesium excretion was associated with a 21% lower risk of hypertension after multivariable adjustment (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-0.88). No associations were observed between circulating magnesium and risk of hypertension. In conclusion, in this cohort of men and women, urinary magnesium excretion was inversely associated with risk of hypertension across the entire range of habitual dietary intake.

  1. Effect of acute load of grapefruit juice on urinary excretion of citrate and urinary risk factors for renal stone formation.

    PubMed

    Trinchieri, A; Lizzano, R; Bernardini, P; Nicola, M; Pozzoni, F; Romano, A L; Serrago, M P; Confalanieri, S

    2002-09-01

    The effect of citrus fruit juice ingestion on the risk of calcium oxalate stone formation is still debated. The present study was undertaken to investigate changes in urinary stone risk factors after administration of a soft drink containing grapefruit juice. Seven healthy subjects, with no history of kidney stones, were submitted to an acute oral load (20 ml/kg body weight over 60 min) of a soft drink containing grapefruit juice diluted (10%) in mineral water. After a 7-day wash-out period, each subject underwent an oral load with mineral water alone under the same conditions. Urine specimens were collected before (for 120 min) and after each oral fluid load (for 180 min). Urinary flow was significantly increased after both grapefruit juice (46+/-26 vs 186+/-109 ml/h, p = 0.01) and mineral water (42+/-16 vs 230+/-72 ml/h, p=0.001) compared to baseline. Compared to mineral water, grapefruit juice significantly (p=0.021) increased urinary excretion of citrate (25.8+/-9.3 vs 18.7+/-6.2 mg/h), calcium (6.7+/-4.3 vs 3.3+/-2.3 mg/h, p=0.015) and magnesium (2.9+/-1.5 vs 1.0+/-0.7 mg/h, p=0.003). Citrus fruit juices could represent a natural alternative to potassium citrate in the management of nephrolithiasis, because they could be better tolerated and cost-effective than pharmacological calcium treatment. However, in order to obtain a beneficial effect in the prevention of calcium renal stones a reduced sugar content is desirable to avoid the increase of urinary calcium due to the effect of sugar supplementation.

  2. Urinary Excretion of Phenolic Acids by Infants and Children: A Randomised Double-Blind Clinical Assay

    PubMed Central

    Uberos, J.; Fernández-Puentes, V.; Molina-Oya, M.; Rodríguez-Belmonte, R.; Ruíz-López, A.; Tortosa-Pinto, P.; Molina-Carballo, A.; Muñoz-Hoyos, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The present study, which is part of the ISRCTN16968287 clinical assay, is aimed at determining the effects of cranberry syrup or trimethoprim treatment for UTI. Methods: This Phase III randomised clinical trial was conducted at the San Cecilio Clinical Hospital (Granada, Spain) with a study population of 192 patients, aged between 1 month and 13 years. Criteria for inclusion were a background of recurrent UTI, associated or otherwise with vesico-ureteral reflux of any degree, or renal pelvic dilatation associated with urinary infection. Each child was randomly given 0.2 mL/Kg/day of either cranberry syrup or trimethoprim (8 mg/mL). The primary and secondary objectives, respectively, were to determine the risk of UTI and the levels of phenolic acids in urine associated with each intervention. Results: With respect to UTI, the cranberry treatment was non-inferior to trimethoprim. Increased urinary excretion of ferulic acid was associated with a greater risk of UTI developing in infants aged under 1 year (RR 1.06; CI 95% 1.024–1.1; P = 0.001). Conclusions: The results obtained show the excretion of ferulic acid is higher in infants aged under 1 year, giving rise to an increased risk of UTI, for both treatment options. PMID:23641168

  3. Correlation of arsenic exposure through drinking groundwater and urinary arsenic excretion among adults in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mubashir; Fatmi, Zafar; Ali, Arif

    2014-01-01

    Long-term exposure to arsenic has been associated with manifestation of skin lesions (melanosis/keratosis) and increased risk of internal cancers (lung/bladder). The objective of the study described here was to determine the relationship between exposure of arsenic through drinking groundwater and urinary arsenic excretion among adults > or =15 years of age living in Khairpur district, Pakistan. Total arsenic was determined in drinking groundwater and in spot urine samples of 465 randomly selected individuals through hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was calculated between arsenic in drinking groundwater and arsenic excreted in urine. The median arsenic concentration in drinking water was 2.1 microg/L (range: 0.1-350), and in urine was 28.5 microg/L (range: 0.1-848). Positive correlation was found between total arsenic in drinking water and in urine (r = .52, p < .01). Urinary arsenic may be used as a biomarker of arsenic exposure through drinking water.

  4. Observation of changes in urinary excretion of thorium in humans following ingestion of a therapeutic soil.

    PubMed

    Höllriegl, V; Greiter, M; Giussani, A; Gerstmann, U; Michalke, B; Roth, P; Oeh, U

    2007-01-01

    The study investigated the changes in urinary thorium excretion by humans following ingestion of a therapeutic soil, which contains about 10 ppm of thorium. This well-known healing earth in Germany has been considered as an alternative medicine for diarrhoea and gastric hyper-acidity. Six adult volunteers ingested this therapeutic soil in varying quantities for 1-15 days at levels approximating those described in the package insert of the medicine (10-60 g of soil per day). The subjects ingested about 0.1-0.6 mg of thorium daily, which is 100-600 times higher than the normal daily intake of about 1 microg thorium in Germany. All 24-h urine samples collected from the subjects during pre-ingestion, ingestion and post-ingestion periods of the soil were analyzed for (232)Th using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The measured excretion values varied in a wide range. Apparently, the high thorium amounts administered did not increase the (232)Th excretion in urine as expected, suggesting that this soil ingestion will not result in a considerably higher and harmful uptake of thorium into the human body.

  5. Measurement of urinary copper excretion after 48-h d-penicillamine cessation as a compliance assessment in Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Dzieżyc, Karolina; Litwin, Tomasz; Chabik, Grzegorz; Członkowska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of Wilson's disease (WD) with anti-copper agents is effective in most compliant patients. During long-term treatment with chelating agents, a two-day interruption of the treatment should result in normal urinary copper concentrations (<50 μg/dl). The aim of this study was to establish the usefulness of this method as a compliance assessment in these patients. We examined consecutive patients treated with d-penicillamine (DPA) undergoing routine follow-up studies at our center. We performed 24-h urinary copper excretion analysis 48 h after interruption of chelating therapy. Thirty-two patients were enrolled. After DPA cessation, normalization of copper excretion was observed in 91% of reportedly compliant patients. The specificity and sensitivity values of this test were 87% and 77%, respectively. Measurement of 24-h urinary copper excretion after a 48-h interruption of DPA therapy in patients with WD is a reliable method for confirming patients' compliance.

  6. Urinary 3-methylhistidine excretion in man: the role of protein-bound and soluble 3-methylhistidine.

    PubMed

    Huszar, G; Golenwsky, G; Maiocco, J; Davis, E

    1983-05-01

    The influence of dietary meat and meat stock intake on urinary excretion of 3-methylhistidine (3MH) was examined in human adults. In the absence of 3MH ingestion for 48 h, the study subjects adjusted to an intrinsic urinary 3MH: creatinine value. If the meat and meat stock-free diet was maintained on subsequent days, only minute diurnal variations occurred, and the values of random urine samples during the day were representative of the 24 h 3MH: creatinine value. The mean 3MH: creatinine value (SD) for a group of adults (n 7) was 0.105 +/- 0.023 (mumol of 3MH/mg creatinine), which is approximately 35% lower than the corresponding value in healthy growing infants (0.148 +/- 0.039) (Seashore et al. 1981). Ingestion of meat soup and meat causes different patterns of urinary excretion of 3MH which are consistent with the finding that meat extracts, such as soup and stock, contain considerable amounts of 3MH. The 3MH contents of beef, chicken and turkey were 3.8 +/- 0.15, 3.0 +/- 0.09 and 2.3 +/- 0.29 mumol/g dry wt meat respectively. All three meats contained a water-soluble 3MH-fraction (% total 3MH: beef 8, chicken 21, turkey 23). Amino acid analysis of the soluble fraction with or without hydrochloric acid hydrolysis demonstrated free 3MH in chicken and turkey (5.2 and 2.8% of the total respectively) but not in beef. Patients undergoing urinary 3MH measurements should maintain a diet that is free not only of solid meats, but also of meat stock. The ingestion of commercial food products (e.g. frozen or canned meals, sauces, pizza, etc.) may impair the validity of such measurements because of their meat-stock content. A dietary regimen is presented which is based on a shorter 12 h urine collection. The shorter collection time is satisfactory in the light of the steady rate of 3MH-excretion after 2 d of a diet free of meat and meat stock.

  7. Urinary sodium excretion and dietary sources of sodium intake in Chinese postmenopausal women with prehypertension.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhao-Min; Ho, Suzanne C; Tang, Nelson; Chan, Ruth; Chen, Yu-Ming; Woo, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Reducing salt intake in communities is one of the most effective and affordable public health strategies to prevent hypertension, stroke and renal disease. The present study aimed to determine the sodium intake in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women and identify the major food sources contributing to sodium intake and urine excretion. This was a cross-sectional study among 655 Chinese postmenopausal women with prehypertension who were screened for a randomized controlled trial. Data collection included 24 h urine collection for the measurement of sodium, potassium and creatinine, 3-day dietary records, anthropometric measures and questionnaire survey on demographic data and dietary habits. The average salt intake estimated from urinary excretion was 7.8 ± 3.2 g/d with 82.1% women above WHO recommendation of 5 g/day. Food groups as soup (21.6%), rice and noodles (13.5%), baked cereals (12.3%), salted/preserved foods (10.8%), Chinese dim sum (10.2%) and sea foods (10.1%) were the major contributors of non-discretionary salt. Discretionary salt use in cooking made a modest contribution to overall intake. Vegetable and fruit intake, age, sodium intake from salted foods, sea foods and soup were the independent determinants of urinary sodium excretion. Our data revealed a significant room for reduction of the sodium intake. Efforts to reduce sodium from diets in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women should focus on both processed foods and discretionary salt during cooking. Sodium reduction in soup and increase in fruit intake would be potentially effective strategy for reducing sodium.

  8. Increased urinary polyamine excretion after starting a very low calorie diet.

    PubMed

    Uusitupa, M; Pöyhönen, M; Sarlund, H; Laakso, M; Kari, A; Helenius, T; Alakuijala, L; Eloranta, T

    1993-12-01

    Urinary polyamine excretion has been suggested to reflect hypermetabolism or catabolism in different illnesses. In the present study, the excretion of urinary polyamines was examined in 12 obese subjects (3 men, 9 women aged 32-55 y, body mass index 33.3-64.7 kg m-2) before and during a very low calorie diet (the total calorie intake 2100-3350 kJ). In addition, nitrogen balance, basal energy expenditure (BEE) and serum thyroid hormone levels were examined. During the first week on a very low calorie diet (VLCD) the mean body weight declined from 121.8 +/- 27.3 to 117.4 +/- 26.2 kg (mean +/- SD, p < 0.001), and after 12 weeks of treatment body weight was 106.6 +/- 24.6 kg. Immediate reduction of BEE from 1.44 +/- 0.24 to 1.34 +/- 0.24 kcal min-1 (p < 0.001) was found within the first week of therapy and BEE measured on weight-maintaining diet remained lower at 12 weeks (1.25 +/- 0.27 kcal min-1, p < 0.01). Serum free T3 decreased and reverse T3 increased significantly after starting VLCD. Nitrogen balance remained negative during the first 2 weeks on VLCD. A significant increase in total (38%), and in N1-acetyl- and N8-acetylspermidine excretions in the urine (40% and 27%, respectively, p < 0.05) was found during the first week, but later on the levels were not significantly different from the baseline levels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Arsenic drinking water exposure and urinary excretion among adults in the Yaqui Valley, Sonora, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Meza, Maria Mercedes; Kopplin, Michael J; Burgess, Jefferey L; Gandolfi, A Jay

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine arsenic exposure via drinking water and to characterize urinary arsenic excretion among adults in the Yaqui Valley, Sonora, Mexico. A cross-sectional study was conducted from July 2001 to May 2002. Study subjects were from the Yaqui Valley, Sonora, Mexico, residents of four towns with different arsenic concentrations in their drinking water. Arsenic exposure was estimated through water intake over 24 h. Arsenic excretion was assessed in the first morning void urine. Total arsenic concentrations and their species arsenate (As V), arsenite (As III), monomethyl arsenic (MMA), and dimethyl arsenic (DMA) were determined by HPLC/ICP-MS. The town of Esperanza with the highest arsenic concentration in water had the highest daily mean intake of arsenic through drinking water, the mean value was 65.5 microg/day. Positive correlation between total arsenic intake by drinking water/day and the total arsenic concentration in urine (r = 0.50, P < 0.001) was found. Arsenic excreted in urine ranged from 18.9 to 93.8 microg/L. The people from Esperanza had the highest geometric mean value of arsenic in urine, 65.1 microg/L, and it was statistically significantly different from those of the other towns (P < 0.005). DMA was the major arsenic species in urine (47.7-67.1%), followed by inorganic arsenic (16.4-25.4%), and MMA (7.5-15%). In comparison with other reports the DMA and MMA distribution was low, 47.7-55.6% and 7.5-9.7%, respectively, in the urine from the Yaqui Valley population (except the town of Cocorit). The difference in the proportion of urinary arsenic metabolites in those towns may be due to genetic polymorphisms in the As methylating enzymes of these populations.

  10. Urinary Sodium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium Intake in Chinese Postmenopausal Women with Prehypertension

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao-min; Ho, Suzanne C.; Tang, Nelson; Chan, Ruth; Chen, Yu-ming; Woo, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Background Reducing salt intake in communities is one of the most effective and affordable public health strategies to prevent hypertension, stroke and renal disease. The present study aimed to determine the sodium intake in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women and identify the major food sources contributing to sodium intake and urine excretion. Methods This was a cross-sectional study among 655 Chinese postmenopausal women with prehypertension who were screened for a randomized controlled trial. Data collection included 24 h urine collection for the measurement of sodium, potassium and creatinine, 3-day dietary records, anthropometric measures and questionnaire survey on demographic data and dietary habits. Results The average salt intake estimated from urinary excretion was 7.8±3.2 g/d with 82.1% women above WHO recommendation of 5 g/day. Food groups as soup (21.6%), rice and noodles (13.5%), baked cereals (12.3%), salted/preserved foods (10.8%), Chinese dim sum (10.2%) and sea foods (10.1%) were the major contributors of non-discretionary salt. Discretionary salt use in cooking made a modest contribution to overall intake. Vegetable and fruit intake, age, sodium intake from salted foods, sea foods and soup were the independent determinants of urinary sodium excretion. Conclusions Our data revealed a significant room for reduction of the sodium intake. Efforts to reduce sodium from diets in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women should focus on both processed foods and discretionary salt during cooking. Sodium reduction in soup and increase in fruit intake would be potentially effective strategy for reducing sodium. PMID:25083775

  11. Amounts and proportion of administered pyrene dose excreted as urinary 1-hydroxypyrene after dietary exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Chien, Yeh-Chung; Yeh, Chun-Ting

    2010-10-01

    Although urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is the most relevant parameter for assessing exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the inability to further elucidate the intra- and inter-individual variability, specificity and kinetics makes it difficult to enhance its value as an exposure predictor. Therefore, this human control study examined the excretion kinetics of urinary 1-OHP after consuming barbecued meat. Two feeding experiments were conducted, with doses of 15 and 30 g of barbecued meat per kg of body weight for experiments 1 and 2, respectively. All voided urine was collected for 7 days and analyzed for 1-OHP. In both experiments, the amounts of urinary 1-OHP excreted was significantly increased (P < 0.05) at 12 h post exposure but not at 12-24 h post exposure. Mean percentages of administered pyrene doses excreted as urinary 1-OHP at 0-12 h and 12-24 h post exposure were 3.80 and 0.61% in experiment 1 and 1.66 and 0.38% in experiment 2. Excretion ratio was inversely related to dose. A pattern of diurnal fluctuation (P < 0.05) in 1-OHP excretions was also identified. That is, 1-OHP excretions were smaller in the first half of the day (~0:00-12:00) than in the last half of the day (~12:00-24:00). This study demonstrated that, even at large dietary doses, most of the total urinary excretion of 1-OHP occurs within 12 h. Thus, subjects of occupational or environmental studies need only recall their diets for the current or previous day to diminish the influence from dietary pyrene.

  12. The factors influencing urinary arsenic excretion and metabolism of workers in steel and iron smelting foundry.

    PubMed

    Shuhua, Xi; Qingshan, Sun; Fei, Wang; Shengnan, Liu; Ling, Yan; Lin, Zhang; Yingli, Song; Nan, Yan; Guifan, Sun

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the degree of arsenic (As) exposure and the factors influencing urinary As excretion and metabolism, 192 workers from a steel and iron smelting plant, with different type of work in production such as roller, steel smelting, iron smelting and metallic charge preparation, were recruited. Information about characteristics of each subject was obtained by questionnaire and inorganic As (iAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in urine were determined. The results showed that steel smelters had significantly higher concentrations of DMA and total As (TAs) than rollers and metallic charge preparation workers, and iron and steel smelters had a higher value of primary methylation index and lower proportion of the iAs (iAs%) than rollers and metallic charge preparation workers. In steel smelters, urinary As level exceeded the biological exposure index (BEI) limit for urinary As of 35 μg/l by 65.52%, and higher than metallic charge preparation workers (35.14%). The individuals consumed seafood in recent 3 days had a higher TAs than the individuals without seafood consumption. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that different jobs, taken Chinese medicine of bezoar and seafood consumption in recent 3 days were significantly associated with urinary TAs exceeded BEI limit value 35 μg/l. Our results suggest that workers in steel and iron smelting plant had a lower level of As exposure, and seafood consumption and taking Chinese medicine of bezoar also could increase the risk of urinary TAs exceeded BEI limit value.

  13. Urinary excretion of 2,5-hexanedione and peripheral polyneuropathies in workers exposed to hexane

    SciTech Connect

    Governa, M.; Calisti, R.; Coppa, G.; Tagliavento, G.; Colombi, A.; Troni, W.

    1987-01-01

    Forty shoe factory workers who were exposed to hexane were investigated to see if there was a correlation between electroneuromyographic changes indicative of neuropathy and urinary excretion of 2,5-hexanedione. Urinary samples were analyzed for the presence of the metabolic products of n-hexane and its isomers. Electrodiagnostic examination was carried out following the urinary sampling. A rating scale was used to obtain a cumulative numeric index of electrodiagnostic findings. 2,5-Hexanedione and ..gamma..-valerolactone were discovered in all cases, while 2-hexanol was found in 11 cases. 2,5-Hexanedione was the main metabolite in most cases (39 of 40). Only in 1 case was a low level of 2-methyl-2-pentanol detected; 3-methyl-2-pentanol was never detected. Metabolic products of cyclohexane were present in about one-fifth of the cases, while trichloroethanol, a metabolic product of trichloroethylene, was nearly always present, all at very low concentrations. Electromyographic abnormalities significant for early detection of toxic polyneuropathy were found in 14 cases. A statistically significant correlation of the electroneuromyographic scoring on the urinary concentrations of measured metabolites was observed only with 2,5-hexanedione and ..gamma..-valerolactone, both derived from n-hexane. Since ..gamma..-valerolactone is probably not a true metabolite of n-hexane, the authors results support the hypothesis that polyneuropathies in shoemakers are due to 2,5-hexanedione. For practical purposes the urinary concentration of 2,5-hexanedione can serve as a predictive measurement for early detection of neurotoxic lesions at preclinical states.

  14. Urinary excretion of 2,5-hexanedione and peripheral polyneuropathies workers exposed to hexane.

    PubMed

    Governa, M; Calisti, R; Coppa, G; Tagliavento, G; Colombi, A; Troni, W

    1987-01-01

    Forty shoe factory workers who were exposed to hexane were investigated to see if there was a correlation between electroneuromyographic changes indicative of neuropathy and urinary excretion of 2,5-hexanedione. Urinary samples were analyzed for the presence of the metabolic products of n-hexane and its isomers. Electrodiagnostic examination was carried out following the urinary sampling. A rating scale was used to obtain a cumulative numeric index of electrodiagnostic findings. 2,5-Hexanedione and gamma-valerolactone were discovered in all cases, while 2-hexanol was found in 11 cases. 2,5-Hexanedione was the main metabolite in most cases (39 of 40). Only in 1 case was a low level of 2-methyl-2-pentanol detected; 3-methyl-2-pentanol was never detected. Metabolic products of cyclohexane were present in about one-fifth of the cases, while trichloroethanol, a metabolic product of trichoroethylene, was nearly always present, all at very low concentrations. Electromyographic abnormalities significant for early detection of toxic polyneuropathy were found in 14 cases. A statistically significant correlation of the electroneuromyographic scoring on the urinary concentrations of measured metabolites was observed only with 2,5-hexanedione and gamma-valerolactone, both derived from n-hexane. Since gamma-valerolactone is probably not a true metabolite of n-hexane, our results support the hypothesis that polyneuropathies in shoemakers are due to 2,5-hexanedione. For practical purposes the urinary concentration of 2,5-hexanedione can serve as a predictive measurement for early detection of neurotoxic lesions at preclinical states.

  15. Dietary fibers reduce the urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene following intravenous administration of pyrene.

    PubMed

    Viau, C; Zaoui, C; Charbonneau, S

    2004-03-01

    During biological monitoring of exposure to a chemical, a possible source of interindividual variability in the measurement of a urinary metabolite that undergoes enterohepatic cycling is the presence of dietary fiber in the gastrointestinal tract. This study examined the effect of diets containing either the insoluble fiber Alphacel (nonnutritive bulk cellulose) or the soluble pectin (from citrus fruit, MW 20,000-40,000). Five groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats received one of the following diets: poor (5% w/w) or rich (15% w/w) in Alphacel, poor (5% w/w) or rich (15% w/w) in pectin, or no fiber (NF). Five micromol/kg of pyrene was administered by iv injection immediately after feeding the animals with their respective diet, and urine and feces collections started for the determination of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), a metabolite of pyrene. The type of fiber had no influence on the results. The rats receiving diets both poor and rich in fiber excreted less 1-OHP (18 +/- 8 and 15 +/- 7 pmol per g of rat, respectively) in the 24-h urine samples than the NF group (28 +/- 6 pmol/g). There was a nonstatistically significant trend towards increased fecal and total (urinary + fecal) 1-OHP excretion with increasing amount of fiber in the diet. An in vitro experiment showed an inverse correlation (r(2) = 0.98) between the amount of Alphacel in suspension in a 1-OHP aqueous solution and the recovery of 1-OHP from the soluble fraction. The reduction in urinary output of the metabolite due to fiber reaching approximately 40% may contribute to its interindividual variability observed in occupational and environmental studies.

  16. Chronic metabolic acidosis reduces urinary oxalate excretion and promotes intestinal oxalate secretion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Whittamore, Jonathan M; Hatch, Marguerite

    2015-11-01

    Urinary oxalate excretion is reduced in rats during a chronic metabolic acidosis, but how this is achieved is not clear. In this report, we re-examine our prior work on the effects of a metabolic acidosis on urinary oxalate handling [Green et al., Am J Physiol Ren Physiol 289(3):F536-F543, 2005], offering a more detailed analysis and interpretation of the data, together with new, previously unpublished observations revealing a marked impact on intestinal oxalate transport. Sprague-Dawley rats were provided with 0.28 M ammonium chloride in their drinking water for either 4 or 14 days followed by 24 h urine collections, blood-gas and serum ion analysis, and measurements of (14)C-oxalate fluxes across isolated segments of the distal colon. Urinary oxalate excretion was significantly reduced by 75% after just 4 days compared to control rats, and this was similarly sustained at 14 days. Oxalate:creatinine clearance ratios indicated enhanced net re-absorption of oxalate by the kidney during a metabolic acidosis, but this was not associated with any substantive changes to serum oxalate levels. In the distal colon, oxalate transport was dramatically altered from net absorption in controls (6.20 ± 0.63 pmol cm(-2) h(-1)), to net secretion in rats with a metabolic acidosis (-5.19 ± 1.18 and -2.07 ± 1.05 pmol cm(-2) h(-1) at 4 and 14 days, respectively). Although we cannot rule out modifications to bi-directional oxalate movements along the proximal tubule, these findings support a gut-kidney axis in the management of oxalate homeostasis, where this shift in renal handling during a metabolic acidosis is associated with compensatory adaptations by the intestine.

  17. Biological monitoring of hospital pharmacy personnel occupationally exposed to cytostatic drugs: urinary excretion and cytogenetics studies.

    PubMed

    Ensslin, A S; Huber, R; Pethran, A; Römmelt, H; Schierl, R; Kulka, U; Fruhmann, G

    1997-01-01

    For evaluation of the risk borne by hospital pharmacy personnel exposed to antineoplastic agents, the incorporation of cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and platinum-containing drugs was quantified by the determination of urinary concentrations. In addition, the induction of micronuclei (MN) and sister-chromatid-exchange (SCE) rates in peripheral blood lymphocytes were studied for correlation with the urinary excretion of cytostatic drugs. Cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide were determined in 24-h urine samples using gas chromatography with electron capture (detection limit 2.5 micrograms/l). Voltammetric analysis enabled the determination of platinum concentrations of 4 ng/l. Heparinized blood (20 ml) was drawn and lymphocytes were cultured for MN and SCE studies. In all, 13 hospital pharmacists and pharmacy technicians regularly involved in the preparation of cytostatic drugs participated in this investigation (7 persons represent a follow-up group). All subjects applied standard safety precautions, including the use of a vertical laminar air-flow hood, protective gowns, and latex gloves. On the day of urine sampling an average of 4,870 mg cyclophosphamide, 5,580 mg ifosfamide, and 504 mg platinum-containing drugs were handled. The excretion of 5 and 9 micrograms cyclophosphamide/l urine was measured in two samples, respectively. An elevated level of urinary platinum was found in one pharmacist (22.3 ng/g creatinine) in comparison with a nonexposed control group. Mean frequencies of MN and SCE did not differ significantly between the drug exposed group and control group. The employees who had incorporated chemotherapeutic agents were part of the follow-up group and, thus, particularly cautious and sensitive to a possible hazard. The results emphasize the necessity of improving personal protection of hospital pharmacy personnel occupationally exposed to cytostatic drugs and support the importance of biological monitoring. In an ongoing project in our department the

  18. Urinary excretion of cortisol from rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) habituated to restraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, C. E.; Ortiz, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    Use of monkeys in research has often required that they be restrained in a chair. However, chair restraint can elicit an initial neuroendocrine stress response. Also, inactivity associated with restraint can induce muscular atrophy. We proposed that prior habituation of monkeys to chair restraint would attenuate these neuroendocrine responses without causing substantial muscle wasting. Four rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained and habituated to a restraint chair specifically designed for spaceflight. During the study, monkeys were placed in metabolic cages for 7 days (prerestraint, Phase I), placed in a chair restraint for 18 days (Phase II), and then returned to their metabolic cages for 5 days (postrestraint, Phase III). Urine was collected between 0700-1100 daily, and measurements of cortisol, creatinine, and electrolyte concentrations were adjusted for hourly excretion rates. Body weights of the monkeys did not change between start of the prerestraint and postrestraint phases (10.3 +/- 0.8 vs. 10.3 +/- 0.9 kg, respectively). During the 3 phases, mean excretion rate of cortisol did not change (24.1 +/- 10.3, 26.7 +/- 7.7, and 19.3 +/- 5.8 microg/h, respectively). Mean excretion rate of creatinine (37.3 +/- 7.5, 37.5 +/- 12.2, and 36.9 +/- 17.1 mg/h, respectively), Na+ (3.3 +/- 1.2, 3.2 +/- 1.2, 2.2 +/- 1.8 mmol/h, respectively), and K+ (5.3 +/- 1.8, 5.4 +/- 1.6, and 4.3 +/- 2.8 mmol/h, respectively) were also not altered. Lack of an increase in excreted urinary cortisol suggested that prior habituation to chair restraint attenuated neuroendocrine responses reported previously. Also, the chair restraint method used appeared to allow adequate activity, because the monkeys did not have indices of muscle wasting.

  19. Relative lung and systemic bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate inhaled products using urinary drug excretion post inhalation.

    PubMed

    Aswania, Osama; Chrystyn, Henry

    2002-05-01

    The relative lung and systemic bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate following inhalation by different methods have been determined using a urinary excretion pharmacokinetic method. On three separate randomised study days, 7 days apart, subjects inhaled (i) 4x5 mg from an Intal metered dose inhaler (MDI), (ii) 4x5 mg from an MDI attached to a large volume spacer (MDI+SP) and (iii) 20 mg from an Intal Spinhaler (DPI). Urine samples were provided at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 24 h post dose. The mean (S.D.) amount of sodium cromoglycate excreted in the urine during the first 30 min post inhalation was 38.1 (27.5), 222.3 (120.3) and 133.1 (92.2) microg following MDI, MDI+SP and DPI, respectively. The mean ratio (90% confidence interval) of these amounts excreted in the urine over the first 30 min for MDI+SP vs. MDI, DPI vs. MDI and MDI+SP vs. DPI was 801.0 (358.0, 1244; p<0.002)%, 457.0 (244.0, 670.0; p<0.02)% and 262.4 (110.2, 414.5)%, respectively. Similarly for the 24 h cumulative amount of sodium cromoglycate excreted over the 24 h post inhalation the ratios were 375.4 (232.9, 517.9; p<0.005)%, 287.5 (183.4, 391.6; p<0.02)% and 211.4 (88.3, 334.5)%, respectively. The results highlight better lung deposition of sodium cromoglycate from a metered dose inhaler attached to a large volume spacer.

  20. Urinary excretion of cortisol from rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) habituated to restraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, C. E.; Ortiz, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    Use of monkeys in research has often required that they be restrained in a chair. However, chair restraint can elicit an initial neuroendocrine stress response. Also, inactivity associated with restraint can induce muscular atrophy. We proposed that prior habituation of monkeys to chair restraint would attenuate these neuroendocrine responses without causing substantial muscle wasting. Four rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained and habituated to a restraint chair specifically designed for spaceflight. During the study, monkeys were placed in metabolic cages for 7 days (prerestraint, Phase I), placed in a chair restraint for 18 days (Phase II), and then returned to their metabolic cages for 5 days (postrestraint, Phase III). Urine was collected between 0700-1100 daily, and measurements of cortisol, creatinine, and electrolyte concentrations were adjusted for hourly excretion rates. Body weights of the monkeys did not change between start of the prerestraint and postrestraint phases (10.3 +/- 0.8 vs. 10.3 +/- 0.9 kg, respectively). During the 3 phases, mean excretion rate of cortisol did not change (24.1 +/- 10.3, 26.7 +/- 7.7, and 19.3 +/- 5.8 microg/h, respectively). Mean excretion rate of creatinine (37.3 +/- 7.5, 37.5 +/- 12.2, and 36.9 +/- 17.1 mg/h, respectively), Na+ (3.3 +/- 1.2, 3.2 +/- 1.2, 2.2 +/- 1.8 mmol/h, respectively), and K+ (5.3 +/- 1.8, 5.4 +/- 1.6, and 4.3 +/- 2.8 mmol/h, respectively) were also not altered. Lack of an increase in excreted urinary cortisol suggested that prior habituation to chair restraint attenuated neuroendocrine responses reported previously. Also, the chair restraint method used appeared to allow adequate activity, because the monkeys did not have indices of muscle wasting.

  1. Human urinary excretion profile after smoking and oral administration of ( sup 14 C)delta 1-tetrahydrocannabinol

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, E.; Gillespie, H.K.; Halldin, M.M. )

    1990-05-01

    The urinary excretion profiles of delta 1-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 1-THC) metabolites have been evaluated in two chronic and two naive marijuana users after smoking and oral administration of ({sup 14}C)delta 1-THC. Urine was collected for five days after each administration route and analyzed for total delta 1-THC metabolites by radioactivity determination, for delta 1-THC-7-oic acid by high-performance liquid chromatography, and for cross-reacting cannabinoids by the EMIT d.a.u. cannabinoid assay. The average urinary excretion half-life of {sup 14}C-labeled delta 1-THC metabolites was calculated to be 18.2 +/- 4.9 h (+/- SD). The excretion profiles of delta 1-THC-7-oic acid and EMIT readings were similar to the excretion profile of {sup 14}C-labeled metabolites in the naive users. However, in the chronic users the excretion profiles of delta 1-THC-7-oic acid and EMIT readings did not resemble the radioactive excretion due to the heavy influence from previous Cannabis use. Between 8-14% of the radioactive dose was recovered in the urine in both user groups after oral administration. Lower urinary recovery was obtained both in the chronic and naive users after smoking--5 and 2%, respectively.

  2. Effect of metoprolol on 24-hour urinary excretion of adrenal steroids and kallikrein in patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Fritschka, E.; Gotzen, R.; Kittler, R.; Schöneshöfer, M.

    1984-01-01

    Treatment of fifteen patients with essential hypertension over four weeks using the beta 1-adrenoceptor blocking agent, metoprolol, resulted in a decrease in 24 h urinary excretion of kallikrein and aldosterone along with a decrease in plasma renin activity. There was no significant change in 24 h excretion rates of the free adrenal steroids deoxycorticosterone, 18-OH-deoxycorticosterone, corticosterone, cortisol or 18-OH-corticosterone during treatment, which were not significantly different from excretion rates of normal males, thus excluding inhibitory effects of adrenal steroids on urinary kallikrein activity. A positive correlation was found between plasma renin activity and urinary excretion of kallikrein during the control period and after 2 weeks on metoprolol, supporting the assumption of a preserved link between the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the renal excretion of kallikrein in these patients. The decrease in kallikrein excretion during beta 1-adrenoceptor blockade in patients with essential hypertension may be explained by a reduction in sympathetic tone and by reduced activity of the renin-aldosterone system. PMID:6367871

  3. Comparison of estimates of systemic Pu from urinary excretion with estimates from post-mortem tissue analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kathren, R.L.; Heid, K.R.; Swint, M.J.

    1987-11-01

    Urinalysis data for 17 individuals with known exposure to Pu were supplied to six laboratories, each of which made an estimate of systemic deposition. In general, the evaluation was done with the Langham model or one of its derivatives, and the values obtained by the laboratories for any single case were typically within a factor of two of the mean for all laboratories. The estimates made from urinalysis data typically were several-fold greater than those made from autopsy data. The results indicate that estimates based on urinary excretion overestimate systemic deposition and tend to confirm previous observations that the Langham equation underestimates urinary excretion.

  4. Urinary Acid Excretion Can Predict Changes in Bone Metabolism During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwart, Sara R.; Smith, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Mitigating space flight-induced bone loss is critical for space exploration, and a dietary countermeasure would be ideal. We present here preliminary data from a study where we examined the role of dietary intake patterns as one factor that can influence bone mineral loss in astronauts during space flight. Crewmembers (n=5) were asked to consume a prescribed diet with either a low (0.3-0.6) or high (1.0-1.3) ratio of animal protein to potassium (APro:K) before and during space flight for 4-d periods. Diets were controlled for energy, total protein, calcium, and sodium. 24-h urine samples were collected on the last day of each of the 4-d controlled diet sessions. 24-h urinary acid excretion, which was predicted by dietary potential renal acid load, was correlated with urinary n-telopeptide (NTX, Pearson R = 0.99 and 0.80 for the high and low APro:K sessions, respectively, p<0.001). The amount of protein when expressed as the percentage of total energy (but not as total grams) was also correlated with urinary NTX (R = 0.66, p<0.01). These results, from healthy individuals in a unique environment, will be important to better understand diet and bone interrelationships during space flight as well as on Earth. The study was funded by the NASA Human Research Program.

  5. Increased urinary uric acid excretion: a finding in Indian stone formers.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Tapan; Karan, S C; Kotwal, Atul

    2010-02-01

    Many studies have been done to determine the risk factors associated with urolithiasis so that preventive measures can be undertaken to prevent stone formation. However the exact aetiology of urinary stones still remains elusive. A prospective control study of epidemiological factors that influence urinary stone formation was done to determine the aetiology of urinary stones. Patients with stone disease had a significantly higher body mass index. 24-h urine excretion of uric acid and phosphate was found to be significantly higher in stone patients as compared to controls. The intake of non-vegetarian food was significantly higher amongst stone formers. Stone patients had a significantly higher consumption of curd and cheese as compared to controls. There was a significant correlation noted between stone formation and a positive family and past history of stone disease. The results indicate that obese patients, especially those with a family history of stone disease, should be counselled on weight loss. Individuals with a past history of stone disease should be advised to reduce their dietary intake of foods rich in uric acid (meat, liver and beans).

  6. Dietary and animal-related factors associated with the rate of urinary oxalate and calcium excretion in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Dijcker, J C; Hagen-Plantinga, E A; Everts, H; Bosch, G; Kema, I P; Hendriks, W H

    2012-07-14

    This paper reports the results of a cohort study and randomised clinical trial (RCT) in cross-over design. In the cohort study, the range of urinary oxalate (Uox) and calcium (Uca) excretion was determined within a sample of the Dutch population of dogs and cats, and dietary and animal-related factors associated with these urine parameters were identified. Spot urine samples were collected from privately owned dogs (n=141) and cats (n=50). The RCT determined the effect of a commercial raw meat diet versus a dry diet on Uox and Uca excretion rate in 23 dogs. In the cohort study, Uox excretion ranged from 21.1 to 170.6 mmol oxalate/mol creatinine in dogs and 27.5 to 161.6 in cats. Urinary calcium excretion ranged from 3.4 to 462.8 mmol calcium/mol creatinine in dogs and 10.1 to 128.0 in cats. In dogs, increased Uox and Uca excretion was associated with (1) the intake of a dry diet as the primary source of energy, (2) receiving no snacks and (3) breed. Increased Uox excretion was associated with males as well. In cats, urine collection in anaesthetised subjects was identified as a confounder. In the RCT, feeding the dry diet resulted in higher Uox (P<0.001) and Uca (P=0.021) excretion rates in dogs.

  7. Urinary Excretion of N-Nitroso Compounds in Rats Fed Sodium Nitrite and/or Hot Dogs

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Nitrite-treated meat is a reported risk factor for colon cancer. Mice that ingested sodium nitrite (NaNO2) or hot dogs (a nitrite-treated product) showed increased fecal excretion of apparent N-nitroso compounds (ANC). Here, we investigated for the first time whether rats excrete increased amounts of ANC in their urine after they are fed NaNO2 and/or hot dogs. Rats were treated for 7 days with NaNO2 in drinking water or were fed hot dogs. Their 24 h urine samples were analyzed for ANC by thermal energy analysis on days 1–4 after nitrite or hot dog treatment was stopped. For two rats fed 480 mg NaNO2/L drinking water, mean urinary ANC excretion on days 1–4 was 30, 5.2, 2.5, and 0.8 nmol/day, respectively. For two to eight rats/dose given varied NaNO2 doses, mean urinary ANC output on day 1 increased from 0.9 (for no nitrite) to 37 (for 1000 mg NaNO2/L drinking water) nmol ANC/day. Urine samples of four rats fed 40–60% hot dogs contained 12–13 nmol ANC on day 1. Linear regression analysis showed highly significant correlations between urinary ANC excretion on day 1 after stopping treatment and varied (a) NaNO2 level in drinking water for rats fed semipurified or commercials diet and (b) hot dog levels in the diet. Some correlations remained significant up to 4 days after nitrite treatment was stopped. Urinary output of ANC precursors (compounds that yield ANC after mild nitrosation) for rats fed semipurified or commercial diet was 11–17 or 23–48 μmol/day, respectively. Nitrosothiols and iron nitrosyls were not detected in urinary ANC and ANCP. Excretion of urinary ANC was about 60% of fecal ANC excretion for 1 to 2 days after NaNO2 was fed. Administered NaNO2 was not excreted unchanged in rat urine. We conclude that urinary ANC excretion in humans could usefully be surveyed to indicate exposure to N-nitroso compounds. PMID:25183213

  8. Urinary excretion of N-nitroso compounds in rats fed sodium nitrite and/or hot dogs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lin; Anwar, Muhammad M; Zahid, Muhammad; Shostrom, Valerie; Mirvish, Sidney S

    2014-10-20

    Nitrite-treated meat is a reported risk factor for colon cancer. Mice that ingested sodium nitrite (NaNO2) or hot dogs (a nitrite-treated product) showed increased fecal excretion of apparent N-nitroso compounds (ANC). Here, we investigated for the first time whether rats excrete increased amounts of ANC in their urine after they are fed NaNO2 and/or hot dogs. Rats were treated for 7 days with NaNO2 in drinking water or were fed hot dogs. Their 24 h urine samples were analyzed for ANC by thermal energy analysis on days 1-4 after nitrite or hot dog treatment was stopped. For two rats fed 480 mg NaNO2/L drinking water, mean urinary ANC excretion on days 1-4 was 30, 5.2, 2.5, and 0.8 nmol/day, respectively. For two to eight rats/dose given varied NaNO2 doses, mean urinary ANC output on day 1 increased from 0.9 (for no nitrite) to 37 (for 1000 mg NaNO2/L drinking water) nmol ANC/day. Urine samples of four rats fed 40-60% hot dogs contained 12-13 nmol ANC on day 1. Linear regression analysis showed highly significant correlations between urinary ANC excretion on day 1 after stopping treatment and varied (a) NaNO2 level in drinking water for rats fed semipurified or commercials diet and (b) hot dog levels in the diet. Some correlations remained significant up to 4 days after nitrite treatment was stopped. Urinary output of ANC precursors (compounds that yield ANC after mild nitrosation) for rats fed semipurified or commercial diet was 11-17 or 23-48 μmol/day, respectively. Nitrosothiols and iron nitrosyls were not detected in urinary ANC and ANCP. Excretion of urinary ANC was about 60% of fecal ANC excretion for 1 to 2 days after NaNO2 was fed. Administered NaNO2 was not excreted unchanged in rat urine. We conclude that urinary ANC excretion in humans could usefully be surveyed to indicate exposure to N-nitroso compounds.

  9. Associations between urinary excretion of cadmium and proteins in a nonsmoking population: renal toxicity or normal physiology?

