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Sample records for 6-week recovery period

  1. Recovery of lower limb function following 6 weeks of non-weight bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacIntyre, Donna L.; Eng, Janice J.; Allen, Trevor J.

    2005-05-01

    Skeletal muscle weakness and atrophy occur following an extended period of decreased use, including space flight and limb unloading. It is also likely that affected muscles will be susceptible to a re-loading injury when they begin return to earth or weight bearing. However, there is a paucity of literature evaluating the response of human unloaded muscle to exercise and return to activity. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the soreness, function and strength response of muscle to re-loading in seven patients who were non-weight bearing for 6 weeks, compared to five healthy subjects. Function improved significantly over time for the patients but was still less than the healthy subjects over 12 weeks of physiotherapy. Concentric quadriceps muscle strength increased significantly over time for the patients. There was considerable variability in the patients' reports of muscle soreness but there were no significant changes over time or between groups.

  2. Starting Block Performance in Sprinters: A Statistical Method for Identifying Discriminative Parameters of the Performance and an Analysis of the Effect of Providing Feedback over a 6-Week Period

    PubMed Central

    Fortier, Sylvie; Basset, Fabien A.; Mbourou, Ginette A.; Favérial, Jérôme; Teasdale, Normand

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine if kinetic and kinematic parameters of the sprint start could differentiate elite from sub-elite sprinters and, (b) to investigate whether providing feedback (FB) about selected parameters could improve starting block performance of intermediate sprinters over a 6-week training period. Twelve male sprinters, assigned to an elite or a sub-elite group, participated in Experiment 1. Eight intermediate sprinters participated in Experiment 2. All athletes were required to perform three sprint starts at maximum intensity followed by a 10-m run. To detect differences between elite and sub-elite groups, comparisons were made using t-tests for independent samples. Parameters reaching a significant group difference were retained for the linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The LDA yielded four discriminative kinetic parameters. Feedback about these selected parameters was given to sprinters in Experiment 2. For this experiment, data acquisition was divided into three periods. The first six sessions were without specific FB, whereas the following six sessions were enriched by kinetic FB. Finally, athletes underwent a retention session (without FB) 4 weeks after the twelfth session. Even though differences were found in the time to front peak force, the time to rear peak force, and the front peak force in the retention session, the results of the present study showed that providing FB about selected kinetic parameters differentiating elite from sub-elite sprinters did not improve the starting block performance of intermediate sprinters. Key Points The linear discriminative analysis allows the identification of starting block parameters differentiating elite from sub-elite athletes. 6-week of feedback does not alter starting block performance in training context. The present results failed to confirm previous studies since feedback did not improve targeted kinetic parameters of the complex motor task in real-world context

  3. Postexercise recovery period: carbohydrate and protein metabolism.

    PubMed

    Viru, A

    1996-02-01

    The essence of the postexercise recovery period is normalization of function and homeostatic equilibrium, and replenishment of energy resources and accomplishment of the reconstructive function. The repletion of energy stores is actualized in a certain sequence and followed by a transitory supercompensation. The main substrate for repletion of the muscle glycogen store is blood glucose derived from hepatic glucose output as well as from consumption of carbohydrates during the postexercise period. The repletion of liver glycogen is realized less rapidly. It depends to a certain extent on hepatic gluconeogenesis but mainly on supply with exogenous carbohydrates. The constructive function is founded on elevated protein turnover and adaptive protein synthesis. Whereas during and shortly after endurance exercise intensive protein breakdown was found in less active fast-twitch glycolytic fibers, during the later course of the recovery period the protein degradation rate increased together with intensification of protein synthesis rate in more active fast-twitch glycolytic oxidative and slow-twitch oxidative fibers. PMID:8680938

  4. Breastfeeding at 6 weeks and predictive factors.

    PubMed

    Chye, J K; Zain, Z; Lim, W L; Lim, C T

    1997-10-01

    Despite the numerous changes made in accordance with the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, the low rates of breastfeeding have persisted. This study aims to examine the current trend in infant feeding, and the influences of some perinatal and sociodemographic factors on breastfeeding. Five-hundred mothers with singleton pregnancies and healthy infants were interviewed at 6 weeks post-partum. Only 124 (25 per cent) mothers were practising exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), and 132 (26 per cent) mothers were using exclusive infant formula feeding (EIF). On logistic regression analyses, mothers who followed EBF were more likely to have had antenatal plans to breastfeed (Odds ratio 2.44, 95 per cent confidence interval 1.75-3.45), not in paid employment post-natally (OR 1.76, 95 per cent CI 1.31-2.36), of older age group (> 27 years) (OR 1.48, 95 per cent CI 1.13-1.93), had female infants (OR 1.38, 95 per cent CI 1.05-1.80) and of Indian ethnicity (compared to Chinese) (OR 3.87, 95 per cent CI 2.16-6.89). Breastfeeding difficulties were associated with decreased odds of EBF (OR 0.21, 95 per cent CI 0.13-0.34). Parental education, fathers' ages and incomes, primigravida status, Caesarean section, present of episiotomy, late first breastfeed, phototherapy, and length of hospital stay were not significant predictors of failure of EBF. In comparison, predictive factors for increased use of EIF were mothers who have had breastfeeding difficulties, < or = 9 years of schooling, and of Chinese descent. In conclusions, the overall rate of EBF by 6 weeks of age in infants born in this urban hospital had remained poor. The adverse factors for EBF identified in this study warrant further in-depth studies to determine effective ways of improving EBF rates. PMID:9364127

  5. National Weatherization Assistance Program Characterization Describing the Recovery Act Period

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, Bruce Edward; Rose, Erin M.; Hawkins, Beth A.

    2015-10-01

    This report characterizes the U.S. Department of Energy s Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) during the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) period. This research was one component of the Recovery Act evaluation of WAP. The report presents the results of surveys administered to Grantees (i.e., state weatherization offices) and Subgrantees (i.e., local weatherization agencies). The report also documents the ramp up and ramp down of weatherization production and direct employment during the Recovery Act period and other challenges faced by the Grantees and Subgrantees during this period. Program operations during the Recovery Act (Program Year 2010) are compared to operations during the year previous to the Recovery Act (Program Year 2008).

  6. Improvement in Running Economy after 6 Weeks of Plyometric Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Amanda M.; Owings, Matt; Schwane, James A.

    2003-01-01

    Investigated whether a 6-week regimen of plyometric training would improve running economy. Data were collected on 18 regular but not highly trained distance runners who participated in either regular running training or plyometric training. Results indicated that 6 weeks of plyometric training improved running economy at selected speeds in this…

  7. Monitoring 6 weeks of progressive endurance training with plasma glutamine.

    PubMed

    Kargotich, S; Keast, D; Goodman, C; Bhagat, C I; Joske, D J L; Dawson, B; Morton, A R

    2007-03-01

    The distinction between positive and negative training adaptation is an important prerequisite in the identification of any marker for monitoring training in athletes. To investigate the glutamine responses to progressive endurance training, twenty healthy males were randomly assigned to a training group or a non-exercising control group. The training group performed a progressive (3 to 6 x 90 minute sessions per week at 70 % V.O (2max)) six-week endurance training programme on a cycle ergometer, while the control group did not participate in any exercise during this period. Performance assessments (V.O (2max) and time to exhaustion) and resting blood samples (for haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, cortisol, ferritin, creatine kinase, glutamine, uric acid and urea analysis) were obtained prior to the commencement of training (Pre) and at the end of week 2, week 4 and week 6. The training group showed significant improvements in time to exhaustion (p < 0.01), and V.O (2max) (p < 0.05) at all time points (except week 2 for V.O (2max)), while the control group performance measures did not change. In the training group, haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit were significantly lower (p < 0.01) than pretraining values at week 2 and 4, as percentage changes in plasma volume indicated a significant (p < 0.01) haemodilution (+ 6 - 9 %) was present at week 2, 4 and 6. No changes were seen in the control group. In the training group, plasma glutamine (week 2, 4 and 6), creatine kinase (week 2 and 4), uric acid (week 2 and 4) and urea (week 2 and 4) all increased significantly from pretraining levels. No changes in cortisol or ferritin were found in the training group and no changes in any blood variables were present in the control group. Plasma glutamine was the only blood variable to remain significantly above pretraining (966 +/- 32 micromol . 1 (-1)) levels at week 6 (1176 +/- 24 micromol . 1 (-1); p < 0.05) The elevation seen here in glutamine levels, after 6

  8. Arteriovenous Fistula Development in the First 6 Weeks after Creation.

    PubMed

    Robbin, Michelle L; Greene, Tom; Cheung, Alfred K; Allon, Michael; Berceli, Scott A; Kaufman, James S; Allen, Matthew; Imrey, Peter B; Radeva, Milena K; Shiu, Yan-Ting; Umphrey, Heidi R; Young, Carlton J; Group, For The Hemodialysis Fistula Maturation Study

    2016-05-01

    Purpose To assess the anatomic development of native arteriovenous fistula (AVF) during the first 6 weeks after creation by using ultrasonographic (US) measurements in a multicenter hemodialysis fistula maturation study. Materials and Methods Each institutional review board approved the prospective study protocol, and written informed consent was obtained. Six hundred and two participants (180 women and 422 men, 459 with upper-arm AVF and 143 with forearm AVF) from seven clinical centers underwent preoperative artery and vein US mapping. AVF draining vein diameter and blood flow rate were assessed postoperatively after 1 day, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks. Relationships among US measurements were summarized after using multiple imputation for missing measurements. Results In 55% of forearm AVFs (68 of 124) and 83% of upper-arm AVFs (341 of 411) in surviving patients without thrombosis or AVF intervention prior to 6 weeks, at least 50% of their 6-week blood flow rate measurement was achieved at 1 day. Among surviving patients without thrombosis or AVF intervention prior to week 2, 70% with upper-arm AVFs (302 of 433) and 77% with forearm AVFs (99 of 128) maintained at least 85% of their week 2 flow rate at week 6. Mean AVF diameters of at least 0.40 cm were seen in 85% (389 of 459), 91% (419 of 459), and 87% (401 of 459) of upper-arm AVFs and in 40% (58 of 143), 73% (104 of 143), and 77% (110 of 143) of forearm AVFs at 1 day, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks, respectively. One-day and 2-week AVF flow rates and diameters were used to predict 6-week levels, with 2-week prediction of 6-week measures more accurate than those of 1 day (flow rates, R(2) = 0.47 and 0.61, respectively; diameters, R(2) = 0.49 and 0.82, respectively). Conclusion AVF blood flow rate at 1 day is usually more than 50% of the 6-week blood flow rate. Two-week measurements are more predictive of 6-week diameter and blood flow than those of 1 day. US measurements at 2 weeks may be of value in the early identification of

  9. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. 625.6 Section 625.6 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all...

  10. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  11. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  12. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  13. Effect of nitinol implant porosity on cranial bone ingrowth and apposition after 6 weeks.

    PubMed

    Ayers, R A; Simske, S J; Bateman, T A; Petkus, A; Sachdeva, R L; Gyunter, V E

    1999-04-01

    The present study addresses two aspects of the use of nitinol in cranial bone defect repair. The first is to verify that there is substantial bone ingrowth into the implant after 6 weeks; the second is to determine the effect of pore size on the ability of bone to grow into the implant during the early (6-week) postoperative period. Porous equiatomic (equal atomic masses of titanium and nickel) nickel-titanium (nitinol) implants with three different morphologies (differing in pore size and percent porosity) were implanted for 6 weeks in the parietal bones of New Zealand White rabbits. Ingrowth of bone into the implants and apposition of bone along the exterior and interior implant surfaces were calculated. The mean pore size (MPS) of implant type #1 (353 +/- 74 microm) differed considerably from implant types #2 (218 +/- 28 microm) and #3 (178 +/- 31 microm). There was no significant difference among implant types in the percentages of bone and void/soft tissue composition of the aggregate implants. The amount of bone ingrowth also was not significantly different among the implant types. Implant #1 was significantly higher in pore volume and thus had a significantly higher volume of ingrown bone (2.59 +/- 0.60 mm3) than implant #3 (1. 52 +/- 0.66 mm3) and a greater amount, but not significantly greater, than implant #2 (1.76 +/- 0.47 mm3). Pore size does not appear to affect bone ingrowth during the cartilaginous period of bone growth in the implant. This implies that within the commonly accepted range of implant porosities (150-400 microm), at 6 weeks bone ingrowth near the interface of nitinol implants is similar. PMID:10397956

  14. The Immediate Effects of Different Types of Ankle Support Introduced 6 Weeks After Surgical Internal Fixation for Ankle Fracture on Gait and Pain: A Randomized Crossover Trial.

    PubMed

    Keene, David J; Willett, Keith; Lamb, Sarah E

    2016-03-01

    Study Design Randomized 3-treatment, 3-period crossover trial. Background There is variation in clinical practice regarding the type of ankle support used to aid recovery after ankle fracture internal fixation surgery. Objective To determine the immediate effects of different ankle supports commonly issued to patients 6 weeks after surgery. Methods Participants were 18 adults, 6 weeks after internal fixation for transsyndesmotic/infrasyndesmotic fracture, in a major trauma center in the UK. Interventions were a stirrup brace and walker boot compared with Tubigrip. Outcomes were (1) step-length and single-limb support time asymmetry (percentage comparing injured and uninjured limbs), (2) step width, (3) gait velocity, and (4) pain during walking (visual analog scale, 0-100). Results Participants (mean ± SD age, 47 ± 14 years) included 8 women and 10 men, 6 weeks after surgical internal fixation for ankle fracture. Single-limb support time asymmetry reduced by 3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0%, 6%; P = .02) in the stirrup brace and by 5% (95% CI: 2%, 7%; P = .001) in the walker boot compared with Tubigrip. Step width was 1.2 cm (95% CI: 0.6, 1.7; P<.001) wider in the walker boot than in Tubigrip. Self-reported pain was lower in the walker boot (5/100) and in the stirrup brace (13/100) compared to the Tubigrip (18/100, P = .03). No significant differences were found in the effects of the supports on step-length asymmetry between the walker boot or stirrup brace and Tubigrip. Conclusion At 6 weeks after surgical internal fixation for ankle fracture, pain and single-limb support time asymmetry over a short distance and for a short-term walk were immediately reduced with the use of a walker boot use and, to a lesser extent, a stirrup-brace compared to Tubigrip. Step width also widened in a walker boot, which may confer some additional gait stability. These results apply to immediate effects, so studies with longer-term follow-up are now indicated. The trial was

  15. Predicting 6-week treatment response to escitalopram pharmacotherapy in late-life major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Saghafi, Ramin; Brown, Charlotte; Butters, Meryl A.; Cyranowski, Jill; Dew, Mary Amanda; Frank, Ellen; Gildengers, Ariel; Karp, Jordan F.; Lenze, Eric J.; Lotrich, Francis; Martire, Lynn; Mazumdar, Sati; Miller, Mark D.; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Weber, Elizabeth; Whyte, Ellen; Morse, Jennifer; Stack, Jacqueline; Houck, Patricia R.; Bensasi, Salem; Reynolds, Charles F.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective Approximately half of older patients treated for major depressive disorder (MDD) do not achieve symptomatic remission and functional recovery with first-line pharmacotherapy. This study aims to characterize sociodemographic, clinical, and neuropsychologic correlates of full, partial, and non-response to escitalopram monotherapy of unipolar MDD in later life. Methods One hundred and seventy-five patients aged 60 and older were assessed at baseline on demographic variables, depression severity, hopelessness, anxiety, cognitive functioning, co-existing medical illness burden, social support, and quality of life (disability). Subjects received 10 mg/d of open-label escitalopram and were divided into full (n =55; 31%), partial (n =75; 42.9%), and non-responder (n =45; 25.7%) groups based on Hamilton depression scores at week 6. Univariate followed by multivariate analyses tested for differences between the three groups. Results Non-responders to treatment were found to be more severely depressed and anxious at baseline than both full and partial responders, more disabled, and with lower self-esteem than full responders. In general partial responders resembled full responders more than they resembled non-responders. In multivariate models, more severe anxiety symptoms (both psychological and somatic) and lower self-esteem predicted worse response status at 6 weeks. Conclusion Among treatment-seeking elderly persons with MDD, higher anxiety symptoms and lower self-esteem predict poorer response after six weeks of escitalopram treatment. PMID:17486678

  16. [Nursing care in the anesthesia recovery period: review of the literature].

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Lygia Oliveira; Peniche, Aparecida de Cássia

    2003-12-01

    The present study was undertaken after it was observed that patients submitted to surgical procedures arrived in recovery room with incomplete records, thus complicating continuing nursing care. The goal of the present study is to analyze bibliographic data from 1990 to 2002 on recovery room nursing care. The data was obtained from LILACS (Latin America Literature about Health Science), PERIENF (Nursing School Library of the University of São Paulo) and BDENF (Library of Federal University of Minas Gerais). The key words were nursing care, recovery room and immediate post-operative period. Only 16 articles were found, indicating a shortage of literature on this topic. The recovery room period is an important period of hospitalization and the data are essential for continuous care. PMID:14727442

  17. Design and scheduling for periodic concurrent error detection and recovery in processor arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yi-Min; Chung, Pi-Yu; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1992-01-01

    Periodic application of time-redundant error checking provides the trade-off between error detection latency and performance degradation. The goal is to achieve high error coverage while satisfying performance requirements. We derive the optimal scheduling of checking patterns in order to uniformly distribute the available checking capability and maximize the error coverage. Synchronous buffering designs using data forwarding and dynamic reconfiguration are described. Efficient single-cycle diagnosis is implemented by error pattern analysis and direct-mapped recovery cache. A rollback recovery scheme using start-up control for local recovery is also presented.

  18. Variability in Motor and Language Recovery during the Acute Stroke Period

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Lauren E.; Schweber, Adam B.; Manson, Daniel K.; Lendaris, Andrea; Herber, Charlotte; Marshall, Randolph S.; Lazar, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Most stroke recovery occurs by 90 days after onset, with proportional recovery models showing an achievement of about 70% of the maximal remaining recovery. Little is known about recovery during the acute stroke period. Moreover, data are described for groups, not for individuals. In this observational cohort study, we describe for the first time the daily changes of acute stroke patients with motor and/or language deficits over the first week after stroke onset. Methods Patients were enrolled within 24-72 h after stroke onset with upper extremity hemiparesis, aphasia, or both, and were tested daily until day 7 or discharge with the upper-extremity Fugl-Meyer Assessment of Motor Recovery after Stroke, the Boston Naming Test, and the comprehension domain from the Western Aphasia Battery. Discharge scores, and absolute and proportional changes were examined using t-tests for pairwise comparisons and linear regression to determine relative contributions of initial impairment, lesion volume, and age to recovery over this period. Results Thirty-four patients were enrolled: 19 had motor deficits alone, 8 had aphasia alone, and 7 had motor and language deficits. In a group analysis, statistically significant changes in absolute scores were found in the motor (p < 0.001) and comprehension (p < 0.001) domains but not in naming. Day-by-day recovery curves for individual patients displayed wide variation with comparable initial impairment. Proportional recovery calculations revealed that, on average, patients achieved less than 1/3 of their potential recovery by the time of discharge. Multivariate regression showed that the amount of variance accounted for by initial severity, age, and lesion volume in this early time period was not significant for motor or language domains. Conclusions Over the first week after stroke onset, recovery of upper extremity hemiparesis and aphasia were not predictable on the basis of initial impairment, lesion volume, or age. In

  19. Reclaiming the Maiden: Use of Archetypes in a 6-Week Women's Empowerment Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Anneliese; Hofsess, Christy D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a 6-week, semi-structured group counseling experience for university women students (undergraduate and graduate) from diverse backgrounds exploring archetypes and using group empowerment skills. Theoretical perspectives on women's empowerment groups and the use of archetypes in counseling are discussed as…

  20. Supplementation of Eurycoma longifolia Jack Extract for 6 Weeks Does Not Affect Urinary Testosterone: Epitestosterone Ratio, Liver and Renal Functions in Male Recreational Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chee Keong; Mohamad, Wan Mohd Zahiruddin Wan; Ooi, Foong Kiew; Ismail, Shaiful Bahari; Abdullah, Mohamad Rusli; George, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Eurycoma longifolia Jack (ElJ) has been shown to elevate serum testosterone and increased muscle strength in humans. This study investigated the effects of Physta® a standardized water extract of ElJ (400 mg/day for 6 weeks) on testosterone: epitestosterone (T:E) ratio, liver and renal functions in male recreational athletes. Methods: A total of 13 healthy male recreational athletes were recruited in this double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. The participants were required to consume either 400 mg of ElJ or placebo daily for 6 weeks in the first supplementation regimen. Following a 3 week wash-out period, the participants were requested to consume the other supplement for another 6 weeks. Mid-stream urine samples and blood samples were collected prior to and after 6 weeks of supplementation with either ElJ or placebo. The urine samples were subsequently analyzed for T:E ratio while the blood samples were analyzed for liver and renal functions. Results: T:E ratio was not significantly different following 6 weeks supplementation of either ElJ or placebo compared with their respective baseline values. Similarly, there were no significant changes in both the liver and renal functions tests following the supplementation of ElJ. Conclusions: Supplementation of ElJ i.e. Physta® at a dosage of 400 mg/day for 6 weeks did not affect the urinary T:E ratio and hence will not breach any doping policies of the International Olympic Committee for administration of exogenous testosterone or its precursor. In addition, the supplementation of ElJ at this dosage and duration was safe as it did adversely affect the liver and renal functions. PMID:25013692

  1. Neurobehavioral Performance in Young Adults Living on a 28-h Day for 6 Weeks

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung H.; Wang, Wei; Silva, Edward J.; Chang, Anne-Marie; Scheuermaier, Karine D.; Cain, Sean W.; Duffy, Jeanne F.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Performance on many cognitive tasks varies with time awake and with circadian phase, and the forced desynchrony (FD) protocol can be used to separate these influences on performance. Some performance tasks show practice effects, whereas the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) has been reported not to show such effects. We aimed to compare performance on the PVT and on an addition test (ADD) across a 6-week FD study, to determine whether practice effects were present and to analyze the circadian and wake-dependent modulation of the 2 measures. Design and Setting: A 47-day FD study conducted at the Brigham and Women's Hospital General Clinical Research Center. Participants: Eleven healthy adults (mean age: 24.4 years, 2 women). Measurements and Results: For 2 baseline days and across 6 weeks of FD, we gave a test battery (ADD, PVT, self-rating of effort and performance) every 2 hours. During FD, there was a significant (P < 0.0001) improvement in ADD performance (more correct calculations completed), whereas PVT performance (mean reaction time, fastest 10% reaction times, lapses) significantly (P < 0.0001) declined week by week. Subjective ratings of PVT performance indicated that subjects felt their performance improved across the study (P < 0.0001), but their rating of whether they could have performed better with greater effort did not change across the study (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The decline in PVT performance suggests a cumulative effect of sleep loss across the 6-week study. Subjects did not accurately detect their declining PVT performance, and a motivational factor could not explain this decline. Citation: Lee JH; Wang W; Silva EJ; Chang AM; Scheuermaier KD; Cain SW; Duffy JF. Neurobehavioral performance in young adults living on a 28-h day for 6 weeks. SLEEP 2009;32(7):905-913. PMID:19639753

  2. Physical and psychological effects of 6-week tactile massage on elderly patients with severe dementia.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Mizue; Tatsumi, Asami; Otsuka, Toshiko; Kikuchi, Keiko; Mizuta, Akiko; Makino, Kimiko; Kimoto, Akie; Fujiwara, Kiyoe; Abe, Toshihiko; Nakagomi, Toshihiro; Hayashi, Tatsuya; Saruhara, Takayuki

    2010-12-01

    Tactile massage is a soft massage that improves physical relaxation and psychological well-being. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of a 6-week tactile massage on changes in physical and mental function, symptoms of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) among elderly patients with dementia. In addition, chromogranin A (CgA) levels as an index of stress examined the effects of tactile massage intervention. A tactile massage group consisting of elderly patients with dementia received tactile massage therapy a total of 30 times each for about 20 minutes between 16:00 and 17:00 hours. In the control group, the mean scores for ''intellectual'' and ''emotional function'' score decreased significantly after 6 weeks (P < .05); however, no change was observed in the tactile massage group. Both the ''aggressiveness'' score (P < .05) and CgA levels decreased significantly after 6 weeks in the tactile massage group. These results suggest that tactile massage reduces aggressiveness and stress level in patients with dementia. PMID:21131675

  3. Predictors of Mortality Within 6 Weeks After Treatment of Gastric Variceal Bleeding in Cirrhotic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Wei; Chen, Wei-Ting; Ho, Yu-Pin; Jeng, Wen-Juei; Huang, Chien-Hao; Chen, Yi-Cheng; Lin, Shi-Ming; Chiu, Cheng-Tang; Lin, Chun-Yen; Sheen, I-Shyan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Acute gastric variceal bleeding (GVB) is a catastrophic problem and accounts for one of the major causes of death in cirrhotic patients. Although, N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBC) has been shown to control bleeding effectively, it still carries up high mortality rate. This study aimed to find the predictors of mortality within 6 weeks after emergent endoscopic treatment with NBC injection. This retrospective study recruited patients with acute GVB after emergent endoscopic NBC injection between January 2011 and June 2013 in Linkou Medical Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan. Logistic regression analysis was applied for predictors of mortality within 6 weeks. Statistical significance was set as P < 0.05. There were 132 patients with acute GVB (83.3% men, median age 51.3 years) with endoscopic NBC injection treatments recruited. Mortality within 6 weeks was noted in 16.7% patients. By multivariate analysis, renal function impairment (odds ratio [OR]: 21.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.06–146.0, P = 0.002), higher Child–Turcotte–Pugh (CTP) score (OR: 2.49, 95% CI: 1.41–4.38, P = 0.002), higher model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score (OR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.03–1.35, P = 0.013), rebleeding within 5 days (OR: 16.4, 95% CI: 3.36–79.7, P = 0.001), and acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) (OR: 4.67, 95% CI: 1.62–13.33, P = 0.004) were independent predictors of mortality within 6 weeks. A MELD score of ≥18 was associated with Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (AUROC) of 0.79 (P < 0.001, 95% CI: 0.69–0.90) and a CTP score of ≥9 with AUROC of 0.85 (P < 0.001, 95% CI: 0.76–0.94) for determining 6 weeks mortality. Impaired renal function, deteriorated liver function with CTP score ≥ 9 as well as MELD score ≥18, rebleeding within 5 days, and ACLF are independent predictors of mortality. PMID:25546678

  4. Predictors of mortality within 6 weeks after treatment of gastric variceal bleeding in cirrhotic patients.

    PubMed

    Teng, Wei; Chen, Wei-Ting; Ho, Yu-Pin; Jeng, Wen-Juei; Huang, Chien-Hao; Chen, Yi-Cheng; Lin, Shi-Ming; Chiu, Cheng-Tang; Lin, Chun-Yen; Sheen, I-Shyan

    2014-12-01

    Acute gastric variceal bleeding (GVB) is a catastrophic problem and accounts for one of the major causes of death in cirrhotic patients. Although, N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBC) has been shown to control bleeding effectively, it still carries up high mortality rate. This study aimed to find the predictors of mortality within 6 weeks after emergent endoscopic treatment with NBC injection. This retrospective study recruited patients with acute GVB after emergent endoscopic NBC injection between January 2011 and June 2013 in Linkou Medical Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan. Logistic regression analysis was applied for predictors of mortality within 6 weeks. Statistical significance was set as P < 0.05. There were 132 patients with acute GVB (83.3% men, median age 51.3 years) with endoscopic NBC injection treatments recruited. Mortality within 6 weeks was noted in 16.7% patients. By multivariate analysis, renal function impairment (odds ratio [OR]: 21.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.06-146.0, P = 0.002), higher Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) score (OR: 2.49, 95% CI: 1.41-4.38, P = 0.002), higher model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score (OR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.03-1.35, P = 0.013), rebleeding within 5 days (OR: 16.4, 95% CI: 3.36-79.7, P = 0.001), and acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) (OR: 4.67, 95% CI: 1.62-13.33, P = 0.004) were independent predictors of mortality within 6 weeks. A MELD score of ≥ 18 was associated with Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (AUROC) of 0.79 (P < 0.001, 95% CI: 0.69-0.90) and a CTP score of ≥ 9 with AUROC of 0.85 (P < 0.001, 95% CI: 0.76-0.94) for determining 6 weeks mortality. Impaired renal function, deteriorated liver function with CTP score ≥ 9 as well as MELD score ≥ 18, rebleeding within 5 days, and ACLF are independent predictors of mortality. PMID:25546678

  5. Recovery of partial differential operators on classes of periodic functions with mixed smoothness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balgimbayeva, Sholpan

    2016-08-01

    We consider the problem of optimal linear recovery for mixed partial differential operator A on the unit ball SBpθ r(Tn) of the Nikol'skii-Besov space of periodic functions with mixed smoothness. We find error bounds sharp in order for optimal linear recovery of operator A on class SBpθ r(Tn) . As information IMδ(f ) about the functions f from class SBpθ r(Tn) we shall use Fourier coefficients with numbers from step "hyperbolic" cross. As the linear method using the information about Fourier coefficients, we shall consider action of the mixed partial differential operator A on the special "private" sum of decomposition on system (type as wavelets) trigonometric polynomials.

  6. Women's experiences of infant feeding support in the first 6 weeks post-birth.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Athena; Schmied, Virginia; Barclay, Lesley

    2009-04-01

    Research suggests women find the first 2 to 6 weeks to be the most difficult time for breastfeeding. It has been identified that women need and seek support with breastfeeding during this time. Support is a difficult concept to define. When discussed by professionals, support for breastfeeding is generally viewed in terms of providing information and educational interventions. There is little understanding of the different elements of breastfeeding support strategies and the mechanisms by which support operates. Further, there is a paucity of qualitative research specifically reporting women's experiences and expectations of professional support. This paper describes women's expectations and experiences of 'infant feeding support' provided by health professionals in the first 6 weeks post-birth. The findings are drawn from a grounded theory study exploring women's infant feeding decisions in the first 6 weeks post-birth. Participants were recruited from a variety of socio-demographic areas of Sydney and the NSW Central Coast, Australia in 2003-2004. The women in this study discussed aspects of what they considered helpful and/or unhelpful in terms of professional support. In addition, they also provided insight into aspects of interactions that were deemed important to them as new mothers learning to feed their babies. The results are presented in three sections: expecting support, experiencing support and evaluating support. The findings help to better understand components of professional practices and behaviours that can be considered supportive. The support behaviours are far more complex than simply increasing education and knowledge of infant feeding. They demonstrate the need for sensitive individualized care and show that this type of support can increase women's confidence to breastfeed. PMID:19292748

  7. Lower Extremity Biomechanics in Athletes With Ankle Instability After a 6-Week Integrated Training Program

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Pi-Yin; Chen, Wen-Ling; Lin, Cheng-Feng; Lee, Heng-Ju

    2014-01-01

    Context: Plyometric exercise has been recommended to prevent lower limb injury, but its feasibility in and effects on those with functional ankle instability (FAI) are unclear. Objective: To investigate the effect of integrated plyometric and balance training in participants with FAI during a single-legged drop landing and single-legged standing position. Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting: University motion-analysis laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty athletes with FAI were divided into 3 groups: plyometric group (8 men, 2 women, age = 23.20 ± 2.82 years; 10 unstable ankles), plyometric-balance (integrated)–training group (8 men, 2 women, age = 23.80 ± 4.13 years; 10 unstable ankles), and control group (7 men, 3 women, age = 23.50 ± 3.00 years; 10 unstable ankles). Intervention(s): A 6-week plyometric-training program versus a 6-week integrated-training program. Main Outcome Measure(s): Postural sway during single-legged standing with eyes open and closed was measured before and after training. Kinematic data were recorded during medial and lateral single-legged drop landings after a 5-second single-legged stance. Results: Reduced postural sway in the medial-lateral direction and reduced sway area occurred in the plyometric- and integrated-training groups. Generally, the plyometric training and integrated training increased the maximum angles at the hip and knee in the sagittal plane, reduced the maximum angles at the hip and ankle in the frontal and transverse planes in the lateral drop landing, and reduced the time to stabilization for knee flexion in the medial drop landing. Conclusions: After 6 weeks of plyometric training or integrated training, individuals with FAI used a softer landing strategy during drop landings and decreased their postural sway during the single-legged stance. Plyometric training improved static and dynamic postural control and should be incorporated into rehabilitation programs for those with FAI

  8. Effects of A 6-Week Junior Tennis Conditioning Program on Service Velocity

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; Ellenbecker, Todd; Sanz-Rivas, david; Ulbricht, Alexander; Ferrautia, lexander

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a 6-week strength-training program on serve velocity in youth tennis players. Thirty competitive healthy and nationally ranked male junior tennis players (13 years of age) were randomly and equally divided into control and training groups. The training group performed 3 sessions (60-70 min) weekly for 6 weeks, comprising core strength, elastic resistance and medicine ball exercises. Both groups (control and training) also performed a supervised stretching routine at the end of each training session, during the 6 week intervention. Service velocity, service accuracy and shoulder internal/external rotation were assessed initially and at the end of the 6-week conditioning program for both, control and training groups. There was a significant improvement in the serve velocity for the training group (p = 0. 0001) after the intervention, whereas in the control group there were no differences between pre and post-tests (p = 0.29). Serve accuracy was not affected in the training group (p = 0.10), nor in the control group (p = 0.15). Shoulder internal/external rotation ROM significantly improved in both groups, training (p = 0.001) and control (p = 0.0001). The present results showed that a short- term training program for young tennis players, using minimum equipment and effort, can result in improved tennis performance (i.e., serve velocity) and a reduction in the risk of a possible overuse injury, reflected by an improvement in shoulder external/internal range of motion. Key Points A short-term training program for young tennis players, using minimum equipment and effort, can result in improved tennis performance and a reduction in the risk of a possible overuse injury, reflected by an improvement in shoulder external/internal range of motion A combination of core stabilization, elastic resistance exercises, and upper body plyometric exercises (i.e., medicine ball throws), focussing on the primary muscle groups and stabilizers involved

  9. State of the mineral component of rat bone tissue during hypokinesia and the recovery period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volozhin, A. I.; Stupakov, G. P.; Pavlova, M. N.; Muradov, I. S.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on young growing rats. Hypokinesia lasting from 20 to 200 days caused retarded gain in weight and volume of the femur and delayed development of the cortical layer of the diaphysis. In contrast, the density of the cortical layer of the femoral diaphysis increased due to elevation of the mineral saturation of the bone tissue microstructures. Incorporation of Ca into the bone tissue in hypokinesia had a tendency to reduce. Partial normalization of the bone tissue mineral component occurred during a 20 day recovery period following hypokinesia.

  10. A Preliminary Exploration of the Effects of a 6-week Interactive Video Dance Exercise Program in an Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Fruth, Stacie J; Clifford, Anne; Hine, Stephanie; Huckstep, Jeremy; Merkel, Heidi; Wilkinson, Hilary; Yoder, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a 6-week interactive video dance game (IVDG) program on adult participants’ cardiorespiratory status and body mass index (BMI). Methods: Twenty-seven healthy adult participants attended IVDG sessions over a 6-week period. Participants completed pre- and post-testing consisting of a submaximal VO2 treadmill test, assessment of resting heart rate (RHR) and blood pressure (BP), BMI, and general health questionnaires. Data were analyzed using descriptives, paired t-tests to assess pre-to post-testing differences, and one-way ANOVAs to analyze variables among select groups of participants. Questionnaire data was manually coded and assessed. Results: Twenty participants attended at least 75% of available sessions and were used in data analysis. Mean BMI decreased significantly (from 26.96 kg/m2 to 26.21 kg/m2; 2.87%) and cardiorespiratory fitness measured by peak VO2 increased significantly (from 20.63 ml/kg/min to 21.69 ml/kg/min; 5.14%). Most participants reported that the IVDG program was a good workout, and that they were encouraged to continue or start an exercise routine. Forty percent reported improvements in sleep, and nearly half stated they had or were considering purchasing a home version of a video dance game. Conclusions: Interactive video dance game is an effective and enjoyable exercise program for adults who wish to decrease their BMI and improve components of cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:22163175

  11. Critical periods after stroke study: translating animal stroke recovery experiments into a clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Dromerick, Alexander W.; Edwardson, Matthew A.; Edwards, Dorothy F.; Giannetti, Margot L.; Barth, Jessica; Brady, Kathaleen P.; Chan, Evan; Tan, Ming T.; Tamboli, Irfan; Chia, Ruth; Orquiza, Michael; Padilla, Robert M.; Cheema, Amrita K.; Mapstone, Mark E.; Fiandaca, Massimo S.; Federoff, Howard J.; Newport, Elissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Seven hundred ninety-five thousand Americans will have a stroke this year, and half will have a chronic hemiparesis. Substantial animal literature suggests that the mammalian brain has much potential to recover from acute injury using mechanisms of neuroplasticity, and that these mechanisms can be accessed using training paradigms and neurotransmitter manipulation. However, most of these findings have not been tested or confirmed in the rehabilitation setting, in large part because of the challenges in translating a conceptually straightforward laboratory experiment into a meaningful and rigorous clinical trial in humans. Through presentation of methods for a Phase II trial, we discuss these issues and describe our approach. Methods: In rodents there is compelling evidence for timing effects in rehabilitation; motor training delivered at certain times after stroke may be more effective than the same training delivered earlier or later, suggesting that there is a critical or sensitive period for strongest rehabilitation training effects. If analogous critical/sensitive periods can be identified after human stroke, then existing clinical resources can be better utilized to promote recovery. The Critical Periods after Stroke Study (CPASS) is a phase II randomized, controlled trial designed to explore whether such a sensitive period exists. We will randomize 64 persons to receive an additional 20 h of upper extremity therapy either immediately upon rehab admission, 2–3 months after stroke onset, 6 months after onset, or to an observation-only control group. The primary outcome measure will be the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) at 1 year. Blood will be drawn at up to 3 time points for later biomarker studies. Conclusion: CPASS is an example of the translation of rodent motor recovery experiments into the clinical setting; data obtained from this single site randomized controlled trial will be used to finalize the design of a Phase III trial. PMID

  12. Water Recovery System Design to Accommodate Dormant Periods for Manned Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabb, David; Carter, Layne

    2015-01-01

    Future manned missions beyond lower Earth orbit may include intermittent periods of extended dormancy. Under the NASA Advanced Exploration System (AES) project, NASA personnel evaluated the viability of the ISS Water Recovery System (WRS) to support such a mission. The mission requirement includes the capability for life support systems to support crew activity, followed by a dormant period of up to one year, and subsequently for the life support systems to come back online for additional crewed missions. Dormancy could be a critical issue due to concerns with microbial growth or chemical degradation that might prevent water systems from operating properly when the crewed mission began. As such, it is critical that the water systems be designed to accommodate this dormant period. This paper details the results of this evaluation, which include identification of dormancy issues, results of testing performed to assess microbial stability of pretreated urine during dormancy periods, and concepts for updating to the WRS architecture and operational concepts that will enable the ISS WRS to support the dormancy requirement.

  13. Emotion Reactivity Is Increased 4-6 Weeks Postpartum in Healthy Women: A Longitudinal fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Gingnell, Malin; Bannbers, Elin; Moes, Harmen; Engman, Jonas; Sylvén, Sara; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Kask, Kristiina; Wikström, Johan; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2015-01-01

    Marked endocrine alterations occur after delivery. Most women cope well with these changes, but the postpartum period is associated with an increased risk of depressive episodes. Previous studies of emotion processing have focused on maternal–infant bonding or postpartum depression (PPD), and longitudinal studies of the neural correlates of emotion processing throughout the postpartum period in healthy women are lacking. In this study, 13 women, without signs of post partum depression, underwent fMRI with an emotional face matching task and completed the MADRS-S, STAI-S, and EPDS within 48 h (early postpartum) and 4–6 weeks after delivery (late postpartum). Also, data from a previous study including 15 naturally cycling controls assessed in the luteal and follicular phase of the menstrual cycle was used. Women had lower reactivity in insula, middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in the early as compared to the late postpartum assessment. Insular reactivity was positively correlated with anxiety in the early postpartum period and with depressive symptoms late postpartum. Reactivity in insula and IFG were greater in postpartum women than in non-pregnant control subjects. Brain reactivity was not correlated with serum estradiol or progesterone levels. Increased reactivity in the insula, IFG, and MFG may reflect normal postpartum adaptation, but correlation with self-rated symptoms of depression and anxiety in these otherwise healthy postpartum women, may also suggest that these changes place susceptible women at increased risk of PPD. These findings contribute to our understanding of the neurobiological aspects of the postpartum period, which might shed light on the mechanisms underlying affective puerperal disorders, such as PPD. PMID:26061879

  14. Immune cell changes in response to a swimming training session during a 24-h recovery period.

    PubMed

    Morgado, José P; Monteiro, Cristina P; Teles, Júlia; Reis, Joana F; Matias, Catarina; Seixas, Maria T; Alvim, Marta G; Bourbon, Mafalda; Laires, Maria J; Alves, Francisco

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the impact of training sessions on the immune response is crucial for the adequate periodization of training, to prevent both a negative influence on health and a performance impairment of the athlete. This study evaluated acute systemic immune cell changes in response to an actual swimming session, during a 24-h recovery period, controlling for sex, menstrual cycle phases, maturity, and age group. Competitive swimmers (30 females, 15 ± 1.3 years old; and 35 males, 16.5 ± 2.1 years old) performed a high-intensity training session. Blood samples were collected before, immediately after, 2 h after, and 24 h after exercise. Standard procedures for the assessment of leukogram by automated counting (Coulter LH 750, Beckman) and lymphocytes subsets by flow cytometry (FACS Calibur BD, Biosciences) were used. Subjects were grouped according to competitive age groups and pubertal Tanner stages. Menstrual cycle phase was monitored. The training session induced neutrophilia, lymphopenia, and a low eosinophil count, lasting for at least 2 h, independent of sex and maturity. At 24 h postexercise, the acquired immunity of juniors (15-17 years old), expressed by total lymphocytes and total T lymphocytes (CD3(+)), was not fully recovered. This should be accounted for when planning a weekly training program. The observed lymphopenia suggests a lower immune surveillance at the end of the session that may depress the immunity of athletes, highlighting the need for extra care when athletes are exposed to aggressive environmental agents such as swimming pools. PMID:27028294

  15. Activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force, reporting period March--August 1991; Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery, reporting period October--December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    Activities of DOE's Oil Implementation Task Force for the period March--August 1991 are reviewed. Contracts for fields projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery are discussed, with a list of related publications given. Enhanced recovery processes covered include chemical flooding, gas displacement, thermal recovery, and microbial recovery.

  16. 4–6 week old adult-born hippocampal neurons influence novelty-evoked exploration and contextual fear conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Denny, Christine A.; Burghardt, Nesha S.; Schachter, Daniel M.; Hen, René; Drew, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    To explore the role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in novelty processing, we assessed novel object recognition (NOR) in mice after neurogenesis was arrested using focal x-irradiation of the hippocampus, or a reversible, genetic method in which glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive neural progenitor cells are ablated with ganciclovir. Arresting neurogenesis did not alter general activity or object investigation during four exposures with two constant objects. However, when a novel object replaced a constant object, mice with neurogenesis arrested by either ablation method showed increased exploration of the novel object when compared with control mice. The increased novel object exploration did not manifest until 4–6 weeks after x-irradiation or 6 weeks following a genetic ablation, indicating that exploration of the novel object is increased specifically by the elimination of 4–6-week-old adult born neurons. The increased novel object exploration was also observed in older mice, which exhibited a marked reduction in neurogenesis relative to young mice. Mice with neurogenesis arrested by either ablation method were also impaired in 1-trial contextual fear conditioning (CFC) at 6 weeks but not at 4 weeks following ablation, further supporting the idea that 4–6-week old adult born neurons are necessary for specific forms of hippocampal-dependent learning, and suggesting that the NOR and CFC effects have a common underlying mechanism. These data suggest that the transient enhancement of plasticity observed in young adult-born neurons contributes to cognitive functions. PMID:21739523

  17. AIAA Educator Academy - Mars Rover Curriculum: A 6 week multidisciplinary space science based curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriquez, E.; Bering, E. A.; Slagle, E.; Nieser, K.; Carlson, C.; Kapral, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Curiosity mission has captured the imagination of children, as NASA missions have done for decades. The AIAA and the University of Houston have developed a flexible curriculum program that offers children in-depth science and language arts learning culminating in the design and construction of their own model rover. The program is called the Mars Rover Model Celebration. It focuses on students, teachers and parents in grades 3-8. Students learn to research Mars in order to pick a science question about Mars that is of interest to them. They learn principles of spacecraft design in order to build a model of a Mars rover to carry out their mission on the surface of Mars. The model is a mock-up, constructed at a minimal cost from art supplies. This project may be used either informally as an after school club or youth group activity or formally as part of a class studying general science, earth science, solar system astronomy or robotics, or as a multi-disciplinary unit for a gifted and talented program. The project's unique strength lies in engaging students in the process of spacecraft design and interesting them in aerospace engineering careers. The project is aimed at elementary and secondary education. Not only will these students learn about scientific fields relevant to the mission (space science, physics, geology, robotics, and more), they will gain an appreciation for how this knowledge is used to tackle complex problems. The low cost of the event makes it an ideal enrichment vehicle for low income schools. It provides activities that provide professional development to educators, curricular support resources using NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) content, and provides family opportunities for involvement in K-12 student learning. This paper will describe the structure and organization of the 6 week curriculum. A set of 30 new 5E lesson plans have been written to support this project as a classroom activity. The challenge of developing interactive

  18. Association of caesarean delivery with child adiposity from age 6 weeks to 15 years

    PubMed Central

    Blustein, Jan; Attina, Teresa; Liu, Mengling; Ryan, Andrew M.; Cox, Laura M.; Blaser, Martin J.; Trasande, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess associations of caesarean section with body mass from birth through adolescence. Design Longitudinal birth cohort study, following subjects up to 15 years of age. Setting and Participants Children born in 1991–1992 in Avon, UK who participated in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children [ALSPAC] (n = 10,219). Outcome measures Primary outcome: standardized measures of body mass (weight-for length z-scores at 6 weeks, 10, and 20 months; and Body Mass Index [BMI] z-scores at 38 months, 7, 9, 11, and 15 years). Secondary outcome: Categorical overweight or obese (BMI >= 85th percentile) for age and gender, at 38 months, 7, 9, 11, and 15 years. Results Of the 10,219 children, 926 (9.06%) were delivered by caesarean section. Those born by caesarean had lower birth weights than those born vaginally (−46.1g, 95% CI: 14.6 to 77.6 g; p = 0.004). In mixed multivariable models adjusting for birth weight, gender, parental body mass, family sociodemographics, gestational factors and infant feeding patterns, caesarean delivery was consistently associated with increased adiposity, starting at six weeks (+0.11 SD units, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.18; p=0.005), through age 15 (BMI z-score increment + 0.10 SD units, 95% CI 0.001 to 0.198; p=0.042). By age 11 caesarean–delivered children had 1.83 times the odds of overweight or obesity (95% CI: 1.24 to 2.70; p=0.002). When the sample was stratified by maternal pre-pregnancy weight, the association among children born of overweight/obese mothers was strong and long-lasting. In contrast, evidence of an association among children born of normal weight mothers was weak. Conclusion Caesarean delivery is associated with increased body mass in childhood and adolescence. Research is needed to further characterize the association in children of normal weight women. Additional work is also needed to understand the mechanism underlying the association, which may involve relatively enduring changes in the intestinal

  19. Recovery

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video discusses the recovery events that occur in high-power rocketry and the various devices used in safely recovering the rocket. The video includes a discussion of black powder and ejection...

  20. Unconventional gas recovery program. Semi-annual report for the period ending September 30, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Manilla, R.D.

    1980-04-01

    This document is the third semi-annual report describing the technical progress of the US DOE projects directed at gas recovery from unconventional sources. Currently the program includes Methane Recovery from Coalbeds Project, Eastern Gas Shales Project, Western Gas Sands Project, and Geopressured Aquifers Project.

  1. [Recovery].

    PubMed

    Estingoy, Pierrette; Gilliot, Élodie; Parisot, Clément

    2015-01-01

    The historical fatalism of the impossibility of recovering from psychosis eased from the 1970s with the shaping of the idea of a possible recovery. Recovery is today the objective for the patient and caregivers. The key to achieving this lies in the encounter with Others. A collective approach, on the level of the institution, must be established. The aim is to create opportunities for the patient to express their doubts and feelings. PMID:26363659

  2. Prothrombin Complex Concentrate for Intracerebral Hemorrhage Secondary to Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding in a 6-Week-Old Child.

    PubMed

    Rech, Megan A; Wittekindt, Lindsay; Friedman, Samantha D; Kling, Kendall; Ubogy, David

    2015-12-01

    Four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate is approved for use of life-threatening bleeding secondary to vitamin K antagonism in adults. We describe the use of four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate for hemostasis in a 6-week-old child with life-threatening vitamin K dependent-bleeding who never received vitamin K prophylaxis at birth. PMID:26454577

  3. Spectroscopic characterization of bone tissue of experimental animals after glucocorticoid treatment and recovery period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitić, Žarko J.; Najman, Stevo J.; Cakić, Milorad D.; Ajduković, Zorica R.; Ignjatović, Nenad L.; Nikolić, Ružica S.; Nikolić, Goran M.; Stojanović, Sanja T.; Vukelić, Marija Đ.; Trajanović, Miroslav D.

    2014-09-01

    The influence of glucocorticoids on the composition and mineral/organic content of the mandible in tested animals after recovery and healing phase was investigated in this work. The results of FTIR analysis demonstrated that bone tissue composition was changed after glucocorticoid treatment. The increase of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus content and mineral part of bones was statistically significant in recovery phase and in treatment phase that included calcitonin and thymus extract. Some changes also happened in the organic part of the matrix, as indicated by intensity changes for already present IR bands and the appearance of new IR bands in the region 3500-1300 cm-1.

  4. Web-enabled Conversational Interactions as a Means to Improve Cognitive Functions: Results of a 6-Week Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Hiroko H.; Zhu, Jian; Mattek, Nora; Bowman, Molly; Ybarra, Oscar; Wild, Katherine; Loewenstein, David A.; Kaye, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Increasing social interaction could be a promising intervention for improving cognitive function. We examined the feasibility of a randomized controlled trial to assess whether conversation-based cognitive stimulation, through personal computers, webcams, and a user-friendly interactive Internet interface had high adherence and a positive effect on cognitive functions among older adults without dementia. METHODS Daily 30 minute face-to-face communications were conducted over a 6-week trial period in the intervention group. The control group had only a weekly telephone interview. Cognitive status of normal and MCI subjects was operationally defined as Global Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) = 0 and 0.5, respectively. Age, sex, education, Mini-Mental State Exam and CDR score were balancing factors in randomization. Subjects were recruited using mass-mailing invitations. Pre-post differences in cognitive test scores and loneliness scores were compared between control and intervention groups using linear regression models. RESULTS Eighty-three subjects participated (intervention: n=41, control: n=42). Their mean (std) age was 80.5 (6.8) years. Adherence to the protocol was high; there was no dropout and mean % of days completed out of the targeted trial days among the intervention group was 89% (range: 77%–100%). Among the cognitively intact participants, the intervention group improved more than the control group on a semantic fluency test (p=0.003) at the post-trial assessment and a phonemic fluency test (p=0.004) at the 18th week assessments. Among those with MCI, a trend (p=0.04) of improved psychomotor speed was observed in the intervention group. DISCUSSION Daily conversations via user-friendly Internet communication programs demonstrated high adherence. Among cognitively intact, the intervention group showed greater improvement in tests of language-based executive functions. Increasing daily social contacts through communication technologies could

  5. 6-weekly bevacizumab versus 4-weekly ranibizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration: a 2-year outcome

    PubMed Central

    Chiam, Patrick J; Ho, Vivian W; Hickley, Nicholas M; Kotamarthi, Venkat

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare visual acuity and central macular thickness (CMT) changes in neovascular age related macular degeneration patients treated with either 6 weekly bevacizumab regimen or 4 weekly ranibizumab on an as required basis. METHODS Patients made an informed choice between bevacizumab 1.25 mg or ranibizumab 0.5 mg. The selected treatment was administered in the first 3 visits. Bevacizumab patients were followed-up 6 weekly and ranibizumab 4 weekly. Retreatment criteria was based on the reduction of >5 letters in the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), the presence of retinal fluid on optical coherence tomography (OCT) or new retinal haemorrhage. RESULTS Visual acuity at 2y bevacizumab patients gained 7.0 letters and ranibizumab 9.2 (P=0.31, 95% CI -6.4 to 2.0). At 2y 86% of bevacizumab and 94% ranibizumab patients had not lost 15 letters or more (P=0.13). Mean CMT decreased at 2y bevacizumab by 146 µm, ranibizumab 160 µm (P=0.72). Mean number of injections was at 2y bevacizumzb 11.9, ranibizumab 10.3 (P=0.023). CONCLUSION Bevacizumab 6 weekly on an as required basis was not demonstrably non-inferior to ranibizumab 4 weekly pro re nata (prn) in terms of BCVA and change in CMT. In the bevacizumab group, one more injection was required in the second year compared to the ranibizumab group. PMID:27162727

  6. Cardiovascular adjustments induced by training evaluated during semisupine isotonic exercise and recovery period: an echocardiographic study.

    PubMed

    Di Bello, V; Santoro, G; Cini, G; Pentimone, F; Ginanni, A; Romano, M F; Giusti, C

    1987-12-01

    Two groups of subjects were examined: trained athletes (group A) and a sedentary control group (group B). The subjects performed submaximal bicycle exercise in the semisupine position to evaluate the differences between the two groups with regard to cardiovascular response during exercise and recovery and to point out all the changes due to training. During the first part of exercise, cardiac output increased contemporary with heart rate and myocardial contractility as shown by the trend of the ejection fraction, higher in group A, under the same level of total vascular peripheral resistances. Later there was an increase of cardiac output for a further increase of heart rate and cardiac inotropism due to the homeometric mechanism. During recovery the heart rate and peripheral vascular resistance reduction led to an increase of venous return which set up the Frank-Starling mechanism via an increase of left ventricular dimensions. These adjustments were more efficient in group A. During exercise and recovery the heart rate-pressure product was constantly lower in group A with a significant difference to group B. Therefore, trained athletes' myocardium is more efficient than that of the sedentary group because it performs an external work load with a lower oxygen consumption. PMID:3429087

  7. Subclinical Cardiac Dysfunction Detected by Strain Imaging During Breast Irradiation With Persistent Changes 6 Weeks After Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, Queenie; Hee, Leia; Batumalai, Vikneswary; Allman, Christine; MacDonald, Peter; Delaney, Geoff P.; Lonergan, Denise; Thomas, Liza

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate 2-dimensional strain imaging (SI) for the detection of subclinical myocardial dysfunction during and after radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Forty women with left-sided breast cancer, undergoing only adjuvant RT to the left chest, were prospectively recruited. Standard echocardiography and SI were performed at baseline, during RT, and 6 weeks after RT. Strain (S) and strain rate (Sr) parameters were measured in the longitudinal, circumferential, and radial planes. Correlation of change in global longitudinal strain (GLS % and Δ change) and the volume of heart receiving 30 Gy (V30) and mean heart dose (MHD) were examined. Results: Left ventricular ejection fraction was unchanged; however, longitudinal systolic S and Sr and radial S were significantly reduced during RT and remained reduced at 6 weeks after treatment [longitudinal S (%) −20.44 ± 2.66 baseline vs −18.60 ± 2.70* during RT vs −18.34 ± 2.86* at 6 weeks after RT; longitudinal Sr (s{sup −1}) −1.19 ± 0.21 vs −1.06 ± 0.18* vs −1.06 ± 0.16*; radial S (%) 56.66 ± 18.57 vs 46.93 ± 14.56* vs 49.22 ± 15.81*; *P<.05 vs baseline]. Diastolic Sr were only reduced 6 weeks after RT [longitudinal E Sr (s{sup −1}) 1.47 ± 0.32 vs 1.29 ± 0.27*; longitudinal A Sr (s{sup −1}) 1.19 ± 0.31 vs 1.03 ± 0.24*; *P<.05 vs baseline], whereas circumferential strain was preserved throughout. A modest correlation between S and Sr and V30 and MHD was observed (GLS Δ change and V30 ρ = 0.314, P=.05; GLS % change and V30 ρ = 0.288, P=.076; GLS Δ change and MHD ρ = 0.348, P=.03; GLS % change and MHD ρ = 0.346, P=.031). Conclusions: Subclinical myocardial dysfunction was detected by 2-dimensional SI during RT, with changes persisting 6 weeks after treatment, though long-term effects remain unknown. Additionally, a modest correlation between strain reduction and radiation dose was observed.

  8. Analysis of Thermal and Chemical Effets on Negative Valve Overlap Period Energy Recovery for Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Ekoto, Dr Isaac; Peterson, Dr. Brian; Szybist, James P; Northrop, Dr. William

    2015-01-01

    A central challenge for efficient auto-ignition controlled low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) engines has been achieving the combustion phasing needed to reach stable performance over a wide operating regime. The negative valve overlap (NVO) strategy has been explored as a way to improve combustion stability through a combination of charge heating and altered reactivity via a recompression stroke with a pilot fuel injection. The study objective was to analyze the thermal and chemical effects on NVO-period energy recovery. The analysis leveraged experimental gas sampling results obtained from a single-cylinder LTGC engine along with cylinder pressure measurements and custom data reduction methods used to estimate period thermodynamic properties. The engine was fueled by either iso-octane or ethanol, and operated under sweeps of NVO-period oxygen concentration, injection timing, and fueling rate. Gas sampling at the end of the NVO period was performed via a custom dump-valve apparatus, with detailed sample speciation by in-house gas chromatography. The balance of NVO-period input and output energy flows was calculated in terms of fuel energy, work, heat loss, and change in sensible energy. Experiment results were complemented by detailed chemistry single-zone reactor simulations performed at relevant mixing and thermodynamic conditions, with results used to evaluate ignition behavior and expected energy recovery yields. For the intermediate bulk-gas temperatures present during the NVO period (900-1100 K), weak negative temperature coefficient behavior with iso-octane fueling significantly lengthened ignition delays relative to similar ethanol fueled conditions. Faster ethanol ignition chemistry led to lower recovered fuel intermediate yields relative to similar iso-octane fueled conditions due to more complete fuel oxidation. From the energy analysis it was found that increased NVO-period global equivalence ratio, either from lower NVOperiod oxygen

  9. Semi-annual report for the unconventional gas recovery program, period ending September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Manilla, R.D.

    1980-11-01

    Progress is reported in research on methane recovery from coalbeds, eastern gas shales, western gas sands, and geopressured aquifers. In the methane from coalbeds project, data on information evaluation and management, resource and site assessment and characterization, model development, instrumentation, basic research, and production technology development are reported. In the methane from eastern gas shales project, data on resource characterization and inventory, extraction technology, and technology testing and verification are presented. In the western gas sands project, data on resource assessments, field tests and demonstrations and project management are reported. In the methane from geopressured aquifers project, data on resource assessment, supporting research, field tests and demonstrations, and technology transfer are reported.

  10. The plasmapause period of magnetic recovery. Combined study of OGO 4, OGO 5 data and of grounded whistler reception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcuff, P.; Corcuff, Y.; Carpenter, D. L.; Chappell, C. R.; Vigneron, J.; Kleimenova, N.

    1972-01-01

    The equatorial structure and dynamics of the plasmasphere during the period of magnetic recovery, lasting from the 13 to 23 of September 1968, are studied. The H(+) ions density profiles measured in the night and afternoon sectors by the excentered orbital satellite OGO 5 and L sub p positions of the plasmapause deduced from the VLF records of the polar orbital satellite OGO 4, are included. Electron densities are calculated from the whistlers received at Kerguelen (L approximately 3, 7) and Byrd (L approximately 7), ground stations 150 degrees of longitude apart.