    PubMed

    Akerstrom, Magnus; Sallsten, Gerd; Lundh, Thomas; Barregard, Lars

    2013-02-01

    Associations between cadmium (Cd) and kidney function have been reported even at low levels of exposure in the general population. Recently, the causality of these associations has been questioned. We examined associations between urinary Cd (U-Cd; a biomarker of exposure) and urinary proteins that are used as biomarkers of kidney effects, based on repeated short-term sampling in healthy subjects. Twenty-four hour urine samples were collected on 2 separate days at six fixed times from 30 healthy nonsmoking men and women (median age 39 years). We analyzed the samples (N = 354) for Cd (i.e., U-Cd) and two proteins used as kidney function biomarkers: urinary albumin (U-Alb) and alpha-1-microglobulin (U-A1M). Concentrations were adjusted for creatinine concentration or for specific gravity, and excretion rates (mass per hour) were calculated. Possible associations were assessed within each individual participant, and mean correlations and regressions were evaluated. We found clear positive mean associations within individuals between the excretion of U-Cd [mean, 0.11 µg/g creatinine (range, 0.01-0.52 µg/g creatinine)] and both U-Alb and U-A1M. The associations were stronger for excretion rates and concentrations adjusted for specific gravity than for concentrations adjusted for creatinine. We also found significant positive associations of urinary flow with excretion of U-Cd, U-Alb, and U-A1M. Associations between short-term changes in U-Cd and markers of kidney function within individual nonsmoking study participants are unlikely to reflect effects of Cd toxicity. A more likely explanation is that these associations result from normal variation in renal function, including changes in urinary flow, that influence the urinary excretion of both Cd and proteins in the same direction. These effects of normal variability may result in overestimation of the adverse effects of Cd on kidney function at low-level Cd exposure.

  10. Genetic algorithm-optimized QSPR models for bioavailability, protein binding, and urinary excretion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junmei; Krudy, George; Xie, Xiang-Qun; Wu, Chengde; Holland, George

    2006-01-01

    In this work, a genetic algorithm (GA) was applied to build up a set of QSPR (quantitative structure-property relationship) models for human absolute oral bioavailability, plasma protein binding, and urinary excretion using the counts of molecular fragments as descriptors. For a pharmacokinetic property, the consensus score of a set of models (20 or 30) was found to improve the correlation coefficient and reduce the standard error significantly. Key fragments that may boost or reduce pharmacokinetic properties were also identified. Databases searches were performed for a set of key fragments identified by bioavailability models. The percentage of hit rates of bioavailability-boosting fragments were significantly higher than those of bioavailability-reducing fragments for MDDR (MDL Drug Data Report), a database of drugs and drug leads entered or entering development. On the other hand, the opposite trend was observed for ACD (Available Chemicals Directory), a database of all kinds of available compounds.

  11. Arsenic levels in the groundwater of Korea and the urinary excretion among contaminated area.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Duck; Choi, Seong-Jin; Choi, Byung-Sun; Lee, Choong-Ryeol; Kim, Heon; Kim, Yong-Dae; Park, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Young-Jo; Kang, Seojin; Lim, Kyung-Min; Chung, Jin-Ho

    2016-09-01

    Drinking water is a main source of human exposure to arsenic. Hence, the determination of arsenic in groundwater is essential to assess its impact on public health. Here, we report arsenic levels in the groundwater of 722 sites covering all six major provinces of Korea. Water was sampled in two occasions (summer, 722 sites and winter, 636 sites) and the arsenic levels were measured with highly sensitive inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry method (limit of detection, 0.1 μg/l) to encompass the current drinking water standard (<10 μg/l). Seasonal variation was negligible, but the geographical difference was prominent. Total arsenic in groundwater ranged from 0.1 to 48.4 μg/l. A 88.0-89.0% of sites were <2.0 μg/l and the remaining ones generally did not exceed 10 μg/l (6.4-7.0%, 2.0-4.9 μg/l; 2.4-3.0%, 5.0-9.9 μg/l). However, some areas (1.0-9.2%) exhibited >10 μg/l. Notably, urinary arsenic excretion of people around these regions was markedly higher compared with non-contaminated areas (<5 μg/l) (79.7±5.2 μg/g (N=122) vs 68.4±5.4 μg/g (N=65) creatinine, P=0.052). All stratified analysis also revealed higher urinary excretion, where a statistically significant difference was noted for non-smokers (85.9±12.7 vs 54.0±6.3, P=0.030), suggesting that arsenic-contaminated groundwater may contribute to its systemic exposure.

  12. Circadian rhythm of urinary potassium excretion during treatment with an angiotensin receptor blocker.

    PubMed

    Ogiyama, Yoshiaki; Miura, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Shuichi; Fuwa, Daisuke; Tomonari, Tatsuya; Ota, Keisuke; Kato, Yoko; Ichikawa, Tadashi; Shirasawa, Yuichi; Ito, Akinori; Yoshida, Atsuhiro; Fukuda, Michio; Kimura, Genjiro

    2014-12-01

    We have reported that the circadian rhythm of urinary potassium excretion (U(K)V) is determined by the rhythm of urinary sodium excretion (U(Na)V) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We also reported that treatment with an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) increased the U(Na)V during the daytime, and restored the non-dipper blood pressure (BP) rhythm into a dipper pattern. However, the circadian rhythm of U(K)V during ARB treatment has not been reported. Circadian rhythms of U(Na)V and U(K)V were examined in 44 patients with CKD undergoing treatment with ARB. Whole-day U(Na)V was not altered by ARB whereas whole-day U(K)V decreased. Even during the ARB treatment, the significant relationship persisted between the night/day ratios of U(Na)V and U(K)V (r=0.56, p<0.0001). Whole-day U(K)V/U(Na)V ratio (p=0.0007) and trans-tubular potassium concentration gradient (p=0.002) were attenuated but their night/day ratios remained unchanged. The change in the night/day U(K)V ratio correlated directly with the change in night/day U(Na)V ratio (F=20.4) rather than with the changes in aldosterone, BP or creatinine clearance. The circadian rhythm of U(K)V was determined by the rhythm of UNaV even during ARB treatment. Changes in the circadian U(K)V rhythm were not determined by aldosterone but by U(Na)V. © The Author(s) 2013.

  13. Nifedipine lowers cocaine-induced brain and liver enzyme activity and cocaine urinary excretion in rats.

    PubMed

    Vitcheva, Vessela; Simeonova, Rumyana; Karova, Dima; Mitcheva, Mitka

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to see how nifedipine counters the effects of cocaine on hepatic and brain enzymatic activity in rats and whether it affects urinary excretion of cocaine. Male Wistar rats were divided in four groups of six: control, nifedipine group (5 mg kg-1i.p. a day for five days); cocaine group (15 mg kg-1i.p. a day for five days), and the nifedipine+cocaine group. Twenty-four hours after the last administration, we measured neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activity in the brain and cytochrome P450 quantity, ethylmorphine-N-demethylase, and anilinehydroxylase activity in the liver. Urine samples were collected 24 h after the last cocaine and cocaine+nifedipine administration. Urinary cocaine concentration was determined using the GC/MS method.Cocaine administration increased brain nNOS activity by 55 % (p<0.05) in respect to control, which indicates the development of tolerance and dependence. In the combination group, nifedipine decreased the nNOS activity in respect to the cocaine-only group.In the liver, cocaine significantly decreased and nifedipine significantly increased cytochrome P450, ethylmorphine-N-demethylase, and anilinehydroxylase in respect to control. In combination, nifedipine successfully countered cocaine effects on these enzymes.Urine cocaine excretion in the cocaine+nifedipine group significantly dropped (by 35 %) compared to the cocaine-only group.Our results have confirmed the effects of nifedipine against cocaine tolerance and development of dependence, most likely due to metabolic interactions between them.

  14. Randomized controlled trial of febuxostat versus allopurinol or placebo in individuals with higher urinary uric acid excretion and calcium stones.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, David S; MacDonald, Patricia A; Gunawardhana, Lhanoo; Chefo, Solomon; McLean, Lachy

    2013-11-01

    Higher urinary uric acid excretion is a suspected risk factor for calcium oxalate stone formation. Febuxostat, a xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, is effective in lowering serum urate concentration and urinary uric acid excretion in healthy volunteers and people with gout. This work studied whether febuxostat, compared with allopurinol and placebo, would reduce 24-hour urinary uric acid excretion and prevent stone growth or new stone formation. In this 6-month, double-blind, multicenter, randomized controlled trial, hyperuricosuric participants with a recent history of calcium stones and one or more radio-opaque calcium stone ≥ 3 mm (as seen by multidetector computed tomography) received daily febuxostat at 80 mg, allopurinol at 300 mg, or placebo. The primary end point was percent change from baseline to month 6 in 24-hour urinary uric acid. Secondary end points included percent change from baseline to month 6 in size of index stone and change from baseline in the mean number of stones and 24-hour creatinine clearance. Of 99 enrolled participants, 86 participants completed the study. Febuxostat led to significantly greater reduction in 24-hour urinary uric acid (-58.6%) than either allopurinol (-36.4%; P=0.003) or placebo (-12.7%; P<0.001). Percent change from baseline in the size of the largest calcium stone was not different with febuxostat compared with allopurinol or placebo. There was no change in stone size, stone number, or renal function. No new safety concerns were noted for either drug. Febuxostat (80 mg) lowered 24-hour urinary uric acid significantly more than allopurinol (300 mg) in stone formers with higher urinary uric acid excretion after 6 months of treatment. There was no change in stone size or number over the 6-month period.

  15. Randomized Controlled Trial of Febuxostat Versus Allopurinol or Placebo in Individuals with Higher Urinary Uric Acid Excretion and Calcium Stones

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Patricia A.; Gunawardhana, Lhanoo; Chefo, Solomon; McLean, Lachy

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Higher urinary uric acid excretion is a suspected risk factor for calcium oxalate stone formation. Febuxostat, a xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, is effective in lowering serum urate concentration and urinary uric acid excretion in healthy volunteers and people with gout. This work studied whether febuxostat, compared with allopurinol and placebo, would reduce 24-hour urinary uric acid excretion and prevent stone growth or new stone formation. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In this 6-month, double-blind, multicenter, randomized controlled trial, hyperuricosuric participants with a recent history of calcium stones and one or more radio-opaque calcium stone ≥3 mm (as seen by multidetector computed tomography) received daily febuxostat at 80 mg, allopurinol at 300 mg, or placebo. The primary end point was percent change from baseline to month 6 in 24-hour urinary uric acid. Secondary end points included percent change from baseline to month 6 in size of index stone and change from baseline in the mean number of stones and 24-hour creatinine clearance. Results Of 99 enrolled participants, 86 participants completed the study. Febuxostat led to significantly greater reduction in 24-hour urinary uric acid (−58.6%) than either allopurinol (−36.4%; P=0.003) or placebo (−12.7%; P<0.001). Percent change from baseline in the size of the largest calcium stone was not different with febuxostat compared with allopurinol or placebo. There was no change in stone size, stone number, or renal function. No new safety concerns were noted for either drug. Conclusions Febuxostat (80 mg) lowered 24-hour urinary uric acid significantly more than allopurinol (300 mg) in stone formers with higher urinary uric acid excretion after 6 months of treatment. There was no change in stone size or number over the 6-month period. PMID:23929928

  16. Urinary Excretion of 3-Hydroxyisovaleryl Carnitine Is an Early and Sensitive Indicator of Marginal Biotin Deficiency in Humans12

    PubMed Central

    Stratton, Shawna L.; Horvath, Thomas D.; Bogusiewicz, Anna; Matthews, Nell I.; Henrich, Cindy L.; Spencer, Horace J.; Moran, Jeffery H.; Mock, Donald M.

    2011-01-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that marginal biotin deficiency is not rare, contrary to previous assumptions. Accordingly, robust indicators of biotin status would be useful. In a study of 10 healthy adults, we recently provided evidence that abnormally increased plasma concentration of 3-hydroxyisovaleryl carnitine (3HIA-carnitine) is a sensitive indicator of marginal biotin deficiency. We sought to determine whether urinary excretion of 3HIA-carnitine (expressed as the ratio to urinary creatinine) significantly increases in marginal biotin deficiency. Marginal, asymptomatic biotin deficiency was induced experimentally in the same 10 healthy adults (8 women) by feeding undenatured egg white with meals for 28 d. Biotin status was repleted by a mixed general diet plus biotin supplementation. Urinary excretion of 3HIA-carnitine was determined by liquid chromatography-tandem MS on d 0, 14, and 28 (depletion) and on d 35 and 50 (repletion). Mean urinary 3HIA-carnitine concentration increased with depletion (P < 0.0001; d 0 vs. 28) and decreased with repletion (P = 0.0002; d 28 vs. 50). Urinary 3HIA-carnitine excretion was greater than the upper limit of normal in 9 of 10 participants by d 14 and decreased to within normal limits by d 50 in all participants. This study provides evidence that urinary excretion of 3HIA-carnitine is an early and sensitive indicator of marginal biotin deficiency. The ease of collection of untimed urine samples and application of a new analytical method with simplified sample preparation suggest that urinary 3HIA-carnitine is likely to be a useful indicator for large population studies. PMID:21248194

  17. Cohort study of predictive value of urinary albumin excretion for atherosclerotic vascular disease in patients with insulin dependent diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    Deckert, T.; Yokoyama, H.; Mathiesen, E.; Rønn, B.; Jensen, T.; Feldt-Rasmussen, B.; Borch-Johnsen, K.; Jensen, J. S.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether slightly elevated urinary albumin excretion precedes development of atherosclerotic vascular disease in patients with insulin dependent diabetes independently of conventional atherogenic risk factors and of diabetic nephropathy. DESIGN: Cohort study with 11 year follow up. SETTING: Diabetes centre in Denmark. SUBJECTS: 259 patients aged 19-51 with insulin dependent diabetes of 6-34 years' duration and without atherosclerotic vascular disease or diabetic nephropathy at baseline. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Baseline variables: urinary albumin excretion, blood pressure, smoking habits, and serum concentrations of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, sialic acid, and von Willebrand factor. End point: atherosclerotic vascular disease assessed by death certificates, mailed questionnaires, and hospital records. RESULTS: Thirty patients developed atherosclerotic vascular disease during follow up of 2457 person year. Elevated urinary albumin excretion was significantly predictive of atherosclerotic vascular disease (hazard ratio 1.06 (95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.18) per 5 mg increase in 24 hour urinary albumin excretion, P = 0.002). Predictive effect was independent of age; sex; blood pressure; smoking; serum concentrations of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, sialic acid, and von Willebrand factor; level of haemoglobin A(lc); insulin dose, duration of diabetes, and diabetic nephropathy (hazard ratio 1.04 (1.01 to 1.08) per 5 mg increase PMID:8611873

  18. Mucopolysaccharidoses in northern Brazil: Targeted mutation screening and urinary glycosaminoglycan excretion in patients undergoing enzyme replacement therapy

    PubMed Central

    Viana, Gustavo M.; de Lima, Nathália O.; Cavaleiro, Rosely; Alves, Erik; Souza, Isabel C.N.; Feio, Raimunda; Leistner-Segal, Sandra; Schwartz, Ida; Giugliani, Roberto; da Silva, Luiz C. Santana

    2011-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are rare lysosomal disorders caused by the deficiency of specific lysosomal enzymes responsible for glycosaminoglycan (GAG) degradation. Enzyme Replacement Therapy (ERT) has been shown to reduce accumulation and urinary excretion of GAG, and to improve some of the patients’ clinical signs. We studied biochemical and molecular characteristics of nine MPS patients (two MPS I, four MPS II and three MPS VI) undergoing ERT in northern Brazil. The responsiveness of ERT was evaluated through urinary GAG excretion measurements. Patients were screened for eight common MPS mutations, using PCR, restriction enzyme tests and direct sequencing. Two MPS I patients had the previously reported mutation p.P533R. In the MPS II patients, mutation analysis identified the mutation p.R468W, and in the MPS VI patients, polymorphisms p.V358M and p.V376M were also found. After 48 weeks of ERT, biochemical analysis showed a significantly decreased total urinary GAG excretion in patients with MPS I (p < 0.01) and MPS VI (p < 0.01). Our findings demonstrate the effect of ERT on urinary GAG excretion and suggest the adoption of a screening strategy for genotyping MPS patients living far from the main reference centers. PMID:21931511

  19. Tissue accumulation and urinary excretion of Cr in chromium picolinate (CrPic)-supplemented lambs.

    PubMed

    Dallago, Bruno Stéfano Lima; Lima, Bárbara Alcântara Ferreira; Braz, Shélida Vasconcelos; Mustafa, Vanessa da Silva; McManus, Concepta; Paim, Tiago do Prado; Campeche, Aline; Gomes, Edgard Franco; Louvandini, Helder

    2016-05-01

    Chromium (Cr) concentrations in liver, kidney, spleen, heart, lymph node, skeletal muscle, bone, testis and urine of lambs were measured to trace the biodistribution and bioaccumulation of Cr after oral supplementation with chromium picolinate (CrPic). Twenty-four Santa Inês lambs were treated with four different concentrations of CrPic: placebo, 0.250, 0.375 and 0.500 mg of CrPic/animal/day for 84 days. The basal diet consisted of Panicum maximum cv Massai hay and concentrate. Cr concentrations were measured by ICP-MS measuring (52)Cr as collected mass. There was a positive linear relationship between dose administered and the accumulation of Cr in the heart, lungs and testis. Urinary excretion of Cr occurred in a time and dose-dependent manner, so the longer or more dietary Cr provided, the greater excretion of the element. As some non-carcass components (such as lungs or heart) are added to bone and visceral meal to feed animals, there is a risk of bioaccumulation and biomagnification due to Cr offered as CrPic in the diet.

  20. Chocolate intake increases urinary excretion of polyphenol-derived phenolic acids in healthy human subjects.

    PubMed

    Rios, Laurent Y; Gonthier, Marie-Paule; Rémésy, Christian; Mila, Isabelle; Lapierre, Catherine; Lazarus, Sheryl A; Williamson, Gary; Scalbert, Augustin

    2003-04-01

    Proanthocyanidins, the most abundant polyphenols in chocolate, are not depolymerized in the stomach and reach the small intestine intact, where they are hardly absorbed because of their high molecular weight. In vitro and in vivo studies using pure compounds as substrates suggest that proanthocyanidins and the related catechin monomers may be degraded into more bioavailable low-molecular-weight phenolic acids by the microflora in the colon. The aim of the study was to estimate the amounts of phenolic acids formed by the microflora and excreted in the urine of human subjects after consumption of polyphenol-rich chocolate. After consumption of a polyphenol-free diet for 2 d and a subsequent overnight fast, 11 healthy subjects (7 men and 4 women) consumed 80 g chocolate containing 439 mg proanthocyanidins and 147 mg catechin monomers. All urine was collected during the 24 h before chocolate consumption and at 3, 6, 9, 24, and 48 h after chocolate consumption. Aromatic acids were identified in urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and were quantified by HPLC-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Chocolate intake increased the urinary excretion of the 6 following phenolic acids: m-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid, ferulic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, m-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, vanillic acid, and m-hydroxybenzoic acid. The antioxidant and biological effects of chocolate may be explained not solely by the established absorption of catechin monomers but also by the absorption of microbial phenolic acid metabolites.

  1. Evaluation of various rapid chloride tests for assessing urinary NaCl excretion.

    PubMed

    Brüngel, M; Kluthe, R; Fürst, P

    2001-01-01

    The evidence linking NaCl intake to high blood pressure and probably to other diseases has become stronger. Therefore, a population-wide reduction of NaCl intake is generally recommended. Measuring NaCl excretion in urine is the preferred method for estimating dietary NaCl intake. Rapid tests measuring urinary NaCl excretion might be useful for self-monitoring the individual NaCl consumption. The accuracy of four rapid tests measuring chloride content in urine was assessed. Three tests were originally not designed for urine analysis, but for water and food analysis. Totally 204 urine samples were analysed both with the 4 different rapid tests and with quantitative routine laboratory procedures for chloride and sodium. Chloride and sodium were highly correlated (r = 0.96), indicating chloride determination as a reasonable method to assess sodium and NaCl contents in urine. Accuracy of the rapid tests was acceptable in three cases. The drawback of two tests was their narrow calibration range, so that most urine samples had to be diluted. Use of one test showed problems in interpreting its results because the decolouration of the test pads was difficult to recognize. It is concluded that rapid chloride tests designed for water analysis might be suitable to determine NaCl in urine samples. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. Urinary excretion of ginkgolide terpene lactones following acute consumption of Ginkgo biloba extract.

    PubMed

    Dew, Tristan P; Wang, Guan; Williamson, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Urinary biomarkers of plant food supplement (PFS) exposure/intake represent an accurate, objective tool for determining PFS consumption in humans with applications ranging from epidemiology to subject compliance in clinical trials. Ginkgo biloba remains one of the worlds most popular PFS, yet few studies have investigated the uptake and metabolism of its primary unique bioactives: the terpene lactones. To this end, we conducted a dual-dose, acute crossover intervention using G. biloba supplements in healthy participants (n = 12). Pooled 24-H urine samples were analyzed by triple quadrupole LC-MS-MS. We observed that bilobalide and ginkgolides A and B were passed into urine intact and in a dose-dependent manner. Low levels of intact ginkgolides C and J were also excreted. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report intact ginkgolide J in urine following oral consumption of ginkgo supplements and is also the first to account for excreted terpene lactones as a proportion of dose. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. The association of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to salt with 24-hour urinary sodium excretion.

    PubMed

    Land, Mary-Anne; Webster, Jacqui; Christoforou, Anthea; Johnson, Claire; Trevena, Helen; Hodgins, Frances; Chalmers, John; Woodward, Mark; Barzi, Federica; Smith, Wayne; Flood, Victoria; Jeffery, Paul; Nowson, Caryl; Neal, Bruce

    2014-04-04

    Salt reduction efforts usually have a strong focus on consumer education. Understanding the association between salt consumption levels and knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards salt should provide insight into the likely effectiveness of education-based programs. A single 24-hour urine sample and a questionnaire describing knowledge, attitudes and behaviours was obtained from 306 randomly selected participants and 113 volunteers from a regional town in Australia. Mean age of all participants was 55 years (range 20-88), 55% were women and mean 24-hour urinary salt excretion was 8.8(3.6) g/d. There was no difference in salt excretion between the randomly selected and volunteer sample. Virtually all participants (95%) identified that a diet high in salt can cause serious health problems with the majority of participants (81%) linking a high salt diet to raised blood pressure. There was no difference in salt excretion between those who did 8.7(2.1) g/d and did not 7.5(3.3) g/d identify that a diet high in salt causes high blood pressure (p=0.1). Nor was there a difference between individuals who believed they consumed "too much" 8.9(3.3) g/d "just the right amount" 8.4(2.6) g/d or "too little salt" 9.1(3.7) g/d (p=0.2). Likewise, individuals who indicated that lowering their salt intake was important 8.5(2.9) g/d vs. not important 8.8(2.4) g/d did not have different consumption levels (p=0.4). The absence of a clear association between knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards salt and actual salt consumption suggests that interventions focused on knowledge, attitudes and behaviours alone may be of limited efficacy.

  4. The association of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to salt with 24-hour urinary sodium excretion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aim Salt reduction efforts usually have a strong focus on consumer education. Understanding the association between salt consumption levels and knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards salt should provide insight into the likely effectiveness of education-based programs. Methods A single 24-hour urine sample and a questionnaire describing knowledge, attitudes and behaviours was obtained from 306 randomly selected participants and 113 volunteers from a regional town in Australia. Results Mean age of all participants was 55 years (range 20–88), 55% were women and mean 24-hour urinary salt excretion was 8.8(3.6) g/d. There was no difference in salt excretion between the randomly selected and volunteer sample. Virtually all participants (95%) identified that a diet high in salt can cause serious health problems with the majority of participants (81%) linking a high salt diet to raised blood pressure. There was no difference in salt excretion between those who did 8.7(2.1) g/d and did not 7.5(3.3) g/d identify that a diet high in salt causes high blood pressure (p = 0.1). Nor was there a difference between individuals who believed they consumed “too much” 8.9(3.3) g/d “just the right amount” 8.4(2.6) g/d or “too little salt” 9.1(3.7) g/d (p = 0.2). Likewise, individuals who indicated that lowering their salt intake was important 8.5(2.9) g/d vs. not important 8.8(2.4) g/d did not have different consumption levels (p = 0.4). Conclusion The absence of a clear association between knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards salt and actual salt consumption suggests that interventions focused on knowledge, attitudes and behaviours alone may be of limited efficacy. PMID:24708561

  5. Differentiating new cannabis use from residual urinary cannabinoid excretion in chronic, daily cannabis users

    PubMed Central

    Schwilke, Eugene W.; Gullberg, Rod G.; Darwin, William D.; Chiang, C. Nora.; Cadet, Jean Lud; Gorelick, David A.; Pope, Harrison G.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2012-01-01

    AIMS To develop and empirically validate a mathematical model for identifying new cannabis use in chronic, daily cannabis smokers. DESIGN Models were based on urinary creatinine-normalized (CN) cannabinoid excretion in chronic cannabis smokers. SETTING For model development, participants resided on a secure research unit for 30 days. For model validation, participants were abstinent with daily observed urine specimens for 28 days. PARTICIPANTS 48 (model development) and 67 (model validation) daily cannabis smokers were recruited. MEASUREMENTS All voided urine was collected and analyzed for 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS, limit of quantification 2.5 ng/mL) and creatinine (mg/mL). Urine THCCOOH was normalized to creatinine, yielding ng/mg CN-THCCOOH concentrations. Urine concentration ratios were determined from 123,513 specimen pairs collected 2–30 days apart. FINDINGS A mono-exponential model (with two parameters, initial urine specimen CN-THCCOOH concentration and time between specimens), based on the Marquardt-Levenberg algorithm, provided a reasonable data fit. Prediction intervals with varying probability levels (80, 90, 95, 99%) provide upper ratio limits for each urine specimen pair. Ratios above these limits suggest cannabis re-use. Disproportionate numbers of ratios were higher than expected for some participants, prompting development of two additional rules that avoid misidentification of re-use in participants with unusual CN-THCCOOH excretion patterns. CONCLUSIONS For the first time, a validated model is available to aid in the differentiation of new cannabis use from residual CN-THCCOOH excretion in chronic, daily cannabis users. These models are valuable for clinicians, toxicologists, drug treatment staff, and workplace, military and criminal justice drug testing programs. PMID:21134021

  6. Urinary excretion of albumin and beta-2-microglobulin in hypertensive and normotensive renal transplant recipients during urinary diluting and concentrating tests.

    PubMed

    Jespersen, B; Pedersen, E B; Danielsen, H; Kornerup, H J; Knudsen, F; Mogensen, C E; Nielsen, A H

    1986-11-01

    Urinary excretion of albumin and beta-2-microglobulin was measured in nine hypertensive and nine normotensive renal transplant recipients and 10 healthy control subjects before and after an oral water load of 20 ml (kg body weight)-1 (study 1) and in eight hypertensive and 11 normotensive renal transplant recipients and 11 healthy control subjects during 24-h water deprivation (study 2). In both studies 1 and 2 urinary albumin excretion was significantly higher (p less than 0.01) in the hypertensive renal transplant recipients that in the normotensive patients and the control subjects (levels before loading; hypertensives: 23.9 micrograms/min (median), range 7.5-58.7; normotensives: 3.4 micrograms/min, range 1.0-49.3; controls: 2.9 micrograms/min, range 1.3-10.3). Urinary albumin excretion was significantly positive correlated to both systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure (for mean blood pressure: rho = 0.625, n = 18, p less than 0.01) in transplanted patients. Albumin excretion tended to increase after water loading and to decrease during water deprivation in all groups. Beta-2-microglobulin excretion was approximately the same in all groups in both studies 1 and 2 and was not correlated to blood pressure. During a follow-up period of at least 18 months, none of the renal transplant recipients developed signs of chronic graft failure. Increased urinary albumin excretion in hypertensive renal transplant recipients thus appears to be caused by increased glomerular permeability that may be due to glomerular damage induced by arterial hypertension corresponding to the findings in essential hypertension.

  7. Wheat bran and soy protein feeding do not alter urinary excretion of the isoflavan equol in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lampe, J W; Skor, H E; Li, S; Wähälä, K; Howald, W N; Chen, C

    2001-03-01

    The capacity to convert the soy isoflavone daidzein to equol in vivo is presumably determined by an individual's intestinal microfloral populations; however, diet may also influence this conversion. The objectives of the present study were to determine whether a 1-mo supplementation of dietary fiber as wheat bran increases urinary equol excretion in equol excreters and stimulates equol production in nonexcreters and whether longer-term soy isoflavone intake increases equol production or alters overall urinary isoflavone excretion. First, we screened 74 women, ages 20-40 y, and determined their equol-excreter status. In these women, health and lifestyle patterns and habitual dietary intake did not differ according to equol-excreter status. Next, 26 of the women (13 equol excreters and 13 nonexcreters) were assigned (blocked on equol-excreter status) to either longer-term (1 mo) or short-term (4 d) soy protein supplementation. Within each soy treatment group, women participated in two 1-mo intervention periods (the exact length was determined by each woman's menstrual cycle) during which they consumed their usual diets supplemented daily with either 0 or 16 g dietary fiber in a randomized crossover design. A 1-mo washout period separated the two diet periods. Among the 19 women who completed both periods, fiber supplementation did not increase equol production in equol excreters or nonexcreters. In addition, isoflavonoid excretion did not differ by fiber dose or length of soy intervention. These results suggest that a daily 16 g-fiber dose as wheat bran and the addition of soy protein do not alter significantly the capacity of colonic microflora to produce equol.

  8. Urinary Potassium Excretion and Renal and Cardiovascular Complications in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Normal Renal Function.

    PubMed

    Araki, Shin-ichi; Haneda, Masakazu; Koya, Daisuke; Kondo, Keiko; Tanaka, Sachiko; Arima, Hisatomi; Kume, Shinji; Nakazawa, Jun; Chin-Kanasaki, Masami; Ugi, Satoshi; Kawai, Hiromichi; Araki, Hisazumi; Uzu, Takashi; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2015-12-07

    We investigated the association of urinary potassium and sodium excretion with the incidence of renal failure and cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 623 Japanese type 2 diabetic patients with eGFR≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) were enrolled in this observational follow-up study between 1996 and 2003 and followed-up until 2013. At baseline, a 24-hour urine sample was collected to estimate urinary potassium and sodium excretion. The primary end point was renal and cardiovascular events (RRT, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease). The secondary renal end points were the incidence of a 50% decline in eGFR, progression to CKD stage 4 (eGFR<30 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)), and the annual decline rate in eGFR. During the 11-year median follow-up period, 134 primary end points occurred. Higher urinary potassium excretion was associated with lower risk of the primary end point, whereas urinary sodium excretion was not. The adjusted hazard ratios for the primary end point in Cox proportional hazards analysis were 0.56 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.33 to 0.95) in the third quartile of urinary potassium excretion (2.33-2.90 g/d) and 0.33 (95% CI, 0.18 to 0.62) in the fourth quartile (>2.90 g/d) compared with the lowest quartile (<1.72 g/d). Similar associations were observed for the secondary renal end points. The annual decline rate in eGFR in the fourth quartile of urinary potassium excretion (-1.3 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)/y; 95% CI, -1.5 to -1.0) was significantly slower than those in the first quartile (-2.2; 95% CI, -2.4 to -1.8). Higher urinary potassium excretion was associated with the slower decline of renal function and the lower incidence of cardiovascular complications in type 2 diabetic patients with normal renal function. Interventional trials are necessary to determine whether increasing dietary potassium is beneficial. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  9. Urinary Potassium Excretion and Renal and Cardiovascular Complications in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Normal Renal Function

    PubMed Central

    Haneda, Masakazu; Koya, Daisuke; Kondo, Keiko; Tanaka, Sachiko; Arima, Hisatomi; Kume, Shinji; Nakazawa, Jun; Chin-Kanasaki, Masami; Ugi, Satoshi; Kawai, Hiromichi; Araki, Hisazumi; Uzu, Takashi; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives We investigated the association of urinary potassium and sodium excretion with the incidence of renal failure and cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A total of 623 Japanese type 2 diabetic patients with eGFR≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 were enrolled in this observational follow-up study between 1996 and 2003 and followed-up until 2013. At baseline, a 24-hour urine sample was collected to estimate urinary potassium and sodium excretion. The primary end point was renal and cardiovascular events (RRT, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease). The secondary renal end points were the incidence of a 50% decline in eGFR, progression to CKD stage 4 (eGFR<30 ml/min per 1.73 m2), and the annual decline rate in eGFR. Results During the 11-year median follow-up period, 134 primary end points occurred. Higher urinary potassium excretion was associated with lower risk of the primary end point, whereas urinary sodium excretion was not. The adjusted hazard ratios for the primary end point in Cox proportional hazards analysis were 0.56 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.33 to 0.95) in the third quartile of urinary potassium excretion (2.33–2.90 g/d) and 0.33 (95% CI, 0.18 to 0.62) in the fourth quartile (>2.90 g/d) compared with the lowest quartile (<1.72 g/d). Similar associations were observed for the secondary renal end points. The annual decline rate in eGFR in the fourth quartile of urinary potassium excretion (–1.3 ml/min per 1.73 m2/y; 95% CI, –1.5 to –1.0) was significantly slower than those in the first quartile (–2.2; 95% CI, –2.4 to –1.8). Conclusions Higher urinary potassium excretion was associated with the slower decline of renal function and the lower incidence of cardiovascular complications in type 2 diabetic patients with normal renal function. Interventional trials are necessary to determine whether increasing dietary

  10. Bilary and urinary excretion of five cardiac glycosides and its correlation with their physical and chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Marzo, A; Ghirardi, P

    1977-05-01

    Biliary and urinary excretion of five tritium-labelled cardiac glycosides, i.e. Ouabain, K-strophanthoside, Digoxin, Digitoxin and Deslanatoside C, were investigated in anaesthetized guinea-pigs 5 h after i.v. or enteral administration. Urinary excretion is the main route of elimination in the case of Ouabain and Deslanatoside C. Conversely, biliary excretion is predominant in the case of Digoxin and Digitoxin. K-strophanthoside is excreted both via bile and urine. In conscious guinea-pigs treated i.v. with the same cardiac glycosides the highest levels were observed in urine, bile, kidneys and liver. The relative values of those levels were in agreement with the excretion pattern observed in anaesthetized animals. An inverse linear relation (P less than 0.05) was encountered between biliary excretion rate and polarity of glycoside molecula. This correlation has been previously observed by other authors in other species, but not in the rabbit. This suggests that the correlation may not be considered generally applicable at present.

  11. Concentrations of Water-Soluble Vitamins in Blood and Urinary Excretion in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Iwakawa, Hiromi; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Fukui, Tomiho; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Ugi, Satoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Doi, Yukio; Shibata, Katsumi

    2016-01-01

    We examined the concentrations of water-soluble vitamins in blood and urinary excretion of 22 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2DM) and 20 healthy control participants. Macronutrient and vitamin intakes of type 2DM subjects were measured using a weighed food record method. Control participants consumed a semipurified diet for eight days. Multiple linear regression models were used to determine whether significant differences existed in vitamin concentrations in blood independent of age, sex, and other confounding factors. Concentrations of vitamins B2, B6, C, niacin, and folate in blood were significantly lower in type 2DM subjects than in controls, independent of confounding factors. Renal clearances of vitamins B6, C, niacin, and folate were significantly higher in type 2DM subjects than in controls. In conclusion, concentrations of vitamins B2, B6, C, niacin, and folate in blood were significantly lower in type 2DM subjects than in controls, independent of confounding factors; based on the evidence of increased urinary clearance of these vitamins, the lower levels were likely due to impaired reabsorption processes. PMID:27812289

  12. Effect of Ramipril on Urinary Protein Excretion in Maintenance Renal Transplant Patients Converted to Sirolimus.

    PubMed

    Mandelbrot, D A; Alberú, J; Barama, A; Marder, B A; Silva, H T; Flechner, S M; Flynn, A; Healy, C; Li, H; Tortorici, M A; Schulman, S L

    2015-12-01

    This prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the effects of ramipril on urinary protein excretion in renal transplant patients treated with sirolimus following conversion from a calcineurin inhibitor. Patients received ramipril or placebo for up to 6 weeks before conversion and 52 weeks thereafter. Doses were increased if patients developed proteinuria (urinary protein/creatinine ratio ≥0.5); losartan was given as rescue therapy for persistent proteinuria. The primary end point was time to losartan initiation. Of 295 patients randomized, 264 met the criteria for sirolimus conversion (ramipril, 138; placebo, 126). At 52 weeks, the cumulative rate of losartan initiation was significantly lower with ramipril (6.2%) versus placebo (23.2%) (p < 0.001). No significant differences were observed between ramipril and placebo for change in glomerular filtration rate from baseline (p = 0.148) or in the number of patients with biopsy-confirmed acute rejection (13 vs. 5, respectively; p = 0.073). One patient in the placebo group died due to cerebrovascular accident. Treatment-emergent adverse events were consistent with the known safety profile of sirolimus and were not potentiated by ramipril co-administration. Ramipril was effective in reducing the incidence of proteinuria for up to 1 year following conversion to sirolimus in maintenance renal transplant patients.

  13. Overnight deep body temperature and urinary cortisol excretion in infants from economically deprived areas.

    PubMed

    Wailoo, M P; Westaway, J A; Joseph, D; Petersen, S A; Davies, T; Thompson, J R

    2003-11-01

    To assess the pattern of postnatal physiological maturation in economically deprived infants by measuring the age-related changes in deep body temperature during night-time sleep. Inner city Leicester, UK. Forty-eight infants aged 6-21 weeks from economically deprived areas and 87 control infants from more affluent areas. Average deep body temperature between 2 and 4 h after bedtime, overnight and early morning urinary cortisol excretion. Both groups showed a decline in overnight deep body temperature with age that averaged 0.030 degrees C per week (SE = 0.003). Over the age range studied, the average age-adjusted overnight temperature in the infants from deprived homes was 0.090 degrees C (SE = 0.028) higher than that for the affluent group (P = 0.001). Deprived infants had on average 51% higher overnight urinary cortisol and 80% higher morning cortisol. The differences remained when the effects of room temperature, clothing, smoking, birthweight and gestational age were taken into account. These indicators of postnatal physiological maturation suggest that infants from economically deprived homes mature less quickly. This might increase their vulnerability to illness.

  14. Variability in metabolism of imipramine and desipramine using urinary excretion data.

    PubMed

    Ramey, Kelley; Ma, Joseph D; Best, Brookie M; Atayee, Rabia S; Morello, Candis M

    2014-01-01

    Variability in imipramine and desipramine metabolism was evaluated using urinary excretion data from patients with pain. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantitate concentrations in urine specimens. Interpatient population contained 600 unique imipramine specimens, whereas intrapatient population had 137 patients with two or more specimens. Normal concentration ranges of imipramine, desipramine and the desipramine/imipramine metabolic ratio (MR) were established, and various factors were tested for MR impact. Geometric mean of imipramine urine concentration was 0.46 mg/g of creatinine, and desipramine was 0.67 mg/g of creatinine. Gender, concomitant known CYP2C19 inhibitor use and urine pH did not affect MR. However, proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) users had a significantly lower mean MR than those without a listed PPI. Early age group (18-36 years) had a significantly higher mean MR than middle (37-66 years) and late (67-90 years) age groups. Approximately one-third were positive for one or more of hydrocodone, oxycodone, hydromorphone or oxymorphone. Patients with no opioids reported in the medication list had a significantly lower geometric mean MR than those with prescribed opioids (1.03 vs. 1.54, P = 0.004). Patients with only one prescribed opioid had a lower MR than those with two or more prescribed opioids. Patients with younger age, prescribed opioids and no listed PPI were more likely to have a higher geometric mean urinary desipramine/imipramine MR.

  15. Screening of anionic salts for palatability, effects on acid-base status, and urinary calcium excretion in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Oetzel, G R; Fettman, M J; Hamar, D W; Olson, J D

    1991-03-01

    Six anionic salts [MgCl2.6H2O, MgSO4.7H2O, CaCl2.2H2O, CaSO4.2H2O, NH4Cl, and (NH4)2SO4] were evaluated for their effects on dietary DM intake, systemic acid-base balance, and urinary excretion of Ca. Each of the six salts was fed to 12 nonlactating, nonpregnant Holstein cows for 1-wk periods in two replicates of a 6 x 6 Latin square design. All salts were fed at the rate of two equivalents cow-1 d-1. Anionic salt treatments did not decrease DM intake compared with the control diet fed without salts. Blood pH was not affected by any of the salt treatments; however, mild, compensated metabolic acidosis was evidenced by decreased blood bicarbonate concentrations and decreased blood base excess when any of the salts was fed. Urinary pH and urinary base excess also were lowered by all of the salts. Fractional excretion of urinary Ca was increased by all salt treatments. All six anionic salts tested were of similar value in their acidifying effects and in their ability to increase urinary excretion of Ca.

  16. Zea mays L. extracts modify glomerular function and potassium urinary excretion in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Velazquez, D V O; Xavier, H S; Batista, J E M; de Castro-Chaves, C

    2005-05-01

    Diuretic and uricosuric properties have traditionally been attributed to corn silk, stigma/style of Zea mays L. Although the diuretic effect was confirmed, studies of the plant's effects on renal function or solute excretion were lacking. Thus, we studied the effects of corn silk aqueous extract on the urinary excretion of water, Na+, K+, and uric acid. Glomerular and proximal tubular function and Na+ tubular handling were also studied. Conscious, unrestrained adult male rats were housed in individual metabolic cages (IMC) with continuous urine collection for 5 and 3 h, following two protocols. The effects of 25, 50, 200, 350, and 500 mg/kg body wt. corn silk extract on urine volume plus Na+ and K+ excretions were studied in water-loaded conscious rats (2.5 ml/100 g body wt.) in the IMC for 5 h (Protocol 1). Kaliuresis was observed with doses of 350 (100.42 +/- 22.32-120.28 +/- 19.70 microEq/5 h/100 g body wt.; n = 13) and 500 mg/kg body wt. (94.97+/- 29.30-134.32 +/- 39.98 microEq/5h/100 g body wt.; n = 12; p<0.01), and the latter dose resulted in diuresis as well (1.98 +/- 0.44-2.41 +/- 0.41 ml/5 h/100 g body wt.; n = 12; p<0.05). The effects of a 500 mg/kg body wt. dose of corn silk extract on urine volume, Na+, K+ and uric acid excretions, and glomerular and proximal tubular function, were measured respectively by creatinine (Cler) and Li+ (ClLi) clearances and Na+ tubular handling, in water-loaded rats (5 ml/100 g body wt.) in the IMC for 3 h (Protocol 2). Clcr (294.6 +/- 73.2, n = 12, to 241.7 +/- 48.0 microl/ min/100 g body wt.; n = 13; p<0.05) and the Na+ filtered load (41.9 +/- 10.3, n = 12, to 34.3 +/- .8, n = 13, p<0.05) decreased and ClLi and Na+ excretion were unchanged, while K+ excretion (0.1044 +/- 0.0458, n=12, to 0.2289 +/- 0.0583 microEq/min/100 body wt.; n = 13; p<0.001) increased. For Na+ tubular handling, the fractional proximal tubular reabsorption (91.5 +/- 3.5, n = 12, to 87.5 +/- 3.4%; n = 13; p<0.01) decreased, and both fractional distal

  17. Estimation of salt intake by 24 h urinary sodium excretion in a representative sample of Spanish adults.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Rosa M; López-Sobaler, Ana M; Ballesteros, Juan M; Pérez-Farinós, Napoleón; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Elena; Aparicio, Aránzazu; Perea, José M; Andrés, Pedro

    2011-03-01

    The present study reports the Na intake of a representative sample of Spanish young and middle-aged adults aged 18-60 years (n 418, 53·1 % women, selected from the capitals of fifteen provinces and the surrounding semi-urban/rural area), measured with a 24 h urinary Na excretion method. To validate the paper collection of 24 h urine, the correlation between fat-free mass determined by electrical bioimpedance (50·8 (sd 11·3) kg) and that determined via urinary creatinine excretion (51·5 (sd 18·8) kg) was calculated (r 0·633, P < 0·001). Urinary Na excretion correlated with systolic and dyastolic blood pressure data (r 0·243 and 0·153, respectively). Assuming that all urinary Na (168·0 (sd 78·6) mmol/d) comes from the diet, Na excretion would correspond with a dietary salt intake of 9·8 (sd 4·6) g/d, and it would mean that 88·2 % of the subjects had salt intakes above the recommended 5 g/d. Logistic regression analysis, adjusted for sex, age and BMI, showed male sex (OR 3·678, 95 % CI 2·336, 5·791) and increasing BMI (OR 1·069, 95 % CI 1·009, 1·132) (P < 0·001) to be associated with excreting >200 mmol/d urinary Na--a consequence of the higher salt intake in men and in participants with higher BMI. The present results help us to know the baseline salt intake in the Spanish young and middle-aged adult population, and can be used as the baseline to design policies to reduce salt consumption.

  18. Associations of Dietary Phosphorus Intake, Urinary Phosphate Excretion and Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 with Vascular Stiffness in Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Jessica; Smith, Kelsey; Isakova, Tamara; Sowden, Nicole; Wolf, Myles; Gutiérrez, Orlando M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Elevated serum phosphate concentrations are established risk factors for cardiovascular disease and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Independent associations of other indices of phosphorus metabolism, such as phosphorus intake, urinary phosphate excretion, or hormones that regulate these systems such as fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), with markers of cardiovascular disease in CKD have been studied in less detail. Design Cross-sectional study Participants 74 adult CKD patients with mean creatinine clearance of 51±19 ml/min. Outcome Augmentation index (AI)—a surrogate marker of arterial stiffness. Results Whereas serum phosphate varied little across quartiles of creatinine clearance, average daily phosphorus intake and 24-hour urinary phosphate excretion decreased from highest to lowest quartile (by 31 and 60%, respectively, P for trend<0.05). FGF23 was associated with serum phosphate (r = 0.24, P = 0.03) and creatinine clearance (r= −0.4, P = 0.001), but not with dietary phosphorus or 24-hour urinary phosphate excretion (P > 0.05 for both). Older age, higher systolic blood pressure, female gender and black race were independently associated with increased AI. In contrast, there were no associations of serum phosphate, dietary phosphorus intake, urinary phosphate excretion, or FGF23 with AI in multivariable-adjusted models. Conclusions In this sample of patients with CKD, established risk factors for arterial stiffness but not mediators of phosphorus metabolism were associated with increased augmentation index. In addition, there were no significant associations between FGF23 and dietary phosphorus or urinary phosphate excretion. Future studies are needed to determine the main factors associated with elevations in FGF23 in CKD and to further assess the association of disordered phosphorus metabolism with subclinical markers of vascular disease. PMID:22406119

  19. Associations of dietary phosphorus intake, urinary phosphate excretion, and fibroblast growth factor 23 with vascular stiffness in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Houston, Jessica; Smith, Kelsey; Isakova, Tamara; Sowden, Nicole; Wolf, Myles; Gutiérrez, Orlando M

    2013-01-01

    Elevated serum phosphate concentrations are established risk factors for cardiovascular disease and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Independent associations of other indices of phosphorus metabolism, such as phosphorus intake, urinary phosphate excretion, or hormones that regulate these systems, like fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), with markers of cardiovascular disease in CKD, have been studied in less detail. Cross-sectional study. Seventy-four adult CKD patients with mean creatinine clearance of 51 ± 19 mL/minute. Augmentation index (AI)--a surrogate marker of arterial stiffness. Although serum phosphate varied little across quartiles of creatinine clearance, average daily phosphorus intake and 24-hour urinary phosphate excretion decreased from highest to lowest quartile (by 31% and 60%, respectively, P for trend <.05). FGF23 was associated with serum phosphate (r = 0.24, P = .03) and creatinine clearance (r = -0.4, P = .001), but not with dietary phosphorus or 24-hour urinary phosphate excretion (P > .05 for both). Older age, higher systolic blood pressure, female gender, and black race were independently associated with increased AI. In contrast, there were no associations of serum phosphate, dietary phosphorus intake, urinary phosphate excretion, or FGF23 with AI in multivariate-adjusted models. In this sample of patients with CKD, established risk factors for arterial stiffness, but not mediators of phosphorus metabolism, were associated with increased AI. In addition, there were no significant associations between FGF23 and dietary phosphorus or urinary phosphate excretion. Future studies are needed to determine the main factors associated with elevations in FGF23 in CKD and to further assess the association of disordered phosphorus metabolism with subclinical markers of vascular disease. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. High Dietary Sodium Intake Assessed by Estimated 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion Is Associated with NAFLD and Hepatic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Huh, Ji Hye; Lee, Kyong Joo; Lim, Jung Soo; Lee, Mi Young; Park, Hong Jun; Kim, Moon Young; Kim, Jae Woo; Chung, Choon Hee; Shin, Jang Yel; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kwon, Sang Ok; Baik, Soon Koo

    2015-01-01

    Although high sodium intake is associated with obesity and hypertension, few studies have investigated the relationship between sodium intake and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We evaluated the association between sodium intake assessed by estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD in healthy Koreans. We analyzed data from 27,433 participants in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008-2010). The total amount of sodium excretion in 24-h urine was estimated using Tanaka's equations from spot urine specimens. Subjects were defined as having NAFLD when they had high scores in previously validated NAFLD prediction models such as the hepatic steatosis index (HSI) and fatty liver index (FLI). BARD scores and FIB-4 were used to define advanced fibrosis in subjects with NAFLD. The participants were classified into three groups according to estimated 24-h urinary excretion tertiles. The prevalence of NAFLD as assessed by both FLI and HSI was significantly higher in the highest estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion tertile group. Even after adjustment for confounding factors including body fat and hypertension, the association between higher estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD remained significant (Odds ratios (OR) 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-1.55, in HSI; OR 1.75, CI 1.39-2.20, in FLI, both P < 0.001). Further, subjects with hepatic fibrosis as assessed by BARD score and FIB-4 in NAFLD patients had higher estimated 24-h urinary sodium values. High sodium intake was independently associated with an increased risk of NAFLD and advanced liver fibrosis.

  1. Dose-, route-, and sex-dependent urinary excretion of phenol metabolites in B6C3F, mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kenyon, E.M.; Seeley, M.E.; Janszen, D.; Medinsky, M.A.

    1995-07-01

    Phenol is the major oxidized metabolite of benzene, a known human leukemogen and ubiquitous environmental pollutant. Unlike benzene, phenol does not induce tumors in mice following oral exposure; benzene also exhibits sex-related differences in genotoxicity to bone marrow cells that are not observed following phenol administration. We studied the urinary excretion of phenol metabolites in mice as a means to further investigate the metabolic basis for differences in benzene- and phenol-induced toxicity. Male and female B6C3F, mice (n = 3/group) were exposed to 15, 40, 100, or 225 {mu}mol [{sup 14}C]phenol/kg by iv tail vein injection (6 {mu}Ci/mouse). First-pass intestinal metabolism of phenol was evaluated by comparison of urinary excretion of phenol metabolites following iv administration with additional groups of male mice that received the same dose levels by oral gavage. Mice were placed in glass metabolism cages, and urine was collected over dry ice for 48 h. Urinary metabolites were separated by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and quantified by liquid scintillation spectrometry. Urinary excretion of conjugated metabolites of phenol was dose-dependent in both male and female mice administered phenol by iv injection or gavage. The major urinary metabolites of phenol were phenol sulfate (PS), phenol glucuronide (PG), and hydroquinone glucoronide (HQG). Sulfation was the dominant pathway at all dose levels, but decreased as a percent of the excreted dose with a concomitant increase in glucorodination as the dose level increased. Male mice consistently excreted a higher proportion of phenol as the oxidized conjugated metabolite, HQG, compared to female mice, suggesting that male mice oxidize phenol to hydroquinone more rapidly than female mice. 31 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Urinary excretion of vitamin B12 depends on urine volume in Japanese female university students and elderly.

    PubMed

    Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Sugimoto, Ema; Tsuji, Tomiko; Hirose, Junko; Fukui, Tomiho; Shibata, Katsumi

    2009-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins reflects their intake in humans. However, some have reported that physical characteristics and urine volume may affect the amount of vitamin compounds found in urine. We hypothesized that physical characteristics and urine volume could affect urinary excretion of B-group vitamins. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected from 186 free-living Japanese women aged 19 to 21 years and 104 free-living Japanese subjects aged 70 to 84 years. Correlations between urinary output of each B-group vitamin and body height, body weight, body mass index, body surface area, urine volume, and urinary creatinine were determined. Only urinary vitamin B(12) was strongly correlated to urine volume in young (r = 0.683, P < .001) and elderly (r = 0.523, P < .001) subjects. To confirm this finding, 20 Japanese adults were orally administered 1.5 mg of cyanocobalamin (500-fold higher daily intake); and correlations between urinary vitamin B(12) and urine volume were determined. The load of cyanocobalamin increased vitamin B(12) content in the urine by only 1.3-fold. Urinary vitamin B(12) was strongly correlated with urine volume on the day before taking, the day of taking, and the day after taking cyanocobalamin (r = 0.745, P < .001; r = 0.897, P < .0001; and r = 0.855, P < .0001, respectively). We conclude that urinary excretion of vitamin B(12) is dependent upon urine volume, but not on intake of vitamin B(12). Physical characteristics and urine volume are less important for B-group vitamins except for vitamin B(12) as biomarker.

  3. Prevalence of hypercalciuria and urinary calcium excretion in school-aged children in the province of Tokat

    PubMed Central

    Gül, Ali; Özer, Samet; Yılmaz, Resul; Sönmezgöz, Ergün; Kasap, Tuba; Takçı, Şahin; Karaaslan, Erhan; Önder, Yalçın; Çıtıl, Rıza; Bütün, İlknur; Demir, Osman

    2016-01-01

    Aim Hypercalciuria is an important cause of urinary tract symptoms, and also frequently results in urolithiasis. Urinary calcium excretion varies for geographic areas. We aimed to assess percentiles of urinary calcium excretion and prevalence of hypercalciuria for school-aged children in Tokat (city located in inner northern region of Turkey). Material and Methods One thousand three hundred seventy-five children aged 6 to 18 years were enrolled in the study. Urine samples were obtained randomly. The children’s variables as sex, age, length, and weight were recorded. Urinary calcium and creatinine determined from the urine samples and urinary calcium/creatinine ratios (mg/mg) were calculated. Percentiles of urinary calcium/creatinine ratios were also assessed for each age of the children. Results Six hundred eighty-three of the 1 375 children were girls and 692 were boys. The mean age of the children was 11.68±3.43 years. Some 23.9% of the children were living in rural regions and 76.1% were were living in urban regions. The mean urinary calcium/creatinine ratio was 0.080±0.24 and the 95th percentile value of the urinary calcium/creatinine ratio was 0.278. The hypercalciuria prevalence for school-aged children was 4.7% when the urinary calcium/creatinine ratio value for hypercalciuria was accepted as ≥0.21. The prevalence of hypercalciuria in rural and urban regions was 7.60% and 3.82%, respectively (p<0.05). Hypercalciuria was present in 7 of 141 patients who were obese (4.96%) and 58 of 1 234 patients who were not obese (4.70%) (p>0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of hypercalciuria and urinary calcium excretion vary for different geographic areas, not only for countries. The percentiles of urinary calcium excretion should be assesed for every geographic region and the prevalance of hypercalciuria should be determined with these values. There is controversy as to whether obesity is a risk factor for hypercalciuria. PMID:28123331

  4. Urinary excretion of digoxin-like immunoreactive factor and arginine-vasopressin in rats after several osmotic loads.

    PubMed

    Vargas, F; Andrade, J L; Jódar, E; Castillo, M A; Luna, J D; Haro, J M

    1991-01-01

    Urinary digoxin-like immunoreactive factor (DLIF), arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and other urinary parameters were investigated under normal conditions and after the i.p. injection of the following solutions: distilled water, isotonic and hypertonic NaCl, NaHCO3, KCl and urea, at a rate of 3 ml/100 g body weight. The measurement of digoxin-like immunoreactivity by two different radioimmunoassays showed that DLIF was stimulated by all volume loads regardless of the presence or absence of osmolar compounds. This dissociation between DLIF and urinary sodium excretion suggests that DLIF may not constitute the natriuretic hormone. Moreover, a dissociation between DLIF and AVP excretion also were found, which speaks against the hypothesis of a common mechanism of stimulation for both substances.

  5. Urinary potassium excretion, renal ammoniagenesis, and risk of graft failure and mortality in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Eisenga, Michele F; Kieneker, Lyanne M; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S; van den Berg, Else; Deetman, Petronella E; Navis, Gerjan J; Gans, Reinold Ob; Gaillard, Carlo Ajm; Bakker, Stephan Jl; Joosten, Michel M

    2016-12-01

    Renal transplant recipients (RTRs) have commonly been urged to limit their potassium intake during renal insufficiency and may adhere to this principle after transplantation. Importantly, in experimental animal models, low dietary potassium intake induces kidney injury through stimulation of ammoniagenesis. In humans, low potassium intake is an established risk factor for high blood pressure. We hypothesized that low 24-h urinary potassium excretion [UKV; urinary potassium concentration × volume], the gold standard for assessment of dietary potassium intake, represents a risk factor for graft failure and mortality in RTRs. In secondary analyses, we aimed to investigate whether these associations could be explained by ammoniagenesis, plasma potassium, or blood pressure. In a prospective cohort of 705 RTRs, we assessed dietary potassium intake by a single 24-h UKV and food-frequency questionnaires. Cox regression analyses were used to investigate prospective associations with outcome. We included 705 stable RTRs (mean ± SD age: 53 ± 13 y; 57% men) at 5.4 y (IQR: 1.9-12.0 y) after transplantation and 253 kidney donors. Mean ± SD UKV was 73 ± 24 mmol/24 h in RTRs compared with 85 ± 25 mmol/24 h in kidney donors. During follow-up for 3.1 y (IQR: 2.7-3.9 y), 45 RTRs developed graft failure and 83 died. RTRs in the lowest sex-specific tertile of UKV (women, <55 mmol/24 h; men, <65 mmol/24 h) had an increased risk of graft failure (HR: 3.70; 95% CI: 1.64, 8.34) and risk of mortality (HR; 2.66; 95% CI: 1.53, 4.61), independent of potential confounders. In causal path analyses, 24-h urinary ammonia excretion, plasma potassium, and blood pressure did not affect these associations. Our results indicate that low UKV is associated with a higher risk of graft failure and mortality in RTRs. Specific attention for adequate potassium intake after transplantation seems warranted. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02811835. © 2016 American Society for

  6. Environmental factors affecting the urinary excretion of inorganic arsenic in the general population.

    PubMed

    Lovreglio, P; D'Errico, Maria Nicola; De Pasquale, P; Gilberti, Maria Enrica; Drago, I; Panuzzo, Laura; Lepera, Antonella; Serra, Rosaria; Ferrara, F; Basso, Antonella; Apostoli, P; Soleo, L

    2012-01-01

    To assess the critical issues concerning the use of urinary inorganic arsenic (iAs), including As3, As5, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), as biomarker of internal dose in order to monitor environmental and occupational exposure to inorganic As, considering the influence of diet and drinking water on excretion of iAs. The design protocol stipulated collection of weekly urine samples from 6 male subjects for 5 consecutive months. In all the urine samples, iAs was determined by Hydride Generation-Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (HG-AAS). In the subjects with iAs higher than 35 microg/L, Biological Exposure Index (BEI) proposed by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), urinary arsenic speciation was performed by HPLC-ICP-MS. Exposure to airborne As was evaluated monthly using personal environmental samplers worn for 8 hours. Throughout the study, the participants filled out a daily food diary, also detailing types of water drunk. Exposure to airborne As was invariably below the limit of detection, equal to 1 ng/m3. A total of 77 urine samples were collected. iAs was always detectable and was higher in 7 urine samples, obtained from 5 of the 6 subjects examined, than the BEI. Among foods with a high As content, the intake of seafood and fish within 72 hours before providing the sample seems to be the principal source of the iAs concentrations, while the intake of rice or drinking water showed no influence on this biological marker. Instead, drinking wine within 24 hours before urine sample collection can cause a significant increase in the excretion of iAs. In populations that eat large amounts of fish and seafood, the use of iAs to monitor occupational and environmental exposure to inorganic As seems to present some problems, and urinary As speciation may be essential at least in cases with As measurements above the biological limit values. In any case, a diet sheet reporting all foods eaten within 3 days

  7. High urinary calcium excretion and genetic susceptibility to hypertension and kidney stone disease.

    PubMed

    Mente, Andrew; Honey, R John D' A; McLaughlin, John M; Bull, Shelley B; Logan, Alexander G

    2006-09-01

    Increased urinary calcium excretion commonly is found in patients with hypertension and kidney stone disease (KSD). This study investigated the aggregation of hypertension and KSD in families of patients with KSD and hypercalciuria and explored whether obesity, excessive weight gain, and diabetes, commonly related conditions, also aggregate in these families. Consecutive patients with KSD, aged 18 to 50 yr, were recruited from a population-based Kidney Stone Center, and a 24-h urine sample was collected. The first-degree relatives of eligible patients (n = 333) and their spouse were interviewed by telephone to collect demographic and health information. Familial aggregation was assessed using generalized estimating equations. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (OR) revealed significant associations between hypercalciuria in patients and hypertension (OR 2.9; 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 6.2) and KSD (OR 1.9; 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 3.5) in first-degree relatives, specifically in siblings. No significant associations were found in parents or spouses or in patients with hyperuricosuria. Similarly, no aggregation with other conditions was observed. In an independent study of siblings of hypercalciuric patients with KSD, the adjusted mean fasting urinary calcium/creatinine ratio was significantly higher in the hypertensive siblings compared with normotensive siblings (0.60 +/- 0.32 versus 0.46 +/- 0.28 mmol/mmol; P < 0.05), and both sibling groups had significantly higher values than the unselected study participants (P < 0.001). Urinary sodium/creatinine and uric acid/creatinine ratios were not different among the groups. Although an environmental effect cannot be excluded fully, our findings suggest that the disturbance in calcium metabolism in hypertension and KSD has a genetic basis.

  8. Urinary excretion of lipoxin A(4) and related compounds: development of new extraction techniques for lipoxins.

    PubMed

    Romano, Mario; Luciotti, Graziella; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Marinucci, Francesca; Prontera, Cesaria; D'Urbano, Etrusca; Davì, Giovanni

    2002-09-01

    LX are tetraene-containing eicosanoids generated by lipoxygenase (LO) transformation of arachidonic acid (Serhan and Romano, 1995). LX possess potent anti-inflammatory activity in vivo, and temporal biosynthesis of LX, concurrent with spontaneous resolution, has been observed during exudate formation (Levy et al, 2001). Limited results are currently available on the involvement of LX in clinical settings. Recently, a rabbit anti-LXA(4) antiserum has been raised to produce an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit for LXA(4) (Levy et al, 1993). Although specific and accurate with isolated cells, this kit has not been tested with complex biological matrix such as urine. Initial attempts to determine urinary excretion of LXA(4) using the LXA(4) ELISA kit were unsuccessful because of high unspecific absorbance readings. In this report, we show that the LXA(4) extraction procedure indicated in the ELISA kit is inadequate for urinary measurements of immunoreactive (i)LXA(4). We present the development of a new extraction technique, more selective for LX, that abolishes background contamination and minimizes the unspecific readings. Using this method, we show for the first time that urine from healthy subjects contain (i)LXA(4) material and identify a urinary tetraene with the physical properties of a LXA(4) metabolite. Although reliable methods have been previously established to quantitate LXA(4) from whole blood (Brezinski et al, 1992), the present extraction technique, which optimizes for LXA(4) recovery from human urine, represents a substantial achievement for LX investigation and may open a new avenue of clinical studies on LXA(4).

  9. [Urinary excretion of steroid hormone and 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in normal young adult women].

    PubMed

    Takeyasu, M; Kato, T

    1999-01-01

    The urinary steroid hormone metabolites and the ratio of pregnenetriol (delta 5P3) to pregnanetriol (P3) as indicators of 3 beta HSD activity in the urine of healthy young female were measured by means of capillary gas chromatography. All of the subjects have finished the normal pubertal development, and their adrenal steroid hormone secretion had reached to the stable state. We analyzed the diurnal variation, fluctuation during menstrual cycle and seasonal variation of delta 5P3/P3. We found that the hormone excretion in the urine of the morning during the follicular phase of menstrual cycle was relatively stable, and that the ratio of delta 5P3/P3 correlated highly with that in the total daily urine. In the seasonal variation, the urinary delta 5P3/P3 ratio in the subjects of high urinary DHEA group was relatively high, and that of the low DHEA group was low. Although the difference of delta 5P3/P3 ratio of the both groups was small, but statistically significant. Individual difference in the delta 5P3/P3 ratio was relatively small in comparison with that of the urinary DHEA excretion. About 5% of the all subjects showed marked high value of delta 5P3/P3 ratio. About 80% of the high urinary excretion group showed higher value than the average delta 5P3/P3 ratio. These findings suggest that the normal young female subjects were divided into several groups with regard to the urinary DHEA excretion pattern and delta 5P3/P3 ratio in the urine. Both of them may be a specific individual marker.

  10. Urinary excretion of metabolites following a single dermal dose of [14C]methyl parathion in pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Abu-Qare, A W; Abou-Donia, M B

    2000-09-07

    The identification and kinetics of urinary excretion of metabolites of uniformly phenyl-labeled O,O-dimethyl O-4-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate ([14C]methyl parathion) were carried out following a single dermal dose of 10.0 mg (10 microCi)/kg in pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats at 14-18 days of gestation. Urine was collected at each time interval of 1, 2, 4, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after dosing. Total p-nitrophenol in the conjugated and non-conjugated metabolites was measured as a marker of methyl parathion exposure. Elimination of radioactivity in the urine was rapid. Of the total 14C urinary excretion, 30% of the dose was excreted within 4 h, while 50 and 90% of the dose were recovered in the urine by 24 and 96 h, respectively. Excretion rate of total radioactivity was 60 microgram methyl parathion equivalent/h (1.4 mg/day). By the end of the 96-h experiment, conjugated and non-conjugated metabolites accounted for 78.1 and 21.9%, respectively. Of the non-conjugated metabolites, p-nitrophenol and O,O-dimethyl O-4-nitrophenyl phosphate (methyl paraoxon) were identified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) that accounted for 20%, and 1.9% of total urinary excretion, respectively. Appearance and disappearance rate constants of p-nitrophenol in urine were 0.12 and 0.048 microgram/h, respectively. Conjugated metabolites were classified as: glucuronides 12% of urinary excretion, sulfates 3%, hot sulfuric acid hydrolysable residues 47% and 16.1% remained as unidentified water soluble metabolites. Direct hot acid hydrolysis of urine yielded 49% of extractable 14C-radioactivity compared to 62% when hot acid hydrolysis followed the enzymatic hydrolysis. The presence of the conjugated metabolites as the major class of metabolites of the total excretion indicates that determining only unbound p-nitrophenol as a biological marker for methyl parathion exposure underestimates total urinary excretion of p-nitrophenol. Sequential enzymatic and acid hydrolyses of urine prior

  11. Relation between urinary beta-aminoisobutyric acid excretion and concentration of lead in the blood of workers occupationally exposed to lead.

    PubMed

    Tomokuni, K; Ichiba, M; Mori, K

    1992-05-01

    Urinary beta-aminoisobutyric acid (ABA) concentration was determined by fluorometric high performance liquid chromatography in 22 workers occupationally exposed to lead. The urinary excretion of ABA was increased with increasing exposure to lead. The excretion of urinary ABA had a significant correlation with concentration of lead in blood (Pb-B) (r = 0.581), similar to the correlation of Pb-B with urinary delta-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) concentration (r = 0.563). The determination of urinary ABA concentration in workers exposed to lead, therefore, may offer a new approach for evaluating the health effect of lead.

  12. Urinary excretion of 5-hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid in dystimic/depressed, adult obese women: what correlations to hepatic steatosis?

    PubMed

    Tarantino, Giovanni; Savastano, S; Colao, A; Polichetti, G; Capone, D

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of serotonin at CNS level is influenced by diet. Moreover, insulin resistance is associated with lower serotonin levels. Visceral obesity, strictly linked to hepatic steatosis is specifically associated with mild to severe somatic affective-depressive symptom clusters. Previous data support the view that depression involves serotonergic systems, reflecting low levels of urinary 5- hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). The 24-h urinary excretion of 5-HIAA was evaluated in 76 dystimic/depressed, obese/overweight females, divided into two groups, i.e., on a hyper-caloric diet, associated with a life style characterized by leisure time sedentary behavior (LTSB, 35 women), or on a normo-caloric diet, assisted by program-based strategies aimed at promoting physical activity participation (PAP, 41 women). Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was carried out to score the severity of dystimia/depression. Anthropometric measures, metabolic indices, severity of hepatic steatosis at sonography and HOMA were studied. Urinary levels of 5-HIAA in controls and PAP groups were comparable with a great overlap, while in the LTSB group the urinary excretion of 5-HIAA was significantly reduced in respect to that of the PAP group and obviously compared to that of the control group, 3.4±1.4 mg/L versus 6.2±2.7 mg/L and 6.4±2.6 mg/L, respectively, ANOVA test, P= 0.001. Among metabolic indices, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and uric acid were not able to predict urinary concentrations of 5-HIAA, which were not associated with hepatic steatosis; vice versa, ferritin levels, and mainly HOMA values, were independent predictors of the urinary excretion of 5-HIAA (β=0.235 and 0.45, respectively). Dystimia/depression severity was negatively predicted by urinary 5-HIAA levels in the sense that the highest BDI values were forecast by the lowest values of urinary 5-HIAA (β= -0.72).The importance of measuring the 24-h urinary excretion of 5-HIAA in follow-ups could rely

  13. Reassessment of individual dosimetry of long-lived alpha radionuclides of uranium miners through experimental determination of urinary excretion of uranium.

    PubMed

    Malátová, I; Becková, V; Tomásek, L; Slezáková-Marusiaková, M; Hůlka, J

    2013-04-01

    Urinary excretion of uranium of 40 uranium miners was determined by the high-resolution inductively coupled mass spectrometry method. The concentration of uranium in the urine of the miners was converted to daily excretion of (238)U either under the assumption that the daily urinary excretion is 1.6 l or daily urinary excretion of creatinine is 1.7 g and compared with the excretion of (238)U calculated with a biokinetic model. Input data to the excretion model were derived from personal three- component ALGADE dosemeters, using the component for the estimation of inhalation of long-lived alpha radionuclides. Experimentally found contents of uranium in the urine of uranium miners are generally lower than the modelled ones, which means that the dosimetric approach is conservative. The uncertainty of inhalation intakes, derived from the measurements of filters from personal dosemeters, and the uncertainty of the concentration of uranium in the urine are discussed.

  14. Habitual dietary phosphorus intake and urinary excretion in chronic kidney disease patients: a 3-day observational study.

    PubMed

    Salomo, L; Kamper, A-L; Poulsen, G M; Poulsen, S K; Astrup, A; Rix, M

    2016-12-14

    Hyperphosphatemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with vascular calcification, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to estimate the daily dietary phosphorus intake compared with recommendations in CKD patients and to evaluate the reproducibility of the 24-h urinary phosphorus excretion. Twenty CKD patients stage 3-4 from the outpatient clinic, collected 24-h urine and kept dietary records for 3 consecutive days. The mean daily phosphorus intake was 1367±499, 1642±815 and 1426±706 mg/day, respectively (P=0.57). The mean urinary phosphorus excretion was 914±465, 954±414 and 994±479 mg/day, respectively (P=0.21). In this population of CKD patients stage 3-4 the daily phosphorus intake was above the recommended. Twenty-four-hour urinary phosphorus excretion was reproducible and the data indicate that a single 24-h urine collection is sufficient to estimate the individual phosphorus excretion.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 14 December 2016; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2016.247.

  15. Pharmacokinetic modeling and prediction of plasma pyrrole-imidazole polyamide concentration in rats using simultaneous urinary and biliary excretion data.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Takashi; Aoyama, Takahiko; Yokoe, Tsubasa; Fukasawa, Akiko; Fukuda, Noboru; Ueno, Takahiro; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Nagase, Hiroki; Matsumoto, Yoshiaki

    2009-05-01

    The use of urinary and/or biliary excretion data was considered as an alternative approach if the bioanalytical method lacked the appropriate sensitivity to adequately characterize the serum or plasma concentration-time profile. This approach is used for the analysis of plasma concentration-time profile under the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of various analytical instruments. The objective of this study was to develop a pharmacokinetic (PK) model that describes the plasma concentration-time profiles under LLOQ of HPLC using urinary and biliary excretion data. As model compounds, pyrrole (Py)-imidazole (Im) polyamides 1035 (MW, 1035.12) and 1666 (MW, 1665.78) were used. The cumulative urinary excretions of Py-Im polyamides 1035 and 1666 were 72.4+/-11.6 and 4.8+/-0.5% of the administered dose, respectively. The cumulative biliary excretion of Py-Im polyamide 1035 was 4.3+/-0.4% of the administered dose, and Py-Im polyamide 1666 was not detected. The plasma concentration-time profiles of Py-Im polyamide 1035 were adequately described using linear and non-linear output compartments. The developed PK model could be used to describe the plasma concentration profiles using the linear output compartment interpreted as the urine compartment and the non-linear output compartment interpreted as the bile compartment. This PK model will be able to provide a more accurate prediction of the plasma concentration profiles under LLOQ.

  16. Hypertension increases urinary excretion of immunoglobulin G, ceruloplasmin and transferrin in normoalbuminuric patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Nobumasa; Hanyu, Osamu; Hirayama, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Osamu; Aizawa, Yoshifusa; Ito, Seiki; Sone, Hirohito

    2014-02-01

    Increased urinary excretion of certain plasma proteins, such as immunoglobulin G (IgG), ceruloplasmin and transferrin, with different molecular radii of 55 Å or less and different isoelectric points have been reported to precede development of microalbuminuria in patients who have diabetes mellitus with hypertension. We examined how hypertension affects these urinary proteins in a diabetic state. Excretion of IgG, ceruloplasmin, transferrin, albumin, α2-macroglobulin with a large molecular radius of 88 Å and N-acetylglucosaminidase in first-morning urine samples were measured in normoalbuminuric patients (urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio < 15 mg/g) with hypertension and nondiabetes mellitus (group hypertension, n = 32), type 2 diabetes mellitus and normotension (group diabetes mellitus, n = 52) and type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension (group Both, n =45), and in age-matched controls (n = 72). Urinary IgG, ceruloplasmin, transferrin, albumin and N-acetylglucosaminidase and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were significantly elevated in groups diabetes mellitus and Both compared with controls. Furthermore, urinary IgG, ceruloplasmin and transferrin in group Both were significantly higher than those in group diabetes mellitus. These exhibited a positive and relatively strong association with eGFR compared with controls. No significant difference in urinary albumin or N-acetylglucosaminidase was found between the two diabetic groups. In contrast, group hypertension had elevated urinary transferrin without any changes in the other compounds. Urinary α2-macroglobulin did not differ among the four groups. These findings suggest that normoalbuminuric diabetic patients without hypertension have both glomerular hemodynamic changes such as increased intraglomerular hydraulic pressure and altered proximal tubules, and that hypertension increases intraglomerular hydraulic pressure. Increased urinary IgG, ceruloplasmin and transferrin may reflect an

  17. Influence of renal insufficiency on the pharmacokinetics of cicletanine and its effects on the urinary excretion of electrolytes and prostanoids.

    PubMed Central

    Ferry, N; Geoffroy, J; Pozet, N; Cuisinaud, G; Benzoni, D; Zech, P Y; Sassard, J

    1988-01-01

    1. The kinetics of a single oral dose (300 mg) of cicletanine a new antihypertensive drug with diuretic properties, and its effects on the urinary excretion of electrolytes and of the major stable metabolites of prostacyclin and thromboxane A2 were studied in patients with normal renal function (n = 6), mild (n = 9) and severe (n = 10) renal insufficiency. 2. In normotensive subjects with normal renal function, cicletanine was rapidly and regularly absorbed, its apparent elimination half-life established around 7 h, and both its renal clearance (0.4 ml min-1) and its cumulative renal excretion (0.85% of the administered dose), were low. Mild renal insufficiency did not significantly alter these parameters, while severe renal impairment reduced the renal clearance and the cumulative urinary excretion of cicletanine and increased its apparent elimination half-life (31 h). However the area under the plasma curve was not changed due to reduced plasma concentrations in these patients. 3. Cicletanine induced a rapid and marked (four fold as a mean) increase in the urinary excretion of water, sodium and potassium which lasted for 6 to 10 h, in subjects with normal renal function. Renal insufficiency did not alter the slope of the calculated plasma concentration-effects curves but reduced the maximum effect observed for water, sodium and potassium. 4. A single oral dose of cicletanine did not change the urinary excretion of 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha and thromboxane B2 in the three groups of patients studied, the basal values of which being found to be closely related to the creatinine clearance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3358898

  18. Internal dose assessment of 210Po using biokinetic modeling and urinary excretion measurement

    PubMed Central

    Gerstmann, Udo; Giussani, Augusto; Oeh, Uwe; Paretzke, Herwig G.

    2007-01-01

    The mysterious death of Mr. Alexander Litvinenko who was most possibly poisoned by Polonium-210 (210Po) in November 2006 in London attracted the attention of the public to the kinetics, dosimetry and the risk of this high radiotoxic isotope in the human body. In the present paper, the urinary excretion of seven persons who were possibly exposed to traces of 210Po was monitored. The values measured in the GSF Radioanalytical Laboratory are in the range of natural background concentration. To assess the effective dose received by those persons, the time-dependence of the organ equivalent dose and the effective dose after acute ingestion and inhalation of 210Po were calculated using the biokinetic model for polonium (Po) recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the one recently published by Leggett and Eckerman (L&E). The daily urinary excretion to effective dose conversion factors for ingestion and inhalation were evaluated based on the ICRP and L&E models for members of the public. The ingestion (inhalation) effective dose per unit intake integrated over one day is 1.7 × 10−8 (1.4 × 10−7) Sv Bq−1, 2.0 × 10−7 (9.6 × 10−7) Sv Bq−1 over 10 days, 5.2 × 10−7 (2.0 × 10−6) Sv Bq−1 over 30 days and 1.0 × 10−6 (3.0 × 10−6) Sv Bq−1 over 100 days. The daily urinary excretions after acute ingestion (inhalation) of 1 Bq of 210Po are 1.1 × 10−3 (1.0 × 10−4) on day 1, 2.0 × 10−3 (1.9 × 10−4) on day 10, 1.3 × 10−3 (1.7 × 10−4) on day 30 and 3.6 × 10−4 (8.3 × 10−5) Bq d−1 on day 100, respectively. The resulting committed effective doses range from 2.1 × 10−3 to 1.7 × 10−2 mSv by an assumption of ingestion and from 5.5 × 10−2 to 4.5 × 10−1 mSv by inhalation. For the case of Mr. Litvinenko, the mean organ absorbed dose as a function of time was calculated using both the above stated models. The red bone marrow, the

  19. Urinary excretion of calcium and phosphate in dogs with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism: case control study in 499 dogs.

    PubMed

    Fracassi, F; Malerba, E; Furlanello, T; Caldin, M

    2015-12-19

    Pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism (PDH) in dogs is frequently associated with high serum phosphate and parathormone concentrations which are in turn associated with prognosis and clinical presentation. The pathogenesis of such abnormalities remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the serum and urinary concentrations and the urinary fractional excretion of phosphate and calcium in dogs with PDH. Medical records of newly diagnosed PDH dogs before treatment from one referral centre were retrospectively evaluated. One clinically normal and one sick dog for each dog with PDH were included as controls. One hundred and sixty-seven dogs with PDH were included. The serum phosphate concentration in PDH dogs was significantly (P<0.0001) higher compared with clinically normal control dogs (CNDs) and sick control dogs (SCDs). The serum calcium concentration in PDH dogs was significantly higher compared with SCDs but not different compared with CNDs. Urinary fractional excretion of phosphate in PDH dogs was significantly lower compared with CNDs and SCDs. Urinary fractional excretion of calcium in PDH dogs was significantly higher compared with CNDs and SCDs. In conclusion, PDH dogs have lower phosphaturia and higher calciuria compared with control dogs. These findings suggest that, at least in part, high serum phosphate concentrations are related to the renal retention of phosphate. British Veterinary Association.

  20. Urinary pseudouridine and beta-aminoisobutyric acid in patients with low grade urothelial tumours. Relations between excretion and tumour recurrence.

    PubMed

    Nyholm, K K; Sjolin, K E; Wolf, H; Hammer, M; Knudsen, J; Stahl, D; Nielsen, H R

    1976-05-01

    The simultaneous 24 hours excretion of pseudouridine and beta-aminoisobutyric acid in the urine from patients treated for low grade urothelial tumours has been determined and related to tumour recurrence inside of 6 months after the determinations. The results of 53 assays in 39 patients without clinical signs of recurrence at the time of the detrmination showed a high excretion of pseudouridine in 53% and of beta-aminoisobutyric acid in 28.5% of the assays. Recurrences appeared more often after a high urinary pseudouridine (53.5%) than after a low, but the difference was not statistically significant (p more than 0.05) and more often after a low urinary beta-aminoisobutyric acid (52.5%) than after a high (p less than 0.01). The highest incidence of recurrence was in patients with a simultaneously high urinary pseudouridine and a low urinary beta-aminoisobutyric acid. Seventy per cent of these excretion patterns were from patients, who developed a recurrence before 6 months (p less than 0.002).

  1. Stereoselective urinary MDMA (ecstasy) and metabolites excretion kinetics following controlled MDMA administration to humans.

    PubMed

    Schwaninger, Andrea E; Meyer, Markus R; Barnes, Allan J; Kolbrich-Spargo, Erin A; Gorelick, David A; Goodwin, Robert S; Huestis, Marilyn A; Maurer, Hans H

    2012-01-01

    The R- and S-enantiomers of racemic 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) exhibit different dose-concentration curves. In plasma, S-MDMA was eliminated at a higher rate, most likely due to stereoselective metabolism. Similar data were shown in various in vitro experiments. The aim of the present study was the in vivo investigation of stereoselective elimination of MDMA's phase I and phase II metabolites in human urine following controlled oral MDMA administration. Urine samples from 10 participants receiving 1.0 and 1.6 mg/kg MDMA separated by at least one week were analyzed blind by liquid chromatography-high resolution-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after chiral derivatization with S-heptafluorobutyrylprolyl chloride. R/S ratios at C(max) were comparable after low and high doses with ratios >1 for MDMA, free DHMA, and HMMA sulfate, and with ratios <1 for MDA, free HMMA, DHMA sulfate and HMMA glucuronide. In the five days after the high MDMA dose, a median of 21% of all evaluated compounds were excreted as R-stereoisomers and 17% as S-stereoisomers. Significantly greater MDMA, DHMA, and HMMA sulfate R-enantiomers and HMMA and HMMA glucuronide S-stereoisomers were excreted. No significant differences were observed for MDA and DHMA sulfate stereoisomers. Changes in R/S ratios could be observed over time for all analytes, with steady increases in the first 48 h. R/S ratios could help to roughly estimate time of MDMA ingestion and therefore, improve interpretation of MDMA and metabolite urinary concentrations in clinical and forensic toxicology.

  2. Estimation of oxidative DNA damage in man from urinary excretion of repair products.

    PubMed

    Loft, S; Poulsen, H E

    1998-01-01

    DNA is constantly damaged and repaired in living cells. The repair products of the oxidative DNA lesions, i.e. oxidised nucleosides and bases, are poor substrates for the enzymes involved in nucleotide synthesis, are fairly water soluble, and generally excreted into the urine without further metabolism. Among the possible products, 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, 8-oxoguanine, thymine glycol, thymidine glycol and, 5-hydroxymethyluracil have so far been identified in urine. It should be emphasised that the excretion of the repair products in urine represents the average rate of damage in the total body whereas the level of oxidised bases in nuclear DNA is a concentration measurement in that specific tissue/cells in the moment of sampling. The rate of oxidative DNA modifications has been studied in humans by means of the repair products as urinary biomarkers, particularly with respect to 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine. The data obtained so far indicate that the important determinants of the oxidative damage rate include tobacco smoking, oxygen consumption and some inflammatory diseases whereas diet composition, energy restriction and antioxidant supplements have but a minimal influence, possibly with the exception of yet unidentified phytochemicals, e.g. from cruciferous vegetables. The data are consistent with the experimentally based notion that oxidative DNA damage is an important mutagenic and apparently carcinogenic factor. However, the proof of a causal relationship in humans is still warranted. In the future the use of biomarkers may provide this evidence and allow further investigations on the qualitative and quantitative importance of oxidative DNA modification and carcinogenesis in man, as well as elucidate possible preventive measures.