  11. Comparison of three baseball-specific 6-week training programs on throwing velocity in high school baseball players.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, Rafael F; Ionno, Michele; deMahy, M Scott; Fleisig, Glenn S; Wilk, Kevin E; Yamashiro, Kyle; Mikla, Tony; Paulos, Lonnie; Andrews, James R

    2012-07-01

    Throwing velocity is an important baseball performance variable for baseball pitchers, because greater throwing velocity results in less time for hitters to make a decision to swing. Throwing velocity is also an important baseball performance variable for position players, because greater throwing velocity results in decreased time for a runner to advance to the next base. This study compared the effects of 3 baseball-specific 6-week training programs on maximum throwing velocity. Sixty-eight high school baseball players 14-17 years of age were randomly and equally divided into 3 training groups and a nontraining control group. The 3 training groups were the Throwers Ten (TT), Keiser Pneumatic (KP), and Plyometric (PLY). Each training group trained 3 d·wk(-1) for 6 weeks, which comprised approximately 5-10 minutes for warm-up, 45 minutes of resistance training, and 5-10 for cool-down. Throwing velocity was assessed before (pretest) and just after (posttest) the 6-week training program for all the subjects. A 2-factor repeated measures analysis of variance with post hoc paired t-tests was used to assess throwing velocity differences (p < 0.05). Compared with pretest throwing velocity values, posttest throwing velocity values were significantly greater in the TT group (1.7% increase), the KP group (1.2% increase), and the PLY group (2.0% increase) but not significantly different in the control group. These results demonstrate that all 3 training programs were effective in increasing throwing velocity in high school baseball players, but the results of this study did not demonstrate that 1 resistance training program was more effective than another resistance training program in increasing throwing velocity. PMID:22549085

  12. The Effectiveness of a 6-Week Intervention Program Aimed at Modifying Running Style in Patients With Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Helmhout, Pieter H.; Diebal, Angela R.; van der Kaaden, Lisanne; Harts, Chris C.; Beutler, Anthony; Zimmermann, Wes O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have reported on the promising effects of changing running style in patients with chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) using a 6-week training program aimed at adopting a forefoot strike technique. This study expands that work by comparing a 6-week in-house, center-based run training program with a less extensive, supervised, home-based run training program (50% home training). Hypothesis: An alteration in running technique will lead to improvements in CECS complaints and running performance, with the less supervised program producing less dramatic results. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Nineteen patients with CECS were prospectively enrolled. Postrunning intracompartmental pressure (ICP), run performance, and self-reported questionnaires were taken for all patients at baseline and after 6 weeks of running intervention. Questionnaires were also taken from 14 patients (7 center-based, 6 home-based) 4 months posttreatment. Results: Significant improvement between preintervention and postintervention rates was found for running distance (43%), ICP values (36%), and scores on the questionnaires Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE; 36%), Lower Leg Outcome Survey (LLOS; 18%), and Patient Specific Complaints (PSC; 60%). The mean posttreatment score on the Global Rating of Change (GROC) was between +4 and +5 (“somewhat better” to “moderately better”). In 14 participants (74%), no elevation of pain was reported posttreatment, compared with 3 participants (16%) at baseline; in all these cases, the running test was aborted because of a lack of cardiorespiratory fitness. Self-reported scores continued to improve 4 months after the end of the intervention program, with mean improvement rates of 48% (SANE), 26% (LLOS), and 81% (PSC). The mean GROC score improved to +6 points (“a great deal better”). Conclusion: In 19 patients diagnosed with CECS, a 6-week forefoot running intervention performed

  13. Comparative Study of Ureteral Stents Following Endoureterotomy in the Porcine Model: 3 vs 6 Weeks and 7F vs 14F

    SciTech Connect

    Soria, Federico Sanchez, Francisco M.; Sun, Fei; Ezquerra, Javier; Duran, Esther; Uson, Jesus

    2005-12-15

    The aim of the study was to determine the optimal stent size and stenting duration following retrograde endoureterotomy of experimental ureteral strictures. Twenty healthy Large White female pigs were randomly divided into four groups, depending on stent size (7F vs 14F) and stenting duration (3 weeks vs 6 weeks). Three additional pigs were used as the control group. The internal ureteral diameter was measured 2 cm below the lower pole of the right kidney. Histopathological changes of the urinary tract, ultrasonographic and fluoroscopic studies, urine culture, and serum urea and creatine levels were analyzed during the different phases of the study. The study was divided into three phases. Phase I included premodel documentation of the normal urinary tract and laparoscopic ureteral stricture creation. During the second phase 1 month later, the diagnosis and endourologic treatment of strictures were performed. Phase III began 4 weeks after stent removal; follow-up imaging studies and postmortem evaluation of all animals were performed. Ureteral strictures developed in all animals 4 weeks after model creation. Results from ureteral diameter measurements and pathological studies revealed no statistically significant intergroup differences. However, prevalence of urinary infection proved to be directly related to stent size (14F) and permanence (6 weeks). The chi square results suggest a statistically significant relationship between the urinary tract infection and recurrent strictures ({alpha} = 0.046). We recommend the use of 7F stents for a period of 3 weeks or less, as these are more easily positioned and result in the reduction of secondary side effects (lower infection rate, less intramural ureteral lesions). A significant relationship between urinary tract infection and stricture recurrence was found in this experimental study.

  14. Temporal processing in the auditory brainstem response by full-term 6-week- and 9-month-old infants

    PubMed Central

    Mai, Xiaoqin; Tardif, Twila; Xu, Lin; Li, Mingyan; Kileny, Paul R.; Shao, Jie; Lozoff, Betsy

    2015-01-01

    Early auditory temporal processing abilities are important for language acquisition and for later reading abilities. In the present study, auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were recorded in a forward-masking paradigm in healthy, full-term infants aged 6 weeks (n = 111) and 9 months (n = 62). Our purpose was to establish normative values of forward-masking ABRs and investigate the development of auditory temporal processing in infants at these ages. Infants were presented with pairs of stimuli (an initial “masker” followed by a “probe”) separated by different time intervals (8, 16, and 64 ms). Results showed that as masker-probe intervals became longer and as infants got older, Wave V latency to the probe shortened. The greatest improvements in Wave V latencies from 6 weeks to 9 months of age were observed in the 64-ms masker-probe interval, suggesting that central auditory nervous system related to the temporal processing at this interval might undergo rapid development during the first year of life. PMID:26223411

  15. [Morphological changes in the adenohypophysis during the recovery period after single individually graded physical exercise].

    PubMed

    Samarin, M Iu

    1983-02-01

    Morpho-functional changes occurring in the anterior principle part of the adenohypophysis have been studied light optically in dogs during the restorative period 1 day after the effect of single individually-dosed loadings of a moderate and great intensity. During one day the restoration of the gland is not completed. Certain structural signs that characterize the main regularities in the course of the restorative process have been revealed. Thus, an additional activation of the adenohypophysis during the restorative period makes it possible to suppose an oscillatory character of the restorative process, in particular--the supercompensation phase. Heterochronicity in restoration of some morpho-functional parameters of the gland has been also determined. It has been stated that manifestation of restoration in the anterior principle part of the adenohypophysis depends on the dose of the physical loading: the greater the loading, the more active, economic and effective is the restoration. PMID:6687799

  16. [Continuous spectrum analysis during anesthesia and the recovery period in infants under 1 year of age].

    PubMed

    Meyer, P; Bensouda, A; Mayer, M N; Barrier, G

    1989-01-01

    Continuous spectral EEG activity monitoring has been used in adults as a monitor of brain activity during anesthesia. It has not been used in infants. We studied 22 infants less than 7 months old undergoing minor surgery. Halothane alone or minimal Halothane anesthesia associated with caudal epidural anesthesia were used. Life-Scan analysis, in spite of wide individual variations, allowed us to detect infraclinical hypoxia episodes, it provided informations about operative confort, depth of anesthesia and added in the post-operative period an objective criteria to clinical evaluation of pain. A wide use of such a monitoring is warranted in infants. PMID:2631593

  17. Periodical assessment of electrophysiological recovery following sciatic nerve crush via surface stimulation in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaxian; Wang, Hongkui; Mi, Daguo; Gu, Xiaosong; Hu, Wen

    2015-03-01

    When evaluating peripheral nerve regeneration, electrophysiological test is recognized as an optimal assessment, which is a quantitative, objective, and direct evidence reflecting function as compared to morphological examinations. In murine models of nerve regeneration, however, it remains a challenge to record compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) periodically and non-invasively, i.e., with no insult to the nerve. In the present study, we recorded CMAPs in the gastrocnemius muscle weekly until 8 weeks after sciatic nerve crush by stimulating the nerve in a surface manner, and the electric stimuli were delivered to the skin between ischial tuberosity and major trochanter using bipolar hook electrodes. The CMAPs were reproducibly recorded in this way from 3 weeks post-injury, and both amplitude and latency were well correlated to post-operative time. Furthermore, a strong positive correlation was observed between CMAP amplitude and sciatic function index (SFI), a well-recognized assessment for sciatic nerve function. CMAP recordings by direct nerve stimulation at 8 weeks post-injury showed no significant difference in amplitude compared to surface stimulation, but the peak latency was relatively longer than the latter. This study indicated that non-invasive surface stimulation-based periodical recording of CMAPs was a practical electrophysiological approach to monitor the progression of peripheral nerve regeneration in murine models. PMID:25394740

  18. Expression and Sequence Variants of Inflammatory Genes; Effects on Plasma Inflammation Biomarkers Following a 6-Week Supplementation with Fish Oil

    PubMed Central

    Cormier, Hubert; Rudkowska, Iwona; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: A growing body of literature suggest that polymorphisms (SNPs) from inflammation-related genes could possibly play a role in cytokine production and then interact with dietary n-3 fatty acids (FAs) to modulate inflammation. The aim of the present study was to test whether gene expression of selected inflammatory genes was altered following an n-3 PUFA supplementation and to test for gene–diet interactions modulating plasma inflammatory biomarker levels. (2) Methods: 191 subjects completed a 6-week n-3 FA supplementation with 5 g/day of fish oil. Gene expression of TNF-α and IL6 was assessed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using the TaqMan technology. Genotyping of 20 SNPs from the TNF-LTA gene cluster, IL1β, IL6 and CRP genes was performed. (3) Results: There was no significant reduction of plasma IL-6, TNF-α and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels after the 6-week fish oil supplementation. TNF-α and IL6 were slightly overexpressed in PBMCs after the supplementation (fold changes of 1.05 ± 0.38 and 1.18 ± 0.49, respectively (n = 191)), but relative quantification (RQ) within the −0.5 to 2.0 fold are considered as nonbiologically significant. In a MIXED model for repeated measures adjusted for the effects of age, sex and BMI, gene by supplementation interaction effects were observed for rs1143627, rs16944, rs1800797, and rs2069840 on IL6 levels, for rs2229094 on TNF-α levels and for rs1800629 on CRP levels (p < 0.05 for all). (4) Conclusions: This study shows that a 6-week n-3 FA supplementation with 5 g/day of fish oil did not alter gene expression levels of TNF-α and IL6 in PBMCs and did not have an impact on inflammatory biomarker levels. However, gene–diet interactions were observed between SNPs within inflammation-related genes modulating plasma inflammatory biomarker levels. PMID:26999109

  19. Six-month low level chlorine dioxide gas inhalation toxicity study with two-week recovery period in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chlorine dioxide (CD) gas has a potent antimicrobial activity at extremely low concentration and may serve as a new tool for infection control occupationally as well as publicly. However, it remains unknown whether the chronic exposure of CD gas concentration effective against microbes is safe. Therefore, long-term, low concentration CD gas inhalation toxicity was studied in rats as a six-month continuous whole-body exposure followed by a two-week recovery period, so as to prove that the CD gas exposed up to 0.1 ppm (volume ratio) is judged as safe on the basis of a battery of toxicological examinations. Methods CD gas at 0.05 ppm or 0.1 ppm for 24 hours/day and 7 days/week was exposed to rats for 6 months under an unrestrained condition with free access to chow and water in a chamber so as to simulate the ordinary lifestyle in human. The control animals were exposed to air only. During the study period, the body weight as well as the food and water consumptions were recorded. After the 6-month exposure and the 2-week recovery period, animals were sacrificed and a battery of toxicological examinations, including biochemistry, hematology, necropsy, organ weights and histopathology, were performed. Results Well regulated levels of CD gas were exposed throughout the chamber over the entire study period. No CD gas-related toxicity sign was observed during the whole study period. No significant difference was observed in body weight gain, food and water consumptions, and relative organ weight. In biochemistry and hematology examinations, changes did not appear to be related to CD gas toxicity. In necropsy and histopathology, no CD gas-related toxicity was observed even in expected target respiratory organs. Conclusions CD gas up to 0.1 ppm, exceeding the level effective against microbes, exposed to whole body in rats continuously for six months was not toxic, under a condition simulating the conventional lifestyle in human. PMID:22348507

  20. Subjective and objective observation of skin graft recovery on Indonesian local cat with different periods of transplantation time

    PubMed Central

    Erwin; Gunanti; Handharyani, Ekowati; Noviana, Deni

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The success of a skin graft in a cat is highly dependent on the granulation formed by the base of recipient bed. Granulation by the base of recipient bed will form after several days after injury. This research aimed to observe subjective and objective profile of skin graft recovery on forelimb of cats with different periods of donor skin placement. Materials and Methods: Nine male Indonesian local cats aged 1-2 years old, weighing 3-4 kg were divided into three groups. The first surgery for creating defect wound of 2 cm×2 cm in size was performed in the whole group. The wound was left for several days with the respective interval for each group, respectively: Group I (for 2 days), Group II (for 4 days), and Group III (for 6 days). In the whole group, the second surgery was done by the harvesting skin of thoracic area which then applied on recipient bed of respective groups. Result: The donor skin on Group II was accepted faster compared to Group I and Group III. The donor skin did not show color differences compared to surrounding skin, painless, bright red in bleeding test had faster both hair growth and drug absorption. Test toward the size of donor skin and the effect of drugs did not show a significant difference between each group. Conclusion: The observe subjective and objective profile of skin graft recovery on forelimb of cats on Group II were accepted faster compared to Group I and III. PMID:27284224

  1. Immunocastrated male pigs: effect of 4 v. 6 weeks time post second injection on performance, carcass quality and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Aluwé, M; Degezelle, I; Depuydt, L; Fremaut, D; Van den Broeke, A; Millet, S

    2016-09-01

    Immunocastration or vaccination against boar taint can be used as alternative for surgical castration of male piglets. The vaccine is administrated twice. After the second vaccination (V2), the pigs behave like barrows instead of boars and their feed intake increases which may result in a lower lean meat percentage. The timing of V2 is therefore crucial to find the right balance between the advantages of entire males and barrows. In this study, we evaluated the effect of time post second injection within the advised time frame (4 v. 6 weeks before slaughter) on behaviour, performance, carcass and meat quality of immunocastrated male pigs. In total, 180 animals (hybrid sow×Piétrain): 60 gilts, 60 male pigs vaccinated 6 weeks before slaughter (IM-6) and 60 male pigs vaccinated 4 weeks before slaughter (IM-4), all slaughtered at comparable slaughter weights. After 20 weeks of age, IM-6 showed more inactive behaviour at the expense of playing and aggressive behaviour. Daily feed intake (DFI), daily gain (DG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) did not differ significantly between IM-6 and IM-4. Gilts had a lower DFI and DG in the late finishing phase and a higher FCR overall compared with both IM groups. Gilts showed a higher lean meat content compared with both IM groups. Earlier vaccination increased dressing percentage, which could partly be explained by the lower weight of the gastrointestinal tract, but not by testes weight. Meat quality traits and palatability did not differ significantly between IM-6 and IM-4. Vaccination of immunocastrates at 6 compared with 4 weeks before slaughter improved the calmness in the stable and the dressing percentage, while maintaining performance and carcass characteristics. PMID:26957130

  2. Effects of dexmedetomidine on anesthesia recovery period and postoperative cognitive function of patients after robot-assisted laparoscopic radical cystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Lingling; Zhang, Hong; Mi, Weidong; Wang, Tao; He, Yan; Zhang, Xu; Ma, Xin; Li, Hongzhao

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of dexmedetomidine on anesthesia recovery period and postoperative cognitive function of patients after robot-assisted laparoscopic radical cystectomy and ileal conduit diversion. Methods: A total of 40 elective patients who would undergo robot-assisted laparoscopic radical cystectomy and ileal conduit diversion. They were randomly divided into two groups in a double-blind manner. After pneumoperitoneum established, all patients adopted 40° trendelenberg position. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and bispectral index (BIS) of each patient were recorded at four moments respectively, namely the end of surgery (T0), palinesthesia (T1), extubation (T2), 10 min after extubation (T3). Results: In the dexmedetomidine group, the mean arterial pressure and heart rate decreased at T1 and T2 compared with controls (P<0.05); in addition, the delirium rating scale was lower than the latter (P<0.05) while Ramsay sedation score was significantly higher (P<0.05). POCD was observed on 28 patients, containing 17 controls and 11 dexmedetomidine individuals, one day after operation, and 21 patients (12 controls, 9 dexmedetomidine people) five days after operation. One- and five-day after operation, the levels of TNF-α, NSE and IL-6 in the dexmedetomidine group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05), and serum SOD significantly increased in the former (P<0.05). Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine had a neuroprotective effect on anesthesia recovery and postoperative period of the elderly patients undergone robot-assisted laparoscopic radical cystectomy, which might be related to the reduction of inflammatory reaction induced by dexmedetomidine. PMID:26379954

  3. Cytomembrane ATP-sensitive K+ channels in neurovascular unit targets of ischemic stroke in the recovery period

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang; Pan, Sipei; Zheng, Xiaolu; Wan, Qi

    2016-01-01

    The present study was to analyze the mechanism of cytomembrane ATP-sensitive K+ channels (KATP) in the neurovascular unit treatment of ischemic stroke in the recovery period. A total of 24 healthy adult male Wistar rats of 5–8 weeks age, weighing 160–200 g were randomly divided into the control (sham-operation group), model, KATP blocker and KATP opener groups (n=6 rats per group). Nylon cerebral artery occlusion was conducted using nylon monofilament coated with Poly-L-lysine, which was used to produce a cerebral infarction model. After feeding normally for 3 days, 5-hydroxydecanoate (40 mg/Kg), and diazoxide (40 mg/Kg) were injected to the abdominal cavity in the blocker, and opener groups, respectively. The control received an equivalent normal saline that was injected into the sham-operation and model groups. The animals were mutilated and samples were collected after 3 days. RT-PCR was used to detect the expression levels of the three subunits of KATP, i.e., kir6.1, and sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) 1 and SUR2 mRNA, as well as to calculate infarct size in tetrazolium chloride staining. The expression level of mRNA in the opener group were significantly higher, followed by the model and blocker groups, with the control group being the lowest (P<0.05). Infarct size in the opener group was markedly smaller than the model and blocker groups, and infarct size in the blocker group was significantly larger (P<0.05). Thus, the target treatment on KATP may improve the prognosis of ischemic stroke during the recovery period. PMID:27446320

  4. Vehicle child restraint usage for Pacific children aged 6 weeks to 4 years: findings from the Pacific Islands Families study.

    PubMed

    Schluter, Philip J; Paterson, Janis

    2010-11-01

    Child restraint systems (CRSs) for vehicles are designed to provide protection and prevent or reduce child mortality and morbidity in road traffic accidents. Overall, 90% of children under 5 years of age in New Zealand currently use CRSs. There is considerable regional variability in CRS usage, but little information exists on its ethnic variations or determinants. "Increasing the level of restraint use" is explicitly stated as one of the 13 priorities within the New Zealand Ministry of Transport's new road safety strategy. As such, understanding CRS prevalence, patterns and associates within different communities is essential in realising this priority. Utilising a large birth cohort of Pacific children (n=1376 mothers), this study aimed to report the prevalence of maternal self-reported car seat usage at the 6 weeks, 1-year, and 2 years postpartum measurement waves; car/booster seat usage at the 4 years postpartum measurement wave; and to identify important associates using generalised estimating equation (GEE) models. Car seats were not used by 161 (11.8%) Pacific children at the 6 weeks measurement wave, 71 (5.8%) at 1-year, and 44 (3.8%) at 2 years, while car/booster seats were not used by 139 (13.3%) at the 4 years wave. Multivariable GEE model results revealed that mothers with no formal education, high parity, who smoked tobacco, lower household income, who lacked English language proficiency, and had multiple births were all at higher odds of failing to use car seat/booster seats. Despite differential attrition being noted in mothers over time, a sensitivity analysis using multiple imputation methods yielded similar findings. Targeted initiatives and education programs focusing on these higher risk groups, in particular, is needed to increase uptake and use of CRS thereby decreasing Pacific children's exposure to injury risk. As New Zealand has a large and increasing proportion of Pacific, Maori and Asian people, there is a continuing need to understand

  5. Effects of carbohydrate, branched-chain amino acids, and arginine in recovery period on the subsequent performance in wrestlers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Many athletes need to participate in multiple events in a single day. The efficient post-exercise glycogen recovery may be critical for the performance in subsequent exercise. This study examined whether post-exercise carbohydrate supplementation could restore the performance in the subsequent simulated wrestling match. The effect of branched-chain amino acids and arginine on glucose disposal and performance was also investigated. Nine well-trained male wrestlers participated in 3 trials in a random order. Each trial contained 3 matches with a 1-hr rest between match 1 and 2, and a 2-hr rest between match 2 and 3. Each match contained 3 exercise periods interspersed with 1-min rests. The subjects alternated 10-s all-out sprints and 20-s rests in each exercise period. At the end of match 2, 3 different supplementations were consumed: 1.2 g/kg glucose (CHO trial), 1 g/kg glucose + 0.1 g/kg Arg + 0.1 g/kg BCAA (CHO+AA trial), or water (placebo trial). The peak and average power in the 3 matches was similar in the 3 trials. After the supplementation, CHO and CHO+AA trial showed significantly higher glucose and insulin, and lower glycerol and non-esterified fatty acid concentrations than the placebo trial. There was no significant difference in these biochemical parameters between the CHO and CHO+AA trials. Supplementation of carbohydrate with or without BCAA and arginine during the post-match period had no effect on the performance in the following simulated match in wrestlers. In addition, BCAA and arginine did not provide additional insulinemic effect. PMID:22107883

  6. A Pilot Study of a 6-Week Parenting Program for Mothers of Pre-school Children Attending Family Health Centers in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Khowaja, Yasmin; Karmaliani, Rozina; Hirani, Shela; Khowaja, Asif Raza; Rafique, Ghazala; McFarlane, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recently, parenting programs to address behavioural and emotional problems associated with child maltreatment in developing countries have received much attention. There is a paucity of literature on effective parent education interventions in the local context of Pakistan. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of offering a 6-week parenting program for mothers of pre-school children attending family health centres (FHCs) in Karachi, the largest metropolitan city of Pakistan. Methods: A pilot quasi-experimental trial was conducted. Two FHCs were selected, one as the intervention and the second as the control. A total of 57 mothers of pre-school children (n = 30 intervention; n = 27 control) participated in this study. Mothers in the intervention group received SOS Help for parents module, while mothers in the control group received information about routine childcare. A parenting scale (PS) was administered before the program was implemented and repeated 2 weeks after the program was completed in both groups. Statistical analysis was performed to compare participants’ attributes. Descriptive analysis was conducted to compare pre- and post-test mean scores along with standard deviation for parenting subscales in the intervention and control groups. Results: A total of 50 mothers (n = 25 intervention; n = 25 control) completed the 6-week program. Attrition was observed as 5/30 (17%) in the intervention arm and 2/27 (2%) in the control arm. Mothers commonly reported the burden of daily domestic and social responsibilities as the main reason for dropping out. Furthermore, the majority of participants in the control group recommended increasing the duration of weekly sessions from 1 to 1.5 hours, thereby decreasing the program period from 6 to 4 weeks. Mothers in intervention group reported substantial improvement in parenting skills as indicated by mean difference in their pre- and post-test scores for laxness and over-reactivity. Conclusion

  7. Does an in-Season 6-Week Combined Sprint and Jump Training Program Improve Strength-Speed Abilities and Kicking Performance in Young Soccer Players?

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Mário C.; Pereira, Ana; Reis, Ivan G.; van den Tillaar, Roland

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a six-week combined jump and sprint training program on strength-speed abilities in a large sample of youth competitive soccer players. It was hypothesized that the experimental training group would enhance their jumping and sprinting abilities. Enhancement of kicking performance was also hypothesized due to an expected increase in explosive strength established by a plyometric and sprinting regimen. Fifty-two young male soccer players playing at the national level (aged 13.4 ± 1.4 years, body mass 53.4 ± 11.7 kg, body height 1.66 ± 0.11 m) took part in the study. Half of the group underwent the plyometric and sprint training program in addition to their normal soccer training, while the other half was involved in soccer training only. The plyometric training group enhanced their running (+1.7 and +3.2%) and jumping performance (+7.7%) significantly over the short period of time, while the control group did not. Furthermore, both groups increased their kicking velocity after just six weeks of training (+3.3 vs. 6.6%). The findings suggest that a short in-season 6-week sprint and jump training regimen can significantly improve explosive strength in soccer-specific skills and that these improvements can be transferred to soccer kicking performance in terms of ball speed. PMID:24511351

  8. Hippocampal structure, metabolism, and inflammatory response after a 6-week intense aerobic exercise in healthy young adults: a controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Gerd; Herbsleb, Marco; de la Cruz, Feliberto; Schumann, Andy; Brünner, Franziska; Schachtzabel, Claudia; Gussew, Alexander; Puta, Christian; Smesny, Stefan; Gabriel, Holger W; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2015-10-01

    Interventional studies suggest that changes in physical fitness affect brain function and structure. We studied the influence of high intensity physical exercise on hippocampal volume and metabolism in 17 young healthy male adults during a 6-week exercise program compared with matched controls. We further aimed to relate these changes to hypothesized changes in exercised-induced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). We show profound improvement of physical fitness in most subjects and a positive correlation between the degree of fitness improvement and increased BDNF levels. We unexpectedly observed an average volume decrease of about 2%, which was restricted to right hippocampal subfields CA2/3, subiculum, and dentate gyrus and which correlated with fitness improvement and increased BDNF levels negatively. This result indicates that mainly those subjects who did not benefit from the exercise program show decreased hippocampal volume, reduced BDNF levels, and increased TNF-α concentrations. While spectroscopy results do not indicate any neuronal loss (unchanged N-acetylaspartate levels) decreased glutamate-glutamine levels were observed in the right anterior hippocampus in the exercise group only. Responder characteristics need to be studied in more detail. Our results point to an important role of the inflammatory response after exercise on changes in hippocampal structure. PMID:26082010

  9. Targeted Collection of Plasmid DNA in Large and Growing Animal Muscles 6 Weeks after DNA Vaccination with and without Electroporation

    PubMed Central

    Dory, Daniel; Le Moigne, Vincent; Cariolet, Roland; Béven, Véronique; Keranflec'h, André; Jestin, André

    2015-01-01

    DNA vaccination has been developed in the last two decades in human and animal species as a promising alternative to conventional vaccination. It consists in the injection, in the muscle, for example, of plasmid DNA encoding the vaccinating polypeptide. Electroporation which forces the entrance of the plasmid DNA in cells at the injection point has been described as a powerful and promising strategy to enhance DNA vaccine efficacy. Due to the fact that the vaccine is composed of DNA, close attention on the fate of the plasmid DNA upon vaccination has to be taken into account, especially at the injection point. To perform such studies, the muscle injection point has to be precisely recovered and collected several weeks after injection. This is even more difficult for large and growing animals. A technique has been developed to localize precisely and collect efficiently the muscle injection points in growing piglets 6 weeks after DNA vaccination accompanied or not by electroporation. Electroporation did not significantly increase the level of remaining plasmids compared to nonelectroporated piglets, and, in all the cases, the levels were below the limit recommended by the FDA to research integration events of plasmid DNA into the host DNA. PMID:26380318

  10. Brain metabolite changes in subcortical regions after exposure to cuprizone for 6 weeks: potential implications for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Yan, Gen; Xuan, Yinghua; Dai, Zhuozhi; Shen, Zhiwei; Zhang, Guishan; Xu, Haiyun; Wu, Renhua

    2015-01-01

    Cuprizone is a copper chelating agent able to selectively damage the white matter in the mouse brain. Recent studies have reported behavioral abnormalities relevant to some of schizophrenia symptoms. While associating white matter damage to the behavioral abnormalities, these previous studies did not rule out the possible impairment in neuronal functions in cuprizone-exposed mice. The aim of this study was to examine brain metabolites of the cuprizone-exposed mice by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). The examined brain regions were the caudoputamen, midbrain, and thalamus; these subcortical regions showed different susceptibilities to cuprizone in terms of demyelination and oligodendrocyte loss in previous studies. Young C57BL/6 mice were fed a standard rodent chow without or with cuprizone (0.2 %) for 6 weeks. At the end, open-field and Y-maze tests were performed to measure the emotional and cognitive behaviors of the animals, followed by (1)H-MRS procedure to evaluate the brain metabolites. Cuprizone-exposure increased anxiety levels and impaired spatial working memory. The same treatment increased T2 signal intensity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and caudoputamen, but not in the thalamus. Cuprizone-exposure decreased the concentrations of NAA and NAA+NAAG in caudoputamen, but not in thalamus and midbrain. It decreased levels of Cr+PCr, GPC+PCh and myo-inositol in all the three brain regions. These results provided neurochemical evidence for the impairment in neuronal functions by cuprizone treatment. PMID:25347963

  11. NaV1.4 mutations cause hypokalaemic periodic paralysis by disrupting IIIS4 movement during recovery.

    PubMed

    Groome, James R; Lehmann-Horn, Frank; Fan, Chunxiang; Wolf, Markus; Winston, Vern; Merlini, Luciano; Jurkat-Rott, Karin

    2014-04-01

    Hypokalaemic periodic paralysis is typically associated with mutations of voltage sensor residues in calcium or sodium channels of skeletal muscle. To date, causative sodium channel mutations have been studied only for the two outermost arginine residues in S4 voltage sensor segments of domains I to III. These mutations produce depolarization of skeletal muscle fibres in response to reduced extracellular potassium, owing to an inward cation-selective gating pore current activated by hyperpolarization. Here, we describe mutations of the third arginine, R3, in the domain III voltage sensor i.e. an R1135H mutation which was found in two patients in separate families and a novel R1135C mutation identified in a third patient in another family. Muscle fibres from a patient harbouring the R1135H mutation showed increased depolarization tendency at normal and reduced extracellular potassium compatible with the diagnosis. Additionally, amplitude and rise time of action potentials were reduced compared with controls, even for holding potentials at which all NaV1.4 are fully recovered from inactivation. These findings may be because of an outward omega current activated at positive potentials. Expression of R1135H/C in mammalian cells indicates further gating defects that include significantly enhanced entry into inactivation and prolonged recovery that may additionally contribute to action potential inhibition at the physiological resting potential. After S4 immobilization in the outward position, mutant channels produce an inward omega current that most likely depolarizes the resting potential and produces the hypokalaemia-induced weakness. Gating current recordings reveal that mutations at R3 inhibit S4 deactivation before recovery, and molecular dynamics simulations suggest that this defect is caused by disrupted interactions of domain III S2 countercharges with S4 arginines R2 to R4 during repolarization of the membrane. This work reveals a novel mechanism of disrupted S

  12. Effects of different periods of paradoxical sleep deprivation and sleep recovery on lipid and glucose metabolism and appetite hormones in rats.

    PubMed

    Brianza-Padilla, Malinalli; Bonilla-Jaime, Herlinda; Almanza-Pérez, Julio César; López-López, Ana Laura; Sánchez-Muñoz, Fausto; Vázquez-Palacios, Gonzalo

    2016-03-01

    Sleep has a fundamental role in the regulation of energy balance, and it is an essential and natural process whose precise impacts on health and disease have not yet been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to assess the consequences of different periods of paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) and recovery from PSD on lipid profile, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) results, and changes in insulin, corticosterone, ghrelin, and leptin concentrations. Three-month-old male Wistar rats weighing 250-350 g were submitted to 24, 96, or 192 h of PSD or 192 h of PSD with 480 h of recovery. The PSD was induced by the multiple platforms method. Subsequently, the animals were submitted to an OGTT. One day later, the animals were killed and the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, lipoproteins (low-density lipoprotein, very-low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein), insulin, ghrelin, leptin, and corticosterone in plasma were quantified. There was a progressive decrease in body weight with increasing duration of PSD. The PSD induced basal hypoglycemia over all time periods evaluated. Evaluation of areas under the curve revealed progressive hypoglycemia only after 96 and 192 h of PSD. There was an increase in corticosterone levels after 192 h of PSD. We conclude that PSD induces alterations in metabolism that are reversed after a recovery period of 20 days. PMID:26842666

  13. Contribution of Amoebic Coculture to Recovery of Legionella Isolates from Respiratory Samples: Prospective Analysis over a Period of 32 Months

    PubMed Central

    Suet, A.; Ginevra, C.; Campese, C.; Slimani, S.; Ader, F.; Che, D.; Lina, G.; Jarraud, S.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the contribution of amoebic coculture to the recovery of Legionella spp. from 379 respiratory samples. The sensitivity of axenic culture was 42.1%. The combination of axenic culture with amoebic coculture increased the Legionella isolation rate to 47.1%. Amoebic coculture was particularly efficient in isolating Legionella spp. from respiratory samples contaminated with oropharyngeal flora. PMID:22322354

  14. Preliminary assessment of the oral toxicity of 1,5-diazido-3-nitrazapentane, 2- and 6-week feeding study, male and female rats. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Haight, E.A.; Harvey, J.G.; Bell, P.A.

    1993-02-01

    A 2 and 6 week gavage feeding of DANPE caused testicular hypospermatogenesis in male rats and pneumonitis in female rats. A NOAEL was not achieved in male rats but was achieved in female rats at the 56.00 mg/kg/day dose level.... 1,5-Diazido-3-Nitrazapentane (DANPE), Gavage, Testicular hypospermatogenesis, Insterstitual Inflammation No-observed-Adverse-Effect-Level(NOAEL), Feeding study.

  15. Effect of 6 Weeks of n-3 fatty-acid supplementation on oxidative stress in Judo athletes.

    PubMed

    Filaire, Edith; Massart, Alain; Portier, Hugues; Rouveix, Matthieu; Rosado, Fatima; Bage, Anne S; Gobert, Mylene; Durand, Denys

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to assess the effects of 6 wk of eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) supplementation on resting and exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in judoists. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive a placebo or a capsule of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs; 600 mg EPA and 400 mg DHA). Blood samples were collected in preexercise and postexercise conditions (judo-training session), both before and after the supplementation period. The following parameters were analyzed: α-tocopherol, retinol, lag phase , maximum rate of oxidation (Rmax) during the propagating chain reaction, maximum amount of conjugated dienes (CDmax) accumulated after the propagation phase, nitric oxide (NO) and malondyaldehide (MDA) concentrations, salivary glutathione peroxidase activity, and the lipid profile. Dietary data were collected using a 7-day dietary record. A significant interaction effect between supplementation and time (p < .01) on triglycerides was noted, with values significantly lower in the n-3 long-chain-PUFA (LCPUFA) group after supplementation than in the placebo group. Significant interaction effects between supplementation and time on resting MDA concentrations and Rmax were found (p = .03 and p = .04, respectively), with elevated values in the n-3 LCPUFA group after supplementation and no change in the placebo group's levels. The authors observed a significantly greater NO and oxidative-stress increase with exercise (MDA, Rmax, CDmax, and NO) in the n-3 LCPUFA group than with placebo. No main or interaction effects were found for retinol and α-tocopherol. These results indicate that supplementation with n-3 LCPUFAs significantly increased oxidative stress at rest and after a judo-training session. PMID:21116022

  16. Mesotubular-Structured Hybrid Membrane Nanocontainer for Periodical Monitoring, Separation, and Recovery of Cobalt Ions from Water.

    PubMed

    El-Safty, Sherif A; Sakai, Masaru; Selim, Mahmoud M; Alhamid, Abdulaziz A

    2015-09-01

    Exposure to toxins can cause deleterious effects even at very low concentrations. We have developed an optical sensor, filter, and extractor (i.e., containerlike) in a nanoscale membrane (NSM) for the ultratrace sensing, separation, and recovery of Co(2+) ions from water. The design of the NSM is successfully controlled by dense decoration of a hydrophobic oil-hydrophilic receptor onto mesoscale tubular-structured silica nanochannels made of a hybrid anodic alumina membrane. The particular structure of the nanocontainer is ideal to control the multiple functions of the membrane, such as the optical detection/recognition, rejection/permeation, and recovery of Co(2+) species in a single step. A typical sensor, filter, and extractor assessment experiment was performed by using a benchtop contact time technique and a flow-through cell detector to allow for precise control of the optical detection and exclusive rejection of target ions and the permeation of nontarget metal ions in water. This nanocontainer membrane has great potential to meet the increasing needs of purification and separation of Co(2+) ions. PMID:26033713

  17. Using generalized linear models to estimate selectivity from short-term recoveries of tagged red drum Sciaenops ocellatus: Effects of gear, fate, and regulation period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacheler, N.M.; Hightower, J.E.; Burdick, S.M.; Paramore, L.M.; Buckel, J.A.; Pollock, K.H.

    2010-01-01

    Estimating the selectivity patterns of various fishing gears is a critical component of fisheries stock assessment due to the difficulty in obtaining representative samples from most gears. We used short-term recoveries (n = 3587) of tagged red drum Sciaenops ocellatus to directly estimate age- and length-based selectivity patterns using generalized linear models. The most parsimonious models were selected using AIC, and standard deviations were estimated using simulations. Selectivity of red drum was dependent upon the regulation period in which the fish was caught, the gear used to catch the fish (i.e., hook-and-line, gill nets, pound nets), and the fate of the fish upon recovery (i.e., harvested or released); models including all first-order interactions between main effects outperformed models without interactions. Selectivity of harvested fish was generally dome-shaped and shifted toward larger, older fish in response to regulation changes. Selectivity of caught-and-released red drum was highest on the youngest and smallest fish in the early and middle regulation periods, but increased on larger, legal-sized fish in the late regulation period. These results suggest that catch-and-release mortality has consistently been high for small, young red drum, but has recently become more common in larger, older fish. This method of estimating selectivity from short-term tag recoveries is valuable because it is simpler than full tag-return models, and may be more robust because yearly fishing and natural mortality rates do not need to be modeled and estimated. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Using generalized linear models to estimate selectivity from short-term recoveries of tagged red drum Sciaenops ocellatus: Effects of gear, fate, and regulation period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.; Hightower, Joseph E.; Bacheler, Nathan M.; Paramore, Lee M.; Buckel, Jeffrey A.; Pollock, Kenneth H.

    2010-01-01

    Estimating the selectivity patterns of various fishing gears is a critical component of fisheries stock assessment due to the difficulty in obtaining representative samples from most gears. We used short-term recoveries (n = 3587) of tagged red drum Sciaenops ocellatus to directly estimate age- and length-based selectivity patterns using generalized linear models. The most parsimonious models were selected using AIC, and standard deviations were estimated using simulations. Selectivity of red drum was dependent upon the regulation period in which the fish was caught, the gear used to catch the fish (i.e., hook-and-line, gill nets, pound nets), and the fate of the fish upon recovery (i.e., harvested or released); models including all first-order interactions between main effects outperformed models without interactions. Selectivity of harvested fish was generally dome-shaped and shifted toward larger, older fish in response to regulation changes. Selectivity of caught-and-released red drum was highest on the youngest and smallest fish in the early and middle regulation periods, but increased on larger, legal-sized fish in the late regulation period. These results suggest that catch-and-release mortality has consistently been high for small, young red drum, but has recently become more common in larger, older fish. This method of estimating selectivity from short-term tag recoveries is valuable because it is simpler than full tag-return models, and may be more robust because yearly fishing and natural mortality rates do not need to be modeled and estimated.

  19. 39-week toxicity and toxicokinetic study of ponezumab (PF-04360365) in cynomolgus monkeys with 12-week recovery period.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Gary B; Lin, John C; Pons, Jaume; Raha, Nancy M

    2012-01-01

    Ponezumab (PF-04360365) is a novel humanized IgG2Δa monoclonal antibody that binds to amyloid-β (Aβ). It is designed to have reduced immune effector function compared to other passive immunotherapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Toxicity was evaluated in cynomolgus monkeys treated intravenously with vehicle or 10, 30, or 100 mg/kg of ponezumab every 10th day for up to 39 weeks, and after a 12-week recovery phase. The Aβ peptide sequence of monkeys is identical to that of humans. No substantial difference in test article exposure between sexes was observed, and mean plasma Cmax and AUC0-n were approximately dose-proportional. Ponezumab was detectable approximately 9 weeks after cessation of dosing. All animals, except two males given 10 mg/kg, maintained exposure to test article. One of these males tested positive for anti-ponezumab antibodies. Ponezumab was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of animals given active treatment. The estimated CSF/plasma ponezumab concentration ratio was <0.008 after multiple doses. At the end of the dosing and recovery phases, plasma Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-x were increased in treated animals versus controls. No test article-related effects were seen after ophthalmogical, cardiovascular, physical examinations, and clinical and anatomic pathology evaluations. Plasma concentrations of ponezumab on day 261 at the no observed adverse effect level of 100 mg/kg were 22.4 and 5.3 times greater on a Cmax and AUC basis, respectively, than human exposures at the highest dose (10 mg/kg) in a single-dose Phase I trial. These data suggest an acceptable safety profile for ponezumab as an immunotherapy for AD. PMID:22045481

  20. Histological Evaluation of Prostate Tissue Response to Image-Guided Transurethral Thermal Therapy After a 48h Recovery Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyes, Aaron; Tang, Kee; Chopra, Rajiv; Bronskill, Michael

    2009-04-01

    Image-guided transurethral ultrasound thermal therapy shows strong potential for sparing of critical adjacent structures during prostate cancer treatment. Preclinical experiments were conducted to provide further information on the extent of the treatment margin. Four experiments were carried out in a canine model to investigate the pathology of this margin during the early stages of recovery and were compared to previous results obtained immediately post-treatment. Sedated animals were placed in a 1.5T clinical MRI, and the heating device was positioned accurately within the prostatic urethra with image guidance. Using an MRI-compatible system, the ultrasound device was rotated 365° treating a prescribed volume contained within the gland. Quantitative temperature maps were acquired throughout the treatment, providing feedback information for device control. Animals were allowed to recover and, after 48h, an imaging protocol including T2 and contrast enhanced (CE) MRI was repeated before the animals were sacrificed. Prostate sections were stained with H&E. Careful slice alignment methods during histological procedures and image registration were employed to ensure good correspondence between MR images and microscopy. Although T2 MRI revealed no lesion acutely, a hypo-intense region was clearly visible 2 days post-treatment. The lesion volume defined by CE-MRI increased appreciably during this time. Whole-mount H&E sections showed that the margin between coagulated and normal-appearing cells narrowed during recovery, typically to a width of under 1mm compared to 3mm acutely. These results illustrate the high level of precision achievable with transurethral thermal therapy and suggest methods to monitor the physiological response non-invasively.

  1. Aortic wall proteomic analysis in spontaneously hypertensive rats with a blood pressure decrease induced by 6-week load-free swimming

    PubMed Central

    FENG, HONG; LI, HAIYING; ZHANG, DERONG; ZHAO, YUNGANG; JIANG, NING; ZHAO, XIAOLING; ZHANG, YU; TAN, JUNZHEN; FANG, WEN; ZHANG, YONG; LIU, WEI

    2015-01-01

    Decreased arterial compliance is one of the earliest detectable manifestations of adverse structural and functional changes within the vessel wall in hypertension. The proteomic approach is a powerful technique to analyze a complex mixture of proteins in various settings. Physical activity level was negatively associated with blood pressure. Sixteen 4-week-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and 16 Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were randomly divided into four groups: i) SHR exercise group, ii) SHR rest group, iii) WKY exercise group and iv) WKY rest group. In the SHR and WKY exercise groups, rats were treated with a 6-week load-free swimming protocol (1 h/day, 5 days/week). The blood pressure of the rats was tested by the CODATM2 single non-invasive blood pressure measurement appliance. After the 6-week swimming protocol, the total aorta excluding abdominal aorta was extracted. The proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identified via LC-mass spectrometry (MS)/MS. After 6-week load-free swimming, blood pressure decreased in the SHRs. Compared with sedentary SHRs, 11 spots on the 2D-gel showed a significant difference in exercised SHRs. Nine of these were chosen for further identification. There were 5 upregulated proteins (long-chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, heat shock protein β-1, isocitrate dehydrogenase subunit α, actin, α cardiac muscle 1 preprotein and calmodulin isoform 2) and 4 downregulated proteins (adipocyte-type fatty acid-binding protein, tubulin β-2C chain, 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein precursor and mimecan). Proteomics is an effective method to identify the target proteins of exercise intervention for hypertension. PMID:26405545

  2. Optimal Timing for Assessment of Tumor Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation in Patients With Rectal Cancer: Do All Patients Benefit From Waiting Longer Than 6 Weeks?

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, Rodrigo O.; Habr-Gama, Angelita; Sao Juliao, Guilherme P.; Gama-Rodrigues, Joaquim; Sousa, Afonso H.S.; Campos, Fabio Guilherme; Imperiale, Antonio R.; Lynn, Patricio B.; Proscurshim, Igor; Nahas, Sergio Carlos; Ono, Carla Rachel; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To estimate the metabolic activity of rectal cancers at 6 and 12 weeks after completion of chemoradiation therapy (CRT) by 2-[fluorine-18] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-labeled positron emission tomography/computed tomography ([{sup 18}FDG]PET/CT) imaging and correlate with response to CRT. Methods and Materials: Patients with cT2-4N0-2M0 distal rectal adenocarcinoma treated with long-course neoadjuvant CRT (54 Gy, 5-fluouracil-based) were prospectively studied ( (ClinicalTrials.org) identifier (NCT00254683)). All patients underwent 3 PET/CT studies (at baseline and 6 and 12 weeks from CRT completion). Clinical assessment was at 12 weeks. Maximal standard uptake value (SUVmax) of the primary tumor was measured and recorded at each PET/CT study after 1 h (early) and 3 h (late) from {sup 18}FDG injection. Patients with an increase in early SUVmax between 6 and 12 weeks were considered 'bad' responders and the others as 'good' responders. Results: Ninety-one patients were included; 46 patients (51%) were 'bad' responders, whereas 45 (49%) patients were 'good' responders. 'Bad' responders were less likely to develop complete clinical response (6.5% vs. 37.8%, respectively; P=.001), less likely to develop significant histological tumor regression (complete or near-complete pathological response; 16% vs. 45%, respectively; P=.008) and exhibited greater final tumor dimension (4.3 cm vs. 3.3 cm; P=.03). Decrease between early (1 h) and late (3 h) SUVmax at 6-week PET/CT was a significant predictor of 'good' response (accuracy of 67%). Conclusions: Patients who developed an increase in SUVmax after 6 weeks were less likely to develop significant tumor downstaging. Early-late SUVmax variation at 6-week PET/CT may help identify these patients and allow tailored selection of CRT-surgery intervals for individual patients.

  3. Viral load in 1-day-old and 6-week-old chickens infected with chicken anaemia virus by the intraocular route.

    PubMed

    Kaffashi, Amir; Noormohammadi, Amir H; Allott, Melinda L; Browning, Glenn F

    2006-12-01

    Although the effects of chicken anaemia virus (CAV) infection have frequently been investigated in young chickens, there have been few studies of the pathogenesis of CAV infection in older birds. The aim of the work reported here was to study viral loads in 6-week-old chickens and to compare these with those seen in younger birds. Specific pathogen free chickens were inoculated at 1 day or at 6 weeks of age with 10(4) median tissue culture infective doses of CAV by the intraocular route. Chicks infected when 1 day old were euthanized at day 14, 18 or 22 post inoculation (p.i.), and those infected when 6 weeks old at day 16, 18 or 20 p.i. Their body and thymus weights were determined and samples were collected from their spleen, liver and thymus. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay was developed and used to determine the number of viral genome copies in the tissue samples. In both age groups, viral genome concentrations increased in all organs up to day 18 p.i. and reached a peak in the spleen and liver at day 18 p.i. The peak viral concentrations in the thymus were detected at day 18 in the younger birds and at day 20 p.i. in older chickens. These studies have shown that exposure to CAV in older birds leads to similar levels of active viral replication to those seen in younger birds, and may result in subclinical infections in older birds with the potential to increase susceptibility to other infectious agents. PMID:17121736

  4. The development of compression long-period pulsations on the recovery phase of the magnetic storm on May 23, 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseev, A. V.; Baishev, D. G.; Mullayarov, V. A.; Samsonov, S. N.; Uozumi, T.; Yoshikava, A.; Koga, K.; Matsumoto, H.

    2016-01-01

    The features of the excitation of spatially localized long-period (10-15 min) irregular pulsations with a maximum amplitude of ~200 nT at a geomagnetic latitude of 66° in the morning sector 5 MLT are considered. Fluctuations were recorded against the background of substorm disturbances (maximum AE ~ 1278 nT). Antiphase variations of plasma density and magnetic field accompanied by vortex disturbances of the magnetic field both in the magnetosphere and the ionosphere have been recorded in the magnetosphere in this sector. Compression fluctuations corresponding to a slow magnetosonic wave have been recorded in the interplanetary medium in the analyzed period. It is assumed that pulsations have been excited in the localization of the cloud of injected particles in the plasma sheet by compression fluctuations caused by variations of the dynamic pressure of solar wind.

  5. Fish oil supplementation associated with decreased cellular degeneration and increased cellular proliferation 6 weeks after middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, Michaela C; Howells, David W; Crewther, David P; Carey, Leeanne M; Crewther, Sheila G

    2015-01-01

    Anti-inflammatory long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3-LC-PUFAs) are both neuroprotective and have antidepressive effects. However the influence of dietary supplemented n-3-LC-PUFAs on inflammation-related cell death and proliferation after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo)-induced stroke is unknown. We have previously demonstrated that anxiety-like and hyperactive locomotor behaviors are reduced in n-3-LC-PUFA-fed MCAo animals. Thus in the present study, male hooded Wistar rats were exposed to MCAo or sham surgeries and examined behaviorally 6 weeks later, prior to euthanasia and examination of lesion size, cell death and proliferation in the dentate gyrus, cornu ammonis region of the hippocampus of the ipsilesional hemispheres, and the thalamus of the ipsilesional and contralesional hemispheres. Markers of cell genesis and cell degeneration in the hippocampus or thalamus of the ipsilesional hemisphere did not differ between surgery and diet groups 6 weeks post MCAo. Dietary supplementation with n-3-LC-PUFA decreased cell degeneration and increased cell proliferation in the thalamic region of the contralesional hemisphere. MCAo-associated cell degeneration in the hippocampus and thalamus positively correlated with anxiety-like and hyperactive locomotor behaviors previously reported in these animals. These results suggest that anti-inflammatory n-3-LC-PUFA supplementation appears to have cellular protective effects after MCAo in the rat, which may affect behavioral outcomes. PMID:25609971

  6. Fish oil supplementation associated with decreased cellular degeneration and increased cellular proliferation 6 weeks after middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Pascoe, Michaela C; Howells, David W; Crewther, David P; Carey, Leeanne M; Crewther, Sheila G

    2015-01-01

    Anti-inflammatory long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3-LC-PUFAs) are both neuroprotective and have antidepressive effects. However the influence of dietary supplemented n-3-LC-PUFAs on inflammation-related cell death and proliferation after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo)-induced stroke is unknown. We have previously demonstrated that anxiety-like and hyperactive locomotor behaviors are reduced in n-3-LC-PUFA-fed MCAo animals. Thus in the present study, male hooded Wistar rats were exposed to MCAo or sham surgeries and examined behaviorally 6 weeks later, prior to euthanasia and examination of lesion size, cell death and proliferation in the dentate gyrus, cornu ammonis region of the hippocampus of the ipsilesional hemispheres, and the thalamus of the ipsilesional and contralesional hemispheres. Markers of cell genesis and cell degeneration in the hippocampus or thalamus of the ipsilesional hemisphere did not differ between surgery and diet groups 6 weeks post MCAo. Dietary supplementation with n-3-LC-PUFA decreased cell degeneration and increased cell proliferation in the thalamic region of the contralesional hemisphere. MCAo–associated cell degeneration in the hippocampus and thalamus positively correlated with anxiety-like and hyperactive locomotor behaviors previously reported in these animals. These results suggest that anti-inflammatory n-3-LC-PUFA supplementation appears to have cellular protective effects after MCAo in the rat, which may affect behavioral outcomes. PMID:25609971

  7. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and treated wastewater on water relations and leaf structure alterations of Viburnum tinus L. plants during both saline and recovery periods.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Bellot, María José; Nortes, Pedro Antonio; Ortuño, María Fernanda; Romero, Cristina; Fernández-García, Nieves; Sánchez-Blanco, María Jesús

    2015-09-01

    Nowadays, irrigation with low quality water is becoming an alternative to satisfy the needs of crops. However, some plant species have to deal with high salinity of reclaimed water, by adapting their physiological behaviour during both saline and recovery periods and developing morphological changes in their leaves. The application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could also be a suitable option to mitigate the negative effects of this kind of water, although the effectiveness of plant-AMF association is influenced by many factors. In this work, during forty weeks, the combined effect of Glomus iranicum var. tenuihypharum and two types of water: control, C, EC<0.9 dS m(-1) and reclaimed water, RW (with EC: 4 dS m(-1) during a first saline period and EC: 6 dS m(-1) during a second saline period) was evaluated for laurustinus plants (Viburnum tinus L.) transplanted in soil. This was followed by a recovery period of eight weeks, when all the plants were irrigated in the control irrigation conditions. Seasonal and daily changes in stem water potential (Ψstem), stomatal conductance (gs), photosynthesis (Pn) and leaf internal CO2 concentration (Ci) of laurustinus plants were evaluated. Leaf structure alterations, nutrient imbalance, height and leaf hydraulic conductivity (Kleaf) were also determined. Due to the high difficulty of absorbing water from the soil, RW plants showed a high volumetric water content (θv) in soil. The stem water potential and the stomatal conductance (gs) values were reduced in RW plants throughout the second saline period. These decreases were also found during the day. Leaf Ca(2+)/Na(+) and K(+)/Na(+) ratios diminished in RW plants respect to the C plants due to the Na(+) accumulation, although height and chlorophyll content values did not show statistical differences. Leaves from RW plants showed a significantly thicker mesophyll than Control leaves as a consequence of high EC. The area of palisade parenchyma (PP) increased while the

  8. FTY720 Treatment in the Convalescence Period Improves Functional Recovery and Reduces Reactive Astrogliosis in Photothrombotic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Brunkhorst, Robert; Kanaan, Nathalie; Koch, Alexander; Ferreirós, Nerea; Mirceska, Ana; Zeiner, Pia; Mittelbronn, Michel; Derouiche, Amin; Steinmetz, Helmuth; Foerch, Christian; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Pfeilschifter, Waltraud

    2013-01-01

    Background The Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling pathway is known to influence pathophysiological processes within the brain and the synthetic S1P analog FTY720 has been shown to provide neuroprotection in experimental models of acute stroke. However, the effects of a manipulation of S1P signaling at later time points after experimental stroke have not yet been investigated. We examined whether a relatively late initiation of a FTY720 treatment has a positive effect on long-term neurological outcome with a focus on reactive astrogliosis, synapses and neurotrophic factors. Methods We induced photothrombotic stroke (PT) in adult C57BL/6J mice and allowed them to recover for three days. Starting on post-stroke day 3, mice were treated with FTY720 (1 mg/kg b.i.d.) for 5 days. Behavioral outcome was observed until day 31 after photothrombosis and periinfarct cortical tissue was analyzed using tandem mass-spectrometry, TaqMan®analysis and immunofluorescence. Results FTY720 treatment results in a significantly better functional outcome persisting up to day 31 after PT. This is accompanied by a significant decrease in reactive astrogliosis and larger post-synaptic densities as well as changes in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor α (VEGF α). Within the periinfarct cortex, S1P is significantly increased compared to healthy brain tissue. Conclusion Besides its known neuroprotective effects in the acute phase of experimental stroke, the initiation of FTY720 treatment in the convalescence period has a positive impact on long-term functional outcome, probably mediated through reduced astrogliosis, a modulation in synaptic morphology and an increased expression of neurotrophic factors. PMID:23936150

  9. The effect of 6-week treatment with escitalopram on CCK-4 challenge: a placebo-controlled study in CCK-4-sensitive healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Tõru, Innar; Maron, Eduard; Raag, Mait; Vasar, Veiko; Nutt, David J; Shlik, Jakov

    2013-07-01

    Cholecystokinin-tetrapeptide (CCK-4)-induced panic attacks are reportedly attenuated by effective treatment with antipanic antidepressants in patients with panic disorder, but in healthy volunteers such effects are not well studied. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of 6-week treatment with an SSRI escitalopram on CCK-4-induced symptoms in healthy volunteers, who previously responded with a panic attack to CCK-4 challenge. A total of 18 healthy subjects (10 males and eight females, mean age 22.5 ± 5.8) received a 6-week treatment with escitalopram (10 mg/day) and placebo followed by CCK-4 challenge (50 μg) in a double-blind crossover design. The panic rate was 67% after treatment with escitalopram and 56% after treatment with placebo (p = 0.7). Thus, the results showed a significant reduction in CCK-4-induced panic rates without significant differences between escitalopram and placebo conditions. There were no significant effects of either treatment on any other variable of anxiety or cardiovascular indices. Secondary analysis showed no effect of gender or 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on response to CCK-4 challenge. This study demonstrated that in contrast to the findings in patients with panic disorder, in CCK-4-sensitive healthy volunteers the treatment with an antipanic SSRI did not cause a reduction of CCK-4-induced panic attacks beyond the effect of placebo. The mechanisms behind this discrepancy and the reasons of the decrease in sensitivity to CCK-4 challenge on repeated administration remain to be clarified in future studies. PMID:22939006

  10. Expression of ammonia transporters Rhbg and Rhcg in mouse skeletal muscle and the effect of 6-week training on these proteins

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Kohei; Takemasa, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of our study were to examine (1) Rh B glycoprotein (Rhbg) and Rh C glycoprotein (Rhcg) expressions in mouse skeletal muscle; and (2) the effect of 6-week training on Rhbg and Rhcg expressions. The levels of Rhbg and Rhcg expressions were much higher in the soleus (Sol) than in the plantaris (Pla) or gastrocnemius (Gas). Immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that Rhbg colocalizes with dystrophin, a plasma membrane protein marker, whereas Rhcg colocalizes with CD31, a vascular endothelial cell marker. In a 6-week swim training study, we set up two different training groups. Endurance (END) group underwent swim training without load for 30 min and exercise time was increased by 30 min every 2 weeks. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) group underwent 10–12 sets of swim training at 20 sec per set and intervals of 10 sec, with a load of 10% body weight. After 6 weeks of training, all mice performed exhaustive swimming performance test (PT), with 9% of body weight to exhaustion. HIIT group could significantly swim more and showed significantly lower blood ammonia level compared with control (CON) group at immediately after PT. Rhbg and Rhcg levels did not change after 6 weeks in both END and HIIT groups. Our results indicate that ammonia transporters are more abundant in slow fiber than fast fiber muscles and 6 weeks swim training suppresses blood ammonia elevation induced by high-intensity exercise with performance improvement, although the levels of ammonia transporter proteins does not change. PMID:26471760

  11. Head to Head Comparison of Short-Term Treatment with the NAD(+) Precursor Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (NMN) and 6 Weeks of Exercise in Obese Female Mice.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Golam M; Youngson, Neil A; Sinclair, David A; Morris, Margaret J