  3. Aldosterone Receptor Antagonism Reduces Urinary C-Reactive Protein Excretion in Angiotensin II-Infused, Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Rudy M.; Mamalis, Andrew; Navar, L. Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    Background Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) may contribute to elevated arterial pressure in Ang II-dependent hypertension. However, the in vivo effects of Ang II and of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonism on CRP during Ang II-dependent hypertension have not been examined. In addition, urinary CRP excretion as a method to monitor the progression of Ang II-induced inflammation has not been evaluated. Methods Urine samples were collected from three groups (n = 10/group) of rats: 1) normotensive control, 2) angiotensin II infused (Ang II; 60 ng/min), and 3) Ang II + eplerenone (epl; 25 mg/d). A diet containing epl (0.1 %) was provided after 1 week of Ang II infusion. Results After 28 d, Ang II increased SBP from 136 ± 5 to 207 ± 8 mmHg; this response in SBP was not altered following MR antagonism (215 ± 6 mmHg). Ang II-infusion increased plasma CRP from 14 ± 2 to 26 ± 3 μg/mL and increased urinary CRP excretion nearly 8-fold (143 ± 26 vs 1102 ± 115 ng/d). Treatment with eplerenone reduced plasma CRP by 25 % and urinary immunoreactive CRP (irCRP) by 34 % in Ang II-infused rats suggesting that aldosterone contributes to the CRP-associated inflammatory response in Ang II-dependent hypertension. Conclusions The increase in SBP preceded the increase in irCRP excretion by at least 4 days suggesting that CRP does not significantly contribute to increased arterial blood pressure in Ang II-dependent hypertension. The blockade of MR reduced plasma CRP and urinary irCRP excretion demonstrating the contribution of aldosterone to the Ang II-induced generation of CRP. Furthermore, urinary CRP may serve as a non-invasive index for monitoring cardiovascular inflammation during hypertension. PMID:20161115

  4. Immunocytoma effect upon circadian variation in murine urinary excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid, beta-alanine, phenylalanine and tyrosine.

    PubMed

    Halberg, F; Gehrke, C W; Kuo, K; Nelson, W L; Sothern, R B; Cadotte, L M; Haus, E; Scheving, L E

    1978-01-01

    Under the conditions of disynchronization by the manipulation of both the alternation of light and darkness and the availability and unavailability of food, circadian rhythms characterize the excretion of several amino acids by inbred LOU rats bearing an immunocytoma. Large amplitude rhythms can be demonstrated for urinary beta-aminoisobutyric acid, beta-alanine, phenylalanine and tyrosine. Under the same conditions of disynchronization, control animals excrete the same compounds also with a marked circadian variation but at an invariably lower average rate. These excretory rhythms, along with those demonstrated earlier for polyamines and light-chains, are of interest as potential markers for the chronotherapy of cancer.

  5. 1C.06: AMBULATORY PULSE PRESSURE IS NEGATIVELY ASSOCIATED WITH EXCRETIONS OF URINARY CAFFEINE AND ITS METABOLITES.

    PubMed

    Guessous, I; Pruijm, M; Ponte, B; Ehret, G; Ansermot, N; Vuistiner, P; Staessen, J A; Gu, Y M; Paccaud, F; Mohaupt, M G; Vogt, B; Pechère-Berstchi, A; Martin, P Y; Burnier, M; Eap, C B; Bochud, M

    2015-06-01

    Systolic blood pressure (BP) has been associated with urinary caffeine and its metabolites such as paraxanthine and theophylline. Caffeine and caffeine metabolites could influence arterial pulse pressure (PP) via sympathomimetic effects, smooth muscle relaxation, and phosphodiesterase inhibition. The purpose of this analysis was to explore the association of ambulatory PP with urinary caffeine and its related metabolites in a large population-based sample. Families were randomly selected from the general population of three Swiss cities (2009-2013). Ambulatory BP monitoring was conducted using validated Diasys Integra devices. PP was defined as the difference between the systolic and diastolic ambulatory BP. Urinary caffeine, paraxanthine, theophylline, and theobromine excretions were measured in 24 h urine using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Urinary excretions were log-transformed to satisfy regression assumptions. We used linear mixed models to explore the associations of urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolite excretions with 24-hour, day- and night-time PP while adjusting for major confounders. The 836 participants (48.9% men) included in this analysis had mean (±SD) age of 47.8 (±17.5), and mean 24-hour systolic and diastolic BP of 120.1 mmHg (±13.9) and 78.0 (±8.6). Except theobromine, log transformed urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolite excretions were associated negatively with 24-hour, daytime and night-time ambulatory PP. 24-hour, daytime, and night-time ambulatory PP decreased by -0.804 mmHg (SE, 0.209), -0.749 (0.215), and -0.968 (0.243) (all P values <0.005), for each doubling excretion of caffeine. Strong negative associations with night-time ambulatory PP were observed for paraxanthine and theophylline.(Figure is included in full-text article.) : The negative associations of PP with caffeine, paraxanthine, and theophylline excretions suggest that caffeine and its metabolites do lower BP, possibly by

  6. Effect of Discontinuation of Fluoride Intake from Water and Toothpaste on Urinary Excretion in Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Carolina C.; Paiva, Saul M.; Cury, Jaime A.

    2011-01-01

    As there is no homeostatic mechanism for maintaining circulating fluoride (F) in the human body, the concentration may decrease and increase again when intake is interrupted and re-started. The present study prospectively evaluated this process in children exposed to F intake from water and toothpaste, using F in urine as a biomarker. Eleven children from Ibiá, Brazil (with sub-optimally fluoridated water supply) aged two to four years who regularly used fluoridated toothpaste (1,100 ppm F) took part in the study. Twenty-four-hour urine was collected at baseline (Day 0, F exposure from water and toothpaste) as well as after the interruption of fluoride intake from water and dentifrice (Days 1 to 28) (F interruption) and after fluoride intake from these sources had been re-established (Days 29 to 34) (F re-exposure). Urinary volume was measured, fluoride concentration was determined and the amount of fluoride excreted was calculated and expressed in mg F/day. Urinary fluoride excretion (UFE) during the periods of fluoride exposure, interruption and re-exposure was analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. Mean UFE was 0.25 mg F/day (SD: 0.15) at baseline, dropped to a mean of 0.14 mg F/day during F interruption (SD: 0.07; range: 0.11 to 0.17 mg F/day) and rose to 0.21 (SD: 0.09) and 0.19 (SD: 0.08) following F re-exposure. The difference between baseline UFE and the period of F interruption was statistically significant (p < 0.05), while the difference between baseline and the period of F re-exposure was non-significant (p > 0.05). The findings suggest that circulating F in the body of young children rapidly decreases in the first 24 hours and again increases very fast after discontinuation and re-exposure of F from water and toothpaste. PMID:21776221

  7. Urinary excretion of RAS, BMP, and WNT pathway components in diabetic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Afkarian, Maryam; Hirsch, Irl B.; Tuttle, Katherine R.; Greenbaum, Carla; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; de Boer, Ian H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The renin–angiotensin system (RAS), bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), and WNT pathways are involved in pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). This study characterized assays for urinary angiotensinogen (AGT), gremlin‐1, and matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP‐7), components of the RAS, BMP, and WNT pathways and examined their excretion in DKD. We measured urine AGT, gremlin‐1, and MMP‐7 in individuals with type 1 diabetes and prevalent DKD (n = 20) or longstanding (n = 61) or new‐onset (n = 10) type 1 diabetes without DKD. These urine proteins were also quantified in type 2 DKD (n = 11) before and after treatment with candesartan. The utilized immunoassays had comparable inter‐ and intra‐assay and intraindividual variation to assays used for urine albumin. Median (IQR) urine AGT concentrations were 226.0 (82.1, 550.3) and 13.0 (7.8, 20.0) μg/g creatinine in type 1 diabetes with and without DKD, respectively (P < 0.001). Median (IQR) urine gremlin‐1 concentrations were 48.6 (14.2, 254.1) and 3.6 (1.7, 5.5) μg/g, respectively (P < 0.001). Median (IQR) urine MMP‐7 concentrations were 6.0 (3.8, 10.5) and 1.0 (0.4, 2.9) μg/g creatinine, respectively (P < 0.001). Treatment with candesartan was associated with a reduction in median (IQR) urine AGT/creatinine from 23.5 (1.6, 105.1) to 2.0 (1.4, 13.7) μg/g, which did not reach statistical significance. Urine gremlin‐1 and MMP‐7 excretion did not decrease with candesartan. In conclusion, DKD is characterized by markedly elevated urine AGT, MMP‐7, and gremlin‐1. AGT decreased in response to RAS inhibition, suggesting that this marker reflects therapeutic response. Urinary components of the RAS, BMP, and WNT pathways may identify risk of DKD and aid development of novel therapeutics. PMID:24793984

  8. Urinary excretion of RAS, BMP, and WNT pathway components in diabetic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Afkarian, Maryam; Hirsch, Irl B; Tuttle, Katherine R; Greenbaum, Carla; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; de Boer, Ian H

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The renin-angiotensin system (RAS), bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), and WNT pathways are involved in pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). This study characterized assays for urinary angiotensinogen (AGT), gremlin-1, and matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP-7), components of the RAS, BMP, and WNT pathways and examined their excretion in DKD. We measured urine AGT, gremlin-1, and MMP-7 in individuals with type 1 diabetes and prevalent DKD (n = 20) or longstanding (n = 61) or new-onset (n = 10) type 1 diabetes without DKD. These urine proteins were also quantified in type 2 DKD (n = 11) before and after treatment with candesartan. The utilized immunoassays had comparable inter- and intra-assay and intraindividual variation to assays used for urine albumin. Median (IQR) urine AGT concentrations were 226.0 (82.1, 550.3) and 13.0 (7.8, 20.0) μg/g creatinine in type 1 diabetes with and without DKD, respectively (P < 0.001). Median (IQR) urine gremlin-1 concentrations were 48.6 (14.2, 254.1) and 3.6 (1.7, 5.5) μg/g, respectively (P < 0.001). Median (IQR) urine MMP-7 concentrations were 6.0 (3.8, 10.5) and 1.0 (0.4, 2.9) μg/g creatinine, respectively (P < 0.001). Treatment with candesartan was associated with a reduction in median (IQR) urine AGT/creatinine from 23.5 (1.6, 105.1) to 2.0 (1.4, 13.7) μg/g, which did not reach statistical significance. Urine gremlin-1 and MMP-7 excretion did not decrease with candesartan. In conclusion, DKD is characterized by markedly elevated urine AGT, MMP-7, and gremlin-1. AGT decreased in response to RAS inhibition, suggesting that this marker reflects therapeutic response. Urinary components of the RAS, BMP, and WNT pathways may identify risk of DKD and aid development of novel therapeutics.

  9. Association of Periodontitis With Urinary Albumin Excretion in Korean Adults With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyungdo; Nam, Ga Eun; Kim, Do Hoon; Park, Jun-Beom; Ko, Youngkyung; Roh, Yong Kyun; Cho, Kyung Hwan; Park, Yong Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Albuminuria and periodontitis are both commonly associated with systemic inflammation. However, the association between urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and periodontitis in patients with type 2 diabetes has not been fully investigated. This study aimed to investigate the association between UAE and periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. This study performed a cross-sectional analysis and used hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis models. Data from the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. A total of 547 patients, with type 2 diabetes without renal impairment, were included in this study. UAE was assessed using the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR). A community periodontal index greater than or equal to code 3 was used to define periodontitis. The risk of periodontitis tended to increase as UACR increased even after adjustment for potential confounders (P for trend in the odds ratios = 0.05 in model 1; 0.02 in model 2; and 0.01 in model 3). In a subgroup analysis, the prevalence of periodontitis was significantly higher in the patients with albuminuria (UACR >30 mg/g) than in those without albuminuria among patients younger than 65 years (P = 0.03), those with newly diagnosed diabetes (P = 0.04), or those without obesity (P = .04). UAE was positively associated with the risk of periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. In the patients who were younger, were newly diagnosed with diabetes, or had normal body mass index, individuals with albuminuria were more likely to have a higher prevalence of periodontitis. Early identification of periodontitis may be helpful in Korean diabetic adults with increased UAE. PMID:26496329

  10. Pharmacogenomic Variants May Influence the Urinary Excretion of Novel Kidney Injury Biomarkers in Patients Receiving Cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cara; Hu, Yichun; Hogan, Susan L; Mercke, Nickie; Gomez, Madeleine; O'Bryant, Cindy; Bowles, Daniel W; George, Blessy; Wen, Xia; Aleksunes, Lauren M; Joy, Melanie S

    2017-06-22

    Nephrotoxicity is a dose limiting side effect associated with the use of cisplatin in the treatment of solid tumors. The degree of nephrotoxicity is dictated by the selective accumulation of cisplatin in renal tubule cells due to: (1) uptake by organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) and copper transporter 1 (CTR1); (2) metabolism by glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and γ-glutamyltransferase 1 (GGT1); and (3) efflux by multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) and multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 (MATE1). The purpose of this study was to determine the significance of single nucleotide polymorphisms that regulate the expression and function of transporters and metabolism genes implicated in development of acute kidney injury (AKI) in cisplatin treated patients. Changes in the kidney function were assessed using novel urinary protein biomarkers and traditional markers. Genotyping was conducted by the QuantStudio 12K Flex Real-Time PCR System using a custom open array chip with metabolism, transport, and transcription factor polymorphisms of interest to cisplatin disposition and toxicity. Traditional and novel biomarker assays for kidney toxicity were assessed for differences according to genotype by ANOVA. Allele and genotype frequencies were determined based on Caucasian population frequencies. The polymorphisms rs596881 (SLC22A2/OCT2), and rs12686377 and rs7851395 (SLC31A1/CTR1) were associated with renoprotection and maintenance of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Polymorphisms in SLC22A2/OCT2, SLC31A1/CTRI, SLC47A1/MATE1, ABCC2/MRP2, and GSTP1 were significantly associated with increases in the urinary excretion of novel AKI biomarkers: KIM-1, TFF3, MCP1, NGAL, clusterin, cystatin C, and calbindin. Knowledge concerning which genotypes in drug transporters are associated with cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity may help to identify at-risk patients and initiate strategies, such as using lower or fractionated cisplatin doses or avoiding

  11. Urinary Excretion of Liver Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein Accurately Reflects the Degree of Tubulointerstitial Damage

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Takeshi; Kamijo-Ikemori, Atsuko; Sugaya, Takeshi; Hoshino, Seiko; Yasuda, Takashi; Kimura, Kenjiro

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), a biomarker of chronic kidney disease, in the kidney and the degree of tubulointerstitial damage, folic acid (FA)-induced nephropathy was studied in a mouse model system. As renal L-FABP is not expressed in wild-type mice, human L-FABP (hL-FABP) transgenic mice were used in this study. hL-FABP is expressed in the renal proximal tubules of the transgenic mice that were injected intraperitoneally with FA in NaHCO3 (the FA group) or only NaHCO3 (the control group) and oral saline solution daily during the experimental period. The FA group developed severe tubulointerstitial damage with the infiltration of macrophages and the deposition of type I collagen on days 3 and 7 and recovered to the control level on day 14. The gene and protein expression levels of hL-FABP in the kidney were significantly enhanced on days 3 and 7. Urinary hL-FABP in the FA group was elevated on days 3 and 7 and decreased to the control level on day 14. The protein expression levels of hL-FABP in both the kidney and urine significantly correlated with the degree of tubulointerstitial damage, the infiltration of macrophages, and the deposition of type I collagen. In conclusion, renal expression and urinary excretion of hL-FABP significantly reflected the severity of tubulointerstitial damage in FA-induced nephropathy. PMID:19435794

  12. Neighbourhood food store availability in relation to 24 h urinary sodium and potassium excretion in young Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2010-10-01

    Previous studies on the relationship of local food environment with residents' diets have relied exclusively on self-reported information on diet, producing inconsistent results. Evaluation of dietary intake using biomarkers may obviate the biases inherent to the use of self-reported dietary information. This cross-sectional study examined the association between neighbourhood food store availability and 24 h urinary Na and K excretion. The subjects were 904 female Japanese dietetic students aged 18-22 years. Neighbourhood food store availability was defined as the number of food stores within a 0.5-mile (0.8-km) radius of residence. Urinary Na and K excretion and the ratio of urinary Na to K were estimated from a single 24 h urine sample. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, neighbourhood availability of confectionery stores/bakeries was inversely associated with urinary K, and was positively associated with the ratio of Na to K (P for trend = 0.008 and 0.03, respectively). Neighbourhood availability of rice stores showed an independent inverse association with urinary K (P for trend = 0.03), whereas neighbourhood availability of supermarkets/grocery stores conversely showed an independent positive association with this variable (P for trend = 0.03). Furthermore, neighbourhood availability of fruit/vegetable stores showed an independent inverse association with the ratio of Na to K (P for trend = 0.049). In a group of young Japanese women, increasing neighbourhood availability of supermarkets/grocery stores and fruit/vegetable stores and decreasing availability of confectionery stores/bakeries and rice stores were associated with favourable profiles of 24 h urinary K (and Na) excretion.

  13. Prediction of urinary nitrogen and urinary urea nitrogen excretion by lactating dairy cattle in northwestern Europe and North America: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Spek, J W; Dijkstra, J; van Duinkerken, G; Hendriks, W H; Bannink, A

    2013-07-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted on the effect of dietary and animal factors on the excretion of total urinary nitrogen (UN) and urinary urea nitrogen (UUN) in lactating dairy cattle in North America (NA) and northwestern Europe (EU). Mean treatment data were used from 47 trials carried out in NA and EU. Mixed model analysis was used with experiment included as a random effect and all other factors, consisting of dietary and animal characteristics, included as fixed effects. Fixed factors were nested within continent (EU or NA). A distinction was made between urinary excretions based on either urine spot samples or calculated assuming a zero N balance, and excretions that were determined by total collection of urine only. Moreover, with the subset of data based on total collection of urine, a new data set was created by calculating urinary N excretion assuming a zero N balance. Comparison with the original subset of data allowed for examining the effect of such an assumption on the relationship established between milk urea N (MUN) concentration and UN. Of all single dietary and animal factors evaluated to predict N excretion in urine, MUN and dietary crude protein (CP) concentration were by far the best predictors. Urinary N excretion was best predicted by the combination of MUN, CP, and dry matter intake, whereas UUN was best predicted by the combination of MUN and CP. All other factors did not improve or only marginally improved the prediction of UN or UUN. The relationship between UN and MUN differed between NA and EU, with higher estimated regression coefficients for MUN for the NA data set. Precision of UN and UUN prediction improved substantially when only UN or UUN data based on total collection of urine were used. The relationship between UN and MUN for the NA data set, but not for the EU data set, was substantially altered when UN was calculated assuming a zero N balance instead of being based on the total collection of urine. According to results of the

  14. Urinary excretion rates of natural estrogens and androgens from humans, and their occurrence and fate in the environment: a review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ze-Hua; Kanjo, Yoshinori; Mizutani, Satoshi

    2009-09-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are pollutants with estrogenic or androgenic activities at very low concentrations and are emerging as a major concern for water quality. For sewage of municipal wastewater treatment plants in cities, one of the most important sources of EDCs are natural estrogens and natural androgens (NEAs) excreted from humans. Therefore, estrogenic/androgenic potencies or relative binding affinity of the NEAs were first outlined from different sources, and data of urinary excretion rates of NEAs were summarized. To evaluate their estrogenic activities, their excretion rates of estrogen equivalent (EEQ) or testosterone (T) equivalent (TEQ) were also calculated. Based on our summary, the total excretion rates of EEQ by estrone (E1), 17beta-estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3) only accounted for 66-82% of the total excretion rate of EEQ among four different groups, and the other corresponding natural estrogens contributed 18-34%, which meant that some of the other natural estrogens may also exist in wastewater with high estrogenic activities. Based on the contribution ratio of individual androgens to the total excretion rate of TEQ, five out of 12 natural androgens, T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androsterone (AD), 5beta-androstanediol (beta-ADL), and androstenediol (ANL) were evaluated as the priority natural androgens, which may exist in wastewater with high androgenic activities. Published data on occurrence and fate of the NEAs including natural estrogen conjugates in the environment were also summarized here.

  15. Urinary albumin excretion in healthy adults: a cross sectional study of 24-hour versus timed overnight samples and impact of GFR and other personal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Fagerstrom, Peter; Sallsten, Gerd; Akerstrom, Magnus; Haraldsson, Borje; Barregard, Lars

    2015-01-24

    Urinary albumin can be measured in 24 h or spot samples. The 24 h urinary albumin excretion rate is considered the gold standard, but is cumbersome to collect. Instead, often an overnight sample is collected, and adjusted for dilution. Proxies for 24 h excretion rate have been studied in diabetics, but seldom in healthy individuals. Our aims were to compare 24 h and overnight albumin excretion, to assess the impact of personal characteristics, and to examine correlations between the 24 h excretion rate and proxies such as the albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR). Separate 24 h and overnight urine samples were collected from 152 healthy kidney donors. Urinary creatinine, specific gravity, collection time, and sample volume determined. Differences between 24 h and overnight samples were examined, and the effects of age, sex, smoking, body mass, glomerular filtration rate, and urinary flow rate were assessed. The 24 h albumin excretion rate and ACR were both significantly higher than their overnight counterparts. Unadjusted albumin was unsurprisingly higher in the more concentrated overnight samples, while concentrations adjusted for specific gravity were similar. In multivariate analysis, the 24 h excretion rate and proxies were positively associated with glomerular filtration rate, as was ACR in overnight samples. There were positive associations between urinary albumin and body mass. Proxies for the 24 h albumin excretion rate showed relatively high correlations with this gold standard, but differences due to sampling period, adjustment method, and personal characteristics were large enough to be worth considering in studies of albumin excretion in healthy individuals.

  16. Antioxidant effect on urinary excretion of malondialdehyde in non-athletes during aerobic training.

    PubMed

    Hadley, M; Visser, M F; Vander Steen, T

    2009-01-01

    Conditions in the body during aerobic exercise increase the level of lipid peroxidation (LP). LP is associated with elevated concentration of modified low-density lipoproteins that are implicated in development of cardiovascular disease. Supplementation with antioxidant vitamin E to athletes at 267 mg (400 IUs) or greater has been reported to reduce levels of LP associated with exercise. Little is currently known about the effects of modest supplementation of vitamin E on previously sedentary adults who initiate an aerobic fitness program. In the present study, sedentary subjects (n = 14) kept 24-hour diet records to establish antioxidant intake of vitamins E and C and collected 24-hour urine samples that were used to determine baseline urinary malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, one measure of in vivo LP. No significant differences were noted in the parameters between groups. Seven subjects were randomly selected and supplemented daily with 133 mg (200 IUs) of vitamin E. All subjects participated in moderate-intensity aerobic training for 8 weeks. Post-training, non-supplemented subjects excreted significantly more MDA (p<0.05) and consumed significantly fewer antioxidants than the supplemented group. Vitamin E supplementation appears to suppress elevated LP associated with beginning an aerobic exercise regimen in previously sedentary subjects.

  17. Plasma levels of free metanephrines and 3-methoxytyramine indicate a higher number of biochemically active HNPGL than 24-h urinary excretion rates of catecholamines and metabolites.

    PubMed

    van Duinen, N; Corssmit, E P M; de Jong, W H A; Brookman, D; Kema, I P; Romijn, J A

    2013-09-01

    A substantial number of patients with head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGLs) have biochemically active tumors, evidenced by increased urinary excretion of catecholamines and metabolites, including 3-methoxytyramine (3MT). It is unclear whether plasma levels of these parameters are more sensitive to detect biochemical activity in HNPGL patients than urinary excretion rates. To compare plasma free levels vs urinary excretion rates of deconjugated 3MT and combined metanephrines (MNs) in patients with HNPGL. We included 124 consecutive patients with HNPGL for screening of catecholamine excess by measurement of 24-h urinary excretion rates of deconjugated (nor)metanephrine, (nor)epinephrine, dopamine, vanillylmandelic acid, 3MT, and plasma free levels of (nor)metanephrine and 3MT. Plasma free 3MT levels were increased in 35 of the 124 patients (28%), whereas 24-h urinary excretion of deconjugated 3MT was increased in 30 patients (24%) (P=0.13). Plasma free MN levels were increased in seven patients (6%) and urinary deconjugated MN levels in six patients (5%) (P=1.00). Plasma free normetanephrine (NMN) levels were increased in seven patients (6%), and five patients had increased urinary excretion of deconjugated NMN (4%) (P=0.69). Plasma free combined MN levels (NMN, MN, and 3MT) were increased in 41 patients (33%), whereas 24-h urinary excretion rates of deconjugated combined MNs were increased in 33 patients (27%, P<0.05). The combined levels of free MNs and free 3MT in plasma indicate a higher number of biochemically active HNPGLs than the 24-h urinary excretion rates of these markers.

  18. Urinary excretion of the C5b-9 membrane attack complex of complement is a marker of immune disease activity in autologous immune complex nephritis.

    PubMed

    Pruchno, C J; Burns, M M; Schulze, M; Johnson, R J; Baker, P J; Alpers, C E; Couser, W G

    1991-01-01

    The urinary excretion of the C5b-9 membrane attack complex of complement correlates with glomerular deposition of antibody in the passive Heymann nephritis (PHN) model of membranous nephropathy (MN). To determine if this parameter can be correlated with antibody deposition in a model of MN induced by an autologous mechanism and thus more analogous to human MN, the relationship of urinary C5b-9 to ongoing glomerular immune complex formation late in autologous immune complex nephritis (AICN) was studied. Based on urinary C5b-9, the animals were divided into two groups at 12 weeks after induction of AICN, those with persistently high urinary C5b-9 excretion and those in whom urinary excretion of C5b-9 returned to undetectable levels. While all rats developed glomerular deposition of rat IgG and significant proteinuria, high C5b-9 excretors had greater proteinuria and prolonged positive staining for glomerular C3. When normal syngeneic kidneys were transplanted into rats (n = 3) from each group, only those with persistent C5b-9 excretion developed subepithelial immune deposits of rat IgG in the transplanted kidney. As in the PHN model of MN, proteinuria was dissociated widely from urinary C5b-9 excretion, glomerular C3 staining, and evidence of circulating antibody. Thus these findings demonstrate that urinary excretion of C5b-9 serves as an index of on-going immunologic disease activity in the AICN model of MN, while proteinuria does not.

  19. Tissue accumulation and urinary excretion of chromium in rats fed diets containing graded levels of chromium chloride or chromium picolinate.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Munehiro; Hatakeyama, Erika; Hosomi, Ryota; Kanda, Seiji; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2010-08-01

    To attempt a risk assessment of the excess intake of trivalent chromium (Cr), tissue Cr accumulation and urinary Cr excretion were examined in weanling rats fed experimental diets containing graded levels of Cr chloride (CrCl3) or Cr picolinate (CrPic). Thirty-six male weanling 4-weeks-old Wistar rats were divided into six groups and fed a casein-based semi-purified diet (Cr content: <0.02 microg/g) supplemented with 1, 10, or 100 microg Cr/g as CrCl3 or CrPic for 28 days. Among the experimental groups, no significant difference was observed in body weight; however, supplementation of 100 microg Cr/g to the diets caused a significant low liver weight irrespective of the chemical species of Cr. Activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were significantly elevated in rats given CrPic at 100 microg Cr/g. In the liver, kidney and femur, Cr accumulation increased with elevation of the dietary Cr level. No influence of the difference in the chemical species of supplemented Cr was observed in the liver and kidney, but CrCl3 caused significantly higher Cr accumulation than CrPic in the femur of rats given 100 microg Cr/g. Daily urinary Cr excretion elevated with the increase of the dietary Cr level. Rats given CrPic showed significantly higher daily urinary Cr excretion than those given CrCl3, particularly at a dietary Cr level of 100 microg/g. The rate of urinary Cr excretion in rats given CrPic was constant, irrespective of the dietary Cr level, but that of rats given CrCl3 fell with the increase of the dietary Cr level. These results indicate that the lowest adverse effect level of dietary Cr is less than 100 microg/g, irrespective of the chemical species of Cr.

  20. Potassium Bicarbonate Attenuates the Urinary Nitrogen Excretion That Accompanies an Increase in Dietary Protein and May Promote Calcium Absorption

    PubMed Central

    Ceglia, Lisa; Harris, Susan S.; Abrams, Steven A.; Rasmussen, Helen M.; Dallal, Gerard E.; Dawson-Hughes, Bess

    2009-01-01

    Context: Protein is an essential component of muscle and bone. However, the acidic byproducts of protein metabolism may have a negative impact on the musculoskeletal system, particularly in older individuals with declining renal function. Objective: We sought to determine whether adding an alkaline salt, potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3), allows protein to have a more favorable net impact on intermediary indices of muscle and bone conservation than it does in the usual acidic environment. Design: We conducted a 41-d randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of KHCO3 or placebo with a 16-d phase-in and two successive 10-d metabolic diets containing low (0.5 g/kg) or high (1.5 g/kg) protein in random order with a 5-d washout between diets. Setting: The study was conducted in a metabolic research unit. Participants: Nineteen healthy subjects ages 54–82 yr participated. Intervention: KHCO3 (up to 90 mmol/d) or placebo was administered for 41 d. Main Outcome Measures: We measured 24-h urinary nitrogen excretion, IGF-I, 24-h urinary calcium excretion, and fractional calcium absorption. Results: KHCO3 reduced the rise in urinary nitrogen excretion that accompanied an increase in protein intake (P = 0.015) and was associated with higher IGF-I levels on the low-protein diet (P = 0.027) with a similar trend on the high-protein diet (P = 0.050). KHCO3 was also associated with higher fractional calcium absorption on the low-protein diet (P = 0.041) with a similar trend on the high-protein diet (P = 0.064). Conclusions: In older adults, KHCO3 attenuates the protein-induced rise in urinary nitrogen excretion, and this may be mediated by IGF-I. KHCO3 may also promote calcium absorption independent of the dietary protein content. PMID:19050051

  1. Diagnostic Value of Urinary Mevalonic Acid Excretion in Patients with a Clinical Suspicion of Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency (MKD).

    PubMed

    Jeyaratnam, Jerold; Ter Haar, Nienke M; de Sain-van der Velden, Monique G M; Waterham, Hans R; van Gijn, Mariëlle E; Frenkel, Joost

    2016-01-01

    In patients suffering from mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD), the reduced enzyme activity leads to an accumulation of mevalonic acid which is excreted in the urine. This study aims to evaluate the diagnostic value of urinary mevalonic acid measurement in patients with a clinical suspicion of mevalonate kinase deficiency. In this single-center, retrospective analysis, all patients in whom both measurement of mevalonic acid and genetic testing had been performed in the preceding 17 years have been included. The presence of two pathogenic MVK mutations or demonstration of decreased enzyme activity was considered to be the gold standard for the diagnosis of MKD. Sixty-one patients were included in this study. Thirteen of them harbored two MVK mutations; twelve of them showed elevated levels of mevalonic acid. Forty-eight patients did not harbor any MVK mutations, yet five of them excreted increased amounts of mevalonic acid. This corresponds to a sensitivity of 92%, a specificity of 90%, a positive predictive value of 71%, and a negative predictive value of 98%. The positive likelihood ratio is 10 and the negative likelihood ratio is 0.09. MKD seems very unlikely in patients with a normal mevalonic acid excretion, but it cannot be excluded completely. Further, a positive urinary mevalonic acid excretion still requires MVK analysis to confirm the diagnosis of MKD. Therefore, detection of urinary mevalonic acid should not be mandatory before genetic testing. However, as long as genetic testing is not widely available and affordable, measurement of urinary mevalonic acid is a fair way to select patients for MVK gene analysis or enzyme assay.

  2. Are 24 h urinary sodium excretion and sodium:potassium independently associated with obesity in Chinese adults?

    PubMed

    Ge, Zeng; Zhang, Jiyu; Chen, Xiaorong; Yan, Liuxia; Guo, Xiaolei; Lu, Zilong; Xu, Aiqiang; Ma, Jixiang

    2016-04-01

    To examine the association of 24 h urinary Na excretion and Na:K with obesity in Chinese adults. Population-based cross-sectional study using a four-stage stratified sampling strategy. Shandong Province, China. Chinese adults (n 1906) aged 18-69 years who provided complete 24 h urine samples. Odds of obesity increased significantly across increasing quartiles of urinary Na excretion (1·00, 1·54, 1·69 and 2·52, respectively, for overweight; 1·00, 1·20, 1·50, and 2·03, respectively, for obesity; 1·00, 1·44, 1·85 and 2·53, respectively, for abdominal obesity (assessed by waist circumference); and 1·00, 1·28, 1·44 and 1·75, respectively, for abdominal obesity (assessed by waist-to-height ratio); P for linear trend <0·001 for all). In addition, odds of abdominal obesity, but not odds of overweight and obesity, increased significantly with successive Na:K quartiles. Additionally, for each increment in urinary Na excretion of 100 mmol, odds of overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity (by waist circumference) and abdominal obesity (by waist-to-height ratio) increased significantly by 46 %, 39 %, 55 % and 33 %, respectively. Similarly, with a 1 sd increase in Na:K, odds of abdominal obesity (by waist circumference) and abdominal obesity (by waist-to-height ratio) increased significantly by 12 % and 15 %, respectively. These findings suggest that 24 h urinary Na excretion and Na:K might be important risk factors for obesity in Chinese adults.

  3. Potassium bicarbonate attenuates the urinary nitrogen excretion that accompanies an increase in dietary protein and may promote calcium absorption.

    PubMed

    Ceglia, Lisa; Harris, Susan S; Abrams, Steven A; Rasmussen, Helen M; Dallal, Gerard E; Dawson-Hughes, Bess

    2009-02-01

    Protein is an essential component of muscle and bone. However, the acidic byproducts of protein metabolism may have a negative impact on the musculoskeletal system, particularly in older individuals with declining renal function. We sought to determine whether adding an alkaline salt, potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3), allows protein to have a more favorable net impact on intermediary indices of muscle and bone conservation than it does in the usual acidic environment. We conducted a 41-d randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of KHCO3 or placebo with a 16-d phase-in and two successive 10-d metabolic diets containing low (0.5 g/kg) or high (1.5 g/kg) protein in random order with a 5-d washout between diets. The study was conducted in a metabolic research unit. Nineteen healthy subjects ages 54-82 yr participated. KHCO3 (up to 90 mmol/d) or placebo was administered for 41 d. We measured 24-h urinary nitrogen excretion, IGF-I, 24-h urinary calcium excretion, and fractional calcium absorption. KHCO3 reduced the rise in urinary nitrogen excretion that accompanied an increase in protein intake (P = 0.015) and was associated with higher IGF-I levels on the low-protein diet (P = 0.027) with a similar trend on the high-protein diet (P = 0.050). KHCO3 was also associated with higher fractional calcium absorption on the low-protein diet (P = 0.041) with a similar trend on the high-protein diet (P = 0.064). In older adults, KHCO3 attenuates the protein-induced rise in urinary nitrogen excretion, and this may be mediated by IGF-I. KHCO3 may also promote calcium absorption independent of the dietary protein content.

  4. Skin surface lipid composition, acne, pubertal development, and urinary excretion of testosterone and 17-ketosteroids in children.

    PubMed

    Pochi, P E; Strauss, J S; Downing, D T

    1977-11-01

    Fifty-two children, age 5-10, from acne-prone families, were studied for a period of 1 year to examine the interrelationship between sebum, acne, pubertal development, and urinary steroid excretion. In each of the subjects, 30 boys and 22 girls, the composition of forehead skin lipid was determined 4 times yearly by thin-layer chromatography, with measurement of triglycerides, diglycerides, free fatty acids, wax esters, squalene, cholesterol, and cholesterol esters. Twice yearly, examination was made of the presence or absence of acne, pubertal maturation and the 24-hour urinary excretion of testosterone as determined by radioimmunnoassay, and of total 17-ketosteroids, dehydroepiandrosterone, androsterone, and etiocholanolone, as determined by paper chromatography. The relative amount of sebaceous lipids was positively correlated with age of the subjects (wax esters p less than .001, squalene p less than .05), as was the triglyceride-diglyceride component (p less than .05). No significant correlation was seen with the fatty acids. Acne, primarily comedonal, occurred in 27/52 subjects (15 girls, 12 boys) and was associated with higher sebum values. One-half of the children with acne had no signs of pubertal development. A significantly positive correlation was observed between the relative amount of sebaceous lipid and the urinary excretion of 17-ketosteroids, androsterone, and etiocholanolone in both sexes, and of testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone in boys. The development of acne in children is an early pubertal event, often evident before other signs of pubertal maturation, and it is associated with an increase in sebum and in the urinary excretion of androgenic steroids.

  5. Effect of low-dose clorgyline on 24-hour urinary monoamine excretion in patients with rapidly cycling bipolar affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Linnoila, M; Karoum, F; Potter, W Z

    1982-05-01

    Effects of clorgyline on urinary excretion of norepinephrine, dopamine, tyramine, and their major metabolites, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and phenylethylamine, were studied in four women who suffered from primary, bipolar affective disorder. All patients had rapid mood cycles and were nonresponsive to lithium carbonate. During placebo administration, a strong correlation was found between the excretion rates of norepinephrine and dopamine and their respective metabolites. Clorgyline, 5 to 10 mg every or every other day, reduced overall-body norepinephrine turnover by 55% and increased tyramine but did not alter 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, phenylethylamine, or p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid excretion. These findings demonstrate the clinical actions of low-dose clorgyline and clorgyline's specificity as a monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) inhibitor in vivo in humans, as well as the effects of specific MAO-A inhibition on monoamine metabolism.

  6. Comparison of pharmacokinetics and urinary iron excretion of two single doses of deferiprone in β-thalassemia/hemoglobin E patients.

    PubMed

    Rodrat, Supot; Yamanont, Pavena; Tankanitlert, Jeeranut; Chantraraksri, Udom; Fucharoen, Suthat; Morales, Noppawan Phumala

    2012-01-01

    Dose-related pharmacokinetics and urinary iron excretion (UIE) of an orally active iron chelator, deferiprone (L1), was investigated in 12 severe β-thalassemia/hemoglobin E patients. The patients received two single doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg with a 2-week washout period. Deferiprone was rapidly absorbed and reached maximum concentration (C(max)) within 1 h after administration. Pharmacokinetic parameters including C(max) and area under concentration time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC(0-∞)) as well as urinary excretion of non-conjugated and glucuronide-conjugated deferiprone (L1 and L1-G) increased proportionally with the dose of deferiprone. A constant ratio of AUC(0-∞) of L1-G to L1 and a percentage of urinary excretion of L1-G indicated that increasing the dosage does not influence deferiprone biotransformation. Longer terminal elimination half-lifeand higher volume of distribution of L1 were observed with the high dose and correlated with deferiprone-chelated iron in serum. Unexpectedly, UIE did not show a linear relationship with the increased dose of deferiprone. The correlation between UIE and creatinine clearance suggested the possibility of L1-iron complex redistribution in patients with renal impairment treated with high-dose deferiprone.

  7. Influence of a low- and a high-oxalate vegetarian diet on intestinal oxalate absorption and urinary excretion.

    PubMed

    Thomas, E; von Unruh, G E; Hesse, A

    2008-09-01

    To compare quantitatively the effect of a low- and a high-oxalate vegetarian diet on intestinal oxalate absorption and urinary excretion. Eight healthy volunteers (three men and five women, mean age 28.6+/-6.3) were studied. Each volunteer performed the [(13)C(2)]oxalate absorption test thrice on a low-oxalate mixed diet, thrice on a low-oxalate vegetarian diet and thrice on a high-oxalate vegetarian diet. For each test, the volunteers had to adhere to an identical diet and collect their 24-h urines. In the morning of the second day, a capsule containing [(13)C(2)]oxalate was ingested. On the low-oxalate vegetarian diet, mean intestinal oxalate absorption and urinary oxalate excretion increased significantly to 15.8+/-2.9% (P=0.012) and 0.414+/-0.126 mmol/day (P=0.012), compared to the mixed diet. On the high-oxalate vegetarian diet, oxalate absorption (12.5+/-4.6%, P=0.161) and urinary excretion (0.340+/-0.077 mmol/day, P=0.093) did not change significantly, compared to the mixed diet. A vegetarian diet can only be recommended for calcium oxalate stone patients, if the diet (1) contains the recommended amounts of divalent cations such as calcium and its timing of ingestion to a meal rich in oxalate is considered and (2) excludes foodstuffs with a high content of nutritional factors, such as phytic acid, which are able to chelate calcium.

  8. Supplementation of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) with condensed tannin-containing pellets of sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata): Effects on ruminant urinary urea excretion and digestibility

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Some feedstuffs that contain condensed tannins can reduce urinary urea excretion without compromising nutrition for ruminant livestock. This results in reducing environmental impact, improving productivity and enhancing sustainability of ruminant farming operations. In some situations there are adva...

  9. The effect of lithium salts on the urinary excretion of α-oxoglutarate in man

    PubMed Central

    Bond, P. A.; Jenner, F. A.; Lee, C. R.; Lenton, Elizabeth; Pollitt, R. J.; Sampson, Gwyneth A.