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is well known to be a major cause of several chronic metabolic diseases, which can be partially counteracted by exercise. This is due, in part, to an upregulation of mitochondrial activity through increased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)). Recent studies have shown that NAD(+) levels can be increased by using the NAD(+) precursor, nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) leading to the suggestion that NMN could be a useful intervention in diet related metabolic disorders. In this study we compared the metabolic, and especially mitochondrial-associated, effects of exercise and NMN in ameliorating the consequences of high-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity in mice. Sixty female 5 week old C57BL6/J mice were allocated across five groups: Chow sedentary: CS; Chow exercise: CEX; HFD sedentary: HS; HFD NMN: HNMN; HFD exercise: HEX (12/group). After 6 weeks of diet, exercise groups underwent treadmill exercise (15 m/min for 45 min), 6 days per week for 6 weeks. NMN or vehicle (500 mg/kg body weight) was injected (i.p.) daily for the last 17 days. No significant alteration in body weight was observed in response to exercise or NMN. The HFD significantly altered adiposity, glucose tolerance, plasma insulin, NADH levels and citrate synthase activity in muscle and liver. HEX and HNMN groups both showed significantly improved glucose tolerance compared to the HS group. NAD(+) levels were increased significantly both in muscle and liver by NMN whereas exercise increased NAD(+) only in muscle. Both NMN and exercise ameliorated the HFD-induced reduction in liver citrate synthase activity. However, exercise, but not NMN, ameliorated citrate synthase activity in muscle. Overall these data suggest that while exercise and NMN-supplementation can induce similar reversal of the glucose intolerance induced by obesity, they are associated with tissue-specific effects and differential alterations to mitochondrial function in muscle and liver. PMID:27594836

  12. Head to Head Comparison of Short-Term Treatment with the NAD+ Precursor Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (NMN) and 6 Weeks of Exercise in Obese Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Golam M.; Youngson, Neil A.; Sinclair, David A.; Morris, Margaret J.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is well known to be a major cause of several chronic metabolic diseases, which can be partially counteracted by exercise. This is due, in part, to an upregulation of mitochondrial activity through increased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). Recent studies have shown that NAD+ levels can be increased by using the NAD+ precursor, nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) leading to the suggestion that NMN could be a useful intervention in diet related metabolic disorders. In this study we compared the metabolic, and especially mitochondrial-associated, effects of exercise and NMN in ameliorating the consequences of high-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity in mice. Sixty female 5 week old C57BL6/J mice were allocated across five groups: Chow sedentary: CS; Chow exercise: CEX; HFD sedentary: HS; HFD NMN: HNMN; HFD exercise: HEX (12/group). After 6 weeks of diet, exercise groups underwent treadmill exercise (15 m/min for 45 min), 6 days per week for 6 weeks. NMN or vehicle (500 mg/kg body weight) was injected (i.p.) daily for the last 17 days. No significant alteration in body weight was observed in response to exercise or NMN. The HFD significantly altered adiposity, glucose tolerance, plasma insulin, NADH levels and citrate synthase activity in muscle and liver. HEX and HNMN groups both showed significantly improved glucose tolerance compared to the HS group. NAD+ levels were increased significantly both in muscle and liver by NMN whereas exercise increased NAD+ only in muscle. Both NMN and exercise ameliorated the HFD-induced reduction in liver citrate synthase activity. However, exercise, but not NMN, ameliorated citrate synthase activity in muscle. Overall these data suggest that while exercise and NMN-supplementation can induce similar reversal of the glucose intolerance induced by obesity, they are associated with tissue-specific effects and differential alterations to mitochondrial function in muscle and liver. PMID:27594836

  13. Expression of ammonia transporters Rhbg and Rhcg in mouse skeletal muscle and the effect of 6-week training on these proteins.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kohei; Takemasa, Tohru

    2015-10-01

    The purposes of our study were to examine (1) Rh B glycoprotein (Rhbg) and Rh C glycoprotein (Rhcg) expressions in mouse skeletal muscle; and (2) the effect of 6-week training on Rhbg and Rhcg expressions. The levels of Rhbg and Rhcg expressions were much higher in the soleus (Sol) than in the plantaris (Pla) or gastrocnemius (Gas). Immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that Rhbg colocalizes with dystrophin, a plasma membrane protein marker, whereas Rhcg colocalizes with CD31, a vascular endothelial cell marker. In a 6-week swim training study, we set up two different training groups. Endurance (END) group underwent swim training without load for 30 min and exercise time was increased by 30 min every 2 weeks. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) group underwent 10-12 sets of swim training at 20 sec per set and intervals of 10 sec, with a load of 10% body weight. After 6 weeks of training, all mice performed exhaustive swimming performance test (PT), with 9% of body weight to exhaustion. HIIT group could significantly swim more and showed significantly lower blood ammonia level compared with control (CON) group at immediately after PT. Rhbg and Rhcg levels did not change after 6 weeks in both END and HIIT groups. Our results indicate that ammonia transporters are more abundant in slow fiber than fast fiber muscles and 6 weeks swim training suppresses blood ammonia elevation induced by high-intensity exercise with performance improvement, although the levels of ammonia transporter proteins does not change. PMID:26471760

  14. Efficacy and safety of generic escitalopram (Lexacure®) in patients with major depressive disorder: a 6-week multicenter, randomized, rater-blinded, escitalopram-comparative, non-inferiority study

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jong-Hyun; Bahk, Won-Myong; Woo, Young Sup; Lee, Kyung-Uk; Kim, Do Hoon; Kim, Moon-Doo; Kim, Won; Yang, Jong-Chul; Lee, Kwang Heun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The primary aim of this non-inferiority study was to investigate the clinical effectiveness and safety of generic escitalopram (Lexacure®) versus branded escitalopram (Lexapro®) for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods The present study included 158 patients, who were randomized (1:1) to receive a flexible dose of generic escitalopram (n=78) or branded escitalopram (n=80) over a 6-week single-blind treatment period. The clinical benefits in the two groups were evaluated using the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity scale (CGI-S), and the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement scale (CGI-I) at baseline, week 1, week 2, week 4, and week 6. The frequency of adverse events (AEs) was also assessed to determine safety at each follow-up visit. Results During the 6-week study period, 30 patients (38.5%) from the generic escitalopram group and 28 patients (30.0%) from the branded escitalopram group dropped out of the study (P=0.727). The MADRS, HDRS, CGI-S, and CGI-I scores significantly decreased in both groups, and there were no significant differences between the groups. At week 6, 28 patients (57.1%) in the generic escitalopram group and 35 patients (67.3%) in the branded escitalopram group had responded to treatment (as indicated by a ≥50% decrease from the baseline MADRS score; P=0.126), and the remission rates (MADRS score: ≤10) were 42.9% (n=21) in generic escitalopram group and 53.8% (n=28) in the branded escitalopram group (P=0.135). The most frequently reported AEs were nausea (17.9%), sleepiness/somnolence (7.7%), weight gain (3.8%), and dry mouth (2.6%) in the generic escitalopram group and nausea (20.0%), sleepiness/somnolence (3.8%), weight gain (2.5%), and dry mouth (2.5%) in the branded escitalopram group. Conclusion The present non-inferiority study demonstrated that generic escitalopram is a safe and an

  15. Kinematic study of locomotor recovery after spinal cord clip compression injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Alluin, Olivier; Karimi-Abdolrezaee, Soheila; Delivet-Mongrain, Hugo; Leblond, Hugues; Fehlings, Michael G; Rossignol, Serge

    2011-09-01

    After spinal cord injury (SCI), precise assessment of motor recovery is essential to evaluate the outcome of new therapeutic approaches. Very little is known on the recovery of kinematic parameters after clinically-relevant severe compressive/contusive incomplete spinal cord lesions in experimental animal models. In the present study we evaluated the time-course of kinematic parameters during a 6-week period in rats walking on a treadmill after a severe thoracic clip compression SCI. The effect of daily treadmill training was also assessed. During the recovery period, a significant amount of spontaneous locomotor recovery occurred in 80% of the rats with a return of well-defined locomotor hindlimb pattern, regular plantar stepping, toe clearance and homologous hindlimb coupling. However, substantial residual abnormalities persisted up to 6 weeks after SCI including postural deficits, a bias of the hindlimb locomotor cycle toward the back of the animals with overextension at the swing/stance transition, loss of lateral balance and impairment of weight bearing. Although rats never recovered the antero-posterior (i.e. homolateral) coupling, different levels of decoupling between the fore and hindlimbs were measured. We also showed that treadmill training increased the swing duration variability during locomotion suggesting an activity-dependent compensatory mechanism of the motor control system. However, no effect of training was observed on the main locomotor parameters probably due to a ceiling effect of self-training in the cage. These findings constitute a kinematic baseline of locomotor recovery after clinically relevant SCI in rats and should be taken into account when evaluating various therapeutic strategies aimed at improving locomotor function. PMID:21770755

  16. A Comparision of the Effect of Sugammadex on the Recovery Period and Postoperative Residual Block in Young Elderly and Middle-Aged Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yazar, Emine; Yılmaz, Canan; Bilgin, Hülya; Karasu, Derya; Bayraktar, Selcan; Apaydın, Yılmaz; Sayan, Halil Erkan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The importance of the characteristics of anesthesia and postoperative residual curarization (PORC) in the elderly population should be a growing concern in this century. Aims: To investigate the effect of sugammadex on the duration of the recovery from neuromuscular blocking agents and postoperative residual curarization in the young elderly and middle-aged elderly patients who underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy, followed by a train of four (TOF) watch monitorization. Study Design: Prospective clinical trial study. Methods: Sixty patients over the age of 65 with American Society of Anesthesiologists I–III were divided into two groups according to their age (65–74 years old and ≥75 years old). Patients received sugammadex (2.0 mg/kg iv) at the reappearance of the second twitch of the TOF as an agent for reversal of neuromuscular blockage at the end of surgery. Patients were extubated at the time of TOF ≥0.9. The patients’ TOF responses were evaluated with regards to PORC in at the 5th minute and were followed up for one hour in the recovery room. Reintubation was applied for those patients who developed PORC and had peripheric oxygen saturation <90% despite being given 6 L oxygen per min with a face mask. Results: The onset time of neuromuscular blocking agent and time from T2 to achieve TOF ratio 90% (the duration of sugammadex effect) or over were found to be longer in the middle-aged elderly group than in the young elderly group. A statistically significant relationship was found between age and the duration of TOF ratio to reach 0.9 in the same direction. The PORC incidence and rate of reintubation were found to be 1.7% in all patients. Conclusion: In our opinion, it is necessary to remember that the duration of sugammadex effect on the recovery period is prolonged for patients who are aged ≥75 years compared to patients aged between 65–74 years. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: ACTRN12615000758505)

  17. Frontal fasciculi and psychotic symptoms in antipsychotic-naive patients with schizophrenia before and after 6 weeks of selective dopamine D2/3 receptor blockade

    PubMed Central

    Ebdrup, Bjørn H.; Raghava, Jayachandra M.; Nielsen, Mette Ø.; Rostrup, Egill; Glenthøj, Birte

    2016-01-01

    Background Psychotic symptoms are core clinical features of schizophrenia. We tested recent hypotheses proposing that psychotic, or positive, symptoms stem from irregularities in long-range white matter tracts projecting into the frontal cortex, and we predicted that selective dopamine D2/3 receptor blockade would restore white matter. Methods Between December 2008 and July 2011, antipsychoticnaive patients with first-episode schizophrenia and matched healthy controls underwent baseline examination with 3 T MRI diffusion tensor imaging and clinical assessments. We assessed group differences of fractional anisotropy (FA) using voxelwise tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and anatomic region of interest (ROI)–based analyses. Subsequently, patients underwent 6 weeks of antipsychotic monotherapy with amisulpride. We repeated the examinations after 6 weeks. Results We included 38 patients with first-episode schizophrenia and 38 controls in our analysis, and 28 individuals in each group completed the study. At baseline, whole brain TBSS analyses revealed lower FA in patients in the right anterior thalamic radiation (ATR), right cingulum, right inferior longitudinal fasciculus and right corticospinal tract (CT). Fractional anisotropy in the right ATR correlated with positive symptoms (z = 2.64, p = 0.008). The ROI analyses showed significant associations between positive symptoms and FA of the frontal fasciculi, specifically the right arcuate fasciculus (z = 2.83, p = 0.005) and right superior longitudinal fasciculus (z = −3.31, p = 0.001). At re-examination, all correlations between positive symptoms and frontal fasciculi had resolved. Fractional anisotropy in the ATR increased more in patients than in controls (z = −4.92, p < 0.001). The amisulpride dose correlated positively with FA changes in the right CT (t = 2.52, p = 0.019). Limitations Smoking and a previous diagnosis of substance abuse were potential confounders. Long-term effects of amisulpride on white

  18. Different mechanisms drive the performance of native and invasive woody species in response to leaf phosphorus supply during periods of drought stress and recovery.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marciel Teixeira; Medeiros, Camila Dias; Frosi, Gabriella; Santos, Mauro Guida

    2014-09-01

    The effects of drought stress and leaf phosphorus (Pi) supply on photosynthetic metabolism in woody tropical species are not known, and given the recent global environmental change models that forecast lower precipitation rates and periods of prolonged drought in tropical areas, this type of study is increasingly important. The effects of controlled drought stress and Pi supply on potted young plants of two woody species, Anadenanthera colubrina (native) and Prosopis juliflora (invasive), were determined by analyzing leaf photosynthetic metabolism, biochemical properties and water potential. In the maximum stress, both species showed higher leaf water potential (Ψl) in the treatment drought +Pi when compared with the respective control -Pi. The native species showed higher gas exchange under drought +Pi than under drought -Pi conditions, while the invasive species showed the same values between drought +Pi and -Pi. Drought affected the photochemical part of photosynthetic machinery more in the invasive species than in the native species. The invasive species showed higher leaf amino acid content and a lower leaf total protein content in both Pi treatments with drought. The two species showed different responses to the leaf Pi supply under water stress for several variables measured. In addition, the strong resilience of leaf gas exchange in the invasive species compared to the native species during the recovery period may be the result of higher efficiency of Pi use. The implications of this behavior for the success of this invasive species in semiarid environments are discussed. PMID:24907526

  19. Hydronephrosis in mice exposed to TCDD-contaminated breast milk: Identification of the peak period of sensitivity and assessment of potential recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Couture-Haws, L.; Harris, M.W.; McDonald, M.M.; Lockhart, A.C.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1991-01-01

    2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a potent inducer of hydronephrosis in mice both pre- and post-natally. To identify the critical period of susceptibility for development of TCDD-induced hydronephrosis in neonatal mice, as well as to characterize the potential for recovery from this renal lesion, dose-response and time-course studies were conducted using lactational exposure. Pregnant C57BL/6N mice were allowed natural delivery. In the dose-response phase of the investigation, mothers were administered 0, 3, 6, or 12 microgram TCDD/kg once by gavage on post natal day (pnd) 1, 4, 8, or 14, and dams and pups were sacrificed on pnd 26. In the time-course studies, dams were given a single oral dose of 0 or 9 microgram TCDD/kg on pnd 1, and mothers and litters were subsequently sacrificed on pnd 7, 13, 19, or 26. Neonatal kidneys were examined, and hydronephrotic severity was scored. The incidence and severity of hydronephrosis were significantly elevated above controls at all dose levels on pnd 26 following treatment on pnds 1 and 4, while treatment on pnd 8 or 14 was ineffective at inducing hydronephrosis.

  20. Efficacy of extended release quetiapine fumarate monotherapy in patients with major depressive disorder: a pooled analysis of two 6-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies.

    PubMed

    Weisler, Richard H; Montgomery, Stuart A; Earley, Willie R; Szamosi, Johan; Lazarus, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Prospectively planned pooled analysis evaluating the efficacy of quetiapine extended release (XR) monotherapy in major depressive disorder (MDD). Data were pooled from two 6-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of quetiapine XR in outpatients with MDD. The primary endpoint was Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score change from randomization at week 6. Other evaluations were MADRS response/remission, Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety, and subgroup analyses. A total of 968 patients were randomized to quetiapine XR, 150 mg/day (n=315), 300 mg/day (n=323), or placebo (n=330). The mean MADRS total score reductions from randomization were significant at week 6 with quetiapine XR, 150 mg/day (-14.7; P<0.001) and 300 mg/day (-14.7; P<0.001) versus placebo (-11.1), with significant reductions versus placebo from week 1 onward. Response rates (week 6): 52.7% (P<0.001) quetiapine XR 150 mg/day and 49.5% (P<0.001) quetiapine XR 300 mg/day versus placebo (33.0%). MADRS remission (score≤8; week 6): 23.5% (P=0.208) quetiapine XR 150 mg/day and 28.8% (P<0.01) quetiapine XR 300 mg/day versus placebo (19.4%). Quetiapine XR (both doses) significantly improved eight of 10 MADRS items versus placebo at week 6. The therapeutic effect of quetiapine XR was neither limited to nor driven by factors such as sex, age, or severity of depression. In patients with MDD, quetiapine XR (150 and 300 mg/day) monotherapy reduced depressive symptoms, with significant improvements compared with placebo from week 1 onward. PMID:22027845

  1. Clinical Application of Revised Laboratory Classification Criteria for Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome: Is the Follow-Up Interval of 12 Weeks Instead of 6 Weeks Significantly Useful?

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Hyuk; Park, Chan-Jeoung; Chi, Hyun-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Background. According to revised classification criteria of true antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, at least one of three antiphospholipid antibodies should be present on two or more occasions at least 12 weeks apart. However, it can be inconvenient to perform follow-up tests with interval of 12 weeks. We investigated clinical application of follow-up tests with interval of 12 weeks. Method. Totals of 67, 199, and 332 patients tested positive initially for the lupus anticoagulants confirm, the anti-β2 glycoprotein-I antibody, and the anti-cardiolipin antibody test, respectively, from Jan 2007 to Jul 2009. We investigated clinical symptoms of patients, follow-up interval, and results of each test. Results. Among patients with initial test positive, 1.5%–8.5% were subjected to follow-up tests at interval of more than 12 weeks. Among 25 patients with negative conversion in tests, patients with interval of more than 12 weeks showed clinical symptom positivity of 33.3%, which was higher than that of 12.5% with 6–12 weeks. Among 34 patients with persistent test positive, clinical symptoms positivity trended to be more evident in patients at interval of 6–12 weeks (47.4% versus 26.7%, P = 0.191) than more than 12 weeks. Conclusion. Less than 10% of patients with initial test positive had follow-up tests at interval of more than 12 weeks and the patients with persistent test positive at interval of more than 12 weeks showed trends toward having lower clinical symptoms than 6–12 weeks. More research is needed focused on the evidence that follow-up test at interval of more than 12 weeks should be performed instead of 6 weeks. PMID:27610369

  2. A comparison of the effects of 6 weeks of traditional resistance training, plyometric training, and complex training on measures of strength and anthropometrics.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Christopher J; Lamont, Hugh S; Garner, John C

    2012-02-01

    Complex training (CT; alternating between heavy and lighter load resistance exercises with similar movement patterns within an exercise session) is a form of training that may potentially bring about a state of postactivation potentiation, resulting in increased dynamic power (Pmax) and rate of force development during the lighter load exercise. Such a method may be more effective than either modality, independently for developing strength. The purpose of this research was to compare the effects of resistance training (RT), plyometric training (PT), and CT on lower body strength and anthropometrics. Thirty recreationally trained college-aged men were trained using 1 of 3 methods: resistance, plyometric, or complex twice weekly for 6 weeks. The participants were tested pre, mid, and post to assess back squat strength, Romanian dead lift (RDL) strength, standing calf raise (SCR) strength, quadriceps girth, triceps surae girth, body mass, and body fat percentage. Diet was not controlled during this study. Statistical measures revealed a significant increase for squat strength (p = 0.000), RDL strength (p = 0.000), and SCR strength (p = 0.000) for all groups pre to post, with no differences between groups. There was also a main effect for time for girth measures of the quadriceps muscle group (p = 0.001), the triceps surae muscle group (p = 0.001), and body mass (p = 0.001; post hoc revealed no significant difference). There were main effects for time and group × time interactions for fat-free mass % (RT: p = 0.031; PT: p = 0.000). The results suggest that CT mirrors benefits seen with traditional RT or PT. Moreover, CT revealed no decrement in strength and anthropometric values and appears to be a viable training modality. PMID:22240547

  3. THE MOTHERS AND TODDLERS PROGRAM, AN ATTACHMENT-BASED PARENTING INTERVENTION FOR SUBSTANCE-USING WOMEN: RESULTS AT 6-WEEK FOLLOW-UP IN A RANDOMIZED CLINICAL PILOT

    PubMed Central

    SUCHMAN, NANCY E.; DECOSTE, CINDY; MCMAHON, THOMAS J.; ROUNSAVILLE, BRUCE; MAYES, LINDA

    2012-01-01

    Previously, we reported posttreatment findings from a randomized pilot study testing a new attachment-based parenting intervention for mothers enrolled in substance-use treatment and caring for children ages birth to 3 years (N.E. Suchman, C. DeCoste, N. Castiglioni, T. McMahon, B. Rounsaville, & L. Mayes, 2010). The Mothers and Toddlers Program (MTP) is a 12-session, weekly individual parenting therapy that aims to enhance maternal capacity for reflective functioning and soften harsh and distorted mental representations of parenting. In a randomized pilot study, 47 mothers who were enrolled in outpatient substance-abuse treatment and caring for children between birth and 3 years of age were randomized to the MTP versus the Parent Education Program (PE), a comparison intervention that provided individual case management and developmental guidance. At the end of treatment, mothers in the MTP condition demonstrated better reflective functioning, representation quality, and caregiving behavior than did mothers in the PE condition. In this investigation, we examined whether the benefits of MTP at posttreatment were sustained at the 6-week follow-up. Recently, we also identified two components of parental reflective functioning: (a) a self-focused component representing the parent's capacity to mentalize about strong personal emotions (e.g., anger, guilt, or pain) and their impact on the child and (b) a child-focused component representing the parent's capacity to mentalize about the child's emotions and their impact on the mother (N. Suchman, C. DeCoste, D. Leigh, & J. Borelli, 2010). In this study, we reexamined posttreatment outcomes using these two related, but distinct, constructs. PMID:22685361

  4. Clinical Application of Revised Laboratory Classification Criteria for Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome: Is the Follow-Up Interval of 12 Weeks Instead of 6 Weeks Significantly Useful?

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Hyuk; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, Chan-Jeoung; Chi, Hyun-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Background. According to revised classification criteria of true antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, at least one of three antiphospholipid antibodies should be present on two or more occasions at least 12 weeks apart. However, it can be inconvenient to perform follow-up tests with interval of 12 weeks. We investigated clinical application of follow-up tests with interval of 12 weeks. Method. Totals of 67, 199, and 332 patients tested positive initially for the lupus anticoagulants confirm, the anti-β 2 glycoprotein-I antibody, and the anti-cardiolipin antibody test, respectively, from Jan 2007 to Jul 2009. We investigated clinical symptoms of patients, follow-up interval, and results of each test. Results. Among patients with initial test positive, 1.5%-8.5% were subjected to follow-up tests at interval of more than 12 weeks. Among 25 patients with negative conversion in tests, patients with interval of more than 12 weeks showed clinical symptom positivity of 33.3%, which was higher than that of 12.5% with 6-12 weeks. Among 34 patients with persistent test positive, clinical symptoms positivity trended to be more evident in patients at interval of 6-12 weeks (47.4% versus 26.7%, P = 0.191) than more than 12 weeks. Conclusion. Less than 10% of patients with initial test positive had follow-up tests at interval of more than 12 weeks and the patients with persistent test positive at interval of more than 12 weeks showed trends toward having lower clinical symptoms than 6-12 weeks. More research is needed focused on the evidence that follow-up test at interval of more than 12 weeks should be performed instead of 6 weeks. PMID:27610369

  5. Effectiveness of Start to Run, a 6-week training program for novice runners, on increasing health-enhancing physical activity: a controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of the organized sports sector as a setting for health-promotion is a relatively new strategy. In the past few years, different countries have been investing resources in the organized sports sector for promoting health-enhancing physical activity. In the Netherlands, National Sports Federations were funded to develop and implement “easily accessible” sporting programs, aimed at the least active population groups. Start to Run, a 6-week training program for novice runners, developed by the Dutch Athletics Organization, is one of these programs. In this study, the effects of Start to Run on health-enhancing physical activity were investigated. Methods Physical activity levels of Start to Run participants were assessed by means of the Short QUestionnaire to ASsess Health-enhancing physical activity (SQUASH) at baseline, immediately after completing the program and six months after baseline. A control group, matched for age and sex, was assessed at baseline and after six months. Compliance with the Dutch physical activity guidelines was the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measures were the total time spent in physical activity and the time spent in each physical activity intensity category and domain. Changes in physical activity within groups were tested with paired t-tests and McNemar tests. Changes between groups were examined with multiple linear and logistic regression analyses. Results In the Start to Run group, the percentage of people who met the Dutch Norm for Health-enhancing Physical Activity, Fit-norm and Combi-norm increased significantly, both in the short- and longer-term. In the control group, no significant changes in physical activity were observed. When comparing results between groups, significantly more Start to Run participants compared with control group participants were meeting the Fit-norm and Combi-norm after six months. The differences in physical activity between groups in favor of the Start to Run group

  6. A 6-week, double-blind, placebo- and haloperidol-controlled, phase II study of lurasidone in patients with acute schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Potkin, Steven G.; Kimura, Tatsuya; Guarino, John

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of the atypical antipsychotic agent lurasidone in the treatment of schizophrenia. Methods: In this phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, hospitalized adult patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and experiencing an acute exacerbation of psychotic symptoms were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of fixed-dose lurasidone 20 mg/day (n = 71), lurasidone 40 mg/day (n = 67), lurasidone 80 mg/day (n = 71), haloperidol 10 mg/day (n = 72, included to test for assay sensitivity), or placebo (n = 72). Efficacy was assessed using the brief psychiatric rating scale, positive and negative syndrome scale, and clinical global impression-severity. Safety assessments included incidence of adverse events and clinical laboratory measures. Results: Numerical improvement was observed from baseline to week 6 (last observation carried forward) on all efficacy measures in all treatment groups; however, no statistically significant differences were noted between any lurasidone group and placebo, or between haloperidol and placebo. The most common adverse events in lurasidone-treated patients, with an incidence of at least 10% (dose groups combined) and greater than placebo, were sedation (15.3%), dyspepsia (13.4%), nausea (13.4%), akathisia (12.4%), and vomiting (10.5%); for haloperidol, the most common adverse events (incidence ⩾ 10% and greater than placebo) were extrapyramidal disorder (20.8%), sedation (19.4%), akathisia (19.4%), dystonia (15.3%), insomnia (13.9%), and somnolence (12.5%). Lurasidone was associated with minimal changes in weight, metabolic parameters, and prolactin levels. Conclusions: None of the lurasidone groups separated from placebo in this clinical study of patients with acute schizophrenia. In addition, haloperidol, which was included for assay sensitivity, did not separate from placebo, resulting in a failed study. Possible reasons for the lack of assay

  7. A 6-week, multicentre, randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, active-controlled, clinical safety study of lumiracoxib and rofecoxib in osteoarthritis patients

    PubMed Central

    Stricker, Kirstin; Yu, Sue; Krammer, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    Background Lumiracoxib is a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor effective in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) with a superior gastrointestinal (GI) safety profile as compared to traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, ibuprofen and naproxen). This safety study compared the GI tolerability, the blood pressure (BP) profile and the incidence of oedema with lumiracoxib and rofecoxib in the treatment of OA. Rofecoxib was withdrawn worldwide due to an associated increased risk of CV events and lumiracoxib has been withdrawn from Australia, Canada, Europe and a few other countries following reports of suspected adverse liver reactions. Methods This randomised, double-blind study enrolled 309 patients (aged greater than or equal to 50 years) with primary OA across 51 centres in Europe. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either lumiracoxib 400 mg od (four times the recommended dose in OA) (n = 154) or rofecoxib 25 mg od (n = 155). The study was conducted for 6 weeks and assessments were performed at Weeks 3 and 6. The primary safety measures were the incidence of predefined GI adverse events (AEs) and peripheral oedema. The secondary safety measures included effect of treatment on the mean sitting systolic and diastolic blood pressure (msSBP and msDBP). Tolerability of lumiracoxib 400 mg was assessed by the incidence of AEs. Results Lumiracoxib and rofecoxib displayed similar GI safety profiles with no statistically significant difference in predefined GI AEs between the two groups (43.5% vs. 37.4%, respectively). The incidence and severity of individual predefined GI AEs was comparable between the two groups. The incidence of peripheral oedema was low and identical in both the groups (n = 9, 5.8%). Only one patient in the lumiracoxib group and three patients in the rofecoxib group had a moderate or severe event. At Week 6 there was a significantly lower msSBP and msDBP in the lumiracoxib group compared to the rofecoxib group (p < 0.05). A

  8. Lithium as add-on to quetiapine XR in adult patients with acute mania: a 6-week, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Bourin, Michel S; Severus, Emanuel; Schronen, Juan P; Gass, Peter; Szamosi, Johan; Eriksson, Hans; Chandrashekar, Hongally

    2014-01-01

    Quetiapine extended release (XR) and lithium are treatments with proven efficacy in acute mania. This randomized study evaluated the efficacy and safety of lithium or placebo as add-on to quetiapine XR in adult patients with manic or mixed symptoms of bipolar I disorder. In this 6-week, double-blind study (Trial D144AC00003), adult patients with DSM-IV-TR-diagnosed bipolar I disorder (current episode manic or mixed), a Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) total score ≥20, and score ≥4 on two of four core YMRS items were administered quetiapine XR (400 to 800 mg/day) and randomly assigned to receive add-on lithium (600 to 1,800 mg/day) or placebo. The primary efficacy end point was change in the YMRS total score from baseline to day 43, analyzed using a mixed-model for repeated measures (MMRM) approach. Secondary efficacy and safety end points were also measured. Rating scales were administered by trained staff. Three hundred fifty-six patients treated with quetiapine XR were randomized to add-on lithium (n = 173) or placebo (n = 183). Two hundred ninety-one patients (81.7%) completed the study. At day 43, least squares mean change in YMRS total score was -22.8 for add-on lithium and -20.1 for add-on placebo, a statistically significant treatment group difference of -2.69 (p < 0.001). On secondary measures, add-on lithium was associated with significant improvements in response, remission, illness severity, and overall illness versus add-on placebo (p < 0.05). The number needed to treat was 9.1 for response and 7.9 for remission for add-on lithium compared with add-on placebo. Lithium in combination with quetiapine XR was generally well tolerated, with a similar profile to quetiapine XR in combination with placebo. The addition of lithium to quetiapine XR therapy was associated with significantly greater efficacy than placebo as add-on and was generally well tolerated in patients with acute bipolar I mania. This study was registered under Clinicaltrials

  9. A service evaluation of the feasibility of a community-based consultant and stroke navigator review of health and social care needs in stroke survivors 6 weeks after hospital discharge.

    PubMed

    Dewan, Bikash; Skrypak, Mirek; Moore, Joanna; Wainscoat, Rebecca

    2014-04-01

    The Department of Health Stroke Strategy (2007) recommends that post stroke patients are reviewed within 6 weeks of discharge. Historically, a 6-week outpatient appointment was offered. This was primarily a medical review and not a full assessment of health, social care status and secondary prevention needs. An innovative joint domiciliary clinic was developed in order to meet these recommendations. The joint clinic reviews were conducted by a stroke consultant and an allied health professional. There were no readmissions at 6 weeks and 6 months post stroke. User satisfaction was very high and there were no missed appointments. Patient health and social status was fully captured, reported and acted upon holistically following each review. This form of integrated partnership working seems to promote seamless life after-stroke care, while enhancing patients' understanding. It includes the provision of secondary prevention and self-management strategies. This 'one-stop shop' approach would warrant formal evaluation. PMID:24715123

  10. Role of activation of cholinergic influences in recovery of electrical activity of the stomach and small intestine during the early postoperative period in rats.

    PubMed

    Tropskaya, N S; Solov'yova, G I; Popova, T S

    2007-02-01

    The effects of neostigmine and calcium pantothenate on electrical activity of the stomach and small intestine were studied in chronic experiments on rats after laparotomy with implantation of a probe into the jejunum and electrodes into different portions of the gastrointestinal tract. At the early terms after surgery, stimulation of endogenous acetylcholine release intensified electrical activity of the stomach, duodenum, and jejunum. Treatment with neostigmine and calcium pantothenate did not accelerate the recovery of the migrating myoelectrical complex, but promoted the recovery of the general intensity of action potential generation in the stomach and small intestine. PMID:17970199

  11. Quarterly report of RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976) groundwater monitoring data for period July 1, 1990 through September 30, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    Hanford Site interim-status groundwater monitoring projects are conducted as either background, indicator parameter evaluation, or groundwater quality assessment monitoring programs as defined in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA); and 40CFR265, Interim Status Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities, as amended (EPA 1988b). This submittal provides data obtained from groundwater monitoring activities for July 1, 1990 through September 30, 1990. 26 refs., 21 figs., 30 tabs.

  12. Rapid recovery from spontaneous and simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture in an active, healthy individual.

    PubMed

    Gaheer, Rajinder Singh; Hawkins, Amanda

    2010-07-01

    Bilateral spontaneous quadriceps rupture is an uncommon injury that is usually seen in association with multiple medical conditions and is frequently misdiagnosed. It is rarely seen in healthy, active individuals. This article presents a case of bilateral simultaneous and spontaneous rupture of the quadriceps tendon in a healthy, athletic, active and highly motivated patient with rapid recovery from injury and return to full sport activity within a relatively short period of time. A 65-year-old healthy man felt both knees give way while walking down stairs at home and collapsed, unable to bear weight. He was fit and well, not on any medications and basic laboratory screening was within normal limits. He was an active sportsman, horse rider, swimmer, and long-distance cyclist, and had completed a half marathon 1 month before his injury. He was diagnosed with bilateral quadriceps tendon ruptures. An ultrasound of both knees confirmed the diagnosis of full-thickness rupture. Surgical repair of both quadriceps tendons was performed 3 days after the injury. Bilateral locking brace in 10 degrees of flexion was used to immobilize both knees and protect the repair for 6 weeks. The patient remained nonweight bearing for 2 weeks, then gradual weight bearing was commenced, with full weight bearing at 6 weeks. Intensive isometric quadriceps exercises were started on the second postoperative day. Immobilization of both knees was maintained for 6 weeks, after which full active range of motion (ROM) was initiated. At 16 weeks after the injury he had bilateral ROM from 0 degrees to 120 degrees flexion, with no extension lag. He was horse riding, playing golf, swimming, and walking distances up to 2 miles at that time. PMID:20608622

  13. 'Why are there so many drums playing until dawn?' Exploring the role of Gamba spirits and healers in the post-war recovery period in Gorongosa, Central Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Igreja, Victor

    2003-12-01

    In the wake of a civil war, local resources can play a potential role in shaping the recovery process by providing both old and new exegeses for the disturbing effects of the past. Using the case of Gorongosa, this article aims to explore the ways in which the war has impacted upon traditional medicine by creating Gamba spirits that cause havoc but can also transform the psychosocial hurts of war survivors. Historically, traditional healing practice was under the sole responsibility of the Dzoca, an ancestral spirit that for generations was embodied in living people through lineage descent to exercise its healing powers. There is consensus among healers that the Gamba spirit and healers emerged after the war and are rapidly spreading throughout Gorongosa. I explore the emic theories to explain the Gamba's puzzling origins and the role they are currently playing in Gorongosa. PMID:14979463

  14. Pulmonary functional and morphological changes induced by a 4-week exposure to 0. 7 ppm ozone followed by a 9-week recovery period

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, K.B.; White, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    Male Fischer-344 rats were subjected to pulmonary-function testing procedures, then exposed to 0.7 ppm ozone for 28 d, 20 h/d. Another group of animals was similarly treated, but at each test point one-third were sacrificed for microscopic evaluation. When percent changes from preexposure values were compared to controls at each time point, the ozone exposure produced obstructive changes in the lung, including significant decreases in forced expiratory flows, lung volumes, and DL/sub CO/; and a significant increase in functional residual capacity. The total lung capacity was not significantly changed by the ozone. Microscopic examination revealed characteristic lesions in the region of terminal bronchioles and central acinar alveoli marked by peribronchiolar edema, bronchiolization of alveolar duct epithelium, and type II cell proliferation in involved alveoli with increased numbers of macrophages and a few leucocytes. Clearly discernable was a focal interalveolar-alveolar duct reaction made up of fibroblasts, a few inflammatory cells, and conspicuous mast cells, all embedded in a loose metachromatic matrix. After 4 wk of recovery, all measurements of lung volume and DL/sub CO/ had returned to the values of the control group; however, even after 9 wk some of the measurements of lung flow remained significantly although less depressed. Histologically, after 4 wk recovery, there remained only a slight unevenly distributed inflammatory reaction. In these foci there was often a residual, narrower, more condensed band of eosinophilic material, presumably colagen, that sometimes contained interspersed mast cells. After 9 wk, this collagen accumulation within the thickened wall of the alveolar duct could occasionally still be noted.

  15. HYDRONEPHROSIS IN MICE EXPOSED TO TCDD-CONTAMINATED BREAST MILK: IDENTIFICATION OF THE PEAK PERIOD OF SENSITIVITY AND ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a potent inducer of hydronephrosis in mice both pre- and post-natally. ritical period of sensitivity to TCDD could not be identified for the hydronephrotic response induced prenatally since the urinary tract appeared equally sensitive...

  16. Enhanced oil recovery utilizing high-angle wells in the Frontier Formation, Badger Basin Field, Park County, Wyoming. Final report for the period October 1992--October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.P.; Fortmann, R.G.

    1994-12-01

    Badger Basin Field, discovered in 1931, produces at stripper rates from low-permeability fractured sandstones of the Upper Cretaceous Frontier Formation. Only 15% of the estimated 25 million barrels of oil originally in-place will be produced from the twenty-two attempted vertical completions. This project will increase recoverable reserves through a better understanding of the reservoir and factors which control production. Characterization of the reservoir has been accomplished through an integrated engineering, geological and geophysical approach. Production data, drilling and completion techniques, and relative location of wells on the anticline were reviewed and related to productivity. Literature was reviewed for interpretations on preferred flow directions on anticlinal structures. A structure map of the producing Frontier reservoir was constructed. Porosity development and its relationship to fracture networks was examined petrographically. Fractures in core were described and oriented using paleomagnetic techniques. Azimuths of fractures in outcrop were compared to fracture azimuths measured in the core. A 17 square-mile 3D seismic survey was designed, acquired and processed. Interpretation is being performed on a Sun workstation using Landmark Graphics software. Time-structure and amplitude-distribution maps will be constructed on three Frontier horizons. A location for a high-angle well will be chosen. The slant/horizontal test will be drilled and completed to increase recovery of reserves. Transfer of successful technologies will be accomplished by technical publications and presentations, and access to project materials, data, and field facilities.

  17. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford Facilities: Progress report for the period July 1 to September 30, 1989 - Volume 1 - Text

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-12-01

    This is Volume 1 of a two-volume document that describes the progress of 14 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period July 1 to September 30, 1989. This volume discusses the projects; Volume 2 provides as-built diagrams, completion/inspection reports, drilling logs, and geophysical logs for wells drilled, completed, or logged during this period. Volume 2 can be found on microfiche in the back pocket of Volume 1. The work described in this document is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the management of Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. Concentrations of ground-water constituents are compared to federal drinking water standards throughout this document for reference purposes. All drinking water supplied from the sampled aquifer meets regulatory standards for drinking water quality.

  18. Food availability promotes rapid recovery from thermal stress in a scleractinian coral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, S. R.; Lopez-Yglesias, M. A.; Anthony, K. R. N.

    2012-12-01

    Bleaching in corals due to environmental stress represents a loss of energy intake often leading to an increase in mortality risk. Successful coral recovery from severe bleaching events may depend on the rate of replenishment of algal symbiont populations following the period of thermal stress, the supply of an alternative food source, or both. Here, we explore the role of food availability in promoting the survival and recovery of a common coral ( Acropora intermedia) following acute experimentally induced thermal stress. Fed corals were provided with live rotifers daily, to maintain densities of zooplankton in tanks that are typical of coral reefs. After a 6-week acclimation phase, heated corals were subjected to a +4 °C thermal anomaly for a 7-day period (bleaching phase) then temperatures were returned to normal for a further 2 weeks (recovery phase). Results demonstrated that heated corals had higher survival when they were provided with heterotrophic food. Fed corals experienced reduced loss of chlorophyll a, relative to unfed corals. During the recovery phase, both fed and unfed corals recovered within a few days; however, fed corals recovered to pre-bleaching phase levels of chlorophyll a, whereas unfed corals stabilized approximately one-third below this level. Protein levels of fed corals declined markedly during the bleaching phase, but recovered all of their losses by the end of the recovery phase. In contrast, unfed corals had low protein levels that were maintained throughout the experiment. To the extent that these results are representative of corals' responses to thermal anomalies in nature, the findings imply that availability of particulate food matter has the potential to increase corals' capacity to survive thermally induced bleaching and to ameliorate its sub-lethal effects. They also support the hypothesis that different rates of heterotrophy are an important determinant of variation in resilience to thermal stress among reef environments.

  19. Recovery of stepping and coordination in dogs following acute thoracolumbar intervertebral disc herniations.

    PubMed

    Rousse, C A; Olby, N J; Williams, K; Harris, T L; Griffith, E H; Mariani, C L; Muñana, K R; Early, P J

    2016-07-01

    Prospective data on the recovery of coordination in dogs suffering acute thoracolumbar intervertebral disc herniations (TL-IVDH) are limited. The purpose of this study was to use treadmill based and open field scores (OFS) to quantify recovery of stepping ability and forelimb, hindlimb coordination in the 6 weeks following surgical decompression of dogs with TL-IVDH. Sixty-three dogs were grouped at presentation as grades 3 (non-ambulatory paraparetic), 4 (paraplegic) or 5 (paraplegic without pain sensation) and were evaluated 2, 4, and 6 weeks post-operatively. Stepping scores and Regularity Index (RI), a measure of coordination, were calculated from treadmill walking, and an OFS incorporating supported and unsupported walking was assigned. Outcomes for the three measures were compared between groups and correlation between scoring methods was assessed. Grade 3 and 4 dogs recovered ambulation by 2 weeks, reaching median stepping scores of 96 and 90% by 6 weeks, respectively. Recovery of coordination differed between groups 3 and 4 with median RI scores of 93.9% and 63%, respectively, by 6 weeks. Eight grade 5 dogs failed to recover independent ambulation by 6 weeks. Nine dogs recovered with scores that were significantly worse than the grade 3 and 4 dogs at 6 weeks for stepping score (P < 0.001) and RI (P < 0.001). OFS correlated closely with stepping and RI scores and each group was significantly different using this ordinal scale. In conclusion, recovery of coordination was incomplete in dogs that showed good recovery of stepping. The data generated could be used for clinical trial design. PMID:27240917

  20. Enhanced oil recovery by surfactant-enhanced volumetric sweep efficiency: First annual report for the period September 30, 1985-September 30, 1986. [Sandpacks

    SciTech Connect

    Harwell, J H; Scamehorn, J F

    1987-05-01

    Surfactant-enhanced volumetric sweep efficiency is a novel EOR method which utilizes precipitation/coacervation of surfactants to plug the most permeable regions of the reservoir, improving the efficiency of a waterflooding operation. This technique does not rely on reduction of interfacial tension between aqueous and oleic phases to enhance oil recovery. Therefore, even though surfactants are involved, this new technique is not a substitute or improvement on classical surfactant flooding; however, it has the potantial to compete with polymer flooding as an alternative sweep efficiency improvement method. In surfactant-enhanced volumetric sweep efficiency, a slug containing one kind of surfactant is injected into the reservoir, followed by a brine spacer. This is followed by injection of a second kind of surfactant which has lower adsorption than the first surfactant used. Anionic and cationic surfactants are one possible combination for this application. These may form either a precipitate or a coacervate upon mixing. Phase boundaries for some specific systems of this type have been determined over a wide range of conditions and a model developed to describe this behavior. Another possibility is the use of nonionic surfactants, which may form coacervate under proper conditions. The adsorption behavior of mixtures of anionic and nonionic surfactants was measured to aid in modeling the chromatographic effects with these surfactants in the reservoir. Studies with sandpacks of different permeabilities in parallel configuration using mixtures of anionic and cationic surfactants have demonstrated the capability of this method to reduce flow rates through a more permeable sandpack more than that through a less permeable sandpack. 4 refs., 23 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. Resource conservation and recovery act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Progress report for the period July 1 to September 30, 1988: Volume 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Fruland, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-02-01

    This is Volume 2 of a two-volume set of documents that describes the progress of 12 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period July 1 to September 30, 1988. This volume provides those drilling logs and well inspection/completion reports inadvertently left out of last quarter's report for the 216-A-36B Crib (Appendix A) and as-built diagrams, drilling logs, and geophysical logs for wells drilled this quarter near the 2101-M Pond. Volume 1 discusses the 12 projects.

  2. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Progress report for the period October 1 to December 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1990-03-01

    This is Volume 1 of a two-volume document that describes the progress of 15 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period October 1 to December 31, 1989. This volume discusses the projects. The work described in this document is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the management of Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. Concentrations of ground-water constituents are compared to federal drinking water standards throughout this document for reference purposes. All drinking water supplied from the samples aquifer meets regulatory standards for drinking water quality. 51 refs., 35 figs., 86 tabs.

  3. Reading Recovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Joanna R., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of the Arizona Reading Journal focuses on the theme "reading recovery" and includes the following articles: "Why Is an Inservice Programme for Reading Recovery Teachers Necessary?" (Marie M. Clay); "What Is Reading Recovery?" (Gay Su Pinnell); "Teaching a Hard To Teach Child" (Constance A. Compton); "Reading Recovery in Arizona--A…

  4. Motor recovery at 6 months after admission is related to structural and functional reorganization of the spine and brain in patients with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jingming; Xiang, Zimin; Yan, Rubing; Zhao, Ming; Wu, Yongtao; Zhong, Jianfeng; Guo, Lei; Li, Haitao; Wang, Jian; Wu, Jixiang; Sun, Tiansheng; Liu, Hongliang

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to explore structural and functional reorganization of the brain in the early stages of spinal cord injury (SCI) and identify brain areas that contribute to motor recovery. We studied 25 patients with SCI, including 10 with good motor recovery and 15 with poor motor recovery, along with 25 matched healthy controls. The mean period post-SCI was 9.2 ± 3.5 weeks in good recoverers and 8.8 ± 2.6 weeks in poor recoverers. All participants underwent structural and functional MRI on a 3-T magnetic resonance system. We evaluated differences in cross-sectional spinal cord area at the C2/C3 level, brain cortical thickness, white matter microstructure, and functional connectivity during the resting state among the three groups. We also evaluated associations between structural and functional reorganization and the rate of motor recovery. After SCI, compared with good recoverers, poor recoverers had a significantly decreased cross-sectional spinal cord area, cortical thickness in the right supplementary motor area and premotor cortex, and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the right primary motor cortex and posterior limb of the internal capsule. Meanwhile, poor recoverers showed decreased functional connectivity between the primary motor cortex and higher order motor areas (supplementary motor area and premotor cortex), while good recoverers showed increased functional connectivity among these regions. The structural and functional reorganization of the spine and brain was associated with motor recovery rate in all SCI patients. In conclusion, structural and functional reorganization of the spine and brain directly affected the motor recovery of SCI. Less structural atrophy and enhanced functional connectivity are associated with good motor recovery in patients with SCI. Multimodal imaging has the potential to predict motor recovery in the early stage of SCI. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2195-2209, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26936834

  5. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Progress Report for the Period April 1 to June 30, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-09-01

    This report describes the progress of 13 Hanford ground-water monitoring projects for the period April 1 to June 30, 1989. These projects are for the 300 area process trenches (300 area), 183-H solar evaporation basins (100-H area), 200 areas low-level burial grounds, nonradioactive dangerous waste landfill (southeast of the 200 areas), 1301-N liquid waste disposal facility (100-N area), 1324-N surface impoundment and 1324-NA percolation pond (100-N area), 1325-N liquid waste disposal facility (100-N area), 216-A-10 crib (200-east area), 216-A-29 ditch (200-east area), 216-A-36B crib (200-east area), 216-B-36B crib (200-east area), 216-B-3 pond (east of the 200-east area), 2101-M pond (200-east area), grout treatment facility (200-east area).

  6. The ozone recovery in the NH extratropics: The trend analyses of the SBUV/SBUV-2 merged ozone data in the 1979-2012 period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzyścin, Janusz W.

    2014-12-01

    Regulations of the Montreal Protocol (MP) 1987 and its subsequent amendments resulted in a decreasing tendency of the ozone depleting substances (ODS) concentration in the stratosphere since the mid 1990s after few decades of the ODS increasing tendency. The long-term changes of the stratospheric ozone might be also effected by a number of factors (e.g., anthropogenic CH4 and N2O, the stratospheric cooling due to CO2), which are not controlled by MP. A statistical model is developed to evaluate the residual long-term variability of ozone in the period 1979-2012 due to combined effect of factors other than ODS. The SBUV/SBUV-2 merged ozone data ver.8.6 including the column ozone, the ozone content in the troposphere and lower stratosphere (1013-25.45 hPa), and in the upper stratosphere (4.034-1.013 hPa) are examined for the 5 degree wide zonal belts in the 30°-80°N region. The residual trend pattern is calculated for each zonal belt, i.e., the difference between the observed long-term ozone variability having dynamical effects removed and the trend curve due to ODS changes estimated from the standard multivariate trend model. The calculations are carried out separately for the four seasons of the year. The observed long-term change in the upper stratosphere O3 follows that due to ODS changes for all seasons of the year. The trend pattern of the ozone content in the troposphere and lower stratosphere starts to differ from that forced by the ODS changes since about 2005. At the end of considered time period (2012), the ozone content in this layer appears ˜2-3% below the reference level calculated from the ODS changes. It seems that this decline is somewhat related to short-term fluctuations in the atmosphere dynamics appearing in 2011-2012.

  7. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities: Progress report for the period July 1 to September 30, 1988: Volume 1, Text

    SciTech Connect

    Fruland, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-02-01

    This report describes the progress of 12 Hanford ground-water monitoring projects for the period July 1 to September 30, 1988. During this quarter, field activities at the 300 Area process trenches, the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill, the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins, the 1324-N/NA Surface Impoundment and Percolation Ponds, the 1301-N and 1325-N Liquid Waste Disposal Facilities, and the 216-A-36B Crib consisted of ground-water sampling and analyses, and water-level monitoring. The 200 Area Low-Level Burial Grounds section includes well development data, sediment analysis, and water-level measurements. Ground-water sampling was begun at this site, and results will be included in next quarter's report. Twelve new wells were installed during the quarter, two at the 216-A-29 Ditch, size at the 216-A-10 Crib, and four at the 216-B-3 Pond. Preliminary characterization data for these new wells are included in this report. Driller's logs and other drilling and site characterization data will be provided in the next quarterly report. At the 2101-M Pond, construction was completed on four wells, and initial ground-water samples were taken. The drilling logs, geophysical logging data, and as-built diagrams are included in this report in Volume 2. 19 refs., 24 figs., 39 tabs.

  8. Changes in growth and maturation parameters of Pacific sardine Sardinops sagax collected off California during a period of stock recovery from 1994 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Dorval, E; McDaniel, J D; Macewicz, B J; Porzio, D L

    2015-08-01

    Whether fluctuation in density influenced the growth and maturation variables of three aggregated cohorts (fish born during the 1986-1993, 1996-2003 and 2004-2008 periods) of Pacific sardine Sardinops sagax caeruleus collected off the Californian coast from 2004 to 2010 was investigated. Using a von Bertalanffy mixed-effects model with aggregated cohorts as covariates, estimated growth rate significantly covaried with aggregated cohorts. Growth rate (K) was modelled as a fixed effect and estimated to be 0.264 ± 0.015 (±s.e). Statistical contrasts among aggregated cohorts showed that the 1996-2003 cohorts had a significantly lower growth rate than the other two aggregated cohorts. The theoretical age at length zero (t0) and the standard length at infinity (L(S∞)) were modelled as random effects, and were estimated to be -2.885 ± 0.259 (±s.e) and 273.13 ± 6.533 mm (±s.e). The relation of ovary-free mass at length was significantly different among the three aggregated cohorts, with the allometric coefficient estimated to be 2.850 ± 0.013 (±s.e) for the S. sagax population. The age-at-length trajectory of S. sagax born between 1986 and 2008 showed strong density dependence effects on somatic growth rates. In contrast to the density-dependent nature of growth, the probability to be mature at-size or at-age was not significantly affected by aggregated cohort density. The size and the age-at-50% maturity were estimated to be 150.92 mm and 0.56 years, respectively. Stock migration, natural fluctuations in biomass and removal of older and larger S. sagax by fishing might have been interplaying factors controlling growth parameters during 1986-2010. PMID:26108269

  9. Continuation-Phase Cognitive Therapy's Effects on Remission and Recovery from Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vittengl, Jeffrey R.; Clark, Lee Anna; Jarrett, Robin B.

    2009-01-01

    The authors tested the effects of continuation-phase cognitive therapy (C-CT) on remission and recovery from recurrent major depressive disorder, defined as 6 weeks and 8 months, respectively, of continuously absent or minimal symptoms. Responders to acute-phase cognitive therapy were randomized to 8 months of C-CT (n = 41) or assessment control…

  10. The Effects of a 6-Week Strength Training on Critical Velocity, Anaerobic Running Distance, 30-M Sprint and Yo-Yo Intermittent Running Test Performances in Male Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Karsten, Bettina; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Kandemir, Gokhan; Hazir, Tahir; Klose, Andreas; Naclerio, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of a moderate intensity strength training on changes in critical velocity (CV), anaerobic running distance (D'), sprint performance and Yo-Yo intermittent running test (Yo-Yo IR1) performances. Methods: two recreational soccer teams were divided in a soccer training only group (SO; n = 13) and a strength and soccer training group (ST; n = 13). Both groups were tested for values of CV, D', Yo-Yo IR1 distance and 30-m sprint time on two separate occasions (pre and post intervention). The ST group performed a concurrent 6-week upper and lower body strength and soccer training, whilst the SO group performed a soccer only training. Results: after the re-test of all variables, the ST demonstrated significant improvements for both, YoYo IR1 distance (p = 0.002) and CV values (p<0.001) with no significant changes in the SO group. 30-m sprint performance were slightly improved in the ST group with significantly decreased performance times identified in the SO group (p<0.001). Values for D' were slightly reduced in both groups (ST -44.5 m, 95% CI = -90.6 to 1.6; SO -42.6 m, 95% CI = -88.7 to 3.5). Conclusions: combining a 6-week moderate strength training with soccer training significantly improves CV, Yo-Yo IR1 whilst moderately improving 30-m sprint performances in non-previously resistance trained male soccer players. Critical Velocity can be recommended to coaches as an additional valid testing tool in soccer. PMID:27015418

  11. Short term neuropsychological recovery in substance use disordered clients

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Marsha E.; Voelbel, Gerald T.; Buckman, Jennifer F.; Labouvie, Erich W.; Barry, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    Background Cognitive impairments are frequently observed in clients who enter treatment programs for substance abuse. The potential for early recovery of cognitive abilities is suggested by previous research; however, the extent of improvement and risk factors that may help predict individual differences in rates of recovery remain unclear. This study is a 6-week follow-up and retest of an original sample of 197 men and women who had received a broad neuropsychological assessment at addiction treatment entry. The aim was to examine the potential clinical significance of changes in cognitive functioning and the extent to which differential recovery was predictable from client background information. Methods Fifteen neuropsychological tests were readministered to 169 of 197 clients 6 weeks after treatment entry. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate separately the practice effects and recovery in four cognitive domains: executive function, memory, information processing speed, and verbal ability. Client background information included age, sex, education, substance use and consequences, psychopathology, medical problems, familial alcoholism history, and childhood behavior problems. Results A four-factor model of latent neuropsychological ability that was previously identified at treatment entry was replicated at follow-up. Statistically significant increases in the means of the four latent abilities were found. Memory showed a medium effect size improvement. Executive function, verbal ability, and information processing speed, however, showed only small effect size improvements, suggesting limited clinical significance. Substance use between treatment entry and follow-up, antisocial personality disorder, negative use consequences, less education, and medical problems were modestly predictive of less recovery. Conclusion Cognitive recovery in the first 6 weeks of treatment is possible, but, with the possible exception of memory, improvement may be minor in

  12. Polysialic Acid Glycomimetic Promotes Functional Recovery and Plasticity After Spinal Cord Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mehanna, Ali; Jakovcevski, Igor; Acar, Ayşe; Xiao, Meifang; Loers, Gabriele; Rougon, Geneviève; Irintchev, Andrey; Schachner, Melitta

    2009-01-01

    Regeneration after injury of the central nervous system is poor due to the abundance of molecules inhibiting axonal growth. Here we pursued to promote regeneration after thoracic spinal cord injury in young adult C57BL/6J mice using peptides which functionally mimic polysialic acid (PSA) and human natural killer cell-1 (HNK-1) glycan, carbohydrate epitopes known to promote neurite outgrowth in vitro. Subdural infusions were performed with an osmotic pump, over 2 weeks. When applied immediately after injury, the PSA mimetic and the combination of PSA and HNK-1 mimetics, but not the HNK-1 mimetic alone, improved functional recovery as assessed by locomotor rating and video-based motion analysis over a 6-week observation period. Better outcome in PSA mimetic-treated mice was associated with higher, as compared with control mice, numbers of cholinergic and glutamatergic terminals and monaminergic axons in the lumbar spinal cord, and better axonal myelination proximal to the injury site. In contrast to immediate post-traumatic application, the PSA mimetic treatment was ineffective when initiated 3 weeks after spinal cord injury. Our data suggest that PSA mimetic peptides can be efficient therapeutic tools improving, by augmenting plasticity, functional recovery when applied during the acute phase of spinal cord injury. PMID:19826404

  13. Crop recovery of sup 15 N from microalgae grown in simulated inorganic-wastewater medium

    SciTech Connect

    Sistani, K.R.; Taylor, R.W. )

    1988-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was carried out using a Decatur silt loam soil to assess the availability and recovery of algal nitrogen (labeled) which was previously grown in simulated inorganic-wastewater medium by grain sorghum. Dried green or blue-green algal biomass providing 175, 350 and 525 mg labeled N/kg of soil was used as sources of nitrogen. Application of 175, 350 and 525 mg N/Kg of soil as algal biomass resulted in the release of 73.2, 126.7 and 181.6 mg N for green and 85.9, 147.6 and 183.3 mg N for blue-green algal biomass, respectively, via mineralization over a 6-week period. These values correspond to 35 to 42% of total N applied as green and 35 to 49% of total N applied as blue-green algal biomass. Grain sorghum plants assimilated 25 to 34% of total N applied as green algae and 24 to 45% as blue-green algae during 6 weeks of growth. The application of above mentioned rates increased the shoots yield by 94, 82, and 65% for green algae and 88, 61, and 61% for blue-green algae, respectively. No significant increase was observed for the application of algal biomass at a rate higher than 175 mg N/kg of soil. Total N uptake by grain sorghum increased significantly due to the addition of algal biomass to the soil. About 58 to 65% of total green algal N and 51 to 65% of total blue-green algal N remained in the soil. Six to 12% of the total N applied as green algae and 4 to 11% as blue-green algae biomass was unaccounted for.

  14. Lasting changes in a network of interneurons after synapse regeneration and delayed recovery of sensitization.

    PubMed

    Urazaev, A K; Arganda, S; Muller, K J; Sahley, C L

    2007-12-19

    Regeneration of neuronal circuits cannot be successful without restoration of full function, including recovery of behavioral plasticity, which we have found is delayed after regeneration of specific synapses. Experiments were designed to measure neuronal changes that may underlie recovery of function. Sensitization of the leech withdrawal reflex is a non-associative form of learning that depends on the S-interneuron. Cutting an S-cell axon in Faivre's nerve disrupted the capacity for sensitization. The S-cell axon regenerated its electrical synapse with its homologous cell after 3-4 weeks, but the capacity for sensitization was delayed for an additional 2-3 weeks. In the present experiments another form of non-associative conditioning, dishabituation, was also eliminated by S-cell axotomy; it returned following regeneration. Semi-intact preparations were made for behavioral studies, and chains of ganglia with some skin were used for intracellular recording and skin stimulation. In both preparations there was a similar time-course, during 6 weeks, of a lesion-induced decrease and delayed restoration of both S-cell action potential threshold to depolarizing pulses and S-cell firing in response to test stimuli. However, the ability of sensitizing stimuli to decrease S-cell threshold and enhance S-cell activity in response to test stimuli did not fully return after regeneration, indicating that there were lasting changes in the circuit extending beyond the period necessary for full recovery of behavior. Intracellular recordings from the axotomized S-cell revealed a shift in the usual balance of excitatory and inhibitory input, with inhibition enhanced. These results indicate that loss of behavioral plasticity of reflexive shortening following axotomy in the S-cell chain may be related to reduced S-cell activity, and that additional processes underlie full recovery of sensitization of the whole body shortening reflex. PMID:18031937

  15. Recovery Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, John R.

    2007-01-01

    Since the founding of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) in 1935, programs offering opportunity for recovery from alcoholism and other addictions have undergone vast changes. The Internet has created nearly limitless opportunities for recovering people and those seeking recovery to find both meetings and places where they can gather virtually and discuss…

  16. Untreated Recovery from Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This retrospective study explored the experience of recovery from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa without professional treatment. A nine-question open-ended electronic survey was posted for a period of four months at a mid-western university. Sixteen female and two male respondents reported recovery from adolescent-onset full syndrome…

  17. Problem Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ Home Body Getting your period Problem periods Problem periods It’s common to have cramps or feel ... doctor Some common period problems Signs of period problems top One way to know if you may ...

  18. Recovery of reinnervating rat muscle after cast immobilization.

    PubMed

    Herbison, G J; Jaweed, M M; Ditunno, J F

    1984-08-01

    We evaluated the recovery of the reinnervating rat plantar flexor muscles after different periods of casting and then decasting the lower extremities. Four groups of 4-month-old, female Wistar rats underwent bilateral crush-denervation of the sciatic nerve at the sciatic notch. Two weeks after nerve crush, the hind legs of three groups of rats were immobilized with bilateral casts at the knee and ankle joints and the fourth group was a control group. Of the three casted groups, one was mobilized after 1 week and another group after 3 weeks of casting. The third experimental group remained casted until the end of 6 weeks. Six weeks after the nerve crush, all groups were evaluated for muscle weights of the soleus, plantaris, and gastrocnemius; absolute amounts of the myofibrillar, sarcoplasmic, and stromal proteins in the gastrocnemius; the fiber diameters and percent composition of type I and type II fibers in the soleus and plantaris; and the isometric contractile properties of the soleus muscle. Compared with the denervated control group, the experimental groups revealed the following: (i) Four weeks of casting caused a reduction in wet weight (range 30.6 to 40.4%, P less than 0.01) in the soleus, plantaris, and gastrocnemius muscles. Decasting led to an earlier recovery of the soleus than of the plantaris and gastrocnemius muscles. (ii) The myofibrillar protein returned to control values with 3 weeks of decasting but the stromal protein remained significantly elevated and the sarcoplasmic protein significantly depressed regardless of the period of mobilization. (iii) Except for the type I fibers in the plantaris, the remainder of the muscle fibers in the soleus and plantaris decreased in size due to casting. Only the type I muscle fibers of the soleus increased in size with longer periods of mobilization. (iv) Four weeks of casting significantly altered the maximum isometric twitch tension (-42.3%), contraction time (+17.1%), maximum tetanic tension (-38.1%), and

  19. Mental health and functional impairment outcomes following a 6-week intensive treatment programme for UK military veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): a naturalistic study to explore dropout and health outcomes at follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Dominic; Hodgman, Georgina; Carson, Carron; Spencer-Harper, Lucy; Hinton, Mark; Wessely, Simon; Busuttil, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Objective Combat Stress, a UK national charity for veterans with mental health problems, has been funded by the National Health Service (NHS) to provide a national specialist service to deliver treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This paper reports the efficacy of a PTSD treatment programme for UK veterans at 6 months follow-up. Design A within subject design. Setting UK veterans with a diagnosis of PTSD who accessed Combat Stress. Participants 246 veterans who received treatment between late 2012 and early 2014. Intervention An intensive 6-week residential treatment programme, consisting of a mixture of individual and group sessions. Participants were offered a minimum of 15 individual trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy sessions. In addition, participants were offered 55 group sessions focusing on psychoeducational material and emotional regulation. Main outcome measures Clinicians completed measures of PTSD and functional impairment and participants completed measures of PTSD, depression, anger and functional impairment. Results We observed significant reductions in PTSD scores following treatment on both clinician completed measures (PSS-I: −13.0, 95% CI −14.5 to −11.5) and self-reported measures (Revised Impact of Events Scale (IES-R): −16.5, 95% CI −19.0 to −14.0). Significant improvements in functional impairment were also observed (eg, Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HONOS): −6.85, 95% CI −7.98 to −5.72). There were no differences in baseline outcomes between those who completed and those who did not complete the programme, or post-treatment outcomes between those we were able to follow-up at 6 months and those lost to follow-up. Conclusions In a naturalistic study we observed a significant reduction in PTSD scores and functional impairment following treatment. These improvements were maintained at 6 month follow-up. Our findings suggest it may be helpful to take a closer look at combining individual

  20. Mirror therapy enhances upper extremity motor recovery in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Mirela Cristina, Luca; Matei, Daniela; Ignat, Bogdan; Popescu, Cristian Dinu

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of mirror therapy program in addition with physical therapy methods on upper limb recovery in patients with subacute ischemic stroke. 15 subjects followed a comprehensive rehabilitative treatment, 8 subjects received only control therapy (CT) and 7 subjects received mirror therapy (MT) for 30 min every day, five times a week, for 6 weeks in addition to the conventional therapy. Brunnstrom stages, Fugl-Meyer Assessment (upper extremity), the Ashworth Scale, and Bhakta Test (finger flexion scale) were used to assess changes in upper limb motor recovery and motor function after intervention. After 6 weeks of treatment, patients in both groups showed significant improvements in the variables measured. Patients who received MT showed greater improvements compared to the CT group. The MT treatment results included: improvement of motor functions, manual skills and activities of daily living. The best results were obtained when the treatment was started soon after the stroke. MT is an easy and low-cost method to improve motor recovery of the upper limb. PMID:25850528

  1. Impact on Neurological Recovery of Transforaminal Debridement and Interbody Fusion versus Transpedicular Decompression in Combination with Pedicle Screw Instrumentation for Treating Thoracic and Lumbar Spinal Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Choovongkomol, Kongtush; Piyapromdee, Urawit; Leownorasate, Manoon

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose To compare the neurological outcome of transforaminal debridement and interbody fusion with transpedicular decompression for treatment of thoracic and lumbar spinal tuberculosis. Overview of Literature Few articles have addressed the impact of neurological recovery in patients with tuberculosis who were treated by two different operative methods via the posterior-only approach. Methods Clinical and radiographic results of one-stage posterior instrumented spinal fusion for treatment of tuberculous spondylodiscitis with neurological deficits were reviewed and analyzed from 2009 to 2013. The extensive (E) group consisted of patients who received transforaminal debridement and interbody fusion, whereas transpedicular decompression was performed on limited (L) group. Rapid recovery was improvement of at least one Frankel grade within 6 weeks after operation. Otherwise, it was slow recovery. Results All 39 patients had improved neurological signs. The median follow-up period was 24 months. Proportionately younger patients (under 65 years of age) received extensive surgery (15 of 18, 83.3% vs. 11 of 21, 52.4%; p=0.04). The mean operative time and blood loss in the group E were higher than in the group L (both p<0.01). With regard to type of procedure, especially at thoracic and thoracolumbar spine, patients who underwent extensive surgery had rapid neurological recovery significantly different from those of limited surgery (p=0.01; Relative Risk, 3.06; 95% Confidence Interval, 1.13 to 8.29). Conclusions Transforaminal debridement and interbody fusion provides more rapid neurological recovery in patients with thoracic and thoracolumbar spinal tuberculosis compared to transpedicular decompression. PMID:27340536

  2. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... number of days after the last one. The Menstrual Cycle Most girls get their first period between the ... to skip periods or to have an irregular menstrual cycle. Illness, rapid weight change, or stress can also ...

  3. 78 FR 10262 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Proposed railroad cost recovery procedures productivity adjustment. SUMMARY... of average change in railroad productivity for the 2007-2011 (5-year) averaging period....

  4. Long-Term Regeneration and Functional Recovery of a 15 mm Critical Nerve Gap Bridged by Tremella fuciformis Polysaccharide-Immobilized Polylactide Conduits.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shan-Hui; Chan, Shan-Ho; Weng, Chih-Tsung; Yang, Shu-Hui; Jiang, Ching-Fen

    2013-01-01

    Novel peripheral nerve conduits containing the negatively charged Tremella fuciformis polysaccharide (TF) were prepared, and their efficacy in bridging a critical nerve gap was evaluated. The conduits were made of poly(D,L-lactide) (PLA) with asymmetric microporous structure. TF was immobilized on the lumen surface of the nerve conduits after open air plasma activation. The TF-modified surface was characterized by the attenuated total reflection Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy and the scanning electron microscopy. TF modification was found to enhance the neurotrophic gene expression of C6 glioma cells in vitro. TF-modified PLA nerve conduits were tested for their ability to bridge a 15 mm gap of rat sciatic nerve. Nerve regeneration was monitored by the magnetic resonance imaging. Results showed that TF immobilization promoted the nerve connection in 6 weeks. The functional recovery in animals receiving TF-immobilized conduits was greater than in those receiving the bare conduits during an 8-month period. The degree of functional recovery reached ~90% after 8 months in the group of TF-immobilized conduits. PMID:24027599

  5. Long-Term Regeneration and Functional Recovery of a 15 mm Critical Nerve Gap Bridged by Tremella fuciformis Polysaccharide-Immobilized Polylactide Conduits

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Shan-hui; Chan, Shan-Ho; Weng, Chih-tsung; Yang, Shu-Hui; Jiang, Ching-Fen

    2013-01-01

    Novel peripheral nerve conduits containing the negatively charged Tremella fuciformis polysaccharide (TF) were prepared, and their efficacy in bridging a critical nerve gap was evaluated. The conduits were made of poly(D,L-lactide) (PLA) with asymmetric microporous structure. TF was immobilized on the lumen surface of the nerve conduits after open air plasma activation. The TF-modified surface was characterized by the attenuated total reflection Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy and the scanning electron microscopy. TF modification was found to enhance the neurotrophic gene expression of C6 glioma cells in vitro. TF-modified PLA nerve conduits were tested for their ability to bridge a 15 mm gap of rat sciatic nerve. Nerve regeneration was monitored by the magnetic resonance imaging. Results showed that TF immobilization promoted the nerve connection in 6 weeks. The functional recovery in animals receiving TF-immobilized conduits was greater than in those receiving the bare conduits during an 8-month period. The degree of functional recovery reached ~90% after 8 months in the group of TF-immobilized conduits. PMID:24027599

  6. Global Patterns of Drought Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwalm, C.; Anderegg, W.; Biondi, F.; Koch, G. W.; Litvak, M. E.; Shaw, J.; Wolf, A.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Michalak, A. M.; Schaefer, K. M.; Fisher, J. B.; Cook, R. B.; Wei, Y.; Fang, Y.; Hayes, D. J.; Huang, M.; Jain, A. K.; Tian, H.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the impacts of drought on carbon metabolism is crucial to elucidate how global environmental change will alter the climate regulation ecosystem service provided by terrestrial vegetation. Notwithstanding past and anticipated future changes in drought regime the interplay between hydrologic (amelioration of precipitation deficit) and functional (return to pre-drought levels of carbon metabolism) post-drought recovery is not well understood. Recovery time is however a prime determinant of whether ecosystems revert to their initial state or transition to a new equilibrium. Here we quantify post-drought recovery time of gross primary productivity (GPP) at grid cell (0.5° spatial resolution) to global scales using three reconstructions: MODIS, upscaled FLUXNET, and an ensemble of state-of-the-art standardized land surface model runs taken from MsTMIP (Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project). Drought is tracked using the multiscalar Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index drought metric where the integration period (the retrospective window used to calculate the metric) is varied from 1 to 24-months. We define recovery time as a function of both hydrologic and GPP recovery, i.e., both must attain pre-drought levels for recovery to occur. Despite the diverse provenance of the reconstructions, different reconstruction periods, and variable integration lengths several consistent patterns emerge across the c. 4 000 000 drought events and subsequent recovery times cataloged. Recovery time scales with drought severity and drought length. Biological productivity and biodiversity exhibit response surfaces with large amplitudes and clear thresholds whereas soil fertility is a weak constraint. In general, GPP-based descriptors of drought events serve as key boundary conditions for drought recovery. The longest recovery times occur on marginal lands--non-forested, mixed tree-grass, and boreal systems--with a slight uptick for

  7. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Rojith Karanode; Chandran, Suresh Rama; Thirumalnesan, Geetha; Doraisamy, Nedumaran

    2011-07-01

    This article aims at highlighting the importance of suspecting thyrotoxicosis in cases of recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis; especially in Asian men to facilitate early diagnosis of the former condition. A case report of a 28 year old male patient with recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis has been presented. Hypokalemia secondary to thyrotoxicosis was diagnosed as the cause of the paralysis. The patient was given oral potassium intervention over 24 hours. The patient showed complete recovery after the medical intervention and was discharged after 24 hours with no residual paralysis. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is a complication of thyrotoxicosis, more common amongst males in Asia. It presents as acute flaccid paralysis in a case of hyperthyroidism with associated hypokalemia. The features of thyrotoxicosis may be subtle or absent. Thus, in cases of recurrent or acute flaccid muscle paralysis, it is important to consider thyrotoxicosis as one of the possible causes, and take measures accordingly. PMID:21966655

  8. Chronic electrical stimulation of the contralesional lateral cerebellar nucleus enhances recovery of motor function after cerebral ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Machado, Andre G; Baker, Kenneth B; Schuster, Daniel; Butler, Robert S; Rezai, Ali

    2009-07-14

    Novel neurorehabilitative strategies are needed to improve motor outcomes following stroke. Based on the disynaptic excitatory projections of the dentatothalamocortical pathway to the motor cortex as well as to anterior and posterior cortical areas, we hypothesize that chronic electrical stimulation of the contralesional dentate (lateral cerebellar) nucleus output can enhance motor recovery after ischemia via augmentation of perilesional cortical excitability. Seventy-five Wistar rats were pre-trained in the Montoya staircase task and subsequently underwent left cerebral ischemia with the 3-vessel occlusion model. All survivors underwent stereotactic right lateral cerebellar nucleus (LCN) implantation of bipolar electrodes. Rats were then randomized to 4 groups: LCN stimulation at 10 pps, 20 pps, 50 pps or sham stimulation, which was delivered for a period of 6 weeks. Performance on the Montoya staircase task was re-assessed over the last 4 weeks of the stimulation period. On the right (contralesional) side, motor performance of the groups undergoing sham, 10 pps, 20 pps and 50 pps stimulation was, respectively, 2.5+/-2.7; 2.1+/-2.5; 6.0+/-3.9 (p<0.01) and 4.5+/-3.5 pellets. There was no difference on the left (ipsilesional) side motor performance among the sham or stimulation groups, varying from 15.9+/-6.7 to 17.2+/-2.1 pellets. We conclude that contralesional chronic electrical stimulation of the lateral cerebellar nucleus at 20 pps but not at 10 or 50 pps improves motor recovery in rats following ischemic strokes. This effect is likely to be mediated by increased perilesional cortical excitability via chronic activation of the dentatothalamocortical pathway. PMID:19445910

  9. Reading Recovery. [Fact Sheets].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Recovery Council of North America, Columbus, OH.

    This set of 10 fact sheets (each 2 to 4 pages long) addresses aspects of Reading Recovery, a program that helps children to be proficient readers and writers by the end of the first grade. It discusses the basic facts of Reading Recovery; Reading Recovery for Spanish literacy; Reading Recovery lessons; Reading Recovery professional development;…

  10. Periodized wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Schlossnagle, G.; Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.

    1993-12-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and contrasted against their counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrate by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and several tabulated values are included.

  11. Heart Attack Recovery FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Heart Attack Recovery FAQs Updated:Aug 24,2016 Most people ... recovery. View an animation of a heart attack . Heart Attack Recovery Questions and Answers What treatments will I ...

  12. A Review of OIE Country Status Recovery Using Vaccinate-to-Live Versus Vaccinate-to-Die Foot-and-Mouth Disease Response Policies II: Waiting Periods After Emergency Vaccination in FMD Free Countries.

    PubMed

    Geale, D W; Barnett, P V; Clarke, G W; Davis, J; Kasari, T R

    2015-08-01

    For countries with OIE status, FMD free country where vaccination is not practised, vaccinate-to-live policies have a significant economic disincentive as the trade restriction waiting period is double that of vaccinate-to-die policies. The disposal of healthy vaccinated animals strictly for the purpose of regaining markets with debatable scientific justification is a global concern. The feasibility of aligning the waiting periods to facilitate vaccinate-to-live is explored. The first article of this two-part review (Barnett et al., 2015) explored the qualities of higher potency Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) vaccines, performance of differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) diagnostic assays particularly in vaccinates and carriers, as well as aspects of current limitations of post-outbreak surveillance. Here, the history behind the OIE waiting periods for FMD free status is reviewed as well as whether the risk of vaccinated animals and their subsequent products differ appreciably at 3 versus 6 months. It is concluded that alignment is feasible for vaccinate-to-live using higher potency FMD vaccines within the current OIE waiting period framework of 3 and 6 months blocks of time. These waiting periods reflect precedence, historical practicalities and considered expert opinion rather than a specific scientific rationale. The future lies in updated epidemiological and diagnostic technology to establish an acceptable level of statistical certainty for surveillance or target probability of freedom of FMDV (infection or circulation) not time restricted waiting periods. The OIE Terrestrial Code limits trade from a FMD free country where vaccination is not practiced to animal products and live non-vaccinated animals. The risk of FMDV in products derived from higher potency vaccinated animals is appreciably less than for countries with infected FMD status or even from a FMD free country where vaccination is practised for which the Code has Articles with

  13. A Guided Abstinence Experience to Illustrate Addiction Recovery Principles

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To develop and implement an elective pharmacy course that included a guided abstinence experience to illustrate addiction recovery principles. Design A 1-credit elective course to illustrate addiction recovery principles was developed and implemented. The course required students to give up a habit for 6 weeks that was causing them problems, meet weekly to discuss addiction recovery processes, and relate their experiences in a journal. Course grades were determined by class participation, submitted worksheets, and submission of the journal and a paper concerning their role as a pharmacist in dealing with those with addictions and in recovery. Pre- and posttests consisting of addiction case scenarios were used to assess students' application of course material. Assessment Graded course elements, pretesting and posttesting, and student course evaluations indicated that course objectives were met. Over the past 15 years, student enrollment has grown from approximately 10% of pharmacy classes to approximately 50% (average 31 students). Conclusion A guided abstinence experience was an effective tool for teaching pharmacy students the concepts of addiction and recovery. PMID:19002278

  14. Periodic cages.

    PubMed

    Diudea, Mircea V; Nagy, Csaba L; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Ioan; Graovac, Ante; Janezic, Dusanka; Vikić-Topić, Drazen

    2005-01-01

    Various cages are constructed by using three types of caps: f-cap (derived from spherical fullerenes by deleting zones of various size), kf-cap (obtainable by cutting off the polar ring, of size k), and t-cap ("tubercule"-cap). Building ways are presented, some of them being possible isomerization routes in the real chemistry of fullerenes. Periodic cages with ((5,7)3) covering are modeled, and their constitutive typing enumeration is given. Spectral data revealed some electronic periodicity in fullerene clusters. Semiempirical and strain energy calculations complete their characterization. PMID:15807490

  15. Secondary recovery development in Ecuador

    SciTech Connect

    Arteaga, L.; Endara, J.; Alduja, F.

    1981-03-01

    The oil activity in Ecuador goes back to 1920 when the oil-bearing structures were discovered in the Peninsula of Santa Elena in the Ecuatorian coast. Since that time 2,700 oil wells have been drilled; at the present time, only 650 wells are still producing. Oil production has been decreasing in spite of artificial producing systems (sucker rod pumping, and gas lift). During the period of 1966 to 1969 a total of 8 pilot projects was performed to evaluate the possibility of using secondary recovery methods (waterflooding) in 3 different oil-bearing formations from 5 areas, and utilizing different injection patterns. The results from numerical simulation and pilot projects showed the convenience and easibility of the implmentation of secondary recovery systems (waterflooding) in the Shushufindi-Aguarico field. A detailed description is presented of the development of the secondary recovery methods in Ecuador - antecedents, pilot projects, results, etc.

  16. Application of reservoir characterization and advanced technology to improve recovery and economics in a lower quality shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. End of budget period report, August 3, 1994--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A.R.; Hinterlong, G.; Watts, G.; Justice, J.; Brown, K.; Hickman, T.S.

    1997-12-01

    The Oxy West Welch project is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in a lower quality shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. The research and design phase primarily involves advanced reservoir characterization and accelerating the production response. The demonstration phase will implement the reservoir management plan based on an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood as designed in the initial phase. During Budget Period 1, work was completed on the CO{sub 2} stimulation treatments and the hydraulic fracture design. Analysis of the CO{sub 2} stimulation treatment provided a methodology for predicting results. The hydraulic fracture treatment proved up both the fracture design approach a and the use of passive seismic for mapping the fracture wing orientation. Although the 3-D seismic interpretation is still being integrated into the geologic model and interpretation of borehole seismic is still underway, the simulator has been enhanced to the point of giving good waterflood history matches. The simulator-forecasted results for an optimal designed miscible CO{sub 2} flood in the demonstration area gave sufficient economics to justify continuation of the project into Budget Period 2.

  17. Periodic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    Periodic polymers can be made by self assembly, directed self assembly and by photolithography. Such materials provide a versatile platform for 1, 2 and 3D periodic nano-micro scale composites with either dielectric or impedance contrast or both, and these can serve for example, as photonic and or phononic crystals for electromagnetic and elastic waves as well as mechanical frames/trusses. Compared to electromagnetic waves, elastic waves are both less complex (longitudinal modes in fluids) and more complex (longitudinal, transverse in-plane and transverse out-of-plane modes in solids). Engineering of the dispersion relation between wave frequency w and wave vector, k enables the opening of band gaps in the density of modes and detailed shaping of w(k). Band gaps can be opened by Bragg scattering, anti-crossing of bands and discrete shape resonances. Current interest is in our group focuses using design - modeling, fabrication and measurement of polymer-based periodic materials for applications as tunable optics and control of phonon flow. Several examples will be described including the design of structures for multispectral band gaps for elastic waves to alter the phonon density of states, the creation of block polymer and bicontinuous metal-carbon nanoframes for structures that are robust against ballistic projectiles and quasi-crystalline solid/fluid structures that can steer shock waves.

  18. Your Body After Baby: The First 6 Weeks

    MedlinePlus

    ... during pregnancy. Eat healthy foods. Limit sweets and foods with a lot of fat. Drink lots of water. Do something active every day . Walking and swimming are great activities for new moms. Breastfeed your baby . Breastfeeding helps ...

  19. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-employment submitted as required by paragraph (e) of this section supports a different allocation. Family...) for weeks of total unemployment in the first four of the last five completed calendar quarters... effect as covered employment and wages, but shall not include employment or self-employment, or...

  20. Nutrition for recovery in aquatic sports.

    PubMed

    Burke, Louise M; Mujika, Iñigo

    2014-08-01

    Postexercise recovery is an important topic among aquatic athletes and involves interest in the quality, quantity, and timing of intake of food and fluids after workouts or competitive events to optimize processes such as refueling, rehydration, repair, and adaptation. Recovery processes that help to minimize the risk of illness and injury are also important but are less well documented. Recovery between workouts or competitive events may have two separate goals: (a) restoration of body losses and changes caused by the first session to restore performance for the next and (b) maximization of the adaptive responses to the stress provided by the session to gradually make the body become better at the features of exercise that are important for performance. In some cases, effective recovery occurs only when nutrients are supplied, and an early supply of nutrients may also be valuable in situations in which the period immediately after exercise provides an enhanced stimulus for recovery. This review summarizes contemporary knowledge of nutritional strategies to promote glycogen resynthesis, restoration of fluid balance, and protein synthesis after different types of exercise stimuli. It notes that some scenarios benefit from a proactive approach to recovery eating, whereas others may not need such attention. In fact, in some situations it may actually be beneficial to withhold nutritional support immediately after exercise. Each athlete should use a cost-benefit analysis of the approaches to recovery after different types of workouts or competitive events and then periodize different recovery strategies into their training or competition programs. PMID:24901517

  1. [Recovery after prolonged muscular work].

    PubMed

    Viru, A A; Varrik, E V; Eépik, V E; Smirnova, T A; Viru, M A

    1985-11-01

    Increased protein, tyrosine and 3-methylhistidine content has been observed in the skeletal muscles of rats 2-24 h after a 10-hour swimming period. This was accompanied by a significant rise in 3-methylhistidine excretion during the second day of the recovery period. Such combination of alterations suggests simultaneous augmentation of both protein synthesis and decomposition in the muscles after active work. The start of the alterations coincides with post-exercise increase of blood corticosterone level (2-6 h after work) and with the achievement of glycogen supercompensation in the liver and muscles. PMID:4063500

  2. Advanced space recovery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wailes, William K.

    1989-01-01

    The design evolution of a space recovery system designed by a NASA-contracted study is described, with particular attention given to the design of a recovery system for a propulsion/avionics module (P/AM), which weighs 60,000 lb at the recovery initiation and achieves subsonic terminal descent at or above 50,000 ft msl. The components of the recovery system concept are described together with the operational sequences of the recovery. The recovery system concept offers low cost, low weight, good performance, a potential for pinpoint landing, and an operational flexibility.

  3. The +Gz recovery of consciousness curve

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The limiting physiological envelope to extreme gravitational stress is defined by neurologic symptoms and signs that result from exceeding neurologic tolerance. The edge of the limiting envelope is defined by the complete incapacitation associated with acceleration (+Gz) induced loss of consciousness. Should + Gz-induced loss of consciousness occur in-flight, brisk recovery of conscious function is essential for aircraft recovery. If recovery does not occur, accident investigation aimed at preventing such accidents is enhanced by understanding the temporal aspects of the resulting incapacitation. The mechanistic basis of neurological reintegration leading to consciousness recovery is of broad medical and scientific interest. Methods Recovery of consciousness episodes from a prospectively developed +Gz-induced loss of consciousness repository of healthy individuals was analyzed to define variables influencing recovery of consciousness. The time from loss to recovery of consciousness as measured by observable signs, is defined as the absolute incapacitation period. The absolute incapacitation period from 760 episodes of loss and recovery of consciousness in healthy humans was analyzed to define +Gz-profile variables that determine the duration of functional neurologic compromise. Results Mean time from loss to return of consciousness for 760 episodes of consciousness recovery was 10.4 ± 5.1 s; minimum 1 s; maximum 38 s. Offset rate for the +Gz-exposure deceleration profiles varied from a minimum of 0.17 Gs−1 to a maximum of 7.93 Gs−1.The curve produced by plotting +Gz-offset rate (Gs−1; y) versus absolute incapacitation period (s; x) described a hyperbolic relationship. The hyperbolic relationship indicates there is a minimum time (mean 8.29 ± 3.84 s) required for recovery of consciousness when complete loss of consciousness occurs. Conclusions Mean recovery time from +Gz-induced unconsciousness is dependent on the deceleration profile's offset

  4. Disaster Recovery Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jeannine W.

    1985-01-01

    Every school needs an effective disaster recovery plan that is flexible, comprehensive and designed to take into account unexpected disasters. Presents guidelines for preparing such a plan, with immediate and long-range recovery procedures. (MD)

  5. Recovery Act Milestones

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Every 100 days, the Department of Energy is held accountable for a progress report on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Update at 200 days, hosted by Matt Rogers, Senior Advisor to Secretary Steven Chu for Recovery Act Implementation.

  6. Recovery Act Milestones

    ScienceCinema

    Rogers, Matt

    2013-05-29

    Every 100 days, the Department of Energy is held accountable for a progress report on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Update at 200 days, hosted by Matt Rogers, Senior Advisor to Secretary Steven Chu for Recovery Act Implementation.

  7. 18 CFR 154.403 - Periodic rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Periodic rate adjustments. 154.403 Section 154.403 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... recovery or return, the past period must be defined and the mechanism for the recovery or return must...

  8. Development and Validation of an Instrument to Predict Functional Recovery in Tibial Fracture Patients: The Somatic Pre-Occupation and Coping (SPOC) Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Busse, Jason W.; Bhandari, Mohit; Guyatt, Gordon H.; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Kulkarni, Abhaya V.; Mandel, Scott; Sanders, David; Schemitsch, Emil; Swiontkowski, Marc; Tornetta, Paul; Wai, Eugene; Walter, Stephen D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the role of patients’ beliefs in their likelihood of recovery from severe physical trauma. Methods We developed and validated an instrument designed to capture the impact of patients’ beliefs on functional recovery from injury; the Somatic Pre-occupation and Coping (SPOC) questionnaire. At 6-weeks post-surgical fixation, we administered the SPOC questionnaire to 359 consecutive patients with operatively managed tibial shaft fractures. We constructed multivariable regression models to explore the association between SPOC scores and functional outcome at 1-year, as measured by return to work and short form-36 (SF-36) physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scores. Results In our adjusted multivariable regression models that included pre-injury SF-36 scores, SPOC scores at 6-weeks post-surgery accounted for 18% of the variation in SF-36 PCS scores and 18% of SF-36 MCS scores at 1-year. In both models, 6-week SPOC scores were a far more powerful predictor of functional recovery than age, gender, fracture type, smoking status, or the presence of multi-trauma. Our adjusted analysis found that for each 14 point increment in SPOC score at 6-weeks (14 chosen on the basis of half a standard deviation of the mean SPOC score) the odds of returning to work at 1-year decreased by 40% (odds ratio = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.50 to 0.73). Conclusion The SPOC questionnaire is a valid measurement of illness beliefs in tibial fracture patients and is highly predictive of their long-term functional recovery. Future research should explore if these results extend to other trauma populations and if modification of unhelpful illness beliefs is feasible and would result in improved functional outcomes. PMID:22011635

  9. Youth in Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Miranda, John; Williams, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Young people are entering long-term recovery probably in greater numbers than ever before. A key word here is "probably" because we know precious little about the phenomenon of young people who recover from alcohol and drug addition. This article is a preliminary exploration of youth in recovery. It reviews several types of recovery support…

  10. What Is "No Recovery?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Thanatologists, as Balk recently commented (Balk, 2004), have been saying that there is no recovery from bereavement, or that we should not speak of bereavement as leading to a recovery. The term recovery has a high level of plasticity and can be shaped to fit diverse meanings, including contradictory meanings. We will sort our way through some of…

  11. Enhanced oil recovery update

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.V

    1989-03-01

    Technology continues to grow in the realm of enhanced oil recovery. Since 1950 several processes have proven economic for oil recovery. Others are still in their infancy and must be custom designed for each reservoir. This paper gives a general overview of these processes. The author focuses on the latest technology and the outlook for enhanced oil recovery operations.

  12. 24 CFR 902.75 - Referral to a Troubled Agency Recovery Center (TARC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Recovery Center (TARC). 902.75 Section 902.75 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... § 902.75 Referral to a Troubled Agency Recovery Center (TARC). (a) General. Upon a PHA's designation of... of the preliminary MOA. (d) Maximum recovery period—(1) Expiration of one-year recovery period....

  13. Vagus Nerve Stimulation during Rehabilitative Training Improves Functional Recovery after Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Hays, Seth A.; Khodaparast, Navid; Hulsey, Daniel R.; Ruiz, Andrea; Sloan, Andrew M.; Rennaker, Robert L.; Kilgard, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) delivered during rehabilitative training enhances neuroplasticity and improves recovery in models of cortical ischemic stroke. However, VNS therapy has not been applied in a model of subcortical intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We hypothesized that VNS paired with rehabilitative training after ICH would enhance recovery of forelimb motor function beyond rehabilitative training alone. Methods Rats were trained to perform an automated, quantitative measure of forelimb function. Once proficient, rats received an intrastriatal injection of bacterial collagenase to induce ICH. Rats then underwent VNS paired with rehabilitative training (VNS+Rehab; N = 14) or rehabilitative training without VNS (Rehab; N = 12). Rehabilitative training began at least 9 days after ICH and continued for 6 weeks. Results VNS paired with rehabilitative training significantly improved recovery of forelimb function compared to rehabilitative training without VNS. The VNS+Rehab group displayed a 77% recovery of function, while the Rehab group only exhibited 29% recovery. Recovery was sustained after cessation of stimulation. Both groups performed similar amounts of trials during rehabilitative and lesion size was not different between groups. Conclusions VNS paired with rehabilitative training confers significantly improved forelimb recovery following ICH compared to rehabilitative training without VNS. PMID:25147331

  14. Battleground Energy Recovery Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bullock, Daniel

    2011-12-31

    In October 2009, the project partners began a 36-month effort to develop an innovative, commercial-scale demonstration project incorporating state-of-the-art waste heat recovery technology at Clean Harbors, Inc., a large hazardous waste incinerator site located in Deer Park, Texas. With financial support provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, the Battleground Energy Recovery Project was launched to advance waste heat recovery solutions into the hazardous waste incineration market, an area that has seen little adoption of heat recovery in the United States. The goal of the project was to accelerate the use of energy-efficient, waste heat recovery technology as an alternative means to produce steam for industrial processes. The project had three main engineering and business objectives: Prove Feasibility of Waste Heat Recovery Technology at a Hazardous Waste Incinerator Complex; Provide Low-cost Steam to a Major Polypropylene Plant Using Waste Heat; and Create a Showcase Waste Heat Recovery Demonstration Project.

  15. Metaphor shifts in stroke recovery.

    PubMed

    Boylstein, Craig; Rittman, Maude; Hinojosa, Ramon

    2007-01-01

    An illness event like stroke is generally believed to produce a biographical disruption in the individual, resulting in a reconstruction of one's self identity. One method of narrative reconstruction is the use of personal metaphor. Although previous research has illustrated a variety of illness metaphors, including that of war, there has been little research conducted on how these metaphors shift throughout a person's recovery period. The authors present data that indicate an intricate connection exists among changes in individuals' physical functioning, self-reported depression level, self-identity, and the metaphors they use to describe the stroke and stroke recovery experience. As the metaphor one uses to describe one's stroke experience shifts, so does one's sense of self. As one's self-identity changes, one's level of self-reported depression may also increase. PMID:17567259

  16. Recovery technologies for building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karu, Veiko; Nurme, Martin; Valgma, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    Mining industry provides building materials for construction. Civil engineers have settled the quality parameters for construction materials. When we produce high quality building materials from carbonate rock (limestone, dolostone), then the estimated waste share is 25% to 30%, depending on crushing principles and rock quality. The challenge is to find suitable technology for waste recovery. During international mining waste related cooperation project MIN-NOVATION (www.min-novation.eu), partners mapped possibilities for waste recovery in mining industry and pointed out good examples and case studies. One example from Estonia showed that when we produce limestone aggregate, then we produce up to 30% waste material (fines with size 0-4mm). This waste material we can see as secondary raw material for building materials. Recovery technology for this fine grained material has been achieved with CDE separation plant. During the process the plant washes out minus 63 micron material from the limestone fines. This technology allows us to use 92% of all limestone reserves. By-product from 63 microns to 4 mm we can use as filler in concrete or as fine limestone aggregate for building or building materials. MIN-NOVATION project partners also established four pilot stations to study other mineral waste recovery technologies and solutions. Main aims on this research are to find the technology for recovery of mineral wastes and usage for new by-products from mineral mining waste. Before industrial production, testing period or case studies are needed. This research is part of the study of Sustainable and environmentally acceptable Oil shale mining No. 3.2.0501.11-0025 http://mi.ttu.ee/etp and the project B36 Extraction and processing of rock with selective methods - http://mi.ttu.ee/separation; http://mi.ttu.ee/miningwaste/

  17. Thresholds for impaired species recovery.

    PubMed

    Hutchings, Jeffrey A

    2015-06-22

    Studies on small and declining populations dominate research in conservation biology. This emphasis reflects two overarching frameworks: the small-population paradigm focuses on correlates of increased extinction probability; the declining-population paradigm directs attention to the causes and consequences of depletion. Neither, however, particularly informs research on the determinants, rate or uncertainty of population increase. By contrast, Allee effects (positive associations between population size and realized per capita population growth rate, r(realized), a metric of average individual fitness) offer a theoretical and empirical basis for identifying numerical and temporal thresholds at which recovery is unlikely or uncertain. Following a critique of studies on Allee effects, I quantify population-size minima and subsequent trajectories of marine fishes that have and have not recovered following threat mitigation. The data suggest that threat amelioration, albeit necessary, can be insufficient to effect recovery for populations depleted to less than 10% of maximum abundance (N(max)), especially when they remain depleted for lengthy periods of time. Comparing terrestrial and aquatic vertebrates, life-history analyses suggest that population-size thresholds for impaired recovery are likely to be comparatively low for marine fishes but high for marine mammals.Articulation of a 'recovering population paradigm' would seem warranted. It might stimulate concerted efforts to identify generic impaired recovery thresholds across species. It might also serve to reduce the confusion of terminology, and the conflation of causes and consequences with patterns currently evident in the literature on Allee effects, thus strengthening communication among researchers and enhancing the practical utility of recovery-oriented research to conservation practitioners and resource managers. PMID:26213739

  18. Thresholds for impaired species recovery

    PubMed Central

    Hutchings, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies on small and declining populations dominate research in conservation biology. This emphasis reflects two overarching frameworks: the small-population paradigm focuses on correlates of increased extinction probability; the declining-population paradigm directs attention to the causes and consequences of depletion. Neither, however, particularly informs research on the determinants, rate or uncertainty of population increase. By contrast, Allee effects (positive associations between population size and realized per capita population growth rate, rrealized, a metric of average individual fitness) offer a theoretical and empirical basis for identifying numerical and temporal thresholds at which recovery is unlikely or uncertain. Following a critique of studies on Allee effects, I quantify population-size minima and subsequent trajectories of marine fishes that have and have not recovered following threat mitigation. The data suggest that threat amelioration, albeit necessary, can be insufficient to effect recovery for populations depleted to less than 10% of maximum abundance (Nmax), especially when they remain depleted for lengthy periods of time. Comparing terrestrial and aquatic vertebrates, life-history analyses suggest that population-size thresholds for impaired recovery are likely to be comparatively low for marine fishes but high for marine mammals. Articulation of a ‘recovering population paradigm’ would seem warranted. It might stimulate concerted efforts to identify generic impaired recovery thresholds across species. It might also serve to reduce the confusion of terminology, and the conflation of causes and consequences with patterns currently evident in the literature on Allee effects, thus strengthening communication among researchers and enhancing the practical utility of recovery-oriented research to conservation practitioners and resource managers. PMID:26213739

  19. Oral contraceptives in the immediate postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Hume, A L; Hijab, J C

    1991-04-01

    Although there is a critical need for effective contraception in the immediate postpartum period for women who are not breastfeeding, this need must be balanced against the inherent risks. The most effective form of contraceptive protection--oral contraceptives (OCs)--can present an increased risk of thromboembolism in the period after delivery. The thrombotic changes associated with pregnancy, and the statistics and vascular damage following a delivery, can combine to create greater potential for thromboembolism after delivery than during pregnancy. Reported here is the case of a 21-year-old woman who, 4 weeks postpartum, developed pain and swelling in the right lower calf and mottled discoloration extending from the proximal thigh to the toes. A diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis was made and heparin was administered. In the hospital, the patient experienced pleuritic chest pain and diaphoresis. A ventilation-perfusion scan indicated a pulmonary embolism. 1 week after delivery, the patient had initiated use of Triphasil. Although this woman had other risk factors (obesity, light cigarette smoking, and a sedentary life-style), OC use in the immediate postpartum period may have been the final factor precipitating the thromboembolic event. It is recommended that OC use should be delayed until at least 2 weeks postpartum in women without other risk factors for thromboembolism and until 4-6 weeks postpartum in those with such factors. PMID:2010744

  20. Intermediate water recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckman, G.; Anderson, A. R. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    A water recovery system for collecting, storing, and processing urine, wash water, and humidity condensates from a crew of three aboard a spacecraft is described. The results of a 30-day test performed on a breadboard system are presented. The intermediate water recovery system produced clear, sterile, water with a 96.4 percent recovery rate from the processed urine. Recommendations for improving the system are included.

  1. Recovery rates, enhanced oil recovery and technological limits

    PubMed Central

    Muggeridge, Ann; Cockin, Andrew; Webb, Kevin; Frampton, Harry; Collins, Ian; Moulds, Tim; Salino, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques can significantly extend global oil reserves once oil prices are high enough to make these techniques economic. Given a broad consensus that we have entered a period of supply constraints, operators can at last plan on the assumption that the oil price is likely to remain relatively high. This, coupled with the realization that new giant fields are becoming increasingly difficult to find, is creating the conditions for extensive deployment of EOR. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the nature, status and prospects for EOR technologies. It explains why the average oil recovery factor worldwide is only between 20% and 40%, describes the factors that contribute to these low recoveries and indicates which of those factors EOR techniques can affect. The paper then summarizes the breadth of EOR processes, the history of their application and their current status. It introduces two new EOR technologies that are beginning to be deployed and which look set to enter mainstream application. Examples of existing EOR projects in the mature oil province of the North Sea are discussed. It concludes by summarizing the future opportunities for the development and deployment of EOR. PMID:24298076

  2. Recovery rates, enhanced oil recovery and technological limits.

    PubMed

    Muggeridge, Ann; Cockin, Andrew; Webb, Kevin; Frampton, Harry; Collins, Ian; Moulds, Tim; Salino, Peter

    2014-01-13

    Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques can significantly extend global oil reserves once oil prices are high enough to make these techniques economic. Given a broad consensus that we have entered a period of supply constraints, operators can at last plan on the assumption that the oil price is likely to remain relatively high. This, coupled with the realization that new giant fields are becoming increasingly difficult to find, is creating the conditions for extensive deployment of EOR. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the nature, status and prospects for EOR technologies. It explains why the average oil recovery factor worldwide is only between 20% and 40%, describes the factors that contribute to these low recoveries and indicates which of those factors EOR techniques can affect. The paper then summarizes the breadth of EOR processes, the history of their application and their current status. It introduces two new EOR technologies that are beginning to be deployed and which look set to enter mainstream application. Examples of existing EOR projects in the mature oil province of the North Sea are discussed. It concludes by summarizing the future opportunities for the development and deployment of EOR. PMID:24298076

  3. Apollo Recovery Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objectives include: a) Describe the organization of recovery force command and control and landing areas; b) Describe the function and timeline use of the Earth Landing System (ELS); c) Describe Stable 1 vs Stable 2 landing configurations and the function of the Command Module Uprighting System; d) Explain the activities of the helicopter and swimmer teams in egress and recovery of the crew; e)Explain the activities of the swimmer teams and primary recovery ship in recovery of the Command Module; and f) Describe several landing incidents that occurred during Apollo.

  4. Recovery After Prolonged Bed-Rest Deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Quach, David T.

    2003-01-01

    Recovery data were analyzed from normal healthy test subjects maintained in the horizontal or head-down body position in well-controlled bed rest (BR) studies in which adherence to the well-designed protocol was monitored. Because recovery data were almost always of secondary importance to the data collected during the BR period, there was little consistency in the recovery experimental designs regarding control factors (e.g., diet or exercise), duration, or timing of data collection. Thus, only about half of the BR studies that provided appropriate data were analyzed here. These recovery data were sorted into two groups: those from BR protocols of less than 37 days, and those from protocols greater than 36 days. There was great disparity in the unchanged responses at the end of BR in these two groups. Likewise with the variables that required more than 40 days for recovery; for example, some immune variables required more than 180 days. Knowledge of the recovery process after BR in healthy people should assist rehabilitation workers in differentiating "healthy" BR recovery responses from those of the infirmity of sick or injured patients; this should result in more appropriate and efficient health care.

  5. Early Adaptations to Six Weeks of Non-Periodized and Periodized Strength Training Regimens in Recreational Males

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Eduardo O.; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Tricoli, Valmor; Roschel, Hamilton; Lowery, Ryan P.; Aihara, André Y.; Leão, Alberto R.S.; Wilson, Jacob M.

    2014-01-01

    This study compared quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and maximum strength (1RM) after three different short-term strength training (ST) regimens (i.e. non-periodized [NP], traditional-periodization [TP], and undulating-periodization [UP]) matched for volume load in previously untrained individuals. Thirty-one recreationally active males were randomly divided into four groups: NP: n = 9; TP: n = 9; UP: n = 8 and control group (C): n = 5. Experimental groups underwent a 6-week program consisting of two training sessions per week. Muscle strength was assessed at baseline and after the training period. Dominant leg quadriceps CSA was obtained through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline and 48h after the last training session. Results The 1RM increased from pre to post only in the NP and UP groups (NP = 17.0 %, p = 0.002; UP = 12.9 %, p = 0.03), respectively. There were no significant differences in 1RM for LP and C groups after 6 weeks (TP = 7.7 %, p = 0.58, C = 1.2 %, p = 1.00). The CSA increased from pre to post in all of the experimental groups (NP = 5.1 %, p = 0.0001; TP = 4.6 %, p = 0.001; UP = 5.2 %, p = 0.0001), with no changes observed in the C group (p = 0.93). Conclusion Our results suggest that different ST periodization regimens over a short-term (i.e. 6 weeks), volume load equated conditions seem to induce similar hypertrophic responses regardless of the loading scheme employed. In addition, for those recreational males who need to develop muscle strength in the short-term, the training regimen should be designed properly. Key points Muscle hypertrophy occurs within six weeks in recreationally active men regardless the ST training regimen employed. When the total volume is similar, training at greater intensities will demonstrate superior gains in the 1RM performance. Some caution should be exercised when interpreting our findings since long-term periodized regimens could produce different training-induced responses. PMID:25177188

  6. Stress and Recovery during Simulated Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, Michel

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a 60-day head-down tilt long-term bed rest (HDT) on stress and recovery in sixteen healthy female volunteers during the WISE-2005 study (Women International Space Simulation for Exploration). Participants were randomly assigned to either an exercise group (Exe) that followed a training program combining resistive and aerobic exercises, or to a no-exercise control group (Ctl). Psychological states were assessed using the Rest-Q, a validated questionnaire based on stress-recovery responses. A longitudinal analysis revealed significant changes in the general and specific stress scales for all participants throughout the experiment with a critical stage from supine to standing posture leading to a significant decrease in physical recovery. During HDT, Exe reported higher scores in stress subscales, as well as lower recovery scores compared to the Ctl. During the post HDT ambulatory recovery period, the exercisers still reported higher scores than the non-exercisers on the Lack of energy stress related scale, along with lower scores in general well-being and personal accomplishment. The present findings show that simulated weightlessness such as HDT may induce psychological stress and lead to subsequent alterations in perceived recovery. Exercise did not reduce HDT impaired effects on stress and recovery states. In the perspective of spaceflights of long-duration such as the future missions to Mars, there is a need for additional experiments to further investigate spaceflight-induced changes of stress and recovery parameters and the effects of exercise on these parameters. Further studies might determine and analyze the psychological factors involved, but also how to intervene concerning these factors with efficient psychological preparation which, although not yet fully investigated, may reduce stress, promote recovery and support adaptive responses to such extreme environments.

  7. Soil temperature extrema recovery rates after precipitation cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welker, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    From a one dimensional view of temperature alone variations at the Earth's surface manifest themselves in two cyclic patterns of diurnal and annual periods, due principally to the effects of diurnal and seasonal changes in solar heating as well as gains and losses of available moisture. Beside these two well known cyclic patterns, a third cycle has been identified which occurs in values of diurnal maxima and minima soil temperature extrema at 10 cm depth usually over a mesoscale period of roughly 3 to 14 days. This mesoscale period cycle starts with precipitation cooling of soil and is followed by a power curve temperature recovery. The temperature recovery clearly depends on solar heating of the soil with an increased soil moisture content from precipitation combined with evaporation cooling at soil temperatures lowered by precipitation cooling, but is quite regular and universal for vastly different geographical locations, and soil types and structures. The regularity of the power curve recovery allows a predictive model approach over the recovery period. Multivariable linear regression models alloy predictions of both the power of the temperature recovery curve as well as the total temperature recovery amplitude of the mesoscale temperature recovery, from data available one day after the temperature recovery begins.

  8. Telecommunications Policy Research Conference. Capital Recovery Section. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Two papers consider the capital recovery difficulties of telephone companies in the current deregulatory environment. The first, "Capital Recovery in the Transition Period" (Gail Garfield Schwartz, New York State Public Service Commission) describes the process determining depreciation in both regulated and deregulated environments, and argues…

  9. 75 FR 27705 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XV18 Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery.... Authority: 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq. Dated: May 12, 2010. Angela Somma, Chief, Endangered Species Division..., NMFS, extended the public comment period for the Draft Recovery Plan for Central California Coast...

  10. 29 CFR 825.213 - Employer recovery of benefit costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employer recovery of benefit costs. 825.213 Section 825.213... Leave Act § 825.213 Employer recovery of benefit costs. (a) In addition to the circumstances discussed... (share of) health benefit premium payments made on the employee's behalf during a period of unpaid...

  11. 77 FR 7237 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Proposed railroad cost recovery procedures productivity adjustment. SUMMARY: In a... change in railroad productivity for the 2006-2010 (5-year) averaging period. This represents a...

  12. 75 FR 5170 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Proposed Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures Productivity Adjustment. SUMMARY... of average change in railroad productivity for the 2004-2008 (5-year) averaging period. This is...

  13. Toxicity and recovery studies of two ayurvedic preparations of iron.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, P K; Prajapati, P K; Shukla, V J; Ravishankar, B; Choudhary, A K

    2009-12-01

    Lauha Bhasma and Mandura Bhasma in 55 mg/kg dose (5 times the therapeutic effective dose) for 60 days exhibited no serious toxic effects in Charles Foster albino rats. Both the drugs showed significant recovery from chronic toxic effect after 45 days of recovery period. PMID:20329703

  14. What is the incubation period for listeriosis?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    identification of food products as the source of contamination. We therefore propose to take an exposure window of 14 days before the diagnosis for CNS and bacteraemia cases, and of 6 weeks before the diagnosis, for pregnancy-associated cases. PMID:23305174

  15. Enhanced recovery of petroleum

    SciTech Connect

    Buinicky, E.P.; Estes, J.H.

    1980-09-16

    An enhanced oil recovery method comprising injecting an aqueous ammonium bisulfite (NH/sub 4/HSO/sub 3/) solution into a petroleum-bearing earth formation, heating said injected aqueous solution to a temperature in the range of about 120*-300* F., or higher in the presence of said petroleum-bearing earth formation, flowing said aqueous solution through said petroleum bearing earth formation to drive petroleum to a recovery well, and producing increased amounts of petroleum from said earth formation through said recovery well.

  16. Solvent recycle/recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Paffhausen, M.W.; Smith, D.L.; Ugaki, S.N.

    1990-09-01

    This report describes Phase I of the Solvent Recycle/Recovery Task of the DOE Chlorinated Solvent Substitution Program for the US Air Force by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, EG G Idaho, Inc., through the US Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office. The purpose of the task is to identify and test recovery and recycling technologies for proposed substitution solvents identified by the Biodegradable Solvent Substitution Program and the Alternative Solvents/Technologies for Paint Stripping Program with the overall objective of minimizing hazardous wastes. A literature search to identify recycle/recovery technologies and initial distillation studies has been conducted. 4 refs.

  17. RECOVERY OF RUTHENIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Grummitt, W.E.; Hardwick, W.H.

    1961-01-01

    A process is given for the recovery of ruthenium from its aqueous solutions by oxidizing the ruthenium to the octavalent state and subsequently extracting the ruthenium into a halogen-substituted liquid paraffin.

  18. Silver recovery system data

    SciTech Connect

    Boulineau, B.

    1991-08-26

    In August of 1990 the Savannah River Site Photography Group began testing on a different type of silver recovery system. This paper describes the baseline study and the different phases of installation and testing of the system.

  19. Hydrocarbon recovery from diatomite

    SciTech Connect

    Scinta, J.

    1984-05-15

    Supercritical extraction of diatomaceous earth results in a much more significant improvement in hydrocarbon recovery over Fischer retorting than achievable with tar sands. Process and apparatus for supercritical extraction of diatomaceous earth are disclosed.

  20. Refuse recycling and recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Sanitary landfill of domestic, commercial, and industrial wastes is the predominant method of waste disposal in the United Kingdom. Although there was various waste disposal processes at various stages of design and test, landfill and incineration are still the only reliable methods of waste processing. Methods of recovery and use of refuse are examined in this book together with various separation processes, waste derived fuels, refuse composting, and glass and metal recovery. (Refs. 39).

  1. Chronic Alcohol Treatment in Rats Alters Sleep by Fragmenting Periods of Vigilance Cycling in the Light Period with Extended Wakenings

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Sanjib; Simasko, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Studies have shown that disturbed sleep produced by chronic alcohol abuse in humans can predict relapse drinking after periods of abstinence. How alcohol produces disturbed sleep remains unknown. In this study we used a novel analysis of sleep to examine the effects of alcohol on sleep patterns in rats. This analysis separates waking into multiple components and defines a period labeled vigilance cycling (VC) in which the rat rapidly cycles through various vigilance states. These VC episodes are separated by long duration wake periods (LDW). We find that 6 weeks of alcohol (6% in a liquid diet) caused fragmentation of extended VC episodes that normally occur in the light period. However, total daily amounts of slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid-eye movement sleep (REMS) remained constant. The daily amount of wake, SWS, and REMS remained constant because the alcohol treated rats increased the amount of VC in the dark period, and the sleep nature of VC in the dark period became more intense. In addition, we observed more wake and less REMS early in the light period in alcohol treated rats. All effects completely reversed by day 16 of alcohol withdrawal. Comparison of the effects of chronic alcohol to acute alcohol exposure demonstrated the effects of chronic alcohol are due to adaptation and not the acute presence of alcohol. The effects of chronic alcohol treatment in rats mimic the effects reported in humans (REMS suppression, difficulty falling asleep, and difficulty remaining asleep). PMID:19014977

  2. 40 CFR 65.156 - General monitoring requirements for control and recovery devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... control and recovery devices. 65.156 Section 65.156 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... control and recovery devices. (a) General monitoring requirement applicability. (1) This section applies... parameters is outside the permitted range. (ii) When the period of control or recovery device operation is...

  3. 40 CFR 65.156 - General monitoring requirements for control and recovery devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... control and recovery devices. 65.156 Section 65.156 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... control and recovery devices. (a) General monitoring requirement applicability. (1) This section applies... parameters is outside the permitted range. (ii) When the period of control or recovery device operation is...

  4. 40 CFR 65.156 - General monitoring requirements for control and recovery devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... control and recovery devices. 65.156 Section 65.156 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... control and recovery devices. (a) General monitoring requirement applicability. (1) This section applies... parameters is outside the permitted range. (ii) When the period of control or recovery device operation is...

  5. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R.; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors. PMID:26365061

  6. Historical Reconstruction Reveals Recovery in Hawaiian Coral Reefs

    PubMed Central

    Kittinger, John N.; Pandolfi, John M.; Blodgett, Jonathan H.; Hunt, Terry L.; Jiang, Hong; Maly, Kepā; McClenachan, Loren E.; Schultz, Jennifer K.; Wilcox, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    Coral reef ecosystems are declining worldwide, yet regional differences in the trajectories, timing and extent of degradation highlight the need for in-depth regional case studies to understand the factors that contribute to either ecosystem sustainability or decline. We reconstructed social-ecological interactions in Hawaiian coral reef environments over 700 years using detailed datasets on ecological conditions, proximate anthropogenic stressor regimes and social change. Here we report previously undetected recovery periods in Hawaiian coral reefs, including a historical recovery in the MHI (∼AD 1400–1820) and an ongoing recovery in the NWHI (∼AD 1950–2009+). These recovery periods appear to be attributed to a complex set of changes in underlying social systems, which served to release reefs from direct anthropogenic stressor regimes. Recovery at the ecosystem level is associated with reductions in stressors over long time periods (decades+) and large spatial scales (>103 km2). Our results challenge conventional assumptions and reported findings that human impacts to ecosystems are cumulative and lead only to long-term trajectories of environmental decline. In contrast, recovery periods reveal that human societies have interacted sustainably with coral reef environments over long time periods, and that degraded ecosystems may still retain the adaptive capacity and resilience to recover from human impacts. PMID:21991311

  7. Historical reconstruction reveals recovery in Hawaiian coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Kittinger, John N; Pandolfi, John M; Blodgett, Jonathan H; Hunt, Terry L; Jiang, Hong; Maly, Kepā; McClenachan, Loren E; Schultz, Jennifer K; Wilcox, Bruce A

    2011-01-01

    Coral reef ecosystems are declining worldwide, yet regional differences in the trajectories, timing and extent of degradation highlight the need for in-depth regional case studies to understand the factors that contribute to either ecosystem sustainability or decline. We reconstructed social-ecological interactions in Hawaiian coral reef environments over 700 years using detailed datasets on ecological conditions, proximate anthropogenic stressor regimes and social change. Here we report previously undetected recovery periods in Hawaiian coral reefs, including a historical recovery in the MHI (~AD 1400-1820) and an ongoing recovery in the NWHI (~AD 1950-2009+). These recovery periods appear to be attributed to a complex set of changes in underlying social systems, which served to release reefs from direct anthropogenic stressor regimes. Recovery at the ecosystem level is associated with reductions in stressors over long time periods (decades+) and large spatial scales (>10(3) km(2)). Our results challenge conventional assumptions and reported findings that human impacts to ecosystems are cumulative and lead only to long-term trajectories of environmental decline. In contrast, recovery periods reveal that human societies have interacted sustainably with coral reef environments over long time periods, and that degraded ecosystems may still retain the adaptive capacity and resilience to recover from human impacts. PMID:21991311

  8. Spontaneous recovery in dynamical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majdandzic, Antonio; Podobnik, Boris; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Kenett, Dror Y.; Havlin, Shlomo; Eugene Stanley, H.

    2014-01-01

    Much research has been carried out to explore the structural properties and vulnerability of complex networks. Of particular interest are abrupt dynamic events that cause networks to irreversibly fail. However, in many real-world phenomena, such as brain seizures in neuroscience or sudden market crashes in finance, after an inactive period of time a significant part of the damaged network is capable of spontaneously becoming active again. The process often occurs repeatedly. To model this marked network recovery, we examine the effect of local node recoveries and stochastic contiguous spreading, and find that they can lead to the spontaneous emergence of macroscopic `phase-flipping' phenomena. As the network is of finite size and is stochastic, the fraction of active nodes z switches back and forth between the two network collective modes characterized by high network activity and low network activity. Furthermore, the system exhibits a strong hysteresis behaviour analogous to phase transitions near a critical point. We present real-world network data exhibiting phase switching behaviour in accord with the predictions of the model.

  9. Recovery of Interdependent Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Muro, M. A.; La Rocca, C. E.; Stanley, H. E.; Havlin, S.; Braunstein, L. A.

    2016-03-01

    Recent network research has focused on the cascading failures in a system of interdependent networks and the necessary preconditions for system collapse. An important question that has not been addressed is how to repair a failing system before it suffers total breakdown. Here we introduce a recovery strategy for nodes and develop an analytic and numerical framework for studying the concurrent failure and recovery of a system of interdependent networks based on an efficient and practically reasonable strategy. Our strategy consists of repairing a fraction of failed nodes, with probability of recovery γ, that are neighbors of the largest connected component of each constituent network. We find that, for a given initial failure of a fraction 1 ‑ p of nodes, there is a critical probability of recovery above which the cascade is halted and the system fully restores to its initial state and below which the system abruptly collapses. As a consequence we find in the plane γ ‑ p of the phase diagram three distinct phases. A phase in which the system never collapses without being restored, another phase in which the recovery strategy avoids the breakdown, and a phase in which even the repairing process cannot prevent system collapse.