    1972-01-01

    1. Lithium ions in therapeutic doses cause an increase in the renal excretion of α-oxoglutarate and glutaric acid. 2. The excretion is probably due to reduced renal tubular reabsorption. 3. Neither citrate, lactate nor pyruvate excretion rises. PMID:5084816

  10. Intestinal absorption, organ distribution, and urinary excretion of the rare sugar D-psicose

    PubMed Central

    Tsukamoto, Ikuko; Hossain, Akram; Yamaguchi, Fuminori; Hirata, Yuko; Dong, Youyi; Kamitori, Kazuyo; Sui, Li; Nonaka, Machiko; Ueno, Masaki; Nishimoto, Kazuyuki; Suda, Hirofumi; Morimoto, Kenji; Shimonishi, Tsuyoshi; Saito, Madoka; Song, Tao; Konishi, Ryoji; Tokuda, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate intestinal absorption, organ distribution, and urinary elimination of the rare sugar D-psicose, a 3-carbon stereoisomer of D-fructose that is currently being investigated and which has been found to be strongly effective against hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Methods This study was performed using radioactive D-psicose, which was synthesized enzymatically from radioactive D-allose. Concentrations in whole blood, urine, and organs were measured at different time points until 2 hours after both oral and intravenous administrations and 7 days after a single oral administration (100 mg/kg body weight) to Wistar rats. Autoradiography was also performed by injecting 100 mg/kg body weight of 14C-labeled D-psicose or glucose intravenously to C3H mice. Results Following oral administration, D-psicose easily moved to blood. The maximum blood concentration (48.5±15.6 μg/g) was observed at 1 hour. Excretion to urine was 20% within 1 hour and 33% within 2 hours. Accumulation to organs was detected only in the liver. Following intravenous administration, blood concentration was decreased with the half-life=57 minutes, and the excretion to urine was up to almost 50% within 1 hour. Similarly to the results obtained with oral administration, accumulation to organs was detected only in the liver. Seven days after the single-dose oral administration, the remaining amounts in the whole body were less than 1%. Autoradiography of mice showed results similar to those in rats. High signals of 14C-labeled D-psicose were observed in liver, kidney, and bladder. Interestingly, no accumulation of D-psicose was observed in the brain. Conclusion D-psicose was absorbed well after oral administration and eliminated rapidly after both oral and intravenous administrations, with short duration of action. The study provides valuable pharmacokinetic data for further drug development of D-psicose. Because the findings were mainly based on animal

  11. Effect of dietary supplementation of gallic acid on nitrogen balance, nitrogen excretion pattern and urinary nitrogenous constituents in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chen; Yang, Kai; Zhao, Guangyong; Lin, Shixin; Xu, Zhiwei

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the trial was to study the effects of dietary supplementation of gallic acid (GA) on nitrogen (N) balance, N excretion pattern and urinary N constituents in beef cattle. In a 4 × 4 Latin square design, four male 30-month-old Simmental cattle (443 ± 22 kg live weight) received four levels of GA (purity ≥ 98.5%), i.e. 0, 5.3, 10.5, 21.1 g/kg DM, added to a basal ration. Each experimental period lasted 17 d, consisting of 12 d adaptation and 5 d sampling. The results showed that supplementation of GA at 5.3, 10.5 or 21.1 g/kg DM did not affect the N balance but regulated the N excretion pattern by increasing the ratio of faecal N/urinary N and decreasing the ratio of urinary urea N/total urinary N in beef cattle fed at maintenance level.

  12. Interpretation of Urinary Excretion Data From Plutonium Wound Cases Treated With DTPA: Application of Different Models and Approaches.

    PubMed

    Poudel, Deepesh; Bertelli, Luiz; Klumpp, John A; Waters, Tom L

    2017-07-01

    After a chelation treatment, assessment of intake and doses is the primary concern of an internal dosimetrist. Using the urinary excretion data from two actual wound cases encountered at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), this paper discusses several methods that can be used to interpret intakes from the urinary data collected after one or multiple chelation treatments. One of the methods uses only the data assumed to be unaffected by chelation (data collected beyond 100 d after the last treatment). This method, used by many facilities for official dose records, was implemented by employing maximum likelihood analysis and Bayesian analysis methods. The impacts of an improper assumption about the physicochemical behavior of a radioactive material and the importance of the use of a facility-specific biokinetic model when available have also been demonstrated. Another method analyzed both the affected and unaffected urinary data using an empirical urinary excretion model. This method, although case-specific, was useful in determining the actual intakes and the doses averted or the reduction in body burdens due to chelation treatments. This approach was important in determining the enhancement factors, the behavior of the chelate, and other observations that may be pertinent to several DTPA compartmental modeling approaches being conducted by the health physics community.

  13. A study on the effect of the internal exposure to (210)Po on the excretion of urinary proteins in rats.

    PubMed

    Sadi, Baki; Li, Chunsheng; Ko, Raymond; Daka, Joseph; Yusuf, Hamdi; Wyatt, Heather; Surette, Joel; Priest, Nick; Hamada, Nobuyuki

    2016-05-01

    This study was designed to assess the feasibility of a noninvasive urine specimen for the detection of proteins as indicators of internal exposure to ionizing radiation. Three groups of rats (five in each group) were intravenously injected with 1601 ± 376, 10,846 ± 591 and 48,467 ± 2812 Bq of (210)Po in citrate form. A sham-exposed control group of five rats was intravenously injected with sterile physiological saline. Daily urine samples were collected over 4 days following injection. Purification and pre-concentration of urinary proteins were carried out by ultrafiltration using a 3000 Da molecular weight cutoff membrane filter. The concentration of common urinary proteins, namely albumin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, immunoglobulins IgA and IgG, was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Urinary excretion of albumin decreased dose-dependently (p < 0.05) 96 h post-injection relative to the control group. In contrast, no statistically significant effects were observed for other proteins tested. The dose-dependent decrease in urinary excretion of albumin observed in this study underscores the need for further research, which may lead to the discovery of new biomarkers that would reflect the changes in the primary target organs for deposition of (210)Po.

  14. Excretion patterns of pseudouridine and beta-aminoisobutyric acid in patients with tumours of the upper urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Kvist, E; Sjølin, K E; Iversen, J

    1990-01-01

    In 39 patients with either pelvic or renal cell tumours, the pre-operative urinary excretion ratios of pseudouridine/creatinine (psi:C) and beta-aminoisobutyric acid/creatinine (BAIB:C) were estimated. In 34/39 of the patients (87%), including both types of tumours, psi: C was found to be increased, and in only one patient was the value decreased. Twenty-five of the patients (64%) had a BAIB:C ratio within the normal range. 10 (25%) had increased and 4 (11%) decreased values. In 13 patients the psi:C and BAIB:C ratios from the affected side were compared with the values in urine from the bladder. Twelve of the patients had higher values of psi:C in the urine from the ureter. In seven patients the ureteric BAIB:C ratio was higher than the bladder BAIB:C ratio and in five patients the ureteric BAIB:C ratio was less than the bladder BAIB:C ratio. In only one patient were the values similar. The results indicate that patients with tumours of the upper urinary tract have changed excretion patterns compared with normal subjects and the urinary ratios on the affected side are different from those on the healthy side. The biological tumour markers pseudouridine and beta-aminoisobutyric acid may be helpful in the diagnosis of tumours in the upper urinary tract.

  15. The Effects of Probenecid and Thiazides and Their Combination on the Urinary Excretion of Electrolytes and on Acid-base Equilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, D. A.; Yendt, E. R.

    1970-01-01

    The effects of commonly used therapeutic doses of hydrochlorothiazide and probenecid, given singly and in combination, on the urinary excretion of monovalent and divalent ions and on acid-base equilibrium were studied in four patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria. Probenecid had no effect on the urinary excretion of monovalent ions but resulted in a sustained increase in the urinary excretion of calcium, magnesium and citrate and a temporary increase in the urinary excretion of ammonium, in addition to its well-known effects on uric acid metabolism. A temporary fall in serum phosphorus levels was also observed. Probenecid also modified the response to hydrochlorothiazide in that the urinary excretion of calcium, magnesium and citrate was greater during combined therapy than when hydrochlorothiazide was administered alone. Probenecid prevented or abolished the increase in serum uric acid levels associated with the use of thiazide but did not modify the effects of hydrochlorothiazide on the urinary excretion of sodium, chloride, potassiu, phosphorus, ammonium, titratable acid and bicarbonate. PMID:5469617

  16. Toxicokinetics of toluene and urinary excretion of hippuric acid after human exposure to 2H8-toluene.

    PubMed Central

    Löf, A; Wigaeus Hjelm, E; Colmsjö, A; Lundmark, B O; Norström, A; Sato, A

    1993-01-01

    Nine male volunteers were exposed to 2H8-toluene (200 mg/m3 for two hours during a workload of 50 W) via inspiratory air with the aid of a breathing valve and mouthpiece. Labelled toluene was used to differentiate between hippuric acid originating from exposure to toluene and hippuric acid normally excreted in urine. The total uptake of toluene was 2.2 (standard deviation (SD) 0.2) mmol, or 50% of the amount inhaled. Four hours after the end of exposure 1.4 (SD 0.3) mmol or 65% of the total uptake had been excreted in urine as 2H-hippuric acid and 20 hours after the end of exposure the cumulative excretion of 2H-hippuric acid was 1.8 (SD 0.3) mmol, or 78% of the total uptake. By contrast the cumulative excretion of labelled plus unlabelled hippuric acid exceeded the total uptake of toluene already after four hours. The excretion rate of 2H-hippuric acid was highest, about 5 mumol/min, during exposure and the SD between the subjects was low. The background concentrations of unlabelled hippuric acid in urine were high, however, and there were large differences between subjects. These findings confirm earlier indications that for low exposure, urinary hippuric acid concentration cannot be used for biological monitoring of exposure to toluene. PMID:8431392

  17. Increase of urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid excretion but not serum chromogranin A following over-the-counter 5-hydroxytryptophan intake.

    PubMed

    Joy, Tisha; Walsh, Grace; Tokmakejian, Sonya; Van Uum, Stan Hm

    2008-01-01

    5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) excretion is commonly measured for biochemical detection of carcinoid tumours. A 77-year-old woman was referred for elevated 24 h urine 5-HIAA excretion (510 micromol/day; normal is less than 45 micromol/day) and serum chromogranin A (CgA) (72.1 U/L; normal is less than 18 U/L), both subsequently normalized after discontinuation of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP). 5-HTP, a precursor of serotonin, is not commonly listed as a substance that increases 5-HIAA levels in urine. The effect of 5-HTP on CgA has not been previously described. To determine whether, and to what extent, oral 5-HTP increases urine 5-HIAA excretion and serum CgA levels in healthy volunteers. A randomized, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, with a four-day washout period, was performed in a general community setting. Eight healthy subjects aged 22 to 58 years were recruited by advertising. Bedtime ingestion of 5-HTP 100 mg/day was compared with placebo ingestion for 10 days. Twenty-four hour urine excretion of 5-HIAA and serum CgA were the main outcome measures. Median (range) urinary 5-HIAA excretion was 204 micromol/day (22 micromol/day to 459 micromol/day) during 5-HTP intake, compared with 18 micromol/day (12 micromol/day to 36 micromol/day) during placebo intake (P=0.017). 5-HTP did not affect clinical symptoms or serum CgA levels. Oral 5-HTP increases urinary 5-HIAA excretion with considerable interindividual variation. In a small number of subjects, oral 5-HTP did not affect serum CgA levels. Therefore, increased 5-HIAA levels with normal CgA levels may suggest 5-HTP ingestion. The use of over-the-counter 5-HTP should be excluded as the cause of increased urinary 5-HIAA levels before initiating diagnostic tests to search for a carcinoid tumour. 5-HTP should be added to popular references as a substance that may cause increased 5-HIAA excretion.

  18. Increase of urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid excretion but not serum chromogranin A following over-the-counter 5-hydroxytryptophan intake

    PubMed Central

    Joy, Tisha; Walsh, Grace; Tokmakejian, Sonya; Van Uum, Stan HM

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) excretion is commonly measured for biochemical detection of carcinoid tumours. A 77-year-old woman was referred for elevated 24 h urine 5-HIAA excretion (510 μmol/day; normal is less than 45 μmol/day) and serum chromogranin A (CgA) (72.1 U/L; normal is less than 18 U/L), both subsequently normalized after discontinuation of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP). 5-HTP, a precursor of serotonin, is not commonly listed as a substance that increases 5-HIAA levels in urine. The effect of 5-HTP on CgA has not been previously described. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether, and to what extent, oral 5-HTP increases urine 5-HIAA excretion and serum CgA levels in healthy volunteers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A randomized, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, with a four-day washout period, was performed in a general community setting. Eight healthy subjects aged 22 to 58 years were recruited by advertising. Bedtime ingestion of 5-HTP 100 mg/day was compared with placebo ingestion for 10 days. Twenty-four hour urine excretion of 5-HIAA and serum CgA were the main outcome measures. RESULTS: Median (range) urinary 5-HIAA excretion was 204 μmol/day (22 μmol/day to 459 μmol/day) during 5-HTP intake, compared with 18 μmol/day (12 μmol/day to 36 μmol/day) during placebo intake (P=0.017). 5-HTP did not affect clinical symptoms or serum CgA levels. CONCLUSIONS: Oral 5-HTP increases urinary 5-HIAA excretion with considerable interindividual variation. In a small number of subjects, oral 5-HTP did not affect serum CgA levels. Therefore, increased 5-HIAA levels with normal CgA levels may suggest 5-HTP ingestion. The use of over-the-counter 5-HTP should be excluded as the cause of increased urinary 5-HIAA levels before initiating diagnostic tests to search for a carcinoid tumour. 5-HTP should be added to popular references as a substance that may cause increased 5-HIAA excretion. PMID:18209781

  19. Effect of feeding sweet-potato condensed distillers solubles on intake and urinary excretion of minerals in Japanese Black steers.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Yuko; Kamiya, Misturu; Hattori, Ikuo; Hayashi, Yoshiro; Funaba, Masayuki; Matsui, Tohru

    2017-01-01

    Four Japanese Black steers (16 months of age) were assigned to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to investigate the effect of graded levels of sweet-potato condensed distillers solubles (SCDS) in their diets on intake and urinary excretion of minerals. The four diets consisted of 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% (dry matter (DM) basis) SCDS, with SCDS replacing commercial concentrate (CC). Intake of K, Cl, S, P and Mg increased linearly with increasing SCDS content. Urinary pH increased linearly with increasing dietary SCDS content. SCDS feeding increased urinary K concentrations (linear and quadratic effects). Urinary concentrations of Cl increased linearly with increasing SCDS content. In contrast, urinary concentrations of Mg decreased with increasing SCDS content. Feeding of SCDS did not apparently affect urinary NH3 ,P, Na or Ca concentrations. These results suggest that high SCDS feeding is not a risk for crystallization of minerals leading to the formation of magnesium-phosphate type calculi: although SCDS contains large amounts of P and Mg, high SCDS feeding decreased the Mg concentration and did not affect the P concentration in urine. Additionally, high SCDS feeding had no apparent effects on plasma concentrations of Na, K, Cl, Ca or inorganic P.

  20. Urinary potassium excretion and risk of developing hypertension: the prevention of renal and vascular end-stage disease study.

    PubMed

    Kieneker, Lyanne M; Gansevoort, Ron T; Mukamal, Kenneth J; de Boer, Rudolf A; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J L; Joosten, Michel M

    2014-10-01

    Previous prospective cohort studies on the association between potassium intake and risk of hypertension have almost exclusively relied on self-reported dietary data, whereas repeated 24-hour urine excretions, as estimate of dietary uptake, may provide a more objective and quantitative estimate of this association. Risk of hypertension (defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg or initiation of blood pressure-lowering drugs) was prospectively studied in 5511 normotensive subjects aged 28 to 75 years not using blood pressure-lowering drugs at baseline of the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease (PREVEND) study. Potassium excretion was measured in two 24-hour urine specimens at baseline (1997-1998) and midway during follow-up (2001-2003). Baseline median potassium excretion was 70 mmol/24 h (interquartile range, 57-85 mmol/24 h), which corresponds to a dietary potassium intake of ≈91 mmol/24 h. During a median follow-up of 7.6 years (interquartile range, 5.0-9.3 years), 1172 subjects developed hypertension. The lowest sex-specific tertile of potassium excretion (men: <68 mmol/24 h; women: <58 mmol/24 h) had an increased risk of hypertension after multivariable adjustment (hazard ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.37), compared with the upper 2 tertiles (Pnonlinearity=0.008). The proportion of hypertension attributable to low potassium excretion was 6.2% (95% confidence interval, 1.7%-10.9%). No association was found between the sodium to potassium excretion ratio and risk of hypertension after multivariable adjustment. Low urinary potassium excretion was associated with an increased risk of developing hypertension. Dietary strategies to increase potassium intake to the recommended level of 90 mmol/d may have the potential to reduce the incidence of hypertension. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Urinary excretion of LH and testosterone from male rats during exposure to increased gravity: post-spaceflight and centrifugation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, R. M.; Wade, C. E.; Morey-Holton, E.

    2000-01-01

    A dissociation between plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone (T) appears to exist during exposure to altered gravity. The pulsatile nature of LH release and the diurnal variability of T secretion may mask or bias the effects of altered gravity on the pituitary-gonadal axis when analyzing plasma concentrations. Therefore, we examined the relationship between the excretion of urinary LH and T in male Sprague-Dawley rats during exposure to increased gravity upon return to Earth following a 14-day spaceflight (n = 6) and by 12 days of centrifugation at 2g (n = 8). Excreted LH and T were elevated on the first 3 days postflight. Excreted T was elevated between Days 1 and 8 of centrifugation; however, excreted LH was reduced on Days 2 and 3 compared with control animals. Excreted LH and T were significantly correlated (R = 0.731 and 0.706, respectively) in postspaceflight and centrifuged animals. Correlation curves had similar slopes (0.0213 and 0.023, respectively), but different y-intercepts (-1.43 and 3.32, respectively). The sustained increase in excreted T during centrifugation suggests that the pituitary-gonadal axis in postspaceflight animals may adapt quicker to increased gravity. The upward shift in the correlation curve exhibited by the centrifuged animals suggests that the sensitivity of LH-induced T release is increased in these animals. The previous dissociation between plasma LH and T during altered gravity was not observed in the present study in which excreted LH and T were measured.

  2. Magnesium, zinc, arsenic, selenium and platinum urinary excretion from cancer patients of Antofagasta region, Chile: multi-metal approach

    PubMed Central

    Pizarro, I; Rivera, L; Ávila, J; Cortés, P

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the short-term 24 h urinary excretion of platinum, arsenic, selenium, magnesium and zinc in patients with lung cancer and with cancer other than lungs treated with cisplatin or/and carboplatin from Antofagasta, Chile. Design Urine measurements of Pt and Se were made by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, As by hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrometry and Mg and Zn by means of flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Setting All samples were provided by the Oncological Centre of Antofagasta Regional Hospital (Region of Antofagasta, Chile). Participants Ninety 24-h urine samples from cancer patients after the infusion of Pt-base drugs and 10 24-h urine samples from cancer patients not treated with metal-base drugs. Main outcome measures Concentrations of Pt, Se, As, Zn and Mg coming from 24-h urine samples. Results Pt excreted was not significantly different between patients with lung and other cancers treated with cisplatin. The excretion of Mg, Zn and Se was greater than As. Then, Pt favours the excretion of essential elements. For lung and other types of cancers treated with drugs without Pt, excretion of Mg, Zn and Se was also greater than that of As, suggesting antagonism Mg-Zn-Se–anti-cancer drug relationship. Conclusions The amounts of Mg, Zn and Se excreted were greater than for As either with or without Pt-containing drugs, suggesting antagonist Mg-Zn-Se–anti-cancer drug relationships. The excretion of As, Mg, Zn and Se is induced by Pt. Knowledge obtained can contribute to understanding the arsenic cancer mechanism and the As-Mg-Zn-Se-Pt inter-element association for lung cancer and other types of cancer. PMID:27757244

  3. Quantitative measurement of urinary excretion of 3-hydroxyisovaleryl carnitine by LC-MS/MS as an indicator of biotin status in humans.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Thomas D; Stratton, Shawna L; Bogusiewicz, Anna; Owen, Suzanne N; Mock, Donald M; Moran, Jeffery H

    2010-11-15

    Abnormally increased urinary excretion of 3-hydroxyisovaleryl carnitine (3HIA-carnitine) results from impairment in leucine catabolism caused by reduced activity of the biotin-dependent enzyme 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase. Accordingly, urinary 3HIA-carnitine might reflect biotin status. Here, we describe an LC-MS/MS method for accurately quantitating the urinary concentration of 3HIA-carnitine at concentrations that are typical for excretion rates that are normal or only modestly increased. This method allows for high sample throughput and does not require solid-phase extraction. We used this method to provide evidence validating urinary 3HIA-carnitine as a biomarker of biotin deficiency in humans. Four healthy adult subjects were successfully made marginally biotin deficient by feeding a 30% egg white diet for 28 days. From study day 0 to 28, the mean urinary excretion of 3HIA-carnitine increased 3.5-fold (p = 0.026). These preliminary results indicate that urinary excretion of 3HIA-carnitine increases with marginal biotin deficiency. If these results are confirmed in studies involving larger numbers of subjects, urinary excretion of 3HIA-carnitine may potentially be a clinically useful indicator of biotin status.

  4. MEASUREMENT ERROR CORRECTED SODIUM AND POTASSIUM INTAKE ESTIMATION USING 24-HOUR URINARY EXCRETION

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying; Van Horn, Linda; Tinker, Lesley F.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Carbone, Laura; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Thomas, Fridtjof; Prentice, Ross L.

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of the association of sodium and potassium intake with cardiovascular disease risk have almost exclusively relied on self-reported dietary data. Here, 24-hour urinary excretion assessments are used to correct the dietary self-report data for measurement error, under the assumption that 24-hour urine recovery provides a biomarker that differs from usual intake according to a ‘classical’ measurement model. Under this assumption, dietary self-reports underestimate sodium by 0–15%, overestimate potassium by 8–15%, and underestimates the sodium-to-potassium ratio by about 20% using food frequency questionnaires, 4-day food records, or three 24-hour dietary recalls, in Women’s Health Initiative studies. ‘Calibration’ equations are developed by linear regression of log-transformed 24-hour urine assessments on corresponding log-transformed self-report assessments, and several study subject characteristics. For each self-report method the calibration equations turned out to depend on race and age, and strongly on body mass index. Following adjustment for temporal variation, calibration equations using food records or recalls explained 45–50% of the variation in (log-transformed) 24-hour urine assessments for sodium, 60–70% of the variation for potassium, and 55–60% of the variation for the sodium-to-potassium ratio. These equations may be suitable for use in epidemiologic disease association studies among postmenopausal women. The corresponding ‘signals’ from food frequency questionnaire data were weak, but calibration equations for the ratios of sodium and potassium to total energy explained about 35%, 50%, and 45% of log-biomarker variation for sodium, potassium, and their ratio, respectively, following adjustment for temporal biomarker variation, and may be suitable for cautious use in epidemiologic studies. PMID:24277763

  5. Milk decreases urinary excretion but not plasma pharmacokinetics of cocoa flavan-3-ol metabolites in humans.

    PubMed

    Mullen, William; Borges, Gina; Donovan, Jennifer L; Edwards, Christine A; Serafini, Mauro; Lean, Michael E J; Crozier, Alan

    2009-06-01

    Cocoa drinks containing flavan-3-ols are associated with many health benefits, and conflicting evidence exists as to whether milk adversely affects the bioavailability of flavan-3-ols. The objective was to determine the effect of milk on the bioavailability of cocoa flavan-3-ol metabolites. Nine human volunteers followed a low-flavonoid diet for 2 d before drinking 250 mL of a cocoa beverage, made with water or milk, that contained 45 micromol (-)-epicatechin and (-)-catechin. Plasma and urine samples were collected for 24 h, and flavan-3-ol metabolites were analyzed by HPLC with photodiode array and mass spectrometric detection. Milk affected neither gastric emptying nor the transit time through the small intestine. Two flavan-3-ol metabolites were detected in plasma and 4 in urine. Milk had only minor effects on the plasma pharmacokinetics of an (epi)catechin-O-sulfate and had no effect on an O-methyl-(epi)catechin-O-sulfate. However, milk significantly lowered the excretion of 4 urinary flavan-3-ol metabolites from 18.3% to 10.5% of the ingested dose (P = 0.016). Studies that showed protective effects of cocoa and those that showed no effect of milk on bioavailability used products that have a much higher flavan-3-ol content than does the commercial cocoa used in the present study. Most studies of the protective effects of cocoa have used drinks with a very high flavan-3-ol content. Whether similar protective effects are associated with the consumption of many commercial chocolate and cocoa products containing substantially lower amounts of flavan-3-ols, especially when absorption at lower doses is obstructed by milk, remains to be determined.

  6. Progression of urinary protein excretion after kidney transplantation: A marker for poor long-term prognosis.

    PubMed

    Borrego Hinojosa, Josefa; Gentil Govantes, Miguel Angel; Cabello Díaz, Mercedes; Rodriguez Benot, Alberto; Mazuecos Blanca, Auxiliadora; Osuna Ortega, Antonio; Bedoya Pérez, Rafael; Castro De La Nuez, Pablo; Alonso Gil, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Post-transplantation proteinuria is a risk factor for graft failure. A progressive decline in renal graft function is a predictor for mortality in kidney transplant patients. To assess the development and the progression of urinary protein excretion (UPE) in the first year post-transplant in recipients of kidney transplants and its effect on patient and graft outcomes. We analysed 1815 patients with 24-h UPE measurements available at 3 and 12 months post-transplant. Patients were divided based on their UPE level: below 300 mg, 300-1000 mg and over 1000 mg (at 3 and 12 months), and changes over time were analysed. At 3 months, 65.7% had UPE below 300 mg/24 h, 29.6% 300-1000 mg/24 h and 4.7% over 1000 mg/24h. At one year, 71.6% had UPE below 300 mg/24 h, 24.1% 300-1000 mg/24 h and 4.4% over 1000 mg/24 h. In 208 patients (12%), the UPE progressed, in 1233 (70.5%) it remained stable and in 306 (17.5%) an improvement was observed. We found that the level of UPE influenced graft survival, particularly if a progression occurred. Recipient's age and renal function at one year were found to be predictive factors for mortality, while proteinuria and renal function were predictive factors for graft survival. Proteinuria after transplantation, essentially when it progresses, is a marker of a poor prognosis and a predictor for graft survival. Progression of proteinuria is associated with poorer renal function and lower graft survival rates. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  7. Relationship between the urinary excretion mechanisms of drugs and their physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Ito, Sumito; Ando, Hirotaka; Ose, Atsushi; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Ando, Tomohiro; Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between the physicochemical properties of drugs and their urinary excretion mechanisms. Three hundred twenty-five drugs were classified into the reabsorption, intermediate, and secretion types based on their ratio of renal clearance to protein-unbound fraction glomerular filtration rate. Fifty percent of ionized and neutral drugs were the secretion and reabsorption types, respectively. The mean molecular weight of the neutral drugs was slightly smaller than those of the ionized drugs (296 vs. 330-368 g/mol). The reabsorption-type anionic drugs were characterized by their low molecular weights (mean value 269 g/mol) and the logarithmic measure of the acid dissociation constants (pKa s) greater than 4.5, whereas the secretion-type anionic drugs all had pKa s below 4.5. Cationic drugs with pKa s lower than 8.0 tended to be the reabsorption type. Some cationic drugs were classified as the secretion type, despite their high molecular weights (734-811 g/mol) and high log P values (3.1-5.3). The organic anion transporter (OAT)1 and OAT3 substrates were all secretion-type drugs. The same trend was observed for the substrates of organic cation transporter 2, multidrug and toxin extrusion, multidrug resistance-associated protein 4, and multidrug resistance 1/breast cancer resistance protein, but substantial fractions of the substrates were categorized as the intermediate or reabsorption types (9%-38%). This work provides a clue to the renal elimination mechanism of new chemical entities during drug development.

  8. Excretion Profiles and Half-Lives of Ten Urinary Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Metabolites after Dietary Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zheng; Romanoff, Lovisa; Bartell, Scott; Pittman, Erin N.; Trinidad, Debra A.; McClean, Michael; Webster, Thomas F.; Sjödin, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be assessed by biomonitoring of their urinary mono-hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PAHs). Limited information exists on the human pharmacokinetics of OH-PAHs. This study aimed to investigate the excretion half-life of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-PYR), the most used biomarker for PAH exposure, and 9 other OH-PAHs following a dietary exposure in 9 non-smoking volunteers with no occupational exposure to PAHs. Each person avoided food with known high PAH-content during the study period, except for a high PAH-containing lunch (barbecued chicken) on the first day. Individual urine samples (n = 217) were collected from 15 hours before to 60 hours following the dietary exposure. Levels of all OH-PAHs in all subjects increased rapidly by 9–141 fold after the exposure, followed by a decrease consistent with first order kinetics, and returned to background levels 24–48 hours after the exposure. The average time to reach maximal concentration ranged from 3.1 h (1-naphthol) to 5.5 h (1-PYR). Creatinine-adjusted urine concentrations for each metabolite were analyzed using a non-linear mixed effects model including a term to estimate background exposure. The background-adjusted half-life estimate was 3.9 h for 1-PYR and ranged 2.5–6.1 h for the other 9 OH-PAHs, which in general, were shorter than those previously reported. The maximum concentrations after the barbecued chicken consumption were comparable to the levels found in reported occupational settings with known high PAH exposures. It is essential to consider the relatively short half-life, the timing of samples relative to exposures, and the effect of diet when conducting PAH exposure biomonitoring studies. PMID:22663094

  9. Predicting urinary creatinine excretion and its usefulness to identify incomplete 24 h urine collections.

    PubMed

    De Keyzer, Willem; Huybrechts, Inge; Dekkers, Arnold L M; Geelen, Anouk; Crispim, Sandra; Hulshof, Paul J M; Andersen, Lene F; Řehůřková, Irena; Ruprich, Jiří; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Van Maele, Georges; Slimani, Nadia; van't Veer, Pieter; de Boer, Evelien; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2012-09-28

    Studies using 24 h urine collections need to incorporate ways to validate the completeness of the urine samples. Models to predict urinary creatinine excretion (UCE) have been developed for this purpose; however, information on their usefulness to identify incomplete urine collections is limited. We aimed to develop a model for predicting UCE and to assess the performance of a creatinine index using para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) as a reference. Data were taken from the European Food Consumption Validation study comprising two non-consecutive 24 h urine collections from 600 subjects in five European countries. Data from one collection were used to build a multiple linear regression model to predict UCE, and data from the other collection were used for performance testing of a creatinine index-based strategy to identify incomplete collections. Multiple linear regression (n 458) of UCE showed a significant positive association for body weight (β = 0·07), the interaction term sex × weight (β = 0·09, reference women) and protein intake (β = 0·02). A significant negative association was found for age (β = -0·09) and sex (β = -3·14, reference women). An index of observed-to-predicted creatinine resulted in a sensitivity to identify incomplete collections of 0·06 (95 % CI 0·01, 0·20) and 0·11 (95 % CI 0·03, 0·22) in men and women, respectively. Specificity was 0·97 (95 % CI 0·97, 0·98) in men and 0·98 (95 % CI 0·98, 0·99) in women. The present study shows that UCE can be predicted from weight, age and sex. However, the results revealed that a creatinine index based on these predictions is not sufficiently sensitive to exclude incomplete 24 h urine collections.

  10. Administration of ascorbic acid and an aldose reductase inhibitor (tolrestat) in diabetes: effect on urinary albumin excretion.

    PubMed

    McAuliffe, A V; Brooks, B A; Fisher, E J; Molyneaux, L M; Yue, D K

    1998-11-01

    The important role of ascorbic acid (AA) as an anti-oxidant is particularly relevant in diabetes mellitus where plasma concentrations of AA are reduced. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of treatment with AA or an aldose reductase inhibitor, tolrestat, on AA metabolism and urinary albumin excretion in diabetes. Blood and urine samples were collected at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months from 20 diabetic subjects who were randomized into two groups to receive either oral AA 500 mg twice daily or placebo. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures, HbA1c, plasma lipids, urinary albumin, and total glycosaminoglycan excretion were measured at all time points, and heparan sulphate (glycosaminoglycan) was measured at 0 and 12 months. The same parameters, as well as urinary AA excretion, were determined at 0 and 3 months for 16 diabetes subjects receiving 200 mg tolrestat/day. AA treatment increased plasma AA (ANOVA, F ratio = 12.1, p = 0.004) and reduced albumin excretion rate (AER) after 9 months (ANOVA, F ratio = 3.2, p = 0.03), but did not change the other parameters measured. Tolrestat lowered plasma AA (Wilcoxon's signed-rank test, p < 0.05), but did not change AER or the other parameters measured. The ability of AA treatment to decrease AER may be related to changes in extracellular matrix or improvement in oxidative defence mechanism. Unlike the rat model of diabetes, inhibition of aldose reductase did not normalize plasma AA or AER in humans. In fact, tolrestat reduced the plasma AA concentration, a phenomenon which may be due to increased utilization of AA. Dietary supplementation of AA in diabetic subjects may have long-term benefits in attenuating the progression of diabetic complications.

  11. Urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate excretion in intellectually disabled subjects with sleep disorders and multiple medications: validation of measurements in urine extracted from diapers.

    PubMed

    Laakso, M-L; Lindblom, N; Kaipainen, P; Kaski, M

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the applicability of urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate (MT6s) measurements in the evaluation of melatonin secretion in intellectually disabled patients with sleep disorders. All 17 patients received drugs with potential interactions with melatonin metabolism. Serum melatonin 24-h profiles were determined at hourly intervals. The area under the curve (AUC) value, peak amplitude, half-rise time, and half-decline time were calculated individually. Urinary MT6s excretion was determined from samples collected from disposable diapers during three consecutive days at varying intervals. The average excretion rate for each hour of the day was calculated. The excretion profiles were characterized by total amount of MT6s excretion/24 h/kg body mass, amount of excreted MT6s during 6 h of maximum excretion (MAX 6h), and start time of the maximum excretion (start MAX 6h). There were significant positive correlations between serum melatonin AUC value and total excretion of MT6s/body mass, between serum melatonin amplitude and urinary MAX 6h, and between melatonin half-rise time and start MAX 6h; one patient on phenobarbital medication was out of line. The serum melatonin profiles of the patients were classified by comparing them with those of matched healthy volunteers (low-, normal-, or high secretors, normal or delayed rhythm). Similarly, the parameters of MT6s profiles were compared with those obtained from healthy controls, and the patients were reclassified as normal or aberrant. The classifications based on serum melatonin and urinary MT6s measurements were mostly concordant. The daily pattern of urinary MT6s excretion reliably reflected the phase of the serum melatonin rhythm irrespective of the medications, but in some cases, the total amount of excreted MT6s was lower than expected based on serum melatonin measurements.

  12. Office blood pressure is a predictor of aortic elastic properties and urinary protein excretion in subjects with white coat hypertension.

    PubMed

    Aznaouridis, Konstantinos; Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Masoura, Konstantina; Pietri, Panagiota; Vyssoulis, Gregory; Ioakeimidis, Nikolaos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Tousoulis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-15

    White coat hypertension (WCH) is related to target organ damage and increased cardiovascular risk. Arterial elastic properties and urinary protein excretion are determinants of cardiovascular performance and predictors of outcomes. We investigated whether office blood pressure (BP) is a better determinant of arterial and renal function than the ambulatory BP in WCH patients. We studied 440 consecutive untreated non-diabetic patients with WCH (office BP >140/90 mmHg, mean daytime ambulatory BP <135/85 mmHg). Arterial function was evaluated with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), an index of aortic stiffness, and aortic augmentation index (AIx), a composite marker of aortic stiffness and wave reflections. In 24-hour urine, albumin excretion and albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) were measured as markers of glomerular function and urinary α1-microglobulin was measured as a marker of renal tubular function. In univariate analysis, office systolic BP correlated significantly with cfPWV (r=0.245, P<0.001), AIx (r=0.31, P<0.001), albumin (r=0.134, P=0.005), ACR (r=0.199, P<0.001) and α1-microglobulin (r=0.118, P=0.013). In contrast, mean ambulatory systolic BP did not correlate with arterial function or urinary proteins (all P>0.5). Hierarchical multilevel linear regression analysis showed that office systolic BP is an independent determinant of cfPWV (P=0.050), AIx (P=0.029), albumin (P=0.002) and ACR (P=0.001) and has a borderline association with α1-microglobulin (P=0.088). In non-diabetic WCH individuals, office systolic BP is an independent predictor of aortic elastic properties and urinary protein excretion, whereas ambulatory BP is not. This finding suggests that office BP may be a marker of cardiovascular risk in subjects with WCH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Urinary isoflavone excretion as a compliance measure in a soy intervention among young girls: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Maskarinec, G; Oshiro, C; Morimoto, Y; Hebshi, S; Novotny, R; Franke, AA

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the compliance of young girls with a soy intervention. Design An 8-week dietary intervention and urine sample collection. Setting Free-living girls. Subjects A convenience sample of 8-to 14-y-old girls (20 started and 17 finished the study) recruited through flyers distributed to staff members and previous study participants. Intervention The girls consumed one daily serving of soymilk, soy nuts, or tofu, completed 3-day food records, kept daily soy intake logs, and collected weekly urine samples. Main outcome measures Compliance with the intervention was evaluated by daily soy intake logs, 3-day food records analyzed by the center’s Food Composition and Food Groups Servings Databases, and weekly urinary isoflavone excretion using high-pressure liquid chromatography. The statistical analysis included paired t-tests, analysis of variance, and Spearman’s rank-order correlation coefficients. Results Daily soy intake logs indicated a mean intake of 6.28 servings out of a maximum of 7.0 servings per week. The food records revealed a six-fold increase in isoflavone intake during the study period (P < 0.01) which was confirmed by an increase in urinary isoflavone excretion of similar magnitude (23.3–142.1 nmol/mg creatinine, P = 0.02). Conclusions This study demonstrated the ability of young girls to consume one daily soy serving and the usefulness of urinary isoflavones as a primary compliance measure. The high urinary isoflavone excretion levels detected in girls as compared to adult women suggest less intestinal degradation and/or greater absorption of isoflavones in nonadult populations. This finding requires further investigations into the pharmacokinetics of isoflavones. PMID:15523482

  14. Investigation of urinary excretion of hydroxyethyl starch and dextran by uhplc-hrms in different acquisition modes.

    PubMed

    Esposito, S; Deventer, K; Giron, A J; Roels, K; Herregods, L; Verstraete, A; Van Eenoo, P

    2014-06-01

    Plasma volume expanders (PVEs) such as hydroxyethyl starch (HES) and dextran are misused in sports because they can prevent dehydration and reduce haematocrit values to mask erythropoietin abuse. Endogenous hydrolysis generates multiple HES and dextran oligosaccharides which are excreted in urine. Composition of the urinary metabolic profiles of PVEs varies depending on post-administration time and can have an impact on their detectability. In this work, different mass spectrometry data acquisition modes (full scan with and without in-source collision-induced dissociation) were used to study urinary excretion profiles of HES and dextran, particularly by investigating time-dependent detectability of HES and dextran urinary oligosaccharide metabolites in post-administration samples. In-source fragmentation yielded the best results in terms of limit of detection (LOD) and detection times, whereas detection of HES and dextran metabolites in full scan mode with no in-source fragmentation is related to recent administration (< 24 hours). Urinary excretion studies showed detection windows for HES and dextran respectively of 72 and 48 hours after administration. Dextran concentrations were above the previously proposed threshold of 500 µg · mL(-1) for 12 hours. A "dilute-and-shoot" method for the detection of HES and dextran in human urine by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-high resolution Orbitrap™ mass spectrometry was developed for this study. Validation of the method showed an LOD in the range of 10-500 µg · mL(-1) for the most significant HES and dextran metabolites in the different modes. The method allows retrospective data analysis and can be implemented in existing high-resolution mass spectrometry-based doping control screening analysis.

  15. INVESTIGATION OF URINARY EXCRETION OF HYDROXYETHYL STARCH AND DEXTRAN BY UHPLC-HRMS IN DIFFERENT ACQUISITION MODES

    PubMed Central

    Deventer, K.; Giron, A.J.; Roels, K.; Herregods, L.; Verstraete, A.; Van Eenoo, P.

    2014-01-01

    Plasma volume expanders (PVEs) such as hydroxyethyl starch (HES) and dextran are misused in sports because they can prevent dehydration and reduce haematocrit values to mask erythropoietin abuse. Endogenous hydrolysis generates multiple HES and dextran oligosaccharides which are excreted in urine. Composition of the urinary metabolic profiles of PVEs varies depending on post-administration time and can have an impact on their detectability. In this work, different mass spectrometry data acquisition modes (full scan with and without in-source collision-induced dissociation) were used to study urinary excretion profiles of HES and dextran, particularly by investigating time-dependent detectability of HES and dextran urinary oligosaccharide metabolites in post-administration samples. In-source fragmentation yielded the best results in terms of limit of detection (LOD) and detection times, whereas detection of HES and dextran metabolites in full scan mode with no in-source fragmentation is related to recent administration (< 24 hours). Urinary excretion studies showed detection windows for HES and dextran respectively of 72 and 48 hours after administration. Dextran concentrations were above the previously proposed threshold of 500 µg · mL−1 for 12 hours. A “dilute-and-shoot” method for the detection of HES and dextran in human urine by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-high resolution Orbitrap™ mass spectrometry was developed for this study. Validation of the method showed an LOD in the range of 10-500 µg · mL−1 for the most significant HES and dextran metabolites in the different modes. The method allows retrospective data analysis and can be implemented in existing high-resolution mass spectrometry-based doping control screening analysis. PMID:24899772

  16. Carotid intima media thickness is independently associated with urinary sodium excretion in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Ustundag, Sedat; Yilmaz, Gulay; Sevinc, Can; Akpinar, Seval; Temizoz, Osman; Sut, Necdet; Ustundag, Ayten

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis-induced premature vascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The pathogenetic mechanism of atherosclerosis in patients with CKD has not been fully explained. Experimental studies have demonstrated that high dietary sodium intake not only increases circulatory volume and blood pressure, but also facilitates development of atherosclerosis by reducing production-bioavailability of nitric oxide due to oxidative stress and accordingly by enhancing endothelial and arterial stiffness. In this study, we investigated the relationship between sodium consumption and carotid artery intima-media thickness, which is the indicator of atherosclerosis, by determining daily urinary sodium excretion, which is a reliable indicator of sodium consumption, in our patient group. Our patient group included 193 patients with stage 2-4 non-diabetic CKD and without a history of atherosclerotic disease. We determined that 77% of our patients have been consuming more than 2  g of sodium per day, which is the upper limit of sodium consumption recommended for patients with CKD. We determined a positive linear correlation between carotid artery intima-media thickness and patient age (p < 0.001), C-reactive protein (p < 0.001), urinary sodium excretion (p < 0.001), body mass index (p = 0.002), systolic blood pressure (p = 0.002), hemoglobin (p = 0.030), triglycerides (p = 0.043), and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.049). We also found a negative linear correlation between carotid artery intima-media thickness and glomerular filtration rate (p = 0.008). We found that urinary sodium excretion is the determinant of intima-media thickness even if all factors associated with intima-media thickness are adjusted, and that intima-media thickness increases by 0.031 (0.004-0.059) mm per 2  g increase in daily sodium excretion, independent from overall factors (p = 0.025). Our results

  17. Normal distribution of urinary polyphenol excretion among Egyptian males 7-14 years old and changes following nutritional intervention with tomato juice (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Hussein, Laila; Medina, Alexander; Barrionnevo, Ana; Lammuela-Raventos, Rosa M; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2009-06-01

    The urinary flavonoids are considered a reliable biomarker for the intake of polyphenol-rich foods. To assess the normal distribution of urinary polyphenol [PP] excretion among healthy male children and adolescents on a typical Egyptian diet. To follow up the impact of nutritional intervention with tomato juice on the urinary excretion of [PP]. Forty-nine male subjects 7-14 years old collected a 24-h urine sample and filled a dietary record during a 7-day period. A daily serving of 230 g fresh tomato juice was followed for 18 days in a subgroup. Total urinary [PP] excretions were measured before and after termination of the intervention program. The total urinary [PP] was analyzed after a clean-up solid-phase extraction step by the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent in the 96 micro plates. The results were expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). The urinary [PP] excretion averaged 48.6+/-5.5 mg GAE/24 h, equivalent to 89.5+/-8.4 mg GAE/g creatinine. The mean urinary [PP] excretion increased significantly (P<0.05) following the intervention with tomato juice (287.4+/-64.3 mg GAE/g creatinine) compared with the respective mean baseline level (94.5+/-8.92 mg GAE/g creatinine). Clinical laboratory reference limits for urinary polyphenols are presented for Egyptian male children and adolescents. Measuring the urinary polyphenol excretion proved a good biomarker for the dietary polyphenol intake and the results demonstrated that tomato [PP] was highly bioavailable in the human body.