  10. Recovery of Interdependent Networks

    PubMed Central

    Di Muro, M. A.; La Rocca, C. E.; Stanley, H. E.; Havlin, S.; Braunstein, L. A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent network research has focused on the cascading failures in a system of interdependent networks and the necessary preconditions for system collapse. An important question that has not been addressed is how to repair a failing system before it suffers total breakdown. Here we introduce a recovery strategy for nodes and develop an analytic and numerical framework for studying the concurrent failure and recovery of a system of interdependent networks based on an efficient and practically reasonable strategy. Our strategy consists of repairing a fraction of failed nodes, with probability of recovery γ, that are neighbors of the largest connected component of each constituent network. We find that, for a given initial failure of a fraction 1 − p of nodes, there is a critical probability of recovery above which the cascade is halted and the system fully restores to its initial state and below which the system abruptly collapses. As a consequence we find in the plane γ − p of the phase diagram three distinct phases. A phase in which the system never collapses without being restored, another phase in which the recovery strategy avoids the breakdown, and a phase in which even the repairing process cannot prevent system collapse. PMID:26956773

  11. Recovery from vestibular ototoxicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, F. O.; Gianna-Poulin, C.; Pesznecker, S. C.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Determine whether subjects with documented vestibular ototoxicity recover vestibular function and, if so, investigate the recovery dynamics. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective and retrospective reviews and repeated measures. SETTING: Clinical research and technology center. SUBJECTS: Twenty-eight subjects who received vestibulotoxic medications were followed for at least 12 months after initial treatment. CONTROLS: Our subject sample was compared with a published database of normal individuals. INTERVENTIONS: All 28 subjects received systemically administered medications known to be ototoxic. The subjects' treating physicians controlled medication, dosage, and administration schedules. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Tests of horizontal canal vestibulo-ocular function were performed. Subjects' auditory and vestibular symptoms were recorded. RESULTS: Eleven subjects (39%) showed changes in horizontal canal vestibulo-ocular gain constant (GC) and/or time constant (TC) consistent with vestibular ototoxicity. When tested 1 year after ototoxic drug administration, eight of the nine subjects who experienced ototoxic decrease in GC showed a recovery of GC to normal limits. Only one of the eight subjects who experienced ototoxic decrease in TC showed recovery of TC to within normal limits. Ototoxicity onset and recovery were independent of baseline vestibular function, and ototoxicity onset did not correlate with cumulative dose of ototoxic medication. There was no relationship between subjective symptoms and ototoxicity onset. CONCLUSIONS: Recovery of GC after vestibular ototoxicity is more commonly observed than recovery of TC. Because ototoxic changes developed and continued in an unpredictable time and manner in relation to ototoxic drug administration, we propose that once ototoxic changes in vestibulo-ocular reflex are detected, ototoxic medications should be discontinued as soon as possible.

  12. Rockets for spin recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    The potential effectiveness of rockets as an auxiliary means for an aircraft to effect recovery from spins was investigated. The advances in rocket technology produced by the space effort suggested that currently available systems might obviate many of the problems encountered in earlier rocket systems. A modern fighter configuration known to exhibit a flat spin mode was selected. An analytical study was made of the thrust requirements for a rocket spin recovery system for the subject configuration. These results were then applied to a preliminary systems study of rocket components appropriate to the problem. Subsequent spin tunnel tests were run to evaluate the analytical results.

  13. Psychosocial Recovery and Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Antai-Otong, Deborah

    2016-06-01

    This article discusses a psychosocial recovery and rehabilitation recovery model that uses an intensive case management approach. The approach offers an interdisciplinary model that integrates pharmacotherapy, social skills training, cognitive remediation, family involvement, and community integration. This evidence-based plan of care instills hope and nurtures one's capacity to learn and improve function and quality of life. It is cost-effective and offers psychiatric nurses opportunities to facilitate symptomatic remission, facilitate self-efficacy, and improve communication and social cognition skills. Nurses in diverse practice settings must be willing to plan and implement innovative treatment models that provide seamless mental health care across the treatment continuum. PMID:27229282

  14. Waste heat recovery system

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E.M.; Cornelison, R.C.

    1989-10-24

    This patent describes a waste heat recovery system. It comprises a conduit for conveying an exhaust gas stream; a boiler assembly connected to the conduit including a heat recovery steam generator through which the exhaust gas if flowed, and characterized by a high temperature stream tube heat exchanger and, at a downstream location relative thereto, a water-tube boiler; an ammonia gas injector for injecting ammonia gas into the exhaust gas stream and located upstream of the water-tube boiler in juxtaposition to the exhaust gas source; and a low temperature selective catalytic reduction unit located downstream of the water-tube boiler.

  15. Wash water recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckman, G.; Rousseau, J. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    The Wash Water Recovery System (WWRS) is intended for use in processing shower bath water onboard a spacecraft. The WWRS utilizes flash evaporation, vapor compression, and pyrolytic reaction to process the wash water to allow recovery of potable water. Wash water flashing and foaming characteristics, are evaluated physical properties, of concentrated wash water are determined, and a long term feasibility study on the system is performed. In addition, a computer analysis of the system and a detail design of a 10 lb/hr vortex-type water vapor compressor were completed. The computer analysis also sized remaining system components on the basis of the new vortex compressor design.

  16. JLAB Hurricane recovery

    SciTech Connect

    A. Hutton; D. Arenius; J. Benesch; S. Chattopadhyay; E. F. Daly; O. Garza; R. Kazimi; R. Lauzi; L. Merminga; W. Merz; R. Nelson; W. Oren; M. Poelker; P. Powers; J. Preble; V. Ganni; C. R. Reece; R. Rimmer; M. Spata; S. Suhring

    2004-07-01

    Hurricane Isabel, originally a Category 5 storm, arrived at Jefferson Lab on September 18, 2003 with winds of only 75 mph, creating little direct damage to the infrastructure. However, electric power was lost for four days allowing the superconducting cryomodules to warm up and causing a total loss of the liquid helium. The subsequent recovery of the cryomodules and the impact of the considerable amount of opportunistic preventive maintenance provides important lessons for all accelerator complexes, not only those with superconducting elements. The details of how the recovery process was structured and the resulting improvement in accelerator availability will be discussed in detail.

  17. Cogeneration from glass furnace waste heat recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Hnat, J.G.; Cutting, J.C.; Patten, J.S.

    1982-06-01

    In glass manufacturing 70% of the total energy utilized is consumed in the melting process. Three basic furnaces are in use: regenerative, recuperative, and direct fired design. The present paper focuses on secondary heat recovery from regenerative furnaces. A diagram of a typical regenerative furnace is given. Three recovery bottoming cycles were evaluated as part of a comparative systems analysis: steam Rankine Cycle (SRC), Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), and pressurized Brayton cycle. Each cycle is defined and schematicized. The net power capabilities of the three different systems are summarized. Cost comparisons and payback period comparisons are made. Organic Rankine cycle provides the best opportunity for cogeneration for all the flue gas mass flow rates considered. With high temperatures, the Brayton cycle has the shortest payback period potential, but site-specific economics need to be considered.

  18. Rhythmicity, recurrence, and recovery of flagellar beating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Kirsty; Goldstein, Raymond

    2015-03-01

    The eukaryotic flagellum beats with apparently unfailing periodicity, yet responds rapidly to stimuli. Like the human heartbeat, flagellar oscillations are now known to be noisy. Using the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we explore three aspects of nonuniform flagellar beating. We report the existence of rhythmicity, waveform noise peaking at transitions between power and recovery strokes, and fluctuations of interbeat intervals that are correlated and even recurrent, with memory extending to hundreds of beats. These features are altered qualitatively by physiological perturbations. Further, we quantify the recovery of periodic breaststroke beating from transient hydrodynamic forcing. These results will help constrain microscopic theories on the origins and regulation of flagellar beating. Financial support is acknowledged from the EPSRC, ERC Advanced Investigator Grant No. 247333, and a Senior Investigator Award from the Wellcome Trust.

  19. Familial Periodic Paralyses

    MedlinePlus

    ... NINDS NINDS Familial Periodic Paralyses Information Page Synonym(s): Periodic Paralyses Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What are Familial Periodic Paralyses? Is there any treatment? What is the ...

  20. Vagus nerve stimulation during rehabilitative training enhances recovery of forelimb function after ischemic stroke in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Hays, Seth A; Ruiz, Andrea; Bethea, Thelma; Khodaparast, Navid; Carmel, Jason B; Rennaker, Robert L; Kilgard, Michael P

    2016-07-01

    Advanced age is associated with a higher incidence of stroke and worse functional outcomes. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) paired with rehabilitative training has emerged as a potential method to improve recovery after brain injury but to date has only been evaluated in young rats. Here, we evaluated whether VNS paired with rehabilitative training would improve recovery of forelimb function after ischemic lesion of the motor cortex in rats 18 months of age. Rats were trained to perform the isometric pull task, an automated, quantitative measure of volitional forelimb strength. Once proficient, rats received an ischemic lesion of the motor cortex and underwent rehabilitative training paired with VNS for 6 weeks. VNS paired with rehabilitative training significantly enhances recovery of forelimb function after lesion. Rehabilitative training without VNS results in a 34% ± 19% recovery, whereas VNS paired with rehabilitative training yields a 98% ± 8% recovery of prelesion of forelimb function. VNS does not significantly reduce lesion size. These findings demonstrate that VNS paired with rehabilitative training enhances motor recovery in aged subjects in a model of stroke and may suggest that VNS therapy may effectively translate to elderly stroke patients. PMID:27255820

  1. Mechanical Vapor Recompression for waste energy recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, F.E.; Zakak, A.I.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes energy recovery in petroleum refineries utilizing mechanical vapor recompression. Several examples illustrating recompression of waste steam or vapors from turbine exhausts, vents and distillation towers are presented. The advantages of the Mechanical Vapor Recompression System (MVRS) using a screw compressor are discussed in detail. Significant energy savings can be achieved by integration of the MVRS into the steam flow loop. Attractive simple payback periods, often less than two years, can be achieved.

  2. Stem Cell Therapy and Curcumin Synergistically Enhance Recovery from Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ormond, D. Ryan; Shannon, Craig; Oppenheim, Julius; Zeman, Richard; Das, Kaushik; Murali, Raj; Jhanwar-Uniyal, Meena

    2014-01-01

    Acute traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is marked by the enhanced production of local cytokines and pro-inflammatory substances that induce gliosis and prevent reinnervation. The transplantation of stem cells is a promising treatment strategy for SCI. In order to facilitate functional recovery, we employed stem cell therapy alone or in combination with curcumin, a naturally-occurring anti-inflammatory component of turmeric (Curcuma longa), which potently inhibits NF-κB. Spinal cord contusion following laminectomy (T9–10) was performed using a weight drop apparatus (10 g over a 12.5 or 25 mm distance, representing moderate or severe SCI, respectively) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Neural stem cells (NSC) were isolated from subventricular zone (SVZ) and transplanted at the site of injury with or without curcumin treatment. Functional recovery was assessed by BBB score and body weight gain measured up to 6 weeks following SCI. At the conclusion of the study, the mass of soleus muscle was correlated with BBB score and body weight. Stem cell therapy improved recovery from moderate SCI, however, it had a limited effect on recovery after severe SCI. Curcumin stimulated NSC proliferation in vitro, and in combination with stem cell therapy, induced profound recovery from severe SCI as evidenced by improved functional locomotor recovery, increased body weight, and soleus muscle mass. These findings demonstrate that curcumin in conjunction with stem cell therapy synergistically improves recovery from severe SCI. Furthermore, our results indicate that the effect of curcumin extends beyond its known anti-inflammatory properties to the regulation of stem cell proliferation. PMID:24558450

  3. Evaluation of Waste Heat Recovery and Utilization from Residential Appliances and Fixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Tomlinson, John J; Christian, Jeff; Gehl, Anthony C

    2012-09-01

    dump valve on these two appliances would have eliminated uncertainty in knowing when waste water was flowing and the recovery system operated. The study also suggested that capture of dryer exhaust heat to heat incoming air to the dryer should be examined as an alternative to using drying exhaust energy for water heating. The study found that over a 6-week test period, the system in each house was able to recover on average approximately 3000 W-h of waste heat daily from these appliance and showers with slightly less on simulated weekdays and slightly more on simulated weekends which were heavy wash/dry days. Most of these energy savings were due to the shower/GFX operation, and the least savings were for the dishwasher/GFX operation. Overall, the value of the 3000 W-h of displaced energy would have been $0.27/day based on an electricity price of $.09/kWh. Although small for today s convention house, these savings are significant for a home designed to approach maximum affordable efficiency where daily operating costs for the whole house are less than a dollar per day. In 2010 the actual measured cost of energy in one of the simulated occupancy houses which waste heat recovery testing was undertaken was $0.77/day.

  4. Cost Recovery Through Depreciation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrester, Robert T.; Wesolowski, Leonard V.

    1983-01-01

    The approach of adopting depreciation rather than use allowance in order to recover more accurately the cost of college buildings and equipment used on federal projects is considered. It is suggested that depreciation will offer most colleges and universities a higher annual recovery rate, and an opportunity for better facilities planning. For…

  5. Computer Disaster Recovery Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Orvin R.

    Arguing that complete, reliable, up-to-date system documentation is critical for every data processing environment, this paper on computer disaster recovery planning begins by discussing the importance of such documentation both for recovering from a systems crash, and for system maintenance and enhancement. The various components of system…

  6. Spacecraft oxygen recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrone, P. D.

    1974-01-01

    Recovery system is comprised of three integrated subsystems: electrochemical carbon dioxide concentrator which removes carbon dioxide from atmosphere, Sabatier reactor in which carbon dioxide is reduced with hydrogen to form methane and water, and static-feed water electrolysis cell to recover oxygen from water.

  7. Behaviour Recovery. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Bill

    2004-01-01

    This second edition of Behaviour Recovery puts emphasis on teaching behaviour concerning children with emotional and behavioural disorders (EBD). These children have many factors in their lives that affect their behaviour over which schools have limited control. This book acknowledges the challenge and explores the practical realities, options and…

  8. Recovery of EUVL substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Vernon, S.P.; Baker, S.L.

    1995-01-19

    Mo/Si multilayers, were removed from superpolished zerodur and fused silica substrates with a dry etching process that, under suitable processing conditions, produces negligible change in either the substrate surface figure or surface roughness. Full recovery of the initial normal incidence extreme ultra-violet (EUV) reflectance response has been demonstrated on reprocessed substrates.

  9. Disaster Recovery: Courting Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hanlon, Charlene

    2007-01-01

    An inadequate or nonexistent disaster recovery plan can have dire results. Fire, power outage, and severe weather all can brin down the best of networks in an instant. This article draws on the experiences of the Charlotte County Public Schools (Port Charlotte, Florida), which were able to lessen the damage caused by Hurricane Charley when it hit…

  10. ONSITE SOLVENT RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study evaluated the product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention, and economic aspects of three technologies for onsite solvent recovery. The technologies were (1) atmospheric batch distillation, (2) vacuum heat-pump distillation, and (3) low-emission vapor degreas...

  11. Recovery High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Carl

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses recovery high schools which are designed specifically to serve students who have been through a professional substance abuse treatment program and are working to stay away from drugs and alcohol. The schools typically serve multiple districts and are funded from both the per-pupil state funds that follow a student and what…

  12. Microbial mineral recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, H.L.; Brierly, C.L.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents the scientific basis for using microbial biomass to remove metals from solution. Reports on current and potential microbial technology, including bioleaching of ores, bio-benefication of ores and fossil fuels, metal recovery from solution, and microbial EOR. Examines how microorganisms used in these technologies might improve through genetic engineering.

  13. Enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Brigand, G.; Kragen, H.

    1982-10-12

    Application of an agent for the enhanced oil recovery by means of an aqueous solution capable of increasing the viscosity of the solution is disclosed. Said agent consists of a mixture of a xanthan salt of a trivalent metal, iron or aluminum, with a complexant for the ion of the trivalent metal.

  14. Monkey Able After Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    On May 28, 1959, a Jupiter Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile provided by a U.S. Army team in Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, launched a nose cone carrying Baker, A South American squirrel monkey and Able, An American-born rhesus monkey. This photograph shows Able after recovery of the nose cone of the Jupiter rocket by U.S.S. Kiowa.

  15. ONSITE SOLVENT RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study evaluated the product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention, and economic aspects of three technologies for onsite solvent recovery: atmospheric batch distillation, vacuum heat-pump distillation, and a low-emission vapor degreaser with closed solvent, liquid an...

  16. Pulmonary haemodynamics during recovery from maximum incremental cycling exercise.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Rudolf K F; Waxman, Aaron B; Agarwal, Manyoo; Badr Eslam, Roza; Systrom, David M

    2016-07-01

    Assessment of cardiac function during exercise can be technically demanding, making the recovery period a potentially attractive diagnostic window. However, the validity of this approach for exercise pulmonary haemodynamics has not been validated.The present study, therefore, evaluated directly measured pulmonary haemodynamics during 2-min recovery after maximum invasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing in patients evaluated for unexplained exertional intolerance. Based on peak exercise criteria, patients with exercise pulmonary hypertension (ePH; n=36), exercise pulmonary venous hypertension (ePVH; n=28) and age-matched controls (n=31) were analysed.By 2-min recovery, 83% (n=30) of ePH patients had a mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) <30 mmHg and 96% (n=27) of ePVH patients had a pulmonary arterial wedge pressure (PAWP) <20 mmHg. Sensitivity of pulmonary hypertension-related haemodynamic measurements during recovery for ePH and ePVH diagnosis was ≤25%. In ePVH, pulmonary vascular compliance (PVC) returned to its resting value by 1-min recovery, while in ePH, elevated pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and decreased PVC persisted throughout recovery.In conclusion, we observed that mPAP and PAWP decay quickly during recovery in ePH and ePVH, compromising the sensitivity of recovery haemodynamic measurements in diagnosing pulmonary hypertension. ePH and ePVH had different PVR and PVC recovery patterns, suggesting differences in the underlying pulmonary hypertension pathophysiology. PMID:27126692

  17. Recovery from anorexia nervosa: a Durkheimian interpretation.

    PubMed

    Garrett, C J

    1996-11-01

    Attempts to explain "eating disorders" in contemporary western society have concentrated on aetiology at the expense of resolution. Most "recovered" anorectics, however, question medical definitions of "anorexia nervosa" and clinical criteria for recovery. This article refers to a study of 32 people at different stages of the recovery process, to reconceptualize the problem in sociological terms. Durkheim's account of asceticism offers a fresh interpretive framework in which anorexia and recovery are understood as the negative and positive phases respectively of a ritual of self-transformation. In western culture, where appropriate myths and rituals of re-incorporation are not readily available following a period of symbolic fasting, it is not surprising that recovery from anorexia is not automatic. Participants in this study referred to anorexia as a spiritual quest and for them recovery involved a re-discovery (or creation) of a threefold connection: inner, with others and with "nature". These connections are, for them, the defining features of spirituality. The negative phase of the ritualistic quest (anorexia) involves a confrontation with the inevitability of death as a condition of the positive phase (recovery) in which people actively choose life. This new theoretical approach provides a non-medicalized understanding of anorexia and simultaneously enables a re-interpretation of the fasting of medieval women saints. Recent scholarship in this area is re-evaluated to demonstrate that the continuity between asceticism and anorexia lies in the use of food as a metaphorical attempt to confront the universal problem of one's own mortality. In certain historical situations, asceticism served a socially valuable symbolic purpose. In contemporary society, however, this meaning is no longer available. Instead, it is recovery which constitutes the active and metaphorical "rebellion" against forces of social control. Finally, the work of Van Gennep is used to explore

  18. Evaluating post-Katrina recovery in Mississippi using repeat photography.

    PubMed

    Burton, Christopher; Mitchell, Jerry T; Cutter, Susan L

    2011-07-01

    Hurricane Katrina of August 2005 had extensive consequences for the state of Mississippi in the United States. Widespread infrastructure and property damage, massive social dislocation, and ecological loss remain among the many challenges faced by communities as they work towards 'normalcy'. This study employs repeat photography to understand differential recovery from Hurricane Katrina in Mississippi. Revealing change with conventional landscape photography, a process known as repeat photography, is common in the natural sciences. Simply stated, repeat photography is the practice of re-photographing the same scene as it appears in an earlier photograph. Photographs were taken at 131 sites every six months over a three-year period. Each photograph was assigned a recovery score and a spatially interpolated recovery surface was generated for each time period. The mapped and graphed results show disparities in the progression of recovery: some communities quickly entered the rebuilding process whereas others have lagged far behind. PMID:21272057

  19. Biomaterial-based interventions for neuronal regeneration and functional recovery in rodent model of spinal cord injury: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, Vibhor; Konakondla, Sanjay; Nicholas, Joyce; Varma, Abhay; Kindy, Mark; Wen, Xuejun

    2013-01-01

    Context There is considerable interest in translating laboratory advances in neuronal regeneration following spinal cord injury (SCI). A multimodality approach has been advocated for successful functional neuronal regeneration. With this goal in mind several biomaterials have been employed as neuronal bridges either to support cellular transplants, to release neurotrophic factors, or to do both. A systematic review of this literature is lacking. Such a review may provide insight to strategies with a high potential for further investigation and potential clinical application. Objective To systematically review the design strategies and outcomes after biomaterial-based multimodal interventions for neuronal regeneration in rodent SCI model. To analyse functional outcomes after implantation of biomaterial-based multimodal interventions and to identify predictors of functional outcomes. Methods A broad PubMed, CINHAL, and a manual search of relevant literature databases yielded data from 24 publications; 14 of these articles included functional outcome information. Studies reporting behavioral data in rat model of SCI and employing biodegradable polymer-based multimodal intervention were included. For behavioral recovery, studies using severe injury models (transection or severe clip compression (>16.9 g) or contusion (50 g/cm)) were categorized separately from those investigating partial injury models (hemisection or moderate-to-severe clip compression or contusion). Results The cumulative mean improvements in Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan scores after biomaterial-based interventions are 5.93 (95% CI = 2.41 − 9.45) and 4.44 (95% CI = 2.65 – 6.24) for transection and hemisection models, respectively. Factors associated with improved outcomes include the type of polymer used and a follow-up period greater than 6 weeks. Conclusion The functional improvement after implantation of biopolymer-based multimodal implants is modest. The relationship with neuronal

  20. Impact of dietary plane of energy during the dry period on lipoprotein parameters in the transition period in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Newman, A; Mann, S; Nydam, D V; Overton, T R; Behling-Kelly, E

    2016-02-01

    The high energy demands of dairy cows during the transition period from late gestation into early lactation can place them at an increased risk for the development of metabolic and infectious diseases. Modification of the dry period diet has been investigated as a preventive means to minimize the detrimental aspects of metabolic shifts during the transition period. Studies investigating the impact of dry period diet on lipid parameters during the transition period have largely focused on markers of lipolysis and ketogenesis. Total cholesterol declines during the periparturient period and increases in early lactation. The impact total energy in the dry period diet has on the ability of the cow to maintain total serum cholesterol, as well as its natural high-density lipoprotein-rich status, during this metabolically challenging window is not clear. The impact of lipoproteins on inflammation and immune function may have a clinical impact on the cow's ability to ward off production-related diseases. In this study, we hypothesized that the provision of adequate, but not excessive, total metabolizable energy, would better allow the cow to maintain total cholesterol and a higher relative proportion of HDL throughout the transition period. Cows were allocated to one of three dry period dietary treatment groups following a randomized block design. Total serum triglycerides, cholesterol and lipoprotein fractions were measured on a weekly basis from approximately 7 weeks pre-calving to 6 weeks post-calving. The cows on the high energy diet maintained total serum cholesterol as compared to the cows provided a lower energy diet, but there was no significant increase in the LDL fraction of lipoproteins between diet treatment groups. PMID:25958934

  1. Water recovery in space.

    PubMed

    Tamponnet, C; Savage, C J; Amblard, P; Lasserre, J C; Personne, J C; Germain, J C

    1999-03-01

    In the absence of recycling, water represents over 90% of the life-support consumables for a manned spacecraft. In addition, over 90% of the waste water generated can be classified as moderately or slightly contaminated (e.g. shower water, condensate from the air-conditioning system, etc.). The ability to recover potable water from moderately contaminated waste water hence enables significant savings to be made in resupply costs. A development model of such a water-recovery system, based on membrane technology has been produced and tested using "real waste water" based on used shower water Results indicate some 95% recovery of potable water meeting ESA standards, with total elimination of microbial contaminants such as bacteria, spores and viruses. PMID:11725802

  2. Gasoline Vapor Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Gasoline is volatile and some of it evaporates during storage, giving off hydrocarbon vapor. Formerly, the vapor was vented into the atmosphere but anti-pollution regulations have precluded that practice in many localities, so oil companies and storage terminals are installing systems to recover hydrocarbon vapor. Recovery provides an energy conservation bonus in that most of the vapor can be reconverted to gasoline. Two such recovery systems are shown in the accompanying photographs (mid-photo at right and in the foreground below). They are actually two models of the same system, although.configured differently because they are customized to users' needs. They were developed and are being manufactured by Edwards Engineering Corporation, Pompton Plains, New Jersey. NASA technological information proved useful in development of the equipment.

  3. URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Stevenson, J.W.; Werkema, R.G.

    1959-07-28

    The recovery of uranium from magnesium fluoride slag obtained as a by- product in the production of uranium metal by the bomb reduction prccess is presented. Generally the recovery is accomplished by finely grinding the slag, roasting ihe ground slag air, and leaching the roasted slag with a hot, aqueous solution containing an excess of the sodium bicarbonate stoichiometrically required to form soluble uranium carbonate complex. The roasting is preferably carried out at between 425 and 485 deg C for about three hours. The leaching is preferably done at 70 to 90 deg C and under pressure. After leaching and filtration the uranium may be recovered from the clear leach liquor by any desired method.

  4. Designer drilling increases recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Eck-Olsen, J.; Drevdal, K.E.

    1995-04-01

    Implementation of a new designer-well profile has resulted in increased recovery and production rates. The geologically complex Gullfaks field, located in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea, required a new type of well profile to increase total recovery and production rates from Gullfaks A, B and C platforms. Advances in steerable technology and directional drilling performance enabled a 3-D horizontal, extended-reach well profile, now designated as a designer well, to penetrate multiple targets. This article presents the concept, implementation and conclusions drawn from designer well application. Gullfaks field, in Norwegian North Sea Block 34/10, is the first license ever run by a fully Norwegian joint venture corporation. The license group consists of Statoil (operator), Norsk Hydro and Saga Petroleum. The field currently produces more than 535,000 bopd from three main Jurassic reservoirs.

  5. Microbial enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Finnerty, W.R.; Singer, M.E.

    1983-06-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) attempts to exploit the metabolic processes of microorganisms to increase oil production from reservoirs of marginal oil productivity. MEOR can be achieved by direct stimulation of existing microflora within the reservoir, introduction of specialized microroganisms, or above ground use of bioproducts as chemically enhanced oil recovery agents. Reservoir microbiology, the biotransformation of crude oil, and bioproducts applicable to EOR all need further study. Xanthan and polyacrylamine have been applied to EOR, but with some problems. Other selected polysaccharides for which reasonable data bases exist are listed. Some tests on injection of microorganisms, CEOR use, and use of biosurfactants (bacteria that reduces the viscosity of crude oil) are reviewed. The status of MEOR currently resides at a basic level of research and developement.

  6. Elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Hu, Zhicheng

    1993-01-01

    An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO.sub.2 -containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO.sub.2 to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO.sub.2 in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst.

  7. Elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Zhicheng Hu.

    1993-09-07

    An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO[sub 2] in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst. 4 figures.

  8. Converting partial hospitals to community integrated recovery centers.

    PubMed

    Evans, Arthur; Okeke, Barnabas; Ali, Sade; Achara-Abrahams, Ijeoma; OHara, Tom; Stevenson, Tramaine; Warner, Nikena; Bolton, Cathy; Lim, Suet; Faith, Joe; King, Joan; Davidson, Larry; Poplawski, Paul; Rothbard, Aileen; Salzer, Mark

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes the conversion of partial hospitals into recovery-oriented programs as part of system transformation. Steps included: participatory planning with stakeholders; strength based assessment of resources and needs; technical assistance; and changing funding strategies. Over a period of 8 years, use of partial hospitals decreased as persons with serious mental illnesses were transitioned to community integrated recovery centers. Preliminary outcomes suggest that these programs are more effective in engaging people in the community activities of their choice, confirming previous findings that showed that partial hospitals can be converted to recovery-oriented programs that focus more directly on promoting community inclusion. PMID:22015957

  9. Energy Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Cogeneration system is one in which the energy ordinarily wasted in an industrial process is recovered and reused to create a second form of energy. Such an energy recovery system is in use at Crane Company's plant in Ferguson, KY, which manufactures ceramic bathroom fixtures. Crane's system captures hot stack gases from the company's four ceramic kilns and uses them to produce electrical power for plant operations.

  10. Recovery High Schools

    PubMed Central

    Moberg, D. Paul; Finch, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    High schools specifically designed for students recovering from a substance use disorder (substance abuse or dependence) have been emerging as a continuing care resource since 1987. This study of 17 schools provides the first systematic description of recovery school programs and their students. The most common school model is that of a program or affiliated school, embedded organizationally and physically with another school or set of alternative school programs. Although embedded, there are serious efforts to maintain physical separation of recovery school students from other students, using scheduling and physical barriers. Affiliation with public school systems is the case for most recovery schools, and seems to be a major factor in assuring fiscal and organizational feasibility. The students in the recovery high schools studied were predominantly white (78%), with about one-half from two parent homes. Overall parent educational levels suggest a higher mean SES than in the general population. Most students (78%) had prior formal treatment for substance use disorders, often concomitantly with treatment for mental health concerns, and were often referred by treatment providers. Students came with a broad and complex range of mental health issues, traumatic experiences, drug use patterns, criminal justice involvement, and educational backgrounds. The complexity of these problems clearly limits the enrollment capacity of the schools. Retrospective pretest to post-test analysis suggests significant reduction in substance use as well as in mental health symptoms among the students. Students were very positive in their assessment of the therapeutic value of the schools, but less enthusiastic regarding the educational programs. The school programs appear to successfully function as continuing care to reinforce and sustain the therapeutic benefits students gained from their treatment experiences. PMID:19165348

  11. Recovery Ship Freedom Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Freedom Star, one of NASA's two solid rocket booster recovery ships, is towing a barge containing the third Space Shuttle Super Lightweight External Tank (SLWT) into Port Canaveral. This SLWT was slated for use to launch the orbiter Discovery on mission STS-95 in October 1998. This first time towing arrangement, part of a cost saving plan by NASA to prudently manage existing resources, began June 12 from the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans where the Shuttle's external tanks were manufactured. The barge was transported up Banana River to the LC-39 turn basin using a conventional tug boat. Previously, NASA relied on an outside contractor to provide external tank towing services at a cost of about $120,000 per trip. The new plan allowed NASA's Space Flight Operations contractor, United Space Alliance (USA), to provide the same service to NASA using the recovery ships during their downtime between Shuttle launches. Studies showed a potential savings of about $50,000 per trip. The cost of the necessary ship modifications would be paid back by the fourteenth tank delivery. The other recovery ship, Liberty Star, also underwent deck strengthening enhancements and had the necessary towing wench installed.

  12. Energy recovery device

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, V.

    1982-08-31

    The energy recovery device includes a housing having a central shaft which is connected to a lever operating a work-load system capable of generating work-load forces. The central shaft is also connected to a disk having four posts generally parallel to the shaft and initially located at positions corresponding to the four major points of a compass. Within each corner of the housing, a helically coiled spring is positioned over a support post. Each spring has two extending arms which contact two respective adjacent posts on the disk so as to maintain the spring under tension. When the lever is at the neutral position, I.E., when no work-load forces are generated, the recovery forces generated by the four springs within the housing are generally balanced. As the lever is displaced from the neutral position by a driving force, the disk rotates whereby the angular displacement between the arms of any spring decreases. Once the disk is displaced, the spring forces aid in continuing displacement of the disk. Simultaneously the work-load system generates forces which oppose any displacement. The springs are preferably configured and dimensioned so that, at any given displacement of the lever from the neutral position, the recovery forces generally counterbalance the work-load forces. Thus the lever will remain at a given displacement when the driving force applied to the lever is removed. Additionally, the counterbalancing of forces permits continued displacement of the lever with a minimal and constant driving force.

  13. Chemically enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.C.

    1989-03-01

    Yet when conducted according to present state of the art, chemical flooding (i.e., micellar/polymer flooding, surfactant/polymer flooding, surfactant flooding) can mobilize more residual crude oil than any other method of enhanced oil recovery. It also is one of the most expensive methods of enhanced oil recovery. This contribution will describe some of the technology that comprises the state of the art technology that must be adhered to if a chemical flood is to be successful. Although some of the efforts to reduce cost and other points are discussed, the principle focus is on technical considerations in designing a good chemical flooding system. The term chemical flooding is restricted here to methods of enhanced oil recovery that employs a surfactant, either injected into the oil reservoir or generated in situ, primarily to reduce oil-water interfacial tension. Hence, polymer-water floods for mobility or profile control, steam foams, and carbon dioxide foams are excluded. Some polymer considerations are mentioned because they apply to providing mobility control for chemical flooding systems.

  14. Recovery of the Antarctic Ozone Hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Montzka, Steve; Schauffler, Sue; Stolarski, Richard S.; Douglass, Anne R.; Pawson, Steven; Nielsen, J. Eric

    2006-01-01

    The Antarctic ozone hole develops each year and culminates by early Spring. Antarctic ozone values have been monitored since 1979 using satellite observations from the TOMS and OMI instruments. The severity of the hole has been assessed using the minimum total ozone value from the October monthly mean (depth of the hole), the average size during the September-October period, and the ozone mass deficit. Ozone is mainly destroyed by halogen catalytic cycles, and these losses are modulated by temperature variations in the collar of the polar lower stratospheric vortex. In this presentation, we show the relationships of halogens and temperature to both the size and depth of the hole. Because atmospheric halogen levels are responding to international agreements that limit or phase out production, the amount of halogens in the stratosphere should decrease over the next few decades. We use two methods to estimate ozone hole recovery. First, we use projections of halogen levels combined with age-of-air estimates in a parametric model. Second, we use a coupled chemistry climate model to assess recovery. We find that the ozone hole is recovering at an extremely slow rate and that large ozone holes will regularly recur over the next 2 decades. Furthermore, full recovery to 1980 levels will not occur until approximately 2068. We will also show some error estimates of these dates and the impact of climate change on the recovery.

  15. Investigating the anatomy of the helping relationship in the context of psychiatric rehabilitation: the relation between working alliance, providers' recovery competencies and personal recovery.

    PubMed

    Moran, Galia; Mashiach-Eizenberg, Michal; Roe, David; Berman, Yael; Shalev, Anat; Kaplan, Zeev; Garber Epstein, Paula

    2014-12-15

    Professional helping relationships established with mental health consumers are vital in mental health recovery processes. However, little is known about how the constructs of alliance building and providers' recovery promoting strategies relate to each other and play a role in supporting recovery. To this end, we examined associations between consumer-reported working alliance, perceived providers' recovery competencies, and personal recovery. In a cross-sectional study design, 72 mental health consumers who established relationships with providers through a psycho-educational intervention over a period of 10 months in hourly weekly sessions were examined as part of a larger study conducted in mental health community settings in Israel. Participants filled in the Working Alliance Inventory (Tracey and Kokotovic, 1989), the Recovery Promoting Relationships Scale (Russinova et al., 2013), and Recovery Assessment Scale (Corrigan et al., 2004). Pearson correlations and linear regression analysis showed positive correlations between relational variables and recovery. A mediating model was identified whereby providers' recovery strategies positively impact the working alliance, which, in turn, positively impact consumers' recovery. Implications of the current study for future research and clinical practice are discussed, emphasizing the importance of examining recovery strategies and the working alliance with regard to the process of mental health recovery. PMID:25219616

  16. Period meter for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K.

    1976-01-06

    An improved log N amplifier type nuclear reactor period meter with reduced probability for noise-induced scrams is provided. With the reactor at low power levels a sampling circuit is provided to determine the reactor period by measuring the finite change in the amplitude of the log N amplifier output signal for a predetermined time period, while at high power levels, differentiation of the log N amplifier output signal provides an additional measure of the reactor period.

  17. The Periodic Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…

  18. Umbilical cable recovery load analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Shu-wang; Jia, Zhao-lin; Feng, Xiao-wei; Li, Shi-tao

    2013-06-01

    Umbilical cable is a kind of integrated subsea cable widely used in the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas field. The severe ocean environment makes great challenges to umbilical maintenance and repair work. Damaged umbilical is usually recovered for the regular operation of the offshore production system. Analysis on cables in essence is a two-point boundary problem. The tension load at the mudline must be known first, and then the recovery load and recovery angle on the vessel can be solved by use of catenary equation. The recovery analysis also involves umbilical-soil interaction and becomes more complicated. Calculation methods for recovery load of the exposed and buried umbilical are established and the relationship between the position of touch down point and the recovery load as well as the recovery angle and recovery load are analyzed. The analysis results provide a theoretical reference for offshore on-deck operation.

  19. Postoperative recovery and outcomes--what are we measuring and for whom?

    PubMed

    Bowyer, A J; Royse, C F

    2016-01-01

    Recovery is an abstract quantity the definition of which varies according to the pre-dilection of individual institutions, clinicians or patients. While traditionally focused on immediate postoperative restitution of function and readiness for discharge, recovery assessment has progressively expanded its focus to include other clinically relevant time periods, each of which is influenced by specific factors. Assessment tools have progressed from assessing one dimension of recovery, such as physiological variables, to multidimensional assessment of physical, nociceptive, emotive, functional and cognitive performance. They should be validated ideally for repeat measures and should provide real-time recovery data, as recovery can be viewed as a continuous process. PMID:26620150

  20. Is the Predictability of New-Onset Postpartum Depression Better During Pregnancy or in the Early Postpartum Period? A Prospective Study in Croatian Women.

    PubMed

    Nakić Radoš, Sandra; Herman, Radoslav; Tadinac, Meri

    2016-01-01

    The researchers' aim was to examine whether it was better to predict new-onset postpartum depression (PPD) during pregnancy or immediately after childbirth. A prospective study conducted in Croatia followed women (N = 272) from the third trimester of pregnancy through the early postpartum period (within the first 3 postpartum days), to 6 weeks postpartum. Questionnaires on depression, anxiety, stress, coping, self-esteem, and social support were administered. Through regression analyses we showed that PPD symptoms could be equally predicted by variables from pregnancy (30.3%) and the early postpartum period (34.0%), with a small advantage of PPD prediction in the early postpartum period. PMID:25558954

  1. The ALEXIS mission recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Bloch, J.; Armstrong, T.; Dingler, B.; Enemark, D.; Holden, D.; Little, C.; Munson, C.; Priedhorsky, B.; Roussel-Dupre, D.; Smith, B.; Warner, R.; Dill, B.; Huffman, G.; McLoughlin, F.; Mills, R.; Miller, R.

    1994-03-01

    The authors report the recovery of the ALEXIS small satellite mission. ALEXIS is a 113-kg satellite that carries an ultrasoft x-ray telescope array and a high-speed VHF receiver/digitizer (BLACKBEARD), supported by a miniature spacecraft bus. It was launched by a Pegasus booster on 1993 April 25, but a solar paddle was damaged during powered flight. Initial attempts to contact ALEXIS were unsuccessful. The satellite finally responded in June, and was soon brought under control. Because the magnetometer had failed, the rescue required the development of new attitude control-techniques. The telemetry system has performed nominally. They discuss the procedures used to recover the ALEXIS mission.

  2. Energy Recovery Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolitsa Merminga

    2007-06-01

    The success and continuing progress of the three operating FELs based on Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs), the Jefferson Lab IR FEL Upgrade, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) FEL, and the Novosibirsk High Power THz FEL, have inspired multiple future applications of ERLs, which include higher power FELs, synchrotron radiation sources, electron cooling devices, and high luminosity electron-ion colliders. The benefits of using ERLs for these applications are presented. The key accelerator physics and technology challenges of realizing future ERL designs, and recent developments towards resolving these challenges are reviewed.

  3. Selective olefin recovery

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This report presents the results of the outstanding studies on olefin product purities, pyridine recovery, and absorber offgas utilization. Other reports issued since the May 2 technical review meeting in Grangemouth evaluated the impact of the new VLE data on the solution stripping operation and the olefin loadings in the lean and rich solutions. This report completes the bulk of Stone & Webster`s engineering development of the absorber/stripper process for Phase I. The final feasibility study report (to be issued in August) will present an updated design and economics.

  4. URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Bailes, R.H.; Long, R.S.; Olson, R.S.; Kerlinger, H.O.

    1959-02-10

    A method is described for recovering uranium values from uranium bearing phosphate solutions such as are encountered in the manufacture of phosphate fertilizers. The solution is first treated with a reducing agent to obtain all the uranium in the tetravalent state. Following this reduction, the solution is treated to co-precipitate the rcduced uranium as a fluoride, together with other insoluble fluorides, thereby accomplishing a substantially complete recovery of even trace amounts of uranium from the phosphate solution. This precipitate usually takes the form of a complex fluoride precipitate, and after appropriate pre-treatment, the uranium fluorides are leached from this precipitate and rccovered from the leach solution.

  5. Pyrolysis with staged recovery

    DOEpatents

    Green, Norman W.; Duraiswamy, Kandaswamy; Lumpkin, Robert E.; Winter, Bruce L.

    1979-03-20

    In a continuous process for recovery of values contained in a solid carbonaceous material, the carbonaceous material is comminuted and then subjected to flash pyrolysis in the presence of a particulate heat source fed over an overflow weir to form a pyrolysis product stream containing a carbon containing solid residue and volatilized hydrocarbons. After the carbon containing solid residue is separated from the pyrolysis product stream, values are obtained by condensing volatilized hydrocarbons. The particulate source of heat is formed by oxidizing carbon in the solid residue.

  6. Resource recovery utility

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.L.

    1987-02-17

    This patent describes a resource recovery utility comprising: (i) a landfill; (ii) a continuous wall surrounding the perimeter of the landfill; (iii) a containment structure extending completely over the landfill and affixed to the continuous wall; (iv) means for introducing refuse into the landfill; (v) means for compacting the refuse; (vi) means for removing and recovering methane generated by anaerobic bacterial digestion of organic materials contained in the refuse; and (vii) means for removing at least a portion of the compacted refuse from the landfill.

  7. Deepwater pipeline recovery

    SciTech Connect

    McStravick, D.M.; Baugh, B.F.

    1997-07-01

    The paper gives a presentation of the tooling concepts used for the recovery of steel and flexible flowlines in the Gulf of Mexico Shell Tahoe I area in the summer of 1996 in 1,370 ft. of sea water. This offshore operation required a Global Grabber to engage and retrieve 4 1/2-in. steel pipelines, an ROV Pipeline Spear to internally engage the end of the 4 1/2-in. steel pipelines, and a FlexGrip Assembly to wrap and grab 5.566-in. OD flexible pipe. The design of the tooling emphasized the use of API 17D ROV interfaces.

  8. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2009-10-13

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  9. Recovery of organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2011-11-01

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  10. Tertiary oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Byham, D. E.

    1985-03-05

    An improved method for the recovery of tertiary oil from oil formations containing connate waters having a high brine concentration. A stable alcohol external microemulsion is formed from specific brine-soluble surfactants and alcohols for employment as a chemical slug. Such a microemulsion may be used to efficiently and effectively recover tertiary oil from formations in high brine concentrations. Specific examples of surfactants which may be employed to form the microemulsions of the present invention include amphoteric surfactants such as bis-2-hydroxyethylcocoamine propane sulfonate and bis-2-hydroxyethyloctadecyl amine propane sulfonate.

  11. "It Is Just Habitual": An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of the Experience of Long-Term Recovery from Addiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinebourne, Pnina; Smith, Jonathan A.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores experiences and understandings of people who have engaged with the process of recovery from alcohol or drug problems over a long period of time. Although there is a large body of research studies on recovery, few have examined long-term recovery from a qualitative perspective. The participants in this study were women who have…

  12. Resilience and recovery: the effect of triclosan exposure timing during development, on the structure and function of river biofilm communities.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, J R; Topp, E; Waiser, M J; Tumber, V; Roy, J; Swerhone, G D W; Leavitt, P; Paule, A; Korber, D R

    2015-04-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is a ubiquitous antibacterial agent found in soaps, scrubs, and consumer products. There is limited information on hazardous effects of TCS in the environment. Here, rotating annular reactors were used to cultivate river biofilm communities exposed to 1.8 μg l(-1) TCS with the timing and duration of exposure and recovery during development varied. Two major treatment regimens were employed: (i) biofilm development for 2, 4 or 6 weeks prior to TCS exposure and (ii) exposure of biofilms to TCS for 2, 4 or 6 weeks followed by recovery. Biofilms not exposed to TCS were used as a reference condition. Communities cultivated without and then exposed to TCS all exhibited reductions in algal biomass and significant (p<0.05) reductions in cyanobacterial biomass. No significant effects were observed on bacterial biomass. CLSM imaging of biofilms at 8 weeks revealed unique endpoints in terms of community architecture. Community composition was altered by any exposure to TCS, as indicated by significant shifts in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprints and exopolymer composition relative to the reference. Bacterial, algal and cyanobacterial components initially exposed to TCS were significantly different from those TCS-free at time zero. Pigment analyses suggested that significant changes in composition of algal and cyanobacterial populations occurred with TCS exposure. Bacterial thymidine incorporation rates were reduced by TCS exposure and carbon utilization spectra shifted in terms substrate metabolism. Direct counts of protozoans indicated that TCS was suppressive, whereas micrometazoan populations were, in some instances, stimulated. These results indicate that even a relatively brief exposure of a river biofilm community to relatively low levels of TCS alters both the trajectory and final community structure. Although some evidence of recovery was observed, removal of TCS did not result in a return to the unexposed reference condition. PMID

  13. Introduction to deployable recovery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, J.

    1985-08-01

    This report provides an introduction to deployable recovery systems for persons with little or no background in parachutes but who are knowledgeable in aerodynamics. A historical review of parachute development is given along with a description of the basic components of most deployable recovery systems. Descriptions are given of the function of each component and of problems that occur if a component fails to perform adequately. Models are presented for deployable recovery systems. Possible directions for future work are suggested in the summary.

  14. Orthopaedic Enhanced Recovery Programme for Elective Hip and Knee Arthroplasty – Could a Regional Programme be Beneficial?

    PubMed Central

    McCusker, Darren; Gupta, Nidhi; Bunn, Jonathon; Murnaghan, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Arthroplasty is commonplace in orthopaedic practice, and post operative pain has been shown to substantially hinder recovery and discharge from hospital. Objectives The current study assessed a multidisciplinary, multimodal Orthopaedic ERP in terms of its effect on patient perceived post operative pain in hip and knee arthroplasty. Secondary outcome was in the form of a cost analysis. Methods A prospective study was performed on consecutive arthroplasty patients across a 6 week period in a district orthopaedic unit. A multidisciplinary approach to devising an ERP was undertaken between anaesthetists, surgeons and physiotherapists. Domains included optimising pre-operative nutrition, anaesthetic pre-meds, standardised anaesthetic technique, standardised intra-operative technique and use of locally infiltrated anaesthetic (LIA), as well as a post operative pain regimen. The multidisciplinary team (MDT) involved physiotherapy for the patient on day 0. Demographic data, day 1 and day 2 post operative subjective pain scores using an analogue scale were recorded. Data was collated and analysed using appropriate statistical methods. A p-value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results A total of 40 patients (25 total hip replacements and 15 total knee replacements) were included. All conformed to the ERP. Reductions in patient reported pain scores were observed. Specifically, in total hip arthroplasty (THA), day 1 scores were not significantly improved (p=0.25), however day 2 scores improved significantly (p=0.02). For total knee arthroplasty (TKA), both day 1 and day 2 scores improved significantly (p=0.02 & p<0.001, respectively) Analgesic requirements were not significantly different between hip and knee replacements. Early mobilization occurred in 95% of patients. Length of stay was reduced significantly in hip (1.8 days, p=0.003) and knee (1.9 days(p<0.001) replacements following ERP. Cost analysis demonstrated a potential annual saving of

  15. Register file soft error recovery

    DOEpatents

    Fleischer, Bruce M.; Fox, Thomas W.; Wait, Charles D.; Muff, Adam J.; Watson, III, Alfred T.

    2013-10-15

    Register file soft error recovery including a system that includes a first register file and a second register file that mirrors the first register file. The system also includes an arithmetic pipeline for receiving data read from the first register file, and error detection circuitry to detect whether the data read from the first register file includes corrupted data. The system further includes error recovery circuitry to insert an error recovery instruction into the arithmetic pipeline in response to detecting the corrupted data. The inserted error recovery instruction replaces the corrupted data in the first register file with a copy of the data from the second register file.

  16. Recovery of tritium from water

    SciTech Connect

    Sienkiewicz, C.J.; Lentz, J.E. . Mound)

    1988-09-01

    The pilot-scale Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) system developed at the U.S. Department of Energy's Mound facility has evolved into a fully operational tritium recovery system. This has resulted from the evaluation of recent developments in AECL/CRNL hydrophobic exchange catalyst in the CECE system. Data obtained during recent tests led to the design and installation of an aqueous tritium recovery facility. Operation of the Tritium Aqueous Waste Recovery System makes possible the recovery of tritium from low-level tritiated aqueous waste streams.

  17. Recovery of tritium from water

    SciTech Connect

    Sienkiewicz, C.J.; Lentz, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The pilot-scale Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) system developed at the US Department of Energy's Mound facility has evolved into a fully operational tritium recovery system. This has resulted from the evaluation of recent developments in AECL/ORNL hydrophobic exchange catalyst in the CECE system. Data obtained during recent tests led to the design and installation of an aqueous tritium recovery facility. Operation of the Tritium Aqueous Waste Recovery System makes possible the recovery of tritium from low-level tritiated aqueous waste streams. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Mechanical vapor recompression for waste energy recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, F.E.; Zakak, A.I.

    1985-03-01

    This paper is concerned with energy recovery in petroleum distillation processes utilizing mechanical vapor recompression. Several examples illustrating recompression of head vapors for heating the reboiler of a distillation tower are presented. The advantages of the mechanical vapor recompression system using a screw compressor are discussed in detail. The system is economically attractive with simple payback periods often less than two years. The paper describes the merits of mechanical vapor recompression, using a screw-type compressor for recovering energy at the distillation tower, and how it can be accomplished by using an intermediary fluid such as steam or by recompressing the distillation column vapors directly.

  19. Enhanced oil recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, A. B.; Jackson, E. J.

    1985-10-15

    An improved portable, versatile, modular, above-ground system and process for generating combustion gases, principally nitrogen and carbon dioxide, and steam, for removing particulate matter and corrosive components from the combustion gases, and for injecting the purified nitrogen and CO/sub 2/, and steam, individually or in selected mixtures, at controlled temperatures and pressures into a subterranean formation bearing hydrocarbons to enhance the recovery thereof. The system includes a high-pressure combustion reactor for efficient generation of combustion gases at the required rates and at pressures up to about 8000 psi and temperatures up to about 4500/sup 0/ F. The reactor is water-jacketed but lined with refractory material to minimize soot formation. Combustion chamber temperature is reduced to a safe level by water injection with the fuel.

  20. Enhanced oil recovery system

    DOEpatents

    Goldsberry, Fred L.

    1989-01-01

    All energy resources available from a geopressured geothermal reservoir are used for the production of pipeline quality gas using a high pressure separator/heat exchanger and a membrane separator, and recovering waste gas from both the membrane separator and a low pressure separator in tandem with the high pressure separator for use in enhanced oil recovery, or in powering a gas engine and turbine set. Liquid hydrocarbons are skimmed off the top of geothermal brine in the low pressure separator. High pressure brine from the geothermal well is used to drive a turbine/generator set before recovering waste gas in the first separator. Another turbine/generator set is provided in a supercritical binary power plant that uses propane as a working fluid in a closed cycle, and uses exhaust heat from the combustion engine and geothermal energy of the brine in the separator/heat exchanger to heat the propane.

  1. Face lift postoperative recovery.

    PubMed

    Mottura, A Aldo

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe what I have studied and experienced, mainly regarding the control and prediction of the postoperative edema; how to achieve an agreeable recovery and give positive support to the patient, who in turn will receive pleasant sensations that neutralize the negative consequences of the surgery.After the skin is lifted, the drainage flow to the flaps is reversed abruptly toward the medial part of the face, where the flap bases are located. The thickness and extension of the flap determines the magnitude of the post-op edema, which is also augmented by medial surgeries (blepharo, rhino) whose trauma obstruct their natural drainage, increasing the congestion and edema. To study the lymphatic drainage, the day before an extended face lift (FL) a woman was infiltrated in the cheek skin with lynfofast (solution of tecmesio) and the absorption was observed by gamma camera. Seven days after the FL she underwent the same study; we observed no absorption by the lymphatic, concluding that a week after surgery, the lymphatic network was still damaged. To study the venous return during surgery, a fine catheter was introduced into the external jugular vein up to the mandibular border to measure the peripheral pressure. Following platysma plication the pressure rose, and again after a simple bandage, but with an elastic bandage it increased even further, diminishing considerably when it was released. Hence, platysma plication and the elastic bandage on the neck augment the venous congestion of the face. There are diseases that produce and can prolong the surgical edema: cardiac, hepatic, and renal insufficiencies, hypothyroidism, malnutrition, etc. According to these factors, the post-op edema can be predicted, the surgeon can choose between a wide dissection or a medial surgery, depending on the social or employment compromises the patient has, or the patient must accept a prolonged recovery if a complex surgery is necessary. Operative

  2. Speech recovery device

    DOEpatents

    Frankle, Christen M.

    2004-04-20

    There is provided an apparatus and method for assisting speech recovery in people with inability to speak due to aphasia, apraxia or another condition with similar effect. A hollow, rigid, thin-walled tube with semi-circular or semi-elliptical cut out shapes at each open end is positioned such that one end mates with the throat/voice box area of the neck of the assistor and the other end mates with the throat/voice box area of the assisted. The speaking person (assistor) makes sounds that produce standing wave vibrations at the same frequency in the vocal cords of the assisted person. Driving the assisted person's vocal cords with the assisted person being able to hear the correct tone enables the assisted person to speak by simply amplifying the vibration of membranes in their throat.

  3. Speech recovery device

    SciTech Connect

    Frankle, Christen M.

    2000-10-19

    There is provided an apparatus and method for assisting speech recovery in people with inability to speak due to aphasia, apraxia or another condition with similar effect. A hollow, rigid, thin-walled tube with semi-circular or semi-elliptical cut out shapes at each open end is positioned such that one end mates with the throat/voice box area of the neck of the assistor and the other end mates with the throat/voice box area of the assisted. The speaking person (assistor) makes sounds that produce standing wave vibrations at the same frequency in the vocal cords of the assisted person. Driving the assisted person's vocal cords with the assisted person being able to hear the correct tone enables the assisted person to speak by simply amplifying the vibration of membranes in their throat.

  4. Hurricane Recovery Report 2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Joseph P.

    2005-01-01

    During August and September 2004, four hurricanes tested the mettle of Space Coast residents and the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) leadership and workforce. These threats underscored two important points: the very real vulnerability of KSC and its valuable space program assets to the devastating power of a hurricane, and the planning required to effectively deal with such threats. The damage was significant even though KSC did not experience sustained hurricane-force winds. To better understand and appreciate these points, this report provides an overview of the meteorological history of the Space Coast and what is involved in the planning, preparation, and recovery activities, as well as addressing the impacts of the 2004 hurricane season.

  5. Integrated oxygen recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. Gene; Davenport, Ronald J.

    1993-01-01

    Life Systems has conceptualized an innovative Integrated Oxygen Recovery System (IORS) applicable to advanced mission air revitalization. The IORS provides the capability to electrochemically generate metabolic oxygen (O2) and recover O2 from the space habitat atmosphere via a carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction process within a single assembly. To achieve this capability, the IORS utilizes a Solid Metal Cathode (SMC) water electrolysis unit that simultaneously serves as the Sabatier CO2 reduction reactor. The IORS enables two major life support systems currently baselined in closed loop air revitalization systems to be combined into one smaller, less complex system. This concept reduces fluidic and electrical interface requirements and eliminates a hydrogen (H2) interface. Life Systems is performing an evaluation of the IORS process directed at demonstrating performance and quantifying key physical characteristics including power, weight, and volume. The results of the checkout, shakedown, and initial parametric tests are summarized.

  6. Integrated oxygen recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. Gene; Davenport, Ronald J.

    1993-01-01

    Life Systems has conceptualized an innovative Integrated Oxygen Recovery System (IORS) applicable to advanced mission air revitalization. The IORS provides the capability to electrochemically generate metabolic oxygen (O2) and recover O2 from the space habitat atmosphere via a carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction process within a single assembly. To achieve this capability, the IORS utilizes a Solid Metal Cathode (SMC) water electrolysis unit that simultaneously serves as the Sabatier CO2 reduction reactor. The IORS enables two major life support systems currently baselined in closed loop air revitalization systems to be combined into one smaller, less complex system. This concept reduces fluidic and electrical interface requirements and eliminates a hydrogen (H2) interface. Life Systems is performing an evaluation of the IORS process directed at demonstrating performance and quantifying key physical characteristics including power, weight, and volume. Technical progress achieved during the first two months of the program is summarized.

  7. Exercise and cancer recovery.

    PubMed

    Visovsky, Constance; Dvorak, Colleen

    2005-05-01

    Disease and cancer treatment-related side effects such as decreased energy level, muscle weakness, and declines in functional status and body mass have been well documented. There is evidence that exercise, such as low intensity aerobics walking, Tai Chi, or cycling, results in an overall decrease in fatigue levels over the course of cancer treatment. Additionally, there is evidence that regular physical activity or exercise can decrease emotional stress, blood pressure, the duration of neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and pain. Exercise also has been shown to increase quality of life and improve the maximal oxygen uptake during exertion, sleep patterns, and cognition. However, the majority of studies of exercise and cancer have been conducted with women with early stage breast cancer, limiting the generalizability of these studies to other cancer populations. The purpose of this systematic review is to provide a synthesis of the extant research evidence about th e benefits of exercise related to cancer recovery. PMID:15977980

  8. Energy recovery system

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Albert S.; Verhoff, Francis H.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improved wet air oxidation system and method for reducing the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of waste water used from scrubbers of coal gasification plants, with this COD reduction being sufficient to effectively eliminate waste water as an environmental pollutant. The improvement of the present invention is provided by heating the air used in the oxidation process to a temperature substantially equal to the temperature in the oxidation reactor before compressing or pressurizing the air. The compression of the already hot air further heats the air which is then passed in heat exchange with gaseous products of the oxidation reaction for "superheating" the gaseous products prior to the use thereof in turbines as the driving fluid. The superheating of the gaseous products significantly minimizes condensation of gaseous products in the turbine so as to provide a substantially greater recovery of mechanical energy from the process than heretofore achieved.

  9. Automated Periodical Reference Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellefsen, David

    1985-01-01

    Describes public library reference service which allows patrons to type out search instructions on a computer terminal, review and select references, and receive, by high-speed printer, facsimile copy of selected periodical articles. Development of periodicals center at main county library and use of self-coaching SEARCH HELPER system are…

  10. The Living Periodic Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  11. Wavelet periodicity detection algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetto, John J.; Pfander, Goetz E.

    1998-10-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of time series with respect to certain known periodicities. In particular, we shall present a fast method aimed at detecting periodic behavior inherent in noise data. The method is composed of three steps: (1) Non-noisy data are analyzed through spectral and wavelet methods to extract specific periodic patterns of interest. (2) Using these patterns, we construct an optimal piecewise constant wavelet designed to detect the underlying periodicities. (3) We introduce a fast discretized version of the continuous wavelet transform, as well as waveletgram averaging techniques, to detect occurrence and period of these periodicities. The algorithm is formulated to provide real time implementation. Our procedure is generally applicable to detect locally periodic components in signals s which can be modeled as s(t) equals A(t)F(h(t)) + N(t) for t in I, where F is a periodic signal, A is a non-negative slowly varying function, and h is strictly increasing with h' slowly varying, N denotes background activity. For example, the method can be applied in the context of epileptic seizure detection. In this case, we try to detect seizure periodics in EEG and ECoG data. In the case of ECoG data, N is essentially 1/f noise. In the case of EEG data and for t in I,N includes noise due to cranial geometry and densities. In both cases N also includes standard low frequency rhythms. Periodicity detection has other applications including ocean wave prediction, cockpit motion sickness prediction, and minefield detection.

  12. Recovery after prolonged sleep deprivation: residual effects of slow-release caffeine on recovery sleep, sleepiness and cognitive functions.

    PubMed

    Beaumont, Maurice; Batéjat, Denise; Coste, Olivier; Doireau, Philippe; Chauffard, Françoise; Enslen, Marc; Lagarde, Didier; Pierard, Christophe

    2005-01-01

    A long work schedule often results in sleep deprivation, sleepiness, impaired performance and fatigue. We investigated the residual effects of slow-release caffeine (SRC) on sleep, sleepiness and cognitive performance during a 42-hour recovery period following a 64-hour continuous wakefulness period in 16 healthy males, according to a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Three hundred milligrams of SRC or placebo was given twice a day at 21:00 and 9:00 during the first 48 h of wakefulness. Recovery sleep was analysed with electroencephalography (EEG) and wrist actigraphy, daytime sleepiness with continuous EEG, sleep latency tests and actigraphy and cognitive functions with computerized tests from the NATO AGARD STRES battery. Both drug groups exhibited almost the same sleep architecture with a rebound of slow-wave sleep during both recovery nights and of REM sleep during the second night. Wakefulness level and cognitive functions were similarly impaired in both groups on the first day of recovery and partially returned to baseline on the second. To conclude, SRC appears to have no unwanted side-effects on recovery sleep, wakefulness and cognitive performance after a long period of sleep deprivation and might therefore be a useful choice over other psychostimulants for a long work schedule. PMID:15627809

  13. Effects of aquaculture fallowing on the recovery of macrofauna communities.

    PubMed

    Zhulay, Irina; Reiss, Katrin; Reiss, Henning

    2015-08-15

    The fallowing period is a management measure in aquaculture where the production is paused for a few months to reduce the impact on the benthic environment. We studied the effects of different fallowing periods on the recovery of macrofauna at two salmon farms in Norway. The macrofauna at the farm stations were characterised by high abundances of opportunistic taxa (e.g. Capitella spp.), low diversity and significantly different community structure compared to reference sites. The fallowing initiated macrofauna recovery at both farm stations, indicated by a decline of dominant opportunistic taxa after 2months. Significant changes in taxa composition occurred only after 6months, although indications of disturbance were still evident. Surprisingly, no corresponding spatial or temporal differences were found in the sediment parameters such as redox, TOC and pH. The results suggest that macrofauna is a more sensitive indicator and that the seasonal timing of fallowing may affect recovery dynamics. PMID:26070958

  14. Short Term Recovery of Function following Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Randomised Study of the Medial Parapatellar and Midvastus Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Nutton, Richard W.; Wade, Frazer A.; Coutts, Fiona J.; van der Linden, Marietta L.

    2014-01-01

    This pilot double blind randomised controlled study aimed to investigate whether the midvastus (MV) approach without patellar eversion in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) resulted in improved recovery of function compared to the medial parapatellar (MP) approach. Patients were randomly allocated to either the MV approach or the MP approach. Achievements of inpatient mobility milestones were recorded. Knee kinematics, muscle strength, Timed Up and Go, WOMAC, and daily step count were assessed before and up to six months after surgery. Cohen's effect size d was calculated to inform the sample size in future trials. Twenty-eight participants (16 males, 12 females) participated. Patient mobility milestones such as straight leg raise were achieved on average 1.3 days (95% CI −3.4 to 0.7, d = 0.63) earlier in the MV group. Knee extensor strength at 6 weeks after surgery was higher (95% CI −0.38 to 0.61, d = 0.73) in the MV group. No trends for differences between the groups were observed in knee kinematics, TUG, WOMAC, or step count. Our results suggest a short term advantage in the first 6 weeks after surgery of the MV approach over the MP approach, but a larger study is required to confirm these findings. This trial is registered with NCT056445. PMID:25349736

  15. Investigating the Lived Experience of Recovery in People Who Hear Voices.

    PubMed

    de Jager, Adèle; Rhodes, Paul; Beavan, Vanessa; Holmes, Douglas; McCabe, Kathryn; Thomas, Neil; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Lampshire, Debra; Hayward, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Although there is evidence of both clinical and personal recovery from distressing voices, the process of recovery over time is unclear. Narrative inquiry was used to investigate 11 voice-hearers' lived experience of recovery. After a period of despair/exhaustion, two recovery typologies emerged: (a) turning toward/empowerment, which involved developing a normalized account of voices, building voice-specific skills, integration of voices into daily life, and a transformation of identity, and (b) turning away/protective hibernation, which involved harnessing all available resources to survive the experience, with the importance of medication in recovery being emphasized. Results indicated the importance of services being sensitive and responsive to a person's recovery style at any given time and their readiness for change. Coming to hold a normalized account of voice-hearing and the self and witnessing of preferred narratives by others were essential in the more robust turning toward recovery typology. PMID:25896792

  16. Extensive neurological recovery from a complete spinal cord injury: a case report and hypothesis on the role of cortical plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Ann S.; Belegu, Visar; Yoshida, Shoko; Joel, Suresh; Sadowsky, Cristina L.; Smith, Seth A.; van Zijl, Peter C. M.; Pekar, James J.; McDonald, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Neurological recovery in patients with severe spinal cord injury (SCI) is extremely rare. We have identified a patient with chronic cervical traumatic SCI, who suffered a complete loss of motor and sensory function below the injury for 6 weeks after the injury, but experienced a progressive neurological recovery that continued for 17 years. The extent of the patient's recovery from the severe trauma-induced paralysis is rare and remarkable. A detailed study of this patient using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), magnetization transfer imaging (MTI), and resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) revealed structural and functional changes in the central nervous system that may be associated with the neurological recovery. Sixty-two percent cervical cord white matter atrophy was observed. DTI-derived quantities, more sensitive to axons, demonstrated focal changes, while MTI-derived quantity, more sensitive to myelin, showed a diffuse change. No significant cortical structural changes were observed, while rs-fMRI revealed increased brain functional connectivity between sensorimotor and visual networks. The study provides comprehensive description of the structural and functional changes in the patient using advanced MR imaging technique. This multimodal MR imaging study also shows the potential of rs-fMRI to measure the extent of cortical plasticity. PMID:23805087

  17. HEAVY AND THERMAL OIL RECOVERY PRODUCTION MECHANISMS

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony R. Kovscek; Louis M. Castanier

    2004-03-01

    This technical progress report describes work performed from July 1 through September, 2003 for the project ''Heavy and Thermal Oil Recovery Production Mechanisms,'' DE-FC26-00BC15311. In this project, a broad spectrum of research is undertaken related to thermal and heavy-oil recovery. The research tools and techniques span from pore-level imaging of multiphase fluid flow to definition of reservoir-scale features through streamline-based history-matching techniques. During this period, work focused on completing project tasks in the area of multiphase flow and rock properties. The area of interest is the production mechanisms of oil from porous media at high temperature. Temperature has a beneficial effect on oil recovery and reduces residual oil saturation. Work continued to delineate how the wettability of reservoir rock shifts from mixed and intermediate wet conditions to more water-wet conditions as temperature increases. One mechanism for the shift toward water-wet conditions is the release of fines coated with oil-wet material from pore walls. New experiments and theory illustrate the role of temperature on fines release.

  18. Enhanced recovery for non-colorectal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gravante, Gianpiero; Elmussareh, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    In recent years the advent of programs for enhanced recovery after major surgery (ERAS) has led to modifications of long-standing and well-established perioperative treatments. These programs are used to target factors that have been shown to delay postoperative recovery (pain, gut dysfunction, immobility) and combine a series of interventions to reduce perioperative stress and organ dysfunction. With due differences, the programs of enhanced recovery are generally based on the preoperative amelioration of the patient’s clinical conditions with whom they present for the operation, on the intraoperative and postoperative avoidance of medications that could slow the resumption of physiological activities, and on the promotion of positive habits in the early postoperative period. Most of the studies were conducted on elective patients undergoing colorectal procedures (either laparotomic or laparoscopic surgery). Results showed that ERAS protocols significantly improved the lung function and reduced the time to resumption of oral diet, mobilization and passage of stool, hospital stay and return to normal activities. ERAS’ acceptance is spreading quickly among major centers, as well as district hospitals. With this in mind, is there also a role for ERAS in non-colorectal operations? PMID:22294823

  19. Resilience and recovery of Kalahari duneland vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattachan, A.; D'Odorico, P.; Dintwe, K.; Okin, G. S.; Collins, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    Many dune fields around the world have undergone alternating periods of mobilization and stabilization in response to changes in wind power and rainfall. In modern times disturbances associated with land use are believed to be a dominant factor contributing to the activation of stabilized vegetated dunes in drylands, while the reduction in human activities such as grazing and farming may lead to stabilization of once active dune fields. It is not clear if reduction of human activities is the only necessary factor for the recovery of vegetation and stabilization of dunes. In this study, we concentrate on the Kalahari region of Southern Africa and investigate the resilience of duneland vegetation that is currently undergoing conditions of incipient degradation with dunes becoming active in overgrazed areas close to boreholes and villages. Using field observation and soil seed bank experiments, we show that palatable perennial grass cover is reduced while the seedbank is depleted on grazed dunefields. Conversely, the interdunes generally exhibit relatively rich seed banks. Soils from grazed and ungrazed sites exhibit plant available nutrient contents that are not significantly different; therefore, soil nutrients are likely not a major factor limiting the recovery of perennial vegetation in this region. It is observed that the perennial grasses reestablish on the recovery dunes after grazers have been excluded. Therefore, changes in grass cover and grass community composition, seed bank depletion, and decline in soil nutrient content can be used as indicators of imminent regime shifts from vegetated to bare dune.

  20. HEAVY AND THERMAL OIL RECOVERY PRODUCTION MECHANISMS

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony R. Kovscek

    2003-04-01

    This technical progress report describes work performed from January 1 through March 31, 2003 for the project ''Heavy and Thermal Oil Recovery Production Mechanisms,'' DE-FC26-00BC15311. In this project, a broad spectrum of research is undertaken related to thermal and heavy-oil recovery. The research tools and techniques span from pore-level imaging of multiphase fluid flow to definition of reservoir-scale features through streamline-based history matching techniques. During this period, previous analysis of experimental data regarding multidimensional imbibition to obtain shape factors appropriate for dual-porosity simulation was verified by comparison among analytic, dual-porosity simulation, and fine-grid simulation. We continued to study the mechanisms by which oil is produced from fractured porous media at high pressure and high temperature. Temperature has a beneficial effect on recovery and reduces residual oil saturation. A new experiment was conducted on diatomite core. Significantly, we show that elevated temperature induces fines release in sandstone cores and this behavior may be linked to wettability. Our work in the area of primary production of heavy oil continues with field cores and crude oil. On the topic of reservoir definition, work continued on developing techniques that integrate production history into reservoir models using streamline-based properties.

  1. Risk, Resilience, and Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Emmy

    2012-01-01

    In 1955, the first longitudinal study of resilience began on the island of Kauai. This research continues to the present. This article presents an interview with Emmy Werner, the principal investigator. In a series of five books published over a period of thirty years, she demonstrated the remarkable ability of children from difficult backgrounds…

  2. Natural Recovery from Drug and Alcohol Addiction among Israeli Prisoners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Gila

    2006-01-01

    This study examined differences in the sense of coherence, anxiety, depression, hostility, behavior, and meaning in life among Israeli prisoners recovering from drug and alcohol addiction over various time periods (6-24 months), and without therapeutic intervention (natural recovery). Ninety-eight abstinent prisoners were divided into two groups:…

  3. THREE NEW TECHNIQUES FOR FLOATING POLLUTANT SPILL CONTROL AND RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hazardous material (HM) spills pose serious problems in terms of the very poor visibility often attending such situations. No operational capability exists at night or other periods of low visibility. However, time is very important in spill control and recovery work; in a few ho...

  4. Biomass Program Recovery Act Factsheet

    SciTech Connect

    2010-03-01

    The Biomass Program has awarded about $718 million in American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (Recovery Act) funds. The projects the Program is supporting are intended to: Accelerate advanced biofuels research, development, and demonstration; Speed the deployment and commercialization of advanced biofuels and bioproducts; Further the U.S. bioindustry through market transformation and creating or saving a range of jobs.

  5. Metal recovery from porous materials

    DOEpatents

    Sturcken, E.F.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention relates to recovery of metals. More specifically, the present invention relates to the recovery of plutonium and other metals from porous materials using microwaves. The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC09-89SR18035 between the US Department of Energy and Westinghouse Savannah River Company.

  6. Disaster Manual: Emergency, Evacuation, Recovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koplowitz, Brad; And Others

    This manual outlines the responsibilities of the director of the Oklahoma Department of Libraries in the event of a disaster as well as the functions of the emergency recovery team (ERT) in the coordination of recovery, and emergency action steps to be taken. The evacuation and emergency plan provided for the Allen Wright Memorial Library Building…

  7. Recovery from Binge Eating Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krentz, Adrienne; Chew, Judy; Arthur, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the psychological processes of recovery from binge eating disorder (BED). A model was developed by asking the research question, "What is the experience of recovery for women with BED?" Unstructured interviews were conducted with six women who met the DSM-IV criteria for BED, and who were recovered…

  8. Periodized Daubechies wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.; Schlossnagle, G.

    1996-03-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrated by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and their use ius illustrated in the approximation of two commonly used differential operators. The periodization of the connection coefficients in Galerkin schemes is presented in detail.

  9. Genealogy of periodic trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    de Adguiar, M.A.M.; Maldta, C.P.; de Passos, E.J.V.

    1986-05-20

    The periodic solutions of non-integrable classical Hamiltonian systems with two degrees of freedom are numerically investigated. Curves of periodic families are given in plots of energy vs. period. Results are presented for this Hamiltonian: H = 1/2(p/sub x//sup 2/ + p/sub y//sup 2/) + 1/2 x/sup 2/ + 3/2 y/sup 2/ - x/sup 2/y + 1/12 x/sup 4/. Properties of the families of curves are pointed out. (LEW)

  10. Recovery as a psychological construct.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, P W; Giffort, D; Rashid, F; Leary, M; Okeke, I

    1999-06-01

    Mental health advocates have proposed recovery as a vision for severe mental illness. The purpose of this study is to examine psychometric characteristics of a measure of the psychological construct. Thirty-five participants in a partial hospitalization program were administered the Recovery Scale and measures of quality of life, social support, self-esteem, consumer empowerment, psychiatric symptoms, needs and resources, global functioning, and verbal intelligence. Results showed the scale to have satisfactory test-retest reliability and internal consistency. Analysis of the concurrent validity of the Recovery Scale showed recovery to be positively associated with self-esteem, empowerment, social support, and quality of life. It was inversely associated with psychiatric symptoms and age. Implications of these findings for a psychological model of recovery are discussed. PMID:10401893

  11. Recovery after cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Porela-Tiihonen, Susanna; Kokki, Hannu; Kaarniranta, Kai; Kokki, Merja

    2016-04-01

    Cataract surgery is the most common ophthalmological surgical procedure, and it is predicted that the number of surgeries will increase significantly in the future. However, little is known about the recovery after surgery. The first aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, severity and duration of pain and other ocular discomfort symptoms experienced after cataract surgery. The other objectives were to identify the factors associated with lower postoperative patient satisfaction and to measure the effect of cataract surgery on patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and visual function in everyday life. The study design was a prospective follow-up study. The course of the recovery and the presence of ocular symptoms were evaluated by interviewing the patients via a questionnaire at 1 day, 1 week, 6 weeks and one year after surgery The visual functioning in everyday life was measured with Visual Functioning Index VF-7 and Catquest-9SF-questionnaires and furthermore the HRQoL was measured with the 15D-instrument before surgery and at 12 months after surgery. The patients returned the questionnaires by mail and were interviewed in the hospital on the day of the surgery. The same patients filled-in all the questionnaires. The patient reports were used to collect the data on medical history. A total of 303 patients were approached at Kuopio University Hospital in 2010-2011 and of these 196 patients were eligible and willing to participate, with postoperative data being available from 186 (95%) patients. A systematic review article was included in the study procedure and it revealed the wide range in the reported incidence of postoperative ocular pain. Some of the identified randomized controlled studies reported no or only minor pain whereas in some studies significant pain or pain lasting for several weeks has been described in more than 50% of the study patients. In the present study setting, pain was reported by 34% during the first

  12. Drying and recovery of aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianjun; Zhang, Quanguo; Chen, Yu-You; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-10-01

    To dehydrate aerobic granules to bone-dry form was proposed as a promising option for long-term storage of aerobic granules. This study cultivated aerobic granules with high proteins/polysaccharide ratio and then dried these granules using seven protocols: drying at 37°C, 60°C, 4°C, under sunlight, in dark, in a flowing air stream or in concentrated acetone solutions. All dried granules experienced volume shrinkage of over 80% without major structural breakdown. After three recovery batches, although with loss of part of the volatile suspended solids, all dried granules were restored most of their original size and organic matter degradation capabilities. The strains that can survive over the drying and storage periods were also identified. Once the granules were dried, they can be stored over long period of time, with minimal impact yielded by the applied drying protocols. PMID:27392096

  13. Response recovery in the locust auditory pathway.

    PubMed

    Wirtssohn, Sarah; Ronacher, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Temporal resolution and the time courses of recovery from acute adaptation of neurons in the auditory pathway of the grasshopper Locusta migratoria were investigated with a response recovery paradigm. We stimulated with a series of single click and click pair stimuli while performing intracellular recordings from neurons at three processing stages: receptors and first and second order interneurons. The response to the second click was expressed relative to the single click response. This allowed the uncovering of the basic temporal resolution in these neurons. The effect of adaptation increased with processing layer. While neurons in the auditory periphery displayed a steady response recovery after a short initial adaptation, many interneurons showed nonlinear effects: most prominent a long-lasting suppression of the response to the second click in a pair, as well as a gain in response if a click was preceded by a click a few milliseconds before. Our results reveal a distributed temporal filtering of input at an early auditory processing stage. This set of specified filters is very likely homologous across grasshopper species and thus forms the neurophysiological basis for extracting relevant information from a variety of different temporal signals. Interestingly, in terms of spike timing precision neurons at all three processing layers recovered very fast, within 20 ms. Spike waveform analysis of several neuron types did not sufficiently explain the response recovery profiles implemented in these neurons, indicating that temporal resolution in neurons located at several processing layers of the auditory pathway is not necessarily limited by the spike duration and refractory period. PMID:26609115

  14. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... that may be due to this condition include: Kidney stones (a side effect of acetazolamide) Irregular heartbeat during ... 2016:chap 99. Read More Breathing difficulty Carbohydrates Kidney stones Potassium test Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis Weakness Update Date ...

  15. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... high levels of thyroid hormone in their blood ( hyperthyroidism , thyrotoxicosis). Causes This is a rare condition that ... include a family history of periodic paralysis and hyperthyroidism. Symptoms Symptoms involve attacks of muscle weakness or ...

  16. Vaginal bleeding between periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003156.htm Vaginal bleeding between periods To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. This article discusses vaginal bleeding that occurs between a woman's monthly menstrual ...

  17. Painful periods (dysmenorrhea) (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be caused by abnormal conditions such as endometriosis or pelvic inflammatory disease. Unless one of these potentially serious conditions is present, the treatment for painful periods is pain relief. If a ...

  18. Your First Period

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe asthma). Always follow the directions on the bottle about how much to take. Exercise. Place a ... days. Glossary Amenorrhea: The absence of menstrual periods. Egg: The female reproductive cell produced in and released ...

  19. Setting the Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  20. The Periodic Table CD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  1. Painful periods (dysmenorrhea) (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Primary dysmenorrhea is a normal cramping of the lower abdomen caused by hormone-induced uterine contractions before the period. Secondary dysmenorrhea may be caused by abnormal conditions such as ...

  2. Conceptualizing Social Recovery: Recovery Routes of Methamphetamine Users

    PubMed Central

    Boeri, Miriam; Gibson, David; Boshears, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The goal of our qualitative study was to gain a phenomenological understanding of routes to recovery from problematic drug use. In-depth interviews and drug histories were collected from 50 former methamphetamine users recruited from a U.S. metropolitan suburb who identified as having had problematic use of this drug in the past. Transcripts of the audio-recorded interviews were coded for common themes regarding types of recovery strategies or tools employed on the route to recovery. The common strategies used for recovery from problematic methamphetamine use in all routes were social in nature and did not necessarily include cessation of all substances. Based on our findings, we suggest a conceptualization of social recovery that focuses on reducing the social harms caused by problematic drug use rather than focusing primarily on cessation of all drug use. Social recovery may be employed as both a treatment strategy and analytical tool. More research is needed to advance the concept of social recovery for intervention, drug policy, and criminal justice implications. PMID:25574504

  3. Periodic gaits for the CMU ambler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahalingam, Swaminathan; Dwivedi, Suren N.

    1989-01-01

    The configuration of the Carnegie Mellon University Ambler, a six legged autonomous walking vehicle for exploring Mars, enables the recovery of a trailing leg past the leading leg to reduce the energy expenditure in terrain interactions. Gaits developed for this unprecedented configuration are described. A stability criterion was developed which ensures stability of the vehicle in the event of failure of any one of the supporting legs. Periodic gaits developed for the Ambler utilize the Ambler's unique abilities, and continuously satisfy the stability criterion.

  4. Waste gas recovery system

    SciTech Connect

    Lintonbon, R.F.; Shore, D.

    1981-06-02

    A waste gas recovery system employs a compressor which takes in raw waste gas from an inlet knock-out drum and passes compressed gas through a heat exchanger to an outlet knock-out drum. The temperature at the outlet of the compressor is sensed by a device which operates valves to inject liquid coolant into the compressor inlet and to re-circulate gas back from the outlet of the outlet knock-out drum to inhibit an excessive temperature rise. A pressure-sensing device senses the pressure of the gas passing into the compressor and controls both the speed of the compressor and an adjustable throttle valve to regulate the gas flow. The throttle valve is closed automatically should there be a fall in the pressure of the gas at the inlet below a safe level. In this event, further pressure-sensing devices act additionally to close the recirculating gas valve and a further valve in the main inlet flow path to reliably isolate the compressor.

  5. URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Hyman, H.H.; Dreher, J.L.

    1959-07-01

    The recovery of uranium from the acidic aqueous metal waste solutions resulting from the bismuth phosphate carrier precipitation of plutonium from solutions of neutron irradiated uranium is described. The waste solutions consist of phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, and uranium as a uranyl salt, together with salts of the fission products normally associated with neutron irradiated uranium. Generally, the process of the invention involves the partial neutralization of the waste solution with sodium hydroxide, followed by conversion of the solution to a pH 11 by mixing therewith sufficient sodium carbonate. The resultant carbonate-complexed waste is contacted with a titanated silica gel and the adsorbent separated from the aqueous medium. The aqueous solution is then mixed with sufficient acetic acid to bring the pH of the aqueous medium to between 4 and 5, whereby sodium uranyl acetate is precipitated. The precipitate is dissolved in nitric acid and the resulting solution preferably provided with salting out agents. Uranyl nitrate is recovered from the solution by extraction with an ether such as diethyl ether.

  6. Wastewater heat recovery apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1992-01-01

    A heat recovery system with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature.

  7. Wastewater heat recovery apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-09-01

    A heat recovery system is described with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature. 6 figs.

  8. Energy recovery ventilator

    DOEpatents

    Benoit, Jeffrey T.; Dobbs, Gregory M.; Lemcoff, Norberto O.

    2015-06-23

    An energy recovery heat exchanger (100) includes a housing (102). The housing has a first flowpath (144) from a first inlet (104) to a first outlet (106). The housing has a second flowpath (146) from a second inlet (108) to a second outlet (110). Either of two cores may be in an operative position in the housing. Each core has a number of first passageways having open first and second ends and closed first and second sides. Each core has a number of second such passageways interspersed with the first passageways. The ends of the second passageways are aligned with the sides of the first passageways and vice versa. A number of heat transfer member sections separate adjacent ones of the first and second passageways. An actuator is coupled to the carrier to shift the cores between first and second conditions. In the first condition, the first core (20) is in the operative position and the second core (220) is not. In the second condition, the second core is in the operative position and the first core is not. When a core is in the operative position, its first passageways are along the first flowpath and the second passageways are along the second flowpath.

  9. Heat recovery apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    McFarland, I.

    1987-01-01

    Heat transfer is a living science and technical advances are constantly being made. However, in many cases, progress is limited by the equipment that is available on the market, rather than by knowledge of the heat transfer process. A case in point is the design of economizers: in such equipment a small quantity of water (with a relatively good heat transfer coefficient) is heated by a large quantity of low-pressure gas (with an inherently low heat transfer coefficient). As a first step in design finned tubing is used to lessen the discrepancy in coefficients. From this point, it becomes apparent that the equipment consists of a small number of tubes (to maintain good velocity on the water side) of considerable length (to provide sufficient area). In the process industries the base pressure, though low, may be in the region of 0.5 bar, and there is no convenient flue in which to place the heat recovery coil. It is therefore contained in a flat-sided enclosure, which is ill-fitted to pressure containment and is therefore reinforced with a plethora of structural sections. Such inelegant construction is quite common in North America; in Europe, cylindrical containments of vast size have been supplied for the same purposes. The real shortcoming is a successful marriage of different disciplines to produce reliable and efficient heat transfer equipment suitably contained.

  10. 75 FR 33379 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail... Railroads that the Board restate the previously published productivity adjustment for the 2003-2007 averaging period (2007 productivity adjustment) so that it tracks the 2007 productivity adjustment...

  11. Effects of state recovery on creep buckling under variable loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, D. N.; Arnold, S. M.

    1986-01-01

    Structural alloys embody internal mechanisms that allow recovery of state with varying stress and elevated temperature, i.e., they can return to a softer state following periods of hardening. Such material behavior is known to strongly influence structural response under some important thermomechanical loadings, for example, that involving thermal ratchetting. The influence of dynamic and thermal recovery on the creep buckling of a column under variable loading is investigated. The column is taken as the idealized (Shanley) sandwich column. The constitutive model, unlike the commonly employed Norton creep model, incorporates a representation of both dynamic and thermal (state) recovery. The material parameters of the constitutive model are chosen to characterize Narloy Z, a representative copper alloy used in thrust nozzle liners of reusable rocket engines. Variable loading histories include rapid cyclic unloading/reloading sequences and intermittent reductions of load for extended periods of time; these are superimposed on a constant load. The calculated results show that state recovery significantly affects creep buckling under variable loading. Structural alloys embody internal mechanisms that allow recovery of state with varying stress and time.

  12. Are corticosteroids useful in all degrees of severity and rapid recovery of Bell's palsy?

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Margarida; Firmino, Machado J; Marques, Elisa A; Santos, Paula C; Duarte, José A

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions The results provide preliminary evidence that corticosteroids were not effective in all grades of dysfunction and for achieving a rapid remission in the early phase of BP, highlighting the need to define standard and rigorous criteria to prescribe corticosteroids in these patients. Objectives The main aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of corticosteroids better associated than paralleled with neuromuscular training (C + FNT) is more effective than facial neuromuscular training (FNT) applied alone, in terms of recovery degree and facial symmetry during the early phase of Bell's palsy (BP). Patients and methods A prospective single-blinded study involved 73 patients: the C + FNT group (n = 42; median age = 37.5 years) and FNT group (n = 31; median age = 49.0 years). Patients were assessed before and 6 weeks after treatment by House-Brackmann (HB-FGS) and Sunnybrook Facial Grading System (SB-FGS). Results Recovery degree and facial symmetry improved significantly in both groups (p < 0.001), without differences between groups (p > 0.05). However, the C + FNT group displayed better outcomes for cheek (p = 0.004) and mouth (p = 0.022) resting symmetry at SB-FGS, instead of compared to the FNT group. The corticosteroids had no significant effect on all recovery degrees (p = 0.992) and rapid remission (p = 0.952). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the type of intervention was not a significant predictor for recovery degree (p = 0.917). PMID:27003272

  13. The CEOS Recovery Observatory Pilot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosford, S.; Proy, C.; Giros, A.; Eddy, A.; Petiteville, I.; Ishida, C.; Gaetani, F.; Frye, S.; Zoffoli, S.; Danzeglocke, J.

    2015-04-01

    Over the course of the last decade, large populations living in vulnerable areas have led to record damages and substantial loss of life in mega-disasters ranging from the deadly Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 and Haiti earthquake of 2010; the catastrophic flood damages of Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the Tohoku tsunami of 2011, and the astonishing extent of the environmental impact of the Deepwater Horizon explosion in 2009. These major catastrophes have widespread and long-lasting impacts with subsequent recovery and reconstruction costing billions of euros and lasting years. While satellite imagery is used on an ad hoc basis after many disasters to support damage assessment, there is currently no standard practice or system to coordinate acquisition of data and facilitate access for early recovery planning and recovery tracking and monitoring. CEOS led the creation of a Recovery Observatory Oversight Team, which brings together major recovery stakeholders such as the UNDP and the World Bank/Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery, value-adding providers and leading space agencies. The principal aims of the Observatory are to: 1. Demonstrate the utility of a wide range of earth observation data to facilitate the recovery and reconstruction phase following a major catastrophic event; 2. Provide a concrete case to focus efforts in identifying and resolving technical and organizational obstacles to facilitating the visibility and access to a relevant set of EO data; and 3. Develop dialogue and establish institutional relationships with the Recovery phase user community to best target data and information requirements; The paper presented here will describe the work conducted in preparing for the triggering of a Recovery Observatory including support to rapid assessments and Post Disaster Needs Assessments by the EO community.

  14. 30 CFR 256.19 - Periodic consultation with interested parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and... provide for periodic consultation with State and local governments, existing and potential oil and gas... in or on the OCS, including those involved in fish and shellfish recovery, and...

  15. Asphaltenes and improved oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, T.F.

    1995-12-31

    Often, asphaltene is related solely to the downstream petroleum refining aspect, the logic being that these large, refractoric molecules in heavy ends or bottoms of barrels are difficult to convert into light petroleum hydrocarbons. The refinery bottoms or residues are largely asphaltics (asphaltene, resin, and preasphaltene). This persuades many investigators to correlate and interrelate asphaltene with catalyst compositions, conversion conditions, etc., in refining operations. Few papers appearing in the literature deal with asphaltene and upstream petroleum production and recovery. To this goal, the present paper summarizes the role which petroleum asphaltene plays in production and recovery, especially to improved oil recovery (IOR).

  16. Manned Spacecraft Landing and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammel, Don

    2004-01-01

    As recent history has tragically demonstrated, a successful space mission is not complete until the crew has safely returned to earth and has been successfully recovered. It is noted that a safe return to earth does not guarantee a successful recovery. The focus of this presentation will be a discussion of the ground operation assets involved in a successful recovery. The author's experience in land and water-based recovery of crewed vehicles and flight hardware at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Edwards Air Force Base, international landing sites, and the Atlantic Ocean provides for some unique insight into this topic. He has participated in many aspects of Space Shuttle landing and recovery operations including activation of Transatlantic Abort Landing (TAL) sites and Emergency Landing Sites (ELS) as an Operations Test Director, execution of post landing convoy operations as an Orbiter Move Director, Operations Test Director, and Landing and Recovery Director, and recovery of solid rocket boosters, frustum and their parachutes 140 miles offshore in a wide range of sea states as a Retrieval Diver/Engineer. The recovery operations for the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo were similar from a landing and recovery perspective in th t they all were capsules with limited "flying" capability and had a planned End of Mission (EOM) in an ocean with a descent slowed by parachutes. The general process was to deploy swim teams via helicopters to prepare the capsule for recovery and assist with crew extraction when required. The capsule was then hoisted onto the deck of a naval vessel. This approach required the extensive use and deployment of military assets to support the primary landing zone as well as alternate and contingency locations. The Russian Soyuz capsule also has limited "flying" capability; however, the planned EOM is terrestrial. In addition to use of parachutes to slow the reentry descent, soft-landing rockets on the bottom of the vehicle are employed to cushion the

  17. CONDITIONAL ABLATION AND RECOVERY OF FOREBRAIN NEUROGENESIS IN THE MOUSE

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Benjamin H.; Jutkiewicz, Emily M.; Fuller, Cynthia L.; Lichtenwalner, Robin J.; Zhang, Helen; Velander, Alan J.; Li, Xiangquan; Gnegy, Margaret E.; Burant, Charles F.; Parent, Jack M.

    2009-01-01

    Forebrain neurogenesis persists throughout life in the rodent subventricular zone (SVZ) and hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). Several strategies have been employed to eliminate adult neurogenesis and thereby determine whether depleting adult-born neurons disrupts specific brain functions, but some approaches do not specifically target neural progenitors. We have developed a transgenic mouse line to reversibly ablate adult neural stem cells and suppress neurogenesis. The nestin-tk mouse expresses herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (tk) under the control of the nestin 2nd intronic enhancer, which drives expression in neural progenitors. Administration of ganciclovir (GCV) kills actively dividing cells expressing this transgene. We found that peripheral GCV administration suppressed SVZ-olfactory bulb and DG neurogenesis within two weeks but caused systemic toxicity. Intracerebroventricular GCV infusion for 28 days nearly completely depleted proliferating cells and immature neurons in both the SVZ and DG without systemic toxicity. Reversibility of the effects after prolonged GCV infusion was slow and partial. Neurogenesis did not recover 2 weeks after cessation of GCV administration, but showed limited recovery 6 weeks after GCV that differed between the SVZ and DG. Suppression of neurogenesis did not inhibit antidepressant responsiveness of mice in the tail suspension test. These findings indicate that SVZ and DG neural stem cells differ in their capacity for repopulation, and that adult-born neurons are not required for antidepressant responses in a common behavioral test of antidepressant efficacy. The nestin-tk mouse should be useful for studying how reversible depletion of adult neurogenesis influences neurophysiology, other behaviors, and neural progenitor dynamics. PMID:19363795

  18. [Periodic abstinence: its possibilities].

    PubMed

    1981-05-01

    Experience with family planning mehods requiring periodic sexual abstinence has been varied. During the last decade interest has centered on 2 methods, the cervical mucus and the sympto-thermal, which are based on identifying the onset of the fertile period. During the 1970s, the Australian physicians John and Evelyn Billings developed the cervical mucus method, in which changes in the quanitity and characteristics of cervical mucus are used to determine the moment of ovulation. The sympto-thermal method depends on identification of the slight rise in basal body temperature that occurs in the latter part of the menstrual cycle as well as cervical mucus changes and sometimes the calendar to determine the fertile period. The Catholic Church has been the main proponent of periodic abstinence methods, but since 1973 the World Health Organization has invested US$3.3 million on research in such methods. The Billings method requires differentiating between dry, wet, and very wet mucus in the vagina and between different consistencies of mucus. The method ususally requires 1-3 months for instruction and sexual abstinence is usually recommended for the 1st month. The average number of days of required abstinence was 9 in a study of 66 women and 15-18 in a study of 870 women. Many women with short menstrual cycles do not experience postmenstrual dry days, in which case abstinence may be required as many as 13 days out of 23. 18.8% of users of periodic abstinence methods in 1 North American study became pregnant in the 1st year, but most were using the calendar method. Women who desired to terminate childbearing had only about 1/2 as many failures with periodic abstinence methods as did women wishing to postpone a birth. PMID:12311397

  19. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction as a day case with extended recovery.

    PubMed

    Haug; Sørensen; Dichmann

    2000-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the procedures and the postoperative outcome of arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction when carried out a day case with extended recovery. Between December 1995 and September 1998, 91 patients underwent surgery using bone-patellatendon-bone autografts and interference screw fixation. Additional surgical procedures were performed on 35 of the patients. The patient records were evaluated for a mean of 17 months (1-33 months) postoperatively. The course of treatment was. (1) Evaluation and KLT-arthrometer test 14 days preoperatively. (2) Surgery, cryocuff, bupivacain, paracetamol, NSAID and ketobemidon for postoperative pain control. (3) Discharge from hospital within 24 h. (4) Physiotherapy after 14 days. (5) Follow-up after 6 weeks with bandage removal and after 6 months. Eight patients required one further day of hospitalisation due to pain (four), nausea (one), haematoma (two) and prolonged anaesthesia (one). Five patients were readmitted to hospital for a mean of 8 (3-16) days postoperatively. Three patients underwent re-surgery due to haematoma/rupture of the scar. No deep infections were found. We concluded that this effective method of ACL-reconstruction can be carried out safely as a day case procedure with extended recovery to the benefit of the patients. PMID:11063947

  20. A general methodology for maximum likelihood inference from band-recovery data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conroy, M.J.; Williams, B.K.

    1984-01-01

    A numerical procedure is described for obtaining maximum likelihood estimates and associated maximum likelihood inference from band- recovery data. The method is used to illustrate previously developed one-age-class band-recovery models, and is extended to new models, including the analysis with a covariate for survival rates and variable-time-period recovery models. Extensions to R-age-class band- recovery, mark-recapture models, and twice-yearly marking are discussed. A FORTRAN program provides computations for these models.

  1. Periodically kicked turbulence

    PubMed

    Lohse

    2000-10-01

    Periodically kicked turbulence is theoretically analyzed within a mean-field theory. For large enough kicking strength A and kicking frequency f the Reynolds number grows exponentially and then runs into some saturation. The saturation level Re(sat) can be calculated analytically; different regimes can be observed. For large enough Re we find Re(sat) approximately Af, but intermittency can modify this scaling law. We suggest an experimental realization of periodically kicked turbulence to study the different regimes we theoretically predict and thus to better understand the effect of forcing on fully developed turbulence. PMID:11089041

  2. Recovery of olefin monomers

    DOEpatents

    Golden, Timothy Christoph; Weist, Jr., Edward Landis; Johnson, Charles Henry

    2004-03-16

    In a process for the production of a polyolefin, an olefin monomer is polymerised said polyolefin and residual monomer is recovered. A gas stream comprising the monomer and nitrogen is subjected to a PSA process in which said monomer is adsorbed on a periodically regenerated silica gel or alumina adsorbent to recover a purified gas stream containing said olefin and a nitrogen rich stream containing no less than 99% nitrogen and containing no less than 50% of the nitrogen content of the gas feed to the PSA process.

  3. Generalized procedures for testing hypotheses about survival or recovery rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, J.R.; Williams, B.K.

    1989-01-01

    Comparisons of survival or recovery rates from different time periods or geographic regions may be difficult to accomplish using the Z-tests suggested by Brownie et al. (1985). We propose a general Chi-square statistic that addresses an unambiguous null hypothesis of homogeneity among several survival or recovery rates. With this statistic, specific hypotheses of differences in rates can be simultaneously tested using contrasts. If necessary, a posteriori multiple comparisons can also be conducted that incorporate an adjustment for Type I error.

  4. Thermal energy storage for industrial waste heat recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, H. W.; Kedl, R. J.; Duscha, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    The potential is examined for waste heat recovery and reuse through thermal energy storage in five specific industrial categories: (1) primary aluminum, (2) cement, (3) food processing, (4) paper and pulp, and (5) iron and steel. Preliminary results from Phase 1 feasibility studies suggest energy savings through fossil fuel displacement approaching 0.1 quad/yr in the 1985 period. Early implementation of recovery technologies with minimal development appears likely in the food processing and paper and pulp industries; development of the other three categories, though equally desirable, will probably require a greater investment in time and dollars.

  5. Quarterly RCRA Groundwater Monitoring Data for the Period July through September 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, Mary J.

    2007-02-01

    This report provides information about RCRA groundwater monitoring for the period July through September 2006. Eighteen Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) sites were sampled during the reporting quarter.

  6. Gemini 9 spacecraft recovery operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The Gemini 9-A spacecraft, with Astronauts Thomas Stafford and Eugene Cernan still inside, in water as the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp, the recovery ship, comes alongside to recover the astronauts and their spaceship.

  7. Recovery Potential After Acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Seitz, Rüdiger J.; Donnan, Geoffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    In acute stroke, the major factor for recovery is the early use of thrombolysis aimed at arterial recanalization and reperfusion of ischemic brain tissue. Subsequently, neurorehabilitative training critically improves clinical recovery due to augmention of postlesional plasticity. Neuroimaging and electrophysiology studies have revealed that the location and volume of the stroke lesion, the affection of nerve fiber tracts, as well as functional and structural changes in the perilesional tissue and in large-scale bihemispheric networks are relevant biomarkers of post-stroke recovery. However, associated disorders, such as mood disorders, epilepsy, and neurodegenerative diseases, may induce secondary cerebral changes or aggravate the functional deficits and, thereby, compromise the potential for recovery. PMID:26617568

  8. ON-SITE SOLVENT RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study evaluated the product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention, and economic aspects of three technologies for onsite solvent recovery: atmospheric batch distillation, vacuum heat-pump distillation, and low-emission vapor degreasing. The atmospheric and vacuum ...

  9. Recovery and purification of ethylene

    DOEpatents

    Reyneke, Rian; Foral, Michael J.; Lee, Guang-Chung; Eng, Wayne W. Y.; Sinclair, Iain; Lodgson, Jeffery S.

    2008-10-21

    A process for the recovery and purification of ethylene and optionally propylene from a stream containing lighter and heavier components that employs an ethylene distributor column and a partially thermally coupled distributed distillation system.

  10. Protein recovery from surfactant precipitation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shu Ian; Stuckey, David C

    2011-01-01

    The recovery of lysozyme from an aqueous solution containing precipitated lysozyme-AOT complexes formed by the direct addition of sodium bis-(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) to a lysozyme solution was studied using both solvents, and a counterionic surfactant. Ethanol,methanol and solvent mixtures dissolved the surfactant precipitate and recovered lysozyme as a solid. Recovery efficiency and protein stability varied with the type of solvent used. An entirely different method of recovery was also evaluated using a counterionic surfactant: tri-octylmethylammonium chloride (TOMAC) which bound to AOT releasing lysozyme into solution.Complete recovery (100%) of lysozyme was achieved at a molar ratio of 2:1(TOMAC:AOT), and the original protein activity was maintained in the final aqueous phase.The recovered lysozyme retained its secondary structure as observed in circular dichroism(CD) spectra. Specific activity studies show that counterionic surfactant extraction does not alter the biological activity of the enzyme. PMID:22235487

  11. Monitoring EERE's Recovery Act Portfolio

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Performance monitoring of Recovery Act projects within EERE has been an ongoing effort. Project recipients have been reporting technical and financial progress to project officers on a quarterly basis.

  12. Olefin recovery via chemical absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Barchas, R.

    1998-06-01

    The recovery of fight olefins in petrochemical plants has generally been accomplished through cryogenic distillation, a process which is very capital and energy intensive. In an effort to simplify the recovery process and reduce its cost, BP Chemicals has developed a chemical absorption technology based on an aqueous silver nitrate solution. Stone & Webster is now marketing, licensing, and engineering the technology. The process is commercially ready for recovering olefins from olefin derivative plant vent gases, such as vents from polyethylene, polypropylene, ethylene oxide, and synthetic ethanol units. The process can also be used to debottleneck C{sub 2} or C{sub 3} splinters, or to improve olefin product purity. This paper presents the olefin recovery imp technology, discusses its applications, and presents economics for the recovery of ethylene and propylene.

  13. Ayurveda during Abbasid's period.

    PubMed

    Husain, S A; Subhaktha, P K

    2000-01-01

    This is a historical paper which deals with a brief account of Abbasid's period. In this article the existence of Ayurveda in Arab countries, arrival of Ayurvedic physicians to Baghdad, their eminence, authenticity and literary additions in medical field has been studied and presented. PMID:12578013

  14. Getting Your Period

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a woman to have a baby. During sexual intercourse, the egg can get fertilized by a male’s sperm and then attach to the lining of the uterus ( endometrium ) and grow into a baby. ( Read more about reproduction. ) Does your period come each month? top Menstrual ...

  15. Astrophysical implications of periodicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, Richard A.

    1988-01-01

    Two remarkable discoveries of the last decade have profound implications for astrophysics and for geophysics. These are the discovery by Alvarez et al., that certain mass extinctions are caused by the impact on the earth of a large asteroid or comet, and the discovery by Raup and Sepkoski that such extinctions are periodic, with a cycle time of 26 to 30 million years. The validity of both of these discoveries is assumed and the implications are examined. Most of the phenomena described depend not on periodicity, but just on the weaker assumption that the impacts on the earth take place primarily in showers. Proposed explanations for the periodicity include galactic oscillations, the Planet X model, and the possibility of Nemesis, a solar companion star. These hypotheses are critically examined. Results of the search for the solar companion are reported. The Deccan flood basalts of India have been proposed as the impact site for the Cretaceous impact, but this hypotheisis is in contradiction with the conclusion of Courtillot et al., that the magma flow began during a period of normal magnetic field. A possible resolution of this contradiction is proposed.

  16. Periods and Feynman integrals

    SciTech Connect

    Bogner, Christian; Weinzierl, Stefan

    2009-04-15

    We consider multiloop integrals in dimensional regularization and the corresponding Laurent series. We study the integral in the Euclidean region and where all ratios of invariants and masses have rational values. We prove that in this case all coefficients of the Laurent series are periods.

  17. Periodic Table of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…

  18. A Modern Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  19. Scheduling: Seven Period Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Driven by stable or declining financial resources many school districts are considering the costs and benefits of a seven-period day. While there is limited evidence that any particular scheduling model has a greater impact on student learning than any other, it is clear that the school schedule is a tool that can significantly impact teacher…

  20. Oscillations following periodic reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Tiago; Machado, Armando

    2009-06-01

    Three experiments examined behavior in extinction following periodic reinforcement. During the first phase of Experiment 1, four groups of pigeons were exposed to fixed interval (FI 16s or FI 48s) or variable interval (VI 16s or VI 48s) reinforcement schedules. Next, during the second phase, each session started with reinforcement trials and ended with an extinction segment. Experiment 2 was similar except that the extinction segment was considerably longer. Experiment 3 replaced the FI schedules with a peak procedure, with FI trials interspersed with non-food peak interval (PI) trials that were four times longer. One group of pigeons was exposed to FI 20s PI 80s trials, and another to FI 40s PI 160s trials. Results showed that, during the extinction segment, most pigeons trained with FI schedules, but not with VI schedules, displayed pause-peck oscillations with a period close to, but slightly greater than the FI parameter. These oscillations did not start immediately after the onset of extinction. Comparing the oscillations from Experiments 1 and 2 suggested that the alternation of reconditioning and re-extinction increases the reliability and earlier onset of the oscillations. In Experiment 3 the pigeons exhibited well-defined pause-peck cycles since the onset of extinction. These cycles had periods close to twice the value of the FI and lasted for long intervals of time. We discuss some hypotheses concerning the processes underlying behavioral oscillations following periodic reinforcement. PMID:18992793

  1. Total Value of Phosphorus Recovery.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Brooke K; Baker, Lawrence A; Boyer, Treavor H; Drechsel, Pay; Gifford, Mac; Hanjra, Munir A; Parameswaran, Prathap; Stoltzfus, Jared; Westerhoff, Paul; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2016-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a critical, geographically concentrated, nonrenewable resource necessary to support global food production. In excess (e.g., due to runoff or wastewater discharges), P is also a primary cause of eutrophication. To reconcile the simultaneous shortage and overabundance of P, lost P flows must be recovered and reused, alongside improvements in P-use efficiency. While this motivation is increasingly being recognized, little P recovery is practiced today, as recovered P generally cannot compete with the relatively low cost of mined P. Therefore, P is often captured to prevent its release into the environment without beneficial recovery and reuse. However, additional incentives for P recovery emerge when accounting for the total value of P recovery. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the range of benefits of recovering P from waste streams, i.e., the total value of recovering P. This approach accounts for P products, as well as other assets that are associated with P and can be recovered in parallel, such as energy, nitrogen, metals and minerals, and water. Additionally, P recovery provides valuable services to society and the environment by protecting and improving environmental quality, enhancing efficiency of waste treatment facilities, and improving food security and social equity. The needs to make P recovery a reality are also discussed, including business models, bottlenecks, and policy and education strategies. PMID:27214029

  2. Chemically enhanced in situ recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Sale, T.; Pitts, M.; Wyatt, K.

    1996-08-01

    Chemically enhanced recovery is a promising alternative to current technologies for management of subsurface releases of organic liquids. Through the inclusion of surfactants, solvents, polymers, and/or alkaline agents to a waterflood, the transport of targeted organic compounds can be increased and rates of recovery enhanced. By far, the vast majority of work done in the field of chemically enhanced recovery has been at a laboratory scale. The following text focuses on chemically enhanced recovery from a field application perspective with emphasis given to chlorinated solvents in a low permeability setting. While chlorinated solvents are emphasized, issues discussed are also relevant to organic liquids less dense than water such as petroleum products. Topics reviewed include: (1) Description of technology; (2) General technology considerations; (3) Low permeability media considerations; (4) Cost and reliability considerations; (5) Commercial availability; and (6) Case histories. Through this paper an appreciation is developed of both the potential and limitations of chemically enhanced recovery. Excluded from the scope of this paper is the in situ destruction of organic compounds through processes such as chemical or biological oxidation, chemically enhanced recovery of inorganic compounds, and ex situ soil treatment processes. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Developing a Regional Recovery Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Olson, Jarrod; Stein, Steven L.; Clark, Rebecca; Kelly, Heather; Sheline, Jim; Tietje, Grant; Williamson, Mark; Woodcock, Jody

    2011-09-01

    Abstract A biological attack would present an unprecedented challenge for local, state, and federal agencies; the military; the private sector; and individuals on many fronts ranging from vaccination and treatment to prioritization of cleanup actions to waste disposal. To prepare the Seattle region to recover from a biological attack, the Seattle Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) partners collaborated with military and federal agencies to develop a Regional Recovery Framework for a Biological Attack in the Seattle Urban Area. The goal was to reduce the time and resources required to recover and restore wide urban areas, military installations, and other critical infrastructure following a biological incident by providing a coordinated systems approach. Based on discussions in small workshops, tabletop exercises, and interviews with emergency response agency staff, the partners identified concepts of operation for various areas to address critical issues the region will face as recovery progresses. Key to this recovery is the recovery of the economy. Although the Framework is specific to a catastrophic, wide-area biological attack using anthrax, it was designed to be flexible and scalable so it could also serve as the recovery framework for an all-hazards approach. The Framework also served to coalesce policy questions that must be addressed for long-term recovery. These questions cover such areas as safety and health, security, financial management, waste management, legal issues, and economic development.

  4. Protracted Recovery From a Concussion

    PubMed Central

    Kostyun, Regina O.; Hafeez, Imran

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have demonstrated that age and sex may influence concussion recovery time frames, with female athletes and adolescents being potentially more susceptible to a protracted recovery course. Currently, limited work has examined the influence sex may have on concussion management strategies and treatment interventions, especially for younger individuals suffering persistent concussion symptoms and cognitive dysfunctions. Hypothesis: Female athletes are prescribed more treatment interventions than male athletes during a protracted recovery from a concussion. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Methods: Data were retrospectively collected for adolescent athletes presenting to a sports medicine concussion clinic between September 2010 and September 2011. Results: A total of 266 adolescent athletes were evaluated and treated for concussion. Female athletes had a longer recovery course (P = 0.002) and required more treatment interventions (P < 0.001) for their symptoms and dysfunction. Female athletes were more likely to require academic accommodations (P < 0.001), vestibular therapy (P < 0.001), or medication (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Medical providers should be aware that during the recovery course, adolescent female athletes may require a management plan that will most likely include additional treatment interventions beyond the standard cognitive and physical rest. Clinical Relevance: Treatment interventions are more commonly prescribed for adolescent female athletes than for adolescent male athletes during a protracted recovery from a concussion. This highlights the need for identifying evidence-based clinical management guidelines that focus on sex, especially when dealing with persistent concussion symptoms and cognitive dysfunctions. PMID:25553213

  5. The Effect of Different Recovery Duration on Repeated Anaerobic Performance in Elite Cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Harbili, Sultan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of recovery duration on repeated anaerobic performance in elite cyclists. The study followed a cross-over design protocol. Twelve elite male cyclists were randomly assigned to three groups (with recovery duration of 1, 2 and 3 min, respectively). All the subjects performed 4 repeated Wingate tests (4 × 30 s WT) at 48 h intervals for three different recovery periods. No significant interaction was observed between the effects of recovery duration and repetition (p>0.05), whereas there was a significant main effect of repetition on peak power, mean power, and a fatigue index (p<0.05). Peak power decreased significantly in repeated WTs with 1 and with 2 min recovery duration (p<0.05), but it did not change significantly in a repeated WT with 3 min recovery (p>0.05). In contrast, mean power decreased significantly in repeated WTs with 1, 2 and 3 min recovery duration (p<0.05). The fatigue index increased significantly in a repeated WT with 1 min recovery duration (p<0.05), but no significant difference was observed in the fatigue index in repeated WTs with 2 and 3 min recovery (p>0.05). In a 4 × 30 s WT, peak power decreased in cycles with 1 and 2 min recovery duration, but remained unchanged with 3 min recovery duration, whereas mean power decreased in all recovery duration procedures. The WT with 1 min recovery duration caused greater fatigue. Although recovery duration affected both peak power and mean power, the effect on peak power was greater. PMID:26839617

  6. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreiro, J.E.; Arguelles, D.J.; Rams, H. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A case of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is reported in a Hispanic man with an unusual recurrence six weeks after radioactive iodine treatment. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis has now been well characterized in the literature: it occurs primarily in Orientals with an overwhelming male preponderance and a higher association of specific HLA antigens. Clinical manifestations include onset after high carbohydrate ingestion or heavy exertion, with progressive symmetric weakness leading to flaccid paralysis of the extremities and other muscle groups, lasting several hours. If hypokalemia is present, potassium administration may help abort the attack. Although propranolol can be efficacious in preventing further episodes, the only definitive treatment is establishing a euthyroid state. The pathophysiology is still controversial, but reflects altered potassium and calcium dynamics as well as certain morphologic characteristics within the muscle unit itself.

  7. Cells anticipate periodic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2009-03-01

    We show that an amoeboid organism can anticipate the timing of periodic events. The plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum moves rapidly under favourable conditions, but stops moving when transferred to less-favourable conditions. Plasmodia exposed to unfavourable conditions, presented in three consecutive pulses at constant intervals, reduced their locomotive speed in response to each episode. When subsequently subjected to favourable conditions, the plasmodia spontaneously reduced their locomotive speed at the time point when the next unfavourable episode would have occurred. This implied anticipation of impending environmental change. After this behaviour had been evoked several times, the locomotion of the plasmodia returned to normal; however, the anticipatory response could subsequently be induced by a single unfavourable pulse, implying recall of the memorized periodicity. We explored the mechanisms underlying these behaviours from a dynamical systems perspective. Our results hint at the cellular origins of primitive intelligence and imply that simple dynamics might be sufficient to explain its emergence.

  8. Periodic minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Alan L.

    1985-04-01

    A minimal surface is one for which, like a soap film with the same pressure on each side, the mean curvature is zero and, thus, is one where the two principal curvatures are equal and opposite at every point. For every closed circuit in the surface, the area is a minimum. Schwarz1 and Neovius2 showed that elements of such surfaces could be put together to give surfaces periodic in three dimensions. These periodic minimal surfaces are geometrical invariants, as are the regular polyhedra, but the former are curved. Minimal surfaces are appropriate for the description of various structures where internal surfaces are prominent and seek to adopt a minimum area or a zero mean curvature subject to their topology; thus they merit more complete numerical characterization. There seem to be at least 18 such surfaces3, with various symmetries and topologies, related to the crystallographic space groups. Recently, glyceryl mono-oleate (GMO) was shown by Longley and McIntosh4 to take the shape of the F-surface. The structure postulated is shown here to be in good agreement with an analysis of the fundamental geometry of periodic minimal surfaces.

  9. Moderate Recovery Unnecessary to Sustain High Stroke Volume during Interval Training. A Brief Report

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Jamie; Buchheit, Martin

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that the time spent at a high stroke volume (SV) is important for improving maximal cardiac function. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of recovery intensity on cardiovascular parameters during a typical high-intensity interval training (HIIT) session in fourteen well-trained cyclists. Oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), SV, cardiac output (Qc), and oxygenation of vastus lateralis (TSI) were measured during a HIIT (3×3-min work period, 2 min of recovery) session on two occasions. VO2, HR and Qc were largely higher during moderate-intensity (60%) compared with low-intensity (30%) (VO2, effect size; ES = +2.6; HR, ES = +2.8; Qc, ES = +2.2) and passive (HR, ES = +2.2; Qc, ES = +1.7) recovery. By contrast, there was no clear difference in SV between the three recovery conditions, with the SV during the two active recovery periods not being substantially different than during exercise (60%, ES = −0.1; 30%, ES = −0.2). To conclude, moderate-intensity recovery may not be required to maintain a high SV during HIIT. Key points Moderate-intensity recovery periods may not be necessary to maintain high stroke volume during the exercise intervals of HIIT. Stroke volume did not surpass the levels attained during the exercise intervals during the recovery periods of HIIT. The practical implication of these finding is that reducing the intensity of the recovery period during a HIIT protocol may prolong the time to exhaustion, potentially allowing completion of additional high-intensity intervals increasing the time accumulated at maximal cardiac output. PMID:24790495

  10. Characterizing recovery of soil hydrological properties impacted by wildfire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Alicia; Borak, Jordan; Yatheendradas, Soni; Crosgrove, Brian; Gochis, David; Dugger, Aubrey; Goodrich, David

    2016-04-01

    Accurate characterization of the post-burn recovery of soil properties over time is important for hydrological modeling applications. Yet, this recovery remains not characterized well enough for effective usage as hydrologic model simulation guidelines, for example, by organizations like the NOAA NWS National Water Center for streamflow modeling or like USDA for flash flood modeling. By calibrating a model's soil properties to soil moisture at different short periods of post-fire rain events for an example test case, we attempt to characterize the soil recovery from wildfires as a function of the burn severity, soil properties, hydrologic states like moisture and antecedent rain history post-burn, and ecosystem vegetation type and plant cover density. This work is in line with similar recent work but focuses more on improving predictability for operational hydrologic applications.

  11. Effects of gravity on the circadian period in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murakami, Dean M.; Demaria, Victor H.; Fuller, Charles A.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of increased gravity force on the circadian period of body temperature and activity of rats was investigated using rats implanted with a small radio telemetry device and, after a 2-week recovery and a 3-week control period at 1G, rotated at for 4 weeks at a constant 2G field in a 18-ft-diam centrifuge. Measurements of the mean freerunning period of the temperature and activity rhythms after 10 days showed that the exposure to 2G led to a functional separation of the pacemakers that regulate the activity and the temperature in the animals. Each pacemaker reacted differently: the activity period increased and the temperature period decreased. By the third or the fourth week, the activity and the temperature periods have returned to 1G control levels.

  12. Temporal plasticity involved in recovery from manual dexterity deficit after motor cortex lesion in macaque monkeys.

    PubMed

    Murata, Yumi; Higo, Noriyuki; Hayashi, Takuya; Nishimura, Yukio; Sugiyama, Yoko; Oishi, Takao; Tsukada, Hideo; Isa, Tadashi; Onoe, Hirotaka

    2015-01-01

    The question of how intensive motor training restores motor function after brain damage or stroke remains unresolved. Here we show that the ipsilesional ventral premotor cortex (PMv) and perilesional primary motor cortex (M1) of rhesus macaque monkeys are involved in the recovery of manual dexterity after a lesion of M1. A focal lesion of the hand digit area in M1 was made by means of ibotenic acid injection. This lesion initially caused flaccid paralysis in the contralateral hand but was followed by functional recovery of hand movements, including precision grip, during the course of daily postlesion motor training. Brain imaging of regional cerebral blood flow by means of H2 (15)O-positron emission tomography revealed enhanced activity of the PMv during the early postrecovery period and increased functional connectivity within M1 during the late postrecovery period. The causal role of these areas in motor recovery was confirmed by means of pharmacological inactivation by muscimol during the different recovery periods. These findings indicate that, in both the remaining primary motor and premotor cortical areas, time-dependent plastic changes in neural activity and connectivity are involved in functional recovery from the motor deficit caused by the M1 lesion. Therefore, it is likely that the PMv, an area distant from the core of the lesion, plays an important role during the early postrecovery period, whereas the perilesional M1 contributes to functional recovery especially during the late postrecovery period. PMID:25568105

  13. Periodic substorm activity in the geomagnetic tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, C. Y.; Eastman, T. E.; Frank, L. A.; Williams, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    On 19 May 1978 an anusual series of events is observed with the Quadrispherical LEPEDEA on board the ISEE-1 satellite in the Earth's geomagnetic tail. For 13 hours periodic bursts of both ions and electrons are seen in all the particle detectors on the spacecraft. On this day periodic activity is also seen on the ground, where multiple intensifications of the electrojets are observed. At the same time the latitudinal component of the interplanetary magnetic field shows a number of strong southward deflections. It is concluded that an extended period of substorm activity is occurring, which causes repeated thinnings and recoveries of the plasma sheet. These are detected by ISEE, which is situated in the plasma sheet boundary layer, as periodic dropouts and reappearances of the plasma. Comparisons of the observations at ISEE with those at IMP-8, which for a time is engulfed by the plasma sheet, indicate that the activity is relatively localized in spatial extent. For this series of events it is clear that a global approach to magnetospheric dynamics, e.g., reconnection, is inappropriate.

  14. Recovery of cesium

    DOEpatents

    Izatt, Reed M.; Christensen, James J.; Hawkins, Richard T.

    1984-01-01

    A process of recovering cesium ions from mixtures of ions containing them and other ions, e.g., a solution of nuclear waste materials, which comprises establishing a separate source phase containing such a mixture of ions, establishing a separate recipient phase, establishing a liquid membrane phase in interfacial contact with said source and recipient phases, said membrane phase containing a ligand, preferably a selected calixarene as depicted in the drawing, maintaining said interfacial contact for a period of time long enough to transport by said ligand a substantial portion of the cesium ion from the source phase to the recipient phase, and recovering the cesium ion from the recipient phase. The separation of the source and recipient phases may be by the membrane phase only, e.g., where these aqueous phases are emulsified as dispersed phases in a continuous membrane phase, or may include a physical barrier as well, e.g., an open-top outer container with an inner open-ended container of smaller cross-section mounted in the outer container with its open bottom end spaced from and above the closed bottom of the outer container so that the membrane phase may fill the outer container to a level above the bottom of the inner container and have floating on its upper surface a source phase and a recipient phase separated by the wall of the inner container as a physical barrier. A preferred solvent for the ligand is a mixture of methylene chloride and carbon tetrachloride.

  15. Postexercise thermoregulatory behavior and recovery from exercise in desert iguanas.

    PubMed

    Wagner, E L; Gleeson, T T

    1997-02-01

    Desert iguanas (Dipsosaurus dorsalis) undergo respiratory recovery more rapidly and incur lower energetic costs when they recover from 40 degrees C burst activity at 20 degrees C than when they recover at 40 degrees C. However, a body temperature of 20 degrees C falls well outside the preferred activity temperature range of this species, and imposes several physiological and behavioral liabilities. To determine if exhausted animals would favor a thermal regimen that allows for rapid and inexpensive respiratory recovery, we exercised lizards to exhaustion and allowed them to recover in a laboratory thermal gradient for 180 min. Recovering animals allowed their body temperatures to cool significantly to a mean temperature of 33.5 degrees C during the first 60 min of recovery, and subsequently rewarmed themselves to an average temperature of 38 degrees C for the remainder of their recovery period. Control animals maintained a constant body temperature of 37.7 degrees C throughout the 180-min recovery period. We then exercised animals to exhaustion at 40 degrees C and allowed them to recover for 180 min under a thermal regimen that mimicked that selected by exhausted animals in the previous experiment. Animals recovering under this thermal regimen returned to rates of O2 consumption, removed exercise-generated blood lactate, and incurred energetic costs that were more similar to data previously collected for animals recovering from exercise at a constant 40 degrees C than to data from animals recovering at 20 degrees C. These results suggested that the energetic benefits associated with recovery at 20 degrees C are not of sufficient biological importance to cause a major shift in thermoregulatory behavior. PMID:9035245

  16. HEAVY AND THERMAL OIL RECOVERY PRODUCTION MECHANISMS

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony R. Kovscek

    2003-01-01

    This technical progress report describes work performed from October 1 through December 31, 2002 , for the project ''Heavy and Thermal Oil Recovery Production Mechanisms.'' In this project, a broad spectrum of research is undertaken related to thermal and heavy-oil recovery. The research tools and techniques used are varied and span from pore-level imaging of multiphase fluid flow to definition of reservoir-scale features through streamline-based history-matching techniques. During this period, experimental data regarding multidimensional imbibition was analyzed to obtain shape factors appropriate for dual-porosity simulation. It is shown that the usual assumption of constant, time-independent shape factors is incorrect. In other work, we continued to study the mechanisms by which oil is produced from fractured media at high pressure and high temperature. High temperature significantly increased the apparent wettability and affected water relative permeability of cores used in previous experiments. A phenomenological and mechanistic cause for this behavior is sought. Our work in the area of primary production of heavy oil continues with field cores and crude oil. On the topic of reservoir definition, work continued on developing techniques that integrate production history into reservoir models using streamline-based properties.

  17. "Smart" Multifunctional Polymers for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Charles McCormick; Andrew Lowe

    2007-03-20

    Recent recommendations made by the Department of Energy, in conjunction with ongoing research at the University of Southern Mississippi, have signified a need for the development of 'smart' multi-functional polymers (SMFPs) for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) processes. Herein we summarize research from the period of September 2003 through March 2007 focusing on both Type I and Type II SMFPs. We have demonstrated the synthesis and behavior of materials that can respond in situ to stimuli (ionic strength, pH, temperature, and shear stress). In particular, Type I SMFPs reversibly form micelles in water and have the potential to be utilized in applications that serve to lower interfacial tension at the oil/water interface, resulting in emulsification of oil. Type II SMFPs, which consist of high molecular weight polymers, have been synthesized and have prospective applications related to the modification of fluid viscosity during the recovery process. Through the utilization of these advanced 'smart' polymers, the ability to recover more of the original oil in place and a larger portion of that by-passed or deemed 'unrecoverable' by conventional chemical flooding should be possible.

  18. Neuroplasticity and functional recovery in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Tomassini, Valentina; Matthews, Paul M.; Thompson, Alan J.; Fuglø, Daniel; Geurts, Jeroen J.; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Jones, Derek K.; Rocca, Maria A.; Wise, Richard G.; Barkhof, Frederik; Palace, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    The development of therapeutic strategies that promote functional recovery is a major goal of multiple sclerosis (MS) research. Neuroscientific and methodological advances have improved our understanding of the brain’s recovery from damage, generating novel hypotheses for potential targets or modes of intervention and laying the foundation for the development of scientifically informed strategies promoting recovery in interventional studies. This Review aims to encourage the transition from characterization of recovery mechanisms to the development of strategies that promote recovery in MS. We discuss current evidence for functional reorganization that underlies recovery and its implications for development of new recovery-oriented strategies in MS. Promotion of functional recovery requires an improved understanding of recovery mechanisms modulated by interventions and the development of reliable measures of therapeutic effects. As imaging methods can be used to measure functional and structural alterations associated with recovery, this Review discusses their use as reliable markers to measure the effects of interventions. PMID:22986429

  19. Individual recovery profiles in basketball players.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Jordi; Ramos-Castro, Juan; Rodas, Gil; Tarragó, Joan R; Capdevila, Lluís

    2015-01-01

    In the sport context, recovery has been characterized as a multifactor process (physiological, psychological, behavioral, social, etc.). This study takes a multidisciplinary approach to find psychophysiological markers of the stress-recovery process. It aims to determine how athletes' specific recovery actions relate to their perceptions of recovery, and Heart Rate Variability (HRV). A total of 196 assessments were analyzed from 6 players on a men's professional basketball team within the Liga LEB Oro basketball federation (2012/2013 season). Perceptions of recovery, recovery strategies, and HRV were recorded. The results show a pattern of individual differences in behavior related to athletes' recovery actions and HRV profiles throughout the season (p < .05). Moreover, we observed that each player had different recovery needs. In light of these results, we suggest an individualistic approach to evaluating and monitoring recovery to attend more accurately to each player's recovery needs. PMID:25908013

  20. A Phase II Study of Additional Four-Week Chemotherapy With Capecitabine During the Resting Periods After Six-Week Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy in Patients With Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Ha; Song, Min Sang; Park, Jun Boem; Kim, Jin Soo; Kang, Dae Young

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of additional 4-week chemotherapy with capecitabine during the resting periods after a 6-week neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods Radiotherapy was delivered to the whole pelvis at a total dose of 50.4 Gy for 6 weeks. Oral capecitabine was administered at a dose of 825 mg/m2 twice daily for 10 weeks. Surgery was performed 2-4 weeks following the completion of chemotherapy. Results Between January 2010 and September 2011, 44 patients were enrolled. Forty-three patients underwent surgery, and 41 patients completed the scheduled treatment. Pathologic complete remission (pCR) was noted in 9 patients (20.9%). T down-staging and N down-staging were observed in 32 patients (74.4%) and 33 patients (76.7%), respectively. Grade 3 to 5 toxicity was noted in 5 patients (11.4%). The pCR rate was similar with the pCR rates obtained after conventional NCRT at our institute and at other institutes. Conclusion This study showed that additional 4-week chemotherapy with capecitabine during the resting periods after 6-week NCRT was safe, but it was no more effective than conventional NCRT. PMID:24278857

  1. Attention Reorients Periodically.

    PubMed

    Dugué, Laura; Roberts, Mariel; Carrasco, Marisa

    2016-06-20

    Reorienting of voluntary attention enables the processing of stimuli at previously unattended locations. Although studies have identified a ventral fronto-parietal network underlying attention [1, 2], little is known about whether and how early visual areas are involved in involuntary [3, 4] and even less in voluntary [5] reorienting, and their temporal dynamics are unknown. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the occipital cortex to interfere with attentional reorienting and study its role and temporal dynamics in this process. Human observers performed an orientation discrimination task, with either valid or invalid attention cueing, across a range of stimulus contrasts. Valid cueing induced a behavioral response gain increase, higher asymptotic performance for attended than unattended locations. During subsequent TMS sessions, observers performed the same task, with high stimulus contrast. Based on phosphene mapping, TMS double pulses were applied at one of various delays to a consistent brain location in retinotopic areas (V1/V2), corresponding to the evoked signal of the target or distractor, in a valid or invalid trial. Thus, the stimulation was identical for the four experimental conditions (valid/invalid cue condition × target/distractor-stimulated). TMS modulation of the target and distractor were both periodic (5 Hz, theta) and out of phase with respect to each other in invalid trials only, when attention had to be disengaged from the distractor and reoriented to the target location. Reorientation of voluntary attention periodically involves V1/V2 at the theta frequency. These results suggest that TMS probes theta phase-reset by attentional reorienting and help link periodic sampling in time and attention reorienting in space. PMID:27265395

  2. Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica Nanorice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Paritosh; Landskron, Kai

    2009-02-01

    A periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) with nanorice morphology was successfully synthesized by a template assisted sol-gel method using a chain-type precursor. The PMO is composed of D and T sites in the ratio 1:2. The obtained mesoporous nanorice has a surface area of 753 m2 g-1, one-dimensional channels, and a narrow pore size distribution centered at 4.3 nm. The nanorice particles have a length of ca. 600 nm and width of ca. 200 nm.

  3. Controls on geyser periodicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, S.E.; Rojstaczer, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    Geyser eruption frequency is not constant over time and has been shown to vary with small (???10-6) strains induced by seismic events, atmospheric loading, and Earth tides. The geyser system is approximated as a permeable conduit of intensely fractured rock surrounded by a less permeable rock matrix. Numerical simulation of this conceptual model yields a set of parameters that controls geyser existence and periodicity. Much of the responsiveness to remote seismicity and other small strains in the Earth can be explained in terms of variations in permeability and lateral recharge rates.

  4. Controls on geyser periodicity.

    PubMed

    Ingebritsen, S E; Rojstaczer, S A

    1993-11-01

    Geyser eruption frequency is not constant over time and has been shown to vary with small (periodicity. Much of the responsiveness to remote seismicity and other small strains in the Earth can be explained in terms of variations in permeability and lateral recharge rates. PMID:17757358

  5. Periodate oxidation of dextrans

    SciTech Connect

    Mirgorodskaya, O.A.; Poletaeva, L.V.

    1986-03-01

    The authors estimate the degree of oxidation of the thiol group in dextran with various mol. wt. and make an attempt at a kinetic description of the main parameters of the process. Polyglucin was used. The results are shown of experiments done on the estimation of the amount of products formed in the process of oxidation of polyglucin in which the reaction stopped as a result of complete exhaustion of one of the original reagents. To estimate the reactivity of the thiol group toward oxidation, the authors studied the interaction of potassium periodate with alpha-D-glucose, isolated by the monomer unit of dextran.

  6. Genesis Field Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNamara, K. M.

    2005-01-01

    The Genesis mission returned to Earth on September 8, 2004 after a nearly flawless three-year mission to collect solar matter. The intent was to deploy a drogue chute and parafoil high over the Utah desert and to catch the fragile payload capsule in mid-air by helicopter. The capsule would then be opened in a clean-room constructed for that purpose at UTTR, and a nitrogen purge was to be installed before transporting the science canister to JSC. Unfortunately, both chutes failed to deploy, causing the capsule to fall to the desert floor at a speed of nearly 200 MPH. Still, Genesis represents a milestone in the US space program, comprising the first sample return since the Apollo Missions as well as the first return of materials exposed to the space environment outside of low Earth orbit and beyond the Earth s magnetosphere for an extended period. We have no other comparable materials in all of our collections on Earth. The goal of the Genesis Mission was to collect a representative sample of the composition of the solar wind and thus, the solar nebula from which our solar system originated. This was done by allowing the naturally accelerated species to implant shallowly in the surfaces of ultra-pure, ultra-clean collector materials. These collectors included single crystal silicon (FZ and CZ), sapphire, silicon carbide; those materials coated with aluminum, silicon, diamond like carbon, and gold; and isotopically enriched polycrystalline diamond and amorphous carbon. The majority of these materials were distributed on five collector arrays. Three of the materials were housed in an electrostatic concentrator designed to increase the flux of low-mass ions. There was also a two-inch diameter bulk metallic glass collector and a gold foil, polished aluminum, and molybdenum coated platinum foil collector. An excellent review of the Genesis collector materials is offered in reference [1].

  7. Ceramic heat recuperators for industrial heat recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleveland, J. J.; Gonzalez, J. M.; Kohnken, K. H.; Rebello, W. J.

    1980-08-01

    A cordierite (magnesium aluminum silicate) recuperator was designed for relatively small furnaces with firing rates of 0.3 MM to 0.6 MM Btu/h and with exhaust gas temperatures of 1500 F to 2600 F. Five demonstration programs were performed to determine the heat transfer performance of the device, establish the energy savings by recovery, demonstrate the durability of the ceramic core, determine the operating requirements of the burners and controls with recuperation, and establish the overall system costs and payback period. The recuperator is described and results of tests and measurements, system economics, and cost performance analyses are presented. The methodology is developed and techniques for impact analysis are described. Industrial applications are implied and a process flow diagram for smelting and refining primary copper is shown.

  8. Epidemiology and clinical outcome of candidaemia among Jordanian newborns over a 10-year period.

    PubMed

    Badran, Eman F; Al Baramki, Jumana H; Al Shamyleh, Abdulqader; Shehabi, Asem; Khuri-Bulos, Najwa

    2008-01-01

    This retrospective study includes all newborn patients with culture proved candidaemia who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of Jordan University Hospital through the period January 1995 to June 2006. Among 24 patients included, 13 (54.2%) died. The incidence of candidaemia was 0.27%, the mean age at diagnosis 25.9 d and the mean gestational age at birth 34.6 weeks. Species most frequently isolated were Candida albicans (50%) and C. krusei (20%). Previous gastrointestinal pathology was present in 41.7% of the cases. A comparison of cases due to C. albicans with those due to other species of Candida revealed no statistical differences in terms of demographic factors, age at onset of disease, mortality, clinical manifestations or risk factors. Based on our results, empirical antifungal therapy should be considered in neonates who have gastrointestinal pathology and other risk factors. PMID:17852924

  9. Desensitization and recovery of phototropic responsiveness in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janoudi, A. K.; Poff, K. L.

    1993-01-01

    Phototropism is induced by blue light, which also induces desensitization, a partial or total loss of phototropic responsiveness. The fluence and fluence-rate dependence of desensitization and recovery from desensitization have been measured for etiolated and red light (669-nm) preirradiated Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. The extent of desensitization increased as the fluence of the desensitizing 450-nm light was increased from 0.3 to 60 micromoles m-2 s-1. At equal fluences, blue light caused more desensitization when given at a fluence rate of 1.0 micromole m-2 s-1 than at 0.3 micromole m-2 s-1. In addition, seedlings irradiated with blue light at the higher fluence rate required a longer recovery time than seedlings irradiated at the lower fluence rate. A red light preirradiation, probably mediated via phytochrome, decreased the time required for recovery from desensitization. The minimum time for detectable recovery was about 65 s, and the maximum time observed was about 10 min. It is proposed that the descending arm of the fluence-response relationship for first positive phototropism is a consequence of desensitization, and that the time threshold for second positive phototropism establishes a period during which recovery from desensitization occurs.

  10. Recovery Based on Spirituality in Substance Abusers in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Shamsalinia, Abbas; Norouzi, Kiyan; Khoshknab, Masoud Fallahi; Farhoudian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Spirituality is an important factor influencing the decrease of substance abuse severity and maintenance of the recovery phase. This research, investigates the effect of spiritual experiences in the recovery of substance abusers. Material and Methods: Qualitative data was collected from 16 men and 6 women, selected through purposeful sampling to ensure an equilibrated gender representation and data from different recovery periods. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews. Results: Data showed two main categories: “Mutual relationship between spirituality and recovery,” divided into four subcategories: religious background, religious teachings, experience exchange, and support of family and society; and “A new perspective toward life” subdivided into access to calmness and spiritual development. A factor “spirituality meaning religion” arose repeatedly throughout the study. Conclusion: The results of this study can be useful for policy makers, care providers, families, and drug addicts. The promotion of spirituality in substance abusers can help in their struggle with temptation. Effective strategies to ensure drug abstinence and maintenance of the recovery phase are encouraging substance abusers and their families to participate in spirituality-based psychotherapy sessions held in addiction treatment centers, multi-disciplinary cooperation among the organizations involved in the addiction phenomenon, and training the families regarding the importance of spirituality in the mental health of their children through mass media. PMID:25363097

  11. Ecological recovery in an Arctic delta following widespread saline incursion.

    PubMed

    Lantz, Trevor C; Kokelj, Steve V; Fraser, Robert H

    2015-01-01

    Arctic ecosystems are vulnerable to the combined effects of climate change and a range of other anthropogenic perturbations. Predicting the cumulative impact of these stressors requires an improved understanding of the factors affecting ecological resilience. In September of 1999, a severe storm surge in the Mackenzie Delta flooded alluvial surfaces up to 30 km inland from the coast with saline waters, driving environmental impacts unprecedented in the last millennium. In this study we combined field monitoring of permanent sampling plots with an analysis of the Landsat archive (1986-2011) to explore the factors affecting the recovery of ecosystems to this disturbance. Soil salinization following the 1999 storm caused the abrupt dieback of more than 30,000 ha of tundra vegetation. Vegetation cover and soil chemistry show that recovery is occurring, but the rate and spatial extent are strongly dependent on vegetation type, with graminoid- and upright shrub-dominated areas showing recovery after a decade, but dwarf shrub tundra exhibiting little to no recovery over this period. Our analyses suggest that recovery from salinization has been strongly influenced by vegetation type and the frequency of freshwater flooding following the storm. With increased ocean storm activity, rising sea levels, and reduced sea ice cover, Arctic coastal ecosystems will be more likely to experience similar disturbances in the future, highlighting the importance of combining field sampling with regional-scale remote sensing in efforts to detect, understand, and anticipate environmental change. PMID:26255366

  12. Desensitization and recovery of phototropic responsiveness in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Janoudi, A K; Poff, K L

    1993-01-01

    Phototropism is induced by blue light, which also induces desensitization, a partial or total loss of phototropic responsiveness. The fluence and fluence-rate dependence of desensitization and recovery from desensitization have been measured for etiolated and red light (669-nm) preirradiated Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. The extent of desensitization increased as the fluence of the desensitizing 450-nm light was increased from 0.3 to 60 micromoles m-2 s-1. At equal fluences, blue light caused more desensitization when given at a fluence rate of 1.0 micromole m-2 s-1 than at 0.3 micromole m-2 s-1. In addition, seedlings irradiated with blue light at the higher fluence rate required a longer recovery time than seedlings irradiated at the lower fluence rate. A red light preirradiation, probably mediated via phytochrome, decreased the time required for recovery from desensitization. The minimum time for detectable recovery was about 65 s, and the maximum time observed was about 10 min. It is proposed that the descending arm of the fluence-response relationship for first positive phototropism is a consequence of desensitization, and that the time threshold for second positive phototropism establishes a period during which recovery from desensitization occurs. PMID:11537496

  13. Effects of state recovery on creep buckling under variable loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, D. N.; Arnold, S. M.

    1988-01-01

    Structural alloys embody internal mechanisms that allow recovery of state with varying stress and elevated temperature, i.e., they can return to a softer state following periods of hardening. Such material behavior is known to strongly influence structural response under some important thermomechanical loadings, for example, that involving thermal ratchetting. The influence of dynamic and thermal recovery on the creep buckling of a column under variable loading is investigated. The column is taken as the idealized (Shanley) sandwich column. The constitutive model, unlike the commonly employed Norton creep model, incorporates a representation of both dynamic and thermal (state) recovery. The material parameters of the constitutive model are chosen to characterize Narloy Z, a representative copper alloy used in thrust nozzle liners of reusable rocket engines. Variable loading histories include rapid cyclic unloading/reloading sequences and intermittent reductions of load for extended periods of time; these are superimposed on a constant load. The calculated results show that state recovery significantly affects creep buckling under variable loading.

  14. Gilead revisited: faith and recovery.

    PubMed

    Bussema, Evelyn F; Bussema, Kenneth E

    2007-01-01

    The role of spirituality in recovery from mental illness has gained increased attention in recent years. In this article, the authors present an update on previous work exploring the role and function of religion/spirituality in the lives of people participating in a psychiatric rehabilitation program (Bussema & Bussema, 2000). Fifty-eight (58) participants age 18 to 64 completed a spirituality survey based on Pargament's five coping functions of religion. Chi-square tests for independence and independent groups t-tests were performed. Seventy-one percent of the respondents reported that their spiritual life has played a significant role in their recovery. Reported religious coping strategies are discussed within the framework of a recovery model of service delivery. PMID:17458454

  15. Heat Recovery in Building Envelopes

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2001-01-01

    Infiltration has traditionally been assumed to contribute to the energy load of a building by an amount equal to the product of the infiltration flow rate and the enthalpy difference between inside and outside. Application of such a simple formula may produce an unreasonably high contribution because of heat recovery within the building envelope. Previous laboratory and simulation research has indicated that such heat transfer between the infiltrating air and walls may be substantial. In this study, Computational Fluid Dynamics was used to simulate sensible heat transfer in typical envelope constructions. The results show that the traditional method may over-predict the infiltration energy load by up to 95 percent at low leakage rates. A simplified physical model has been developed and used to predict the infiltration heat recovery based on the Peclet number of the flow and the fraction of the building envelope active in infiltration heat recovery.

  16. The existential way to recovery.

    PubMed

    Moore, Laurie Jo; Goldner-Vukov, Mila

    2009-12-01

    This paper explores the essential features of recovery and the need for an existential approach in psychiatry. The biopsychosocial model often fails to sufficiently validate the existential suffering of patients. We review the major principles of recovery and the philosophical and psychiatric principles of existentialism. The ontological or intrinsic existential issues of death, isolation, freedom and meaninglessness are described and their manifestations are explored in clinical syndromes. When ultimate existential concerns are recognised, patients have an opportunity to understand their life on a deeper level that is not defined as a medical disorder but as a part of human existence. Understanding that existential concerns underlie a great deal of human behaviour helps to free patients from the stigma of psychiatric labels. An existential approach is a humanistic way toward recovery. PMID:19935478

  17. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR).

    PubMed

    Brown, Lewis R

    2010-06-01

    Two-thirds of the oil ever found is still in the ground even after primary and secondary production. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is one of the tertiary methods purported to increase oil recovery. Since 1946 more than 400 patents on MEOR have been issued, but none has gained acceptance by the oil industry. Most of the literature on MEOR is from laboratory experiments or from field trials of insufficient duration or that lack convincing proof of the process. Several authors have made recommendations required to establish MEOR as a viable method to enhance oil recovery, and until these tests are performed, MEOR will remain an unproven concept rather than a highly desirable reality. PMID:20149719

  18. N-acetylcysteine amide preserves mitochondrial bioenergetics and improves functional recovery following spinal trauma.

    PubMed

    Patel, Samir P; Sullivan, Patrick G; Pandya, Jignesh D; Goldstein, Glenn A; VanRooyen, Jenna L; Yonutas, Heather M; Eldahan, Khalid C; Morehouse, Johnny; Magnuson, David S K; Rabchevsky, Alexander G

    2014-07-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is becoming a pivotal target for neuroprotective strategies following contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) and the pharmacological compounds that maintain mitochondrial function confer neuroprotection and improve long-term hindlimb function after injury. In the current study we evaluated the efficacy of cell-permeating thiol, N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA), a precursor of endogenous antioxidant glutathione (GSH), on mitochondrial function acutely, and long-term tissue sparing and hindlimb locomotor recovery following upper lumbar contusion SCI. Some designated injured adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=120) received either vehicle or NACA (75, 150, 300 or 600mg/kg) at 15min and 6h post-injury. After 24h the total, synaptic, and non-synaptic mitochondrial populations were isolated from a single 1.5cm spinal cord segment (centered at injury site) and assessed for mitochondrial bioenergetics. Results showed compromised total mitochondrial bioenergetics following acute SCI that was significantly improved with NACA treatment in a dose-dependent manner, with maximum effects at 300mg/kg (n=4/group). For synaptic and non-synaptic mitochondria, only 300mg/kg NACA dosage showed efficacy. Similar dosage (300mg/kg) also maintained mitochondrial GSH near normal levels. Other designated injured rats (n=21) received continuous NACA (150 or 300mg/kg/day) treatment starting at 15min post-injury for one week to assess long-term functional recovery over 6weeks post-injury. Locomotor testing and novel gait analyses showed significantly improved hindlimb function with NACA that were associated with increased tissue sparing at the injury site. Overall, NACA treatment significantly maintained acute mitochondrial bioenergetics and normalized GSH levels following SCI, and prolonged delivery resulted in significant tissue sparing and improved recovery of hindlimb function. PMID:24805071

  19. N-acetylcysteineamide Preserves Mitochondrial Bioenergetics and Improves Functional Recovery Following Spinal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Samir P.; Sullivan, Patrick G.; Pandya, Jignesh D.; Goldstein, Glenn A.; VanRooyen, Jenna L.; Yonutas, Heather M.; Eldahan, Khalid C.; Morehouse, Johnny; Magnuson, David S. K.; Rabchevsky, Alexander G.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is becoming a pivotal target for neuroprotective strategies following contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) and the pharmacological compounds that maintain mitochondrial function confer neuroprotection and improve long-term hindlimb function after injury. In the current study we evaluated the efficacy of cell-permeating thiol, N-acetylcysteineamide (NACA), a precursor of endogenous antioxidant glutathione (GSH), on mitochondrial function acutely, and long-term tissue sparing and hindlimb locomotor recovery following upper lumbar contusion SCI. Some designated injured adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=120) received either Vehicle or NACA (75, 150, 300 or 600 mg/kg) at 15min and 6hrs post-injury. After 24hr the total, synaptic, and non-synaptic mitochondrial populations were isolated from a single 1.5cm spinal cord segment (centered at injury site) and assessed for mitochondrial bioenergetics. Results showed compromised total mitochondrial bioenergetics following acute SCI that was significantly improved with NACA treatment in a dose-dependent manner, with maximum effects at 300 mg/kg (n=4/group). For synaptic and non-synaptic mitochondria, only 300 mg/kg NACA dosage showed efficacy. Similar dosage (300mg/kg) also maintained mitochondrial GSH near normal levels. Other designated injured rats (n=21) received continuous NACA (150 or 300mg/kg/day) treatment starting at 15min post-injury for one week to assess long-term functional recovery over 6 weeks post-injury. Locomotor testing and novel gait analyses showed significantly improved hindlimb function with NACA that were associated with increased tissue sparing at the injury site. Overall, NACA treatment significantly maintained acute mitochondrial bioenergetics and normalized GSH levels following SCI, and prolonged delivery resulted in significant tissue sparing and improved recovery of hindlimb function. PMID:24805071

  20. Are Mantle Plumes Periodic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampino, Michael R.; Prokoph, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    In the past few years, researchers have uncovered evidence that several kinds of geological and biological events seem to show regular cycles of similar lengths. For example, Rohde and Muller [2005] looked at the record of diversity of marine organisms over the past 540 million years and found evidence for two cycles in the data—a roughly 62-million-year cycle and a longer cycle of about 140 million years. This was followed by reports of an approximately 56-million-year cycle in long-term stratigraphic sequences in sedimentary basins [Meyers and Peters, 2011] and a 59-million-year period in the marine strontium-isotope record [Melott et al., 2012]. A similar period may even exist in atmospheric carbon dioxide over the past 542 million years of the Phanerozoic [Franks et al., 2012]. A cycle of about 140 million years was reported by Veizer et al. [2000] and Mayhew et al. [2008] in long-term fluctuations in global climate.

  1. Recovery times of riparian vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesipa, Riccardo; Camporeale, Carlo; Ridolfi, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Riparian vegetation is a key element in a number of processes that determine the eco-geomorphological features of the river landscape. Depending on the river water stage fluctuations, vegetation biomass randomly switches between growth and decay phases, and its biomass exhibits relevant temporal variations. A full understanding of vegetation dynamics is therefore only possible if the hydrological stochastic forcing is considered. In this vein, we focus on the recovery time of vegetation, namely the typical time taken by vegetation to recover a health state starting from a low biomass value (induced, for instance, by an intense flood). The minimalistic stochastic modeling approach is used for describing vegetation dynamics (i.e., the noise-driven alternation of growth and decay phases). The recovery time of biomass is then evaluated according to the theory of the mean first passage time in systems driven by dichotomous noise. The effect of the main hydrological and biological parameters on the vegetation recovery was studied, and the dynamics along the riparian transect was described in details. The effect of climate change and human interventions (e.g., river damming) was also investigated. We found that: (i) the oscillations of the river stage delay the recovery process (up to one order of magnitude, with respect to undisturbed conditions); (ii) hydrological/biological alterations (due to climate change, damming, exotic species invasion) modify the timescales of the recovery. The result provided can be a useful tool for the management of the river. They open the way to the estimation of: (i) the recovery time of vegetation after devastating floods, clear cutting or fires and; (ii) the timescale of the vegetation response to hydrological and biological alterations.

  2. Reading Recovery Teachers Discuss Reading Recovery: A Qualitative Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serry, Tanya; Rose, Miranda; Liamputtong, Pranee

    2014-01-01

    Reading Recovery is an early intervention program used around the world for at-risk readers. Developed at a time when constructivist principles dominated educational philosophy, its efficacy has caused debate and division over the last three decades. This qualitative study employed in-depth interviews and observations to explore 10 Reading…

  3. Road to Recovery: Bringing Recovery to Small Town America

    SciTech Connect

    Nettamo, Paivi

    2010-01-01

    The Recovery Act hits the road to reach out to surrounding towns of the Savannah River Site that are struggling with soaring unemployment rates. This project helps recruit thousands of people to new jobs in environmental cleanup at the Savannah River Site.

  4. Teaching Resource Recovery in Science. Resource Recovery Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Resource Recovery, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This guide, one component of the Resource Recovery Education Kit (see SO 007 866 for a description), contains ideas and activities for teaching about solid waste disposal in secondary level science classes. Among the course objectives are the following: (1) to understand that sufficient technology exists to recover a greater segment of the…

  5. Teaching Resource Recovery in Industrial Arts. Resource Recovery Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Resource Recovery, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This guide, one component of the Resource Recovery Education Kit (See SO 007 866 for a description), contains ideas and activities for teaching about solid waste disposal in secondary level industrial arts classes. Among the course objectives are the following: (1) to understand that litter represents a small but highly visible portion of our…

  6. Road to Recovery: Bringing Recovery to Small Town America

    ScienceCinema

    Nettamo, Paivi

    2012-06-14

    The Recovery Act hits the road to reach out to surrounding towns of the Savannah River Site that are struggling with soaring unemployment rates. This project helps recruit thousands of people to new jobs in environmental cleanup at the Savannah River Site.

  7. Teaching Resource Recovery in Social Studies. Resource Recovery Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Resource Recovery, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This guide, one component of the Resource Recovery Education Kit (see SO 007 866 for a description), contains ideas and activities for teaching about solid waste disposal in secondary level social studies classes. Among the course objectives are the following: (1) to explore the impact of our society on the problem of solid waste and the need for…

  8. Space Shuttle booster recovery planning.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godfrey, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    At the initiation of the Space Shuttle Program, recoverable solid rocket boosters were base-lined, with an estimated savings of 30 per cent over expendable solid rockets. Present studies indicate that the solid rocket boosters in the 142-inch diameter range can be recovered using state-of-the-art recovery systems. Marshall Space Flight Center is conducting extensive studies to establish the most cost effective recovery system for the present Shuttle boosters. Model drop testing, in various facilities, and structural load testing are being conducted with model sizes ranging from 6 inches to 120 inches in diameter.

  9. Digital evidence obfuscation: recovery techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craiger, J. Philip; Swauger, Jeff; Marberry, Chris

    2005-05-01

    Criminals who use computers to commit crimes often hide the fruits of the commission of those crimes. Hiding files on a computer can take on many forms, from file names and extensions to more technical methods such as encryption and steganography. Encryption and steganography have the potential to severely impede the recovery of digital evidence. We discuss encryption and steganography below and describe potential methods of coping with each. The techniques we discuss require no special knowledge or advanced hardware or software; however, the use of these techniques does not guarantee the recovery of obfuscated information.

  10. Effects of four rice paddy herbicides on algal cell viability and the relationship with population recovery.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Takashi; Ishihara, Satoru; Yokoyama, Atsushi; Iwafune, Takashi

    2011-08-01

    Paddy herbicides are a high-risk concern for aquatic plants, including algae, because they easily flow out from paddy fields into rivers, with toxic effects. The effect on algal population dynamics, including population recovery after timed exposure, must be assessed. Therefore, we demonstrated concentration-response relationships of four paddy herbicides for algal growth inhibition and mortality, and the relationship between the effect on algal cell viability and population recovery following exposure. We used SYTOX Green dye assay and flow cytometry to assess cell viability of the alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. Live cells could be clearly distinguished from dead cells during herbicide exposure. Our results showed that pretilachlor and quinoclamine had both algicidal and algistatic effects, whereas bensulfuron-methyl only had an algistatic effect, and pentoxazone only had an algicidal effect. Then, a population recovery test following a 72-h exposure was conducted. The algal population recovered in all tests, but the periods required for recovery differed among exposure concentrations and herbicides. The periods required for recovery were inconsistent with the dead cell ratio at the beginning of the recovery test; that is, population recovery could not be described only by cell viability. Consequently, the temporal effect of herbicides and subsequent recovery of the algal population could be described not only by the toxicity characteristics but also by toxicokinetics, such as rate of uptake, transport to the target site, and elimination of the substance from algal cells. PMID:21590715

  11. Recovery of the rabbit retina after light damage (preliminary observations).

    PubMed

    McKechnie, N M; Foulds, W S

    1980-01-01

    The retinae of anaesthetised Dutch rabbits were exposed to one of two intensities of white light for a period of 1 h. After exposure the animals were allowed to recover for various periods up to 4 weeks. The animals were then killed, and retinal and choroidal tissue was taken for investigation by both light and electron microscopy. Exposure to the lower intensity produced disruption of the visual cell outer segments and distension of the pigment epithelium. Recovery from this insult was rapid although disturbances in rod disc stacking and a loss of cone cell outer segments were evident 4 weeks after exposure. Exposure to the higher intensity resulted in necrosis of visual cells and pigment epithelial cells. Non-native phagocytic cells were active in the removal of cellular debris. Recovery from this insult was not observed. Four weeks after exposure much of the previously illuminated retina was reduced to disorganised Müller cells and occasional macrophages. PMID:6906139

  12. [Surgical treatment of concomitant strabism in children younger than 15 years. Results 6 weeks after surgery].

    PubMed

    Haugen, O H; Støle, M P

    1995-02-20

    In order to evaluate the short-term results we carried out a retrospective study on 104 children who had been operated on in 1993 for concomitant convergent (n = 74) and divergent (n = 30) strabismus. Six weeks after the operation an alignment within 0-10 delta was achieved in 64% of the convergent children and 44% of the divergent children. When we evaluated the subgroups of children with convergent strabismus we found a postoperative alignment within 0-10 delta in 54% of the patients with strabismus from before six months of age (infantile esotropia), and in 93% of the children in whom the strabismus was present from after two years of age. In the total material we could demonstrate an improvement in binocular function in 17%. Based on a total evaluation we consider that 80% obtained a good postoperative result. We believe that continual, computer-based evaluation of the strabismus patients would be a valuable tool to further improve our results. PMID:7900114

  13. Intermanual Transfer of Shapes in Preterm Human Infants from 33 to 34 + 6 Weeks Postconceptional Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejeune, Fleur; Marcus, Leila; Berne-Audeoud, Frederique; Streri, Arlette; Debillon, Thierry; Gentaz, Edouard

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of preterm infants to learn an object shape with one hand and discriminate a new shape in the opposite hand (without visual control). Twenty-four preterm infants between 33 and 34 + 6 gestational weeks received a tactile habituation task with either their right or left hand followed by a tactile discrimination…

  14. A Loss in the Plasma Membrane ATPase Activity and Its Recovery Coincides with Incipient Freeze-Thaw Injury and Postthaw Recovery in Onion Bulb Scale Tissue 1

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Rajeev; Palta, Jiwan P.

    1991-01-01

    Plasma membrane ATPase has been proposed to be functionally altered during early stages of injury caused by a freeze-thaw stress. Complete recovery from freezing injury in onion cells during the postthaw period provided evidence in support of this proposal. During recovery, a simultaneous decrease in ion leakage and disappearance of water soaking (symptoms of freeze-thaw injury) has been noted. Since reabsorption of ions during recovery must be an active process, recovery of plasma membrane ATPase (active transport system) functions has been implicated. In the present study, onion (Allium cepa L. cv Downing Yellow Globe) bulbs were subjected to a freeze-thaw stress which resulted in a reversible (recoverable) injury. Plasma membrane ATPase activity in the microsomes (isolated from the bulb scales) and ion leakage rate (efflux/hour) from the same scale tissue were measured immediately following thawing and after complete recovery. In injured tissue (30-40% water soaking), plasma membrane ATPase activity was reduced by about 30% and this was paralleled by about 25% higher ion leakage rate. As water soaking disappeared during recovery, the plasma membrane ATPase activity and the ion leakage rate returned to about the same level as the respective controls. Treatment of freeze-thaw injured tissue with vanadate, a specific inhibitor of plasma membrane ATPase, during postthaw prevented the recovery process. These results indicate that recovery of freeze-injured tissue depends on the functional activity of plasma membrane ATPase. PMID:16668063

  15. Alcoholics' Recovery from Cerebral Impairment as a Function of Duration of Abstinence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kish, G. B.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Examined the time-course of recovery from cerebral impairment due to heavy drinking. Results suggest that treatment programs that use a preliminary "drying-out" period should consider lengthening this period to three weeks to ensure that patients are maximally responsive to psychotherapy. (Author)

  16. Transition from non-periodic to periodic explosions.

    PubMed

    Cartes, Carlos; Descalzi, Orazio

    2015-12-13

    We show the existence of periodic exploding dissipative solitons. These non-chaotic explosions appear when higher-order nonlinear and dispersive effects are added to the complex cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau equation modelling soliton transmission lines. This counterintuitive phenomenon is the result of period-halving bifurcations leading to order (periodic explosions), followed by period-doubling bifurcations (or intermittency) leading to chaos (non-periodic explosions). PMID:26527807

  17. Cameroon and Chad: cost recovery.

    PubMed

    Godin, C

    1998-04-01

    African Ministers of Health adopted the Bamako Initiative in 1987 to ensure sustainable and efficient primary health care (PHC), with an eye toward decreasing levels of morbidity and mortality in Africa. The initiative has made local communities largely responsible for identifying problems and distributing and managing local health care resources. Cost recovery is a key component of the Bamako Initiative. The adoption of a policy of decentralization in which the immediate providers and users of PHC services are responsible for the recovery of costs was recommended. Chad and Cameroon decentralized its health services in 1990 and 1992, respectively. With onchocerciasis one of these 2 countries' most important public health problems, the 2 governments decided to base onchocerciasis control efforts upon the mass distribution of Mectizan (ivermectin, MSD) integrated into the local PHC systems and including cost recovery. Community participation must now be developed to ensure the sustainability of treatment programs in both countries. In both Cameroon and Chad, studies have found that the introduction of cost recovery has had no significant effect upon treatment coverage in hyper- and meso-endemic communities. In fact, those charged for Mectizan treatment often believe that the drug must be worthwhile because they have to pay for it. PMID:9861286

  18. Biosurfactant and enhanced oil recovery

    DOEpatents

    McInerney, Michael J.; Jenneman, Gary E.; Knapp, Roy M.; Menzie, Donald E.

    1985-06-11

    A pure culture of Bacillus licheniformis strain JF-2 (ATCC No. 39307) and a process for using said culture and the surfactant lichenysin produced thereby for the enhancement of oil recovery from subterranean formations. Lichenysin is an effective surfactant over a wide range of temperatures, pH's, salt and calcium concentrations.

  19. Iowa Statewide Disaster Recovery Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Barry L., Ed.

    The purpose in developing a statewide disaster recovery plan for libraries is to encourage librarians at the local level to develop their own plans to be used in time of disaster and to provide information about resources which can be used in an emergency. This manual provides self-assessment forms for identifying staff members and sources of…

  20. Stillage processing for nutrient recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeten, J.M.; Coble, C.G.; Egg, R.P.; Lawhon, J.T.; McBee, G.G.; Schelling, G.T.

    1983-06-01

    Stillage from fermentation of grain sorghum and sweet potatoes was processed for dry matter and nutrient recovery by combinations of screw press, vibrating screen, centrifugation, ultrafiltration, and reverse osmosis, yielding up to 98% dry matter removal. For most processes, protein removal equaled or exceeded dry matter removal.

  1. Credit Recovery Hits the Mainstream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    In communities including New Orleans, Los Angeles, and Chicago, educators are creating alternative schools for struggling students that employ online credit-recovery programs as a core portion, or all, of their curriculum. The growth in online learning generally, including blended learning, has fueled the proliferation of computer-based credit…

  2. Unintended Consequences of Cost Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piercey, David

    2010-01-01

    An Alberta school district that used a cost-recovery model to finance school services for 20 years is finding that the model produces unintended negative results. Some schools didn't spend this money on services but used it for other school operations. Some spent the money on external consultants. Professional relationships were damaged, and…

  3. Astronaut Gordon Cooper After Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Astronaut Gordon Cooper leaves the Faith 7 (MA-9) spacecraft after a successful recovery operation. The MA-9 mission, the last flight of the Mercury Project, was launched on May 15, 1963, orbited the Earth 22 times, and lasted for 1-1/2 days.

  4. Reading Recovery and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joiner, Sherrie Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Reading is a skill, which is essential for a child's school success. The purpose of this quantitative, causal-comparative study was to investigate the effects of the Reading Recovery (RR) Program. The data utilized were from two groups of students at-risk in the area of reading, first-grade students involved in at least 12 weeks of Reading…

  5. Recovery of the Brookhaven gamma forest following 18 years' irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kroot, I.B.

    1987-07-01

    Vegetative growth at the oak-pine forest at Brookhaven National Laboratory was examined 2-5 years following cessation of chronic irradiation from a 9500 Ci Cesium-137 gamma source. Zonation of vegetation, first seen early in the irradiation period, remains strongly evident. Unusual patterns of vegetative recovery include: a failure of a dense Carex (sedge) zone to spread into the adjacent devastated zone; a decrease in lichen density from that seen during irradiation, with no discernible cause; and significant persistent changes in soil P levels in the devastated zone, correlated with differential growth of an annual composite species. Recovery is marked by a rapid vegative spread of Rubus alleghenensis and Populus tremuloides into the devastated zone; almost complete dominance by Carex and Rubus with the former Carex zone; and a slow reinvasion by the late successional oak and pine species. Comparisons with data from surveys taken during the irradiation period show ( in all zones except the devastated zone) a significant decrease in species diversity during the recovery period.

  6. Views of Women and Clinicians on Postpartum Preparation and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Anika; Horowitz, Carol; Howell, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    To explore important domains of women’s postpartum experiences as perceived by postpartum mothers and obstetricians/midwives, and to investigate how postpartum care could enhance patient preparation for the postpartum period. Qualitative research study was conducted to explore women’s and clinicians’ perceptions of the postpartum experience. Four focus groups of postpartum women (n = 45) and two focus groups of obstetric clinicians (n = 13) were held at a large urban teaching hospital in New York City. All focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using grounded theory. Four main themes were identified: lack of women’s knowledge about postpartum health and lack of preparation for the postpartum experience, lack of continuity of care and absence of maternal care during the early postpartum period, disconnect between providers and postpartum mothers, and suggestions for improvement. Mothers did not expect many of the symptoms they experienced after childbirth and were disappointed with the lack of support by providers during this critical time in their recovery. Differences existed in the major postpartum concerns of mothers and clinicians. However, both mothers and clinicians agreed that preparation during the antepartum period could be beneficial for postpartum recovery. Results from this study indicate that many mothers do not feel prepared for the postpartum experience. Study findings raise the hypothesis that capturing patient-centered domains that define the postpartum experience and integrating these domains into patient care may enhance patient preparation for postpartum recovery and improve postpartum outcomes. PMID:23775250

  7. Defining recovery in adult bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jessica; Agras, W Stewart; Bryson, Susan

    2013-01-01

    To examine how different definitions of recovery lead to varying rates of recovery, maintenance of recovery, and relapse in bulimia nervosa (BN), end-of-treatment (EOT) and follow-up data were obtained from 96 adults with BN. Combining behavioral, physical, and psychological criteria led to recovery rates between 15.5% and 34.4% at EOT, though relapse was approximately 50%. Combining these criteria and requiring abstinence from binge eating and purging when defining recovery may lead to lower recovery rates than those found in previous studies; however, a strength of this definition is that individuals who meet this criteria have no remaining disordered behaviors or symptoms. PMID:24044595

  8. The Exploration Water Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ORourke, Mary Jane E.; Carter, Layne; Holder, Donald W.; Tomes, Kristin M.

    2006-01-01

    The Exploration Water Recovery System is designed towards fulfillment of NASA s Vision for Space Exploration, which will require elevation of existing technologies to higher levels of optimization. This new system, designed for application to the Exploration infrastructure, presents a novel combination of proven air and water purification technologies. The integration of unit operations is modified from that of the current state-of-the-art water recovery system so as to optimize treatment of the various waste water streams, contaminant loads, and flow rates. Optimization is achieved primarily through the removal of volatile organic contaminants from the vapor phase prior to their absorption into the liquid phase. In the current state-of-the-art system, the water vapor in the cabin atmosphere is condensed, and the volatile organic contaminants present in that atmosphere are absorbed into the aqueous phase. Removal of contaminants the5 occurs via catalytic oxidation in the liquid phase. Oxidation kinetics, however, dictate that removal of volatile organic contaminants from the vapor phase can inherently be more efficient than their removal from the aqueous phase. Taking advantage of this efficiency reduces the complexity of the water recovery system. This reduction in system complexity is accompanied by reductions in the weight, volume, power, and resupply requirements of the system. Vapor compression distillation technology is used to treat the urine, condensate, and hygiene waste streams. This contributes to the reduction in resupply, as incorporation of vapor compression distillation technology at this point in the process reduces reliance on the expendable ion exchange and adsorption media used in the current state-of-the-art water recovery system. Other proven technologies that are incorporated into the Exploration Water Recovery System include the Trace Contaminant Control System and the Volatile Removal Assembly.

  9. Periodically oscillating plasma sphere

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.; Nebel, R.A.; Stange, S.; Murali, S. Krupakar

    2005-05-15

    The periodically oscillating plasma sphere, or POPS, is a novel fusion concept first proposed by D. C. Barnes and R. A. Nebel [Fusion Technol. 38, 28 (1998)]. POPS utilizes the self-similar collapse of an oscillating ion cloud in a spherical harmonic oscillator potential well formed by electron injection. Once the ions have been phase-locked, their coherent motion simultaneously produces very high densities and temperatures during the collapse phase of the oscillation. A requirement for POPS is that the electron injection produces a stable harmonic oscillator potential. This has been demonstrated in a gridded inertial electrostatic confinement device and verified by particle simulation. Also, the POPS oscillation has been confirmed experimentally through observation that the ions in the potential well exhibit resonance behavior when driven at the POPS frequency. Excellent agreement between the observed POPS frequencies and the theoretical predictions has been observed for a wide range of potential well depths and three different ion species. Practical applications of POPS require large plasma compressions. These large compressions have been observed in particle simulations, although space charge neutralization remains a major issue.

  10. Egg Yolk Protein Delays Recovery while Ovalbumin Is Useful in Recovery from Iron Deficiency Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Yukiko; Wakasugi, Etsuko; Yasui, Risa; Kuwahata, Masashi; Kido, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Protein is a main nutrient involved in overall iron metabolism in vivo. In order to assess the prevention of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) by diet, it is necessary to confirm the influence of dietary protein, which coexists with iron, on iron bioavailability. We investigated the usefulness of the egg structural protein in recovery from IDA. Thirty-one female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a control group (n = 6) fed a casein diet (4.0 mg Fe/100 g) for 42 days and an IDA model group (n = 25) created by feeding a low-iron casein diet (LI, 0.4 mg Fe/100 g) for 21 days and these IDA rats were fed normal iron diet with different proteins from eggs for another 21 days. The IDA rats were further divided into four subgroups depending on the proteins fed during the last 21 days, which were those with an egg white diet (LI-W, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 6), those with an ovalbumin diet (LI-A, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 7), those with an egg yolk-supplemented diet (LI-Y, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 6), and the rest with a casein diet (LI-C, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 6). In the LI-Y group, recovery of the hematocrit, hemoglobin, transferrin saturation level and the hepatic iron content were delayed compared to the other groups (p < 0.01, 0.01, 0.01, and 0.05, respectively), resulting in no recovery from IDA at the end of the experimental period. There were no significant differences in blood parameters in the LI-W and LI-A groups compared to the control group. The hepatic iron content of the LI-W and LI-A groups was higher than that of the LI-C group (p < 0.05). We found that egg white protein was useful for recovery from IDA and one of the efficacious components was ovalbumin, while egg yolk protein delayed recovery of IDA. This study demonstrates, therefore, that bioavailability of dietary iron varies depending on the source of dietary protein. PMID:26083113

  11. Elements That Define Recovery: The Experiential Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Borkman, Thomasina J; Laudet, Alexandre; Ritter, Lois A; Witbrodt, Jane; Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina; Stunz, Aina; Bond, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Although recovery increasingly guides substance use disorder services and policy, definitions of recovery continue to lack specificity, thereby hindering measure development and research. The goal of this study was to move the substance use disorders field beyond broad definitions by empirically identifying the domains and specific elements of recovery as experienced by persons in recovery from diverse pathways. Method: An Internet-based survey was completed by 9,341 individuals (54% female) who self-identified as being in recovery, recovered, in medication-assisted recovery, or as having had a problem with alcohol or drugs (but no longer do). Respondents were recruited via extensive outreach with treatment and recovery organizations, electronic media, and self-help groups. The survey included 47 recovery elements developed through qualitative work followed by an iterative reduction process. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted using split-half samples, followed by sensitivity analyses for key sample groupings. Results: Four recovery domains with 35 recovery elements emerged: abstinence in recovery, essentials of recovery, enriched recovery, and spirituality of recovery. The four-factor structure was robust regardless of length of recovery, 12-step or treatment exposure, and current substance use status. Four uncommon elements did not load on any factor but are presented to indicate the diversity of definitions. Conclusions: Our empirical findings offer specific items that can be used in evaluating recovery-oriented systems of care. Researchers studying recovery should include measures that extend beyond substance use and encompass elements such as those examined here—e.g., self-care, concern for others, personal growth, and developing ways of being that sustain change in substance use. PMID:25343658

  12. Resource Recovery Overview [Teacher's Guide]; Resource Recovery and You [Student Book]. Resource Recovery Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Resource Recovery, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The Resource Recovery Education Program contains a variety of ideas, approaches, and learning aids for teaching about solid waste disposal at the secondary level. The program kit consists of a teacher's guide which provides an overview; separate teacher's guides for social studies, science, and industrial arts; a student booklet of readings; and a…

  13. Neurological Recovery of Upper Extremity in Stroke Woman after 5 Years: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Vejabhuti, Chayanin

    2016-02-01

    Strokes are common neurological disorders in Thailand. Rehabilitation programs significantly improve arm function outcomes if performed during the sub-acute period of stroke rehabilitation, within 6 months of the attack. This report describes the case of a stroke patient who gained upper extremity motor recovery after 5 years, which is beyond the normal recovery period. Although the patient does not have functionality, she has partial motor recovery, and she is enthusiastic about learning to gain better use of her hand. However there is still limited evidence to use in designing effective intervention and proper timing of rehabilitation administered by personnel in training chronic stroke patients. Therefore, evidence based on neuroplasticity and neurological recovery in chronic stroke patients, including rehabilitation intervention, is presented in this report. PMID:27266238

  14. Marine Reserves Enhance the Recovery of Corals on Caribbean Reefs

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The fisheries and biodiversity benefits of marine reserves are widely recognised but there is mounting interest in exploiting the importance of herbivorous fishes as a tool to help ecosystems recover from climate change impacts. This approach might be particularly suitable for coral reefs, which are acutely threatened by climate change, yet the trophic cascades generated by reserves are strong enough that they might theoretically enhance the rate of coral recovery after disturbance. However, evidence for reserves facilitating coral recovery has been lacking. Here we investigate whether reductions in macroalgal cover, caused by recovery of herbivorous parrotfishes within a reserve, have resulted in a faster rate of coral recovery than in areas subject to fishing. Surveys of ten sites inside and outside a Bahamian marine reserve over a 2.5-year period demonstrated that increases in coral cover, including adjustments for the initial size-distribution of corals, were significantly higher at reserve sites than those in non-reserve sites. Furthermore, macroalgal cover was significantly negatively correlated with the change in total coral cover over time. Recovery rates of individual species were generally consistent with small-scale manipulations on coral-macroalgal interactions, but also revealed differences that demonstrate the difficulties of translating experiments across spatial scales. Size-frequency data indicated that species which were particularly affected by high abundances of macroalgae outside the reserve had a population bottleneck restricting the supply of smaller corals to larger size classes. Importantly, because coral cover increased from a heavily degraded state, and recovery from such states has not previously been described, similar or better outcomes should be expected for many reefs in the region. Reducing herbivore exploitation as part of an ecosystem-based management strategy for coral reefs appears to be justified. PMID:20066158

  15. Final Report, Materials for Industrial Heat Recovery Systems, Tasks 3 and 4 Materials for Heat Recovery in Recovery Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, James R.; Kish, Joseph R.; Singh, Preet M.; Sarma, Gorti B.; Yuan, Jerry; Gorog, J. Peter; Frederick, Laurie A.; Jette, Francois R.; Meisner, Roberta A.; Singbeil, Douglas L.

    2007-12-31

    The DOE-funded project on materials for industrial heat recovery systems included four research tasks: materials for aluminum melting furnace recuperator tubes, materials and operational changes to prevent cracking and corrosion of the co-extruded tubes that form primary air ports in black liquor recovery boilers, the cause of and means to prevent corrosion of carbon steel tubes in the mid-furnace area of recovery boilers, and materials and operational changes to prevent corrosion and cracking of recovery boiler superheater tubes. Results from studies on the latter two topics are given in this report while separate reports on results for the first two tasks have already been published. Accelerated, localized corrosion has been observed in the mid-furnace area of kraft recovery boilers. This corrosion of the carbon steel waterwall tubes is typically observed in the vicinity of the upper level of air ports where the stainless clad co-extruded wall tubes used in the lower portion of the boiler are welded to the carbon steel tubes that extend from this transition point or “cut line” to the top of the boiler. Corrosion patterns generally vary from one boiler to another depending on boiler design and operating parameters, but the corrosion is almost always found within a few meters of the cut line and often much closer than that. This localized corrosion results in tube wall thinning that can reach the level where the integrity of the tube is at risk. Collection and analysis of gas samples from various areas near the waterwall surface showed reducing and sulfidizing gases were present in the areas where corrosion was accelerated. However, collection of samples from the same areas at intervals over a two year period showed the gaseous environment in the mid-furnace section can cycle between oxidizing and reducing conditions. These fluctuations are thought to be due to gas flow instabilities and they result in an unstable or a less protective scale on the carbon steel

  16. Logic design for dynamic and interactive recovery.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, W. C.; Jessep, D. C.; Wadia, A. B.; Schneider, P. R.; Bouricius, W. G.

    1971-01-01

    Recovery in a fault-tolerant computer means the continuation of system operation with data integrity after an error occurs. This paper delineates two parallel concepts embodied in the hardware and software functions required for recovery; detection, diagnosis, and reconfiguration for hardware, data integrity, checkpointing, and restart for the software. The hardware relies on the recovery variable set, checking circuits, and diagnostics, and the software relies on the recovery information set, audit, and reconstruct routines, to characterize the system state and assist in recovery when required. Of particular utility is a handware unit, the recovery control unit, which serves as an interface between error detection and software recovery programs in the supervisor and provides dynamic interactive recovery.