  18. [Increased urinary sodium excretion in the early phase of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage as a predictor of cerebral salt wasting syndrome].

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Ichiro; Kurokawa, Shinichiro; Takayama, Katsutoshi; Wada, Takeshi; Nakase, Hiroyuki

    2009-12-01

    Cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is considered to correlate with delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DIND) induced by cerebral vasospasm; however, its exact mechanism is still not well-known. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the relationship between hyponatremia caused by CSWS and the increase of the urinary sodium excretion in early phase following SAH. Fifty-four patients with SAH were divided into 2 groups, normonatremia group and hyponatremia group which suffered hyponatremia after SAH. The hyponatremia group comprise 14 patients (26%) in whom the hyponatremia developed of the SAH. In this group, the serum level of sodium significantly decreased 7 days after SAH and then gradually normalised. Further, excretion of sodium in the urine tended to increase 3 days after SAH and significantly increased 7 days after SAH. In conclusion, the increased urinary sodium excretion in the early phase of SAH would serve as a predictive factor for CSWS after SAH. We consider that it is important to start sodium and fluid supplementation and inhibit natriuresis by fludrocortisone acetate administration before hyponatremia occurs in order to prevention delayed ischemic neurological deficits in SAH patients.

  19. Urinary excretion of essential metals following intravenous calcium disodium edetate: an estimate of free zinc and zinc status in man.

    PubMed

    Powell, J J; Burden, T J; Greenfield, S M; Taylor, P D; Thompson, R P

    1999-06-30

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a powerful metal chelating agent used in the treatment of lead poisoning. EDTA also binds strongly to other metals. Thus, following intravenous infusion of CaNa2EDTA in healthy subjects the urinary excretion of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium and zinc were assessed. CaNa2EDTA significantly increased the urinary excretion of all metals except magnesium with greatest increases for iron (x 3.8 above baseline) and zinc (x 22). In addition, an in vitro dialysis study with a simplified serum showed that zinc (4.1 X 10(-3) mumol/h) was taken up more rapidly than iron (2.9 X 10(-3) mumol/h) by EDTA. The degree of binding of iron and zinc by EDTA depends on two factors: namely, the affinity of EDTA for Zn2+ and Fe3+, and the levels of unbound hydrated Zn2+ and Fe3+ ('free' ions). Despite differences in the rate of chelation of Zn2+ and Fe3+ by EDTA we show that the measurements of (a) circulating free iron, from routine clinical measurements of transferrin bound iron, and (b) the ratio of zinc:iron excreted in urine could provide an estimate of circulating free zinc, and thereby of zinc status, in man. In addition, EDTA treatment should be evaluated for patients with iron overload.

  20. Influence of dietary source of phosphorus on fecal and urinary excretion of phosphorus and other minerals by male cats.

    PubMed

    Finco, D R; Barsanti, J A; Brown, S A

    1989-02-01

    Twelve male cats were fed 2 diets that differed in the source of P. In diet 1 (1.4% P), 62.7% of P originated from poultry, meat, and fish meal, and the remainder from other organic ingredients of food. In diet 2 (1.6% P), 63.5% of P was derived from neutral monobasic/dibasic salts, and the remainder from other organic ingredients of the food. The P intake was nearly the same with both diets, but there was a significant (P less than 0.05) difference between diets in the percentage of ingested P that was excreted in the urine (14.7 +/- 5.3% for diet 1; 34.9 +/- 8.4% for diet 2), and in 6-day urinary P excretion (774 +/- 290 mg for diet 1; 2,004 +/- 556 mg for diet 2). The P concentrations in urine samples obtained by cystocentesis after cats ate were significantly (P less than 0.05) higher when cats were fed diet 2 than when those same cats were fed diet 1. Plasma P concentrations increased after ingestion of diet 2, but were unchanged after ingestion of diet 1. Seemingly, urinary excretion of P was markedly influenced by dietary composition. Diets with the same P content have potential for different biologic effects because of differences in availability of P.

  1. Simplified structure of a new model to describe urinary excretion of plutonium after systemic, liver or pulmonary contamination of rats associated with Ca-DTPA treatments.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, P; Sérandour, A L; Grémy, O; Phan, G; Tsapis, N; Abram, M C; Renault, D; Fattal, E; Benech, H; Deverre, J R; Poncy, J L

    2009-06-01

    This study validates, by targeted experiments, several modeling hypotheses for interpretation of urinary excretion of plutonium after Ca-DTPA treatments. Different formulations and doses of Ca-DTPA were administered to rats before or after systemic, liver or lung contamination with various chemical forms of plutonium. The biokinetics of plutonium was also characterized after i.v. injection of Pu-DTPA. Once formed, Pu-DTPA complexes are stable in most biological environments. Pu-DTPA present in circulating fluids is rapidly excreted in the urine, but 2-3% is retained, mainly in soft tissues, and is then excreted slowly in the urine after transfer to blood. Potentially, all intracellular monoatomic forms of plutonium could be decorporated after DTPA internalization involving slow urinary excretion of Pu-DTPA with half-lives varying from 2.5 to 6 days as a function of tissue retention. The ratio of fast to slow urinary excretion of Pu-DTPA depends on both plutonium contamination and Ca-DTPA treatment. Fast urinary excretion of Pu-DTPA corresponds to extracellular decorporation that occurs beyond a threshold of the free DTPA concentration in circulating fluids. Slow excretion corresponds mostly to intracellular decorporation and depends on the amount of intracellular DTPA. From these results, the structure of a simplified model is proposed for interpretation of data obtained with Ca-DTPA treatments after systemic, wound or pulmonary contamination by plutonium.

  2. Effects of topiroxostat and febuxostat on urinary albumin excretion and plasma xanthine oxidoreductase activity in db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takashi; Murase, Takayo; Nampei, Mai; Morimoto, Nobutaka; Ashizawa, Naoki; Iwanaga, Takashi; Sakamoto, Ryusuke

    2016-06-05

    Topiroxostat, a xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) inhibitor, has been shown to decrease the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio compared with placebo in hyperuricemic patients with stage 3 chronic kidney disease. Thus, we aimed to ascertain the albuminuria-lowering effect of topiroxostat in diabetic mouse. Db/db mice were fed standard diets with or without topiroxostat (0.1, 0.3, 1, and 3mg/kg/day) and febuxostat (0.1, 0.3, and 1mg/kg/day) for four weeks. Urinary albumin and purine bodies levels, XOR activities, and drug concentrations in the liver, kidney, and plasma were measured. Moreover, the XOR inhibitory activity of each XOR inhibitor was evaluated with or without an exogenous protein in vitro. Topiroxostat decreased dose-dependently the urinary albumin excretion, but febuxostat did not show such a tendency. Treatment with topiroxostat inhibited plasma XOR activity with dose-dependent increase in plasma purine levels, which was not observed by febuxostat. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis revealed that topiroxostat and febuxostat concentration in each tissue showed a good correlation with both the hypouricemic effect and plasma drug concentration, whereas the change in albuminuria correlated neither with the change in uric acid nor with drug concentration in plasma. However, the change in urinary albumin and plasma XOR activity showed good correlation in topiroxostat group. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 value) of febuxostat against plasma XOR in vitro was 12-fold higher than that of topiroxostat, and increased by approximately 13-fold by interfering with an exogenous protein. Topiroxostat caused reduced urinary albumin excretion, in which potent inhibition of the plasma XOR activity might be involved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Urinary iodine excretion during normal pregnancy in healthy women living in the southwest of France: correlation with maternal thyroid parameters.

    PubMed

    Caron, P; Hoff, M; Bazzi, S; Dufor, A; Faure, G; Ghandour, I; Lauzu, P; Lucas, Y; Maraval, D; Mignot, F; Réssigeac, P; Vertongen, F; Grangé, V

    1997-10-01

    A prospective study was undertaken to evaluate urinary iodine excretion and changes of maternal thyroid function during pregnancy in healthy women living in the southwest of France. The cohort included a total of 347 pregnant women (mean age 28.0+/-0.5 years). Iodine concentration in a random urine sample and thyroid tests (free thyroxine [FT4], free triiodothyronine [FT3], thyrotropin (TSH), thyroxine-binding globulin [TBG], and thyroglobulin [Tg]) were measured at initial presentation (before 12 weeks of gestation), and during the ninth month of pregnancy. A thyroid ultrasound was performed 1 to 5 days after delivery in 246 mothers. Mean urinary iodine levels were low during the first trimester (6.9+/-0.4 microg/dL), as well as during the ninth month of pregnancy (8.6+/-0.6 microg/dL). During pregnancy, FT4 and T3 concentrations decreased (p < .001), and TSH and Tg concentrations increased (p < .001). Thyroid hypertrophy (thyroid volume greater than 18 mL) was present in 15.4% of women whose first trimester urinary iodine concentration was less than 5 microg/dL, but was present in only 3.5% of women whose urinary iodine concentration was greater than 10 microg/dL. A goiter (thyroid volume greater than 22 mL) was present in 11% of the mothers. In conclusion, this prospective study shows that urinary iodine excretion is low in pregnant women living in the southwest of France. This low iodine intake is associated with reduced circulating thyroid hormone levels and growth of the thyroid gland. These data point to the need of an increased iodine supply in these pregnant women to reduce the potential consequences of low iodine intake on maternal thyroid economy.

  4. Validity of predictive equations for 24-h urinary sodium excretion in adults aged 18-39 y.

    PubMed

    Cogswell, Mary E; Wang, Chia-Yih; Chen, Te-Ching; Pfeiffer, Christine M; Elliott, Paul; Gillespie, Cathleen D; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Sempos, Christopher T; Liu, Kiang; Perrine, Cria G; Swanson, Christine A; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Loria, Catherine M

    2013-12-01

    Collecting a 24-h urine sample is recommended for monitoring the mean population sodium intake, but implementation can be difficult. The objective was to assess the validity of published equations by using spot urinary sodium concentrations to predict 24-h sodium excretion. This was a cross-sectional study, conducted from June to August 2011 in metropolitan Washington, DC, of 407 adults aged 18-39 y, 48% black, who collected each urine void in a separate container for 24 h. Four timed voids (morning, afternoon, evening, and overnight) were selected from each 24-h collection. Published equations were used to predict 24-h sodium excretion with spot urine by specimen timing and race-sex subgroups. We examined mean differences with measured 24-h sodium excretion (bias) and individual differences with the use of Bland-Altman plots. Across equations and specimens, mean bias in predicting 24-h sodium excretion for all participants ranged from -267 to 1300 mg (Kawasaki equation). Bias was least with International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure (INTERSALT) equations with morning (-165 mg; 95% CI: -295, 36 mg), afternoon (-90 mg; -208, 28 mg), and evening (-120 mg; -230, -11 mg) specimens. With overnight specimens, mean bias was least when the Tanaka (-23 mg; 95% CI: -141, 95 mg) or Mage (-145 mg; -314, 25 mg) equations were used but was statistically significant when using the Tanaka equations among females (216 to 243 mg) and the Mage equations among races other than black (-554 to -372 mg). Significant over- and underprediction occurred across individual sodium excretion concentrations. Using a single spot urine, INTERSALT equations may provide the least biased information about population mean sodium intakes among young US adults. None of the equations evaluated provided unbiased estimates of individual 24-h sodium excretion.

  5. Urinary excretion of copper, zinc and iron with and without D-penicillamine administration in relation to hepatic copper concentration in dogs.

    PubMed

    Fieten, H; Hugen, S; van den Ingh, T S G A M; Hendriks, W H; Vernooij, J C M; Bode, P; Watson, A L; Leegwater, P A J; Rothuizen, J

    2013-08-01

    Hereditary copper-associated hepatitis in dogs resembles Wilson's disease, a copper storage disease in humans. Values for urinary copper excretion are well established in the diagnostic protocol of Wilson's disease, whereas in dogs these have not been evaluated. The objectives of this study were to characterize both basal and D-penicillamine induced urinary copper, zinc and iron excretion in dogs in relation to hepatic copper concentration. Beagles, Beagle-Bedlington terrier cross-breeds homozygous for the COMMD1 gene mutation that causes copper toxicosis, and Labrador retrievers with normal or increased hepatic copper concentrations were investigated. The hepatic copper phenotype was determined by histological evaluation of liver biopsies and measurement of the hepatic copper concentration by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Urinary excretion of copper, iron and zinc was measured via inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry under basal conditions and after oral administration of a single dose (20mg/kg bodyweight) of the chelator D-penicillamine. There was a rapid increase in urinary excretion of copper and zinc, but not iron after D-penicillamine administration. This increase was not different between dogs with high or normal hepatic copper concentrations. D-penicillamine-induced urinary copper excretion and the copper/creatinine ratio did not correlate with hepatic copper concentrations in the dogs studied, although basal urinary copper/zinc ratios did correlate with hepatic copper concentrations in Labrador retrievers. The latter parameter may be useful in diagnostic and follow-up protocols for copper-associated hepatitis in Labrador retrievers.

  6. Effects of saline loading during head down tilt on ANP and cyclic GMP levels and on urinary fluid excretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummer, C.; Lang, R. E.; Baisch, F.; Blomqvist, G.; Heer, M.; Gerzer, R.

    In the present study the renal and humoral effects of acute saline infusions were investigated in six healthy male volunteers before, during and after a ten day period of -6° head-down-tilt (HDT). During the whole 23-day study period the subjects received a standardized diet including 40 ml water and 125 mg NaCl per kg body weight per day. After the infusion of 0.9% saline (22 ml/kg within 20 minutes) plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) levels were only slightly increased (not significant) at the end of the infusion, while plasma cyclic GMP levels were significantly increased by about 40% (p<0.05) one hour later. No difference was observed in the plasma ANP and cyclic GMP changes between the pre-HDT, the HDT and the post-HDT infusion experiment. Urine flow, sodium excretion and urinary cyclic GMP excretion were significantly increased (p<0.05 and below) by 100 to 300% during the second and third hour after each saline infusion. However, during these short-term periods only 20% of the infused water and less than 20% of the infused sodium were excreted. Furthermore, a significantly increased volume, sodium and cyclic GMP excretion was observed for over 48 hours after each fluid load experiment. These data suggest that HDT does not induce major alterations in the regulation of an acute saline infusion and plasma ANP does not play a major role in the diuretic/natriuretic effects of volume loading.

  7. Association Between Estimated 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Won, Jong Chul; Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract High sodium intake is 1 of the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but in Korea, daily sodium intake is estimated to be double the level recommended by World Health Organization. We investigated the association between the estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion (24hUNaE) and metabolic syndrome using nationwide population data. In total, 17,541 individuals (weighted n = 33,200,054; weighted men, 52.5% [95% confidence interval, CI = 51.8–53.3]; weighted age, 45.2 years [44.7–45.7]) who participated in the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2011 were investigated. NCEP-ATP III criteria for metabolic syndrome were used, and sodium intake was estimated by 24hUNaE using Tanaka equation with a spot urine sample. The weighted mean 24hUNaE values were 3964 mg/d (95% CI = 3885–4044) in men and 4736 mg/d (4654–4817) in women. The weighted age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 22.2% (21.4–23.0), and it increased with 24hUNaE quartile in both men and women (mean ± standard error of the mean; men: 22.5 ± 1.0%, 23.0 ± 1.0%, 26.0 ± 1.2%, and 26.0 ± 1.2%; P = 0.026; women: 19.4 ± 0.8%, 17.7 ± 0.8%, 19.8 ± 1.0%, and 23.0 ± 1.1%; P = 0.002, for quartiles 1–4, respectively). Even after adjustment for age, daily calorie intake, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, college graduation, and antihypertensive medication, the weighted prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased with the increase in 24hUNaE in men and women. The weighted 24hUNaE was positively associated with the number of metabolic syndrome components after adjustment for confounding factors in men and women. In subjects without antihypertensive medication, the odds ratio for metabolic syndrome in quartile 4 of 24hUNaE compared with quartile 1 was 1.56 (1.33–1.84, P < 0.001) in the total population, 1.66 (1.34–2.06, P < 0.001) in men, and 1.94 (1.49–2.53, P < 0

  8. Urinary excretion of N-acetyl amino acids in patients with some inborn errors of amino acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jellum, E; Horn, L; Thoresen, O; Kvittingen, E A; Stokke, O

    1986-01-01

    Urinary organic acid profiles of patients with Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD), hereditary tyrosinemia and phenylketonuria (PKU) have been studied by means of capillary GC-MS-computer technique. In addition to the characteristic metabolites of these disorders, increased amounts of N-acetylleucine, N-acetylisoleucine and N-acetylvaline were found in MSUD-urine. Increased excretion of N-acetylphenylalanine occurred in PKU, and in tyrosinemia both the latter compound and increased N-acetyltyrosine excretion were observed. These results together with literature reports of similar studies on patients with other aminoacidopathies may indicate that most disorders which result in accumulation of one or more specific amino acids, will convert a small fraction of them into their corresponding N-acetyl derivative.

  9. Relationship between serum irisin levels and urinary albumin excretion in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao-hua; Zhang, Xiu-wei; Chen, Wei-kun; Huang, Qiu-xia; Chen, Qiao-qiong

    2015-04-01

    Irisin is first discovered as a potential mediator of obesity related energy homeostasis. Recent studies indicate that irisin is associated with endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to examine the relationship between irisin and urinary albumin excretion in patients with type 2 diabetes. 100 newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes and 100 healthy subjects were selected. Serum irisin levels were measured by ELISA, and urine albumin was measured by radioimmunoassay. High resolution ultrasound was used to measure brachial artery diameter at rest, after reactive hyperemia (flow-mediated arterial dilation, FMD) and after sublingual glyceryltrinitrate. Patients with type 2 diabetes presented decreased irisin levels when compared to controls (14.12±3.93 versus 28.98±2.56ng/ml, P=0.015).Serum irisin levels in the microalbuminuric and macroalbuminuria subgroup were 9.89±1.56ng/ml and 5.67±1.89ng/ml, respectively, which were significantly lower than those in the normoalbuminuria (15.97±3.12ng/ml). In comparison to microalbuminuric subgroup, macroalbuminuria subgroup had lower levels of irisin. By dividing the distribution of serum irisin levels into quartiles, FMD was increased gradually with the increase of serum irisin levels (P<0.001). Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis showed that FMD (β=0.75, P=0.002), 2-hBG (β=-0.25, P=0.038) and UAE (β=-0.87, P=0.008) were significantly associated with irisin. Pearson's correlation analyses showed a negative correlation between irisin and logUAE (r=-0.57) and between FMD and logUAE (r=-0.47), and positive correlations between irisin and FMD (r=0.51). Decreased plasma levels of irisin seem to be associated with UAE and FMD in patients with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of urinary sodium excretion on the clinical assessment of renal tubular calcium reabsorption in hypercalcaemic man.

    PubMed

    Ralston, S H; Gardner, M D; Dryburgh, F J; Cowan, R A; Boyle, I T

    1986-06-01

    The relation between urinary sodium excretion (NaE) and renal tubular calcium reabsorption (TmCa/GFR) was assessed in patients with hypercalcaemia associated with malignancy and primary hyperparathyroidism. On acute saline loading of seven normally hydrated patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and five patients with malignancy, raised values of TmCa/GFR were reduced to normal in most cases, in association with increases in NaE. The reduction in TmCa/GFR, which occurred, may have been due to a reduction in proximal tubular calcium reabsorption associated with sodium: this would have obscured the effect of humorally mediated increases in distal tubular calcium reabsorption, which are stimulated either by parathyroid hormone or by a putative humoral mediator in hypercalcaemia of malignancy. In patients who were normally hydrated NaE and TmCa/GFR were not significantly correlated. When data were included from patients who were dehydrated and from those undergoing acute saline loading, significant inverse correlations between NaE and TmCa/GFR were observed both in primary hyperparathyroidism (r = -0.49; p less than 0.02) and malignancy (r = -0.60; p less than 0.001). In clinical practice changes in TmCa/GFR associated with sodium seem to be of minor importance under normal circumstances, but they become evident at the upper and lower extremes of urinary sodium excretion. In clinical studies of renal calcium handling urinary sodium excretion must also be assessed, as interpreting TmCa/GFR data is difficult in states of excessive sodium loading or depletion.

  11. Influence of urinary sodium excretion on the clinical assessment of renal tubular calcium reabsorption in hypercalcaemic man.

    PubMed Central

    Ralston, S H; Gardner, M D; Dryburgh, F J; Cowan, R A; Boyle, I T

    1986-01-01

    The relation between urinary sodium excretion (NaE) and renal tubular calcium reabsorption (TmCa/GFR) was assessed in patients with hypercalcaemia associated with malignancy and primary hyperparathyroidism. On acute saline loading of seven normally hydrated patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and five patients with malignancy, raised values of TmCa/GFR were reduced to normal in most cases, in association with increases in NaE. The reduction in TmCa/GFR, which occurred, may have been due to a reduction in proximal tubular calcium reabsorption associated with sodium: this would have obscured the effect of humorally mediated increases in distal tubular calcium reabsorption, which are stimulated either by parathyroid hormone or by a putative humoral mediator in hypercalcaemia of malignancy. In patients who were normally hydrated NaE and TmCa/GFR were not significantly correlated. When data were included from patients who were dehydrated and from those undergoing acute saline loading, significant inverse correlations between NaE and TmCa/GFR were observed both in primary hyperparathyroidism (r = -0.49; p less than 0.02) and malignancy (r = -0.60; p less than 0.001). In clinical practice changes in TmCa/GFR associated with sodium seem to be of minor importance under normal circumstances, but they become evident at the upper and lower extremes of urinary sodium excretion. In clinical studies of renal calcium handling urinary sodium excretion must also be assessed, as interpreting TmCa/GFR data is difficult in states of excessive sodium loading or depletion. PMID:3722417

  12. Urinary cyclophosphamide excretion and micronuclei frequencies in peripheral lymphocytes and in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells of nurses handling antineoplastics.

    PubMed

    Burgaz, S; Karahalil, B; Bayrak, P; Taşkin, L; Yavuzaslan, F; Bökesoy, I; Anzion, R B; Bos, R P; Platin, N

    1999-02-02

    In this study, urinary cyclophosphamide (CP) excretion rate, as well as micronuclei (MN) in peripheral lymphocytes and in buccal epithelial cells were determined for 26 nurses handling antineoplastics and 14 referents matched for age and sex. In urine samples of 20 out of 25 exposed nurses CP excretion rate was found in a range of 0.02-9.14 microg CP/24 h. Our results of the analyses of CP in urine demonstrates that when the nurses were handling CP (and other antineoplastic drugs) this particular compound was observed in urine. The mean values (+/-SD) of MN frequencies (%) in peripheral lymphocytes from the nurses and controls were 0.61 (+/-0. 32) and 0.28 (+/-0.16), respectively (p<0.01). The mean value (+/-SD) of MN frequency (%) in buccal epithelial cells of nurses was 0.16 (+/-0.19) and also mean MN frequency in buccal epithelial cells for controls was found to be as 0.08 (+/-0.08), (p>0.05). Age, sex and smoking habits have not influenced the parameters analyzed in this study. Handling time of antineoplastics, use of protective equipment and handling frequency of drugs have no effect on urinary and cytogenetic parameters analyzed. No correlation was found between the urinary CP excretion and the cytogenetic findings in nurses. Neither could we find any relationship between two cytogenetic endpoints. Our results have identified the possible genotoxic damage of oncology nurses related to occupational exposure to at least one antineoplastic agent, which is used as a marker for drug handling. As a whole, there is concern that the present handling practices of antineoplastic drugs used in the several hospitals in Ankara will not be sufficient to prevent exposure.

  13. Interesting Layering of Excreted 18F-FDG in the Urinary Bladder in Patients with Urinary Tract Infection and Distended Bladder.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guohua; Zhang, Wenjie; Jia, Zhiyun; Deng, Houfu

    2015-09-01

    Settling of (18)F-FDG in the bladder is often noted on whole-body PET/CT images, but this phenomenon has never received any careful attention and the mechanism has been unclear. The 2 patients described in this report, one with a T1 pathologic fracture and another with widespread bone and lymph node metastases from an unknown primary tumor, underwent PET/CT. Both had urinary tract infection and a distended bladder during scanning. The interesting layering of (18)F-FDG in the urinary bladder was observed in both patients. The presence of this phenomenon demands careful evaluation of the urine by the clinician, and the mechanism is hypothesized to be slow (18)F-FDG excretion in patients with a distended urinary bladder, resulting in delayed mixing with urine. In addition, urinary tract infection may be a potential cause. Images showing this interesting layering should be interpreted with care. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  14. Renal pathology and urinary protein excretion in a 14-month-old Bernese mountain dog with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Raila, J; Aupperle, H; Raila, G; Schoon, H-A; Schweigert, F J

    2007-04-01

    The renal pathology and urinary protein pattern of a 14-month-old female Bernese mountain dog with chronic renal failure was investigated. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamid gel electrophoresis and subsequent Western blot analysis of urine showed the presence of heavy and light chains of immunoglobulin, transferrin, albumin, vitamin D-binding protein, transthyretin and retinol-binding protein (RBP), but no excretion of Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP). Histopathological examinations of the kidneys revealed severe membranous glomerulonephritis accompanied by tubular dilatation, tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. The renal expression of megalin, the main endocytic receptor for the re-uptake of proteins in proximal tubules, RBP and THP was reduced or completely absent, indicating severe tubular dysfunction. The identified urinary proteins may be of interest as additional markers for the diagnosis of juvenile nephropathy in Bernese mountain dogs.

  15. Glycerol administration before endurance exercise: metabolism, urinary glycerol excretion and effects on doping-relevant blood parameters.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Karsten; Braun, Hans; de Marees, Markus; Geyer, Hans; Thevis, Mario; Mester, Joachim; Schaenzer, Wilhelm

    2014-03-01

    Glycerol is prohibited as a masking agent by the World Anti-Doping Agency and a urinary threshold has recently been recommended. However, little is known about urinary glycerol excretion after exercise, when (1) exogenous glycerol is metabolized increasingly and (2) endogenous glycerol levels are elevated. The purpose of the placebo-controlled cross-over study was to determine the effects of pre-exercise glycerol administration on glycerol metabolism, urinary excretion, and selected blood parameters. After administration of glycerol (G; 1.0 g/kg body weight (BW) + 25 ml fluid/kg BW) or placebo (P; 25 ml fluid/kg), 14 cyclists exercised 90 min at 60% VO2max . Samples were taken at 0 h (before administration), 2.5 h (before exercise), 4 h (after exercise) and 6.5 h and additional urine samples were collected until 24 h. Exercise increased endogenous plasma glycerol (0.51 ± 0.21 mmol/l) but peak concentrations were much higher in G (2.5 h: 15.6 ± 7.8 mmol/l). Urinary glycerol increased rapidly (58,428 ± 71,084 µg/ml after 2.5 h) and was significantly higher than in P until 13.6 ± 0.9 h (p < 0.01). In comparison with placebo administration, G caused significantly greater changes in plasma volume and haemoglobin concentrations after 2.5 h. BW and urine production were significantly different between P and G after 2.5 h and post-exercise. Despite exercise-induced increases in endogenous glycerol in the control group, urinary excretion remained well below the previously recommended threshold. In addition, exercise-related glycerol degradation did not appear to negatively affect the detection of exogenously administered glycerol.

  16. Quantitation of urinary 3-methylhistidine excretion in growing dogs as an index of in vivo skeletal muscle catabolism.

    PubMed

    Hill, A S.; Marks, S L.; Rogers, Q R.

    2001-06-01

    Purpose: To quantitate urinary 3-methylhistidine (3-mh) excretion as an index of in vivo muscle catabolism in dogs fed diets containing either normal or high protein levels.Methods: Twelve male, 5-month-old Beagle dogs were housed individually in metabolism cages and fed a non-meat, purified diet. They were divided into two diet groups of six dogs each, receiving 22.6% (NP) or 41.1% (HP) DM crude protein, respectively. Three dogs from each group received an intravenous injection of 385 +/- 29 kBq [14C] 3-mh. HCl. Urine and feces were collected daily until radioactivity returned to background levels (17 days). Urinary 3-mh was measured using an amino acid analyzer and percentage of bound 3-mh was estimated via acid hydrolysis.Results: Results are reported as means +/- SEM. 3-mh recovery in urine and feces of dogs were 263 +/- 28 kBq and 50.7 +/- 2.2 kBq and 327 +/- 45 kBq and 25.9 +/- 25.9 kBq for the NP and HP groups, respectively. The total cumulative 3-mh recoveries for the NP and HP groups were 81.8% +/- 2.8 and 91.4% +/- 2.7, respectively. Bound 3-mh accounted for 2.1 to 4.8% of urinary 14C-3-mh.Conclusions: Growing Beagle dogs excrete a higher percentage of 3-mh in feces (13.5% vs. 6.7%) when consuming the NP versus the HP diet. It appears that some of the 14C was lost in CO(2) and/or re-circulated in the body, as reported for sheep and pigs. We conclude that urinary 3-mh does not appear to be a quantitative index of in vivo muscle catabolism in growing dogs.

  17. Airborne arsenic and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites during boiler cleaning operations in a Slovak coal-fired power plant.

    PubMed Central

    Yager, J W; Hicks, J B; Fabianova, E

    1997-01-01

    Little information is available on the relationship between occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic in coal fly ash and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites. This study ws undertaken in a coal-fired power plant in Slovakia during a routine maintenance outage. Arsenic was measured in the breathing zone of workers during 5 consecutive workdays, and urine samples were obtained for analysis of arsenic metabolites--inorganic arsenic (Asi), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA)--prior to the start of each shift. Results from a small number of cascade impactor air samples indicated that approximately 90% of total particle mass and arsenic was present in particle size fractions >/= 3.5 micron. The 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) mean arsenic air concentration was 48.3 microg/m3 (range 0.17-375.2) and the mean sum of urinary arsenic (SigmaAs) metabolites was 16.9 microg As/g creatinine (range 2.6-50.8). For an 8-hr TWA of 10 microg/m3 arsenic from coal fly ash, the predicted mean concentration of the SigmaAs urinary metabolites was 13.2 microg As/G creatinine [95% confidence interval (CI), 10.1-16.3). Comparisons with previously published studies of exposure to arsenic trioxide vapors and dusts in copper smelters suggest that bioavailability of arsenic from airborne coal fly ash (as indicated by urinary excretion) is about one-third that seen in smelters and similar settings. Arsenic compound characteristics, matrix composition, and particle size distribution probably play major roles in determining actual uptake of airborne arsenic. Images Figure 1. A Figure 1. B Figure 2. PMID:9347899

  18. Airborne arsenic and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites during boiler cleaning operations in a Slovak coal-fired power plant.

    PubMed

    Yager, J W; Hicks, J B; Fabianova, E

    1997-08-01

    Little information is available on the relationship between occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic in coal fly ash and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites. This study ws undertaken in a coal-fired power plant in Slovakia during a routine maintenance outage. Arsenic was measured in the breathing zone of workers during 5 consecutive workdays, and urine samples were obtained for analysis of arsenic metabolites--inorganic arsenic (Asi), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA)--prior to the start of each shift. Results from a small number of cascade impactor air samples indicated that approximately 90% of total particle mass and arsenic was present in particle size fractions >/= 3.5 micron. The 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) mean arsenic air concentration was 48.3 microg/m3 (range 0.17-375.2) and the mean sum of urinary arsenic (SigmaAs) metabolites was 16.9 microg As/g creatinine (range 2.6-50.8). For an 8-hr TWA of 10 microg/m3 arsenic from coal fly ash, the predicted mean concentration of the SigmaAs urinary metabolites was 13.2 microg As/G creatinine [95% confidence interval (CI), 10.1-16.3). Comparisons with previously published studies of exposure to arsenic trioxide vapors and dusts in copper smelters suggest that bioavailability of arsenic from airborne coal fly ash (as indicated by urinary excretion) is about one-third that seen in smelters and similar settings. Arsenic compound characteristics, matrix composition, and particle size distribution probably play major roles in determining actual uptake of airborne arsenic.

  19. Lebanese children are iodine deficient and urinary sodium and fluoride excretion are weak positive predictors of urinary iodine.

    PubMed

    Ghattas, Hala; Francis, Sirine; El Mallah, Carla; Shatila, Dareen; Merhi, Karina; Hlais, Sani; Zimmermann, Michael; Obeid, Omar

    2017-03-01

    To assess iodine and fluoride status among Lebanese children. A nationally representative cross-sectional study of 6- to 10-year-old schoolchildren was conducted using multistage cluster sampling. Spot urine samples were collected from 1403 children, and urinary iodine, fluoride, creatinine and sodium levels were measured. Salt samples from markets (n = 30) were tested for iodine concentration by titration. Median urinary iodine concentration was 66.0 µg/l, indicating mild deficiency, and almost 75 % of Lebanese children had a urinary iodine concentration (UIC) <100 µg/l. UIC was higher among children from private schools and in areas of higher socioeconomic status. Most salt samples were fortified at levels far below the legislated requirement, and 56 % of samples contained less than 15 ppm iodine. Fluoride-to-creatinine ratio (F/Cr) was 0.250 (0.159-0.448) mg/g. There were weak positive correlations between UIC and urinary sodium (r (2) = 0.039, P value <0.001) and UIC and urinary fluoride (r (2) = 0.009, P value <0.001). Lebanese elementary school children are iodine deficient due to inadequately iodized salt. The weak correlation between UIC and urinary sodium suggests most dietary iodine does not come from iodized salt. The poor correlation between UIC and urinary fluoride suggests that fluoride intake is not affecting iodine metabolism. Efforts are needed in Lebanon to improve industry compliance with salt fortification through improved monitoring and enforcement of legislation.

  20. Urinary excretion of cyclic nucleotides, creatinine prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane B2 from mice exposed to whole-body irradiation from an enhanced neutron field

    SciTech Connect

    Steel, L.K.; Rafferty, M.A.; Wolfe, W.W.; Egan, J.E.; Kennedy, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Urine volume and excretion of cyclic AMP, cyclic GMP, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), thromboxane B2 (TxB2) and creatinine were evaluated as potential indicators of radiation damage in mice given 2-5 Gy to the whole body from an enhanced neutron field. In general, urinary cyclic AMP, cyclic GMP, creatinine and urine volumes were positively correlated across time postexposure, for each radiation dose. TxB2 levels positively correlated with urine volume and cyclic AMP excretion only in animals given 2.0Gy. None of these parameters suggests their use as a prognostic indicator of the extent of radiation damage. Urinary excretion of PGE2 was negatively correlated with other urinary parameters. Biphasic increases in urinary PGE2 were also observed. The initial transient elevation 2-3 days postexposure was not correlated with the dose (2-5 Gy). The second elevation of PGE2 excretion occurred at 6-10 days. The magnitude of the latter increase suggests that urinary PGE2 excretion may be a useful indicator of whole-body or kidney exposure to neutron fields.

  1. Technical Basis Document: A Statistical Basis for Interpreting Urinary Excretion of Plutonium Based on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) for Selected Atoll Populations in the Marshall Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Bogen, K; Hamilton, T F; Brown, T A; Martinelli, R E; Marchetti, A A; Kehl, S R; Langston, R G

    2007-05-01

    We have developed refined statistical and modeling techniques to assess low-level uptake and urinary excretion of plutonium from different population group in the northern Marshall Islands. Urinary excretion rates of plutonium from the resident population on Enewetak Atoll and from resettlement workers living on Rongelap Atoll range from <1 to 8 {micro}Bq per day and are well below action levels established under the latest Department regulation 10 CFR 835 in the United States for in vitro bioassay monitoring of {sup 239}Pu. However, our statistical analyses show that urinary excretion of plutonium-239 ({sup 239}Pu) from both cohort groups is significantly positively associated with volunteer age, especially for the resident population living on Enewetak Atoll. Urinary excretion of {sup 239}Pu from the Enewetak cohort was also found to be positively associated with estimates of cumulative exposure to worldwide fallout. Consequently, the age-related trends in urinary excretion of plutonium from Marshallese populations can be described by either a long-term component from residual systemic burdens acquired from previous exposures to worldwide fallout or a prompt (and eventual long-term) component acquired from low-level systemic intakes of plutonium associated with resettlement of the northern Marshall Islands, or some combination of both.

  2. Urinary excretions of 34 dietary polyphenols and their associations with lifestyle factors in the EPIC cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Achaintre, David; Rothwell, Joseph A.; Rinaldi, Sabina; Assi, Nada; Ferrari, Pietro; Leitzmann, Michael; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Auffret, Aurélie; Kühn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Vasilopoulou, Effie; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Slimani, Nadia; Romieu, Isabelle; Scalbert, Augustin

    2016-01-01

    Urinary excretion of 34 dietary polyphenols and their variations according to diet and other lifestyle factors were measured by tandem mass spectrometry in 475 adult participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cross-sectional study. A single 24-hour urine sample was analysed for each subject from 4 European countries. The highest median levels were observed for phenolic acids such as 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (157 μmol/24 h), followed by 3-hydroxyphenylacetic, ferulic, vanillic and homovanillic acids (20–50 μmol/24 h). The lowest concentrations were observed for equol, apigenin and resveratrol (<0.1 μmol/24 h). Urinary polyphenols significantly varied by centre, followed by alcohol intake, sex, educational level, and energy intake. This variability is largely explained by geographical variations in the diet, as suggested by the high correlations (r > 0.5) observed between urinary polyphenols and the intake of their main food sources (e.g., resveratrol and gallic acid ethyl ester with red wine intake; caffeic, protocatechuic and ferulic acids with coffee consumption; and hesperetin and naringenin with citrus fruit intake). The large variations in urinary polyphenols observed are largely determined by food preferences. These polyphenol biomarkers should allow more accurate evaluation of the relationships between polyphenol exposure and the risk of chronic diseases in large epidemiological studies. PMID:27273479

  3. Additional short-term plutonium urinary excretion data from the 1945-1947 plutonium injection studies

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, W.D.; Gautier, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The amount of plutonium excreted per day following intravenous injection was shown to be significantly higher than predicted by the Langham power function model. Each of the Los Alamos National Laboratory notebooks used to record the original analytical data was studied for details that could influence the findings. It was discovered there were additional urine excretion data for case HP-3. This report presents the additional data, as well as data on case HP-6. (ACR)

  4. INCREASED LEVELS OF MEDIAN URINARY IODINE EXCRETION OF PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN THE SUBURBAN AREA, KHON KAEN, THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Apirajkamol, Nahatai; Panamonta, Ouyporn; Panamonta, Manat

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) is associated with a low IQ in children and is an important public health problem in northeastern Thailand. Despite campaigns to reduce IDD in northeastern Thailand, studies showed people in this region continue to have the lowest median urinary iodine (UI) excretion and Intelligence Quotient scores. We conducted a cross sectional study of median urinary iodine excretion among primary school children in suburban Khon Kaen Province, in northeastern Thailand, during December 2012 to evaluate the current status of IDD in this population. We studied 377 school children. Urine samples were collected and measured for UI using a simple microplate method. The median UI level was 229.0 μg/l (range 15.0-1,124.1). Forty school children (10.6%) had UI levels less than 100 μg/l and 10 children (2.7%) had UI levels less than 50 μg/l. One hundred nine children (28.9%) had UI levels greater than 300 μg/l. Our study shows that there are still children in the study population and study area with inadequate UI levels. Programs to prevent IDD need to include this population in this area.

  5. Urinary excretion of the acrylonitrile metabolite 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid is correlated with a variety of biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure and consumption

    PubMed Central

    Minet, Emmanuel; Cheung, Francis; Errington, Graham; Sterz, Katharina; Scherer, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Acrylonitrile is an IARC class 2B carcinogen present in cigarette smoke. Urinary 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid (CEMA) is an acrylonitrile metabolite and a potential biomarker for acrylonitrile exposure. The objective of this work was to study the dose response of CEMA in urine of non-smokers and smokers of different ISO tar yield cigarettes. We observed that smokers excreted >100-fold higher amounts of urinary CEMA than non-smokers. The CEMA levels in smokers were significantly correlated with ISO tar yield, daily cigarette consumption, and urinary biomarkers of smoke exposure. In conclusion, urinary CEMA is a suitable biomarker for assessing smoking-related exposure to acrylonitrile. PMID:21108560

  6. Urinary excretion of the acrylonitrile metabolite 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid is correlated with a variety of biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure and consumption.

    PubMed

    Minet, Emmanuel; Cheung, Francis; Errington, Graham; Sterz, Katharina; Scherer, Gerhard

    2011-02-01

    Acrylonitrile is an IARC class 2B carcinogen present in cigarette smoke. Urinary 2-cyanoethylmercapturic acid (CEMA) is an acrylonitrile metabolite and a potential biomarker for acrylonitrile exposure. The objective of this work was to study the dose response of CEMA in urine of non-smokers and smokers of different ISO tar yield cigarettes. We observed that smokers excreted >100-fold higher amounts of urinary CEMA than non-smokers. The CEMA levels in smokers were significantly correlated with ISO tar yield, daily cigarette consumption, and urinary biomarkers of smoke exposure. In conclusion, urinary CEMA is a suitable biomarker for assessing smoking-related exposure to acrylonitrile.

  7. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coal liquefaction workers: impact of a workwear policy on excretion of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene.

    PubMed Central

    Quinlan, R; Kowalczyk, G; Gardiner, K; Calvert, I

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--This study was undertaken to assess whether contaminated personal clothing worn beneath a coverall (normal workwear) is a source of potentially significant dermal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coal liquefaction workers. METHODS--An intervention study was conducted over a two week period involving 10 workers that reflected the range of activities performed at the factory. A cross over design was used to examine the influence of normal workwear (personal clothing worn beneath a coverall) and intervention workwear (new coverall, shirt, trousers, underwear, socks, and boots) upon excretion of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) and skin pad deposition of pyrene. RESULTS--The impact of intervention was noted in three ways: (1) A notable reduction (55%) in the mass of 1-OHP excreted on the first day of the intervention phase was found. The median reduction in mass excreted (22.7 nmol) was significant from zero at the 5% level; (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 9.5-40.8 nmol). (2) A notable reduction (82%) in skin pad deposition of pyrene on the first day of the intervention phase was found. The median reduction of 13.20 ng.cm-2 was significant from zero at the 5% level; (95% CI 7.3-26.4 ng.cm-2). (3) About a 50% reduction in 1-OHP concentration over the working week occurred during the intervention phase; an increase of 2.07 mumol/mol creatinine was found from the start to the end of the work period during the intervention phase compared with an increase of 4.06 mumol/mol creatinine during the normal phase. This reduction was not significant at the 5% level. CONCLUSION--The results indicate that on the first day of the working week investigated, significant reductions in absorbtion (as measured by excretion of urinary 1-OHP) and deposition of PAHs (as measured by skin pad deposition of pyrene) can be effected by improvements in workwear policy. The impact of the improved workwear regimen was also detected by reduction in spot urinary 1-OHP

  8. Fluoride intake from fluids and urinary fluoride excretion by young children in Kuwait: a non-fluoridated community.

    PubMed

    Akpata, Enosakhare S; Behbehani, Jawad; Akbar, Jaber; Thalib, Lukman; Mojiminiyi, Olusegun

    2014-06-01

    To determine the pattern of fluid consumption, fluoride intake from the fluids and urinary fluoride excretion by children aged 1-9 years in Kuwait, a nonfluoridated community. Using the cluster sampling technique, children aged 1-9 years were chosen from 2000 randomly selected households in Kuwait. Questionnaires were then administered to their mothers to determine the children's daily fluid intake. Fluoride concentrations in tap water as well as all brands of bottled water and beverages consumed by the children were measured, using the fluoride ion-specific electrode. Fluoride excretion was determined in 400 randomly selected children, based on fluoride/creatinine ratio. The mean daily fluid consumption by the children was high, being 1115-1545 ml. About 40% of the fluid intake was plain (tap and bottled) water and approximately 10% of the children drank bottled water exclusively. Fluoride concentration in tap water was low (0.04±SD 0.02 ppm), but was higher in bottled water (0.28±SD 0.40 ppm). Mean daily fluoride ingestion from fluids was 0.013-0.018 mg/kg body weight (bw). Even after allowing for fluoride ingestion from other sources, mean daily fluoride ingestion was still below 0.1 mg/kg bw set by the United States of America Institute of Medicine as the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level for moderate enamel fluorosis in children aged up to 8 years. Furthermore, the mean daily urinary fluoride excretion of 128-220 μg was below the provisional standard of 360-480 μg for optimal fluoride usage by children aged 3-5 years. Fluoride ingestion from fluids and urinary fluoride excretion by the children were below the recommendations for optimal fluoride usage. Thus, there is room for an upward adjustment of fluoride level in public drinking water supplies in Kuwait, as a caries preventive measure. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Changes in urinary excretion of water and sodium transporters during amiloride and bendroflumethiazide treatment.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Janni M; Mose, Frank H; Kulik, Anna-Ewa O; Bech, Jesper N; Fenton, Robert A; Pedersen, Erling B

    2015-07-06

    To quantify changes in urinary excretion of aquaporin2 water channels (u-AQP2), the sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter (u-NKCC2) and the epithelial sodium channels (u-ENaC) during treatment with bendroflumethiazide (BFTZ), amiloride and placebo. In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, 3-way crossover study we examined 23 healthy subjects on a standardized diet and fluid intake. The subjects were treated with amiloride 5 mg, BFTZ 1.25 mg or placebo twice a day for 4.5 d before each examination day. On the examination day, glomerular filtration rate was measured by the constant infusion clearance technique with (51)Cr-EDTA as reference substance. To estimate the changes in water transport via AQP2 and sodium transport via NKCC2 and ENaC, u-NKCC2, the gamma fraction of ENaC (u-ENaCγ), and u-AQP2 were measured at baseline and after infusion with 3% hypertonic saline. U-NKCC2, u-ENaCγ, u-AQP2 and plasma concentrations of vasopressin (p-AVP), renin (PRC), angiotensin II (p-ANG II) and aldosterone (p-Aldo) were measured, by radioimmunoassay. Central blood pressure was estimated by applanation tonometry and body fluid volumes were estimated by bio-impedance spectroscopy. General linear model with repeated measures or related samples Friedman's two-way analysis was used to compare differences. Post hoc Bonferroni correction was used for multiple comparisons of post infusion periods to baseline within each treatment group. At baseline there were no differences in u-NKCC2, u-ENaCγ and u-AQP2. PRC, p-Ang II and p-Aldo were increased during active treatments (P < 0.001). After hypertonic saline, u-NKCC2 increased during amiloride (6% ± 34%; P = 0.081) and increased significantly during placebo (17% ± 24%; P = 0.010). U-AQP2 increased significantly during amiloride (31% ± 22%; P < 0.001) and placebo (34% ± 27%; P < 0.001), while u-NKCC2 and u-AQP2 did not change significantly during BFTZ (-7% ± 28%; P = 0.257 and 5% ± 16%; P = 0.261). U- ENa

  10. Metabolic effects of D-psicose in rats: studies on faecal and urinary excretion and caecal fermentation.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Tatsuhiro; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Hashiguchi, Mineo; Izumori, Ken; Suzuki, Hiroo

    2003-01-01

    D-psicose (D -ribo-2-hexulose), a C-3 epimer of D-fructose, is one of the "rare sugars" present in small quantities in commercial carbohydrate complex or agricultural products. We investigated the absorption and excretion of D-psicose when orally administrated (5g/kg body weight) to Wistar rats, and the fermentation of D-psicose was measured as caecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) when fed to rats in controlled diets (0, 10, 20 and 30%). Urinary and faecal excretions of D-psicose over the 24 h, following a single oral administration, were 11-15% of dosage for the former and 8-13% of dosage for the latter. Serum D-psicose concentration and D-psicose in the contents of stomach and small intestines decreased progressively after administration. D-psicose in caecum contents was detected after 3h and 7h administration, but not after 1h. Rats fed on D-psicose diets showed short-chain fatty acid production with caecal hypertrophy. These results suggest that D-psicose is partly absorbable in the digestive tract and is excreted into urine and faeces. As with other poorly absorbed dietary carbohydrates, D-psicose is fermented in the caecum by intestinal microflora.

  11. Urinary excretion of the main anthocyanin in lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), cyanidin 3-O-galactoside, and its metabolites.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Henna-Maria; Rantala, Milla; Suomela, Jukka-Pekka; Viitanen, Matti; Kallio, Heikki

    2009-05-27

    In vitro trials have indicated various potential health effects of lingonberries ( Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.). Most of these studies have been performed with berry extract or juice, and the detailed chemical structures of active compounds in these products have not been elucidated. Lingonberry contains cyanidin-3-galactoside as its main anthocyanin. Absorption and metabolism of the compound is not fully understood, and no studies of anthocyanin metabolism have been performed with lingonberries. The aim of this study was to investigate the urinary excretion of cyanidin-3-galactoside and its metabolites in young and healthy subjects receiving a breakfast containing 300 g of lingonberries. A fast, selective, and sensitive ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (uHPLC-MS/MS) method was optimized for the analysis of the anthocyanin metabolites in urine. Both intact cyanidin-3-galactoside and its methylated and glucuronidated metabolites were identified from urine samples. The two metabolites represented >50% of cyanidin excreted in urine. Maximal excretion appeared between 4 and 8 h after the meal. Also, the compounds were absorbed more slowly than reported previously in several studies.

  12. Urinary protein excretion profile: A contribution for subclinical renal damage identification among environmental heavy metals exposure in Southeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garlipp, C. R.; Bottini, P. V.; de Capitan, E. M.; Pinho, M. C.; Panzan, A. D. N.; Sakuma, A. M. A.; Paoliello, M. B.

    2003-05-01

    In Southeast Brazil. Ribeira Valley region has been a major public health concern due to he environmental heavy metals contamination indexes of vegetation, rocks and aquifers, caused by locai mining in the past. Human contamination low levels of heavy rnetals doesn't cause acute intoxication but ni chronic exposure, renal damage may occur with progressive tubuJointerstitial changes evolvil1g to glomemlar 1esiol1, ln this stndy we invesligated the relationship between thc profile of utillan, excreted proteins (glomerular or lubular origin) of arsenic and mercury and blood lead concentration in chiJdren and adults from highly e) qJosed regions of the Ribeira Valley. The subjects were classieed as GROUP 1 (GI; higher environmental risk n=333) and GROUP 2 (G2; lower risk of contamination. n=104). In order to determine the urinary excretion of total protein, albumin (MA, glomerular marker) and alpha i microglobulin (AIM, tubular marker) and the blood lead concentrations. random wine and blood samples were obtaiiied. Plasmatic lead levels were assessed by atomic absorption spectrometty with graphite fumace. Totai protein concentration (PROT) was assessed on a biochemical analyzer ,progallol red method). MA and AIM were determined by nephelometric method. Croup 1 showcd a higher frequency of altered urinary excretion of PROT (GI=3.4%; G2=1.0%), MA (Gl=9.0%; G2=5.1%) and AIM (Gt=7.5%, G2=3.8%), without significant differences between both groups. Elevated arscnic levels were more prevaient among subjects from Group 1 (2.8.8%) and demonstrated a significant corrolation with abiiormal iirinarv excretion of ilbumin and alpha-l-micrglobulin (p=0.019).Leadaand mercury levels showed no difference among the groups and no correlation will MAa and/or M. Oti-c dala suggests that abnormal itrinary protein excretion is relatively frequent in this population independently of the plasmatic or urinaryl heavy metal levels. The early detection of possible renal damage become necessary for

  13. Urinary excretion and bactericidal activities of gemifloxacin and ofloxacin after a single oral dose in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Naber, C K; Hammer, M; Kinzig-Schippers, M; Sauber, C; Sörgel, F; Bygate, E A; Fairless, A J; Machka, K; Naber, K G

    2001-12-01

    In a randomized crossover study, 16 volunteers (8 men, 8 women) received single oral doses of 320 mg of gemifloxacin and 400 mg of ofloxacin on two separate occasions in the fasting state to assess the urinary excretion and urinary bactericidal titers (UBTs) at intervals for up to 144 h. Ofloxacin showed higher concentrations in urine compared with those of gemifloxacin. The median (range) cumulative excretion of gemifloxacin was 29.7% (8.4 to 48.7%) of the parent drug administered, and median (range) cumulative excretion of ofloxacin was 84.3% (46.5 to 95.2%) of the parent drug administered. The UBTs, i.e., the highest twofold dilutions (with antibiotic-free urine as the diluent) of urine that were still bactericidal, were determined for a reference strain and nine uropathogens for which the MICs of gemifloxacin and ofloxacin were as follows: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, 0.016 and 0.06 microg/ml, respectively; Klebsiella pneumoniae, 0.03 and 0.06 microg/ml, respectively; Proteus mirabilis, 0.125 and 0.125 microg/ml, respectively; Escherichia coli, 0.06 and 0.5 microg/ml, respectively; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 1 and 4 microg/ml, respectively; Staphylococcus aureus, 0.008 and 0.25 microg/ml, respectively; Enterococcus faecalis, 0.06 and 2 microg/ml, respectively; Staphylococcus aureus, 0.25 and 4 microg/ml, respectively; Enterococcus faecalis, 0.5 and 32 microg/ml, respectively; and Staphylococcus aureus, 2 and 32 microg/ml, respectively. Generally, the UBTs for gram-positive uropathogens were higher for gemifloxacin than for ofloxacin and the UBTs for gram-negative uropathogens were higher for ofloxacin than for gemifloxacin. According to the UBTs, ofloxacin-resistant uropathogens (MICs, >or=4 mg/liter) should also be considered gemifloxacin resistant. Although clinical trials have shown that gemifloxacin is effective for the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections, whether an oral dosage of 320 mg of gemifloxacin once daily is also adequate for the

  14. Urinary Excretion and Bactericidal Activities of Gemifloxacin and Ofloxacin after a Single Oral Dose in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Naber, Christoph K.; Hammer, Michaela; Kinzig-Schippers, Martina; Sauber, Christian; Sörgel, Fritz; Bygate, Elizabeth A.; Fairless, Amanda J.; Machka, Konstanze; Naber, Kurt G.

    2001-01-01

    In a randomized crossover study, 16 volunteers (8 men, 8 women) received single oral doses of 320 mg of gemifloxacin and 400 mg of ofloxacin on two separate occasions in the fasting state to assess the urinary excretion and urinary bactericidal titers (UBTs) at intervals for up to 144 h. Ofloxacin showed higher concentrations in urine compared with those of gemifloxacin. The median (range) cumulative excretion of gemifloxacin was 29.7% (8.4 to 48.7%) of the parent drug administered, and median (range) cumulative excretion of ofloxacin was 84.3% (46.5 to 95.2%) of the parent drug administered. The UBTs, i.e., the highest twofold dilutions (with antibiotic-free urine as the diluent) of urine that were still bactericidal, were determined for a reference strain and nine uropathogens for which the MICs of gemifloxacin and ofloxacin were as follows: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, 0.016 and 0.06 μg/ml, respectively; Klebsiella pneumoniae, 0.03 and 0.06 μg/ml, respectively; Proteus mirabilis, 0.125 and 0.125 μg/ml, respectively; Escherichia coli, 0.06 and 0.5 μg/ml, respectively; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 1 and 4 μg/ml, respectively; Staphylococcus aureus, 0.008 and 0.25 μg/ml, respectively; Enterococcus faecalis, 0.06 and 2 μg/ml, respectively; Staphylococcus aureus, 0.25 and 4 μg/ml, respectively; Enterococcus faecalis, 0.5 and 32 μg/ml, respectively; and Staphylococcus aureus, 2 and 32 μg/ml, respectively. Generally, the UBTs for gram-positive uropathogens were higher for gemifloxacin than for ofloxacin and the UBTs for gram-negative uropathogens were higher for ofloxacin than for gemifloxacin. According to the UBTs, ofloxacin-resistant uropathogens (MICs, ≥4 mg/liter) should also be considered gemifloxacin resistant. Although clinical trials have shown that gemifloxacin is effective for the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections, whether an oral dosage of 320 mg of gemifloxacin once daily is also adequate for the treatment of complicated urinary

  15. Temporal variability in urinary excretion of bisphenol A and seven other phenols in spot, morning, and 24-h urine samples.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Tina Harmer; Frederiksen, Hanne; Jensen, Tina Kold; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Main, Katharina M; Skakkebæk, Niels E; Jørgensen, Niels; Kranich, Selma Kløve; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2013-10-01

    Human exposure to modern non-persistent chemicals is difficult to ascertain in epidemiological studies as exposure patterns and excretion rates may show temporal and diurnal variations. The aim of this study was to assess the temporal variability in repeated measurements of urinary excretion of bisphenol A (BPA) and seven other phenols. All analytes were determined using TurboFlow-LC-MS/MS. Two spot, three first morning and three 24-h urine samples were collected from 33 young Danish men over a three months period. Temporal variability was estimated by means of intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). More than 70% of the urine samples had detectable levels of BPA, triclosan (TCS), benzophenone-3 (BP-3) and sum of 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,5-dichlorophenol (ΣDCP). We found low to moderate ICCs for BPA (0.10-0.42) and ΣDCP (0.39-0.72), whereas the ICCs for BP-3 (0.69-0.80) and TCS (0.55-0.90) were higher. The ICCs were highest for the two spot urine samples, which were collected approximately 4 days apart, compared with the 24-h urine samples and the first morning urine samples, which were collected approximately 40 days apart. A consequence of the considerable variability in urinary excretion of BPA may be misclassification of individual BPA exposure level in epidemiological studies, which may lead to attenuation of the association between BPA and outcomes. Our data do not support that collection of 24-h samples will improve individual exposure assessment for any of the analysed phenols.

  16. Effect of high dietary sodium on bone turnover markers and urinary calcium excretion in Korean postmenopausal women with low bone mass.

    PubMed

    Park, S M; Joung, J Y; Cho, Y Y; Sohn, S Y; Hur, K Y; Kim, J H; Kim, S W; Chung, J H; Lee, M K; Min, Y-K

    2015-03-01

    High salt intake is a well-recognized risk factor of osteoporosis for its modulating effect on calcium metabolism. To understand the effect of dietary sodium on bone turnover, we evaluated the association between urinary sodium excretion and bone turnover markers in Korean postmenopausal women with low bone mass. A retrospective review of medical records at a single institution identified 537 postmenopausal women who were first diagnosed with osteopenia or osteoporosis between 2008 and 2013. Subjects were stratified by low (<2 g/day, n=77), moderate (2-4.4 g/day, n=354) and high (⩾4.4 g/day, n=106) sodium excretion. A 24-h urine was collected to estimate sodium, calcium and creatinine. Bone turnover markers and calciotropic hormones were measured in serum. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Sodium intake was positively associated with urinary sodium excretion (P=0.006, r=0.29). Bone turnover markers were significantly higher in the moderate-to-high urinary sodium excretion group (⩾2 g/day) than in the low urinary sodium excretion group (<2 g/day); CTX-I (C-telopeptides of type I collagen) was 21.3% higher (P=0.001) and osteocalcin (OC) was 15.7% higher (P=0.004). Calciotropic hormones and BMD were not significantly different across the sodium excretion groups. High urinary sodium excretion (⩾2 g/day) increased bone turnover markers in Korean postmenopausal women, suggesting that excessive sodium intake might accelerate bone turnover.

  17. Estimation of salt intake assessed by urinary excretion of sodium over 24 h in Spanish subjects aged 7-11 years.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, A; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, E; Cuadrado-Soto, E; Navia, B; López-Sobaler, A M; Ortega, R M

    2017-02-01

    High intake of salt is associated with early development of cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity). In "developed" countries, individuals frequently exceed dietary recommendations for salt intake. Taking into account the limited data on sodium intake by 24-h excretion in urine in schoolchildren, we wished to determine baseline salt intake in Spanish subjects aged 7-11 years. The present study was an observational study involving 205 schoolchildren (109 boys and 96 girls) selected from various Spanish provinces. Sodium intake was ascertained by measuring sodium excretion in urine over 24 h. Creatinine was used to validate completeness of urine collections. The correlation between fat-free mass determined by anthropometry and that determined via urinary excretion of creatinine was calculated (r = 0.651; p < 0.001). Mean 24-h urinary excretion of sodium was 132.7 ± 51.4 mmol/24 h (salt equivalent: 7.8 ± 3.1 g/day). Hence, 84.5 % of subjects aged ≤10 years had intakes of >4 g salt/day, and 66.7 % of those aged >10 years had intakes of >5 g salt/day. Urinary excretion of sodium was correlated with systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.1574 and r = 0.1400, respectively). Logistic regression analyses, adjusted by sex, showed that a high body mass index (odds ratio = 1.159; 95 % CI 1.041-1.290; p < 0.05) was associated with an increased likelihood of high urinary excretion of sodium. Sodium intake, as estimated by 24-h urinary excretion, was (on average) higher than recommended. Reducing the sodium content children's diet is a sound policy to reduce cardiovascular risk.

  18. Urinary uromodulin excretion predicts progression of chronic kidney disease resulting from IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jingjing; Chen, Yuqing; Liu, Ying; Shi, Sufang; Wang, Suxia; Li, Xueying; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    Uromodulin, or Tamm-Horsfall protein, is the most abundant urinary protein in healthy individuals. Recent studies have suggested that uromodulin may play a role in chronic kidney diseases. We examined an IgA nephropathy cohort to determine whether uromodulin plays a role in the progression of IgA nephropathy. A total of 344 IgA nephropathy patients were involved in this study. Morphological changes were evaluated with the Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) measured the urinary uromodulin level on the renal biopsy day. Follow up was done regularly on 185 patients. Time-average blood pressure, time-average proteinuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and eGFR decline rate were caculated. Association between the urinary uromodulin level and the eGFR decline rate was analyzed with SPSS 13.0. We found that lower baseline urinary uromodulin levels (P = 0.03) and higher time-average proteinuria (P = 0.04) were risk factors for rapid eGFR decline in a follow-up subgroup of the IgA nephropathy cohort. Urinary uromodulin level was correlated with tubulointerstitial lesions (P = 0.016). Patients that had more tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis on the surface had lower urinary uromodulin levels (P = 0.02). Urinary uromodulin level is associated with interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy and contributes to eGFR decline in IgA nephropathy.

  19. Impact of kidney function and urinary protein excretion on pulmonary function in Japanese patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Nakade, Yusuke; Toyama, Tadashi; Furuichi, Kengo; Kitajima, Shinji; Ohkura, Noriyuki; Sagara, Akihiro; Shinozaki, Yasuyuki; Hara, Akinori; Kitagawa, Kiyoki; Shimizu, Miho; Iwata, Yasunori; Oe, Hiroyasu; Nagahara, Mikio; Horita, Hiroshi; Sakai, Yoshio; Kaneko, Shuichi; Wada, Takashi

    2014-10-01

    Although the cardiorenal relationship in chronic kidney disease has been investigated, information about the lung-kidney relationship is limited. Here, we investigated the impact of kidney function and urinary protein excretion on pulmonary dysfunction. The data from pulmonary function tests and kidney function (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] and urinary protein) between 1 April 2005 and 30 June 2010 were selected from our laboratory database. Data were classified into 4 categories according to eGFR and proteinuria. Category 1, eGFR ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) and urinary protein <0.3 g/gCr; category 2, eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) and urinary protein <0.3 g/gCr; category 3, eGFR ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) and urinary protein ≥0.3 g/gCr; and category 4, eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) and urinary protein ≥0.3 g/gCr. Pulmonary function data were evaluated according to these 4 categories. A total of 133 participants without major respiratory disease, abnormal computed tomography and smoking history were enrolled. Hemoglobin (Hb)-adjusted percentage carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (%DLCO) in category 4 (46.2 ± 7.5) and category 2 (63.6 ± 17.8) were significantly lower than in category 1 (75.8 ± 18.9) (P < 0.05). In addition, Hb-adjusted %DLCO was weakly correlated with eGFR in participants with urinary protein <0.3 g/gCr (R = 0.30, P = 0.001). Hb-adjusted %DLCO was strongly correlated with eGFR in participants with urinary protein ≥0.3 g/gCr (R = 0.81, P < 0.001). Other pulmonary function test markers (percentage (%) vital capacity, % forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), FEV1/forced vital capacity, % total lung capacity, and % residual volume) were not significantly different between categories. This study suggests that decreased eGFR is associated with decreased %DLCO in proteinuric patients.

  20. Potassium urinary excretion and dietary intake: a cross-sectional analysis in 8-10 year-old children.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana Catarina; Padrão, Patrícia; Moreira, André; Pinto, Mariana; Neto, Mafalda; Santos, Tânia; Madureira, Joana; Fernandes, Eduardo de Oliveira; Graça, Pedro; Breda, João; Moreira, Pedro

    2015-05-17

    Data from studies assessing the intake of potassium, and the concomitant sodium-to-potassium ratio are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate potassium and sodium-to-potassium ratio intake in 8-10 year-old children. A cross-sectional survey was carried out from January to June 2014 and data from 163 children (81 boys) were included. Potassium intake was estimated by 24-h urine collection and coefficient of creatinine was used to validate completeness of urine collections. Urinary sodium and sodium-to-potassium ratio were also analysed. A 24-h dietary recall was used to provide information on dietary sources of potassium. Height and weight were measured according to international standards. The mean urinary potassium excretion was 1701 ± 594 mg/day in boys, and 1682 ± 541 mg/day in girls (p = 0.835); 8.0% of children met the WHO recommendations for potassium intake. The mean sodium excretion was 2935 ± 1075 mg/day in boys and 2381 ± 1045 mg/day in girls (p <0.001) and urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio was 3.2 ± 1.4 in boys, and 2.5 ± 1.1 in girls (p = 0.002). The mean fruit and vegetable intake was 353.1 ± 232.5 g/day in boys, and 290.8 ± 213.1 g/day in girls (p = 0.101). This study reported a low compliance of potassium intake recommendations in 8-10 year-old children. Health promotion interventions are needed in order to broaden public awareness of potassium inadequacy and to increase potassium intake.

  1. Intrauterine programming of urinary calcium and magnesium excretion in children born to mothers with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Mughal, M; Eelloo, J; Roberts, S; Sibartie, S; Maresh, M; Sibley, C; Adams, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Offspring of diabetic rats have reduced urinary calcium and magnesium excretion compared with offspring of controls; these differences persist up to16 weeks after birth, a time equivalent to young adulthood in humans. Objectives: To test the hypothesis that urinary calcium and magnesium excretion would be lower in children born to mothers with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (ChMIDDM) than those born to non-diabetic mothers. Methods: Concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, and creatinine were measured in first void spot urine samples collected from 45 (28 male; median age 9.6 years) ChMIDDM and 127 (58 male; median age 11.3 years) controls. Analysis of covariance was used to test for differences in urinary calcium to creatinine ratios (UCa/Cr), magnesium to creatinine ratios (UMg/Cr), and log sodium to creatinine ratios (logUNa/Cr) between controls and ChMIDDM after allowing for the effects of sex and age. Results: UCa/Cr (difference –0.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) –0.19 to –0.01; p = 0.03) and UMg/Cr (difference –0.15, 95% CI –0.22 to –0.08; p<0.0001) were lower in ChMIDDM than controls. However, logUNa/Cr did not differ between ChMIDDM and controls (difference –0.14, 95% CI –0.33 to 0.05; p = 0.1). The daily estimated intake of magnesium, sodium, and protein were significantly higher and that of calcium non-significantly higher in ChMIDDM than controls. In ChMIDDM, UCa/Cr and UMg/Cr were not related to diabetic control of mothers. Conclusions: Results of this study provide the first evidence that in humans, as in rats, there is modification of renal Ca and Mg handling in ChMIDDM, which persists well into childhood. PMID:16036891

  2. Effects of skin pressure from compression legwear on resting salivary cortisol and urinary catecholamines excretion in women.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rong; Kwok, Yi Lin; Lao, Terence Tzu Hsi

    2012-01-01

    The benefits of compression legwear (CL) have been demonstrated in the improvement of vascular function and venous return of the lower extremities, but their effect on autonomic nervous system (ANS) activities and human stress response remain controversial. To investigate the possible effects of CLs on ANS activities and in inducing stress on the human body. Resting salivary cortisol and urinary catecholamine (adrenaline and noradrenaline) excretions were examined in 12 healthy women. The effects of different skin pressure levels exerted by CL were studied by conducting a 4-hour prolonged standing and sitting wear trial with intermittent sampling of the aforementioned biochemical parameters. No statistically significant differences in resting salivary cortisol and urinary catecholamines were found between control and different clothing pressure conditions (light, mild, moderate, and strong), although the secretion of salivary cortisol (SSC) showed a significant decrease during the 180 minutes of the testing period that was maintained up to 10 minutes after the CL was removed for the studied pressure conditions. Urinary excretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline decreased with increasing pressure levels and was lower in response to higher clothing pressure when tested in the afternoon. Constant pressure exerted by CL did not cause any stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. The prolonged wearing of CL while standing or sitting did not induce any stress on the human body, suggesting that CL can be safely used in the treatment of patients with venous disorders of the lower extremities. © 2011 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Urinary excretion of chromium following ingestion of chromite-ore processing residues in humans: implications for biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Gargas, M L; Norton, R L; Harris, M A; Paustenbach, D J; Finley, B L

    1994-12-01

    Biomonitoring programs for urinary chromium (Cr) typically attempt to evaluate occupational exposure via the inhalation route. This study investigated whether Cr can be detected in the urine of people following the ingestion of soils that contain relatively high concentrations of chromium in chromite ore processing residue (COPR). To evaluate the reasonableness of using urinary monitoring to assess environmental exposure, six volunteers ingested 400 mg of soil/day (low-dose group), two others ingested 2.0 g of soil/day (high-dose group) for 3 consecutive days, and one person ingested a placebo on each of 3 days. The soil and COPR mixture contained concentrations of total chromium (Cr) and hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] of 103 +/- 20 and 9.3 +/- 3.8 mg/kg, respectively. Therefore, the low-dose group ingested 41 micrograms Cr/day [including 3.7 micrograms Cr(VI)] and the high-dose group ingested 206 micrograms Cr/day [including 18.6 micrograms Cr(VI)] on each of 3 consecutive days. All urine samples were collected and analyzed individually for total Cr on the day prior to dosing, during the 3 days of dosing, and up to the first void 48 h after the last dose. No significant increases in urinary Cr excretion were found when background excretion data were compared with data following each of the 3 days of dosing or in daily mean urine concentrations of the high- vs the low-dose groups. It appears that Cr present in a soil and COPR mixture at Cr doses up to 200 micrograms/day is not sufficiently bioavailable for biomonitoring of urine to be informative.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Intrauterine programming of urinary calcium and magnesium excretion in children born to mothers with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Mughal, M Z; Eelloo, J A; Roberts, S A; Sibartie, S; Maresh, M; Sibley, C P; Adams, J E

    2005-07-01

    Offspring of diabetic rats have reduced urinary calcium and magnesium excretion compared with offspring of controls; these differences persist up to 16 weeks after birth, a time equivalent to young adulthood in humans. To test the hypothesis that urinary calcium and magnesium excretion would be lower in children born to mothers with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (ChMIDDM) than those born to non-diabetic mothers. Concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, and creatinine were measured in first void spot urine samples collected from 45 (28 male; median age 9.6 years) ChMIDDM and 127 (58 male; median age 11.3 years) controls. Analysis of covariance was used to test for differences in urinary calcium to creatinine ratios (UCa/Cr), magnesium to creatinine ratios (UMg/Cr), and log sodium to creatinine ratios (logUNa/Cr) between controls and ChMIDDM after allowing for the effects of sex and age. UCa/Cr (difference -0.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.19 to -0.01; p = 0.03) and UMg/Cr (difference -0.15, 95% CI -0.22 to -0.08; p<0.0001) were lower in ChMIDDM than controls. However, logUNa/Cr did not differ between ChMIDDM and controls (difference -0.14, 95% CI -0.33 to 0.05; p = 0.1). The daily estimated intake of magnesium, sodium, and protein were significantly higher and that of calcium non-significantly higher in ChMIDDM than controls. In ChMIDDM, UCa/Cr and UMg/Cr were not related to diabetic control of mothers. Results of this study provide the first evidence that in humans, as in rats, there is modification of renal Ca and Mg handling in ChMIDDM, which persists well into childhood.

  5. Competitive inhibition of SGLT2 by tofogliflozin or phlorizin induces urinary glucose excretion through extending splay in cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Takumi; Suzuki, Masayuki; Fukazawa, Masanori; Honda, Kiyofumi; Yamane, Mizuki; Yoshida, Ayae; Azabu, Hiroko; Kitamura, Hidekazu; Toyota, Naoto; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Kawabe, Yoshiki

    2014-06-15

    Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors showed a glucose lowering effect in type 2 diabetes patients through inducing renal glucose excretion. Detailed analysis of the mechanism of the glucosuric effect of SGLT2 inhibition, however, has been hampered by limitations of clinical study. Here, we investigated the mechanism of urinary glucose excretion using nonhuman primates with SGLT inhibitors tofogliflozin and phlorizin, both in vitro and in vivo. In cells overexpressing cynomolgus monkey SGLT2 (cSGLT2), both tofogliflozin and phlorizin competitively inhibited uptake of the substrate (α-methyl-d-glucopyranoside; AMG). Tofogliflozin was found to be a selective cSGLT2 inhibitor, inhibiting cSGLT2 more strongly than did phlorizin, with selectivity toward cSGLT2 1,000 times that toward cSGLT1; phlorizin was found to be a nonselective cSGLT1/2 inhibitor. In a glucose titration study in cynomolgus monkeys under conditions of controlled plasma drug concentration, both tofogliflozin and phlorizin increased fractional excretion of glucose (FEG) by up to 50% under hyperglycemic conditions. By fitting the titration curve using a newly introduced method that avoids variability in estimating the threshold of renal glucose excretion, we found that tofogliflozin and phlorizin lowered the threshold and extended the splay in a dose-dependent manner without significantly affecting the tubular transport maximum for glucose (TmG). Our results demonstrate the contribution of SGLT2 to renal glucose reabsorption (RGR) in cynomolgus monkeys and demonstrate that competitive inhibition of cSGLT2 exerts a glucosuric effect by mainly extending splay and lowering threshold without affecting TmG. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Effects of sodium intake and diet on racial differences in urinary potassium excretion: results from the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-Sodium trial.

    PubMed

    Turban, Sharon; Thompson, Carol B; Parekh, Rulan S; Appel, Lawrence J

    2013-01-01

    We previously showed that African Americans excreted less urinary potassium than whites, even while consuming similar diets in the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) trial. We hypothesized that a low-sodium diet may eliminate these differences. Data from the DASH-Sodium randomized controlled feeding trial were analyzed. 412 adults with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension. Random assignment to either a typical American "control" diet (1.7 g [43 mEq] potassium/2,100 kcal/d) or the DASH diet (4.1 g [105 mEq] potassium/2,100 kcal/d). Within each diet, participants received 3 levels of sodium intake in random order for 30 days. 24-hour urine samples were analyzed at the end of each period. The primary outcome was urinary potassium excretion. On the DASH diet, African Americans consistently excreted significantly less urinary potassium (mean 24-hour urinary potassium excretion, 2,594 ± 961 mg [66 ± 25 mEq]) than whites (3,412 ± 1,016 mg [87 ± 26 mEq]) at the highest sodium level; adjusted (P < 0.001); this difference was not altered by sodium level (P = 0.6 comparing white to African American difference in urinary potassium excretion on high- vs low-sodium diet). In contrast, there was a smaller but significant white-African American difference in mean daily urinary potassium excretion in participants fed the control/high-sodium diet that was not present in the control/low-sodium diet (adjusted differences of 281 mg [7 mEq]/d vs 20 mg [0.5 mEq]/d, respectively; P = 0.007). Significant interactions were found between race and diet (P < 0.001) and between race and sodium (P = 0.02). Single rather than multiple urine collections were available at each time. Lack of stool potassium and sweat potassium values. Racial differences in urinary potassium excretion depend on sodium intake and diet. Our results may help explain the previously documented large variability in urinary potassium excretion. Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published

  7. Relation of 24-hour urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolite excretions with self-reported consumption of coffee and other caffeinated beverages in the general population.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, Dusan; Estoppey Younes, Sandrine; Pruijm, Menno; Ponte, Belén; Ackermann, Daniel; Ehret, Georg; Ansermot, Nicolas; Mohaupt, Markus; Paccaud, Fred; Vogt, Bruno; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Burnier, Michel; Eap, Chin B; Bochud, Murielle; Guessous, Idris

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine intake is generally estimated by self-reported consumption, but it remains unclear how well self-report associates with metabolite urinary excretion. We investigated the associations of self-reported consumption of caffeinated drinks with urinary excretion of caffeine and its major metabolites in an adult population. We used data from the population-based Swiss Kidney Project on Genes in Hypertension (SKIPOGH) study. Consumption of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee and other caffeinated beverages was assessed by self-administered questionnaire. Quantification of caffeine, paraxanthine, theobromine and theophylline was performed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in 24-h urine. Association of reported consumption of caffeinated drinks with urinary caffeine derived metabolites was determined by quantile regression. We then explored the association between urinary metabolite excretion and dichotomized weekly consumption frequency of caffeinated coffee, with Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) analysis. In the present analysis, we included 598 individuals (52% women, mean age =46 ± 17 years). Self-reported caffeinated coffee intake was positively associated with 24-h urinary excretions of paraxanthine, theophylline and caffeine (p < 0.001), whereas reported intakes of decaffeinated coffee and other caffeinated beverages showed no association. In ROC analysis, optimal discrimination between individuals consuming less than one caffeinated coffee/week, vs. at least one coffee, was obtained for 24-h urinary paraxanthine (Area Under Curve (AUC) = 0.868, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [0.830;0.906]), with slightly lower performance for theophylline and caffeine, whereas theobromine did not allow any discrimination. Our results suggest that reported consumption of caffeinated coffee is positively associated with 24-h urinary excretion of caffeine, paraxanthine, and theophylline, and may be used as a marker

  8. Increased urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine excretion in long-distance bus drivers in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Han, Yueh-Ying; Donovan, Maryann; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2010-05-01

    Professional bus drivers are exposed to environments containing air pollution and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can induce cellular oxidative stress and DNA damage. This study investigated environmental factors associated with oxidative DNA damage in a cohort of long-distance bus drivers. In a comparison study, urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a biomarker of DNA oxidative damage, was examined in 120 male long-distance bus drivers and 58 male office workers in Taiwan. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze association between urinary 8-OHdG levels and environmental factors. Bus drivers had higher urinary 8-OHdG levels (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=9.4, 95% confidence interval (CI)=3.5-28.2) compared with office workers. Increased urinary 8-OHdG level was significantly related to cigarette smoking (aOR=18.0, 95% CI=7.1-52.1), consumption of energy drinks (aOR=5.0, 95% CI=2.1-12.6), and regular exercise (aOR=3.8, 95% CI=1.5-10.2). A strong exposure-response relationship was found between urinary 8-OHdG and urinary cotinine (p<0.0001). Among nonsmokers, bus drivers (aOR=3.9, 95% CI=1.0-17.7) had higher urinary 8-OHdG than office workers. Among both bus drivers and office workers, those who drank energy drinks (aOR=3.7, 95% CI=1.2-12.2) had higher 8-OHdG levels than those who did not drink energy drinks. Adjusted for smoking, levels of 8-OHdG were increased in long-distance bus drivers exposed to traffic exhaust and ingested energy drinks. Future studies should explore what aspects of energy drinks may contribute to increased urinary 8-OHdG.

  9. Dietary and inhalation exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and urinary excretion of monohydroxy metabolites – a controlled case study in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanyan; Ding, Junnan; Shen, Guofeng; Zhong, Junjun; Wang, Chen; Wei, Siye; Chen, Chaoqi; Chen, Yuanchen; Lu, Yan; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Su, Shu; Lin, Nan; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxin; Tao, Shu

    2015-01-01

    Daily dietary and inhalation exposures to 16 parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and urinary excretion of 13 monohydroxy metabolites (OHPAHs) were monitored for 12 non-smoking university students in Beijing, China, during a controlled feeding experiment. The relationship between the urinary excretion of OHPAHs and the uptake of PAHs was investigated. The results suggest severe exposure of the subjects to PAHs via both dietary and inhalation pathways. Large increase of most urinary OHPAHs occurred after the ingestion of lamb kabob. Higher concentrations of OHPAHs were observed for female subjects, with the intakes of parent PAHs lower than those by males, likely due to the gender differences in metabolism. It appears that besides 1-PYR, metabolites of PHE could also be used as biomarkers to indicate the short-term dietary exposure to PAHs and urinary 3-BaA may serve as the biomarker for inhalation intake of high molecular weight PAHs. PMID:24177434

  10. Urinary excretion of arbutin metabolites after oral administration of bearberry leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Quintus, Joachim; Kovar, Karl-Artur; Link, Peter; Hamacher, Harald

    2005-02-01

    An HPLC assay with fluorimetric detection of the arbutin metabolites hydroquinone glucuronide (2) and hydroquinone sulphate (6) in urine was developed and validated. Methylarbutin (4) and 6 were synthesised as reference substances. Compound 2 was prepared enzymatically from hydroquinone and uridine 5'-diphosphoglucuronic acid using the glucosyltransferase system of rat liver microsomes and enriched by two liquid-liquid and an additional solid phase extraction. Compound 2 as the main component of this purified product was identified by UV and fluorescence spectroscopy, by HPLC-MS, and by enzymatic hydrolysis to hydroquinone (5). The assay yields precise and accurate urine levels of 2, 5 and 6 in the concentration range expected after oral administration of recommended therapeutic doses of bearberry leaf extract. In a preliminary pharmacokinetic study on 3 volunteers the time-dependent renal excretion of arbutin metabolites 2, 5 and 6 was investigated after ingestion of an aqueous bearberry leaf extract containing an arbutin dose recommended by the German Kommission E. More than half of the administered dose of arbutin was excreted within 4 hours mainly in form of the metabolites 2 and 6 and more than 75 % of the total applied arbutin was excreted within 24 h. The elimination of 5 was negligible in 2 out of 3 volunteers. The excretion of this metabolite in the third test person reached 5.6 % of the total administered arbutin dose. The preliminary pharmacokinetic results confirm that renal elimination of toxicologically critical concentrations of the metabolite 5 will not be expected.