  17. In vivo quantification of demyelination and recovery using compartment-specific diffusion MRI metrics validated by electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jelescu, Ileana O; Zurek, Magdalena; Winters, Kerryanne V; Veraart, Jelle; Rajaratnam, Anjali; Kim, Nathanael S; Babb, James S; Shepherd, Timothy M; Novikov, Dmitry S; Kim, Sungheon G; Fieremans, Els

    2016-05-15

    There is a need for accurate quantitative non-invasive biomarkers to monitor myelin pathology in vivo and distinguish myelin changes from other pathological features including inflammation and axonal loss. Conventional MRI metrics such as T2, magnetization transfer ratio and radial diffusivity have proven sensitivity but not specificity. In highly coherent white matter bundles, compartment-specific white matter tract integrity (WMTI) metrics can be directly derived from the diffusion and kurtosis tensors: axonal water fraction, intra-axonal diffusivity, and extra-axonal radial and axial diffusivities. We evaluate the potential of WMTI to quantify demyelination by monitoring the effects of both acute (6weeks) and chronic (12weeks) cuprizone intoxication and subsequent recovery in the mouse corpus callosum, and compare its performance with that of conventional metrics (T2, magnetization transfer, and DTI parameters). The changes observed in vivo correlated with those obtained from quantitative electron microscopy image analysis. A 6-week intoxication produced a significant decrease in axonal water fraction (p<0.001), with only mild changes in extra-axonal radial diffusivity, consistent with patchy demyelination, while a 12-week intoxication caused a more marked decrease in extra-axonal radial diffusivity (p=0.0135), consistent with more severe demyelination and clearance of the extra-axonal space. Results thus revealed increased specificity of the axonal water fraction and extra-axonal radial diffusivity parameters to different degrees and patterns of demyelination. The specificities of these parameters were corroborated by their respective correlations with microstructural features: the axonal water fraction correlated significantly with the electron microscopy derived total axonal water fraction (ρ=0.66; p=0.0014) but not with the g-ratio, while the extra-axonal radial diffusivity correlated with the g-ratio (ρ=0.48; p=0.0342) but not with the electron microscopy

  18. Vascular Compliance Limits during Sleep Deprivation and Recovery Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Derrick J.; Schei, Jennifer L.; Rector, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Our previous studies showed that evoked hemodynamic responses are smaller during wake compared to sleep; suggesting neural activity is associated with vascular expansion and decreased compliance. We explored whether prolonged activity during sleep deprivation may exacerbate vascular expansion and blunt hemodynamic responses. Design: Evoked auditory responses were generated with periodic 65dB speaker clicks over a 72-h period and measured with cortical electrodes. Evoked hemodynamic responses were measured simultaneously with optical techniques using three light-emitting diodes, and a photodiode. Setting: Animals were housed in separate 30×30×80cm enclosures, tethered to a commutator system and maintained on a 12-h light/dark cycle. Food and water were available ad libitum. Patients or Participants: Seven adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. Interventions: Following a 24-h baseline recording, sleep deprivation was initiated for 0 to 10 h by gentle handling, followed by a 24-h recovery sleep recording. Evoked electrical and hemodynamic responses were measured before, during, and after sleep deprivation. Measurements and Results: Following deprivation, evoked hemodynamic amplitudes were blunted. Steady-state oxyhemoglobin concentration increased during deprivation and remained high during the initial recovery period before returning to baseline levels after approximately 9-h. Conclusions: Sleep deprivation resulted in blood vessel expansion and decreased compliance while lower basal neural activity during recovery sleep may allow blood vessel compliance to recover. Chronic sleep restriction or sleep deprivation could push the vasculature to critical levels, limiting blood delivery, and leading to metabolic deficits with the potential for neural trauma. Citation: Phillips DJ; Schei JL; Rector DM. Vascular compliance limits during sleep deprivation and recovery sleep. SLEEP 2013;36(10):1459-1470. PMID:24082305

  19. SPECT imaging with resolution recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Bronnikov, A. V.

    2011-07-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a method of choice for imaging spatial distributions of radioisotopes. Many applications of this method are found in nuclear industry, medicine, and biomedical research. We study mathematical modeling of a micro-SPECT system by using a point-spread function (PSF) and implement an OSEM-based iterative algorithm for image reconstruction with resolution recovery. Unlike other known implementations of the OSEM algorithm, we apply en efficient computation scheme based on a useful approximation of the PSF, which ensures relatively fast computations. The proposed approach can be applied with the data acquired with any type of collimators, including parallel-beam fan-beam, cone-beam and pinhole collimators. Experimental results obtained with a micro SPECT system demonstrate high efficiency of resolution recovery. (authors)

  20. Catalytic distillation water recovery subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budininkas, P.; Rasouli, F.

    1985-01-01

    An integrated engineering breadboard subsystem for the recovery of potable water from untreated urine based on the vapor phase catalytic ammonia removal was designed, fabricated and tested. Unlike other evaporative methods, this process catalytically oxidizes ammonia and volatile hydrocarbons vaporizing with water to innocuous products; therefore, no pretreatment of urine is required. Since the subsystem is fabricated from commercially available components, its volume, weight and power requirements are not optimized; however, it is suitable for zero-g operation. The testing program consists of parametric tests, one month of daily tests and a continuous test of 168 hours duration. The recovered water is clear, odorless, low in ammonia and organic carbon, and requires only an adjustment of its pH to meet potable water standards. The obtained data indicate that the vapor phase catalytic ammonia removal process, if further developed, would also be competitive with other water recovery systems in weight, volume and power requirements.

  1. Recovery times of riparian vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesipa, R.; Camporeale, C.; Ridolfi, L.

    2016-04-01

    Riparian vegetation is a key element in a number of processes that determine the ecogeomorphological features of the river landscape. Depending on the river water stage fluctuations, vegetation biomass randomly switches between growth and degradation phases and exhibits relevant temporal variations. A full understanding of vegetation dynamics is therefore only possible if the hydrological stochastic forcing is considered. In this vein, we focus on the recovery time of vegetation, namely the typical time taken by vegetation to recover a well-developed state starting from a low biomass value (induced, for instance, by an intense flood). The analytical expression of the plot-dependent recovery time is given, the role of hydrological and biological parameters is discussed, and the impact of river-induced randomness is highlighted. Finally, the effect of man-induced hydrological changes (e.g., river damming or climate changes) is explored.

  2. Overpulse railgun energy recovery circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Honig, E.M.

    1989-12-12

    This patent describes an overpulse railgun energy recovery circuit for propelling a projectile along a railgun. The overpulse rail gun energy recovery circuit comprising: a railgun having an effective inductance, the railgun having a breach end, a pair of parallel rails, and a muzzle end; source inductor for storing current connected across the pair of parallel rails of the railgun at the breech end thereof; means for initially charging the source inductor to an initial current for storage; switching means connected across the source inductor with a closed position for shorting across the source inductor and an open position for enabling current flow into the effective inductance of the breech end towards the muzzle end of the railgun; a muzzle switch connected across the pair of parallel rails of the railgun at the muzzle end thereof; and transfer capacitive means.

  3. Counterpulse railgun energy recovery circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Honig, E.M.

    1986-02-25

    This patent describes a counterpulse railgun energy recovery circuit for propelling a projectile along a railgun the counterpulse railgun energy recovery circuit consists of: a railgun having an effective inductance; a source inductor initially charged to an initial current; current means for initially charging the source inductor to the initial current; first current-zero type switching means; second current-zero type switching; third current-zero type switching; muzzle current-zero type switching means; transfer capacitor, the transfer capacitor is for cooperating with the first, second, third, and muzzle current-zero type switching means for providing a resonant circuit for transferring current from the source inductor to the effective inductance of the railgun during the propelling of a projectile along the railgun and for returning current from the effective inductance of the railgun to the source inductance after the projectile has exited the railgun.

  4. Period variations in SZ ARIETIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, R. K.

    1990-06-01

    Results are presented of a detailed period study of the eclipsing binary system SZ Arietis, based on up-to-date collection of minima. A new period (P = 1.7175405 d) of the SZ Ari was found, and the period changes (with the new period) in different portions of the O-C diagram were estimated. The average period change (leaving out an unusual value) was estimated to be about 0.00006 d. The O-C diagram displayed a sinusoidal variation, indicating that the SZ Ari system may be a three-body system, having a period of nearly 66 years.

  5. Methodology for recovery of chemically treated Staphylococcus aureus with neutralizing medium.

    PubMed Central

    Dey, B P; Engley, F B

    1983-01-01

    Recovery results of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 treated with phenolics and quaternary ammonium compounds on Dey and Engley (D/E) neutralizing medium at various time intervals were compared by the use of two commonly used media. Two recovery processes were utilized. In one, the chemically treated organisms were plated directly onto an agar medium. In the other, the aliquot was first put in broth and then was plated with agar. By either process, the numbers and the time period for recovery of organism were greater on D/E medium. PMID:6870240

  6. PSYCHO-EDUCATIONAL GROUP THERAPY FOR ALCOHOL AND DRUG DEPENDENCE RECOVERY

    PubMed Central

    Chandiramani, Kishore; Tripathi, B.M.

    1993-01-01

    SUMMARY A brief psychosocial intervention model for alcohol and drug dependence recovery has been evolved in the form of psycho-educational group therapy. The package comprises of eight sessions conducted thrice a week over a period of about three weeks following detoxification. It aims to equip the patients with information and knowledge relevant to the needs of recovery. The program covers topics such as craving and relapse, medical complications, treatment process and recovery, family, social and job problems and structuring free time. Apart from achieving abstinence, the objectives of the program include enhancing functioning in personal, social and professional spheres by developing healthy and intimate relationships and promoting alternate activities. PMID:21743631

  7. Young People in Recovery: Building a Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Colette

    2012-01-01

    The newly formed national group, Young People in Recovery, is comprised of young people, roughly 17-28 years old, who are in long term recovery. Their goal is to increase awareness amongst social service providers about the needs of youth in recovery, increase services, and facilitate partnerships which support young people in finding and…

  8. Recovery of Gemini 4 spacecraft and astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Recovery of Gemini 4 spacecraft and astronauts. Views include Astronaut James A. McDivitt, command pilot of the Gemini 4 space flight, sitting in life raft awaiting pickup by helicopter from the recovery ship, the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp (33490); Navy frogmen stand on the flotation collar of the Gemini 4 spacecraft during recovery operations (33491).

  9. 75 FR 6681 - National Disaster Recovery Framework

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency National Disaster Recovery Framework AGENCY: Federal Emergency... Management Agency (FEMA), in coordination with the interagency Long Term Disaster Recovery Working Group, is accepting comments on the draft National Disaster Recovery Framework (NDRF). The NDRF is intended to work...

  10. 7 CFR 4280.158 - Future recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Future recovery. 4280.158 Section 4280.158... General Renewable Energy System and Energy Efficiency Improvement Guaranteed Loans § 4280.158 Future recovery. Future recoveries will be conducted in accordance with § 4287.169 of this chapter....

  11. 7 CFR 4280.158 - Future recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Future recovery. 4280.158 Section 4280.158... General Renewable Energy System and Energy Efficiency Improvement Guaranteed Loans § 4280.158 Future recovery. Future recoveries will be conducted in accordance with § 4287.169 of this chapter....

  12. 7 CFR 4280.158 - Future recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Future recovery. 4280.158 Section 4280.158... General Renewable Energy System and Energy Efficiency Improvement Guaranteed Loans § 4280.158 Future recovery. Future recoveries will be conducted in accordance with § 4287.169 of this chapter....

  13. 50 CFR 679.85 - Cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... rockfish fee liability may appeal the IAD pursuant to 50 CFR 679.43. ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost recovery. 679.85 Section 679.85....85 Cost recovery. (a) Cost recovery fees—(1) Responsibility. The person documented on the rockfish...

  14. 50 CFR 679.85 - Cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... rockfish fee liability may appeal the IAD pursuant to 50 CFR 679.43. ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost recovery. 679.85 Section 679.85....85 Cost recovery. (a) Cost recovery fees—(1) Responsibility. The person documented on the rockfish...

  15. 50 CFR 679.85 - Cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... rockfish fee liability may appeal the IAD pursuant to 50 CFR 679.43. ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost recovery. 679.85 Section 679.85....85 Cost recovery. (a) Cost recovery fees—(1) Responsibility. The person documented on the rockfish...

  16. Gravity Field Recovery with Simulated GOCE Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marty, J.; Bruinsma, S.; Balmino, G.; Abrikosov, O.; Foerste, C.; Rothacher, M.

    2005-12-01

    Numerical simulations of the gravity field parameter recovery using the direct method, with satellite positions as pseudo observations instead of simulated GPS Satellite-to-Satellite (SST) tracking data, and with gravity gradients (SGG data), were done and are ongoing in the framework of the European GOCE Gravity Consortium test and validation plan for GOCE mission data processing. This work shows the latest results from the CNES and GFZ software packages, GINS and EPOS, respectively. After the iterative least-squares orbit adjustment procedure has converged to the highest attainable precision level, the gravity field normal equations are computed in a subsequent step. These SST normal equations, representing the long wavelength gravity field signal, are then reduced for arc-dependent parameters (i.e. state vector at epoch, empirical parameters) and cumulated over the entire observation period. Secondly, the gravity gradient measurements (SGG) are processed, taking into account the coloured noise in these data, and yield (high resolution) normal equations. They are combined with the SST normal equations and the gravity field and gradiometer common mode calibration parameters are simultaneously estimated. The coloured noise in the SGG data is based on the latest and realistic gradiometer specifications. The precision in the measurement bandwidth is approximately 3-5 milliEotvos, but rapidly decreasing for lower frequencies. Due to this behaviour, the observation equations have to be filtered in order to obtain the most accurate recovery. The filter algorithm, design and results are presented to considerable detail since this particular step is the key element that will enable the achievement of the GOCE mission objectives from the ground segment point of view.

  17. Americium recovery from reduction residues

    DOEpatents

    Conner, W.V.; Proctor, S.G.

    1973-12-25

    A process for separation and recovery of americium values from container or bomb'' reduction residues comprising dissolving the residues in a suitable acid, adjusting the hydrogen ion concentration to a desired level by adding a base, precipitating the americium as americium oxalate by adding oxalic acid, digesting the solution, separating the precipitate, and thereafter calcining the americium oxalate precipitate to form americium oxide. (Official Gazette)

  18. Anelastic Strain Recovery Analysis Code

    1995-04-05

    ASR4 is a nonlinear least-squares regression of Anelastic Strain Recovery (ASR) data for the purpose of determining in situ stress orientations and magnitudes. ASR4 fits the viscoelastic model of Warpinski and Teufel to measure ASR data, calculates the stress orientations directly, and stress magnitudes if sufficient input data are available. The code also calculates the stress orientation using strain-rosette equations, and it calculates stress magnitudes using Blanton''s approach, assuming sufficient input data are available.

  19. Counterpulse railgun energy recovery circuit

    DOEpatents

    Honig, Emanuel M.

    1986-01-01

    In an electromagnetic launcher such as a railgun for propelling a projectile at high velocity, a counterpulse energy recovery circuit is employed to transfer stored inductive energy from a source inductor to the railgun inductance to propel the projectile down the railgun. Switching circuitry and an energy transfer capacitor are used to switch the energy back to the source inductor in readiness for a repetitive projectile propelling cycle.

  20. Overpulse railgun energy recovery circuit

    DOEpatents

    Honig, Emanuel M.

    1989-01-01

    In an electromagnetic launcher such as a railgun for propelling a projectile at high velocity, an overpulse energy recovery circuit is employed to transfer stored inductive energy from a source inductor to the railgun inductance to propel the projectile down the railgun. Switching circuitry and an energy transfer capacitor are used to switch the energy back to the source inductor in readiness for a repetitive projectile propelling cycle.

  1. Quantifying motor recovery after stroke using independent vector analysis and graph-theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Laney, Jonathan; Adalı, Tülay; McCombe Waller, Sandy; Westlake, Kelly P

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of neuroplasticity after stroke through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis is a developing field where the objective is to better understand the neural process of recovery and to better target rehabilitation interventions. The challenge in this population stems from the large amount of individual spatial variability and the need to summarize entire brain maps by generating simple, yet discriminating features to highlight differences in functional connectivity. Independent vector analysis (IVA) has been shown to provide superior performance in preserving subject variability when compared with widely used methods such as group independent component analysis. Hence, in this paper, graph-theoretical (GT) analysis is applied to IVA-generated components to effectively exploit the individual subjects' connectivity to produce discriminative features. The analysis is performed on fMRI data collected from individuals with chronic stroke both before and after a 6-week arm and hand rehabilitation intervention. Resulting GT features are shown to capture connectivity changes that are not evident through direct comparison of the group t-maps. The GT features revealed increased small worldness across components and greater centrality in key motor networks as a result of the intervention, suggesting improved efficiency in neural communication. Clinically, these results bring forth new possibilities as a means to observe the neural processes underlying improvements in motor function. PMID:26106554

  2. FGF2 and FGFR1 signaling regulate functional recovery following cuprizone demyelination.

    PubMed

    Mierzwa, Amanda J; Zhou, Yong-Xing; Hibbits, Norah; Vana, Adam C; Armstrong, Regina C

    2013-08-26

    In demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, remyelination offers the potential to recover function of viable denuded axons by restoring saltatory conduction and/or protecting from further damage. Mice with genetic reduction of fibroblast growth factor 2 (Fgf2) or Fgf receptor 1 (Fgfr1) exhibit dramatically improved remyelination following experimental demyelination with cuprizone. The current studies are the first to test neurobehavioral outcomes with these gene deletions that improved remyelination. The cuprizone protocols used did not produce overt abnormalities but did reduce bilateral sensorimotor coordination (complex wheel task) and increase sociability (two chamber apparatus with novel mouse). A significant effect of genotype was observed on the complex wheel task but not in the sociability apparatus. Specifically, complex wheel velocities for Fgf2 nulls improved significantly after removal of cuprizone from the diet. This improvement in Fgf2 null mice occurred following either acute (6 weeks) or chronic (12 weeks) demyelination. Plp/CreERT:Fgfr1(fl/fl) mice administered tamoxifen at 10 weeks of cuprizone treatment to induce Fgfr1 knockdown also showed improved recovery of running velocities on the complex wheels. Therefore, constitutive deletion of Fgf2 or Fgfr1 knockdown in oligodendrocyte lineage cells is sufficient to overcome impairment of sensorimotor coordination after cuprizone demyelination. PMID:23684572

  3. Home is where recovery begins.

    PubMed

    Ashcraft, Lori; Anthony, William A; Martin, Chris

    2008-05-01

    * Let's try to learn from our less creative approaches and not repeat our mistakes. We've learned a lot about what didn't work with the continuum of care concept, so let's move on to recovery-oriented housing opportunities for the people who use our services. * Let's move away from the concept of "placing" people. Let's ask people to decide where they want to live, and help them get there. The more involved they are in the planning and selection of their living plan, the more meaning it will have for them-and the more involved and invested they will be in maintaining it. * Let's not assume people need to be moved up and down a continuum. The less we move people the easier it will be for them to develop relationships and support systems that will help them maintain recovery. If there is any moving to do, let's move the staff instead. * Let's provide recovery-centered education that honors and respects people's strengths and ideas while building on their knowledge and skills for community living success. PMID:18561620

  4. Hydrogeology and Aquifer Storage and Recovery Performance in the Upper Floridan Aquifer, Southern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reese, Ronald S.; Alvarez-Zarikian, Carlos A.

    2007-01-01

    Well construction, hydraulic well test, ambient water-quality, and cycle test data were inventoried and compiled for 30 aquifer storage and recovery facilities constructed in the Floridan aquifer system in southern Florida. Most of the facilities are operated by local municipalities or counties in coastal areas, but five sites are currently being evaluated as part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. The relative performance of all sites with adequate cycle test data was determined, and compared with four hydrogeologic and design factors that may affect recovery efficiency. Testing or operational cycles include recharge, storage, and recovery periods that each last days or months. Cycle test data calculations were made including the potable water (chloride concentration of less than 250 milligrams per liter) recovery efficiency per cycle, total recovery efficiency per cycle, and cumulative potable water recovery efficiencies for all of the cycles at each site. The potable water recovery efficiency is the percentage of the total amount of potable water recharged for each cycle that is recovered; potable water recovery efficiency calculations (per cycle and cumulative) were the primary measures used to evaluate site performance in this study. Total recovery efficiency, which is the percent recovery at the end of each cycle, however, can be substantially higher and is the performance measure normally used in the operation of water-treatment plants. The Upper Floridan aquifer of the Floridan aquifer system currently is being used, or planned for use, at 29 of the aquifer storage and recovery sites. The Upper Floridan aquifer is continuous throughout southern Florida, and its overlying confinement is generally good; however, the aquifer contains brackish to saline ground water that can greatly affect freshwater storage and recovery due to dispersive mixing within the aquifer. The hydrogeology of the Upper Floridan varies in southern Florida; confinement

  5. Recovery Migration After Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Spatial Concentration and Intensification in the Migration System.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Katherine J; Fussell, Elizabeth; DeWaard, Jack

    2015-08-01

    Changes in the human migration systems of the Gulf of Mexico coastline counties affected by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita provide an example of how climate change may affect coastal populations. Crude climate change models predict a mass migration of "climate refugees," but an emerging literature on environmental migration suggests that most migration will be short-distance and short-duration within existing migration systems, with implications for the population recovery of disaster-stricken places. In this research, we derive a series of hypotheses on recovery migration predicting how the migration system of hurricane-affected coastline counties in the Gulf of Mexico was likely to have changed between the pre-disaster and the recovery periods. We test these hypotheses using data from the Internal Revenue Service on annual county-level migration flows, comparing the recovery period migration system (2007-2009) with the pre-disaster period (1999-2004). By observing county-to-county ties and flows, we find that recovery migration was strong: the migration system of the disaster-affected coastline counties became more spatially concentrated, while flows within it intensified and became more urbanized. Our analysis demonstrates how migration systems are likely to be affected by the more intense and frequent storms anticipated by climate change scenarios, with implications for the population recovery of disaster-affected places. PMID:26084982

  6. Recovery Migration after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Spatial Concentration and Intensification in the Migration System

    PubMed Central

    Fussell, Elizabeth; DeWaard, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the human migration systems of Hurricane Katrina- and Rita-affected Gulf of Mexico coastline counties provide an example of how climate change may affect coastal populations. Crude climate change models predict a mass migration of “climate refugees,” but an emerging literature on environmental migration suggests most migration will be short-distance and short-duration within existing migration systems, with implications for the population recovery of disaster-struck places. In this research, we derive a series of hypotheses on recovery migration predicting how the migration system of hurricane-affected coastline counties in the Gulf of Mexico was likely to have changed between the pre-disaster and the recovery periods. We test these hypotheses using data from the Internal Revenue Service on annual county-level migration flows, comparing the recovery period migration system (2007–2009) to the pre-disaster period (1999–2004). By observing county-to-county ties and flows we find that recovery migration was strong, as the migration system of the disaster-affected coastline counties became more spatially concentrated while flows within it intensified and became more urbanized. Our analysis demonstrates how migration systems are likely to be affected by the more intense and frequent storms anticipated by climate change scenarios with implications for the population recovery of disaster-affected places. PMID:26084982

  7. Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2007-01-01

    A little more than two years ago, Hurricane Katrina set its sights on the New Orleans area, and the storm and flooding that followed killed more than 1,400 Louisiana residents, destroyed billions of dollars of property, and sent more than 1 million people fleeing the storm's devastation. Many of those displaced in the days following the storm were…

  8. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (enalapril maleate) accelerates recovery of mouse skin from UVB-induced wrinkles

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuura-Hachiya, Yuko; Arai, Koji Y.; Ozeki, Rieko; Kikuta, Ayako; Nishiyama, Toshio

    2013-12-06

    Highlights: •Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) increases in UVB-irradiated skin. •Administration of an ACE inhibitor improved UVB-induced skin wrinkle. •ACE inhibitor improved UVB-induced epidermal hypertrophy. •ACE inhibitor improved transepidermal water loss in the UVB-irradiated skin. -- Abstract: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity and angiotensin II signaling regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and tissue remodeling, as well as blood pressure, while in skin, angiotensin II signaling is involved in wound healing, inflammation, and pathological scar formation. Therefore, we hypothesized that angiotensin II is also involved in photoaging of skin. In this study, we examined the effect of enalapril maleate, an ACE inhibitor, on recovery of wrinkled skin of hairless mice exposed to long-term UVB irradiation. Immunohistochemical observation revealed that expression of ACE, angiotensin II, and angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) and type 2 (AT2) receptors in the skin was increased after UVB irradiation (3 times/week at increasing intensities for 8 weeks). Administration of enalapril maleate (5 times/week for 6 weeks, starting 1 week after 10-week irradiation) accelerated recovery from UVB-induced wrinkles, epidermal hyperplasia and epidermal barrier dysfunction, as compared with the vehicle control. Our results indicate that ACE and angiotensin II activity are involved in skin photoaging, and suggest that ACE inhibitor such as enalapril maleate may have potential for improvement of photoaged skin.

  9. The intensity of work recovery in low back pain.

    PubMed

    Andersson, G B; Svensson, H O; Odén, A

    1983-01-01

    The intensity of work recovery in LBP has been studied using the National Health Register. Nine hundred forty men, 40-47 years old, were selected randomly from the census register of the city of Göteborg, Sweden. Sickness absence data were obtained from the Health Register, in which all sickness absence from age 16 is recorded. The rate of return to work decreases as expected with an increase in absence period. Different rates were found for different diagnoses, however, with low return intensities in patients with sciatica compared with those with back pain, ie, return to work was slower in patients with sciatica. Men with manual work had a significantly longer average sickness absence than white-collar workers. The intensity of work recovery was lower in blue-collar workers during the first 20 days of absence, while the reverse was true after 20 days of sickness absence, ie, the white-collar workers who were absent more than 20 days had a slower rate of recovery than blue-collar workers who had been absent for 20 days. Data as presented here can be used to study the effect of intervention (for example, manual therapy) on the natural course of work recovery. It also can be used, as above, to study differences in sickness absence patterns between different diagnoses and work groups. PMID:6230742

  10. Transport and storage conditions for cultural recovery of Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Maass, M; Dalhoff, K

    1995-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is characterized by rapidly decreasing viability outside the host cell, and efficient preservation of its infectivity is a prerequisite for subsequent cell culture recovery. Extracellular survival of three C. pneumoniae stock strains and three wild-type strains subjected to simulated conditions of transport was therefore examined in order to establish recommendations for transport and storage of clinical specimens. The presence of fetal calf serum in transport media as well as refrigeration distinctly improved chlamydial retrieval during prolonged transport. Loss of infectivity was kept to a minimum in Eagle's minimal essential medium or sucrose-phosphate-glutamine medium. Storage at 22 degrees C permitted a stock strain recovery of 81% after 12 h. When refrigeration to 4 degrees C was provided, recovery rates of 74% could be achieved after 48 h. Though the strains were from different geographic regions, requirements for good survival were comparable and should therefore apply worldwide. The results indicate that the laboratory strains are not extremely labile. However, comparative examination of the wild-type strains showed less stability: primary isolates were not satisfactorily retrievable beyond 4 h at 22 degrees C or beyond 24 h at 4 degrees C. Further extension of storage times resulted in rapidly decreasing recovery, indicating a requirement to freeze samples at -75 degrees C to preserve viability. Adherence to the shorter storage periods suggested by the data obtained with primary isolates is recommended to ensure successful transport until more extensive testing with clinical materials is available. PMID:7665648

  11. On the optimal design of the disassembly and recovery processes

    SciTech Connect

    Xanthopoulos, A.; Iakovou, E.

    2009-05-15

    This paper tackles the problem of the optimal design of the recovery processes of the end-of-life (EOL) electric and electronic products, with a special focus on the disassembly issues. The objective is to recover as much ecological and economic value as possible, and to reduce the overall produced quantities of waste. In this context, a medium-range tactical problem is defined and a novel two-phased algorithm is presented for a remanufacturing-driven reverse supply chain. In the first phase, we propose a multicriteria/goal-programming analysis for the identification and the optimal selection of the most 'desirable' subassemblies and components to be disassembled for recovery, from a set of different types of EOL products. In the second phase, a multi-product, multi-period mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model is presented, which addresses the optimization of the recovery processes, while taking into account explicitly the lead times of the disassembly and recovery processes. Moreover, a simulation-based solution approach is proposed for capturing the uncertainties in reverse logistics. The overall approach leads to an easy-to-use methodology that could support effectively middle level management decisions. Finally, the applicability of the developed methodology is illustrated by its application on a specific case study.

  12. A model for improving endangered species recovery programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Brian; Reading, Richard; Conway, Courtney; Jackson, Jerome A.; Hutchins, Michael; Snyder, Noel; Forrest, Steve; Frazier, Jack; Derrickson, Scott

    1994-09-01

    This paper discusses common organizational problems that cause inadequate planning and implementation processes of endangered species recovery across biologically dissimilar species. If these problems occur, even proven biological conservation techniques are jeopardized. We propose a solution that requires accountability in all phases of the restoration process and is based on cooperative input among government agencies, nongovernmental conservation organizations, and the academic community. The first step is formation of a task-oriented recovery team that integrates the best expertise into the planning process. This interdisciplinary team should be composed of people whose skills directly address issues critical for recovery. Once goals and procedures are established, the responsible agency (for example, in the United States, the US Fish and Wildlife Service) could divest some or all of its obligation for implementing the plan, yet still maintain oversight by holding implementing entities contractually accountable. Regular, periodic outside review and public documentation of the recovery team, lead agency, and the accomplishments of implementing bodies would permit evaluation necessary to improve performance. Increased cooperation among agency and nongovernmental organizations provided by this model promises a more efficient use of limited resources toward the conservation of biodiversity.

  13. Recovery of stream communities from experimental selenium exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, M.C.; Kuklinskal, B.; Ferkull, K.; Allen, K.N.; Hermanutz, R.O.; Roush, T.H.; Hedtke, S.F.

    1994-12-31

    The effects of selenium on stream communities and their recovery from those effects were studied at MERS from 1987--1991. Selenium was dosed into two replicate streams each at concentrations of 30, 10, 2.5 and 0 (control) {mu}g L{sup {minus}1} for 18, 30, and 12 months, respectively. Recovery was monitored for three (30) or two (1 0, 2.5) years following cessation of selenium dosing. Selenium rapidly accumulated in the sediment, plants, macroinvertebrates and fish during dosing. Selenium concentrations in sediment, macroinvertebrates, and plants were as high as 2X--4X, 2X--4X, and 1X--1OX the dosed concentration in the 30, 10, and 2.5 treatments, respectively. Selenium decreased relatively rapidly following cessation of dosing. By two years after dosing ceased, selenium concentrations in plants and macroinvertebrates were little different from the controls; selenium in sediment from the 30 and 10 streams was still higher than in the control streams two years after dosing ceased. The macroinvertebrate community changed little during the dosing and recovery period. Commonly used indices of community structure showed no effect of selenium dosing. The isopod Asellus and oligochaetes in the family Tubificidae decreased rapidly following the onset of selenium dosing; their recovery following cessation of dosing was slow.

  14. On the optimal design of the disassembly and recovery processes.

    PubMed

    Xanthopoulos, A; Iakovou, E

    2009-05-01

    This paper tackles the problem of the optimal design of the recovery processes of the end-of-life (EOL) electric and electronic products, with a special focus on the disassembly issues. The objective is to recover as much ecological and economic value as possible, and to reduce the overall produced quantities of waste. In this context, a medium-range tactical problem is defined and a novel two-phased algorithm is presented for a remanufacturing-driven reverse supply chain. In the first phase, we propose a multicriteria/goal-programming analysis for the identification and the optimal selection of the most 'desirable' subassemblies and components to be disassembled for recovery, from a set of different types of EOL products. In the second phase, a multi-product, multi-period mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model is presented, which addresses the optimization of the recovery processes, while taking into account explicitly the lead times of the disassembly and recovery processes. Moreover, a simulation-based solution approach is proposed for capturing the uncertainties in reverse logistics. The overall approach leads to an easy-to-use methodology that could support effectively middle level management decisions. Finally, the applicability of the developed methodology is illustrated by its application on a specific case study. PMID:19138507

  15. Recovery levels after eccentric and concentric loading in maximal force

    PubMed Central

    Örer, Gamze Erikoğlu; Güzel, Nevin Atalay; Arslan, Erşan

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare the differences in recovery periods after maximal concentric and eccentric exercises. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two participants voluntarily participated and were divided into two groups: the athlete and sedentary groups. An incremental treadmill running test was performed until exhaustion. During the subsequent passive recovery session, heart rate and venous blood lactate level were determined every 3 minutes until the venous blood lactate level reached 2 mmol/l. The same test protocol was implemented 15 days later. [Results] Both groups showed significantly shorter running durations in concentric exercise, while significant differences were found between the athlete and sedentary groups in terms of venous blood lactate level responses. In addition, there were significant differences between the athlete and sedentary groups in terms of running duration and heart rate in concentric and eccentric exercises. [Conclusion] The present study revealed no difference between the athlete and sedentary groups in terms of recovery durations after eccentric and concentric loadings, although the athletes demonstrated faster recovery in terms of HR compared with the sedentary group. It was thought that concentric exercises cause greater physiological responses. PMID:27390407

  16. Uses and abuses of recovery: implementing recovery-oriented practices in mental health systems

    PubMed Central

    Slade, Mike; Amering, Michaela; Farkas, Marianne; Hamilton, Bridget; O'Hagan, Mary; Panther, Graham; Perkins, Rachel; Shepherd, Geoff; Tse, Samson; Whitley, Rob

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of recovery as a personal and subjective experience has emerged within mental health systems. This meaning of recovery now underpins mental health policy in many countries. Developing a focus on this type of recovery will involve transformation within mental health systems. Human systems do not easily transform. In this paper, we identify seven mis-uses (“abuses”) of the concept of recovery: recovery is the latest model; recovery does not apply to “my” patients; services can make people recover through effective treatment; compulsory detention and treatment aid recovery; a recovery orientation means closing services; recovery is about making people independent and normal; and contributing to society happens only after the person is recovered. We then identify ten empirically-validated interventions which support recovery, by targeting key recovery processes of connectedness, hope, identity, meaning and empowerment (the CHIME framework). The ten interventions are peer support workers, advance directives, wellness recovery action planning, illness management and recovery, REFOCUS, strengths model, recovery colleges or recovery education programs, individual placement and support, supported housing, and mental health trialogues. Finally, three scientific challenges are identified: broadening cultural understandings of recovery, implementing organizational transformation, and promoting citizenship. PMID:24497237

  17. Uses and abuses of recovery: implementing recovery-oriented practices in mental health systems.

    PubMed

    Slade, Mike; Amering, Michaela; Farkas, Marianne; Hamilton, Bridget; O'Hagan, Mary; Panther, Graham; Perkins, Rachel; Shepherd, Geoff; Tse, Samson; Whitley, Rob

    2014-02-01

    An understanding of recovery as a personal and subjective experience has emerged within mental health systems. This meaning of recovery now underpins mental health policy in many countries. Developing a focus on this type of recovery will involve transformation within mental health systems. Human systems do not easily transform. In this paper, we identify seven mis-uses ("abuses") of the concept of recovery: recovery is the latest model; recovery does not apply to "my" patients; services can make people recover through effective treatment; compulsory detention and treatment aid recovery; a recovery orientation means closing services; recovery is about making people independent and normal; and contributing to society happens only after the person is recovered. We then identify ten empirically-validated interventions which support recovery, by targeting key recovery processes of connectedness, hope, identity, meaning and empowerment (the CHIME framework). The ten interventions are peer support workers, advance directives, wellness recovery action planning, illness management and recovery, REFOCUS, strengths model, recovery colleges or recovery education programs, individual placement and support, supported housing, and mental health trialogues. Finally, three scientific challenges are identified: broadening cultural understandings of recovery, implementing organizational transformation, and promoting citizenship. PMID:24497237

  18. Doubly Resonant Optical Periodic Structure

    PubMed Central

    Alagappan, G.; Png, C. E.

    2016-01-01

    Periodic structures are well known in various branches of physics for their ability to provide a stopband. In this article, using optical periodic structures we showed that, when a second periodicity – very closed to the original periodicity is introduced, large number of states appears in the stopband corresponding to the first periodicity. In the limit where the two periods matches, we have a continuum of states, and the original stopband completely disappears. This intriguing phenomena is uncovered by noticing that, regardless of the proximities of the two periodicities, there is an array of spatial points where the dielectric functions corresponding to the two periodicities interfere destructively. These spatial points mimic photonic atoms by satisfying the standards equations of quantum harmonic oscillators, and exhibit lossless, atom-like dispersions. PMID:26853945

  19. The redoubtable ecological periodic table

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological periodic tables are repositories of reliable information on quantitative, predictably recurring (periodic) habitat–community patterns and their uncertainty, scaling and transferability. Their reliability derives from their grounding in sound ecological principle...

  20. Doubly Resonant Optical Periodic Structure.

    PubMed

    Alagappan, G; Png, C E

    2016-01-01

    Periodic structures are well known in various branches of physics for their ability to provide a stopband. In this article, using optical periodic structures we showed that, when a second periodicity - very closed to the original periodicity is introduced, large number of states appears in the stopband corresponding to the first periodicity. In the limit where the two periods matches, we have a continuum of states, and the original stopband completely disappears. This intriguing phenomena is uncovered by noticing that, regardless of the proximities of the two periodicities, there is an array of spatial points where the dielectric functions corresponding to the two periodicities interfere destructively. These spatial points mimic photonic atoms by satisfying the standards equations of quantum harmonic oscillators, and exhibit lossless, atom-like dispersions. PMID:26853945

  1. 76 FR 8325 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... certain temporary waivers from periodic reporting of service performance measurement. Establishing this...). SUPPLEMENTARY HISTORY: On February 3, 2011, the Postal Service filed a request for temporary waivers from periodic reporting of service performance measurement for various market dominant postal services,...

  2. Betelgeuse Period Analysis Using VSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempsey, F.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) Betelgeuse was studied using the VSTAR software package and analysis of the observations in the AAVSO database. Period analysis derived a period of 376 days, in comparison with literature periods of 420 days using satellite UV data but significantly different from the VSX period of 2,335 days. The unique set of PEP observations of this star is also shown and advantage of PEP Johnson V observations is shown in comparison with the visual observations.

  3. Demography of population recovery: survival and fidelity of peregrine falcons at various stages of population recovery.

    PubMed

    Smith, George D; Murillo-García, Oscar E; Hostetler, Jeffrey A; Mearns, Richard; Rollie, Chris; Newton, Ian; McGrady, Michael J; Oli, Madan K

    2015-06-01

    Factors influencing vital demographic rates and population dynamics can vary across phases of population growth. We studied factors influencing survival and fidelity of peregrine falcons in south Scotland-north England at two stages of population growth: when the population was recovering from pesticide-related declines and density was low, and when it had largely recovered from pesticide effects and density was high. Fidelity was higher for: adults and subadults than for juveniles, females than for males, and juveniles and adults during the low-density than during the high-density study period. Survival was age specific, with lower survival for juveniles than for older birds (juveniles, 0.600 ± SE 0.063; subadults, 0.811 ± 0.058; adults, 0.810 ± 0.034). Furthermore, there was some evidence that survival was generally lower for all age classes during the low-density period than during the high-density period, possibly due to a chronic, persistent effect of organochlorine pesticides as the population recovered. Evidence for a density-dependent effect on survival was weak, but a negative effect of density on fidelity of juveniles (dispersing age class) during the recovery phase suggests density-dependent dispersal when the population was increasing. Our results show how population density can influence demographic parameters differently and how such influences can vary across phases of population growth. PMID:25627408

  4. Recovery education: a tool for psychiatric nurses.

    PubMed

    Knutson, M B; Newberry, S; Schaper, A

    2013-12-01

    Patient teaching is vital for nursing care of psychiatric patients. This paper describes the process of developing Recovery Education as a tool for nurses who lead daily patient education groups. Gundersen Lutheran's Recovery Model developed for the Inpatient Psychiatric Unit includes seven Elements of Recovery--Hope, Security, Support/Managing Symptoms, Empowerment, Relationships, Coping and Finding Meaning. Concepts of cognitive behavioural therapy, mindfulness and case-based education were woven through recovery lessons in ready-to-use folders. Statistics on patient satisfaction and patient outcome data were positive. Education for self-management can move patients forward to improve health and healing on their recovery journey. PMID:23445505

  5. Recovery system for an underwater projectile

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.W.

    1986-10-01

    A recovery system has been designed to recover and bring to the surface of the ocean a vehicle weighting 640 lbs under water and approximately 800 lbs in air. The vehicle has a terminal sink rate of 52-55 ft/sec. The recovery system includes a 4.2-ft-dia ribbon parachute, a 13-ft/sup 3/ flotation bag, and a gas generator for inflating the bag. Deployment of the recovery system normally occurs at depths between 400 and 600 ft. Components of the recovery system were tested before the system was used. Results of the tests along with a description of the recovery system are presented.

  6. Spontaneous recovery of effects of contrast adaptation without awareness

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Gaoxing; Dong, Xue; Dong, Bo; Bao, Min

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to a high contrast stimulus reduces the neural sensitivity to subsequent similar patterns. Recent work has disclosed that contrast adaptation is controlled by multiple mechanisms operating over differing timescales. Adaptation to high contrast for a relatively longer period can be rapidly eliminated by adaptation to a lower contrast (or meanfield in the present study). Such rapid deadaptation presumably causes a short-term mechanism to signal for a sensitivity increase, canceling ongoing signals from long-term mechanisms. Once deadaptation ends, the short-term mechanism rapidly returns to baseline, and the slowly decaying effects in the long-term mechanisms reemerge, allowing the perceptual aftereffects to recover during continued testing. Although this spontaneous recovery effect is considered strong evidence supporting the multiple mechanisms theory, it remains controversial whether the effect is mainly driven by visual memory established during the initial longer-term adaptation period. To resolve this debate, we used a modified Continuous Flash Suppression (CFS) and visual crowding paradigms to render the adapting stimuli invisible, but still observed the spontaneous recovery phenomenon. These results exclude the possibility that spontaneous recovery found in the previous work was merely the consequence of explicit visual memory. Our findings also demonstrate that contrast adaptation, even at the unconscious processing levels, is controlled by multiple mechanisms. PMID:26483723

  7. Relationship Between Intensity of Quadriceps Muscle Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation and Strength Recovery After Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Balter, Jaclyn E.; Wolfe, Pamela; Eckhoff, Donald G.; Schwartz, Robert S.; Schenkman, Margaret; Kohrt, Wendy M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) can facilitate the recovery of quadriceps muscle strength after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), yet the optimal intensity (dosage) of NMES and its effect on strength after TKA have yet to be determined. Objective The primary objective of this study was to determine whether the intensity of NMES application was related to the recovery of quadriceps muscle strength early after TKA. A secondary objective was to quantify quadriceps muscle fatigue and activation immediately after NMES to guide decisions about the timing of NMES during rehabilitation sessions. Design This study was an observational experimental investigation. Methods Data were collected from 30 people who were 50 to 85 years of age and who received NMES after TKA. These people participated in a randomized controlled trial in which they received either standard rehabilitation or standard rehabilitation plus NMES to the quadriceps muscle to mitigate strength loss. For the NMES intervention group, NMES was applied 2 times per day at the maximal tolerable intensity for 15 contractions beginning 48 hours after surgery over the first 6 weeks after TKA. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation training intensity and quadriceps muscle strength and activation were assessed before surgery and 3.5 and 6.5 weeks after TKA. Results At 3.5 weeks, there was a significant association between NMES training intensity and a change in quadriceps muscle strength (R2=.68) and activation (R2=.22). At 6.5 weeks, NMES training intensity was related to a change in strength (R2=.25) but not to a change in activation (R2=.00). Furthermore, quadriceps muscle fatigue occurred during NMES sessions at 3.5 and 6.5 weeks, whereas quadriceps muscle activation did not change. Limitations Some participants reached the maximal stimulator output during at least 1 treatment session and might have tolerated more stimulation. Conclusions Higher NMES training intensities were associated with

  8. Survival and Recovery of Methanotrophic Bacteria Starved Under Oxic and Anoxic Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roslev, Peter; King, Gary M.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of carbon deprivation on survival of methanotrophic bacteria were compared in cultures incubated in the presence and absence of oxygen in the starvation medium. Survival and recovery of the examined methanotrophs were generally highest for cultures starved under anoxic conditions as indicated by poststarvation measurements of methane oxidation, tetrazolium salt reduction, plate counts, and protein synthesis. Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b survived up to 6 weeks of carbon deprivation under anoxic conditions while maintaining a physiological state that allowed relatively rapid (hours) methane oxidation after substrate addition. A small fraction of cells starved under oxic and anoxic conditions (4 and 10%, respectively) survived more than 10 weeks but required several days for recovery on plates and in liquid medium. A non-spore-forming methanotroph, strain WP 12, displayed 36 to 118% of its initial methane oxidation capacity after 5 days of carbon deprivation. Oxidation rates varied with growth history prior to the experiments as well as with starvation conditions. Strain WP 12 starved under anoxic conditions showed up to 90% higher methane oxidation activity and 46% higher protein production after starvation than did cultures starved under oxic conditions. Only minor changes in biomass and niorpholow were seen for methanotrophic bacteria starved tinder anoxic conditions. In contrast, starvation under oxic conditions resulted in morphology changes and an initial 28 to 35% loss of cell protein. These data suggest that methanotrophic bacteria can survin,e carbon deprivation under anoxic conditions by using maintenance energy derived Solelyr from an anaerobic endogenous metabolism. This capability could partly explain a significant potential for methane oxidation in environments not continuously, supporting aerobic methanotrophic growth.

  9. Chronic behavioral testing after focal ischemia in the mouse: functional recovery and the effects of gender.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoling; Blizzard, Kathleen K; Zeng, Zhiyuan; DeVries, A Courtney; Hurn, Patricia D; McCullough, Louise D

    2004-05-01

    Several useful behavioral tests exist for measuring behavioral recovery after ischemia in higher-order animals and rats. With the increasing use of mice in focal stroke research, simple, reliable, and reproducible behavioral testing has become a priority. As neuroprotective agents are tested, long-term outcome must be assessed, especially in studies focused on neuronal plasticity and regeneration after ischemia. Our laboratory and others have previously shown that estrogen (E2) is neuroprotective in rodent stroke paradigms. We examined a battery of behavioral tests in male and female mice subjected to 90 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) to determine the most sensitive tests for detecting sensorimotor dysfunction after stroke, and to determine the functional significance of E2-mediated neuroprotection. Only two tests, the corner test and the cylinder test, were able to differentiate between groups (sham and stroke) after several days of repeated testing. The cylinder test was sensitive to the neuroprotective/neurorestorative effects of E2, but 2 weeks after stroke, the cylinder test was unable to distinguish between sham and stroke animals treated with E2. In contrast, the corner test was able to differentiate stroke and sham animals even 6 weeks after stroke, but did not distinguish animals treated with E2 vs. vehicle. These tests provide a simple, rapid, reliable assessment of sensorimotor dysfunction in the mouse after focal ischemia. Hormonal status influences speed of recovery on cylinder testing in animals of both genders. This suggests that a short battery of tests including the neurological score, cylinder, and corner test may be adequate to rapidly and repeatedly assess sensorimotor dysfunction in mice of both genders. PMID:15081592

  10. Recovery in schizophrenia: focus on neurocognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Zaytseva, Yuliya; Gurovich, Isaac Ya; Goland, Etel; Storozhakova, Yaina A

    2012-09-01

    Recovery encompasses symptom remission and functional elements such as cognition, social functioning and quality of life. Personal recovery is also important in illness management to help the person stay on track with treatment and focus on activities unrelated to taking medication that maintain mental health. In the present study we aimed to identify neurocognitive functioning in two clinically stable groups of patients with personal recovery and non-recovered patients. The results showered generalized cognitive deficits in both groups while the non-recovery group was more impaired in verbal and visual memory, acoustic and tactile gnosis and neurodynamics and executing functioning. Interestingly the recovery group demonstrated lack of programming of actions and sufficient error monitoring and self-correction whereas the non-recovery group was significantly more impaired in all executive domains. The obtained results could be beneficial in identifying a target for psychosocial treatments and specifically cognitive remediation for patients with schizophrenia to facilitate the process of recovery. PMID:22945216

  11. Effects of nutritional status on metabolic rate, exercise and recovery in a freshwater fish

    SciTech Connect

    Gingerich, Andrew J.; Philipp, D. P.; Suski, C. D.

    2010-11-20

    The influence of feeding on swimming performance and exercise recovery in fish is poorly understood. Examining swimming behavior and physiological status following periods of feeding and fasting is important because wild fish often face periods of starvation. In the current study, researchers force fed and fasted groups of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) of similar sizes for a period of 16 days. Following this feeding and fasting period, fish were exercised for 60 s and monitored for swimming performance and physiological recovery. Resting metabolic rates were also determined. Fasted fish lost an average of 16 g (nearly 12%) of body mass, while force fed fish maintained body mass. Force fed fish swam 28% further and required nearly 14 s longer to tire during exercise. However, only some physiological conditions differed between feeding groups. Resting muscle glycogen concentrations was twofold greater in force fed fish, at rest and throughout recovery, although it decreased in both feeding treatments following exercise. Liver mass was nearly three times greater in force fed fish, and fasted fish had an average of 65% more cortisol throughout recovery. Similar recovery rates of most physiological responses were observed despite force fed fish having a metabolic rate 75% greater than fasted fish. Results are discussed as they relate to largemouth bass starvation in wild systems and how these physiological differences might be important in an evolutionary context.

  12. Enhancement of Amygdaloid Neuronal Dendritic Arborization by Fresh Leaf Juice of Centella asiatica (Linn) During Growth Spurt Period in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Muddanna Rao, S.; Gurumadhva Rao, S.

    2009-01-01

    Centella asiatica (CeA) is a creeping herb, growing in moist places in India and other Asian Countries. Ayurvedic system of medicine, an alternate system of medicine in India, uses leaves of CeA for memory enhancement. Here, we have investigated the role of CeA fresh leaf juice treatment during growth spurt period of rats on dendritic morphology of amygdaloid neurons, one of the regions concerned with learning and memory. The present study was conducted on neonatal rat pups. The rat pups (7-days-old) were fed with 2, 4 and 6 ml/kg body of fresh leaf juice of CeA for 2, 4 and 6 weeks. After the treatment period, the rats were killed, brains removed and amygdaloid neurons impregnated with Silver nitrate (Golgi staining). Amygdaloid neurons were traced using camera lucida and dendritic branching points (a measure of dendritic arborization) and intersections (a measure dendritic length) quantified. These data were compared with those of age-matched control rats. The results showed a significant increase in dendritic length (intersections) and dendritic branching points along the length of dendrites of the amygdaloid neurons of rats treated with 4 and 6 ml/kg body weight/day of CeA for longer periods of time (i.e. 4 and 6 weeks). We conclude that constituents/active principles present in CeA fresh leaf juice has neuronal dendritic growth stimulating property; hence it can be used for enhancing neuronal dendrites in stress and other neurodegenerative and memory disorders. PMID:18955230

  13. Effect of restrictive harvest regulations on survival and recovery rates of American black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francis, C.M.; Sauer, J.R.; Serie, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Population management of waterfowl requires an understanding of the effects of changes in hunting regulations on harvest and survival rates. Mean survival and recovery rates of American black ducks (Anas rubripes) were estimated during 3 periods of increasingly restrictive harvest regulations: 1950-66, 1967-82, and 1983-93. From the first to the second period, direct recovery rates declined for at least 1 age class in 4 of 6 reference areas, with a mean decline of 14% for adult and 7% for immature black ducks. From the second to the third period, direct recovery rates declined in all areas, declines averaging 37% for adults and 27% for immatures. Estimated mean survival rates increased from the first to the second period, consistent with a model of additivity of hunting mortality. Limited evidence existed for increases in survival rates from the second to the third period for immature males. For adults, however, survival increased less between these periods than would be expected if hunting mortality were additive and changes in recovery rates were proportional to changes in hunting mortality. Changes in survival and recovery rates of black ducks banded postseason were similar to those of adults banded preseason. Comparisons among estimates by degree blocks of latitude and longitude indicate that, at least between 1967 and 1983, estimated survival rates of immature and adult black ducks were lower in areas with high direct recovery rates. Smaller samples of banded birds and changes in banding locations in recent years may be limiting ability to evaluate consequences of recent changes in harvest rates. These correlation-based studies are limited in their ability to explain causes of observed changes in survival rates, suggesting the need for alternative approaches such as adaptive harvest management to increase understanding of the effects of hunting on black duck populations.

  14. The Incubation Period of Primary Epstein-Barr Virus Infection: Viral Dynamics and Immunologic Events

    PubMed Central

    Dunmire, Samantha K.; Grimm, Jennifer M.; Schmeling, David O.; Balfour, Henry H.; Hogquist, Kristin A.

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human herpesvirus that causes acute infectious mononucleosis and is associated with cancer and autoimmune disease. While many studies have been performed examining acute disease in adults following primary infection, little is known about the virological and immunological events during EBV’s lengthy 6 week incubation period owing to the challenge of collecting samples from this stage of infection. We conducted a prospective study in college students with special emphasis on frequent screening to capture blood and oral wash samples during the incubation period. Here we describe the viral dissemination and immune response in the 6 weeks prior to onset of acute infectious mononucleosis symptoms. While virus is presumed to be present in the oral cavity from time of transmission, we did not detect viral genomes in the oral wash until one week before symptom onset, at which time viral genomes were present in high copy numbers, suggesting loss of initial viral replication control. In contrast, using a sensitive nested PCR method, we detected viral genomes at low levels in blood about 3 weeks before symptoms. However, high levels of EBV in the blood were only observed close to symptom onset–coincident with or just after increased viral detection in the oral cavity. These data imply that B cells are the major reservoir of virus in the oral cavity prior to infectious mononucleosis. The early presence of viral genomes in the blood, even at low levels, correlated with a striking decrease in the number of circulating plasmacytoid dendritic cells well before symptom onset, which remained depressed throughout convalescence. On the other hand, natural killer cells expanded only after symptom onset. Likewise, CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells decreased two fold, but only after symptom onset. We observed no substantial virus specific CD8 T cell expansion during the incubation period, although polyclonal CD8 activation was detected in concert with viral

  15. The Incubation Period of Primary Epstein-Barr Virus Infection: Viral Dynamics and Immunologic Events.

    PubMed

    Dunmire, Samantha K; Grimm, Jennifer M; Schmeling, David O; Balfour, Henry H; Hogquist, Kristin A

    2015-12-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human herpesvirus that causes acute infectious mononucleosis and is associated with cancer and autoimmune disease. While many studies have been performed examining acute disease in adults following primary infection, little is known about the virological and immunological events during EBV's lengthy 6 week incubation period owing to the challenge of collecting samples from this stage of infection. We conducted a prospective study in college students with special emphasis on frequent screening to capture blood and oral wash samples during the incubation period. Here we describe the viral dissemination and immune response in the 6 weeks prior to onset of acute infectious mononucleosis symptoms. While virus is presumed to be present in the oral cavity from time of transmission, we did not detect viral genomes in the oral wash until one week before symptom onset, at which time viral genomes were present in high copy numbers, suggesting loss of initial viral replication control. In contrast, using a sensitive nested PCR method, we detected viral genomes at low levels in blood about 3 weeks before symptoms. However, high levels of EBV in the blood were only observed close to symptom onset-coincident with or just after increased viral detection in the oral cavity. These data imply that B cells are the major reservoir of virus in the oral cavity prior to infectious mononucleosis. The early presence of viral genomes in the blood, even at low levels, correlated with a striking decrease in the number of circulating plasmacytoid dendritic cells well before symptom onset, which remained depressed throughout convalescence. On the other hand, natural killer cells expanded only after symptom onset. Likewise, CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells decreased two fold, but only after symptom onset. We observed no substantial virus specific CD8 T cell expansion during the incubation period, although polyclonal CD8 activation was detected in concert with viral

  16. Telomere length in Chernobyl accident recovery workers in the late period after the disaster.

    PubMed

    Reste, Jelena; Zvigule, Gunda; Zvagule, Tija; Kurjane, Natalja; Eglite, Maija; Gabruseva, Natalija; Berzina, Dace; Plonis, Juris; Miklasevics, Edvins

    2014-11-01

    The outcome of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (CNPP) accident was that a huge number of people were exposed to ionizing radiation. Previous studies of CNPP clean-up workers from Latvia revealed a high occurrence of age-associated degenerative diseases and cancer in young adults, as well as a high mortality as a result of cardiovascular disorders at age 45-54 years. DNA tandem repeats that cap chromosome ends, known as telomeres, are sensitive to oxidative damage and exposure to ionizing radiation. Telomeres are important in aging processes and carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effect of protracted ionizing radiation exposure on telomere length in CNPP clean-up workers. Relative telomere length (RTL) was measured in peripheral blood leukocytes of 595 CNPP clean-up workers and 236 gender- and age-matched controls using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR). Close attention was paid to participation year and tasks performed during the worker's stay in Chernobyl, health status, and RTL differences between subgroups. Telomere shortening was not found in CNPP clean-up workers; on the contrary, their RTL was slightly greater than in controls (P = 0.001). Longer telomeres were found in people who worked during 1986, in those undertaking 'dirty' tasks (digging and deactivation), and in people with cancer. Shorter telomeres appeared frequently in those with cataract, osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, or coronary heart disease. We conclude that the longer telomeres revealed in people more heavily exposed to ionizing radiation probably indicate activation of telomerase as a chromosome healing mechanism following damage, and reflect defects in telomerase regulation that could potentiate carcinogenesis. PMID:25015931

  17. Telomere length in Chernobyl accident recovery workers in the late period after the disaster

    PubMed Central

    Reste, Jelena; Zvigule, Gunda; Zvagule, Tija; Kurjane, Natalja; Eglite, Maija; Gabruseva, Natalija; Berzina, Dace; Plonis, Juris; Miklasevics, Edvins

    2014-01-01

    The outcome of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (CNPP) accident was that a huge number of people were exposed to ionizing radiation. Previous studies of CNPP clean-up workers from Latvia revealed a high occurrence of age-associated degenerative diseases and cancer in young adults, as well as a high mortality as a result of cardiovascular disorders at age 45–54 years. DNA tandem repeats that cap chromosome ends, known as telomeres, are sensitive to oxidative damage and exposure to ionizing radiation. Telomeres are important in aging processes and carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effect of protracted ionizing radiation exposure on telomere length in CNPP clean-up workers. Relative telomere length (RTL) was measured in peripheral blood leukocytes of 595 CNPP clean-up workers and 236 gender- and age-matched controls using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR). Close attention was paid to participation year and tasks performed during the worker's stay in Chernobyl, health status, and RTL differences between subgroups. Telomere shortening was not found in CNPP clean-up workers; on the contrary, their RTL was slightly greater than in controls (P = 0.001). Longer telomeres were found in people who worked during 1986, in those undertaking ‘dirty’ tasks (digging and deactivation), and in people with cancer. Shorter telomeres appeared frequently in those with cataract, osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, or coronary heart disease. We conclude that the longer telomeres revealed in people more heavily exposed to ionizing radiation probably indicate activation of telomerase as a chromosome healing mechanism following damage, and reflect defects in telomerase regulation that could potentiate carcinogenesis. PMID:25015931

  18. Alpha-irradiation-induced G2 delay: a period of cell recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Lucke-Huhle, C.

    1982-02-01

    Exponentially growing Chinese hamster V79 cells were delayed in G2 very efficiently by 3.4-MeV ..cap alpha.. particles. In comparison with the effect caused by sparsely ionizing /sup 60/Co ..gamma.. rays, G2 delay after ..cap alpha.. irradiation was greater by a factor of 6.7 and 4.2 for doses <0.5 Gy and >0.5 Gy, respectively, if the slopes of the dose-effect curves are compared. While at low doses (0.03-0.5 Gy) G2 arrest was reversible within 10 hr, increasing doses (0.5-4.38 Gy) of ..cap alpha.. irradiation blocked increasing fractions of cells for more than 16 hr, as determined by flow cytometry, and only some of these were able to complete mitosis. Addition of caffeine, however, reduced G2 arrest considerably if given directly after irradiation and reversed G2 arrest if added 8 hr after 4.38 Gy of ..cap alpha.. particles, a time when most of the cells already had accumulated in G2, caffeine treatment during G2 decreased survival after ..cap alpha.. irradiation by factors of 1.3 and 1.7 for 1 and 2 mM caffeine, respectively.

  19. Slow recovery in desert perennial vegetation following prolonged human disturbance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guo, Q.

    2004-01-01

    The study shows an exceptionally long-term recovery of perennial vegetation from prolonged heavy grazing and other human impacts. Since protection in 1906, overall species richness and habitat heterogeneity at the study site continued to increase until the 1960s when diversity, density and cover stabilized. During the same period, overall plant density and cover also increased. Species turnover increased gradually with time but no significant relation between any of the three community variables and precipitation or Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) was detected. The increases in plant species richness, density, and cover of the perennial vegetation were mostly due to the increase of herbaceous species, especially palatable species. The lack of clear relationship between environment (e.g., precipitation) and community variables suggests that site history and plant life history must be taken into account in examining the nature of vegetation recovery process after disturbances.

  20. Recovery of male fertility after sterilization by nuclear radiation.

    PubMed

    Macleod, J; Hotchkiss, R S; Sitterson, B W

    1964-02-29

    The potential fertility of 6 of 8 men accidentally exposed to radiation on June 16, 1958, was studied over a 3 1/2-year period. It is clear that, as measured by semen quality, evidence of recovery of spermatogenesis may be expected within 21 months, although the sperm counts at this time will probably not be consonant with a reasonable level of fertility. A satisfactory level of fertility will be reached by 30 months and a normal level by 41 months. Review of the male fertility data on the recorded cases of less than lethal nuclear radiation accidents shows that relatively small amounts of radiation will produce pronounced effects on the testes, including disturbances in the morphology of the few spermatozoa present in the ejaculate, but that ultimate recovery of some degree of fertility is possible in most cases. PMID:12255104