  11. Simple questions in salt intake behavior assessment: comparison with urinary sodium excretion in Japanese adults.

    PubMed

    Uechi, Ken; Asakura, Keiko; Sasaki, Yuki; Masayasu, Shizuko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    To clarify whether six conventional 'high-risk' behaviors toward excess salt intake captured by simple questions such as frequency of salty food consumption are related to actual salt intake. Also, to examine the relationship of nutrition knowledge, food label use, and food preparation with actual salt intake. Study participants were 742 subjects (370 men and 372 women) aged 20-69 years from 20 areas of Japan. Salt intake and dietary knowledge/behavior were evaluated with two 24-hour urine collections and a questionnaire, respectively. Multivariable linear regression analyses by sex included sodium excretion as a dependent variable, each knowledge/behavior item as an independent variable, and with age, body mass index, education, and smoking as covariates. Four 'high-risk' behaviors (frequency of miso soup and salty foods consumption, proportion of consumed noodle soup, and amount of seasoning/condiment use) were associated with higher sodium excretion in men (p for trend <=0.04) and were marginally associated in women (p for trend <=0.06). Combination of these behaviors elevated the odds ratios for excess salt intake (sodium excretion: >136 mmol/day). Most of the other nine dietary factors were not associated with sodium excretion. Interestingly, women who decided to purchase foods after referring to the salt/sodium content information on food label, had significant lower sodium excretion than other women (p for trend=0.03). High-risk behaviors toward excess salt intake captured by simple questions were actually related to excess salt intake. Specific and practical advice based on answers to these questions might contribute to salt reduction in Japanese population.

  12. [Cystine as a risk factor of the stone formation in kidney: the reference value range of urinary excretion, the stage diagnosis of cystine metabolism disorder].

    PubMed

    Gres, A A; Nitkin, D M; Juraha, T M; Sivakow, A A

    2016-08-01

    to define the reference value ranges of cystine, lysine and arginine urinary excretion relative to creatinine in the morning urine samples for the metabolic disorders diagnosis leading to the formation of urinary stones. the study involved 695 healthy individuals aged 1-17 and 1564 patients with urolithiasis aged 7-45. The content of cystine in the urine samples was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The chemical composition of urinary stones was investigated by methods of the qualitative chemical reaction and the crystals microscopy. the reference value ranges of cystine, lysine and arginine urinary excretion relative to creatinine in the morning urine samples were developed in the age aspect. Excess in cystine level in the urine samples of the relatively healthy individuals detected in 1.4% of cases. From 1564 urinary stones submitted for analysis, the frequency of cystine stones was 0.8%. for the objective assessment of the cystine metabolism status the evaluation of the degree of cystinuria is necessary in order to form the risk group for cystine nephrolithiasis. The reference value ranges of cystine urinary excretion developed in the age aspect and "cystine / creatinine index" in morning urine samples will provide the opportunity to identify the state of the cystine exchange from early childhood and develop differentiated program for the prevention of stone formation in the kidneys.

  13. Accelerated urinary excretion of methylmercury following administration of its antidote N-acetylcysteine requires Mrp2/Abcc2, the apical multidrug resistance-associated protein.

    PubMed

    Madejczyk, Michael S; Aremu, David A; Simmons-Willis, Tracey A; Clarkson, Thomas W; Ballatori, Nazzareno

    2007-07-01

    N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) is a sulfhydryl-containing compound that produces a dramatic acceleration of urinary methylmercury (MeHg) excretion in poisoned mice, but the molecular mechanism for this effect is poorly defined. MeHg readily binds to NAC to form the MeHg-NAC complex, and recent studies indicate that this complex is an excellent substrate for the basolateral organic anion transporter (Oat)-1, Oat1/Slc22a6, thus potentially explaining the uptake from blood into the renal tubular cells. The present study tested the hypothesis that intracellular MeHg is subsequently transported across the apical membrane of the cells into the tubular fluid as a MeHg-NAC complex using the multidrug resistance-associated protein-2 (Mrp2/Abcc2). NAC markedly stimulated urinary [(14)C]MeHg excretion in wild-type Wistar rats, and a second dose of NAC was as effective as the first dose in stimulating MeHg excretion. In contrast with the normal Wistar rats, NAC was much less effective at stimulating urinary MeHg excretion in the Mrp2-deficient (TR-) Wistar rats. The TR- rats excreted only approximately 30% of the MeHg excreted by the wild-type animals. To directly test whether MeHg-NAC is a substrate for Mrp2, studies were carried out in plasma membrane vesicles isolated from livers of TR- and control Wistar rats. Transport of MeHg-NAC was lower in vesicles prepared from TR- rats, whereas transport of MeHg-cysteine was similar in control and TR- rats. These results indicate that Mrp2 is involved in urinary MeHg excretion after NAC administration and suggest that the transported molecule is most likely the MeHg-NAC complex.

  14. Taurine protects acetaminophen-induced oxidative damage in mice kidney through APAP urinary excretion and CYP2E1 inactivation.

    PubMed

    Das, Joydeep; Ghosh, Jyotirmoy; Manna, Prasenjit; Sil, Parames C

    2010-02-28

    Acute exposure of acetaminophen (APAP), a widely used analgesic and antipyretic drug, causes severe renal damage and no specific agent has been reported so far that plays any beneficial role in this organ pathophysiology. In the present study, the protective role of taurine on APAP-induced nephrotoxicity was investigated in mice. In order to induce acute nephrotoxicity, APAP was administered at a single dose of 2g/kg body weight orally to male adult albino mice of Swiss strain. APAP exposure for 24h significantly increased plasma level of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, uric acid, TNF-alpha, NO production, urinary gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT) activity, total urinary protein and urinary glucose level accompanied by a decrease in Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity. Moreover, APAP administration significantly increased MDA, protein carbonylation, GSSG level, intracellular ROS production and cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYPP450) activity. The same exposure decreased GSH level, ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes indicating that APAP-induced renal damage was mediated through oxidative stress. Besides, APAP exposure significantly reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and induced up-regulation of CYP2E1 in renal tissues although JNK did not play any significant role in this APAP-induced renal pathophysiology. Caspase 9/3 immunoblot and DNA fragmentation analyses showed that APAP-induced renal cell damage was mostly necrotic in nature, although some apoptosis also occurred simultaneously. Taurine treatment both pre and post (150 mg/kg body weight for 3 days, orally) to APAP exposure, however, significantly reduced APAP-induced nephrotoxicity through its antioxidant properties, urinary excretion of APAP and suppression of CYP2E1. Results suggest that taurine might be a potential therapeutic candidate against APAP-induced acute nephrotoxicity. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of Sodium and Potassium Intake by 24 h Urinary Excretion in a Healthy Mexican Cohort.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Maite; Colín-Ramírez, Eloisa; Rivera Mancía, Susana; Cartas Rosado, Raúl; Madero, Magdalena; Infante Vázquez, Oscar; Vargas-Barrón, Jesús

    2017-02-01

    A high dietary sodium intake and a low potassium intake are associated with adverse cardiovascular health. Data on these nutrients consumption in Mexico is limited. The aim of this study was to assess sodium and potassium intake by 24 h urinary excretion in a clinically healthy Mexican population. We additionally explored their association with blood pressure. 711 clinically healthy participants aged 20-50 years old recruited in the Tlalpan 2020 cohort from September 2014-December 2015, were included in this cross-sectional analysis. All participants provided a 24 h urine sample and underwent anthropometric, biochemical, and blood pressure evaluations. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were used to assess the association of urinary sodium, potassium, and Na/K ratio with blood pressure. Mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) urinary sodium and potassium in the overall population was 3150.1 (3054.2-3246.0) mg/d and 1909.5 (1859.3-1959.6) mg/d, respectively. Overall, only 121 (17%) met the WHO recommendation for sodium intake (<2000 mg/d) and 16 (2.3%) met the goal for potassium intake (≥3510 mg/d). Urinary sodium (β coefficient 1.3, 95% CI: 0.7, 1.8, p <0.001) and potassium (β coefficient 2.1, 95% CI: 1.0, 3.2, p <0.001) were found to be associated with systolic blood pressure in the univariate analysis but not in the multivariate analysis. Sodium intake was higher and potassium intake was lower than the WHO recommendations in this healthy Mexican population. Sodium and potassium intakes were not associated with blood pressure at the mean levels of intake observed in this population, after adjusting for key variables. Copyright © 2017 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Urinary Sodium Excretion Has Positive Correlation with Activation of Urinary Renin Angiotensin System and Reactive Oxygen Species in Hypertensive Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Shin-Young; Kim, Sejoong; Kim, Dong Ki; Shin, Sung Joon; Lee, Sang Ho; Choi, Bum Soon; Lim, Chun Soo

    2014-01-01

    It is not well described the pathophysiology of renal injuries caused by a high salt intake in humans. The authors analyzed the relationship between the 24-hr urine sodium-to-creatinine ratio (24HUna/cr) and renal injury parameters such as urine angiotensinogen (uAGT/cr), monocyte chemoattractant peptide-1 (uMCP1/cr), and malondialdehyde-to-creatinine ratio (uMDA/cr) by using the data derived from 226 hypertensive chronic kidney disease patients. At baseline, the 24HUna/cr group or levels had a positive correlation with uAGT/cr and uMDA/cr adjusted for related factors (P<0.001 for each analysis). When we estimated uAGT/cr in the 24HUna/cr groups by ANCOVA, the uAGT/cr in patients with ≥200 mEq/g cr was higher than in patients with <100 mEq/g cr (708 [95% CI, 448-967] vs. 334 [95% CI, 184-483] pg/mg cr, P=0.014). Similarly, uMDA/cr was estimated as 0.17 (95% CI, 0.14-0.21) pM/mg cr in patients with <100 mEq/g cr and 0.27 (95% CI, 0.20-0.33) pM/mg cr in patients with ≥200 mEq/g cr (P=0.016). During the 16-week follow-up period, an increase in urinary sodium excretion predicted an increase in urinary angiotensinogen excretion. In conclusion, high salt intake increases renal renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) activation, primarily, and directly or indirectly affects the production of reactive oxygen species through renal RAS activation. PMID:25317016

  17. Malic acid supplementation increases urinary citrate excretion and urinary pH: implications for the potential treatment of calcium oxalate stone disease.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Allen L; Webber, Dawn; de Charmoy, Rachelle; Jackson, Graham E; Ravenscroft, Neil

    2014-02-01

    Raising urinary pH and citrate excretion with alkali citrate therapy has been a widely used treatment in calcium nephrolithiasis. Citrate lowers ionized Ca(+2) concentrations and inhibits calcium salt precipitation. Conservative alternatives containing citrate such as fruit juices have been investigated and recommended. Any compound that induces systemic alkalosis will increase citraturia. Malate, a polycarboxylic anion like citrate, is a potential candidate for chelating Ca(+2) and for inducing systemic alkalinization. We undertook to investigate these possibilities. Theoretical modeling of malic acid's effects on urinary Ca(+2) concentration and supersaturation (SS) of calcium salts was achieved using the speciation program JESS. Malic acid (1200 mg/day) was ingested for 7 days by eight healthy subjects. Urines (24 hours) were collected at baseline and on day 7. They were analyzed for routine lithogenic components, including pH and citrate. Chemical speciation and SS were calculated in both urines. Modeling showed that complexation between calcium and malate at physiological concentrations of the latter would have no effect on SS. Administration of the supplement induced statistically significant increases in pH and citraturia. The calculated concentration of Ca(+2) and concomitant SS calcium oxalate (CaOx) decreased after supplementation, but these were not statistically significant. SS for the calcium phosphate salts hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate increased significantly as a consequence of the elevation in pH, but values for brushite and octacalcium phosphate did not change significantly. We speculate that consumption of malic acid induced systemic alkalinization leading to reduced renal tubular reabsorption and metabolism of citrate, and an increase in excretion of the latter. The decrease in SS(CaOx) was caused by enhanced complexation of Ca(+2) by citrate. We conclude that malic acid supplementation may be useful for conservative treatment of

  18. Relation of dietary inorganic arsenic exposure and urinary inorganic arsenic metabolites excretion in Japanese subjects.

    PubMed

    Oguri, Tomoko; Yoshinaga, Jun; Suzuki, Yayoi; Tao, Hiroaki; Nakazato, Tetsuya

    2017-06-03

    Inorganic arsenic (InAs) is a ubiquitous metalloid that has been shown to exert multiple adverse health outcomes. Urinary InAs and its metabolite concentration has been used as a biomarker of arsenic (As) exposure in some epidemiological studies, however, quantitative relationship between daily InAs exposure and urinary InAs metabolites concentration has not been well characterized. We collected a set of 24-h duplicated diet and spot urine sample of the next morning of diet sampling from 20 male and 19 female subjects in Japan from August 2011 to October 2012. Concentrations of As species in duplicated diet and urine samples were determined by using liquid chromatography-ICP mass spectrometry with a hydride generation system. Sum of the concentrations of urinary InAs and methylarsonic acid (MMA) was used as a measure of InAs exposure. Daily dietary InAs exposure was estimated to be 0.087 µg kg(-1) day(-1) (Geometric mean, GM), and GM of urinary InAs+MMA concentrations was 3.5 ng mL(-1). Analysis of covariance did not find gender-difference in regression coefficients as significant (P > 0.05). Regression equation Log 10 [urinary InAs+MMA concentration] = 0.570× Log 10 [dietary InAs exposure level per body weight] + 1.15 was obtained for whole data set. This equation would be valuable in converting urinary InAs concentration to daily InAs exposure, which will be important information in risk assessment.

  19. Tissue vitamin concentrations are maintained constant by changing the urinary excretion rate of vitamins in rats' restricted food intake.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that mild food restriction induces a reduction in tryptophan-nicotinamide conversion, which helps to explain why death secondary to pellagra is pandemic during the hungry season. In this study, we investigated the levels of B-group vitamins in the liver, kidney, blood, and urine in rats that underwent gradual restriction of food intake (80, 60, 40, and 20% restriction vs. ad libitum food intake). No significant differences in the B-group vitamin concentrations (mol/g tissue) in the liver and kidney were observed at any level of food restriction. However, the urine excretion rates exhibited some characteristic phenomena that differed by vitamin. These results show that the tissue concentrations of B-group vitamins were kept constant by changing the urinary elimination rates of vitamins under various levels of food restriction. Only vitamin B12 was the only (exception).

  20. In vivo cross-match by chromium-51 urinary excretion from labeled erythrocytes: A case of anti-Gerbich

    SciTech Connect

    Mochizuki, T.; Tauxe, W.N.; Ramsey, G. )

    1990-12-01

    We studied a patient with an alloantibody to the high-frequency red blood cell (RBC) antigen Gerbich. A nationwide search for rare Gerbich-negative blood (less than 1:45,000 donors) located only seven units, and our supply was quickly exhausted. By using an in vivo cross-matching method, we demonstrated that this anti-Gerbich did not cause RBC destruction. Regular Gerbich-positive transfusions could then proceed without hemolysis. This cross-match test was based on the determination of the urinary excretion rates of injected radioactive chromium-labeled donor erythrocytes by which it was possible to determine compatibility only 24 hr after the test was begun. The procedure provides an easy and accurate means for in vivo cross-matching of conventionally incompatible donor blood.

  1. Effects of dairy cow diet forage proportion on duodenal nutrient supply and urinary purine derivative excretion.

    PubMed

    Moorby, J M; Dewhurst, R J; Evans, R T; Danelón, J L

    2006-09-01

    Four mature Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square change-over design experiment made up of four 4-wk periods to investigate the relationship between microbial protein flow to the duodenum and excretion of purine derivatives (PD) in the urine. Four dietary treatments based on ad libitum access to ryegrass silage were offered, with a standard dairy concentrate included at different forage:concentrate (F:C) ratios, calculated on a dry matter basis: 80:20, 65:35, 50:50, and 35:65. Feed intakes increased as the proportion of concentrate in the diet increased, despite a concurrent decrease in silage intake. Increased feed intake led to increased nutrient flow to the duodenum. Milk yields increased as the diet F:C ratio decreased, with cows offered the 35:65 diet yielding nearly 8 kg/d more milk than cows offered the 80:20 diet; the concentrations of milk fat decreased and milk protein increased with a decreasing F:C ratio. Purine derivative excretion in the urine increased with an increasing proportion of concentrate in the diet, and there was a strong linear relationship between total PD excretion (allantoin and uric acid) and microbial N flow to the duodenum: microbial N (g/d) = 19.9 + 0.689 x total PD (mmol/d); R = 0.887. This strengthens the case for using PD excretion as a noninvasive marker of microbial protein flow from the rumen in dairy cows.

  2. Urinary excretion of alpha-hydroxytriazolam following a single dose of halcion.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dong-Liang; Huang, Tsun-Ying; Liu, Hsiu-Chuan; Yin, Rea-Ming

    2005-03-01

    As an approved medicinal product and reportedly an abused substance that have been associated with death and "considered to be a factor...of impaired driving, sexual assault, and other violent crimes", triazolam is controlled at the same level (Level III) as flunitrazepam in Taiwan. Alleged misuses of this substance have been associated with case specimens submitted to this laboratory. A sample preparation (with and without enzymatic hydrolysis) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry protocols were evaluated and applied to the analysis of free and total alpha-hydroxytriazolam (the main metabolite of triazolam) in urine. Ions designated for TMS-derivatized alpha-hydroxytriazolam and alpha-hydroxytriazolam-d4 are m/z 415, 417, and 430 and 419, 421, and 434, respectively. The overall protocol achieved the following results when applied to the analysis of 2-mL drug-free urine specimens fortified with 10-200 ng/mL alpha-hydroxytriazolam: recovery, 95%; interday and intraday precision ranges, 1.50-3.52% and 0.93-4.71%, respectively; linearity, r2 > 0.99; and limits of detection and quantitation, 0.05 and 0.1 ng/mL, respectively. This protocol was applied to the analysis of case specimens and urine samples collected from two patients (A and B) taking one oral dose of Halcion (0.25 mg triazolam). Excretion profiles of free and total alpha-hydroxytriazolam show that free alpha-hydroxytriazolam is detectable, but at very low levels (< 5 ng/mL). Peak excretion of total alpha-hydroxytriazolam occurs at approximately 5-10 h following the drug intake. Total alpha-hydroxytriazolam is excreted at detectable levels approximately 2-35 h following an oral dose of 0.25 mg triazolam. Total free and conjugated alpha-hydroxytriazolam excreted by A and B are 0.61% and 31.6%; and 0.36% and 57.2% of the dose, respectively.

  3. Renal metabolism and urinary excretion of platelet-activating factor in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Noris, M.; Perico, N.; Macconi, D.; Nanni, V.; Dadan, J.; Peterlongo, F.; Remuzzi, G. )

    1990-11-15

    The origin of platelet-activating factor (PAF) in the urine remains ill defined. The present study documents that (3H)PAF (3.5 mu Ci) injected into the renal artery of isolated control rat kidney preparations perfused at constant pressure with a cell-free medium containing 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA) was excreted in negligible amounts (0.034%) in the urine, whereas 6% was retained by the kidney. When kidneys were perfused with a BSA-free medium, 0.029 and 71% of the total radioactivity added to the perfusate was recovered in the urine and in the renal tissue, respectively. (3H)PAF urine excretion in proteinuric kidneys from adriamycin-treated rats was still negligible (0.015%). Analysis of the renal tissue-retained radioactivity in control and proteinuric kidneys perfused with 1% BSA indicated metabolism into long chain acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine species, lyso-PAF, glycerols, and intact PAF. Thin layer chromatography analysis of (3H)glycerol fraction in these renal extracts showed two major components comigrating with 1-O-alkylglycerol and 1-O-alkyl-2-fatty acylglycerol. Isolated proximal tubules, but not glomeruli from nephrotic rats exposed to increasing concentrations of BSA (0-4%), had a higher PAF uptake than control tubules for BSA concentrations ranging from 0 to 0.1%. Our findings in the isolated perfused kidneys indicate that, in normal conditions, circulating PAF is excreted in the urine in negligible amounts and that the altered glomerular permeability to proteins does not affect this excretion rate. Moreover, analysis of renal tissue radioactivity documented that the renal metabolism of PAF is comparable in control and nephrotic kidneys.

  4. Urinary angiotensinogen excretion is associated with blood pressure independent of the circulating renin-angiotensin system in a group of african ancestry.

    PubMed

    Michel, Frederic S; Norton, Gavin R; Maseko, Muzi J; Majane, Olebogeng H I; Sareli, Pinhas; Woodiwiss, Angela J

    2014-07-01

    Although the circulating renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is suppressed in salt-sensitive populations, the role of the intrarenal RAS in blood pressure (BP) control in these groups independent of the circulating RAS is uncertain. We evaluated the relationship between 24-hour urinary angiotensinogen excretion and either office (mean of 5 measurements; n=425) or 24-hour ambulatory (n=340) BP independent of the circulating RAS in a community-based sample of African descent that had never received antihypertensive drug therapy. Circulating RAS activity was determined from plasma renin and angiotensinogen and serum aldosterone concentrations. Urinary angiotensinogen to creatinine ratio (angiotensinogen/creat) was correlated with plasma angiotensinogen concentrations (P<0.0005) but not with indexes of salt intake. However, urinary angiotensinogen/creat was independently associated with office systolic BP (partial r=0.16; P<0.001), whereas plasma angiotensinogen (partial r=0.07; P=0.14) was not independently associated with office systolic BP. Urinary angiotensinogen/creat was also associated with 24-hour systolic BP (partial r=0.11; P<0.05). The relationships between urinary angiotensinogen/creat and BP survived further adjustments for plasma angiotensinogen and serum aldosterone concentrations, plasma renin concentrations, estimated glomerular filtration rate, urinary Na(+)/K(+), or 24-hour urinary Na(+) excretion rates (P<0.005 for all). Participants with the highest compared with the lowest quartile of urinary angiotensinogen/creat showed an 8.2-mm Hg higher office (P<0.005) and 4.6-mm Hg higher 24-hour (P=0.01) systolic BP. In conclusion, independent of the systemic RAS, including plasma angiotensinogen concentrations, urinary angiotensinogen excretion is associated with BP in a salt-sensitive, low-renin group of African descent. These data lend further support for a role of the RAS in BP control in salt-sensitive groups of African ancestry. © 2014 American Heart

  5. Turnover and urinary excretion of free and acetylated MS-222 rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunn, J.B.; Schoettger, R.A.; Willford, W.A.

    1968-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) anesthetized in 100 mg/liter of M.S. 222 at 12 C excreted the drug in free and acetylated forms via the urine during a 24-hr recovery period in freshwater. Of the M.S. 222 excreted, 77-96% was acetylated. Blood levels of free drug in anesthetized trout approximated 75% of the anesthetic concentration, but the amount of acetylated M.S. 222 was relatively insignificant. The blood and urine were cleared of the two fractions of M.S. 222 in 8 and 24 hr respectively. Low levels of aromatic amines of natural origin occurred in blood and urine and were subtracted from measurements of M.S. 222. Intraperitoneal injections of 10-100 mg/kg of M.S. 222 did not induce anesthesia; however, the 24-hr pattern of drug excretion was similar to that observed after anesthesia by immersion. Only 15-21 % of the injected dose was found in the urine, suggesting a second route of drug elimination.

  6. Association between Parent and Child Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intakes as Assessed by 24-h Urinary Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Service, Carrie; Grimes, Carley; Riddell, Lynn; He, Feng; Campbell, Karen; Nowson, Caryl

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between parent and child sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake as assessed by 24-h urinary excretion (24hUE). Primary school children and their parent(s) provided one 24-h urine sample and information on cooking and children’s discretionary salt use. Valid urine samples were provided by 108 mothers (mean age 41.8 (5.1) (SD) years, Na 120 (45) mmol/day) (7.0 g/day salt equivalent) and 40 fathers (44.4 (4.9) years, Na 152 (49) mmol/day (8.9 g/day salt), and 168 offspring (51.8% male, age 9.1 (2.0) years, Na 101 (47) mmol/day (5.9 g/day salt). When adjusted for parental age, child age and gender a 17 mmol/day Na (1 g/day salt) increase in mother’s 24hUE was associated with a 3.4 mmol/day Na (0.2 g/day salt) increase in child’s salt 24hUE (p = 0.04) with no association observed between father and child. Sixty-seven percent of parents added salt during cooking and 37% of children added salt at the table. Children who reported adding table salt had higher urinary excretion than those who did not (p = 0.01). The association between mother and child Na intake may relate to the consumption of similar foods and highlights the importance of the home environment in influencing total dietary sodium intake. PMID:27043620

  7. Correlation between increased urinary sodium excretion and decreased left ventricular diastolic function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kagiyama, Shuntaro; Koga, Tokushi; Kaseda, Shigeru; Ishihara, Shiro; Kawazoe, Nobuyuki; Sadoshima, Seizo; Matsumura, Kiyoshi; Takata, Yutaka; Tsuchihashi, Takuya; Iida, Mitsuo

    2009-10-01

    Increased salt intake may induce hypertension, lead to cardiac hypertrophy, and exacerbate heart failure. When elderly patients develop heart failure, diastolic dysfunction is often observed, although the ejection fraction has decreased. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an established risk factor for heart failure. However, little is known about the relationship between cardiac function and urinary sodium excretion (U-Na) in patients with DM. We measured 24-hour U-Na; cardiac function was evaluated directly during coronary catheterization in type 2 DM (n = 46) or non-DM (n = 55) patients with preserved cardiac systolic function (ejection fraction > or = 60%). Cardiac diastolic and systolic function was evaluated as - dp/dt and + dp/dt, respectively. The average of U-Na was 166.6 +/- 61.2 mEq/24 hour (mean +/- SD). In all patients, stepwise multivariate regression analysis revealed that - dp/dt had a negative correlation with serum B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP; beta = - 0.23, P = .021) and U-Na (beta = - 0.24, P = .013). On the other hand, + dp/dt negatively correlated with BNP (beta = - 0.30, P < .001), but did not relate to U-Na. In the DM-patients, stepwise multivariate regression analysis showed that - dp/dt still had a negative correlation with U-Na (beta = - 0.33, P = .025). The results indicated that increased urinary sodium excretion is associated with an impairment of cardiac diastolic function, especially in patients with DM, suggesting that a reduction of salt intake may improve cardiac diastolic function.

  8. Dietary resistant starch prevents urinary excretion of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and vitamin D-binding protein in type 1 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Smazal, Anne L; Borcherding, Nicholas C; Anderegg, Alysse S; Schalinske, Kevin L; Whitley, Elizabeth M; Rowling, Matthew J

    2013-07-01

    Diabetes is a rapidly growing epidemic affecting millions of Americans and has been implicated in a number of devastating secondary complications. We previously demonstrated that type 2 diabetic rats exhibit vitamin D deficiency due to aberrant megalin-mediated endocytosis and excessive urinary excretion of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25D3) and vitamin D-binding protein (DBP). Here, we examined whether a model of type 1 diabetes [T1D; streptozotocin (STZ)-treated Sprague-Dawley rats] would similarly excrete abnormally high concentrations of 25D3 and DBP due to renal damage and compromised expression of megalin and its endocytic partner, disabled-2 (Dab2). Moreover, we tested whether feeding diabetic rats starch that is resistant to digestion could alleviate these abnormalities. Control (n = 12) rats were fed a standard, semipurified diet (AIN-93G) containing 55% total dietary starch and STZ-treated rats were fed the AIN-93G diet (n = 12) or a diet containing 55% high-amylose maize that is partially resistant to digestion [20% total dietary resistant starch (RS); n = 12] for 2 and 5 wk. The RS diet attenuated weight loss and polyuria in STZ-treated rats. Histology and immunohistochemistry revealed that dietary RS also attenuated the loss of Dab2 expression in renal proximal tubules. Moreover, urinary concentrations of both 25D3 and DBP were elevated ∼10-fold in STZ-treated rats (5 wk post STZ injection), which was virtually prevented by the RS. We also observed a ∼1.5-fold increase in megalin mRNA expression in STZ-treated rats, which was attenuated by feeding rats the RS diet for 2 wk. Taken together, these studies indicate that consumption of low-glycemic carbohydrates can attenuate disruption of vitamin D homeostasis in T1D through the rescue of megalin-mediated endocytosis in the kidney.

  9. Association between Parent and Child Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intakes as Assessed by 24-h Urinary Excretion.

    PubMed

    Service, Carrie; Grimes, Carley; Riddell, Lynn; He, Feng; Campbell, Karen; Nowson, Caryl

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between parent and child sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake as assessed by 24-h urinary excretion (24hUE). Primary school children and their parent(s) provided one 24-h urine sample and information on cooking and children's discretionary salt use. Valid urine samples were provided by 108 mothers (mean age 41.8 (5.1) (SD) years, Na 120 (45) mmol/day) (7.0 g/day salt equivalent) and 40 fathers (44.4 (4.9) years, Na 152 (49) mmol/day (8.9 g/day salt), and 168 offspring (51.8% male, age 9.1 (2.0) years, Na 101 (47) mmol/day (5.9 g/day salt). When adjusted for parental age, child age and gender a 17 mmol/day Na (1 g/day salt) increase in mother's 24hUE was associated with a 3.4 mmol/day Na (0.2 g/day salt) increase in child's salt 24hUE (p = 0.04) with no association observed between father and child. Sixty-seven percent of parents added salt during cooking and 37% of children added salt at the table. Children who reported adding table salt had higher urinary excretion than those who did not (p = 0.01). The association between mother and child Na intake may relate to the consumption of similar foods and highlights the importance of the home environment in influencing total dietary sodium intake.

  10. Arsenic Relative Bioavailability in Rice Using a Mouse Arsenic Urinary Excretion Bioassay and Its Application to Assess Human Health Risk.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Bo; Li, Jie; Zhao, Di; Li, Chao; Wang, Xue-Jiao; Sun, Hong-Jie; Juhasz, Albert L; Ma, Lena Q

    2017-04-18

    A steady-state mouse model was developed to determine arsenic (As) relative bioavailability (RBA) in rice to refine As exposure in humans. Fifty-five rice samples from 15 provinces of China were analyzed for total As, with 11 cooked for As speciation and bioavailability assessment. Arsenic concentrations were 38-335 μg kg(-1), averaging 133 μg kg(-1), with As(III) being dominant (36-79%), followed by DMA(V) (18-58%) and As(V) (0.5-16%). Following oral doses of individual As species to mice at low As exposure (2.5-15 μg As per mouse) over a 7-d period, strong linear correlations (R(2) = 0.99) were observed between As urinary excretion and cumulative As intake, suggesting the suitability and sensitivity of the mouse bioassay to measure As-RBA in rice. Urinary excretion factor for DMA(V) (0.46) was less than inorganic As (0.63-0.69). As-RBA in cooked rice ranged from 13.2 ± 2.2% to 53.6 ± 11.1% (averaging 27.0 ± 12.2%) for DMA(V) and 26.2 ± 7.0% to 49.5 ± 4.7% (averaging 39.9 ± 8.3%) for inorganic As. Calculation of inorganic As intake based on total inorganic As in rice overestimated As exposure by 2.0-3.7 fold compared to that based on bioavailable inorganic As. For accurate assessment of the health risk associated with rice consumption, it is important to consider As bioavailability especially inorganic As in rice.

  11. [Urinary iodine excretion levels in schoolchildren from Quindío, 2006-2007].

    PubMed

    Gallego, Martha L; Loango, Nelsy; Londoño, Angela L; Landazuri, Patricia

    2009-12-01

    Iodine nutritional status is measured by urinary iodine concentration thereby allowing risks involved in such deficiency or increase to be assessed. Studying the frequency of the risk of iodine deficiency disorders, or more than suitable iodine intake in schoolchildren from Quindío. Urinary iodine concentration was measured in a casual urine sample taken from each subject; this study lasted from 2006 to 2007. Median urinary iodine was 272.4 microg/L in the 444 samples analysed. 11.9% of schoolchildren had normal urinary iodine, 28.8% had iodine deficiency and 11.5% of them had a severe deficit, 12.6% moderate deficit and 4.7% slight deficit. 59.3% presented a risk of excessive iodine intake. The range of iodine deficiency in boys was 31% and 26.6% in girls (no significant difference). No significant difference was found with age; however, there was a significant difference between economic levels 1 and 2 (p <0.000). Municipalities in rural areas had 100% iodine deficiency (median um < 100 microg/L) whilst those in the urban area (Armenia, Tebaida and The Caimo) had excessive iodine intake. The population being studied had severe iodine deficiencies (rural) and excessive intake (urban population), suggesting the absence or poor control of an iodization programme and additional exposure to factors causing iodine disorders. A programme is required for monitoring iodine disorders in the school population being studied.

  12. Identification of the Causes for Chronic Hypokalemia: Importance of Urinary Sodium and Chloride Excretion.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kun-Lin; Cheng, Chih-Jen; Sung, Chih-Chen; Tseng, Ming-Hua; Hsu, Yu-Juei; Yang, Sung-Sen; Chau, Tom; Lin, Shih-Hua

    2017-07-01

    Uncovering the correct diagnosis of chronic hypokalemia with potassium (K(+)) wasting from the kidneys or gut can be fraught with challenges. We identified clinical and laboratory parameters helpful for differentiating the causes of chronic hypokalemia. Normotensive patients referred to our tertiary academic medical center for the evaluation of chronic hypokalemia were prospectively enrolled over 5 years. Clinical features, laboratory examinations-including blood and spot urine electrolytes, acid-base status, biochemistries, and hormones-as well as genetic analysis, were determined. Ninety-nine patients with chronic normotensive hypokalemia (serum K(+) 2.8 ± 0.4 mmol/L, duration 4.1 ± 0.9 years) were enrolled. Neuromuscular symptoms were the most common complaints. Although Gitelman syndrome (n = 33), Bartter syndrome (n = 10), and distal renal tubular acidosis (n = 12) were the predominant renal tubular disorders, 44 patients (44%) were diagnosed with anorexia/bulimia nervosa (n = 21), surreptitious use of laxatives (n = 11), or diuretics (n = 12). Patients with gastrointestinal causes and surreptitious diuretics use exhibited a female predominance, lower body mass index, and less K(+) supplementation. High urine K(+) excretion (transtubular potassium gradient >3, urine K(+)/Cr >2 mmol/mmol) was universally present in patients with renal tubular disorders, but also found in >50% patients with gastrointestinal causes. Of interest, while urine sodium (Na(+)) and chloride (Cl(-)) excretions were high and coupled (urine Na(+)/Cl(-) ratio ∼1) in renal tubular disorders and "on" diuretics use, skewed or uncoupled urine Na(+) and Cl(-) excretions were found in anorexia/bulimia nervosa and laxatives abuse (urine Na(+)/Cl(-) ratio: 5.0 ± 2.2, 0.4 ± 0.2, respectively) and low urine Na(+) and Cl(-) excretions with fixed Na(+)/Cl(-) ratios (0.9 ± 0.2) when "off" diuretics. Besides body mass index, sex, and blood acid-base status, integrated interpretation of

  13. Urinary nitrate excretion in relation to murine macrophage activation. Influence of dietary L-arginine and oral NG-monomethyl-L-arginine.

    PubMed

    Granger, D L; Hibbs, J B; Broadnax, L M

    1991-02-15

    Murine macrophage oxidation of L-arginine guanidino nitrogen to nitrite/nitrate yields an intermediate effector, possibly nitric oxide, with antimicrobial activity. Total body nitrogen oxidation metabolism (NOM) was measured in vivo by determining the urinary nitrate excretion of mice ingesting a chemically defined nitrite/nitrate-free diet. As reported previously, mycobacterial infection with bacillus Calmétte-Guerin led to a large increase in urinary nitrate excretion. This increase was temporally related to macrophage activation in vivo. The substrate for macrophage nitrogen oxidation metabolism in vitro, L-arginine, was deleted from the diet without ameliorating the urinary nitrate excretion response induced by BCG. This suggested that L-arginine was synthesized endogenously because there are no other known natural substrates for NOM. A competitive inhibitor of NOM, the L-arginine analog, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine was fed to mice in their drinking water. NG-monomethyl-L-arginine ingestion blocked both basal and bacillus Calmétte-Guerin-induced urinary nitrate excretion over a 2-4 week time span. These experimental conditions should prove useful for further investigation on the role of macrophage NOM in host defense against intracellular microorganisms.

  14. Preeclampsia -- a state of prostaglandin deficiency? Urinary prostaglandin excretion, the renin-aldosterone system, and circulating catecholamines in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, E B; Christensen, N J; Christensen, P; Johannesen, P; Kornerup, H J; Kristensen, S; Lauritsen, J G; Leyssac, P P; Rasmussen, A; Wohlert, M

    1983-01-01

    Urinary excretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha), plasma concentrations of renin, aldosterone, norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) were determined during pregnancy, 5 days, 3, and 6 months after delivery in preeclampsia, normotensive pregnant, and nonpregnant control subjects. The PGE2 was higher in normotensive pregnant control subjects than in nonpregnant subjects. In preeclampsia, PGE2 was reduced to nonpregnant level. PGF2 alpha was the same in preeclampsia and in normotensive pregnancy, but elevated when compared to the normotensive nonpregnant control group. Plasma concentrations of renin and aldosterone were increased during pregnancy, but considerably less in preeclampsia than during normotensive pregnancy. NE and E were the same as in nonpregnant subjects during both hypertensive and normotensive pregnancy. All parameters were normal 3 months after delivery. There were no correlations between PGE2, PGF2 alpha, plasma concentrations of renin, aldosterone, NE, or E and blood pressure level in third trimester either in preeclampsia or in normotensive pregnancy. PGE2 was positively correlated to plasma concentrations of renin. It is suggested that the lack of renal PGE2 in preeclampsia might be responsible for the decrease in renal blood flow and sodium excretion. It is hypothesized that preeclampsia is a state of prostaglandin deficiency. The changes in the renin-aldosterone system may be secondary to changes in prostaglandin concentration both in preeclampsia and normotensive pregnancy.

  15. The fractional urinary fluoride excretion of adults consuming naturally and artificially fluoridated water and the influence of water hardness: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Villa, A; Cabezas, L; Anabalón, M; Rugg-Gunn, A

    2009-09-01

    To assess whether there was any significant difference in the average fractional urinary fluoride excretion (FUFE) values among adults consuming (NaF) fluoridated Ca-free water (reference water), naturally fluoridated hard water and an artificially (H2SiF6) fluoridated soft water. Sixty adult females (N=20 for each treatment) participated in this randomized, double-blind trial. The experimental design of this study provided an indirect estimation of the fluoride absorption in different types of water through the assessment of the fractional urinary fluoride excretion of volunteers. Average daily FUFE values (daily amount of fluoride excreted in urine/daily total fluoride intake) were not significantly different between the three treatments (Kruskal-Wallis; p = 0.62). The average 24-hour FUFE value (n=60) was 0.69; 95% C.I. 0.65-0.73. The results of this study suggest that the absorption of fluoride is not affected by water hardness.

  16. Chemical synthesis of deuterated folate monoglutamate and in vivo assessment of urinary excretion of deuterated folates in man

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, J.F. III; Toth, J.P.

    1988-04-01

    The synthesis and in vivo application of stable-isotopically labeled folic acid was investigated to devise methods suitable for studies of folate metabolism in human subjects. Glutamate-labeled tetradeutero-pteroylglutamic acid (d4-folic acid) was prepared by mixed anhydride coupling of N10-trifluoroacetylpteroic acid and dimethyl L-(3,3,4,4-2H4)glutamic acid, saponification in sodium deuteroxide, and chromatographic purification. Retention of the isotopic label was verified by proton NMR and mass spectrometry of the para-aminobenzoylglutamic acid product of C9-N10 bond cleavage. A method was devised for determination of of isotopic enrichment of urinary d4-folates derived from orally administered d4-folic acid using affinity chromatographic purification, chemical cleavage of the C9-N10 bond, HPLC isolation of the p-(2H4)aminobenzoylglutamate product, followed by negative-ion chemical-ionization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Data concerning the urinary excretion of d4-folates derived from an oral dose of d4-folic acid in an adult human are presented.

  17. Usefulness of the renal resistive index to predict an increase in urinary albumin excretion in patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, K; Okura, T; Tanino, A; Kukida, M; Nagao, T; Higaki, J

    2017-01-01

    Microalbuminuria is a risk factor for cardiovascular events and death in hypertensive patients. Patients who are expected to increase albuminuria need strict blood pressure control. In the present study, we assessed the association between the renal resistive index (RI) and future increases in albuminuria in patients with essential hypertension. Sixty-six patients with essential hypertension were included in the study. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify the factors, including renal RI, that were significant independent determinants of increased in urinary albumin excretion (UAE), defined as an increase of >50% in the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio over 2 years. Receiver operator characteristics curve analysis was used to select the optimal cut-off point that predicted an increase in UAE. RI was the only significant variable that predicted the increase in UAE, with the optimal cut-off value of renal RI that predicted this increase being 0.71 (sensitivity 52.4% and specificity 84.4%). Renal RI is associated with the future increase in albuminuria in patients with essential hypertension.

  18. Effects of the dietary supplements, activated charcoal and copper chlorophyllin, on urinary excretion of trimethylamine in Japanese trimethylaminuria patients.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Fujieda, Masaki; Togashi, Masahiro; Saito, Tetsuya; Preti, George; Cashman, John R; Kamataki, Tetsuya

    2004-04-16

    Trimethylaminuria (TMAU) is a metabolic disorder characterized by the inability to oxidize and convert dietary-derived trimethylamine (TMA) to trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO). This disorder has been relatively well-documented in European and North American populations, but no reports have appeared regarding patients in Japan. We identified seven Japanese individuals that showed a low metabolic capacity to convert TMA to its odorless metabolite, TMAO. The metabolic capacity, as defined by the concentration of TMAO excreted in the urine divided by TMA concentration plus TMAO concentration, in these seven individuals ranged from 70 to 90%. In contrast, there were no healthy controls examined with less than 95% of the metabolic capacity to convert TMA to TMAO. The intake of dietary charcoal (total 1.5 g charcoal per day for 10 days) reduced the urinary free TMA concentration and increased the concentration of TMAO to normal values during charcoal administration. Copper chlorophyllin (total 180 mg per day for 3 weeks) was also effective at reducing free urinary TMA concentration and increasing TMAO to those of concentrations present in normal individuals. In the TMAU subjects examined, the effects of copper chlorophyllin appeared to last longer (i.e., several weeks) than those observed for activated charcoal. The results suggest that the daily intake of charcoal and/or copper chlorophyllin may be of significant use in improving the quality of life of individuals suffering from TMAU.

  19. Melatonin production during childhood and adolescence: a longitudinal study on the excretion of urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate.